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-i'Z I^ M I K A. , >r . Y. 


3 1833 01714 6710 ^. 


.7 B22hi 


ft, Hubert Howe, 1832- 



Hi St or' 

y of Washington, . / 

^ Idaho 

, and Montana ^ 










Allen CouTity Public Library 

900 Webster Street 

PC Box 2270 

Fort Wayne, IN 46801-2270 

Entered according to Act of Congress in the Year 1890, by 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

All Rights Reserved. 




In my History of the Northwest Coast I have 
brought down the annals of Washington, Idaho, and 
•Montana to the end of the fur company regime, in 
1846, at which time the question of boundary between 
the possessions of Great Britain and those of the 
United States was determined, the subjects of the 
former power thereupon retiring from the banks of 
the Cokmibia northward beyond the Hne of latitude 
49°. In the History of Oregon I have likewise given 
much of the early affairs of the territory treated of in 
this volume, that territory for a time being a part of 
Oregon; just as in the history of Washington much 
is given of the history of Idaho, and in the history 
of Idaho much of Montana. 

Under the term Northwest Coast I originally 
included all that vast region of North America north 
of the 42d parallel and west of the Rocky Mountains, 
Alaska alone excepted. When, in 1846, the south- 
ern line of British Columbia was determined, all that 
remained was called Oregon. Later, from Oregon 
was set off Washington; from Washington was set 
off Idaho; and from Idaho, for the most part, was 
set off Montana. Thus for some part of the history 
of Montana we look to the annals of Idaho, Wash- 
ington, Oregon, and the Northwest Coast; for part 

of the history of Idaho we look to the annals of 
Washington and the rest; and for the history of 
Washington we must have also the histories of Ore- 
gon and the Northwest Coast. I have been thus 
explicit on this point, in order that the people of 
Washington, Idaho, and Montana might thoroughly 
understand how the histories of their respective sec- 
tions are distributed in this series — histories which 
if segregated from the series and issued separately 
would each fill a space equal to two of my volumes. 

There were those among the early pioneers who 
came to the Northwest Coast some who deter- 
mined, while securing to themselves such homes as 
they might choose out of a broad expanse, to serve 
their government by taking possession of the terri- 
tory north of the Columbia River, not as Vancouver 
had done fifty-seven years before, by stepping on 
shore to eat luncheon and recite some ceremonies to 
the winds, nor as Robert Gray had done, a few years 
later, by entering and naming the great River of the 
West after his ship; but by actual settlement and oc- 
cupation. I need not repeat here the narrative of 
those bold measures by which these men of destiny 
achieved what they aimed at. I wish only to declare 
that they no more knew what was before them than 
did the first immigrants to the Willamette Valley. 
Nevertheless, it fell out that they had found one of 
the choicest portions of the great unknown north- 
west ; with a value measured not alone by its fertile soil, 
but also by its wonderful inland sea, with its salt- 
water canals branching off in all directions, deep, safe 
from storms, always open to navigation, abounding in 

iish, bordered many miles wide with the most aiagnifi- 
cent forests on earth. It did not require the im- 
agination of a poet to picture a glowing future for 
Puget Sound, albeit far away in the dim reaches of 
time. To be in some measure connected with that 
future, to lay ever so humbly the corner-stone, was 
worth all the toil and privation, the danger and the 
isolation, incident to its achievement. 

Not only was there this inland sea, with its treas- 
ures inexhaustible of food for the world, and its fif- 
teen hundred miles of shore covered with pine forests 
to the water's edge, but surrounding it were many 
small valleys of the richest soils, watered by streams 
fed by the pure snows of the Cascade and Coast 
ranges, half prairie and half forest, warm, sheltered 
from winds, enticing the weary pilgrim from the 
eastern side of the continent to rest in their calm 
solitudes. It was true that the native wild man still in- 
habited these valleys and roamed the encircling moun- 
tains, to the number of thirty thousand; but in so vast 
a country three times as many would have seemed 
few; and the incomers were the sons of sires who had 
met and subdued the savage tribes of America as 
they pushed their way westward from Plymouth Rock 
to the Missouri and beyond; therefore they had no 
hesitation now in settling in their midst. They had 
been bred to the belief that "the British and Ind- 
ians" would melt before them. 

The sources of material for writing this volume are 
similar to those which have enabled me to write all 
my volumes; namely, all existing printed matter, 
books, public documents, and newspapers, together 

with many valuable manuscripts, the results of hun- 
dreds of dictations, containing the experiences of those 
first upon the ground in the various localities, or who 
have in any manner achieved distinction in organiz- 
ing society and government in these domains. 






Attitude of the Hudson's Bay Company — Michael T. Simmons and Asso- 
ciates Proceed Northward — Settle at Budd Inlet — Paget Sound — 
Highlands — Tumwater — Bush Prairie — Chambers Prairie — Neali Bay 
— Marriages and Births — The Indians Pronounce against tlie White 
Man— Effect of California Gold Discovery— The Timber Trade- 
Towns Laid out — Whidbey Island Settled — Occupation of the Coast 
Country 1 



Public Meetings— Settlers versus the Puget Sound Agricultural Com- 
pany — Representation in the Oregon Legislature — Movements 
toward the Foundation of the New Territory of Columbia — Memo- 
rial to Congress — If not a Territory, then a State — Queen Charlotte 
Island Expedition — The Oregon Legislature Petition Congress for a 
Division of Territory— Congress Grants the Petition— But instead of 
Cohimbia, the New Territory is Called Washington — Officers Ap- 
pointed — Roads Constructed— Immigration 39 



Governor Isaac Ingalls Stevens— His Life and Character— Railroad Sur- 
veys — Political Parties — Election — First Legislative Assembly — Its 
Personnel and Acts — Early Newspapers — County Organizations — 
Federal Courts— Land Claims and Land Titles— Koads, Mails, and 
Express Companies — San Juan Island — Indian Troubles — Treaties 

and Reservations — Stevens in Eastern Washington 70 






Causes of the Indian Outbreak — Discovery of Gold near Fort Colville — 
Yakimas Hostile — Expeditions of Major 0. G. Haller into the Snake 
and Yakima Countries — Yakima Campaign of 1855 — Movement of 
Troops on the Sound — Attack on Seattle — War Vessels on the Sound 
-^ Walla Walla Campaign of the Oregon Volunteers — Operations of 
the Second Oregon Regiment — Attack on the Cascades — Colonel 
Cornelius Returns to Portland 108 



Action of the Governor — Disposition of Forces — New Battalions — Plan 
of Campaign— Battle of White River— On the Sound — Martial Law 
—Fighting at John Day River and Grand Rond— East of the Cas- 
cade Range — Stevens in the Hostile Country — Failure of his Council 
— Lechi's Betrayal, Arrest, Trials, and Execution — Assassination of 
Quiemuth — Termination of Hostilities on tlio Sound — Result — War 
Debt — Clarke and Wright's Campaign — Defeat of Steptoe — Battles 
of Four Lakes and Spokane Plains in the Yakima Country — Walla 
Walla Country P^eopened 157 



Party Politics — Election of Delegate — Martial Law — Stevens Chosen 
Delegate — Death of Stevens— His Character — Governor McMullin — 
Fraser River Mining Excitement — Its Effect on Washington — Ser- 
vices of Secretary Mason— Governor Gholson— Henry M. McGUl — 
The Capital Question — The University — Governor Wallace — Gover- 
nor Pickering — The Custom-house Controversy— Inundation of Port 
Angeles 201 



Organization of the First Washington Infantry— Companies from Califor- 
nia — Gold Discoveries — Military Road — Fraser River Travel — Col- 
ville Mines — The Malheur Country— The Similkameen Mines — 
American Miners in British Columbia — Gold Discoveries on the 
Clearwater— On Snake River— Protest of the Nez Perces— Pierce City 


— Oro Fino — Lewiston— Very Rich Diggings — California Eclipsed— 
Salmon River Mines — Political Kffect — Winter Sufiferings — Powder 
and John Day Rivers — Florence and Warren Diggings— Bois^ Mines 
—Organization of the Territory of Idaho 227 



Effect of Territorial Division— Election of Delegate— Negro Suffrage — 
Party Politics — The Legislature — Peace and Progress — Steamboating 
—Navigation Companies — Clearing Rivers — Public Buildings— In- 
sane Asylum and Penitentiary — Legislative Divorces— Government 
Reservations — Judicial Affairs — Another Delegate — Governor Flan- 
ders — Governor Salomon— Governor Ferry— Governor Newell— Era 
of Railways — More Elections — Political Platforms — Convention- 
Woman's Rights— Legislature 264 



Remarkable Growth of the Territory — Demand for Statehood — Enabling 
Act — State Convention — Character of the Delegates — Constitution 
Ratified— Waiting for a Proclamation — Meeting of First State 
Legislature — Character of Members — Unexpected Delay of the Presi- 
dential Proclamation— Election of Senators 301 


Territorial Limits — The World's Wonder-land — Rivers, Mountains, and 
Valleys — Phenomenal Features— Lava-fields — Mineral Springs- 
Climate — Scores of Limpid Lakes — Origin of the Name ' Idalio ' — In- 
difference of Early Immigrants — Natural Productions — Game — Food 
Supply— Fur-bearing Animals — First Mormon Settlement — County 
Divisions of Idaho as Part of Washington 393 



1 862-1 S66. 
Mineral Discoveries— Counties and Towns — Imirigration — Routes to 
the Mines — Indian Wars— Forts — Quartz-mining— Companies and 
Claims— More Town-building— Stage-roads-Sliding Clubs— Traffic 
and Travel— Oregon versus California— Mail Contracts— Prospecting 
and Mining— New Districts— Output of Precious Metals 406 




Matters — Acting Governor Daniels — Governor Lyon — Secession Sen- 
timents — Crimes and Punishments — The Magruder Massacre — Vigi- 
lance Committees — Political and Highway Robberies — Acting Gov- 
ernor Smith — The Capital Question — Legislatures — Character of 
Lyon— Acting Governor Howlett— Governor Ballard— Gibbs— Mars- 
ton — Curtis — Bowen — Bennet — Judges — Governor Thompson — 
Brayman — Neil — Buun — Politics — Territorial Limits — Federal and 
Territorial Officers 442 



Tribal and Territorial Divisions of the Aborigines — Attitude of the Nez 
Perce Nation — Gold Discovery on the Nez Perce Reservation — 
Council at Lapwai — Terms of Treaty Disregarded by the White 
Men — Aboriginal Diplomacy — Big Thurder and the Missionaries — 
Terms of the New Treaty — Claim of Eagle-from-the-light — Speech 
of Lawyer — Conference with Joseph 481 



March of the Cavalry — Attitude of Joseph — His Opinion of Indian Res- 
ervations — Indian Outbreaks — Military Companies in the Field — 
The Governors of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho — Battle of Cotton- 
wood — Jealousies between Regulars and Volunteers — Battle of Clear- 
water— Flight of Joseph— Battle of Ruby Creek— On Snake Creek 
^Surrender of Joseph — Another Indian Treaty — Disaffection of the 
Bannaoks— Further Fighting — End of Hostilities 497 



Mining Prosperity and Reverses— Early and Later Developments— The 
Several Gold and Silver Mining Districts- -The Snake River Region 
— Production — Base Metals — Iron Veins — Salt — Sulphur — Soda— 
Mica— Stone— Agriculture— Soil— Grasses and Grazing — Forests- 
Climate— Health — Boundless Possibilities 




Ada County— Creation of the Capital of Idaho— Origin and Development 
of Towns — Farming Settlements — Orchards — Stock-raising — Pio- 
neers — Alturas County — Mineral and Agricultural Lands and Settle- 
ment — Bear Lake County — Boise, Cassia, Custer, Idaho, Kootenai, 
Lemhi, Nez Perce, Oneida, Owyhee, Shoshone, and Washington 
Counties — Public Lands in Idaho — Social Condition — Education — 
Religion— Benevolent Societies— Public Improvements — Railroads 
and Telegraphs 541 



The Name — Configuration and Climate — Game— Stock-raising Advan- 
tages — Minerals and Metals— Catacombs — Mauvaises Torres — Early 
Explorations — Fur-hunters and Forts — Missionaries and Missions — 
Overland Explorations — Railroad Survey — Wagon-roads — Early 
Steamboats— Gold Discoveries— The Cattle Business— First Settlers 
— New Counties of Washington 



Exploring Expeditions — Pioneers of Montana — Prospecting Parties— Or- 
ganization of Districts — Stuart and Bozeman — De Lacy — Biograph- 
ical Sketches of Settlers— Freights and Freight Trains— Early Soci- 
ety of the Mines— Road-agents and Vigilance Committees — Legally 
Organized Banditti— The Sheriff Highwayman and his Deputies — A 
Typical Trial — Wholesale Assassination and Retribution 




Organization of the Territory— Boundaries Established— Governor Edger- 

ton — Judges Appointed — First Legislature — Seat of Government — 

Seal — Map^Meagher, Acting Governor — Party Issues — Convention 

— Election— Early Newspapers— Vigilance Committee Influence— 

Eastern Solons — Difficulties Encountered by the Early Judges— 
Beidler — More Legislation — Governor Smith — Education — Assay 
Office — Surveyor-general — Removal of Capital 642 



Special Legislation — All Made Null by Congress— Useful Laws— The Cap- 
ital Question— Party Issues— The Several Legislatures — Governor 
Ashley — Governor Potts — Newspapers — Railway Legislation — The 
Right-of-way Question — Territorial Extravagance — Northern Pacific 
Railway — Local Issues — Retrenchment and Reform 666 



The Blackfoot Nation— Crows and Sioux— Their Lands and their Charac- 
ters—The Old, Old Issue— Treaty -making— Treaty -breaking, Fight- 
ing, and Finishing — Movements of Troops — Montana Militia Com- 
panies—Establishing Forts- Expeditions for Prospecting and Dis- 
covery — Reservations — Long-continued Hostilities —Decisive Meas- 
ures 690 



Influx of Prospectors— Continued Mineral Discoveries— Alder and Last 
Chance Gulches — Mining Adventures — Some Notable Discoveries — 
Hydraulic Machinery — Quartz-mining — Transportation — Routes 
and Freights— The Business of Cattle-growing— Ranges— Brands- 
Round-up — Product and Profit — Further Mining Developments — 
Condition of Agriculture and Horticulture 720 



Condition of Montana from 1870 to 1880— Countries Compared— Total 
Production in 1888— Price of Labor— Railroad Era — Agriculture — 
Lumbering — Wages — Transportation Companies — Coal — Looses in 
Cattle — Mining Development — Butte — Pliillipsburg— Deer Lodge — 
Helena — Great Falls — Bentou^Eastern Montana — Moral and Social 
Condition 750 



Convention of 1S84 — Election of Delegate and Legislature— Republican 
and Democratic Conventions — Territorial Officers — Governor Leslie 
Appointed — Legislative Sessions and Enactments — Memorials con- 
cerning Mineral Lauds — The Northern Pacific Railroad — Laws to 
Guard Elections— Thomas H. Carter, Delegate— B. F. White, Gov- 
ernor — Enabling Act Passed by Congress — Constitutional Convention 
— Features of the Constitution — Political Troubles 781 



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Attitude of the Hudson's Bay Company — Michael T. Simmons and 
Associates Proceed Northwakd — Settle at Budd Inlet — Puget 
Sound — Highlands— Tumwater — Bush Prairie— Chambers Prairie 
— Neah Bay — Marriages and Births — The Indians Pronounce 
against the White Man — Effect of California Gold Discovery 
—The Timber Trade— Towns Laid out — Whidbey Island Settled — 
Occupation of the Coast Countky. 

Doctor John McLoughlin, autocrat of Fort Van- 
couver, at the instigation of the London managers 
of the Hudson's Bay Company, but contrary to his 
own judgment, exercised his influence to induce the 
incoming citizens of the United States not to locate 
themselves north of the Columbia River, as in the 
partition presentl}' to be made all that region would 
probably be British territory. To the average Amer- 
ican emigrant of that day the simple fact that a 
Britisher should wish him not to settle in any certain 
part of the undivided territory was of itself sufficient 
incentive for liim to select that spot, provided it was 
not much worse than any other. There must be 
some special attraction in the direction of Puget 
Sound, else the fur company would not so strongly 
advise people not to go there. 

So thought Michael T. Simmons, a stanch Ken- 


tuckian, whom the reader has met before, in the 
history of Oregon, he being of the immigration of 
1844, and spending the ensuing winter with his 
family at Fort Vancouver, where he made shingles to 
pay expenses, his wife meanwhile improving the time 
by giving birth to a son, named Christopher, the first 
American born in western Washington. 

Simmons was a fine specimen of a man, and a good 
representative of the class that went into Washington 
about this time, determined to remain there, particu- 
larly' if England's majesty ordered them out. Just 
past thirty, having been born at Sheppardsville 
the 5th of August, 1814, possessing the grand 
physique of the early men of Kentucky, unlettered 
though not unenlightened, he possessed the qualities 
which in feudal times made men chiefs and founders 
of families. His courage was equalled only by his 
independence; he could not comprehend the idea of a 
superior, having come from a land wherein all were 
kings though they ruled only a pigsty or a potato-patch. 

He had intended to settle in the valley of Rogue 
River before so much had been said against his going 
north, but this determined him. During the Avinter 
of 1844-5, with five companions/ he proceeded north- 
ward, but only reached the fork of the Cowlitz, 
whence he returned to Fort Vancouver. Again he 
set out the following Jul}' with eight others,^ and 
guided beyond Cowlitz prairie by Peter Border, who 
had performed the same service fur Wilkes in 1841, 
he not only reached the Sound, but made a canoe 
voyage as far as Whidbey Island, satisfying himself 
of the commercial advantages of this region. Then 
he made his selection at the head of Budd Inlet, 
where Des Chutes River drops by successive falls a 
distance of eighty feet, constituting a fine mill-power. 
The place had the further advantage of being at no 

' Hem-y Williamson, James Loomis, and Henry, James, and John Owens, 
none of whom finally settled north of the Columbia. 

^George Waunch, David Crawford, Charles Eaton, Niniwon Evcrman, 
Seyburn Thornton, William Shaw, David Parker, and John Hunt. 


great distance from Fort Nisqually, the only supply 
post in this part of the territory, with the French 
settlements to the south of it on the Cowlitz prairie 
constituting a link with the Columbia River and 
Willamette settlements. The selection for the pur- 
poses of a new community in a new country was a 
good one, and was prompted by a desire somewhat 
similar to that of the methodist missionaries to get pos- 
session of Oregon City, on account of the water-power. 
Having chosen his site, he returned to the Colum- 
bia to remove his family, which he did in October, 
accompanied by James McAllister, David Kindred, 
Gabriel Jones, George W. Bush, and tlieir wives and 
children, five families in all, and two single men, Jesse 
Ferguson and Samuel B. Crockett, these seven men 
being the first Americans ' to settle in the region of 
Pnget Sound,* although John R. Jackson, of the 
same immigration, had been a little beforehand with 
them in point of time, and selected a claim five miles 
north of the French settlements, and ten miles be- 
yond the Cowlitz landing, on a small tributary of that 
river, near the trail to the Chehalis,^ which site he 
called Highlands, and where he had already erected 
a house." 

'I purposely leave out Richmond, -who was not a 'settler,' and who aban- 
doned the mission. Fergnson married Margaret Rutledge May 29, 1853. 
Olyiiipia Columbian, June 4, 1853. 

* Evei-y part of the great Washington Inlet was now coming to be called 
Pnget Sound. It so appear.9 in the writings of almost all authors, besides 
being always referred to in conversation by that name. Admiralty Inlet 
was found too long a name, and the first settlements of both English and 
Americans were upon that portion called after Puget, which tended to estab- 
lish its use, for in passing up and down these waters it was not easy to dis- 
cern where one division ended and another began. Says Eugene Ellicot, of 
the U. S. coast survey, who has been in that service since 18U4: 'Vancouver 
named the head of the sound above Dana's passage Puget Sound. Twenty 
years ago the designation had extended itself in popular use as far as 
Point Defiance (at the foot of The Narrows). Now it is applied to the 
whole sound as far as Bellingham Bay. Instead of Admiralty Inlet, the U. S. 
chart now calls it Puget Sound. Ellicot's Puget Sound, MS., i. Indeed, how- 
ever it happened, it is not correct to call these waters, in some places wellnigh 
fathomless, by tlie name of sound, which implies shallowness, but there is 
no withstanding custom and convenience. 

* Sometimes called Chickeeles. See Native Races, i. 303. 

* Jackson, I am told, intended going to the Sound, and as early as March 
set out with the design of taking up the water-power at the falU of Des Chute% 


It required fifteen days to open a road for the pas- 
sage of the ox-teains from Cowlitz landing to Budd 
Inlet, a distance of less than sixty miles. Simmons 
named his place New Market, but subsequent settlers 
called it by the Indian, and more appropriate, name of 
Tumwater,'' which it keeps, and which to avoid confu- 
sion I shall hereafter use. 

The seven Puget Sound settlers took their claims 
within a radius of six miles, Kindred two miles south 
of Tumwater, McAllister about six miles north-east, 
and the others intermediate, on a sandy plain now 
known as Bush prairie, from George W. Bush.® In 
the same summer or autumn George Waunch located 
himself on the Skookum Chuck, making the ninth 
man not in the Hudson's Bay Company's service who 
settled north of the Cowlitz farm in 1845. 

The first house was built on Kindred's claim, at the 
west edge of Bush prairie,^ Simmons building at 

which he had heard of; but owing to the difficulty of trayel at this season, he 
proceeded no farther than Simon Plomondon's place on the Newaukum Kiver, a 
confluent of the Chehalis. But about the second week in July he again set forth 
for Puget Sound, accompanied by W. P. Dougherty, H. A. G. Lee, Joseph 
Watt, Jacob Haldry, and Stewart. The Oregonians turned back from the Che- 
halis, and Jackson, after exploring the country in that vicinity, returned to the 
Cowlitz and took a claim as above stated. While returning for his family he 
met Simmons' party. John R. Jacksou was a native of IJurham, parish of 
Steindrop, England, born Jan. 13, 1800. He landed at New York Sept. 27, 
1833, and went directly to 111., where he settled Nov. 5th, leaving his first 
American home for Or. in 1844. He was a butcher, kept a piiblic house at 
Highlands, and dispensed good-cheer with good-humored hospitality during 
the early days of Washington. His house was a rendezvous for the transac- 
tion of public business, the first courts in Lewis county being held there, and 
there was discussed the propriety of a separate territorial organization. He 
died May 5, 1873. Olympia Transcript, May 31, 1873. 

'Signifying strong water, referring to the falls. This word disjdaced 
both the Des Chutes or Falls River of the French, and the New Market of 
Simmons. It is now common usage to say Tumwater Falls as well as Tum- 
water town. Skookum Chuck, the Chinook jargon for rapids, is better ver- 
nacular for strong water, and is the name of a branch of the Chehalis. 

^George W. Bush (colored) was bom in 1790 in Penn., but in early life re- 
moved to Mo., and in 1844 to Or., finishing his long journey by going to 
•-'uget Sound. He was respected and honored by the pioneers for his gener 
,us and charitable traits and manliness of character. He resided on the 
irairie whicli bears his name until April 5, 1863, when he suddenly died of 
Hemorrhage by the bursting of a blood-vessel. His son George became 
liighly esteemed citizen, who was made president of the Washington Indus- 
trial Association, and whose wheat, raised on Bush prairie, was awarded the 
first premium at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. Morse's Wash. 
Ter., MS., i. 54. 

» Mrs Tabitha Kindred, who was many years a widow, died June 12, 1872, 


Tumwater the following summer. These men had 
enough to do to discharge their debts to the Hudson's 
Bay Company. McLoughlin and Douglas, who, not- 
withstanding their efforts to turn the American settlers 
south of the Columbia, seeing they would go north, 
gave the officers of the company on Cowlitz prairie 
and at Fort Nisqually orders to furnish Simmons' 
company with 200 bushels of wheat at eighty cents a 
bushel, 100 bushels of pease at one dollar, 300 bushels 
of potatoes at fifty cents, and a dozen head of cattle 
at twelve dollars each.^" During the winter they were 
visited by a party of four men, who proceeded as far 
as Nisqually, but did not remain in this region." In 
March Mrs McAllister '" gave birth to a son, who was 
named James Benton, the first American born on 
Puget Sound. 

In the following j^ear as many American men set- 
tled north of the Cowlitz and about the head of the 
Sound as in 1845, but not as many families. At the 
confluence of the Skookum Chuck and the Chehalis, 
half-way from the Cowlitz landing to Tumwater, two 
claims were made by Sidney S. Ford " and Joseph 
Barst. Those who went to the Sound were Charles 
H. Eaton,^* and his brother Nathan, who located him- 

at the age of 89, having resided ou Bush prairie 27 years. Oli/mpia Transcript, 
June 15, 1872. The children were two sons, John and B. Kindred, and two 
daughters, Mrs Parrot of Oregon City, and Mrs Simmons of the Cowlitz. Olym- 
pia Courier, June 15, 1872. Mrs Gabriel Jones died July IS, 1868. Her 
home was two miles from Tumwater. Olympia Standard, July 25, 1868. She 
was 70 years of age, and had been several years a widow. 

'" Evans' Historical Memoranda, consisting of a compilation of newspaper 
articles, chiefly written by himself, prepared as the foundation to future his- 
torical writing, and which he has generously placed in my hands, has furnished 
me with this item. 

"They were Wainbow, Wall, Smith, and Pickett. 

" Mrs McAllister died in 1874. Steilacoom Express, Sept. 10, 1874. 

" Ford was born in New York in 1801, and died Oct. 22, 1866. His wife, 
Nancy, was born in New York in 1806. They were married in 1823, and re- 
moved to Michigan in 1834, to Missouri in 1840, and to Oregon iu 1845. 
Their children and descendants made their home on Ford prairie, about the 
head waters of the Chehalis. 

'*Eaton was an immigrant of 1843. He was born in Oswego co., N. Y., 
Dec. 22, 1818, removing to Ohio at an early age, whence he came to Oregon. 
In the Indian war of 1855 he was commissioned capt. In 1856 he removed 
to Tenalcut prairie, and again to Yakima Valley in 1S70, where he was en- 
gaged in stock-raising. He died at Yakima City Dec. 19, 1876. 


self on the east side of Budd Inlet, on what is now 
called Chambers prairie, being the first to take a 
claim north of Tumwater; Edmund Sylvester ,^^ of 
Oregon City, who, in partnership with Levi L. Smith, 
took two half-sections of land, one directly on Budd 
Inlet, two miles below Tumwater, and the other on 
the edge of Chambers prairie; Alonzo Marion Poe, 
Daniel D. Kinsey, and Antonio B. Rabbeson.'" Sev- 
eral other persons arrived at the Sound during the 
autumn, but did not remain at that time." 

In January 1847 three brothers from Marion county, 
named Davis, one with a family, arrived at Tumwater, 
besides Samuel Cool, A. J. Moore, Benjamin Gordon, 
Leander C. Wallace, Thomas W. Glasgow, and Sam- 
uel Hancock.'^ In March there arrived Elisha and 

"Sylvester was born in Deer Isle, Maine. For antecedents, see Ilist. Or., 
i. 424, this series. His manuscript, entitled Olympla, which affords me many 
authoritative items of early history, is especially useful in the present volume. 

""Eabbeson was born in 1824, and was by trade a carpenter. He came to 
Oregon from New York City in 1846, and immediately went to Puget Sound, 
settling near Sylvester's claim, where he still resides. His manuscript, 
Orowth of l^ownn, contains a narrative of the immigration of 1846, with good 
character sketches of some of the men in it, followed by an interestmg account 
of the settlement of Washuigton, his reason for coming to the Sound being a 
preference for salt-water. Most writers place Wallace in the immigration of 
1847, but Eabbeson says he came with him in 1846. Growth of Towns, MS., 
13. This is the Wallace killed in the attack on Nisqually iu the spring of 
1849. Hist. Or., ii. 67-8, this series. In January 1854 Eabbeson married 
Lucy Barnes of Olympia. 

" Elisha and William Packwood, Jason Peters, Thomas Canby, and Elisha 
and James McKindley examined the country and returned to the Willamette 
to winter. Two of them only finally settled north of the Columbia. £i-a>is' 
Hist. Mem., 11. The names of David Coiner and J. E. Conat also appear as 
settlers of this year, but more I do not know about them. 

"Hancock left Independence, Mo., in the spring of 1845, but remained 
in Or. City one year. He then started to go to Puget Sound with two others, 
names unknown, by the way of the Columbia, Baker Bay, the Pacific Ocean, 
and the strait of Fuca. They succeeded in drawing their canoe across the 
neck of sand north of Cape Disappointment, but the sight of the ocean in 
Nov. disheartened them, and they decided to try walking from the coast in- 
land, hoping to reach the Sound in that way. But Hancock, seized with 
fever, was left In charge of the Indians, who, after extorting every article he 
possessed, conveyed him to Astoria, where he recovered. What became of 
his companions docs not appear in his Thirteen Years' Residence in Washing- 
ton Territory, MS., from which I take his biography. After recovery, he 
again set out for the Sound by the way of the Cowlitz, arriving at Tumwater 
early in 1847, and going to work at shingle-making like the others. In the 
spring of 1849 Hancock went to Cal. for gold, where he had a great many ad- 
ventures, if we may credit the marvellous stories contained in his Thirteen 
Years. On returning to Puget Sound in tlie autumn of 1849, he brought a 
stock of goods to sell to settlers and natives, and having disposed of a portion, 


William Packwood, with their families. The first 
settled on land later owned by David J. Chambers. 
Packwood abandoned it in August to return to the 
Willamette. William Packwood took a claim on the 

set out to explore for coal, having heard that this mineral was to be found 
in the neighborhood of the Sound. In these explorations he spent some 
months, probably trading at the same time with the Indians. In 1850 or 
spring of 1851 he took some goods to Neah Bay; but the Indians being hos- 
tile, he was compelled to save himself by an artifice, writing in tlie presence 
of the savages, and telling them that it was to bring the chief of all the white 
men to avenge him if slain. Their superstitious fear of paper missives, the 
power of which they had witnessed without understanding, conquered their 
love of plunder, and they carried him safely to Port Townsend. On his re- 
turn he once more explored for coal on the Snohomish and Stilaguamish riv- 
ers, where he found it, and discovered also the Cedar and Dwamish rivers. 
In Nov. 1851 he took passage in the brig Kendall, which was in the Sound, 
and went to S. F. to purchase machinery for a saw-mill, together with another 
stock of goods. Having completed his purchases, he shipped them on board 
a vessel, the Kayuga, for Puget Sound. Captain Davis was ignorant of nau- 
tical science, and had never laeen upon the coast of Oregon. When Hancock 
recognized the entrance to the strait of Fuca, Davis declined to enter, and to 
test the matter, a boat was seut ashore with Hancock, the mate, and tliree 
other persons, at an unknown island. A fog coming down hid the vessel, and 
the party were detained three days; and no sooner did the fog clear away 
than the natives discovered and attacked them, compelling them to put to 
sea. In the mean time the vessel was quite lost to sight. Two days mora 
passed on another small island, but here again the Indians caused them to 
take to their boat. Several days more were passed in this manner before the 
party was finally rescued by some Indians from V. I., under orders fi-om an 
officer of the H. B. Co., to whom they had reported the condition of the boat's 
crew. Clothing and provisions were despatched to them, and they were 
brought to Sooke harbor, where they received unlimited hospitality for three 
days. On coming to Victoria the Kayur/a was found to be there, having by 
chance got into the strait and to port, but without endeavoring to pick up 
that portion of her crew and passengers left without provisions on an unknown 
coast. But that was not all. A considerable portion of Hancock's goods had 
been sold, for which no satisfaction could be obtained in a foreign port. The 
summing up of the whole matter shows that he was disappointed in his project 
of building a mill at Clallam Bay, and was subjected to much loss, which lie 
endeavored to make up by furnishing timber for the California market. lu 
the autumn of 1852 he removed to Neah Bay, determined to establish a trad- 
ing-post among the Indians, which he succeeded in doing, though not without 
building fortifications and having some narrow escapes. He afterward pur- 
chased an interest in the brig Eaule, Wolfe master, and traded with the Ind- 
ians on the northern coast, until the brig was blown on shore and wrecked, 
and the savages had despoiled it of its cargo. From this expedition he re- 
turned alive, after many adventures with the savages and the exercise of much 
tact in averting their hostile intentions. Escaping to Clyaquot Bay, he found 
the schooner Demaris Cove, Capt. Eli Hathaway, lyiug there, which returned 

with his party to Neah Bay; but the Indians having become more threaten- 
ing than before at that place, Hancock determined to remove his 
Whidbcy Island, and did so — there being no vessel in port— by lashing 

three canoes and covering them with planking, on which the movables were 
placed, a ship's long-boat being also loaded and towed behind. A sail was 
rigged by setting cedar planks upright, and then the craft was navigated 100 
miles to Penn Cove. There he settled, and married Susaoa Crockett. Hia 
death occurred in Sept. 1883, at Coupeville. 


soutli bank of the Nisqually, and there remained." 
During the summer John Kindred, J. B. Logan, B. 
F. Shaw, Robert Logan, and A. D. Carnefix joined 
the settlement at the head of the Sound, and on the 
10th of June the Skookum Chuck settlement was re- 
enforced by the birth of Angeline Ford,^" the first 
American girl born north of the Columbia. Late in 
the autumn there arrived at the Sound Thomas M. 
Chambers, with his sons, David, Andrew, Thomas J., 
and McLean, two of whom had famiUes,^ and George 
Brail and George Shazar. 

From Nisqually the settlers obtained pork, wheat, 
pease, potatoes, and such other needful articles as the 
company's stores furnished. In 1846 Simmons put 
up a small flouring mill at Des Chutes falls, in a log 
house, with a set of stones hewn out of some granite 
blocks found on the beach, which was ready to grind 
the first crop of wheat, if not to bolt it; but unbolted 
flour was a luxury after boiled wheat. 

"Pack wood was a native of Patrick co., Va, bom in 1813, removing with 
his father Elisha to lud. ia 1819. In 18.34 he migrated to Mo., and ten years 
later to Or., finally coming to rest on the Nisqually. There was a large fam- 
ily of the Packwoods, six of whom arrived in Or. in 1845. See list on p. 526 
and 530, IJist. Or., i., this series. In 1848 William went to Cal., where his 
brother Elisha was then residing, but appears to have returned without much 
improving his fortunes. He constructed a ferry on the Nisqually, and re- 
mained on his claim— with the exception of a period of service in the Indian 
war of 1855 — until 1867, when he sold it to Isaac P. Hawk. Later he made 
his residence at Centreville, on the Northern Pacific railroad. For many 
years Packwood occupied his summers in exploring the mountains east and 
west of the Sound, the pass at the head of the Cowlitz having been discovered 
by and named after him, and some valuable mineral deposits reported by him, 
especially of anthracite coal. Morse's Wash. Ter., MS., i. 54-87. 

'" Miss Ford raan-ied John Shelton. 

'^ This family was of Scottish origin, but had been for half a century in tha 
U. S., residing in Ind. and Ky. They emigrated to Or. in 1845. Their goods 
being detained at The Dalles, in Feb. 1846, the sons constructed a flat-boat, 
12 by 20 feet, with a whip-saw and liammer, using oak pins for nails, and 
loading it \^^th 13 wagons and the goods of seven families, descended the Co- 
lumbia. Thomas M. Chambers settled on the prairie south-east of Olympia, 
which bears his name, and where Eaton had settled before him. Here he 
lived, and at an advanced age died. David J. located on a smaller plain 3i 
miles east of Olympia, and made a fortune in stock-raising; Andrew settled 
between the Nisqually plains and Yelm prairie. The first mill in Pierce oo. 
was erected by Thomas M. , on Chambers Creek near Steilacoom. He was bom 
in Ky in 1791, and died at Steilacoom Dec. 1876. Rebecca, wife of Andrew 
J. Chambers, died June 29, 1853. On the 18th of January, 1854, he married 
Margaret White. 


Late the following year a saw-mill was completed 
at Tumwater, built by M. T. Simmons, B. F. Shaw, 
E. Sylvester, Jesse Ferguson, A. B. Rabbeson, Ga- 
briel Jones, A. D. Carnefix, and John R. Kindred, 
who formed the Puget Sound Milling Company, Oc- 
tober 25, 1847, Simmons holding the principal num- 
ber of shares, and being elected superintendent. The 
mill irons, which had been in use at Fort Vancouver, 
were obtained from the Hudson's Bay Company. 
The lumber found a market among the settlers, but 
chiefly at Nisqually, where it was sent in rafts, and 
also a little later was in requisition to erect barracks 
and officers' quarters at Steilacoom.^" Shingle-making 
was also an important industry, shingles passing cur- 
rent at Fort Nisqually in exchange for clothing or other 
articles. Room for idlers there was none, and this 
was fortunate, since indolence in contact with savagery 
soon breeds vice, aggravated by enforced solitude. 

Daniel D. Kinsey was the first lucky bachelor to 
secure a mate in these wilds, by marrying, on the 6th 
of July, 1847, Ruth Brock, M. T. Simmons, one of 
the judges of Vancouver county, officiating. Samuel 
Hancock and A. B. Rabbeson were the first to vary 
shingle-making with brick-making, these two taking 
a contract to burn a kiln of brick in July 1847, on the 
farm of Simon Plomondon at the Cowlitz. And thus 
they not only held their own in the new country, but 
increased in property and power. 

As early as the summer of this second year they 
had begun to recognize the necessity of communica- 
tion between points, and in August blazed out a trail 
from Tumwater to the claim of Sylvester and Smith, 
two miles below on the Sound, which now began to be 
called Smithfield, because Levi L. Smith resided 
there, and because it came to be the head of naviga- 
tion by the law of the tides. 

2- The date of the lease from Simmons, proprietor of the claim, is August 
20, 18-47, to continue for 5 years with the privilege of ten. The site described 
was the north-west part of the lower fall. Evans' Hist. Mem., ii.; Hist. Or., 
ii. 70, thia series. 


In the autumn of 1847, rendered memorable by the 
massacre at Waiilatpu, which alarmed these feeble 
settlements, and by the prevalence of measles among 
the Indians, for which the white people knew them- 
selves held responsible by the miserable victims and 
their friends, there were few additions to the popula- 
tion. Jonathan Burbee, an immigrant of that year, 
took to himself some land on the little Kalama River; 
Peter W. Crawford, E. West, and James 0. Raynor 
located claims on the Cowlitz near its mouth, being 
the first settlers in this vicinity ,^^ and Andrew J. 
Simmons took a claim on Cowlitz prairie, where he 
died February 1872.='* 

Nor were there many accessions to the population 
of the Sound in 1848. Rev. Pascal Ricard, oblate 
father, established a mission three miles below Tum- 
water, June 14th, on the eastern shore of the inlet, 
and thereby secured half a section of land to the 
church. Thomas W. Glasgow made a tour of explo- 
ration down the Sound, and took a claim on Whidbey 
Island, the first settlement attempted there, and 
situated north-east from the Port Townsend of Van- 
couver, directly facing the strait of Fuca. Here he 
erected a cabin and planted potatoes and wheat. His 
loneliness seems to have been alleviated during his 
brief residence, a half-caste daughter testifying to the 
favor with which he was regarded by some native 

"In 1S47, when Crawford, whose biography is given in my Hist. Or., i. 
647, was looking for a place to settle, the only white persons living on the 
Cowlitz were Antoine Gobain, a Canadian, who had charge of the H. B. Co. 'a 
warehouse on the west bank of the river about two miles from the Columbia, 
and Thibault, another Canadian, who lived opposite on the east bank. From 
there to the Cowlitz farms all was an unbroken wilderness. Crawford and 
West took their claims adjoining each other on the cast bank, where Crawford 
permanently had his home, and Raynor on the west bank, where he designed 
laying out a town. Crawford's iVar., MS., 98. Owen W. Bozarth, who was 
of the immigration of 1845, settled, as I suppose, about this time on Cathla- 
pootle or Lewis River, so called from the land claim of A. Lee Lewis, about 
7 miles above the mouth. 

^' Olympia Wash. Standard, March 2, 1872. I find mention of Alexander 
Barron, who died in Feb. 1878; William Rutledge, who died June 1872; 
Henry Bechman, who died April 1879; Felix Dodd, who ilied the same month 
and year; J. H. Smith, who died May 1879; and John E. Pickuell— all of whom 
settled north of the Columbia this year. 


brunette;''^ yet he returned to Tumwater to secure 
other companions, and persuaded Rabbeson and Carne- 
fix to accompany him back to his island home. 

On the voyage, performed in a canoe, they pro- 
ceeded to the head of Case Inlet, and carrying their 
canoe across the portage to the head of Hood canal, 
explor'ed that remarkable passage. Carnefix turned 
back from the mouth of the Skokomish River,^® 
Glasgow and Rabbeson continuing on to Whidbey 
Island, which they reached in July. But they were 
not permitted to remain. Soon after their arrival a 
general council of the tribes of the Sound was held 
on the island, at the instigation of Patkanim, chief of 
the Snoqualimichs, to confer upon the policy of per- 
mitting American settlements in their country. It 
was decided that Glasgow must quit the island, 
which he was at length forced to do,^' escaping by 
the aid of an Indian from the vicinity of Tumwater. 

*° Glasgow's daughter married William Hastie. Morse's Wash. Ter., MS., 
i. 113. 

^^ It was the turn of Carnefix to cook and attend to camp work. A chief 
seeing this thouglit him to be a slave, and offered to purchase him. The jests 
of his companions so annoyed Carnefix that he abandoned their company. 
Evans' Hist. Mem. ii. 

^' Patkanim exhibited the tact in this instance which marked him as a 
savage of uncommon intelligence. Parade has a great e£Fect upon the human 
mind, whether savage or civilized. Patkanim gave a great hunt to the assem- 
bled chiefs. A corral was constructed, with wings extending across the island 
from Penn Cove to Glasgow's claim, and a drive made with dogs, by which 
more than 60 deer were secured for a grand banquet at the inauguration of 
the council. Patkanim then opened the conference by a speech, in which he 
urged that if the Americans were allowed to settle among them they would 
soon become numerous, and would carry off their people in large tire-ships 
to a distant country on which the sun never shone, where they would be left 
to perish. He argued that the few now present could easily be exterminated, 
which would discourage others from coming, and appealed to the cupidity of 
his race by representing that the death of the Americans in the country 
would put the Indians in possession of a large amount of property. But the 
Indians from the upper part of the Sound, who were better acquainted with 
the white people, did not agree with Patkanim. The chief of the bands about 
Tum%vater, Snohodumtah, called by the Americans Grayhead, resisted the 
arguments of the Snoqualimich chief. He reminded the council that previous 
to the advent of the Americans the tribes from the lower sound often made 
%var upon the weaker tribes of his section of the country, carrying them 
off for slaves, but that he had found the presence of the Boston men a 
protection, as they discouraged wars. Patkanim, angered at this opposition, 
created a great excitement, which seemed to threaten a battle between the 
tribes, and Rabbeson becoming alarmed fled back to the settlements. Two 
days later Glasgow followed, being assisted to escape by a friendly Indian, 
but leaving behind him all his property. Id., 11-12. 


Glasgow seems to have taken a claim subsequently 
in Pierce county, and to have finally left the terri- 

During this summer Hancock took a claim on 
the west side of Budd Inlet, and built a wharf and 
warehouse; but having subsequently engaged in 
several commercial ventures involving loss, lie finally 
settled in 1852 on Whidbey Island, Patkaniui having 
in the mean time failed in his design of exterminating 
the American settlers. Rabbeson, glad to be well 
away from the neighborhood of the Snoqualimich 
chief, went with Ferguson to work in the wheat- 
fields of the Cowlitz farm, now in charge of George 
B. Roberts, where they taught the Frenchmen how 
to save grain by cradling, after which the new 
method was high in favor and the cradling party in 

All at once this wholesome plodding was inter- 
rupted by the news of the gold discovery in Califor- 
nia, and every man who could do so set off' at once 
for the gold-fields. They made flat-boats and floated 
their loaded wagons down the Cowlitz River to where 
the old Hudson's Bay Company's trail left it, drove 
their ox-teams to the Columbia River opposite St 
Helen, and again taking the trail from the old Mc- 
Kay farm, which the Lees had travelled in 1834, 
emerged on the Tualatin plains, keeping on the west 
side of the Willamette to the head of the valley. 
They here came into the southern immigrant road, 
which they followed to its junction with the Lassen 
trail to the Sacramento Valley, where they arrived 
late in the autumn, having performed this remarkable 
journey without accident.^ 

''In July 1858 he married Ellen Horan. Olympia Pioneer and Dem., 
July 30, 1858. 

^See Hist. Or., ii. 45, this series. Also liahbeson's Orowth of Towns, MS., 
11-12; Hancock's Thirteen Yews, MS., 105-17. Sylvester, who with Eab- 
beson, Fergusiin, and Borst went to California in the spring of 1849, describes 
the route as I have given it. His company had one wagon and 4 yokes of 
oxen ; and there were three other wagons in the train. They started in April 
and reached Sacramento in July. Olympia, MS., 13-15. 


The rush to the mines had the same temporary 
eft'ect upon the improvement of the country north of 
the Columbia that I have noticed in my account of 
the gold excitement in the Willamette Valley. Farm- 
ing, building, and all other industries were suspended, 
while for about two years the working population of 
the country were absent in search of gold. This inter- 
ruption to the steady and healthy growth which had 
begun has been much lamented by some writers,^ 
with what justice I am unable to perceive; because 
although the country stood still in respect to agricul- 
ture and the ordinary pursuits of a new and small 
population, this loss was more than made up by the 
commercial prosperity which the rapid settlement of 
the Pacific coast bestowed upon the whole of the Ore- 
gon teiritory, and especially upon Puget Sound, which 
without the excitement of the gold discovery must 
have been twenty years in gaining the milling and 
other improvements it now gained in three. 

In the mean time, and before these results became 
apparent, the settlements on the Sound were threat- 
ened with a more serious check by the Snoqualimichs, 
who about the first of May attacked Fort Nisqually 
with the intention of taking it, and if they had suc- 
ceeded in this, Patkanim's plans for the extermination 
of the white people would have been carried out. In 
this afifair Leander C. Wallace was killed, and two 
other Americans, Walker and Lewis, wounded, the 
latter surviving but a short time. For this crime 
Quallawort, a brother of Patkanim, and Kassass, 
another Snoqualimich chief, suffered death by hang- 
ing, as related in a previous volume.®^ This was a 
somewhat different termination from that anticipated. 
Patkanim, even after the Snoqualimichs were re- 

'"Evans says, in his Hist. Mem. 16, that 'the exodus in search of gold was a 
grievous check, and that j'ears of sober advancement and industry were re- 
quired to recuperate from its consequences.' 1 have mentioned in uiy history 
of Oregon that other writers take the same view. 

^^hist. Or., ii. 67-8, 80. 


pulsed, sent word to the American settlers that they 
would be permitted to quit the country bj'- leaving 
their property. To this they answered that they 
had come to stay, and immediately erected block- 
houses at Tumwater and Skookum Chuck. This 
decided movement, with the friendship of the Indians 
on the upper part of the Sound, and the prompt 
measures of Governor Lane, who arrived March 2d 
at Oregon City, followed by the establishment of 
Fort Steilacoom about the middle of July, crushed 
an incipient Indian war.^^ 

The outbreak did not seriously interrupt the dawn- 
ing fortunes of the settlers, who were scrupulously 
careful to prevent any difficulties with the natives by 
a custom of uniform prices for labor and goods, and 
perfect equity in dealing with them.^* 

Owing to the California exodus, the year 1849 
was remarkable only for its dearth of immigration. 

" Writers on this attack on Nisqually have laid too little stress on Pat- 
kanim's designs. Taken in connection with the proceedings of the previous 
summer at Whidbey Island, the intention seems clear; the quarrel -with the 
Nisquallies was but a pretence to account for the appearance at the fort of 
the Snoqualimichs in their war-paint. The killing of the Americ:;ns was but 
au incident, as tbey could not Cave known that they should meet a party of 
the settlers there. The plan was to capture the fort and the supply of 
ammunition, after which it would have been quite easy to make an end of 
the settlements, already deprived by the exodus to California of a large share 
of their fighting material. The H. B. Co., confident of their influence with 
the Indians, either did not suspect or did not like to admit that the Snoqua- 
limichs intended mischief to them, thougli Tolmie confesses that when he 
went outside the fort to bring in Wallaces body he was aimed at; but the 
person was prevented firing by a Siuahoniish Indian present, who reproved 
him, saying, 'Harm enough done for one day.' Tolmic's Pugel Sound, JIS. 
35. All accounts agree that Patkanim was inside the fort when the firing 
by the Snoqualimichs was commenced, and that it began when a gun was 
discharged inside the fort to clean it. May not this have been the precon- 
certed signal ? But the closing of the gates with the chief inside, and the 
firing from the bastion, disconcerted the conspirators, who retreated to co\er. 

*'Evans mentions in his Hist. Mem. , 1 2, that Patterson, an immigrant of 1 S47, 
who afterward left the country, became indebted to an Indian for bringing 
his family up the Cowlitz River, but could not pay him, and gave his note for 
12 months. At the end of tlie year the Indian came to claim his ])ay, bub 
still the man bad not the money, on learning which the Indian offered to take 
a heifer, which offer was declined. The Indian then went to the white set- 
tlement at Tumwater and entered his complaint, when a meeting was called 
and a committee appointed to return with him to the house of the debtor, 
who was compelled to deliver up the heifer. This satisfied the creditor and 
kept the peace. 


But by the end of the year most of the gold-hunters 
were back on their claims, somewhat richer than 
before in the product of the mines. Early in January 
1850 there arrived the first American merchant vessel 
to visit the Sound since its settlement. This was the 
brig Orbit, William H. Dunham master, from Calais, 
Maine. She had brought a company of adventurers 
to California, who having no further use for her, sold 
her for a few thousand dollars to four men, who 
thought this a good investment, and a means of get- 
ting to Paget Sound. Their names were I. N. Ebey, 
B. F. Shaw, Edmund Sylvester, and one Jackson. 
There came as passenger also Charles Hart Smith, a 
young man from Maine and a friend of Captain Dun- 
ham. M. T. Simmons, who had not gone to the mines, 
had sold, in the autumn of 1849, his land claim at Tum- 
water, with the mills, to Crosby^* and Gray, formerly 
of Portland, for thirty-five thousand dollars. With 
a portion of this money he purchased a controlling 
interest in the Orbit, and taking C. H. Smith as part- 
ner, sent the brig back to San Francisco with a cargo 
of piles, with Smith as supercargo, to dispose of them 
and purchase a stock of general merchandise. The 
vessel returned in July, and the goods were opened at 
Smithfield, which by the death of Smith ^^ had come to 

"Captain Clanrick Crosby was a navigator, and first saw the waters of 
Puget Sound in command of a ship. He continued to reside at Tumwater 
down to the time of his death, Oct. 29, 1879, at the age of 75 years. His wife, 
Phoebe H., died Nov. 25, 1871. Their children are Clanrick, Jr, William, 
Walter, Fanny, Mrs George D. Biles, and Mrs J. H. Naylor. Nen) Tacoma 
Herald, Oct. 30, 1879. Crosby was speaker of the house of representatives 
in 1864. Bancroft's Hand-book, 1864, 353. 

'^Levi Lathrop Smith was born in the st.ate of New York, and studied for 
the presbyterian ministry; but migrating to Wisconsin, became there attached 
to a half-caste girl, a catholic. To marry under these circumstances 
would be a violation of rule, and he made another to remove to Oregon. But 
his health was affected, and he suffered with epilepsy. He was elected to 
the Oregon legislature in 1848, but did not live to take his seat, being 
drowned in the latter part of August while going from his claim to Tumwater, 
attacked, it was supposed, by convulsions, which overturned his canoe. He 
built the first cabin in what is now the city of Olympia, on Main Street, half- 
way between Second and Third streets, a cabin IG feet square, of split cedar, 
with a stone fire-place, a stick chimney, and roofed with four-feet shingles 
held on with weight-poles. The cabin had one door, a:ul three ]i;in(s of glass 
for a window; a rough puncheon floor, and a I'ough partition cliviiling oil' a 
bedroom and closet. The furniture consisted of a bedstead, made by boring 


be the sole property of Sylvester, and was now called 
Olympia, at the suggestion of I. N. Ebey.^^ Sylvester's 
claim on the prairie was abandoned when he took pos- 
session of the claim on the Sound/'^ and was taken by 
Captain Dunham of the Orbit, who was killed bj^ being 
thrown from his horse ^' July 4, 1851, the government 
reserving the land for his heirs, who long after took 

In order to give his town a start, Sylvester offered 
to give Simmons two lots for business purposes, 
which were accepted; and a house of rough boards, 
two stories high — its ground dimensions twenty feet 
front by forty in depth — was erected at the corner of 
First and Main streets, and the cargo of the Orbit 
displayed for sale,^' Smith acting as clerk. The firm 

holes in the upright planking and inserting sticks to support the bed, two 
tables, some benches, and stools of domestic manufacture. The furniture of the 
table was tin, and scanty at that. Two acres of land were enclosed, in which 
com, be.-ms, pumpkins, squashes, potatoes, pease, turnips, cabbages, melons, 
cucumbers, beets, parsnips, carrots, onions, tomatoes, radishes, lettuce, 
parsley, sweet fennel , peppergrass, summer-savory, and sunflowers were culti- 
vated. The live-stock Ijelonging to this establishment comprised 5 hogs, 3 pigs, 
7 hens, a cock, a cat and dog, a yoke of oxen, and a pair of horses. These de- 
tails are taken from a humorous document supposed to have been written 
by Smith himself, still in the possession of a gentleman of Olympia. As a 
picture of pioneer life, it is not without value. A diary kept by Smith has 
also been preserved, in which appear many hints of his sad and solitary mus- 
ings upon his life in the wilderness and his disappointed hopes. Evans' Hist. 
Notes, 4. 

'^ Evaiis' Historical Notes, a collection of authorities on the early settle- 
ments, with remarks by Evans, gives Ebey as the author. Sylvester says, 
speaking of Ebej', 'We got the name from the Olympic range;' from which I 
have no doubt Evans is correct. The town was surveyed by William L. 
Frazer in 1850; and afterward by H. A. Goldsborough, who, it will be remem- 
bered, remained in the territory when the U. S. steamer Massachusetts sailed 
away in the spring of 1S50. Hist. Or., ii., chap, ix., this series. 

^'Sylvester, in his Olympia, MS., does not mention L. L. Smith, but 
speaks only of himself, and gives the impression that he alone settled at 
Olympia in 184G. This evasion of a fact puzzled me until I came upon the 
explanation in Evans' Hist. Notes, 2, where he mentions Sylvester's reticence 
in the matter of Smith, and tells us that it arose from an apprehension that 
Smith's heirs might some time lay claim to the towTi site and disturb the 
title. This fear Evans declares to be groundless, and that Sylvester 'lawfully 
survived to the sole ownership of Smith's claim,' by the partnership clause of 
the Oregon land law. 

"Swan, in Olympia Club, MS., 6. 

" The Orbit, being of little or no use to her owners, Simmons having sold 
his mills, was taken to the Columbia by Captain Butler for her owners in 
the summer of 1851. She got into the breakers on the bar and was aban- 
doned. The tide returning Seated her into Baker Bay in safety. Some per- 
sons who beheld her drifting took her to Astoria and claimed salvage; but 


had a profitable trade, as we may well believe when 
cooking-stoves without furniture sold for eighty dol- 
lars.'"' American commerce was thus begun with a 
population of not more than one hundred citizens of 
the United States in the region immediately about 
Puget Sound.^^ Three of the crew of the British 
ship Albion settled in the region of Steilacoom; 
namely, William Bolton, Frederick Rabjohn, and 
William Elders. If it is true, as I have shown in a 
previous volume,*^ that the Americans, as soon as they 
were armed with the power by congress, exhibited a 
most unfriendly exclusiveness toward the British com- 
pany which had fostered them in its way, it is easy 
to perceive that they were actuated partly by a feel- 
ing of revenge, and a desire for retaliation for having 
been compelled to show the rents in their breeches as 
a reason for requiring a new pair," and to account for 
the rents besides, to prove that the Indian trade had 
not been interfered with. Now these irrepressible 
Americans were bringing their own goods by the 
ship-load, and peddling them about the Sound in 
canoes under the noses of the company. It was cer- 
tainly an unequal contest when legal impediment was 

Simmons brought her back to the Sound, where she was finally sold at mar- 
shal's sale, and purchased by a company consisting of John M. Swan, H. A. 
Goldsborough, and others, who loaded her with piles and undertook to navi- 
gate her to the S. I. They met with a gale in Fuca Straits and had their 
rigging blown to pieces, but managed to get into Esquimault harbor, where 
they sold the vessel to the H. B. Co. for $1,000. The company refitted her, 
changed her name to the Discover]/, and used her on the northern coast until 
1858, when she was employed as a police vessel on Fraser River in collecting 
licenses. Afterward she was resold to Leonard, of tlie firm of Leonard & 
Green of Portland, and her name of Orhi/. restored; she was taken to China 
and again sold, where she disappears from history. She is remembered as the 
first American vessel that ever penetrated to the head of Puget Sound, or en- 
gaged in a commerce with Americans on its waters. Olympia Club, MS. , 2-8. 

"Rabbeson, in Olympia Club, MS., 3. 

*'Rabbeson says that in the winter of 1849 or spring of 1850. at the time 
the British ship Albion was lying at Dungeness cutting spars, he went down 
to that port with Eaton and others, and in returning he fell in with an Amer- 
ican vessel coming up for piles, which he piloted to the upper sound, securing 
the contract for furnishing the cargo. He thinks her name was The Pleiades, 
and the next vessel in the sound the Robert Bgwen. Growth of Towns, MS., 14. 

"Hist. Or., ii., 104-6, this series. 

"Sylvester's Olympia, MS., 12. 
Hisi. Wash.— 2 


In the Orbit came John M. Swan," who in 1850 
settled on a claim immediately east of Olympia, which 
became Swantown. Another passenger was Henry 
■ Murray, who took a claim east of Steilacoom. In July 
Lafayette Balch, owner of the brig George Emory, 
arrived at Olympia with a cargo of goods, which he 
unloaded at that jjlace; but finding he could not get 
such terms as he desired from the owner of the town 
lots, he put his vessel about and went down the Sound, 
establishing the town of Port Steilacoom, putting up 
a large business house, the frame of which he brought 
from San Francisco, and to which he removed the 
goods left at Olympia to be sold by Henry C. 
Wilson,*^ who appears to have arrived with Balch, 
and who settled on the west shore of Port Townsend 
on the 15th of August. On the 15th of October 
I. N. Ebey took up the claim from which Glasgow 
had been ejected by the Indians on the west side of 
Whidbey Island, about a mile south of Penn Cove. 
R. H. Lansdale about the same time took a claim at 
the head of Penn Cove, where the town of Coveland 
was ultimately laid out. In November the George 
Emory, which had made a voyage to San Francisco, 
brought up as passengers half a dozen men who in- 
tended getting out a cargo of piles for that market, 
and who landed five miles north of Steilacoom. One 
of their number, William B. Wilton, selecting a claim, 
built a cabin, and the adventurers went to work with 
a will to make their fortunes. Their only neighbor 

"I do not know Swan's antecedents, except that he was in the mines in 
April 1S49, and that after working there for three months he became ill, and 
determined to go north as soon as he could get away, for his health. Find- 
ing the Orbit about to sail, he took passage in her. His idea was to go to 
v. I., but when he arrived at Victoria he found the terms of colonization 
there repulsive to him, and went on with the vessel to the head of Puget 
Sound, where he remained. Swan's Colonization, MS., 2. 

*5 Wa.ih. Sketches, MS., 38-9; Sylvexter's Olympia, MS., 19-20; Sican's 
Colonization, MS., 4-5. Wilson married Susan P. Keller in Oct. 1854. She 
was a daughter of Captain Josiah P. Keller of Maine, who settled at Port 
Gamble, or Teekalet Bay, in the autumn of 1853, with his family. He was 
born in 1812, and emigrated to Puget Sound from Boston. He was a useful 
and respected citizen, being the founder of the village of Teekalet. His 
death occurred June 11, 1862, at Victoria. Port Townsend Northwest, June 


was William Bolton, who could not have been very 
well supplied with the requirements for a life in the 
woods, as they were unable to obtain oxen to drag 
the fallen timber to the water's edge, and in April 
1851 abandoned their enterprise, after disposing of 
as much of the timber they had felled as could be 
loaded on a vessel without the aid of oxen. Two of 
their number, Charles C. Bachelder and A. A. Plum- 
mer,*** then went to Port Townsend, and took claims 
on Point Hudson, about a mile north-west of Wilson, 
where they were joined in November by L. B. Has- 
tings and F. W. Pettygrove, formerly of Oregon City 
and Portland, who had ruined himself by speculating 
in property at Benicia, California. In February, 
J. G. Clinger*'^ and Pettygrove and Hastings took 
claims adjoining those of Bachelder and Plummer 
on the north and west, and soon these four agreed 
to lay out a town, and to devote a third of each of 
their claims to town-site purposes — a fair division, 
considering the relative size and location of the 
claims. Bachelder and Plummer, being unmarried, 
could take no more than a quarter-section under the 
Oregon land law, which granted but 160 acres as a 
donation when such claim was taken after the 1st of 
December, 1850, or by a person who was not a resi- 
dent of Oregon previous to that time. Pettygrove 
and Hastings,*'' having both emigrated to the territory 

*^ Plummer was a native of Maine. He was a saddler in the quartermas- 
ter's department under Parker H. French on tlie march to El Paso of the 3d 
infantry in 1S49. From El Paso he went to Mazatlan, and thence by the 
bark Phmdx to San Francisco in May 1850. In the spring of 1851 he took 
passage on the George Emory, Capt, Balch, for Puget Sound. Wash. Sketches, 
MS., 37; &ee aXso Solano Co. Hist., 157. 

•' Pettygrove and Hastings arrived in the schooner Mary Taylor, from 
Portland. Plummer, iu Wash. Sketches, MS., a collection of statements taken 
down by my short-hand reporter, says that into his cabin, 15 by 30 feet, were 
crowded for a time the families of Pettygrove, Hastings, and dinger. Houses 
were erected as soon as they conveniently could be on the claims taken by 
these settlers, and could not have been ready much before spring. 

'^Biiggs, in his Port Townsend, MS., containing a history of the immigra- 
tion of 1847, early Oregon matters, and an account of the settlement of Port 
Townsend, says that Hastings was in his company crossing the plains. 
Briggs settled on the Santiani, where Hastings paid him a visit, persuading 
him to go to Puget Sound. Hastings and Pettygrove then went over to look 
for a location, and fixed upon Port Townsend. 


previous to 1850, and being married, were entitled to 
take a whole section, but their land, being less favor- 
ably situated for a town site, was worth less to the 
company; hence the terms of the agreement. 

The new town was named after the bay upon which 
it was situated. Port Townsend, and the owners con- 
stituted a firm for the prosecution of trade.*" 

As timber was the chief marketable product of the 
country, and as Hastings and Pettygrove were owners 
of tliree yokes of oxen, the company at once set to 
work cutting piles and squaring timbers; at which 
labor they continued for about two years, loading sev- 
eral vessels,'^" and carrying on a general merchandise 
business besides." 

In May 1852 Albert Briggs settled a mile and a 
half south from Port Townsend,"'^ and in September 
came Thomas M. Hammond, who took a narrow strip 
of land west of the claims of Hastings and Wilson, 
and which, coming down to the bay, adjoined Briggs 
on the north.^^ The names of all the donation-land 

"In the agreement between the partners, says Briggs, $.'?,000 was to be 
put into a joint stock to carry on merchanJising and a tishery, neither part- 
ner to draw out more than the net income according to their share; but at 
the end of three years the original stock might be drawn from the concern. 
A condition was imposed, on account of habits of intemperance on the part of 
Baclielder and Pettygrove, that if any member of the firm should be declared 
incompetent by a vote of the others to attend to business on account of drink, 
he should forfeit his interest and quit the company. Bachelder lost liis share 
by this agreement, receiving a few hundred dollars for his land from Petty- 
grove. He died at Port Ludlow not long after. Id. , 24-5. 

*" The brig Weilingsley several times, brig James Marshall once, ship Tal- 
mcr once, and bark Mary Adams once. Plummer, in Wanh. Sk-eti-he.i, M8., 40. 

^' The first house erected in Port Townsend after Plummer's was by R. M. 
Caines, for a hotel on Water Street, later occupied as the Ari/un newspaper 
office. Then followed residences by Wilson, J. G. Clinger, who had taken a 
land claim a mile and a half south of the town, Benjamin Ross, wlio with his 
brother R. W. Ross had located land fronting on the Fuoa sea at the head of 
the strait, William Webster, John Price, and E. S. Fowler, who had a stock 
of merchandise. Plummer, in Wash. Sketclu'$, MS., 40-1. Mrs Clinger was 
the mother of the first white child born in Port Townsend. 

^" Briggs was born in Vt. He arrived in Or. in 1847 with the immigration, 
in company with Lot Whitcomb, and worked at his trade of cai'penter for a 
year or more, settling at last on the Santiam, where he remained until 18.>2, 
when he went to the Sound on the solicitation of his friend Hastings. He 
lirought his family, and built, according to his own statement, the first frame 
house and brick chimney at or near Port Townsend, and brought the first 
horses and cattle to the place. Port Towiixend, MS., 1, 35. 

"Hammond was a native of Ireland, born about 1820, arrivc^d in the U. 
S. in 1829, and came to Cal. in 1849 with the gold-seekers. J. B. BeideUnan 


claimants about Port Townsend are here mentioned 
in my account of its settlements. 

In the latter part of August 1851, in the van of 
the immigration, arrived at Portland John N. Low 
and C. C. Terry. In September they took their 
cattle and whatever live-stock they possessed down 
the Columbia, and by the Hudson's Bay Company's 
trail to the valley of the Chehalis, where they were 
left, while Low ^* and Terry proceeded to the Sound 
to explore for a town site, fixing at last upon Alki 
Point, on the west side of Elliott Bay, where a claim 
was taken about the 25th, and a house partially con- 
structed of logs. They found that others were pre- 
paring to settle in the vicinity, and were encouraged. 
John C. Holgate, a young man and an immigrant of 
1847, who had served in the Cayuse war, had visited 
the east side of Elliott Bay in 1850, selecting a claim 
for himself."^ 

Previous to the arrival of Low and Terry at Alki 
Point, Luther M. Collins took a claim in the valley 
of the Dwamish or White River,'^^ and before they 

& Co. of San Francisco wished him to start a fishery and cut piles for that 
market. He took passage on the bark Powhatan, Captain Mellen, for Pnget 
Sound, but by the timj he was ready to begin business the firm had failed, 
and Hammond cast in his lot with the settlers of Port Townsend. Wash. 
Sketches, MS., 95-7. 

^^John N. Low was bom in Ohio in 1820. He removed to 111., where 
he married, in 1S48, L_'dia Colburn, bom in Pcnn. Low brought to Or. a 
herd of choice stock for dairy purposes, which were the first selected A'lieri- 
can cattle taken to the Sound country, and seems to have had a more definite 
purpose in emigrating than many who came to the Pacific coast at that 
period. Morse'.t Wash. Ter., MS., i. 118-19. Charles Carroll Terry was a 
native of New York state. 

^■' I follow the account of Mrs Abby J. Hanford, who, in a manuscript 
giving an account of the Settlement of Seattle and the Indian War, makes this 
positive statement concerning Holgate's visit. Mrs Hanford was a sister of 
Holgate, whose family came to Or. in 18o3, and to Wash, in 18o4. Mrs 
Elizabeth Holgate, mother of Mr.s Hanford, was born at Middlcton, Ct, in 
1796; was married at Pittsburg, Pa, in 1818, to A. L. Holgate, who died in 
1847, and accompanied her children to Or. She died in Jan. 1880, at the 
house of her daughter, whose husband's land adjoined that of J. C. Holgate. 
Seallle Intelligencer, Jan. 24, 1880. 

''The river system of this region is peculiar; for example. White Riv^er 
and Cedar River both rise in the Cnscade Mountains and have a north-west 
course. Cedar flows into Lake Washington, from which by the same mouth but 
a different channel it runs out again in a south-west course, called Black River, 


returned to Portland, Collins, Henry Van Assalt, and 
Jacob and Samuel Maple arrived and settled upon the 
Dwamish, where they had previously taken clainis.*'^ 

Leaving their house half built, the settlers at Alki 
Point returned to Portland, where Low had left his 
wife and four children. Here they found Arthur A. 
Denny, also from Illinois, although born in Indiana, 
with a wife and two children ; William N. Bell, a na- 
tive of Illinois, with a wife and two children; and C. 
D. Borem, with a wife and child; besides David T. 
Denny, unmarried — who were willing to accept their 
statement that they had discovered the choicest spot 
for a great city to be found in the north-west. 

On the 5th of November this company took pas- 
sage on the schooner Exact, Captain Folger, which 
had been chartered to carry a party of gold-hunters 
to Queen Charlotte Island, and Low's party with a iew 
others to Puget Sound. The Alki Point settlers ar- 
rived at their destination on the 13th, and were dis- 
embarked at low tide, spending the dull November 
afternoon in carrying their goods by hand out of the 
reach of high water, assisted by the women and chil- 
dren. "And then/' says Bell, artlessly, in an auto- 
graph letter, "the women sat down and cried."^^ Poor 
women! Is it any wonder? Think of it: the long jour- 

into White Eiver, joining the two by a link little more than two miles long. 
Below thia junction White River is called Dwamish, vrith. no better reason 
than that the Indians gave that name to a section of the stream where they 
resided. There is a link by creeks and marshes between White River and 
the Puyallup, and the whole eastern shore of the Sound is a network of rivers, 
lakes, creeks, and swales, the soil of the bottom-lands being very rich, but 
overgrown with trees of the water-loving species. Prairie openings occur at 
intervals, on which the settlements were made. 

*' I am thus particular in the matter of priority, because there is a slight 
but perceptible jealousy evident in my authorities as to the claim to prece- 
dence in settlement. From the weight of testimony, I think it may be fairly 
said tliat the Dwamish Valley was settled before Alki Point. Jacob Maple 
was bom on the Monongehela River, Green county, Pennsylvania, 1798. His 
father removed to Jcfl'erson county, Ohio, in 1800, and died in 1812. The 
family subsequently lived in southern Iowa, from which they emigrated to 
Oregon by the way of California, arriving in 1851. Morse's Wash. Ter., MS., 
ii. 8. Another settler claiming priority is Martin Taf teson, who took a claim 
ou Oak Harbor in 1851. Morse's Wash. Ter., MS., xxi. 43-5. 

"'I have a valuable dictation by Mr Bell, entitled the Settlement of Seattle, 
MS., in which many historical facts are set forth in an interesting manner. 


ney overland, the wearisome detention in Portland, 
the sea-voyage in the little schooner, and all to be set 
down on the beach of this lonely inland sea, at the 
beginning of a long winter, without a shelter from the 
never-ceasing rains for themselves or their babes. It 
did not make it any easier that nobody was to blame, 
and that in this way only could their husbands take 
their choice of the government's bounty to them. It 
was hard, but it is good to know that they survived 
it, and that a house was erected during the winter 
which was in a measure comfortable.^^ 

Low and Terry laid out a town at Alki Point, call- 
ing it New York, and offering lots to those members 
of the company who would remain and build upon 
them. But the Indians in the vicinity had given in- 
formation during the winter concerning a pass in the 
Cascade Range which induced the majority to remove 
in the spring of 1852 to the east side of the bay, where 
they founded a town of their own, which they called 
Seattle, after a chief of the Dwamish tribe residing in 
the vicinity, who stood high in the estimation of the 
American settlers.^" 

D. T. Denny, W. N. Bell, A. A. Denny, and C. 
D. Boren took claims in the order mentioned on the 
east shore, D. T. Denny's being farthest north, and 
Boren's adjoining on the south a claim made at the 

''Bell's house was constructed of cedar planks split out of the tree, the 
Oregon cedar having a straight grain. These planks were made smoother 
with carpenter's tools, and were joined neatly in tlie flooring. Some window- 
Bash were obtained from Olympia, and the ' first house in King county ' (I quote 
Bell) was after all a decent enough domicile when it was completed. 

*" Seattle is described as a dignified and venerable personage, whose car- 
riage reminded the western men of Senator Benton; but I doubt if the Mis- 
souri senator would have recognized himself, except by a very great stretch of 
imagination, in this naked savage who conversed only in signs and grunts. It 
is said that Seattle professed to remember Vancouver— another stretch of the 
imagination. See Olympia Wash. Standard, April 25, 186S; Eichardsoii's 
Missis. ,416. It is well known that the Indians north of the Columbia change 
their names when a relative dies, Swan's N. W. Coast, 189, from a belief that 
the spirits of the dead will return on hearing these familiar names. Seattle, 
on hearing that a town was called by his name, and foreseeing that it would 
be a disturbance to his ghost when he should pass away, made this a ground 
for levying a tax on the citizens while living, taking his pay beforehand for 
the inconvenience he expected to suffer from the use of his name after death. 
Fester's Wash. Ter., MS., 6; Murphy, in Appleton's Journal, 11. 1877. 


same time by D. S. Maynard from Olympia, who in 
turn adjoined Holgate, and who kept the hrst trading- 
house in the town. Seattle was laid ofi' upon the 
water-front from about the middle of Maynard's claim, 
a larger one than either of the others,*^ and on which 
the first house was built, to the north line of Bell's 
claim. Then in the autumn came Henry L. Yesler, 
who was looking for a mill site, and who was admitted 
to the water-front by a re-arrangement of the contig- 
uous boundaries of Boren and Maynard.*^ 

*' JIaynard came to Or. in Sept. 1850, and took his claim uiKler the dona- 
tion law as a married man, and as a resident prior to Dec. 1850, which would 
have entitled him to G40 acres. But on the 2'2d of Dec, 1852, he obtained 
from the Or. leg. a divorce from Lydia A. Maynard, whom he had married in 
Vt, on the •28th of August, 1828, and left in Ohio when he emigrated. In 
Jan. 1853 he married Catherine Broshears, and soon after gave the required 
notice of settlement on his claim, acknowledging his previous marriage, but 
asserting that his first wife died Dec. 24, 1852. In due course a certificate 
•was issued to Maynard and wife, giving the west half of the claim to the hus- 
band and the east half to the wife. But the commissioner of the general land- 
office held that the heirs of Lydia A. Maynard should have had the east half, 
she being his wife when he settled on the land, and until the following Dec. 
These matters coming to the ears of the first Mrs Maynard and her two sons, 
they appeared and laid claim to the land, and the case being considered upon 
the proofs, neither Lydia A. Maynard nor Catherine Maynard received any 
part of the land, the claim of the first being rejected because she had acquired 
no rights by her presence in the country previous to the divorce, nor could 
she inherit as a widow after the divorce — an iniquitous decision, by the way, 
where no notice has been served — and the claim of the second being rejected 
because she was not the wife of Maynard on the 1st of Dec, 1850, nor within 
one year thereafter. The 320 acres which should have belonged to one of 
these women reverted to the government. Maynard died in 1873. Pur/et 
Sound DUpalch, March 14 and April 18, 1872; Seattle InlMiijencir, March 
17, 1S73, Feb. 10, 1877; S. F. ^ita, March 2, 1873. 

«* Yesler was a native of Maryland: went to Ohio in 1832, and emigrated 
thence in 1851 to Or., intending to put up a saw-mill at Poitland; but the 
■wri-ck of the Genei-al Warren at the mouth of the river and other fancied 
drawbacks caused him to go to Cal. and to look around for some land in that 
state; but meeting a sailing-master who had been in Puget Sound, he learned 
enough of the advantages of this region for a lumbering estabhshment to de- 
cide him to go there, and to settle at Seattle. Yesler's was the first of the 
saw-mills put up with a design to establish a trade with S. F., and being also 
at a central point on the Sound, became historically important. The cook- 
bouse belonging to it, though only a ' dingy-looking hewedlog building about 

25 feet square, a little more than one story high with a shed addition on the 
rear,' was for a number of years the only place along the east shore of the 
Sound where comfortable entertainment could be had. 'Many an old Puget 
Sounder,' says a correspondent of the Puget Sound Weekly, 1800, 'remembers 
the happy hours, jolly nights, strange encounters, and wild scenes bo has 
enjoyed around the broad fireplace and hospitable board of Yesler's cook- 
house. ' During the Indian war it was a rendezvous for the volunteers; it 
was a resort of naval officers; a judge — Lander — had his office in a comer of 
it; for a time the county auditor's office was there; it had served for town-hall, 
court-bouse, jail, military headquarters, storehouse, hotel, and church. Eleo- 


Before proceeding to these decisive measures, the 
town-site company made a careful hydrographic sur- 
vey of the bay, Bell and Boren paddling the canoe 
wliile Denn}^ took the soundings. On the 23d of May, 
1853, the town plat was filed for record,^^ Bell keep- 
ing his claim separate, from which it was long called 
Belltown. Being really well situated, and midway 
between Port Townsend and Olympia, it rewarded its 
founders bj^ a steady growth and hy becoming the 
county seat of King county. Its population in 1855 
was about three hundred. 

The embryo city of New York never advanced l)e- 
yond a chrysalid condition; but after having achieved 
a steam saw-mill, a public house, and two or three 
stores, and after having changed its name to Alki, 
an Indian word signifying in the future, or by and 
by, which was both name and motto, it gave way to 
its more fortunate rival. It had a better landing 
than Seattle at that time, but a harbor that was ex- 
posed to the winds, where vessels were sometimes 
blown ashore, and was otherwise inferior in position.''* 
Terry, at the end of two years, removed to Seattle, 
where he died in 1867."^ Low went to California 
and the east, but finally returned to Puget Sound 
and settled in Seattle. 

In the spring of 1853 there arrived from the Wil- 
lamette, where they had wintered, David Phillips*'* 

tions, social parties, and religious services were held under its roof. The first 
sermon preached in King co. was delivered there by Clark, and the first suit at 
law, which was the case of the mate of the Franklin Adams for selling the ship's 
stores on his own account, was held here before Justice Maynard, who dis- 
charged the accused with an admonition to keep his accounts more correctly 
thereafter. For all these memories the old building -was regretted when in 1 865 
it was demolished to make room for more elegant structures. Yeder's Wash. 
Tcr., MS., 13. D. S. Smith of Seattle is, though not the first settler at 
that place, the first of the men who finally settled there to have visited the 
place, on a whaling-vessel which entered tlie Sound in 1837. Seattle Pac. 
Tribune, June 24, 1877; Pngel Sound Dispatch, July 8, 1876. 

^Morse's iVash. Ter., MS., ii. 6. 

^Ellicotfs Puget Sound, MS., 19. 

'» Terry had a trading-post at Alki, as well as Low and S. M. Holdemess. 
In 1856 he married Mary J. Russell, daughter of S. W. Kussell, of tlie White 
River settlement. After her husband's death in 1873, Mrs Terry married 
W. H. GiUiam, but died in 1875. 

^"Phillips was a native of Penn., but for some years anterior to 1852 


and F. Matthias from Pennsylvania, Dexter Horton 
and Hannah E., his wife, and Thomas Mercer, from 
Princetown, ininois,^^ S. W. Eussell, T. S. Eussell, 
Hillery Butler, E. M. Smithers, John Thomas, and 
H. A. Smith. They came by the way of the Cowlitz 
and Oljmipia, whence they were carried down the 
Sound on board the schooner Sarah Stone, which 
landed at Alki, where the six last mentioned re- 
mained for the summer, removing to Seattle in the 
autumn. J. R. Williamson, George Buckley, Charles 
Kennedy, and G. N. McConaha and family, also 
arrived about this period, and settled at Seattle. A 
daughter born to Mrs McConaha in September was 
the first white native of King county. 

There settled in the Dwamish or White River 
Valley, not far from the spring of 1853, William 
Ballston, D. A. Neely, J. Buckley, A. Hogine, J. 
Harvey, William Brown, a Mr. Nelson, and on Lake 
Washington*^ E. A. Clark. 

The pursuits of the first settlers of Seattle and the 
adjacent country were in no wnse different from those 
of Olympia, Steilacoom, and Port Townsend. Tim- 
ber was the most available product of this region, and 
to getting out a cargo the settlers on the Dwamish 
River first applied themselves. Oxen being scarce 
in the new settlements previous to the opening of a 

resided in Iowa. He went into mercantile business in partnership with 
Horton, having a branch house in Olympia. They dissolved in ISOl, and 
Phillips took the Olympia business. In 1870 they reunited in a banking 
establishment in Seattle. In the mean time Phillips was elected to several 
county offices, and 3 times to a seat in the legislature of Wash. He was at 
the time of his death, March 1872, president of the pioneer society of W. T. 
Olympia Transcript, March 9, 1872; Seattle Intelligencer, March 11, 1872. 

«■ Mercer, in Wash. Ter. Sketches, MS., 1-3. 

'*At this time the lakes in the vicinity of Seattle were not named. In 
1854 the settlers held an informal meeting and decided to call the larger one 
Washington and the smaller Union, because it united at times the former with 
the bay. Mercer, in Wash. Tcr. Sketches, MS., 6. It is not improbable, says 
Murphy, in Appleton'a Journal, 11, 1877, that the government will open a 
canal between lake Washington and the Sound, which could be done for 
$1,000,000, in order to make the lake a naval station. It ia 25 miles long, 
Z to 6 miles wide, an altitude above sea-level of 18 feet, sufficient depth to 
float the heaviest ships, and is surrounded by timber, iron, and coal, which 
natural advantages it is believed will sooner or later make it of importance 
to the United States. Pwjet Sound Dispatch, July 8, 187G; Victor's Or. and 
Wash., 246. 


road from Walla Walla over the Cascade Mountains, 
there was much difficulty in loading vessels, the crew 
using a block and tackle to draw the timber to the 

They cultivated enough land to insure a plentiful 
food supply, and looked elsewhere for their profits, a 
policy which the inhabitants of the Paget Sound region 
continued to pursue for a longer period than wisdom 
would seem to dictate. Many were engaged in a 
petty trade, which they preferred to agriculture, and 
especially the eastern-born men, who were nearly all 
traders. To this preference, more than to any other 
cause, should be attributed the insignificant improve- 
ments in the country for several years. 

About the time that Seattle was founded, B. I. Mad- 
ison settled at New Dungeness, near the mouth of the 
Dungeness River. He was a trader in Indian goods 
and contraband whiskey, and I fear had many imi- 
tators. His trade did not prevent him from taking 
a land-claim. Soon afterward came D. F. Brown- 
field, who located next to Madison. During the sum- 
mer, John Thornton, Joseph Leary, George B. Moore, 
John Donnell, J. C. Brown, and E. H. McAlmond set- 
tled in the immediate vicinity of New Dungeness, and 
engaged in cutting timber to load vessels. They 
had four yokes of oxen, and were therefore equipped 
for the business. That season, also, George H. Ger- 
rish located himself near this point, and kept a trad- 
ing-post for the sale of Indian goods. 

In the following spring came the first family, 
Thomas Abernethey and wife. C. M. Bradsbaw™ and 

™ The first vessel loaded at the head of Elliott Bay was the Leonesa, which 
took a cargo in the winter of 1851-2. I have among ray historical correspond- 
ence a letter written by Eli B. Maple concerning the first settlement of King 
county, who says that his brother Samuel helped to load this vessel in Gig 
Harbor, which he thinks was the first one loaded on the Sound, in wliich he 
is mistaken, as I have shown. This member of the Maple family did not 
arrive until the autumn of 18D2, when he joined his father and brother in the 
Dwamish Valley. 

'"Charles M. Bradshaw was born in Penn., came to Or. with the immigra- 
tion of 1852, and settled soon afterward near New Dungeness, on Squim's prairie, 


several other single men followed, namely, S. S. Ir- 
vine, Joseph Leighton, Eliot Cline, John Bell, and 
E. Price. Irvine and Leighton settled east of New 
Dungeness on Squim Bay. The second family in the 
vicinity was that of J. J. Barrow, who first settled on 
Port Discovery Bay in 1852, but removed after a 
year or two to Dungeness. Port Discovery had 
other settlers in 1852-3, namely, James Kaynier, 
John E. Burns, John F. Tukey, Benjamin Gibbs, 
Richard Gibbs, James Tucker,'^ Mr Boswell, and Mr 

There was also one settler on Protection Island in 
1850, James Whitcom, who, however, abandoned his 
claim after a few months of lonely occupation. ^^ Chi- 
macum Valley had also one settler, R. S. liobinson, 
in 1853. 

There was no part of the country on the Sound that 
settled up so rapidly during the period of which I am 
speaking as Whidbey Island. This preference was 

where he remained until 1SG7, when he remoTed to Port Townsend. He 
studied law, and was admitted to practice in IS04, after wiiich l.c was several 
times elected to the legislature, and twice made attorney of the 3d judicial 
district, as well as member of the constitutional convention in 1878. il'ash. 
Sketches, MS. , 59. 

"Tucker was murdered in 18C3. It will appear in the course of this his- 
tory that murders were very frequent. Many of them were committed by 
the Indians from the northern coast, who came up the strait in their canoes, 
and ci-uising about, either attacked isolated settlements at night, or seized and 
killed white men travelling about the Sound in canoes. The first vessel that 
came into the harbor of New Dungeness for a cargo was the John Adams, in 
the spring of 1853. Jewell, her master, started with his steward to go to 
Port Towusend in a small boat, and never was seen again. The Indians ad- 
mitted that two of their people had murdered the two men, but as it could 
not be shown that they were dead, the accused were never tried. McAlmond, 
>\ ho was a competent ship-master, sailed the vessel to S. F. An eccentric 
man, who obtained the soubriquet of Arkansaw Traveller by his peregrinations 
in the region of Dungeness in 1854, was shot and killed by Indians while 
alone in his canoe. Tlie crime came to light, and the criminals were tried 
and sentenced; but one of them dieil of disease, and the other escaped by an 
error in the entry of judgment. Bradshaw, in Wash. Sketches, MS., C5-6. 

'^Protection Island was so named by Vancouver because it lay in front of 
and protected Port Discovery from the north-west winds. The first actual 
or permanent settlers on this island were AVinfield Ebey, brother of I. N. 
Ebey, and George Ebey, his cousin, who took claims there in 1854. Ebey'a 
Journal, MS. Whitcom was a native of Ottawa, Canada, who came to Puget 
Sound in 1S52, and first located himself on the Port Gamble side of Foul- 
weather Elufl' — also named by Vancouver — in the service of the milling com- 
pany at that place, putting the first fire under the boilers of Port Gamble 
mill. He left the Sound in 1854, but returned in 1S72. 


owing to the fact that the island contained about six 
thousand acres of excellent prairie land, and that the 
western men, who located on farms, were accustomed 
to an open country. No matter how rich the river- 
bottoms or poor the plains, they chose the plains 
rather than clear the river-bottoms of the tangled 
jungles which oppressed them. Whidbey Island pos- 
sessed, besides its open lands, many charms of scenery 
and excellences of climate, together with favorable 
position; and hither came so many of the first agri- 
culturalists that it was the custom to speak of the 
island as the garden of Puget Sound. Its first per- 
manent settlers were, as I have mentioned, Isaac N. 
Ebey and R. H. Lansdale." 

Lansdale first fixed his choice upon Oak Harbor, 
but removed to Penn Cove in the spring of 1852. 
The legislature of 1852-3 organized Island county, 
and fixed the county seat at Coveland, on Lansdale's 
claim. He continued to reside there, practising med- 
icine, until he was made Indian agent, in December 
1854, when his duties took him east of the Cascade 

" I. N. Ebey was from Mo., and came to Or. in 1848 just in time to join 
the first gold-hunters in Cal., where he was moderately successful. His wife, 
Eebecca Wliitby, nie Davis, came to join her husband, bringing with her their 
two sons, Eason and Ellison, in 1S51, in company with the Crockett family. 
Mrs Ebey, a beautiful and refined lady, was the first white woman on Whid- 
bey Island. A daughter was born to her there. She died of consumption 
Sept. 29, 185.3, and Ebey married for his second wife Mrs Emily A. Sconce. 
In 1853 George W. Ebey, a young man and cousin to I. N., immigrated to 
Puget Sound in company with other cousins named Royal. In 1854 came 
Jacob Ebey, father of I. N., his mother, whose maiden name was Sarah Blue, 
boni in Va, his brother Winfield Scott Ebey, two sisters, Mrs Mary Wright 
and Ruth Ebey, two children of Mrs Wright, whose husband was in Cal., 
and George W. Beam, who aiterward married the daughter, later Mrs Almira 
N. Enos of S. F. Mrs Enos has placed in my hands a series of journals kept 
by members of her family, covering a period between April 18.34 and April 
18G4, in which year Winfield died of consumption. Jacob Ebey, who died in 
Feb. 1SC2, was born in Penn. Oct. 22, 1793. He served in the war of 1812, 
under Gen. Harrison. He emigrated to 111. in 18.32, and in the Black Hawk 
war commanded a company in the same battalion with Captain Abraham Lin- 
coln. Subsequently he removed to Adair county, Missouri, whence the fam- 
ily came to Washington. The death of his wife, which occun-ed iu 1859, was 
hastened liy the shocking fate of her son, Isaac N., who was murdered at his 
own home by the Haidali Indians, in one of their mysterious incursions, in 
the summer of 1857, concerning which I shall have more to say in another 
place. George W. Beam died in 18C6. This scries of deaths makes the 
history of this pioneer family as remarkable as it is melancholy. 


Mountains, where he remained for some years.''* The 
other settlers of 1851 were Uric Friend, Martin Taft- 
son, WiUiam Wallace and family, James Mounts, 
Milton Mounts, Eobert S. Bailey, Patrick Doyle, 
and G. W. Sumner. In 1852 came Walter Crock- 
ett,'^ with his son John and family, and five other 
children, Samuel, Hugh, Charles, Susan, and Wal- 
ter, Jr, Judah Church, John Chondra, Benjamin 
Welcher, Lewis Welcher, Joseph S. Smith and fam- 
ily, S. D. Howe, G. W. L. Allen, Eichard B. Hol- 
brook, born and bred near Plymouth Rock, George 
Bell, Thomas S. Davis, John Davis, John Alexander 
and family, Mr Bonswell and family, N. D. Hill,'* 
Humphrey Hill, W. B. Engle, Samuel Maylor, 
Thomas Maylor, Samuel Libbey, Captain Eli Hatha- 
way, and Mr Baltic. 

In the spring of 1853 the brig J. C. Cabot, Dryden 
master, brought to the island from Portland John 
Kellogg, James Busby, Thomas Hastie, Henry Ivens, 
John Dickenson, all of whom had families, Mrs Ee- 
becca Maddox and five children,'' Mrs Grove Terry 
and daughter Chloe, E. L. Doyle, who married Miss 
Terry, Nelson Basil, and A. Woodard, who subse- 
quently went to Olympia. Others who settled on 
Whidbey Island in 1853 were Edward Barrington,'* 
Eobert C. Hill, Charles H. Miller, Nelson Miller, 
Captain Thomas Coupe, who founded Coupeville, 
Joiin Kenneth, Isaac Powers, Captain William Eob- 

" Richard Hyatt Lansdale was born in Md in 1812, but bred in Ohio, and 
removed to Ind., then to 111., and finally to Mo. in 1846. In 1849 ho came 
to Or. via Cal., entering the Columbia in Oct. He was first auditor of Clarke 
CO., and first postmaster north of the Columbia. He purchased half of 
Short's town site at Vancouver, which he lost and abandoned. 

"Walter Crockett, Sen., died Nov. 25, 1864, aged 83 years. Seallle Inid- 
Ugenci-r, Dec. 6, 18G9. 

'^ Nathaniel D. Hill was born in Pa in 1824, and came to Cal. in 1850; was 
employed in the S. F. custom-house; went to the mines and on a farm in So- 
noma Valley, but finally embarked with his brothers for Puget Sound, and 
settled on Whidbey Island. Wanh. Sketches, MS., 79-81. 

" Mrs Maddox married L. M. Ford of Skagit River in November 1855. 
Id., 41. 

"Edward Barrington died in Jan. 1883. Port Townscnd Argus, Jan. 26, 
1883. Coupe died in 1877. 


ertson,"^ Charles Seybert, Thomas Lyle, all of whom 
had families, Henry McClurg, Captain B. P. Barstow, 
Edward Grut, Lawrence Grenman, Marshall Camp- 
bell, Jacob S. Hindbaugh, George W. Ebcy, and 
Charles Thompson. 

When I have added the names of Samuel Hancock, 
John Y. Sewell, Thomas Cramey, John M. Izeth, 
Dana H. Porter ,«" Winfield S. Ebey, and George W. 
Beam, who settled the following year, I have enu- 
merated most of the men who at any time have long 
resided upon Whidbey Island, so quickly were its 
lands taken up, and so constant have been its first 

Settlement ^vas extended in 1852 to Bellingham 
Bay. William Pattle, while looking for spar timber 
among the islands of the Fuca sea, landed in this ba}^ 
and while encamped upon the beach observed frag- 
ments of coal, which led to the discovery of a deposit. 
Pattle posted the usual notice of a claim, and went 
awa}' to make arrangements for opening his coal mine. 
During his absence Henry Roder,*^ who was looking 

"Robertson was bom in Norfolk, Va in 1809. At the age of 27 he began 
sea-going, and first came to S. F. in command of the bark Creole. He was 
afterward iu command of the brig Tarquina, which he owned, and which 
brought him to Puget Sound in 1852. Taking a claim on Whidbey Island, 
he continued to trade to S. F. until 1855, when he sent his vessel to the S. I. 
in charge of his first officer, who sold her and pocketed the proceeds. Rob- 
ertson lost §30,000 by this transaction, but had a competency remaining. He 
was first keeper of the light erected in 1860 on Admiralty Head, on the west 
coast of the island, /d., 30-1. 

'" Porter was inspector of spars at Port Ludlow some years later. He died 
in March 1880. 

s'Eoder was a native of Ohio, and came to Cal. in 1850. His partner, R. 
v. Peabody, and himself had the usual adventures iu the mines, narrowly 
escaping death at the hands of the famous Joaquin Murieta. After spending 
two years in mining and trading, Roder and Peabody went to Or. City to 
engage in sabnon-fishing, but were diverted from their purpose by the liigh 
price of lumber consequent upon the great fire in S. F., and determined to 
build a saw-mill. Visiting Puget Sound with this object in view, they were 
led by information obtained at Port Townsend to erect their mill at Belling- 
ham Bay, on a stream which dried up as soon as the winter rains were over, a 
misfortune which, added to a fall in the price of lumber, nearly ruined Roder 
and Peabody. These facts, with a general account of the histoi-y of the lower 
sound and Bellingham Bay, are obtained from Coder's BuHingham Bnii, MS., 
an excellent authority, and also from a well-written autograph Sketch by 
Edward Eldridge, who settled at the same time with Roder, Roder, 


for a place to establish a saw-mill, arrived from San 
Francisco on the schooner William Allen, with R. V. 
Peabody, Edward Eldridge,^^ H. C. Tage, and Wil- 
liam Utter, Henry Hewitt and William Brown. 
Roder, Peabody, and a millwright named Brown, 
whom they found at Olympia, formed the Whatcom 
Milling Company, taking the Indian name of the 
place where their mill was situated as a designation. 
Hewitt and William Brown, who were engaged in 
getting out logs for the mill, in the summer of 1853, 
discovered coal on the land adjoining Rattle's claim, 
and sold their discovery for $18,000, Roder and Pea- 
body having just abandoned this claim for one more 
heavily timbered.*^ About the same time came L. N. 
Collins, Alexander McLean, Mr Roberts, and Mr Lyle, 
with their families, wliich completes the catalogue of 
American settlers in this region in 1853. 

In the autumn of 1852, on account of devastating 
fires in California, and the great immigration of that 
year to Oregon, a milling fever possessed men of a 
speculative turn, and led to the erection of several 
saw-mills besides those at Seattle and Bellingham 
Bay. In March 1853 the Port Ludlow mill was 
erected by W. T. Sayward ^ on a claim taken up by 
J. K. Thorndike the previous year. It was followed 
the same season by the Port Gamble mill at the 

Eldridge, and Peabody still reside at Whatcom on Bellingham Bay. Roder 
married lilizabeth Austin of Oliio. 

8' Eldridge was a sea-faring man, and shipped at N. Y. for S. F., where he 
arrived in 1849, and went to the mines. Not making the expected fortune, 
he joined the P. M. Steamshiji Tennessee in 1850, but married and returned 
to mining, which he followed for a year, when on going to S. F. to take pas- 
sage to Australia he met Roder, a former acquaintance, and was persuaded to 
accompany him to Puget Sound. Mrs Eldridge was the first wliite woman 
in the Bellingham Bay settlement. Eldiidge has occupied some official posi- 
tions, and was a member of the constitutional convention of 1S78. 

'^ lu a chapter on minerals, I shall give this history more particularly. 

*• Sayward was a native of Maine. He came to Cal. via Mexico, arriving 
in the spring of 1849. The narrative of his business experience in 1849-51 
forms a story of unusual interest, which is contained in a manuscript by him- 
self called J'ioneer Remeniscencea, very little of which, however, relates to 
Washington. The mill which he built was leased in 1858 to Amos Phinney 
& Co., who subsequently purchased it. See also Sylvester's Olympia, MS., 21, 
and Wash. SUichts, MS., 42. 


entrance to Hood Canal, erected by the Puget Mill 
Company, the site being selected by A. J. Talbot. 
Almost simultaneously Port Madison and Port Blakely 
were taken up for mill sites, and somewhat earlier 
C. C. Terry and William H. Renton erected a mill 
at Alki, which was removed two or three years later 
to Port Orchard.'' 

From 1847 to 1853 there had been a steady if slow 
march of improvement in that portion of the terri- 
tory adjacent to the Columbia and Cowlitz rivers and 
the Pacific ocean. A few faniilies had settled on 
Lewis River, among whom was Columbia Lancaster, 
whom Governor Abernethy had appointed supreme 
judge of Oregon in 1847, vice Thornton, resigned, but 
who removed from Oregon City to the north side of 
the Columbia in 1849. In the extreme south-west 
corner of what is now Pacific county were settled in 
1848 John Edmunds, an American, James Scar- 
borough, an Englishman, John E. Pinknell, and a Cap- 
tain Johnson; nor does it appear that there were any 
other residents before the returning gold-miners — 
being detained now and tlien at Baker Bay, or com- 
ing by mistake into Shoalwater Bay — discovered the 
advantages which these places ofl'ered for business. 
William McCarty had a fishery and a good zinc house 
at Chinook in 1852; and Washington Hall was post- 
master at that place in the same year, and it is 
probable they settled there somewhat earlier. In 
1850, the fame of these places having begun to spread, 
Elijah White, who had returned to the Pacific coast, 
essaj^ed to build upon Baker Bay a town which he 
named Pacific City, but which enjoyed an existence''* 
of only a year or two. 

'^ Teskr'a Wash, Ter., MS., 4-5. Port Orchard was named after an officer 
of Vancouver's ship Discovery, May 24, 1792. See also Ellicott'sPunet Sound, 
MS.. 24. 

'^Lawson, in his Autohiaqraphy, MS., 35, gives some account of this 
enterprise. He says tliat White was the originator of it. ' I do not know,' 
he observes, 'whether he made any money out of the sclicme. but he did suc- 
ceed in making a number of dupes, among whom was James D. Holman.' 
HiaT.lVA8H.— 3 


That great expectations did attach to Pacific City 
was made apparent by a petition signed by A. A. 
Skinner and 250 others to have it made a port of 
entry and deliver3^*'^ 

About the same time that Pacific City was at its 
best, Charles J. W. Russell, who was engaged in trade 
there, settled on Shoalwater Bay, and turned his at- 
tention to taking oysters, with which the bay was 
found to be inhabited.' In 1851 Russell introduced 
Shoalwater Bay oysters into the San Francisco mar- 
ket, carrying them down by the mail-steamer. In 
the autumn Captain Fieldstead took a load of oysters 
to San Francisco, which arrived in a damaged condi- 
tion. Anthony Ludlum then fitted out the schooner 
Sea Serjient for Shoalwater Bay, which succeeded in 
saving a cargo, and a company was formed to carry on 
a trade in oysters, composed of Alexander Hanson, 
George G. Bartlett, Garrett Tyron, Mark Winant, 
John Morgan, and Frank Garretson, who purchased 
the schooner Rohert Bruce, after which the town of 
Bruceport was named,*- and entered into the business 
of supplying the California market. In the autumn 
of 1852, besides the above-named persons, there were 
at Shoalwater Bay Thomas Foster, Richard Hillyer, 
John W. Champ, Samuel Sweeny, Stephen Marshall, 

Holman had expended $28,000 in erecting and furnishing a hotel. White 
represented that there might be found at Paciiic City a park filled with deer, 
school-houses, handsome residences, and other attractions. A newspaper 
was to be started there by a Mr Shephard; a Mr Hopkins was engaged to 
teach in the imaginary school-house, and others victimized in a similar manner. 
Holman, who was the most severe sufferer, vacated the hotel and took a claim 
in the neighborhood, which the government subsequently reserved for military 
purposes. Twenty-nine years afterward Holman received |25,000 for his 
claim, and had land enough left to lay out a sea-side resort, which he called 
Ilwaco. -Sac. Transcript, June 29, 1850; Or. Spectator, Aug. 22, ISuO; U. S. 
Statutes at Large, xx. 604. Holman was born in Ky in 1S14, bred iu Tenn., 
and came to Or. in 1846. Aforse's IVash. Ter., MS., ii. 88-9. 

8'Oc. Statesman, April 4, 1850; S. F. Pacific News, Aug. 1, 1850; S. F. 
Courier, Sept. 21 and Oct. 2, 1850. 

**I take this account from an article published in the/S. F. Bulletin, where 
it is eaid the schooner was burned while lying at her landing, and the com- 
pany forced to go ashore, wliere they encamped on the south side of North 
Bay, and from being known as the Bruce company, gave that name to the 
place as it grew up. Evans' Hist. Mem., 21; Pac. li. Jl. Reports, i. 465. 


Charles W. Deuter, Richard J. Milward, A. E. St 
John, Walter Ljaide, and James G. Swan.** 

A transient company of five men were at the same 
time engaged in cutting a cargo of piles for San Fran- 
cisco, and during the autumn Joel L. Brown, Samuel 
Woodward, J. Henry Whitcomb, Charles Stuart, Joel 
and Mark Bullard, and Captain Jackson, of the immi- 
gration of that year, settled on the bay. Bi'own's 
party cut a wagon-road across the portage between 
Baker and Shoalwater bays. Brown intended erect- 
ing a trading-house and laying out a town, but died 
before he had fairly got to work,'"' at his house on the 
Palux River. Later in the same season Charles 
Stuart took a claim on the Willopah River; and 
David K. Weldon and family from San Francisco — - 
Mrs Weldon being the first white woman in this set- 
tlement — built a residence and trading-house at the 
mouth of the Necomanche or North River, besides 

*' Author of The North-west Coast, or Three Years' Residence in WoKhington 
Terr'Uori/, which, besides being an entertaining narrative, is a valuable au- 
thority on Indian customs and ethnology. Swan was born in Medford, Mass. , 
Jan. 11, 1818; a son of Samuel Swan, an East Indian trader, who was lost on 
Minot's ledge, Cohasset, Mass., in 1823, while on his homeward voyage from 
the west African coast with a cargo of palm-oil, ivory, and gold-dust, in the 
brig Hope Still of Boston. His maternal uncle, William Tufts, was super- 
cargo for Theodore Lyman of Boston, in the ship Guatimozin, in ISOG, and 
was wrecked on Seven Mile beach. New Jersey, on his return, Feb. 3, 1810. 
Stories of the Nootka, Neah Bay, and Chinook chiefs were familiar to him in 
his childhood, and his interest in the aboriginal inhabitants was greater than 
that of a casual observer, as his remarks are more happily descriptive or 
scientific. Ho left Boston in the winter of 1849, in the ship jiob Boy, Thomas 
Holt, arriving in S. F. in the spring of 1850, where he bought an interest in 
the steamboat Tehama, running to Marysville, acting as purser of the boat. 
He was concerned in other entei-prises with Farwell and Curtis, until becom- 
ing acquainted with 0. J. W. Russell, who invited him to make a visit to 
Shoalwater Bay, he determined to remain, and take a claim at the mouth of 
the Querquelin Creek, where he resided until 1856, when he went east and 
published his book, returning in 1859 to Port Townsend. In 1862 he was 
appointed teacher to the Makah Indians at Neah Bay, and filled that position 
for four years, when he again went east and published a second book on the 
Makah Indians, with a treatise on their language, which was issued as 
authoritative by the Smithsonian Institution in 1869, as was also another paper 
on the Haidah Indians of Queen Charlotte Island. In 1875 Swan was ap- 
pointed commissioner to collect articles of Indian manufacture for the national 
museum, which were exhibited at the great exposition of 1876 iu Philadelphia, 
besides having occupied many public places of more honor than profit. He 
was later a practising lawyer of Port Townsend. These facts, witli much more 
for which I have not space, I find in his autograph Sketches of Washington 
Territory, MS. , in my collection. 

<" Swan's N. iV. Coast, Gi. 


which he erected, in company with Greorge Watkins, 
the first saw-n:iill in this part of the territory in 
1852-3. Woodward settled on the Willopah River, ten 
miles from its mouth, being the first to locate on that 
stream. "'^ Whitcom was the second,^^ followed by- 
William Gushing, Gardiner Crocker, Soule, Christian, 
and Geisy. 

On the Boisfort prairie, previously settled by Pierre 
Chelle, a Canadian half-breed, C. F. White was the 
first American settler in 1852."^ From 1851 to 1853 
near Claquato settled H. N. Stearns, H. Buchanan, 
Albert Purcell, A. F. Tullis, L. A. Davis, Cyrus 
White, and Simeon Bush. 

In the winter of 1850-1 John Butler Chapman, 
from the south side of the Columbia, made a settle- 
ment on Graj' Harbor, and laid out the town of Che- 
halis City. But the undertaking languished, getting 
no further than the erection of one house, when Cliap- 
man, finding himself too remote from aftairs in wliich 
he was interested, removed to the Sound, and with his 
son, John M. Chapman, took a claim adjoining Balch 
at Steilacoom, and competed with him for the dis- 
tinction of founding a city at this point, his claim 
finally relapsing to the condition of a farm. In 1852 
J. L. Scammon, from Maine by way of California, set- 
tled several miles up the Chehalis from Gray Harbor, 
wlaere Montesano later was placed, with four others 

^^3torse's Wash. Tcr., MS., ii. 74; Swan's N. W. Coast, 05. 

'- J. H. Whitcom was bom in Vt in 1S24, removed to Ohio at the age of 
1.3 years, married in that state, and went to 111. in IS45, whence he came to 
Or. in 1847, and to Shoalwater Bay in 1852. Morse, who has expended much 
labor in searching out pioneer families, says that in 1854 S. P. Soule, S. A. 
Soule, E. Soule, Charles Soule, Christian, and Geisy settled in the vicinity 
of Shoalwater Bay. The Geisy families, of which there were two, were mem- 
bers of the communistic association of Pennsylvania farmers, who had emi- 
grated to Wisconsin ; but being dissatisfied, had sent this Geisy as agent to look 
out lands in Or. or Wash. He selected land on the Boisfort prairie, near Bul- 
lard, Crocker, and Woodward, and soon after brought out 40 families. The 
Geisy families, however, h.aving met with several losses by death from acci- 
dent and natural causes, and being unable to gain control of Woodward's 
landing on the river, which they desired for their community purposes, be- 
oame discouraged and left the country. 

" North Pacific. Coast, Jan. 15, 1880. 


who did not remain. In the two succeeding years 
the lesser ChehaHs Valley was settled up rapidly, 
connecting with the settlements on the upper Che- 
halis made at an earlier period by H. N". Stearns, H. 
Buchanan, Albert Purcell, A. F. TuUis, and L. A. 
Davis; and the Cowlitz Valley, which was also being 
settled, but more slowly. 

Jonathan Burbee, who removed to the mouth of the 
Cowlitz in 1848, was drowned on the Columbia bar 
in the winter of 1851-2, when a schooner which he 
had loaded with potatoes for California'* was lost; but 
his family remained. Next after him came, in 1849, 
H. D. Huntington, Nathaniel Stone, Seth Catlin, 
David Stone, James Redpath, James Porter, and R. 
C. Smith, the three first named having large families, 
now well-known in Oregon and Washington. Their 
claims extended from near the mouth of the Cowlitz 
on the west side for a distance of tw^o or three miles. 

The next settlement was at Cowlitz landing, made 
by E. D. Warbass,''^ in July 1850, when Warbassport 
was founded by laying off a town and opening a trading- 
house. About the same time a settlement was made 
on the north side of the Columbia at the lower cas- 
cades,by George Drew, who had a town surveyed called 
Cascade, where a trading-house was established by 
George L. and George W. Johnson, F. A. Chenoweth 
and T. B. Pierce. Contemporaneously, at the upper 
cascades, Daniel F. and Putnam Bradford, B. B. 
Bishop, Lawrence W. Coe, and others had settled, 

'* Swan says that Captain Johnson, John Dawson, and another man were 
drowned together while crossing the Columbia in a boat; that before this, 
McCarty was drowned while crossing the Wallacut River, returning from a 
visit to Johnson, and that Scarborough died before Johnson at his home. 
This was all previous to 1854. 

'=> Warbass was born in N. J. in 18"25, came to Cal. in 1849, where he was 
an auctioneer at Sac. , but his health failing there, he visited Or. , and ended by 
settling on the Cowlitz, though he explored the Snohomish and Snoqualimich 
rivers in 1851, and iu 1853 assisted Howard to explore for coal. He was post- 
master under postal agent Coe in that year, and continued to reside on the 
Cowlitz until 1855, when he volunteered as captain of a company to fight the 
Indians. He became a post sutler afterward at Bellingham Bay and San 
Juan Island, where he then resided, and was county auditor and member of 
the legislature from San Juan county. Morse's Wash. Ter., MS., ii. 54; Attn 
California, Nov. 2, 1852. 


and the Bradfords liad also established a place of 

These were the people, together with some who 
have yet to be mentioned, and others who may never 
be mentioned, who had spread themselves over the 
western portion of Washington previous to its organ- 
ization as a territory, concerning which I shall speak 

^Or. Spectator, Aug. 28, 1850; Cole's Ride, 319. _ 

" I h.ive gathered the following names of the pioneers of 1852 not men- 
tioned in the foregoing pages: Rev. Daniel Bagley, Rev. D. R. McMillan, R. 
M. Hathaway, Smith Hays, Logan Hays, Gilmore Hays, Stephen Hodgdon, 
Samuel Holmes, John Harvey, Richard B. Holbrook (married Sirs Sylvester, 
nie Lowe, of Maine), John Hogue, Levi L. Gates, Chac/es Graham, William 
H. Gillan and family, Daniel B. Fales, wife and children. Felt, Cortland 
Etheridge, W. B. Engle, Shirley Ensign, Joel Clayton, Joseph Cushman, Levi 
Douthitt, Frank P. Dugan, Gideon Bromfield, George A. Barnes and wife, 
Anna, Thomas Briggs, J. 0. Brown, John Buckley, James Allen, G. W. L. 
Allen, ^V. B. D. Newman, William Jarmin, Daniel Kaiser, A. W. Moore, 
John W. McAllister, Caleb Miller, Thomas Monroe, Stephen P. McDonald, 
Joseph Mace, William Metcalfe, Samuel McCaw, F. McNatt, Abner Martin, 
Asa W. Pierce, F. K. Perkins, James Riley, B. Ross and family, Daniel 
Stewart, Samuel D. Smith, David Shelton and wife, Christina, M. C. Sim- 
mons, James Taylor, Thomas Tallentire and family, Amos F. TuUis, J. K. 
Thomdyke, William TurubuU, J. S. Turner, John Vail, Charles Vail, D. K. 
Welden, H. R. Woodward, G. K. Willard, Benjamin Welcher, Lewis Welcher, 
William C. Webster and family, Samuel Woodward, John Walker, James R. 
Watson, B. F. Yantis, Judah Cliurch, from Pontiac, Michigan, died in 1853, 
aged 60 years. William Rutledge, who settled on Black River, near Lake 
Washington, was also an immigrant of 1852. He died June 1, 1872, aged 78 




Public Meetings— Settleks veesos the Pctoet Sound AcRicuLTtrRAL Com- 
pany—Representation IN 'jhe Oregon Legislatore— Movements 
TOWARD THE Foundation of the New Territory of Columbia — 
Memorial to Congress— If not a Territory, then a State— Queen 
Chaklotte Island Expedition — The Oregon Legislature Petition 
Congress for a Division of Territory — Congress Grants the Peti- 
TON — But Instead of Columbia, the New Territory is Called Wash- 
ington — Officers Appointed— Roads Constructed — Immigration. 

In the previous chapter I have made the reader ac- 
quainted with the earhest American residents of the 
territory north of the Columbia, and the methods by 
which they secured themselves homes and laid the 
foundations of fortunes by courage, hardihood, fore- 
sight, by making shingles, bricks, and cradling-ma- 
chines, by building mills, loading vessels with timber, 
laying out towns, establishing fisheries, exploring for 
coal, and mining for gold. But these were private 
enterprises concerning only individuals, or small groups 
of men at most, and I come now to consider them as 
a body politic, with relations to the government of 
Oregon and to the general government. 

The first public meeting recorded concerned claim- 
jumping, against which it was a protest, and was held 
in Lewis county, which then comprised all of the ter- 
ritory north of the Columbia and west of the Cascade 
Mountains not contained in Clarke county, and prob- 
ably at the house of John R. Jackson, June 11, 1847. 
The second was held at Tumwater November 5, 1848, 



and was called to express the sentiments of the Amer- 
ican settlers concerning the threatened encroachments 
of the Puget Sound Agricultural Association. "This 
fall," says an old settler, "the company conceived the 
design of making claim under the treaty for the 
immense tract called the Nisqually claim, lying south 
of the Nisqually River, and with that view drove a 
large herd of cattle across the river." The American 
residents, in a convention called to order by M. T. 
Simmons and presided over by William Packwood, 
passed a series of resolutions, a copy of which was pre- 
sented to W. F. Tolmie, the agent in charge of Fort 
Nisqually, by I. N. Ebey who had just arrived in the 
country, and Rabbeson, with the declaration that the 
Americans demanded the withdrawal of the Hud- 
son's Bay Company's herds to the north side of the 
Nisqually within one week from the day the notice 
was received. 

The preamble set forth that the herds of the com- 
pany would soon consume all the vegetation of the 
country ranged by them, to the detriment of the set- 
tlers on the south or west side of the river; and that, 
as these cattle were wild, if suffered to mix with do- 
mesticated cattle they would greatly demoralize them. 
It was thereupon resolved that the Hudson's Bay 
Company had placed obstacles in the way of the 
Americans who first designed settling oa Puget 
Sound — referring to the Simmons colony — using mis- 
representation and fraud to prevent them, and even 
threatening force; that they held the conduct of Tolmie 
censurable in endeavoring to prevent settlement by 
Americans on certain lands which he pretended were 
reserved by the terms of the treaty of 1846, although 
he knew they were not; that this assumption of right 
was only equalled by the baseness of the subterfuge 
by which the company was attempting to hold other 
large tracts by an apparent compliance with the 
organic land law of the territory — that is, by taking 
claims in the names of servants of the company who 


did not even know where to find the lands located in 
their names, but who were compelled to agree to con- 
vey these lands to the company when their title 
should have been completed. 

They declared that they as American citizens had 
a regard for treaty stipulations and national honor, 
and were jealous of any infringement of the laws of 
the country by persons who had no interest in the 
glory or prosperity of the government, but were for- 
eign-born and owed allegiance alone to Great Britain. 
They warned the company that it had never been the 
policy of the United States to grant pre-emption 
rights to other than American citizens, or those who 
had declared their intention to become such in a legal 
form, and that such would without doubt be the con- 
ditions of land grants in the expected donation law. 

They declared they viewed the claims and improve- 
ments made subsequent to the treaty by the Puget 
Sound Agricultural Company as giving them no 
rights; and as to their previous rights, they were only 
possessory, and the United States had never parted 
with the actual title to the lands occupied, but that 
any American citizen might appropriate the land to 
himself, with the improvements, and that the claims 
held by the servants of the company would not be 
respected unless the nominal settlers became settlers 
in fact and American citizens.^ 

Within the week allowed the company to withdraw 
their cattle from the Nisqually plains they had with- 
drawn them, and there was no trouble from that source. 
The threat implied in the resolutions, to sustain any 
American citizen in appropriating the lands claimed 
by the company and not by individuals who had re- 
nounced allegiance to Great Britain, together with the 
improvements, was carried out to the letter during the 

' Or. Spectator, Jan. 11, 1849. I. N. Ebey is said by Rabbeson to have 
draughted the resolutions, though Rabbeson was chairman of the committee, 
and S. B. Crockett the third member. He knew of the long feud between 
certain of his countrymen and the Hudson's Bay Company, and without know- 
ing the merits of the case on either side, was prepared in any event to be strongly 


following twelve years, their lands being covered with 
squatters, and the products of the Cowlitz farm taken 
away without leave or compensation/ not by the men 
who composed this meeting, but by others who adopted 
these views of the company's rights. 

The land laid claim to by the agricultural company, 
in their memorial to the joint commission provided 
for by the convention between the United States 
and Great Britain March 5, 1864, was "the tract of 

^George B. Roberts, in his Recollections, MS., S9, 91, 94-, spealis very feel- 
ingly of what he was compelled to suifer from 1S46 to ISji, by reason of his 
membership and agency of the company at the Cowlitz farm. ' The fortunes 
of the company were upon the fast ebb,' he says, 'and rather than go north, 
or elsewhere, I thought i had better settle as a farmer on the Newaukum. I 
made out very poorly as a settler, and when Stevens' war broke out, I left ray 
family and went for a short time as mail-guard, but was soon employed as a 
clerk to Gen. Miller, quartermaster-general of volunteers ... In the Fraser 
Eiver excitement of 1858, I went to Victoria and arranged with Tolmie, 
then agent of the P. S. A. A., to carry on the Cowlitz farm on a small scale 
for my own benefit; but I was to keep the buildings in repair and the farm 
at its then size until some action was had with the government. I took pos- 
session unopposed, and all went well until my hay was put up in cocks, when 
here came a lot of fellows, armed with rifles, and carried it all off. One of these 
squatters was the justice; so my lawyer, Elwood Evans, recommended chang- 
ing the venue. The jury decided that they knew nothing of treaties, and of 
course I had all the e.xpense to bear. The company said the crops were mine, 
and they would have nothing to do with it. Then followed the burning of a 
largo barn, etc., poor Kendall's letter and murder, then injunction and disso- 
lution, the loss of papers by the judge when the time of trial came, so as not 
to ijronounce, and so this matter went from 1859 to 1871. . .The judge was 
a federal appointee, and in theory independent, but liable to be unseated at 
any time and returned to the people whom he had offended... I could not 
with any grace relinquish the property entrusted to my care, to say nothing of 
the squatters rendering me too poor to leave. Whether the company from any 
sinister motives helped these troubles I know not. I leave to your imagina- 
tion the state I was kept in, and my family; sometimes my windows at night 
■were riddled with shot, my fences set open, and in dry weather set on fire. 
It was an immense effort to unseat me, and cheat the government of these 
lands, and all the clamor against the P. S. A. A. was for nothing else. . . 
The P. S. A. A. one year paid Pierce county $7,000 in taxes, but it is likely 
the company was astute enough to do so with the view of the record showing 
the value of their property at that time. In 1870 or 1871 Salucius Garfielde 
succeeded in getting donation claims for the "hardy pioneers." Well, I 
always thought a pioneer was a person who hewed out a farm, not one who 
violently took possession of a beautiful property that had been carefully, not 
to say scientifically, farmed for over thirty years.' This shows to what acts 
the sentiment adopted by the early settlers toward the Puget Sound Com- 
pany influenced rude and unscrupulous or ignorant and prejudiced men; and 
also the injustice inflicted upon individuals by the carrying-out of their views. 
For the previous biography of G. B. Roberts, see iJist. Or., i. 3S-9, this 
series. Ho finally settled at Cathlamet, where he kept a store, and lield the 
offices of probate judge, treasurer, and deputy auditor orVVahkiakum county. 
He died in the spring of 1883, and his wife, Rose Birnie, a year or two earlier. 
See note on p. Ill of vol ii., Iliiit. Or. 


land at Nisqually, extending along the shores of 
Puget Sound from the Nisqually River on one 
side to the Puyallup River on the other, and back 
to the Cascade Range, containing not less than 
261 square miles, or 107,040 acres," with "the land 
and farm at the Cowlitz consisting of 3,572 acres, 
more or less," * which they proposed to sell back to 
the United States together with the Hudson's Bay 
Company's lands, and the improvements and live-stock 
of both companies, for the sum of five million dollars. 
They received for such claims as were allo\yed $750,- 
000. That the sum paid for the blunder of the 
government in agreeing to confirm to these companies 
their claims without any definite boundary was no 
greater, was owing to the persistent effort of the 
settlers of Washington to diminish their possessions.* 
Another specimen of the temper of the early settlers 
was shown when the president and senate of the 
United States sent them a federal judge in the person 
of William Strong. They refused, as jurors, to be 
bidden by him, "in the manner of slave-driving," to 
repair to the house of John R. Jackson to hold court, 
when the county commissioners had fixed the county 
seat at Sidney S. Ford's claim on the Chehalis, at 
which place they held an indignation meeting in 
October 1851, M. T. Simmons in the chair.^ 

When the Hudson's Bay Company in 1845 made 
a compact with the provisional government of Oregon 
to give it their support on certain conditions, there 
existed no county organization north of the Columbia 
River, except as the counties or districts of Tualatin 
and Clackamas extended northward to the boundary 
of the Oregon territory, declared by the legislature 

'iVew Tacoma North Pacific Coast, June 15, 1880, 180. 

*At a meeting held at Steilacoom in May 1851, it i3 stated that Tolmie 
as the company's agent had diminished their claim to 144 square miles, after 
the passage of tlie land law, but that he was using every means to drive 
settlers off that tract, with what success I need not say. Or. Spectator, June 
5, 1851. 

*See Hist. Or., ii. 162, this series. 


of 1844 to be at the parallel of 54° 40', when, as no 
American citizens resided north of the Columbia at 
that time, no administration of colonial law had ever 
been necessary; but on the compact going into effect, 
and Americans settling in the region of Puget Sound, 
the district of Vancouver was created north of the 
Columbia, and officers appointed as follows: James 
Douglas, M. T. Simmons, and Charles Forrest dis- 
trict judges, and John R. Jackson sheriff." 

On the 19th of December 1845 the county of 
Lewis was created "out of all that territory lying 
north of the Columbia River and west of the Cowlitz, 
up to 54° and 40' north latitude," and was entitled to 
elect the same officers as other counties, except that 
the sheriff of Vancouver county was requii-ed to assess 
and collect the revenue for both districts for the year 
1846. No county officers were appointed, but the 
choice of judges and a representative was left to the 
people at the annual election in 1846, when W. F. 
Tolmie was chosen to represent in the legislature 
Lewis county, and Henry N. Peers ^ Vancouver 
county, while the privilege* of electing judges was 
not regarded. 

Dugald McTavish, Richard Covington, and Rich- 
ard Lane, all Hudson's Bay Company men, were ap- 
pointed judges of Vancouver district to fill vacancies, 
but no appointments were made in Lewis county. 
At the session of 1846 a change was made, requiring 
the people to elect their county judges or justices of 
the peace for the term of two years, at the annual 
election. Under this law, in 1847 Vancouver county 

•The legislature of Angust 1S45 established a bench of county judges to 
hold office one, two, and three years, and the same body in the following 
December made the three years' judge president of the district court of his 
district. Or. Laws, lS4.'?-9, 32-,3. Douglas was president of the district court 
of Vaucouver; Simmons held oiBce two years and Forrest one year. 

'Peers was a talented young man of the H. B. Co., a good versifier, and 
fair legislator. 

* This was simply a privilege granted by resolution of the legislature of 
1845, these officers being appointed by that body, and vacancies filled by tho 
governor until December 1846, when an act was passed providing for th8 
election of judges and other county officers. Or. Spectator, Jan. '21, 1847. 


elected Hichard Lane, R. R. Thompson, and John 
White, one man of the fur company and two Ameri- 
cans, justices of the peace, and Henry N. Peers rep- 
resentative; while Lewis county elected Jacob Wooley, 
S. B. Crockett, and John R. Jackson justices,' and 
Simon Plomondon, Canadian, for representative. 
Vancouver county elected William Bryan sheriff and 
assessor, Adolphus Lee Lewis treasurer, and R. 
Covington county clerk; Lewis county elected M. 
Brock assessor, James Birnie treasurer, and Alonzo 
M. Poe sheriff.^" Tlie vote of Lewis county at this 
election gave Abernethy the majority for governor, 
which he did not have south of the Columbia. 

In 1848 Lewis county was not represented, the 
member elect, Levi Lathrop Smith, whose biograph}- 
I give elsewhere, having been drowned; Vancouver 
county was represented by A. Lee Lewis. Little 
legislation of any kind was effected, on account of the 
absence of so large a part of the population in Cali- 
fornia. For the same reason, the only general news- 
paper in the territory, the Oregon Spectator, was 
suspended during several months of 1849, covering 
the important period of the erection of a territorial 
government under the laws of the United States by 
Joseph Lane, appointed governor of Oregon by Pres- 
ident Polk, and on its resuming publication it gave 
but briefly election and legislative news. From this 
meagre statement, it appears, however, that the ap- 
portionment of representatives under the new order 
of things allowed one joint member for each branch 
of the legislature for Lewis, Vancouver, and Clatsop 
counties, Samuel T. McKean of the latter in the 
council, and M. T. Simmons of Lewis in the lower 
house." The territory having been laid off into 

' Simmons must have acted as judge of Lewis county iirevious to this, 
though appointed for Vancouver, foi- the marriage of Daniel D. Kinsey and 
Ruth Brock was solemnized in July 1S47 t)y 'Judge' Simmons. Evans' Iliat, 
Notes, 9. 

•" Or. Spectator, July 22, 1847. 

"M, Oct. 18, 1849. 


three judicial districts, Lewis county being in the 
third, the first territorial legislature passed an act 
attaching it to the first district, in order that the 
judge of that district, Bryant, the other judges be- 
ing absent, might repair to Steilacoom and try the 
Snoqualimich who had shot two Americans at Nis- 
qually in the March previous, which was done, as I 
have full}^ related elsewhere;^' this being the first court 
of -which there is any record in Lewis county, and the 
first United States court north of the Columbia. 

The member from the north side of the Columbia 
■was absent from the long term held after the adjourn- 
ment in July; and as McKean was more interested 
in Clatsop than Lewis or Vancouver, the settlers of 
the latter counties felt themselves but poorly repre- 
sented, the most important act concerning their divis- 
ion of the territory being the change of name of Van- 
couver to Clarke county.'* In the following year they 
were in no better case, although they elected for the 
first time a full set of county officers. McKean was 
still their councilman, and another member from 
Clatsop their assemblyman, Truman P. Powers, a 
good and true man, but knowing nothing about the 
wants of any but his own immediate locality. How- 
ever, by dint of lobbying, a new county was created 
at this session out of the strip of country bordering 
on Shoal water Bay and the estuary of the Columbia; 
and in 1851 the three counties north of the river were 
able to elect a councilman, Columbia Lancaster, and 
a representative, D. F. Brownfield, in whom they put 
their trust as Americans. Alas, for human expecta- 
tions! Both of these men, instead of attending to the 
needs of their constituents, entered into a squabble 
over the location of the seat of government, and with 
idiotic obstinacy remained staring at empty benches 
in Oregon City with three other dunces for two 
weeks, when they returned to their homes. 

"Hist. Or., ii. 79-80, this series. 
"Ur. Jour. Council, 1849, 09. 


Now, the people south of the Columbia, whose rep- 
resentatives were ever on the alert to secure some 
benefits to their own districts, were not to be blamed 
for the state of affairs I have indicated in_the_ remote 
region of Puget Sound, or for not embodying in their 
frequent memorials to congress the wants and wishes, 
never properly expressed in the legislative assembly. 
But with that ready jealousy the people ever feel of 
the strong, they held the territorial legislature guilty 
of asking everything for the Willamette Valley and 
nothing for Puget Sound. This feeling prepared 
their minds for the development of a scheme for a new 
territory, which was first voiced by J. B. Chapman, 
a lawyer, the founder of Chehalis City," a trading 
politician and promoter of factions. He had lived in 
Oregon City or Portland, but conceived the idea of 
enlarging his field of operations, and in the winter of 
1850-1 explored north of the Columbia for a proper 
field. On the 17th of February, 1851, he wrote to 
A. A. Durham of Oswego, on the Willamette, that 
he found "the fairest and best portion of Oregon north 
of the Columbia," and that no doubt it must and would 
be a separate territory and state from that of the 
south. "The north," he said, "must be Columbia 
Territory and the south the State of Oregon. How 
poetical! — from Maine to Columbia; and how mean- 
ing of space !"^^ The letter was signed 'Carman and 
Chapman,' but no one ever heard of Carman, and 
Evans, who made special inquiry, thinks he was a 

Chehalis City being too remote, and wanting in 
population for the centre of Chapman's designs, he re- 
moved soon after to the Sound, where he attempted 
to establish Steilacoom City, adjoining the Port Steil- 
acoom of Balch, but failed to secure his object of sup- 

^* J. B. Ch.ipman also located a paper town on the upper Chehalis, which 
he- called Charleston, but which never had a real existence. Evans' Division 
of the Territory, 1., being a collection of printed matter on the subject, with 
notes by Elwood Evans. 

'^ Or. Spectator, April 10, 1851; Olympia Standard, April 28, 1868; Evans' 
Division of Terrilori). 


planting the latter. In politics he was nacre success- 
ful, because he contrived to assume the distinction of 
originating the idea which he had only borrowed from 
those who were nursing their wrath over wrongs, and 
of anticipating a contemplated movement by getting 
it into print over his signature. 

Tlie first real movement made in the direction of a 
new territory was on the 4th of July, 1851, when the 
Americans about the head of the Sound met at Olym- 
pia to celebrate the nation's birthday. Chapman, 
being, as he asserts, the only lawyer among them, was 
chosen orator of the occasion, and in his speech re- 
ferred to "the future state of Columbia" with an en- 
thusiasm which delighted his hearers. After the 
ceremonies of the day were over, a meeting was held 
for the purpose of organizing for the effort to procure 
a separate government for the country north of the 
Columbia, Claurick Crosby, the purchaser of the Turn- 
water property of M. T. Simmons, being chairman of 
the meeting, and A. M. Poe secretary. The meeting 
was addressed by I. N. Ebey, J. B. Chapman, C. 
Crosby, and H. A. Goldsborough.^^ A committee on 
resolutions was appointed, consisting of Ebey, Golds- 
borough, Wilson, Chapman, Simmons, Chambers, and 
Crockett. The committee recommended a convention 
of representatives from all the election precincts north 
of the Columbia, to be held at Cowlitz landing on the 
29th of August, the object of which was to "take into 
careful consideration the present peculiar position of 
the northern portion of the territory, its wants, the 
best method of supplying those wants, and the pro- 
priety of an early appeal to congress for a divisiou of 
the territory." 

" H. A. Goldsborough was a brother of Louis M. Goldsborough, com- 
mander of the Massachusetts, which waa in the Sound in the spring of 1850, 
making an examination of the shores with reference to military and naval 
reservations, and the security of commerce. H. A. GoUlsborough remained 
at Olympia when the Massachusetts left in July, and became a resident of the 
territory. He devoted much time to exploring for minerals, and discovered 
coal on the Stilaguamish River as early as the autumn of 1850. Or. Specta- 
tor, Nov. 14, 1850. He was the first collector of internal revenue iu Wash. 


To this motion the settlers on the Cowlitz made a 
quick response, holding a meeting on the 7th of July 
at the house of John R. Jackson, who was chairman, 
and E. D. Warbass secretary. At this meeting 
Chapman was present, and with Warbass and S. S. 
Ford reported resolutions favoring the object of the 
proposed convention. The committee of arrangements 
consisted of George Drew, W. L. Frazer, and E. D. 
Warbass, and the corresponding committee of J. B. 
Chapman and George B. Roberts. 

When the convention assembled on the day ap- 
pointed there were present twenty-six delegates.^'^ 
The business the convention accomplished was the 
memorializing of congress on the subject of division, 
the instruction of the Oregon delegate in conformity 
with this memorial, the petitioning of congress for a 
territorial road from some point on Puget Sound to 
Walla Walla, and a plank road from the Sound to the 
mouth of the Cowlitz, with suitable appropriations. 
It also asked that the benefits of the donation land 
law should be extended to the new territory in case 
their prayer for division should be granted. It de- 
fined the limits of twelve counties, substantially in 
the form in which they were established by the Ore- 
gon legislature; and having made so good a beginning, 
adjourned on the second day to the 3d of May follow- 
ing, to await the action of congress in the interim,^* 
when, if their prayer should have been refused, they 
were to proceed to form a state constitution and ask 

" From Monticello, near the mouth of the Cowlitz, Seth Catlin, Jonathan 
Burbee, Robert Huntress; from Cowlitz landing, E. D. Warbass, John R. 
Jackson, W. L. Frazer, Simon Plomondon; from Newaukura, S. S. Saunders, 
A. B. Dillenbaugh, Marcel Birnie, Sidney S. Ford, James Cochran, Joseph 
Borst; from Tumwater, M. T. Simmons, Ulanrick Crosby, Joseph Broshears, 
A. J. Simmons; from Olympia, A. M. Poe, D. S. Maynard, D. F. Brownfield; 
from Steilacoom, T. M. Chambers, John Bradley, J. B. Chapman, H. C. Wil- 
son, John Edgar, and F. S. Balch. Or. Statesman, Sept. 23, 1S51. 

'^The memorial was prepared by Chapman, Balch, and M. T. Simmons. 
The other committees were as follows: Territorial Government, Chapman, 
Jackson, Simmons, Huntress, and Chambers; Districts and Counties, Brown- 
field, Wilson, Crosby, Jackson, Burbee, Plomondon, Edgar, and Warbass; 
Rights and Privileges of Citizens, Huntress, Maynard, and Chapman; Internal 
Improvements, M. T. Simmons, Burbee, and Borst; Ways and Means, Frazer, 
A, J. Simmons, and Bradley. 


admission into the union! Such was the expression 
of the representatives ^' of Lewis county — for every 
precinct represented was in the county of Lewis, Pa- 
cific and Clarke counties having sent no delegates. 
The grievances suffered were in fact chiefl}^ felt in 
the region represented at the convention. 

Soon after the Cowlitz meeting occurred the con- 
flict of the jurymen of Lewis county, before referred 
to, with their first federal officer, Judge Strong. In 
accordance with an act of the legislature authorizing 
and requiring the county judges, any two of whom 
should constitute a board of county commissioners for 
the selection of a county seat, the place of holding 
court was fixed at S. S. Ford's claim on the Cheha- 
lis. But Judge Strong preferred holding court at 
Jackson's house, twenty miles nearer to the Cowlitz 
landing, sending a peremptory order to the jurymen 
to repair to Highlands, which they, resenting the im- 
periousness of the judge, refused to do, but held a 
public meeting and talked of impeachment. Chap- 
man, for purposes of his own, glossed over the offence 
given by Strong, both he and Brownfield, as well as 
Lancaster, siding with the federal officers against the 
people on the meeting of the legislature in December; 

"Chapman, in his autobiography in liivingston's Eminent AntcricanK, iv. 
436, says that, after much exertion, ' he obtained a convention of 15 members, 
but not one parliamentary gentleman among them, hence the whole business 
devolved upon him;' that he 'drew up all the resolutions' and the memorial, 
though other members offered them in their own names, and so contrived that 
every name should appear in the proceedings, to give the appearance of a 
large convention; and that neither of the men on the committee with him 
could write his name. Autobiographies should be confirmed by two cred- 
ible witnesses. In this instance Chapman has made use of the circumstance 
of Simmons' want of education to grossly misrepresent the intelligence of the 
community of which such men as Ebey, whose private correspondence in my 
possession shows him to be a man of refined feelings, Goldsborough, Catlin, 
Warbass, Balch, Crosby, Wilson, and others were members. As to Simmons, 
although his want of scholarship was an impediment and a mortification, he 
possessed the real qualities of a leader, which Chapman lacked; for the latter 
was never able to achieve either popularity or position, though he strove hard 
for botli. The census of 1850 for Lewis county gives the total white population 
at 457, only six of whom, over twenty years of age, were not able to write. 
It is probable that not more than one out of the six was sent to the conven- 
tion, and he was appointed on account of his brain-power and consequent in- 


and the affairs of the whole trans-Columbia region, 
not attended to by J. A. Anderson of Clatsop and 
Pacific counties, were suffered to pass without notice.'^" 

This, however, Anderson did for them: he pre- 
sented a petition from J. B. Chapman and fiftj'-five 
others for the establishment of a new county, to be 
called Simmons, and the readjustment of the eastern 
boundary of Lewis county. The boundary of the 
new county was defined as described by the commit- 
tee on counties of the August convention, but the 
council amended the house bill by substituting Thurs- 
ton for Simmons; and the limits of Lewis on the east 
were removed fifteen miles east of the junction of the 
forks of the Cowlitz, running due north to the south- 
ern boundary of Thurston county. 

In joint convention of both branches of the legis- 
lature, I. N. Ebey was elected prosecuting attorney 
for the third judicial district, receiving fourteen votes, 
and the ubiquitous Chapman two.^^ Ebey being pop- 
ular, energetic, and devoted to the interests of his 
section, much comfort was derived from this legisla- 
tive appointment. Meantime congress took no notice 
apparently of the memorial forwarded by the conven- 
tion of August, nor did the citizens north of the Co- 
lumbia assemble in May to frame a state constitution 
as they had threatened, yet as they could not seriously 
have contemplated. But as a means to a desired end, 
The Columbian, a weekly newspaper, was established 
at Olympia,-^ which issued its first number on the 11th 
of September, 1852; and was untiring in its advocacy 
of an independent organization. It was wisely sug- 

'" Evans says, in his Division of the Territory, 5, that when he came to 
Puget Sound J. B. Chapman was extremely unpopular, and he doubts if, 
anxious as the people were for an organization north of the Columbia, they 
would have accepted it with Chapman as an appointee, which he was aiming 
at. He did not get an appointment, as he confesses in his AiUobiociraphy. 

■" The first judges of Thurston county were A. A. Denny, S. S. Ford, and 
David Shelton. Otymjna Columbian, Nov. C, ISol. See also Or. Jour. Vcuu- 
cil, 1S51-2, 68. 

■" Thf Columbian was published by J. W. Wiley and T. F. McEU;oy, the 
latter having been connected witli the Spectator. McElroy retired in Sep- 
tember 1853, and M. K. Smith became publisher. 


that, as many influential citizens would be as- 
sembled at the house of J. R. Jackson on the 25th 
of October to attend the sitting of the court, the op- 
portunity should be seized to make arrangements 
for another convention, a hint which was adopted. 
On the 27th of September a meeting was held, 
and a general convention planned for the 25th of Oc- 
tober, at Monticello. It was considered certain that 
all the inhabitants about Puget Sound would vote for 
a separate organization, but not quite so evident that 
those living upon the Columbia, and accustomed to 
act with the people south of it, would do so. By 
holding the convention at Monticello, it was hoped to 
influence the doubtful in the direction of their wishes. 
At the time appointed, the delegates assembled 
and organized by electing G. N. McConaha president 
and R. J. White secretary. After an address b}* the 
president, a committee of thirteen ^^ was selected to 
frame another memorial to congress, which contained 
the following arguments: It was desired to have or- 
ganized a separate territory, bounded on the south and 
east by the Columbia; and for these reasons: the teni- 
tory was too large ever to be embraced within the lim- 
its of one state, containing as it did 341,000 square miles, 
with 640 miles of sea-coast, while the proposed terri- 
tory would embrace about 32,000 square miles, that 
being believed to be of fair and just extent. Those 
portions of the undivided territory lying north and 
south of the Columbia must, from their geographical 
positions, become rivals in commerce. The southern 
portion, having now the greatest number of voters, 
controls legislation, from which fact it was evident 
that northern Oregon received no benefit from con- 
gressional appropriations, which were subject to the 
disposition of the legislature. The seat of govern- 
ment was, by the nearest practicable route, 500 miles 
from a large portion of the citizens of the territory. 

''Quincy A. Brooks, D. S. Maynard, William W. Plumb, Alfred Cook, J. 
R. Jac'ison, E. L. Finch, A. F. Scott, F. A. CI:. Ue, V. S. llatlmway, E. A. 
Allen, E. H. Winslow, SetU Catlin, and N. Stone constituted the committee. 


A majority of the legislation of the south was opposed 
to the interests of the north. Northern Oregon pos- 
sessed great natural resources and an already large 
population, which would be greatly increased could 
they secure the fostering care of congress. Where- 
fore they humbly petitioned for the early organization 
of a territory, to be called the Territory of Columbia, 
north and west of the Columbia River, as described. 
Then followed forty-four names of the most influen- 
tial citizens of Lewis and Thurston counties.^* 

As before, the convention appointed a meeting for 
May, and adjourned; the memorial was forwarded to 
Lane, and the proceedings were made as public as the 
Oregon newspapers could make them. 

But matters were already slowly mending north of 
the Columbia. There had been some valuable acces- 
sions to the population, as the reader of the previous 
chapter is aware; a good many vessels were coming 
to the Sound for timber,-' which gave employment 
to men without capital, and brought money into the 
country, and the influence of United States laws were 

"G. N. McCouaha, Seth Catlin, R. J. White, J. N. Law, Q. A. Brooks, 
C. C. Terry, C. S. Hathaway, A. J. Simmons, E. H. VVinslow, S. PlomonJon, 
A. Cook, H. A. Goldsborough, A. F. Scott, G. Drew, W. N. Bell, M. T. Sim- 
mons, A. A. Denny, H. C. Wilson, L. M. Collins, L. B. Hastings, G. B. 
Roberts, S. S. Ford, Sen., N. Stone, B. C. Armstrong, L. H. Davis, J. Fowler, 
C. H. Hale, A. Crawford, S. D. Rundell, H. D. Huntington, E. J. Allen, W. 
A. L. McCorkle, A. B. Dillenbaugh, N. Ostrander, J. R. Jackson, C. F. Por- 
ter, D. S. Maynard, E. L. Finch, F. A. Clarke, H. Miles, Wm W. Plumb, P. 
W. Crawford, A. Wylie, S. P. Moses. Comr]. Globe, 1832-3, 541; Columbian, 
Deo. 11, 1852; Or. Statesman, Jan. 1, 1853; Olympia Standard, May 9, 1SG8. 

^^ No list of vessels was kept previous to ^ho arrival of a collector in Nov. 
1851; but between the 15th of that month and the last of June following 
there were 38 arrivals and departures from Olympia, as follows: Bi'igs, 
Georije Emory, Orbit, G. IF. Kendall, John Davis, Franklin Adams, Daniel, 
Leonesa, Jane, Ear/le; brigantine, Mary Dare; schooners. Exact, Demaris 
Cove, Susan Sturges, Alice, Eranldin, Mary Taylor, Cynosure, Honolulu Packet, 
Mexican, Cecil; bark, Brontes; steamer, Beaver. The memoranda made by 
the collector was as follows: Brigantine Mary Dare and steamer Beaver seized 
for infractions of the U. S. revenue laws. U. S. sloop of war Vincennes, ^y. L. 
Hudson commander, visited the Sound, obtained supplies and exercised her 
batteries. Sloop Georgiana wrecked on Queen Charlotte Island, her passen- 
gers and crew taken prisoners by the Indians. Schooner Demaris Cove 
promptly sent to their relief by the "collector. Schooner Harriet, from the Co- 
lumbia, bound to S. F. with passengers and freight, blown to about lat. 55°, 
lost sails, etc.; came into port in distress. Brig Una totally wrecked at 
Cape Flattery. Olympia Columbian, Sept. 11, 1852. 


beginning to be felt in the presence of a customs office 
as well as a district court. In May 1851 President 
Fillmore commissioned Simpson P. Moses of Ohio col- 
lector of customs, and W. W. Miller of Illinois surveyor 
of the port of Nisqually, on Puget Sound. These offi- 
cials arrived in the months of October and November, 
Miller overland and Moses by the Nicaragua route, 
then newly opened.^^ With the latter came the family 
of the collector, two unmarried women named Relyea,'^'^ 
A. B. ]\Ioses, brother of the collector, and Deputy Col- 
lector Elwood Evans, who later became so well known 
in connection with the history of Washington and its 
preservation in a written form.^^ There came also, as 
passengers from San Francisco, Theodore Dubosq, J. 
M. Bachelder and family, and John Hamilton. ^^ 

I have already in a previous volume related with 
what ardor Collector Moses adopted the anti-Hudson's 
Bay Company tone of the early settlers, and how he 
brought the government into debt many thousand 
dollars by seizures of British vessels ^° after the re- 
moval of the port of entry to Olympia. The seizure 
of the Beaver and the Mary Dare'^^ occurred about 

''' Evans says the collector sailed from N. Y. August }4th in the steamship 
Prometheus, which connected with the Independence at San Juan del Sur, ar- 
riving at S. F. Sept. 17th. The remainder of the voyage to Puget Sound was 
pel-formed in the brig George Emory, owned by Lafayette Balch of Port Steil- 
acoom, which left Oct. '24th, and arrived off Port Townseud Nov. 10th, where 
the collector and his deputy were SM'orn in by Henry C. Wilson, justice of 
the peace of Lewis county. Notes on Sctllemenl , 15; iV. W. Coast, MS., 1. 

-' Louisa Relyea married Frederick Myers, and her sister John Bradley, 
Evans' Notes on Settlement, 16. 

'^ Evans was born in Philadelphia, Dec. 29, 1828. Wishing to come to 
the Pacific coast, he was tendered the appointment of deputy clerk to the col- 
lector of Puget Sound, and accepted. He returned to Philadelphia in 18j2, 
and came out again in 185.S as private secretary to Gov. Stevens. From that 
time he carefully observed and noted the progress of events, in which he took 
no insignificant personal interest. By profession a lawyer, he residcil at Olym- 
pia from 1851 to 1879, when he removed to New Tacoma. He married Elzira 
Z. Gove of Olympia, formei'Iy of Bath, Maine, on the 1st of January, 1856. 

^ Hamilton was a brother-in-law of Bachelder. He was drowned March 
27, 1854, on the ill-fated e.\pedition of Major Lamed, U. S. A. Evans' Notes 
on Settlement, 16. 

'" Hist. Or., ii. 105-8, this series. 

" Moses appointed I. N. Ebey and A. J. Simmons tempor.ary inspectors, 
and on the 1st of December directed Ebey to make a strict examination, which 
resulted in finding $500 worth of Indian goods on board the Heaver, and on 
the Mary Dare a contraband package of refined sugar weighing 230 pounds. 
By the 103d section of the act of March 2, 1799, refined sugar could not be 


the last of November, and on the 20th of January a 
special term of court was held at Olympia to try these 
oases, this being the first term of the federal court in 
Tliurston county, Judge Strong presiding, Simon B. 
Mayre of Portland being attorney for the Hudson's 
Bay Company, and David Logan of the same place 
acting for the United States district attorney, Ebey, 
in these cases. Quincy A. Brooks acted as clerk of the 
court, and A. M. Poe as deputy marshal. At this 
term were admitted to practice Brooks, S. P. Moses, 
Ebey, and Evans. 

Evans describes, in a journal kept by him at that 
time, and incorporated in his Historical Notes on 
Settlement, the appearance of Olympia in the winter 
of 1851-2. There were "about a dozen one-story 
frame cabins of primitive architecture, covered with 
split-cedar siding, well ventilated, but healthy. There 
were about twice that number of Indian huts a short 
distance from the custom-house, which was in the 
second story of Simmons' building, before described, 
on the first floor of which was his store, with a small 
room partitioned off for a post-office." 

It was during the month of November that the 
Exact arrived at Olympia with the gold-seekers for 
Queen Charlotte Island, after leaving the Alki Point 
settlers. The Exact brought, as settlers to Olympia, 
Daniel B. Bigelow, a lawyer and a Massachusetts 
man who crossed the continent that summer. His 
first case was a suit between Crosby and M. T. 
Simmons, growing out of a question of title to the 
Tumwater claim, Bigelow representing Simmons and 
J. B. Chapman being Crosby's attorney. James 
Hughes and family also arrived by the Exact. 

The rumor which led the Portland company to 
charter this vessel to take them to Queen Charlotte 

imported in packages of less than 600 pounds, under penalty of forfeiture of 
the sugar and the vessel in which it was imported. It was also shown that 
the Beaver had anchored at Nisqually and sent boats ashore. These were the 
infractions of the revenue law on which the seizures were made. 


Island was first brought to Puget Sound by one 
McEwen, mate of the sloop Georgiana from Australia. 
McEwen exhibited gold in chunks which had been 
chiselled out of quartz- veins in rock on the island, and 
created thereby such an excitement that a company 
was immediately raised to visit the new gold region, 
Goldsborough at the head. On the 3d of November 
the adventurers sailed from Olympia in the Georgiana, 
with tools and provisions, and arrived on the 18th in 
the harbor on the east side of the island, called Kom- 
shewah by the natives, though their true destination 
was Gold Harbor on the west side. On the following 
day the sloop was blown ashore and Avrecked, when 
the Haidahs, a numerous and cruel tribe, plundered 
the vessel, took the company prisoners, and reduced 
them to slavery. Their final fate would probably 
have been death by starvation and ill treatment, but 
for a fortunate incident of their voyage. 

On coming opposite Cape Flattery, the sloop was 
boarded by Captain Balch of the Demaris Cove, who 
on learning her destination promised to follow as soon 
as he should have met the George Emory, then due, 
with the collector of Puget Sound on board. In 
pursuance of this engagement, the Demaris Cove ran 
up to the island in December, where she learned from 
the Indians of the wreck of the Georgiana, and being 
in danger from the natives, Balch at once returned to 
the Sound to procure arms and goods for the ransom 
of the prisoners. 

On hearing what had happened. Collector Moses, 
after conferring with the army officers at Fort Steil- 
acoom, chartered the Demaris Cove and despatched 
her December 19th for Queen Charlotte Island, Lieu- 
tenant John Dement of the 1st artillery, with a few 
soldiers, A. B. Moses, Dubosq, Poe, Sylvester, and 
other volunteers, accompanying Captain Balch. On 
the 31st the schooner returned with the ransomed 
captives, to the great joy of their friends, who held a 
public meeting to express their satisfaction, giving 


unstinted praise to the collector for his prompt action 
in the matter."'^ 

'- The details of the Georgiana affair are interesting and dramatic. The 
Indians took possession of every article that could be saved from the vessel, 
which they then burned for the iron. They swooped down upon the shivering 
and half-drowned white men as fast as they came ashore through the surf — 
some able to help themselves, and others unconscious, but all finally surviv- 
ing — to strip them of their only possessions, their scanty clothing. This last 
injury, however, was averted on making the chief understand that he should 
be paid a ransom if their safety and comfort were secured until such time as 
rescue came. They escaped the worst slavery by aflfecting to be chiefs and 
ignorant of labor. Their sufferings from cold and the want of bedding, etc., 
were extreme, and their captivity lasted 54 days. The pay deiiiauded for 
each person was 5 four-point blankets, 1 shirt, 1 bolt of muslin, and 2 pounds 
of tobacco, besides all the [lunder of the vessel. S. D. Howe and three others 
were permitted by the savages take a canoe and go to Fort Simpson for relief, 
but their efforts were a partial failure. 

The names of the rescued captives were, of the vessel's crew, William Row- 
land, captain: Duncan McEwen, mate; Benjamin and Richard Gibbs, sailors; 
Tamaree, an Hawaiian cook; passengers, Asher Sargent, E. N. Sargent, Sam- 
uel D. Howe, Ambrose Jewell, Charles Weed, Daniel Show, Samuel H. Wil- 
liams, James McAllister, John Thornton, Charles Hendricks, George A. Paige, 
John Remley, Jesse Ferguson, Ignatius Colvin, James K. Hurd, William Ma- 
hard, Solomon S. Gideon, George Moore, B. F. McDonald, Sidney S. Ford, 
Jr, Isaac M. Browne, and Mr. Seidner. I find, besides the reports made at 
the time by S. D. Howe, George Moore, Capt. Rowland, and subsequently by 
Charles E. Weed, an account by the latter among my manuscripts, under the 
title of Weed's Charlotte Island Expedition, from all of which I have drawn 
the chief facts. Weed was 27 years of age, a native of Ct, and had just come 
to Olympia by way of the Willamette from Cal. George A. Paige, a native 
of N. H., had served in the Mexican war, and had been but a short time in 
Or. He remained on the Sound, serving in the Indian wars, and receiving an 
appointment as Indian agent at Port Madison. He died at Fort Colville in 
1868. See references to the Geonjiana affair, in Or. Slafeswan, Feb. 15 and 24, 
and March 9, 1852; Or. Spectator, Jan. 27, 1852; JS^ew Taconia Ledger, July 
9, 1880. 

While the Olympia gold -seekers were experiencing so great ill fortune, the 
Exacl's company, which left the Sound somewhat later, succeeded in landing, 
and spent the winter exploring the island, which they found to be a rocky 
formation, not susceptible in the higher parts of being cultivated, though the 
natives at Gold Harbor raised excellent potatoes and turnips. The climate 
■was severe, and no gold was found except in quartz veins, which required 
blasting. The Indians had some lumps of pure gold and fine specimens of 
quartz stolen from a blast made by the crew of the H. B. Co. 's brigantine Una 
a short time previous. This vessel was stranded on Cape Flattery, Dec. 26th, 
the passengers getting ashore with their baggage, when they were attacked 
by the Indians, who would have killed them to get possession of their goods 
had they not fled, leaving everything in the hands of the savages, who burned 
the vessel. The crew and passengers, among whom were three women, were 
so fortunate as to signal the Demnris Cove on her way to rescue the Olympia 
company, which took them on board and carried them to Fort Victoria. The 
Indians of Gold Harbor, though they did not prevent the Exacts company 
from prospecting, represented that they had sold the island to the H. B. Co., 
and were to defend it from occupation by Americans. The prospectors re- 
remained until March, when they returned to Puget Sound, bringing a few- 
specimens obtained from the natives. The Exact refitted and returned in 
March. Three other vessels, the 2V;)fc, Glencoe, and Vancouver, advertised 
to take passengers to the island, but uothmg like success followed the expedi- 


But if the persons concemed approved of the action 
of the collector, the government did not, and refused 
to, pay the expenses of the rescue, which Moses in 
a letter to Secretary Corwin of the treasury as- 
sumed that it would do; and the collector of Puget 
Sound was reminded somewhat sharply that it was 
not his business to fit out military expeditions at the 
expense of the United States, the first cost of which 
in this case was seven or eight thousand dollars.^* 
But congress, when memorialized by the legislature 
of Washington at its first session, did appropriate 
fifteen thousand dollars, out of which to pay the claims 
of Captain Balch and others, as in justice it was 
bound to do. Had the collector waited for the gov- 
ernor to act, another month would necessarily have 
been consumed, during which the captives might have 

On the meeting of the Oregon legislature, ten days 

tions. According to the 5. F. Alia of April 1, 1859, a nugget weighing §250 
was obtained from the natives by the captain of the H. B. Co.'s str Labou- 
chere. The Indians refused to reveal the location of the gold mine, but offered 
to procure more of it for sale; and it is certain that the company did buy a 
large amount of gold from them about this time. A third vessel, the brig 
Eagle, was fitted out at Portland for prosecuting gold discovery on the nortli 
coast, and for trading with the Indians. On the 9th of August, while attempt- 
ing to enter a harbor on V. I., the brig was wrecked, the crew and passengers 
reacliing the shore with only a few articles of food and clothing. No sooner 
had they landed than they were stripped and their lives threatened. On the 
lUh the party contrived to escape in a whale-boat, coasting along the island 
for live days, subsisting on shell-tish, being treated barbarously by the natives, 
who attacked them in Nootka Sound, taking two of them prisoners. The re- 
mainder of the company escaped to sea and were picked up by a trading ves- 
sel soou after. On board the rescuing vessel were some friendly Indians, who 
volunteered to undertake the ransom of the captives, which they succeeded 
in doing, and all arrived safely in Puget Sound in Sept. Olympia Columhian, 
Sept. 11, 1852. Report of Ind. Agent Starling, in U. S. Sen. Ex. Doc, 1, v. i. 
pt i. 464, 32d cong. 2d sess. Some of the gold-seekers being left on Queen 
Charlotte Island, wishing to return home, and not having a vessel to bring 
them, four men set out in an open boat, 14 feet long by 4J wide, carrying one 
small sail, and neither chart nor compass. After many dangers from the sea 
and savages, they reached Whidbey Island in an exliausted condition, after 
Ijeing 15 days at sea. Their names were Ellis Barnes, .James C. Hedges, 
Clement W. Snmner, and Thomas Tobias. The Indians of the northwest 
coast were at tliis time, and for a number of years later, troublesome to the 
daring pioneers of the northern coast. During the summer of 1852 the north- 
ern Indians committed depredations on the schr Franklin, Capt. Pinkham, 
and at difl'crcnt times many murders on Puget Sound. Olympia Columbian, 
Sept. 18, 1 852. 

S3 For the papers in the case, see Jlouxe Ex. Doc, 130. 32d cong. 1st sess. 


after the Cowlitz convention, Lancaster, the council- 
man whose term held over, did not appear to take his 
seat, but resigned his office at so late a moment, that 
although an election was held, Seth Catlin being 
chosen against A. A. Denny, it was too late to be of 
use to the region he represented; but F. A. Chen- 
oweth and I. N. Ebey being members of the lower 
house in addition to Anderson of Clatsop and Pacific, 
there was a perceptible change from the neglect of 
former legislatures, and it is probable, if no action had 
been taken looking to a separate territory, that the 
Puget Sound country would have obtained recogni- 
tion in the future. But the Oregon legislators were 
not averse to the division, the counties south of the 
Columbia having, as the northern counties alleged, 
diverse commercial interests, and being at too great a 
distance from each otlier to be much in sympathy. 
But the legislature adopted without demur a reso- 
lution of Ebey's that congress should appropriate 
thirty thousand dollars to construct a military road 
from Steilacoom to Walla Walla. Four new counties 
were established, Jefferson, King. Pierce, and Island. 
Two joint representatives were allowed, one for Island 
and Jefferson, and one for King and Pierce. Pacific 
county was also separated from Clatsop for judicial 
purposes, and the judge of the 3d district required to 
hold two terms of court annually in the former.^* 

On the 10th of January Chenoweth introduced a 
resolution in the house in regard to organizing a ter- 
ritory north of the Columbia. On the 14th Ebey 
reported a memorial to congress as a substitute for 

"The county seat of Jefferson was fixed at Port Townsend ; of King at 
Seattle; and Olympia was made the county seat of Thurston. The commis- 
sioners appointed for Jefferson co., to serve until their successors were 
elected, were L. B. Hastings, D. F. Browufield, and Albert Briggs; H. C. 
Wilson sheriff, and A. A. Plummer probate clerk. For Island co., Samuel 
B. Howe, John Alexander, and John Crockett; George W. L. Allen sheriff, 
and R. H. Lansdale probate clerk. For King eo., A. A. Denny, John N. 
Lowe, and Luther N. Collins; David C. Boren sheriff, and H. D. Yesler pro- 
bate clerk. For Pierce co., Thos M. Chambers, William Dougherty, 
Alexander Smith; John Bradley sheriff, and John M. Chapman probate 
clerk. Or. State>mian, Jan. 22, 185."?; Columbian, Jan. 29 and Feb. 19, 1853j 
iiorth Pacific Coast, vol. i., no. 1, p. 16. 


the resolution, which he asked the assembly to adopt, 
and which passed without opposition or amendment, 
the only question raised in connection with the sub- 
ject being the division by an east and west line, 
some members contending that Oregon should include 
Puget Sound and all the country west of the Cas- 
cade Mountains, while the country east of that range 
should form a new territory — an opinion long held by 
a minority in view of the admission of Washington 
as a state. Such a division at that time would have 
made Portland the capital.'® 

But Lane had not waited to hear from the Oregon 
legislative assembly concerning the division of the 
territory. Immediately on receiving the memorial 

'^ Oli/mpia Columbian, May 9, 1SG8. The memorial was as follows: 'Your 
memorialists, the legislative assembly of Oregon, legally assembled upon the 
first Monday in December, A. D. 18o2, would respectfully represent unto your 
honorable body that a period of four years and six months has elapsed since 
the establishment of the present territorial government over the territory of 
Oregon; and that in the mean time the population of the said territory has 
spread from the banks of the Columbia River north along Puget Sound, Ad- 
miralty Inlet, and Possession Sound, and the surrounding country to the 
Canal de Haro; and that the people of that territory labor under great incon- 
venience and hardship by reason of the great distance to which they are re- 
moved from the centreof the present territorial organization. Those portionsof 
Oregon territory lying north and south of the Columbia River must, from their 
geographical position, difierence in climate, and internal resources, remain in 
a great degree distinct communities, with different interests and policies in 
all that appertains to their domestic legislation, and the various interests that 
are to be regulated, nourished, and cherished by it. Tlie communication be- 
tween these two portions of the territory is difficult, casual, and uncertain. 
Although time and improvement would in some measure remove this obstacle, 
yet it would for a long period in the future fonn a serious barrier to the pros- 
perity and well-being of each, so long as they remain under one government. 
The territory north of the Columbia, and west of the great northern branch 
of that stream, contains a sufficient number of square miles to form a State, 

which iu point of resources and capacity to maintain a population will com- 
pare favorably with most of the states of the union. Experience has proven 
that when marlied geographical boundaries which have been traced by the 
hand of nature have been disregarded in the formation of local governments, 
that sectional jealousies and local strifes have seriously embarrassed their pros- 
perity and characterized their domestic legislation. Yourmemorialists, forthese 
reasons, and for the benefit of Oregon both north and south of the Columbia 
River, and believing from the reservation of power in the first section of the 
organic act that congress then anticipated that at some future time it would be 
necessary to establish other territorial organizations west of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, and believing that that time has come, would respectfully pray your 
honorable body to establish a separate territorial government for all that por- 
tion of Oregon territory lying north of the Columbia River and west of the 
great northern branch of the same, to be known as tlie Territory of Columbia.' 
Or. Statesman, Jan. 29, 1803; Columbian, Feb. 1-2, 1853. 


cf the Monticello convention, which was about the 
beginning of the second session of the thirty-second 
congress, he presented it in the house by a resolution 
requesting the committee on territories to inquire into 
the expediency of dividing Oregon, and framing a new 
territory north of the Cohiuibia, by the name of Co- 
kuubia Territory, which resolution was adopted. On 
the 8th of February, 1853, the house proceeded to the 
consideration of the bill prepared by the committee. 
The bill did not confine the new territory to the lim- 
its described in the memorial, but continued the line 
of partition from a point near Fort Walla Walla, along 
the 46th parallel, to the Rocky Mountains, making a 
nearly equal division of the whole of Oregon. The 
arguments used by Lane in favor of the bill were the 
same as those given in the memorial, with the addi- 
tion of some explanations and statements more effect- 
ive than veracious, but which may have been necessary 
to success; as, for instance, the statement that the pop- 
ulation of the proposed territory was as great as that 
of the whole of Oregon at the time of its organization 
into a territory ,^^ whereas it was about one third. 

Stanton of Kentucky moved to substitute the 
name of Washington for that of Columbia, to which 
Lane agreed, notwithstanding it was an ill-advised 
change. The vote of the house was taken on the 
10th, the bill passing by a majority of 128 to 29. 
The senate passed it on the 2d of March without 
amendment, the president signing it the same day.^'^ 
Thus painlessly was severed from the real Oregon 
that northern portion over which statesmen and pio- 
neers had at one time so hotly contended with Great 

Information of this act did not reach those inter- 
ested until near the last of April. About the middle 
of May it became known that I. I. Stevens of An- 

'^The census of Washington, taken in 1853, and finished in Nov., fixed 
the wliite population at 3,005. Swim's N. W. Coast, 491. 

^^ House Jour., 8, 210, .S2d cong 2dsess.: Coiiq. G'obe, vol. 26,555, 1020, 
32d cong. 2d sess. ; Olympia Columbian, April 23, 1853. 


dover, Massachusetts, had been appointed governor, 
Edward Lander of Indiana chief justice, John R. 
Miller of Ohio and Victor Monroe of Kentucky 
associate justices, and J. S. Clendenin, of Louisiana 
United States district attorney. Miller falling ill, 
Moses Hoagland of Millersburg, Ohio, was appointed 
in his place, but did not accept, 0. B. McFadden 
of Oregon being subsequently appointed to his 
district. J. Patten Anderson of Mississippi was 
appointed United States marshal, and directed to 
take the census.^^ I. N. Ebey was appointed col- 
lector of Puget Sound, in place of S. P. Moses, re- 
moved ; ^" and not long afterward A. B. Moses was 
appointed surveyor of the port of Nisqually, in place 
of Miller, removed. 

The marshal was the first of the federal officers to 
arrive, reaching Puget Sound early in Jul}^, accom- 
panied by his family. He was soon followed by 
Judge Monroe, and in September by Judge Lander, 
C. H. Mason, secretary of the territory, and District 
Attorney Clendenin and family. Governor Stevens 
did not reach Olympia until about the last of Novem- 
ber, his proclamation organizing the government 
being made on the 28th of that month. Before pro- 
ceeding to discuss his administration, the rapid 

" According to the census completed in the autumn of 1853 by the mar- 
Bhal, the several counties were populated as follows: 

Name. Popnlatioii. Voters. 

Island 195 SO 

Jefferson ISO C8 

King 170 lU 

Pierce 513 276 

Thurston 096 3S1 

Pacific 152 61 

Lewis 616 2.30 

Clarke 1, 1,34 400 

Total 3,965 1,082 

W. T. House Jonr., 1854-5, 185; 01 ijmpia Columbian, Nov. 26, 1853. 

*' Moses was accused of retaining a lady's private wardrobe, of shielding 
a mutinous crew, and conniving at smugglini^ by the H. B. Co. 's servants. 
Or. Slalexman, Dec. 4, 1852. None of the cliarges I think could be sustained; 
but the secretary of the treasury instituted a suit against him for $7,608.70, 
balance due the United States, and caused his indictment as a defaulter. Id., 
Jan. 17, 1860. 


changes taking place in the territory compel a brief 
review of its progress in a material point of view. 

The most important thing to be done for a new 
country is the laying-out and improvement of roads. 
No country ever suffered more from the absence of 
good roads than Oregon, and the pioneers of the 
Puget Sound region realized fully the drawback they 
had to contend against to induce immigrants from 
the border states to come to the sliores of their new 
Mediterranean after having reached the settled Valley 
Willamette. The only way in which they could hope 
to secure. large families of agricultural people and nu- 
merous herds of cattle, with work-oxen and horses, 
was to have a road over the Cascade Mountains on 
the north side of the Columbia as good as the one 
around the base of Mount Hood on the south side. 
As early as 1850 it was determined at a public meet- 
ing to make the effort to open a road over the 
mountains and down the Yakima River to Fort 
Walla Walla, to intersect the immigrant road from 
Grand Rond. A sum of money was raised among 
the few settlers, and a company of young men, headed 
by M. T. Simmons, was organized to hew out a high- 
way for the passage of wagons to the Sound.'"' 
Another incentive to this labor was the alleged dis- 
covery of gold on the Yakima and Spokane rivers by 
J. L. Parrish and W. H. Gray, while making a tour 
through the eastern division of Oregon. The under- 
taking of opening a road through the dense forests 
and up and down the fearfully steep ridges proved 
too great for the means and strength of Simmons' 
company, and only served to fix the resolve to com- 
plete the work at some future time. 

There was, previous to 1852, no road between 
Olympia and Tumwater, or between Tumwnter and 

'"According to Gray, Pierre C. Pambrun of Fort Walla Walla, and 
Cornelius llogers, first explored the Nachess pass at the head of the Yakima. 
Or. Speclator, May 12, 1849. 


Cowlitz landing. The first mail contract over this 
route was let July 11, 1851, and the mail carried on 
horseback, in the pockets of A. B. Rabbeson,^' Sim- 
mons being postmaster at Olympia, and Warbass at 
the Cowlitz, or Warbassport. The road was so much 
improved in 1852 that a niail-wagon was driven over 
it that year,*^ yet with great difficulty, being avoided 
as much as possible by passengers.*^ In 1853 an 
express line was established over the route by John 
G. Parker and Henry D. Colter carrying mail and 
light packages on horseback," nor was there much 
improvement in tliis route for another two or three 

In 1853 it was again resolved to open the road for 

" Edbbeaon's Growth of Toions, MS. , 15. 

*»Id.; Puqet Sound pir., \Sri-2. 

''The mail carrier in 1853 was James H. Yantis, son of B. F. Yantis of 
Mound Prairie, who died August 7th of that year. Oli/mpia Columbian, Au- 
gust 13, 1853. B. F. Yantis was a Kentuckian, born March 19, 1807. He 
removed to Mo. in 1835, and to the Pacific coast in 1852. He occupied many 
positions of trust in Wash., and served as justice of the peace and legislator. 
After the creation of Idaho territory he resided there for some time and served 
in the legislature, but finally returned to Puget Sound, where he died in 1879. 
Olym/iia Standard, Feb. 15, 1879. 

*' John G. Parker, long a resident of Olympia, and later capt. of the steam- 
boat Messenger, came to S. F. in 1851 as messenger for Gregory & Co., and 
to Puget Sound in 1853 as an agent to close the afliairs of a trading-house kept 
l.y Wright & Colter at Olympia. Finding that there was no way of cany- 
iug money between Puget .Sound and S. F. except by lumber vessels, which 
were irregular and often went to the S. I., he decided to remain in Wash., in 
view of which he bought out the interest of his employers, and established 
Parker & Colter's express, carrying the mail through to the Cowlitz in a 
single day by relays of horses, a distance of 70 miles, to connect with Adams' 
express at Portland. At the end of 18 montlis Colter absconded with several 
thousand dollars belonging to the firm, which put an end to the first express 
company. The second express enterprise was by A. B. Stuart, who began 
business in 1854, followed by Wells, Fargo & Co. in Feb. 1850, and by 
Charles E. Williams of Olympia in April 1858, who continued in the business 
for 10 years, during which mail facilities were greatly increased throughout 
the territory. The first passenger line to the Cowlitz, to connect with boats 
to Portland, was started In Dec. 1854, by W. B. Goodell, who furnished 
passage by stage or riding horses for §10 from Olympia to Warbassport. The 
contract for carrying the mail was not then lot to an express company. Ward 
& Robinson of Olympia had the contract from 1854 to 1858, when Henry 
Winsor took it. He carried passengers to and from Olympia to Eaiuier ou 
the Columbia for $15; by w-agon to Cowlitz landing, and from there to Monti- 
cello either by canoe or horses as preferred. The cauoe was used a good deal 
until about 18GS. The wagon-road was not then, nor many years later, a good 
one, but in summer it compensated for the discomforts of the ride by giving 
the traveller a view of the most magnificent fir forest in the world, the boles 
of the trees towering 100 or 150 feet without a limb; while 100 feet above, 
their tapering tops seem to pierce the sky. 


the immigration to come into the new territory over the 
Cascade Mountains. A general meeting of citizens 
was held at Olympia May 14th to discuss the subject 
in all its bearings, when G. N. McConaha, Whitfield 
Kirtley, Charles Eaton, John Edgar, and E. J. Allen 
were chosen road-viewers to report upon the practi- 
cability of the undertaking.*^ At the end of three 
weeks a report was made of the route from Olympia 
to the summit of the Cascade Range, and by the 
middle of July volunteers were at work upon the sur- 
vey, who so far succeeded in their design as to cut a 
way by which thirty-five wagons reached the shores 
of the Sound that autumn,^* bringing between one and 
two hundred men, women, and children, to populate 
the rich valleys of White and Puyallup rivers.*' 

*^ At this meeting was read a statement furnished by Blanchet, catholic 
bishop of Walla Walla in 1S47, who had a knowledge, gained from the Ind- 
ians, of the passes of the mountains. The priests were in the habit of visiting 
tlie Sound with the Indians for guides. 

''■This enterprise will receive further mention hereafter. The men who 
labored for it were, besides those before mentioned, George Shazer, B. F. 
Yantis, William Packwood, B. F. Shaw, John Alexander, B. Close, A. W. 
Moore, E. Sylvester, James Hurd, and W. W. Plumb. The men who worked 
upon the eastern end of the road were Whitfield Kirtley, Edwin Marsh, Nel- 
son Sargent, Paul Ruddell, Edward Miller, J. W. Fonts, John L. Perkins, 
Isaac M. Brown, James Alverson, Nathaniel G. Stewart, William Carpenter, 
E. L. Allen, A. C. Burge, Thomas Dixon, Ephraim Allyn, James H. Allyn, 
George Githers, John Walker, John H. Mills, R. S. More, R. Forman, Ed. 
Crofts, James IJoise, Robert Patterson, Edward Miller, Edward Wallace, 
Lewis Wallace, James R. Smith, John Barrow, and James Meek. 

"Among them were John W. Lane and wife, Samuel Ray, William Ray, 
Henry Mitchell, H. Rockenfield, James Barr, J. A. Sperry, William Claflin, 
Evan Watts, J. J. Ragan, William McCreary, G. Miller, John Nelson, J. Lang- 
myre, wife and 5 children, E. A. Light, wife and child, William M. Kincaid, 
wife and 6 children, Isaac Woolery, wife and 4 children, Abram H. Woolery, 
wife and S children, and Peter Judson, wife and 2 children, composing the 
first train of 47 persons. This train had 62 work-oxen, 20 cows, and 7 
mares. There were, besides, J. W. Woodward, John B. Moyer, Z. Gotzan, 
Aaron Rockenfield, Norman Kilborn, Isaac Lemmon, R. A. Finnell, William 
R. Downey, wife and children, John James Downey and daughter, Abiel Mor- 
rison, Charlotte his wife, and family, George Haywood, James Bell, John Bell, 
W. H. Brannou and family, John Carson and wife, Israel Wright, Byrd 
Wright, Frank Wright, Van Ogle, and Addison S. Persham, most of whom 
crossed by the Nachess pass. Many of them had families and friends who are 
not named here. Other immigrants of this year were William H. Wallace, 
Elijah E. Baker, David C. Forbes, J. H. Cleale, John L. Clarke, Mason Guess 
(married Miss Downey), William H. Williams, G. F. Whitworth and family, 
Mrs Sarah Thompson, J. Stillman, Peter Stiles (died in 1877, aged 91 years), 
W. B. Sinclair (marrried a daughter of J. N. Low), J. R. Roundtree, James 
H. Roundtree, WiUiam Ryan, A. H. Robie, E. G.Price, W. H. Pearson, Wil- 
liam Newton, Mrs Rebecca Maddox and children (Joseph, Michael, T 
Hisi. Wash.— 5 


John Thomas and John Nelson ^ founded the White 
River settlement. Owing to the peculiar system of 
drainage of these rivers, to which I have referred, by 
which the same stream has several names, it is neces- 
sary to remark in this place that Wliite River settle- 
ment means that portion of the common valley be- 
tween the Dwamish and Black sections. Above the 
junction of Black and White rivers is what is known 
as the Slaughter settlement, which was founded by 

C. E. King, W. H. Brannan, Joseph Brannan, Joseph 
Lake, Donald Lake, H. Meter, E. Cooper, W. A. Cox, 

D. A. Neely, M. Kirkland, and S. W. Russell. 

The Black River Valley was settled in 1854 by 
0. M. Eaton, H. H. Tobin, and Mr Fanjoy, who 
built a saw-mill at the entrance of Cedar River,*' 
which was burned by Indians the following year. 
William N. Kincaid ^° settled in the Puyallup '' Valley, 
together with Isaac Woolery, A. H. Woolery, W. 
Boatman, J. H. Bell, T. R. Wright, I. H. Wright, 
G. Hayward, A. Benson, I. McCarty, I. Lemmon, 
Thomas Owen, Daniel Lane, Thomas Hadley, H. 
Whitesell, R. More, R. Nix, A. S. Persham, and D. 
Warner. A settlement had been commenced at the 
mouth of the Puyallup River in the spring of 1852, 

and 2 others), J. Mowerman, wife and children, H. Meter, Christopher Ken- 
nedy, Franklin Kennedy, W. Krice, B. P. Kendall, James Kymes, Joel 
Knight, Michael Luark and family, Joseph Lake, Donald Lake, Lenark, J. B. 
Ladee, Lambert, Williani Lane and family, Henry Ivens, Tyrus Himes, James 
Biles, Martin V. Harper, Baily Gatzert, Alonzo B. Dillenbaugh, J. C. 
Davis, Perry Dunfield, Simeon Cooper, E. Cooper, John Dickenson, W. C. 
Briggs, Joseph N. Baker, John E. Bums, Rev. C. Biles and family, P. Ahem, 
H. Patterson, M. Kirkland, and W. A. Cox. 

*^ Nelson was a native of Norway. The Seattlt Intelligencer, in Oli/mpia 
Transcript of Feb. 1, 1873, states that Nelson settled first on White River 
in 1852. If so, he did not come with the immigration named above, though 
he is set down as one of them in the Olympia Columbian, Oct. 15, 1853, a 
good authority. 

*'Nono of these men were living in 1857. Tobin died and his widow mar- 
ried E. M. Smithers, who had settled between Smith's Cove and Salmon Bay, 
but who went to reside on the Tobin place after his marriage with Mrs Tobin. 
Eaton and Fanjoy were murdered by the Indians while en route to the Colville 
mines in 1855. Morse's Wash. Ter., ii., MS. 8-10. 

'"Kincaid died in Feb. 1870, at his home iu the Puyallup Valley, aged 75 
years. Seattle Inlellinencer, Feb. 2, 1870. 

^' Puyallup signifies, in the Indian tongue, shadow, from the dense shade 
of its forest. Evans' Puyallup Address, in New Tacoma Ledger, July 9, 1880. 


when Nicholas Delin took a claim at the head of Com- 
mencement Bay, just east of the present town site 
of New Tacoma.^^ In October Peter Judson of the 
immigration settled on the town site, which had been 
previously taken and abandoned by Jacob Barnhart. 

James Biles settled at Tumwater. Tyrus Himes ^* 
took a claim six miles east of Olympia. James Allen 
settled in Thurston county/* John L. Clarke and J. 
H. Cleale °' took up their residence in Olympia. Most 
of the immigration chose claims in the fall of 1853. 
Those who followed the next year also immediately 
selected land, these two immigrations being the last 
that were permitted to take donation claims. The 
Indian war of 1855-6, and the insecurity of life in iso- 
lated settlements for a number of years, caused the 
abandonment of the greater part of the farms just 
opened, and it was not until 1859 that settlement was 
reestablished in the valleys where the first direct over- 
land immigration made their choice.^^ 

Owing to the many hinderances to growth which 

*^ It was taken for a mill site, and in 185.3 M. T. Simmons and Smith Hays 
■went in partnership with Delia to put up two saw-mills, one on his claim and 
one on Skookum Bay. One mill was completed that spring, and two cargoes 
of lumber shipped on the Geurge Emory, Captain Alden Y. Trask, but that 
was all. The site was unfavorable, the lumber having to be rafted a mile to 
tlie vessel. 

^ These two worthy pioneers were united by more than the usual bonds 
of fellowship in trials, Himes having been rescued from short rations for 
himself and family of wife and four children, at the Rocky Mountains, and 
brought through to Puget Sound by the warm-hearted Kentuckian who led 
the tirst train through the Nachess pass. Himes was born in Troy, Pa, April 
U, 1818. He married, in May 1843, Emmeline Holcomb of Le Roy, Pa. 
After making several removes, he settled in Lafayette, 111., where he was in 
comfortable circumstances, when he was seized with the Oregon fever, and 
started for Polk co. ; but having miscalculated the requirements of the jour- 
ney, and being thrown upon the hospitality of Mr. Biles, he was led to Wash- 
ington. He diedin April 1879, at his home in Thurston co. George H. Himes, 
job printer of Portland, Or., is the eldest son of Tyrus Himes. Evans, in 
Tram. Or. Pioneer Asso., 1879, 49-53. 

" Allen was born in Pa, Nov. 3, 1798, and removed while young to Ohio. 
He married in 1815, and lost his wife in 1836, after which he remained un- 
married, accompanying his children to Puget Sound in 1853, and residing 
there until bis death in 1868. Olympia Transcript, Nov. 2, 1868. 

6^ Clarke and Cleale both died in 1873. Olympia Courier, Oct. 4, 1873; 
Olympia Transcript, May 17, 1873. 

'^ Evans says that Arthur Miller returned to the Puyallup in 1859, fol- 
lowed in 1860 by J. V. Meeker, and in 1861 by a sufficient number of families 
to justify the establishment of a post-office, of which J. P. Stewart was post- 
master for 12 years. New Tacuma Ledijer, July 9, 1880. 


the territory encountered, and which I shall attempt 
to set forth in this volume, the Pioneer Association 
of Washington " set its limit of pioneer settle- 
ment at 1860, at about which time these difficulties 
began finally to disappear. It will be observed that 
there were no large annual accessions to this territory 
as there had been south of the Columbia, and that 
although it commenced its existence after the other had 
conquered many obstacles, and with seemingly superior 
advantages, its situation proved unfavorable to rapid 

In jSTovember 1853 a steam-packet, the Fairy, was 
placed upon the Sound by her owner and master, D. 
J. Gove, to ply between the settlements;^^ and the 
first of a line of clipper-built lumbermen, the Live 
Yankee, for the trade between the Sound and Saa 
Francisco, was being constructed at Bath, Maine, 
during the summer, while a constantly increasing fleet 
of American vessels visited these waters. Schools 
had been opened in several neighborhoods, but for ob- 
vious reasons there was no system of education estab- 
lished. Of ministers there were enough, but not 
much church-going, and as yet no churches nor sec- 
tarian institutions of any kind except the catholic Ind- 
ian mission near Olympia. But with a population of 

"In Jan. 1871 a meeting was called at Columbia Hall, in Olympia, for 
the purpose of perfecting the organization of a pioneer association, the call 
being signed by C7 names of residents from a period antedating 18G0. The 
committee on constitution and by-laws, consisting of Joseph Cushman, 
Elwood Evans, E. T. Gunn, Benjamin Hamed, Levi Shelton, S. Coulter, 
W. W. Miller, and 0. B. McFadden, reported Feb. 15th. The requisition for 
membership was a residence in the territory previous to Jan. 1, 1860, or on 
the Pacific coast prior to Jan. 1, 18.')5. Olympia Transcript, Feb. 18, 1871. 
David Phillips, firet president of the society, died in March 1872. Seattle In- 
telligencer, March 11, 1872. A call similar to the first was made at Van- 
couver in October 1874, signed by Joseph Petrain, M. R. Hathaway, A. M. 
Andrew, John Proebstel, R. D. Fales, David Wall, WQliam H. Traut, B. 
F. Preston, Guy Hayden, S. P. McDonald, H. L. Caples, John F. Smith, G. 
H. Steward, and S. B. Curtis. F. W. Bier, S. P. McDonald, and G. T. Mc- 
Connell were appointed a committee on constitution and by-laws. This society 
sought to limit the pioneer period to Jan. 1, 1856, the Columbia River section 
of the territory being a much older settlement than Puyet Sound. By the 
same rule, the pioneers of eastern Washington should be allowed until 1865 
or 1868. Vancouver Begister, Aug. 7, 1874, Oct. 9, 1874. 

"'Olympia Columbian, tiov. 4, 1803. Rabbeson afterward owned the i^uw-y. 
She was blown up in Oct. 1857, at Olympia. 


less than 4,000, not quite 1,700 of whom were voters, 
the ambitious young commonwealth was already talk- 
ing of a railroad from the Skookum Chuck coal-fields, 
discovered in 1850, to Olympia, and J. W. Trutch 
was engaged in surveying a route ^^ in the autumn of 
1853. In this chaotic but hopeful condition was the 
new territory of Washington, when on the 26th of 
November, 1853, Governor I. I. Stevens arrived at 
Olympia to set in motion the wheels of government. 

" Olympia Columbian, Oct. 2 and 16, 1853. 




GoTEKNOR Isaac Ingalls Stevens— His Life and Character — Raieroad 
SuEVBTs — Political Parties— Election — First Legislative Assem- 
bly — Its Personnel and Acts— Early Newspapers — County Organ- 
izations — Federal Courts — Land Claims and Land Titles — Roads, 
Mails, and Express Companies — San Juan Island — Indian Troubles 
— Treaties and Reservations— Stevens in Eastern Washington. 

Isaac Ingalls Stevens, the man who had been sent 
to organize the government of Washington, was one 
fitted by nature and education to impress himself 
upon the history of the country in a remarkable de- 
gree. He was born at Andover, Massachusetts, and 
educated in the military school of West Point, from 
which he graduated, in 1839, with the highest honors. 
He had charge for a few years of fortifications on the 
New England coast. He had been on the staff of 
General Scott in Mexico, and for four years previous 
to his appointment as governor of Washington had 
been an assistant of Professor Bache on the coast 
survey, which gave him the further training which 
was to make his name prominent in connection with 
the survey for the Northern Pacific railroad — the his- 
toric road of the continent — the idea of which had for 
thirty years been developing in connection with the 
Columbia River and a route to China. 

Congress having at length authorized the survey 
of this and other routes to the Pacific, Stevens was 
placed in charge of the northern line, whose terminus, 
by the progress of discovery and events, was now 


fixed at Puget Sound. He was to proceed from the 
head waters of the Mississippi to this inlet of the Pa- 
cific, and report not only upon the route, but upon the 
Indian tribes along it, with whom he was to establish 
friendly relations, and, when practicable, to treat. 
The manner in which the survey was conducted is 
spoken of in another portion of my work, and I pro- 
ceed here with the narration of territorial affairs.^ 
The day appointed by Governor Stevens for electing 
a delegate to congress and members of a council and 
house of representatives was the 30th of Januarj^ 1854, 
the members chosen to convene at Olyinpia February 
27th following. In the time intervening, two political 
parties oi'ganized and enacted the usual contest over 
their candidates. The democratic candidate for dele- 
gate to congress, Columbia Lancaster, is not unknown 
to the reader. He had served the county of Lewis 
in the council of the Oregon legislature, if service it 
could be called, in which he did nothing but cover him- 
self with ridicule. His whig opponent was William 
H. Wallace,^ and the independent candidate M. L. Sim- 

' The officers appointed to assist Stevens in the survey of a railroad route 
were W. T. Gardiner, capt. 1st dragoons; George B. McClellan, brev. capt., 
assigned to duty as capt. of eng. ; Johnson K. Duncan, 2d lieut 3d art. ; Rufus 
Saxton, Jr, '2d lieut 4th art.; Cuvier Grover (brotlier of L. F. Grover of 
Oregon), 2d lieut 5th art.; A. J. Donelson, 2d lieut corps of engineers: John 
Mullan, Jr, brcv. 2d lieut 1st art. ; George .F. Suckley and J. G. Cooper, 
surgeons and naturalists; John Evans, geologist; J. M. Stanley, artist (the 
same who was in Oregon in 1847-8); G. W. Stevens and A. Remenyi, astron- 
omers; A. W. Tinkham and F. W. Lander (brother of Judge Lander), civil 
engineers; John Lambert, draughtsman. Washington {City) SejmUk, May 
7, 1853. The survey was to be commenced from both ends of the route, to 
meet somewhere west of the Rocky Mountains. McClellan, who had charge 
of the west end of the line, arrived in S. F. in June 1853, and proceeded to 
explore the Cascade Range for passes leading to Puget Sound, starting from 
Vancouver, and dividing his party so as to make a reconuoissance on both 
sides of the range the same season. The narratives of these surveys contained 
in the Pacific R. R. reports are interesting. Several persons connected with 
the expeditions remained on the Pacific coast; others have since revisited 
it in an official capacity, and a few who are not mentioned here will be men- 
tioned in connection with subsequent events. 

^Wallace was born in Miami county, Ohio, July 17, 1811, whence he re- 
moved when a child to Indiana, and in 1839 to Iowa, where he served in both 
branches of the legislature. He was appointed receiver of public moneys at 
Fairfield, Iowa, holding the office until Pierce's administration, when he re- 
moved to Washington, in 1853. His subsequent career will be given here- 
after. His death occurred Feb. 8, 1879. Olympia Standard, Feb. 15, 1879; 
New Tacoma Herald, Feb 14, 1879. 


mens, who, notwithstanding his popularity as a man 
and a democrat, received only eighteen votes.^ Wal- 
lace received 500, and Lancaster 690. Democracy 
was strong on the north side of tlie Columbia, as it 
was on the south, but it had not yet assumed the same 
dictatorial tone,* and Lancaster, who had affiliated 
with the wliigs in 1851 in Oregon, was a thorough 
enough democrat in 1853.* He had a talent for hu- 
morous story -telling, which in debate often goes as far 
as argument or forensic eloquence before a promiscu- 
ous assemblage. The unsuccessful candidates were 
John M. Hayden,^ surgeon at Fort Steilacoom, F. A. 

' Simmons' influence naturally declined when he was put in comparison 
and competition with men of diiFerent degrees of educatiun, and he felt the 
embarrassment and humiliation of it keenly. To it he ascribed the loss of his 
property, which occurred later. Although a man of large frame and good 
constitution, he died at the age of 53 years, Nov. 15, 1807. He was buried 
with imposing ceremonies by the masonic order, of which he was a member, 
having subscribed liberally toward the erection of a masonic hall at Olympia 
in 1854. Olympia Standard, Nov. 2.3, 18G7. 

* Joseph Cushman was appointed by a democratic legislature first probate 
judge of Thurston co. He was bom at Middlebuiy, Mass., March 13, 1807, 
and was a lineal descendant of Robert Cushman of the Mayllower company, 
had a good home education and a Boston business training, hence was a val- 
■uable man in any community, besides being an orator of ability, and ready 
writer. He went to South America in 1849, and after a brief stay in Valpa- 
raiso, came to C ilifornia, and engaged in jobbing goods on the Sacramento 
River. Making the acquaintance of Samuel Merritt, owner of the brig G. 
W. Kendall, he took charge of Merritt's business, established in Olympia in 
1852, Merritt running a Une of vessels, and having a trading-house at that 
place. In 1857 Cushman was admitted to practice as an attorney, and suc- 
cessfully defended Luther M. Collins, who was charged with murder in con- 
nection with the execution of an Indian outlaw. In 1855 he was nominated 
by the free-soil party for delegate to congress, but was beaten by J. P. An- 
derson, democrat. In the Indian war he enlisted as a private in Eaton's 
compauy of rangers, and was one of the party besieged on Lemmou's land in 
the Puyallup Valley, remaining in the service until the close of the war. He 
was president of the first board of trustees for Olympia in 1869. In 1861 he 
was appointed by President Lincoln receiver of public moneys in connection 
with tlie land-oflice, which appointment he held until 1870. His name is in- 
corporated with the history of the capital of Washington particularly, and 
with the country in general. He died Feb. 29, 1872. Olympia Echo, March 
7, 1872; Olympia Standard, March 2, 1872. 

* P. W. Crawford relates how by a little sharp practice he procured the 
nomination in convention of his friend Lancaster, who lived on or near the 
Columbia, against the candidates of the Sound district, by dividing the votes 
against hira, and as they failed, gathering them in solid for the remaining 
candidate. Narr., MS., 267. 

*Hayden was strongly supported by Pierce co., having resided at the fort 
ever since its establishment, practising his profession also outside the military 
reservation. Being recalled to the east in 1854, companies A and C, 4th in- 
fantry, presented him a flattering farewell address, published in Olympia 
Pioneer and Dem., Jan. 21, 1854. 


Chenowetli, Judge Strong, Gilmore Hays/ and W. 
H. Wallace. 

In the legislature, which organized by choosing 
G. N. McConaha^ president of the council, and F. A. 
Chenoweth speaker of the lower house, there was a 
■democratic majority of one in the council ' and six in 

' Gilmore Hays was a native of Ky, but resided in Mo., where he was dis- 
trict judge, wheu the gold discovery drew him to Cal. Keturniag to Mo., he 
led a train of immigrants to Oregon in 1852, and in 1853 settled on Des 
Chutes Eiver near the head of Budd Inlet. The year 1852 was the time of 
the cholera on the plains, and Hays lost hia wife and two children, who were 
buried near Salmon Falls of Snake Elver, together with the wife of B. F. 
Yautis. There remained to him three sous, James H., Charles, and Robert, 
and one daughter, who married J. G. Parker, all of whom reside in Olympia. 
In the same company were John P. and Isaac Hays, his brothers, N. Ostran- 
der, Hilary Butler, James Scott, and their families, Thomas Prather, George 
Fry, and others. When the Indian war threatened, he was first to volunteer, 
his was the first company raised, and throughout he was of much service to 
the territory. After the termination of the war, he returned to Mo., but in 
1863 removed to Idaho, and was useful to the supt of Ind. affairs for Washing- 
ton in arranging treaties with the natives. Failing health caused him to 
return to Puget Souud, where he died October 10, 1880. Olympia Trauscrijn, 
Oct. 30, 1880; Olympia Standard, Oct. 29, 1880; Olympia Courier, Oct. 29, 

'McConaha was drowned, in company with P. B. Barstow, in the Sound, 
on the 23d of May, 1854. His widow, Ursula, had a series of other losses 
and misfortunes. An 8-year old daughter was burned to death in March 
1858, a son was killed by a vicious horse, and another son terribly maimed 
by an accident. In August 1859 she married L. V. Wyckoff of Seattle. 

' The first legislative assembly was composed of nine councilmen, as follows: 
Clarke county, Daniel F. Bradford and William H. Tappan; Island and Jeifer- 
Bon, William T. Sayward; Lewis and Pacific, Seth Catlin and Henry Miles; 
Pierce and King, Lafayette V. Balch and G. N. McConaha; Thurston, D. E. 
Bigelow and B. F. Yantis. H. M. Frost of Pierce was elected chief clerk, and 
U. E. Hicks of Thurston assistant clerk. Hicks was county clerk of Thurston. 
He figured a good deal in politics, served in the Indian war of 1 855-6, and 
afterward edited one or more newspapers. He emigrated to Washington from 
Mo. in 1850, with his young wife, who <^ied Nov. 16, 1853, aged 21 years. 
He married, Jan. 21, 1855, India Ann Hartsock. Frost served but a part of 
the term, and resigned, when Elwood Evans was elected and served from 
March 8th to May 1st. J. L. Mitchell of Lewis was elected sergeant-at-arms, 
and W. G. Osborn of Thurston door-keeper. The council being divided into 
three classes by lot. D. R. Bigelow, Seth Catlin, and W. H. Tappan drew 
the three-years term; B. F. Yantis, Henry Miles, and G. N. McConaha, the 
two-years term; W. T. Sayward, D. F. Bradford, and L. Balch, the one-year 
term. The house of representatives consisted of seventeen members, one 
from Island county, S. 1). Howe (whig); five from Clarke, J. D. Biles, F. A. 
Chenoweth, A. J. Bolan, Henry R. Crosbie, and A. Lee Lewis (whig); one 
from Lewis, H. D. Huntington (whig) — John K. Jackson and F. A. Clarke 
received the same number of votes, and the second member from Lewis was 
not elected; one from Jeflferson, D. F. Brownfield; one from King, A. A. 
Denny (whig); three from Pierce, L. F. Thompson, John M. Chapman, and 
H. C. Moseley; four from Thurston, Leonard D. Durgin, David Shelton, Ira 
Ward (whig), and C. H. Hale (whig); one from Pacific, Jehu Scudder, who 
died before the legislature convened. Scudder was one of the first settlers iu 
Pacific county, and was much regretted. A singular fatality attended the 


the house of representatives ; but there was no undue 
exhibition of partisan zeal, nor any occasion for it, 
the assembly being impressed with the importance of 
the public duties which had been assigned to them. 
The organization being completed on the 28th, Gov- 
ernor Stevens was invited to communicate to the 
legislature a message, in which he made certain state- 
ments which will not be out of place here as an 
introduction to his administration and the history of 
the territory. 

After a just encomium upon the country and its 
natural advantages for commerce, he reminded them 
that as the Indian title to lands had not been extin- 
guished, nor a law passed for its extinguishment, 
titles could not be secured under the land law of 
congress, and the public surveys were languidly con- 
ducted. He spoke of the importance of a road to 
Walla Walla, another to the Columbia, and one along 
the eastern shore of the Sound to Bellinghara Bay, 
and advised them to memorialize congress on the 
urgent necessity for these roads, to prevent suffering 
and loss to the immigrations. He counselled them 
to ask for a surveyor-general of the territory, and 
that liberal appropriations might be made for the 
surveyors, that they might keep in advance of the 
settlements. He proposed to request an amendment 
to the land law making it possible to acquire title by 
the payment of the minimum valuation, by a resi- 
dence of one year, or by improvements equal to the 
minimum valuation, and that single women should 
be jjlaced on the same footing with married women. 
He recommended the early settlement of the boundary 

representatives from Pacific. In the first instance, J. L. Brown was nom- 
inated, and died before the election. His successor, Scudder, who was nom- 
inated after his death and elected, did not live to take his seat. Henry Feister 
was then chosen to fill the vacancy, but died of apoplexy on the evening of 
the day on which he was sworn in. Feister also left a family. AnoUier 
election being ordered, James C. Strong was chosen, and took his seat April 
14, 1S54. Olympia Pioneer and Dem., April 15, lSr>4. B. F. Kendall was 
elected chief clerk, and J. Phillips assistant clerk, of the lower house; Jacob 
Smith of VVhidbey Island sergeant-at-arms; and J. H. Round tree door-keeper. 
Vli/mpia Pioneer and Dem., March 4, 1854. 


line between Washington and the British territory 
on the north, and that congress should be memorial- 
ized on this subject, and on the importance of contin- 
uing the geographical and geological surveys already 
commenced. He made the usual prophetic remarks 
on the Pacific railroads,^" referred to the inefficient 
mail service, of which I have spoken at length in the 
history of Oregon, gave same advice concerning the 
preparation of a code of laws, and adverted to the im- 
portance of organizing new counties east of the Cas- 
cade Range, and readjusting the boundaries of some 
of the older ones. 

In referring to the position occupied by the Hud- 
son's Bay and Puget Sound Agricultural companies, 
the governor declared them to have certain rights 
granted to them, and lands confirmed to them, but 
that the vague nature of their limits must lead to 
disputes concerning their possessions, and recom- 
mended that congress should be memorialized to 
extinguish their title. As to the right of the 
Hudson's Bay Company to trade with the Indians, 
that he said was no longer allowed, and under instruc- 
tions from the secretary of state he had already 
informed the company that they would be given until 
July to wind up their affairs, after which time the 
laws regulating intercourse with the Indians would 
be rigidly enforced. 

He recommended a special commission to report on 
a school system, and that congress should be asked to 
appropriate land for a university; also that some mili- 
tary training should be included in the curriculum of 
the higher schools. An efficient militia system was 
declared to be necessary in a distant territory, which 

"'Iq my judgment, with such aid as the government can rightfully furnish 
as a proprietor in making surveys and granting lands, the energies of our 
people are adequate to building not simply one, but three or four roads. Our 
commerce doubles in 7 years, our railroads in 4 or 5 years, and we have reason 
to believe that for some years to come this rate of increase will be accelerated. 
... I am firmly of opinion, however, that these great undertakings should 
be controlled and consummated by the people themselves, and tliat every 
project of a government road should be discountenanced. ' Wash. Jour. Council, 
1854, 14. 


must in case of war be compelled for a time to rely 
upon itself; and this he thought, with the arms and 
ammunition to which the territory would be entitled 
under the laws of congress, would enable it to protect 
itself from any foreign invader." Such is a brief 
abstract of the first message of the first governor of 
Washington, which is an epitome also of the condition, 
needs, and prospects of the new commonwealth. 
Most of the suggestions made by the governor were 
carried out in some form. 

Immediately after organization, the house adopted 
for the territorial seal a device furnished by Lieutenant 
J. K. Duncan of Stevens' surveying expedition.^'^ 

The first bill passed was on the 1st of March, an act 
providing for a board of commissioners to prepare a 
code of laws for the territory; the board appointed 
consisting of judges Edward Lander, Victor Monroe, 
and "William Strong, who adopted as many of the 

" Wash. Jour. Council, 1S54, 10-18. 

" On one side, a log cabin and an immigrant wagon, with a fir forest in the 
background; on the other, a sheet of water being traversed by a steamer and 
Bailing- vessels; a city in perspective; the goddess of hope and an anchor in 
the centre, the 6gure pointing above to the significant Indian word 'Alki' — by 
and by. Olympia Pioneer and Dem., Feb. 25, 1854; Wash. Jour. House, 
1854, 14. 

laws of Oregon as they found practicable, and other 
suitable ones from other codes," the laws originated 
by the legislature being chiefly local. 

The counties of Sawamish," Whatcom,^' Clallam, 
Chehalis, Cowlitz, Wahkiakum, Skamania, and Walla 
Walla^® were created, the latter with the county seat 
"on the land claim of Lloyd Brooks," now the site of 
the city of Walla Walla. The county seat of Clarke 
county was fixed at Vancouver,'^ "on the east side 

^^Slrong's Hist. Or., MS., 62. J. W. Wiley ot the Pioneer and Democrat, 
a new name for the Columbian, was elected territorial printer by the legisla- 
ture, but A.M. Berry, Wiley's partner, was appointed to superintend the print- 
ing of the laws in the east. He died of malignant small-pox soon after reach- 
ing his home in Greenland, N. H., at the age of 29 years, and the laws were not in 
readiness for the next legislature. Alfred Metcalf Berry came to the Pacific 
coast in 1849, and to Or. in 1850 for his health. In Dec. 18.5,3 he formed a 
partnership with Wiley, and the name of Columbian being no longer signifi- 
cant, the publishers changed it to yVashin/jtoii. Pioneer. In Jan. 1834 fi. L. 
Doyle brought a press and material to Olympia, with the intention of starting 
a new paper to be called the Northwest Democrat, but finally consolidated 
with the Pioneer, which then became the Pioneer and Democrat. See Wash. 
Pioneer, Jan. 28, 1854. Soon after the death of Beny, George B. Goudy, 
another young man, became associated with Wiley as publisher, the firm be- 
ing Wiley, Goudy, & Doyle, but Doyle retired before the end of the year 
(1855), and only Wiley and Goudy remained, Wiley being editor. Goudy was 
elected territorial printer Jan. 27 1855, the Pioneer and Democrat remaining 
the official paper of the territory until a republican administration in 1861. 
He was a native of Indianapolis, Ind., and born in 1828. He came to Or. in 1849, 
and for a year had charge of the publication of the Spectator. He married Eliz- 
abeth Morgan of Lafayette, Or., in Sept. 1854, and removed to Olympia early 
in 1855. His connection with the Pioneer and Democrat ceased in Aug. 1856. 
He died Sept. 19, 1857, leaving a wife and child. E. Furste succeeded Goudy 
as publisher of the Pioneer and Democrat. In May 1858 Wiley retired, leav- 
ing Furste publisher and editor. Wiley died March 30, 1860, at the age of 
40, the victim of intemperate drinking. He was born in Ohio, was possessed 
of brilliant talents, and impressed his mind and energy upon the history of 
his adopted country, but fell by a power mightier than himself. Pioneer and 
Dcm., March 30, 1860. In November 1860 Furste sold the paper to James 
Lodge, who found the change in public sentiment against tlie dcmocratip 
antecedents of this journal, which lost precedence, and was discontinued not 
long after. Historically, the Pioneer and Democrat is of more importance 
than any other journal or journals. 

'•Sawamish county, first organized March 13, 1854, had its name changed 
to Mason Jan. 3, 1864, in honor of Charles H. Mason, first secretary of the 
territory. The county officers appointed on its organization were: commis- 
sioners, Wesley Gosnell, Charles Graham, Lee Hancock; sherifT, Finis K. 
Simmons; judge of probate, Alfred Hall; auditor, V. P. Morrow; treasurer, 
Orrington Cushman ; justice of the peace, Aaron M. Collins. Olympia Pioneer 
a«<<i»em.,May27, 1854. 

^^Commissioners appointed for Whatcom county were William CuUen, 
H. C. Page, R. V. Peabody; sheriff, Ellis Barnes; auditor, A. M. Poe. 

"^Commissioners appointed for Walla Walla were George C. Bamford, 
John Owen, Dominique Pambrun; sheriff, Narcisse Itaymond; judge of pro- 
bate and justice of the peace, Lloyd Brooke. 

" Vancouver is called Columbia City in the act. This patriotic change of 


of Mrs Esther Short's land claini," and by the same 
act Mrs Short's dwelling was made the legal place 
of holding courts until suitable buildings should be 
erected by the county.^^ The county seat of Che- 
name occurred about 1S51 or 1852, but I fail to find any mention of it. I 
think it was done on the motion of the first postmaster at that place, R. H. 
Lansdale, who had the post-office called Columbia City. The name, how- 
ever, would not pass in tlie face of long usage, and the Washington legisla- 
ture at its second session changed it to Vancouver. The 

appointed for Clarke county by the first territorial legislature were William 
Dillon, C. C. Stiles, and Mr Fairchilds; sheriff, George W. Hart; judge of 
probate, Henry GuUifer; auditor, William Ryan; treasurer, Henry Burlin- 
game; justices of the peace, Solomon Strong, Michael Tubbs; coroner, William 
Si. Simmons; assessor, Henry C. Morse; constable for Vancouver precinct, 
Moses Kirkham, for Cathlapootle precinct, C. C. Bogarth, for Washougal 
precinct, Berry Paten. 

'* Officers were appointed for all the counties already in existence, as well as 
the new cues, and as the list furnishes a guide to the distribution of the pop- 
ulation, they are here given. Skamania county commissioners, S. M. Hamil- 
toc, .Joseph Robbins, Jacob W. Scroder; sheriff", E. F. McNoll; judge of 
probate, Cornelius Salmer; treasurer, J. H. Bush; auditor, George W. 
Johnson; justices of the peace, N. H. Gales, B. B. Bishop, and Lloyd Brooke. 

Cowlitz county commissioners, Thomas Lowe, A. A. Abemethy, Seylor 
Rue; justice of the peace for Monticello precinct, Nathaniel Stone; constable, 
R. C. Smith; judge of probate, Nathaniel Ostrander; auditor, Charles Hol- 
nian; treasurer, Alexander Crawford; sheriff, James Huntington; assessor, 
Benjamin Huntington; justice of the peace for Oak Point precinct, W. 
H. Harris; constable, P. A. Smith. 

Wahkiakum county commissioners, James Birnie, Thompson Dray, Aus- 
tin Nye; auditor, Newell Bcarfs; treasurer, James Birnie, Jr; sheriff, Wil- 
liam Stilwell; judge of probate and justice of the peace, Solomon Stilwell. 

Pacific county commissioners, George T. Eastabrook, P. J. McEwen, Daniel 
Wilson; judge of probate, George P. Newell; justice of the peace, Ezi-a Wes- 
ton; constable, William Edwards. 

Lewis county commissioners, Henry R. Stillman, Thomas Metcalf, J. C. 
Davis; judge of probate, James Gardiner; auditor, Horace H. Pints; jus- 
tices of the peace, Charles F. White, O. Small, N. Stearns, F. Delin; con- 
stables, Baptiste Bone, William C. Many; sberifF, J. L. Mitchell; auditor, 
Martin Budson; treasurer, C. C. Pagett; coroner, George B. Roberts; super- 
intendent of common schools, A. B. Dillenbaugh. 

Thurston county commissioners, Sidney S. Ford, Sen., David J. Chambers, 
James McAllister; auditor. Urban E. Hicks; sheriflf, Franklin Kennedy; 
assessor, Whitfield Kirtley; judge of probate, Stephen D. Ruddell; treasurer, 
Daniel R. Bigelow; justices of the peace, Nathan Eaton, Joseph Broshears, 
W. Plumb; superintendent of schools, Elwood Evans; constable for Olym- 
pia precinct, Franklin Kennedy. 

Chehalis county commissioners, George Watkins, John Vail, John Brady; 
auditor, A. 0. Houstou; treasurer, D. K. Wcldon; judge of probate, James 
H. Roundtrec; sheriff, M. A. Fairfield; justices of the peace, William M. 
BuUard, C. L. Russell, I. L. Scammon. 

Pieree county commissioners, William P. Dougherty, L. A. Smith, William 
N. Savage; treasurer, H. C. Perkins: sheriff, C. Dunham; assessor, Hugh 
Patterson; coroner, Anthony Laughlin; justices of the peace, H. M. Frost, 
George Brown, Samuel McCaw; auditor, G. Bowlin; judge of probate, H. 
C. Moselcy; constables, William McLucas, William Sherwood. 

King county commissioners, Thomas Mercer, G. W. W. Loomis, L. M. 
Collins; judge of probate, William A. Strickler; sheriff, G. D. Boren; auditor, 


halls county was fixed temporarily "at the house of 
D. K. Wcldon ; " of Cowlitz, at Monticello ; and of 
Skamania, at the "south-east corner of the land claim 
of F. A. Chenoweth." 

Olympia was fixed upon as the temporary seat of 
government, the judicial districts were defined, and 
the judges assigned to them as follows: the first dis- 
trict comprised Walla Walla, Skamania, Clarke, Cow- 
litz, Wahkiakum, and Pacific counties, Judge McFad- 
den; second district, Lewis, Chehalis, Thurston, and 
Sawamish counties. Judge Monroe; third district, 
Pierce, King, Island, Clallam, Jefferson, and What- 
com, Judge Lander. At the second session of the 
legislature Lander was assigned to the second district, 
and the judge of that district to the third, which 
brought the chief justice to the more central portion 
of the territory. In their districts the judges were 
required to reside, and to hold two terms of the dis- 
trict court annually in each county, except in those 
which were attached to some other for judicial pur- 
poses, like Walla Walla, which was attached to 
Skamania, and Chehalis to Thurston. 

The first federal court held in Washington after 
the organization of the territory was by the proclama- 
tion of the governor on the 2d day of January, 1854, 
at Cowlitz landing, by Judge Monroe, wlio in May 
held regular terms in all the counties of his district 
according to the act of the legislature, and to the 

H. L. Yesler; treasurer, William P. Smith; superintendent of schools, 
Henry A. Smith; assessor, John C. Holgate; justices of the peace, John A. 
Chase, S. L. Grow, S. W. Kussell; constables, B. L. Johns, S. B. Simmons, 
James N. Roberts. 

Jefferson county commissioners, J. P. Keller, William Dunn, F. W. Pet- 
tygrove; treasurer, J. K. Thomdyke; sheriff, W. T. Sayward; judge of pro- 
bate, L. B. Hastings; auditor, A. A. Plummer; justices of the peace, J. P. Kel- 
ler, William Webster, F. W. Pettygrove, J. K. Thomdyke; assessor, J. 

Clallam county commissioners, E. H. McAlmond, E. Price, Daniel F. 
Browufield; sheriff, Charles Bradshaw; justice of the peace, G. H. Gerrish; 
assessor, J. C. Brown; treasurer, Mr Fitzgerald; judge of probate, John 
Margrave; auditor, G. B. Moore. 

Island couuty commissioners, John Alexander, John Crockett, Ira B. 
Powers; sheriff, Hugh Crockett; auditor, R. H. Lansdale; assessor, Hum- 
phry Hill. 


satisfaction of the people. Yet in October lie was 
removed, upon the false representation of some per- 
sons unknown that he had absented himself from the 
territory.'^ F. A. Chenoweth was appointed in his 
place, and was present as the judge of the 2d judicial 
district at the meeting of the supreme court in Olym- 
pia in December,^" the bench now containing but one 
of the original appointees for Washington, Lander, the 
chief justice.^^ 

There was none of that romantic attempt at creating 
something out of nothing in the first acts of the Wash- 
ington legislature which invested with so much inter- 
est the beginnings of government in Oregon, for the 
legislators had at the outset the aid of United States 
judges and men familiar with law, besides having the 
government at their back to defray all necessary ex- 
penses. There is therefore nothing to relate concern- 
ing their acts, except in instances already pointed out 
in the message of Governor Stevens, where certain 
local interests demanded peculiar measures or called 
for the aid of congress. 

The most important matter to which the attention 

^'Oli/mpla Pioneer and Dem., Oct. 21, 1834. Monroe died at Olympia 
Sept. 15, 1856, aged 40 years. He was buried on the point on Budd Inlet 
near the capitol at Olympia, but 15 years afterward the remains were rein- 
terred in the masonic cemetery. Olympia Transcript, March 13, 1S09. 

■'"Id., Dec. 9, 1854. 

2' Edward Lander was a native of Salem, Mass. He was graduated at Har- 
vard in 1836, and soon after entered the law school at Cambridge. His first law 
practice was in Essex co., but in 1841 he removed to Ind., where he was soon 
appointed prosecuting attorney for several counties, and subsequently judge 
of the court of common pleas of the state. His habits were said to be correct, 
his manners dignified and polished, and his legal and literary attainments of 
a high order. Boston Times,ia Olympia PioneerandVem., Jan. 1, 1854. For 
McFadden's antecedents, see Hist. Or., ii., chap, xi., this series. He died of 
heart disease, at the age of 58 years, at the residence of his son-in-law, W. W. 
Miller of Olympia, in June 1875, after a residence of 22 years in the territory, 
during which he was a member of the legislature and delegate to congress. 
Spirit of the West, June 26, 1875; Olympia Transcript, July 3, 1S75; U. S. 
House Jour., 4.Sd cong. Istsess., 13. F. A. Chenoweth was born in 1819, in 
Franklin co., Ohio, and admitted to the practice of law in Wisconsin at the 
age of 22 years. He came to Or. in 1849, and settled on the north side of the 
river near the Cascades, being elected to the legislature from Lewis and 
Clarke counties in 1852. In 1863 he removed to Corvallis, where he was again 
electeil to the Or. legislature, and to the presidency of the Willamette Valley 
and Coast railroad. Portland }Vest Shore, July 1877. 


of the national legislature was called was a change in 
the land law, to effect which congress was memorial- 
ized to grant them a surveyor-general of their own, 
and a land system "separate ft'om, and wholly discon- 
nected with, that of Oregon territory. "^^ 

By comparing the demands with the memorials of 
the Oregon legislature from time to time, it will be 
perceived that the earth hunger was not all confined 
to the people south of the Columbia. And by refer- 
ence to my History of Oregon, the reader may learn 
to what extent congress responded to the demands of 

'^ The amendments petitioned for were: 1. To be relieved from the prohibi- 
tion preventing the holders of donation certificates from selling any portion 
of their claims before they received a patent; their certificates to be prima 
facie evidence of title. Suggestions were given as to the manner of establish- 
ing a claim by witnesses before the surveyor-general. 2. That persons enti- 
tled to a donation should be permitted to take irregular fractions of land. 
3. That town proprietors should be authorized to convey lots by valid deeds, 
the same as if a patent had been issued. 4. That when either parent of a 
child or children should have died upon the road to Washington, the survivor 
should be entitled to as nmch land as both together would have been entitled 
to; provided the land taken in the name of the deceased should be held in 
trust for the children. Or when either parent should have started for or 
arrived in the territory, and the other, though not yet started, should die, 
having a child or children, the surviving parent should be entitled, bjr com- 
plying with the provisions of the law, to the full amount that both parents 
and such child or children would have been entitled to had they all arrived 
in the territory. Or that when both parents should die after having begun 
their journey to Washington, or before locating a claim, having a child or 
children, such child or children should, by guardian, be entitled to locate as 
much land as both parents would have taken under the law had they lived. 
5. That widows immigrating to and settling in the territory should be allowed 
to take the same amount of land as unmarried men, by compliance with the 
law. 6. That all persons who should have located claims under the provis- 
ions of the donation law prior to the 1st of Jan., 1852, should be entitled to 
their patents as soou as the land should have been surveyed, and they have 
obtained a certificate from the surveyor-general. And that all persons who 
should have located claims subsequent to the 1st day of Jan., 1852, should be 
entitled to patents by residing thereon for the term of two years, or by hav- 
ing made improvements to the amount of four hundred dollars; provided, that 
the removal of timber from the public-lands without intention to reside thereon 
should be regarded as trespass; the improvements to be estimated by the 
increased value of the lands by clearing, cultivating, fencing, and building. 
7. That all American citizens, or those who had declared their intention to 
become such, including American half-breeds, on arriving at the age of twen- 
ty-one, should be entitled to the benefit of the donation act. 8. That the 
provisions of the law be extended to an indefinite period. 9. That each sm- 
gle person should be entitled to receive 160 acres, and a man and wife double 
that amount; provided, that the estate of the wife should be sole and sepa- 
rate, and not alienable for the debts or liabilities of the husband. 10. That 
all persons who had failed or neglected to take claims within the time pre- 
scribed by law should be permitted to take claims as if they had but just 
arrived in the country. Wash. Jour. Council, 1854, 179-81. 
Hist. Wash.— 6 


both legislatures in the matter of amount of bounty 
and limit of time.^* A surveyor-general and register 
and receiver were given to Washington; in no other 
wise was a separate land system granted; but the new 
territory was entitled to the same privileges with Ore- 
gon, no more or different.^* 

^Hist. Or., ii., chap, x., this series. The points gained by an act of con- 
gress passed July 17, 1S54, were the withdrawal of town sites from the pro- 
visions of the donation act, and subjecting them to the operation of the act of 
May 23, 1844, ' for the relief of citizens of towns upon lands of the United 
States, under certain circumstances,' and the reduction of the time of occu- 
pancy before purchase to one year; the repeal of that portion of the land law 
■which made void contracts for the sale of land before patent issued, provided 
that sales should not be valid unless the vendor should have resided four 
years upon the land; the extension of the preemption privilege to Oregon and 
Washington; the extension of the donation privilege to 1855; the grant of 
two townships of land for university purposes; the donation of 160 acres of 
land to orphans whose parents, had they lived, would have been entitled to a 
donation; and the appointment of a register and )'eceiver for each of the two 
territories. Waish. Ter. Statutes, 1854, 53-5. 

"The subject of amended land laws for their territory was not permitted 
to drop with this attempt. When the privileges of the old donation act ex- 
pired in 1 855, a petition signed by 200 settlers was presented to congress, 
asking that the clause in that act which required them to reside for 4 years 
consecutively on their claims before receiving a certificate should be ex- 
punged, and that they be allowed to purchase them at the rate of §1.25 an 
acre, counting the value of their improvements as payment; the amount of 
labor bestowed being taken as evidence of an intention to remain a permanent 
settler. Olijmpia Pioneer and Dem., Aug. 19, 1855. No change was made as 
therein requested. Tilton, the surveyor-general appointed for Washington, 
was directed to join with the surveyor-general of Oregon in starting the sur- 
vey of his territory, carrying out the work as already begun, and using it as a 
basis for organizing the Washington surveys in that part of the country where 
the settlers most required a survey. U. S. It. Ex. Doc, vol. i., pt i., 33d cong. 
1st sess. In his first report, Sept. 20, 1855, Tilton asked for increased com- 
pensation per mile for contractors, owing to the difficulty of surveying in 
Washington, where one enormous forest was found growing amidst the decay- 
ing ruins of another, centuries old, in consequence of which horses could 
not be used, and provisions had to be packed upon the backs of men, at a great 
cost. /(/., vol. i., pt i., 292, 34th cong. 1st sesS. . 

W. Vf. De Lacy ran the standard meridian from Vancouver through to 
the northern boundary of Washington. The Willamette meridian fell iu the 
water nearly the whole length of the Sound, compelling him to make re- 
peated offsets to the cast. One of these offsets was run on the line between 
range 5 and 6 east of the Willamette meridian, which line runs throuuh the 
western part of Snohomish City. After the close of the Indian war, De 
Lacy ran and blazed out the line of the military road from Steilacoom to 
Bellingham Bay, with the assistance of only one Indian, Pirns, who afterward 
murdered a settler on the Snohomish River, named Carter. Morse'x Wtxsh. 
Ter., MS., xx. 3C-7. The total amount surveyed under the Oregon office was 
1,876 miles, the amount surveyed under Tilton previons to Dec. 1855, 3,663 
ailes, and the quantity proposed to be surveyed in the next 2 years, 5,688 
miles, all west of the Cascade Range. The Indian wars, however, stopped 
work for about that length of time. It was difficult to find deputies who 
would undertake the work, on account of Indian hostilities, even after the war 
was declared at an end. Deputy Surveyor Dominick Hunt was murdered on 


Next in importance was a memorial relative to the 
extinguishment of the Indian title, congress being 
urged to make provisions for the immediate pur- 
chase of the lands occupied by the natives; and this 
request was granted, as I shall soon proceed to show. 
Congress was also asked to change the organic act of 
the territory, which apportioned the legislature by the 
number of qualified voters, so as to make the appor- 
tionment by the number of inhabitants, which was not 
allowed. Not less important than either of these was 
a memorial concerning the Puget Sound Agricultural 
Company, and the difference of opinion existing be- 
tween the company and the citizens of Washington in 
relation to the rights of the association under the 
treaty of 1846. The memorial set forth that the then 
present moment was an auspicious one for the extinc- 
tion of their title, and gave as a reason that "build- 
ings, once valuable, from long use are now measurably 
worthless; and lands once fertile, which paid the tiller 
of the soil, are now become destitute of any fertilizing 
qualities; that said farms are now less valuable than 
the same amount of lands in a state of nature;" and 
congress was entreated to save the country from this 

Whidbey Island in the latter part of July 1858. Olympia Pioneer and Dem., 
Aug 6, 1858; Land-office Sept, 1858. The field of operations in 1858 was on 
Shoalwater Bay, Gray Harbor, Whidbey Island, and the southern coast of 
the Fuca strait. As there was but one land-office in the territory, and that 
one situated at Olympia, the land commissioner, at the request of the territo- 
rial legislature, recommended the formation of three new districts. No action 
was taken, and in 1858 the legislature passed another resolution asking for 
three additional land districts, one to be called Columbia River Land Dis- 
trict. The commissioner again made his former reconimeudation, the house 
committee on lands recommending two new districts. U. S. Misc. Doc. \30, 
vol. ii., 34th cong. 1st sess.; Id., doc. 114; Id., doc. 30, vol. i., 35th cong. 2d 
Bess.; [/. S. H. Com. Kept, 376, vol. iii., 35th cong. 1st sess. On the IGth of 
May, 1860, congress passed an act to ' create an additional land district in 
Washington territory,' but provided no appropriation for carrying out its 
purpose until the following year, when the office at Vancouver was established. 
In 1857 a bill was brought before the house of representatives to extend the 
public surveys east of the Cascade Mountains. The senate referred the mat- 
ter to the secretary of the interior, who declared there was no necessity for 
the bill, and that it would render emigration overland dangerous by exciting 
the Indians. U. S. Sen. Misc., 28, 34th cong. 3d sess. It was not until the 
close of the Indian war east of the mountains in 1858 that the land laws 
were extended to that region. In 1862 the legislature memorialized con- 
gress for a land-office at Walla Walla, which was established. Wash. Slat., 
1861-2, 139. 


deterioration.^' The memorial also stated that at the 
period of the ratification of the treaty the amount of 
land enclosed by the Puget Sound Company at Cow- 
litz and Nisqually did not exceed 2,000 acres, yet 
that the company claimed 227 square miles, or in other 
words, all the land over which their herds of wild stock 
occasionally roamed, or to which they were from time 
to time removed for change of pasture. The Ameri- 
cans held that the treaty confirmed onl}^ the lands en- 
closed by fences. They had settled upon and improved 
the unenclosed lands in many instances; yet they had 
received written notices from the agents of the com- 
pany commanding them to vacate their homes or be 
served with writs of ejectment and trespass; for which 
causes congress was petitioned to take steps to ascer- 
tain the rights of the company, and to purcliase 

A joint resolution was also passed instructing the 
delegate to congress to use his influence with the ad- 
ministration to eflTect a settlement of the disputed 
boundary between the United States and Great Brit- 
ain, involving the right to the islands of the archipel- 
ago of Haro, the matter being afterward known as 
the San Juan question, and to take some steps to 
remove the foreign trespassers from the islands — a res- 
olution suggested, as we already know, by the message 
of Governor Stevens.^^ 

'^ This remarkable statement is corroborated by subsequent irritcrs, who 
account for the impoverishment of the soil by the substratum of gravel, which, 
when the sod was disturbed, allowed the rains to wash down, as through a 
filter, the component parts of the soil. For the same reason, the cattle-ranges, 
from being continually trampled in wet weather, received no benefit from the 
dung of the animals, and deteriorated as stated above. On the plains between 
the Nisqually and Puyallup rivers, where once the grass grew as tall as a man 
on horseback, the appearance of the country was later one of sterility. 

*" Wash. jour. Council, 1854, 183-5. Two other memorials were passed 
at this session; one asking that the claim of Lafayette Baioh for tlie expense 
incurred in rescuing the Georrjiana's passengers from Queen Charlotte Island 
be paid, and one praying congress to confirm the land claim of George Bush, 
colored, to him and his heirs. Id. , 185-8. As to tlie first, congress had already 
legislated on that subject. Cong. Olohe, xxx. 125. 

" The other joint resolutions passed related to the establishment of a mail 
service, by the way of I'uget Sound, between Olympia and other points in 
Washington to San Francisco, New York, and New Orleans; to appropriations 
for territorial and military roads; to light-houses at Cape Flattery, on Blunt's 


The selection of territorial officers by the legislature 
resulted in the appointment of William Cook treas- 
urer, D. B. Bigelow auditor, F. A. Chenoweth pros- 
ecuting attorney of the first judicial district, D. R. 
Bigelow for the second, and F. A. Clarke for the 
third. B. F. Kendall^ was chosen territorial librarian. 
The legislature adjourned May 1st, after passing 125 
acts, and conducting its business harmoniously. 

That which appears as most deserving of comment 
in the proceedings of this body is a resolution passed 
early in the session, that, in its opinion, no disad- 
vantage could result to the territory should the gov- 
ernor proceed to Washington city, "if, in his judgment, 
the interest of the Pacific railroad survey and the 
matters incident thereto could thereby be promoted." 
Stevens was anxious to report in person on the results 
of the railroad survey. In anticipation of this, he 
made a voyage down the Sound, looking for the best 
point for the terminus of the Northern Pacific, and 
he named Steilacoom, Seattle, and Bellingham Bay 
as impressing him favorably.-* But there were other 
matters which he wished to bring to the attention of 
the government in his capacity of superintendent of 

Island, and at New Dungeness; to an appropriation for a marine hospital; to 
a requisition for arms and equipments for tlie male citizens of the territory 
between the ages of 18 and 45; to the completion of the geological survey; to 
the building of an arsenal; to having Columbia City, Penn Cove, Port Gam- 
ble, Whatcom, and Seattle made ports of delivery; to having the office of the 
surveyor of customs removed from Nisqually to Steilucoom; to increasing the 
salary of the collector of customs; and to the advantage of annexing the Sand- 
wich Islands; with some lesser local matters. Among the latter was oue set- 
ting forth that Henry V. Colter, one of the farm of Parker & Colter's express, 
had absconded with |3,875 of the government funds, and instructing the del- 
egate to urge congress to confer authority upon the accounting officers of the 
treasury to place that amount to the credit of the secretary of the territory. 
This matter has been already referred to in Parker's account of the earliest 
mails and express companies. It is said that Colter afterward fell heir to a 
fortune of $200,000. Olympia Transcript, Aug. 8, 1874. 

^ Wash. Jour. Council, 1854, 116. The first appropriation for a public 
library, $5,000, was expended by Stevens. The report of the librarian for 
IS54 was that there were 2,130 volumes in the library. Stevens said in his 
first message that he had taken care to get the best books in each department 
of learning, and that he had applied to the executives of every state and ter- 
ritory and to many learned societies to donate their publications. In 1871 
the territorial library contained over 4, 100 volumes, besides maps and charts. 
Wash. Jour. House, 1871, app. 1-86. 

*' Olympia Pioneer and JJem. , Jan. 28, 1854* 


Indian affairs for Washington, and as a commissioner 
to ascertain what were the rights and what was the 
property of the Hudson's Bay and Puget Sound com- 
panies in Oregon and Washington, as well as to urge 
the settlement of the northern boundary of the latter 

The matter of the boundary line between the island 
of Vancouver and Washington was a later question. 
The earliest conflict arose in 1854 between I. N. 
Ebey, in the discharge of his official duties as collector 

""In Stevens' report ia found a liat of all the forts of the H. B. Co., 
with their rank and value, and the amount of cultivated land, making the 
whole foot up no more than §300,000, whereas they received twenty years 
later more than double that amount. The other information contained in tlie 
report relates to the segregation of the land claimed by the companies into 
donation lots, with the names of the squatters, and is of interest in the history 
of the early settlement of the country. The following are the names of the 
so-called trespassers: At Fort Vancouver, Bishop Blanchet, for a mission 
claim, the same 640 acres being claimed by James Graham of the H. B. Co. 
The county of Clarke also claimed IGO acres of the same land as a county seat, 
which was allowed, as I have mentioned elsewhere. Over all these claims 
the United States military reserve extended. Immediately east of Vancouver 
640 acres were claimed by Forbes Barclay (British), and the same tract by an 
American, Ryan, who resided on it and cultivated it, while Barclay lived 
at Oregon City. Adjoining wa;s a claim of 640 acres, which, after passing 
through several hands — a servant of the company. Chief Factor Ogden, and 
Switzler — was finally sold to Nye, an American. A tract 4 miles square above 
these claims, and embracing the company's mills, was claimed by Daniel 
Harvey (British); but 040 acres, including the grist-mill, were claimed by a 
naturalized citizen, William F. Crate; and 640, including the saw-mill, by 
Gabriel Barktroth, also a naturalized citizen. A portion of this section, with 
the mill, was claimed by Maxon, an American. On the Camas prairie, or 
Mill Plain, back of this, were settled Samuel Valentine, Jacob Predstel, 
and Daniel Ollis, Americans. On the river above Nye were Peter Duuning- 
ton and John Stringer. Mrs Esther .Short, widow of Daniel V. Short, claimed 
640 acres adjoining the military reservation. The other claimants on the 
lands near Vancouver were George Maleck, American, and Charles Prew, 
naturalized, who claimed the same section, Maleck residing on it. Francis 
Laframboise, Abraham Robie, St Andrew, and James Petram held each 040 
acres as lessees of the H. B. Co. Seepleawa, Isaac E. Bell, John C. AUman, 
T. P. Dean, Malky, William H. Dillon, David Sturgess— also claimed by Geo. 
Harvey, British subject— George Batty, James Bowers, Linsey, John Dillon, 
Ira Patterson, Samuel Matthews, Clark Short, Michael Trobb, John B. 
Lee, George Morrow, J. L. Myers, George Weber, Benjamm Olney, Job 
Fisher, William M. Simmons, Alexander Davis, Americans, each claim- 
ing from .320 to 040 acres, were residing and making improvements on land 
claimed by the H. B. Co. on the Columbia, and in several instances by indi- 
viduals under the treaty, but only when not resided upon by these claimants. 
This list was made by I. N. Ebey for Governor Stevens. U. S. Sen. Ex. Doc, 
37, 33d cong. 2d sess. W. H. Dillon resided at Dillon's Ferry, near Van- 
couver. His daughter Olive married Matthias Spurgeon, who was born in 
Muscatine, la, and migrated to Or. in 1852, residing for 7 years in Dillon's 
family. He went to Idaho during early mining times in that territory, but 
returned and engaged in fanning near Vancouver. 


of customs, and a justice of the peace under the colo- 
nial government of Vancouver Island, named Griffin. 
Ebey finding San Juan Island covered with several 
thou.sand head of sheep, horses, cattle, and hogs, im- 
ported from "Vancouver Island without being entered 
at tlie custom-house, was questioned by Griffin as to 
his intentions in paying the island a visit, and declined 
to answer, but proceeded to encamp near the shore. 
On the following day the Hudson's Bay Company's 
steamer Otter ran over from Vancouver and anchored 
in front of Ebey's encampment, sending a boat ashore, 
in which was Mr Sankster, collector of customs for 
the port of Victoria, who also desired to know Ebey's 
errand, and was told that he was there in his official 
capacity of collector for the district of Puget Sound. 
Sankster then declared that he should arrest all per- 
sons and seize all vessels found navigating the waters 
west of Rosario strait and north of the middle of the 
strait of Juan de Fuca. 

This growl of the British lion, so far from putting 
to flight the American eagle, only caused its repre- 
sentative to declare that an inspector of customs should 
remain upon the island to enforce the revenue laws of 
the United States, and that he hoped no persons pre- 
tending to be officers of the British government would 
be so rash as to interfere with the discharge of his offi- 
cial duties. Sankster then ordered the British flag to 
be displayed on shore, which was done by hoisting it 
over the quarters of the Hudson's Bay Company on 
the island. 

During these proceedings James Douglas, governor 
of Vancouver Island and vice-admiral of the British 
navy, was on board the Otter, waiting for Ebey to 
capitulate. Sankster even proposed that he should 
go on board the Otter to hold a conference with his 
excellency, but the invitation was declined, with a 
declaration that the collector of Puget Sound would 
be happy to meet Governor Douglas at his tent. Soon 
after, the steamer returned to Victoria, leaving a boat 


and crew to keep watch; and Ebey next day appointed 
and swore into office Inspector Webber, whom he 
stationed on San Juan Island.^^ 

This occurrence was in the latter part of April or 
first of May 1854, about the time that Governor 
Stevens left the territory for Washington city, and 
was probably occasioned in part by the intimations 
given in the message of the governor and resolution 
of the legislature that the question of boundary would 
be agitated, with a desire and determination on the 
part of Douglas to hold the islands in the Fuca straits 
when the struggle came. This subject furnished a 
valid reason for wishing to secure the attention of the 
heads of government. The extinguishment of the 
Indian titles was perhaps more imperative than any 
other, and to this Stevens addressed himself with the 
energy, ability, and straightforwardness which were 
his characteristics, supplementing the feebler efforts 
of Lancaster, and with Lane of Oregon coming to the 
rescue of the most important bills for Washington,^'^ 
and really doing the work of the delegate. In his 
readiness to assume every responsibility, Stevens re- 
sembled Thurston of Oregon, but was more solidly 
and squarely built, like Napoleon, whom he resembled 
in figure, and less nervously irritable. No amount of 
labor appalled him; and when in the midst of affairs 
of the gravest importance, he was alert and buoyant 
without being unduly excited.- 

The appropriations obtained for Washington by 
Lancaster, assisted by Stevens and Lane, were $30,- 
000 for a military road from the great falls of the 
Missouri to intersect the road leading from Walla 
Walla to Puget Sound. This was a scheme origi- 

" Ohjmpia Pioneer and Dem., May 13, 1S54. For a chapter ou the San 
Juan ditficulty, see Hist. Brit. Columbia, this series. 

'^ Lane added to his bill amendatory of the land law, which passed in July, 
a section giving Washington a surveyor-general. Ho consented that Wash- 
ington should have the arsenal, should congress grant one jointly to both ter- 
ritories, and in various ways helped on the delegate, all of whose letters home 
complained that he could not get the attention of congress. Had he been a 
Thurston or a Lane, he would have compelled the attention of congress. 


nating with Stevens, who thought by making the Mis- 
souri River a highway, and constructing a road from 
its head waters to the navigable waters of the Co- 
lumbia, or to intersect with the old immigrant road, to 
shorten the distance tr'avelled by wagons and lessen 
the hardships of immigration, as well as to avoid the 
danger from Indian attacks on a portion of the road 
by the South pass. For this reason, and to cultivate 
the friendship of the Indians, as well as to make a 
more thorough exploration of the Blackfoot country 
for railroad passes, he left lieutenants Grover and 
Mullan and Mr Doty in the mountain region west of 
the Missouri through the winter of 1853-4, during 
which the line of road across the Rocky Mountains, 
from Fort Benton to Cceur d'Alene Lake, was marked 
out, and afterward used as the route for the expendi- 
ture of the congressional appropriation named above, 
and which, from the fact that Mullan was appointed- 
to construct it, took the name of the Mullan road. 

An appropriation of $25,000 was made for the con- 
struction of a military road from Fort Dalles to Fort 
Vancouver, and of $30,000 for a road from Vancouver 
to Fort Steilacoom; for light-houses at Cape Shoal- 
water, Blunt's Island, Cape Flattery, and New Dun- 
geness, $89,000; and for buoys at the entrance of 
Dungeness and the anchorages on Puget Sound, 
$5,000. Some increase was made in the salaries of 
territorial officers, and a liberal appropriation for the 
Indian service, including $100,000 to enable Stevens 
to treat with the Blackfoot and other tribes in the 
north and east portions of the territory. 

Washington territory, or that portion of it to which 
its early history chiefly relates, was surrounded by 
and at the mercy of the most numerous, if not the 
most warlike, native tribes of the original territory 
of Oregon. The census in Stevens' report, 1853-4, 
gave the whole number of Indians in western Wash- 
ington as between seven and eight thousand, and 


east of the Cascade Mountains between six and seven 
thousand. ^^ Besides the tribes actually resident about 
the Sound, the settlements were liable to incursions 
from the Haidahs of Queen Charlotte Island, and 
even from the tribes of the coast as far north as 
Fort Simpson, these tribes being good seamen, and 
possessing large and strong war canoes, in which they 
made long voyages to commit a murder or a theft.^* 
The Indians on the sea-coast of Washington and along 
the strait of Fuca were sometimes guilty of murder, 
and those about the settlements could not always 
withstand the temptation to commit a robbery, for 
which they were promptly punished when detected, 
but no serious outbreaks had yet occurred since the 
organization of the territory. 

In July 1852 the United States coast surveying 
steamer Active, James R. Alden commanding, with a 
surveying party under lieutenants Davidson and Law- 
son, entered Neah Bay, and encamped on the shore 
near the trading post of Samuel Hancock, having 
gained the full consent of the Makahs living there 
in order not to give offence. The steamer then pro- 
ceeded on a preliminary survey up the strait to Dun- 
geness and Port Townsend, Davidson establishing 
astronomical stations at the latter place and Port 
Angeles, after which he returned to Neah Bay, and 
the Active again left for Shoalwater Bay to make a 
survey there before the close of the season, leaving 
the party of nine persons at Neah Bay without the 
means of quitting that station until she should re- 
turn. The camp was well armed with rifles, cavalry 
pistols, shot-guns, and revolvers, and although not 

"/»<?. Aff. Bept, 1854,249. 

" On the '26th of September, 1852, the American schooner S^isan Stnrpes, 
Bailing along the coast of Queen Charlotte Island with a light breeze, was 
surrounded by thirty canoes, the Indians professing a desire to sell some fish. 
When they were near enough, they simultaneously sprang on board, taking 
possession of the vessel, stripping the crew naked, and taking them on shore 
prisoners, after which they burned the vessel. The captives were rescued by 
the H. B. Co. 's steamer Beaver, from Fort Simpson, with the exception of 
one man, whom the Indiana refused to release. His fate it is needless to 
conjecture. Olympia Columbian, Jan. 1, 1863. 


apprehending any clanger, were prepared for an attack. 
AH went well for a few days after the departure of 
the steamer, when a fleet of canoes containing between 
150 and 200 Nitinats from Vancouver Island an- 
chored in the bay, most of them remaining in their 
boats. Thinking this a precautionary measure to 
avoid quarrels between the resident tribes and the 
strangers, the surveying party remained in negligent 
satisfaction, pleased with this apparent discretion of 
the visitors. 

But Hancock, who was buying fish oil of them, had 
discovered, by overhearing on the second day a con- 
versation not intended for his ears, a plot to massacre 
himself and the surveying party, and possess them- 
selves of the goods and arms of both. He hastened 
to impart this information to Davidson and Lawson, 
who immediately loaded all their arms, threw up a 
breastwork, and detailed a night-watch. Hancock, 
who had two men at his post, made preparations for 
an attack, and himself mounted guard. During the 
night some Indians came ashore and proceeded in the 
direction of the surveyors' camp, but being challenged 
by the guard, retreated to their canoes, which took 
their departure at daybreak. The plot originated 
with the Vancouver Island Indians, the Makahs being 
reluctant accomplices, fearing the vengeance of the 
white people. Happily nothing came of it, and noth- 
ing was said about it to the Makahs. ^^ 

Not long afterward the schooner Cynosure, Fowler 
master, from San Francisco, visited Neah Bay, having 
on board two Makahs, and a white man sick with what 
proved to be small-pox. The disease had been com- 
municated to Indians, who soon fell ill and spread the 
contagion among their tribe, who perished by scores 
from its ravages. Not being able to control it, they 
conceived the idea of running away fi-om the scourge, 
and fled to Vancouver Island, where they communi- 

^^Lawso-iVs Autohiography, MS., 51-3; Hancock's Thirteen Years, MS., 


cated it to the Nitinats. The beach at Neah Bay 
was strewn with the unburied bodies of the miserable 
Makahs, who were no longer able or willing to attend 
the sick or bury the dead. At the end of six weeks 
the disease abated, but the tribe had lost a large 
percentage of its members, and was plunged in grief. 
After a few months of brooding over their losses, they 
came to the conclusion, as they had never experienced 
such a visitation before Hancock came to live among 
them, that he must have originated the plague, and he 
was threatened with death if he remained. His trad- 
ing post was therefore vacated in the spring of 1853.'® 

In September 1853 a large party of the Makahs 
visited New Dungeness in their canoes, encamping 
on a sand-spit at the entrance to the harbor, having 
among them an Indian who had killed Albert Pet- 
tingill near Port Townsend in the previous spring. 
On being informed of this by a Clallam, McAlmond, 
Bradshaw, Abernethy, Cline, Brownfield, and Moore, 
being all the settlers who were in the neigliborhood 
at the time, met, and having sent for reinforcements, 
finally delegated Brownfield to seek an interview with 
the Indians and demand the surrender of the mur- 
derer. But upon visiting their camp, the Makahs 
refused to deliver up the guilty one, challenging the 
white men to battle. Being reenforced by J. C. 
Brown, H. W. Watkins, and William Failing, the 
settlers attempted to enter the Indian camp, when 
they were fired upon. Firing followed from both 
sides, and in the affair two Indians were killed, two 
wounded, and one white man slightly hurt by a ball 
in the neck. Darkness put an end to the engagement, 
which was conducted in canoes, and the Indians dis- 
persed, the murderer going to Port Townsend.'^ 

On hearing of the attempted capture and the escape 

'^Id., 278-86, 333. Swan, in his Norlhwent Coast, 55-6, refers to the 
prevalence of a light form of small-pox at Shoalwater Bay, which did not 
carry off white men, but was fatal to Indians. Hancock also relates that one 
of the Makahs who first had the disease recovered, but his people, holiling him 
responsible for its introduction, killed him. Thirieen. Years. 

Olynqna Columbian, Oct. 8 and 15, 1853. 

)pie, n 


of the murderer, Captain Alden pursued him from 
port to port in the Active, and succeeded in overtak- 
ing him at Port Ludlow, where the chiefs of his tribe 
coming on board were detained until the criminal was 
given up. He was tried and found guilty at the Oc- 
tober term of the 3d district court in 1854, together 
with an accoraplice.^^ 

Early in March 1854 William Young, in the em- 
ployment of C. C. Terry at Alki, while looking for a 
land claim with a canoe and a crew of three Snoho- 
mish, was killed and robbed, two of the Indians 
being found with his clothing and other property in 
their possession. Suspecting themselves about to 
be arrested, they fled to Holme Harbor, Whidbey 
Island, whither they were pursued by the sheriff, T. 
S. Russell, of King county, with a posse of four men, 
who made the arrests, but were fired upon by the 
friends of the prisoners and four of their number 
wounded, one of whom, Charles Cherry, died soon 
after returning to Seattle.^' Nine Indians, including 
one of the murderers, were killed, and the other one 
secured, who confessed not only the killing of Young, 
but also of one of his confederates in a quarrel over 
the spoil. This Indian was imprisoned for several 
months, but finally discharged. 

About the same time the Clallams at Dungeness 
having killed Captain Jewell and his steward. Lieu- 
tenant Floyd Jones, 4th infantry, with a squad of 
men repaired to the disturbed district, where two 
Indians were killed and several slightly wounded in 
an encounter between the Clallams and the military 
and settlers. On hearing of these troubles. Governor 
Stevens made a visit to the lower Sound; but in the 
mean time the murderers, three in number, were ar- 

'"W. H. Wallace and Elwood Evans defended Pettingill's murderers; 
Joseph S. Smith and B. F. Kendall defended Jewell's murderers, and the Ind- 
ian who killed Church. Ohjmpia Pioneer and Dem., Oct. 21, 1854. 

"A petition was sent to congress asking relief from the loss sustained by 
T. S. Russell, F. M. Syner, and Robert R. Phillips by reason of their wounds 
and consequent inability to labor. Wash. Jour. Council, 1854, 205-6. 


rested, and three others underwent flogging for 

In consequence of the affair at Hohue Harbor, 
Major Larned, who took command of Fort Steilacoom 
in July previous, proceeded to Whidbey Island with 
a detachment of nine soldiers, to endeavor to restore 
peace to the settlement at that point. While return- 
ing in a government surf-boat, navigated by John 
Hamilton of Steilacoom, all were lost b}' the sudden 
upsetting of the craft in a squall off Port Madison, 
except two privates, who clung to the boat and drifted 
ashore near Seattle.*^ 

No Indian agents as yet having been commis- 
sioned for Washington, Governor Stevens, as superin- 
tendent of Indian affairs, appointed ]\I. T. Simmons 
special agent for the Puget Sound district. Simmons 
entered upon his duties b}^ publishing a request to all 
good citizens to aid in the suppression of liquor-selling 
to Indians, by informing him of every such infraction 
of the law which became known to them; by advising 
persons employing Indians to have a written contract 
witnessed by a white man; and by refraining from 
punishing suspected Indian criminals except upon cer- 
tain proofs of their crimes. With this caution ob- 
served, he hoped to be able to preserve the peace. 
Soon after the appointment of Simmons west of the 
Cascade Mountains, Stevens appointed A. J. Bolan, 
member of the legislature from Clarke county, special 
agent for the district extending east of the Cascades 
to the Bitter Root Mountains, and W. H. TaT)pan, 
councilman from Clarke county, special agent for the 
Columbia River district. 

In April 1854 the Snohomish voluntarily hanged 
two of their own people at Seattle for the murder 

'"Joseph S. Smith and B. F. Kendall defended these Indians, and also the 
murderer of Judah Church, who was killed in March 18o3. Olym/iia Pioneer 
and Dim., Oct. 21, 18.54. They were all convicted, but escaped. 

«' The dro\vned were Major Lamed, who left a family at Fort Steilacoom, 
John Hamilton, Corporal Jirah T. Barlow, John Mclntyre, Henry Hall, 
Lawrence Fitzpatrick, Charles Ross, John Clark, and Henry Lees. Id. , April 
8. 1854. 


of a white man at Lake Union, in July previous, and 
the most friendly relations seemed establislied in 
that quarter About the same time James Burt 
murdered an Indian of Fort Simpson, near Olympia, 
was tried and acquitted, but fled the territory to avoid 
the vengeance of the tribe. In the estimation of the 
public, the white man should have been punished,^^ 
and apprehensions of the consequences of this act 
were expressed in the Olympia newspaper. 

In the latter part of May ten large war canoes, 
containing several hundred northern Indians, appeared 
at Vancouver Island, and a party of eight coming on 
shore, shot Charles Bailey, an Englishman, whom 
they mistook for an American. Governor Douglas 
ordered out a force from the fort at Victoria, pursuing 
them to their canoes, two of which proceeded to Bel- 
lingbam Bay, landing at the claim of a settler named 
Clayton, who, perceiving from their demeanor that 
hostilities were intended, fled to the woods, pursued 
by the Indians, and escaped to the house of Captain 
Battle, where some of the Lummi tribe were found 
and sent to alarm the settlements. Clayton, Battle, 
and five others, in order to avoid being taken should 
the enemy have found the trail of the fugitives, em- 
barked in a canoe, and anchored off" the house of Bat- 
tle, in readiness to escape by water should the Indians 
attack by land. Here they remained from Satur- 
day afternoon to 10 o'clock Sunday night, when all 
went ashore except two — David Melville and George 
. Brown — who were left to keep guard. During the 
night Richard Williams, one of the shore party, dis- 
charged his gun to clean it, the arm having been wet 
the day before. His fire was returned by a volley 
out of the darkness and from the water. At the 
sound of the firing, some friendly Indians came to the 
rescue, and the enemy was driven off". The two men 
in the boat were never seen again, but as their canoe 

"/rf., May 20, 1854; rept of Capt. Stoneman. in U. S. H. Ex. Doc., 88, 
z., V]o-&, 3dth cong. 1st sess. 


was found on the beach the next morning, covered 
Avith blood, it was supposed that they were surprised 
while asleep and beheaded, as was customary with 
these northern Indians. The murderers then robbed 
several houses on Bellingliam Bay and Whidbey 
Island, and disappered. Secretary and acting gover- 
nor Mason and Agent Simmons, on learning that 
armed northern Indians had appeared in the waters of 
Washington, immediately repaired to Fort Steilacoom, 
and with a small detachment of soldiers proceeded 
down the Sound to ascertain the condition of affairs 
in that quarter. Nothing, however, was effected be- 
yond making a display of the intention of the United 
States to punish crimes committed against its citi- 
zens, when able. Upon receiving advices from the 
Secretary, Governor Stevens called the attention of 
the war department to the inadequacy of tlie force 
stationed at Paget Sound, and the necessity for some 
means of transporting troops other than by canoes. 

The absence of steam-vessels on the Sound made 
the communication of news slow and uncertain, as it 
also made the chance of succor in case of need nearly 
hopeless. The Fairy, which ran for a short time, had 
been withdrawn, and for the period of nine months 
nothing faster than a sailing vessel or canoe could be 
had to transport passengers or troops from point to 
point, while land travel north of Seattle was imprac- 
ticable. At length, in September 1854, the steamer 
Major Tompkins, Captain James M. Hunt, owned by 
John H. Scranton, was brought from San Francisco 
and placed upon the Sound to ply regularly between 
Olympia, where a wharf had been erected by Edward 
Giddings, Jr, on the flat north of the town," and 
Victoria, calling at the intermediate ports. Very 
soon afterward the custom-house was removed from 
Olympia to Port Townsend, and the revenue-cutter 
Jefferson Davis, Captain William C. Pease, arriving 

''Sylvester's Olympia, MS., 22; Parker's Wa^^h. Ter.,US.,5-6i Eldridge'a 
Sketches, MS., 11; Wash. Jour. Council, 1854, 209-10. 


for service on the Sound, sensibly relieved the feeling 
of isolation of the inhabitants of the northern counties. 
In October the murderers of Captain Jewell and 
Church escaped from Fort Steilacoom, and Acting 
Governor Mason offered a large reward for their re- 
apprehension. These Indians were retaken in Decem- 
ber, when the Major Tonvphins, with the revenue-cutter 
carrying troops in tow, proceeded to a camp of the 
Clallams on Hood Canal, to demand the surrender of 
the convicts. Already Simmons had secured Church's 
murderer, but the tribe refused to give up the others. 
When the soldiers under Lieutenant Nugent landed, 
the savages fled, and the only result of this expedition 
was the destruction of their camp and winter supply 
of salmon. The cutter also fired some shots into the 
woods before leaving, by which five Clallams were 
reported to have been killed. On the return down 
the canal, Simmons succeeded in capturing a Clallam 
chief known as the Duke of York," and detained him 
as a hostage for the surrender of the escaped con- 
victs, who were finally delivered, and taken to Steila- 
coom. The Indians were terrified by the rapidity 
with which the Major Tompkins followed them, and 
the certainty with which they were overtaken in 
flight, and it was believed the moral effect of the fear 
inspired would be effectual to prevent crimes. To 
the chagrin of the white population and the relief of 
the Indians, the Major Tompkins was lost the night 
of the 10th of February, 1855, by being blown on the 
rocks at the entrance to Esquimalt Harbor, Vancou- 
ver Island, her passengers all escaping to land. Her 
place was filled soon after by the Water Lily, owned 
by C. C. Terry. 

**This Indian and his two wives. Queen Victoria and Jenny Lind, have 
become historical characters in Washington, being often referred to by 
writers visiting Port Townsend, where they resided. Swan, in his Wash. 
Sketch, MS., S, makes mention of them, saying that the Duke of York lived at 
one end of the beach, and at the other a remnant of the Chimakum tribe. 
Nothing less like the personages they were named after could be imagined 
than these squalid beach dwellers. 
Hist. Wash.— 7 


Governor Stevens returned to Olympia with hia 
family** on the 1st of December, in time to be present 
at the opening of the legislature*^ on the 4th of that 

In his message the governor referred to the Indian 
disturbances on the immigrant road to Oregon and 
Washington,*^ as well as the troubles on the lower 
part of the Sound, and the eflPect they were likely to 
have upon the immigration of the following years,** 

** Accompanying the governor on his first arrival was his nephew, George 
Watson Stevens of Lawrence, Mass., 22 years of age. He was a young man 
of talent and education, from whom much was expected; but was accidentally 
drowned in the Skookum Chuck, Feb. 16, 1S85. Olympia Pioneer and Dem., 
Feb. 24, 1855. 

^' The members of the council elected to fill the places left vacant by the 
expiration of the short term and other causes were Jefferson Huff and Ira 
Patterson from Clarke and Skamania, C. C. Terry and W. A. Strickler from 
Pierce and King, and A. M. Poe from Island, Clallam, Jefierson, and What- 
com counties. Catlin, of the former council, was chosen president; Butler 
P. Anderson, chief clerk; A. J. Moses, assistant clerk; J. L. Mitchell, ser- 
geant-at-arms; William Cullison, door-keeper. 

The lower house was composed of William McCool, of Skamania county; 
C. C. Stiles, Chas S. Irby, William Hendrickson, Henry R. Crosbie, of Claike; 
John Briscoe, of Pacific and Wahkiakum; George Watkins, of Chehalis and 
Sawamish ; Charles H. Spinning, Charles F. White, of Lewis; Stephen 
Guthrie, William Cock, Benjamin L. Henness, \Villiam P. Wells, of Thurs- 
ton; William H. Wallace, Frank Clarke, Samuel McCaw, of Pierce; John Car- 
son, of Pierce and King; A. A. Denny, of King; Timothy Heald, of Je9"erson 
and Clallam; R. L. Doyle, of Island and Whatcom; A. S. Abemethy, of 
Cowlitz, Crosbie was chosen speaker; B. F. Kendall was elected chief clerk; 
R. M. Walker, assistant clerk; Milton Mounts, sergeant-at-arms; William 
Baily, door-keeper. H'os/i. Jour. House, 1854-5, 8-9, 16. 

"The massacre of the Ward train, in Hist. Or., ii., chap, xiv., this series, 
and the killing of Georjge Lake, Walter G. Perry, and E. B. Cantrell, immi- 
grants to Washington, is referred to here. Ebey's Jour., MS., 12-15, 17, 19, 
23, 25. 

*°The immigration to Washington by the road opened in 1853 to Walla 
Walla was not large. The road had been further improved, but was not yet 
good. Jacob Ehey and W. S. Ebey, with six others of the family, Harvey 
H. Jones, A. S.Yantia, Moses Kirtland, M. Cox, T. J. Headley, Henry 
Whitsill, George E. King, the families of Lake and Perry killed by the 
Indians, C. P. Anderson, Charles Van Wormer, William Goodell, A. D. 
Neely, J. R. Meeker, M. W. Morrow, James Kirtley, W. N. Ayers, in all 
about 20 families and 200 head of stock, passed over this route. Olympia 
Pioneer and Dem., Sept. 16 and Oct. 15, 1854. In Ebey's Journal, MS., i. 
101, I find mention of A. J. Bradley, Dick Bradley, John'Waste, Judson, H. 
H. Jones, S. P. Burr, and hints of the settlements already made and to be 
made in White and Puyallup valleys. Porter's claim was the first after 
leaving the mountains in White River Valley. ' King, Kirtland, Jones, and 
others, ' s.ays Ebey, ' will probably locate in this vicinity,' and by reference 
to Morgan's map of Puget Sound I find these names, and that of Cox on White 
River. Three miles from Porter's was ConneU's prairie, and three mi4cs 
farther was Fennellis' prairie; six miles to the Puyallup bottoms, where some 
houses were being put up; nine miles after crossing the Puyallup to J. 
Montgomery's claim cast of Steilacoom, and near that place the claim of Peter 


and again recommended the enrolment of the militia, 
before which an application to the secretary of war 
for arms and ammunition must fail, and expressed the 
hope that the people would give him their support 
in arranging "on a permanent basis the future of the 
Indians in the territory." Feeling the necessity of 
this work, the governor very soon set about it, and 
concluded on the 26th of December a treaty with the 
several tribes at the head of the Sound. Three small 
reservations were made, as follows: an island op- 
posite Skookum Bay, two sections of land on the 
Sound west of the meridian line, and an equal amount 
on the Puyallup River near its mouth. Under this 
treaty the Indians had the right to fish as usual, to 
pasture their horses on any unclaimed land, and to 
gather their food of berries and roots wherever they 
did not trespass upon enclosed ground, or to reside 
near the settlements provided they did nothing to 
make their presence objectionable. Between six and 
seven hundred signed the treaty, which, besides their 
annuities, gave them teachers, a farmer, mechanics, 
and a physician, and manifested their satisfaction.*" 
This treaty was immediately ratified by the senate. 

On the 22d of January, 1854, a treaty was con- 
cluded with about 2,500 natives on the eastern shore 
of the Sound. The treaty was held at Point Elliott, 
near the mouth of Snohomish River. Speeches were 
made by Seattle, Patkanim, and other chiefs of influ- 
ence, all expressive of friendship for the white people 
and pleasure at the treaty, and a reservation was agreed 
upon on the Lumimi River. Then followed a treaty 

Smith. According to the same authority, Judson Van Wormer and Goodell 
went to Mound Prairie, south of the Nisqually River, to find claims. S. P. 
Burr died on the road, but his family arrived. Mrs Meeker died on the 
Platte. Meeker and Mrs Burr were married after arriving in the territory. 
Ezra Meeker, later a well-known hop-grower in the Puyallup Valley, and 
author ot a pamphlet on Washington, was already settled ou a claim east of 
Steilacoom. Daniel Smalley and George W. Davidson settled near New 
Dungeuess in the autumn of 18j4, but they were not of the overland immi- 
gration. Many arrived by sea, or from the Columbia. Wash. Tcr. Skelchas, 
MS., 68. 

*' Wash. Jour. Council, 1854-5, 15; Olympia, Pioneer and Dem., Deo. 30, 


with the tribes farther north, at which a thousand 
were present, who consented readily to tlie terms, the 
chiefs using the occasion to display their oratory, but 
in a friendly fashion. A reservation was selected 
about the head of Hood Canal. Soon afterward the 
Makahs of Cape Flattery and other tribes at the en- 
trance to the straits were treated with; and lastly a 
council was held with those on the Chehalis River 
and the coast, the whole business being transacted in 
less than three months, and in the winter season, such 
was the energy with which the governor addressed 
himself to the duties of Indian superintendent.*" 

But after a week of negotiation, in tbe latter case 
the council broke up without coming to any agree- 
ment on account of each of the fragments of tribes, 
five in number, desiring a separate reservation, to 
which Stevens refused his consent." 

Having completed the labor of extinguishing Indian 
titles west of the Cascade Mountains, with the ex- 
ception of the Cowlitz, Chinooks, Chehalis, and Que- 
niults, who together numbered about eight hundred, 
Stevens next prepared to enter upon the same duties 
in eastern Washington. While on his survej'ing expe- 
dition, he had been at much pains to become acquainted 

*» Swan, in his Northwest Coast, 327-48, gires some idea of how Stevens 
accomplished so much work. It was greatly advanced by his habit of having 
agents on the ground some time beforehand. He has been accused, particu- 
larly by Tolraie, in his Paget Sound, MS., 37, of forcing treaties upon tlio Ind- 
ians without giving them time to consider sufficiently what was proposed. 
But Swan makes a difierent statement. Special Agent Tappan was sent in 
advance to gather up the Indians of his district and take tlicm to the place 
of meeting on the Chehalis Kiver, where H. D. Cook and Sidney Ford, Jr, 
would meet him with the coast tribes. Swan, J. G. Cooper of the railroad 
survey, George Gibbs, and others were invited to be present. The treaty- 
ground was on the claim of James Pilkington, 10 miles above Gray Harbor, 
where a comfortable camp was arranged, and where ample time was taken to 
make the Indians acquainted with the propositions offered them. The prin- 
cipal interpreter for the white men was B. F. Shaw, colonel of the newly or- 
ganized militia, who gave the speech of the governor in jargon to an Indian 
interpreter from each tribe, who repeated it to his people— a slow but sure 
method of conveying his meanin". 

5' Swan though t Stevens should have yielded. Perhaps it would have been 
more politic; but Palmer of Oregon, after many years of acquaintance with 
Indian affairs, says it is a mistake to have many reservations. It certainly is 
much more expensive to the government. Swan believed the Indians sliouUl 
liave boon humored in their dislike of each other and their attachment to 


with all the tribes upon his route within or bordering 
upon his-district, and to prepare their minds for treaty- 
making. He had particularly commissioned James 
Doty, one of his assistants, who remained at Fort 
Benton in charge of the meteorological post at that 
place for a year, to inquire into all matters pertaining 
to the Indian tribes in that quarter, and who was 
made a special agent for that purpose.®^ Lieutenant 
MuUan, who was employed in the Flathead country for 
the same length of time, was instructed to give much 
attention to Indian affairs, and apparently gained a 
strong influence over them; and Lieutenant Saxton 
also remained some time with the Nez Perces in order 
to give and obtain information. 

In October Mullan and Doty arrived, the first at 
Vancouver and the second at Olympia, and when 
Stevens returned a few weeks later from Washington 
city, they were ready to report in person. In Janu- 
ary 1855 Doty was despatched with a small party 
east of the Cascade Mountains to make arrangements 
with the Yakimas, Walla Wallas, Nez Perces, and 
Palouses, for a grand council, which, by agreement 
with Superintendent Palmer of Oregon, was appointed 
for the 20th of May, Kamiakin, chief of the Yaki- 
mas, himself directing that the council should be held 
in the Walla Walla Valley, near the site of the pres- 
ent city of that name, because it was an ancient 

At the time and place agreed upon the council was 
held, and treaties signed by the chiefs of the Yakimas, 
Walla Wallas, Nez Perces, and Cayuses, the narra- 
tive of which is contained in another volume. ^^ Sev- 
eral weeks were consumed at the treaty-grounds, and 
it was the middle of June before Stevens was ready 

'''^Pac. S. E. Kept, xii. 113. 

'^ Hist. Or., ii., chap, xiv., this series. Briefly, the tribes assembled 
gave the superintendents unexpected trouble in making treaties, Kamiakin 
having conspired with other chiefs to destroy the commissioners and seize-the 
government property which was stored at Fort Walla Walla. Lawyer, head- 
chief of the Nez Perces, was able to prevent the conspiracy being carried out, 
but not to prevent what followed. 


to proceed to the Blackfoot country, where arrange- 
ments had been made for a treaty council in October. 
While en route every opportunity was used to culti- 
vate confidential relations with the Indians, and 
treaties were entered into with the upper Pend d'Ore- 
illes, Kootenais, and Flatheads. A delegation of the 
Nez Perces, under the special agency of William 
Craig of Lapwai, attended him to the Blackfoot coun- 
cil, where a treaty of peace was entered into between 
the Blackfoot nation and this tribe, and where a suc- 
cessful conference was held with this powerful and 
predatory people.^* The news of the Blackfoot treaty 
was despatched to Olympia by the governor's special 
expressman, W. H. Pearson, who returning October 
29th met Stevens' party two days' travel west of Fort 
Benton, on their way home with the intelligence that, 
so far from keeping their treaty obligations, the Yaki- 
mas, Walla Wallas, Cayuses, Palouses, and a part of 
the Nez Perces were at war with the white people, 
and that it would be impossible for him to reach 

s* Stevens was assisted in his labors by Special Agent Doty; by commis- 
sioned agent R. H. Lansdale, whose district tliis was ; by Gustavus Sohon, 'a 
private iu the 4th infantry, who was with Mr Mullan the year previous in 
the Bitter Root Valley, and had shown a great taste as an ai-tist and ability 
to learn the Indian language, as well as facility in intercourse with the Ind- 
ians;' by Albert H. Robie, 'a most intelligent young man, who, from a 
cook-boy in 1853, had in a year and half become an intelligent herder and 
woodsman, and was also desirous of being engaged on the service;' Pac. R. 11. 
Eept, xii. 196; and Special Agent Thomas Adams, one of his aids in 1853. 
His messenger was W. H. Pearson, whom Stevens describes as 'hardy, intel- 
ligent, bold, and resolute,' and as being 'acquainted with all the relations 
between Indians and white men, from the borders of Texas to the forty-niuth 
parallel.' Pearson carried the news of the Walla Walla council to Olympia, 
and returning overtook Stevens in the Flathead country in time to start back 
again July 18th with the results of a council with that nation. On the 27th 
of August ho again overtook Stevens' party at Fort Benton, the distance to 
Olympia and back — 1,750 miles — being accomplished in 28 days, some of 
which were not used in travel. He rode the 260 miles from Fort Owen to 
Fort Benton in less than three days. One thing which Stevens never forgot 
to do was to give credit where it belonged, even to his humblest servants; 
but this feat of Pearson's he mentions as showing the practicability of travel 
in eastern Washington. His thirteen-year-old son Hazard, who accompanied 
him on this journey to the Blackfoot country, was sent as a messenger to the 
Gros Ventres to bring them to the council-ground at the mouth of Judith 
River, and rode 150 miles from 10 o'clock of one day to half-past 2 o'clock of 
the next, without fatigue. Stevens was detained beyond the time contem- 
plated by having to wait for keel-boats from below on the Missouri River 
with the treaty goods, the water being low. 


Olympia through the Indian country, advices from 
army officers recommending him to go down the Mis- 
souri River, and return to Washington territory by 
the way of New York. Instead of taking this hu- 
mihating advice, Stevens at once determined to push 
forward at all hazards. Sending Doty back to Fort 
Benton for a large supply of ammunition, with addi- 
tional arms and horses, he encamped his men to await 
Doty's return, and on the 31st, with only A. H. Robie 
and a Delaware Indian interpreter, started to ride 
express to Bitter Root Valley, to communicate with 
Agent R. H. Lansdale, in charge of the Flatheads. 
At Fort Owen*^* he overtook the Nez Perce delega- 
tion, whom he found informed of the war which had 
broken out in the Yakima country, and also that a 
portion of their own tribe were disaffected and some 
of them hostile, while all the other tribes who had 
been parties to the treaty of Walla Walla were un- 
doubtedly so. However, after a conference, the whole 
party of fourteen, including the war-chiefs Looking 
Glass, Spotted Eagle, and Three Feathers, promised 
friendship, and agreed to accompany Stevens as a part 
of his escort, offering if he should go through the 
Nez Perce country to send a large party of young 
luen with him to The Dalles. He halted but one 
day, and moved down to Hell Gate pass to wait for 
Doty, who overtook him on the 11th of November, 
and where he was detained until the 1 5th completing 
preparations for the contemplated march. He crossed 
the Bitter Root Mountains on the 20th, in three 
feet of snow, the horses of the train being one night 
without grass. When twenty -five miles from the Coeur 
d'Alene Mission, he again travelled in advance of the 
train, with only Pearson, Craig, and four of the Nez 

Information had been brought to Stevens that it 

5^ Fort Owen was a stockade, the residence of John Owen and his brother, 
stock-raisers in the Bitter Eoot Valley. They had abandoned their place 
previous to the passage of the railroad expedition from fear of the Blackfoot 
tribe, but had reestaClished it. 


was tlie intention of the hostile tribes to cut off his 
return, and he had no means of knowing to what ex- 
tent the Ca3ur d'Alenes and other tribes on his 
route had been influenced or brought into the com- 
bination for war. But judging it best to seem uncon- 
scious of danger, he did so, "throwing ourselves into 
the midst of the Indians with our rifles in one hand, 
and our arms outstretched on the other side, we ten- 
dered them both the sword and the ohve-branch." 
To the Nez Perces he had given instructions to 
entertain the Cceur d'Alenes with stories of the 
Blackfoot council, and talk of the advantages of the 
treaty which would reheve them in tlie future of the 
depredations to which they from time immemorial 
had been subjected by this people. 

The plan succeeded. The Coeur d'Alenes, taken 
by surprise, met the governor and his party with a 
cordial welcome; but when the first involuntary pleas- 
ure of meeting was over, they began to remember 
what the emissaries of Kamiakin, who were but five 
days gone, had told them of him, their manner changed, 
and they seemed undecided whether to commit them- 
selves to peace or war. 

Without giving them time to retract, Stevens has- 
tened on, as soon as his train had overtaken him to the 
Spokane country, where he had resolved to hold a 
council. Arrived at the i^lace of Antoine Plante,^* 
Indian runners Avere despatched to the lower Spokanes, 
Pend d'Oreilles, and Colville Indians, and invitations 
sent to Angus McDonald at Fort Colville, and also 
to the Jesuit fathers Ravelli and Joset of the Col- 
ville and Cceur dAlene missions, to bring them to- 
gether in conference. 

Several days elapsed before all arrived, and when 
they were met, it seemed doubtful if peace could be 
obtained. "I had there," said Stevens in his official 
report, "one of the stormiest councils, for three days, 

''Plants was a half-breed living ia the Spokane country, 'near the prairie 
intermediate between them and the Coeur d'Alenes.' 


that ever occurred in my whole Indian experience," 
because he would not promise the Indians that the 
United States troops should not cross to the north 
side of the Snake River. "Of course," says Father 
Joset, "the governor could not promise such a thing. 
He made several promises, but he evaded that c[ues- 
tion." " 

But when the Indians had heard a complete refu- 
tation of the tales told tliem by the agents of Kamia- 
kin, and been assured of protection so long as they 
remained friendly, they took heart and appeared 
satisfied; and Stevens conquered, as he had at the 
Walla Walla council, by force of jsersonal will as well 
as argument, the chiefs ending by consulting him on 
all points as if he had been their father, and confiding 
to him all their vexations and anxieties. 

But there was another danger to be encountered. 
The Spokanes insisted that the Nez Perces were 
hostile, though Stevens had hitherto had entire 
confidence in their good faith. Being put upon his 
guard when he was rejoined by the party from the 
Blackfoot council under Looking Glass, he set his 
interpreter to spy upon this chief, who was at length 
overheard explaining to a Spokane chief a plan to 
entrap the treaty-maker when he should arrive in 
the Nez Perce country, and advising the Spokanes 
to a similar course. Says Stevens: "I never com- 
municated to Looking Glass my knowledge of his 
plans, but knowing them, I knew how to meet them 
in council. I also knew how to meet them in his 
own country, and it gave me no difficulty. "'** 

^'Iwas so fortunate as to secure, through the industry of Mrs Roweua 
Nichols of Whitman county, Washington, a copy of some of Joset's writings, 
in which is a pretty full account of this council of Stevens with the Spokanes 
and others. It is contained in a manuscript by Mrs Nichols, called Indian 
Affairs in Oregon. 

^"Pac. R. B. Rept, xii. 225. Tliis incident shows that Looking Glass was 
no more sincere in signing the treaty of Walla Walla than was Kamiakiu or 
Penpeumoxmox. Father Joset says that somebody having told the Indians 
that it was for their interest to make a treaty, 'as the wliites wouUl have their 
lands anyway,' they agreed to make a mock treaty in order to gain time and 
prepare for war. Nichols' Iiid. Aff., MS., 3. 


The Spokanes offered to escort him through the 
country of the "hostile Nez Perces," but Stevens 
declined, to show that he had no favors to ask, as well 
as to lessen the danger of collusion between Looking 
Glass and the Spokanes. He despatched Craig with 
a part of the Nez Perce delegation to Lapwai in ad- 
vance, to invite their people to and arrange for holding 
a council, as also to procure him an escort to The 
Dalles. To enlarge his party of white men, he organ- 
ized a battalion of miners and others waiting to get 
through the hostile country, called the Stevens Guards 
and Spokane Invincibles, by which means he added 
twenty men to his escort who wished to go to The 
Dalles. "When all were mustered in he had a company 
of fifty. For these he procured the best horses in the 
country, reducing every pack to eighty pounds, in 
order that he might fight or fly^^ as occasion required; 
and thus equipped, set out to encounter, for aught he 
knew, the combined war force of the confederated 
tribes. But a forced march for four days in rain and 
snow brought him to Lapwai, where Craig was 
awaiting him, with the Indians prepared for a council, 
which was immediately called.*" 

In the midst of it an Indian express arrived from 
Walla Walla with the news of four days' fighting and 
the death of Peupeumoxmox. It had been previously 
agreed that a large force of Nez Perces should accom- 
pany Stevens to The Dalles, but the knowledge of 

''/nc?. War Expenses Speech, 12. 

•^o William Craig was born in Greenbriar co., Va, in ISIO. He entered 
the service of tlie American Fur Company in 1830, and for ten yeara led the 
life of a trapper. When the fur companies broke up, about 1840, he came to 
Or., and settled not long after at Lapwai, near Spalding's mission, to which 
he rendered valuable assistance in controlling the Indians. He .also was of 
much service to Gov. Stevens in making treaties with the Indians of eastern 
Washington. Stevens appointed hiin on his staflf, with the rank of lieuten- 
ant-colonel, and he was afterward ai)pointed Indian agent at Lapwai, for 
which position he was well fitted, and which he held for a long time. 'But 
for his liber.ility he would have been rich, but he has given away enough to 
make several fortunes.' Walla Walla Union, Oct. 23, 1869. 'He was the 
comrade in the mountains of Kit Carson, J. L. Meek, Robert Newell, 
Courtenay Walker, Thompson, Eabboin, and a host of other bnave men whose 
names are linked with tlie history of the country.' Walla Walla Statesman, 
in Portland Oregonian, Oct. 30, 1869. 


the occupation of the country by the Oregon troops 
rendered this unnecessary, and the next day, accom- 
panied by sixty-nine well-armed Nez Perce volunteers, 
in addition to the Stevens Guards, he set out for The 
Dalles by the way of the seat of war. 

Here are a few men who settled in Washington at an early period, but 
who had first resided in Oregon: 

Solomon Strong, born in Erie co., N. Y., Nov. 11, 1817. At the age of 
fourteen years removed to Ohio, thence to Iowa, and thence, in 1847, to Or., 
with an ox-team, with his wife and one child, George W., born iu 1845, in 
Iowa. Strong settled on a claim seven miles from Portland, residing there 
until Sept. 17, 1850, when he took a donation claim in Cowlitz co., on which 
ho has resided ever since. Mrs. Strong was the first white woman on the 
north side of Lewis river. He was elected justice of the peace in 1852 iu 
what was then Clarke CO., and appointed co. commissioner by Gov. Stevens, 
to which office lie was afterwards elected for eleven and a half years. On the 
organization of Cowlitz co., was elected to the same office and soon resigned. 
He married, Jan. 5, 1845, Miss Mary A. Bozartb, of Mo.; has ten children. 

Squire Bozarth, born in Hardin Co., Ky, Jan. 11, 1792, married there, in 
ISIG, Millie H. Willis, a native of Va, born 1802. He removed to Mo. and 
Iowa, and in 1845 came to Oregon overland with his wife and eight children, 
namely, Owen W., Sarah A., Lorana, Christopher C, Julia A., Squire Jr, 
Jldlie W., born in Mo., and Emma C, born in la. Three children, Elizabeth 
Bozarth Lantze, Mrs Mary A. Strong, and John S. Bozarth, came two years 
later. Mr Bozarth first settled in Washington co.. Or., but removed to the 
Columbia river opp. Vancouver, and again, iu 1850, to Lewis river, where he 
took a donation claim on the North Fork, where he died March 16, 1853. 

.John S. Bozarth settled on Lewis river iu 1852. In 1852 he had married 
Arebreth Luelling, a native of 111., who came to Or. in 1847. He died iu 
March 1882, leaving seven children, all born on Lewis river. 

C. C. Bozarth, born in Marion co.. Mo., in 1832, Jan. 1st, married, in 
1803, Mrs Rhoda R. Van Bebber, born in 111., a daughter of Jacob John, 
who came to Or. in 1852. He resided on Lewis river and had four children. 
He was engaged in farming until 1881, when he went to general merchan- 
dising at Woodland, Cowlitz Co. In 1856 was assessor of Clarke Co., and 
again in 1864 and 1866, and of Cowlitz co. from 1875 to 1879. He was justice 
ot the peace fourteen years; was an assemblyman from Clarke co. in 1861-2, 
and held the position of postmaster at Woodland. 

F. N. Gdrig, born in Germany in 1824, came to U. S. in 1848, lived two 
years in Washington, D. C, went to 111., and in 1853 came to Or., locating 
on the Columbia river, near St Helen. Iu 1865 removed to Cowlitz co., 
Wash. He married, in 1851, Christine Heitraaun of Germany. Thsy had 
seven sons and one daughter, their eldest being born upon the journey to 
Or., at Green river. He owns over one thousand acres, and is a wealthy 
citizen of Cowlitz Co. 

Ruben Lockwood was born in Springfield, Vt, in 1822, but reared in 
Ohio. He came to W. T. in 1852 with his wife and step-daughter. Miss 
Anna C. Conway, and settled on the North Fork of Lewis river, in Clarke co. 
Being a teacher, he was employed in Oregon City, at The Dalles, and in Peta- 
luma, Cal., still keeping his home in Wash. He was married in 1850 to 
Mrs Mary C. Conway, of Crawfordsville, Ind. Their children are S. F. 
LockwooLl, born in Oregon City, and Lillie C. Lockwood. The son married 
Miss Pauline Brozer, a native of Clarke co. 

William A. L. McCorkle, born in Rockbridge co., Va, in 1826, reared in 
Ohio, came to Cal. iu 1849, and to Cowlitz Valley in 1850, settling nine miles 
from its mouth. Married Diana Saville, a native of that Co., and has two 
sons, John W. and Eugene. 




Causes of the Indian Outbreak— Discovert op Gold near Fort Col- 
viLLE — Yakimas Hostile— Expeditions of Major 0. G. Halleu into 
THE Snake and Yakima Countries — Yakima Campaign of 1855— 
Movement of Troops on the Sound— Attack on Seattle— War Ves- 
sels ON the Sound— Walla Walla Campaign of the Oregon Volun- 
teers—Operations OP the Second Oregon Regiment — Ai-tack on the 
Cascades — Colonel Cornelius Returns to Portland. 

The reader of Oregon history will remember that 
mention is made of the massacre of the Ward train by 
the Snake Indians near Fort Boise in the autumn of 
1854. Major Granville O. Haller, stationed at Fort 
Dalles, made a hasty expedition into the Snake coun- 
try, intended to show the Indians that the govern- 
ment would not remain inactive while its citizens were 
subjected to these outrages. The march served no 
other purpose than to give this notice, for the guilty 
Indians had retired into their mountain fastnesses, 
and the season being late for recrossing the Blue 
Mountains, Haller returued to The Dalles. The fol- 
lowing summer, however, he led another expedition 
into the Boise Valley, and following up the trails, 
finally captured and executed the murderers. 

Hardly had he returned to Fort Dalles when news 
reached him of trouble in the Yakima country. In 
the spring of 1855 gold had been discovered in the 
region of Fort Colville, which caused the usual rush 
of miners to the gold fields, making it difficult for Gov- 
ernor Stevens to restrain his escort from deserting.* 

^ Pac. R. It Jlcpt, 201. (108) 


He proceeded on his mission, informing the tribes 
of the Upper Columbia, Kettle Falls, Spokanes, Pend 
d'Oi-eilles, and Coeur d' Alenes, that on his return he 
would negotiate with them for the sale of their lands. 

But the Indians were not satisfied with their 
treaty, nor with the influx of white men. About the 
first of August Pierre Jerome, chief of the Kettle 
Falls people, declared that no Americans should pass 
through his country. From Puget Sound several 
small parties set forth for Colville by the Nisqually 
pass and the trail leading through the Yakima coun- 
try by the way of the catholic mission of Ahtanahm, 
and about the middle of September it was rumored 
that some of them had been killed by the Yakimas. 
A. J. Bolon, special agent for the Yakimas, was on 
his way to the Spokane country, where he expected 
to meet Stevens on his return from Fort Benton, and 
assist in the appointed councils and treaties with this 
and the neighboring tribes. He had passed The 
Dalles on this errand when he was met by Chief 
Gariy of the Spokanes with these reports, and he at 
once turned back to investigate them. 

The catholic mission, near which was the home of 
Kamiakin, was between sixty and seventy miles in a 
north-easterly direction from The Dalles, and to this 
place he determined to go in order to learn from Ka- 
miakin himself the truth or falsity of the stories con- 
cerning the Yakimas.^ Unattended he set out on 
this business, to show by his coming alone his confi- 
dence in the good faith of the tribe, and to disarm 
any fears they might have of the intentions of the 
white people.^ His absence being protracted beyond 

' The Ahtanahm mission was established by the oblate fathers who came 
to the country in 1S47, and by Brouillette. It was in charge of Pandosy iu 
1855, but owing to the absence of this priest, was, at the time of Bolon'a 
visit, temporarily iu charge of Brouillette. This priest seems to have been 
unfortunate in the matter of being housed by American-killing Indians. 

' Gibbs says that Kamiakin had avoided meeting Bolon since the treaty, 
but that Skloom, his brother, had told Bolon that a war council had Vicen held 
in the Grand Rond Valley, and that he, Skloom, had spoken against war: 
and that Lawyer also informed Bolon of this council. Bolon must have 
hoped to influence Kamiakin. Swan's N. W. Coast, 426. 


the time required, Nathan Olney, agent at The 
Dalles, sent out an Indian spy, who returned with 
the information that Bolon had been murdered while 
returning to The Dalles, by the order of Kamiahin, 
and by the hand of his nephew, a son of Owhi, his 
half-brother, and a chief of the Umatillas, who shot him 
in the back while pretending to-escort him on his home- 
ward journey, cut his throat, killed his horse, and 
burned both bodies, together with whatever property 
was attached to either. 

All this Kamiakin confessed to the Des Chutes 
chief, who acted as spy, saying that he was deter- 
mined on war, which he was prepared to carry on, if 
necessary, for five years;'* that no Americans should 
come into his country ; that all the tribes were invited 
to join him, and that all who refused would be held 
to be foes, who would be treated in the same manner 
as Americans — the adults killed, and the children en- 
slaved. The report of the spy was confirmed by a 
letter from Brouillette, who wrote to Olney that war 
had been the chief topic among the Yakimas since 
their return from the council.'* It was now quite cer- 
tain that an Indian war, more or less general, was at 

Without any authoritative promulgation, the rumor 
of the threatened coalition spread, and about the 20th 
of September returning miners brought the report 
that certain citizens had been killed in passing through 
the Yakima country. As soon as it became certainly 

* This boast was not an idle one. Gibbs says that the Yakimas had laid 
in large stores of ponder, and that Qualchin, the son of Owhi, had pur- 
chased 300 pounds at The Dalles some time before the war conuncnccd. 
He further says that Kamiakin did not intend to begin the war so soon, 
but meant to wait until the Columbia should be frozen, so that no succor 
could reach the people at The Dalles and elsewhere. Swan's iV'. W. Coaxt, 

^Letter of 0. Huraason in Or. Statesman, Oct. 6, 1855; Armstronrfs Or., 
108; DoiceU's Scrap-liook, 89, 96, 100; Parrish's Or. Anecdotes, RIS., 80; 
Gray's IJist. Or., 95; Strong's Hist. Or., MS., 56, 60; Valmer's rept to com. 
of Ind. a£F., in U. S. II. Ex. Doc, 93, pp. 55-61, 34th cong. 1st sess., Ind. 
AfF., vol. 34; letter of Supt Palmer, in Or. Statesman, Oct. 13, 1855; U. S. 
II. Ex. Doc, 1, p. 335, 51"2-15, vol. i., part i., 34th cong. 1st sess.; Ibid., 
p. 73-89, vol. i., part ii.; Stevens' Speech on War Claims, 6, 16. 


known,' Acting Governor Mason made a requisition 
upon forts Vancouver and Steilacoora for troops to 
protect travellers by that route, and also intimated to 
the commanding officers that, as Governor Stevens 
expected to be in the Spokane country in September, 
under the circumstances a detachment of soldiers 
might be of assistance to him. 

Meanwhile Major Raines, who regarded Kamiakin 
and Peupeumoxmox as the chiefs most to be dreaded, 
ordered eighty-four men under Haller from Fort Dalles 
to pass into the Yakima country and cooperate with 
a force sent from Steilacoom. Haller set forth on 
the 3d of October. His route lay over a gradual 
elevation for ten miles north of the Columbia to the 
summit of the bald range of hills constituting the 
Klikitat Mountains. Beyond these was the Kliki- 
tat Valley, fifteen miles in width, north of which 
stretched the timbered range of the Simcoe Mountains, 
beyond which again was the Simcoe Vallej^ on the 
northern boundary of which, about sixty miles from 
The Dalles, was the home of Kamiakin and the 
Ahtanahm mission, the objective point of the expedi- 

It was not until the third day, and when the troops 
were descending a long hill to a stream skirted with 
dense thickets of small trees, that any Indians were 
seen. At this point, about three o'clock in the after- 
noon, the Indians attacked,'^ being concealed in the 
thick undergrowth mentioned. There was a sharp en- 
gagement lasting until nightfall, when the Yakimas 
withdrew, leaving Haller with eight killed and 

•The first person known to be killed by the Yakimas was Henry Mattice 
of Olympia. One of the Batons, the first settlers east of Tuinwater, was 
also killed, and other citizens of Puget Sound, to the number of about 20, 
among whom were Fanjoy, Walker, and Jemison of Seattle. 

' Cram, in his Top. Mem., 90, says that Haller attacked the Indians with- 
out authority from his commanding officer, quoting from Raines' official 
address to the Yakimas to prove it, which runs as follows: 'I sent this hand- 
ful of soldiers into your country to inquire into the facts of the murder of 
Indian agent Bolon; it was not expected that they should fight you. ' Haller, 
in his report, says he was attacked, and Raines' reproof of the Yakimas 
shows that he was. No other version was ever given until Cram undertook 
to vindicate the course of Gen. Wool. 


wounded men. That night the troops lay upon their 
arms. In the morning the attack was renewed, the 
Indians endeavoring to surround Haller as he moved 
to a bold eminence at the distance of a mile. Here the 
troops fought all day without water and with little food. 
It was not until after dark that a messenger was de- 
spatched to The Dalles to apprise Raines of the situ- 
ation of the command and obtain reenforcements. 

The cavalry horses and pack-animals, being by this 
time in a suffering state, were allowed to go free at 
night to find water and grass, except those necessary 
to transport the wounded and the ammunition. To- 
ward evening of the third day the troops moved 
down to the river for water, and not meeting with 
any resistance, Haller determined to fall back toward 
The Dalles with his wounded. The howitzer was 
spiked and buried, and such of the baggage and pro- 
visions as could not be transported was burned. The 
command was organized in two divisions, the advance 
under Haller to take care of the wounded, and the rear 
under Captain Russell to act as guard. In the dark- 
ness the guide led the advance off the trail, on discov- 
ering which Haller ordered fires to be lighted in some 
fir trees to signal to the rear his position, at the same 
time revealing it to the Indians, who, as soon as day- 
light came, swarmed around him on every side, fol- 
lowing and harassing the command for ten miles. 
On getting into the open country a stand was made, 
and Haller 's division fought during the remainder of 
the day, resuming the march at night, Russell failing 
to discover his whereabouts. When twenty-five miles 
from The Dalles Haller was met b}^ Lieutenant Day 
of the 3d artillery with forty-five men, who, finding 
the troops in retreat, proceeded to the border of the 
Yakima country merely to keep up a show of activity 
on the part of the army. Lieutenant W. A. Slaughter 
with fifty men had crossed the Cascades by the Nachess 
pass, with the design of reenforcing Haller, but finding a 
large number of Indians in the field, and hearing that 


Haller was defeated, prudently fell back to the west 
side of the mountains. 

Such were the main incidents of Haller's Yakima 
campaign, in which five men were killed, seventeen 
wounded, and a large amount of government property 
destroyed, abandoned, and captured." The number of 
Indians killed was unknown, but thought to be about 

Preparations for war were now made in earnest, 
both by the military and the citizens, though not 
without the usual attendant bickerings. A proclama- 
ation was issued, calling for one company to be en- 
rolled in Clarke county, at Vancouver, and one in 
Thurston county, at Olympia, to consist of eighty- 
seven men, rank and file, with orders to report to 
the commanding ofHeer-s of Steilacoora and Vancouver, 
and as far as possible to provide their own arms and 
equipments. The estimated number of hostile Ind- 
ians in the field was 1,500. Application for arms 
was made by Mason through Tilton, the lately arrived 
surveyor-general, to Sterrett and Pease, commanders 
respectively of the sloop of war Decatur and the 
revenue-cutter Jefferson Davis, then in the Sound, and 
the request granted. 

There was organized at Olympia the Puget Sound 
Mounted Volunteers, Company B, with Gilmore Hays 
as captain, James S. Hurd 1st lieutenant, William 
Martin 2d lieutenant, Joseph Gibson, Henry D. Cock, 
Thomas Prather, and Joseph White sergeants; Joseph 
S. Taylor, Whitfield Kirtley, T. Wheelock, and Joha 
Scott corporals — who reported themselves to Captain 
Maloney, in command of Fort Steilacoom, on the 20th, 
and on the 21st marched under his command for White 
River to reenforce Slaughter, quartermaster at Steila- 
coom, who had gone through the Nachess pass into tiie 

' A herd of cattle being driven out for the troops was captured. Two 
young men, Ives and Ferguson, escaped by flight and stratagem, suffering 
ten-ibly from wounds and famine, one of them being two weeks in getting to 


hostile country with forty men, and had fallen back to 
the upper prairies, but who awaited the organization of 
an army of invasion to return to the Yakima countr}'. 

After due proclamation. Mason issued a commis- 
sion to Charles H. Eaton to organize a company of 
rangers, to consist of thirty privates and a comple- 
ment of officers.^ The company was immediately 
raised, and took the field on the 23d to act as a guard 
upon the settlements, and to watch the passes through 
the mountains. On the 22d a proclamation was 
issued calling for four companies, to be enrolled at 
Vancouver, Cathlamet, Olympia, and Seattle, and to 
hold themselves, after organizing and electing their 
officers, in reserve for any emergency which might 
arise. James Tilton was appointed adjutant-general 
of the volunteer forces of the territory, and Major 
Raines, who was about to take the field against the 
Yakimas, brigadier-general of the same during the 
continuance of the war. Company A of the Mounted 
Volunteers organized in Clarke county was com- 
manded by William Strong, and though numbering 
first, was not fully organized until after Company B 
had been accepted and mustered into the service of 
the United States. Special Indian agent B. F. 
Shaw, who took the place of Bolon, was instructed 
by Mason to raise a company and go and meet and 
escort back Governor Stevens. Several companies 
were raised in Oregon, as I have elsewhere related, 
J. W. Nesmith being placed in command, with orders 
to proceed to the seat of war and cooperate with 

On the 30th of October Raines marched for the 
Yakima country, having been reenforced by 128 regu- 
lars and 112 volunteers from Washington, including 
Strong's company of 63 and Robert Newell's company 

•The rangers were officered by C. H. Eaton, captain; James McAllister, 
James Tullis, A. M. Poe, lieutenants; John Harold, Charles E. Weed, 
W. W. Miller, S. Phillips, sergeants; S. D. Rheinhart, Thomas Bracken, 
S. Hodgdon, James Hughes, corporals. Objmpiii Piona r and Dem., Oct. 26, 


of 35 men, making a force of about 700. On the 4th 
of November Nesmith, with four companies of Oregon 
volunteers, overtook Raines' command, proceeding 
with it to the Simcoe Valley, where they arrived on 
the 7th. Little happened worth relating. There 
was a skirmish on the 8th, in which the Oregon vol- 
unteers joined with the regulars in fighting the 
Indians, who, now that equal numbers were opposed 
to them, were less bold. When it came to pursuit, 
they had fresh horses and could always escape.^" 
They were followed and driven up the Yakima, to a 
gap through which flows that stream, and where the 
heights had been well fortified, upon which they took 
their stand; but on being charged upon by the regu- 
lars, under Haller and Captain Augur, fled down the 
opposite side of the mountain, leaving it in possession 
of the troops," who returned to camp. The Indians 
showing themselves again on the 10th, Major Arm- 
strong of the volunteers, with the company of Captain 
Hayden and part of another under Lieutenant Hanna, 
passed through the defile and attempted to surround 
them and cut off their retreat; but owing to a mis- 
understanding, the charge was made at the wrong 
point, and the Indians escaped through the gap, scat- 
tering among the rocks and trees. On the 10th all 
the forces now in the Yakima country moved on 
toward the Ahtanahm mission, skirmishing by the way 
and capturing some of the enemy's horses, but find- 
ing the country about the mission and the mission 
itself quite deserted. After a few more unimportant 
movements Nesmith proceeded to Walla Walla, to 

'"Lieut Philip Sheridan, escorting Lieut R. S. Williamson of the topo- 
graphical engineers, who happened to be at Vancouver, was present with a 
detatchment o£ dragoons. Uept of Major-General Raines to Atljt-Gciieral 
Thomas, in military archives at Vancouver. I will here remark, that every 
facility has been afforded me by the military department of Oregon for seeing 
and copying documents and reports. Special courtesy has been shown by 
generals Clark, Jeff. C. Davis, and 0. 0. Howard, and their staff-oliicers, for 
which I here make my grateful acknowledgments. 

"In crossing the Yakima River two soldiers were drowned; and in a 
skirmish which the volunteers under Captain Cornelius had with the Indians, 
George Holmes of Clackamas county and Stephen Waymire of Polk county 
were wounded. Letter of Marion Co. Volunteer, in Or. Statesman, Nov. 24, 1855. 


hold that valley against hostile tribes, while Raines, 
leaving his force to build a block-house on the south- 
ern border of the Yakima country, reported in person 
to General Wool, who had just arrived at Vancouver 
with a number of officers, fifty dragoons, 4,000 stand 
of arms, and a large amount of ammunition. Wool 
ordered the troops in Oregon to be massed at The 
Dalles to await his plan of operations, which, so far as 
divulged, was to establish a post at the Walla Walla 
to keep in check the other tribes while prosecuting 
war against the Yakimas. An inspection of the 
troops and horses, however, revealed the fact that 
many of the soldiers were without sufficient clothing, 
and that few of their animals were fit for service. 
The quartermaster was then directed to procure 
means of transportation from the people of tlie Wil- 
lamette, but owing to the heavy drain made upon them 
in furnishing the volunteer force, wagons and horses 
were not to be had, and they were ordered from 
Benicia, California, and boats and forage from San 
Francisco. Before these could arrive the Columbia 
was frozen over, and communication with the upper 
country completely severed; but not before Major 
Fitzgerald with fifty dragoons from Fort Lane had 
arrived at The Dalles,^^ and Keyes' artillery company 
had been sent to Fort Steilacoom to remain in garri- 
son until the return of milder weather. 

The ice remained in the lower Columbia but three 
weeks, and on the 11th of January, 1856, the mail- 
steamer brought despatches informing Wool of Indian 
disturbances in California and southern Oregon, which 
demanded his immediate return to San Francisco. 
While passing down the river he met Colonel George 
Wright, with eight companies of the 9th infantry regi- 
ment, to whom he assigned the command of the Colum- 
bia River district ; and at sea he also met Lieutenant- 
Colonel Silas Casey, with two companies of the same 

'^ At the moment of Haller'a defeat Fitzgerald had been ordered to the 
Yakima country, but owing to troubles in touthern Oregon, of which at the 
time Kaiues was not informed, was unable to obey the order at ouce. 


regiment, whom he assigned to the command of the 
Puget Sound district. 

Colonel Wright was directed to establish his head- 
quarters at The Dalles, where all the troops intended 
to operate in the upper country would be concentrated ; 
and as soon as the ice was out of the river, and the 
season would permit, to establish a post in the neigh- 
borhood of Fort Walla Walla, and another at the 
fishery on the Yakima River, near the crossing of the 
road from Walla Walla to Fort Steilacoom ; and also 
an intermediate post between the latter and Fort 
Dalles, the object of the latter two posts being to pre- 
vent the Indians taking fish in the Yakima or any of its 
tributaries, or the tributaries of the Columbia. The oc- 
cupation of the country between the Walla Walla and 
Snake rivers, and on the south side of the Columbia, 
it was believed, would soon bring the savages to terms. 

During this visit, as. indeed on some other occasions 
both before and after. Wool did not deport himself 
as became a man occupying an important position. 
He censured everybody, not omitting Raines and 
Haller, but was particularly severe upon territorial 
ofiicers and volunteers. He ordered disbanded the 
company raised by order of Mason to go to the relief 
of Governor Stevens returning from the Blackfoot 
country," although Raines put forth every ai'gument 
to induce him to send it forward. This conduct of 
Wool was bitterly resented by Stevens, who quoted 
the expressions used by Wool in his report to the de- 
partments at Washington, and in a letter to the gen- 
eral himself.^* The effect of Wool's course was to 
raise an impassable barrier between the regular and 

" Letter of Nesmith to Curry, Nov. 30, 1855, iu Evans' Military Orijan- 
ization, 84; Dalles corr., Or. Statesman, Nov. 10, 1855. 

"-Sen. Ux. Doc, 66, 45, 34th cong. 1st sess., Ind. aff. 34. Official van- 
ity and jealousy are said by James G. Swan to have been at tlie bottom of 
Wool's hostility to Stevens. According to Swan, Wool and Stevens met at 
the Rasette House in San Francisco in 1854, when Wool related an incident 
of the battle of Buena Vista, taking all the glory upon himself. Stevens 
reminded him that Taylor was chief in command and Wool second. The 
rebuke displeased Wool, who reveuged himself when he found an opportu- 
nity. Letter in Olympia Transcript, May 9, 18G8. 


volunteer officers, and to leave the conduct of the war 
practically in the hands of the latter. 

Meanwhile affairs on the Sound were not altogether 
quiet. From the rendezvous at Nathan Eaton's 
house, on the 24th of October, 1855, went nineteen 
rangers under Captain Charles Eaton to find Leschi, 
a Yakima-Nisqually chief, who was reported disaf- 
fected; but the chief was not at home. Encamping 
at the house of Charles Baden, Eaton divided his 
company and examined the country, sending Quarter- 
master Miller^' to Fort Steilacoom for supplies. 
While reconnoitring, Lieutenant McAllister and M. 
Connell,'^ of Connell's prairie, were killed, and the 
party took refuge in a log-house, where they defended 
themselves till succor came. 

Elsewhere a more decisive blow was struck. As 
early as the 1st of October Porter had been driven 
from his claim at the head of White River Valley, 
and soon afterward all the farmers left their claims and 
fled to Seattle with their families, where a block-house 
was erected. Soon after the sloop of war Decatur 
anchored in front of Seattle, the commander offering 
his services to assist and defend the people in case of 
an occasion arriving; Acting-governor Mason, who 
had made a tour of White Valley without meeting 
any signs of a hostile demonstration, endeavoring to 
reassure the settlers, they thereupon returning to 
gather their crops, of which they stood much in need. 

The Indians, who were cognizant of all these move- 
ments, preserved a deceitful quiet until Maloney and 
Hays liad left the valley for the Yakima country, be- 
lieving that they were doomed to destruction, while the 

" W. W. Miller was a native of Ky, but had spent liis youth in Mo. and 
111., and came to Wash, in 1S52, where he resided in Olympia to Jan. 24, 
1S76, when he died, at the ago of 54. He was appointed surveyor of customs 
by the president, and quartermaster-general by Gov. JIason. In later years 
he was twice mayor of Olympia, and was known as a successful man in busi- 
ness. He married a daughter of Judge McFadden. 

'^Connell was a discharged soldier, but a man of good repntation, and had 
been employed as mail carrier between Olympia and Steilacoom. Oli/mpia 
Pioneer and Dern., Nov. 9, 1S55. 


inhabitants left behind were to become an easy prey. 
On the morning of the 28th, Sunday, they fell upon 
the farming settlements, killing three families of the 
immigration of 1854, H. H. Jones and wife, George 
E. King and wife, W. H. Brannan, wife and child, 
Simon Cooper, and a man whose name was unknown. 
An attack was made upon Cox's place, and Joseph 
Lake wounded, but not seriously. Cox, with his wife 
and Lake, fled and escaped, alarming the family of 
Moses Kirkland, who also escaped, these being all the 
settlers who had returned to their homes. The attack 
occurred at eight o'clock in the morning, and about 
the same hour in the evening the fugitives arrived at 
Seattle, twenty-five miles distant. On the following 
morning a friendly Indian brought to the same place 
three children of Mr Jones, who had been spared, and 
on the same day C. C. Hewitt, with a company of 
volunteers, started for the scene of the massacre to 
bury the dead, and if possible, rescue some living. 

That the settlers of the Puyallup below the cross- 
ing did not share the fate of those on White River 
was owing to the warning of Kitsap the elder," who, 
giving the alarm, enabled them to escape in the night, 
even while their enemies prowled about waiting for 
the dawn to begin their work of slaugliter. Fi'om 
the Nachess River Captain Maloney sent despatches 
to Governor Mason by volunteers William Tidd and 
John Bradley, who were accompanied by A. B. Moses, 
M. P. Burns, George Bright, Joseph Miles, and A. 
B. Rabbeson. They were attacked at several points 
on the route, Moses'* and Miles'^ losing their lives, 
and the othei^s suffering great hardships. 

" Kitsap county was named after this Indian. 

''A. Benton Moses was born in Charleston, S. C. He enlisted as a volun- 
teer in the Mexican war, serving under Scott and Taylor, being promoted to 
the rank of lieut. He served under Lt-col Weller at Monterey and Marin, 
and afterward as aide-de-camp to Gen. Childs. After the Mexican war he 
came to Cal., and went on an expedition against the southern Cal. Indians; 
and subsequently was deputy to Col Jack Hays, sheriff of S. F., until his 
brother was appointed collector of the district of Puget Sound, when he ac- 
companied him to Washington. 

"Joseph Miles held the rank of lieut-col of the Thurston co. militia, and 


In the interim, Captain Maloney, still in ignorance 
of these events, set out with his command to return to 
Steilacoom, whence, if desired, he could proceed by 
the way of The Dalles to the Yakima Valley. On 
reaching Connell's prairie, November 2d, he found the 
house in ashes, and discovered, a mile away from it, the 
body of Lieutenant McAllister. On the morning of 
the 3d fifty regulars under Slaughter, with fifty vol- 
unteers under Haj^s, having ascertained the where- 
abouts of the main body, pursued them to the crossing 
of White River, where, being concealed, they had the 
first fire, killing a soldier at the start. The troops 
were unable to cross, but kept up a steady firing across 
the river for six hours, during which thirty or more 
Indians were killed and a number wounded. One 
soldier was slightl}'' wounded, besides which no loss 
was sustained by the troops, regular or volunteer. 

Maloney remained at Camp Council, keeping the 
troops moving, for some days. On the 6th Slaughter 
with fifty of Hays' volunteers was attacked at the 
crossing of the Puyallup, and had three men mortally 
wounded,'^'^ and three less severely. 

The oflficer left in command of Port Steilacoom 
when Maloney took the field was Lieutenant John 
Nugen. Upon receiving intelligence of the massacre 
on White River, he made a call upon the citizens of 
Pierce county to raise a company of forty volunteers, 
who immediately responded, a company under Cap- 
tain W. H. Wallace reporting for service the last of 

By the middle of November the whole country 
between Olympia and the Cowlitz was deserted, the 

justice of the peace of Olympia. At the time of his death he had a contract 
for erecting the capitol at tliat place. He was a good citizen and useful 
man. Evans, in Olympia Pioneer and Dcm., Nov. 9, 1855. 

'" The shot that killed John Edgar passed tlirough his lungs, and severely 
wounded Addison Perham of Pierce co. Tlio third was a soldier named 
KcUett. Three others, Andrew Burge, Corporal MogcU, and one of the regu- 
lars, were also wounded severely. Kept Lieut John Nugen, in ICasA. Mess. 
Gov., 1857, 188. 


inhabitants, except the volunteers, comprising half 
the able-bodied men in the territory, having shut 
themselves up in block-houses, and taken refuge in 
the towns defended by home-guards.^^ 

Special Indian agent Simmons published a notice 
on the 12th of November, that all the friendly Indians 
within the limits of Puget Sound district should ren- 
dezvous at the head of North Bay, Steilacoom, Gig 
Harbor, Nisqually, Vashon Island, Seattle, Port 
Orchard, Penn Cove, and Oak Harbor; J. B. Webber 
being appointed to look after all the encampments above 
Vashon Island ; D. S. Mavnard to look after those at 
Seattle and Port Orchard; R. C. Fay and N. D. 
Hill to take in charge those on Whidbey Island, as 
special agents. H. H. Tobin and E. C. Fitzhugh 
were also appointed special agents. The wliite inhab- 
itants were notified that it might become necessary to 
concentrate the several bands at a few points, and 
were requested to report any suspicious movements 
on the part of the Indians to the agents. By this 
means it was hoped to separate the friendly from the 
hostile Indians to a great extent, and to weaken tlie 
influence of the latter. At this critical juncture, also. 
Governor Douglas, of Vancouver Island, sent to Nis- 

'ii There wers 22 block -houses or stockades erected by the settlers during 
the war, as follows: at Davis', Skookum Chuck, Henness, near Mound prairie, 
on Tenalcut prairie, at Nathan Eaton's, two on Chambers' prairie, one at 
Bush's, Goodell's, Euddell's, Rutledge's, two at Tumwater, one at DofHe- 
meyer's, one on Whidbey Isl., one at Port Gamble, one on the Cowlitz (Fort 
Arkansas), one on Mime prairie, one at Port Ludlow, one at Meigs' Mill, two at 
the Cascades, one at Boisford prairie. Kept of W. W. De Lacy, capt. eng. 
W. T. v., in Wash. Mess. Gov., 1857, 55. Others were subsequently erected 
by the volunteers and troops, to the number of 35 by the former and 4 by 
the latter, or 02 in all. One at Cowlitz landing, French settlement near 
Cowlitz farm, Chehalis Eiver, below the Skookum Chuck, Tenalcut plain 
(Fort Miller), Yeltn prairie (Fort Stevens), Lowe's, on Chambers' prairie, 
two at Olympia, one at Packwood's ferry (Fort Raglan), two at Mont- 
gomery's crossing of the Puyallup (Fort White), two at ConneU's prairie, 
two at crossing of White River, South prairie (Fort McAllister), on the 
Dwamish (Fort Lander), Lone Tree point, on the Snohomish (Fort Ebey), 
on the Suoqualimich below the falls (Fort Tilton), ou the Snoqualimich 
above the falls (Fort Alden), Port Townsend, Wilson's Point, Bellingham 
Bay, Skookum Chuck, Vancouver, Fourth prairie (near Vancouver), Washou- 
gal, Lewis River, Walla Walla (Fort Mason), Michel's fork of Nisqually 
(Fort Preston), Ivlikitrt prairie, near Cowlitz. The regular companies built 
Fort Slaughter, on Muckleshoot prairie; Fort Maloney, ou Puyallup river; 
Fort Thomas, on Green river; and a block-house ou Black River. Id. 


qnally the Hudson's Bay Company's steamer Otter, 
an armed vessel, to remain for a time, and by her also 
fifty stand of arms and a large supply of ammunition 
to General Tilton, in compliance with a request for- 
warded by Acting-governor Mason, November 1st. 

The volunteer forces called out or accepted having 
all rejjorted for service, Captain Maloney arranged a 
campaign which was to force the friendly Indians upon 
their reserves, and to make known the lurking-places 
of their hostile brethren. Lieutenant Slaughter was 
directed to proceed with his company to White and 
Green rivers; Captain Hewitt, who was at Seattle 
with his volunteers, was ordered to march up White 
and Green rivers and place himself in communication 
with Slaughter; while Captain Wallace occupied the 
Puyallup Valley within communicable distance, and 
Captain Hays took up a position on the Nisqually 
River, at Muck prairie, and awaited further orders. 
Lieutenant Harrison, of the revenue-cutter Jefferson 
Davis, accompanied the expedition as first lieutenant 
to Slaughter's command. Upon the march, which be- 
gan on the 24th of November, Slaughter was attacked 
at night at Bidding's prairie, one mile from the Puy- 
allup, and sustained a loss of forty horses during a 
heavy fog which concealed the movements of the Ind- 
ians. On the morning of the 26th E. G. Price of Wal- 
lace's company, while attending to camp duty, was shot 
and killed by a lurking foe. The chiefs who commanded 
in the attack on the night of the 25th were Kitsap 
and Kanascut of the Klikitats, Quiemuth and Klow- 
owit of the Nisquallies, and Nelson of the Green 
River and Niscope Indians. During two nights that 
the troops were encamped on this prairie the Indians 
continually harassed them by their j^ells, and by 
crawling up out of the woods which surrounded the 
little plain, and under cover of the fog coming close 
enough to fire into camp in spite of the sentries, who 
discharged their pieces into the surrounding gloom 
without eflect. Beiuir reeuforced on the 2Gth with 


twenty-five men of the 4th artillery, just arrived at 
Fort Steilacoom, Slaughter divided his force, Wal- 
lace's company encamping at Morrison's place, on the 
Stuck, where they remamed making sorties in the 
neighborhood, while the main command were occupied 
in other parts of the valley, no engagement taking 
place, as the Indians kept out of way in the day-time, 
which the heavy forest of the Puyallup bottoms ren- 
dered it easy to do. 

Thus passed another week of extremely disagreeable 
service, the weather being both cold and rainy. On 
the 3d of December Lieutenant Slaughter, with sixty 
men of his own command and five of Wallace's, left 
Morrison's for White River, to communicate with 
Captain Hewitt, and encamped at the forks of White 
and Green rivers, on Brannan's prairie, taking posses- 
sion of a small log house left standing, and sending 
word to Hewitt, who was encamped two or three 
miles below, to meet him there. While a conference 
was being held, about seven o'clock in the evening of 
the 4th, the troops permitting themselves a fire beside 
the door to dry their sodden clothing, the Indians, 
guided by the light, sent a bullet straight to the heart 
of Slaughter, sitting inside the doorway, who died 
without uttering a word. They then kept up a con- 
tinuous firing for three hours, killing two non-com- 
missioned ofiicers, and wounding six others, one mor- 
tally.^' Nothing that had occurred during the war 
cast a greater gloom over the community than the 
death of the gallant Slaughter. 

Captain E. D. Keyes, whom Wool had left in com- 
mand at Fort Steilacoom, now notified Mason that it 
was found necessary to withdraw the troops from the 
field, as the pack-horses were worn down, and many of 
the men sick. This announcement put an end for the 

22 The officers killed were Corporal Barry, 4th inf., Cor. Clarendon of 
Wallace's co.; mortally wounded, an artilleryman of Keyes' co.; and severely 
wounded, privates Beck, Nolan, McMahon, and Grace. Olympia Pioiteer and 
Dem., Dec. 14, 1855. Slaughter's remains were taken down White Eiver to 
Seattle, and sent to SteUacoom, where was his family. 


time to active operations against the Indians, and the 
troops went into garrison at such points as promised 
to afford the hest protection to the settlers, v/hile the 
volunteers remained at places where they might 
waiting for the next turn in affairs. 

The snow being now deep in the mountain 
communication with the Indians east of the Cascades 
was believed to be cut off; and as the Indians west of 
the mountains had ceased to attack, there seemed 
nothing to do but to wait patiently until spring, when 
General Wool had promised to put troops enough into 
the field to bring the war to a speedy termination. 
Thus matters moved along until the companies mus- 
tered into the service of the United States on the 
Sound were disbanded, their three months' time hav- 
ing expired. 

For several weeks the citizens of Seattle had been 
uneasy, from the belief that the friendly Indians gath- 
ered near that place were being tampered with by 
Leschi. About the 1st of January, 1856, it was dis- 
covered that he was actually present at the reserve, 
making boasts of capturing the agent; and as the 
authorities very much desired to secure his arrest, 
Keyes secured the loan of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany's steamer Beaver, and sent Maloney and his com- 
pany to seize and bring him to Fort Steilacoom. But 
as the jBeaver approached the shore to effect a landing, 
Leschi drew up his forces in battle array to meet the 
troops, who could only land in squads of three or four 
from a small boat. Finding that it would not be safe 
to expose his men in such a manner, and having no 
cannon to disperse the Indians, Maloney was com- 
pelled to return to Steilacoom without accomplishing 
the object of the expedition. 

Keyes then determined to make another effort for 
the capture of Leschi, and embarking for Seattle in 
the surveying steamer ^c^ive, James Alden command- 
ino-, endeavored to borrow the howitzer and launch of 
the Decatur, which was refused by the new commander, 


Gansevoort, upon the ground that they were essential 
to the protection of the town, and must not go out of 
the bay. Keyes then returned up the Sound to pro- 
cure a howitzer from the fort, when Leschi, divining 
that his capture had been determined upon, withdrew 
liimself to the shades of the PuyaUup, wiiere shells 
could not reach him. 

Captain Gansevoort took command of the Decatur 
on the 10th of December, 1855, three days after she 
had received an injury by striking on a reef, then un- 
known, near Bain bridge Island, and it became neces- 
sary to remove her battery on shore while repairing 
her keel, a labor which occupied nearly three weeks, 
or until January 19th, when her guns were replaced. 
Very soon after a young Dwamish, called Jim, noti- 
fied Gansevoort that Indians from the east side of the 
mountains, under Owhi, had united with those on the 
west side under Coquilton, with the design of dividing 
their forces into two columns, and making a simulta- 
neous attack on Steilacoora and Seattle, after destroy- 
ing which they expected to make easy work of the 
other settlements. 

The plan might have succeeded as first conceived, 
Hewitt's company being disbanded about this time, 
and the Decatur being drawn up on the beach; but 
some Indian scout having carried information of the 
condition of the man-of-war to the chiefs, it was de- 
cided that the capture of the ship, which was supposed 
to be full of powder, would be the quickest means of 
destroying the white race, and into this scheme the 
so-called friendly Indians had entered with readiness. 

Gansevoort, feeling confident that he could rely 
upon Jim's statement, prepared to meet the impend- 
ing blow. The whole force of the Decatur was less 
than 150 men and officers. Of these a small company 
was left on board the ship, while 96 men, eighteen 
mariners, and five oflicers did guard duty on shore. 

Seattle at this time occupied a small peninsula 


formed by the bay in front, and a wide and deep 
swamp at the foot of the heavily wooded hills behind. 
The connection of the peninsula with the country 
back was by a narrow neck of land at the north end 
of the town, and the Indian trail to lakes Washington 
and Union came in almost directly opposite Yesler' s 
mill and wharf, where a low piece of ground had been 
filled in with sawdust. The only other avenue from 
the back country was by a narrow sand-spit on the 
south side of the Marsh, which was separated from 
the town only by a small stream. Thus the longer 
line of defence was actually afforded by the swamp, 
and the points requiring a guard were those in front 
of the sand-spit and the lake trail ; and it was thus 
that Gansevoort disposed of his force, three divisions 
being placed to guard the southern entrance, which 
was most exposed, and one directly across the northern 

For two nights guard had been maintained, when 
on the 24th the Active reappeared at Seattle, having 
on board Captain Keyes, Special Agent Simmons, and 
Governor Stevens, just arrived from east of the moun- 
tains after his escape from the hostile combination in 
that country. It does not appear in the narratives 
whether or not they had a howitzer on board. Leschi, 
at all events, had already left the reservation. Next 
day the Active j^roceeded down the Sound to visit the 
other reservations, and learn the condition and temper 
of the Indians under the care of agents, and Captain 
Gansevoort continued his system of guard-posting. 

On the beach above Yesler's mill, and not far from 
where the third division, under Lieutenant Phelps, 
was stationed, was the camp of a chief of the Dwa- 
mish tribe, known to the white settlers as Curley, 
though his proper name was Suequardle, who pro- 
fessed the utmost friendship for his civilized neigh- 
bors, and was usually regarded as honest in his pro- 
fessions, the officers of the Decatur reposing much 
confidence in him. On the afternoon of the 23th 




0. TTorth Block House. 

b. Mrs. Hol^te's House. 

c. Yesler'sMill. 

d. Yesler's House. 

e. Madame Damnable. 
/. Plumnier's House. 

g. Plummer'8 Hen House 
h. Howitzer. 
i. South Block House. 
k. Tom Pepper's House. 

1. Esplanade House. 

II. Banicades. 



Attack on Seattle. 


another chief from the lake district east of Seattle, 
called TecuQiseh, came into town with all his people, 
claiming protection against the hostile Indians, who, 
he said, threatened him with destruction should he 
not join them in the war upon the settlers. He was 
kindly received, and assigned an encampment at the 
south end of town, not far from where the first, sec- 
ond, and fourth divisions were stationed, under lieu- 
tenants Drake, Hughes, and Morris, respectively. 

At five o'clock in the afternoon the Decatur crew 
repaired to their stations, and about eight o'clock 
Phelps observed, sauntering past, two unknown Ind- 
ians, of whom he demanded their names and purpose, 
to which they carelessly answered that they were Lake 
Indians, and had been visiting at Curley's encamp- 
ment. They were ordered to keep within their own 
lines after dark, and dismissed. But Phelps, not being 
satisfied with their appearance, had his suspicions still 
further aroused by the sound of owl-hootings in three 
different directions, which had the regularity of sig- 
nals, and which he decided to be such. This impres- 
sion he reported to headquarters at Yesler's house, 
and Curley was despatched to reconnoitre. At ten 
o'clock he brought the assurance that there were no 
Indians in the neighborhood, and no attack need be 
apprehended during that night. 

Two hours after this report was given, a conference 
was held at Curley's lodge, between Leschi, Owhi, 
Tecumseh, and Yark-Keman, or Jim, in which the 
plan was arranged for an immediate attack on the 
town, the 'friendly' Indians to prevent the escape of 
the people to the ships in the bay,^^ while the warriors, 
assembled to the number of more than a thousand in 
the woods which covered the hills back of town, made 
the assault. By this method they expected to be 
able to destroy every creature on shore between two 
o'clock and daybreak, after which they could attack 
the vessels. 

» The bark Brontes was lying opposite the south end of the town. 


Fortunately for the inhabitants of Seattle and the 
Decatur's crew, Jim was present at this council as a 
spy, and not as a conspirator. He saw that he needed 
time to put Gansevoort on his guard, and while pre- 
tending to assent to the general plan, convinced the 
other chiefs that a better time for attack would be 
when the Decatur's men, instead of being on guard, 
had retired to rest after a night's watch. Their plans 
being at length definitely settled, Jim found an oppor- 
tunity to convey a warning to the officers of the De- 
catur. The time fixed upon for the attack was ten 
o'clock, when the families, who slept at the block- 
house, had returned to their own houses and were de- 
fenceless, "with the gun standing behind the door," -* 
as the conspirators, who had studied the habits of the 
pioneers, said to each other. 

During the hours between the conference at Cur- 
ley's lodge and daylight, the Indians had crept up to 
the very borders of the town, and grouped their ad- 
vance in squads concealed near each house. At 7 
o'clock the Decatur's men returned to the ship to 
breakfast and rest. At the same time it was observed 
by Phelps that the non-combatants of Curley's camp 
were hurrying into canoes, taking with them their 
property. On being interrogated as to the cause of 
their flight, the motiier of Jim, apparently in a great 
fright, answered in a shrill scream, "Hiu Klikitat 
copa Tom Pepper's house! hi-hi-hiu Klikitat!" — that 
is to say, "There are hosts of Klikitats at Tom Pep- 
per's house," which was situated just at the foot of 
the hills where the sand-spit joined the mainland, 
and which was within range of Morris' howitzer. 

Instead of being allowed to breakfast, the men were 
immediately sent ashore again, and given leave to get 
what rest they could in the loft of Yesler's mess-house, 
where refreshments were sent to them, while Captain 
Gansevoort ordered a shell dropped into Tom Pepper's 

^' Havford's Ind. JFar, MS., 9-16; Yesler', Wash. Ter., MS., 9-11; Phelps' 
Rem. Stanley 6-14. 

Hist. Wash.— 9 


house, to make the Indians show themselves if there. 
The effect was all that could have been anticipated. 
The boom of the gun had not died away when the 
blood-curdling war-whoop burst from a thousand 
stentorian throats, accompanied by a crash of mus- 
ketry from the entire Indian line. Instantly the four 
divisions dashed to their stations, and the battle was 
begun by Phelps' division charging up the hill east of 
Ycsler's mill, while those at the south end of town 
were carrying on a long-range duel across the creek 
or slough in that quarter. Those of the citizens who 
were prepared also took part in the defence of the 
place. Astonished by the readiness of the white men 
and the energy of the charge, the Indians were driven 
to the brow of the hill, and the men had time to re- 
treat to their station before the enemy recovered from 
their surprise. 

Had not the howitzer been fired just when it was, 
in another moment the attack would have been made 
without warning, and all the families nearest the ap- 
proaches butchered before their defenders could have 
reached them; but the gun provoking the savage war- 
cry betrayed their close proximity to the homes of the 
citizens, who, terrified by the sudden and frightful 
clamor, fled wildly to the block-house, whence they 
could see the flames of burning buildings on the 
outskirts. A lad named Milton Holgate, brother of 
the first settler of King county, was shot while stand- 
ing at the door of the block-house early in the action, 
and Christian White at a later hour in another part 
of the town. Above the other noises of the battle 
could be heard the cries of the Indian women, urging 
on the warriors to greater efforts; but although they 
continued to yell and to fire with great persistency, 
the range was too long from the points to which the 
Decatur's guns soon drove them to permit of their 
doing any execution; or if a few came near enough 
to hit one of the Decatur's men, they were much 
more likely to be hit by the white marksmen. 


About noon there was a lull, while the Indians 
rested and feasted on the beef of the settlers. Dur- 
ing this interval the women and children were taken 
on board the vessels in the harbor, after which an at- 
tempt was made to gather from the suddenly deserted 
dwellings the most valuable of the property contained 
in them before the Indians should have the opportu- 
nity, under the cover of night, of robbing and burning 
them. This attempt was resisted by the Indians, the 
board houses being pierced by numerous bullets while 
visited for this purpose; and the attack upon the 
town was renewed, with an attempt on the part of 
Coquilton to bear down upon the third division in 
such numbers as to annihilate it, and having done 
this, to get in the rear of the others. At a precon- 
certed signal the charge was made, the savages plung- 
ing through the bushes until within a few paces be- 
fore they fired, the volley delivered by them doing no 
harm, while the little company of fourteen marines 
met them so steadily that they turned to shelter 
themselves behind logs and trees, in their character- 
istic mode of fighting. Had they not flinched from 
the muzzles of those fourteen guns — had they thrown 
themselves on those few men with ardor, they would 
have blotted them out of existence in five minutes by 
sheer weight of numbers. But such was not to be, 
and Seattle was saved by the recoil. 

As if to make up for having lost their opportunity, 
the Indians showered bullets upon or over the heads 
of the man-of-war's men, to whose assistance during 
the afternoon came four young men from Meigs' mill, 
the ship's surgeon, Taylor, and two others, adding a 
third to this command, besides which a twelve-pounder 
field-gun was brought into position on the ground, a 
discharge from which dislodged the most troublesome 
of the enemy in that quarter. 

In the midst of the afternoon's work, Curley, who 
had been disappointed so far of his opportunity to 
make himself a place in history, and becoming excited 


by the din of battle, suddenly appeared upon the scene, 
arrayed in fighting costume, painted, armed with a 
musket and a bow in either hand, which he held ex- 
tended, and yelling like a demon, pranced oddly about 
on the sawdust, more ludicrous tlian fear-inspiring, 
until, having exhausted some of his bravado, he as 
suddenly disappeared, thus giving testimony that his 
friendship for the white race was no greater than his 

This defiance of his quondam friends came from 
anticipating an occasion to distinguish himself at a 
later hour of the day. Toward evening the assailing 
Indians were discovered placing bundles of inflam- 
mable materials under and about the deserted houses, 
preparatory to a grand conflagration in the evening, 
by the light of wliich the Indians on the reservation 
and those in the two camps on the beach at Seattle 
were to assist in attacking and destroying the block- 
house with its inmates. This information, being 
gathered by scouts, was brought to Gansevoort in time, 
who resorted to shelling the town as a means of dis- 
persing the incendiaries, which proved successful, and 
by ten o'clock at night firing had ceased on both sides. 

Shells had much more influence with the savages 
than cannon-balls; for they could understand how so 
large a ball might fell a tree in their midst, but they 
could not comprehend how a ball which had alighted 
on the ground, and lain still until their curiosity 
prompted an examination, should 'shoot again' of it- 
self with such destructive force."® What they could 
not understand must be supernatural, hence the evil 
spirits which they had invoked against the white 
people had turned against themselves, and it was use- 
less to resist them. In short, they felt the heavy 
hand of fate against them, and bowed submissive to 
its decree. When the morning of the 27th dawned 

'= No report of the number of Indians killed ever appeared, nor could it be 
known. It is probable, however, that many were killed and carried off by 
their friends. Numeroua guesses have been made, varying from 10 to 00. 


the hostile force had disappeared, taking what cattle 
they could find; "the sole results," says Phelps, whom 
I have chiefly followed in the narration of the attack 
on Seattle, "of an expedition which it had taken 
months to perfect, and looking to the utter annihi- 
lation of the white settlers in that section of the 
country." I have it from the same authority that 
news of the attack was received at Bellingham Bay, a 
hundred miles distant, in seven hours from its com- 
mencement, showing the interest taken in the matter 
by the tribes all along the Sound. Their combination 
was to depend upon the success of the movement by 
Leschi and Owhi, and it failed; therefore they con- 
cealed their complicity in it, and remained neutral. 

Leschi, however, affected not to be depressed by the 
reverse he had sustained, but sent a boastful message 
to Captain Gansevoort that in another month, when 
he should have replenished his commissary depart- 
ment, he would return and destroy Seattle. This 
seeming not at all improbable, it was decided to erect 
fortifications sufficiently' ample to prevent any sudden 
attack; whereupon H. L. Yesler contributed a cargo 
of sawed lumber with which to erect barricades be- 
tween the town and the wooded hills back of it. 
This work was commenced on the 1st of February, 
and soon completed. It consisted of two wooden walls 
five feet in height and a foot and a half apart, filled 
with earth and sawdust solidly packed to make it 
bullet-proof^*' A second block-house was also erected 
on the summit of a ridge which commanded a view of 
the town and vicinity, and which was armed with a 
rusty cannon taken formerl}^ from some ship, and a 
six-pounder field-piece taken frona the Active, which 
returned to Seattle on hearing of the attack. An 
esplanade was constructed at the south end of the town, 
in order to enable the guns stationed there to sweep 
the shore and prevent approach by the enemy from the 
water-front; clearing and road-building being carried 

''i'esler's Wash. Ter., MS., 9. 


on to make the place defensible, which greatly im- 
proved its appearance as a town. 

On the 24th of February, 1856, the United States 
steamer Massachusetts arrived in the Sound, com- 
mander Samuel Swartwout assuming the direction 
of naval matters, and releasing the Active from de- 
fensive service at Seattle, where for three weeks her 
crew under Johnson had assisted in guarding the 
barricades. About a month later another United 
States steamer, the John Hancock, David McDougall 
commander, entered the Sound, making the third 
man-of-war in these waters during the spring of 1856. 
The Decatur remained until June. In the mean time 
Patkanim had stipulated with the territorial author- 
ities to aid them in the prosecution of the war against 
the hostile tribes. For every chief killed, whose 
head he could show in proof, he was to be paid eighty 
dollars, and for every warrior, twenty. The heads were 
delivered on board the Decatur, whence they were 
forwarded to Olympia, where a record was kept.^' 

In April a large body of Stikines repaired to the 
waters of the gulf of Georgia, within easy distance of 
the American settlements, and made their sorties 
with their canoes in any direction at will. On the 
8th the John Hancock, being at Port Townsend, ex- 
pelled sixty from that place, who became thereby 
nmch offended, making threats which alarmed the 
inhabitants, and which were the occasion of a public 
meeting on the following day to request the governor 
and Commander Swartwout to send a war-steamer to 
cruise between Bellingham Bay and the other settle- 
ments on the lower Sound and Fuca Sea."'* During 

" Phelps describes Patkanim aa he returned from Olympia with his com- 
pany after being paid oif, in April, 'an-ayed in citizen's garb, including 
congress gaiters, white kid gloves, and a white shirt with standing collar 
reaching half-way up his cars, and the whole finished off with a flaming red 
necktie.' Patkanim had 80 warriors of the Snoqualimich and Skokomish 
tribes, and was assisted by a chief called John Taylor. 

'"' Olympia Pioneer and Dent., April 25, 1850. I find in the jonrnal kept 
by W. S. Ebey, who lived on Whidbey Island, frequent reference to the 
depredations of the northern Indians. They visited the island on the morn- 
ing of Jan. lyth, committing a number of thefts, taking the property of settlers, 


the whole summer a feeling of insecurity and alarm 
prevailed, only alleviated by the cruising of the men-of- 
war. That they still infested these waters at mid- 
summer is shown by the account of Phelps of the 
departure of the Decatur from the Sound in June, 
which he says was "escorted by our Indian friends, 
representatives from the Tongas, Hydah,Stickene, and 
Shineshean tribes," until abreast of Victoria. They 
were glad to see the vessel depart. 

In October a small party of Stikines attacked a 
small schooner belonging to one Valentine, killing one 
of his crew in an attempt to board the vessel, and 
severely wounding another. They were pursued by 
the Massachusetts, but escaped. At the same time 
other predatory detachments of a large party landed 
at different points, robbing the houses temporarily 
vacated by the owners, and not long afterward visited 
the Indian reservation near Steilacoom and carried 
off the potatoes raised by the reserve Indians. At 
the second visit of the robbers to the reservation, the 
Nisquallies killed three of the invaders, in conse- 
quence of which much alarm existed. 

Swartwout then determined to drive them from 
the Sound, and overtaking them at Port Gamble on 
the 20th, found them encamped there in force. Wish- 
ing to avoid attacking them without sufficient appar- 
ent provocation, he sent a detachment under Lieu- 
tenant Young in a boat to request them to leave the 
Sound, offering to tow their canoes to Victoria, and in- 
viting a few of the principal chiefs to visit the ship. 
To these proposals they returned insolent answers, ges- 
ticulating angrily at the officers and men, challenging 
them to come ashore and fight them, which Young- 
was forbidden to do. 

and also articles belonging to the revenue-cutter Rival. Ebey mentions that 
lu Feb. the people on tlie mainland were apprehensive of an attack, and were 
collecting at Belliugham Bay, where a company was organizing for defence. 
The Chimakums near Port Townseud fled to the island for protection from 
the northern Indians, of whom they were much afraid. Ebey' 6 Journal, MS., 
iii. 226-9, 253-4, 255; BaUou'a Adventurer, MS., 16. 


A second and larger expedition was fitted out to 
make another attempt to prevail upon the Indians to 
depart, bj a display of strength united with mildness 
and reason, but with no better effect, the deputation 
being treated with increased contempt. The whole 
of the first day was spent in useless conciliation, when, 
finding his peaceable overtures of no avail, Swartwout 
drew the Massachusetts as close as possible to their 
encampment, and directly abreast, and stationed the 
Traveller, a small passenger-steamer running on the 
Sound at this time,^" commanded for this occasion by 
Master's mate Cummings, with the launch of the Massa- 
chusetts commanded by Lieutenant Forrest, both hav- 
ing field-pieces on board, above the Indian encampment, 
where their guns would have a raking fire upon it. 
Early in the following morning Lieutenant Semmes 
was ordered to take a flag of truce and reiterate his 
demand of the day before, pointing out to the Indians 
the preparations made to attack them, and the folly 
of further resistance. They were still determined to 
defy the power which they underrated because it 
appeared suppliant, and preparations were made for 
charging them and using the howitzer, which was 
carried on shore by the men in the launch wading 
waist-deep in water. Even after the landing of the 
men and gun they refused to consider any propositions 
looking to their departure, but retired to the cover of 
logs and trees with their arms, singing their war- 
songs as they went. 

When there could no longer be any doubt of their 
warlike purpose, an order was given to fire the Travel- 
ler's field-pieces, which were discharged at the same 
instant that a volley blazed out of the nmzzles of sixty 
guns in the hands of the Indians. The ship's battery 

■^ J. G. Parker owned the Traveller. It was a small iron steamer, which 
in 1855 was shipped from S. F. on the brig /. B. brown, and run for two 
years carrying the mail. It was afterward sold to Capt. Horton, who 
chartered it to the Indian department, and was lost at Foulweather Bluff. 
I'arker continued in the steamboat business, and ran the Memtnrjer for some 
time between Olympia and Seattle. In his Puget Sound, MS., 0-14, is a his- 
tory of early steamboating, complete and valuable. 


was then directed against them, and under cover of 
the guns, the marines and sailors on shore, led by 
Forrest and Semmes, charged the Indian encamp- 
ment situated at the base of a high and steep hill 
surrounded by a dense undergrowth and by a living 
and dead forest almost impenetrable. The huts and 
property of the Indians were destroyed, although a 
desperate resistance was made, as futile as it was 
determined. After three hours the detachment re- 
turned on board ship, firing being kept up all day 
whenever an Indian was seen. During the afternoon 
a captive woman of the Stikines was sent on shore 
to offer them pardon, on condition that they would 
surrender and go to Victoria on the Massachusetts, 
their canoes being destroyed; but they answered that 
they would fight as long as one of them was left 
alive. However, on the morning of the 22d the 
chiefs made humble overtures of surrender, saying 
that out of 117 fighting men 27 had been killed and 
21 wounded, the rest losing all their property and 
being out of provisions. They were then received 
on board the Massachusetts, fed, and carried to Victoria, 
whence their passage home was assured. 

Swartwout in his report to the navy department 
expressed the conviction that after this severe chas- 
tisement the northern Indians would not again visit 
the Sound. In this belief he was mistaken. On the 
night of the 11th of August, 1857, they landed on 
Whidbey Island, went to the house of I. N. Ebey, 
shot him, cut off his head, robbed the premises, and 
escaped before the alarm could be given. This was 
done, it was said, in revenge for the losses inflicted 
by the Massachusetts, they selecting Ebey because of 
his rank and value to the community.^" 

"" Ebey was in his bouse on the island with bis wife, liis three children, and 
George W. Corliss and wife. At one o'clock he was awakened by the bark- 
ing of dogs, and going to the door, opened it. The other inmates of the house 
beard two shots fired, and soon after Mrs Ebey saw her husband at the win- 
dow of her room with bis band pressed to his head. She called to him to 
come in through the window, but he appeared not to bear or understand. 
Two other shots were then fired, when he fell. The Indians being for the 


Numerous depredations were committed by them, 
which nothing could prevent except armed steamers 
to cruise in the Fuca strait and sea." Expeditions 
to the Sound were made in January, and threats that 
they would have five heads before leaving it, and 
among others that of the United States inspector at 
San Juan Island, Oscar Olney. They visited the 
Pattle coal mine at Bellingham Bay, where they 
killed two men and took away their heads. They 
visited Joel Clayton, the discoverer of the Mount 
Diablo coal mines of California, living at Bellingham 
Bay in 1857, who narrowly escaped, and abandoned 
his claim on account of them.^^ Several times they 
reconnoitred the block-house at that place, but with- 
drew without attacking. These acts were retaliatory 
of the injury suffered in 1856.^^ 

moment busy witU their victim, Mrs Corliss sprang out of the window, which 
opened on a piazza, followed by Mrs Ebey and the children, and a moment 
after by Corliss, who had remained to liold fast the door between them and 
the ball of the hoiise which the Indians were entering. He then retreated 
through the window, and fleeing to the woods, all escaped the bullets sent 
after them in the darkness. Mrs Corliss, who was a daughter of Judson, 
who settled on Commencement Bay in 1853, ran to the house of R. C. Hill, 
over half a mile away, and gave the alarm. Believing that a descent of the 
northern Indians upon the settlements of the lower sound, such as they had 
long dreaded, liiul been begun, the women and children were hurriedly 
gathei\'il at the lumse of Harmon, and preparations made for defence. When 
ilayliglit came tlie murderers were gone, and with them the head of Ebey, 
from which they took the scalp, afterward recovered by the H. B. Co., and 
placed in possession of his niece, Mrs Almira N. Enos of S. F. Victoria 
Gazette, Nov. 4, 1858; Puget Sound Herald, Dec. 9, 1859; Ebey's Journal, 
MS., vi. 282; H. Ex. Hoc, 39, 11-12, 35th cong. Istsess.; Overland Monthly, 
xi. 205. 

^' As early as January following the chastisement given by the Massa- 
chusetts, these Indians visited the Sound. At Whidbey Island they created so 
much alarm that a company of 35 men was organized in April, with 1!. V. 
Peabody captain and George W. Beam and C. U. Vail lieutenants, to defend 
the settlements. Mey's Journal, MS., v. 29. In May several families aban- 
doned their houses through fear of them. In June 1858 they attacked a 
party of miners six miles from Whatcom, killing all but two, who escaped. 
Several hundred dollars' worth of goods were taken. Joseph Foster of SeattU 
was among the killed. Olympia Pioneer and Dem., June 18, 1858. 

'^lioder's Bellimjham Bay, MS., 22^. 

'' The various mounted volunteer companies engaged in war or defence 
during Mason's administration were the following: Companies A, Capt. Wil- 
liam Strong, and B, Capt. Gilmore Hays, were mustered into the regular service 
and furnished their own horses; companies E, Capt. Isaac Hays, F, Capt. B. 
S. Henness, K, Capt. John R. Jackson; Cowlitz Rangers, Capt. H. W. Peers, 
Lewis River Rangers, Capt. William Bratton, in the service of the territory, 
fiuuislied their own horses; Stevens Guards, Capt. Higgins, were furnished 
liorses by gov.; Spokane Inviucibles, Capt. Yaniis, horses partly furnished 


Immediately on learning what had occurred in the 
Yakima country, in October 1855, Indian agent 
Olney, at The Dalles, hastened to Walla "VValla in 
order, if possible, to prevent a combination of the 
Oregon Indians with the Yakimas, rumors being in 
circulation that the Cayuses, Walla Wallas, and Des 
Chutes were unfriendly. He found Peupeumoxmox 
encamped on the north side of the Columbia, a circum- 
stance which he construed as unfavorable, although by 
the terms of the treaty of Walla Walla the chief pos- 
sessed the right for five years to occupy a trading 
post at the mouth of the Yakima River, or any tract 
in possession for the period of one year from the rati- 
fication of the treaty, which had not yet taken place.^* 

Olney declared in his oflScial communications to R. 
R. Thompson at this time, that all the movements of 
Peupeumoxmox indicated a determination to join in 
a war with the Yakimas. Thompson was not sur- 
prised, because in September he had known that 
Peupeumoxmox denied having sold the Walla Walla 
Valley, and was aware of other signs of trouble with 
this chief ^' 

At this critical juncture the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany's officers, McKinlay, Anderson, and Sinclair, 

by gov. and partly by volunteers; Puget Sound Eangers, Capt. Charles 
Eaton, furnished their owu horses; Nez Perce Volunteers, Capt. Spotted 
Eagle, furnished their own horses and equipments. Inf. companies: C, 
George B. Goudv, D, Capt. W. H. Wallace (part of them mounted), G, Capt. 
W. A. S. McCo'rclde, M, Capt. C. C. Hewitt, I, Capt. I. N. Ebey, J, Capt. 
A. A. Pluninier, Nisqually Ferry guards, Serg. William Packwood. Adj.- 
Gcn. Re/it,ia ira.s/(. J/rss. h'ov., 1857. See also Iiode>-'s Bell hifiham Bay, MS.; 
Eh,>/'.s./ournal,US.; Morris' Wash. Ter., MS.; BaUou'sAdv.,'MS.; Hav/ord's 
Ind. War, MS.; Tes/er's Wash. Ter., MS.; Parker's Puget Sound, MS., 

3' Palmer, in ff. Ex: Doc, 93, 22, 34th cong. 1st sess.; Ind. Aff. JRept, 
vol. 34. 

'^'"Portland Times, Oct. 21, 1855. There were in all about 60 white men, 
women, and children in the country on tlie W'alla Walla and Umatilla riv- 
ers. Lloyd Brooks, T\ho came to Vancouver in 1849 as chief clerk to 
quartermaster Captaiu Ruf us lutjalls, was one. In 18.53 he went to the Walla 
W'alla Valley tu raise cattle U^S. Ev. II. B. Co. Claims, 127. He returned 
to Vancouver, married a daughter of Gen. E. Hamilton, ter. sec. under 
Gaines, and resided in Portland after 1862. Other Americans were Bromford, 
Noble, Victor Trcvitt, \V. H. Barnhart, Wolf, and Whitney. There were, 
besides these, the H. B. Co.'s few people at the fort, and the French and half- 
breed settlers about the catholic mission of Father Clierouse, near Waiilatpu. 


the latter in charge of the fort, in conference with 
Ohiey, decided to destroy the ammunition stored at 
Walla Walla to prevent its falling into the hands of 
the Indians; accordingly a large amount of powder 
and ball was thrown into the river, for which Ohiey 
gave an official receipt, relieving Sinclair of all re- 
sponsibility. He then ordered all the white inhab- 
itants out of the country, including Sinclair, who was 
compelled to abandon the property of the company 
contained in the fort,^'^ valued at $37,000, to the 
mercy of the Indians, together with a considerable 
amount of government stores left there by the Indian 
commissioners in June, and other goods belonging to 
American traders and settlers. 

Colonel Nesmith, of the Oregon Mounted Volun- 
teers, on returning to The Dalles, reported against a 
winter campaign in the Yakima Valley, saying that 
the snow covered the trails, that his animals were 
broken down and many of his men frost-bitten and 
unfit for duty, so that 125 of them had been dis- 
charged and allowed to return to their homes. In 
tlie mean time the left column of the regiment had 
congregated at The Dalles, under Lieutenant-Colonel 
James K. Kelly, and Governor Curry ordered for- 
ward Major M. A. Chinn to Walla Walla, where he 
expected to meet Nesmith from the Yakima country. 

On learning of the general uprising, while en route, 
Chinn concluded it impossible to enter the country, 
or form a junction with Nesmith as contemplated; 

'"Evidence of WUliam Charles, in H. B. Co. Ev. H. B. Co. Claims, 173. 
This was the end of the company's occupation at Walla Walla, later known 
as WalUila. The end of their occupation of forts Hall and Bois6 occurred 
about the same time — Fort Bois(5 a little earlier, and Fort Hall a little later. 
The Indians about the former post were imbittered, seeing the company's 
agent on good terms with Major Haller and the American soldiei's, and be- 
cause he refused to sell them ammunition. Fort Hall was abandoned because 
it Qould not, on account of the Indian hostilities, be communicated with in 
the usual way, wliich was by Walla Walla and Boise from Vancouver. 'Our 
two expressmen, Boisclere and Desjardins, had been killed between Fort Hall 
and Walla Walla. I had orders from Chief Factor McTavish to have the 
company's efTectsat Fort Hall, men and property, withdrawni to the Flathead 
post by a party sent from there for them, which was done, the active theatre 
of hostilities not being so much in the direct course of that party.' Angus 
McDonald, in JJ. B. Co. Ev. II. B. Co. Claims, 162. 


hence he determined to fortify the Umatilla agency, 
whose buildings had been burned, and there await re- 
enforcements. Arriving there on the 18th of No- 
vember, a stockade was erected and named Fort 
Henrietta, after Major Haller's wife. In due time 
Kelly arrived and assumed command, late reenforce- 
ments giving him in all 475 men. 

With 339 men Kelly set forth for Walla Walla on the 
night of December 2d. On the way Peupeumoxmox 
was met at the head of a band of warriors displaying 
a white flag. After a conference the Indians were 
held as prisoners of war; the army marched forward 
toward Waiilatpu, and in an attack which followed 
the prisoners were put to death. Thus perished the 
the wealthy and powerful chief of the Walla Wallas.^^ 

A desultory fight was kept up during the 7th and 
8th, and on the 9th the Indians were found to have 
rather the best of it.''' On the 10th, however, Kelly 
was reenforced from Fort Henrietta, and next day the 
Indians retired, the white men pursuing until night- 
fall. A new fortification was erected Ijy Kelly, two 
miles above Waiilatpu, and called Fort Bennett. 

It was now about the middle of December, and 
Kelly, remembering the anxiety of Governor Curry 
to have him take his seat in the council, began to pre- 
pare for returning to civil duties. Before he could 

^ Though coming to them under color of peace, it waa charged upon tlie 
chief that he intended to entrap them. However this may have been, the vol- 
unteers, not content with putting so powerful an enemy out of the way, 
amused themselves that evening in camp by cutting off bits of his scalp as 
trophies; and when the scalp was entirely gone, the assistant surgeon of the 
regiment cut off his ears, and it was said that some of his fingers were taken 
off. Parrish probably exaggerates somewhat when he says: 'They skinned 
him from head to foot, and made razor-straps of his skin.' Or. Anec, MS., 87. 

^'Killed: Capt. Charles Bennett of Co. F, the same who was connected 
with James Marshall in the discovery of gold in Cal. ; 2d Lieut J. M. Burrows, 
Co. H, Simon S. Van Hagerman, Co. I. Mortally wounded, who lived but a 
few hours: E. B. Kelsey, Co. A; Henry Crow and Casper Snook, Co. H; 
Joseph Sturdevant, Co. B; Jesse Flemming, Co. A. Dangerously wounded: 
Capt. Layton, and privates T. J. Payne, Nathan Fry, and F. Crabtree, Co. 
H; J. B. Gervias, Co. K. Severely wounded: Capt. A. V. Wilson, Co. A; 
Capt. L. Munson, Co. I; Ser.-Maj. Isaac Miller, Co. H; Private G. W. Smith, 
Co. B. Slightly wounded: PrivatesA. M. Addington, Co. H; Franklin Duval, 
Co. A. El-am, Or. Mil. Organization, 90. On the 9th and 10th, wounded, A. 
Shepard, Ira Allen, and John Smith. Estimated Ind. killed and wounded, 100. 


leave the command he received intelligence of the 
resignation of Nesmith, and immediately ordered an 
election for colonel, which resulted in the elevation to 
the command of Thomas R. Cornelius, and to the office 
vacated by himself of Davis Layton. The place of 
Captain Bennett was filled by A. M. Fellows, whose 
rank in his company was taken by A. Shepard, whose 
office fell to B. A. Barker. With this partial reorgan- 
ization ended the brief first chapter in the volunteer 
campaign in the Walla Walla Valley. 

On the evening of the 20th Governor Stevens 
entered the camp, having made his way safely through 
the hostile country, as related in the preceding 
chapter. His gratitude to the Oregon regiment 
was earnest and cordial, without that jealousy which 
might have been felt by him on having his terri- 
tory invaded by an armed force from another.^^ 
He remained ten clays in the Walla Walla Valley, and 
finding Agent Shaw on the ground, who was also 
colonel of the Wasliington militia, a company of 
French Canadians was organized to act as home-guards, 
with Sidney S. Ford captain, and Green McCafferty 
1st lieutenant. Shaw was directed to have thrown 
up defensive works around the place already selected 
by Kelly as the winter camp of the friendly Indians 
and French settlers, and to protect in the same man- 
ner the settlers at the Spokane and Colville, while 
cooperating with Colonel Cornelius in any movement 
defensive or oflPensive which he might make against 
the Indians in arms. He agreed with the Oregon 
officers that the Walla Walla should be held by the 
volunteers until the regular troops were ready to take 
the field, and that the war should be prosecuted with 

Before leaving Walla Walla, Governor Stevens ap- 
pointed WiUiam Craig his aid during the Indian war, 
and directed him to muster out of the service, on re- 
turning to their country, the sixty-nine Nez Perc^ 

"See Stevens' Speech on the War Debt, May 13, 1858, 


volunteers enrolled at Lap-wai, 'with thanks for their 
good conduct, and to send their muster-rolls to the 
adjutant-general's office at Olympia. Craig was di- 
rected to take measures for the protection of the Nez 
Perces against any incursions of the hostile Indians, 
all of which was a politic as well as war measure, for 
so long as the Nez Perces were kept employed, and 
flattered, with a prospect of pay in the future, there 
was comparatively little danger of an outbreak among 
them. Pleased with these attentions, they offered to 
furnish all the fresh horses required to mount the 
Oregon volunteers for the further prosecution of the 

Kelly resigned and returned to Oregon, though 
afterward again joining his command. Stevens has- 
tened to Olympia, where he arrived the 19th of Jan- 
uary, finding affairs in a deplorable condition, all 
business suspended, and the people living in block- 
houses.^" He was received with a salute of thirty- 
eight guns. 

The two companies under Major Armstrong, whom 
Colonel Nesmith had directed to scour the John Day 
and Des Chutes country, while holding themselves in 
readiness to reenforce Kelly if needed, employed 
themselves as instructed, their services amounting to 
little more than discovering property stolen from im- 
migrants, and capturing 'friendly' Indians who were 
said to be acting as go-betweens. 

During the remainder of December the companies 
stationed in the vicinity of The Dalles made fre- 
quent sorties in the direction of the Des Chutes and 
John Day countries, and were thus occupied when 
Kelly resigned his command, who on returning to 
Oregon City was received with acclamations by the 
people, who escorted him in triumph to partake of a 
public banquet in his honor, regarding him as a hero 

"Kept of I. I. Stevens to the see. war, in Sen. Ex. Doc, 66, 6-S, 34th 
cong. 1st sess.; Ind. Aff. Eepl, vol. 34; Or. Argus, Jan. 12, 185(5; Graver's 
Pub. Life, MS., 58. 


who had severed a dangerous coalition between the 
hostile tribes of southern Oregon then in the field 
and those of Puget Sound and northern Washington. 

As many of the 1st regiment of Oregon Mounted 
Volunteers who had served in the Yakima and Walla 
Walla campaigns were anxious to return to their 
homes, Governor Curry issued a proclamation on 
the 6th of January, 1856, for a battalion of five com- 
panies to be raised in Linn, Marion, Yamhill, Polk, 
and Clackiuas counties, and a recruit of forty men 
to fill up Captain Conoyer's company of scouts, all 
to remain in service for three months unless sooner 
discharged. Within a month the battalion was 
I'aised, and as soon as equipped set out for Walla 
Walla, where it arrived about the first of March. 

Colonel Cornelius, now in command, set out on the 
9th of March with about 600 men to find the enemy. 
A few Indians were discovered on Snake River, and 
along the Columbia to the Yakima and Palouse, 
which latter stream was ascended eight miles, the army 
subsisting on horse-flesh in the absence of other provis- 
ions. Thence Cornelius crossed to Priest's Rapids, 
and followed down the east bank of the Columbia to 
the mouth of the Yakima, where he arrived the 30th, 
still meeting few Indians. Making divers disposition 
of his forces, with three companies on the 31st Corne- 
lius crossed the Columbia, intending to marcli through 
the country of Kamiakin and humble the pride of this 
haughty chief, when he received news of a most star- 
tling nature. The Yakimas had attacked the settle- 
ments at the Cascades of the Columbia. 

Early in March Colonel Wright, now in command 
at Vancouver, commenced moving his force to The 
Dalles, and when General Wool arrived in Oregon 
about the middle of the month, he found but three 
companies of infantry at Vancouver, two of which he 
ordered to Fort Steilacoom, a palpable blunder, when 


it is recollected that there was a portage of several 
miles at The Cascades over which all the government 
stores, ammunition, and other property were compelled 
to pass, and where, owing to lack of transportation 
above, it was compelled to remain for some length of 
time, this circumstance offering a strong motive for 
the hostile Klikitats and Yakimas, whose territory 
adjoined, to make a descent upon it. So little atten- 
tion was given to this evident fact that the company 
stationed at The Cascades was ordered away on the 
24th of March, and the only force left was a detach- 
ment of eight men, under Sergeant Matthew Kelly, 
of the 4th infantry, which occupied the block-house 
erected about midway between the upper and lower 
settlements, by Captain Wallen, after the outbreak 
in October." A wagon-road connected the upper 
and lower ends of the portage, and a wooden railway 
was partly constructed over the same ground, an im- 
provement which the Indian war had lendered neces- 
sary and possible. On Rock Creek, at the upper end 
of the portage, was a saw-mill, and a little below, a 
village of several families, with the store, or trading- 
house, of Bradford & Co. fronting on the river, near 
which a bridge was being built connecting an island 
with tlie mainland, and also another bridge on the 
railroad. At the landing near the mouth of Rock 
Creek lay the little steamer Mary, the consort of the 
Wasco, and the first steamboat that ran on the Co- 
lumbia between The Cascades and The Dalles. At 
the lower end of the portage lived the family of W. 
K. Kilborn, and near the block-house the family of 
George Griswold. 

All that section of country known in popular 
phraseology as The Cascades, and extending for five 
miles along the north bank of the Columbia at the 
rapids, is a shelf of uneven ground of no great width 
between the river and the overhanging cliffs of the 
mountains, split in twain for the passage of the 


mighty River of the West. Huge masses of rock lie 
scattered over it, interspersed with clumps of luxu- 
riant vegetation and small sandy prairies. For the 
greater part of the year it is a stormy place, subject 
to wind, mist, snow, and rain, but sunny and delight- 
ful in the sunuiier months, and always impressively 
grand and wild. 

At half-past eight o'clock on the morning of the 
26th of March, General Wool having returned to 
California and Colonel Wright having marched his 
whole force out from The Dalles, leaving his rear un- 
guarded, the Yakimas and Klikitats, having waited 
for this opportunity to sweep down upon this lonely 
spot, suddenly appeared at the upper settlement in 
force. The hour was early and the Mary had not yet 
left her landing, her crew being on their way to the 
boat. At the mill and the bridges men were at 
work, and a teamster was hauling timber from the 

Upon this scene of peaceful industry, in a moment 
of apparent security, burst the crack of manj^ rifles, 
a puff of blue smoke from every clump of bushes 
alone revealing the hiding-places of the enemy, who 
had stationed themselves before daylight in a line 
from Rock Creek to the head of the rapids, where the 
workmen were engaged on the bridges. At the first 
fire several were wounded, one mortally. Then began 
the demoniacal scene of an Indian massacre, the 
whoops and yells of the attacking party, the shrieks 
of their victims as their hurried flight was inter- 
I'upted by the rifle-ball, or their agonies were cut 
short by the tomahawk. At the mill, B. W. Brown, 
his wife, a girl of eighteen years, and her young 
brother were slain, scalped, and their bodies thrown 
into the stream. So well concerted and rapid was 
the work of destruction that it was never known in 
what order the victims fell. Most of the men at 
work on the bridges, and several families in the vicin- 
ity, escaped to Bradford's store, which being con- 


structed of logs afforded greater security than board 

It chanced that only an hour before the attack 
nine government rifles and a quantity of ammunition 
had been left at Bradford's to be sent back to A'^an- 
oouver. With these arms so opportunely furnished, 
the garrison, about forty in number, eighteen of 
whom were capable of defence, made preparations for 
a siege. The Indians, having taken possession of a 
bluff, or bench of land, back of and higher than the 
railroad and buildings, had greatly the advantage, be- 
ing themselves concealed, but able to watch every 
movement below. 

In order to counteract this disadvantage, the stairs 
being on the outside Of the building, an aperture was 
cut in the ceiling, through which men were passed up 
to the chamber above, where by careful watching they 
were able to pick off an Indian now and then. A 
few stationed themselves on the roof, which was 
reached in the same way, and by keeping on the 
river side were able to shelter themselves, and get an 
occasional shot.*^ Embrasures were cut in the walls, 
which were manned by watchful marksmen, and the 
doors strongly barricaded. 

While these defences were being planned and exe- 
cuted, James Sinclair of the Hudson's Bay Company, 
who happened to be at The Cascades, the door being 
opened for an instant, was shot and instantly killed 
by the lurking enemy. ''^ A welcome sound was the 
'Toot, toot!' of the Mary's whistle, now heard above 
the din of war, showing that the steamer had not 
been captured, as it was feared — for upon this de- 
pended their only chance of obtaining succor from 
The Dalles. 

*- The first Indian killed was by Bush, who shot jnst as the savage was 
about to fire on Mrs Watkins, who was running to Bradford's. Letter of 
L. W. Coe, in Historical Correspondence. 

''Sinclair became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1S49. 
Congress in 1S75, at the prayer of his widow, granted her a land claim of 640 
acres in the Vi'alla Walla Valley. U. S. Statutes, 1S75-6, Priv. Acts, 3-4. 


The escape of the Mary was indeed a remarkable 
episode in that morning's transactions. Her fires were 
out, only a part of her crew on board, and the remain- 
der on their way to the landing, when the Indians 
fired the first volley. Those on shore were James 
Thompson, John Woodard, and James Herman. 
Holding a hurried consultation, Thompson and 
Woodard determined on an eflfort to save the boat, 
while Herman ran to the shelter of the woods and up 
the bank of the river. While hauling on the lines to 
get the boat out into the stream, the Indians pressed 
the two gallant men so closely that they were forced 
to quit their hold and seek the concealment of the 
neighboring thickets. The steamer was then attacked, 
the fireman, James Linsay, being shot through the 
shoulder; and the cook, a negro, being wounded, in 
his fright jumped overboard and was drowned. The 
engineer, Buckminster, having a revolver, shot an 
Indian, and the steward's boy, John Chance, finding 
an old dragoon pistol on board, also despatched an 
Indian, firing from the hurricane-deck. 

In the midst of these stirring scenes the steamer's 
fires were started, and Hardin Chenoweth, going up 
into the pilot-house and l3'ing flat upon the fioor, 
backed the boat out into the river, though the wind 
was blowing hard down stream. It was at this 
moment of success that the Marijs whistles, sharp 
and defiant, notified the people in the store that she 
was oflf to The Dalles for help, and which sustained 
their spirits through the many trying hours which 
followed. The boat picked up the families of Vander- 
pool and Sheppard, who came out to her in skifls, and 
also Herman of their own crew, after which she 
steamed rapidly up the river. 

When the men on the bridges rushed into Brad- 
ford's store three men were left upon the island, who 
afterward attempted to reach that refuge without 
being discovered by the Indians. Those on the look- 
out in the store could see that it was impossible, and 


shouted to them to lie down behind the rocks. Find- 
lay, the first man admonished, obeyed. The Indians 
had now reached the island; and as Bailey, another 
•workman who had not heard or not obeyed the caution, 
came running, he was mistaken for one of the enemy 
pursuing Findlay, and fired on, receiving a wound in 
the leg and arm. Both, however, sprang into the 
water; and although Bailey came near being carried 
over the falls, they reached the landing in front of the 
store and were hastily admitted. The third man, 
James Watkins, in attempting to follow, was discovered 
and shot through the arm. He dropped behind a 
rock, his friends shouting to him to lie still and they 
would rescue him; but they were not able to do so, 
and his wounds being too long neglected, he died. 

In the mean time the mill, lumber-yard, and several 
houses had been buimed, and the assailants endeavored 
to fire the store by projecting upon it brands of pitch- 
wood and hot irons. They also threw stones and mis- 
siles of various kinds to dislodge the men on the roof, 
but the distance from which these missiles were sent 
rendered them comparatively harmless, the occasional 
fire which took in the shingles being promptly ex- 
tinguished by brine from a pork-barrel carefully 
poured on with a tin cup, no water being obtainable. 

In a few hours the want of water became a fresh 
source of torment. Of the forty persons shut up in 
the small compass of the lower story of the building, 
four were wounded, one dead, and the majority of the 
wliole were women and children. The only liquids in 
the place were two dozen bottles of ale and a few 
bottles of whiskey, which were exhausted in the 
course of the day, and all were waiting impatiently for 
the cover of darkness to bring some water from the 
river. But the Indians had reserved a new ware- 
house and some government property to be burned 
during the night to furnish light for tlieir operations, 
and to prevent the escape of the besieged. In this 
extremity a Spokane, brought up by Mr Sinclair, 


volunteered to procure the needed water. Strip- 
ping himself naked, he threw hiuaself on the slide used 
for loading boats, and slipping down to the river, re- 
turned witli a bucketful for the wounded. The second 
day and night were j)assed like the first, no more 
water being procured until the morning of the 28th, 
when, the fires of the enemy having died out, the 
Spokane again ventured to the river, and this time 
filled two barrels, going and coming with incredible 
swiftness. The steamer not yet having returned, and 
fears being entertained of her captui'e, the body of 
Sinclair was shoved down the slide into the river by 
the same faithful servant. 

While these scenes were being performed at the 
upper Cascades, the people below were also experi- 
encing a share in the misfortunes of their neighbors. 
The first intimation of an attack at the block-house 
was hearing a few shots, and the shouts of men run- 
ning from above warning others. Five of the little 
garrison of nine were in the fort at that moment. 
Hastening down-stairs they found one of their com- 
rades at the door, shot through the hip. The em- 
brasures were opened, and the cannon run out and fired 
at the Indians, who could be seen on a hill in front. 
Immediately afterward the citizens came fleeing to the 
fort for protection, drawing the fire of the Indians, 
which was returned by the soldiers until all left alive 
were sheltered. Firing from both sides continued for 
four hours, when, seeing that the Indians were about to 
burn a large building. Sergeant Kelly again dispersed 
them with the cannon. Toward night a soldier who 
had been wounded near the block-house in the aiorn- 
ing made his way in and was rescued. During the 
night the Indians attempted to fire the block-house, 
without success, prowling about all night without do- 
ing much damage. During the forenoon of the 27th 
three soldiers made a sortie to a neighboring house, 
and returned safely with some provisions. In the 


afternoon the cannon was again fired at a large party 
of Indians who appeared on the Oregon side of the 
river, which served the purpose of scattering them, 
when four of the soldiers and some of the citizens 
sallied out to bring in the dead and wounded, and to 
search the deserted houses for arms and ammunition.** 
At the lower Cascades no lives were lost in the 
attack. On the morning of the 26th W. K. Kilborn, 
who owned and ran an open freight-boat on the Co- 
lumbia, walked up to the lower end of the portage 
railroad to look for a crew of the Cascade Indians to 
take his boat up the rapids to that point, but was met 
by a half-Spanish Indian boy whom he had known on 
French Prairie in the Willamette Valley, and who 
endeavored to show him that it was unsafe for him to 
be in the neighborhood, because the Yakimas and 
Klikitats had been about the lodges of the local 
Indians the night before. Kilborn took the lad with 
him to the office of Agent G. B. Simpson, close by, 
where he still persisted in imploring them to fly, 
telling them they were surrounded by hostile Indians 
on every side. At that instant came the boom of the 
cannon at the block-house above, and the half-breed 
darted down the road to give the alarm to the families 
below, followed by Kilborn, who was soon overtaken 
by a mounted man crying, "Run for your lives, they 
are fighting at the block-house!"*^ On reaching his 
boat he found his family and that of Hamilton already 
on board, and instantly put off, a few men who had 
guns remaining to protect their property. As he was 
about to land for some purpose a short distance below, 
these men shouted to him, "Do not land; here they 

"The names of the garrison at the block-house were M. Kelly, Frederick 
Beman, Owen McManus, Lawrence PLOOuey (killed in the first attack), Smiley, 
Houser, Williams, Roach, and Sheridan; the latter four being those who 
went out to bring in the dead and wounded on the second day. Indian Hos- 
tilities in Oregon and Washington Territories, 11-12, being a compilation of 
correspondence on the subject transmitted to congress by the president o£ the 
U. S. in July 1856. 

*^ This was one of 3 carpenters at work who ran for the block-house, 
overtook the cars on the way, cut the mules loose, and mounting them, spread 
the alarm. Letter of L. W. Coe, in Historical Correspondence. 


come!" and hearing the report of small arms, he kept 
on down the river, arriving at Vancouver before dark 
with the news of the outbreak. 

In the mean time the men who had remained to 
protect their property were in a perilous situation. 
They at first entertained the idea of barricading the 
government wharf-boat, but having no ammunition, 
were obliged to abandon it. They remained on guard, 
however, until the Indians, having marauded their 
way down, began firing on them from the roof of a 
zinc house, which afforded a good position, when, find- 
ing it useless to remain longer, they pushed out into 
the river with a schooner and some bateaux lying at 



^'^ jg^ 

Upper and Lower Cascades. 

the landing, Thomas Pierce being wounded before 
attaining a safe distance, and proceeded down the 
river. Two men who at tlie first alarm fled to the 
mountains stole down at night and escaped in an old 
boat which they found at the landing to the south side 
of the river, where they lay hidden in the rocks until 
relief came. 

When the news of the attack on The Cascades was 
received at Vancouver great consternation prevailed, 
it being reported that Vancouver Avas the objective 


point of the Yakimas, and there were not men enough 
at that post to make a good defence after sending the 
succor demanded at The Cascades. As there had 
been no communication between the upper and lower 
towns, the extent of the injury done at the former 
place could only be conjectured. The commanding 
officer, Colonel Morris, removed the women and chil- 
dren of the garrison, the greater part of the ammu- 
nition, and some other property to the Hudson's Bay 
Company's fort for greater safety, while he refused 
arms to the captain of the volunteer home-guard,** in 
obedience to the orders of General Wool. 

At an early hour of the 27th the steamboat Belle 
was despatched to The Cascades, conveying Lieuten- 
ant Philip Sheridan with a detachment of the single 
company left by Wool at Vancouver. Meeting on 
the way the fugitives in the schooner and bateaux, 
they volunteered to return and assist in the defence 
of the place, and were taken on board the steamer. 
At ten o'clock the Belle had reached the landing at 
the lower end of the portage, stopping first on the 
Oregon side, where Sheridan and a part of his com- 
mand proceeded up the river on foot to a point 
opposite the upper town to reconnoitre, where he 
learned from the Cascade Indians the state of affairs 
at that place, and also that the block-house had been 
attacked. Sheridan returned and landed his men on 
the Washington side, despatching a canoe to Vancouver 
for more ammunition. 

The Indians did not wait to be attacked. While 
the troops and howitzer were disembarking on a 
large sand island, Sheridan had two men shot down, 
and was compelled to retreat some distance from the 
cover of the Indians, the steamer dropping down in 

*^ I take this statement from a correspondent of the Olympia Pioneer and 
Democrat of April 25, 1856, who says that Kelly of the volunteers went to 
the officer in command at that post, and requested to be furnished with arms, 
as all the arms in the county had gone to furnish a compauy in the 6eld^ 
Captain Maxon's. 'He was insulted — told to mind his own business.' A few 
duys later a consignment of anus from the east arrived, for the use of the 
territory, and the settlers were furnished from that supply. 


company. A council of war was then held, and it 
was decided to maintain their ground, which was 
done with much difficulty, through the remainder of 
the day, the troops not being able to advance to the 
relief of the block-house, although the diversion 
created by the arrival of troops caused a lull in the 
operations of the Indians against that post. 

A company of thirty men was raised in Portland 
on the evening of the 26th, by A. P. Dennison and 
Benjamin Stark, aids to Governor Curry, which was 
augmented at Vancouver by an equal number of 
volunteers, and proceeded to the lower Cascades in 
the steamer Fashion, arriving somewhat later than 
the Belle, and being unable to render any assistance, 
for the same reason which prevented the regular 
troops from advancing — too numerous an enemy in 
front. They landed, however, and sent the steamer 
back, which returned next day with forty more volun- 
teers, and a recruit of regulars, all eager for a fight. 

The boat also brought a supply of ammunition 
from Vancouver, which being placed upon a bateau 
was taken up opposite the block-house where Sheri- 
dan intended to cover his men while they lauded, with 
the howitzer. But just at this moment a new factor 
entered into the arrangement of the drama, which 
gave to all a surprise. 

When the Mary arrived at The Dalles on the 26th, 
Colonel Wright had already moved from the post, and 
was encamped at Five-Mile Creek, so that informa- 
tion of the attack on the Cascades did not reach liim 
before midnight. At daylight he began his march 
back to The Dalles, with 250 men, rank and file, and 
by night they were on board the steamers Mar-y and 
Wasco, but did not reach the Cascades before daylight 
of the 28th, on account of an injury to the steamer's 
flues, through having a new fireman since the wound- 
ing of Lindsay on the 26th. 

Just as the garrison in the store were brought to 


the verge of despair, believing the Mary had been 
captured, not knowing of Sheridan's arrival at the 
lower Cascades, having but four rounds of ammunition 
left, and having agreed among themselves, should the 
Indians succeed in firing the house, to get on board a 
government flat-boat lying in front of Bradford's and 
go over the falls rather than stay to be butchered — ■ 
at this critical moment their eyes were gladdened by 
the welcome sight of the Mary and Wasco, steaming 
into the semicircular bay at the mouth of Rock Creek, 
loaded with troops. A shout went up from forty 
jjersons, half dead with fatigue and anxiety, as the 
door of their prison was thrown open to the fresh air 
and light of day. 

No sooner had the boats touched the shore than 
the soldiers sprang up the bank and began beating 
the bushes for Indians, the howitzer belching forth 
shot over their heads. But although the Indians had 
fired a volley at the Mary as she stranded for a few 
moments on a rock at tlie mouth of the creek, they 
could not be found when hunted, and now not a Ya- 
kima or Klikitat was to be seen. 

Colonel Wright then organized a force, consisting of 
the companies of captains Winder and Archer, 9th 
infantry, and a detachment of dragoons under Lieu- 
tenant Tear, 3d artillery, with a howitzer under Lieu- 
tenant Piper, the whole under Colonel Steptoe, which 
was ordered to advance to the block-house and thence 
to the lower landing. Just at the moment when 
Sheridan was approaching the shore lined with hos- 
tile Indians, with the suspected Cascade Indians on 
an island on the other side of his bateau, and when 
the attention of the savages was divided between 
their morning meal and the approach of the soldiers, 
a bugle was heard in the direction of the upper Cas- 
cades, and Sheridan beheld descending a hill Steptoe's 
column. The Indians being thus particularly notified 
of the army's advance, the opportunity for a surprise 
was destroyed, and in another instant the enemy had 

156 INDL.\N WARS. 

vanished out of sight like ants in a sand mound. 
One Indian only was killed by Steptoe's command, 
and a soldier's life paid for that. This tragedy ended 
with the execution of nine Indians concerned in the 

After a few brushes with the enemy, Cornelius, 
leaving his command in the Klikitat Valley, went to 
Portland to confer with Governor Curry, when the 
northern regiment was disbanded, two companies be- 
ing organized out of it, one to serve in the WalJa 
Walla country, and one in the Tyghe Valley, which 
latter force was increased to two companies in May. 
About the same time Colonel Wright marched through 
the Klikitat and Yakima country, but without effect- 
ing anything decisive.*' 

*' Major, now Colonel, Granville Owen Haller has been too intimately 
connected with the history of Washington for many years to be here dis- 
missed without further notice. He was born in York, Penn., Jan. 31, 1S19, 
and educated in the jjrivate schools of the town. lu 1839 he was an appli- 
cant for a scholarship at West Point, but on examination before a board of 
military officers at Vt''ashington, received a coniuiission as 2d lieutenant, 4th 
U. S. infantry, to date from Nov. 17, 1839. He served in the Indian terri- 
tory and Florida in 1840-41, and in the Mexican war in 1846. He was or- 
dered to the Pacific coast in 18.52, arriving by sea in 1853, and being stationed 
at The Dalles until 1856. When the southern states seceded he was ordered 
east and placed in active service with the army of the Potomac. Upon Lee's 
invasion of Pennsylvania, he was placed on the staff of Gen. Couch, and 
assigned to York and Adams counties to keep the general informed of the 
movements of the enemy. Soon after Lee's defeat at Gettysburg, and wliile 
making out reports of the services performed by volunteers, and the expenses 
incurred, an order was sent Gen. Couch to relieve Major Haller, who on re- 
porting for orders found himself dismissed. This wrong, whicli was the work 
(if an unknown enemy, was a painful blow to Haller. After many efforts to 
obtain a liearing he returned to Wasliington, settling at Coupeville on Whidbey 
Island. Here, after sixteen years of waiting for justice, he received tidings of 
a joint resolution by congress ordering a court of inquiry in his case. The 
court found that the dismissal was based on charges of disloyalty by a single 
officer, and not made by the president, but by the secretary of war. 'ihe 
testimony in the case, both of military and civil witnesses, completely refuted 
the charges, and tlie dismissal was pronounced wrongful. Major Haller being 
restored to the service with the rank of colonel, but the restoration of rank 
carried with it no back pay. Gen. Couch's testimony was, "I do not think 
there were any fighting generals of the army of the Potomac, if they had been 
in York in tlio position of Major Haller, that could have done any better 
than he did. I thought so at the time, and I think so now." Col Haller is 
now a resident of Seattle, and having passed his 63d year, is retired. 

Col Haller is the author of a valuable MS. entitled Kainlalin in History, 
abio of TIk' San Juan [inhi-ojUo, of wliich he knew more tlian any one. His 
wife was Miss Henrietta M. Cox of Baltimore, by whom he has five children, 
two daughters, and three sons. 




Action op the Governor — Disposition op Forces — New Battalions — 
Plan of Campaign— Battle of White River— On the Sound— Mar- 
tial Law — Fighting at John Day River and Grand Rond — East of 
THE Cascade Range— Stevens in the Hostile Country- Failure of 
HIS Council — Leschi's Betrayal, Arrest, Trials, and Execution — ■ 
Assassination of Quiemuth- Termination of Hostilities on the 
Sound — Result— War Debt — Clarke and Wright's Campaign — 
Defeat of Steptoe— Battles of Four Lakes and Spokane Plains in 
THE Yakima Country — Walla Walla Country Reopened. 

"When Governor Stevens returned to his capital 
from the Blackfoot country, he was to some extent 
deceived as to the perils which threatened the Puget 
Sound region. He approved of the energetic course 
of Mason, and advocated the vigorous prosecution of 
the war. But from what he had seen east of the Cas- 
cades, and from what he knew of the indolent habits 
of the tribes on the Sound, he was disposed to think 
the war was to be carried on in the Yakima and 
Walla Walla valleys rather than at home. 

In a special message delivered extemporaneously to 
the legislative assembly, January 21, 1856, three days 
after arriving in Olyinpia, he recited the history of 
the war as he understood it. The people of the ter- 
ritory, he said, had urged upon congress the impor- 
tance to them of extinguishing the Indian title to the 
country. To this the Indians consented with appar- 
ent willingness. Being appointed a commissioner to 
treat with them, he had applied himself to- the duty, 


and successfully treated with the different tribes, ex- 
plaining to them with the most minute care the terms 
to which they had agreed. But the Indians had 
acted treacherously, inasmuch as it was now well 
known that they had long been plotting against the 
white race, to destroy it. This being true, and they 
having entered upon a war without cause, however he 
might sympathize with the restlessness of an inferior 
race who perceived that destiny was against them, he 
nevertheless had high duties to perform toward his 
own, and the Indians must be met and resisted by 
arms, and that without delay, for seed-time was com- 
ing, when the farmers must be at the plough. The 
work remaining to be done, he thought, was compara- 
tively small. Three hundred men from the Sound to 
push into the Indian country, build a depot, and op- 
erate vigorously in that c|uarter, with an equal force 
from the Columbia to prosecute the war east of the 
Cascades, in his opinion should be immediately raised. 
The force east of the mountains would prevent reen- 
forcements from joining those on the west, and vice 
versa, while their presence in the country would pre- 
vent the restless but still faltering tribes farther north 
from breaking out into open hostilities. There should 
be no more treaties; extermination should be the re- 
ward of their perfidy. 

On the 1st of February, in order to facilitate the 
organization of the new regiment, Stevens issued an 
order disbanding the existing organization, and revok- 
ing the orders raised for the defence of particular lo- 
calities. The plan of block-houses was urged for the 
defence of settlements even of four or five families,^ 
the number at first erected being doubled in order 
that the farmers might cultivate their land; and in 

' At Nathan Eaton's the defences consisted of 16 log buildings in a square 
facing inwards, the object being not only to collect the families for protection, 
but to send out a scouting party of some size when marauders were in the 
vicinity. Stevens, in Sen. Ex. Doc, 66, 32, 34th cong. 1st sess.; Ind. Aff. 
Bept, 34. Fort Henness, on Mound prairie, was a large stockade with block- 
houses at tlie alternate corners, and buildings inside tlie enclosure. On 
Skookum Bay there was an establishment similar to that at Eaton's. 


addition to the other companies organized was one of 
pioneers, whose duty it was to open roads and build 

The first regiment being disbanded, the reorganiza- 
tion progressed rapidly, and on the 25th the second 
regiment was organized into three battalions, desig- 
nated as the northern, central, and southern; the 
northern battalion to rendezvous at the falls of the 
Snoqualimich and elect a major, the choice falling 
upon Captain J. J. H. Van Bokelin." It numbered 
about ninety men, supported by Patkanim and his 
company of Indian allies, and built forts Tilton and 
Alden below and above the falls.^ The central bat- 
talion was commanded by Major Gilmore Hays, and 
had its headquarters on Connell's prairie. White 
River,* communicating with the rear by a ferry and 
block-house on the Puyallup, and block-houses at 
Montgomery's, and on Yelm prairie, besides one at 
the crossing of White River, communicating with the 
regular forces at Muckleshoot prairie and Porter's 
prairie, farther up the valley. 

The southern battalion, organized by Lieutenant- 
colonel B. F. Shaw, was raised upon the Columbia 
River, and partly of Oregon material,^ obtained by 

'The northern battalion consisted of Company G (Van Bokelin 's), com- 
manded by Daniel Smalley, elected by the company; Company I, Capt. S. D. 
Howe, who was succeeded by Capt. G. W. Beam; and a detachment of Com- 
pany H, Capt. Peabody. ITo-sA. Mess. Gov., 1857, 3S-41. 

' To I. N. Ebey belongs the credit of making the first movement to block- 
ade the Snoqualimich pass and guard the settlements lying opposite on Whid- 
bey Island. This company of rangers built Fort Ebey, 8 miles above the 
mouth of the Snohomish River. He was removed from his office of collector, 
the duties of which were discharged by his deputy and brother, W. S. Ebey, 
during the previous winter while he lived in camp, through what influence I 
am not informed, il. H. Frost of Seattle was appointed in his stead. This 
change in his affairs, with the necessity of attending to private business, prob- 
ably determined him to remain at home. George W. Ebey, his cousin, was 
2d lieut in Smalley's company. 

' The central battalion was composed of Company B, Capt. A. B. Rabbe- 
son; Company C, Capt. B. L. Henness' mounted rangers; a train guard under 
Capt. 0. Shead; the pioneer company under Capt. Joseph A. White, 1st lieut 
Urban E. Hicks; and Company F, a detachment of scouts under Capt. Calvin 
W. Rwindal. Wash. Mexs. Gov., 1857, 38. 

''The southern battalion consisted of the Washington Mounted Rifles, 
Capt. H. J. G. Maxon, Company D, Capt. Achilles, who was succeeded by 
Lieut Powell, and two Oregon companies, one company, K, under Francis M. 


advertising for volunteers in the Oregon newspapers. 
Other companies were accepted from time to time as 
the exigencies of the sorvice required, until there were 
twenty-one in the field,* the whole aggregating less 
than a thousand men. The regiment was assigned 
to duty, and furnished with supplies with military 
skill by the commander-in-chief, whose staff-officers, 
wisely chosen,' kept the machinery of war in motion, 
the detention of which so often paralyzed the arms 
of Governor Curry's volunteers. Between Curry 
and Stevens there was perfect harmony, the latter 
often being assisted by the governor of Oregon in 
the purchase of supplies, a service which was always 
gratefull}^ acknowledged. 

The plan of the cainj^aign as announced by Stevens 
was to guard the line of the Snohomish and Snoqual- 
imich pass by the northern battalion, to drive the 
enemy into the Yakima country with the central 
battalion by the Nachess pass, and to operate east of 

p. Gofif, of Marion co., and another, Company J, under Bluford Miller of 
Polk CO. Or. Statesman, March 11 and May -20, 1856. 

^ For convenience of reference, they are named here: Co. A, organized and 
commanded by Lieut-col Edward Lander; the Walla Walla Co., organized 
out of friendly Chehalis and Cowlitz Indians by Sidney S. Ford, capt. ; 
Clarke Co. Rangers, organized by Capt. WilUam Kelly; Co. E, Capt. C. W. 
Riley, succeeded by Lieut J. Q. Cole; Co. H, Capt. R. V. Peabody; Co. L, 
Capt. E. D. Warbass; Co. N, Capt. Richards, succeeded by Capt. Williams; 
Co. M, consistmg of 10 white men and 43 Nez Percys, Henri M. Chase, capt.; 
a CO. of Squaxon scouts under Lieut. Gosnell; and a company of Cowlitz Ind- 
ians under Pierre Charles. 

' Lieut-col Lander was retained on the governor's staff, and Jared S. 
Hurd, E. C. Fitzhngh, and H. R. Crosbie were also appointed aids, with the 
rank of lieut-col, in addition to tlie appointments made in Dec, of Craig an<l 
Doty. Edward Gibson was appointed e.xtra aid. B. F. Shaw was elected 
lieut-col of the 2d regiment in April. W. W. Miller still held the oiEce of 
quartermaster and commissary-general at Olympia. Warren Grove was 
appointed quartermaster and commissary at Steilacoom, F. Mathias at 
Seattle, A. H. Robie at The Dalles, Charles E. Weed at Olympia, R. M. 
Hathaway at Vancouver, and R. S. Robinson for the northern battalion, at 
Port Townsend, and C. C. Pagett in Lewis county. Commanding officers 
chose their own adjutants. Tdton remained adjutant-general, C. H. Arm- 
strong regimental quartermaster and commissary with tlie right wing of the 
2d regiment in the field; and Lieut-col Hurd supt of all business on the 
Columbia. W. W. De Lacy was appointed adjutant of the southern bat- 
talion, Humphrey Hill of the northern, and B. F. Ruth of the central 
battalion. G. K. Willard was surgeon and purveyor of medicine and medi- 
cal stores at headquarters; M. P. Burns surgeon of central battalion, D. R. 
Bigelow of northern battalion. Other surgeons were Justin Millard, Albert 
Eggers, and U. G. Warbass. 


the Cascade Range with the southern battahon. 
On the occasion of the governor's reconnoissance of 
the Sound, which took pkxce in January, the Snoqual- 
imich chief Patkanim tendered his services as an ally, 
and upon consultation with Agent Simmons was ac- 
cepted. He at once took the field with fifty-five well- 
armed warriors, accompanied by Simmons, L. M. Col- 
lins, and T. H. Fuller. On the 8th of February they 
reached Wappato prairie, five miles below the falls of 
the Snoqualimich, and learning that there was an en- 
campment of the hostile Indians at the falls, Patkanim 
prepared to attack them, which he did, capturing the 
whole party. An investigation showed them to be 
Snoqualimichs, with the exception of three Klikitat 
emissaries engaged in an endeavor to enlist them on 
the side of the hostile combination. Patkanim, how- 
ever, now that he had entered upon duty as an ally 
of the white people, carried his prisoners to camp at 
Wappato prairie and tried them each and every one, the 
trial resulting in the discharge of the Snoqualimichs, 
and one of the Klikitats, whose evidence convicted the 
other two and caused them to be hanged. Their 
heads were tlien cut off and sent to Olympia, where a 
price was to be paid. 

From the Klikitat who was allowed to live it was 
ascertained that there were four different camps of 
the enemy on the east side of White River, at no 
great distance apart, above the point where the mili- 
tary road crossed it, and that Leschi was at one of 
them, while the crossing of the river was guarded 
above and below. This information was immediately 
sent to Olympia. 

Patkanim at once proceeded to White River to at- 
tack Leschi, whom it was much desired by the gov- 
ernment to arrest. But when he arrived there he 
found that wily chief alert and on his guard. Being 
strongly posted in the fork of a small tributary of 
White River, a sharp engagement followed, resulting 
in considerable loss. Of the number killed by Pat- 

HisT. Wash.— H 


kanim, all but two were on the farther side of the 
stream, and he was able to obtain but two heads, 
which were also forwarded to Olyrapia. He returned 
after this battle to Holme Harbor, Whidbey Island, 
to prepare for further operations, it now being con- 
sidered that he had fully committed himself to the 
cause of the white people. He remained faithful, 
and was of some further assistance, but objected to 
be commanded by white officers, preferring his own 
mode of fighting. 

About the 13th of February Captain Maloney left 
Fort Steilacoom with lieutenants Davis and Flem- 
ing and 125 men, for the Puyallup, where he con- 
structed a ferry and block-house, after which he moved 
on to White River, Colonel Casey, who had arrived 
on the steamship Republic in command of two com- 
panies of the regular 9th infantry, following a few days 
later with about an equal number of men. 

On the 22d Captain Ford of the volunteers left 
Steilacoom for White River with his company of 
Chehalis scouts, in advance of Hays' company, and 
White's pioneers, who followed after, establishing 
depots at Yelm prairie and Montgomery's, and mov- 
ing on to the Puyallup, where they built a block- 
house and ferry, after which, on the 29th, they pro- 
ceeded to the Mucldeshoot prairie, Henness following 
in a few days with his company, a junction being 
formed with Casey's and Maloney's commands at that 
place, Governor Stevens himself taking the field on 
the 24th, when the volunteers moved to the Puyallup. 

Up to this date the war had been confined to the 
country noi'th of Steilacoom, although a wide-spread 
alarm prevailed throughout the whole country. But 
the watchful savages were quick to perceive that by 
the assemblage of the regular and volunteer forces in 
the White River country they had left their rear 
comparatively unguarded, and on the 24th attacked 
and killed, near Steilacoom, William Northcraft, in the 
service of the territory as a teamster, driving off his 


oxen and the stock of almost every settler in the 
vicinity. On the 2d of March they waylaid William 
White, a substantial farmer living near Nathan 
Eaton's jilace, which was subsequently fortified, kill- 
ing him and shooting at his family, who were saved 
by the running-away of the horses attached to a 
wagon in which all were returning from church. A 
family was also attacked while at work in a field, and 
some wounds received. These outrages were perpe- 
trated by a band of forty savages under the leadership 
of chiefs Stahi and Quiemuth, who had flanked the 
troops in small detachments, and while Casey's at- 
tention was diverted by the voluntary surrender of 
fifty of their people, most of whom were women and 
children, whom it was not convenient to support while 
at war, but which were taken in charge by the Indian 
department. This new phase of affairs caused the 
governor's return to Olympia, whence he ordered a 
part of the southern battalion to the Sound. On 
the 4th of March, a detachment of regulars under 
Lieutenant Kautz, opening a road from the Puyallup 
to Muckleshoot prairie, when at no great distance 
from White River, discovered Indians and attacked 
them, Kautz sheltering his men behind piles of drift- 
wood until Keyes reenforced him, when the battle 
was carried across the river and to the Muckleshoot 
prairie, where a charge being made, the Indians scat- 
tered. There were over a hundred regulars in the 
engagement, one of whom was killed and nine 
wounded, including Lieutenant Kautz. The loss of 
the Indians was unknown. 

In the interim the volunteers of the central battal- 
ion had reached Connell's prairie, where an encamp- 
ment was formed. On the morning of the 8th 
Major Hays ordered Captain White's company of 
pioneers, fifty strong, to the crossing of White River, 
to erect a block-house and construct a ferry, sup- 
ported only by Captain Swindal with a guard of ten 
men. They had not proceeded more than a mile and 


a half from camp before the advance under Lieuten- 
ant Hicks was attacked by 150 warriors, who made 
a furious assault just as the detachment entered tlie 
woods that covered the river-bottoms, and were de- 
scending a hill. Almost simultaneously the main 
company received a heavy fire, and finding the odds 
against him. White despatched a messenger to camp, 
when he was reenforced by Henness with twenty 
men, and soon after by Martin with fifteen. The 
battle continuing, and the Indians making a flank 
movement which could be seen from camp. Van Ogle 
was despatched with fifteen men to check it. So 
rapid were their manoeuvres that it required another 
detachment of twelve men under Rabbeson to arrest 

The Indians had a great advantage in position, 
and after two hours of firing, a charge was ordered 
to be made by a portion of the volunteers, while 
White's company and Henness' detachment held their 
positions. The charge was successful, driving one 
body of the Indians through a deep marsh, or stream, 
in their flight, and enabling Swindal to take a posi- 
tion in the rear of the main body on a high ridge. 
It being too dangerous to charge them from their 
front, where White and Henness were stationed, 
they being well fortified behind fallen timber on 
the crest of a hill, Rabbeson and Swindal were 
ordered to execute a flank movement, and attack 
the enemy in the rear. A charge being made 
simultaneously in front and rear, the Indians were 
completely routed, with a loss of between twenty-five 
and thirty killed and many wounded. The loss of 
the volunteers was four wounded. 

This battle greatly encouraged the territorial 
troops. The Indians were in force, outnumbering 
them two to one; they had chosen their position, and 
made the attack, and were defeated with every cir- 
cumstance in their favor.* 

^Rept of Major Hays, in Wash. Me^s. Gov., 1857, 290-2. 


This affair was the most decisive of the spring cam- 
paign of 1856 on the Sound. After it the Indians did 
not attempt to make a stand, but fought in small 
parties at unexpected times and in unexpected places. 
It would indeed have been difficult for them to have 
Ibught a general engagement, so closely were they 
pursued, and so thickly was the whole country on the 
east side dotted over with block-houses and camps. 
The block-house at the crossing of White River was 
completed, the Indians wounding one of the construc- 
tion party by firing from a high bluff on the opposite 
bank. A station was made at Connell's prairie, called 
Fort Hays, by the volunteers, and another, called Fort 
Slaughter, on the Muckleshoot prairie, by the regu- 
lars. A block-house was established at Lone Tree 
point, three miles from the Dwamish, where Riley's 
company was stationed to guard the trail to Seattle. 
Later Lieutenant-colonel Lander with company A 
erected a block-house on the Dwamish, fifteen miles 
from Seattle. Captain Maloney erected one on Por- 
ter's prairie, and Captain Dent another at the mouth 
of Cedar River. The northern battalion, after com- 
])leting their works on the Snoqualimich and leav- 
ing garrisons, marched across the country to join the 
central battalion by order of the commander-in-chief; 
and Colonel Shaw of the southern battalion added 
his force to the others about the last of the month. 

At this juncture Governor Stevens proclaimed 
martial law; his forces were readjusted, and a desul- 
tory warfare kept up throughout the entire region. 
On John Day River, where the enemy had congre- 
gated in numbers. Major Layton of the Oregon vol- 
unteers captured thirty-four warriors in June, and in 
July there was some fighting, but nothing decisive. 
Colonel Shaw also did some fighting in the Grand Rood 
country, but there, as elsewhere, the Indians kept the 
aruiy on the move without definite results. 

In these white raids many Indian horses were taken, 
and all government supplies stopped. Obviously no 


more effective method of subduing the Indians could 
be adopted than to unhorse them and take away their 
supplies. The march of the several detachments of 
regulars and volunteers through the Indian country 
forced the neutral and needy Indians to accept the 
overtures of the United States government through 
the Indian and military departments, and they now 
surrendered to the agents and army officers, to the 
number of 923, comprising the Wasco, Tyghe, Des 
Chutes, and a portion of the John Day tribes, all of 
whom were partially subsisted by the government. 
About 400 of the Yakimas and Klikitats who sur- 
rendered to Colonel Wright during the summer were 
also assisted by the government agents. 

Soon after a battle on the Grand Rond, Major 
Lay ton mustered out his battalion, the time of the 
Oregon troops having expired, leaving only Shaw's 
battalion in the Walla Walla Valley, to hold it until 
Colonel Wright should be prepared to occupy it with 
the regular troops, who had not fought nor attempted 
to fight an engagement during the summer. A scout- 
ing party of Jordan's Indian allies, in recovering 200 
captured horses, killed two hostile Indians, the sole 
achievement of a regiment of troops in the field for 
four months. About the 1st of August Wright re- 
turned to Vancouver, leaving Major Garnett in com- 
mand of Fort Simcoe, and the Indians at libertj^ to 
give the volunteers employment, which they were 
ready enough to do.® 

^The 2d regiment of Washington volunteers was officered, so far as the 
official correspondence shows, as follows: Co. A, Capt. Edward Lander; 1st 
lieiit A. A. Denny, vice H. H. Peixotto resigned; 2d lieut D. A. Neely; H. 

A. Smith surgeon; strength 53 rank and file. Non-com. officers, John Hen- 
ning, C. D. Biven, J. lloss, Jacob Wibbens, James Fielding, Walter Graham, 
David Manner, Asa Fowler. Co. B, Capt. Gilmore Hays, promoted to major 
by election; 1st lieut A. B. Eabbeson, elected capt. vice Hays; 1st lieut Van 
Ogle, vice Rabbeson, and John Brady, vice Van Ogle, commanded lastly by 
Captain Burntrager; 2d lieut William Martin; 2d lieut William Temple, vice 
Martin resigned. Non-com. officers, Frank Ruth, D. Martin, M. Goodell, N. 

B. Coffey, J. L. Myres, T. Hughes, H. Hortou; strength 52 men rank and 
file. Co. C, Capt. B. L. Heuness; 1st lieut G. C. Blankensliip; 2d lieut F. A. 
Goodwin; non-commissioned officers, Joseph Cushman, William J. Ye.iger, 
Henry Laws, James Phillips, WiUiam E. Klady, Tliomas Hicks, S. A. Phil- 
lips, "H. Johnson; strength 67 rank and file. Co. D, Capt. Achilles; 1st 


Governor Stevens was unable to push forward any 
troops east of the Cascade Range for two months 
after the Oregon troops were withdrawn upon the 
understanding that Colonel Wright was to occupy the 
Walla Walla Valley. In the mean time tlie hostile 
tribes enjoyed the fullest liberty up to the appearing 
of the southern battalion, and those previously friendly, 
being in ignorance of the intention of the authorities 
toward them, made this an excuse for withdrawing 
their allegiance. 

Lieutenant-colonel Craig, w4io with his auxiliaries 
had been using his best endeavors to hold the Nez 
Forces and Spokanes constant to their professions, 
met the volunteers in the Walla Walla Valley, and 
escorted Captain Robie with the supply train under 

lieut Powell; strength 44 rank and file. Co. E, Capt. Charles W. Riley; 
strength 21 men rank and file; commanded lastly by Lieut Cole. Co. F, 
Capt. Calvin W. Swindal; 1st lieut J. Q. Cole; strength 40 rank and file. 
Co. G, J. J. H. Van Bokelin; promoted to maj. hj election; 1st lieut Daniel 
Smalley, elected capt. vice Van Bokelin; 2d lieut G. W. Ebey; strength 55 
rank and file. Co. H, Capt. E. V. Peabody; strength 42 rank and file. Co. 
I, Capt. S. D. Howe; 1st lieut G. W. Beam, elected capt. vice Howe; Thomas 
Sinnot, vice Beam; 2d lieut Beuj. Welcher, vice John Y. Sewell resigned; 
strength 35 rank and file. Co. J, Capt. Bluford Miller; 1st lieut Anthony 
W. Pressley; 2d lieut Andrew Sheppard; strength 40 rank and file. Co. K, 
Capt. Francis M. P. Gofif; 1st lieut Israel Hedges; 2d lieut Thomas Waite; 
strength 101 rank and file. Goff also mentions Lieut Hunter. Co. L, Capt. 
E. D. Warbass; 1st lieut J. W. Anderson; 2d lieut J. B. Bouchard; strength 
91 rank and file. Co. M, Capt. Henri M. Chase; 1st lieut V. L. La Fontaine; 
2d lieut Louis Rabion ; strength 53 rank and file; 10 white men, 43 Nez Perces. 
Co. N, Capt. Richards; 1st lieut John Estes; 2d lieut Williams in command; 
strength 74 rank and file. Washington Mounted Rifles, Capt. H. J. 6. 
Maxon; 1st lieut Ed Barrington; 2d lieut Curtiss; strength 95 rank and file. 
Clarke County Rangers, Capt. William Kelly; 1st lieut J. D. Biles; 2d lieut 
P. Ahern; strength 81 rank and file. Pioneer Co., Capt. Joseph A. White; 
1st lieut U. Hicks; 2d lieut T. McLean Chambers; non-com. officers, Daniel J. 
Hubbard, Columbus White, Marcus ^McMillan, Henry G. Parsons, Isaac 
Lemmons, James Bums, William Ruddell, William Mengle; strength 40 rank 
and file. Fourteen of this company, under Hicks, did duty as mounted men. 
^^■alla Walla Co., Capt. S. S. Ford; strength 29 rank and file. Train Guard, 
Capt. Shead; strength 47 rank and file. Nisqually Ferry Guard, strength 
9 men. Lewis Co. Rangers, Capt. John R. Jackson; 1st lieut Jackson Barton, 

succeeded by Anderson; 2d lieut Round tree, succeeded by Balisti; 

strength 67 rank and file. Cowlitz Rangers, Capt. H. W. Peers; strength 
unknown. Indian auxiliaries, Snohomish chiefs Patkanim and John Taylor 
capt.; strength 82. Squaxon Indians, Lieut Gosnell capt.; strength 10. 
Chehalis Indians, Capt. S. S. Ford, Jr; strength 17. Cowlitz Indians, Pierre 
Charles capt.; strength 9. Wash. Mass. Gov., 1857, 28-30, and general mili- 
tary correspondence. Changes being frequent, I am at a loss where to place 
lieuts Temple, Mounts, and G. W. Martin. The staff-oflioers have been men- 
tioned in a previous note. 


his charge to the Nez Perce country. On the 24th 
of July Robie returned and communicated to Colonel 
Shaw, just in from the Grand Rond expedition, the 
disagreeable intelligence that the Nez Perces had 
shown a hostile disposition, declaring the treaty 
broken, and refusing to receive the goods sent them." 
This would have been unwelcome news at any time, 
but was most trying at this juncture, when half the 
force in field was quitting it to be mustered out of ser- 
vice. This exigency occasioned the call for two more 
companies of volunteers. Subsequent to making the 
call, Stevens decided to go in person to Walla Walla, 
and if possible to hold a council. A messenger was 
at once despatched to Shaw, with instructions to send 
runners to the different tribes, friendly and hostile, 
inviting them to meet him on the 25th; but accompa- 
nying the invitation was the notice that he required 
the unconditional surrender of the warring bands. 

Stevens urged Colonel Wright to be present at the 
council, and to send three companies of regulars, in- 
cluding all his mounted men, to the Walla Walla Val- 
ley for that occasion. Wright declined the invitation 
to participate in the council, but signified his intention 
of sending Steptoe to Walla Walla to establish a post 
in that eountry. 

On the 19th of August, Stevens set out from 
The Dalles with a train of 30 wagons, 80 oxen, and 
200 loose animals, attended only by his messenger, 
Pearson, and the employes of the expedition. A day 
or two behind him followed the baggage and supply 
train of Steptoe's command. He arrived without 
accident at Camp Mason on the 23d, sending word 
in all directions to inform the Indians of his wish to 
meet them for a final adjustment of their diflficulties 
at the councihground five miles from Waiilatpu. At 

1° See letters of W. H. Pearson and other correspondents,, in Or. Statesman, 
Aug. 5, 1856; Or. Arum, Aug. 2, 1850; Olympia Pionei-r and Dem., Ang. 
5, 1856. Pearson, who was in the Nez Percd country, named the hostilechiefs 
as follows: Loolfiag Glass, Three Feathers, Ked Bear, Eagle-from-the-light, 
Rad Wolf, and Man-with-a-ropu-iu-his-mouth. 


the end of a week a deputation of the lower Nez 
Perces had come in with their agent, Craig. At the 
end of another week all this tribe were in, but on the 
same day Father Ravelli, from the Coeur d'Al^ne 
mission, arrived alone, with the information that he 
had seen and conversed with Kamiakin, Owhi, and 
Qualchin, who refused to attend the council, and also 
that the Spokanes and other tribes declined to meet 
the superintendent, having been instigated to this 
course by Kamiakin, who had made his headquarters 
on the border of their country all summer, exercising 
a strong influence by the tales he circulated of the 
wrong-doing of the white people, and especially of 
Governor Stevens, and enmity among the northern 

On the 10th the hostile Cayuses, Des Chutes, and 
Tyghes arrived and encamped in the neighborhood of 
the Nez Perces, but without paying the customary 
visit to Governor Stevens, and exhibiting their hos- 
tility by firing the grass of the country they travelled 
over. They had recently captured a pack-train of 
forty-one horses and thirty packs of provisions from 
The Dalles for Shaw's command, and were in an 
elated mood over their achievement. 

The council opened on the 11th of September, and 
closed on the 17th, Stevens moving his position in the 
mean time to Steptoe's camp for fear of an outbreak. 
Nothing was accomplished. The only terms to which 
the war chiefs would assent were to be left in posses- 
sion of their respective domains. On his way back to 
The Dalles with his train of Indian goods, escorted 
by Shaw's command under Goff, on the 19th and 20tli 
several attacks were made and two soldiers killed. 
Assisted by Steptoe, Stevens finally reached his des- 
tination in safety. After this mortifying repulse Gov- 
ernor Stevens returned to the Sound. Wright re- 
paired to Walla Walla with an additional company of 
troops, and sent word to all the chiefs to bring them 
together for a council. Few came, the Nez Perces 


being represented by Red Wolf and Eagle-from-the- 
light, the Cayuses by Howlish Wampo, Tintinmetse, 
and Stickas, with some other sub-chiefs of both 
nations. None of the Yakimas, Des Chutes, Walla 
Wallas, or Spokanes were present; and all that could 
be elicited from those who attended the council was 
that they desired peace, and did not wish the treaty 
of Walla Walla confirmed. 

Wright remained at Walla Walla until November, 
the post of Fort Walla Walla^^ being established on 
Mill Creek, six miles from its junction with the Walla 
Walla River, where the necessary buildings were 
completed before the 20th. In November Fort Dalles 
was garrisoned by an additional company under 
brevet Major Wise. The Cascade settlement was 
protected by a company of the 4th infantry under 
Captain Wallen, who relieved Captain Winder of the 
9th infantry. The frontier being thus secured against 
invasion, the winter passed without many warlike 

About the 20th of July the volunteer companies 
left on the Sound when Shaw's battalion departed for 
Walla Walla were disbanded, the hostile Indians be- 
ing driven east of the mountains, and the country 
being in a good state of defence. On the 4th of Au- 
gust Governor Stevens called a council of Indians at 
Fox Island, to inquire into the causes of discontent, 
and finding that the Nisquallies and Puyallups were 
dissatisfied with the extent of their reservation, not 
without a show of reason, he agreed to recommend an 
enlargement, and a re-survey was ordered on the 28th, 
which took in thirteen donation claims, for which con- 
gress appropriated nearly $5,000 to pay for improve- 

Having satisfied the Indians of his disposition to 
deal justly with them, he next made a requisition upon 

" Old Fort Walla Walla of the H. B. Co. being abandoned, the name waa 
transferred to this post, about 23 miles in the interior. 


Colonel Wright for the delivery to him of Leschi, 
Quiemuth, Nelson, Stahi, and the younger Kitsap, to 
be tried for murder, these Indians being among those 
who had held a council with Wright in the Yakima 
country, and been permitted to go at large on their 
parole and obligation to keep the peace. But Wright 
was reluctant to give up the Indians required, saying 
that although he had made no promises not to hold 
them aecountable for their former acts, he should con- 
sider it unwise to seize them for trial, as it would have 
a disturbing effect upon the Indians whom he was 
endeavoring to quiet. Stevens argued that peace on 
milder terms would be a criminal abandonment of 
duty, and would depreciate the standing of the au- 
thorities with the Indians, especially as he had fre- 
quently assured them that the guilty should be pun- 
ished; he repeated his requisition; whereupon, toward 
the last of the month, Major Garnett was ordered to 
turn over to the governor for trial the Indians named. 
The army officers were not in sympathy with what 
they deemed the arbitrary course of the governor, and 
Garnett found it easy to evade the performance of so 
uncongenial a duty, the Indians being scattered, and 
many of them having returned to the Sound, where 
they gave themselves up to the military authorities 
at Fort Steilacoom. 

A reward, however, was offered for the seizure and 
delivery of Leschi, which finally led to his arrest about 
the middle of November. It was accomplished by 
the treachery of two of his own people, Sluggia and 
Elikukah. They went to the place where Leschi was 
in hiding, poor and outlawed, having been driven 
away by the Yakimas who had submitted to Wright, 
who would allow him to remain in their country only 
on condition that he became their slave; and having 
decoyed him to a spot where their horses were con- 
cealed, suddenly seized and bound him, to be delivered 
up to Sydney S. Ford, who surrendered him to 
Stevens at Olympia. 


The particular crime with which Leschi was charged 
was the killing of A. B. Moses, the place being in 
Pierce county. Court had just adjourned when he 
was brought in, but as Judge Chenoweth, who resided 
on Whidbey Island, had not yet left Steilacoom, he 
was requested by the governor to hold a special term 
for the trial of Leschi, and the trial came off on the 
1 7th of November, the jurj' failing to agree. A second 
trial, begun on the 18th of March, 1857, resulted in 
conviction, and the savage was sentenced to be hanged 
on the 10th of June. This action of the Governor 
was condemned by the regular army officers, there 
being in this case the same opposition of sentiment 
between the civil and military authorities which had 
existed in all the Indian wars in Oregon and Wash- 
ington — the array versus the people. 

Proceedings were instituted to carry the case up 
to the supreme court in December, which postponed 
the execution of the sentence. The opinion of Mc- 
Fadden, acting chief justice, sustained the previous 
action of the district court and the verdict of the 
jury. Leschi's sentence was again pronounced, the 
day of his execution being fixed upon the 22d of Jan- 
uary, 1858. In the mean time Stevens had resigned, 
and a new governor, McMuUin, had arrived, to 
whom a strong appeal was made by the counsel and 
friends of Leschi, but to no effect, 700 settlers pro- 
testing against pardon. When the day of execution 
arrived, a large concourse of people assembled at 
Steilacoom to witness the death of so celebrated a 
savage. But the friends of the doomed man had 
prepared a surprise for them. The sheriff of Pierce 
county and his deputy were arrested, between the 
hours of ten and twelve o'clock, by Lieutenant Mc- 
Kibben of Fort Steilacoom, appointed United States 
marshal for the purpose, and Frederick Kautz, upon 
a warrant issued by J. M. Bachelder, United States 
commissioner and sutler at that post, upon a charge 
of selling liquor to the Indians. An attempt was 


made by Secretary Mason to obtain the death-warrant 
in possession of the sheriff, which attempt was frus- 
trated until after the hour fixed for the execution had 
passed, during which time the sheriff remained in cus- 
tody with no attempt to procure his freedom. 

So evident a plot, executed entirely between the 
prisoner's counsel and the military authorities at Fort 
Steilacoom, aroused the liveliest indignation on the 
part of the majority of the people. A public meeting 
was held at Steilacoom, and also one at Olympia, on 
the evening of the 22d, at which all the persons in 
any way concerned in the frustration of the sentence 
of the courts were condemned, and the legislature re- 
quested to take cognizance of it. This the legislature 
did, by passing an act on the following day requiring 
the judges of the supreme court to hold a special ses- 
sion on or before the 1st of February at the seat of 
government, repealing all laws in conflict with this 
act, and also passing another act allowing the judges, 
Chenoweth and McFadden, Lander being absent from 
the territory, one hundred dollars each for their ex- 
penses in holding an extra session of the supreme 
court, by which the case was remanded to the court 
of the 2d judicial district, whither it came on a writ of 
error, and an order issued for a special session of the 
district court, before which, Chenoweth presiding, 
Leschi was again brought, when his counsel entered 
a demurrer to its jurisdiction, which was overruled, 
and Leschi was for the third time sentenced to be 
hanged ; and on the 1 9th of February the unhappy sav- 
age, ill and emaciated from long confinement, and weary 
of a life which for nearl}^ three years had been one of 
strife and misery, was strangled according to law. 

There is another case on the record showing the 
temper of the time. Shortly after Leschi's betrayal 
and arrest, Quiemuth, who had been in hiding, pre- 
sented himself to George Brail on Yelm prairie, with 
the request that he should accompany him to Olympia, 
and give him up to Governor Stevens to be tried. 


Brail did as requested, three or four others accom- 
panying him. Arriving at Olyrapia at half-past two 
in the morning, they arou.sed the governor, who, placing 
them all in his office, furnished fire and refreshments, 
locked the front door, and proceeded to make ar- 
rangements for conveying the j^arty to Steilacoom 
before daylight. 

Although caution was used, the fact of Quiemuth's 
presence in the town became known, and several per- 
sons quietly gained access to the governor's office 
through a back door, among whom was James Bun ton, 
a son-in-law of James McAllister, who was killed 
while conversing with some of Leschi's people. The 
guard saw no suspicious movement, when suddenly a 
shot was fired, there was a quick arousal of all in the 
room, and Quiemuth with others sprang to the door, 
where he was met by the assassin and mortally 
stabbed. So dimly lighted was the room, and so 
unexpected and sudden was the deed, that the 
perpetrator was not recognized, although there was a 
warrant issued a few hours later for Bunton, who, on 
examination, was discharged for want of evidence." 

Few of the Indian leaders in the war on the Sound 
survived it. Several were hanged at Fort Steilacoom ; 
three were assassinated by white men out of revenge; 
Kitsap was killed in June 1857, on the Muckleshoot 
prairie, by one of his own people, and in December fol- 
lowing Sluggia, who betrayed Leschi, was killed by 
Leschi's friends." Nelson and Stahi alone survived 
when Leschi died. His death may be said to have 
been the closing act of the war on Puget Sound; but 
it was not until the ratification of the Walla Walla 
treaties in 1859 that the people returned to their 
farms in the Puyallupand upper White River valleys.'* 
So antagonistic was the feeling against Stevens con- 

12 0/i/mpia Pioneer and Dem., Nov. 28, 1856; Elridge's SJcetch, MS., 9. 

^^Olympia Pioneer and Dem., July .3 and Deo. 11, 1857. 

'* Patkauim dieil soon after the war was over. Tlic Pioneer and Democrat, 
;a,n. 21, 18.79, reniarkcii: 'It Is just as well that he is out of the way, as in 
4)ite of everything, we never believed in his friendship. ' Seattle died in 1866, 


duct of the war at the federal capital, that it was 
raany years before the war debt was allowed. 

The labors of the comruission appointed to examine 
claims occupied almost a year, to pay for which con- 
gress appropriated twelve thousand dollars. The total 
amount of war expenses for Oregon and Washington 
aggregated nearly six millions of doUars.^^ When the 
papers were all filed they made an enormous mass of 
half a cord in bulk, which Smith took to Washington 
in 1857." The secretary of war, in his report, pro- 
nounced the findings equitable, recommending that 
provision should be made for the payment of the full 

never having been suspected. Knssasa, chief of the Cowlitz tribe, clied in 
187G, aged 114 years. He was friendly, and a catholic. Olympia Morning 
Echo, Jan. 6, 1876. 

'5 Deady's Hist. Or., MS., 35; Graver's Pub. Life, MS., 59; Or. Statesman, 
Oct. 20, 1857, and March 30 and April 6, 1858; //. Ex. Doc, 45, pp. 1-16, 
35th cong. 1st sess. The exact footing was |4,449,949.33 for Oregon; and 
$1,481,475.45 for Wasbington=|5,931,424.78. Of this amount, the pay due to 
the Oregon volunteers was $1,409,604.53; and to tlie Washington volunteers 

"Said Horace Greeley: 'The enterprising tem-itories of Oregon and 
Washington have handed into congress their little bill for scalping Indians 
and violating squaws two years ago, etc., etc. After these [the Frencn 
Spoliation claims] shall have been paid half a century or so, we trust the 
claims of the Oregon and Washington Indian-fighters will come up for con- 
sideration.' New York Tribune, in Or. Statesman, Feb. 16, 1858. 

" On the Oregon war debt, see the report of the third auditor, 1860, found in 
H. Ex. Doc, 11, 36th cong. 1st sess.; speech of Grover, in Confj. Globe, 1858- 
9, pt ii., app. 217, 35th cong. 2d sess.; letter of third auditor, in //. Ex. 
I)oc., 51, vol. viii. 77, 35th cong. 2d sess.; Statement of the Or. and Wash, 
delegation in regard to the war claims of Oregon and Washington, a pamphlet 
of 67 pages; Dowell's Scrap-Book of authorities on the subject; Or. Jour. Sen., 
18G0, app. 35-6; Dowell's Or. Ind. Wars, 138-42; Jessup's Rept on the cost of 
transportation of troops and supplies to California, Oregon, and New Mexico, 
2; rept of commissioner on Indian war expenses in Oregon and Washington, 
in H. Ex. Doc, 45, 35th cong. 1st sess., vol. ix. ; memorial of the legislative 
assembly of 1855-6, in H. Misc. Doc, 77, 34th cong. 1st sess., and //. Misc. 
Doc, 78, 34th cong. 1st sess., containing a copy of the act of the same legisla- 
ture pro\'idLng for the payment of volunteers; report of the house com- 
mittee on military affairs, June 24, 1856, in //. liept, 195, 34th cong. 1st sess.; 
reports of committee, vol. i., H. Rept, 189, 34th cong. 3d sess., in H. Reports 
of Committee, vol. 3; petition of citizens of Oregon and Washington for a 
more speedy and just settlement of the war claims, with the reply of the 
third auditor, Sen. Ex. Doc, 46, 37th cong. 2d sess., vol. v.; Report of the 
Chairman of the Military Committee of the Senate, March 29, 1860; Rept Com., 
101, 36th cong. 1st sess., vol. i. ; communication from Senators George H. 
Williams and W. H. Corbett, on the Oregon Indian war claims of 185,5-6, 
audited by Philo Callender, which encloses letters of tlie third auditor, and 
B. F. Dowell on the expenses of the war, Washington, March 2, 1808, in 
M. Misc. Doc, 88, p. 3-10, ii., 40th cong. 2d sess.: report of sen. com. on 


The number of white persons known to have been 
killed by Indians^ in Oregon previous to the establish- 
ment of the latter on reservations, including the few 
fairl}'^ killed in battle, so far as I have been able to 
gather from reliable authorities, was nearly 700, be- 
sides about 140 wounded who recovered, and without 
counting those killed and wounded in Washington.'^ 

Two events of no small significance occurred in the 
spring of 1857 — the union of the two Indian superin- 
tendencies of Washington under one superintendent, 
J. W. Nesmith of Oregon, and the recall of General 
Wool from the command of the department of the 
Pacific. The first was in consequence of the heavy 
expenditures in both superintendencies, and the sec- 
ond was in response to the petition of the legislature 
of Oregon at the session of 1856-7. The successor 
of Wool was Newman S. Clarke, who paid a visit to 
the Columbia River district in June.'"' 

interest to be allowed on the award of the Indian war claims, in Sen. Com. 
liept, 8, 37th cong. 2d sess.; letter of secretary of the treasury, contain- 
ing information relative to claims incurred in suppressing Indian hostilities in 
Oregon and Washington, and which were acted and reported upon by the 
commission authorized by the act of August 18, 1856, in .Ven. Ex. Dor., 1 aud 
2, 42d cong. 2d sess. ; report of the committee on military affairs, June 22, 
1874, in 7/. Beptsof Com., 873, 4.Sd cong. 1st sess.; letter from the third 
auditor to the chairman of the committee on military affairs on the subject of 
claims growing out of Indian hostilities, in Oregon and Washington, in //. 
Ex. Doc, 51, .35th cong. 2d sess.; vol. vii., and Id. Doc, vol. iv., 36th cong. 
Ist sess.; communication of C. S. Drew, on the origin and early prosecution 
of the Indian war in Oregon, mSen. Misc. Doc, 59, 36th cong. 1st sess., relat- 
ing chiefly to Eogue Kiver Valley; Stevens' Speech on War Expenses be/ore the 
Committee of Military Affairs of the Ilottse, March 15, 1860; Stevens' Speech 
on War Claims in the House of Representatives, May 31, 1858; Speeches of 
Joseph Lane in the House of Representatives, April 2, 1856, and May 13, 1858; 
Speech of I. I. Stevens in the House of Representative.^ Feb. 31, 1859; Alto, 
California, July i, 1857; Or. Statesman, Jan. 26, 1858; Dowdl and Gibhs' 
Brief in Donnell vs Cardivell, Sup. Court Decisions, 1877; Early Affairs 
Siskiyou County, MS., 13; Swan's iV. W. Coast, 388-91. 

'*See a list by S. C. Drew, in the N. Y. Tribune, July 9, 1857. Lindsay 
Applegate furnishes a longer one, but neither list is at all complete. See also 
letter of Lieut John Mullan to Commissioner Mix, in Mullan's Top. Mem., 
32; Sen. Ex. Doc, 32, 35th cong. 2d sess. 

" I arrived at this estimate by putting down in a book the names and the 
number of persons murdered or slain in battle. The result surprised me, 
although there were undoubtedly others whoso fate was never certainly as- 
certained. This only covers the period which ended with the close of the 
war of 185.5-6; there were many others killed after these years. 

20 The distribution of United States troops in the district for 1857 was two 


Nesmith olid not relieve Stevens of his duties as 
superintendent of Washington until the 2d of June,^' 
soon after which General Clarke paid a visit to the 
Columbia River district to look into the condition of 
this portion of his department. 

Nesmith recommended to the commissioner at 
Washington City that the ti^eaties of 1855 be ratified, 
as the best means of bringing about a settlement of the 
existing difficulties, and for these reasons: that the 
land laws permitted the occupation of the lands of 
Oregon and Washington, regardless of the rights of 
the Indians, making the intercourse laws a nullity, and 
rendering it impossible to prevent collisions between 
them and the settlers. Friendly relations could not 
be cultivated while their title to the soil was recog- 
nized by the government, which at the same time 

companies of the 4th infantry at Fort Hoskins, under Capt. C. C. Augur; 
detachments of the -Ith inf. and 3d art. at Fort Yamhill, under Lieut Phil. 
H. Sheridan; three companies of the 9th inf. at Fort Dalles, Col Wright in 
command; one co. of the 4th infantry at Fort Vancouver, Colonel Thomas 
Morris in command; one co. of the 3d art. at the Cascades, under Maj. F. 0. 
Wyse; three companies of the 9th inf., under Maj. R. S. Garnett, at Fort 
Simcoe; one co. each of the 1st dragoons, 3d art., 4th and 9th inf., Col E. J. 
Steptoe in command, at Fort Walla Walla; one co. of the 9th inf., under 
Capt. G. E. Pickett, at Fort Bellingham, on Bellingham Bay, established to 
guard the Sound from the incursions of northern Indians; one co. of tlie 9th 
inf., under Capt. D. Woodruff, in camp near Fort Bellingham, as escort to 
the northern boundary com. ; one co. of the 4th inf., under Maj. G. O. Haller, 
at Fort Townsend, two and a half miles from Port Townsend; one comiiany 
of the 9th inf., under Lieut D. B. McKibl>en, at Fort Slaughter, on Muckle- 
Bhoot prairie, near the junction of White and Green rivers; two companies 
4th inf., Capt. M. Malouey in command, at Fort Steilacoom; and en route 
for Fort Walla Walla, arriving in the autumn, one company of the 1st dra- 
goons, under Capt. A. J. Smith, making, with one company at Fort Ump- 
qua, a force of between 1,500 and 2,000 regular troops, to hold in subjection 
39,000 Indians. 

" Nesmith found the agents already in charge of the Indians in the Puget 
Sound district to be E. C. Fitzhugh at Bellingham Bay, G. A. Paige at Kit- 
sap reservation, M. T. Simmons general agent for Puget Sound, E. C. Fay at 
Penn's Cove, Whidbey Island, Thomas J. Hanna at Port Townsend (vice E. 
S. Fowler), W. B. Gosnell in charge of the Nisqually and Puyallup Indians 
on the Puyallup reservation, S. S. Ford in charge of the Cowlitz, Chehalis, 
Shoalwater Bay, Willopah, Quilehutes, and other coast tribes in this quarter, 
A.J.Cain in charge of the Indians on the north side of the Columbia from Van- 
couver to opposite The Dalles, assisted by A. Townsend, local agent at White 
Salmon, A. H. Robie in charge of the Yakima district, William Craig in 
charge of the friendly Cayuses, R. H. Lansdale in charge of the Flathead dis- 
trict. The Nez Percys had declined an agent, fearing he might be killed, 
which would involve the tribe in war, and the other tribes were unfriendly 
and without agents. A. P. Dennison had charge of the district of eastern 
Oregon. Iml. Aff. Kept, 1857, 325-83. 


failed to purchase it, but gave white people a right to 
settle in the country. 

About the middle of April 1858 Colonel Steptoe 
notified General Clarke that an expedition to the north 
seemed advisable, if not absolutely necessary, as a 
petition had been received from forty persons living 
at Colville for troops to be sent to that place, the 
Indians in the vicinity being hostile. Two white men 
en route for Colville mines had been killed by the 
Palouses, who had also made a foray into the Walla 
Walla country and driven off the cattle belonging to 
the army. On the 6th of May Steptoe left Walla 
Walla with 130 dragoons, proceeding toward the 
Nez Perce country in a leisurely manner. At 
Snake River he was ferried across by Timothy, 
who also accompanied him as guide. At the 
Alpowah he found thirty or forty of the Palouses, 
who were said to have killed the two travellers, who 
fled on his approach. On the 16th he received in- 
formation, that the Spokanes were preparing to fight 
him, but not believing the report, pursued his march 
northward" until he found himself surrounded by a 
force of about 600 Indians in their war-paint — Pa- 
louses, Spokanes, Cceur d'Alenes, and a few Nez 
Perces. The}^ had posted themselves near a ravine 
through which the road passed, and where the troops 
could be assailed on three sides. The command was 
halted and a parley held with the Spokanes, in which 
they announced their intention of fighting, saying that 
they had heard the troops had come to make war on 
them, but they would not be permitted to cross the 
Spokane River. 

Informing his officers that they should be com- 
pelled to fight, Steptoe turned aside to avoid the 
dangerous pass of the ravine, and coming in about a 
mile to a small lake, encamped there, but without dar- 
ing to dismount, the Indians having accompanied them 

^^ Letter of Steptoe to Gov. McMuUiii, July 16, 1858, MS.; letter of Lieut 
Gregg, in Iml. Af. Rept, 1S58, 27'2. 


all the way at a distance of not more than a hundred 
yards, using the most insulting words and gestures. 
No shots were fired, either by the troops or Indians, 
Steptoe being resolved that the Spokanes should fire 
the first gun; and indeed, the dragoons had only their 
small-arms, and were not prepared for fighting 

Toward night a number of chiefs rode up to the 
camp to inquire the occasion of the troops coming 
into the Spokane country, and why they had cannon 
with them. Steptoe replied that he was on his way 
to Colville to learn the causes of the troubles between 
the miners and Indians in that region. This the 
Indians professed to him to accept as the true reason, 
though they asserted to Father Joset that they did 
not believe it, because the colonel had not taken the 
direct road to Colville, but had come out of his way 
to pass through their country — a fact of which Steptoe 
was himself unconscious, having trusted to Timothy 
to lead him to Colville.^ But though the chiefs pro- 
fessed to be satisfied, they refused to furnish canoes 
to ferry over the troops, and maintained an unyield- 
ing opposition to their advance into the Spokane 
country. Finding that he should have to contend 
against great odds, without being prepared, Steptoe 
determined upon retreating, and early on the morning 
of the 1 7th began his return to the Palouse. 

In the mean time the Coeur d'Alenes, who were 
gathering roots in a camas prairie a few miles distant, 
had been informed of the position of affairs, and were 
urged to join the Spokanes, who could not consent to 
let the troops escape out of their hands so easily. As 
they were about marching, Steptoe received a visit 
from Father Joset, who was anxious to explain to him 
the causes which led to the excitement, and also a 
slander which the Palouses had invented against 
himself, that he had furnished the Indians with 

^Sleptoe's Letter to Gov. McMulVm, MS. 

^'Statement of Father Joset, iu il/rs Nichols' ImJ. Affairs, MS., 7; report 
of Colouel Steptoe, iu Clarke and WrhjhCs Campaign, 17. 


ammunition. It was then agreed that an interview- 
should be had with the principal chiefs; but only 
the Coeur d'Al^ne chief Vincent was found ready to 
meet Steptoe. In the midst of the interview, which 
was held as they rode along, the chief was called 
away and firing was commenced by the Palouses, who 
were dogging the heels of the command. What at 
first seemed an attack by this small party of Indians 
only soon became a general battle, in which all were 
engaged. Colonel Steptoe labored under the disadvan- 
tage of having to defend a pack-train while moving over 
a rolling country particularly favorable to Indian war- 
fare. The column moved, at first, in close order, with 
the supply train in the middle, guarded by a dragoon 
company, with a company in the front and rear. At 
the crossing of a small stream, the Indians closing in 
to get at the head of the column. Lieutenant Gregg, 
with one company, was ordered to move forward and 
occupy a hill which the Indians were trying to gain 
for that purpose. He had no sooner reached this po- 
sition than the Indians sought to take possession of 
one which commanded it, and it became necessary to 
divide his company to drive them from the new posi- 

By this time the action had become general, and 
the companies were separated, fighting by making 
short charges, and at a great disadvantage on account 
of the inferiority of their arms to those used by the 
Indians. As one of the dragoon companies was en- 
deavoring to reach the hill held by Gregg's company, 
the Indians made a charge to get between them and 
the hill to surround and cut them off. Seeing the 
movement and its intention, Lieutenant Gaston, who 
was not more than a thousand yards ofi", made a dash 
with his company, which was met by Gregg's company 
from the hill, in a triangle, and the Indians suffered the 
greatest loss of the battle just at the spot where the 
two companies met, having twelve killed in the charge.-^ 

" The Indian loss in the battle of Steptoe Butte— called Tehotomimme 


Among the killed were Jacques Zachary, a brother- 
in-law of the Coeur d'Alene chief Vincent, and James, 
another headman. Victor, an influential chief, also 
of the Cceur d'Alenes, fell mortally wounded. The 
rage of the Coeur d'Al(5nes at this loss was terrible, 
and soon they had avenged themselves. As the troops 
slowly moved forward, fighting, to reach water, the 
Indians kept up a constant raking fire, until about 11 
o'clock, when Captain Oliver H. P. Taylor and Lieu- 
tenant William Gaston were killed.^* To these officers 
had been assigned the difficult duty of flanking the 
column. Their loss threw the men into confusion, 
harassed as they were by the steady fire of the enemy, 
but a few of them gallantly defended the bodies of 
their officers and brought them off the field under a 
rain of bullets.^' 

It now became apparent that water could not be 
reached by daylight, and though it was not much past 
noon, Steptoe was forced to remain in the best po- 
sition he could obtain on the summit of a hill, on a 
small inclined plain, where the troops dismounted and 
picketed their animals. The men were then ordered 
to lie down flat upon the ground, and do their best 
to prevent the Indians taking the hill by charges, in 
which defence they were successful. Toward even- 
by the Indians — a place about seven miles from the present town of Colfax, 
was estimated by the Indians at 9 killed and forty or fifty wounded; but 
Steptoe in his report mentions that Lieut Gregg had seen 12 dead Indians 
together at one spot, and that many others were seen to fall. Clarke and 
Wri:/ht's Campau/n, 18. 

"'Mrs Nichol's Indian Affairs, MS., 9. Taylor was a graduate of West 
Point of 1S46, and only a few weeks previous to his death had brought out 
his wife and children to the Pacific coast. Gaston was a graduate of 1856, 
and an officer of great promise. Ind. Aff. Eept, 1858, 274. 

''■'' First Sergeant Wm 0. Willams, privates R. P. Kerse and Francis 
Poisell, were honorably mentioned for this. Williams and another sergeant, 
Edward Ball, were wounded and missing afterward. They succeeded in 
eluding the Indians, and reached the Snake River crossing alive. Williams 
was then killed by the Indians, who permitted Ball to escape and return to 
Fort Walla Walla. Kip's Army Life, 11. This book of Lieut Lawrence Kip, 
3d artillery, is like his Indian Council at Walla Walla in 1S55, a small volume 
containing Ills personal observations on the operations of the army in the In- 
dian country of Washington. It embraces a number of subjects — the origin 
of the war, the march from The Dalles, and the various incidents of the cam- 
paign of Col Wright following the disaster of Steptoe's expedition — very 
pleasantly written. 


ing the ammunition, of which tliey had an insufficient 
su])ply, began to give out, and the men were suffering 
so severely from thirst and fatigue that it was with 
difficulty the three remaining officers could inspire 
them to defend themselves.^' Six of their comrades 
were dead or dying, and eleven others wounded. 
Many of the men were late recruits, insufficiently 
drilled, whose courage these reverses had much dimin- 
ished, if not altogether destroyed. 

Nothing remained now but flight. The dead 
officers were hastily interred; and taking the best 
horses and a small supply of provisions, the troops 
crept silently away at ten o'clock that night and 
hurried toward Snake River, where they arrived 
on the morning of the 19th. Thence Steptoe re- 
turned to Fort Walla Walla. 

One of the reasons, if not the princijial one, assigned 
by the Coeur d'Alenes for their excitability and pas- 
sion was that ever since the outbreak in 1855 they 
had said that no white settlements should be made in 
their country, nor should there be any roads through 
it; and they were informed a road was about to bo 
opened from the Missouri to the Columbia by the 
United States government in spite of their protest."'' 
They were opposed, also, to troops being sent to Col- 
ville, as they said that would only open the way for 
more troops, and again for more, and finally for the 
occupation of the country. 

General Clarke, learning from Father Joset that 
the Coeur d'Alenes were penitent, offered to treat 

'* ' To move from one point to another we had to crawl on our hands and 
knees, amid the howling of the Indians, the groans of the dying, and the 
whistling of balls and arrows.' Letter of Lieut Gregg, in Ind. Aff. Jiept, 1858, 

'"This referred to the wagon-road afterward opened by John MuUan, 1st 
lieut 2d art., in charge of the construction of a military road from Fort 
Benton to Fort Walla Walla. See il/««an'.v Military Eoad Report. The only 

Soint on which Steptoe could congratulate himself in his report on his expe- 
ition was that it had undoubtedly saved the lives of Jlullan's whole com- 
mand, who, had they proceeded into the Spokane counti'y as intended, with- 
out being warned of the hostility of the Indians, would have been slaughtered. 
As it was, they remained at The Dalles. Letter of Wright, in Clarke, and 
Wriijht's Cnmpaiftn, 22; Report of the Secretary of War ISoS, 3J1; letter of 
Steptoe, Jd., 350. 


with them on easy conditions, considering their con- 
duct toward Colonel Steptoe; he sent their priest 
back to them with passports, which were to conduct 
their chiefs to Vancouver should they choose to 

But the Coeur d' Alines did not choose to come. 
True, they had professed penitence to their priest, 
begging him to intercede for them, but as soon as his 
back was turned on them, they, with the Spokanes 
and Kalispels, led by the notorious Telxawney, brewed 
mischief. The Coeur d'Alenes openly denied consent- 
ing to Father Joset's peace mission, and were incensed 
that he should meddle with things that did not con- 
cern him. After this, attacks on miners and others 

In June General Clarke held a consultation of offi- 
cers at Vancouver, colonels Wright and Steptoe be- 
ing present, when an expedition was determined upon 
which should not repeat the blunders of the previous 
one, and Colonel Wright was placed in command. 
Three companies of artillery were brought from San 
Francisco, one from Fort Umpqua, and Captain 
Judah was ordered from Fort Jones, in California, 
with one company of 4th infantry. The troops in- 
tended for the expedition were concentrated at Fort 
Walla Walla, where they were thoroughly drilled in 
the tactics which they were expected to practise on 
the field, the artillerymen being instructed in light 
infantry practice, with the exception of a single com- 
pany, which practised at artillery drill mounted. 
No precaution was neglected which could possibly 
secure discipline in battle. 

At the same time that the expedition against the 
Spokanes and Coeur d'Alenes was preparing, another 
against the Yakimas was ordered, under the command 
of Major Garnett, who was to move, on the 15th of 
August, with 300 troops, northward toward Colville, 
thus assisting to drive the hostile Indians toward one 


common centre. Before leaving Fort Walla Walla, 
on the 6tli of August, Wright called a council of the 
Nez Perces, with whom he made a 'treaty of friend- 
ship,' binding them to aid the United States in wars 
with any other tribes, and binding the United States 
to assist them in the same case, at the cost of the gov- 
ernment; and to furnish them arms whenever their 
services were required. The treaty was signed by 
Wright on the part of the United States, and by 
twenty-one Nez Percys, among whom were Timothy, 
Richard, Three Feathers, and Speaking Eagle, but by 
none of the greater chiefs already known in this his- 
tory. The treaty was witnessed by six army officers 
and approved by Clarke.^" A company of thirty Nez 
Perce volunteers was organized under this arrange- 
ment, the Indians being dressed in United States uni- 
form, to flatter their pride as allies, as well as to 
distinguish them from the hostile Indians. This com- 
pany was placed under the command of Lieutenant 
John MuUan, to act as guides and scouts. 

On the 7tli of August Captain Keyes took his de- 
parture with a detachment of dragoons for Snake 
River, where, by the advice of Colonel Steptoe, a 
fortification was to be erected, at the point selected 
for a crossing. This was at the junction of the Tu- 
cannon with the Snake River. It was built in the 
deep gorge, overhung by cliffs on either side, 260 and 
310 feet in height. The fortification was named Fort 
Taylor, in honor of Captain 0. H. P. Taylor, killed in 
the battle of the 17th of May. The place would have 
afforded little security against a civilized foe, but was 
thought safe from Indian attack. A reservation of 
G40 acres was laid out, and every preparation made 
for a permanent post, including a ferry, for which a 
large flat-boat was provided. 

'" Tliis treaty wa3 the subject of criticism. Miillan attributed to it the good 
conduct of the Noz Percys, but particularly as preventing a general coalition 
of the Indian tribes, 'and a fire in our rear, which if once commenced must end 
in our total destruction.' Jiul. Aff. liejit, 1S58, 281. 


On the 18th Wright arrived at Fort Taylor, and 
in a few days the march began. The dragoons num- 
bered 190, the artillery 400, and the infantry 90. The 
last were organized as a rifle brigade, and armed with 
Sharpe's long-range rifles and minie-ball, two im- 
provements in the implements of war with wliich the 
Indians were unacquainted. On the 31st, when the 
army had arrived at the head waters of Cheranah 
River, a point almost due north of Tort Taylor, 76 
miles from that post, and about twenty south of the 
Spokane River, the Indians showed themselves in 
some force on the hills, and exchanged a few shots 
with the Nez Perces, who were not so disguised by 
their uniforms as to escape detection had they desired 
it, which apparently they did not. They also fired 
the grass, with the intention of making an attack 
under cover of the smoke, but it failed to burn well. 
They discharged their guns at the rear-guard, and 
retreated to the hills again, where they remained. 
Judging from these indications that the main body of 
the Indians was not far distant, and wishing to give 
his troops some rest before battle, after so long a march, 
Wright ordered camp to be made at a place in the 
neighborhood of Four Lakes, with the intention of 
remaining a few days at that place. 

But the Indians were too i.mpatient to allow him 
this respite, and early in the morning of the 1st of 
September they began to collect on the summit of a 
hill about two miles distant. As they appeared in 
considerable force, Wright, with two squadrons of 
dragoons commanded by Major W. N. Grier, four 
companies of the 3d artillery, armed with rifle mus- 
kets, commanded by Major E. D. Keyes, and the 
rifle battalion of two companies of the 9th infantry 
commanded by Captain F. T. Dent, one mountain 
howitzer under command of Lieutenant J. L. White, 
and the thirty Nez Perces under the command of 
Lieutenant John Mullan, set out at half-past nine in 
the forenoon to make a reconnoissance, and drive the 


enemy from tbeir position, leaving in camp the equi- 
page and supplies, guarded by one company of artillery, 
commanded by lieutenants H. G. Gibson and G. B. 
Dandy, a howitzer manned, and a guard of fifty-four 
men under Lieutenant H. B. Lyon, the ^Yhole com- 
manded by Captain J. A. Hardie, the field-officer of 
the day.=*i 

Grier was ordered to advance with his cavalry to 
the north and east around the base of the hill occu- 
pied by the Indians, in order to intercept their retreat 
when the foot-troops should have driven them from 
the summit. The artillery and rifle battalion, with 
the Nez Perces, were marched to the right of the hill, 
where the ascent was more easy, and to push the Ind- 
ians in the direction of the dragoons. It was not a 
difficult matter to drive the Indians over the crest of 
the hill, but once on the other side, they took a stand, 
and evidently expecting a combat, showed no dispo- 
sition to avoid it. In fact, they were keeping up a 
constant firing upon the two squadrons of dragoons, 
who were awaiting the foot-troops on the other side 
of the ridge. 

On this side was spread out a vast plain, in a beau- 
tiful and exciting panorama. At the foot of the hill 
was a lake, and just beyond, three others surrounded 
by rugged rocks. Between them, and stretching 
to the north-west as far as the eye could reach, was 
level ground; in the distance, a dark range of pine- 
covered mountains. A more desirable battle-field 
could not have been selected. There was the open 
jDlain, and the convenient covert among the pines 
that bordered the lakes, and in the ravines of the 
hillside. Mounted on their fleetest horses, the Ind- 
ians, decorated for war, their gaudy trapping glaring 
in the sun, and singing or shouting their battle-cries, 
swayed back and forth over a compass of two miles. 

" The entire transportation of Wright's command consisted of about 400 
mules, .325 belonging to the quartermaster's department, six to each company, 
and one to each officer. Only the dragoons were mounted. Kip's Arm// Life, 


Even their horses were painted in contrasting white, 
crimson, and other colors, wliile from their bridles 
depended bead fringes, and woven with their manes 
and tails were the plumes of eagles. Such was 
the spirited spectacle that greeted Colonel Wright 
and his command on that bright September morning. 

Soon his plan of battle was decided upon. The 
troops were now in possession of the elevated ground, 
and the Indians held the plain, the ravines, and the 
pine groves. The dragoons were drawn up on the 
crest of the hill facing the plain; behind them were 
two companies of Ke3res' artillery battalion acting as 
infantry, and with the infantry, deployed as skir- 
mishers, to advance down the hill and drive the Ind- 
ians from their coverts at the foot of the ridge into 
the plain. The rifle battalion under Dent, composed 
of two companies of the 9th infantry, with Winder 
and Fleming, was ordered to the right to deplo}^ in 
the pine forest; and the howitzers, under White, sup- 
ported by a company of artillery under Tyler, was 
advanced to a lower plateau, in order to be in a posi- 
tion for effective firing. 

The advance began, the infantry moving steadily 
down the long slope, passing the dragoons, and firing 
a sharp volley into the Indian ranks at the bottom of 
the hill. The Indians now experienced a surprise. 
Instead of seeing the soldiers drop before their mus- 
kets while their own fire fell harmless, as at the bat- 
tle of Steptoe Butte, the effect was reversed. The 
rifles of the infantry struck down the Indians before 
the troops came within range of their muskets. 

This unexpected disadvantage, together with the 
orderly movement of so large a number of men, ex- 
ceeding their own force by at least one or two hun- 
dred,^' caused the Indians to retire, though slowly at 

^-Wright, in his report, says there were '400 or 500 iiiounteil warriors,' 
and also • large numbers of ludiaus ' in the pine woods. Vidian's Top. Mem., 
19. Kip says the Indians ' outnumbered us,' p. 59 of Arm;/ Life, but it is not 
probable. Wright had over 700 iigl\ting men. Subtracting those left to 
guard the camp, there would still be a number equal to, if not exceeding, the 


first, and many of them to take refuge in the woods, 
where they were met by the rifle battalion and the 
howitzers, doing deadly execution. 

Continuing to advance, the Indians falling back, 
the inflmtry reached the edge of the plain. The dra- 
goons were in the rear, leading their horses. When 
taey had reached the bottom of the hill they mounted, 
and charging between the divisions of skirmishers, 
rushed like a whirlwind upon the Indians, creating a 
panic, from which they did not recover, but fled in all 
directions. They were pursued by the dragoons for 
about a mile, when the latter were obliged to halt, 
their horses being exhausted. The foot-troops, too, 
being weary with their long march from Walla Walla, 
pursued but a short distance before they were recalled. 
The few Indians who still lingered on the neighboring 
hilltops soon fled when the howitzers were dis- 
charged in their direction. By two o'clock the whole 
armj'^ had returned to camp, not a man or a horse 
having been killed, and only one horse wounded. 
The Indians lost eighteen or twenty killed and many 

For three days Wright rested unmolested in camp. 
On the 5th of September, resuming his march, in about 
five miles he came upon the Indians collecting in large 
bodies, apparently with the intention of opposing his 
progress. They rode along in a line parallel to the 
troops, augmenting in numbers, and becoming more 
demonstrative, until on reaching a plain bordered by 
a wood they were seen to be stationed there awaiting 
the moment wlien the attack might be made. 

As the column approached, the grass was fired, 
which being dry at this season of the .year, burned 
with great fierceness, the wind blowing it toward 
the troops; and at the same time, under cover of the 
smoke, the Indians spread themselves out in a cres- 
cent, half enclosing them. Orders were immediately 

" Report of Secretary of War for ISoS, 38(3-00; report of Wright, iu Mtil- 
lau'e Top. Mem., 19-20; Or. Statemnan, Sept. 21, ISJS. 


given to the pack-train to close up, and a strong 
guard was placed about it. The companies were then 
deployed on the right and left, and the men, flushed 
with their recent victory, dashed through the smoke 
and flames toward the Indians, driving them to the 
cover of the timber, where they were assailed by 
shells from the howitzers. As they fled from the 
havoc of the shells, the foot-soldiers again charged 
them. This was repeated from cover to cover, for 
about four miles, and then from rock to rock, as the 
face of the country changed, until they were driven 
into a plain, when a cavalry charge was sounded, and 
the scenes of the battle of Four Lakes were repeated. 

But the Indians were obstinate, and gathered in 
parties in the forest through which the route now 
led, and on a hill to the right. Again the riflemen 
and howitzers forced them to give way. This was 
continued during a progress of fourteen miles. That 
afternoon the army encamped on the Spokane River, 
thoroughly worn out, having marched twenty-five 
miles without water, fighting half of the way. About 
the same number of Indians appeared to be engaged 
in this battle that had been in the first. Only one 
soldier was slightly wounded. The Coeur d'AIenes 
lost two chiefs, the Spokanes two, and Kamiakin 
also, who had striven to inspire the Indians with 
courage, received a blow upon the head from a falling 
tree-top blown off" by a bursting shell. The whole 
loss of the Indians was unknown, their dead being 
carried oS the field. At the distance of a few miles, 
they burned one of their villages to prevent the 
soldiers spoiling it. 

The army rested a day at the camp on Spokane 
River, without being disturbed by the Indians, who 
appeared in small parties on the opposite bank, and 
intimated a disposition to hold communication, but 
did not venture across. But on the following day, 
while the troops were on the march along the left 
bank, they reappeared on the right, conversing with 


the Nez Perces and interpreters, from which commu- 
nication it was learned that they desired to come with 
Garry and have a talk with Colonel Wright, who ap- 
pointed a meeting at the ford two miles above the falls. 

Wright encamped at the place appointed for a 
meeting, and Garry came over soon after. He stated 
to the colonel the difficulties of his position between 
the war and peace parties. The war party, greatly 
in the majority, and numbering his friends and the prin- 
cipal men of his nation, was incensed with him for being 
a peace man, and he had either to take up arms 
against the white men or be killed by his own people. 
There was no reason to doubt this assertion of Garry's, 
his previous character being well known. But 
Wright replied in the tone of a conqueror, telling 
him he had beaten them in two battles without losing 
a man or animal, and that he was prepared to beat 
them as often as they chose to come to battle; he did 
not come into the country to ask for peace, but to 
fight. If they were tired of war, and wanted peace, 
he would give them his terms, which were that they 
nmst come with everything that they had, and lay 
all at his feet — arms, women, children — and trust to 
his mercy. When they had thus fully surrendered, 
he would talk about peace. If they did not do this, 
he would continue to make war upon them that year 
and the next, and until they were exterminated. 
With this message to his people, Garry was dismissed. 

On the same day Polatkin, a noted Spokane chief, 
presented himself with nine warriors at the camp of 
Colonel Wright, having left their arms on the oppo- 
site side of the river, to avoid surrendering tliem. 
Wright sent two of the warriors over after the guns, 
when one of them mounted his horse and rode away. 
The other returned, bringing the guns. To Polatkin 
Wright repeated what had been said to Garry; and 
as this chief was known to have been in the attack 
on Steptoe, as well as a leader in the recent battles, 
he was detained, with another Indian, while he sent 


the remaining warriors to bring in all the people, with 
whatever belonged to them. The Indian with Polat- 
kin being recognized as one who had been at Fort 
Walla Walla in the spring, and who was suspected of 
being concerned in the murder of the two miners in 
the Palouse country about that time, he was put 
under close scrutiny, with the intention of trying him 
for the crime. 

Resuming his march on the 8tli of September, 
after travelling nine miles, a great dust where the 
road entered the mountains betrayed the vicinity of 
the Indians, and the train was closed up, under guard, 
while Major Grier was ordered to push forward with 
three companies of dragoons, followed by the foot- 
troops. After a brisk trot of a couple of miles, the 
dragoons overtook the Indians in the mountains with 
all their stock, which they were driving to a place of 
safety, instead of surrendering, as required. A skir- 
mish ensued, ending in the capture of 800 horses. 
With this booty the dragoons were returning, when 
they were met by the foot-troops, who assisted in 
driving the animals to camp sixteen miles above 
Spokane Falls. The Indian suspected of murder was 
tried at this encampment, and being found guilty, was 
hanged the same day about sunset. 

After a consultation on the morning of the 9th, 
Wright determined to have the captured horses killed, 
only reserving a few of the best for immediate use, it 
being impracticable to take them on the long march 
yet before them, and they being too wild for the ser- 
vice of white riders. Accordingly two or three hun- 
dred were shot that day, and the remainder on the 
lOth.^* The effect of dismounting the Indians was 
quickly apparent, in the offer of a Spokane chief, Big 
Star, to surrender. Being without horses, he was 
permitted to come with his village as the army passed, 
and make his surrender to Wright in due form. 

'* Brown's Autobiography, MS., 40; Clarke and Wright's Campaign, 393-4; 
Kip's Armij Life, 78. 


On the lOtli the Coeur d'Alenes made proposals 
of submission, and as the troops were now within a 
few days' march of the mission, Wright directed them 
to meet him at that place, and again took up his 
march. Crossing the Spokane, each dragoon with a 
foot-soldier behind him, the road lay over the Spokane 
plains, along the river, and for fifteen miles through 
a pine forest, to the Coeur d'Alene Lake, where camp 
was made on the 11th. All the provisions found 
cached were destroyed, in order that the Indians 
should not be able, if they were willing, to carry on 
hostilities again during the year. Beyond Coeur 
d'Alene Lake the road ran through a forest so dense 
that the troops were compelled to march in single 
file, and thfe single wagon, belonging to Lieutenant 
Mullan, that had been permitted to accompany the 
expedition, had to be abandoned, as well as the lim- 
ber belonging to the howitzers, which were thereafter 
packed upon mules. The rough nature of the country 
from the Coeur d'Alene Lake to the mission made 
the march exceedingly fatiguing to the foot-soldiers, 
who, after the first day, began to show the effects of 
so much toil, together with hot and sultry weather, 
by occasionally falling out of ranks, often compelling 
officers to dismount and give them their horses. 

On the 13th the army encamped within a quarter 
of a mile of the mission.^' The following day 
Vincent, who had not been in the recent battles, 
returned from a circuit he had been making among 
his people to induce them to surrender themselves to 
Wright; but the Indians, terrified by what they had 
heard of the severity of that officer, declined to see 
him. However, on the next day a few came in, 
bringing some articles taken in the battle of the 17th 
of May. Observing that no harm befell these few, 

'* The Coeur d'Alfine mission was situated in a pretty valley in the moun- 
tains, with a branch of the Cceur d'Alfine River watering it, the mission 
cliurch standing iu the centre of a group of houses, a mill, the residences of 
the priests, bams for storing the produce of tlie Indian farms, and a few dwell- 
ings of the most civilized of the Indian converts. MuUan'a Top. Mem., 37. 


others followed their example. They were still more 
encouraged by the release of Polatkin, who was sent to 
bring in his people to a comicil. By the l7th a con- 
siderable number of Coeur d' Alines and Spokanes 
were collected at the camp, and a council was opened. 

Wright's CAiiPAioN. 

The submission of these Indians was complete 
and pitiful. They had fought for home and country, 
as barbarians fight, and lost all. The strong hand of 
a conquering power, the more civilized the more ter- 
rible, lay heavily upon them, and they yielded. 

An arbor of green branches of trees had been con- 
structed in front of the commander's tent, and here in 
state sat Colonel Wright, surrounded by his officers, 
to pass judgment upon the conquered chiefs. Father 

Hist. Wash.— 13 

Joset and tlie interpreters were also present. Vincent 
opened the council by rising and saying briefly to 
Colonel Wright that he had committed a great crime, 
and was deeply sorry for it, and was glad that he and 
his people were promised forgiveness. To this hum- 
ble acknowledgment Wright replied that what the 
chief had said was true — a great crime had been com- 
mitted ; but since he had asked for peace, peace should 
be granted on certain conditions: the delivery to him 
of the men who struck the first blow in the affair with 
Colonel Steptoe, to be sent to General Clarke; the 
delivery of one chief and four warriors with their 
families, to be taken to Walla Walla; the return of all 
the property taken from Steptoe's command; consent 
that troops and other white men should pass through 
their country; the exclusion of the turbulent hostile 
Indians from their midst; and a promise not to commit 
any acts of hostility against white men. Should they 
agree to and keep such an engagement as this, they 
should have peace forever, and he would leave their 
country with his troops. An additional stipulation 
was then offered — that there should be peace between 
the Cceur d'Alenes and Nez Perces. Vincent then 
desired to hear from the Nez Perces themselves, 
their minds in the matter, when one of the volunteers, 
a chief, arose and declared that if the Coeur d'Alenes 
were friends of the white men, they were also his 
friends, and past differences were buried. To this 
Vincent answered that he was glad and satisfied ; and 
henceforth there should be no more war between the 
Coeur d'Alenes and Nez Perces, or their allies, the 
white men, for the past was forgotten. A written 
agreement containing ah these articles was then for- 
mally signed. Polatkin, for the Spokanes, expressed 
himself satisfied, and the council ended by smoking 
the usual peace-pipe. 

A council with the Spokanes had been appointed for 
the 23d of September, to which Kamiakin was invited, 
with assurances that if he would come he should not 


be harmed; but he refused, lest he should be taken to 
Walla Walla. The council with the Spokanes was 
a repetition of that with the Coeur d' Alines, and the 
treaty the same. After it was over, Owhi presented 
himself at camp, when Wright had him placed in irons 
for having broken his agreement made with him in 
1856, and ordered him to send for his son Qualchin, 
sometimes called the younger Owhi, telling him that 
he would be hanged unless Qualchin obeyed the sum- 
mons. Very unexpectedly Qualchin came in the fol- 
lowing day, not knowing that he was ordered to ap- 
pear, and was seized and hanged without the formality 
of a trial. A few days later, when Wright was at 
Snake River, Owhi, in attempting to escape, was shot 
by Lieutenant Morgan, and died two hours afterward. 
Kamiakin and Skloom were now the only chiefs of 
any note left in the Yakima nation, and their influence 
was much impaired by the results of their turbulent 
behavior. Kamiakin went to British Columbia after- 
ward, and never again ventured to return to his own 

On the 25th, while still at the council-camp, a num- 
ber of Palouses came in, part of whom Wright hanged, 
refusing to treat with the tribe. Wright reached 
Snake River on the 1st of October, having performed 
a campaign of five weeks, as efibctive as it was in 
some respects remarkable. On the 1st of October 
Fort Taylor was abandoned, there being no further 
need of troops at that point, and the whole army 
marched to Walla Walla, where it arrived on the 5th, 
and was inspected by Colonel Mansfield, who arrived 
a few days previous. 

On the 9th of October, Wright called together the 
Walla Wallas, and told them he knew that some of 
them had been in the recent battles, and ordered all 
those that had been so engaged to stand up. Thirty- 
five stood up at once. From these were selected four, 
who were banded over to the guard and hanged. 
Thus sixteen savages were offered up as examples. 


While Wright was thus sweeping from the earth 
these ill-fated aboriginals east of the Columbia, Gar- 
nett was doing no less in the Yakima country. Ou 
the 15th of August Lieutenant Jesse K. Allen cap- 
tured seventy Indians, men, women, and children, 
with their property, and three of them were shot. 
Proceeding north to the Wenatchee River, ten Ya- 
kimas were captured by lieutenants Crook, McCall, 
and Turner, and five of them shot, making twenty-four 
thus killed for alleged attacks on white men, on this 
campaign. Garnett continued his march to the Oka- 
nagan River to inquire into the disposition of the 
Indians in that quarter, and as they were found 
friendly, he returned to Fort Simcoe. 

Up to this time the army had loudly denounced 
the treaties made by Stevens; but in October Gen- 
eral Clarke, addressing the adjutant-general of the 
United States army upon his views of the Indian re- 
lations in Oregon and Washington, remarked upon 
the long-vexecl subject of the treaties of Walla Walla, 
that his opinion on that subject had undergone a 
change, and recommended that they should be con- 
firmed, giving as his reasons that the Indians had 
forfeited some of their claims to consideration; that 
the gold discoveries would carry immigration along the 
foothills of the eastern slope of the Cascades; that the 
vallej^s must be occupied for grazing and cultivation ; 
and that in order to make complete the pacification 
which his arms had effected, the limits must be drawn 
between the Indians and the white race.^" It was to 
be regretted that this change of opinion was not 
made known while General Clarke was in conmiand 
of the department embracing Oregon and Washing- 
ton, as it would greatly have softened the asperity of 
feeling which the opposition of the military to the 
treaties had engendered. As it was, another general 
received the plaudits which were justly due to Gen- 
eral Clarke. 

" Clarke and Wright^a Campairj)!, 83. 


By an order of the war department of the 13th 
of September, the department of the Pacific was 
divided, the southern portion to be called the depart- 
ment of California, though it embraced the Umpqua 
district of Oregon. The northern division was called 
the department of Oregon, and embraced Oregon 
and Washington, with headquarters at Vancouver.^' 

Walla Walla VALLEr. 

General Clarke was assigned to California, while Gen- 
eral W. S. Harney, fresh from a campaign in Utah, 
was placed in command of the department of Oregon. 
General Harney arrived in Oregon on the 29th of 
October, and assumed command. Two days later he 
issued an order reopening the Walla Walla country 

*'' Puget Sound Herald, Nov. 5, 1S53; Or. Slatenman, Nov. 2, ISoS. 


to settlement. A resolution was adopted by the 
legislative assemblies of both Oregon and Washing- 
ton congratulating the people on the creation of the 
department of Oregon, and on having General Harney, 
a noted Indian-fighter, for a commander, as also upon 
the order reopening the country east of the moun- 
tains to settlement, harmonizing with the recent act 
of congress extending the land laws of the United 
States over that portion of the territories. Harney 
was entreated by the legislature to extend his protec- 
tion to immigrants, and to establish a garrison at 
Fort Boise. In this matter, also, he received the ap- 
plause due as much to General Clarke as himself, 
Clarke having already made the recommendation for 
a large post between Fort Laramie and Fort Walla 
Walla, for the better protection of immigrants.^* 

The stern measures of the army, followed by pacifi- 
catory ones of the Indian department, were preparing 
the Indians for the ratification of the treaties of 1855. 
Some expeditions were sent out during the winter to 
chastise a few hostile Yakimas, but no general or con- 
siderable uprising occurred. Fortunately for all con- 
cerned, at this juncture of affairs congress confirmed 
the Walla Walla treaties in March 1859, the Indians 
no longer refusing to recognize their obligations.''' 
At a council held by Agent A. J. Cain with the Nez 
Percys, even Looking Glass and Joseph declared 
they were glad the treaties had been ratified; but 
Joseph, who wished a certain portion of the country 
set off to him and his children, mentioned this matter 
to the agent, out of which nearly twenty years later 
grew another war, through an error of Joseph's son 
in supposing that the treaty gave him this land.''" 
The other tribes also signified their satisfaction. 
Fort Simcoe being evacuated, the buildings, which had 
cost $60,000, were taken for an Indian agency. A 

^'Rtpt of the Secretary of War, ISoS, 413; S. F. BuUetiii, Dec. 30, ISoS; 
Or. Laws, 1858-9, iii.; C'oiifi. Globe., 1857-8, app. 5U0. 

^^Pui/et Sound Herald, April 29, 1859; Or. Argus, April 30, 1859. 
'"See Ind. Aff. Kept, 1859, 420. 


portion of the garrison was sent to escort the boun- 
dary commission, and another portion to estabhsh 
Harney depot, fourteen miles north-east of Fort Col- 
ville," under Major P. Lugenbeel, to remain a stand- 
ing threat to restless and predatory savages, Lugen- 
beel having accepted an appointment as special Indian 
agent, uniting the Indian and military departments 
in one at this post. 

General Harney had nearly 2,000 troops in his de- 
partment in 1859. Most of them, for obvious reasons, 
were stationed in Washington, but many of them 
were employed in surveying and constructing roads 
both in Oregon and Washington, the most important 
of which in the latter territory was that known as the 
Mullan wagon-road upon the route of the northern 
Pacific railroad survey, in which Mullan had taken 
pai't. Stevens, in 1853, already perceived that a 
good wagon-road line must precede the railroad, as a 
means of transpoi'tation of supplies and material along 
the route, and gave instructions to Lieutenant Mullan 
to make surveys with this object in view, as well as 
with the project of establishing a connection between 
the navigable waters of the Missouri and Columbia 
rivers. The result of the winter explorations of Mul- 
lan was such that in the spring of 1854 he returned 
to Fort Benton, and on the 17th of March started 
with a train of wagons that had been left at that post, 
and with them crossed the range lying between the 
Missouri and Bitter Root rivers, arriving at canton- 
ment Stevens on the 31st of the same month. Upon 
the representation of the practicability of a wagon- 
road in this region, connecting the navigable waters of 
the Missouri with the Columbia, congress made an 
appropriation of $30,000 to open one from Fort Ben- 
ton to Fort Walla Walla. The troubles of the gov- 
ernment with Utah, and the Indian wars of 1855-6 

*' Companies A and K, 9th inf. , ordered to establish a wintering jilace and 
depot for the escort of the N. W. boundary com., readied this place June 
20, ISJQ. A pleasant spot, one mile square, reserved. Sen. Ex. Doc, 52, 36th. 
cong. 1st sess., 271. 


and 1858, more than had been expected, developed 
the necessity of a route to the east, more northern 
than the route by the South Pass, and procured for it 
that favorable action by congress which resulted in a 
series of appropriations for the purpose." The re- 
moval of the military interdict to settlement, followed 
by the survey of the public lands, opened the way for 
a waiting population, which flowed into the Walla 
Walla Valley to the number of 2,000 as early as April 
1859,''^ and spread itself out over the whole of eastern 
Washington with surprising rapidity for several years 
thereafter, attracted by mining discoveries even more 
than by fruitful soils." 

" MuUaii's Military Eoad Kept, 2-12. 

" Letter of Gen. Harney, in U. S. 3Iess. and Docs, 1859-60. 96. 
" 1 introduce here a notice of a pioneer and soldier in the Ind. war, whose 
biography escaped my attention where it should have appeared, iu chapter 

David Shelton, son of Lewis Shelton and Nancy Gladdin, his wife, and 
grandson of Roderick Shelton and Usley Willard, his wife, of Va, was born 
in Buncombe co., Va, Sept. 15, 1812, migrating with his parents to JIo. ter- 
ritory in 1819. He married Frances Willson, born in Ky, May 30, )S;i7, 
and removed in 1838 to the Platte Purchase, settling near St Joseph, where 
he lived until 1847, when he emigrated to Oregon, taking up a claim on 
Sauve Island, which he sold in 1848, and went to the California gold mines, 
returning to Portland in 1849, where he remained until 1852, when be re- 
moved to W. T. in company with L. B. Hastings, F. W. Pettigrove, 
Thomas Tallentine, and B. Boss on a small schooner, named the Mari/ 
Taylor. Shelton and Ross remained in Olympia until 185.3, in which year 
he settled on Skookura bay, and was appointed one of the three judges of 
Thurston co., which at that time comprised the whole Puget Sound coun- 
try. He was elected to first territorial legislature, and introduced the bill 
organizing Sawamish co. (the name being subsequently changed to Mason), of 
which he was the first settler. He served in the Indian war of 1S55-G, as a 
lieutenant iu Co. F., W. T. vols. Mrs Shelton died April 15, 18S7, at the 
age of 70 years. Shelton was a man of strong convictions, and a power in 
the community where he lived. His children were Lewis D. W., born in 
Andrew co., Mo., in 1841; John S. \V., born iu Gentry co., Mo., in 1844; 
Levi T., born in Clackamas co.. Or., in 1848; Mary E., born in Portland, 
Or., in 1850; Franklin P., born in Olympia, Or., in 1852; James B., born in 
Mason co., VV. T., in 1855; Joicie A., born in Mason co., W. T., iu 1857. 
Franklin P. died in 1875. 

Another pioneer of 1853, Henry Adams, was born iu Greenville, Conn., in 
1825, came to Cal. in 1849, to Or. iu 1850, and to W. T. in 1853, settling at 
Seattle, where he worked at carpentry. He took a donation claim in 1855 
on White river, his present liome. He was the first auditor elected in King 
CO., and served as county commissioner. 

I. J. Sackman, bom near Mansfield, Ohio, in 1830, came to Cal. in 18.50, 
returning home in 1851, but only to emigrate to Seattle, W. T. He engaged 
iu lumbering at Port Orchard, remaining there until 1877, when he removed 
to Port Blakely and openeil a hotel, which he owns. He married Mrs 
Phillips, a step-daughter of Capt. VVra Reuton, of Port Blakely mills. 




Party Politics — Election of Delegate — Maktial Law — Stevens Chosen 
Delegate — Death of Stevens — His Chakactek — Governor McMol- 
LiN — Frasek River ISIining Excitement— Its Effect on Washington 
^Services of Secretary Mason — Governor Gholson — Henry M. 
McGill — The Capital Question — The University — Governor Wal- 
lace—Governor Pickering— The Custom-house Controversy — In- 
undation OF Port Angeles. 

With the organization of the territory, the demo- 
cratic party north of the Columbia had prepared to 
marshal its ranks and act with the democrats of 
Oregon wherever they could be mutually helpful in 
resisting what they denominated the "tyranny of the 
federal party." It had not succeeded in effecting its 
object, when it suffered to be elected to congress 
Columbia Lancaster, whose politics were as nonde- 
script as his abilities were inferior. In 1855 a more 
thorough party organization was perfected^ for the 
election of a delegate to succeed Lancaster.^ The 
choice of the convention fell upon J. Patton Ander- 
son, the first United States marshal of the terri- 
tory, who resigned his office in March with the 
design of running for delegate, his place being subse- 

"^ Ebey's Journal, MS., iii. 8. 

2 la the democratic convention on the first ballot Lancaster received 18 
votes, but never exceeded that number. Stevens received 13, I. N. Ebey 7, 
J. P. Anderson 7. Stevens withdrew his name on the Gth ballot, and on 
the 29th ballot Anderson received 38 votes. Judges Lander and McFaddeu 
and H. C. Moseley were balloted for, receiving from 15 to 20 votes each. 
Olumpia Pioneer and Dem., May 12, lSd5. 



quently filled by the appointment of George W, 

The opposing candidate of the whig party was 
Judge Strong,* Anderson's majority being 176 out of 
1,582 votes, 41 of which were cast for a free-soil can- 
didate, Joseph Cushman. 

Stevens, while having with him the ultra anti- 
Indian element, had become unpopular in other quar- 
ters. His martial-law measure, among others, was 
severely criticised. Stevens' excuse for it was that 
only in that way certain white residents of Pierce 
county having Indian wives could be effectually 
secured from intercourse with the enemy. In March 
1856 the governor caused them to be arrested upon 
a charge of treason, without the formality of a civil 
process, and sent to Fort Steilacoom with a request 
to Colonel Casey to keep them in close confinement.^ 
Two law practitioners, W. H. Wallace and Frank 
Clark of Pierce county, early in April, determining 
to vindicate the majesty of law, set out for Wliidbey 
Island, where resided Judge Chenoweth, to procure a 
writ of habeas corpus, when Stevens, equally deter- 
mined, thereupon proclaimed martial law in Pierce 

Then followed a performance which for stubborn 
persistency on both sides was not unlike the Leschi 
affair. Casey notified the governor that in the case of 
a writ of habeas corpus being served upon him, he 
should feel compelled to obey its mandates, where- 
upon Stevens i-emoved the prisoners to Olympia, out of 

^Corliss came to Salem, Or., about 1S52, and thence to Tuget Sound. 
He removed to Las Cruces, Cal., where, on the IGth of Jan. 1S(J4. lie was 
murdered, with his wife, n^e Lucretia R. Judson, daughter of Peter Judsou, 
and a Mr Shepherd, in his own liouse, which was burned over their bodies. 
The murderers -were never discovered. Ebiy's Journal, MS., vii. 121. It 
will be remembered that ;Mr and Mrs Corliss were at the house of I. N. Ebcy 
on the night when he was murdered, but escaped. A strange fate pursued 
them to the same end. Saltm Statesman, Feb. 29, 1SG4. 

*Gilmore Hays, \V. H. Wallace, George Gibbs. A. A. Denny, and C. C. 
Hewitt were the other whig candidates. Olympia Pioneer and Democrat, 
May 12, 1855. 

^The persons arrested were Lyon A. Smith, Charles Wren, Henry Smith, 
John McLeod, John JilcPeel, Henry Murray, and Pelor Wilson. Eoana' Mar- 
tial Law, i. 


Chenowetli's district. Chenoweth, being ill, requested 
Chief Justice Lander to hold court for him at Steila- 
coom, which Lander proceeded to do, but was arrested, 
and with his clerk, John M. Chapman, taken to Olym- 
pia and detained in custody three or four days. Indig- 
nation meetings were held, and congress appealed to, 
public opinion being divided. Lander opened the dis- 
trict court the 12th of May at Olympia, and next day 
the governor placed Thurston county under martial 
law. Thereupon the governor was cited to appear 
before the chief justice at chambers, and refused, while 
the governor caused the arrest of the chief justice for 
ignoring martial law. Lander, declining parole, was 
sent to Camp Montgomery. 

Thus attempts and contempts, writs and restrictions, 
continued, which, however interesting and instructive 
fit the time, it would be irksome for us to follow. 
The Pierce county men were tried by a military com- 
mission, and martial law abrogated. But the end was 
not yet; for over innumerable technicalities, in which 
lawyers, judges, citizens, officials, and military men 
had become involved, wrangling continued throughout 
the year, B. F. Kendall,^ bitterly opposed to Stevens, 

' Bezaleel Freeman Kendall, like Elwood Evans, crossed the continent in 
1853 with Stevens. He was a native of Oxford, Maine, and a graduate of 
Bowdoin college. His talents are highly praised by all his biographers. 
Evans, who knew him well, saya that he possessed a grand physique, was a 
fine scholar, able writer, powerful speaker, hard student, and of thorough in- 
tegrity, but ambitious, aristocratic in his feelings, bitter in his prejudices, 
and indiscreet in his utterances. ' The newspapers cannot too highly paint 
his contempt for the opinions of others, his bitterness of expression, his un- 
qualified style of assault upon any with whom he differed.' Ho carried this 
strong individuality into a journal which he edited, called the Overland Prcsf:, 
and which was the occasion of his death, Jan. 7, ISfiS. Kendall had been 
clerk of the legislature, territorial librarian, prosecuting attorney of the Olym- 
pian jud. dist; had been sent on a secret mission by Gen. Scott, and appointed 
Indian agent in the Yakima country, but soon removed on account of his im- 
periousness. After his removal he published the Press, and used it to attack 
whomsoever he hated. He was the attorney and warm friend of George B. 
Roberts of the Puget Sound Co. On the 25th of October an attempt was 
made to burn the buildings of this company ou Cowlitz farm. Kendall boldly 
charged the incendiarism on Horace Howe, a farmer residing on the Cowlitz, 
who, on the 20th of Dec. 1862, met Kendall in Olympia and struck him over 
the head with a small stick, in resentment. Kendall retreated, and Howe 
pursued, when Kendall drew a pistol and shot Howe, inflicting a dangerous 
wound. A few weeks later a son of Howe shot Kendall through the heart. 
Or. Slntcsmaii, Jan. 19, 1863; S. F. BuUctln, Jan. 12, 1803; Wash. Scraps, 
146; Olymiiia Wash. Standard, Jan. 10, 1803. 


having been meanwhile appointed United States dis- 
trict attorney by Lander.'' 

The matter having been brought to the attention 
of the president, Governor Stevens was reprimanded 
by the executive through the secretary of state, wlio 
assured him that, although his motives were not ques- 
tioned, his conduct in proclaiming martial law did not 
meet with the approval of the president.* 

Soon it was rumored that Stevens would-be re- 
moved, when his friends announced that they would 
send him as delegate to congress in 1857, and imme- 
diately set about marshalling their forces to this end. 
This being the year when the republican party was 
first organized in the territory, the election campaign 
was more hotly contested than usual, Stevens being 
a southern democrat like Lane, while the new party 
took direct issue with the south. 

The candidate put forward by the republicans was 
A. S. Abernethy,* a mild-mannered man, like his 
brother George Abernethy of Oregon, and having 
nothing either in his character or his history to hang- 
praise or blame upon, could not contend for the peo- 
ple's suffrages with Stevens — Stevens, who had a mag- 
netic presence, a massive brain, great stores of knowl- 
edge, which he never paraded, although in private a 
brilliant talker, a memory like Napoleon,^" whose small 
stature he approached, and bristled all over with 

'The documents in this case are contained in Sen. Doc, 98, xiv., 34th 
cong. Istsess.; Id., 41, viii., .34th cong. 1st sess.; Jd., 47, viii., 34th cong. 
Sdsess.; Id., 78, 34th cong. 1st sesa.; S. Misc. Doc, 71, iii., 35th cong. 1st 
sess. Many are to be found in the Olympia Pioneer and Democrat from May 
to August; and comments in tlic Oregon Statesman and Portland Oreyoman, 
S. F. Alta; New York Courier and Inquirer, Feb. 14, 1857; New York Times; 
Philadelphia Ledrjer, July 4, 185G; Phelps' Reminiscences of Seattle, 34; Ore- 
l/on Weekly Times; New York Herald, June 27, 1856; Waxhington l/nion; 
Washington Republican, April 17, 1857; but the most complete collection of 
papers on the subject is Evans' Martial Law, bc.'ore quoted. See also Cong. 
Globe, 1855-6, pt 2, 1517, 34th cong. 1st sess. 

^Scn. Ex. Doc, 41, 56, 34th cong. 3d sess.; Wash. Jour. Council, 185C-7, 
app. vi. 

" A new party paper was started at Steilacoom, called the Washington Re- 
publican, by A. S. Abernethy, B. R. Bigelow, and J. P. Keller. Ebey's Jour- 
nal, MS., T. 10. 

^"Providence (E. I.) Journal, July 12, 1802. 


points to attract the electricity of a crowd. Besides 
these qualities, which might be relied upon to give 
him success in a campaign, he was regarded by the 
volunteers as their proper representative to procure 
the payment of the war debt, against which General 
Wool was using his powerful influence. Not an ora- 
tor or debater, and with almost the whole argument- 
ative talent of the territory arrayed against him,^^ 
his election was a foregone conclusion from the first. 
Stevens' majority over Abernethy was 463 out of 
1,024 votes.'^ He resigned his office of governor on 
the 11th of August, one month less two days after his 
election, the full returns not being made before the 
last week in July. Secretary Mason filled his place 
as acting governor until the arrival of his successor 
in September. 

It would occupy too much space to follow in detail 
the public acts of Washington's first governor. ^^ He 
labored as untiringly for the territory he represented 
in congress as he had at home, and was met by the 
same opposition, preventing during his first term the 

" Salucius Garfiekle, a captivating speaker, then newly appointed receiver 
of the land-office at Olympia, took part in the political debates of this cam- 
paign for Stevens. When Stevens was nominated in 1S59 Garfielde opposed 
him; but when Garfielde was nominated in 1S61 Stevens supported him. 
Ebei/s Journal, MS., v. 77. 

'^ The sparseness of the population and small increase is shown by the fol- 
lowing comparative statement. At the first election for delegate, in 1S54, 
the total vote was 1,216, in 1855, 1,582, and in 1857, 1,585. Olympia Pioneer 
and Dem., Sept. 11, 1857. Alexander S. Abernethy came from N. Y. to 
Cal. in 1849 by steamer, and in March 1850 proceeded to Or. by the bark 
Toulon. He soon purchased a half-interest in the Oak Point saw-mill, of 
George Abernethy, owner, and repaired to that rather solitary spot to 
reside. He was one of the movers for a territory north of the Columbia, 
a member of the second legislative assembly, and a member of the council 
in 1856-7. He was one of the organizers of the republican party in the 
spring of 1857, and was nominated by the new party for delegate. After the 
election of Stevens he remained in private life, holding some county offices 
until the constitutional convention at Walla WalL-v in 1878, when he was 
chosen a member. A modest, riojht-minded, and moderately successful man, 
Abernethy fills an honorable place in the history of Washington. He contin- 
ued for many years to reside at Oak Point. Letter of A. S. Abernethy, in 
Historical Correspondence. 

"Evans' Puyallup Address, in New Tacoma Ledper, July 9, ISSO; Tester's 
Wash. Ter., MS., 11; Evans' N. W. Coast, MS., 4-5; '/lays' Scraps, Mininij, iii. 
25; Swayi's Wash. Sketches, MS., 14-15: Morse's Wash. Ter., MS., vii. 23-a 


passage of any bill looking to the payment of the war 
debt. He urged the claims of the territory to this 
money, to roads, public buildings, coast defences, a 
superintendent of Indian affairs, and additional Indian 
agents, tlie payment of Governor Douglas of Van- 
couver Island for assistance rendered acting governor 
Mason in 1855, more land districts and offices, and 
the survey of the upper Columbia. None of these 
measures were carried through in the session of 
1858-9. But he was returned to congress in the latter 
year, running against W. H. Wallace, and beating him 
by about 600 votes out of less than 1,800. At the 
session of 1860-1, a land-office was established in the 
southern part of the territory, called the Columbia 
River district; an appropriation of $100,000 was ob- 
tained to be expended on the Fort Benton and Walla 
Walla road begun by Lieutenant Mullan; $10,000 to 
improve the road between Cowlitz landing and Monti- 
cello ; and appropriations for fulfilling the treaties with 
the Walla Walla, Cayuse, Umatilla, Nez Perce, Flat- 
head, and confederated tribes, and the coast tribes of 
Washington; and an act was passed giving to the 
territory an Indian superintendent and a fuller corps 
of agents. At the close of this session, also, congress 
agreed upon a plan for paying the war debt, after re- 
ducing it one half. 

In April 1861 Stevens returned to Olympia, look- 
ing grave and careworn, for he had taken deeply to 
heart the troubles between the north and south. 
Being a pro-slavery democrat," yet a determined sup- 
porter of the government, he had labored earnestly to 
prevent secession, but as he probably knew, with little 
effisct. Almost simultaneously with his arrival came 
the news that Fort Sumter had been taken by the 
South Carolinans, and civil war begun. 

" Stevens was chaii-man of the Breokenridge wing of the democracy after 
the division in the iiarty in 1860, for which he was flenounced by the legisla- 
ture of his territory iu certain resolutions. See Was!i. Jour. House, ISGO, 
."^37-8. He accjuiesced in the election of Lincoln, and urged Buchanan to dis- 
miss Floyd and Thompson from his cabinet. Shiick's Representative Men, 501. 


There were in Washington, as in Oregon, many 
southern democrats; and there was in the democratic 
party itself a tradition that nothing should be per- 
mitted to sunder it; that to depart from its time-hon- 
ored principles and practices was to be a traitor. 
Stevens met the crisis in his usual independent spirit. 
His first words to the people of Olympia, who con- 
gregated to welcome him home, were : "I conceive my 
duty to be to stop disunion."'^ He had returned 
with the intention of becoming a candidate for reelec- 
tion, but when the convention met at Vancouver he 
withdrew his name, promising to sustain the choice of 
the delegates, this falling upon Salucius Garfielde, who 
had been for four years receiver in the land-oflfice. 
Again he urged the duty of the party to support the 
government, and procured the adoption of union res- 
olutions by the convention; yet such was the hostility 
which pursued him, that many newspapers represented 
him as uniting with Gwin and Lane to form a Pacific 
republic. ^^ 

He remained but a few weeks on the Pacific coast, 
hastening back to Washington to offer his services 
to the president, and was appointed colonel of the 79th 
New York regiment, the famous Highlanders, on the 
death of their colonel, Cameron. Stevens' service, 
beginning July 31, 1861, was first in the defences of 
Washington. In September he was commissioned 
brigadier-general, and commanded a brigade in the Port 
Royal expeditionary corps from October to March 1 862. 
From March to July he was in the department of the 
south. On the 4th of July he was commissioned a 
major-general of volunteers, but the senate refusing 
to confirm the appointment, he continued to serve as a 
general of brigade in the northern Virginia campaign, 
though in conmiand of a division. At the battle of 
Chantilly, while leading his faltering command in a 
charge, himself carrying the flag which the color- 

'^ Olympia Pioneer and Dem., May 16, 18GI. 
"Of. Statesman, May 20 and August 12, 1861. 


bearer, stricken clown by a shot, was about to let fall, 
he was struck in the head by a ball and died upon the 
field. But his courage and devotion had saved the 
city of Washington, for had Pope's army been forced 
to capitulate, the nation's capital would have been 
involved in the disaster.^'' 

When the intelligence of the death of Stevens 
reached Washington, the grief of all classes was sin- 
cere and profound. The war had readjusted party 
lines; personal jealousies had been forgotten; nothing 
could any one recall that was base or dishonorable, 
but much that was lofty and manly, in the dead hero. 
When the legislature met, resolutions were passed in 
his honor, and crape was ordered to be worn for ten 
days. So mutable is human regard I The legislature 
of Rhode Island also formally regretted his loss. 
The most touching, because the most sincere and 
unaffected, tribute to his character was contained in 
a eulogistic letter by Professor Bache of the coast sur- 
vey, in whose office he spent four years. "He 
was not one who led by looking on, but by ex- 
ample. As we knew him in the coast-survey office, 
so he was in every position of life . . . This place he 
filled, and more than filled, for four years, with a devo- 
tion, an energy, a knowledge not to be surpassed, and 
which left its beneficient mark upon our organiza- 
tion. . .Generous and noble in impulses, he left our 
office with our enthusiastic admiration of his character, 
appreciation of his services, and hope for his success. "^^ 

Thus died, at forty-four years of age, a man whose 
talents were far above those whom the president too 
often appoints to the executive office in the terri- 
tories. As a politician he would always have failed, 

"Letter of a corr. in Olympia WasTi. Standard, Oct. 25, 1862; Baltks of 
America, 305. 

^^ Providence Journal, Jan. 12, 1863; Boston Joiirnal, Sept. 5, 1862; Coast 
Survey, 1862, 432-3. Stevens married a daughter of Benjamin Hazard of 
Newport. His son Hazard, 21 years of age, captain and adjutant, was 
wounded in the battle in which hia father lost his life. There were, besides 
this son, thi-ee daughters in the family, who long resided in Washington. 
Olympia Waah. Standard, Oct. 25, 1802. 


despising the tricks by which they purchase success; 
but as an explorer, a scientist, or an army commander, 
he could have reached to almost any height. His 
services to Washington are commemorated by the 
county east of the northern branch of the Columbia 
bearing the name of Stevens. 

The successor of Stevens was Fayette McMullin 
of Virginia, a politician, whose chief object in coming 
to Washington seems to have been to get rid of one 
wife and marry another." He held the executive office 
only from September 1857 to July 1858, when he 
was removed. His administration, if such it can be 
called, embraced the period rendered memorable by 
the Fraser River gold-mining excitement, of which I 
have given a full account in my History of British Co- 
lumbia, to which the reader is referred for particulars. 

The Hudson's Bay Company had for three years 
been in the receipt of gold-dust purchased of the 
Indians in the region of Fraser River with lead, ounce 
for ounce, when in the winter of 1857-8 some of this 
gold found its way to Olympia, and caused the great- 
est excitement here as elsewhere all along the coast. 
Men ruslied to the mines from every quarter, and the 
prices of labor, provisions, lumber, and real estate on 
the Sound advanced rapidly. There were many 
routes to the new mines, and divers outfitting posts; 
but a policy of exclusiveness on the part of the fur 
company authorities prevented Washington from re- 
ceiving the advantages which would otherwise have 
accrued to the territory. 

While the great gold excitement of 1858 gave a new 
life and impetus to certain branches of business in the 

"McMulliu petitioned the legislature of 1857-8 for a divorce, which was 
granted, and in July 1858 he married Mary Wood, daughter of Isaac Wood 
of Thurston county. He returned with his wife to Va, and during the civil 
war was a member of the confederate congress. After the conclusion of the 
war he was little known in public afifairs. He was killed at the age of 70 
years by a railroad train, Nov. 8, 1880, at Wytheville, Va. Olympia Pioneer 
and Dem., May 1, Aug. H, Sept. 11, 1857; Or. Statesman, June 30, 1857, 
Aug. 3 and Dec. 21, 1858; Bancroft's Hand-Book, 1864, 350; Olympia Tran- 
script, Nov. 13, 1880. 

Hist. Wash.— 14 


Puget Sound country, it failed to build up trade and 
cities in that region, as some sanguine speculators had 
hoped. The good that it did came afterward, when 
many disappointed adventurers, chiefly young men, 
not having been able to reach the gold-fields, or re- 
turning thence poorer than they went, as some gold- 
seekers always do return, sought work, and finally 
homes on the government land, and remained to help 
subdue the wilderness and cultivate the soil. From 
this class Puget Sound nearly doubled its population 
in two years. 

Another benefit to the country resulted from the 
impetus given to intelligent explorations, made both 
in quest of the precious metals and in the search for 
passes through the Cascade Mountains that might lead 
more directly to the mines on the upper Fraser. It 
made the country thoroughly known to its older in- 
habitants, and caused the laying-out of roads that 
opened to settlement many hitherto unappropriated 
valleys and isolated prairies, completing the unpre- 
meditated explorations made during the Indian wars 
of 1855-6. Attempts were made this summer to 
open a pass at the head waters of the Skikomish 
branch of the Snohomish River by Cady and Parkin- 
son, who were driven back by the Indians. An ex- 
ploration was also made of the Skagit, with a view to 
constructing a road up that river to the mines, and 
W. H. Pearson led a large mining party through the 
Snoqualimich Pass, intending to proceed to Thomp- 
son River by the Similkameen route, but was pre- 
vented by the Yakimas and their allies. A large 
immigration to the British Columbia mines subse- 
quently took place by the Columbia River route, and 
in 1861 Governor Douglas, as a means of depriving 
Americans of the benefit of free-trade, established a 
higher rate of duty on goods conveyed over the 
border, although the Hudson's Ba}'^ Company were 
allowed to carry goods from Nisqually across the line 
without hinderance. 


After the removal of McMuUin, and until the ar- 
rival of his successor, Mason again became acting 
governor, soon after which he died. No man in 
Washington had a firmer hold upon the esteem of the 
whole community than Mason, who for six years had 
held the office of secretary, and for nearly half that 
time of vice-governor. Efficient, prompt, incorrupti- 
ble, and courteous, he deserved the encomiums lavished 
upon him in post-obit honoi's.-" Stevens pronounced 
his funeral oration, and he was buried from the capital 
with imposing ceremonials. The legislative assembly 
of 1864 changed the name of Sawamish county to 
Mason, in honor of his services to the territory. 

The third governor of Washington was Richard D. 
Gholson, of Kentucky, and like his predecessors, a 
radical democrat. He arrived in July 1859, and offi- 
ciated both as governor and secretary until Mason's 
successor, Henry M. McGill, arrived in November. 
The following May Gholson returned to Kentucky 
on a six months' leave, during which such changes 
took place in national politics as to cause him to re- 
main away,^^ and McGill officiated as governor until 
April 1861, when W. H. Wallace was appointed to 
the executive office by President Lincoln, L. J. S. 
Turney being secretary. 

The administration of Gholson and McGill was 
marked by events of importance to the territory, per- 

*" Charles H. Mason was born at Fort Washington on the Potomac, and 
was a son of Major Milo Mason of Vt, deputy quartermaster-general under 
Jackson in his Indian campaigns. His mother was a native of Provideuce, 
R. I., where C. H. Maaon resided after the death of his father in 1837, grad- 
uating at Brown university with distinction in 1850, being admitted to the 
bar in 1831, and associated as a partner with Albert C. Green, atty-gen. of the 
state for 20 years, and afterward U. S. senator. In his 2.3d year lie was 
recommeuded to the president for the appointment of district attorney of 
Rhode Island, but was appointed instead to ihe secretaryship of Washington. 
He was reappointed at the time of his death. Olympia Pioneer and Dew,., 
July 29, 18J<J; Or. Statesman, August 9, 1859; Puget Sound Herald, April 
15, 1859. 

^' Gholson wrote a letter urging the legislature of Ky to call a convention 
and appoint commissioners to the southern congress at Montgomery, Alabama, 
who should pledge the state to stand by the south in the attempt to secede. 
S. F. Bulletin, Aug. 30, 1S59; Or. SlaUnman, March 11, 1861. 


taining to the quarrel over the San Juan boundary, 
in which the territorial authorities were permitted to 
participate in an insignificant degree, owing to the 
military occupation of the island. The not unimpor- 
tant troubles with the northern and local Indian 
tribes^ gave the governor frequent occasion for anx- 
iety. Besides those murders and emeutes to which 
I have already referred, D. Hunt, deputy United 
States surveyor, was murdered on Whidbey Island in 
July 1858. Seven miners were also attacked and 
killed on their way to Fort Langley, and a white 
woman captured about the same time. If a party of 
two or three men set out to perform a canoe journey 
to the lower waters of the Sound, they ran the risk 
of meeting their executioners in another Indian canoe 
in one of the many lonely wastes on Admiralty Inlet. 
At length, in February 1859, two schooners, the 
Ellen Maria and Blue Wing, mysteriously disappeared 
while en route from Steilacoom to Port Townsend. 
The latter was commanded by a young man named 
Showell, and carried several passengers, among whom 
was E. Schroeder, a well-known and respected Swiss 
merchant of Steilacoom, lately appointed sutler to 
Major Haller. Various rumors were afloat concern- 
inor the fate of the vessels, in which Indians were 
mentioned as accessory to their loss, but the crime, if 
any, could not be traced to any tribe or individuals, 
until in July 1860, when, at the trial of an Indian for 
another offence at Victoria, one of the Indian wit- 
nesses irrelevantly gave a clew to the matter. The 
guilty persons, it seems, were Haidahs, for whom 

'^ Strong says that Gholson, who had never held any oflSee, and had large 
ideas of the importance of an executive position, felt it his duty to suppress 
the northern Indians in some way, and finally hit upon the happy project of 
getting out a proclamation authorizing the citizens of the territory to arm and 
fit out vessels for the purpose of making reprisals against the English for per- 
mitting the northern Indians to leave British Columbia and commit depreda- 
tions in Washington territory— regular letters of marque and reprisal ! Strong, 
to whom he showed the proclamation, assured liim it would make him the 
most famous man upon the Pacific coast. But Tilton, who was also informed 
of it, put a stop to it. However, the story leaked out, and Gholson received 
many a sly innuendo. This was during the San Juan difficulty, when there 
were live British ships of war at Victoria. Slromj's Hist. Or., MS., 72-4. 


requisitions were several times made on Governor 
Douglas, but refused upon one pretext or another, 
until the criminals had escaped, when it was granted. 

Another matter which occasioned some agitation 
during the administration of McGill was the location 
of the public buildings of the territory. By the or- 
ganic act the governor could convene the first legisla- 
ture where he pleased; but that body was then, at its 
first session, or as soon as expedient, to establish the 
seat of government at such a place as it deemed 
eligible, which place was, however, subject to be 
changed by an act of the assembly at some future 
time. At the session of 1854-5 the legislature fixed 
the capital at Olympia, the university at Seattle, with 
a branch at Boisfort plains, and the penitentiary at 
Vancouver. ^^ In January 1858 the university was 
relocated on Cowlitz prairie without a branch. Work 
was begun on the state-house, which, however, was 
suspended by the Indian war. 

At the session of 1856-7 congress appropriated 
$30,000, in addition to the $5,000 granted in the or- 
ganic act, which had been in part or in whole ex- 
pended; and then commenced the advancement of 
competitive claims for the honor and profit of securing 
one or other of the public buildings. 

A determined effort was made in 1859-60 by a 
faction to remove the capital from Olympia to Van- 
couver, but as strongly resisted by a majority of the 
assembly. The matter coming up again at the next 
session, the effort was renewed, and the matter having 
been previously arranged by trading, acts giving Van- 
couver the capital, Seattle the university, and Port 
Townsend the penitentiary were passed without dis- 
cussion in the lower house, and being sent to the 
council, passed that body without argument also, the 
president's vote constituting the majority.^* Such 

^Stat. Wash., 1854-5, 6, 8, 9. 

^' Paul K. Hubbs of Port Townsend was president of the council. A. M. 
Poe said that he was pledged not to vote for removal. Letter of Poe to W. S. 
Ebey, in the Euos Collection. 


was the haste of the legislative traders, that the all- 
important enacting clause was omitted in the wording 
of the bill locating the capital, which thereby became 
inoperative. It was also illegal in another point, hav- 
ing located the capital permanently,''^ which the legis- 
lature had no right to do, according to the organic 
act of the territory. 

Another act was passed at the same session requir- 
ing the people to vote at the next election upon the 
seat-of-government question, which being done, Olym- 
pia received a large majority over all competitors.-® 
This result brought on a contest similar to that 
between Oregon City and Salem, a part of the legis- 
lature going to Vancouver and a part to Olymj^ia, 
neither place having a quorum. Two weeks were 
spent in waiting for a decision of the supreme court 
upon the validity of the opposing laws, when it was 
decided that for the reasons above named Olympia 
still remained the capital ; and that although the vote 
of the people carried with it no binding force in this 
case, yet the wish of the people, when so plainly e:::- 
pressed, was entitled to consideration by courts and 
legislatures.'^^ This settled the matter so far as the 
capital was concerned, the Vancouver seceders re- 
turning to Olympia,'^' where the capital has since 

Previous to the removal of the seat of government 
to Vancouver, Governor McGill having become re- 
sponsible for the proper outlay of the government 
appropriation,'^ in which he was opposed by the same 

^'Oh/mpia Wash. Standard, Feb. 28, 1861; Ebey's Journal, MS., vi. 391; 
Steilaroom Piiget Sound Herald, Feb. 28, 1862. 

2" Olympia, 1,239; Vancouver, 639; Steilacooni, 203; Port Townsend, 72; 
Walla Walla, 67; Seattle, 22; scattering, 23. Olympia Wash. Standard, Apr . 
19, 1862. 

" The opinion was given in reference to the case of Eodolf va A. Mayhew 
et al., where there was a question of jurisdiction, the court being directed to 
1)6 held at the ' seat of government.' It was argued by Garfielde, Lawrence, 
Chenoweth, and Hubbs; Evans and Lander, contra. 

'^Olympia Wash. Standard, Dec. 2.3, 1861; S. F. Bulletin, Dec. 23, 1861; 
Or. Statesman, Dec. 23, 1861. 

''Neither McMullin nor Gholson would give bonds, and Judge McFadden, 
who held the drafts, was about to send them back to Washington. 


clique of politicians which effected the subsequent 
trade, had let contracts for clearing the land donated 
by Edmund S}dvester for the site of the capitol, and 
preparing the foundations of legislative halls and ter- 
ritorial offices. The removal of the capital by the 
next legislature was a part of the political programme, 
which in the end failed in fact and intent. But the 
adverse proceedings delayed the erection of a state- 
house until 1863, when there was completed a struc- 
ture of wood at Olympia which has served the 
purposes of the territory for many years. 

The university was suffered to remain at Seattle on 
condition that ten acres of land should be donated for 
a building site where the commissioners should select 
it. This condition was complied with by A. A. 
Denny giving eight acres, and Edward Lander and 
C. C. Terry the remainder. The corner-stone was 
laid in May 1861, but the university for many years 
failed to rank above a preparatory school, partly 
through mismanagement of its funds,'" and also by 

'"The legislature, in Jan. 1862, re-incorporated the university, -which was 
previously chartered in 1860 while it was located on the Cowlitz prairie, 
creating a board of regents consisting of Daniel Bagley, Paul K. Hubbs, J. 
P. Keller, John Webster, E. Carr, Frank Clark, G. A. Meigs, Columbia Lan- 
caster, and C. H. Hale, in whom was vested the government of the institu- 
tion. Three regents were to be elected each year, the length of the terms of 
the first nine to be determined by lot. In case of a vacancy the governor 
might appoint. The regents had power to elect a president of the board, and 
a president of the faculty; to fix the number of assistants, and determine 
their salaries. They could remove either, and could appoint a secretary, 
librarian, treasurer, and steward, and remove the same; but the treasurer 
could never be, in any case, a member of the board of regents. They were 
entitled to hold all kinds of estate, real, personal, or mixed, which they might 
acquire by purchase, donation, or devise. The money received for the sale 
of lands or otherwise was to be paid to the treasurer, and as much as was 
necessary expended by the regents in keeping up the buildings and defraying 
expenses; the treasurer only to give bonds, in the sum of §15,000 to the gov- 
ernor. There was also a board of visitors to consist of three persons, and both 
regents and visitors were to receive pay out of the university fund for tlieir 
actual and necessary expenses, all orders on the treasurer to be signed by 
the secretary and countersigned by the president. IFasA. Slat., 1861-2, 43-6. 

In an act in relation to the management and safe-keeping of the moneys 
arising from the sale of university lands, another board, called 'university 
commissioners,' whose business it was to locate and sell the two townships of 
land granted by congress to the suppoi-t of a university, were associated with 
the regents and other officers named above, all together constituting a board 
of directors, with liberty to loan the fund derived from the sale of land, or 
any part of it, at 12 per cen^ interest, and for any time from one to ten years, 



reason of an insufficient population to support a higher 
order of college. 

the loans to be secnred by mortgage on real estate of twice its valae. TIm 
interest thus accruing was to be set apart for the support of the university, 
and to be under the control of the regents, the principal to ren»ain an irre- 
ducible fund. The laws required annual reports from both boards and the 
treasurer. Id.. 60. 

On tlie 10th of October, 1862, a primary collegiate school was opened for 
pils of both sexes, under the charge of A. S. Mercer, assisted by Mrs V. 
Ihoun, the terms to continue five months. The reports of the different 
boards showed that in 1861 20,524 acres of the university land had been sold; 
bringing §30,787.04, and 830,400.69 had been expended in the erection of 
buildings. The receipts for lands in 1862 amounted to §16,748.03, of Tvhich 
§10,215.73 had been expended on improvements, leaving §6,959.24, on hand, 
and 28,768 acres of land unsold. Wash. Jour. Council, 1862-3, app. xvi.-xx. 

The president of the board of regents, Rev. D. Bagley of the raethodist 
church, was also president of the board of commissioners to select and sell 
the lands of the university, and so zealous was he to sell, and so careless was 
he in his accounts, that the legislature of 1866-7 repealed all former acts 
granting authority to the boards of regents and commissioners, and appoint- 
ing a new board of regents consisting of B. F. Denuisou, D. T. Dennj', Frank 
Mathias, Harvey K. Hines, and Oliver F. Gerrish, granting them power to 
make full investigation of the affairs of the university and report thereupon. 
Wash. Stat., 1867, 114. The new board elected Dennison president, Denny 
treasurer, and William H. Taylor secretary. 

In the mean time there had been several changes in the school. W. E. 
Barnard appears to have been the second president of the faculty, if such a 
board could be properly said to exist, and he resigned in April 1S66, the re- 
gents appointing Rev. George F. Whitworth, who accepted npon au agree- 
ment that the salary should be §1,000 in coin, payable quarterly, in addition 
to the tuition fees, and the free use of the buildings and groimds. The grade 
of scholarship was low, as might be expected under the circumstances of the 
recent history of the country, and the number of pupils probably never ex- 
ceeded 60, nearly all of whom belonged to Seattle. The new board of regents 
found §5.85 in the treasury, and only 3,304^ acres of land remaining unsold out 
of 46,080 acres donated by congress. About 8,000 acres had been sold on credit 
without security, and about 11,000 on securities which were w-orthless, and 
at prices illegally low. For the remainder of the 25,456 acres remaining after 
the erection of the university buildings, there was nothing to show but about 
six dollars in money and between 3,000 and 4,000 acres of laud. In their 
report to the legislature, the board made Bagley in debt to the univei-sity 
$13,919.34 in coin, and responsible for the other losses sustained by the uni- 
versity fund, having illegally acted as president and treasurer of the board, 
and disburser of the moneys received. Rept in Wash. Jour. Council , 1867- 
8, 76-104. On account of this condition of affairs the school was closed in 
June 1867, and the buildings and property taken in charge by the new board. 
The report of the new board of regents being referred to a select committee of 
the legislature, the findings of the regents were reversed, and §2,314.76 found 
due Bagley from the university for services. The committee exonerating Bag- 
ley consisted of Park Winans, John W. Brazee, and Ira Ward, assisted by 
Rev. H. K. Hines of the methodist church, and member of the board of 
regents. Id., 187-202. Nothing was done by the legislature at this session 
except to appoint A. A. Denny and W. H. Robertson regents in place 
of D. T. Denny and H. K. Hines, whose terms had expired. Wash. 
Stat., 1867-8, 78, the assembly not knowing how to act in the matter. 
At the session of 1869 a report was made by the regents showing that 
$4,112.52 had been received into the treasury, §1,335.86 of which had been 
paid in liquidation of debts existing under the first regency; and §08.20 re- 


The administration of McGill, although an acci- 
dental one, was energetic and creditable. He com- 
bined, like Mason, executive ability with that savoir 
faire which left those who would have possibly been 
his enemies no ground for hostility.^^ His attitude 
during the San Juan and extradition difficulties was 
dignitied and correct, leaving a record alike honorable 
to himself and the territory. 

The appointment of Governor "Wallace in 1861 
was followed immediately by his nomination to the 
delegateship of the territory. In Washington as in 

maining in the treasury. The school had been reopened on the 12th of April 
1S69 by John H. Hall, who agreed to teach three years for $600 per annum. 
There were 70 students in attendance, 23 of whom were not residents of 
Seattle, and the university was not incurring any debts. Wash. Jour. House, 
18G9, 149-53. The governor, Alvan Flanders, declared in his message that 
'everything connected with the management of the university lands up to 
1867 cau be described only by saying that it was characterized by gross ex- 
travagance and incompetency, if not by downright fraud; and that the 
history of the institution was a calamity and a disgrace, ' all that remained of 
the munificent grant of congress being a building possibly worth |15,000. 
He suggested asking congress for further aid, which if granted should be 
protected from similar waste. Instead, congress was memorialized to bestow 
a grant of swamp and tide lands for school purposes and internal improve- 
ments. Wash. Stat., 1859, 527-8, a prayer it was not likely to listen to after 
the use made of the former liberal grant. The university struggled along, 
unable to rise out of its slough of despond for almost another decade. The 
first assistance rendered by the legislature was in 1877, when it appropri- 
ated 11,500 for each of the years 1878 and 1879 to defray the expenses of 
tuition, and establishing 45 free scholarships, the holders to be between the 
ages of 16 and 21 years, and bona fide residents of the territory six months 
before their appointment. Each councilman and each assemblyman could ap- 
point one from his district or county; each of the district judges one, and 
the governor three from three dlflferent counties. Wash. Stat., 1877, 241-3. 
Tlie first graduate was Miss Clara McCarty, in 1876. The annual register for 
1880 sliovvs 10 graduates in all, only one of these, W. J. Colkett, being of the 
male sex. The faculty consisted in the latter year of the president, J. A. 
Anderson, and wife, Louis F. Anderson, A. J. Anderson, Jr, with 3 male and 
3 female assistants. President Anderson raised the standing of the institu- 
tion, which continued to improve, and has turned out graduates very credit- 
able to it and the succeeding faculty. 

" McGill was Irish, having immigrated to the U. S. at the age of six years. 
He came to S. F. in 1857, returning to Washington, D. C, in 1858, where ha 
was assistant, and then acting, private secretary to President Buchanan. In 
1859 he was one of the commissioners of the court of claims, until made secre- 
tary of Washington. On his retirement from executive office he resumed the 
practice of law, and in March 1862 was elected U. S. prosecuting attorney for 
Puget Sound district. He was also elected a member of the territorial assem- 
bly for 1863-4 on the republican ticket. For a time he was president of the 
board of regents of the territorial university. In 1868 he revisited Ireland. 
Quigley's Irish Race, 414-16. 


Oregon, the democratic party, as such, had been forced 
to abandon its ancient rule, and it was now the party 
of the union which held the reins of government. 
Wallace had been a whig; he was now a republican. 
That was the secret of his sudden success. Running 
against Garfielde, democrat, and Judge Lander, inde- 
pendent, he beat the former by over 300 votes, and 
the latter by 1,000. Yet the legislature of 1861-2 
voted down a series of resolutions presented by repub- 
lican members sustaining the course of the general 
government and discountenanchig the project of a 
Pacific confederacy.^^ 

The democracy were not yet willing to resort to 
arms to save the union from overthrow by their po- 
litical brethren of the south, and the legislature was 
democratic still. But the following session of 18G2-3, 
very soon after convening, the joint assembly passed 
very strong resolutions of support to the government 
in suppressing the rebellion, partly the result of in- 
creasing republican sentiment, and partly also, no 
doubt, from a feeling of sorrow and regret for the loss 
of the territory's one war hero, I. I. Stevens,'^ and 
not a little from a fear of losing the patronage of a 
republican administration. 

'^ There appears upon the journal of the council a set of loy&l resolutions, 
sent up from the hoase, which are ' referred to the committee on foreign rela- 
tions, with instructions to report the first clay of April next' — two months after 
adjournment! Wash. Jour. Council, 1861-2, 207-8. The members who com- 
posed this council were James Biles, A. R. Burbank, John Webster, Paul K. 
Hubbs, B. F. Shaw, Frank Clark, J. M. Moore, J. A. Simms, and H. L. 
Caples. The house then made a second attempt to pass some joint resolu- 
tions of a loyal character, but they were voted down before going to the 
council. The yeas on the second series were John Denny, father of A. A. 
Denny, M. S. Griswold, Lombard, McCall, John V. Smith of Clarke county, 
J. S. Taylor, William Cock, and J. Urquhart. The nays were John Aird, 
C. C. Bozarth, J. E. Bates, Beatty, Chapman, B. L. Gardner, Gilliam, T. D. 
Hinckley, Holbrook, T. Page, John H. Settle, Smith of Walla Walla county, 
B. F. Ruth, Thornton, Edward A. Wilson, W. G. Warbass. Not voting, 
J. L. Ferguson, William Lean, A. S. Yantis, and Williamson. Olympia Wash. 
Standard, March 22, 1862. 

''General F. W. Lander, who belonged to the R. R. expedition of 1853, 
and who laid out the wagon-road on the south side of Snake River to Salt 
Lake, a younger brother of Judge Lander, though lie could not be said to be 
a resident of Washington, was held in high esteem for his services. Ho died 
of wounds received in battle at Edwards' Ferry, much regretted on the Pa- 
cific coast. Olympia Standard, March 22, 1862; Or. Statesman, May 5, 1862. 


The resignation of Wallace on his election as dele- 
gate was followed by a brief interregnum, during which 
the secretary, L. J. S. Turney, acted as governor. 
Tlie next appointee was William Pickering of Illi- 
nois/* who arrived at Olympia in June 1862. In 
December Secretary Turney was removed and Elwood 
Evans appointed in his place. Evans' commission 
having been sent to him without a bond, Turney re- 
fused to vacate the office.'*' Both claiming the exclu- 
sive right to act, the financial affairs of the officials and 
legislators were for some time in an embarrassed con- 
dition. Pickering proved to be acceptable as an 
executive, and Evans was well qualified for the secre- 
taryship; so that peace reigned in the executive office 
for a longer term than usual, and the legislature me- 
morialized congress against the removal of Pickering 
ia 1866-7, but a commission having already issued, 
he was forced to give way. During 1865 Evans was 
acting governor, filling the office to the satisfaction of 
the territory as well as the republican party. 

Since the days when the first collector of customs, 
Moses, had worried the Hudson's Bay Company, and 
other British men, ship-captains, and owners, and since 
Ebey had established a deputy on the disputed island 
of San Juan, matters had proceeded quietly in the 
customs department. Ebey was succeeded by Morris 
H. Frost^" of Steilacoom, who held the office for four 
years, and C. C. Phillips of Whidbey Island followed 
for a short term of nine months, when, in August 
1861, the new administration sent out from Ohio an 

''Pickering was a Yorkshire Englishman who came to the U. S. in 1S21 
and settled in 111., where for thirty j'ears he had known Lincoln, from whom 
he received his appointment. He was 60 years of age, and was sometimes 
called William the Headstrong. Pacific Tribune, June 8, 1872. On the ap- 
pointment of a successor he retired to a farm in king co., but soon after re- 
turned to 111., where he died April 22, 1873. His son, William Pickering, 
remained in Washington. Seattle IntelUqencer, April 27, 1873. 

'^0/-. Statesman, Deo. 29, 1862; iVash. Scraps, 146; Sen. Jour., 39th 
cong. 2d sess. 

^^ M. H. Frost later resided at Mukilteo. He was boi'u in New York in 
1806, removed to Mich, in 1832, and to Chicago in 1849. He crossed the 
plains in 1832 and settled on Puget Sound. Morse's Wash. Ter., JIS., xxi. 1. 


incumbent named Victor Smith, who was not only 
clothed with the powers of a collector of United States 
revenue, but commissioned to inquire into the manner 
in which the government moneys were disbursed in 
other departments — a treasury spy, in short, who en- 
joyed the confidence of the authorities at the national 
capital, but who, as it turned out, did not possess the 
requisite discretion for so dangerous an office, the con- 
sequence of which was that others, through jealousy 
perhaps, were spying upon him. 

The first offence of which Victor Smith was plainly 
shown to be guilty was that of plotting to remove the 
custom-house from Port Townsend to Port Angeles, 
upon the pretence that the former place was not a 
good harbor in all weathers, but really, as it was 
averred, that he might speculate in town lots, he be- 
ing shown to be the owner of a fifth interest in the 
Port Angeles Company's town site." A legislative 
memorial was forwarded to congress in December 
1861 in favor of Port Townsend, and asking for an 
appropriation to erect a suitable custom-house at that 

Another offence of the imported custom-house offi- 
cial was that he was an abolitionist, a word of hatred 
and contempt to the democracy. To be an intermed- 
dler between master and slave, and to attempt to alter 
the settled order of things in the district of Puget 
Sound, where an appointee from the east was likely 
to be regarded as an interloper, were serious counts 
against the new collector. It was not long, therefore, 
before an apparent defalcation was discovered, and an 
outcry raised which made it necessary for him to 
repair to Washington. 

In the interim, and before he reached the capital. 
Secretary Chase, whose confidence Smith seems to 
have enjoyed to a singular degree, recommended to 
conarress the removal of the custom-house from Port 


Townsend to Port Angeles, and a bill was passed re- 
moving it in June 1862.^^ This redoubled the ani- 
mosity with which the Port Townsend faction regarded 
the Port Angeles faction. Nor was the feeling les- 
sened by the action of the government in first apply- 
ing to Port Angeles the operation of a "bill for in- 
creasing revenue by reservation and sale of town 
sites."** Under this act, the land which the original 
town company had claimed and surveyed for the city 
of Cherburg was reserved by the government, which 
resurveyed it and sold the lots at auction to the 
highest bidder, the company not neglecting their 
opportunity to secure a perfect title. 

When Smith departed to Washington to explain 
to the proper authorities the condition of his accounts, 
and showed that the alleged defalcation was simply 
a transfer of $15,000 from one fund to another,*" in 
which action he was borne out by authority vested 
in him by the treasury department, he appointed 
J. J. H. Van Bokelin deputy inspector and collector 
for the period of his absence. Hardly was his back 
turned upon Port Townsend when Captain J. S. S. 
Chaddock of the revenue-cutter Joe Lane, acting 
upon information received, proceeded to take posses- 
sion of the custom-house, where he left installed as 
collector Lieutenant J. H. Merryman of the revenue 
service. This was in June 1862. In August Victor 
Smith returned to Puget Sound in the steam revenue- 
cutter Shuhrick, commanded by Lieutenant Wilson, 
and demanded of Merryman the surrender of the 
keys of the custom-house; but this Merryman refused 
unless he were shown Smith's commission from the 
department at Washington, or his special authority 
for making the demand, neither of which were pro- 
duced. Instead, Smith returned to the cutter, had 
her brought into the harbor, her men armed, her 

»»5era. Misc. Doc, 67, .S7th cong. 2d sess.; JJ. S. Acts, 127-8. Smith was 
reputed to be a cousin of Secretary Chase. Morse's Waxh. Ter., MS., xvii. 43. 
»» Brigr/s' Port Townsend, US.', 32-.3; S. F. BuUelin, July 24, 1802. 
*» Olympia Standard, Aug. 23, 1863. 


guns shotted and brought to bear upon the town. 
Two officers with a party of marines then landed 
and demanded of Merryman to deliver up to them the 
custom-house keys, but were refused. Upon this 
Wilson himself went ashore and made a formal requi- 
sition for the possession of the custom-house papers 
and moneys, when the government property was sur- 
rendered, and to avoid further trouble, taken on board 
the Shubrick, where the business of the office was 
transacted until it was removed to Port Angeles in 

The people of Washington territory had never yet 
been granted a satisfactory mail communication, but 
by an arrangement of the postal agent with the Eliza 
Anderson, a passenger-steamer running between Puget 
Sound ports and Victoria, had for some time enjoyed 
a sombre satisfaction in being able to get woixl to and 
from Victoria in a week. But on the arrival of tlie 
Shubrick, Smith, who was authorized to introduce re- 
trenchment into the public service wherever it could 
be done, assumed charge of the mail service, and made 
the Shubrick carrier, which having a regular route 
away from the mail route, was anything but a proper 
mail carrier. This disturbance of their already too 
limited means of communication roused a tornado of 
invective about the ears of the self-constituted postal 

Immediately after the belligerent performances of 
the Shubrick, Governor Pickering, attended by United 
States Marshal Huntington, Ex-governor McGill, 
Major Patten of the regular service, and a number of 
citizens of Olympia, repaired to Port Townsend on the 
Eliza Anderson, to inquire into the conduct of Col- 
lector Smith in threatening to bombard that town. 
But the witty and audacious revenue gatherer ex- 
hibited his correspondence with the secretary of the 
treasury, and smiling benignly, assured his visitors that 
whatever they might think of his methods, he was un- 

*^ Olympia Standard, Aug. 9, 1862; S. F. Bulktiii, Aug. 11, 1862. 


doubtedly a favorite of the power which made them, as 
well as him, of which he was able to furnish abundant 
evidence. Although this could not be gainsaid, there 
still remained the suspicion that the confidence of the 
government might be misplaced, and a few days later, 
when the Shubrick stopped at Port Townsend to leave 
and take the mail, Marshal Huntington attempted to 
board her with a warrant, but was not permitted to 
do so. On the 13th the Shubrick sailed for San 
Francisco, to which place she conveyed the collector, 
leaving the Eliza Anderson to carry the mails as 
heretofore, to the great joy of the business community. 

In good time Smith returned, having caused the 
arrest of Merryman for carrying away certain moneys, 
and the custom-house was established at Port Angeles, 
wliere two hundred people had gathered in anticipa- 
tion of soon building up a commercial city, Port 
Townsend being thrown into alternate paroxysms of 
rage and despair at being bereft of its prospects of great- 
ness. At the meeting of the grand jury at Olympia 
in October, four indictments were found against 
Smith; namely, for resistance to a duly authorized 
officer of the law, for embezzlement of the public 
funds, for procuring false vouchers, and for assault on 
the people of Port Townsend. Smith eluded arrest 
for a time, but finally surrendered voluntarily, and 
gave bail for his appearance at court, where no case 
appears to have been made against him which the 
courts were competent to try. The government 
which appointed him saw fit to remove him little 
more than a year afterward, and apppoint L. C. 
Gunn in his place. 

With regard to the claim of Port Angeles to be 
considered the better point for a custom-house, Mc- 
Clellan, when surve3'ing the shores of Puget Sound, 
reported favorably upon it," as the "first attempt of 
nature on this coast to form a good harbor." It was 
well protected from the noi'th winds by the sand spit 

« Pac. S. li. Kept, xu. 278. 


of Ediz Hook, three miles in length, running out east- 
ward, and from the south-east gales by the mainland, 
and had a good depth of water, besides lying more 
directly in the path of commerce than its rival. The 
town site was also called superior to Port Townsend, 
although it had the same high bluff back of the nar- 
row strip of land bordering the harbor. Three small 
streams ran down from the highlands back of it and 
furnished abundance of water, the custom-house, a 
fine large structure, being built at the mouth of the 
canon through which one of these rivulets ran, Smith's 
residence adjoining it, and the other buildings being 
near these central ones. 

In the winter of 1863 a catastrophe occurred. For 
several days the stream just mentioned was dried up, 
the unknown cause being a landslide, which had fallen 
into the narrow gorge about five miles from Port An- 
geles, and by damming up the water formed a lake. 
On the afternoon of the 16th of December, it being 
almost dark, a terrible roaring and tearing sound was 
heard in the canon, and in a few moments a frightful 
calamity was upon the until now prosperous new 
town. The earth which formed the dam had at 
length given way, freeing a body of water fifteen feet 
in height, which rushed in a straight volume, carrying 
everything before it, and entirely changing the face 
of the ground swept by it. Crushed like an egg-shell, 
the custom-house fell and was carried out into the 
harbor. Deputy Collector J. M. Anderson, formerly 
of Ohio, and Inspector William B. Goodell, lately 
master of the tug General Harney, stood at the front 
entrance of the building as the water and debris it 
carried struck the rear side. Their bodies were found 
two hundred feet away, covered four feet deep with 
earth and fragments of buildings and furniture. 

Neither Smith, the late, nor Gunn, the newly ap- 
pointed, collector, were in Port Angeles. Mrs Smith, 
with four young children, and Mrs Randolph were in 
the dwelling adjoining the custom-house, which, be- 


ing partially protected from the first shock by a solid 
mass of piled-up lumber, fell, but was not carried 
away. Groping about in the darkness, stooping under 
the wreck, with the water up to her waist, Mrs Smith 
found and saved not only all her children, but another 
woman, who was lying under the water, held down 
with fragments of the walls. In a short time the 
flood had passed, and men in boats with lanterns were 
hurrying to the rescue of those in the direct course of 
the watery avalanche. No lives were lost except 
those of the two custom-house officers/^ but the town 
was in ruins, and although an effort was made to re- 
suscitate it by removing what remained to a better 
site higher up the coast, it never recovered from 
the calamity, and gradually diminished in population, 
until it was reduced to the condition of a small farm- 
ing community. 

The custom-house safe being found with the office 
papers and books, the government sustained only the 
loss of the furniture of the building. The most serious 
damage fell upon Smith, who owned and had leased tho 
custom-house for a term of four years. This, with 
his residence, furniture, books, and a considerable sum 
of money, was snatched away in a moment, while he 
was in Washington endeavoring to adjust his affairs 
with the government. In 1865 the custom-house 
was returned to Port Townsend, and in that year, also, 
the principal figure in the short and singular history 
of Port Angeles disappeared from the world's stage 
as suddenly as his town had done, eighteen months 
previous, when the steamship Brother Jonathan, Cap- 
tain De Wolf, struck an unknown rock near Crescent 
City, and went down with 300 passengers on board, 
among whom was the talented but eccentric Victor 

<3 Collector Gunn, in a letter to the .?. F. Bulletin, Jan. 28, 1864, says that 
Anderson was a refined, intelligent, amiable, and conscientious man, and an 
invaluable ofBcer from his hab.JS of industry and his strict adherence to the 
requirements of law. Goodell had been appointed only two weeks previous, 
and was a man much esteemed. He left a wife and three children. 

" Smith broHsht out from Ohio several members of his family. The light- 
HisT. Wash.— 15 


By the catastrophe at Port Angeles all the papers 
relating to the statistics of commerce were destroyed, 
leaving a blank in this chapter of early history which 
can never be satisfactorily filled.*^ 

house at Tatoosh Island was given in charge of his father. Tvro of his sisters 
long had in charge the light on the California coast near Wilmington. 
Another married Mr Stork of Olympia. 

*^ The collectors foHowing Gunn in office were Frederick A. Wilson, M. 
S. Drew, Salucius Garfielde, Henry A. Webster, and Bash. Gunn came to 
Or. in 1852, and was associated with H. L. Pittock in the publication of the 
Oregonian, and was subsequently for many years editor of the Olympia 
Transcript. He died at Olympia, Aug. 23, 1885. 




Organization of the First WASHtiVaTON Intantrt — Companies from 
California — Gold Discoveries — Militakt Road — Fkaser River 
Travel— CoLviLLE Mines— Tue Malheur Countrt— The Similka- 
meen Mines — American Miners in British Columbia— Gold Discov- 
eries on the Clearwater — On Snake River — Protest op the Nez 
PERcfe— Pierce City — Ono FiNO— Lewiston — Vert Rich Diggings — 
California Eclipsed— Salmon River Mines — Political Effect — 
Winter Sufferings — Powder and John Day Rivers — Florence and 
Warren Diggings — Boise Mines— Organization or the Territory 
OF Idaho. 

I HAVE related in Oregon II. how Colonel Wright 
•was left in command of the department of Oregon 
when General Harney was invited to Washington 
upon a pretence of being needed to testify in the 
Oregon and Washington Indian-war-debt claims, in 
order to pacify the British minister and Governor 
Douglas by removing him from proximity to the 
San Juan Island boundary-war ground; and also that 
General Scott recommended merging the military 
department of Oregon in that of the Pacific, with 
headquarters in San Francisco. In the latter part 
of 1860 this idea was carried out, and General E. V. 
Sumner was placed in command of the Pacific depart- 
ment, relieving General Johnstone, whom the people 
of Oregon and Washington feared might be sent to 
command the Columbia district. Fortunately for 
them, since they had come to have entire confidence 
in Wright, that officer was retained in his important 
position during the critical period of the breaking-out 



of the rebellion. The depletion of his command, and 
the measures resorted to in order not to leave the 
north-western frontier defenceless, I have referred to 
in my History of Oregon. 

The news of President Lincoln's proclamation call- 
ing for volmiteers did not reach Washington until 
about the 1st of May, and on the 10th McGill, who 
was at that time still acting governor, issued a call 
for the organization of the militia of the territory 
under the existing laws, each company to report at 
once to headquarters and be at the call of the presi- 
dent should their services be required.^ Adjutant- 
general Frank Matthias immediately appointed en- 
rolling officers in each of the counties of the territory, 
both east and west of the Cascade Mountains, and 
required all men subject to military duty to report 
themselves to these officers. There were at this time 
twenty-two organized counties, and not more than six 
thousand men between the ages of sixteen and sixty 
capable of bearing arms.^ In the Puget Sound re- 
gion there was also need of able-bodied men to repair 
the damages sustained by several years of Indian 
wars and mining excitement. 

Late in the summer of 1861 Wright was placed in 
command of the department of the Pacific, and Colo- 
nel Albermarle Cacly of the 7th infantry succeeded to 
that of the district of the Columbia. About the last 
of the year Wright, now a brigadier-general, appointed 
Justin Steinberger, formerly of Pierce county, Wash- 
ington, but then in California, to proceed to Pugut 
Sound, with the commission of colonel, and endeavor 
to rais&a regiment to be mustered into the regular 
service. Steinberger arrived in January ; but the ut- 

'Steilacoom Herald, May 10, 1861; Olumpia Pioneer and Dem., May 17, 

^ The first company formed appears to have been the Port Madison Union 
Guards, 70 men; William Fowler capt.; H. B. Manchester 1st lieut; E. D. 
Kromer 2d lieut; non-com. officers, A. J. Tuttle, Noah Falk, William Clen- 
dcnin, Edgar Brown, S. F. Coombs, R. J. May, J. M. Guiudon, Joliu Taylor. 
This cnmpany was organized in May. In June the Lewis County Rangers, 
mounted, were organized at Cowlitz landing; Henry Miles capt.; L. L. 
Dubeau 1st lieut; S. B. Smith 2d lieut. Olympia Standard, July 20, 1801. 


most he could do was to raise four infantry companies, 
one each at Whatcom, Port Townsend, Port Mad- 
ison, and Walla Walla.^ In California he raised four 
more companies, with which he returned to Vancouver 
in May, relieving Colonel Cady of the command of 
the district. As three others were then organized in 
California, enlisting was ordered discontinued in Wash- 
ington. In July General Alvord took command of 
the district, and Steinberger repaired to Fort Walla 
Walla, where he relieved Colonel Cornelius of the 
Oregon cavalry. The regiment was not filled, how- 
ever, until the close of the year. On the 5th of Jan- 
uary, 1863, Governor Pickering addressed a communi- 
cation to the speaker of the house of representatives, 
informing him that the First Regiment of Washing- 
ton Infantry, organized pursuant to order of the war 
department, October 1861, was full, and had been re- 
ceived into the service of the United States, and sug- 
gested to the legislature to give some expression, 
either by memorial or joint resolution, of the confi- 
dence of that body in this regiment, whether it re- 
mained where it then was or should be called out of 
the territory in the service of the United States, and 
invoking for it the favorable notice of the general 
government, praying that in the event of a reorgani- 
zation of the army this corps might be retained in 
service in Washington.* It was so ordered. 

A portion of the regiment was stationed at Fort 
Pickett, another portion was with Steinberger at 
Walla Walla, and the territory had at length and for 
a time the satisfaction of seeing men with no alien 
tendencies in its places of trust. 

Although it was designed that the Oregon cavalry 
should be used against the Shoshones, who for eight 
years had grown more and more presumptuous and 
hostile, and the Washington infantry be kept to gar- 

'The enrolling officers were R. V. Peaborly, H. L. Tibballs, Egbert H. 
Tucker, and Moore and Caunaday of Walla Walla. Sieilacooin Herald, March 
20, 1SG2. 

* Wash. House Jour., 1S62-3, app. xxiii.-xxiv. 


rison the several posts in the territory, the companies 
east of the mountains were compelled to support the 
cavalry on several expeditions against the Indians, in 
which long and exhausting marches were performed, 
the history of which has been given in my History of 
Oregon, but to which some reference is also due in 
this place. 

On the opening of the transmontane country east 
of the Cascades in October 1858, there was a sudden 
overflow of population into its sunny vales,^ attracted 
thither chiefly by the reputed gold discoveries both 
north and south of the Columbia, on the Malheur and 
other streams of eastern Oregon, as well as on the 
Wenatchee River, in the latitude of the Snoqualimich 
Pass, and about Colville. Many were discouraged 
miners, who found the soil and climate of eastern 
Washington so agreeable and productive as to suggest 

The construction of the military road to Fort Ben- 
ton drew a considerable number in the direction of 
the Bitter Root Valley, forming apart of the immense 
and rather indefinite county of Spokane, attached for 
judicial purposes to the county of Walla Walla, and 
consequently far from the seat of any court.* The 
stream of travel toward Fraser River, which crossed 
the Columbia at The Dalles, pursuing a north-east 
course to Priest Rapids, and a north course thence 
by Okanagan lake and river to the Thompson branch, 
or deflecting to the west, reached the main Fraser 200 
miles above Fort Yale, stood in need of military pro- 
tection, as did also the boundary commission, one part 
of which was at Semiahmoo Bay, and the other at 
Lake Osogoos, near the Rock Creek mines.' 

' Ruble & Co. erected a steam saw-mill near Walla Walla iu 1S59. Or. 
Argus, Jan. 29, 1S59. Noble & Co. erected another in eastern Oregon the 
same year. The first grist-mill erected at Walla Walla, in 18G0, -Has owned 
by H. H. Reynolds, Simms, and Capt. F. T. Dent. EUioU's Hid. Idaho, 64-5. 

6 Wagh. Jour. Jfotise, 18G0-1, .3o-6. 

'Capt. D. Woodruff, with a co. of the 0th inf., was at Semiahmoo, and 
two companies of the same regiment un<lcr Capt. J. J. Archer at La];e 
Osogoos, in the summer of \So'J. Mess, and JJocn, 1839-00, pt ii. 111-12. 


For the safety of these disconnected groups of peo- 
ple, Fort Colville was established in May 1859. The 
Dalles, being the one entrepot for so wide a region, 
rapidly developed into a commercial town, with a 
journal of its own/ and a population ever increasing 
in numbers if not in worth; horse-thieves, gamblers, 
and all the criminal classes which follow on the heels 
of armies and miners giving frequent employment to 
the civil and military authorities. 

In the spring of 1859, also, the little steamer Colonel 
Wright was built at the mouth of Des Chutes River, 
by R. R. Thompson and Lawrence W. Coe. She 
made her first ti'ip to old Fort Walla Walla on the 
18th of April, returning on the 20th, and taking a 
cargo of goods belonging to Joel Palmer, intended for 
the mines, as far up the river as Priest Rapids. In 
June she ascended Snake River to Fort Taylor, at the 
mouth of the Tucannon. A steamboat on the Upper 
Columbia gave trade another impetus, and Walla 
Walla, first called Steptoe City, became a rival of 
The Dalles in a short time. 

The passage of gold-hunters though the Colville 
country revived an interest in that region. Many 
unsuccessful miners returning from Fraser River, or, 
prevented by high water from operating there, were 
led to explore on the upper Columbia and as far east 
as the Bitter Root Valley, where they made from five 
to eight dollai's a day, and where living was less 
costly than on Fraser River. Even the military offi- 
cers and soldiers became gold-hunters, adding not a 
little information concerning the mineral resources of 
the country to that furnished by mining prospectors.^ 

' The Dalles Journal, edited and published by A. J. Price, at $5 per year, 


' Captain Wallen's expedition discovered gold in the Malheur country; and 
Captain Archer reported finding the color of gold almost everywhere on the 
march from Priest Rapids to the Similkameen, with tlie best prospects iu the 
vicinity of the Wenatchee and Methow rivers. An extensive copper mine 
was discovered on the Okinakaue River; and lead was found on Lake 
Chelan and Pend d'Oreille. Corr. Dalles Journal, in S. F. Alta, Aug. 12, 1859. 
Major Lugenbeel, in command of the new military post at Colville, informs 
the Portlaiui Advertiser that the mines at the mouth of the Pend d'Oreille, 


The soldiers on guard at the commissioners' camp 
in October discovered gold on the Similkameen, where 
they could take out twenty dollars a day with pans, 
besides walking five miles to and from camp. The 
discovery was as much as possible suppressed, from 
a fear that a crowd of persons would be attracted 
there at the beginning of winter, whom there was 
no means of supplying with food when the military 
stores should be removed for the season. Miners 
were warned also not to begin preparations too early 
in the spring, when the bars of the river would be 
under water; but the fact was not concealed that 
the quality of Similkameen gold was superior, being 
coarse, and equal in coin to seventeen or eighteen dol- 
lars an ounce. ^"^ 

Nothing could, however, overcome the eagerness of 
men to be first upon the ground. By the middle of 
November companies were organizing in Portland, the 
mining fever threatening to reach the height of 1858; 
and by the end of February the first party set out, 
consisting of twenty men, led by J. N. Bell of The 
Dalles. These, with fifty others who had wintered 
there, were the earliest at the new diggings. In 
March all the floating population of the Walla Walla 
Valley, with some companies from Yreka, California, 
were on their way to Similkameen. They were fol- 
lowed by other Oregon companies, one of whom, led 
by Palmer, undertook the enterprise of opening a 
wagon-road from Priest Rapids to the Similkameen. 
Fifty or sixty tons of freight were shipped to the 
rapids on the Colonel Wright, whence it was taken in 
wagons the remainder of the distance." Several par- 
ties left the Willamette in small boats, intending to 

which have been worked several times, yield very well to every successive 
working; that coarse gold exists on the Salmon River, a northern tributary 
of the Pendd 'Oreille; and that miners working about forty -five miles from his 
post averaged §5 to $10 per day. S. F. Alia, Aug. 12, 1859; S. F. BaUetin, 
July 21 and 29, and Aug. 11, 1859. 

">Corr. Portland AVws, \a S. F. Alia, Nov. 2 and 15, 1859. Shuswap 
coarse gold was worth §18.50. Pond d'Orcille gold was found in scales 17 or 
18 carats fine. Similkameen gold resembled that of Yuba River, CaL 

" Or. Argus, March 24 aud 31, 18C0. 


make the journey to the mines, a distance of 500 
miles, with no other conveyance. Similar nerve was 
exhibited by companies from Puget Sound, which, as 
early as the 10th of March, were on the move to cross 
the Cascade Range at the different passes, and suc- 
ceeded in doing so. Those who arrived thus early 
could not make more than expenses, the best mining 
ground being under water. Many turned back ; others 
pressed on to Quesnelle River; and others occupied 
themselves in prospecting, and found gold on Rock 
Creek, one of the head waters of Kettle River, which 
entered the Columbia near Colville, and on the Pend 
d'Oreille. During the summer the Similkameen 
mines paid well, and in September new diggings were 
discovered on the south fork of that river.^'' 

^he Rock Creek and Similkameen mines proved 
to be in British territorj^, American traders being 
taxed over $100 for the privilege of selling goods 

The Cariboo placers wiere discovered in August 
1860, but their fame was not much spread before 
winter, and migration thither did not set in before 
the spring of 18G1. When it did begin, it equalled 
that of 1858. Claims were taken up on Harvey's and 
Keethlcy's creeks, in August, that yielded all the way 
fi-om eight to fifty dollars per day to the man. Five 
men in one company took out in six days $2,400. 
Four men took out in one day over eighteen ounces, 
worth over $300, and so on. There was sent out by 
express the first month $30,000, besides what re- 
mained in the hands of 250 men in the mines. The 
reports from Cariboo greatly stimulated mining dis- 
covery in the region lying on cither side of the boun- 
dary line of United States territory. 

There had been a discovery made in the spring of 

1860 destined to work a rapid and important change 

^^Ebey's Journal, MS., vi. 34S. 

" Corr. PorUaitd Advertiser, Oct. 26, 1860; Or. Ar^a, Dec. 29, ISOa la 

1861 there were about 20,000 miuers, mostly American, ia B. C, 


in eastern Washington, although overshadowed for a 
time by the placers which I have here named. From 
a letter written April 30, 1860, to the Oregon Argus, 
the discovery appears to have been made a short time 

E. D. Pierce, a trader among the Indians, had long 
known that the country east of the great bend of the 
Snake River was a gold-bearing one, but owing to the 
hostility of the Indians, he did not prospect it, and 
for several years resided in California. De Smet had 
known of it at an earlier period, and in 1854 a Mr 
Robbins of Portland had purchased some gold of the 
Spokanes, farther north. 

In 1858 Pierce again visited the Nez Percd country 
but found no opportunity to search until after the 
ratification of the Nez Perce treaty, and the general 
cessation of hostilities. Early in 18G0 he found means 
to verify his belief in the auriferous nature of the 
country on the Clearwater branch of Snake River, 
reporting his discovery in April at Walla Walla. It 
does not appear from the public prints that the story 
of Pierce received much credence, though the corre- 
spondent spoken of above reported that some returned 
Similkameen miners, and others from Walla WaUa, 
had gone thither. 

Pierce did not at once return to the Clearwater, on 
account of the opposition of the Indian and military 
departments, who dreaded the renewal of trouble with 
the Nez Perces and Spokanes should a mining popu- 
lation overrun their reserved territory. About the 
first of August, however, Pierce, with a party of only 
ten men,** set out from Walla Walla to make a con- 
clusive examination of the country in question ; having 
done which he returned with his party to Walla Walla 
in November, giving all the information which he 

" The names of the ten were Horace Dodge, Josepli L. Davis, J. R. Beiie- 
field, Bethuel Ferrel, Jonathan E. Smith, W. F. Basaett, Frank Turner, David 
Diggings, Samuel B. Reed, and John W. Park. Oli/mpia Pioneer and Demo- 
crat, April 20, 1861. Bassett id said to have discovered the first gold on Canal 
Gulch, wliero Pierce City is situated. Lewk' Coal Discovei'^es, M6. , 10-17; I'tc- 
tors Jliver of the West, 540-1. 


himself possessed concerning the new gold- field lying 
150 miles east of that place, and believed to be rich. 
The diggings were dry, and yielded eight to fifteen 
cents to the pan. The route to the mines was directly 
through the Nez Perce reservation." 

Pierce now endeavored to organize a large company 
to return with him and winter in the mines; but the 
representations of those who feared to provoke another 
Indian war discouraged most of those who would have 
gone, and only thirty-three accompanied him. The 
party was followed as far as Snake River by a de- 
tachment of dragoons, whose duty it was to prevent 
their intrusion on the reservation, but who failed to 
execute it. 

Pierce's party of less than forty men remained in 
the Nez Perce country preparing for mining when 
spring should open. The snow in December was six 
inches deep, and during a portion of the winter three 
feet in depth. The men occupied themselves building 
comfortable cabins, sawing out planks for sluice-boxes, 
and sinking prospect holes. They found the gold of 
the earth to be very fine, requiring quicksilver to col- 
lect it, though coarse gold was also discovered in the 
quartz with which the country abounded. Tlie dig- 
gings were situated in gulches and cafions of streams 
of too general a level to make it convenient washing 
the dirt and disposing of the debris. The gold was 
found in a red, and sometimes a bluish, earth of de- 
composed granite mixed with gravel of pure white 
quartz. Much black sand appeared on washing it. 
Pierce himself, though convinced of the richness of 
the present discovery, freely exposed the disadvan- 
tages, and declared, moreover, his beUef that these 
mines were but the outskirts of still richer mining 

Pierce had hardly reached his camp on the Clear- 
water before he received a visit from A. J. Cain, the 

'^ Or. Argns, May 12, 1860; Pionerr and Democrat, Nov. 9, 1860; Sacra- 
mento Un'wn, Dec. 0, ISCO; S. F. Bulleiiii, Aug. 21, 1S60, and March 21, 18G6; 
Angela's IdaJio, 23. 


Nez Perce Indian agent, wlio did not find it necessary 
to interfere with the party, but on the contrary, ex- 
pressed himself pleased with their behavior. The 
agent might have obtained the consent of the Nez 
Perces to the presence of a single party of miners in 
their country; but when in February others com- 
menced to follow, they were intercepted and turned 
back, a few who succeeded in passing the Indian picket 
being warned that they would be required to return 
in the spring. 

Knowing how impossible it would be, when spring 
opened, to prevent a migration to the Clearwater 
gold-fields, Superintendent E. R. Geary, held a con- 
ference with Colonel Wright in reference to the 
threatened complication in Indian matters. The re- 
sult of the consultation was that the superintendent 
repaired to the upper country, held a council, and 
made a treaty with the Indians to meet the exigencies 
of the coming mining excitement, promising them 
military' protection, and the enforcement of the United 
States laws — a compact of necessity rather than a 
matter of choice with the natives. 

Some weeks before the treaty was negotiated, 
miners were en route from Walla Walla and Portland, 
and merchants from the former place had taken goods 
to Pierce City, situated at the mouth of Canal Gulch, 
on Oro Fine Creek, to be in readiness for the coming 
demand. At the time the treaty with the Nez 
Perces was concluded, 300 miners were already in the 
Oro Fine district. A month later there were 1,000, 
with immigration coming in rapidly from California, 
overland. As the spring advanced the excitement 
increased, and a line of steamers was put upon the 
Columbia to accommodate the thousands that rushed 
impetuously to this richest of all the gold-fields yet 
discovered north of the Columbia.^* 

The route travelled was by steamer to old Fort 
Walla Walla, thence by stage to Walla Walla town, 

^"Olympia Pioneer and Democrat, Feb. 24, March 15, April 5 and 26, 1861. 


and thence by pack-horses or teaixis to the mines, the 
whole distance from Portland, where the traveller 
embarked, being 436 miles. Horses, saddles, wagons, 
provisions, clothing, mining tools, and camp equipage 
were in demand at Walla Walla in 1861, the mer- 
chants, at least, having found a bonanza. 

In IMay the Colonel Wright made the first trip ever 
consummated by a steamer to the mouth of the Clear- 
water, and up that stream to within twelve miles of the 
forks, or within less than forty miles of Pierce City. 
A town was immediately founded at this landing, 
called Slaterville, after its founder. It contained in 
May five houses of canvas, two of which were pro- 
vision stores, two private dwellings, and the other a 
drinking-saloon. The saloon was roofed with two 
blankets, a red and a blue one. On its side was writ- 
ten the word "whiskey" in charcoal, and inside, a bar- 
rel of the liquid constituted the stock in trade. Two 
bottles and two drinking-glasses composed the furni- 
ture. Fifty white persons were to be found in and 
about Slaterville at this time. Following the Colonel 
Wright, the Tenino, the second steamer on the upper 
Columbia, made a few trips to this place, but it 
was soon found to be impracticable for a landing on 
account of the rapids in the Clearwater, which could 
only be navigated for a short season of the year. 
The last trip of the Tenino was made before the 
close of the month, her final departure taking place 
June 1st. 

The next cargo of freight and load of passengers 
were landed, by necessity, at the confluence of the 
Clearwater and Snake rivers, on the south side, which 
was in direct contravention of the terms of the treaty 
made in April. There did not seem to be any alter- 
native, the mountains rising abruptly on the north 
side, and this being the natural head of navigation. 
When the treaty was made, the head of navigation 
was at old Fort Walla Walla, or in rare cases at the 
mouth of the Tucaunon River. Already this was all 


changed, and the route most travelled was up Snake 
River to the Clearwater. By the 10th of June the 
navigation company and the miners had settled it that 
a town must be built at this point. The site was 
most favorable, being a level piece of ground between 
the two rivers, sloping gently back a mile or two to 
the high prairies beyond. The name fixed upon was 
Lewiston, in compliment to Merriwether Lewis, the 
discoverer of the Clearwater and Snake rivers, who 
had been entertained by the father of the head chief 
of the Nez Perces, Lawyer, almost at the very spot 
where Americans were now mining for gold. Two 
weeks after it was first used as a landing, Lewiston 
had a population and business of considerable impor- 
tance. Pack-trains daily departed thence to the 
mines, laden witli the goods brought up by tlie 
weekly steamboat, the town at once taking on an air 
of having come to stay, which its excellent location 
fully justified. The military authorities, however, 
who were pledged to protect the Indians in their 
rights, prohibited the erection of permanent buildings, 
and the Nez Perce agent called the attention of the 
public to the breach of treaty committed by them in 
their invasion of the reservation twice reserved. 

But remonstrances were unavailing when opposed 
to the determination of 3,000 persons already occupy- 
ing the foot-hills of the Blue Mountains, and whose 
number was daily increasing. Lawyer, and the head- 
men generally, perceived the difficulties in which the 
white men would be placed if denied access to the 
mines, or a lauding for their goods, and accepting 
some compensation, they allowed the town site of 
Lewiston to be laid off in October. That the Nez 
Perces were not averse to the coming of white nien 
among them was evident from their obliging and 
friendly conduct. The better class of Indians as well 
as white men reprobated the introduction of intoxicat- 
ing liquors; but otherwise, expecting the treaty to be 
observed in regard to territory, they made no very 


great protest against the presence of miners on the 

As the summer advanced, new" discoveries were 
made and other mining towns sprang up. Oro Fino 
City, a rival of Pierce City, in the early part of June 
had sixty houses, built of logs, ten stores of general 
merchandise, and various other shops. The popula- 
tion was about 500, most of whom lived in teats. 
Three families were settled there, the whole of the 
inhabitants with this exception being males. A 
wagon-road was completed from the mouth of the 
Clearwater to Pierce City in June,^'' crossing the 
south branch of that river. 

In July 5,000 men were scattered over the mining 
region, now no longer confined to Oro Fino district. 
Two saw-mills were in process of erection," and trade 
was already overdone, so many merchants had has- 
tened their goods into the country. In Oro Fino 
City building lots sold for from $100, to $200, and 
with a log-house on them, from $500 to $1,000. 
Carpenters' wages were nine and ten dollars a day, and 
common labor from three and a lialf to six dollars. 

As to what the miners were making, that depended 
upon the locality. The first discovery was inferior 
in richness to later ones. On Rhodes Creek, which 
emptied into the Oro Fino one and a half miles above 
Pierce City, claims paid from twelve to twenty-five 
dollars a day to the man. The heavy expenses of 
opening a claim, however, greatly lessened the profits; 
lumber costing twenty cents a foot, and nails forty 
cents per pound, in addition to the high price of 
labor. A few claims yielded fifty, seventy, and a 
hundred dollars to the man.^" 

" This road was cut out by Mr Athey of Oregon City. Or. Argun, July 27, 
1861. Mr Mulkey of Washington co., Oregon, drove the first team into Oro 

" One of these pioneer mills was erected by A. M. and L. M. Starr. Ore- 
gonian, Aug. 21, 1861. 

"G. C. Robbins of Tortland reported to the press in August that 2,500 
practical miners were at work on Rhodes Creek, Oro Fino Creek, Canal Gulch, 


With the usual restlessness of miners, a party of 
fifty-two men left the Oro Fino district in May to ex- 
plore and prospect the south fork of the Clearwater 
and its tributaries. This stream was almost unknown, 
being far to the north of the travelled roads between 
the Rock}^ and Blue mountains, and even remote from 
the trails made by the fur-hunters. Proceeding seven- 
teen miles above the north branch of South Fork, 
they crossed from the north to the south side of the 
stream, keeping up the river to the junction of the 
south branch of the South Fork, up which they con- 
tinued for six miles, or until they arrived at the vil- 
lage of the chief of that district of the Nez Perce 
country, Coolcoolsneenee, who objected to this infrac- 
tion of treat}' agreements, which excluded white men 
from the south side of the Clearwater. 

After a prolonged interview with the chief, who 
insisted upon an observance of the treaty, thirty of 
the party turned back. The remaining twenty-two 
crossed the South Fork to the north side, and pro- 
ceeded along up the stream by the southern Nez 
Perce trail to the bufialo-grounds, going about twenty 
miles from the crossing in an easterly course, until 
they came to where three branches of the South Fork 
met. Here they made an examination of the earth, 
and obtained from twelve to twenty-five cents to the 
pan of shot and drift gold. 

and French Creek, and that 4,000 or 5,000 men were making a living in other 
ways. His report on the yield of the mines was as follows: Jarvis & Co., 
four men, $10 per clay to the man; James & Co., five men, $10 per day to the 
man; McCarty & Co., four men, $10 each; Vesay & Co., eight men, §7 to §8; 
Hook & Co., six men, $10 to $12; Jones & Co., four men, $10 to$12; Dunbiir 
& Asar, $10 to $12; Shaflfer & Co., fourteen men, $60; Paine & Co., twenty 
men, $70; Mortimer & Co., twenty-four men, $70 to $80; Hatch & Co., five 
men, $16 to $20; Thomas & Co., fourteen men, $18 to $20; Rillery & Co., 
seventeen men, $16 tt.$17; Blakely & Co., nine men, $1G to $20; Smalley & 
Co., ten men, $16; Boon & Co., eight men, $16; California Co. , nine men, $16; 
Ncwlanil & Co., six men, $16; Hickox & Co., five men, $16 to $20; Let 'Er 
Rip & Co., eleven men, $16 to .$20; Hoyt&Co., eight men, $12; Felton&Co., 
$16; Sparks &. Co., $1.'5; Rossi & Co., $15; Rhodes & Co., eleven men, 300 
ounces per day to the company. On French Creek, Antoine Pillir, T. Lapoint, 
M. Giimon, John Lesot, Harkum, and Quirk were making each $10 to $12 
per day. Portland Oregonian, Aug. 26, 1861; S. F. Herald, Nov. 14, 1801; 
Yreka Journal, Dec. 4, ISOl. 

About one third of the party returned to Oro Fino, 
where they arrived on the Gth of June, exhibiting 
their specimens, and after purchasing a supply of pro- 
visions, immediately rejoined their associates in the 
new diggings.^" 

The discovery on South Fork led to a rush of several 
hundred Oro Fino miners, some of whom returned be- 
fore winter. Other diggings were found on the north 
side of the Clearwater, on Newsom Creek, where from 
eight to fifteen dollars a day were obtained. The 
opposition of the Indians to the intrusion of white 
men on the South Fork for a time restrained the 
mining population, but good reports continuing to 
come from there, a fresh migration set in, and by 
September a town called Elk City was laid off between 
Elk and American creeks of Red River, the main 
branch of South Fork, which contained 2,000 inhabi- 
tants, several business houses, and forty dwellings 
already erected or in process of construction." 

Elk valley, or prairie, was about seven miles in 
length, and not more than half a mile in width. The 
mountains on either side were low and covered with 
small pines. From the tops of these ridges flat ravines 
sloped down at intervals, covered with rich grass, and 
watered by springs. Elk City was situated a mile 
from the lower end of the valley, on a flat between 
two of these ravines, which gave it a greater extent 
of view. On the west the mountains rose ridge 
above ridge toward the great spur of the Bitter Root 
range, which the miners were obliged to cross to reach 
it, and Elk Creek, its meanderings marked only by 
occasional clumps of willows, flowed along the western 
border of the town. The distance from Elk City to 
Oro Fini. was 120 miles. Between it and the cross- 
ing of the South Fork were two rugged ranges, one 
fifteen miles, the other twenty-five miles over, sepa- 

'"Corr. Portland Oregonian, June 20, 18C1. The only name given of any 
one belonging to this party is McGill, in S. F. Bulletin, July 3, 1861. 
" J/ai-e'.s Enrly h'veiils, MS., 11. 
Hist. rt'Asa.— 16 


rated bj Newsom Creek.^^ On every side in this local- 
ity rose ledges of pale red or rose quartz. Between 
the mountains were intervals of beautiful grassy 
prairies; on the mountains heavy pine forests. Game 
abounded, the principal being the elk, of which there 
were large bands. The country was, in fact, very 
different from the California miner's preconceived 
ideas of a gold country. But experience had proved 
that gold might exist either under barren sands, rich 
alluvium, or the frozen mosses of a Cariboo; and cer- 
tainly this was a pleasanter country to live and mine 
in than Cariboo. The objection to it was that the 
mining season, so far up in the mountains, must be 
comparatively short; and in order to make up for the 
expense of a long idle winter, it was important to se- 
cure a considerable sum during the summer. It was 
also necessary to lay in a sufficient stock of provisions 
to last while the heavy snows suspended travel. 

Some who preferred wintering in Walla Walla left 
the mines early to avoid the snow; but the majority 
remained, and for these the traders provided by hurry- 
ing in ample stocks of goods as long as the weather 
permitted.^' Such was the energy and enterprise of 
the latter class, that by the first week in September 
a trail six feet wide was cut through forty miles of 
timber on the mountains between Elk City and the 
South Fork, obstructions removed, and the hills 
graded where required. In October, in spite of treaty 
obligations, a white man had taken up a farm on the 
road, and erected a cabin of the nature of a wayside 
inn, called the Mountain House. 

At this period of the development of the Clearwater 
mines, there were comparatively few except Oregon 
and Washington men engaged in mining or trade in 

" 'The gold at Newsom Creek is a deep red, and heavier and coarser than 
that found at Oro Fine' Corr. Portlnnd Advertiser. 

"The first firm to take goods to Elk City was John Creightou & Co. 
Flour sold from §16 to $20 per 100 pounds, and groceries in proportion. The 
only cheap article of food was beef, at 12 to 15 cents per pound, and vegetables 
Bold by Indians. 


the Nez Perc^ country. The sale of whiskey, repro- 
bated by the majority, was carried on, notwithstand- 
ing the danger that it might involve the miners and 
Indians in trouble. Few crimes, however, were com- 
mited this season. One American was shot in a 
drunken quarrel with a Frenchman, and one packer 
was murdered and robbed on the road. Some instances 
of sluice-robbing occurred at Oro Fino; and horse- 
stealing by an organized band of thieves began. 

By the end of summer, when the mining season 
was expected to close, the profits of the outlay in 
opening up the gold-fields began to be speculated upon 
b}- the press; and although no doubt was entertained 
of the riches contained in the gold region, or that it 
would continue to yield well for a longer period than the 
Fraser mines, which were already worked out,-* it was 
asserted that the Willamette Valley was a million dol- 
lars worse off" for the discovery. And yet the Willa- 
mette Valley was, as far as cash was concerned, already 
poor, on account of the long period of Indian wars, and 
the non-payment of the war debt, while the weekly 
receipt of gold-dust at Portland was nearly $100,000.-^ 
These jealous writers admitted that this money was 
developing in various wa3'S the natural resources of 
an immense region east of the Cascade Mountains, 
but chiefly on the Washington side of the Columbia. 
Even The Dalles, which had received a great impetus 
from the Colville and Fraser River migrations, was 
but little benefited by this one ; for now that the steam- 
ers carried freight and passengers directly to Lewis- 
ton, the business of supplying miners was transacted 
either at that place or at Portland.^® Others with 
more comprehensive views remarked that the gold 

^* Anrjdo's Idciho, 23. 

'^ This statement is taken from the Oregon Statesman, the most conserva- 
tive paper in Oregon, and the one always opposed to muling ventures, or any 
enterprises not directly beneficial to the Willamette Valley. See Statesman, 
Sept. 9 and Nov. 4, 1861. 

'" The Colville and Oro Fino mines helped Portland greatly; and in 1861 
bnilt up the Oregon Steam Navigation Company. Loaded drays used to stand 
in line half a mile long, unloading at night freight to go in the morning, that 
involved a fortune. Deadt/'a Hist. Vr., MS., 37. 


discoveries came opportunely for Oregon, the disburse- 
ment of" money in the country by the army pay-masters 
and quartermasters having almost ceased through tlie 
withdrawal of the regular troops to participate in 
the civil war. It was also remarked that, contrary 
to the ideas generally entertained of the value of the 
country east of the mountains for agriculture, those 
persons who had taken up farming claims on the route 
from The Dalles to Lewiston had raised fine crops, 
and were getting high prices for them. This was the 
beginning of a better understanding of the capabilities 
of the soil in what has since become one of the best 
wheat-producing countries in the world, but which 
was up to this period considered as a grazing country 

The opinion had been repeatedly expressed that 
the Clearwater mines were but the outskirts of some 
richer central deposit. In the hope of verifying this 
belief, prospecting parties had been traversing the 
country in an easterly and southerly direction during 
the entire summer of 1861. The party which success- 
fully proved the theory consisted of twenty-three men 
who left Oro Fino in the early part of J.uly to pros- 
pect on Salmon River. After testing the bars on 
this river for a distance of 100 miles, with encouraging 
results, they retraced their steps to a point about 
seventy-five miles south of Elk City, to which place 
they desired to go in order to lay in a stock of pro- 
visions. At the point mentioned, the company 
divided, nine of them remaining to hunt, and to 
examine the country for a practicable route through 
the great masses of fallen timber which obstructed 
travel in the direction of the Clearwater. 

In their reconnoissance, while travelling over a wet, 
boggy flat on the top of a high mountain twenty miles 
north of Salmon Kiver, they stopped to rest in a 
temporary camp, when one of the explorers laid a 
wager with another that the color of gold could not 


be found in that country. In sport the wager was 
accepted, and in a short time the prospector having 
taken a pan of dirt from the roots of an upturned tree, 
found it to contain five cents' worth of gold. Upon 
this wholly unexpected and flattering prospect the 
party proceeded to examine the creeks and gulches 
ill the immediate vicinity, obtaining five, ten, twenty- 
five, and even seventy-five cents to every pan of dirt 
washed. They then followed their former associates 
to Elk City, where, after resting for a few days, they 
purchased a montli's supplies and returned to their 
discovery, accompanied hy a few others.^'' 

The discovery was made in September, and in 
October a town called Millersburg was laid off" on 
Miller Creek, where the richest diggings were found. 
From the first pan of dirt taken out of the first hole 
sunk in this creek $25 was obtained. In the course 
of an afternoon Miller washed out $100. The remain- 
der of the company then staked off" claims and began 
operations with vigor. Working only with a rocker, 
each claim averaged from $75 to $i00 daily to the 
man. With a pan alone $75 was obtained in ten 
hours, and in one gulch five men took out $700 in the 
same time. 

During the first two weeks in October fifty men 
were mining at Millersburg, and a radius of five miles 
had been prospected. To get a winter's supplies to 
camp was the first care of those on the ground, to 
which end they expended much labor upon a pack- 
trail to Elk City. The first train that left Elk City 
under the guidance of Leech became lost in a snow- 
storm, and after wandering about for two weeks, re- 
turned to the starting-point. But in the mean time 
three trains belonging to Creigliton had left Elk City 

'' The names of a few only of the discoverers of the Salmon River mines 
have beeu preserved. These are John H. Bostwick, B. B. Rogers, Nathan 
and Samuel Smith, John J. Healey, T. H. Miller, Leech, More, and Hall. 
The Smiths were old Yreka miners. The lucky pan-holder at this last dis- 
covery was a Frenchman named Michel. Brislow's Encounters, MS., 10; 
CoiT. Or. Statesman, Oct. 28, 18C1; Portland Oregonian, Oct. 21, 18G1. 


and proceeded as far as Camas prairie, ten miles south 
of the Clearwater, where they were met by Eagle- 
from-the-light, who peremptorily ordered them to turn 
back, and observe the treaty made in April. They 
endeavored to pacify the justly offended chief, and 
pushed on.^^ 

By the first of November there \wre 1,000 men on 
the creeks and gulches of the new district, believed 
at that time to be limited to a small extent of 
territory. Elk City and Oro Fino were soon almost 
deserted. Although a large amount of provisions 
was hurried into Millersburg, not enough could be 
taken there before the snow had stopped the passaga 
of ti^ains to support all who had gone there, and by 
the middle of November many were forced to return 
to Oro Fino a distance of 100 miles, to winter, lest 
starvation should attack the camp before spring. 
The snow was already over two feet deep, and the cold 
severe, so that frozen feet very frequently disabled 
the traveller for the remainder of the season. 

The excitement which hurried men to the Salmon 
River mines was intense. Nor was it without justi- 
fication; for every report from there confirmed and 
strengthened the accounts given by the first explorers, 
though some who had gone there returned with- 
out any treasure.-* The weight of evidence was to 

'*C. W. Berry of Scott Bar, Cal., was the first to arrive with a stock of 
goods, Oct. 18th, and located himself ou Nasan's Gulch. Or. Slalesman, Jan. 
6, 1802. 

-'A Dalles correspondent of the Or. Statesman of Dec. 2d wrote: ' One of my 
acquaintances arrived here on Thursday (Nov. 22d) with 55 i»unds of gold- 
dust, nearly all the product of a few days' labor on .Summit Flat, Salmon 
River.' Also, '300 pounds of gold-dust was taUen on the last steamer to Port- 
land.' 'The mines are paying from $50 to $150 per day to the hand.' Or. 
Statesman, Nov. 4, 1861. John Creighton, writing to J. C. Isaacs of Walla 
Walla, says: 'Our company of eleven men made $600 in one week.' Par/it 
Sou7id Herald, Nov. 7, 1801. 'John Munroe, of Yamhill county, took out 
$180 in an afternoon; the ne.\t day 2J lbs; and the next day 5 lbs (equal to 
&G0O and $1,200). John Malone panned out $400 the tirst day on his claim. 
Bostwick of Cal., $80 in a day. Smith (three-fingered) took 46i ounces ($697) 
out of one hundred buckets of dirt. Maroon Scott is making $100 a day. H. 
.S. Case writes that the mines are paying from $25 to §400 a day to the man. 
Wagesare$10and$12aday.'Po»VteH(/ Oregonian, Nov. 14, 1861. 'Twoi 
took out 80 ounces in one day. 
.and $100 to $200 with rockers.' 

\a.y.' Portland Uregonian, Nov. 14, 1861. 'Two men 
day. Many were making $50 a day with the pan, 
;kers.' /bid., Nov. 5. 'Wc have heard of two men 


the eflFect that these mines excelled in richness the 
placer mines of California in their best days. Of 
their extent, men were not so certain. 

A letter to the Portland Times of November 25th 
stated that while the correspondent was at the Salmon 
River mines, in the latter part of October, he had 
known from personal observation some claims to yield 
from thirty to eighty dollars to the pan. One panful 
of dirt from Baboon Gulch contained $151.50. The 
same claim yielded $1,800 in three hours, two men 
working it with a rocker. This claim belonged to a 
man named Weiser, the same after whom Weiser 
River in Idaho was named. John Munsac of Yam- 
hill county, Oregon, purchased a claim for $1,800, 
and from two pans of the dirt took four ovmces of 
gold. In two weeks he had taken out forty-five 
pounds of dust! It was no uncommon thing to see, 
on entering a miner's cabin, a gold-washing pan meas- 
uring eight quarts full to the brim, or half filled, v/ith 
gold-dust washed out in one or two weeks. All 
manner of vessels, such as oyster-cans and yeast-pow- 
der boxes, or pickle-bottles, were in demand, in which 
to store the precious dust. A claim was held in small 
esteem that yielded only $12 a day, as some claims 
did, while hundreds of others returned from one to 
four ounces for a day's labor. 

Owing to the lateness of the season and the hostil- 
ity of the Shoshones, whose territory bordered on the 
Salmon River basin, the question of the extent of 
these rich gold mines was necessarily left undeter- 
mined until spring should open the roads and 

who took out six pounds of gold in two days.' Or. Ar(jns, Nov. 16, 1S61. 
'William Purvine of Mossman's express writes. . .Men are now making (Oct. 
lOtli) S30 to |loO per day to the hand with the old-fashioned rocker of 1849, 
and I verily believe that when water and ordinary improvements are brought 
to bear, that in many of the claims nov/ being worked with rockers f 1,0(X) a, 
day to tlie hand will be realized as readily as a half-ounce is at Oro Fluo or 
South Fork diggings. These are all gulch diggings, and easily worked. 
Twenty-five-cent dirt here is worth as much as gl dirt in the old mines.' Or. 
Statesman, Oct. 28, 1S61; Portland Times, Nov. 2.5, 1861; .S'. F. Alia, Nov. 4 
and Dec 27, 18G1; Boisd Citi/ Capital (J lironide, Aug. 4, 1869; Sacramento 
Union, Dec. 1, 1862. 


strengthen the hands of the miners. As far as could 
be judged from external appearances, there was an 
extent of countiy comprising a thousand square miles 
similar to that where the mines were being worked. 
This area was included in a basin rinnned with 
mountains that seemed, when viewed from a distance, 
like the broken walls of an extinct volcano, while the 
basin itself might have been the burnt-out crater. A 
deep caiion extended around inside and next to the 
mountain walls, and thrown up in the centre were 
countless small buttes, overgrown with small pine and 
tamarack trees. Fires had burned off the growth on 
some of them; others were covered with blackened 
stems, where the fire had only partially done its work, 
and others were green. Where the. ground was bare 
of trees, bunch-grass had sprung up. 

Between these buttes were the gulches in which 
the gold was found, being simply strips of lowland, 
covered with a tough sod from six to twelve inches in 
thickness. The lowest parts of these gulches were 
marshy or boggy. All of them had numerous rami- 
fications. Under the thick turf was a depth of from 
one to. six feet of loam, and under the loam a red 
gravel, in which was the gold, in small round particles 
and of a red color. Underneath this was a solid bed 
of white quartz gravel, or hard-pan, in place of bed- 
rock, of from six to eighteen inches in thickness, and 
under all another bed of loose quartz gravel mixed 
with watei". Very little clay was found in the mines. 
The method resorted to for obtaining M-ater for min- 
ing purposes was to dig holes or wells of a ccmvenient 
depth, which soon filled from the moist gravel. The 
rockers were placed beside these holes, and the water 
used over and over until it became very thick, when 
the well was emptied and allowed to fill again over 

The early part of the winter of 1861-2 was not 
severe. New diggings were discovered at Florence, 
thirty miles nortli of the first discovery, before pros- 


pecting was interrupted; and all during the month of 
December companies from the outside were exploring 
and opening routes to the mines, the most promising 
of which was by the old emigrant road to the Grand 
Rond Valley, thence by an Indian trail to Snake 
River and beyond, after which there were fifty miles 
to be opened over a range of mountains. December 
closed with the heaviest storms hitherto known in 
Oregon, extending over the whole north-west coast 
and California, snow and floods interrupting travel in 
every direction. At the time of this interruption to 
communication there were between 500 and 800 men 
in the Salmon River mines, and every kind of provis- 
ions was worth a dollar a pound, excepting beef, which 
was still cheap. 

The sudden migration to Salmon River did not by 
any means depopulate the Clearwater mines, which 
continued to yield as well as at first.^" The return of 
man}^ to winter in Oro Fino, where some mining could 
still be done, kept business alive in that district. Those 
Avho could afford to be idle went to Lewiston, which 
now, in spite of prohibition, was a growing town; 
while those who had accumulated large sums returned 
to the world and society to enjoy their wealth. 

Politically, the effect of the Clearwater gold discov- 
ery was remarkable. Walla Walla county with Sho- 
shone attached elected four representatives, and with 
Missoula a joint councilman,^^ more votes being cast 

">0r. Statesman, Oct. 14, 1S61. 

"J. M. More of Walla Walla was coimcilman. The representatives were 
Gillam, Babcock, Beatty, and Smith. From the manner of keeping the jour- 
nals of this session, it is impossible to learn to what counties the members of 
the legislature belonged, or their full names. A contest over a seat reveals 
as much as is here given; and if Stevens or Spokane county was represented, 
it does not appear on record. It should be explained that Stevens county, 
created in Jan. ISoS, comprised the greater portion of the territory between 
the Cascade and Bitter Root mountains. The legislature of 18G1-2 reestab- 
lished it of a lesser size and gave it the name of Spokane. At the following 
session its boundaries were rearranged and the name of Stevens restored to 
that portion lying east of the Columbia. The legislature of 1863-4 dispensed 
altogether with the county of Spokane, which was reunited to Stevens; but 
in 1879 another Spokane county was taken from Stevens on the east side, 
with the county seat at Spokane Falls. 


in the counties of Walla Walla and Shoshone than in 
any two west of the Cascades. A new county called 
Nez Perce was organized hy the miners in the Oro 
Fino district during the summer,^" which was legally 
created and organized by the legislature the following 
winter, along with the county of Idaho, and the terri- 
tory was redistricted in order to give a federal judge 
to this region. The judicial districts as newly defined 
made the 1st, or mining district, embrace Walla Walla 
and the counties east of that, P. Oliphant presiding; 
Chief Justice James E. Wyche being assigned to the 
2d, or Columbia River district, and C. C. Hewitt to 
the 3d, or Puget Sound district.'** 

The legislature found itself much embarrassed by the 
situation. Three judges had no more than sufficed 
when the business of the courts was confined to the 
region west of the Cascades, when suddenly the popu- 
lation east of the mountains became sufficient to re- 
quire, with the great extent of territory, two if not 
three more. One of the expedients proposed was to 
grant the probate courts of the several counties civil 
and criminal jurisdiction, provided the supreme court 
then in session should give a favorable opinion upon 

''^ The slieriflf was Gillespie, the clerk Bradley, the justice of the peace 
Stone. Ealph Bledsoe was the first councilman elected from Nez PerciS 
county. Idaho county was was fiist called El Dorado. 

^'McFadden, who was associate justice until 1S58, was then made chief 
justice until 1862, with William Strong and Edmund C. Fitzhugh associate 
justices for the same period, and Charles S. Weed U. S. marshal. Fitahugh, 
whom the reader will remember as identified with the development of coal 
and other interests about Bellingham Bay, and as special Indian agent and 
aid of Gov. Stevens during the Indian war, was indicted and tried and ac- 
quitted, after his appointment, fur killing a man named Wilson several years 
before in a quarrel. He was one of the seconds in the Broderick-Terry duel 
in San Francisco, a southcruer, and having the convivial habits of his class, 
but withal considered a good man. The republican administration appointed 
Wyche chief justice, with Oliphant and Hewitt associates. Wyche was a 
Mississippian by birth, and a union democrat. He was appointed from Michi- 
gan. His wife was a daughter of W. W. Bancroft of Granville, Ohio. The 
clerk of the court in Walla Walla district was Bennett Sexton, whose wife 
was a sister of Mrs. Wyche. Sexton died in 1809. Wyche died of consump- 
tion Aug. 28, 1873, on the cars, while en route to the east. While residing 
at Vancouver he lost his eldest daughter; his wife and remaining daughter 
survived him but a short time; thus all the family passed rapidly away, and 
the old Harney Castle which they inhabited was sold. The United States 
district attorney appointed by the republican administration was John J. 
McGilvra of Chicago. 


the right of the territorial assenJbly, under the organic 
act, to confer such jurisdiction. By the advice of the 
federal judges, acts were passed establishing a district 
court at the county seat of each county, said court to 
have concurrent jurisdiction within its own boundaries, 
except in those cases where the United States was a 
party, in the same manner and to the same extent as 
before exercised by the federal district courts, with 
right of appeal to the supreme court of federal judges;^* 
the counties to pay the expenses of these courts. 

The assessed valuation of taxable property in the 
county of Walla Walla in 1861 was nearly half a mil- 
lion dollars, which must have been much less than the 
real value at the close of the year. Two steamboats 
were now running upon the upper Columbia, built at 
a cost of $G0,000. Pack-trails had been opened 
through the hitherto inaccessible mountain regions, 
wagon-roads projected and to some extent completed 
to the most important points, and ferries established 
on all the rivers they intersected, and all chiefly by 
private enterprise.''^ A company was incorporated to 

^*Wa^h. Ter. Stat., 1861-2, 9. A bill passed the council 'creating Judges 
of the Plains in Walla Walla county.' As the bill never became a law, the 
qualifications of this high-sounding order of judiciary are not known. Wash, 
Jour. Council, 1SG1--2, 213. 

'^ A reference to the local laws of 1861-2 shows that J. K. Bates, who was 
a member of the legislature at this term, was authorized to construct a bridge 
across the Spokane River on the road from Walla Walla to Colville. The 
right to keep ferries was granted as follows; To D. W. Litchen thaler and John 
C. Smith across Snake River opposite Powder River; to Green White and C. 
B. Driggs across Snake River at the mouths of Grand Rond River; to John 
Messenger and Walter H. Manly across Salmon River on the Nez Perc6 trail 
to Fort Bois6; to Gilmore Hays across Snake River within one mile from the 
junction of the Cleai-water; to E. H. Lewis and Egbert French across the 
Columbia near The Dalles; to J. T. Hicklin across the Yakima between the 
mouths of the Ahtanaham and Nachess; to W. D. Bigelow across Snake River 
on the territorial road from Walla Walla to Colville; to Lyman Shaffer and 
W. F. Bassett across the south branch of the Clearwater on the main wagon- 
road from Lewiston to Oro Fino; to Orrington Cushman on the same stream 
at or near the camp of Lawyer; to W. W. De Lacy and Jared S. Hurd on 
Snake River at some point between Grand Rond and Powder rivers, to be 
selected by them; to M^. W. De Lacy and his associates on Salmon River; to 
George A. Tykel to grade a bluff of Snake River in constructing a wagon-road 
and establishing a ferry over the same near the mouth of Powder River; to 
Richai'd Holmes and James Clinton across Salmon River on the Indian trail 
from Lapwai to Grand Rond Valley; to .John Diuinhaller on the main Clear- 
water two miles above Lewiston; to W. GreemHUe at or near the mouth of 
Slate Creek on Salmon River; to Sanford Owens to build a bridge across the 


construct a railroad from old Fort Walla Walla to the 
town of that name, which was eventually built and 
operated. Printing-presses had been taken to Waila 
Walla, and public journals established,^^ and the place 
became an incorporated city, and a county seat by act 
of legislature in January. 

Two thirds more population was contained in the 
counties east of the mountains in December than in 
the whole lower Columbia and Puget Sound region, 
.settled sixteen years before. And the empire-makers, 
believing that they had no interest in Pugct Sound, 
but that Olympia was too distant a capital, instructed 
their representatives to endeavor to get a memorial 
to congress from the legislature, asking that the east- 
ern division of the territory might be set off and organ- 
ized as an independent political entity. The council, 
however, declared that no good reason existed for a 
separation, which could not benefit the transmontane 
portion, and would seriously retard the growth and 
improvement of the Puget Sound region, in which all 
had a mutual interest as a seaboard,^' and refused to 
sanction the prayer to congress. It consented, instead, 
to ask that body to establish a land-office at Walla 
Walla for the convenience of those desiring to take 
farms in either of the new counties east of the Cas- 
cades, which in due time was granted. 

It would be impossible to imagine greater hardships 
than were endured by a certain number of over-san- 
guine persons who took the risk of remaining in the 
Salmon River Mountains without an adequate supply 
of food. Men continued to force their way in until 
February. After that for several weeks the trails 

south brancli of the Clearwater on the road from Lewistou to Elk City. The 
rates for foot-passengers on these ferries were generally ."^O cts, loose cattle 
5 J cts, two-horse wa^ou $2.50, four-horse wagon $3.50, si.\-liorse wagon $1.50, 
horse and buggy $2.2.'), pack-animal 75 cts. 

*»Tho Walla Walla Messenger, by R. B. Smith; the Northrrv Lipht, by 
Daniel Dodge; and the Washiiirilon Statesman, by Northup, E^cs & Co. The 
latter afterward became the Walla Wa'la Statesman. 

=' Wash. Jour. Council, lSGl-2, 312-13. 


were obliterated or blockaded by snow, and those who 
had neither money nor provisions suffered all the hor- 
rors of slow starvation. And this state of aifairs 
lasted until Maj'. G. A. aSToble started on the 21st 
of December to go from Oro Fino to Florence,^' the 
latest new town which had sprung up in the Salmon 
River district, having with him a small pack-train. 
He was ten days toiling through snow-drifts a distance 
of 125 miles, and would have perished but for assist- 
ance from Indians. 

He found a town regularly laid out, with building 
lots recorded and fenced in, all under a city govern- 
ment. The buildings were of logs, dragged halt' a mile 
on hand-sleds. By the last of January nothing to 
eat could be purchased, excepting flour at $2 a pound. 
Some of the miners earned enough to keep soul and 
body together by warming water to wash out the 
gold from earth, obtained with much exertion and ex- 
posure by digging down through several feet of snow. 
The consequence of this, and of insufficient food, was 
rheumatism, scurvy, and diseases of the chest.^' Dur- 
ing the latter part of winter the snow was from seven 
to ten feet deep; yet some men who lived on a scanty 
supply of bread and weak coffee without sugar, in 
trying to provide themselves with these necessaries, 
were compelled to remove this amount of snow from 
their claims in order to work them enough to pay for 
such food. 

It was not until the first of May that pack-trains 
could come to within ten or twelve miles of Florence. 
For the remainder of the distance the goods were car- 

'8 According to Elliott's Hist, of Idaho, Florence was named after a step- 
daughter of Furber, formerly of Siskiyou co., Cal., who came with her mother 
to Salmon River in May 18G2; but as the town was laid off and named some 
months before that date, this statement seems questionable. 

'' Noble says that in one case of sickness the patient had lived for five 
weeks on flour, and tea made by steeping the young leaves of the fir. Another 
had lived on flour .and snow-water for two months. A young man whose 
home was one of plenty complained of ' nothing but a kind of weakness all 
over,' which pre\-ented his getting out of his cabin. He had lived two weeks 
on four pounds of flour and the inner bark of the pine tree, with snow-water 
for drink. 


ried In on the backs of men, at forty cents a pound trans- 
portation, and the starving were glad to perform this 
labor for the wages/" These were only incidents of 
mining life, and did not affect the reputation of the 
mines, which in the spring of 1862 drew a wild crusade 
of gold worshippers toward them from every hand. 
The steamship Cortes, as early as February 13th, landed 
700 California miners at Portland, and proceeded to 
Bellingham Bay with still another company, destined 
for Cariboo. There was plenty of ground from 
which to choose, for eastern Oregon as well as 
Washington and British Columbia was now known 
to be a gold-field. In April the regular line carried 
600 or 700 on each trip, and on the 5th of May three 
ocean steamers, the Panama, Oregon, and Sierra- 
Nevada, were at Portland together, their passengers 
crowding up the Columbia day and night as fast as 
the river steamboats could carry them, and on the 
6th the Brother Jonathan arrived with another 600. 

It was in vain that the newspapers in California 
and Oregon endeavored to check the rush, at least 
until the roads in the upper country were opened to 
travel. The Portland Advertiser of the 1 4th of March 
published a fair warning, that the snow at The Dalles 
was still two feet deep, and from one to four feet be- 
tween there and Lewiston, with a greater amount in 
the mountains east of Lewiston ; that provisions along 
the whole distance were exhausted, and no entertain- 
ment could be had, nor any transportation, not even 
on riding or pack animals, the cattle being all either 
frozen or too thin to travel; that the weather was still 
severe, and no wood along the route from The Dalles 
to Lewiston, except at long intervals a few willow 
poles; and those who should undertake to walk would 
he in danger of perishing with cold. But miners had 
been pouring into Oregon for a month when this no- 
tice was given, and they were not likely to stop then, 
when spring was so near. Nor did they. The Dalles 

*''0r. Argus, March 22, AprU 12, and May 31, 1S62. 


was at one time so crowded with people unable to pay 
the high prices of provisions that a mob was raised, 
who proceeded to help themselves at the stores. In 
general, however, men bore their privations with 
dogged endurance, hoping for better things. 

Nor were the Oregonians more prudent than 
strangers who knew less of the country, the climate, 
and the phenomenal effects of the floods and frosts of 
the winter of 1861-2. Some had mining claims to 
which they were anxious to return; others, farmers, 
had lost heavily by the floods of December, and were 
in haste to retrieve their fortunes. Traders were de- 
sirous of being first to bring their goods to a market 
where gold-dust was more plentiful than flour, sugar, 
or bacon;" and all had good reasons for their precipi- 
tancy in the matter of getting to the mines. Most 
of those crowded into The Dalles began moving for- 
ward about the 17th of March, when a saddle-train 
arrived from Walla Walla, bringing the first passen- 
gers that had come through since the disasters of 
January.*" They brought 400 pounds of gold-dust, 
sufficient apology for the haste of the crusaders. By 
the 22d a change in the weather had left the roads in 
an almost impassable state, and the streams too high 
to be forded. Fortunately for those not already upon 
the way, the steamboat Colonel Wright succeeded about 
this date in forcing a passage from Celilo to old Fort 
Walla Walla, where J. M. Vansyckle had laid off a 
town called Wallula, and was making improvements 
at the landing,*^ and regular navigation to this point 
was soon resumed, although the water in the Snake 
River was still too low to admit of a passage to Lew- 
iston. At this place during the winter the suffering 
had been great from want of adequate shelter, most 
of the population living in tents. Fuel was scarce, 

*' Flour sold at Walla Walla on the 3(1 of March for $24 per pound. Or. 
Statesman, March 24, 1802. 

"/yjs*. Or., ii., ch. xix., 484, thia series. 

^ 'Jlr and Mrs Charles Pope recently lield a "drawing-room" entertain- 
ment at Wallula, in the cabin of a wharf-boat, the only building of any note 
in that city.' Or. Statesman, May 26, 1862. 


and provisions both scarce and high." At length, 
when the snow melted in the upper country, the Co- 
lumbia rose to a stage which in INIay inundated Lew- 
iston, The Dalles, and the lower portions of Portland. 

The first trains reached Powder River about the 
last of April; the first that arrived at Salmon River 
not before the middle of jNIay, the goods being carried, 
as I have said, on the backs of starving men the last 
twelve or fifteen miles, many of them becoming snow- 
blind while performing this labor. When the product 
of the winter's work, with all its disadvantages, began 
to appear, it increased the mining furore. The dift'er- 
ent gulches in the Florence district were found to 
yield per day to the rocker from $30 to $250. Some 
great strikes were made, as when Weiser took out of 
Baboon Gulch $6,600 in one day, and half that 
amount in another, one panful of dirt yielding $500. 
The average yield of these placers was $75 per diem. *^ 

Prospecting began by the middle of May. In the 
latter part of June there were thousands of men 
ranging the country in every direction. Some put 
their number at 25,000. It is moi'e probable that in 
the autumn, after the emigration from California and 
the east was all in, there were 20,000 persons in the 

**S.F. Bulletin, March 31, 1S62. 

*' A few items may be worth preserving as a part of the country^ physical 
history. Baboon Gulch was named after an old Dutch miner known as 
Baboon, who left the diggings in the spring with 75 lbs of gold-dust. The 
claim was purchased by Gideon Tibbits while it was still yielding $1,000 
daily. Miller Gulch, named after one of the discoverers, Joseph Miller, 
yielded him $7,000 and he sold it for $4,000. Claims on the creek were held 
at from $15,000 to $30,000. Wells, Fargo & Co. brought down from these 
mines on the 20th of Jiay 120 lbs of gold-dust, and about the same amount 
from the Nez Perc<5 mines, besides that in the hands of eighty passengers. It 
was estimated that $300,000 passed through The Dalles every week. Or. 
Stnlesman, June 2 and July 7, 1S62. The Julia brought down from The 
Dalles 1,000 pounds of the dust on the 30th of July. Porlhand Oregonian, 
July 31, 1862. There were 186 claims on Miller's Creek, worked by .5.')3 men, 
tlie yield for 8 months being $2,785,536. A general average of the product 
of the Florence mines would give 3,000 miners something over $t. 000 for a 
season's work. But there really was no general average, some getting little 
and some much, as in every other business; the newspapers contained stories 
of individual success that would fill a volume. Gold-dust was weighed by 
the pound at Floi'cnce. Farnham's Florence aiul IVarren, MS. , i. 'I saw two 
men walk out of Milleraburg with 50 pounds of gold-dust ' Mrs Schultz, in 
Furly Anecdotes, MS., 3. 


mines of Clearwater, Salmon, Powder, and John Day 

From these mines, the accounts received were gen- 
erally flattering, though occasionally a disappointed 
adventurer expressed his disgust at adverse fortune 
in terms more forcible than elegant. As to Powder 
River, after it had been pretty well prospected it was 
set down as rich, but not of the extraordinary richness 
of Salmon River. Water was scarce, and until ditches 
were constructed to carry water from Elk Creek to 
the flat below, where the claims were located, no 
sluicing or rapid work could be accomplished. There 
wei'c about 1,000 persons in the Powder River mines 
by the middle of June. Among them were many from 
the mines of Washoe in Nevada." Others followed 
during the summer, and a considerable proportion of 
these settled in eastern Oregon,*^ in the neighborhood 
of the mines.*^ They found a beautiful country of 
rolling plains, and long sunny slopes partially wooded 
with stately pines, of fertile vallej's, and free-flowing 
streams of excellent water at frequent intervals; and 
last, but not least, unlimited grazing, making this the 
stock-raiser's paradise. Several important discoveries 

^^Jnd. Aff. Bept, 1862, 422-3; Or. Statesman, June 2, 1862; Bristoiv's 
Rencounters, MS., 15. 

*' The most famous man on the Pacific coast, after James Marshall, was 
H. M. Comstock, who tried his luck in Oregon, which had failed to make him 
rich in Nevada. He was very active locating both placer and quartz mines, 
constructing ditches, and making other improvements. He surveyed a road 
from Powder River shorter and better than the old one, expending $8,000 
upon it, and petitioning the Oregon legislature for a charter. The matter 
was placed in the hands of J. M. Kii-kpatrick, elected from Baker county, 
organized by the mining population in 1862, who was not admitted to a seat, 
and the charter was lost. Comstock and Lytle opened the first quarts! vein 
in which free gold was visible, on Powder River. Or. Statesman, June 16, 
1SG2. On the 1 1th of August he discovered another lode, from which he took 
|450 the same day. S. F. Bulletin, Aug. 27, 1862. It docs not appear that 
this mine made Comstock rich, or that any mine ever could. 

*' W. S. Ebey, who spent a season in the Powder River and John Day 
mines, remarks upon this immigration, which came by the way of Humboldt, 
Queen, and Owyhee rivers. Journal, MS., viii. 05. 

"Mrs Theodore Sohultz, of Valencia Street, San Francisco, in a manu- 
script called Early Anecdotes, gives a graphic picture of the immigration from 
Cal. o\erland. With her husband and 4 other men, with 17 pack-animals, 
she travelled from her home in that state to Florence mines, encountering all 
the hardships of the season, the great flood, and tlie danger from Indians, 
which they luckily escaped. She was the first white woman in Millersburg. 
"Hist. 'Wash.— 17 


were made in the region both east and west of the 
Blue Mountains, some of which mining ground turned 
out a large amount of bullion,®" and some of which is 
still mined, but the main rush was to the country east 
of Snake River. 

About the 1st of August, James Warren, a "shift- 
less individual, a petty gambler, miner, and pros- 
25ector," made up a party in Lewiston for a tour through 
the Salnioa River basin, and returned in less than a 
month with the report of new and rich diggings." 
Unlike the Florence mines, the Warren diggings were 
deep as well as rich. The mining ground extended 
about sixteen miles north and south along the creek, 
and the gold assaj^ed from $12 to $17 an ounce.®- 

This proved to be one of the most valuable discov- 
eries made. The diggings outlasted the Florence 
mines, and when the placers were exhausted on the 
creek bottoms, still yielded to hydraulic treatment 
returns nearly as rich as the placers. 

Notwithstanding the unsavory reputation of the 
discoverer, Warren's diggings were worked chiefly by 
practical miners and men of good character, many of 
whom long remained there in business. '^^ In Novem- 
ber 400 men were mining at Warren's, taking out an 
average of from $14 to §20 daily.^* 

Three years afterward the population was 1,500, 
which dwindled two years later to 500. When the 

^° The John Day minps began to be worked in August. About 1 ,000 men 
were at work on the middle branch in September, and 500 on the north 
branch. Many handsome nuggets were found in the Powder and John Day 
mines. Owens' Dis., 1SG5, 143; Walla Walla Statesman, Aug. 27, 1862; Fort- 
land Oregonian, Sept. 29, 1802. 

^Ulo/er's IJist. Idaho County, MS., 2-4; Hutton's Early Events, MS., 6. 

'■ Farnham't Florence a^ul Warren, MS., 1. Kdwin Famham was one of 
the pioneers of Florence, where he went in 1862, and afterward to Warren. 
His manuscript is principally a comparison between the two camps. Farnhum 
later lived in S. F. 

»' J. W. Seaman, Judge Beatty, Judge Taliaferro, and D. Mulford were of 
Calaveras co., Cal., and Mark Evaus of 8an Joaquin. J. Bradford, another 
pioneer, antecedents unknown. Mrs Shultz was again the lirst white woman 
in these diggings, and gives a good account of their law-abiding population. 
Rice was one of the first locators. IJufloii'si Earli/ Events, MS., 5. 

^* Lewiston Goklen Age, Nov. 13, 1SG2. 


mines had been worketl for ten years they were sold 
to Chinese miners, some of whom became wealthy. 

Late in the summer of 1862, the opinion of old 
miners that a rich deposit would be found farther to 
the south than any yet discovered was verified. Many 
companies were searching for such a field," but the 
successful party was one which left Auburn, Baker 
county, Oregon, about the middle of July, proceeding 
east to Snake River and up it to Sinker Creek, above 
the mouth of the Owyhee, where, the company divid- 
ing, one portion returned to a point opposite Boise 
River, and having made a skitf and ferried them- 
selves over to the south side of that stream, followed 
along it to a junction with the immigrant road, where 
they again constructed a raft and crossed to the north 
bank of the Boise, where now stands the city of that 

Proceeding north, but being interrupted by the im- 
passable ca lions of the country, they succeeded in 
entering the basin of the Boise River by following a 
divide which brought them to a stream twelve miles 
south-west of the present town of Idaho City. After 
prospecting this stream for three miles on the south 
side, they proceeded the next day down the north side 
into the basin and to a larger stream. Here they 
obtained excellent indications, and spent a week ex- 
amining the ground higher up, finding it to be rich 
for fifteen miles. While encamped at Grimes' Pass, 
they were fired upon by some Shoshones who had 
Jiung upon their trail for several days. Grimes, Wil- 
son, Splawn, and the Portuguese pursued the attack- 
s' .s'acramerefo Union, June 24, 1862. 

■■'The original company on this search were Joseph H. Bransetter, Jacob 
Westenfeldter, David Fogus from Indiana, Moses Splawn, C. Stanford, Ser- 
geant Smith, John Reynolds of Walla Walla, Samuel Moore of Calaveras 
CO., Cal., John Phillips and David Rodgers of Linn co., Dr., Wilson of 
Portland, an Englishman name unknown, four Portuguese names unknown, 
all under the leadership of George Grimes of Or. City. Twelve took the 
route above described. What became of the six remaining is not related. 
Portland Oregonian, March 30 and 31. 1863; BraiiMetler's Discov. Boise Bagin, 
MS., 4. 


ing party into the mountains, when Grimes was shot 
and instantly killed, having at the same moment shot 
an Indian. ^^ 

Being too few in numbers to remain in a hostile 
country, the eleven returned to Walla Walla by the 
same route they travelled in going out, arriving about 
the 1st of September, and bringing between $4,000 
and $5,000 in gold-dust, with which they purchased 
supplies for another season in the mines. A company 
of tifty-four men was quickly organized and armed to 
return to Boisd basin, where they arrived on the 7th 
of October.-'* After a fortnight spent in determining 
the value of the new mines, all of the company but 
twenty returned to Walla Walla to obtain provisions, 
while those left behind occupied themselves in build- 
ing a stockade and cabins for the company. In spite 

" Grimes was hastily burled on the divide between Elk Creek and the 
principal stream, which bears liis name. The body was reinterred the follow- 
ing summer in a gi-ove of hackmatack, pine, and tamarack trees near the place 
of his death. A mining claim was set off for his widow by his associates, and 
a person deputized to work it for her in order to hold it. This individual 
sold it for $3,000 and went away -nith the money. The widow, unaware of 
this rascality, in the summer of 1864 paid a visit to Bois(5 to look after her 
interests. The miners raised §3,000 for her by subscription. 'That amount,' 
said the' Kcics, ' the citizens of this basin feel they owe the unfortunate 
lady, and they will pay it— not as a charitable donation, but as a just and 
eijuitable debt.' It was first proposed that the legislature should legalize a 
ta.K on the Boise miners, who themselves favored this method, but It was not 
done. Portland Orcgoiiian, Nov. 4, 1863. The Indian who shot Grimes had 
acted as guide. He was killed by a party led by Standiffcr in jrarsult of the 
murderers of two other miners, in the summer of 1803. Smnstetter'n Discov. 
Uoixe Basin, MS., 4. 

^^ As they were passing down Burnt River they met a company of belated 
immigrants from Iowa and Wisconsin, who had started in March for the Sal- 
mon Kiver mines. The Indians had risen all along the route, breaking up the 
Overland Stage Company's stations, driving off their horses and killing whom- 
soever they could. This company managed to keep the road to Fort Bridgcr, 
and taking Lander's cut-ofl', reached Fort Hall. When within 40 miles of that 
place the Baunacks threatened them, but finding them ready to fight, finally 
withdrew, only to attack a smaller party, nearly every one of which they killed. 
Forty miles west of Fort Hall the Iowa company came upon the dead and 
wounded of the Adams party. See Hist. Or., ii. 19, 469-76, this series. While 
burying the dead they were attacked, and had some of their company wounded. 
On amviiig at Catherine Creek, they were met by the Oregon cavalrj', under 
Colonel Maury, who left Fort Walla Walla to escort the Immigration soon 
after Colonel Steinberger of the" I st Washington infantry arrived at that post 
to take command. One of the immigrant company mentioned above was 
Slierlock Bristol, now of Buena Vista, Idaho. Bristol was born in Cheshire, 
Connecticut, June 5, 1815. He immigrated from Ripera, Wis., and is the 
author of an interesting manuscript on fda/io Nomenclature. After first go- 
ing to Auburn, Bristol in December joined the miners at Bois^. 


of an effort that had been made to keep the discovery 
secret, the returning party met on the road another 
company of between fifty and sixty foUowing their 
former trail; and it was not many days before a rush 
to the Boise mines succeeded. 

The distance of the new discovery from Walla 
Walla was about 300 miles, and 70 due east from 
old Fort Boise. The basin in which it was situ- 
ated is a picturesque depression among the mountains 
about thirty miles square, hitherto unknown to the 
inhabitants of the Pacific coast. The face of the 
country varied from grassy meadows to timbered hills 
and abrupt mountain precipices. The climate, so far 
from being severe, admitted of sleeping in the open 
air in jSTovember.^'' The camps could be approached 
with wagons to within fifteen miles, with a pos- 
sibility of ultimately making that portion of the road 
passable for wagons. The first camp of the pioneers 
of this region was on Grimes' Creek, and was named 
Pioneer City, sometimes called Fort Haynes; but 
owing to the selfishness of the original discoverers, it 
received from those who arrived subsequent!}' the 
euphonious appellation of Hog'em. There are several 
Hog'ems on the maps of mining districts, probably 
originating in the same cause. Mutation in the con- 
dition of eastern Washington such as had occurred 
during the year could not but effect some political 
changes. The county of Boise was created January 
12, 1863, comprising all the country lying south of 
Payette River and between Snake River and the 
Rocky Mountains, with the county seat at Bannack 
City.*^" A large number of charters were granted for 
roads, bridges, ferries, and mining ditches, in every 

''Wm Purvine, in Or. Statesman, Deo. 22, 1S62; Boisi News, Sept. 29, 

'" A county called Ferguson was also established out of that portion of 
Walla Walla bounded by Wenatcheo River on the north, the Simcoe Moun- 
tains on the south, the Cascade Mountains on the west, and the 120th inerid- 
ian on the east. The name of this county was changed in 1SG5 to Yakima. 
BancrotVs Iland-Booh, 1S64; New Taconia N. P. Coast, Dec. 15, 1880, 16; 
Wash. Ter. Stat., 1862-3; Local Laws, 4-5. 


part of the territory from Yakima to Bois^ River, 
and from the 44th to the 49th parallel. The city of 
Lewiston was incorporated, having become, in the 
eyes of its founders," a commercial mart of greater 
promise than others, for the reason that it was at the 
terminus of river navigation, and centrally located 
with regard to the whole Snake River country. It 
had already, like older cities, large mercantile estab- 
lishments, hotels, mills, gambling-houses, churches, a 
newspaper, the Golden Age, issued first on the 2d of 
August by A. S. Gould,"" and a line of four-horse 
coaches to Walla Walla and Wallula, while along the 
line of the road farms were being rapidly improved. 

In short, eastern Washington had outgrown the 
Puget Sound region, and was demanding a separate 
goverimient. Committees were appointed in every 
mining district to procure signers to a petition asking 
the legislature to memorialize congress on the subject. 
But the legislature refused to agree to such a menio- 
lial. A bill was introduced, and passed in the council, 
to submit for ratification by the people the constitu- 
tion of the state of Idaho, intended to effect the 
desired organization, which was defeated by the lower 
house substituting "state of Washington."*^ But 
congress, to which the petitioners appealed directly, 
regarded the matter more favorably for the mining 
interest, passing an act, approved March 3, 1863, or- 
ganizing the territory of Idaho out of all that portion 
of Washington lying east of Oregon and the 11 7th 
meridian of west longitude. 

^' The land was still owned by the Nez Percys. Jagger & Co., Trevitt & 
Co., and Yates & Lane were the owners of all the wooden buQdings. Or. 
Statesman, May 12, ISC'2. Its first mayor after incorporation was A. M. 
Kelly; recorder, R. H. Johns; councilmen, Hill Beachy, D. M. Lessey, F. H. 
Simmons, William Kaugbnian, and James McNeil; marshal. SchwatUa. As 
early as Feb. 1862 its citizens had adopted rules for town government, and 
made provisions for preempting lands and holding town lots. The first coun- 
cilmen elected under these rules were Joseph Uerring, llobert Dyson, and 
James Bowers. Dyson acted as president of the board and justice of the ijcace. 
Portland Oregonian, Feb. 20, 1S62. 

^2 Gould came from Cal. to Portland, and was employed on the Portland 
Times until he went to Lewiston with a press of his own. He was afterward 
in Utah, and died in S. F. about 1879. 

'3 Wash. Jour. Council, 1SG2-3, I J7, 164. 


Although the loss of a large extent of rich mining 
territory was regarded with disapproval by the re- 
mainder of the population, the benefit to the whole of 
the more rapid development of all the resources of 
the country was cause for congratulation, both then 
and later, the mines having given an impetus to the 
growth of the territory that agriculture alone could 
not have done in a long period of time. The area 
left comprised 71,300 square miles, with a population 
in 18G3 of 12,519, which, although small, was nearly 
double that oif 18G0. 

Owiug to delays, I am compelled to make room for one of the pioneers of 
Wash, on this page. 

Charles Biles was born in Warren cc, Tenn., in Aug. 1809, and reared 
on a farm in N. C, removing when 19 years old to Christian co., Ky. In 
18:52 lie married, and in 1835 removed to 111., soon returning to Hopkins co., 
Ky, where he resided until 1853, when he emigrated to W. T. in company 
wi;h his brother James, their families, ami C. B. Baker, Elijah Baker, and 
William Downing, and their families, being a part of the lirst direct immi- 
gration to tlid territory, via the wagon road through the Nachess pass. Mr 
Biles settled upon Grand Mound Prairie in Thurston co. , farming, and some- 
ti;ne3 preaching as a minister of the Cumberland presbyterian church. He 
died Feb. 26, 1869, leaving two sons (one having died after emigrating) and 
two daughters, namely, David F., Charles N., Mrs M. Z. Goodell, and Mrs 
I. B. Ward. 

David F. Biles was born in Ky in 1833, coming with his parents to W. T. 
In ISo-t he took a claim in Thurston co., and in ISoo became a deputy U. S. 
surveyor, but the Indian war coming on interrupted work, and he took to 
soldiering in defence of the settlements, resuming his surveying when peace 
was restored. From 1858 to 1862 he resided in Cosmopolis, Ciiehalis co., 
Ijut then removed to a homestead claim near Elma, on the line of the Satsop 
railroad to Gray Harbor, where he owns 400 acres of land. He served many 
years as county surveyor, and some time as school superintendent. He 
married in 1854 Miss Mary J. Hill, who was a member of the immigration 
of 1853, and had 5 sons and 1 daughter. 

Cliarles N. Biles, born in 1844 in Ky, was educated in Portland, Or. In 
1870 he settled in Montesano, Chehalis co., and engaged in surveying, and 
wai county auditor and treasurer several terms. He married iliss E. J. 

Another Chehalis co. pioneer is I. L. Scammon, who was born in Me in 
1822, came to Cal. in 1849-50, making the voyage on the 63-ton schooner 
Li/tlc Traveller. In the autumn of 1850 he took passage for the Columbia 
river, which was passed by mistake, the vessel making Siioalwater bay. 
Making his way overland to the Columbia, he went to Salem, Or., and to 
tlie southern mines, but returning to W. T. took a donation claim on the 
Chehalis river, where the old town of Montesano, now known as Wynooehee, 
grew lip about him. He married Miss Lorinda Hopkins in 1844, who rejoined 
him in W. T. in 1859. The first sermon preached in the region of Montesano 
was delivered by Rev. J. W. Goodell at Scammon's house, and the second 
school in the county was on his place, in 1859. The children of this pioneer 
are, Harriet, married Edward Campbell; George, m. Clara Nye; Cornelia 
.Jane, who died; Eva, who m. I. R. Edwards; Edith, who m. P. B. Briscoe; 
Elli, who m. Charles H. Finmet, county surveyor; Norman, wlio accident- 
ally shot himself when about 17 years of age. 




Effect of Terbitorial Division — Election of Delegate — Negro Sut- 
FKAGE — Party Politics— The Legislature— Peace and Progress — 
Steamboating — Navigation Companies— Clearing Rivers— Public 
Buildings — Insane Asylum and Penitentiary- Legislative Divorces 
— Government Reservations— Judicial Affairs- Another Dele- 
gate—Governor Flanders — Governor Salomon — Governor Ferky 
— Governor Newell — Era of Railways — More Elections — Political 
Platforms — Convention — Womajj's Rights — Legislature. 

With the setting-off of the territory of Idaho from 
that of Washington came the close of a long period 
of exciting events, and the beginning of a reign of 
peace and constant, gradual growth. Some slight 
temporary inconvenience was occasioned by the ampu- 
tation from the body politic of several counties be- 
tween two sessions of the legislature, when no provis- 
ion could be made for the reapportionment of repre- 
sentatives, the legislature of 18G3-4 consisting of but 
seven councilmen and twenty-four assemblymen.'^ 

George E. Cole, democrat, was elected delegate to 
congress in 1863.'^ 

' Organization was delayed from Dec. 7tli to 22(1 by tlie balloting for pres- 
ident of council, 0. B. MoFadden being at length cUoscu, and for chief cleik, 
L. D. Durgin. Or. Statesman, Jan. 3, 180-t. Clanrick Crosby was elected 
speaker by the house, and J. L. McDonald clerk. Wash. Scraps, 149. At 
the session of 1864-"), Frank Clark was president of the council, and James 
Tilton chief clerk, while F. P. Dugan was chosen clerk. 

^ Cole was postmaster at Corvallis in 1858. He had been member of tlie 
Oregon legislature in 1851-3, but falling out with his party, removed east of 
the mountains in 1801, and engaged in trade and steamboating, residing at 
Walla AValla. Deady'a Scrap- liimk, i\. In 1862 he was in the storage and 
comuiission business at Lcwiston : butiu the following year returned to Walla 

( 2M ) 

He received some votes of union men, although 
repudiated by the repubhcan party as a peace demo- 
crat in war times, or of that class of politicians known 
as copperheads, who were amiably willing to con- 
done rebellion, but without the nerve openly to 
oppose the government. However this may have 
been. Cole was subsequently appointed governor of 
Washington by a republican administration, and again 
postmaster of Portland under President Grant. 

At the election for delegate in 18G5 A. A. Denny 
of Seattle, republican, was elected by a large majority 
over James Tilton, who, like Cole, was charged with 
entertaining sentiments inimical to the course of the 
government in suppressing secession.^ 

There was in Washington a party strongly opposed 
to the reconstruction acts of congress, which favored 
the readmission of representatives to congress from the 
ten excluded states, and demanded for the tei^ritory 
a vote in congress, and the exclusive right to define the 
elective franchise, or in other words, to exclude negroes 
from the polls. Among this class were to be found 
many of Tilton's supporters. 

Denny's successor as delegate was Alvan Flanders, 
of Wallula, an active business man, who left the dem- 
ocratic party before the date of the civil war.^ Flan- 
ders was opposed by Frank Clark of Steilacoom, his 

Walla, and ran against L. S. S. Tumey and Joseph Raynor. Cole received 
1,572 votes, Raynor l,3S7,Turney 98. IKasA. Scrap.i, 06. E,aynor was a meth- 
odist preacher, who was statinned at Oregon City two years before. ]V<dla 
IValla Statesman, June 20, 1863. Cole was appointed governor in 1866. His 
wife was a Miss Cardwell of Corvallis. 

^ Garfielde and Evans labored for the election of Denny, who had been a 
member of the legislature from ISo-t to 1861, and register of the land-office at 
Olympia subsequently until elected delegate. Deuuy was later member of a 
bankiug firm at Seattle. McFadden, A. J. Lawrence, and J. H. Lassater 
cauvassed the territory for Tilton. Il'a»7i. Scraps, 156-8; S. F. Alta, May 2, 

* Flanders came to S. F. in 1851, and was zealously interested with Baker 
in forming the first republican club of that city. In 1858, in connection with 
C. A. Washburn, he started the S. F. Daily Times, a republican paper. He 
also represented S. F. in the Cal. legislature, being reelected once or more. 
He was appointed by President Lincoln to a position in the mint, and after- 
ward to the land-office of the Humboldt district. In March 1863 he removed 
to Wasliington and entered into business with Felton of Wallula. Oregouian, 
iu Olympia Pac. Tribune, April 27, 1867. 


majority over Clark ° being 153 out of 5,000 votes, so 
close was the contest.* 

The last two elections had been carried by un- 
doubted republicans, and a republican executive and 
secretary had administered affairs for four years, when 
President Johnson saw fit to remove Pickering, and 
furnish the late delegate Cole with a commission as 
governor, dated November 21, 186G, as the Oirgonian 
declared, with "partisan motives." The senate, hovv- 
ever, declined to confirm the commission, and Cole, who 
had qualified and entered upon the duties of his ofl5ce 
without waiting to hear from the senate, was com- 
pelled to abdicate at the end of two months, and after 
several nominations by the president,' Marshall F. 
Moore was confirmed as governor, and E. L. Smith 
as secretary of the teri'itory. Smith arrived on the 
27th of June, and assumed the duties of acting gov- 
ernor until the advent of Moore,^ late in the summer. 

^ Frank Clark was born Feb. 10, 1S34, atBiughampton, N. Y., and studied 
law at Lowell, Massachusetts. He came to Washington in lSo'2, settling in 
Steilacoora, where he resided until about 1875, when be removed to New Ta- 
coma, where he was a suecessful lawyer. When Clark first came to Puget 
Sound he took work in a saw-mill, but having an aptitude for politics, was 
chosen to the legislature, after which he rose in public life to a candidacy for 
the delegateship. He died suddenly of parnlysis Jan, S, 1883, while en route 
to Lewis county to attend court. Clark was twice married, first to a 
daughter of R. Downey of the eai-ly iiiiniigratiou, and second to L. Scho- 
field of Vancouver. Oli/mpia ]Vash. litaiulard, .Jan. 12, 1883; New 7'acoma 
Ledger, Jan. 12, 1883. 

" Olympia Pac. Tribune, June 27 and July 6, 1867. In the union ten-i- 
torial convention, held April IGth at Vancouver, 16 votes being necessary toa 
choice. Holmes, Wyche, Garfielde, Abcrnethy, and Flanders first received 
scattering votes; afterward Blinn and Denny were named. In the democratic 
convention, Clark, Lancaster, Dugan, Laugford, Lawrence, McFadden, and 
Vansyckle appeared as candidates, their pkatform being the same as in 1865, 
with the addition of disapproving the exemption of U. S. bonds from taxation. 
Olympia Wash. Standard, May 4, 1867. 

' Wash. Jour. House, 1866-7, 139. 

8 Marshall F. Moore was born at Binghamton, N. Y., Feb. 12, 1829. Ho 
graduated at Yale college, studied law, and began practice in New Orleans, 
where he remained five years, removing at the end of that time to Sioux City, 

Iowa, where he was elected prosecuting attorney, and subsequently judge of 
the court of common pleas. He again changed his residence to Ohio, where 
he married the daughter of P. Van Trump of Lancaster. He served through 
the civil war, under McClellan in Va, and in the department of the Cumber- 
land, participating in the battles of Rich Mountain, Shiloh, Chickamau/ja, 
and most of the battles of Sherman's Georgia campaign, lie vas promoted 
to the rank of brevet brigadicr-gcncral for gallantry at the battle of Joneaboro'. 
While leading a brigade at the'battio of Missionary Ridge he received severe 
wounds, from which he was unconscious for five days. His health was much 


Moore made a good impression upon the legislature, 
which, b}' the way, was the first elected and held under 
an amendment of the organic law allowing biennial 
instead of annual sessions. The amendment was made 
in consequence of a memorial to congress in 18G4-5, 
setting forth that no necessity existed for annual ses- 
sions, and that the per diem was inadequate to the 

The legislature of 1865-6 in another memorial re- 
quested that the people of the territory might be per- 
mitted to elect their own governor, judges, and other 
officers. The Oregonians assigned as reasons for a 
similar request that the federal judges did not remain 
in the country, and asserted that they had men among 
themselves competent to be made judges. The Wash- 
ingtonians, with more tact, refrained from referring to 
this thought in their minds, but simply complained of 
absenteeism and its evils. 

The answer to their first memorial was the amend- 
ment spoken of above, which enacted that after the 
session of 1866-7 the legislature should meet but once 
in two years, that members of the council should be 
chosen for four years and assemblymen for two years, 
and that they should receive six dollars a day instead 
of three as formerly, with the same mileage as before; 
the first election for members of the biennial legisla- 
ture to take place in 1867. The chief clerk was al- 
lowed six dollars a day, and all the other officers 
elected by the legislature five dollars, including an 
additional enrolling clerk."' 

With I'eference to the petition to be permitted to 
elect the territorial officers, congress sought to cure 
the evil complained of by enacting that no officer ap- 

shattered by these injuries, but he was promoted to the rank of brevet major- 
general, March 13, 1805. His next appointment was to the executive ohair 
of a north-west ten-itory. Ob/mpia Pac. Tribune, March 3, 1870; Port Towns- 
end Mcusengp.r, March 4, 1870. E. L. Smith was from Galesburg, 111. 

» Wash. Stat., 1864-5, 155-6, 10; Id., 1865-6, 210-20. 

'"On the organization of the legislature at its first biennial session, C. M. 
Bradshaw was chosen president of the council, and Richard Lane chief clerk. 
Later on in the session H. G. Struve was made president, and Elwood Evans 
enrolling clerk. Wash. Jour. House, 1807, 207. 


pointed should be allowed compensation out of the 
public funds before he should have entered upon his 
duties at the proper place, nor should he receive pay 
for any time he might be absent without authority 
from the president. In the event of the death or dis- 
ability of an J? judge of the federal courts at the time 
appointed for holding a session, either of the other 
judges might hold his court. Should the governor die 
or be otherwise incompetent, the secretary should act 
in his place, and receive a salary equal to that of gov- 
ernor. These laws put an effectual check upon the 
practice of governors and judges of spending a large 
l^ortion of their time jourue3nng to and from Wash- 
ington city, and of delegates procuring executive 
appointments in order to receive double mileage. 

It is not my intention to go into the particulars 
of the political contests of this pei'iod, when the 
amendments to the constitution of the United States 
provoked the same criticism and opposition from 
the democratic party in Washington that they did 
elsewhere, and when certain territorial politicians 
assumed a belligerent air because congress 'interfered' 
in the concerns of 'our territory.' I have alluded in 
my History of Oirgon to the great influx of immigra- 
tion from the southern and border states, and their 
eifect upon the political and social condition of the Pa- 
cific coast, during the period of the civil war in the east 
and the mining discoveries in the west. It is greatly 
to the credit of the original pioneer settlers, many of 
whom were southern born and bred, that notwith- 
standing the pressure upon society of a large disorgan- 
izing element, they maintained the balance of power 
and performed their duty toward the government. 

Moore's administration opened auspiciously, much 
pains being taken by him to place himself in sympathy 
with the whole people by studying their interests. It 
was said that his first message, delivered soon after 


his arrival, was a surprise to the legislature, which 
had not expected so elaborate a document from a new 
appointee. From it might be gathered a more or 
less complete statement of the condition of affairs in 
the territory in 1867. 

After a long series of interruptions, it was once 
more prosperous and progressive, in the enjoyment of 
health, plenty, and peace, with a rapidly increasing 
population, as shown by the vote cast at the election 
in June," which exceeded the vote of the previous 
year by one thousand. The agricultural, commercial, 
and mineral resources of the country were being de- 
veloped, and its exports increasing. During the cur- 
rent year steamboats had been placed on the Chehalis 
and Cowlitz rivers, opening to commerce settlements 
hitherto remote.^^ 

" The annual election was first set for the first ^londay in Sept., but in 
1855 was changed to the second Monday in July. In 1866 the day o£ elec- 
tion was changed to the first Monday in June. 

'^ The first charter granted to a steamboat company on the Cowlitz River 
was toSeth Catlin, John R. Jackson, Fred. A. Clarke, Henry N. Peers, George 
B. Roberts, and their successors, by the legislature of 1854-5. Was/i. Slut., 
1854, 459. This company failed to make any use of its charter. The legis- 
lature of 1858-9 granted to Royal C. Smith and Noyes H. Smith and their 
associates permission to incorporate the Cowlitz River Steam Navigation 
Company, for the purpose of improving the bed of the Cowlitz River, and 
keeping upon it a steambo;it or boats suitable for carrying freight and pas- 
sengers between the two points named, upon condition th,at a steamer should 
be put upon the river within six months, and the obstructions removed in 
nine months, failing to do which they forfeited their chai-ter. But this com- 
pany also failed to accomplish its object. Upon condition of improving and 
navigating the river, the legislature of 1862-3 granted to Nathaniel Stoue 
and his associates, under the name of the Monticello and Co%vlitz Landing 
Steamboat Company, the exclusive right to navigate the Cowlitz. This com- 
pany placed a boat on the river in the spring of 1864, when the Oregon Steam 
Navigation Company put on an opposition boat. The I'e.iciie and Rainier 
were bnilt for this trade. The Monticello company filed a bill against them, 
and prayed for an injunction. The case was tried before Judge Wyche, who 
held that the exclusive grant of the legislature was void, because in conflict 
with the powers of congress to regulate commerce among the several states of 
the union, and the injunction was denied. S. F. Bulletin, June 24, 1864; 
Wajih. Scraps, 132-3. The river was found to be navigable for steamers to 
Cowlitz landing only in the season of high water until the government should 
have made large appropriations for its improvement, which was never done, 
and there remained the primitive canoe, or the almost equally primitive 
'stage,' to convey passengers from Cowlitz landing to Alonticello, whence they 
were conveyed in small boats across the Columbia to Rainier, where they were 
picked up by a passing steamboat. But in Sept. 1867 the O. S. N. Co. began 
to run a boat regularly to Monticello to connect with Hailley's tri-weckly line 
of stages, which was the improvement to which Gov. Jloore alluded in hia 
message. The legislature of 1859-60 passed au act incorporating the Che- 


"Within the year just ended, Alaska had been 
added to the United States territory, giving Wash- 

halis Steamboat Navigation Company, for the purpose of improving that 
stream and rendering it navigable from Gray Harbor to Davis' landing, or 
farther, if practicable, conditioned upon Thomas Wright and his associates 
having a steamer running on Gray Harbor and Chehalis River within six 
months after the passage of the act. Wash. Stat, 1859-60, 4S9-60. The 
same legislature memorialized congress to grant $15,000 for the improvement 
of the river, which was not appropriated; but in June 1860 §20,000 was 
granted to erect a light-house at the entrance to the harbor, and buoy out the 
channel. The latter service was performed in 1867 by Capt. Bloomfield. The 
steamer Enterprise, which had been running on Eraser River and adjacent 
waters, was taken to Gray Harbor in the summer of 1859. S. F. Alta, July 
13, 1859. The legislature of 1861-2 passed an act making the Chehalis navi- 
gable from its mouth to Claquato, at the crossing of the territorial road. 
Again, in Jan. 1866, a company was incorporated, consisting of S. S. Ford, 
Courtland Ethridge, A. J. Miller, J. Boise, 0. B. McFadden, S. S. Ford, Jr, 
J. Brady, S. Benn, Reuben Redmond, and G. W. Biles, and others resident 
in the vicinity of the Chehalis, with the ' purpose of manufacturing lumber 
and flour, developing the resources of the Chehalis Valley, and navigating 
the waters of Gray Harbor and its tributaries by steam or other vessels,' etc. 
No requirement as to time was laid upon this company, but in the autumn of 
1866 they placed a small steamer, called the Satsall, on the river, and in the 
spring of 1867 the Carrie Davis, which made regular trips. In the autumn 
the Goff brothers of Tumwater put on a stern-wheel boat of light di-aught, 
which ascended as far as Claquato. Ohjmpia Standard, Jan. 18, 1868. The 
legislature of 1867-8 memorialized congress to appropriate §10,000 to remove 
obstructions and improve navigation; and by joint resolution inquired why 
the light-house had never been erected for which money had been appropri- 
ated. The Oregon Steam Navigation Company was first incorporated by the 
Washington legislature in Deo. 1860, the incorporators being required to 
register all their steamers and vessels subject to taxation in Clarke county. 
Wash. Stat., 1860-1, 72; Hist. Or., ii. 480-2, this series. In Jan. 1862 there 
was incorporated the Columbia Transportation Company of the Territory of 
Washington, with headquarters at Vancouver, T. H. Smith, A. D. Sanders, 
Milton Aldrich, E. S. Fowler, De.vter Horton, WUliam W. Miller, Peter J. 
Moorey, A. S. Abernethy, and Charles C. Phillips as corporators. This or- 
ganization was formed to run in opposition to the 0. S. N. Co. It built sev- 
eral steamboats, and ran on the upper as well as lower Columbia for a season, 
but finally sold out to the monopoly. Approved at the same time was an act 
incorporating the Puget Sound and Columbia River Railroad Company, to 
build and operate a railroad from Steilacoom to Vancouver; the capital stock 
$15,000,000, which might be increased to §50,000,000; the road to be com- 
menced within three years, and completed within ten. The movers in this 
enterprise were .1. B. Webber, P. Keach, Lafayette Balch, Thomas Chambers, 
S. McCaw, .J. W. Nye, Lewis Lord, Richard Covington, John Aird, Lewis 
Sohns, George W. Hart, C. Lancaster, T. J. Demarco, George Woods, Enoch 
S. Fowler, Paul K. Hubbs, H. Z. Wheeler, J. P. Keller, A. A. Denny, H. 
L. Yesler, Charles Plummer, W. W. Miller, A. J. Chambers, James Biles, 
H. D. Huntington, Charles Holman, Cyrus Walker, Frank Clark, William 
W. Morrow. A company was also incorporated in Jan. 1863 for the purpose 
of clearing the Puyallup River of obstructions and rendering it navigable as 
far as the mouth of the Stuck, consisting of Cyril Ward, William Billings, A. 
J. Perkins, Israel Wright, John Carson, John Walker, Isaac Woolery, Abra- 
ham Woolory, J. P. Stewart, Miller, R. S. Moore, William M. Kincaid, Jon- 
athan McCarty, L. F. Thompson, Archibald, Sherman, J. B. Leach, 
W. H. Whitesell, Aronomous Nix, Isaac Lemmon, Van Ogle, Daniel E. Lauc, 
Edward Lane, William Lane, H. W. BeiTy, James H. Downey, R. M. Downey, 
F. C. Seaman, and Willis Boatmim. The act required the company to begin 


ington a comparatively central position with respect 
to the Northwest Coast, which could not but be 

clearing the river within three months, and each year to clear at least one 
mile of the channel from all drifts, jams, sunken logs, or other obstructions 
to the passage of flat-boata or other small craft, and within five years have 
cleared the whole distance; after which completion of tlie work, certain rates 
of toll might be collected. The act was amended at the next session to allow 
ten years for the completion of the work of clearing the river from obstruc- 
tions to the mouth of the Stuck. Whatever work was accomplished was ren- 
dered valueless by the accumulations of drift. In 1875 McFadden, delegate, 
secured an appropriation from congress for the survey of the Puyallup River. 
Pacijic Tribune, March 26, 1875. The survey was made, and embraced that 
portion of the river from the mouth to the forks. It was proposed to deepen 
the channel sufficiently to admit of the passage of boats drawing 2^ feet. In 
18G4 much interest was shown in the Columbia River pass of the Cascade 
Mountains, two companies being incorporated to build a railroad at the port- 
age on the Washington side; one by Peter Donahue, Williaui Kohl, and Al- 
e.>cander P. Ankeny, called the Washiugton Railroad Company, and auother 
by William C. Parsons and Richard Harris, called the Middle Cascade Port- 
age Company, neither of which ever made any use of their franchise. Wash. 
Stat., 1864-5, 108-20. Subsequent to the close of the Fraser River mining 
excitement and the opening of the country east of the Cascades, which drew 
mining travel up the Columbia instead of by Puget Sound, the numerous 
boats employed in these waters had been withdrawn, and the only craft left 
were sailing-vessels, a steam revenue-cutter, and the mail passenger-steamer 
Eliza Anderson, running between Olympia, Victoria, and way-ports. I have 
mentioned in an earlier chapter the Major Tompkins as the first mail and pas- 
senger steamer employed on Puget Sound, in 1854. She was lost at Victoria 
harbor after running about one year, and was succeeded by the Traveller, 
Capt. J. G. Parker, which ran from Olympia to Victoria for two years car- 
rying the mail. She was then sold to Horton, who chartered her to the Ind- 
ian department, which needed a steamer to carry their officers and goods to 
the various reservations, and was lost, March 1858, at Foulweather Bluff, to- 
gether with five persons, Thomas Slater, Truman H. Fuller, special Indian 
agent, John Stevens, George Haywey, and a sailor, name unknown. Fuller 
was from the state of New York. He came to Puget Sound as purser of the 
Major Tomphinn, and after she was lost was engaged by the Indian depart- 
ment. Olympia Pioneer and Dem., March 19, 1858. She wasan iron steamer, 
built at Philadelphia, and brought out around Cape Horn in sections. This 
was the first steamer that ran upon the Dwamish, White, Snohomish, and 
Nootsack rivers. She rendered important services carrying men and supplies 
to forts and camps. In 1855 was incorporated the Puget Sound Navigation 
Company, consisting of William H. Wallace, William Cock, H. A. Golds- 
borough, H. L. Yesler, Charles C. Terry, James M. Hunt, and John H. 
Scranton. Scranton went to S. F. as agent for the company and purchased a 
tug-boat, the Champion, which, however, does not appear to have reached 
the Sound. He purchased also the passenger steamer Younrj America at 
Portland; but she was burned at Crescent City while on lier way from S. F. 
to Vancouver with 1,000 troops under Major Prince. Scranton seems to have 
been unfortunate. He owned the Major Tompkins, which was lost this year. 
In 1856 he purchased the screw-propeller Constitution, together with W. E. 
Moulthrop, which ran from Olympia to Victoria with the mails for about 
three years before and during the Fraser River times. The Constitution was 
built in New York in 1850 by Ward & Price, who sold her at Panamd ia 
1851 to the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, andafterwaxd sold to Scranton. 
Her engines were taken out in 1860, and she became a lumber carrier about 
the Sound, though her timbers were still good in 1873. Portland Herald, Feb. 
13, 1873; E'lerfs Journal, MS., v. 100, 105, 137. Captains A. B. Gove and 
James M. Hunt commanded the Constitution on the Sound during 1867-9. 


beneficial to it, with the stimulation to trade which 
the change in the nationality of the Russian posses- 
sions must bring with it/^ 

In December 1859 the Eliza Anderson succeeded the Constitntion as a mail 
carrier. She was built on the Columbia by Farman for George and John 
Wright of Victoria, whose father owned the ill-fated Brother Jonathan. The 
Anderson was commanded by D. B. Finch, and ran for about 8 years on the 
same route. She was laid up in 1880. During a part of this time a small 
steamer, the J. B. Libhey, built at Utsalady, carried the mail from Seattle to 
Penu Cove, Whidbey Island, and from there through the Swinomish slough 
to Whatcom, Bellingham Bay. During the busy times of Fraser Elver min- 
ing rush, the Julia, from the Columbia River, and the Wilaon 6. Hunt, Sea 
Bird, and Suriirise from San Francisco, ran on the Sound, returning to other 
routes on the subsidence of travel and increase of business on the Columbia, 
and one steam-vessel performed the carrying on the Sound between Olympia 
and Victoria. Parker's Pugct Sound, MS., 5-9. At the session of 1865-6 the 
Puget Sound Steam Navigation Company was reincorporated by W. T. Say- 
ward, Thomas Deane, E. S. Fowler, H. L. Tibbals, 0. F. Gerrish, P. M. 
O'Brien, C. B. Sweeny, W. W. Miller, Isaac Lightner, S. W. Percival. S. D. 
Howe, G. K. Willard, Sam. Coulter, T. F. McEloy, J. L. McDonald, and 
their associates, to navigate the waters of Washington, V. I., and B. C. Waxh. 
Stat., 1865-6, 193-4. Nothing was ever done by this company for the benefit 
of navigation. Boats continued to arrive from S. F. for the business of the 
Sound for several seasons: the tug-boat Besolute, Capt. Cuindon, in 1859, 
which blew up in 1867; the small side-wheel steamer Hanger ^o. 2, Capt. J. 
S. Hill; tl\e Black Diamond in 1861; the Cyrus ]Yalker, a tow-boat, in 1865; 
the Josie UcNear, Capt. Crosby, in 1868, which carried the mail for the con- 
tractors, Hailley, Crosby, & Windsor. She ran on the Sound for less than 
a year, when she was traded to the O. S. N. Co. for the New World, Capt. 
Windsor, which had been a Hudson River steamer, but ran away and came 
to the Pacific coast. Her history was eventful, having carried passengers on 
the Hudson, Sacramento, and Columbia rivers, and Puget Sound. She 
proved too large and expensive, and was sold to the Wrights of Victoria. 
The Olympia was the next mail and jiassenger boat, Capt. Finch. The nc.Nt 
contractors were L. M. & E. A. Starr, who ran the steamer .4 /(Wa, Capt. 
Parker, a good passenger boat, to Victoria, sometimes connecting at Port 
Townsend with the English steamer Isabel. The Zephyr, Capt. Thomas 
Wright, ran at the same time. They subsequently built at S. F. the North 
Pacijic, which was brought up to take the Alula's place iu 1871, and was 
carrying the mail in 1878. Parker's Puget Sound, MS., 8-9. In the mean 
time small jobbing and freight steamers have multiplied, owned chiefly by 
individuals, as the J. B. Libbey, Chehalis, Ooliah, Favorite, Phantom, Polit- 
hofsky, Iluby, Success, Cello, ilary Woodruff, Addie, and the A. E. Starr. 
In 1876 the I'uget Sound Transportation Company was incorporated, aud 
built two boats, the Messenger, Capt. J. G. Parker, and the Daisy, Capt. C. 
H. Parker, making a line from Olympia to Mount Vernon on the Skagit 
Kiver. The company has since bought and sold several other boats. In 
1881 a spirited competition was kept up for a season between the boats of the 
Puget Sound Transportation Company and Starr's line, the Otter and Annie 
Stewart. In the autnmn of 1881 the 0. S. N. Co. purchased Starr's line, and 
added some of their old boats, the Welcome, Idaho, aud Emma llayward. 
In the following year another company was formed, called the Washington 
Steam Navigation Company, wliose boats were the City of Quincy, Daisy, 
Wanhinyton, and Mervin. J. G. Parker, in Historical Correspondence, MS., 

"Message of Governor Moore, Washington Jour. House, 1867-8,30-1. 
The policy of the Alaska Company was not to encourage trade, but rather to 
oppose it. 


A reciprocity treaty had also been negotiated with 
the Hawaiian Islands, from which it was expected 
that Washington would obtain sugar at a reduced 
price, and the Hawaiian kingdom purchase more 
largely of the territory's lumber and other products." 

The inadequacy of the mail service it was suggested 
should be made the subject of a memorial to congress.^^ 
The legislature accordingly petitioned for a mail route 
by sea from San Francisco to Olympia, instead of by 
land from the Columbia; for steamship service be- 
tween Olympia and Sitka; for a weekly mail to As- 
toria by the way of the Chehalis, Gray Harbor, 
Shoal water and Baker bays; and for improvements 
in other routes, and for increased compensation in 
certain cases, which have since been granted. The 
necessity of codifying the laws was urged, and of ap- 
pointing commissioners for that purpose without delay. 
An act was accordingly passed authorizing the gov- 
ernor to appoint "three discreet persons" as code 
commissioners, to revise, digest, and codify the statute 
laws of the territory. The three persons chosen were 
J. H. Lassater, Elwood Evans, and B. F. Dennison,^® 
who made their report to the legislature of 1869, 
which met in October, in accordance with an act 
passed in January 1868 changing the time of hold- 
ing the sessions of the legislative assembly. 

Another subject of executive advice was the proper 
care of the insane, at the time provided for by con- 
tract with the lowest bidder. No territorial asylum 
was provided where their condition could be amelio- 
rated until 1871, when an asylum at Steilacoom was 
prepared for their reception. ^"^ 

"No such benefits resulted as were anticipated by Gov. Moore; the effect 
of reciprocity with inferior nations being to assist them at the expense of the 
other side. 

'* The government discriminated unjustly, by paying a subsidy of 06,000 
in coin for carrying the mail from Victoria to Fort I'ickett on San Juan 
Island, and §10,000 in depreciated currency for carrying it from Victoria to 
Olympia and back, once a week. The tri-weekly mail from Portland to 
Olympia was detained at the latter place from two to four days. 

^^Olympia Standard, Oct. 9, 1870; Wash. Stat., 1867-8, 04. 

" The legislative assembly of 1861-2 authorized the gov. and auditor to 
HiBT. Wash.— 18 


For several sessions previous to 1862 the legislature 
had granted divorces indiscriminately." When Gov- 
ernor Pickering came to observe this, he made a 
serious appeal to the legislature to cease dissolving 
the marriage bond and leave this matter to the coui'ts, 
where the impediments were few enough, but where, 
at least, some examination would be made into the 
merits of the applicant's case. Notwithstanding, six- 
teen unions were dissolved by the legislatures of 
1862-3, and at the following session Pickering again 
called attention to the practice, which was not there- 
contract for the care of the insane, the contract being let to the St Jolin luna- 
tic asylum at Vancouver, in charge of the Sisters of Charity. A fund was set 
aside out of the general fund of the territory to pay for their keeping, and 
tliey were kindly cared for. A memorial was forwarded to congress, asking 
that an appropriation might be made to erect a building somewhere on the 
Sound which should serve both for a marine hospital, which was needed, and 
an asylum for the insane. But congress had not responded, when the legisla- 
ture of 1S66-7 passed an act again authorizing the governor and auditor to 
make contracts for the care of the insane, the contractors giving bonds for the 
proper performance of their duties, and the law requiring them to report an- 
nually to the governor. A board of inspectors was appointed to visit the 
asylum quarterly, and to audit the accounts submitted by the institution. 
The patients were removed from St John's, Vancouver, to a private asylum 
in charge of James Huntington and son, located in the Cowlitz valley oppo- 
site Monticello, where the accommodations were inadequate, and where by 
the unusual flood of Dec. 1867 the improvements were swept away. It was 
in reference to these facts that Gov. Moore called for a radical change in the 
system adopted, and advised the purchase of a farm and the erection of an 
asylum which would meet the requirements of those sufiering from mental 
diseases, who, with intelligent treatment, might be restored to society. At 
the session of 1867-8, however, nothing was done except to petition congress 
for a grant of land, the proceeds of which should be expended in providing a 
fund for the erection of a suitable building and the support of the insane. 
But at the following terai an act was passed authorizing the purchase of the 
government buildings at Fort Steilacoom, should they be offered for sale, and 
appointing the governor and auditor commissioners to secure the prop- 
erty. The purchase of the abandoned military quarters was effected in Jan. 
1870, by James Scott, territorial secretary, and other commissioners appointed 
by the legislature, Delegate Flanders having in the mean time proposed to 
congress to donate them to the territory. H. Ex. Doc, 202, 42d cong. 2d sess.; 
Id. Doc, 175; Cong. Olohc, 1868-9, 554; Olympia Transcript, Feb. 27, 1869. 
The price paid for the buildings was $850. In March 1873, soon after the 
settlement of the Puget Sound Company's claims, congress did donate the 
military reservation for asylum grounds, gi^^ng Washington one of the most 
beautiful sites on the Sound for the use of the insane. The patients were re- 
moved in Aug. 1871. The number of patients in 1870 was 23. In 1877 it 
was 67. There were 25 acres of ground in cultivation, and 300 fruit-trees set 
out. Tacoma Herald, April 14, 1877. The disbursements for the insane in 
1879 wore §52,325. Olympia Standard. Oct. 10, 1879. 

■*In 1860-1 there were granted 17 divorces, in 1861-2 13, and in 1862-3 
16. There seems to have been some connection between the gold-mining ex- 
citement and the desire for freedom. 


after renewed; but an act was passed in January 1866 
declaring marriage to be a civil contract, and doubt- 
less intended to prevent legislative divorces, as civil 
contracts could only be annulled by the courts.^" 

Nevertheless, a bill was passed in January 1868 
dissolving a marriage, which on presentation to Gov- 
ernor Moore was returned without approval, and the 
legislature declined to pass it over the veto, by a vote 
in the house of three to twenty-four. Subsequent 
efforts to revive the practice failed. This tendency 
to dissolve marriage ties was the more remarkable 
when it is remembered that the male population 
greatly exceeded the female, many men having taken 
wives from among the Indian women.-" A. S. 
Mercer of Seattle in 1865 made a movement to 
establish asocial equilibrium, by importing a ship-load 
of unmarried women from the Atlantic states, widows 
and orphans of soldiers, but the influence of a single 
adventure of this kind was hardly perceptible. 

Among the public institutions of which the terri- 
tory had long had need was a penitentiary, the only 
prison in use for felons being the county jail of Pierce 
county, from which escapes were of frequent occur- 
rence. In January 1867 congress set aside for the 
purpose of erecting a suitable prison the net proceeds 
of the internal revenue of the territory from the 30th 
of June, 1865, to the same date of 1868, provided the 
amount should not exceed twenty thousand dollars. 
The legislature appointed a comiBittee to wait upon 
the collector to ascertain the amount due the terri- 
tory,*^ which fell far beneath the appropriation, the 

" Wash. Siat., 1865-6, 80-85; Wash. Jour. House, 1867-8, 400. 

•"Morse, in his Wash. Ter., MS., xv. 34^5, speaks of this condition o£ 
society in the Haro archipelago more particularly. Orcas Island was settled 
chiefly by returned Fraser River miners, who nearly all took Indian wives. 
As late as 1879 there were but 13 white women on that island. On Lopez 
Island the first white woman settled in 1869, Mrs J. L. Davis. There were 
more purely white families on Lopez than Orcas; San Juan had later a more 
nearly equal division of the se.xes than the smaller islands of the group, but 
miscegenation prevailed to a considerable extent in all the northern settle- 
ments. See also Oli/mpia Wash. Standard, Sept. 30, 1865. 

^' Philip D. Moore was collector of internal revenue in 1867. He was suc- 
ceeded by Edward Giddings, who was bom in Niagara county, New York, in 


grant of $20,000 being doubled before the penitentiary 
buildings proper were begun."^ 

No event could better illustrate the change which 
ten years had made in the condition of Washington 
than the abandonment in the spring of 1868 of Fort 
Steilacoom. So far as the natives of the Puget Sound 
region were concerned, their millenium had come, 
their eternity begun, and they would learn war no 
more. Contentedly they digged their little farms on 
the reservations, hired themselves out as farm-hands, 
fished, raced horses, held jJO^Zac/ies,^^ gathered berries 
for sale, or spent their trifling earnings in whiskey, 
which caused many, both men and women, to adorn, 
in the picturesque enjoyment of dolce far niente, the 
curb-stones and door-steps of the various towns in the 
vicinity of their reserves, day after day. Whiskey, 
as applied to the noble savage, is a wonderful civilizer. 
A few years of it reduces him to a subjection more 
complete than arms, and accomplishes in him a hu- 
mility which religion never can achieve. Some things 
some men will do for Christ, for country, for wife and 
children : there is nothing an Indian will not do for 

May 1822. He served several years in the office of the state controller at 
Albany, under Silas Wright and Millard Fillmore, coming to the Pacific coast 
in 1849. He returned in 1850, married, and brought out his wife, residing in 
California 3 years, when he removed to Puget Sound, having his home at 
Olympia. He was chief clerk in the surveyor-general's office from 1S62 to 
1865, and afterward deputy surveyor until appointed assessor of internal reve- 
nue. He was succeeded in that office by J. R. Hayden, but in 1875 displaced 
Hayden as collector of internal revenue, which position he held at the time of 
bis death in 1870. Olympia Pac. Tribune, Feb. 26, 1875; Ohjmpia Standard, 
April 29, 187C. 

^' The legislature of 1869 appointed John McReavy, Fred. A. Clarke, aud 
L. F. Thompson commissioners to select a site for a penitentiary, ' at or near 
Steilacoom.' The land selected was donated by John Swan and Jay Emmons 
Smith, a free gift to the ten-itory of twenty-seven acres on the south-east shore 
of McNeil Island, about five miles by water from Steilacoom. Its situation 
was all tliat could be desired, being healthful and beautiful. The secretary 
of the interior, however, who liad the matter in hand, would take no steps 
toward building until the land was deeded to the United States, and money 
enough placed in his hands by appropriation to complete some portion of the 
work. Finding that $20,000 would be insufficient, he directed a suspension 
of the work until congress should move in the matter, which it would only 
do by being memorialized by the legislature and importuned by its delegate. 
The further appropriation was not made until 1873. 

'" A poi-lach was a ceremonious feast held on certain occasions, when pres- 
ents were given. 


But it was not altogether, nor in the first place, the 
allurement of strong drink which reduced the red men 
to submission. Troops on one hand, and government 
agents with presents on the other, had accomplished 
the reduction; and now in 1868 there was no longer 
any use for the troops, and the occupation of the 
Indian agent would last but a few years longer. In 
the interim, teachers and preachers contended with 
the other civilizer, rum, to the salvation of some and 
the utter reprobation of others. In the haste and 
exigency of the times, and dreading an Indian war, 
numerous small reservations had been left here and 
there about the Sound, which in these ten years had 
come to lie at the doors of the principal towns, the 
temptations of which few Indians could resist. It 
would have been better to have banished them to the 
sea-coast, as in Oregon, and kept up a military guard 
to hold them there, than that they should mix with 
the foremost civilization of the day.'^* 

2* In 186S the Tvar department ordered to be sold the government buildinga 
at Gray Harbor and Fort Chehalis, erected in the autumn of 1859, when the 
Chehalis tribe threatened the new settlements at the mouth of the river of 
that name. These posts were abandoned at the breaking-out of the war of the 
rebellion. Ivd. Aff. Repl, 1860, 187; Olympia Traiiscript, Feb. 22 and Dec. 
26, 1868. The only military stations left in Washington in 1868 were Van- 
couver, T. L. Elliott in command; Colville, W. C. M. Manning in command; 
Camp Steele (formerly Pickett,. but changed on account of Pickett's secession), 
Thomas Grey in command; and Cape Disappointment, R. G. Howell in com- 
mand. Bept of Sec. War, 1868, 40th cong. 3d sess., 742. In 1866 the head- 
quarters of the department of the Columbia was removed to Portland, followed 
soon after by the whole staff and the commissary stores. The legislature of 
AVashington remonstrated, but headquarters remained at Portland until June 
1S7S, when the war department ordered a return to Vancouver. The terri- 
torial legislature had very frequently to remind the general government of 
the defenceless condition of its sea-coast, as well as of danger from Indian tribes 
in its midst. From 1854 to 1858 congress was annually petitioned to place a 
man-of-war on the Northwest Coast. During the Indian wars the Decatur, 
Hancock, and Massachusetts did good service, and the latter was left on the 
Sound to watch the Indians. But slio was too large and slow for that service. 
In 1859-60 the legislature petitioned to have the Shubrkk, which first visited 
the Sound in July 1858, put in place of the Massachusetts, which was not 
granted until Victor Smith became collector in 1861, when he secured her 
services as revenue-cutter, in place of the Jefferson Davis, Capt. \V. C. Pease, 
a sailing vessel which had answered that pui-pose from 1854 to 1861. In Dec. 
1866, all war vessels having been withdrawn from the Sound, while there ^las 
a British naval station at Esquimault harbor, V. I. , the pride if not the fears 
of the representatives of the people became alarmed, and congress was memo- 
rialized to ' station such a number of vessels of war upon the waters of Puget 
Sound as are essential to our security, as well as to convince foreign powers 


The political quarrels of 1867 culminated in an act 
of the legislature, passed in January 1868, redistrict- 
ing the territory, and assigning the federal judges in 
such a manner that Hewitt was given the county of 
Stevens for his district, and required to reside there ; 
while Wyche was given Walla Walla, Yakima, Kliki- 
tat, Skamania, Clarke, Cowlitz, Pacific, Wahkiakum, 
Lewis, Mason, Thurston, and Chehalis; and the latest 
appointee, C B. Darwin, was assigned to the counties 
of Pierce, King, Kitsap, Clallam, Whatcom, Island, 
and Jefferson,-' but in order to relieve Wyche, was 
required to hold court at Olympia for the counties of 
Thurston, Lewis, Chehalis, and Mason. The old war 
was renewed against republican measures, which had 
only been suppressed while the integrity of the union 
W' as in danger. Whatever the ability or want of abil- 
ity of Hewitt, who had held the judgeship for eight 
years, it was not that question that assigned him to 

that the general government has the interest and honor of her most remote 
settlements at heart.' Wash. Stat., 1866-7, 260. At the following session 
congress was memorialised to erect fortifications at such points on the Sound 
as the war department might deem expedient. 

In 1871 the following reservations were made by the government for the 
erection of fortifications in the future: at New Dungeness; at entrance to 
Squim Bay, Protection Island ; on each side of the entrance to Port Discovery; 
at Point Wilson, including Point Hudson and Point Marrowstone at the en- 
trance to Port Townsend Bay; at both sides of the entrance of Deception 
Pass; at Admiralty Head, opposite Point Wilson; at Volcano Point, or Double 
Bluif, Whidbey Island; at Port Ludlow Bluff, Foulweather Bluff, and Whis- 
key Pit, at the entrance to Hood's canal; at Point Defiance and Point Evans, 
at the Narrows. All these reservations were large enough for extensive 
works. Reservations were also made at Neah Bay, which was in contempla- 
tion for a port of refuge. Gov. mess., in Oli/mpia Transcript, March 11, 1871. 
With half these fortifications the whole of Washington would be safe from 
invasion except through the gulf of Georgia and B. C. The above points 
were selected by generals Halleck and Steele in 1866. Portland Oregonian, 
July 25, 1866. The matter had been under consideration a longer time. H. 
Ex. Doc, 65, vii., 35th cong. 2d sess. The legislature continued to petition 
for these fortifications, but up to 1884 none have been erected or even begun. 

In 188-1 the arsenal at Vancouver was closed, and the territorial arms, 478 
Springfield rifles, turned over to Gov. Newell, with the ammunition. 

2^ The county of Quillehuyte was organized at tlic session of 1867-8, com- 
prising the territory on the coast from the mouth of the Wyatch River south- 
east along the Olympia range to where the 124th meridian crosses the 48th 
parallel, thence south along the meridian to the north boundary of Chehalis 
county, and from there west to tlie ocean. Wash. Stat., 1867-8, SO-1. It 
was later included in Clallam, Jefferson, and Mason ; Gideon Browufield, John 
C. Brown, Aurelius Colby, John Weir, and Smith Troy were appointed county 
officers, sliowing that the coast country was becoming settled. 


Stevens county to hold court and reside at Fort Col- 
ville. The same persons who made war upon Hewitt 
openly declared that Darwin should be removed, as 
well as some other oflScials.'^* 

Congress did not look with favoring eyes upon the 
act of the legislature heaping contumely upon the 
appointments of the president and senate, refusing to 
confirm it.-^ But when Grant came to the presidency 
a sweeping change was made, which saved the male- 
contents the trouble of scheming against the old bench 
of judges, by the appointment of B. F. Dennison 
chief justice, and Orange Jacobs and James K. Ken- 
nedy associates,-^ with A. W. Moore chief clerk, and 
Philip Ritz marshal.^" In 1871 Jacobs was appointed 
chief justice, with Rodger S. Greene and James K. 
Kennedy associate justices, and E. S. Kearney mar- 
shal. In 1872 J. R. Lewis succeeded Kennedy.^" 

The presidential appointments of 1869 included a 
new governor, Flanders, who^ it was said, had in- 
tended to return and run again for delegate, but was 
prevented by the commission of executive. James 
Scott was appointed secretary. Colonel Samuel 
Ross, late commander of Fort Steilacoom, Indian 
superintendent/^ Elisha P. Ferry surveyor-general, 

26 Although this was a political quarrel, there was another good reason for 
the removal of Darwin — the seduction of the wife of another official. Darwin 
was a scholarly judge, which Hewitt was not; but Hewitt was honest, which 
Darwin was not. 

'TOong. Globe, 1S67-S, 3709. 

^'Kennedy had been prosecuting attorney of the 3d judicial district. 
Olympia Pacijic Tribune, March 12, 1869. 

'^Ilitz was an early settler of the Walla Walla Valley, where he introduced 
fruit culture, writing many pamphlets upon the resources of the country, and 
advocating the speedy construction of the Northern Pacific Railroad. He 
made a very valuable contribution to my Library in the form of a manuscript 
monograph upon the Walla Walla Valley. A town in the Spokane country 
is named after him. 

'"Lewis had been a judge in Idaho. ' He is reputed, ' says the Olymjyia Pac. 
Tribune, May 14, 1872, 'to have been one of the ablest, most honorable, and 
incorruptible judges that have ever occiipied the bench of Idaho. ' 

" Samuel Ross was a native of N. Y. ; enlisted as a drummer-boy in the 
Sth inf. at 16 years of age (1837), and wag brevetted a 2d lieut in 1S4S. Re- 
signing, he studied law in Ohio, and was practising in Iowa when Sumter 
fell. He then joined the army, was severely wounded at Chancellorsville, and 
was subsequently brevetted col in the regular and bi'ig.-gen. in the volunteer 
service. Finally he was sent to Washington, and after his last appointment 


Edward Giddings^^ assessor of internal revenue, Haz- 
ard Stevens collector, and United States district at- 
torney Leander Holmes. 

Salucius Garfielde and Mai^liall F. Moore then be- 
came candidates for the delegateship, the former as 
the choice of the republicans, the latter of the demo- 
cratic party. Garfielde, was elected, and secured 
some of the ends for which he was nominated.'^ 
Moore died in February of the following year, from 
the effects of old wounds received in the civil war, 
sincerely regretted by the people of the teri'itory.^* 

The republican jDarty, which had been in the ascend- 
ancy for several years, elected a republican majority 
to the legislature in 1869,^'' but it was losing power 

as Indian agent, was placed on the retired list as a brig. -gen. in 1871 by the 
solicitation of Delegate Garfielde. Olympia Courier, June 15, 1872; Seattle 
despatch, in Pac. Tribune, May 17, 1872; Seattle Intelligencer, July 31, 1880. 
In 1875 congress reduced his rank to a colonelcy. He -sves accidentally drowned 
while battling in Osceola Lake, near Peekskill, N. Y., July 10, 1880. New 
Haven Palladium, July 13, 18S0. 

2-Edward Giddings was born in Niagara co., N. Y., May 20, 1822. His 
boyhood was spent at home, and a portion of his youth in the office of the 
comptroller at Albany. He came to Cal. in 1849, and to Puget Sound in 1852, 
residing at Olympia, where he erected the first wharf for the discharge of 
sea-going vessels. He was collector of internal revenue for the district of 
Olympia at the time of bis death in April 187G. Olympia Trans. , April 29, 1876. 

^' Garfielde, if the testimony of both parties can be credited amid so much 
detraction of public men, varied his politics according to the winds of for- 
tune; Olympia Standard, May 8, 1869; Olympia Pac. Tribune, April 24, 
1869. George B. Roberts, in his Sacollections, MS., 91, says that the settlers 
on the lands of Puget Sound Ag. Co. elected Garfielde that he might secure 
them the patents to the land on which they had squatted. In a memorial to 
congress, passed Jan. 9, 1867, the legislature had said that at the time of 
settlement of Washington, American citizens believed that the treaty with 
Great Britian in 1846 gave the foreign companies only the lands actually 
enclosed and occupied at that date; and that under this belief they had 
entered upon, claimed, and improved, according to the donation act, the 
unoccupied land, unjustly claimed by those companies, and now asked that 
they should be secured in their homes and property by proper legislation, 
without being subjected to other or greater expense in obtaining patents than 
settlers on other parts of the public domain. Wash. Stat., 1866-7, 250-1. 
This was simply asking that the sovereignty of a portion of the territory still 
in dispute should be determined, for the welfare of aU concerned; and inas- 
much as Garfielde contributed to this result, he was of service to the country 
he represented. Garfielde was appointed collector of customs in 1873. 

3»See eulogy in Walla Walla Statesman, April 30, 1870. 

25 xhe officers of the council were, William McLane president, C. B. Bagley 
chief-clerk, EdAvin Eels enrolling clerk, C. H. Blake assistant clerk, S. W. 
Beall sergeant-at-arms, Daniel House door-keeper, S. H. Mann chaplain. 
The house organized with George H. Stewart speaker, Elwood Evans chief 
clerk, Charles B. Curtiss assistant clerk, Elizabeth Peebles enrolling clerk, I. 
V. Mossman sergeant-at-arms, Edwin A. Stevens door-keei)cr. Wash. Jour. 
Council, 1869, 15; Wash. Standard. Oct. 9, 1869. 


by dissensions and struggles for place within itself, 
of which the reviving democratic party eagerly took 
advantage. Garfielde, who held the delegateship 
nearly three years, on account of a change in the time 
of elections ^^ was not permitted to take his seat until 
December 1870. He served his term, and was renomi- 
nated by the republican party in 1872, but was beaten 
by 0. B. McFadden, the democratic candidate,^'' who 
since the incoming of Lincoln's administration had 
been living in the retirement of an ordinary law prac- 
tice, or serving in the legislature. He went to Wash- 
ington city, but was unfitted for duty by severe 
illness during a portion of his term, and died the year 
following his return. McFadden had the faults and 
the virtues that recommended him to his constituents, 
a warm heart and ready adaptability to surroundings, 
which was counted to him sometimes for judicial 
weakness. He was buried with imposing ceremonies 
from the house of his son-in-law, Ex-surveyor-general 
W. W. MiUer.^ 

Flanders did not long retain the executive office, 
being succeeded in April 1870 by Edward S. Salomon 
of Chicago, a German Jew, lawyer by profession, and 
a colonel in the 8 2d Illinois volunteers during the 
civil war, where he won wounds and honors, after 
which the quiet and ease of Olympia life must have 

2«Li 1S69 Senator Williams of Oregon introduced a bill in the senate, 
■which became a law, providing that the elections for delegate to the 42d con- 
gress, in Washington, should be held on the first Monday in June 1870, which 
law left the territory without a representative in congress for the whole 
year following Flanders' appointment as governor. Cong. Globe, 1868-9, 1080. 
Another bill was introduced and passed in the spring of 1872, changing the 
time of election to November of that year. Olympia Pac. Tribune, May 10, 
1872. These changes were said to have been made for party purposes. The 
Olymjyia Wash. Standard, March 2, 1872, charges the last one to the ' manip- 
ulations' of Garfielde, 'who dreads to enter the contest with the existing 
division in his party. ' 

"' The total vote for Garfielde was 3,.513; for McFadden 4,274. Although 
the former received a larger vote than in 1870, the democrats polled a much 
greater one, showing a striking change either in public sentiment or in the 
politics of the later accessions to the population, which is more probable. 

'^Olympia Transcript, July 3, 1875; Walla Walla Union, July 3, 1875; 
Vancouver Register, July 2, 1875. 


seemed a summer holicla3^^ James Scott still re- 
mained secretary. The officers elected *° in the terri- 
tory now began and closed their terms in the year 
intermediate between the elections for delegate, the 
congressional and executive terms corresponding, and 
the legislative appointments coming between.*^ 

On the expiration of Salomon's term he was suc- 
ceeded by Elisha Pyre Ferry, surveyor-general, his 
appointment making way for a new officer in the land 
department, which was filled by Lewis P. Beach, a 
pioneer of 1849.^-^ Perry held the office of governor 
from April 1872 to April 1880, when William A. 
Newell was appointed.^^ 

Perry's administration was not eventful in wars ** 
or political changes, but covered a period of active 

^'Salomon and his German regiment were much commended by generals 
Schurz and O. O. Howard. He fought at Gettysburg and Chaacellorsville. 
Puget Sound Express, Jan. 14, 1875; S. F. Aha, April 2.5, 1870. 

*" The territorial officers were J. G. Sparks auditor. Hill Harmon treasurer, 
James Rodgers public printer, and S. H. Mann librarian. Pacific Dir., 1870, 

*' The president of the council in 1871 was H. A. Smith of Snohomish, 
chief clerk Elwood Evans, assistant clerk James M. Hayes, sergeaat-at-arms 
R. L. Doyle, enrolling clerk Annie F. Tuck, chaplain J. R. Thompson. In 
the lower branch of the legislature J. J. H. Van Bokkelen was chosen speaker, 
W. S. Baxter chief clerk, W. Byron Daniels assistant clerk, A. B. Young 
enrolling clerk, D. P. Wallace sergeant-at-arms, David Helsler door-keeper. 
Wash. Jour. Council, 1871, 4-9. 

*^ Beach was from Seneca Falls, N. Y. He came to the Pacific coast in 
the early days of gold-mining, and to Puget Sound in 1861, where he had fol- 
lowed logging, printing, farming, and surveying at different times, being an 
industrious and able man. He died on returning from a visit to Washington 
city in the spring of 1873, of pleuro-pneumonia. Olympia Wash. Standard, 
May 3, 1873. 

" W. A. Newell was a native of Franklin, Ohio, whose family removed to 
that state from New Jersey. He returned there and entered Rutger's college, 
graduating in the class with U. S. Judge Bradley and Senator Frelinghuysen, 
after which he studied medicine at the university of Permsylvania, becoming 
accomplished in surgei-y. He was elected to congress in 1846, and again in 
1848, and was chosen governor of New Jersey in 1856. In 1864 he was again 
returned to congress. He ran against George B. McClellan in 1877 for gov- 
ernor, but was beaten, and in 1880 President Hayes tendered him the office of 
governor of Washington, which he accepted. It is said of him that while in 
congress he originated the life-saving system now in use on the coasts of the 
U. S., by which many thousands of lives have been saved; and also that he 
made the first movement to establish an agricultural bureau. He was over 
60 years of age when appointed to Washington, but hale and vigorous. Tren- 
ton (N. J.) Gazelle, in Olymyia Wash. Standard, May 21, 1880; Puget Sound 
Nail, May 29, 1880; Nao Tacoma N. P. Coast, May 15, 1880. 

**It witnessed one Indian war of brief duration in which Idaho was the 
sufferer. Of this I shall speak later. 


growth. He reestablished civil government over 
the Haro archipelago in October 1872, by making it 
temporarily a part of the county of Whatcom, until 
reorganized by the legislature/' and was a witness of 
the closing scenes of the Hudson Bay Company's 
occupation of the territory through the claims of the 
Puget Sound Agricultural Company. 

It was during Ferry's administration, also, that 
the Northern Pacific Railway constructed the Puget 
Sound division from Kalama to New Tacoma, passing 
Olympia eighteen miles to the east, in resentment for 
which slight put upon the capital the citizens of 
Thurston county constructed with their own money 
and labor, the women of the county assisting,*^ a 
narrow-gauge railway from Olympia to Tenino, a dis- 
tance of fifteen miles, which was completed and opened 
for travel in July 1878. 

The territorial secretaries during Ferry's adminis- 
tration were J. C. Clements, 1872 to 1875, Henry Gr. 
Struve*' from 1875 to 1877, and N. H. Owings''* from 
1877 to 1884. Ferry's administration extended over 

*' An 'act to create and organize the county of San Juan' out of the islands 
forming the Haro archipelago was passed October 31, 1873, the county- 
seat being temporarily located at the 'old landing of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany.' Charles McCoy, Samuel Trueworthy, and Joseph A. Merrill were ap- 
pointed county commissioners. Wash. Stat., 1873, 4G1-3. 

*« The building of this railroad was made a labor of love by the volunteer 
work accorded to it. The governor and territorial ofBcers, and all the most 
prominent citizens, worked at clearing and grading on regular days, called 
tield-days, when their wives and daughters accompanied them to the place 
indicated by the superintendent of construction, and carried with them ample 
stores of provisions, which, being prepared and served by them with much 
mii-th and amiability, converted the day of labor into general holiday. 

*' Struve had been in the regular armv as a soldier, having enlisted in the 
1st regiment of dragoons in 1854. The iVcw York Sun of April 28, 1875, ac- 
cused him of desertion for having failed to report himself to a provost-marslial 
within 60 days after the issuance of Lincoln's proclamation of March 11, 1865 
— which failure, according to law, made him forever incapable of holding 
office. But this stigma was explained away subsequently, the president 
having, owing to some peculiar circumstances, cancelled his enlistment 
and ordered his discharge. Olympia Wash. Standard, Oct. 3, 1875. Struve 
married a daughter of H. M. Knighton, mentioned in my History of Oregon. 
He was prosecuting attorney of the 2d jud. dist for 1868-9, and for a time 
was editor of the Vancouver Register. 

"N. H. Owings was bom in Indiana. He served in the union army dur- 
ing the rebellion. At its close he was appointed register of the land-olhce in 
Colorado, and subsequently held the office of special agent of the postal rail- 
way service. Olympia Wash. Standard, March 31, 1877. 


four biennial sessions of the legislature,*^ during which 
time the laws were frequently amended and improved, 
the legislation of Washington being from the first 
liberal and progressive. The revised statutes of 
the United States, approved June 1874, made some 
changes in the mode of filling territorial offices. Jus- 
tices of the peace and all general officers of militia 
were required to be elected by the people, in such a 
manner as the legislature might prescribe; but all 
other officers not provided for in the revised statutes 
should be appointed by the governor and confirmed 
b}' the council. This new system of appointment re- 
moved from the governor the opportunity of exercis- 
ing any arbitrary power, and affected all territories 

The democratic convention of 1874 renominated 
McFadden, who, being at that time ill in Pennsylva- 
nia, telegraphed the withdrawal of his name. B. L. 
Sharpstein of Walla Walla was then made the nomi- 
nee of the party for delegate to congress. Sharpstein 
was a lawyer of good abilities who had represented 
his county in the territorial council in 1866-7. J. 
;M. ^Nlurphy of the Olympia Standard was chairman 
of this convention, which met at Vancouver. 

The republican convention, which met at the same 
place, chose Thomas H. Brents''" of Walla Walla 

*' The officers of the legislature in 1873 were William McLane president 
of the council, Beriah Brown chief clerk, J. N. Gale assistant clerk, Levi 
Sheltou sergeant-at-arms, William Fowler door-keeper, C. A. Huntington 
chaplain. In the lower house N. T. Caton was speaker, Charles W. Frush 
chief clerk, Jason E. Ebey assistant clerk, W. Gness engrossing clerk, Mary 
O'Neil enrolling clerk, Jacob Isaac sergeant-at-arms, and Rev. P. E. Hyland 
chaplain. Wash. Jour. Council, 1873, 5-7. 

'"Says W. C. Johnson of Oregon City, in an address before the Oregon 
Pioneer Association in 1881: 'Brents got his start in the "brush end" of 
Clackamas county. His father in early days was county commissioner. 
Young Brents learned something in district school, was for a short time in 
college at McMinnville, Yamhill county, read law, practised iu San Fran- 
cisco several years, and tlicn settled at Walla Walla, wliere he acquired a 
good practice and is highly esteemed. He is exceedingly industrious, book- 
ish in his tastes, and is one of God's noblemen — an honest man.' Portland 
Oreoonian, Juno 21, 1881. Brents was at one time expressman in the upper 
country, about 1861-2, during the excitement about the Nez Ferci and Salmon 
River mines. 


chairman, and nominated Judge Jacobs for delegate. 
Jacobs immediately resigned the chief justiceship, 
which was conferred upon Judge Lewis, the vacancy 
created by his promotion being filled by S. C. Win- 
gard, United States prosecuting attorney, whose place 
was taken by John B. Allen of Olympia." Jacobs 
was elected by a large majority, the counties east of 
the mountains for the first time casting the greater 
number of votes for a republican nominee®^ for the 
delegateship, showing that the class of voters which in 
1862-4 overflowed from the south-western states 
upon the Pacific coast was being either eliminated or 

The democratic convention of 1876 nominated John 
Paul Judson, son of John Paul Judson, senior, who 
settled on Commencement Bay in 1853, where New 
Tacoma now stands." He was a member of the legal 
fraternity of the territory, of good talents and unas- 
suming address; but he was unable to carry the terri- 
tory against Jacobs, who was reelected by the repub- 
lican party. At the following congressional election 
in 1878 Thomas H. Brents was returned by the same 
party, and served two terms in congress. At his 
first election he ran against N. T. Caton, democrat, 
also of Walla Walla, beating him by over thirteen 
hundred votes out of thirteen thousand. 

The platform resolutions adopted by the democrats 
in 1878 were, 1st, unalterable opposition to the dis- 
memberment of the territory, and approval of state 

'^The position was first oflfered to R. H. Milroy, late superintendent of 
Indian affairs for Washington. Allen was spoken of as a 'rising young man.' 
Olympia Padjic Tribune, Feb. 12, 1S75. 

"Id., Nov. 1874. Sharpstein had 3,560; Jacobs 4,934. 

^^llxeOlumpia Transcript, May 12, 1877, remarks that 'Andrews, recently 
appointed clerk of the U. S. court at Seattle, is the first eastern Washington 
man ever appointed to a federal position on Puget Sound.' 

^* J. P. Judson, Sr, emigrated from Prussia to the U. S. in 1845, and set- 
tled in 111., where he resided until 1853. His sou was born in Prussia in 
1840. He earned the money in mining on the Fraser River with which he 
paid for two years' schooling at Vancouver. In 1863 he was territorial libra- 
rian, and chief clerk of the house of representatives in 1S64, after whicli he 
was employed as school-teacher xmtil he finished his law studies in 1867. He 
was a partner in the law office of Judge McFadden. Walla Walla Union, 
Oct. 7. 1876. 


government; 2d, extension of time to the Northern 
Pacific Railroad; 3d, improvement of the Snake and 
other rivers by the general government. The 6th 
resolution declared the Indian-reservation system a 
failure, and called for the breaking-up of the tribal 
relation, or the consolidation of reservations into one, 
which should be under military control. The 5th res- 
olution charged upon the republican party a wide- 
spread commercial distress. 

The platform of the republicans protested against 
an irredeemable currency; favored extension of time 
to the Northern Pacific Railway, provided it should 
construct twenty-five miles of road annually; approved 
the restoration to the public domain of the lands of 
the branch line originally located over the Skagit 
pass of the Cascades; besought government aid in 
the construction of the Seattle and Walla Walla rail- 
road ;^^ opposed the dismemberment of the territory; 
urged the passage of an enabling act for state pur- 
})oses by congress; denounced Chinese immigration 
and the existing management of the Indians.^^ From 
these two schedules of party principles and aims the 
general drift of territorial affairs at this period may 
be gathered. 

Ever since 1867-8 a movement had been on foot to 
annex to Washington that strip of country forming a 
handle to Idaho on the north, comprising the counties 
of Nez Perce, Shoshone, and Idaho." These counties 
did not all lie in the "long narrow strip" described in 
a legislative memorial to be only fifty miles wide, but 
congress w^as asked to assume that they did. And 
these veracious memorialists did "further show" that 

'^Tlie Seattle and Walla Walla railroad was built in the same manner as 
the Olympia and Tenino road, by the exertions of the people of Seattle. The 
first ground was broken in 1874, when on the 1st of May the citizens, men, 
women, and children, turned out and graded a mile of road before nightfall. 
On the 1 4th they repeated this action and graded another mile. Having 
made this beginning, the work was carried forward, and 20 miles of road 
intended to be the Cascade division of the Northern Pacific was completed. 
SecUtle Post-Intelllgenccr, Sept. 15, 18S3. 

'^Oli/mpia Iraimript, Oct. 19, 1878; Olympia Stajidard, Sept. 14, 1878. 

^'See petition of Washington legislature, in IFasA. Stat., 1867-8, 176-7. 


the representatives of the said counties in order to 
reach Boise City were compelled to travel through a 
large portion of Washington and Oregon, a distance 
of over 500 miles, at a great expense to their territory; 
to cure which evil, it was claimed that they desired to 
travel 125 miles farther, at the expense of Washing- 
ton, to reach Olympia! 

There was, indeed, a wish on the part of those 
inhabitants of Idaho north of the Salmon Range to 
be reunited to Washington. In 1873 another memo- 
rial was passed in the legislature of Washington, setting 
forth the benefits to be derived to the north of Idaho 
from annexation,'^* which received as little attention 
in congress as the former one. Not long after, a 
scheme was found to be on foot to create a new terri- 
tory out of eastern Washington and northern Idaho, 
this being the dismemberment to which both repub- 
licans and democrats were opposed in the laying-down 
of their principles. 

Both parties were agreed in disapproving of the 
reservation system, which had brought on another 
Indian war, in which that portion of the Nez Perces 
which acknowledged Joseph as chief had massacred 
an entire settlement in Idaho and alarmed the whole 
country.'* Both parties wished for the completion of 
the Northern Pacific Railroad, and favored extension 
of time as a means to that end. Both believed the 
time had come for a state constitution, being satis- 
fied that as a territory congress would ignore their 
demands for internal improvements, harbors, and 
coast defences, with an unjust degree of parsimony on 
one hand and favoritism on the other.^" 

'■' Waah. Stat., 1S73, 608. 

*'Soe History of Idaho, this volume. 

*" From the report of the secretary of war for 1SS3 it appears that the 
whole amount expended on river and harbor improvements in the United 
States between 17S9 .ind 1882 was $105,790,501, the most of it subsequent to 
1861. Tho whole share of the Pacific coast in these appropriations amounts 
to $2,157,233, of which California has had $1,492,428, Oregon §649,305, Idaho 
110,000, and Washington territory $5,0001 S. P. Chronicle, Jan 25, 1884. 
Population and apportionment of representatives aside, such parsimony, 
where a proper degree of expenditure would produce more magnificent results 


The legislature of 1867-8 passed an act to submit 
the question of calling a constitutional convention to 
the people at the next general election, but the meagre 
vote polled in 1869 showed them to be indifferent or 
undecided. The legislature of that year passed an- 
other act calling for a vote in 1870, and making it 
the duty of the next legislature, should there be a 
majority in favor of a convention, to provide for the 
holding of it." Again the people were indifferent. 

The legislature of 1871 repeated the enactment of 
1869, with the addition that the governor should give 
notice in his proclamation that the legal voters of the 
territory were required to vote for or against a state 
convention, but with the same result as before. In 
1873 another act was passed of a similar nature, in 
the hope, by mere iteration, to bring the voters up to 
the mark of taking an interest in the matter. The 
whole vote cast "against convention" was less than a 
fourth of the popular vote for delegate, but enough to 
defeat the movement. 

In its turn, the legislature of 1875 took up the sub- 
ject, passing another act similar to the last,*" which 
called out in 1876 a vote of over 7,000, and a majority 
for convention of 4,168. Accordingly the succeeding 
legislature''' appointed a state constitutional convention 
to be held at Walla Walla in June 1878, the delegates 
being elected in April. 

than in almost any portion of the union, is a short-sighted policy in the fed- 
eral government, which every year renders more distasteful to the people on 
the Pacific coast. 

^^ Seattle Intelligencer, May 23, 1870. 

''The president of the council in 1875 was B. F. Shaw, chief clerk A. J. 
Cain, assistant clerk C. C. Perkins, sergeant-at-arms Charles Stockton, door- 
keeper Frank Lampson, enrolling clerk Emma Nichols, engrossing clerk Clara 
Gove. Speaker of the house Elwood Evans, chief clerk R. G. O'Brien, assist- 
ant clerk S. L. Crawford, sergeant-at-arms Luke Moore, door-keeper F. M. 
Jones, enrolling clerk James A. Hughes, engrossing clerk Estella Galliher. 
If'atft. Jour. House, 1875, (>-10. 

^T. M. Reed was chosen president of the council in 1877, and T. B. Mur- 
ray chief clerk. In the house, R. G. Newland was elected speaker, and R. G. 
O'Brien chief clerk. Olympia Wash. Standard, Oct. 6, 1877. Miss C. E. 
Myers was chosen enrolfing olerk, and Miss S. Galliher engrossing clerk, for 
the house; Fannie Baldwin enrolling, and Anna Knighton engrossing, clerk 
for tlie council. Wash. Joiir. House, 1877, 7-S. In the council were 5 repub- 
licans and 4 democrats; in the house IG republicans and 13 democrats. 


Notwithstanding the election of delegates took 
place as ordered by proclamation of the governor, the 
newspapers complained of the apathy of the people, 
accounting for it by saying they feared the movement 
would fail in congress. But the real reason was, that 
a majority of the voting class were willing that con- 
gress should continue to pay the expenses of the mu- 
nicipal government until the population, then less 
than 40,000, reached the number of 124,000 required 
by the general apportionment bill to give them a 
member of congress. Outside of Washington it was 
admitted that if any territory might claim exemption 
from the law it was this one, possessing an immense 
area and great resources, and lacking only population, 
which would rapidly be drawn thither when it should 
become a state, with all the advantages of equality 
with the other Pacific states.** At home the argu- 
ments put forward to overcome the apathy of the 
people at large was the increased value of property 
likely to result from admission into the union, which 
would more than offset the expense of state govern- 
ment; the appropriations which would be due, and 
the position of north Idaho, which was waiting to be 
joined to Washington, but could not be until the lat- 
ter should be admitted, with this territory included 
within its present boundary.''' 

In the mean time the delegate in congress, Jacobs, 
acting on the result of the election of 1877, introduced, 
by way of an entering wedge, a bill for the admission 
of Washington as a state of the union, in December 
1877. After it was settled that there was really to be 
a constitutional convention, the subject of a name for 
the future state was discussed more than any of the 
more important issues, a large number of the inhab- 
tants clinging to the name of Columbia, by which it was 
first presented to congress for territorial organization.^ 

"5. F. Chronicle, Dec. 28, 1877; Id., April 8, 1878; S. F. Bulletin, June 
29, 1878. 

<^'0!ympia Transcript, Oct. 24, 1878. 
^ Uhjmpia Wash. Standard, April 6, 1863. 
Hist. Wash.— 19 


The convention met at Walla Walla June 11, 
1878, a delegate from northern Idaho being also 
present, but without a vote. A new boundary was 
fixed for the eastern portion of the state, including 
the panhandle of Idaho. In the declaration of rights 
it was said that "no person on account of sex should 
be disqualified to enter upon and pursue any lawful 
business, avocation, or profession,"*'' but all attempts 
to have stricken out the word 'male' as a qualifi- 
cation for voters failed. The instrument gave the 
legislature power to amend itself, made the sessions 
biennial, gave that body authority to adopt the sys- 
tem known as the preferential system in dealing 
representatives, and limited its sessions to forty days. 
Special legislation was forbidden; no lotteries could 
be authorized, or divorces granted. The courts were 
reorganized; taxes made uniform under general laws; 
the power to tax corporate property could never be 
suspended; the public school fund could never be 
reduced; educational and penal institutions should 
be provided; the legislature should have power to 
change the location of the seat of government, which 

^' Tlii3 declaration of the righta of women was the outcome of several 
years of effort on the part of the advocates of woman suffrage, the apostle of 
which was Mrs Abigail Scott Duniway of Oregon, proprietor of the New 
Northwest, a journal devoted to the enfranchisement of women. She began 
the canvass of Oregon and Washington in 1S70, making at first rather 
awkward attempts at oratory, but rapidly improving, until her speeches 
on the suffrage question commanded attention everywhere. Mrs Duniway 
attended the Walla Walla convention as a reporter. An act was passed 
in 1871 with the evident design of putting an end to Mrs Duniway's 
seiges of the legislatures. It declared that 'hereafter no female shall 
have the right of ballot or vote at any poll or election precinct in this 
territory, until the congress of the United States of America shall, by 
direct legislation upon the same, declare the same to be the supreme law 
of the land.' Wajih. Slat. 1871, 175. However, in 1879 an act was passed 
entitled 'An act to establish and protect the rights of married women, ' as 
follows: 'Sec. 1. All laws which impose or recogui2e civil disabilities upon 
a wife, which are not imposed or recognized as existing as to the husband, 
are hereby abolished. Sec. 2. Henceforth the rights and responsibilities 
of the parents, in the absence of misconduct, shall be equal.' 'The framers 
of this absurd law did not perceive that they were merely heaping responsi- 
bilities upon women without allowing them the means of adequately dis- 
charging them. Nor did the Olympia newspaper editor see more clearly 
when he called this ' the first married woman's emancipation bill on this 
continent.' The bill, such as it was, passed without a dissenting voice. 
Oli/mpia StaMard, Nov. 21 and Dec. 6, 1879. 


should be submitted to a vote of the people at the 
general election next following the adoption of the 
constitution; the qualifications of voters who were 
citizens of the United States were a residence of six 
months in the state, and thirty days in the county, 
and aliens must have declared their intention of be- 
coming citizens six months before voting. Three 
articles were left to be voted upon separately, namely, 
local option, a temperance measure; woman sufirage; 
and the annexation of the panhandle counties of 

Such, briefly, was the instrument which occupied 
the delegates twenty-four days in completing. It 
was submitted to the people at the November elec- 
tion for delegates, and by them adopted."^ Congress 
had passed no enabUng act; the convention was 
purely voluntary, and therefore the constitution in- 
effectual until ratified. 

Delegate Thomas H. Brents, elected in November, 
offered the state of Wasliington for adoption into the 
union immediately on taking his seat in congress, but 
the candidate for the honors of statehood was not re- 
garded in the national legislature with favor, although 
a rapid growth had set in with the development 
brought about by navigation and railroad companies, 
and the territory was in a solvent financial condition. 

The members of the legislature of 1879 were still 
largely of the pioneer class, about half the members 
having resided in the territory for twenty-five years. 
The other half were young men of more recent immi- 
grations,^^ the newer element promising soon to be the 

'8 The following is a list of the delegates: W. A. George, Elwood Evans, 
and S. M. Gilmore were delegates at large; S. M. Wait, B. F. Dennison, 
and Charles H. Larrabee, from the judicial districts; C. M. Bradshaw, H. B. 
Emory, D. B. Hannah, Francis Henry, A. S. Abernethy, George H. Stuart, 
0. P. Lacey, L. B. Andrews, from council districts; and J. V. Odell and 
Alonzo Leland were delegates from north Idaho. A. S. Abernethy_ was 
elected president of the convention, W. Byron Daniels secretary, assisted 
by William S. Clark, Henry D. Cook, sergeant-at-arms, John Bryant and 
John \V. Norris, messengers. Id., June 22, 1S78. 

^^ The Neiv Tacoma herald, Oct. 30, 1879, is my authority for the follow- 
ing condensed biographies: President of the counsel, Francis H. Cook, born 


founders, and to become themselves builders of em- 
pire. In the judiciary there had occurred a change 

in Ohio; age 28; came to the territory in 1871; publisher of the Herald. 
Elliot Cline, born in Pa; age CO; immigrated in 1852; farmer by occupation; 
residence New Dungeness. J. H. Day, born in Va; age 60; immigrateil in 
1862; druggist; residence Walla Walla. S. G. Dudley, born in N. Y.; age 
45; immigrated in 1874; farmer; residence Seattle. R. O. Dunbar, born in 
111.; age 45; immigrated in 1846; lawyer; residence Goldendale. 
J. B. La Du, bom in N. Y.; age 45; immigrated in 1853; farmer; residence 
Mount Coffin. John McGlynn, born in Ireland; age 34; came in 1872; hotel- 
keeper; residence La Conner. L. M. Ringer, born in Va; age 44; came in 
1873; merchant; residence Almota. A. F. TuUis, born in Ind. ; age 49; im- 
migrated in 1852; farmer; residence Chehalis. Allen Weir, chief clerk, 
born in Cal.; age 25; came in 1800; publisher; residence Port Townsend. 
Samuel Greene, assistant clerk, born in Mass. ; age 42; came in 1874; farmer; 
residence Seattle. W. R. Andrews, enrolling clerk, born in Mich. ; age 28; 
came in 1861; lawyer; residence La Conner. Emma Knighton, born in Or.; 
age 21; came in 18G0; residence Olympia. J. H. Wilt, sergeant-at-arms, 
born in Ohio; age 26; came in 1876; teacher; residence Walla Walla. G. 
W. Brant, door-lieeper, born in Mo.; age 25; came in 1852; wheelwright; 
residence Vancouver. Ruth Bigelo w, messenger, born in the territory ; ago 
19; residence Olympia. Robert Wilson, watchman, born inN. Y.; age 47; 
immigrated in 1855; hatter; residence Walla Walla. J. R. Thompson, 
chaplain, borninEng.; age 38; came in 1870; presbyterian preacher; resi- 
dence Olympia. 

In the lower house, George H. Stewart, speaker, born in Ind.; age 48; 
immigrated in 1850; lawyer; residence Vancouver. J. N. Baker, born iu 
Ky; age 32; immigrated in 1853; farmer; residence Oakville, Chehalis co. 
H. Blackman, born in Maine; age 32; came in 1872; lumberman; residenco 
Snohomish City. C. Catlin, Ijorn in 111. ; age 35; came in 1850; farmer; res- 
idence Frceport, Cowlitz co. M. F. Colt, born in N. Y. ; age 42; came in 
1865; merchant; residence Walla Walla. P. D. Jorup, born in Denmark; 
age 34; came in 1860; hotel-keeper; residence Utsalady. J. M. Dewarc, 
born in Scotland; age 55; came in iS59; farmer; residence Walla Walla. 
Levi Farnsworth, born in Maine; age 70; immigrated in 1850; shipwright; 
residence Yakima. J. J. Foster, born in South Carolina; age 55; came in 
1864; farmer; residence Walikiakura co. T. C. Frary, age 39; came in 
1876; physician; residence Pomeroy. J. E. Gandy, born in Wis.; age ."2; 
came in 1865; phy.sician; residence Puyallup. I). C. Guernsey, born in 
Wis.; age 34; came in 1871; merchant; residence Dayton. M. V. Harper, 
born in Tenn. ; age 40; immigrated in 1853; surveyor; residence Goldendale. 
S. W. Hovey, born in Maine; age 46; came iu 1857; cashier of Port Gamble 
Mill Co. ; reside'nce Port Gamble. D. F. Pereival, born in Maine; age 39; 
came in 1872; farmer; residence Rock Creek. J. A. Perkins, born iu 111.; 
age 38; came in 1861; farmer and land speculator. F. C. PurJj', born in 
Tenn.; age 52; settled in 1854; farmer; residence Skokomish. F. JI. 
Rhoades, born in Ohio; age 47; immigrated in 1847; farmer; residence Key, 
Thurston co. Henry Pvoder, boi-n in Germany; age 54; came in 1S5I; 
farmer; residence Whatcom co. B. F. Shaw, born in Mo.; age 51; immi- 
grated in 1844; farmer; residenco near Vancouver. L. P. Smith, born iu 
Maine; ago 64; came in 1869; watchmaker; residence Seattle. Alfred 
Snyder, born in N. J. ; age 51 ; came in 1870; salesman at Port Blakeley. 
D. J. Storms, born in Ohio; age 05; came in 1872; farmer; residence Waits- 
burg. J. A. Taylor, born in N. Y.; age 54; immigrated in 1845; farmer 
and agent for farm machinery; residence Walla Walla co. M. R. Tilley, 
born in Ind. ; age 45; immigrated in 1852; livery-stable; residence Olympia. 
S. Troy, born in Pa; age 46; camo in 1873; farmer; residence New Dnn- 
geuess. A. H. Tucker, born in N. H.; age 40; immigrated iu 1852; 


in 1878, R. S. Greene being appointed chief justice, 
the place he vacated being filled by John P. Hoyt,™ 
of Michigan. Judge Wingard was reappointed. The 
other federal officers of this administration were 
N. H. Owings, secretary; C. B. Hopkins, marshal; 
J. B. Allen, United States attorney; William 
McMicken, collector of internal revenue; J. E,. Hay- 
dcn, deputy collector; Robert G. Stuart, receiver of 
public moneys at Olympia; Josiah T. Brown, register 
of the general land-office; and C. B. Bagley, deputy. 

By an act of congress, approved June 19, 1878, a 
change of apportionment was made, to take effect in 
1881, which reduced the maximum of members of the 
lower house of the legislature to twenty-four from 
thirty, and increased the council from nine to twelve. 

In 1884, William A. Newell was succeeded in the 
executive office by Watson C. Squire," a veteran of 

mechanic; residence Port Townaend. C. P. Twiss, born in N. H.; age 50; 
came in 1870; farmer; residence NapaWne. D. B. Ward, born in Ky; age 
41; came in 1859; teacher; residence Seattle. W. H. White, born in Va; 
age 37; came in 1871; lawyer; residence Seattle. W. C. Porter, chief clerk, 
born in N. Y. ; age 45; came in 1876; lawyer; residence Poraeroy. William 
Hughes, assistant clerk, born in Wales; age 31 ; came in 1875; printer; res- 
idence Seattle. Louis B. Noble, enrolling clerk, born in Wis.; age 26; 
came in 1878; lawyer; residence Walla Walla. Emma Harmon, assistant 
enrolling clerk, born in Wash.; age 23; residence Stoilacoom. L. P. Berry, 
sergeant-at-arms, born in Ind. ; age 36; immigrated in 1853; commission 
merchant; residence Colfax. G. D. Keller, door-keeper, born in Maine; 
age 71; came in 1858; farmer; residence on White River. F. Seidel, watch- 
man, born in Germany; age 32; came in 1879; carpenter; residence Seattle. 
W. S. Hayes, messenger, born in Ky; age 68; farmer; residence near Olym- 
pia. D. N. Utter, chaplain, born in Ind.; age 35; came in 1875; unitarian 
preacher; residence Olympia. The republicans had a small majority in either 
liouse, and 7 on a joint ballot. The religion of the assembly was repre- 
sented by 5 Presbyterians, 4 methodists, 4 congregationalists, 2 baptists, 2 
catholics, 2 unitarians, 2 episcopalians, and 1 lutheran. Olymvia Wash. 
Standard, Oct. 24, 1878. 

•" Hoyt had been appointed governor of Arizona, but resigned. Olympia 
Transcript, Dec. 28, 1878. 

" Governor Squire was born at Cape Vincent, N. Y., May IS, 1838. He 
graduated from the Wesleyan university of Middleton, Conn., in 1859, and 
commenced the study of the law, but the war of the rebellion calling him to 
the service of his country, he enlisted in 18G1 as a private, being promoted 
to be first lieutenant of co. F., 19th N. Y. infantry. When the three months' 
men were discharged he resumed his studies in Cleveland, O. , and graduated 
from the Cleveland law school in 1862, after which he raised a company of 
sharp-shooters, and was given the command of a battalion of the same, serv- 
ing in the army of the Cumberland. Subsequently he was judge advocate 
of the district of Tennessee, serving on the staffs of Maj.-Qen. Rousseau and 


the civil war and a man of rare administrative ability. 
During his term, and for several preceding years, the 
history of Washington, apart from the anti-chinese 
riots of 1885-6, was one rather of material develop- 
ment than of political significance. Up to that date, 
the employment of chinese in large numbers had 
been almost a necessity, since for the construction of 
the transcontinental and other railroads no adequate 
supply of white labor was available. But now the 
herding in cities and towns of hordes of chinamen 
was becoming a serious menace to society, and to the 
working classes an ever-present source of uneasiness. 
Thus in 1885, an attempt was made by the Knights 
of Labor, an organization mainly composed of foreign- 
ers, to expel them from the territory. At Tacoma 
they were compelled to leave at a month's warning; 
at Squak two were killed ; but it was at Seattle and 
among the coal-miners that the agitation assumed 
its most aggravated form, resulting in bloodshed 
and general disorder. Fortunate it was that at this 
juncture a ruler was at the helm of state whose 
soundness of judgment and promptness of action were 
equal to the emergency. 

On the 5th of November Governor Squire issued 
a proclamation calling on the citizens to preserve the 
peace; but the very next day a number of chinese 
houses were set on tire by an infuriated mob. There- 
upon troops were ordered from Vancouver, and a 
statement of the situation forwarded to the secretary 
of the interior, resulting in a proclamation by the 

Maj.-Gen. Thomas. On the close of the war, he became agent for the Rem- 
ington Arms CO., and managed their operations to the amount of §15,000,000. 
In 1876 he became interested in Washington, removing in 1879 to Seattle, 
where he engaged in a number of enterprises tending to build up the city of 
his adoption, also becoming the owner of one of the largest dairy farms in 
the territory. In recognition of his efforts to secure for Washmgton the 
long-coveted boon of statehood, he was elected president of the statehood 
committee held at EUensburg in January 1889, and as president also of the 
permanent committee labored eissiduously in framing the memorials after- 
ward presented to congress, until finally his efiforts and those of his colleagues 
were crowned with success. As a soldier, a statesman, and a politician his 
reputation is stainless, and there are none whose career has been more 
closely identified with the prosperity and development of Washington. 


president, which was duly published and promulgated. 
For a time the disturbance subsided, only to break 
out again in more violent phase in February of the 
following year, when lives were lost in the effort to 
protect the chinese, and overt rebellion existed 
against the constituted authorities. The governor 
then adopted the extreme measure of declaring mar- 
tial law, and thus with the aid of the citizens and troops 
at length succeeded in restoring order. Though such 
a course subjected him to the abuse of the proletariat 
and to the hostile criticisms of a portion of the press, 
his action was appi'oved by all the more conservative 
and law-abiding people of the community. By the 
Cleveland cabinet he was warmly commended, and 
as a token of its approval his resignation was not ac- 
cepted until long after the democrats succeeded to 
power. His conduct also received the approbation of 
the legislature, and of such representative associations 
as the Seattle chamber of commerce and the bar as- 
sociation of King county.'^ 

During the regime of Governor Squire, and at his 
recommendation, several long-deferred public needs 
were supplied, among them the building of the peni- 
tentiary at Walla Walla, the addition of a manufac- 
turing department to the penitentiary at Seatco, and 
the erection of a new insane asylum at Steilacoom. 
The finances of the territory were carefully adminis- 
tered, and at the close of 1885 it was free from debt, 
and with an available surplus of nearly $100,000. 
His reports to the secretary of the interior are de- 
serving of more than passing notice, as models of 
political literature, on the preparation of which no 
money or pains was spared. The one for 1884 was 
declared by that official to be "the best that had ever 
been given by any governor of any territory." So 
great was the demand for it throughout the east, that, 

" Tlie entire official correspondence relating to the Seattle riots, together 
with a careful presentation of the matter, will be found in Governor Squire's 
report to the secretary of the interior for 188(5. 


the government edition being exhausted, the North- 
ern Pacific railroad company ordered at its own ex- 
pense a special edition of five thousand copies witli 
accompanying maps. In the opening paragraph the 
governor states that as no report had been forwarded 
since 1879, while those issued before that date were 
somewhat meagre in their treatment, he has thought 
it best to make a full representation of the more im- 
portant facts connected with the resources and devel- 
opment of the territory. "For this purpose," be 
says, "I have diligently corresponded with the audi- 
tors and assessors of all the counties of the territory, 
furnishing them printed blanks to be returned, and 
with all the managers of its various educational and 
business institutions. Besides drawing on my own 
knowledge of the territory, gleaned during a residence 
here during the past five or six years, I have gath- 
ered and compiled a variety of important facts from 
leading specialists in reference to the geographical, 
geologic, and climatic characteristics, the coal and 
iron mining, horticultural, agricultural, and manufac- 
turing interests, the fisheries, and the flora and fauna 
of the territory. 

" The data thus offered, together with the summary ' 
reports of our charitable and penal institutions, and 
an exhibit of the financial condition of the territory, 
if published, will not only be of great service in en- 
couraging and stimulating our people, but will fur- 
nish reliable information to the intending immigrant, 
and will indicate to congress the rightful basis of our 
claim for admission into the union of states." 

In the report for 1885 we have a careful revision 
of the previous document, including more recent data. 
Again the government edition was speedily exhausted, 
whereupon a special edition of ten thousand copies was 
issued by authority of the legislature, and included 
the governor's biennial message for 1885-6. Under 
the title of the Resources and Development of Wash- 
ington Territory, it was scattered broadcast through- 


out the United States and Europe, not only by the 
Northern Pacific railroad, but by real estate firms and 
by the citizens of Washington. To the representa- 
tions of the two reports is largely due the immense 
volume of immigration within the last half-decade, 
and more than anything else that has been written 
they have aided in securing admission to statehood. 

The population of Washington increased from 
75,000 in 1880 to 210,000 in 188fi, owing chiefly to 
the rapid construction of railroad lines. The North- 
ern Pacific company operated at the beginning of 
this year 455 miles of railway within its limits; the 
Oregon Railway and Navigation company, 295 miles; 
the Columbia and Puget Sound railroad company, 
44 miles; the Puget Sound Shore railroad company, 
23 miles; and the Olympia and Chehalis railroad, 
15 miles — making, with some newly completed por- 
tions of roads, 866 miles of railroad, where a few 
years previous only a few miles of local railway ex- 
isted. The efi:ect was magical, all kinds of business 
growth keeping an even pace with transportation. 
Leaving out the lumber and coal trade of western 
Washington, and the cattle trade of eastern Wash- 
ington, each of which was very considerable, the 
Northern Pacific shipped to the east 4,161 tons of 
wheat and 1,600 tons of other grains, while the Ore- 
gon company carried out of southeastern Washington 
250,000 tons of wheat, flour, and barley. The ton- 
nage of Puget Sound vessels, foreign and domestic, 
amounted to 1,240,499 tons, and the business of ship- 
building was active. 

The federal and territorial officers, during the ad- 
ministration of Governor Squire, were N. H. Owings, 
secretary; R. S. Greene, chief justice; J. P. Hoyt, 
S. C Wingard, and George Turner, associate justices; 
Jesse George, United States marshal; John B. Allen, 
United States district attorney; William ]\IcMicken, 
surveyor-general; C. Bash, customs collector; C. B. 
Bagley and E. L. Heriff, internal revenue collectors; 


John F. Gowey, registrar, and J. R. Hayden, receiver 
of the United States land-office at Olympia; F. W. 
Sparhng, registrar, and A. G. Marsh, receiver at 
Vancouver; Joseph Jorgensen, registrar, and James 
Braden, receiver at Walla Walla; J. M. Armstrong, 
registrar, and J. L. Wilson, receiver at Spokane; and 
R. R. Kinne, registrar, and J. M. Adams, receiver at 
Yakima. Thomas H. Brents was delegate to con- 

In 1887, Eugene Semple of Oregon, democrat, was 
appointed governor of Washington. Semple had 
been a newspaper editor, and possessed fair talents, 
with industry. He found public affairs somewhat 
disquieted on the questions of statehood and woman 
suffrage. After the defeat of equal suflrage by the 
popular male vote of 1878, the legislature had, in 
1883-4, passed an act conferring upon women the 
privilege of voting at all elections. Later, this act 
was pronounced unconstitutional, and after voting 
at two elections, serving upon juries, and holding 
various offices, the women of the commonwealth were 
disfranchised. But there was a sufficiently strong 
sentiment in favor of the political equality of the 
sexes to make it a party question in 1886, the repub- 
licans having incorporated equal suffrage in their 
platform, while a respectable majority in both houses 
of the legislature were pledged to vote for a bill re- 
storing the woman suffrage law. 

Another matter upon which the legislature was 
divided was the proposition revived to remove the 
capital from Olympia to some more central location, 
favorable mention being made of North Yakima'^ and 

'^ Yakima City was incorporated Dec. 1, 1S83. Twelve months later, when 
it had 400 inhabitants, the surveyors of the Northern Pacific railroad laid out 
the town of North Yakima, 4 miles distant from the old town, upon a broad 
and liberal scale, and proposed to the people of the latter that if they would 
consent to be removed to the new town they should be given as many lots 
there as they poasessed in the old, and have besides their buildings moved 
upon them without cost to the owners. Such an agreement in writing was 
signed by a majority of the citizens, and in the winter and spring of 1884-5 
over 100 buildings were moved on trucks and rollers, hotels, a bank, and 


EUensburg. Those who were laboring for this end 
expected that the long-coveted panhandle of Idaho 
would be joined to Washington, and intended to use 
that accession of territory as a lever to eftect the re- 
moval of the capital east of the mountains. But the 
people of western Washington strenuously opposed 
the transference of the government offices to the Ya- 
kima valley, and succeeded in preventing it. 

The legislature of 1887 appointed a commission to 
codify the laws of Washington, consisting of W. H. 
Doolittle of Tacoma, J. H. Snively of Yakima, Thomas 
H. Came of Seattle, and A. E. Isham of Walla Walla. 
As the passage of the enabling act rendered it un- 
doubted that the state constitution would difier 
materially from the organic law of the territory, the 
commission suspended its labors until the state con- 
stitution had assumed definite form, when it reviewed 
its work. 

The corporation law received particular attention, 
making provision for freights, for the rights of differ- 
ent roads to the use of each other's tracks, and the 
rights and duties of stockholders. All telegraph and 
telephone companies were given the right of way on 
the lines of railroad companies on equal conditions. 
Railroads might pass along streams, streets, or high- 
ways M'here life and property were not endangered, 
but the companies must restore either of these to its 
former condition of usefulness. Every railroad must 
construct not less than five miles of road each year 
until completed, or forfeit its charter. Foreign rail- 
roads could not enjoy greater privileges than domestic 
roads. An annual report was to be made by each 
railroad to the stockholders, subject to the inspection 
of the secretary of state; besides which a sworn an- 
nual statement was required of the officers of each 

other business houses doing their usual business while en route. This was a 
good stroke of policy on the part of the railroad, general land commissioner, 
and the company, as it definitely settled opposition, both to tlie new town and 
the corporation, which also secured a year's growth for North Yakima in 
ninety days' time. Subsequently the town had almost a phenomenal growth. 


The federal officers during Semple's second term 
were N. H. Owings, secretary ; K. A. Jones, chief jus- 
tice; W. G. Lang-ford, George Turner, and Frank 
Allyn, associate justices. Charles S. Voorhees suc- 
ceeded Brents as delegate to congress.'* James 
Shields succeeded Hayden in the receiver's office of 
the land department, and John Y. Ostrander was 
appointed registrar in 1886. 

'* John B. Allen, republican, was chosen for congressman by a majority in 
1887 of 7,371, over Voorhees, democrat, but was prevented taking his seat in 
congress by the prospect of the passage of an enabling act. 

Among the leading citizens of Washington, in addition to those mentioned 
elsewhere in this volume, the following residents of Spokane Falls are worthy 
of note: 

J. N. Glover, a Missourian by birth, and, it may be said, the founder of 
the city, settling there, or rather on its site, in 1873, and purchasing from two 
squatters named Downing and Scranton the tract of land on which their 
shanties were then the only buildings. First as the owner of a saw-mill, 
next as a contractor, then as the leading organizer and president of the First 
National Bank, and finally as mayor of Spokane, he has won for himself his 
well-earned wealth and reputation. 

In connection with the First National Bank should be mentioned Horace 
L. Cutter, who w£is also one of its organizers. A native of Cleveland, 0., 
in 1871 he removed to Colo, on account of his health, and in tlie following 
year to Cal., where for eight years he was secretary of the San Jose Savings 
Bank. Settling at Spokane Falls in 1882, he was appointed cashier and 
manager of the First National, and has since been a promoter of several lead- 
ing enterprises, as the electric light and cable-road companies. He was also 
one of the founders of the board of trade, of w hich he is treasurer, and of 
the public library, of which he is president. 

The president and manager of the Traders' National Bank is E. J. Brickell, 
a native of Ind., but most of whose lifetime has been passed in 111. and Nev., 
where he engaged in merchandising and lumbering. In 1884 he settled at 
Spokane, where he is now the owner of one of the largest hardware stores. 
Among the directors of this bank, and its former vice-president, is R. W. 
Forrest, a Pennsylvanian by birth, and now one of the capitalists of Spokane, 
where his residence dates from 1879. 

Others deserving of notice are Col D. P. Jenkins, a native of 0., and a law- 
yer by profession, who, after serving almost throughout the civil war, resumed 
practice, first in Teun. and Ind., and later in Colo and W. T., whither he re- 
moved for his health's sake, settling at Spokane in 1879; J. D. Sherwood, a 
son of the late B. F. Sherwood of San Francisco, and wlio, as one of those 
who established the electric-light works, as president of the cable company, 
and in connection with other enterprises, has helped to build up his adopted 
city; W. Pettet, an Englishman, who visited California in 1840, and in 1886 
made his permanent home at Spokane, where he purchased the first electric- 
liglit plant and organized the" company by which it was operated; E. B. 
Hyde, a native of Wisconsin, who came to Spokane in 1881, two years later 
building, in conjunction with others, the Union block, and since that date add- 
ing a number of handsome edifices to the improvements of the city; W. M. 
Wolverton, a native of la, who, in 1881, the year after his arrival, erected 
tlie first brick building in Spokane, where, until retiring from business in 
1886, he was the owner of a flourishing hardware store. 



Remaekable Growth of the Territory — Demand for Statehoob — En- 
abling Act — State Convention — Character of the Delegates — 
Constitution Ratified— Waiting for a Proclamation— Meeting op 
First State Legislature- Character of Members — Unexpected 
Delay of the Presidentlal Proclamation — Election of Senators. 

From 1880 to 1888 the progress made in Washing- 
ton was phenomenal, and was felt in every direction 
— in commerce, manufacture, banks, corporations, 
schools, growth of towns, improved styles of building, 
construction of railroads, mining, agriculture, and 
society. New towns had sprung up among the firs 
and cedars, the Puget Sound country, and out of the 
ti'eeless prairies almost in a night; and hitherto un- 
important villages had become cities with corporate 
governments, grand hotels, churches, colleges, and 

The board of trade of Tacoma in 1886 declared that 
"tlie commercial independence of Washington terri- 
tory accompanying the completion of the direct line 
of the Northern Pacific railroad to tide-water should 
be supplemented by its political independence as a 
state of the American union. Admission cannot in 
decency be delayed many years longer, whatever 
party influences may sway congress. The census of 
1890 will show a population within the present limits 
of the territory exceeding 200,000, and a property 
valuation of at least $200,000,000."^ Governor 

^The state auditor iu November 1889 reported the resources of the com- 
monwealth from taxes, licenses, prison labor, etc., at §372,860.3.5. 



Squire had said in a report to the secretary of the 
interior that among the reasons for the admission of 
the territory were the "sterhng, patriotic, and enter- 
prising character of its citizens ; its present and pro- 
spective maritime relations with the world ; its position 
as a border state on tlie confines of the dominion of 
Canada, the most powerful province of Great Britain ; 
its wealth of natural resources and growing wealth of 
its people; the efficiency of its educational system, re- 
quiring that its school lands should be allotted and 
utilized; its riparian rights should be settled, capital 
and immigration encouraged, and the full manage- 
ment and control of municipal and county affairs 
should be assumed by the legislature, which is not 
allowed during the territorial condition." 

Governor Semple, in his report for 1888, gave the 
population as 167,982, showing that the prophecy of 
the board of trade was not an over-estimate of the 
probabilities. The taxable property was given at 
$84,621,182, or a gain of $65,698,260 in ten years, 
which being taken from the assessment roll was con- 
sidered conservative enough for the minimum ; for as 
the governor quaintly remarked: "Whatever else an 
average American citizen may neglect, he never for- 
gets to beat down the assessor." The revenue pro- 
duced by a tax of two and a half mills was $212,734.92, 
showing the ability to erect and maintain the necessary 
public works as they should be required. There were 
in the territory in operation 762.2 miles of standard 
gauge railroads belonging to the North Pacific railroad 
company; and 282.6 miles of the same gauge belong- 
ing to the Oregon railway and navigation company; 
the Seattle, Lake Shore, and Eastern railroad com- 
pany operated 58 miles of standard gauge road; the 
Columbia and Puget Sound railroad 44.5 miles; and 
the Puget Sound and Gray's Harbor railroad 10 miles 
— making in all 1,157.3 miles of broad-gauge railways. 
In addition, there were 40 miles of narrow-gauge road, 
divided between the Olympia and Chehalis valley, the 


Mill Creek F. and M. company, and the Cascade rail- 
road — making in all 1,197.7 miles, and the increase of 
mileage was augmenting yearly. The amount of coal 
mined in the territory in 1888 was 1,133,801 tons. 
The output in lumber of the Washington mills in four 
localities only for the year was 320,848,203 feet, their 
capacity being a million feet greater, shingles and 
lath in proportion. The amount consumed within the 
territory was 105,940,225 feet of lumber; 14,474,000 
lath, and 12,921,250 shingles; the remainder was ex- 
ported. The estimated capacity of all the mills was 
1,043,590,000 feet. 

An insane asylum, costing $100,000, was completed 
at Steilacoom in 1888, in which were treated 200 pa- 
tients ; and $60,000 was appropriated for the erection 
of a hospital for the insane at Medical lake in eastern 
Was]:ington, which was being expended on the work. 
Up to 1887 the territorial prisoners were confined in 
a private prison, under the control of contractors, but 
in 1887 a penitentiary was completed at Walla Walla, 
costing $153,000. At Vancouver a school for defect- 
ive youth was erected, partly by the citizens of that 
place donating land, and the rest by the legislature, 
making at two sessions appropriations for that pur- 
]5ose. The national guard had completed its organiza- 
tion, the legislature having levied a tax of one fifth of 
a mill for military purposes, and consisted of two regi- 
ments of infantry and a troop of cavalry — in all 750 
officers and men. These and various other matters, 
including the question of who should pick the hop 
crop in Puyallup valley, were reported to the secre- 
tary, and Governor Semple put it: "We are rich and 
reputable, and do not require anybody to settle our 
bills. Give us the right to regulate our local affairs, 
and we will not only pay our own officers, but we will 
render much service to the union." 

In 1888 Miles C. Moore of Walla Walla, republi- 
can, was appointed governor to succeed Semple, 
democrat, but only in time to be immersed in the 


excitement of a change of goverament forms, for con- 
gress, on the 22d of February, 1889 (very appropri- 
ately), passed an enabling act, proposing the terms on 
which the state of Washington might be admitted to 
the union. It commanded the governor to issue a 
proclamation on the 15th of April for an election of 
seventy-five delegates to a constitutional convention, 
the election to be held on the first Tuesday after the 
second Monday in May of that year. The delegates 
were directed to meet at the capital on the 4th of 
July for organization, and to declare, on behalf of the 
people, their adoption of the constitution of the United 
States, whereupon they should be authorized to form 
a constitution for the proposed state. The constitu- 
tion should be republican in form, make no distinc- 
tion in civil or political rights on account of race or 
color, except as to Indians not taxed, and not be 
repugnant to the constitution of the United States 
and the principles of tlie Declaration of Independence. 
It should provide, by ordinances irrevocable without 
the consent of the United States and the people of 
said states, that pei'fect toleration of religious senti- 
ment shall be secured, and no inhabitant of the state 
ever molested on account of his mode of worship; that 
the people of the state should forever disclaim all 
right to the unappropriated public lands lying within 
the boundaries thereof, or to the Indian resei'vations, 
which should remain under the absolute jurisdiction 
and control of congress; that the lands of non-resident 
citizens of the United States should never be taxed 
at a higher rate than the lands belonging to residents; 
that no taxes should be imposed by the .state on lands 
or property therein belonging to, or which might be 
tliereafter purchased or reserved by, the United 
States; but notliing in the ordinances should preclude 
taxing the lands owned or held by Indians who had 
severed their tribal relations and obtained a title 
thereto by patent or grant, except those lands wJiich 
congress might have exempted from taxation, which 


the ordinances should exempt, so long and to such 
extent as such act of congress might prescribe. Tlie 
debts and liabilities of the territory should be assumed 
and paid by the state. Provision should be made for 
tlie establishment and maintenance of public schools, 
which should be open to all the children in the state, 
and free from sectarian control. 

On the other hand, upon the admission of the state, 
sections numbered sixteen and thirty-six in every 
township of said state, or where such sections or parts 
of sections had been disposed of, indemnity lands were 
granted to the state for the support of common 
schools, except where such sections were embraced in 
grants or reservations by the government, and until 
they were restored to the public domain. The lands 
granted for educational purposes should not be sold 
for less than ten dollars per acre, and only at public 
sale, the proceeds to constitute a permanent school 
fund, the interest only of which should be expended 
in their support. But the legislature had power to 
prescribe terms on which the school lands might be 
leased, for periods of not more than five years, in 
quantities of not more than one section to one person 
or company; and such lands should not be subject to 
entry under any of the land laws of the United States. 

Fifty sections of selected public land within the 
state should be granted for the purpose of erecting 
public buildings at the capital for legislative and 
judicial purposes. Five per centum of the proceeds 
of the sales of public lands within the state, which 
should be sold by the United States after its admis- 
sion, deducting all expenses incident to the same, 
should be paid to the state to be used as a permanent 
fund, the interest of which only should be expended 
for the support of common schools. Seventy-two 
entire sections were granted for university purposes, 
none of which should be disposed of at less than ten 
dollars per acre; but, like the common school lands, 
they might be leased. The schools and universities 

Hist. Wash.— 20 


provided for in tlie act should forever remain under 
the exclusive control of the state, and no part of the 
proceeds arising from the sale of the granted lands 
should be applied to denominational schools, colleges, 
or universities. Ninety thousand acres should be 
also granted for the use and support of an agricul- 
tural college. In lieu of the grant of land for pur- 
poses of internal improvement made to new states by 
the act of September 4, 1841, and in lieu of any claim 
or demand by the state under the act of September 
28, 1850, and section 2479 of the Revised Statutes, 
granting swamp and overflowed lands to certain 
states, and in lieu of any grant of saline lands, there 
was granted to the state of Washington, for the 
establishment and maintenance of a scientific school, 
one hundred thousand acres, the same amount for 
state normal schools; for public buildings at the 
state capital, in addition to the previous grant for 
that purpose; and for state charitable, educational, 
penal, and reformatory institutions, two hundred 
thousand each; and the state should be entitled to 
no other grants of land for any purposes. Mineral 
lands were exempted from all the grants, but lieu 
lands were allowed in their stead, where mineral 
should be found on the school sections. But there 
should be deducted from the amounts granted for any 
specific object, the number of acres before donated by 
congress to the territory for similar objects." 

The sum of twenty thousand dollars, or as much 
as might be necessary, was appropriated for defray- 
ing the expenses of the state constitutional conven- 
tion. The state should constitute one judicial district, 
to be attached to the ninth judicial circuit. There 
should be appointed one district judge. United States 
attorney, and United States marshal, the judge to 
receive a salary of $3,500, and to reside in his dis- 
trict, and the clerks of the court to keep their offices 
at the state capital; the regular terms of court to 

' See p. 216, note, on the misapplication of the university lands. 


commence in April and November. The courts of 
the state were made the successors of the territorial 
courts, whose business should be transferred to them 
without prejudice. 

The constitutional convention might, by ordinance, 
provide for the election of officers for full state gov- 
ernment, including members of the legislature, and 
rspresentatives in congress; but the state govern- 
ment should remain in abeyance until the admission 
of the state into the union. Should the constitution 
be ratified by the people, the legislature might as- 
semble, organize, and elect two senators of the United 
States, whose election being certified by the governor 
and secretary of state, they should be admitted to seats 
in congress on the admission of the state into the union; 
and the officers elected to fill state offices should in 
the same manner proceed to exercise their functions. 
The election for the ratification of the constitution 
should take place on tlie first Tuesday in October. 
Such, in brief, was the compact to be accepted and 

The delegates met on the 3d of July, at Olympia, 
and proceeded to business on the 4th.* They were 

^ The several countiea were represented as follows in the convention: 
Stevens, S. H. Manly, J. J. Travis; Spokane, C. P. Coey, Geo. Turner, 
J. Z. Moore, J, J. Browne, T. C. Griffitts, H. F. Suksdorf, Hiram E. Allen; 
Lincoln, H. W. Fairweather, B. B. Glascock, Frank M. Dallam; Kittetass, 
J. A. Shoudy, A. Mires, J. T. McDonald; Whitman, J. P. T. McCloskey, 
0. H. Warner, E. H. Sullivan, J. M. Reed, James Hungate, Geo. Comegys; 
Adams, D. Buchanan; Garfield, S. G. Cosgrove; Franklin, W. B. Gray; 
Columbia, M. M. Goodman, R. F. Sturvedant; Walla Walla, Lewis Neace, 
D. J. Crowley, B. L. Sharpstein, N. G. Blalock; Yakima, W. F. Prosser; 
Clarke, Louis Johns, A. A. Lindsley; Skamania, G. H. Stevenson; Pacific, 
J. A. Burk; Wahkiakum, 0. A. Bowen; Cowlitz, Jesse Van Name; Mason, 
Henry Winsor, John McReavy; Chehalis, A. J. West; Jefferson, Allen Weir, 
George H. Jones, H. C. Willison; Skagit, James Power, Thomas Hay ton, H. 
Clothier; Whatcom, J. J. Weisenberger, E. Eldridge; Snohomish, A. 
Scliooley; Island, J. C. Kellogg; Kitsap, S. A. Dickey; King, R. Jeff's, 
T. T. Minor, T. P. Dyer, D. E. Durie, John R. Kinuear, John P. Hoyt, M. J. 
McElroy, Morgan Morgans, George W. Tibbetts, W. L. Newton; Pierce, T. L. 
Stiles, JP. C. Sullivan, Gwiu Hicks, H. M. Lillis, C. T. Fay, R. S. Moore, 
Robert Jamison; Thurston, John F. Gowey, T. M. Reed, Francis Henry; 
Lewis, 0. H. Joy, S. H. Berry. 

From the Oregonian of July 4, 1889, I make the following excerpts: 
Gwin Hicks was the youngest member of the convention. He was born at 


a conservative body of men, chosen from the various 

Olympia, Oct. 28, 1857. He resided in Portland, Oregon, from 10 to 18 
years of age; took a course in the university of California, supporting him- 
self by his trade of printing, which he afterward followed in Portland; 
removed to Tacoma in 1883, and was engaged on the Neu-s as editor, and 
afterward was appointed deputy collector of internal revenue for Wash., 
serving 4 years. He was, at the time of his election, manager of the Tacoma 
Real Estate and Stock Exchange. 

Hiram E. Allen, born Aug. 1, 1857, at Crawfordsville, Ind., removed to 
Wash, in 1872, practised law at Spokane Falls in partnership with his 
brother, Joseph S. Allen. He was also a brother of Hon. J. B. Allen. 

Jacob T. Eshelman, born near Memphis, Mo., in 1852, came to Gal. in 
1876, taught school in Napa Co., came to Wash, in 1S7S, resided in Klickitat 
CO. until 18S7, removed to North Yakima where he was appointed clerk of 
the U. S. land-office. He was nominated by the Klickitat democratic con- 
vention for services rendered to the party in that co. His profession was 
that of a Ghristian minister, 

John R. Kinnear, of King co., was born in Indiana, but removed to 
Woodford CO., Illinois, at the age of 7 years. Ho was reared on a farm, and 
educated at Washington high school. Eureka college, and Knox college, where 
he took a regular course. He enlisted in the army during the war, and 
served three years as a private, being in 20 great battles. After the close of 
the war he took a course at the Ghicago law school, and practised in Paxton, 
111., for 15 years. In 1883, he removed to Seattle, and in 1884 was elected 
representative from King co. In 1888 he was elected to the council, but 
the passage of the enabling act prevented his taking his seat. In June 1889 
he was chosen a member of the constitutional convention, and took an ac- 
tive part in framing that important instrument. He was chairman of the 
committee on corporation, and secured the insertion of the clause in the con- 
stitution prohibiting trusts, and another prohibiting persons or corporations 
supporting armed bodies of men in the state, for any purpose. He received 
130 votes in the republican state convention for governor. 

George Comegys, born in St Charles co., Mo., in 1839, came to Or. in 
1850 with his father, educated at the Willamette university, admitted to 
practise law in the supreme court of Or. in 1877, removed to Whitman co., 
Wash., in 1878, engaged in law practice, stock-raisiog, and mining, repre- 
sented Whitman co. in the legislature of 1881, and was speaker of the house. 

William F. Prosser, born in 1834 near Williamsport, Penn., had an aca- 
demic education, taught school, studied law, emigrated to Cal. in 1854, en- 
gaged in mining; was the first republican candidate for the legislature in 
Trinity co. in 1860; went east to enlist in the union army in 1861, served 
in the army of the Cumberland, was commissioned major, and lieut-col and 
col in the Tennessee cavalry regt; located after the war on a farm near Nash- 
ville, was elected to the legislature of Tenn. in 1867, and to congress in 1868; 
was postmaster at Nashville for 3 years, was a commissioner to the centen- 
nial exhibition at Phila in 1876; was appointed special agent of the general 
land-office for Or. and Wash, in 1879, served 6 years, and was removed by a 
change of administration; located a land claim where the town of Prosser 
was laid out in Yakima co., elected auditor of that co. in 1880, and member 
of the convention in 1889. He married Miss Flora Thornton of Seattle. 

Jesse F. Van Name was born in Earlsville, La Salle co., 111., in 1857, 
educated in the public schools, taught school, went to the Black hills, to 
Kansas and Colorado, read law with Judge McAuncUy of Fort Collins, went 
to New Mexico and Arizona, and in 1882 came to Wash. Taught school in 
Cowlitz valley, and resumed law studies, was appointed clerk of the 2d 
judicial dist, and was admitted to the bar, locating in Kalama in 1889. 

R. O. Dunbar, born in III. in 1845, came to Or. in 1846, was educated at 
Willamette university, studied law with Hon. Elwood Evans in Olympia, and 
began practice in 1870; removed to Klickitat co. in 1877; was elected mem- 


classes. The coustltution which, they framed for ac- 

ber of the territorial council in 1879, prosecuting attorney of the district iu 
1882, speaker of the house iu 1885, and probate judge of Klickitat co. iu 

B. B. Glascock, born in Ralls co.. Mo., in 1843, came to Yolo co., Cal., 
in 1852, removed to Wash, in 1883, locating at Sprague and engaging in 
farming and stock-raising. Was a member of the California constitutional 
convention in 1878, and member of the senate for the two sessions imme- 
diately following the adoption of the new constitution. 

A. J. West was born in county Roscommon, Ireland, iu 1839, emigrated 
to Ontario, Canada, received a common-school education, taught school, and 
worked iu a lumber-mill. When the war of the rebellion broke out he went 
to Mich., enlisted, was commissioned Ist lieut, volunteer infantry, fought 
iu 16 battles, was wounded while charging Fort Wheaton, was in command 
of his company at the surrender of Gen. Lee, and was commissioned captain 
in May 18G5, a few days before his discharge. Engaged in lumbering in 
Mich, for 14 years at Saginaw, and filled several town and county offices. 
In 1884 removed to Aberdeen, Chehalis co., and went again into tiie manu- 
facture of lumber. 

N. G. Blalock was born in North Carolina iu 1836 on a farm, was educated 
iu the common scliools, except one year in Tusculum college, Tenn., paying 
by laboring nights aud moruings for his tuition; entered Jefferson medical 
college iu 1859, graduating iu 1861, and being commissioned asst surgeon of 
the 115th III. vols in 1862, aud was discharged on account of ill health in 
1804. Came to Wash, iu 1873, invested in dry foot-hill lands reputed worth- 
less tor agriculture, but which proved most productive. In 1881 he raised 
on 2,200 acres 90,000 bushels of wheat. In 1S7S and 1879, built a ilume 
from the mountains down into the valley, 28 miles, costing $56,000, for the 
purpose of conveying lumber, wood, and rails. His improvements greatly 
stimulated farming in Walla Walla valley. 

H. W. Fairweather, born in St Johns, N. B., in 1852, came to the U. S. 
in 1865. He was in railroad employ iu Wyoming for 3 years, came to Wash, 
in 1871, was again in the service of transi^ortation companies, and relieved 
D. L. Baker of the management of the Walla Walla aud Columbia River 
railroad. In 1879, became superintendent of the Idaho division of the N. P. 
for 3 years; in 1883, passenger agent of the N. P. and O. R. & N. comiianies, 
filling this position for 6 years. He was president of the 1st National Bank 
of Sprague, and director of the 1st National Bank of Spokane Falls; was 
mayor of Sprague, aud chief of ordnance with the rank of colonel on the 
staff of Gov. Moore. He married Miss Matilda Curtis in 1885. 

Francis Henry was born in Galena, 111., in 1827, was a lawyer by profes- 
sion, served as a lieutenant in the Mexican war, came to Cal. in 1851, and 
to Wash, in 1S62, residing permanently in Olympia; served three terms in 
tlie territorial assembly; was delegate to the constitutional convention of 
1878; served 4 terms as probate judge of Thurston co.; was president of the 
board of trustees of Olympia; chief clerk of the legislative council of 1887-8, 
clerk of the supreme court, aud treasurer of the city of Olympia. 

H. C. Willison was born on a farm iu Tippecanoe Co., Ind., in 1845, 
graduated from the university of the city of New York, served on the 
medical staff' of public charities and correction of New York, came to Wash. 
iu 1873, settled at Tacoma, was appointed physician to the territorial asylum 
aud penitentiary at Steilacoom in 1874, and was instrumental in securing 
the passage of a bill establishing the hospital for the insane on more sanitary 
aud humane principles than the former contract system. He removed to 
Port Townsend in 1885, where he continued to practise medicine. 

M. M. Goodman, born in Mo. in 1856, came to Cal. in 1870, attended the 
Pacific university, graduating in 1877, studied law, and was admitted to the 
bar. In 1880 he renioved to Wash., locating at Dayton. He was the only 
democrat elected to the territorial council in 1888. 


ceptance or rejection by the people was an instrument 

C. H. Warner was born in the state of N. Y. in 1836, migrated in 1847 
to Wis., and in 1854 to 111.; was educated at Mt Morris, 111., college, taught 
school, and studied law. In 1802 he came to Cal., engaging in cattle-raising 
in Sierra co. ; in 1807 went into flour milling in Oakland; in 1879 came to 
Wash., and engaged in milling at Colfax. He was a memljer of the legisla- 
ture in 1883; appointed register of the land-office at Walla Walla in 1885; 
was chairman of the democratic convention which met at Walla Walla iu 
1884, and also of the territorial democratic committee. 

J. P. T. McCroskey was born in East Tennessee in 1828, came to Cal. in 
1852, via Panama, settled on Santa Clara valley, made some money in 
wheat-raising and lumber-making, returned to Teuu., purchased a planta- 
tion, and set up a cotton-gin and large flouring-mill; but the civil war 
caused serious reverses, from which he had not recovered, when in 1879 he 
removed to Wash, with his family of ten children, and located on 640 acres 
9 miles north of Colfax. 

Samuel H. Berry, born in Osage co., Mo., in 1849, received a liberal 
education, was principal of the Linn high school, and county surveyor, mi- 
grated to Wash, in 1881, and located iu Lewis co., where he pursued teach- 
ing and surveying, and was county auditor for four years. 

James Z. Moore, born in Jefferson co., Ky, in 1845, removed to Mo. 
in 1856, was educated at Miami university, Oxford, 0., graduating in 1887, 
and attending Harvard law school at Cambridge, Mass. In 1868 he was 
admitted to the bar in Owensboro, Ky, and had a very successful prac- 
tice. In 1884 he was a delegate to the Chicago republican convention, and 
was elected the Ky member of the republican national committee. In 1886 
he removed to Spokane Falls, Wash., and was member of a prominent law 

Edward Eldridge was born at St Andrew, Scotland, in 1828, went to sea 
in 1841, to Cal. in 1849, and to Wash, in 1853, as mentioned iu this history. 
He made himself one of the finest homes in the country, at BoUingham Bay; 
has held various offices, was speaker of the house in 1866, president of the 
conventions which nomimated Denny, Flanders, and Gaifield for congress, 
one of the three delegates at large in the constitutional convention at VV^alla 
Walla in 1878. 

R. S. Moore was born in Scotland in 1828, immigrated to Conn, in 1831, 
to Iowa in 1848, to 111. in 1850, and to The Dalles iu 1852, removing in 1853 
to Steilacoom. He was county commissioner of the first territorial elections 
for territorial and county officers in 1854, and twice re-elected; was first 
lieut of CO. D, 1st regt of Wash, vols during the Ind. war of 1855; and was 
one of the company that cut a wagon-road through the Nachess pass iu 1853. 

George Turner was born in Medina, Knox Co., Mo., in 1S50, and bred a 
lawyer. He held the office of U. S. marshal for the southern and middle 
district of Alabama, and was appointed associate justice of Wash, in 1884 by 
Arthur. He was chairman of the republican state committee in Ala. from 
1876 to 1884; member of the national convention from Ala. in 1876-S0-84, 
and in the latter two, member at large and chairman of the delegation; and 
was one of the 306 in the convention for Grant. 

Theodore L. Stiles, born at Medway, Ohio, educated in the public schools, 
at the Ohio university, and at Amherst, Mass., college, studied law at 
Columbia college law school, and entered a law office in New York as a 
clerk for one year, after which he began practice. In 1877 he went to India- 
napolis, thence to Arizona in 1878, remaining in Tucson until 1887, when he 
came to Wash, and settled in Tacoma. 

James Power, born in Ireland in 1849, but reared in Ohio, was by occu- 
pation a printer, and worked on the Ohio State Journal. In 1870 he removed 
to Washington City, where he worked in the government printing-office 
until 1873, when he came to Wash, and started the Mail at Whatcom, re- 
moving it in 1879 to La Conner. He served as inspector of the Puget Sound 


well adapted to tlieir needs. It dealt with corporations 

district for some time, and represented Whatcom, Snohomish, and Island 
counties in the upper Iiouse of the legislature in 1883. 

John F. Gowey, horn in North Lewisburg, Ohio, in 1846, was admitted 
to the bar in 1809, member of the Ohio legislature in 1873-4^5, and pros- 
ecuting attorney of his county two terms, 1876-9. He was appointed 
receiver of the U. S. land-oiBce at Olympia in 1882, serving four years, and 
was a member of the territorial council at the session of 1887-8. Leaving 
the practice of the law, he became president of the First National bank of 
Olympia, and mayor of that city. 

Austin Mires, born in Les Moines co., la, in 1852, came to Or. with his 
jjarents in 1853, who settled on a farm in Umpqua valley, where he resided 
until he was 21 years of age, being educated at the different academies in 
Douglas and Polk counties, and in his turn teaching and learning the print- 
ing trade. He was appointed mail agent in 1887, resigned in 1880, and went 
to Ann Arbor, Mich., where he took a law course at the university, gradu- 
ating in 1882. He was admitted to the bar in Or. in 1882, and elected chief 
clerk of the senate of the Or. legislature. In 1883 he removed to Wash., 
locating at EUensburg. When the town was incorporated, Feb. 26, 1885, 
he was elected mayor, serving two terms; was subsequently city attorney 
and city treasurer; and was elected vice-president of the EUensburg National 
bank on its organization. 

Addison A. Lindsley, born in Wis. in 1848, and reared in N. Y., came to 
Portland in 1868; occupation, surveyor and civil engineer; removed to Cal. 
in 1874; was elected surveyor of the city and county of San Francisco in 1879; 
removed to Wash, in 1881; was a member of the legislature from Clarke co. 
in 1883-6; and was engaged in dairying and stock-raising on Lewis river. 

Lewis Johns, born in Germany in 1827, came to the Pacific coast in 1852, 
and worked at the trade of a painter until 1 866, when he began merchandis- 
ing at Vancouver, and was engaged in manufacturing biisiness on Puget 
Sound and Columbia river. He built the first barrel factory in the territory, 
at Puyallup, in 1883, and in connection with others established the First 
National bank at Vancouver, of which he was elected president. He repre- 
sented Clarke co. in the council; held the ofiBce of mayor for 6 years, and 
was appointed by Gov. Squire a trustee of the School for Defective Youth at 

J. J. Weisenburger, born in Bureau co.. 111., in 1855, came with his pa- 
rents to the Pacific coast in 1862, settling in Nevada City. He was bred a 
lawyer, admitted to practice in 1879, and removed to Wash, in 1883, locating 
at Whatcom, where he was city attorney and justice of the peace. 

D. Buchanan, born in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1 820, immigrated to Wis. in 
1850, and to Ritzville, Wash., in 1885. Occupation, farmer. 

E. H. Sullivan, born in Eaton co., Mich., in 1850, migrated to Neb. in 
1855, and to Or. in 1862, removing to Wash, in 1877. He was admitted to 
the practice of the law at Colfax in 1880, where he continued to reside, and 
was elected prosecuting attorney in 1884. 

D. J. Crowley, born in Bangor, Me, in 1854, of Irish parentage, came to 
Wash, in 1880, and practised law at Walla Walla, as a partner of John B. 
Allen, delegate in congress. 

R. Jeffs, born in New York in 1827, came to King co., Wash., in 1857, 
and was justice of the peace for 15 years. 

Dr J. C. Kellogg, born in Yates co., N. Y., in 1821, came to Wash, when 
it was a part of Oregon, settling at South Bay, Whidbey Island, where he 
continued to reside, and served several terms in the legislature. 

John Hoyt, bom in Ohio in 1842, came to Wash, in 1879; for eight years 
was judge of the supreme court; had been a member of the Mich, legislature 
2 terms, and speaker of the house, and was appointed governor of Arizona. 
He was a member of the banking firm of Dexter, Horton, & Co. of Seattle. 

Frank M. Dallam, born in Mo. in 1849, but raised in 111., came to Wash. 


especially, as required by the public, and settled the 

in 1SS2, settling at Spokane Falls; was printer, publisher, and editor of 
several journals in 111. and Cal., and established the Spokane Falls Revieio. 

John M. Reed, born in Mo. in 1842, removed to Or. in 1869, and to Wash. 
in 1879; had been a member of the Or. legislature from Clackamas eo., and 
county commissioner of Whitman co., W. T. ; by occupation a farmer. 

0. H. Joy, born in N. H. in 1830, came to Cal. in 1849, where he assisted 
in forming the mining laws; removed to Wash, in 1878, and settled at Bris- 
fort in Lewis co., as a farmer and mill-owner. 

Trusten P. Dyer, born in Warren co.. Mo., in 1856, graduated from the 
Central Wesleyan College of Warrenton in 1874, taught school for 3 years, 
was admitted to law practice in 1875, was chief clerk of the registry depart- 
ment of the St Louis post-office, city attorney of St Louis in 1885-6, prosecut- 
ing attorney for St Louis co., twice elected to the legislature, colonel of tlie 
National Guard of Mo., and member of the national convention of Chicago. 
He settled in Seattle 1888, was first president of the Harrison legion of 
that city, and married Miss Mary A. Pontius, also of Seattle. 

Thomas Milburne Reed, born in Sharpsburg, Ky, in 1825, attended such 
schools as the country then afforded during the winter terms, at the age of 1 S 
began teaching and studying at the same time, and was clerk iu a country 
store. When gold was discovered in Cal. he came by sea from N. O. to the 
Pacific coast, mined 2 years, formed a partnership with John Conness, after- 
ward U. S. senator from Cal., in a store at Georgetown; went to Eraser river 
in 1858, and thence to Olympia, W. T., where he continued to reside, with the 
exception of 2 years in Idaho during the Salmon river gold rush. He was 
returned to the Wash, legislature from Lewiston in 1862-3, and to the Idaho 
legislative body in 1864; was admitted to practice law in Idaho, but returned 
to Olympia iu 1865, and qualified himself as practical surveyor and civil en- 
gineer, becoming chief clerk in the office of the U. S. surveyor-general for 
7 years, after which he resumed surveying. In 1876 he was elected a mem- 
ber of the Wash, council, was chosen president at the session of 1877, and 
appointed by the governor auditor-general the same year. 

H. F. Suksdorf, born in Schleswig Holstein, Germany, in 1843, came to 
the U. S. in 1858, settling upon a farm in Scott co., Iowa, where he worked 
until 20 years of age, when he began his studies at the Quincy, 111., acad- 
emy and Iowa state university, graduating from the law deiJartment in 
18T0. Was appointed deputy U. S. marshal to take the census of Davenport, 
1870; elected delegate to the liberal republican national convention at Cin- 
cinnati in 1872, which nomiuated Horace Greeley for president; removed to 
Or. in 1872, was deputy county clerk under J. A. Smith; was appointed 
U. S. supervisor of census for Or. in 1880, and removed to Spokane Falls, 
Wash., in 1881, engaging in farming. 

T. T. Minor, born in Conn., in 1844, was educated in the public schools, 
and studied medicine. At the age of 17 years he volunteered as a ^irivate 
soldier in the 7th Conn, regt, was made hospital steward, and afterward asst 
surgeon of the 1st S. C. regt. In 1864 he resumed his medical stuilies, and 
received his diploma from Yale in 1867. The following year he came to 
Wash, for the Smithsonian institution, and decided to make his home on Puget 
Sound. He was chiefly instrumental in establishing the marine hospital at 
Port Townsend, but subsequently removed to Seattle, of which city he was 
mayor, and a most influential and helpful citizen. His death occurred by 
drowning in the Sound, together with Col G. M. Haller, son of Col G. 0. 
Haller, and Lewis Co.x, while hunting in canoes, iu Dec. 1889. 

S. H. Marly, born in Norwalk, O., in 1847, came to Wash, in 1882. 
He was a physician, and had represented Whatcom, San Juan, and Skagit 
counties iu the territorial legislature, where he was instrumental iu placing 
the insane asylum in Pierce co. 

Lewis Neace, born in Germany in 1835, migrated to the U. S. in 1847, 
was brought up in Penn. , and came to Wash, iu 1 859, locating in Walla Walla 
CO., where he continued to reside, farming and stock-raising. 


vexed question of tide-lands/ which it claimed for the 
state, except such as had been patented by the United 
States, thus setthng disputed titles. It provided for 
five supreme judges, and ordained superior courts in 
all the counties. It fixed the number of representa- 
tives at not less than 63, nor more than 99, and 
the senate at not more than half nor less than a 
third of that number, the first legislature to have 70 
members in the house and 35 in the senate. The 
salaries fixed upon for state officers were liberal with- 
out being extravagant, and left the question of the 
seat of government to the choice of the people at 
the election for the constitution; or if not decided 

1880. He had served as deputy circuit clerk iu 111., and bad been county 
commissioner in Or. 

P. C. Sullivan, born in Nebraska in 1809, came to Wash, in 1883, settling 
in Colfax with his brother E. H. Sullivan iu legal business, but removed to 
Tacoma in 1888. 

J. .J. Travis, born iu Tenn. in 1858. He was appointed to the Colville 
lud. agency during the administration of President Cleveland. 

J. J. Browne, born iu Ohio in 1844, was brought up iu Ind., and became 
a lawyer by profession. He removed to Kansas and thence to Or., finally 
locating at Spokane Falls, in Wash., where he was president of the Browne 
National bank, and ranked as the first capitalist of the city. 

George H. Stevenson, born in Iron co.. Mo., came to Wash, in 1882, 
and located at the Cascades, where he engaged in salmon fishing. He was 
auditor of Skamania co., and a member of the legislature of 1887-S. 

Tliomas Hayton, 57 years of age, came to Wash, iu 1876, and settled on a 
farm in Skagit co. , near La Conner. 

S. A. Dickey, born in Penn. iu 1858, was a teacher, and superintendent 
of schools in Kitsap co., near Silverdale. 

H. M. Lillis was a teacher in the public schools of Tacoma, and member 
of the city council. 

C. T. Fay was GO years of age, and had for a number of years resided in 
the territory, and was one of the commissioners of Pierce co. 

* The vexed question of tide-lands was settled only as to the future; but 
the trouble of Seattle and Tacoma was that Valentine and McKee held tide- 
land in front of these towns which had been taken up with scrip authorized 
by congress, to be issued in payment for certain lands acquired by Valen- 
tine, known as the Mirande Slexican grant, in Sonoma co., Cal., and which 
he deeded to the U. S. ; the terms of the certificates being that locations 
could be made on any 'unoccupied, unappropriated public lands of the U. S., 
not mineral,' etc. The cases to be settled in the courts will involve the ques- 
tion of the right of the U. S. to give or sell the land properly belonging to the 
future state. The Seattle and Walla Walla R. co. had received a dona- 
tion of these lands from the city of Seattle, and held them peaceably for 
years; but after outside lands began to be valuable, there arose trouble with 
squatters, who disputed the right of the city to these lands belonging to the 
government. The same trouble existed at Tacoma, and even at Walla 


then by a majority of all the votes, to another elec- 
tion between the two places having the highest num- 
ber of votes; and when it should be located, it could 
not be changed except by a two-thirds vote of all 
the electors of the state. Three articles were to be 
voted upon separately, namely, woman suffrage, pro- 
hibition, and the seat of government.^ 

Conventions were held, and party forces marshalled 
for the election of state officers and representatives, 
to be held at the same time that the election for the 
constitution was commanded to be had; namely, on 
the 1st of October. The returns showed that there 
were 40,152 votes for the constitution, and 11,879 
against it. For woman suffrage, 16,527, and 34,513 
against.^ For prohibition, 19,546, and 31,487 against. 
For the capital at Olympia, 25,490 votes; for North 
Yakima, 14,718; for Ellensburg, 12,833; for Centralia, 
607; Yakima, 314; Pasco, 120; scattering, 1,088— 
leaving the seat of government to be decided in the 

The state officers elected were John L. Wilson, 
congressman; Elisha Pyre Ferry ,^ governor; Charles 
E. Laughton, formerly lieutenant-governor of Ne- 
vada, lieutenant-governor; Allen Weir, secretary of 
state; A. A. Lindsley, treasurer; T. M. Reed, auditor; 
William C. Jones, attorney -general; Robert B. Bryan, 
superintendent of public instruction; W. T. Forrest, 
commissioner of public lands. The supreme judges 
elected were Ralph 0. Dunbar, Theodore L. Stiles, 
John P. Hoyt, Thomas J. Anders, and Elman Scott. 
Every candidate elected was republican. 

^ I am aware that this summary of the constitution is too brief to do jus- 
tice to that instrument, but space does not permit me to make an extended 
review. Fortunately, tlie instrument itself is open to all in the laws of the 
new state. 

'' The suffragists laid the defeat of their cause to the prohibitionists, who 
were hated by the taloon men, who lumped the two together and fought 
both. A good many women voted under the law of 1883, but their votes 
were not counted, and some suits at law were threatened to grow out of it. 

• E. P. Ferry was a popular man with all parties, although he polled only 
the regular majority of liis party, 8,979, aud'I regret that his modesty has 
left his antecedents unknown to me. 


The election for state senators and representatives 
was an overwhelming triumph for the republicans, 
there being but one democratic senator and six dem- 
ocratic representatives elected, making the republican 
majority on joint ballot 96. ** The choice of republican 
senators was therefore assured. Owing to a delay in 
the issuance of the presidential proclamation,'' the 
state was not admitted until after the legislature had 
assembled. Considerable confusion and agitation fol- 
lowed, the several senatorial candidates improving the 
time in labors to increase their following.'" The state 

* Tliese are the names of the first state senators, with their counties: F. 
H. Luce, Adams, Franklin, and Okanagan; C. G. Austin, Asotin and Gar- 
field; 0. T. Wooding, Chehalis; Henry Landes, Clallam, Jefferson, and Sau 
Juan; L. B. Clough, Clarke; H. H. Wolfe, Columbia; C. E. Foraythe, 
Cowlitz; J. M. Snow, Douglas and Yakima; Thomas Paine, Island and 
Skagit; W. D. Wood, J. H. Jones, 0. D. GUfoil, John R. Kinnear, W. V. 
Kinehart, King; W. H. Kneeland, Kitsap and Mason; E. T. Wilson, Kitti- 
tass; Jacob Hunsaker, Klickitat and Skamania; J. H. Long, Lewis; H. W. 
Fairweather, Lincoln; B. A. Seaborg, Pacific and Wahkiakum; John S. 
Baker, L. F. Thompson, Henry Drum, Pierce (Drum was the one democrat 
in the senate); Henry Vestal, Snohomish; Alexander Watt, E. B. Hyde, B. 
C. Van Houton, Spokane; H. E. Houghton, Spokane and Stevens; N. H. 
Owings, Tlmrston; Piatt A. Preston, Geo. T. Thompson, Walla Walla; W. 
J. Parkinson, Whatcom; John C. Lawrence, J. T. Whaley, A. T. Farris, 

The representatives were W. K. Kennedy, Adams; William Farrish, 
Asotin; L. B. Nims, J. D. Medcalf, Chehalis; Amos F. Shaw, John D. 
Geoghegan, S. S. Cook, Clarke; A. B. Luce, Clallam; A. H. Weatherford, 
H. B. Day, Columbia; Chandler Huntington, Jr, Cowlitz; E. D. Nash, 
Douglas; C. H. Flummerfell, Franklin; W. S. Oliphant, Garfield; George 
W. Morse, Island; Joseph Kuhn, Jefferson; J. T.Blackburn, W. 0. Rutter, 
W. H. Hughes, Alex. Allen, W. J. Shinu, George Bothwell, F. W. Bird, F. 
B. Grant, King; M. S. Drew, Kitsap; J. N. Power, J. P. Sharp, Kittitass; 
Bruce F. Purdy, R. H. Blair, Klickitat; S. C. Herren, Charles Gilchrist, 
Lewis; P. R. Spencer, T. C. Blackfan, Lincoln; John McReavy, Mason; 
Harry Hamilton, Okanagan; Charles Foster, Pacific; George Browne, A. 
Hewitt, George B. Kandle, Oliff Peterson, James Knox, Stephen Judson, 
Pierce; J. E. Tucker, San Juan; J. E. Edeus, B. D. Miukler, Skagit; George 
H. Stevenson, Skamania; Alexander Robertson, A. H. Eddy, Snohomish; 
J. W. Feighan, J. E. Gandy, S. G. Grubb, J. S. Brown, A. K. Clarke, E. 
B. Dean, Spokane; M. A. Randall, Stevens; W. G. Bush, Francis Rotch, 
Thurston; Joseph G. Megler, Wahkiakum; Joseph Painter, Z. K. Straight, 
James Cornwall, Walla Walla; R. W. Montray, George Judson, Whatcom; 
J. C. Turner, E. R. Pickerell, J. T. Peterson, R. H. Hutchinson, B. R. 
Ostrander, Whitman; John Cleman, Yakima. The democrats in the house 
were Weatherford, Nash, Flummerfell, McReavy, Judson, and Stephenson. 

' The delay was occasioned by the omission of the signature of Gov. Moore 
to the certificate attached to the copy of the constitution forwarded, the en- 
abling act requiring it to be signed by both the governor and secretary. 

'" The candidates were, in eastern Washington, John B. Allen, Thomas 
H. Brents of Walla Walla, and S. B. Hyde and Ex-judge George Turner of 
Spokane. Tacoma furnished Gen. J. W. Sprague and Walter J. Thompson, 


was admitted on the 11th of November. Although 
the legislature had convened on the 6th of November 
as required by the constitution, voting for senators 
could not take place, as the lieutenant-governor could 
not take his seat as president of the senate until the 
Monday following, which was the 18th, and to that 
day the inauguration ceremonies were postponed. 
Governor Ferry was sworn in by Justice John P. 
Hoyt, and very great enthusiasm prevailed at the 
capital. On the following day the legislature being 
fully organized, balloting for senators took place im- 
mediately, J. B. Allen" being chosen on the first ballot 
in both houses, the vote being 25 in the senate and 
46 in the house — total 71. On the second ballot 
Watson C. Squire was chosen by a vote of 30 in the 
senate, and 46 in the house — total 76, the remainder 

The justices of the supreme court had already drawn 
their terms, Scott and Anders drawing the two slips 
marked three, and Stiles and Dunbar those marked 
five, which left Hoyt the seven year term. Scott re- 

and Seattle, Ex-gov. Watson C. Squire. These were the principal aspirants, 
although Ex-congressman Voorhees of Colfax was in the field, with Chauncey 
W. Griggs of Tacoina. S. C. Hyde of Spokane Falls withdrew before the 

Thompson was the youngest man in the race. He was born in Wis. in 
1S53, was educated in the common schools of Burlington, and learned the trade 
of carpentry. At 18 years of age he began to go west, living a few months 
in Iowa, in Hebron, Nebraska, 2 years, where he was deputy county treas- 
urer. On attaining his majority in 1873, he formed a law partnership, and 
in 1875 was admitted to practice. He also organized a bank, and engaged 
in stock-raising and various undertakings, in which he was successful. In 
1883 he removed to Wash., locating in Tacoma, where he purchased the 
bank of A. J. Baker, organizing the merchants' national bank, of which he 
became president. From a capital of §50,000 it has increased to §250,000. 
Out of his wealth he donated |20,000 to establish a training school of manual 
skill at Tacoma. He served in the legislature in 1886, and was elected to 
the senate in 1887-8. 

" John Beard Allen was born in Crawfordsville, Montgomery co., Ind., 
May IS, 1843, received a common school education, and in 18G4 enlisted in 
the 13Sth Ind. infantry, serving in Tenn. and Ala. until mustered out, 
when he went to Rochester, Minn., as agent for a grain firm. He read law, 
and attended the law school at Ann Arbor, Mich., being admitted to prac- 
tice in 1869, and coming to Wash, in 1870, and opening an office in Oly mpia. 
His talents were soon recognized, and he was appointed U. S. attorney for 
W. T., which position he held for ten years. He removed to Walla Walla 
in 1881, and was, as elsewhere mentioned, elected to congress, though he 
did not take his scat. 


quested that Anders, who was his elder, should be 
elected chief justice, which was so done. Solomon 
Smith of Goldendale was elected clerk, and the rules 
of the territorial supreme court were adopted for the 
time, the court adjourning to the first Monday in 

Although the new-made state liad been thirty-six 
years in the condition of a territory, few of its mem- 
bers were born on its soil. Yet the average age 
of its first senators was not far from forty years, 
although the young majority had mingled with them 
a dignifying proportion of pioneers, as a few threads 
of silver on the brow of a mature man add dignity to 
his still evident youthfulness. Only about half a 
dozen members of both houses had resided in the 
territory from the year of its organization; several 
were Oregonians or Californians by birth, and a few 
were of foreign birth. Almost enough to constitute 
a company had fought in the battles of the civil 
war ; some had in other states gained experience as 
legislators, and in both bodies there was a high order 
of practical intelligence.'^ 

'2 Chief Justice Anders was born in Seneca oo., Ohio, in 1838, and admit- 
ted to the bar at Ann Arbor, Mich., in 1863. He came to Wash, in 1S71, 
W.IS associated with Thomas H. Brents of Walla Walla in law practice, and 
was ijrosecuting attorney of that district for five terms. 

'^ C. G. Austin was born in Avon, Ohio, March 18, 1846. Served in the 
war of rebellion, was twice clerk of the 7th judicial district of Minnesota, 
and after removing to Wash, was appointed clerk of the district court for 
Garfield and Asotin counties. His business was that of a dealer in grain and 
agricultural machinery. 

John S. Baker was born in Cleveland, Ohio, Nov. 21, 1861, and removed 
to Tacoma in 18S1. 

L. B. Clough was born in Waterbury, Vt, May 12, 1850. He removed to 
Vancouver, W. T., in 1877, and engaged in fruit-raising. He was elected 
sheriff in lb84, and served two years. In 1888 he was elected representative 
from Clarke Co., but the legislature not assembling, he was elected state 

Henry Drum was born in Girard, Macoupin co.. Til., in 1857, and educated 
at the Illinois state university. He removed to Hebron, Nebraska, where 
he was a banker, and also engaged in stock-raising until 1883, wlien he re- 
moved to Tacoma, where he, with Walter J. Thompson, purchased the bank 
of New Tacoma, which was reorganized as the Merchants' National bank, of 
which he was, when elected to the senate, vice-president. He was president 
of the school board of Tacoma, and was elected mayor in 1SS8, serving one 
year; and was director in several commercial enterprises. 

A. T. Farris was born in Mount Pleasant, Iowa, which he left in 1867, and 


The macliinery of the new state was now in motion, 

removed to Wash, in 1883, where he engaged in hardware business at Pull- 
man. He was elected to the legislature in 1888, and state senator in 1889. 

C. E. Forsythe was born in Penn., in 1850, and received a common school 
education, with au apprenticeship at carpentering. In 1875 he removed to 
Hood river. Or. , but settled in Kelso, Wash. , where he taught school. He 
was elected county auditor in 1880, on the republican ticket, serving four 
years; was also clerk and deputy clerk of the district court. Subsequently 
engaged in real estate and acquired a comfortable fortune. 

O. D. Gilfoil was born at Rhinebeck, N. Y. , July 8, 1863. He was brought 
up on a farm, but worked himself up to a railroad contractor. In Wash, he 
built bridges and constructed other works on the Lake Shore, Seattle, 
and Eastern R. R. He was the youngest man in the senate. 

H. E. Houghton, who migrated from Wisconsin to Wash., was about fifty 
years of age, and had been a state senator in Wis. He was several times 
city attorney of Spokane Falls, where he was member of the law firm of 
Houghton, Graves, and Jones. 

Jacob Hunsaker was a native of Illinois, about forty-four years of age. 
In 1846 his parents emigrated to Dr., and he obtained his education at 
Pacific university, after which he taught school in Or. and Wash. He 
went to Peru and spent a year on the Challas, Lima, and Oroya R. R., in the 
employ of Keith &. co., returning in 1873 to Thurston co., where he married 
a daughter of Hon. A. J. Chambers of Olympia, and finally settled in 
Klickitat co., as a merchant and farmer. He was county commissioner for 
four years. 

E. B. Hyde was born in Utica, Winnebago co.. Wis., Jan. 13, 1849, and 
resided on a farm until he was thirty years of age. He removed to Wash, 
in May, 1881, settling at Spokake Falls. He was the first marshal of that 
city, holding the office four terms; was a member of the city council two 
years, and held other minor offices. His business was real estate and bank- 
ing. He was a delegate from Wash, to the Chicago republican convention, 
which nominated Benjamin Harrison for president. 

J. H. Jones of King co. was born in England in 1857, soon after which 
his parents removed to the U. S., settling in Penn. He was a coal-miner in 
Penn., and on removing to Wash., in 1885, again engaged in coal mining. 
He was elected to the legislature in 1888, and the state senate in 1889. 

W. H. Kneeland was born in Lincoln, Me, Dec. 11, 1848. He secured 
an education by alternate study and teaching. In 1869 he engaged in lum- 
bering in Penn., and in 1876 became interested in the oil regions. About 
1880 gas-wells were discovered in the northern end of the petroleum belt in 
the state of N. Y., and he conceived the idea of converting the gas to practi- 
cal use. To this end he organized a company with half a million capital stock, 
and constructed t^ie Empire gas line, with over 100 miles of pipe, and with 
about 8,000 patrons. In 1882 he sold out all his property, and removed to 
Wash., engaging in lumber business in Mason co. He was unfortunate, los- 
ing all his capital, but afterwards partially recovering from his losses. 

Henry Laudes was born in Germany in 1843, but emigrated thence with 
his parents in 1847. In 1861 he enlisted in a union regiment, serving through 
the war. At its close he removed to Wash., went to the mines of B. C, was 
appointed Indian trader at Neah Bay reservation for six years, after which 
he established himself in business at Port Townscnd. He held various city 
offices, and was member of the board of commissioners to locate the govern- 
ment buildings, the territorial penitentiary, and the site of deaf, mute, blind, 
and feeble-minded schools. Ho founded the First National bank of Port 
Townsend in 1883, of which he was president; was a projector of and direc- 
tor in tlie Port Townsend Southern R. 11. company, eind president of the 
Olympus water company, besides being colonel of the national guard of 

John U. Lawrence was born at Mount Gilead, Morrow CO., Ohio, in 1801. 


and running without any perceptible jar. It was 

Hia father ilying when he was yonng, he removed with his mother to eastern 
^yaslullgton in 1S78. He was county superintenileat of schools, and mem- 
ber of the territorial board of education; also for one term superintendent of 
public instruction. Later he engaged in real estate business. 

J. H. Long was born near Columbus, Ohio, Nov. 27, 1845, and removed 
to Iowa with his parents in 1860. In 1864 he drove an ox-team to Bois6 
City, Idaho, as payment for his board en route, and in 1865 made a further 
remove to Lewis co., Wash. He was elected county assessor in 1869, treas- 
urer in 1873, member of the legislature in 1877, and joint councilman of 
Lewis and Thurston counties in 1881. He began life in Wash, as a farm 
hand, but became a proprietor, and engaged in cheese-making in several 
places, also in milling, being president of the Chehalis flouring mill com- 
pany, and in stock-raising. He married in 1868 a daughter of Stephen Hodg- 
den, a pioneer of 1849. His daughter married Wm B. Allen, a banker of 

F. H. Luce was born in Wisconsin, May 23, 1859. He studied medicine, 
but removed to Wash, in 1887, and engaged in real estate and banking at 
Davenport, Lincoln co. 

Thomas Payne of Skagit co. was born in New York City in 1855, and 
removed to Wash, in 1882. He was a telegraph operator, having charge of 
Mount Vernon station. 

J. M. Snow was a civil engineer at Waterville, and about 35 years of age. 

N. H. Owings was born in Indianapolis, Dec. 21, 1836, and educated at 
a seminary in that city. He graduated from the law school of the North- 
western Christian university, and commenced practice in Indianapolis. 
When the rebellion occurred, he enlisted in the Clay Guards in Washington 
City to guard the white house, and served 60 days, when he was honorably 
discharged. He was appointed by Lincoln a general staff-officer, with the 
rank of captain, and served on the staff of Grant and Sherman, receiving one 
promotion and two brevets, resigning in 1865 with the rank of lieut-col. He 
Was appointed special agent of the post-office department, and subsequently 
asst superintendent. On the 5th of Feb., 1877, he was appointed secretary 
of Washington territory, and held the office four terms. 

W. J. Parkinson was born in Ireland, May 10, 1844, removing with his pa- 
rents to New York in 1845. He prepared for college at Wilbraham academy, 
Mass., and later attended the Wesleyan university at Middleton, Conn., and 
Columbia law school in New York City. He was a member of the famous 44th 
Ellsworth regiment of N. Y. volunteers in 1861, after which he was clerk in 
the private olEce of the secretary of war. In 1806 he was admitted to prac- 
tice at the bar in New York. Removing to Kansas, he was elected attorney 
of Labette co. in 1867. Subsequently he became principal of a seminary in 
N. C, but returned to Saratoga co., N. Y., and was vice-president of the 
county agricultural society in 1887-8, and stumped the state of N. Y. for 
Harrison and Morton in 1888. 

Piatt A. Preston of Walla Walla co. was born in Saratoga co., N. Y., in 
1837. He removed to Omaha, Neb., in 1853^, where he was employed by 
the Omaha and Nebraska ferry company. In 1860-1 he went to Colorado, 
Montana, and Idaho, and in 1866 settled at Waitsburg, Wash., where he 
engaged in milling and merchandising with his brother, W. G. Preston, and 
S. M. Wait, and also in farming and stock-raising. He was elected to the 
territorial legislature, and was mayor of Waitsburg for several years. 

W. V. Rinehart of King co. was born in Clinton co., Indiana, in 1836. 
He resided in Oregon for many years, and served in the 1st Oregon cavalry, 
1862-5, being commissioned captain and major. In 1883 he removed to 

B. A. Seaborg, from Pacific co., was born of Swedish parents, at Wasa, 
on the coast of Finland, July 29, 1841, removing to the U. S. iu 1867, and 
to Astoria, Or., iu 1873, whence he again removed to Uwaco, on the north 


richly endowed by nature and by the general govern- 

side of the Columbia in 1880. Here be formed the Aberdeen packing com- 
pany, and esta1:ilished a salmon cannery, as well as one at Gray Harbor and 
Bay Centre. He was interested in transportation and other enterprises for 
the public benefit. In 1883 he was elected commissioner of Pacific co. He 
was appointed pilot commissioner by three successive gorernors, and elected 
school director of his district. 

George F. Thompson of Walla Walla was about 40 years of age, and a 
lawyer by profession. He bad resided in the territory for 12 years, and had 
held the offices of prosecuting attorney, probate judge, and mayor of the 
city of Walla Walla. 

L. P. Thompson was born in Jamestown, Chatauqua co., N. Y., in 1827, 
and received a common school education. In 1848 he migrated to Chicago, 
whence in 1849 he went to Sacramento, Cal. Observing that Oregon lumber 
was in great demand, he went to Milwaukee, Or., spending two years in 
alternate lumbering and mining. In 1852 he removed to Steilacoom and 
built a mill near Fort Nisqually, which he operated until the Indian war of 
1855, when he held a commission in the regular army and later in the volun- 
teer service in the quartermaster's department. He was a member of the 
first legislative assembly of Wash, territory; served in the Indian depart- 
ment several years; introduced hop-growing north of the Columbia; was an 
incorporator and director of the Merchants' National bank of Tacoma; a 
director of the Washington National bank and president of the Farmers' and 
Merchants' bank of King co., and was an extensive hop-grower at Sumner. 

B. C. Van Houton was about 38 years of age and a successful business 
man of Spokane Falls, being president of Citizens' National bank, and audi- 
tor of Spokane co. for two years. 

Samuel Vestal was born in Clinton co., Ohio, in 1845, and removed to 
Wash, in 1872. He taught school in Cowlitz co. until 1876, when he engaged 
in merchandising at Kalama, being elected county treasurer the same year, 
and re-elected in 1878 and 1880. In 1879, his store being consumed by fire, 
he formed a mercantile partnership with H. C. Comegys, and together they 
removed to Snohomish, where he was elected to the state senate. 

H. H. Wolfe of Columbia co. was a native of Ohio, engaged in merchan- 
dising and farming at Dayton, Wash. He had been a long time in the terri- 

Alexander Watt was born in Jefferson co., Ohio, in 1834, immigrating to 
Cal. with his parents in 1849. He mineil and prospected for gold in every 
territory of the northwest and in B. C, finally settling in Yamhill Co., Or., 
where lie married and followed farming. In 1879 he removed to Spokane 
CO., Wash., and was elected county assessor in 1888, and state senator in 

John T. Whalley was born near Manchester, Eng., in 1856, and came to 
the U. S. in 1871, settling in Illinois where he had relatives. In 1873 he 
again migrated, this time to Or., where he was employed on farms in Yam- 
hill and Washington counties for one year, when he began a course of 
study, graduating at Forest Grove in 1881. During this time he supported 
himself by laboring during vacations, or teaching. At the end of the course 
he went east and studied two years at Yale divinity school, and one year at 
Andover theological seminary, after which he was settled at Lawrence, Mass., 
for three years. He then returned to the west and resided at Colfax, Wash., 
with the intention of engaging in raising blooded cattle and horses. 

Eugene T. Wilson was born at Madison, Wis., Dec. 11, 1852. At the 
age of 13 years his parents removed with him to Montana. In 1876 he came 
to Columbia CO., Wash., and served in the Indian war of 1877 as 1st lieut of 
Idaho volunteers. In 1881 he established the Ponieroy Republican, after- 
wards the East Washingtonian, which he sold out, and in 1883, in company 
with F. M. MoCnlly, purchased the Columbia Chronicle of Dayton. This also 
was disposed of iu 1887 to O. 0. White, its original proprietor. In 1885-6 


ment. Its legislature would require several months, 

he served as clerk of the legislative council; and in 1887 removed to Ellens- 
burg, where he took charge of a mercantile establishment, which was con- 
sumed by fire in 1889. He was a member of the city council of EUensburg. 

William D. Wood was born in Marin co., Cal., Deo. 1, 1858. He resided 
there on a farm, and by labor earned the means to educate himself at the 
Napa collegiate institute, and by teaching paid his expenses at the Hastings 
law school of S. F. He also became a skilled stenographer. In 1882 he 
removed to Seattle, and the same year he was elected probate judge of Ki n g 
CO. Ho was president of the Wood brothers' land and trust company, and 
made real estate investments and improvements at Green lake near Seattle. 

C. F. Wooding was a native of Michigan, about forty years of age, and 
a banker at Aberdeen. He was also engaged in improvements at Gray 

The members of the house of representatives were known as follows: 

Alexander AUen, born in Scotland in 1842, emigrated thence with his 
parents in I8i9, settUng iu Wis. He served in the 24th Wisconsin reg't 
during the war. In 1875 he came to Wash., first residing in Port Madison, 
but removing to Seattle. By occupation a ship-builder, he was made super- 
intendent of the Seattle dry-dock company. 

F. W. Bird, aged about forty years, was a locomotive engineer, who had 
followed his calling in King co. for 15 years; but had seen the want of build- 
ing material in Seattle, and turned his attention to the manufacture of 

John T. Blackburn was born iu Yorkshire, Eng., Aug. 14, 1844, and was 
apprenticed to a horticulturist. He emigrated to 111. in 1867. In 1873 he 
married Miss J. P. Giddings, niece of Joshua R. Giddings of Ohio, and in 
1884 removed to Vashon island, Puget Sound, where he engaged in farming. 
He was appointed postmaster at Vashon iu 1885, and notary public in 1SS7. 
In 1888 he was elected to the legislature which did not assemble. 

C. T. Blackfan was born in IU. and served in the union army, where he 
was known as the baby of Gen. Harrison's brigade. In 1879 he removed to 
farm in Wash. 

H. Blair was born on a farm in Polk co.. Mo., Sept. 19, 1855, where he 
resided until he came to his majority, when he voted for a republican presi- 
dent. In 1877 he removed to Vancouver, teaching school in Clarke co., and 
studying medicine. He graduated from the medical department of the 
Willamette university in 1883, after which he began the practice of his pro- 
fession and settled in Biokleton, 1886. 

George Bothell of King co. was born in Clarion co., Penn., in 1844, and 
served during the war of the rebellion iu the 135th Penn. infantry and 14th 
Penn. cavalry, being captured by Early's forces, July 4, 1864. He came to 
Wash, in 1879, and engaged with his brother in logging and shingle-making 
at Bothell, at the head of Lake Washington. 

Josiah S. Brown was born March 6, 1845, in the parish of Burton, Sun- 
bury CO., iu New Brunswick. When 9 years of age he removed to Aroostook 
CO., Me, where he lived on a farm, and attended the district school. He 
served through the civil war, being in almost all the famous battles of the 
rebellion, was wounded, and was but twenty years of age when mustered 
out in 1865. Iu 1867 he joined the engineer battalion of the U. S. army, 
and came to the Pacific coast in 1868, serving in five states and territories, 
and being wounded in the Modoc war, and specially mentioned for gallantry. 
After this last service he came to reside in Spokane co.. Wash., on a farm. 
He was a delegate to the republican territorial convention at EUensburg in 
1888, and to the republican state convention at WaUa Walla in 1889. 

George Browne was born in Boston in 1839, and was an employee of a bank 
iu Wall street. New York, before the war broke out. During the war he 
was a staff officer; after its close, he began making investments in different 
Hist. Wash.— 21 


with the assistance of the code commissioners, to 

localities, and in 1887 settled in Tacoma, where he became one of the incor- 
porators o£ the Tacoma and St Paul lumber company, and one of the owners 
of the Fern Hill Motor railway. 

W. O. Bush, son of George W. Bush, the colored pioneer of Wash., was 
born in Mo. in 1832. He was a successful agriculturist, his exhibits of 
wheat at the centennial exposition in 1876 taking the premium over all 
other wheat in the world. His certificate was deposited in the state library 
at Olympia. 

A. K. Clarke was born in Windsor co., Vt, in Dec. 1849. In 1862 he 
joined a Vermont regiment, and was in the battle of Gettysburg before he 
was 14 years old. He served throughout the war, and after the war began 
attendance at a military university; but the habit of active life was too 
strong, and he entered the regular army in 1866, serving in Indian wars for 
20 years, his last fighting being in the Nez Perce war of 1877. He was dis- 
charged in 1879 from Fort Coeur d' Alene, and settled at Rockford, in Spo- 
kane CO. 

John Cleman was born in Lane co.. Or., in 1855, and removed to a stock 
farm in Yakima co., Wash., in 1865. There he spent his life; married, had 
children, improved his land, and never engaged in politics. His friends sent 
him to the first state legislature. 

S. S. Cook, also born in Or., in 1854, represented Clarke co., where he 
had resided 10 years. He was a stone-mason, and had contracts in Seattle. 

James M. Cornwall was born in Orange co., Ind., Aug. 7, 1834, and reared 
on a farm, in Edgar co.. 111. At the age of 18 he started with an elder brother 
to cross the plains. James settled on a land claim a few miles west of Port- 
land, and farmed it for ten years, having in the mean time married Miss Mary 
A. Stott. In 1860 he visited Oro Fino mines, and examined the Walla Walla 
valley with reference to settlement, taking up laud near Dry creek for a cat- 
tle raucho. That winter, the severest in the history of the country, killed 
off all his stock. In 1868 ho purchased a farm 9 miles from Walla Walla, 
where he made his home. He was elected joint representative of Whit- 
man and Walla Walla counties in 1881. 

Henry B. Day was born in Tazewell co., Va, in 1830. He removed to Wis. 
in 1847, and to Or. in 1851. In 1859 he took cattle into the Walla WaUa 
country, afterwards mining in Montana, trading and packing until 1870, 
when he turned his attention to sheep-raising and .atook busiuess generally, 
settling at Dayton. 

E. B. Dean was born in Iroquois co., HI., in 1842, and reared on a farm. 
He served in the 18th Iowa infantry during the rebellion. His occupation 
is that of a brick-mason. 

M. S. Drew was born in Machias, Washington Co., Me, in 1827. He mi- 
grated to Minn, when 18 years of age, and in 1852 came to the Pacific coast, 
via Panama isthmus. Two years later he settled at Port Gamble in the em- 
ploy of the Puget mill company, where he remained, except when serving 
two years as collector of customs for Puget Sound district, under Grant's 

A. H. Eddy was born at San Jose, Cal., in 1853. Reversing the usual 
rule, he moved eastward to Illinois, Texas, Colorado, returning to Cal. aud 
practising as a physician. In 1881 he came to Wash., and engaged in con- 
tracting and building. 

John J. Edens, from Skagit co., was born in Marshall co., Ky, in 1849, 
and removed to Knox co.. Mo., at the age of 12 years. He joined the state 
militia in 1861, and in 1862 enlisted in the 10th Missouri cavalry at St Louis, 
being in 14 battles. In 1867 he went to Denver, and in engaged in contract- 
ing and freighting. In 1871 settled at Guemes in Skagit co.; has held sev- 
eral county offices, and was once elected joint representative of Skagit and 
Snohomish counties. 

William Farriste was born in Riohibucto, New Brunswick, in 1835, of 


make and revise the laws, which body is in session as 

Scottish parents, and engaged in lumbering and mercantile pursuits in that 
country. He removed to Wash, in 1S78, where he again engaged in lumber- 
ing, and was never in any political office. 

J. W. Feighan was bom in Buffalo, N. Y., in 1844, but removed to Ky. 
He graduated at Miami university in Ohio, in 1870, and studied law in the 
Cincinnati law school, graduating iu 1872. He had previously been in the 
service of his country from 1862 to the end of the war of the rebellion. He 
was prosecuting attorney of Lincoln co., Kansas, for six years, and was com- 
mander of that department of the grand army of the republic; and ran for 
congress on the republican ticket in the 2d district of Ky in 1878. He came 
to Spokane Falls in 1887, and was for a short term city attorney. 

C. H. Flummerfell was born July 31, 1863, in Delaware, Warren co., 
N. J. He studied telegraphy and bookkeeping, holding various positions 
after the age of 19; was local agent of the N. P. E. R. at Hawley, Minn., 
and in 1885 located at Pasco, Wash., in the same capacity, where he remained 
for three years. Becoming interested in cattle-raising he removed Aitapia 
in the same county where he attended to his stock and acted as telegrapli 
operator for the railroad company. 

Charles E. Foster was born in Bristol, Me, Sept. 3, 1844. At the com- 
mencement of the war he enlisted in the 32d Massachusetts volunteers, 
served through the war. In 1864 President Lincoln issued orders for 12,000 
men who had followed the sea, and who were in the army, to be transferred 
to the navy. Foster having a seafaring knowledge was transferred, and was 
with Farrgut on the U. S. sloop-of-war Richmond, and honorably discharged 
in 1865. After this he followed the sea for 12 years, removing to Wash, 
with his family in 1877, settling at South Bend, on Shoal water bay, where 
he erected a hotel. 

J. E. Gandy was born at Fond du Lac, Wis., in 1847. He served through 
the war as a jjrivate in the Union army, and at its close was commissioned a 
surgeon in the regular army. He came to Wash, in 1875, and practised 
medicine at Spokane Falls. 

.1. D. Geoghegan was born in Galway, Ireland, about 1843, and at 3 years 
of age landed in New York, where he attended the public school. In 1862, 
being then in St Paul, Minn., he enlisted, served through the war, and in 
1866 was commissioned iu the regular army. He resigned in 1869, came to 
the Pacific coast, and served in the Modoc and Fez Perce Indian wars, since 
which he has resided at Vancouver, where he is in provision and grocery 

Charles Gilchrist was born in Scotland, in 1841, and educated there. 
At 20 years of age he migrated to Canada, and began farming; afterward 
mined in Nevada and California; and finally made a fortune in lumbering at 
Washoe, after which he returned to Scotland. In 1878 he came to Wash., 
and purchased a saw-mill at Centralia, where he founded the Lewis county 
bank, ot whicli he became president. 

Frederick J. Grant was born at Janesville, Ohio, Aug. 17, 1862, and 
graduated at La Fayette college, Penn., in 1883, when he removed to 
Seattle, and was for 5 years editor of the Post- Intelligencer. He was elected 
a member of the Walla Walla state convention of Sept. 4, 1889. 

S. G. Grubb was born in Meadville, Penn., in 1834, educated at tlie 
Meadville Normal school and Alleghany college, and taught school. By 
trade he was a mason. He enlisted as a private during the war, and was 
promoted to 2d lieutenant at Chickamauga. In the march to the sea he 
was ordnance oflScer for the artillery of the 14th army corps. After the war 
he engaged in lumbering in northern Michigan, and in 1884 removed to 
Wash., where he took a homestead claim. 

Harry Hamilton was born at Muneie, Ind., in 1859, where he lived on a 
farm until 1883. The following year he settled upon a tract of land in what 
was then Stevens co., Wash., 35 miles from ConconuUy, and engaged in 


I write, and there I leave theni, confident in the 

L. C. Herren was born in North Carolina, iu 1856, educated at Firmin 
university and Wakeforest college, and graduated at Greensboro law school 
in 1880. He was collector of internal revenue o£ the 11th division of N. C. 
in 1882; came to Wash, iu 1884, and was elected to the legislature iu 1888. 

A. S. Hewitt was born iu the state of N. Y., iu 1853. He came from 
Ohio to Wash, in 1877, and was for many years a locomotive engineer, help- 
ing to organize the order of brotherhood of locomotive engineers. He en- 
gaged in real estate business upon the rapid rise of Tacoma, in which he was 
extremely fortunate. 

W. H. Hughes was 35 years of age, and a native of N. Y., who came to 
Wash, in 1874. Residence Seattle. 

Chandler Huntington was born in Multnomah co.. Or., Feb. 24, 1849. 
His parents removed within the same year to Monticello, on the Cowlitz 
river, where he has resided ou a stock-farm ever since. He was son of 
H. D. Huntington, member of the first territorial legislature. 

R. H. Hutchinson was born at Dixon, Lee co.. 111., iu 1859, where he re- 
sided until 21 years of age, receiving a good education. He taught school, 
and studied law, being admitted to practice in 1887, when he removed to 

George H. Judson was born in Thurston co.. Wash., iu 1859, and re- 
moved to Whatcom co., which he represented in 1870. He graduated from 
the Seattle university in 1882, witli the degree of B. S., and engaged iu 
surveying and engineering. 

Stephen Judson was born in Prussia, in 1837, his parents emigrating 
with him to the U. S. in 1845, and settling at Galena, 111. In 1853 they 
crossed the plains with an ox-team, and entered Wash, by the Nachess pass, 
residing since that time continuously in Pierce co. He was sheriflf of the 
CO. from 1861 to 1869; was elected to the lower house of the territorial legis- 
lature iu 1871, 1873, and 1881; was co. treasurer one year, and trustee of 
the Steilacoom asylum for the insane. 

George Kandle was born in Savannah, Mo., in 1851, and immigrated 
with his parents to Portland, Or., the same year. In 1852 they removed to 
Wash., and finally settled 15 miles south of Steilacoom, in 1865. In 1871 
he removed to Tacoma, and took charge of a general merchandise store. 
He was four times elected county auditor, and in 1878 began real estate 
and insurance business. He was a member of the board of trustees of the 
Steilacoom asylum for the insane, and a member of the city council. 

William K. Kennedy was born in Chicago, in 1851, of Scotch-Irish par- 
entage, and educated there. He removed from Iowa to Wash., and settled 
near Ritzville. 

J. A. Kuhm was born in Penn., in 1841, was a lawyer by profession, 
came to Wash, about 1869, and had served several terms in the territorial 

A. B. Lull was a physician, residing at Port Angeles. 

John McReavy was born in the state of Maine, in 1840. He had resided 
for several years in the territory, and was a merchant at Skokomish. He 
was a member of the constitutional con. 

WiKiam J. Meade was born in Busti, Chautauqua, N. Y., in Sept. 1856, 
brought up on a farm, educated at Jamestown collegiate institute «nd col- 
lege, taught school, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1881. In 
1883 he came to Wash., and practised law in Tacoma. Iu 1884 was elected 
town clerk, and held tlie office until 1889. He was also a member of the 
Fidelity title insurance and abstract company, and clerk of the Tacoma 
school district for 3 years, and a member of the Tacoma board of health. 

G. Medcalf was a native of Canada, thirty-seven years of age, a butcher 
Ijy occupation, at Montesano, and had resided many years in the territory. 

D. B. Miukler w;is born iu Wis. in 1849, and bred a farmer. In 1874 he 
came to Wash., settling in Skagit, in lumbering business, in 1877. 


hope that their work will be performed with a con- 

G. W. Morse was born in Brunswick, Me, in 1S30, and his father being a 
shipbuilder, had sailed all over the globe. He came to Wash, about 18(34, 
helped build the General Harney, one of the first vessels built ou Puget 
Sound, and ran a trading vessel from Olympia to Alaska. He settled finally 
at Oak Harbor, on Whidbey island. 

VV. R. Moultray was born in Steelsville, Crawford co., Mo., in 1852, and 
obtained a good business education. He came to Wash, with his father in 
1872, and worked at common labor and contracting for four years. He then 
purcliased a trading-post at Nooksack crossing, and carried on a profitable 
business for a year, when he began hop-growing, which he found remuner- 
ative. He married Miss Lizzie Walker in 1877. 

E. D. Nash was born in Chautauqua co., N. Y., in 1836, but resided in 
Mo. from 1853 to 1SS3. He served in the 12th Missouri cavalry as major 
during the rebellion. He came to Wash, in 1883, and engaged in milling 
and merchandising. 

J. G. Megler was born in Germany, in 1838, came to the U. S. in 1848, 
attended school in New York City, learned the trade of a tinsmith, and wf ut 
to Cairo, 111., in 1853. When the war was in progress he entered the gun-boat 
service as paymaster's clerk, was promoted to mate and ensign, and was in 
the battles of Shiloh, Fort Henry, Donelson, and Vicksburg. After the war 
be came to Wash., and engaged in the business of canning salmon. 

L. B. Nims was born in Wattsburg, Erie co., Penn., in 1836, removing, 
when three years old, to Wis. He engaged in teaching, but the Pike's 
peak gold fever drew him westward, and for several years he drifted about 
in aU the Pacific states and territories, returning home and entering Ripon 
college, Wis., in 1862, where he remained two years. In 1884 he removed 
to Wash, from Minn., settling in Chehalis co., erecting a hotel in Cosmopolis, 
near the mouth of the Chehalis river. 

W. S. Oliphant was bom at Olive Green, Noble co., Ohio, in 1849, and 
bred a farmer. He came to Wash, in 1880, and was elected to the legisla- 
ture of 1888, which did assemble. 

B. R. Ostrander was born in Ohio, in 1843, and removed to a farm in 111., 
in 1855. He served in the civil war, and wag mu.stered out as orderly ser- 
geant, CO. H., 83 111. vols, in July 1865, after which he attended Lombard 
university in Galesburg, and married in 1870. Subsequently he was on- 
gaged in lumber and grain business for eleven years, in 111., and dealt in 
lumber two years in Colorado, removing to Wash, in 1883, and engaging in 
raising blooded stock. 

Joseph C. Painter came to Wash, in 1850 from St Genevieve co.. Mo. 
At the breaking out of the war he returned east, and served in the union 
army to the close of the contest. 

J. T. Person was born in White co., Tenn., in 1856, removing to Mo. in 
1859, and residing on a farm. He came to Wash, in 1881, settling at Endi- 
cott, and engaging in merchandising. 

Oliff Peterson of Pierce co. was born in Knox co.. 111., in 1848, remov- 
ing in 1857 to Des Moines, la. Before he was fourteen years of age he en- 
listed in the 20th regt of Iowa vols, and served as a private to the close of 
the war, being wounded several times. After the war he was a contractor 
in la. In 1875 he came to Wash., settling in Pierce co., where he had, in 
1889, 1,800 acres, and was engaged in hop and hay raising and dairying, 
besides owning property in Tacoma. He was for several years warden of 
the insane asylum at Steilacoom. 

E. R. Pickerell was born on a farm in Porter co., Ind., in 1858. He at- 
tended a seminary at Stewartsville, Mo., the academic schools of the Mis- 
.souri state university, and afterwards the law school, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1883. In 1884 he came to Wash., locating at Palouse City, where, 
with W. D. Irwin, he founded the Palouse News, but soon after sold out his 
interest and confined himself to the practice of his profession. He was a 


scientious desire to lay strong and broad and deep 

delegate to the convention of 18S8, and chairman of the committee on per- 
manent organization. 

AJfred A. Plummer was born in Port Townsend, Sept. 7, 1856, being the 
son of A. A. Plummer, the pioneer settler of that place. He was county 
commissioner for four years, and was business manager of the Port Townsend 
foundry and machine company when elected to the legislature. 

Isaac N. Power was born in Olympia, March 16, 1852, and removed to 
Whidbey island when one year old, residing there until 1876, when he en- 
tered the medical department of the Willamette university at Salem, Or., 
from which he graduated in 1877. He became associated with Dr Minor of 
Port Townsend in the marine hospital, but removed in 187S to La Conner, 
and later to Neah bay. After five years of practice he took a course of lec- 
tures in the Pacific medical college of San Francisco, and in 1883 located iu 

Bruce F. Purdy was born in Salem, Or., in 1854, and removed to Wash, 
in 1875, where he engaged in farming and stock-raising. His parents were 
from Ohio. 

Marcy H. Randall was born at Ames, Montgomery co., N. Y., in 1842, 
migrated to Wis. with his father in 1849, was educated at Carroll college, 
Waukesha, and was for some years domiciled with his elder brother, Alex. 
W. Randall, who was governor of Wis., and P. M. general under President 
Lincoln. In 1861 enlisted in Chicago in the 12th 111. infantry, was commis- 
sioned as captain in co. A, U. S. colored troops, resigned in 1865 on account 
of ill health, and removed to Jlontana, where he followed mining and stock- 
raising until 1886, when he came to Wash., locating on a stock farm near 
Kettle Falls. 

Alexander Robertson was born in Hamilton, Canada, in 1844, and came 
to Wash, iu 1870, settling near Stanwood, and engaging in farming and stock- 
raising. He served through the war of the rebellion in the union army, hav- 
ing his eyes seriously injured in the service. 

Francis J. Rotch was born in Albany, N. Y., Feb. 15, 1863, was educated 
at tlie Johns Hopkins university, Baltimore, and at the Dresden polytech- 
nic school in Europe. On returning home he went into the lumber trade in 
Wis., and removed in 1888 to Wash., where he was secretary of the Seattle 
lumber manufacturing company on the Portland branch of the N. P. R. R. 

W. C. Rutter was born in Westmoreland co., Penu., in 1854, was brought 
up on a farm, received a liberal education, being specially devoted to min- 
eralogy and mining science. He came to Wash, in 1887. 

John P. Sharp was born in Harrison co., Ohio, in 1842, removed with hia 
parents to Mo. in 1848, and to Or. in 1852, settling in Lane co. Afterwarda 
spent some years in eastern Or. and Idaho, and married Miss Rowland of 
Yamhill co.. Or., in 1865, removing to and settling on a farm in Yakima co.. 
Wash. He was elected county commissioner in 1876, and again appointed 
to the office to fill a vacancy, and was a school director and road supervisor. 

Amos P. Shaw was born in Franklin, N. H., in 1839, and lived on a farm 
until 1859, when he went to the then unorganized territory of Dakota, and 
was elected a member of the provisional legislature that met at Sioux Falls 
in the winter of 1859-60. Enlisted in the union army in 1862, and served 
three and a half years; was sheriff of Clay co.. Da, from 1866 to 1869, waa 
secretary of the territorial council in 1869, member of the house of represen- 
tatives in 1871 and 1875, and of the council in 1881. He came to Vancouver 
in the autumn of that year, bought and cleared land, and planted a prune 
orchard. Returning to Dakota in 1884, was appointed warden of the peni- 
tentiary, and served two years. Returned to Wash, in 1887, and formed a 
company to raise and pack prunes. 

W. A. Shinn came to Wash, from the eastern states in 1884, was a drug- 
gist, and about 35 years of age. 

P. K. Spencer was born in Warren Co., Ind., in 1849, received a high 


the foundations of a commonwealth destined to un- 
imagined greatness. 

school education, and graduated in 1873 from the Indianapolis business col- 
lege. He went to Kansas the same year, engaging in mercantile pursuits, 
and from there came to Wash, in 1880, being employed as a clerk in a store 
(or four years. He was appointed auditor for Lincoln co., and elected for 
two succeeding terms. Was elected joint representative for Lincoln, Douglas, 
Adams, and Franklin counties in 1888. 

George H. Stevenson was born in Iron co., Mo., in 1857. He came to 
Wash, in 1882, settling at the Cascades. He was elected county auditor in 
1882 and 1884; joint representative from Skamania, Clarke, and Cowlitz 
counties in 1886; was appointed inspector of customs to succeed A. L. Sharp- 
stein, but declined to qualify, fearing to jeopardize his seat in the legisla- 
ture. He was in the fishery business. 

Zebulon E. Straight was born in Wajme co., N. Y., in 1840, removed to 
Wis. in 1846, to Iowa in 1860, and to Minn, in 18G1, where he learned the trade 
of watchmaker and jeweller. In 1870 he came to Wash., establishing him- 
self in Walla Walla City. He was three times elected to the city council, 
and was a member of almost every political convention held in his town in 
18 years, including the state convention of 1889. 

J. E. Tucker of San Juan co. was born in Ohio, about 1839, and came to 
Wash, in 1881, settling on a farm at Friday Harbor. He was a lawyer by 
profession, and served during the war in the 50th and 69th Ohio regts. He 
was probate judge of San Juan co. 

John C. Turner was born in Cal. in 1853, had an academic education, and 
the trade of a cabinet-maker. He went to Or. in 1877, residing for three 
years in Portland and The Dalles, removing to Colfax in 18S0. In 1883 
he became deputy auditor and recorder, and in 1885 was appointed to fill 
the place of autlitor made vacant by the death of his principal, being elected 
to the office in 1887. He married a daughter of John Boswell of Colfax. 
He resided at the time of his election on a 1,000 acre farm, 4 miles S. E. 
from Colfax. 

A. H. Weatherford was born in Putnam co.. Mo., in 1853, went to Or. 
in 1864, and came to Wash, in 1871, residing in Columbia co. until 1880, 
when he went to Wasco Co., Or., where he held the office of commissioner. 
In 1886 he returned to Wash., and was elected representative from Columbia 
CO. in 1888. 


The manufactured products exported are: first, lumber, the chief article of 
commerce; lime, a valuable product on account of its almost entire absence 
over a great extent of Oregon and California; barrels, staves, wooden pipe, 
the proper trees for which manufactures abound in the small valleys 
about the Sound; canned fish, and coal— if that may be named with manu- 
factures. The other products exported are wheat and other grains, flour, 
wool, hides, live-stock, potatoes, and hops. 

Puget Sound, from its position, extent, depth of water, and its contiguity to 
the materials required, should be oueof the greatest ship-building stations in the 
world. In addition to the bodies of iron and coal lying adjacent to navigable 
water, the immense forests that skirt its shore line for more than 1,100 mUes 
furnish abundance of excellent timber for constructing every part of sea- 
going-vessels, from the tough knees of the tide-land spruce to the strong 
durable planks of red fir, abies douglasii, and the tall tapering masts of yellow 
fir, abies grandis. Oak, arbutus, myrtle, and maple furnish the fine-grained 
woods required for fiinishing the interior of vessels. 

The great merit of the firs is their size and durability, with their habit of 
growing close together like canes in a brake, and to an immense height with- 
out knots or branches. It is not uncommon to find a tree having a diameter 
of four feet at a distance of ten feet from the ground, wliioh has attained an alti- 
tude of 300 feet; nor is it unusual to find spar timbers 150 feet long with a 
diameter of eighteen inches, perfectly straight and sound. The mills on Puget 
Sound find no difficulty in furnishing squared timbers of these dimensions, 
and often cut plank from 60 to 90 fee*- in length. The fir has not the cor- 
rosive acid qualities of the oaks, and therefore iron bolts are not subject to 
corrosion, but are held so tenaciously by the strong and pitchy fibre of the 
wood that they will break sooner than be drawn out. 

Numerous tests have been made by the French of the strength of fir spars, 
as compared with those of Riga, which showed that while the bending and 
breaking resistance of the two were about the same, the American wood pos- 
sessed a notable advantage in density, having a flexible and tenacious fibre 
that might be bent and twisted several times in contrary directions without 
breaking. Nor has the fir been found lacking in durability. It has been the 

only wood in use for repairing sea-going vessels on the north-west coast, as 
well as for building numerous river boats and sea-going vessels, which remain 
sound after many years of service. White cedar, another valuable timber for 
ship-building, is found in certain localities about the Sound and on the Colum- 
bia River. 

Want of familiarity -ivith the materials to be found on the Pacific coast 
made ship-builders cautious, and it was only gradually that they gained con- 
fidence. The first vessel built on Puget Sound was the schooner JI. C. Page, 
at Whatcom, by Peabody & Roder, in 1S53. Her first business was a 
charter offered by the H. B. Co. to carry sheep to San Juan Island in 1854. 
Eoder's Betlingham Ban, MS., 29-30. The same year Bolton & Wilson built 
the clipper sloop Rob Hoy five miles below Steilacoom. Olympia Columbian, 
Oct. 15, 1853. H. D. Morgan established a ship-yard at Olympia in 1854, 
and launched the Emily Parker, a schooner of 40 tons, built to run between 
ports on the Sound. She was chartered by J. G. Parker. Parker's Puget 
Sound, MS., 4. The schooner Elsie, 20 tons burden, built at Shoahvatcr Bay 



in 1854 by Capt. Hillyer, Swaii's N. W. Coast, 282-3, completes the list of 
vessels that were put up in Washington waters for these two years. About 
April 1855 the little steamer Water Lily, owned by William Webster, and 
built at some port on the Sound, commenced running between Olympia and 

Pttget SotruD. 

Port Townsend with passengers and freight. Olympia Pioneer and Dem., 
April 7, 1855. The first steamer of a good size built on t>n Sound was the 
Julia Barclay, known commonly as the Julia, at Port Gamble. She waa 


a stem-wheel boat built for the Fraser River trade, and owned by George 
Barclay of S. F., but subsequently sold to the 0. S. N. Co. Victoria Gazette, 
Sept. 18, 1S58; Ebey's Journal, MS., vi. 171. The first ocean steamer con- 
structed of native woods in the waters of the Sound was the Oeorge S. Wright, 
launched May 12, 1860, at Port Ludlow. She was originally planned by 
William Hammond, Jr, and partially built by him. It was the intention 
to have named her the .4 . V. Brown, after the postmaster-general. But her 
frame being sold to John T. Wright, Jr, who enlarged it, she was called first 
after him, and then George S. Wright, after another member of the family. 
It was as the George S. Wright that the vessel was known on the coast. Port 
Townsend Register, May 16, 1860; Portland Times, April 30, 1860. She ran 
from Portland to Victoria for some years, and then from Portland to Sitka. She 
was wrecked in Jan. 1873, returning from Sitka, it was supposed, in the 
vicinity of Cape Caution, at the entrance to Queen Charlotte Sound. Every 
soul on board perished, either by di'owning or at the hands of the Indians, 
and no reliable account of the disaster was ever received. Among the lost 
were Maj. Walker and wife, and Lieut Dodge of the army. Port Toumsend 
Argus, March 18, 1873. There is no complete list of the vessels built previous 
to 1868. In the report of the surveyor-general for that year it is stated that 
29 vessels had been completed and launched, some of them reaching 600 tons. 
Zabrishie's Land Laios, 1076; and in Browne's Resources (1869), 574, I tind it 
stated that probably about 50 sea-going vessels had been built, up to that 
time, on the Sound south of Port Townsend. The returns made in the 7?e- 
ports of Commerce and Navigation are imperfect. Between 1858 and 1866 
there are no returns, a deficiency only partly accounted for by the destruction 
of the custom-house papers at Port Angeles in 1863. The J. B. Libbey, a 70- 
ton steamer, was launched from the mill premises of Grennan & Cranney, 
Utsalady, in December 1862, built by Hammond, Calhoun & Alexander. 
Wash. Scraps, 98. In 1865 or 1866 a small steamer was built at Port Madi- 
son for the Coal Creek Mining Company, to be used in towing coal barges on 
Lake Washington. Seattle Dispatch, Dec. 2, 1876. A steamer for the Sacra- 
mento Eiver was built at Port Ludlow in 1866; and another three miles below 
Olympia, by Ethridge, the same year. Olympia Pac. Tribune, Feb. 10, 1866. 
In 1867 the Ghehalis, for the Chehalis Eiver, was built at Tumwater, men- 
tioned elsewhere. The following year a steam yacht, the Success, was built 
at Snohomish by Thomas Coupe, and launched in May, at which time another 
was in process of construction — probably the Favorite. S. F. Call, May 10, 
1868. In 1869 was buUt the popular passenger steamer Alida, at Seattle, 114 
tons burden. Port Townsend Argus, Jan. 23, 1875. 

Ship-yards are numerous; ship-builders William Hammond and E. S. 
Cheasty at Port Ludlow; Grennan & Cranney at Utsalady, and later at 
Snohomish; Meigs & Co. at Port Madison, under the superintendence of A. 
J. Westervelt — the lumbering and ship-building company incorporated in 1877, 
Port Madison and S. F., capital $1,000,000. Meigs had a ship-yard in 1869 
or before, as above. Olympia Wash. Standard, Dec. 1, 1867; Walla Walla 
Union, Aug. 14, 1869. H. Williamson at Steilacoom; Hammond, Calhoim & 
Alexander at Utsalady; Crowell at the same place; Thompson at Port Lud- 
low; Oliver Engleblom at Port Blakeley; Bryant at Port Madison; Hammond 
at Seattle; all before 1870, and who may be considered as pioneers in ship- 
building. After that the business declined. In 1869 18 vessels, including 
two steamers, were buUt, but the following two years witnessed great dul- 
ness in the lumber trade, affecting all other branches. Victor's Or., 269; 
Meeker's Wash. Ter., 34. In 1871 a thousand-ton ship was built at Port 
Madison — the Wildwood, sold after 4 years in the lumber trade for a third 
more than her original cost. S. F. Alta, April 1875 — and at Seattle a steamer 
in 1872, from which time there has been an increase in the number of yards 
and of vessels built. Middlemas had a ship-yard at Port Ludlow in 1870; 
Westervelt at Port Madison in 1871; there was another at Freeport — later 
called Milton — in 1872; Boole had one at Utsalady at the same time; in 1873 
Reed Brothers rented Yesler's yard at Seattle and moved their business to 


that place from Port Madison, and in 1874 Hall Brothers from Cal. estab- 
hshed themselves at Port Ludlow; after which ship-building became a more 
prosperous industry. Tacoma Herald, May 28, 1875. At Port Madison were 
built after 1862 the barkentine W. H. Ganley, 360 tons; the bark Legal 
Tender, 1863, 190 tons; bark Northivest, 1805, 315 tons; bark Tidal Wave, 
1869, 600 tons; the whole four being for the use of the mill in can-ying 
lumber. Morse's Wash. Ter., MS., xxii. 4G. Also in 1870 the schooners 
Margaret Crockard, 169 tons; W. S. Phelps, 90 tons; and in 1873 the Mart/ 
Hare, 64 tons, and Empire City, 732 tons. The Empire City was taken to 
S. F. and converted into a steamer. It was claimed that building the steamer 
in this manner saved |10,000 to her o^vners. Seattle Intelligencer, Nov. 22, 
1873. In 1874 the barkentine S. M. Stetson of 707 tons was built at Port 
Madison, and ia 1876 the sch. Robert and Minnie, 99 tons, and str Dispatch, 
66 tons. Portland Board of Trade Report, 1877, 34. At Port Ludlow the sob. 
Light Wing was built in 1870, 101 tons; and bark Forest Queen, 511 tons; in 
1873 sloop Z. B. Heywood, 107 tons; in 1874 barkentine Pio Benito, 278 tons; 
and schooners Annie Gee, 155 tons; Ellen J. McKinnon, 70 tons; Twilight, 185 
tons; Jessie Nicherson, 185 tons; and sloop Mary Louisa, 155 tons. S. F. 
Bulletin, Feb. 10, 1875. The Ellen J. McKinnon in 1879 became water-logged 
in a gale and foundered, only one out of 10 persons on board escaping. S. F. 
Post, April 24, 1879. In April 1875 the schooner Cassie Hayward, 200 tons, 
was launched at Port Ludlow, and in Nov. the schooners La Gironde, 205 
tons; the American Girl, 220 tons; besides the Annie Lyle, Ida Schnauer, 
Emma Utter, and Wm L. Beebe, built the same year. Seattle Pac. Tribune, 
Nov. 27, 1876. In the following year there were launched at this port the 
schs Courser, 357 tons; Reporter, 337 tons; Premier, 307 tons; barkentine 
Quickstep, 423 tons; and sloop Katie Stevens, 5 tons. Portland Board of Trade 
Report, 1877, 34. In 1881 there were built at Port Ludlow the barkentines 
Wrestler, 470 tons; the Kitsap, 694 tons; and the sloop Mystery of G tons 
register. Seattle Intelligencer, Sept. 3, 1882. From the ship-yard at Seattle 
in 1870 were launched the sch. Planter, 121 tons; the stv James Mortie, 8 tons; 
and the barge Diana, 24 tons. In 1871 the strs Comet, 56 tons; Clara, 26 tons; 
Zephyr, 162 tons; and the sch. Lolita, 120 tons. In 1874 the sch. C. C. Per- 
kins, 27 tons; the scow Schioabacher, 19 tons; and the strs Ada, 81 tons, and 
Lena C. Gray, 155 tons. In the following year there were launched at Seattle 
the strs Nellie, 100 tons; Minnie May, 5 tons; and the barkentine Kate 
Flickenger, 472 tons. In 1879 the str George E. Starr was launched at Seattle. 
She was built for L. M. Starr of the Puget Sound S. N. Co., was 150 feet 
long, 28 feet beam, and 9 feet hold. Seattle Intelligencer, April 17 and Aug. 
13, 1879. In 18S1 there were built at the same place the City of Seattle, a 
sloop of 7 tons; the sch. Two Jacks, 6 tons; and the strs Jessie, 12 tons; Sea 
Witch, 38 tons; Alki, 45 tons; and Lillie, 80 tons. At Milton, opposite 
Seattle, were built the Etta White, str, 97 tons, in 1 87 1 ; the str George Seabeck, 
39 tons; the scow M. S. Drew, 28 tons; and the sch. Big River in 1872; the 
scow Western Terminus, 56 tons, in 1873; and the barkentine Ella, 260 tons, 
in 1874. S. F Bulletin, February 10, 1875. At Port Blakeley was built in 
1868 the double-topsaU sch. Alice Haake, 104 feet keel, 115 feet deck, 30 feet, 
beam, and 10 feet hold; owned by J. C. Haake & Co., S. F. S. F. Alta, Jan. 
10, 1868. In 1870 the sch. Ontario, 14 tons; in 1872 the str Blakeley, 176 
tons; and scows Uncle Davy, 33 tons, and George, 24 tons; in 1874 the schs 
Alice, 232 tons; Una, 200 tons; and barkentine R. K. Ham, 569 tons; in 1881 
the schrs Lottie Carson, 226 tons, Maria Smith, 365 tons, A7inie Larson, 377 
tons, and str Hamet, 8 tons. Seattle Intelligencer, 1882, passim. At Port 
Discovery, in 1872, the schrs Marietta, 141 tons, and Serena, 206 tons; in 1874, 
the barkentine Discovery, 416 tons. At StUlaquamish two small sloops were 
built between 1870 and 1876, the Undine and Artful Dodger; at Whidbey 
Island the schooner Dolly Varden, 19 tons, and sloop Albion, 8 tons; at Port 
Gamble the schooner George Francis Train, 28 tons, in 1873, and steamer 
Yakima, 174 tons, in 1874. On Orcas Island the sch. Orcas was built in 1873, 
11 tons; at Steilacoom the s\oo^ Magnolia, 12 tons, and scow Red Cloud, 34 


tons; at Taconia the sloop Polly, 9 tons, in 1874; at Fidalgo Island the sch. 
Fidcdgo Traveller, 9 tons, in 1876; at Port Townsend the sch. Jennie, 15 tons; 
at Ar'cada the str Biz, 80 tons, in 1S81. At Olympia, in 1876, were built the 
strs Capital, 24 tons, and Messenger, 121. In 1877 the Seabeok Mill Co. built 
the bark Cassandra Adams, 1,127 tons, and the tug Sichard Holyoke; and in 
1880 a ship with a keel 214 feet long, beam 44 feet, 17 feet hold, and single- 
decked, probably the largest single-decked vessel afloat. Seattle Intelligencer, 
July 1, 1879. John Kentfield & Co. of S. F. also built a sch. at Seabeok in 
1880. Morse's Wash. Ter., MS., xxii. 8. In ISSl two barkentines were built 
there, the Retriever, 548 tons, and the M. Winhelman, 532 tons. The only 
steamboat built in the eastern part of the Puget Sound collection district, 
which included Colville, was the Forty-nine, owned by Leonard White. She 
was launched at U. S. Fort Colville, Nov. 18, 1865. She was 114 feet long 
and 20 feet 4 inches wide. She was run as high up as Death Rapids, 270 
miles. See a very interesting account of her trip in Leighton's Life at Puget 
Sound, 63-74. This little book, by Caroline Leighton, published in 1884, 
is unique in description of Wasliington Ute from 1865 to ISSl, and of the 
natural scenery of the country. The incidents are well chosen and style de- 
lightfully natural. 

In 1869, a report was made on ship-building to the board of marine under- 
writers of S. F., by their secretary, C. T. Hopkins, and by Joseph Riugot, in 
favor of using the Puget Sound and Oregon timber for ships, and showing 
that the economy in wood more than counterbalanced the higher wages of 
shipwrights on this coast, and the expense of importing copper, cordage, and 
other articles. Cordage, linseed oil, pitch, tar, and turpentine could be man- 
ufactured here; and so in time could iron and copper. This report declared 
that ' sailing vessels of any size and description can be built at Puget Sound, at 
Coos Bay, on the Columbia River, and at several other points north of S. F., 
of as good quality as the vessels built of Maine materials, and for less money 
in gold than at New York or Boston, provided the business be undertaken 
on a large scale by experienced and prudent mechanics, backed up by a large 
capital. ' Bophins' ShipSuilding, 26. The cost per ton of a first class New 
York sailing vessel, exclusive of coppering, was, for a 100-ton vessel, $115, 300 
tons 1109, 600 tons $96, 1,000 tons $87. The jforlhicest, 315 tons, built 
in the Sound, cost §87 per ton coppered; the Tidal Wave, 600 tons, cost $83 
per ton without copper; the Forest Queen, 511 tons, cost $117 perton with- 
out copper; the TFiWMiood of 1,000 tons, $73 per ton coppered; the barkentine 
Modoc, built at Utsalady in 1 873, $99 per ton without copper. These varia- 
tions in cost depended upon the amount of capital at hand and local circum- 
stances. To construct a 1,200-ton ship there were required 10,000 working 
days of all classes of mechanics and laborers, 3,500 days in the yard. Olympia 
Transcript, March 18, 1876; Tacoma Pac. Tribune, Sept. 24, 1874. 

Propositions to form a company with five millions capital to enter upon 
ship-building on Puget Sound was made by the S. F. board of underwriters 
in 1874, which was not, however, acted upon, the chief difiiculty appearing to 
be that mechanics could not be secured in sulBcient numbers at reasonable 
wages, owing to the expense at that time of travelling from Maine to Wash- 
ington. Undoubtedly the shipping interest has suftered through the indiflfer- 
ence of congress to its importance. What with the whale and other fisheries 
of the Northwest Coast, and the coal and lumber trade, large fleets of vessels 
of moderate size should be furnished by Puget Sound ship-yards. Down to 
ISSO there had been between forty and fifty steamers built and employed in 
the Puget Sound trade. Oli/mpia Pac. Tribune, Sept. 14, 1872; Stuart's Wash. 
Ter., 14; New Tacoma N. P. Coast, Jan. 15, 1880. 

Prior to 1872 there were between 90 and 100 sailing vessels built, most of 
them of small size, for the local freight service, the larger ones for the lum- 
ber trade. In the ten years following there were from ten to twenty vessels 
built annually, yet the vast inland sea still looked solitary, and hundreds of 
miles of wooded shores were as silent as when Vancouver explored them 
nearly a century before. During the year ending June 30, 1878, 69 sailing and 


39 steam vessels were documented at Port Townsend, the port of entry of 
Puget Sound collection district, with a carrying capacity of 31,000 tons. This 
tonnage was exceeded by only 28 of the 125 collection districts of the U. S. 
American vessels in the foreign trade entered in the same year were 263, with 
a tonnage of 152,828; there were cleared 2S4, with a tonnage of 167,178. This 
surpassed that of vessels so entered and cleared during the same time at 120 of 
the 125 ports of entry in the U. S., being exceeded only by Boston, Charles- 
ton, New York, Detroit, and San Francisco. Repl of Chief of Bureau of 
Stalistks, 1878, pt ii. 802-4. Foreign vessels entered at Port Townsend dur- 
ing the same time 46, with a tonnage of 19,915; cleared 61, with a tonnage of 
30,962. This was exceeded by but 31 out of the 125 ports of entry of the 
U. S. American ocean steam-vessels in the foreign trade entered during the 
same time at Port Townsend were 178, with a tonnage of 130,471; cleared 
183, with a tonnage of 131,432; exceeded by only 2 other ports of entry in 
the U. S. — N. Y. and S. F. The tonnage of foreign ocean steam-vesseLs in 
the foreign trade, which entered and cleared at Port Townsend during the 
year ending June 30, 1878, was exceeded but by 10 other ports of the U. S. 
It was estimated that at least 75 deep-sea vessels ia the general coasting 
trade, which were enrolled and licensed, and did not make entry or clear- 
ance, were employed in the Puget Sound trade, only about one third of which 
wei-e documented in this district, the remainder in S. F. In 1880 there 
cleared from Port Townsend, for the four months from July to Oct., 66 Amer- 
ican sailing vessels for foreign ports, with a tonnage of 46,244. For the same 
■months in 1881 the tonnage of this class was 65,393. The number of Ameri- 
can vessels entering from foreign ports in the same months of 1880 was 62; 
in 1881 it was 115. The number of American steam-vessels entering from 
foreign ports in the same months of 1880 was 30; in 1881 it was 72. The 
number clearing was 33 in 1880, and 73 ia 1881. The increase in ocean ton- 
nage from and to foreign ports during the same months of 1881 over 1880 was 
100 per cent. 

Out of the large number of vessels which have come and gone in the thirty- 
four years since the Orbit sailed up to Olympia, few comparatively have been 
wrecked. I have mentioned the loss of the Robert Bruce by fire in Shoal- 
water Bay, and the brig Una on Cape Flattery, both in 1851. In 1852 the 
northern Indians reported the wreck of an unknown vessel on the coast of 
V. I., with all on board lost. Hancock's Thirteen Tears, MS., 234-5. In the 
winter of 1852-3 the brig Willimantic, Capt. Vail, was driven ashore at Eld 
Island, at the entrance to Gray Harbor, but she did not go to pieces. After 
vainly attempting to launch her toward the sea, she was dragged across the 
island and launched on the other side. Swan's N. W. Coast, 43; Davidson's 
Coast Pilot, 171. In Sept. 1853 the brig Palos was wrecked on Leadbetter 
Point, at the mouth of Shoalwater Bay. Passengers saved, but the capt. 
drowned. In 1854 a ChUeau bark was wrecked ofif Cape Classet by becoming 
water-logged; 14 persons drowned, 1 saved, but died of exhaustion at Steila- 
coom. Or. Statesman, April 11, 1854. In this year, also, the steamer South- 
erner was wrecked near the mouth of the Quillehuyte River. Hist. Or. , ii. 
this series. H. Y. Sewell, of Whidbey Island, went across the mountains to 
the wi-eck to save the mail, was taken prisoner by the Indians, and held for 
some time, but succeeded in his undertaking. He was the first white man 
to cross the Olympian range to the coast so far north. Morse's Wash. Ter., 
MS., ii., 58. The schooner Empire, Capt. Davis, loaded with oysters, struck 
on a spit at the north entrance of Shoalwater Bay, where she remained fast 
and perished. Swan says that the Empire and Palos were both lost through 
carelessness, and were the only vessels -wrecked at this entrance up to 1856. 
Northwest Coast, 365. The Hawaiian bark Louika, Capt. Willfong, went 
ashore on San Juan Island in July 1855. She was a total loss. Ebey'x Jour- 
nal, MS., iii., 73, 81. The Major Tompkins, wrecked ofif Esquimault harbor, 
Feb. 25, 1855, has been noticed. No lives lost. Olympia- Pioneer and Dem., 
March 3, 1855. Also the Fairy, the first steamer in any trade on the Sound. 
She blew up at her wharf at Steilacoom. Id., Oct. 23, 1857. The i 


Sea Bird was burned on Fraser River, 14 milea above Langley, Sei^t. 10, 1858. 
The Traveller, a Sound steamer, was lost in 1838, with five persons on board, 
by foundering. Olympia Pioneer and Dem., March 12, 1S5S; Morse's Wash. 
Ter., MS., iv. 60. In 1859 the schooner Caroline was upset on her way into 
the Sound, near the Lummi Islands; no lives lost. Ebey's Journal, MS., vi. 
126. In Jan. of the same year the brig Cyrus, at port San Juan, was wrecked 
in a gale, and became a total loss. Or. Statesman, Jan. 25, 1859. The ocean 
steamer Northerner, Capt. Dall, running between S. F. and the Sound ports 
with the mails, was lost by striking a sunken rock tw^o miles below Blunt 
reef, opposite Cape Mendocino, Jan. 5, 1860, and 30 lives lost. Steilacoom 
Herald, Jan. 20, 1860; Ebey's Journal, MS., vi. 260. The American clipper 
ship Northe7-n Eagle, valued at $60,000, was bumed in Esquimault harbor in 
Sept. 1859. She was en route to Puget Sound to load with lumber for Mel- 
bourne. Loss from $100,000 to $150,000. Steilacoom P. S. Herald, Oct. 8, 
1859. On the 10th of May, 1860, the ocean mail-steamer Panamd, Capt. 
Hudson, went ashore on Point Hudson, at the entrance to Port Townsend 
hai-bor. She was worked off at high tide, and continued to visit Sound 
ports as late as 1876. Ebey's Journal, MS., vi. 306. Says C. M. Bradshaw, 
in Wash. Ter. Sketches, MS., 69-70: ' Before the erection of the light-house it 
was not unusual to hear guns iii-ed in the night as signals of distress, or to 
awake and find some good ship beating upon the beach, at the mercy of the 
remorseless surf. On such occasions the settlers would rally and assist in 
getting tlie seamen on shore, and saving property from the wreck for the ben- 
efit of its owners, or aid in getting the ship off, if possible, without fee or 
reward. Many is the ship-master who has had abundant reason to thank the 
Dungeuess farmers for assistance in dire necessity.' In May 1859 the bark 
Mary Slade, from Steilacoom to S. F., was wrecked near Mendocino, and be- 
came a total loss; no lives lost. In March 1802 the schr Tola was capsized 
in a squall near San Juan, and Capt. Maloney and all her passengers and 
crew, except two, drowned. Ebey's Journal, MS., vii. 81. The schr Bestless 
soon after capsized and drifted on Maylor Point, Whidbey Island, where it 
was broken up. The sloop Cornet, running between Penn Cove and Utsalady 
Mills, a distance of 10 miles, disappeared with all on board, supposed to have 
been sunk by ice. Wash. Scraps, 19, 131. A large British ship was wrecked 
on Race Rocks, in the Strait of Fuca, and a heavy cargo of goods lost, in the 
winter of 1862. Or. Statesman, Dec. 22, 1862. The British ship Fanny and 
Hawaiian bark Jlosalia were wrecked on Discovery Island, at the entrance to 
the Canal de Haro, in the spring of 1868; no lives lost. Seattle Intelligencer, 
March 30, 1868. The schr Growler was wrecked in the spring of 1867, and 
such of the crew as escaped were slain by the northern Indians. Portland 
Oregonian, May 18 and June 30, 1807. The schr Champion was wrecked at 
Shoalwater Bay in April 1870. Seattle Intelligencer, May 2, 1870. The schr 
Sosa Perry was cast away at the enti-ance to Shoalwater Bay, Oct. 2, 1872. 
The crew were rescued by the light-house tender /SAuirici. Olympia Tran- 
script, Oct. 12, 1872. The Walter Raleigh was lost near Cape Flattery in the 
winter of 1872. S. F. Call, Deo. 14, 1872. The Nicaraguan ship Pelican was 
lost at the west end of Neah Bay in Jan. 1875; no lives lost. The American 
ship Emily Famum, Austin master, struck on a rock off Destruction Island, 
Nov. 18th, and broke up. Two men were drowned. About the same time the 
schr Sunshine was found bottom up, off the mouth of the Columbia. She had 
25 persons on board, all lost. Olympia Wash. Standard, Dec. 11, 1875. The 
bark David Iloadley ran ashore on Rocky Point, in the Straits, Dec. 4, 1880, 
and was lost. The steam tug-boat Resolute exploded her boiler in North Bay, 
15 miles from Olympia, Aug. 19, 1808; six lives lost. Olympia Pac. Tribune, 
Aug. 22, 1808. The most shocking calamity in the way of shipwreck which 
has ever happened in Washington waters occurred in the loss of the old and 
unsea worthy ocean mail-steamer Pacific, Nov. 4, 1875. She left Victoria in the 
morning, and in the e\'euing, about 40 miles south of Cape Flattery, she col- 
lided with a sailing vessel and went down in less than an hour, with 275 souls 
on board. Two persons only were saved. The two saved, who were picked 


up from floating debris 36 and 48 hours after the wreck, were a quartermas- 
ter, name unknown, and a Canadian, Henry Frederick Jelly. The loss of 
ship and cargo was estimated at $125,000, and the treasure on board at 
$88,000. S. F. Call, Nov. 9 and 11, 1875. Since this disaster three large 
steam-colliers, belonging to the Central Pacitio R. Co., have been wrecked — 
the Mississippi, burned at Seattle; the Tacoma, going ashore at the mouth of 
the Umpqua; and the Umatilla, running on the rocks at false Cape Flattery, 
all within the years 18S3-4. The two lost at sea were doubtless lost 
through the wrong policy of the company in employing captains unacquainted 
with the coast. The escape of vessels from shipwreck for many years on the 
Sound, where there was no system of pilotage established, and light-houses 
were wanting, is worthy of remark. Pilotage has never been deemed im- 
portant, owing to the width of the straits and the depth of water; but 
light-houses have been urgently demanded of congress by successive legisla- 
tures. Pilotage was not established by act of the legislature until 1S67-8. 
ITo-fA. Stal., 1867-8, 33-9. The chairman of the first board was E. S. 
Fowler, and the secretary James G. Swan. During 186S 9 pilots were ap- 
pointed, 4 of whom resigned, and one was dismissed. The service was not 
considered remunerative, and was alleged to be unnecessary by many, who 
contended it was simply taxing commerce for the benefit of individuals. 
Olympia Transcript, March 28 and Oct. 3, 1868; Port Towiisend Message, Oct. 
8, 1868; Wash. Jour. Council, 1869, app. 21-7; Olympia Wash. Standard, 
Dec. 10, 1880. The organic act of Oregon territory appropriated fifteen 
thousand dollars for the construction of light-houses at Cape Disappointment 
and New Dungeness, and for buoys at the mouth of the Columbia. U. 8. Stat. 
1848-9, 323. Another act, passed a fortnight later, making appropriations 
for light-houses and for other purposes, appropriated money for the above- 
mentioned lights, and for another on Tatoosh Island, oflf Cape Flattery, at the 
entrance to the Strait of Fuca. H. Misc. Doc, vol. i. 57, 31st cong. Istsess. 
Congress, in Aug. 1854, appropriated $25,000 for a light-house on Blunt or 
Smith Island, in the straits; the same amount for a light-house at Shoalwater 
Bay; and for the erection of the Tatoosh and New Dungeness lights, in addi- 
tion to any balance that might remain in the treasury after the completion of 
the Cape Disappointment light-house, belonging to that appropriation, $39,000. 
Eight thousand dollars was also granted for placing buoys at the entrances 
of Shoalwater Bay and New Dungeness harbor. Cong. Globe, 2249, 33d cong. 
1st sess. 

The light house at Cape Disappointment was not completed as soon as ex- 
pected, owing to the loss of the bark Oriole with the material on board in 1853. 
The contractors, Gibbons and Kelly, recovered $10,558 from the government 
for the loss of their material. H. Ex. Doc, 113, 2-3. Lieut G. H. Derby 
was appointed to superintend the construction of light-houses on the Oregon 
and Washington coast in 1854, Olympia Pioneer and Dem., July 22, 1854, 
when the work was finally begun at the mouth of the Columbia. It was com- 
pleted about 1856, and orders issued to begin the work on the others; but the 
Indian war and other causes delayed operations for some time. The first 
light displayed at New Dungeness was on the 12th of Dec. 1857. Mey's Jour- 
nal, MS., V. 203; Light-house board rept, in H. Ex. Doc, 3, 287, 35th cong. 
2d sess. It was of the third order of Fresnel. Tatoosh Island light was 
displayed about the same time. These two light-houses were erected under 
the superintendency of Isaac Smith. Those on Blunt Island and at Shoal- 
water Bay were completed in 1858. In 1872 a first-class steam fog-whistle 
was added, the fog-bell in use being insufficient. Gov. 's mess. , in Wash. Jour. 
Home, 1858-9, IS. The Tatooshes were much disturbed by the light on the 
island; they said it kept away the whales, which did not come in their usual 
numbers that season. Ind. Aff. Rept, 1858, 232, 236-8; Davidson's Coast Pilot, 
1 79-80. A light-house was completed and light exhibited at Admiralty Head, 
or Kellogg Point, on Whidbey Island, in Jan. 1 861 , an appropriation of twenty- 
five thousand dollars having been made in 1856 for this purpose. Finance 
Rept, 1861, 205; Olympia Wash. Standard, Jan. 26, 1861; U. S. Statutes, 


1855-6. The light-house board in their report for 1S72 represented that the 
rapidly increasing commerce of Puget Sound demanded an increase of lights, 
and asked for an appropriation of §25,000 each for light-houses at Point No- 
Point, between Port Townsend and Seattle, at West Point, entrance to 
Dwamish Bay, and at Point Defiance, nine miles north of Steilacoom. To erect 
a steam fog-whistle at New Dungeness, $8,000 was asked for. Congress in 
the following March appropriated the required sums for the fog-whistle, and 
for a light-house at Point No-Point. Cong. Globe, app. 271, 42d cong. 3d sess. ; 
Gov.'s mess., in Wash. Jour. Council, 1871, app. 110; H. Ex. Doc, 2, 549- 
50, 42d cong. 3d sess. A bell struck by machinery at interval of ten seconds 
was added in 1880. The legislature in 1858-9 petitioned for a light-house on 
Hood Canal, and another on Point Roberts, the most northern point of the 
straits leading into the gulf of Georgia. The next legislature memorialized 
congress on the need of a light at Gray Harbor; and the assembly of 1860-1 
asked for one at the north-west point of Vashon Island, another at the entrance 
to Belllngham Bay, and a third at Point Hudson. The sum of |20,000 was 
appropriated in June 1860 for a light-house at Gray Harbor, but nothing hav- 
ing been done toward erecting one in 1805, the legislative assembly of that 
winter memorialized congress on the subject. The number of light-houses had 
not, however, been added to, notwithstanding periodical memorials, and sug- 
gestions as to Alki Point, Foulweather Blufif, and Cypress Island, in addition 
to those before prayed for, when in 1876 negotiations were in progress to pur- 
chase land at Point No-Point for the purpose of estabUshiug a light at that 
place. A light has since been established there. There were in 1884 ten 
lights on the whole coast of Washington, including the Strait of Fuca and 
Puget Sound; on Cape Disappointment or Hancock, one of the 1st order, 
Shoal water Bay one of the 4th order; Cape Flattery one of the 1st order; 
Ediz Hook (Port Angeles) one of the 5th order; New Dungeness one of the 
3d order; Smith or Blunt Island, Admiralty Head, and Point Wilson each 
one of the 4th order; Point No-Point one of the 5th, and at West or Sandy 
Point one of the 4th order. A light of the 1st class can be seen about 20 
miles, of the 5th half that distance. List of Light-houses, 1884, 66. 

An act of congress approved June 20, 1874, authorized the establishment 
of three life-boat stations on the coast of Washington, with keepers at §200 
a year. Life-Saving Service Rept, 1876, 55-7- The act, on account of many 
imperfections, was practically inoperative. To remedy this inefficiency, con- 
gress in 1878 passed another act organizing the service into a regular estab- 
lishment under a general superintendent, whose powers and duties were de- 
fined by law, prolonging the period of active service from the first of Sept. to 
the first of May, increasing the pay of the keepers, and extending their func- 
tions so as to include those of inspectors of customs, and detailing oiBcers of 
the revenue marine corps for the duty of inspecting these stations. The sta- 
tions authorized in 1874 were at Neah Bay, on the Indian reservation; at 
Shoalwater Bay near the light-house landing; and at Baker's Bay, Cape Dis- 
appointment. These three life-saving stations were not completed until 1878, 
and cannot be regarded as of very great value, since they are dependent upon 
the services of volunteers, who might not be at hand in the moment of need. 

From a memorial passed by the legislature of 1859-60, it appears that a 
marine hospital being necessary, I. N. Ebey, then collector of customs at Port 
Townsend for the district of Puget Sound, entered into a contract with 
Samuel McCurdy, April 2, 1885, to receive into his hospital all sick and 
disabled seamen, and provide for them the proper medical attendance, with 
board and lodging, for the sum of four dollars per day for each patient. In 
Nov. McCurdy joined the volunteer service as surgeon of the northern bat- 
talion, and remained with it until it disbanded in 1856, when he renewed his 
contract with Ebey's successor, M. H. Frost, at the price of three dollars per 
day for each patient, continuing to receive and provide for disabled seamen 
until July 1858, when the contract passed into other hands, McCurdy having 
received nothing for his services and outlay. Wash. Stat., 1859-60,503. Mc- 
Curdy had several successors. P. JI. O'Brien, who died a resident of San Jos6, 


Cal. , was at one time medical director of tlie marine hospital at Port Townsend, 
but being in aympatliy with rebellion, liis resignation was desired and accepted. 
O'Brien was one of the organizers of the Hibernia Bank of S. F., and died 
wealthy. Quvjler/s Irish Race, 475-6. One of the most worthy and success- 
ful of the directors was T. T. ISIinoi-, who was for several years in charge, and 
made many improvements. Minor was born in Conn., and educated at Yale 
college, where he was studying medicine when the war of the rebellion began. 
Althougli but 17 years of age he enlisted as a private, and was assigned to 
the medical department in Higginson's IstS. C. colored regiment. In 1804 ho 
was promoted to be surgeon. At the close of the war he returned to his 
studies at Now Haven. In 1868 he was appointed to visit Alaska and make 
a collection illustrative of the resources of that territory. On his return he 
settled at Port Townsend and took charge of the marine hospital, while 
also conducting a private hospital. Portland West Shore, Dec. 1876. 

The chief article of export since 1851 has been lumber. The piles and 
squared timbers constituting the earliest shipments were cut by settlers and 
sliip crews and dragged by hand to the water's edge. The skippers paid eight 
cents a foot for piles delivered alongside the vessel, and sold them in S. F. 
for a dollar a foot. Among the first vessels after the Orbit and the George 
Emory to load with timber was the G. W. Kendall. She was sent to Puget 
Sound toward spring in 1851 to get a cargo of ice by her owner, Samuel 
Merritt of S. F. When he returned (lie captain met Merritt with the an- 
nouncement, 'Doctor, water don't freeze in Puget Sound!' But he had 
brought back a profitable cargo of piles, and the doctor was consoled for his 
disappointment. Contemporary Biog., ii. 94. Getting out spars became a 
regular business before 1856. Thomas Cranney was one of the first to make 
it a trade, about 1855. He says he had 9 yokes of cattle, with ropes and 
blocks equal to 90 more, and with all this power was from 2 to 3 days gettmg 
out one spar. But after he had completed his expensive education, he could 
haul 2 in a day with a single block and lead. Morse's Wash. Ter., MS., x.xii. 
47-S. On the island of Caamauo, in 1858, a company of Irish Canadians were 
getting out masts for shipment to Europe. Mossi's Souvenirs, 165; Stevens' 
Northwest, 9-10. For this market the timber had to be hewed to an eight- 
sided form from end to end. For the Chiua market they were hewed square 
to where they pass through the vessel's deck, and above that round to the 
end of the stick. Morse's Wash. Ter., MS., xxii. 48. Later they were 
made square to avoid import duties. A skidded road was prej^ared on which 
the spar was to run, a heavy block was made fast to it, and another to a tree 
ahead, the oxen slowly pulling it by the rope between, along the track, the 
forward block being shifted farther ahead as the spar advanced, until the chute 
was reached, which conducted it to the vessel. S. F. Alta, Oct. 20, 1862. In 
loading spars some space is necessarily left, which is filled in with pickets 
and lath from the mills. Morse's Wash. Ter., MS., xxii. 48. But previous to 
this, as early as 1855, the bark Anadyr, Capt. J. H. Swift, sailed from Utsa- 
lady witli a cargo of spars, consigned to the French navy-yard at Brest. Tho 
shipment was made by Brennan and Thompson to fill a contract made by 
Isaac Friedlander of S. F. In 1857 the same ship took a cargo of spars fi'om 
Utsalady to the English navy-yard at Chatham. The spars sent to France 
were subjected to rigid tests, and found equal to the best. Since 1856 spara 
have been regularly sent to these markets, and to Spain, Mauritius, China, 
and elsewhere. The Dutch ship Williamherg, in 1856, took out over 100 
spars from 80 to 120 feet long, aud from 30 to 43 inches diameter at tho but, 
the largest weighing from 18 to 20 tons apiece. iS. F. Alta, Dec. 29, 1856; 
Sat:. Union, Nov. 13, 1857. The first vessel direct from China that ever ar- 
rived iu Puget Sound was the Lizzie Jarvis, in Oct. 1858, to load with spars 
for that empire. In 1 860 the first cargo of yellow-fir spars was shipped to the 
Atlantic ports of the U. S. in the Laicsoii, of Bath, Maine. These sticks w ere 
from UO to 118 feet in length, and were furnished by the Port Gamble mill 
company. Fort Toinisend Northwest, Aug. 1800. In the following year 
Hist. W.ish.— 22 


the ship Tndiaman loaded with spars at Utsalady for the Spanish naval sta- 
tion near St Urbes, and the ship Trite Briton for London. Jd., Oct. 26, ISGl; 
Wuih. Scraps, 20; Seattle Intelligencer^ Aug. 20, 1879. The annual shiimient 
is about three cargoes. In 1869 2,000 spars were shipped, at a value of 
$2,067,000. Scammon, in Overland Monthly, v. 60. 

Milled lumber, owing to the necessities of California, was early in demand 
on Pun;et Sound. From the date when Yesler first established a steam-mill 
at Seattle there has been a forward progress in the facilities and extent of 
this first of manufactures, until in 1S79, a year of depression, the estimated 
product of the Sound mills was 120,500,000 feet. The pioneer lumbering es- 
tablishment on Puget Sound was erected iu 18i7, by M. T. Simmons and as- 
sociates, at Tumwater, as I have said. Its first shipment was in 1848, when 
the H. B. Co.'s str Beaver took a cargo for their northern posts. Olympia 
Transcript, May 23, 1868. The second saw-mill was erected by James Mc- 
Allister, in 1851. it was a small gate or sash mill driven by water-power, 
cutting from 500 to 1,000 feet per day. Wash. Ter. True Exhibit, 1880, 59; 
Dayton l)em. State Jour., Nov. 17, I8S2. A. S. Aberuethy erected a water- 
power mill at Oak Point on the Columbia in 1848-9. In 1872 it was turn- 
ing out 4,000,000 feet of lumber annually. Victor's Or. and Wash., 64. In the 
winter of 1852-3 Yesler put up a steam saw-mill at Seattle, which turned out 
from 10,000 to 15,000 feet per day. The sawdust was used iu fiUing in marshy 
ground on the beach, where it forms a considerable part of the water-front uf 
the city. The mill-waste and slabs were converted into a wharf. The mill 
was rebuilt in 1863. Ten years afterward the old machinery was in use in 
a grist-mill at Seattle. Ycsler's Settlement of Seattle, MS., 1, 3, 7. 

In 1852 a mill was erected at Shoalwater Bay by David K. Weldon and 
George Watkins. Swan's N. W. Coast, 64-5. In the spring of 1853 Nicholas 
Delin, M. T. Simmons, and Smith Hays formed a partnership to erect two 
mills, one at the head of Commencement Bay, and the other upon Skookum 
Bay, north-west of Olympia. The first was completed in May, and 2 cargoes 
of lumber were shipped on the George Emory to S. F. ; but the mill provetl to 
be badly situated, and was abandoned, even before the Indian war. Evans, 
in Nero Tacoma Ledger, July 9, 1880. A mill was built in the wintQi- of 
1S52-3 at Whatcom, Belliugham Bay, by Eoder & Peabody, but water 
failed iu summer. Its capacity was 4,000 feet per day during high water. It 
was burned in 1S73, and not rebuilt. Roder's Bellingham Bay, MS., 17; El- 
drid:/c's Sh'trh, JIS., 4. At Port Ludlow, G. K. Thorndike, in 1852, began 
erecting a mill; in the spring following he was joined by W. T. Sayward 
of S. F., and a large steam-mill built. In 1858 it was leased to Arthur Phiu- 
ney for $500 a month, who finally, in 1874, purchased the property. Say- 
ward's Pioneer Beminiscences, MS., 34. Phinney died in 1887, and on the 
settlement of the estate the mill was bought by the Puget Mill Co. for §64,000. 
Morse's Wash. Ter., MS., xiii. 1-2; S. F. Chronicle, Nov. 9, 1878. Anotlier 
large mill was begun in 1852 by the Puget Mill Co., at Port Gamble, by Jo- 
siah P. Keller, W. C. Talbot, and Andrew J. Pope. A village sprung up, 
originally called Teekalet. These proprietors purchased large tracts of tim- 
ber. Morse's Wash. Ter., MS., xxii. 43. The capacity of the Port Gamble 
mill in 1879 was 36,000,000 feet annually. 

Iu 1852 Edmund JIartin, J. J. Phelps, and Ware built a steam-mill at 
Appletree Cove on the west side of Admiralty Inlet. Martin was afterward 
a large liquor-dealer in S. F., and cashier of the Hibemia Bank. He died 
about 1880. Before this mill was fairly in successful operation it was sold to 
G. A. Meigs in 1853, who removed it to Port Madison the same year. In 
Dec. 1854 it was burned, but rebuilt, and in March 1861 the boilers of the 
new mill exploded, killing 6 men and stopping work for 2 weeks, when it 
resumed and ran until May 1864, when it was destroyed by fire, but was 
again rebuilt. In 1872 the firm was Meigs & Gawley. Owing to business 
complications and embarrassments from losses, it was not until 1877 that 
Meigs was able to clear the cstablislmicnt, and to associate with himself others 
who formed the Meigs Lumber and Ship-building Company. Of all the 


himbering establishments none wei-e more complete than this. Its ca- 
pacity in 1880 was 200,000 feet in 12 hours, and it could cut logs 132 feet long. 
It has au ii'ou and brass foundery, machine, blacksmith, and carpenter shops, 
and ship-yard. The village was a model one, with neat dwellings tor the opera- 
tives, a public hall, library, hotel, and store. Masonic and good templar's 
lodges, with dancing assemblies, lectures, and out-door sports, were features of 
the place. About 300 people were employed, and no liquor sold in the place. 
Miegs was a Vermonter. Yesler's Wash. Ter. , MS. , 5-6; ilurphy and Harned's 
P. S. Directory, 1872, 147; Seattle Pac. Tribune, Aug. 17, 1877, Scainraon, in 
Ocerlaiid Monthly, v. 59; Morse's Wash. Ter., MS., xxii. 44-6. Another of the 
early mills was that of Port Orchard. It was first put up at Alki Point, called 
New York, by C. C. Terry and William H. Eenton in 1853-4, but removed 
after 2 or 3 years to Port Orchard, which had a better harbor. The mill was 
afterward sold to Coleman and Glynden, who rebuilt it in 1868-9, but became 
bankrupt, and the mill was burned before any capital came to relieve it. 
Ycder's Wash. Ter., MS., 4-5; Seattle Intelligencer, March 11, 1869. After 
selling the Port Orchard mill, Renton & Howard went to Port Blakeley, 10 miles 
distant from and opposite to Seattle, and erected a large lumbering establish- 
ment, costing 880,000, and capable of turning out 50,000 feet a day. It began 
sawing in April 1864, cutting an average of 19,000,000 feet annually down to 
18S0, when its capacity was increased to 200,000 per day. Howard died 
before the completion of the mill, in 1803, and the firm incorporated as Kenton, 
Holmes & Co., but in 1876 became again incorporated as the Port Blakeley 
Mill Company, with a capital of |600,000. Wash. Ter. True Exhibit, 1880, 
60. This mill shipped, in 1883, 54,000,000 feet of lumber, and could cut 200,- 
OOJ feet in 12 hours. It had 80 saws of all kinds; 19 boilers and 7 engines, 
with a united power of 1,200 horse. It was lighted by 16 electric lights, and 
was every way the most complete lumbering establishment in this, if not in 
any, country. In 1858 the frame of the Utsalady mill was hewn out for Gren- 
nau & Cranney, who began sawing in Feb. 1858. The sole owner in Dec. 1869 
was Thomas 'Crannoy. In 1873, Cranney & Chishohn owned it; but in 1876 
it was sold to the Puget Mill Co. for about $35,000, and was closed for two 
years. It cut for 11 years au average of 17,000,000 feet annually, and after- 
ward more than double that amount. Morse's Wash. Ter., MS., x.xii. 43, 47-8. 
In IS.jS-9 S. L. Mastick & Co. of S. F. erected a mill at Port Discovery, 
which iu the first 18 months cut 8,500,000 feet of lumber. It employed in 
137 1 50 men, and turned out 12,000,000 feet of lumber and 200,000 laths. 
This amount was increased in 1874 to 18,000,000 feet annually, but dropped 
to 12,000,000 from 1875 to 1879; smce which time its capacity has been 
doubled. Id., MS., xxiii. 2-3; Portland Oregonian, May 29, 1875. In 1862 a 
firm known as the Wasliington Mill Company, consisting of Marshall Blinn, 
W. J. Adams, John R. ^Villiamson, W. B. Sinclair, and Hill Harmon, built 
a mill at Seabeck on Hood Canal, with au average capacity of 11,000,000 
feet per annum, at a cost of $80,000. Blinn & Adams were the principal 
owners. In 1879 Adams was sole proprietor. The establishment owned two 
vessels, the Cassandra Adams and the Dublin. In 1865 J. R. Williamson 
and others built a mill at Freeport (now Milton), opposite Seattle, which was 
sold to Marshall & Co., about 1874. Its capacity was about 35,000 feet 
per day. In 1868 Ackerson & Russ of Cal. erected a mill at Tacoma (then 
called Commencement City). In 1877 the firm was Hanson, & Co., 
and the mill was cutting over 81,000 feet per day. iVew Tacoma Ledger, May 
7, 1880; Otympia Transcript, Feb. 15, 1870; Portland West Shore, Oct. 1877. 
Of local nulls and those conuected with other manufacturers, run by water or 
by steam, there were about 50 others iu western ^Vashington, on Gray Harbor, 
Shoalwater Bay, the Willopah, Chehalis, Cowlitz, and Columbia rivers, and 
scattered through the settlements. 

In a review of the market for 1880 it was stated that the capacity of the 
Pn;4et Sound mills was about two hundred million feet a year, and the ship- 
ments about eight million feet under that. Walla Walla Statesman, Jan. 27, 
1883; Commercial Herald, in La Conner P. S. Mail, Feb. 12, 1881. The 


capacity of these mills is given in 1883 as 1,306,000 feet daily, or over three 
liuudreJ millions annually. 

An interesting feature of the lumber business is that part of it known aa 
' logging,' which is carried on by companies, on an extensive scale. Wilkexon'a 
Puget Sound, 13-14; Kept of Com. Agriculture, 1875,332; Emns' Wash. Ter., 
41-2; Dayton Dem. Slate Journal, Nov. 17, 1SS2. 

The second most important article of export from Washington is coal. 
The first discoveries were made in the Cowlitz Valley in 1 848, whence several 
barrels were shipped to Cal. to be tested, but which was condemned as a poor 
quality of lignite. Leivis' Coal Discov., MS., 8, 13; S. I. Polynesian, v. 2, 7; 
Morse's Wash. Ter., MS., ii. 57. About that time, or previous to 1850, a 
Frenchman named Kemeau discovered coal on the Skookum Chuck, which 
created considerable interest at Olympia, and was the motive which inspired 
the first idea of a railroad toward the Columbia, a sui-vey being made by J. 
W. Trutchin the autumn of 1852. In 1849 Samuel Hancock, while trading 
with the Lummi, was told that they had seen black stones at Bellingham Bay. 
Subsequently he found coal on the Stillaquamish, but was forbidden to work 
it by the Indians who told him of it. Hancock's Thirteen Years, MS., 145-9, 
174; Olympia Columbian, Oct. 16, 1852. 

In 1850 H. A. Goldsborough explored several affluents of Puget Sound and 
found croppings of coal on a number of them, of which an analysis was made 
in Feb. 1851, by Walter R. Johnson for the secretary of the navy. About 
this time the P. M. S. Co. employed agents to explore for coal in Oregon and 
Vv"ashington, one of whom, William A. Howard, afterward in the revenue 
service, together with E. D. Warbass, made an expedition from the Chehalis 
up the coast to a point north of Quinault. Meanwhile William Pattle, an 
English subject, who was looking for spar timber among the islands of the 
Haro archipelago, found coal at Bellingham Bay in Oct. 1852, .nnd took a 
claim on the land just south of the town site of Sehome as subsequently lo- 
cated. Two other claims were taken adjoining by Pattle's associates, Morri- 
son and Thomas. They succeeded in negotiating with a company called the 
Puget Sound Coal Mining Association. From 1860 to 1879 there was an 
average annual yield of thirteen thousand tons. Another coal deposit was 
discovered iu 1862 ou the Strait of Fuca not far from Clallam Bay, by J. K. 
Thorndike, and in 1867 was organized the Phoenix Coal Mining Co. 

The earliest attempted development of coal west of Admiralty Inlet was 
by Dr R. H. Bigelow, who partially opened a coal vein on Black River, 
known as the Bigelow mine, lying about ten miles south-east from Seattle. 
There was no means of getting coal to navigable water without expensive im- 
provements in roads and barges, and the mine was abandoned. About 1807 
S. B. Hinds & Co. of Seattle purchased the claim, and sunk a shaft to the 
vein, a distance of 70 feet; but the mine never became productive of market- 
able coals. 

East of Seattle several discoveries were made about 1859, some of which 
have proved valuable. David Mowery, a Pa German, found coal on his claim 
in the Squak Valley, fourteen miles east of the Sound. With W. B. Andrews, 
he took out a few tons, which were disposed of in Seattle. At a later date, 
William Thompson also mined in this coal to a small extent, when it was 
abandoned. Lewis' Coal Discoverirs, MS., 1. A claim of 100 acres of coal 
land eleven miles south-east of Seattle was taken up in 1863 by Philip H. 
Lewis, and work begun upon it in the following year. Lewis was born in 
111. in 1828, and came to Or. from Cal. in 1851. His example was followed 
by Edwin Richardson, who took a claim next to him, while Josiah Settle 
claimed another quarter-section adjoining. Richardson changed his location 
more than once, finally fixing upon the one later worked by the Seattle Coal 
and Tr.iusportation Co. Tho owners opened a road in 1867, and 
brought out one hundred and fifty tons in wagons, which was sold for ten 
dollars a ton at the wharf in Seattle, and bumcil on some of tho steamers that 
plied on the Sound. The mine was then sought for, and a company consist- 


ing of Daniel Bagley, George F. Whitworth, P. H. Lewis, Josiah Settle, and 
Salucius (jarlielde, called tlie Lake Wasbiugtou Company, was formed. Bag- 
ley puiil'used the Richardson claim and a portion of each of the other two, 
W hitworth owning a part of Lewis' claim. Clarence Bagley and Garfielde 
took up some additional land, which went into the company organization. 
The object of the new arrangement was to get a rail or tram road from the 
east side of Lake Washington to the coal beds. A company was formed, and 
au act passed by the legislature of 1SG6-7 incorporating the Coal Creek Eoad 
Company. W'tsh. Slat., 1S66-7, 202-3. The road company was composed of 
W. W. Perkins, John Denny, Henry L. Yesler, John J. McGilvra, C. J. 
Noyes, C. H. Hale, and Lewis C. Gimn. Capital stock §5,000, with power 
to increase to §500,000. In Aug. following the mining company incorporated 
as the Lake Washington Company, with a capital stock of §500,000, with the 
privilege of increasing it to a million. Lewis withdrew from the mining or- 
ganization, after which it sold out, in 1870, to Ruel Robinson, Amos Hurst, 
and others, residents of Seattle, for §25,000, all the land that had been pat 
in being included in the sale, the new organization styling itself the Seattle 
Coal Company. Under the new management there was a tramway built from 
the mine to Lake Washington, and a wooden road on the west side of the 
lake to Seattle. A scow was built for transportation across the lake; a small 
steamer, the Phantom, was constructed for towing. In 1872 Robinson sold to 
C. B. Shattuck and othei-s of S. F. for §51,000, and capital put in; since 
which the Seattle mine has produced well, and been a profitable investment. 
The company had steam tow-boats on lakes Washington and Union, the Clara 
and Chehalis, connecting with the tramway from the mine across the isthmus 
between the lakes, and from Lake Union to the wharf in Seattle. The flat- 
boats were run upon trucks across the isthmus, and thence across the second 
lake, to avoid handling. Meeker's Wash. Ter.; ilcFarlau's Coal Regioiui 
Goucbjear's Coal Mines, 100-7; Seattle InteUigencer, Sept. 11, 1871. 

The discovery next in point of time and importance to the Seattle coal was 
that of the Eenton mine. David Mowery fia-st made the discovery, but not 
thinking well of the coal, sold the claim to Robert Abrams about 1860. It 
w;is not until 1873 that it was again remembered, when E. M. Smithers, on 
his adjoining cMm, found pieces of coal in a small stream on his farm, and 
following up the indications, tunnelled into the hill where they appeared, 
striking at the distance of 100 feet two horizontal ledges of pure coal e.vtend- 
ing into it. Having demonstrated the contents of his land, he sold it for 
§25,000 to Ruel Robinson, who also purchased the adjoining lands of Abrams 
and McAllister. A company was at once formed, with a capital of §300,000. 
A number of mines have been prospected, and a great abundance of coal 
found to exist on the east side of the Sound. Among others was the Cedar 
Mountain mine, on the same ridge with the Renton; and near the junction of 
Cedar and Black rivers the Clymer mine was discovered at an early day on 
the land of C. Clymer. On the Stillaquamish, the Snohomish, and the Skagit 
rivers, coal was known to exist. La lioque's Skagit Mines, MS., 21. It had 
long been known by some of the early residents of the Puyallnp Valley that 
coal was to be found there. Ea-stwiek's Pugel Sound, MS., 3. The first actual 
prospecting was done by Gale and two half-breeds named Flett. This small 
company took a mining claim in 1874, drifting in about sixty feet, on a vein 
discovered on Flett Creek, a tributary of South Prairie Creek, which is a 
brani !i of the Puyallup. During the same season E. L. Smith of Olympia, a 
surveyor, discovered coal about half a mile north of the Gale mine, on land 
belonging to the Northern Pacific R. Co., which led to an examination of the 
country over an area of twenty-five square miles in the coal district. 

It is conjectured that the region about Steilacoora is underlaid with a coal 
deposit. But it is fai-ther south than this that the actual discoveries have 
been made. In 1865 a vein was fonad upon the land of Wallace and P. W. 
Crawford opposite to and two miles above Moiiticello. The construction of 
the Northern Pacific railroad from the Columbia to the Sound re\-ived the 
interest in the coal-fields of the region south of Olympia. J. B. Montgomery, 



contractor upon that road, in 1872 purchased nine hundred acres of coal lands 
near the Chelialis River between Claquato and Skookum Chuck, and two miles 
•west of the road. It was proposed to clear the obstructions from the Chehnlia 
sufficiently to enable a steamer to tow barges from Claquato to Gray Harbor 
for ocean shipment, but this scheme has not been carried out. 

In 1873 the Tenino mine, within half a mile of the Northern Pacific road 
track, was prospected by Ex-gov. E. S. Salomon and Col F. Bee of S. F. 
The Olympia and Tenino R. Co. took shares, and called it the Olympia 
Railway and Mining Co. 

Kino County Coal-Fields. 

Another mine near Clielialis station on the Northern Pacific was opened 
in 1875 by Rosenthal, a merchant of Olympia. 

A mine known as the Seatco, situated on land owned by T. F. McElroy 
and Oliver Shead of Olympia, near the Skookum Chuck station, was opened 
in 1877. In the autumn of 1879 it had a daily capacity of fifty tons. 

Coal-oil has been discovered in some parts of these extensive coal regions. 
George Waunch, of pioneer antecedents, sent samples to Portland, in 1808, 
from the Skookum Chuck district. It was also found in the Puyallup Valley 
near Elhi in 1882. The annual production was estimated in 1880, for tlie 
whole of Washington, to be 161,708 tons. 

Gold and silver mining is still carried on in Washington, although as an in- 


tlustry it is comparatively small. For the year ending in May ISSO, the total 
value of the deep mine production was reported at |22,0.S6, the principal part 
of this being from the Peslioston district in the Yakima country, and of placer 
mines .11-20,019. In 1881 the yield was not much if any more, and in 1883 
the production of the precious metals had fallen off from foiTner figures, not 
reaching to §100,000. This is not altogether from a poverty of resources, but 
is partly due to the more sure and rapid returns from other industries vi hieh 
have been enjoyed in eastern Washington for the last decade. The Yakima 
country was the first to give any returns from quartz-mining. The gold is 
free-milling, and it is believed will give place at a greater depth to silver. 

„.•; i 



The total amount of land surveyed in Washington down to June ISSO was 
15,959,175 out of the 44,796,100 acies constituting the aiea of the state. For 
many years the fortunate combination of soil and climate in eastern Washing- 
ton, whereby all the cereals can be produced in the greatest abundance and 
of the highest excellence, was not understood. The first settlers in the Walla 
W'alla Valley went there to raise cattle on the nutritious bunch-grass which 
gave their stock so round an appearance with such glossy hides. The gold 
crusade carried thither merchants and settlers of another sort, and it was 
found that people must eat of the fruits of the earth in the country where 


their tents were pitched. This necessity led to farming, at first in the creek 
valleys, then on the hill-sides, and lastly on the tops of the hills quite away 
from the possibility of irrigation, where to everybody's surprise wheat grew 
the best of all. It then began to be known tliat where bunoh-grass would 
naturally grow, wheat especially, and the other cereals, would flourish sur- 
prisingly. The area of wheat land in eastern Washiugton has been estimated 
as capable of yielding, under ordinary culture, more than a hundred million 
bushels annually, 50 to 60 bushels to the acre being no uncommon return. 
Messarje of Governor Ferry, 187S, 4-6. 

The soil which is so fruitful is a dark loam, composed of a deep rich allu- 
vial deposit, combined with volcanic ash, overlying a clay subsoil. On the 
hills and southern exposures the clay comes nearer to the surface. The 
whole subsoil rests on a basaltic formation so deep as to be discoverable only 
on the deep watercourses. The climate is dry, with showers at rare inter- 
vals in summer, with fall rains and brief winters, during which there is usually 
some snowfall, and occasional hard winters when the snow is deep enough to 
fill all the streams to overflowing in the spring, which comes early. 

The first wheat-fields of western Washington were those cultivated by the 
H. B. Co. in the Columbia and Cowlitz valleys, which yielded well, the Cow- 
litz farm producing from 30 to 50 bushels per acre of white winter wheat. 
The heavily timbered valleys about Puget Sound furnished tracts of open 
land well adapted to wheat-growing, but taken as a whole this region has 
never been regarded as a grain-producing countiy. The reclamation of tide- 
lands about the mouths of the rivers which flow into the Fuca Sea, opposite 
the strait of that name, added a considerable area to the grain-fields of 
western Washington. 

The first settlers upon the tide-lands were Samuel Calhoun and Micliael 
Sullivan, who in 1864 took claims on the Swinomish River or bayou, which 
connects with the Skagit by extensive marshes. Sullivan made his first en- 
closure in 1865, and three years afterward raised a crop of 37 acres of oats. 
He sowed five busliels of seed to the acre, intending to cut it for hay, but 
allowing it to ripen, obtained 4,000 bushels of oats. Calhoun raised 21 acres of 
barley in 1809 with like favorable results. From this time there was an 
annual increase of reclaimed land. Its productiveness may be inferred from 
the statement that on 600 acres at La Conner, belonging to J. S. Conner, about 
1.000 tons of oats and barley v ere produced annually. Mome's Wash. Ter., 
MS., xxii. 13. There were in 1875 about 20 settlers on the Swinomish tide- 
lands, who had 100 acres each in cultivation, and raised on them 40 bushels 
of spruig wheat, SO bushels of winter wheat, 75 bushels of barley, and 80 
bushels of oats to the acre. Morse's Wash. Ter., MS., xxii. 15. 

In 1881 the experiment was tried of shipping cargoes of eastern Wash- 
ington and Oregon wheat by the way of Puget Sound, instead of via Port- 
land, Astoi'ia, and the mouth of the Columbia, to avoid the risk of the bar 
and a part of the expense of pilotage and lightering. 

No climate in the world is more suited to the growth of nutritious grasses 
than that of Washington. The bunch-gross of the eastern division is, how- 
ever, from being dry a large portion of the year, not so well adapted to tlie 
uses of dairymen as the lush growth of the moister climate of Puget Sound, 
where the rich bottom and diked lands yield from three to four tons of hay 
to the acre. Dairy products have not yet been counted amongst the articles 
of export, because farmers liave preferred to eng.age in other branches of busi- 
ness. Up to 1877 there was no cheese in the markets of the territory except 
that which was imported. In that year two cheese factories were started, 
one at Claquato by Long & Birmingham, and another at Chimacum, in Jef- 
ferson county. The former made over 23,000 lbs the first year. The North- 
era Pacific cheese factory, at Chimacum, nine miles south-west of Port Towns- 
en<l, was a gradual growth, William Bishop being a pioneer of 1856, who 
settled in the Chimacum Valley and cleared and improved a farm. When ho 
had 60 cows he began cheese-uiakiug for the market abroad, producing 1,500 
H)S of cheese and 50 H)s of butter per day. A third factory was established 


in 1879 by Long & Birmingham on the Maddox farm, in White River Val- 
ley, the prospecjt being that the Puget Sound farmers would convert their 
graiu-CelJs into hay-fields to a considerable extent, and that dUiry-farming 
would become the chief business on the valley and tide lands. 

The experiment of hop-farming was first tried in 1804: by Jacob Sleeker, 
who planted a half-acre on his farm in the Puyallup Valley. The yield was -JOO 
pounds, which sold for 85 cents per pound. Thompson & Meade estab- 
lished the first hop-yard in 1872. The following year Eziu and J. V. Meeker 
and J. V. Stewart followed. The desire to encourage agriculture has led to 
the formation of agricultural societies in several counties of the temtory, 
^^■alla Walla taking the lead, by a few persons calling a meeting in Feb. 1SG5, 
to be ln:ld April 22d, for the purpose of organizing. It was not until 1867 
that a fair was held, the address at the opening of the exhibition being pro- 
nounced by Philip Ritz. In 1869 the Washington Agricultural and Manufac- 
turing Society was formed and incorporated under the laws of the territory. 
Land was purchased, buildings erected, and the first fair of the new organi- 
zation held in Sept., from the 21st to the 25th, 1870. A pomological and 
horticultural society was also formed this year at Walla Walla. Clarke county 
organized, in July 1868, an agricultural and mechanical society, and held a 
fair the following Sept., the opening address being by Governor Salomon. 
Whatcom county organized an agricultural society in 1806, and Lewis county 
in 1877. This being the oldest farming region away from the Columbia, the 
society was prosperous at the start, and the first exhibit a good one. C. T. 
Fay was chosen president, and L. P. Venen delivered the opening address. 
Vancouver Begidei; Oct. 1, 1870; Olympia Transcript, Oct. 12, 1872; Ohjmpia 
Wash. Standard, June 2, 1S77. In 1871 a meeting was held in Olympia in 
the interest of agriculture by a mutual aid society, or farmer's club, which 
displayed specimens of productions. The meeting was addressed by Judge 
McFadden at the close of the exhibit, and steps taken to organize a territorial 
agricultural society, under the name of W"estern Washington Industrial As- 
sociation, which held its first annual exhibition in Oct. 1872 at Olympia. The 
second annual territorial fair was held at Seattle, in the university grounds. 

One of the great natural resources of western Washington which has been 
turned to account is the fish product, although as yet imperfectly understood 
or developed. The whale fishery is prosecuted only by the Indians of Cape 
Flattery and the gulf of Georgia. Among the species taken on the coast are 
the sperm whale, California gray, right whale, and sulphur-bottom. Up the. 
strait of Fuca and in the gulf of Georgia hump-backs are numerous. For- 
merly the Indians took more whales than now, their attention being at present 
turned to seal-hunting. With only their canoes and rude appliances the 
Makahs of Cape Flattery saved in 1856 oil for export to the amount of §8,000. 
Ohjmpia Pioneer and Dem., March 5, 1856; Stevens' Nortliu-est, 10; Wash. 
Toporj., 15, 31; ReptCom. Ind. Aff., 1858,232. Cod of two or more varieties 
arc found from Shoalwater Bay to Alaska and beyond. They are of excellent 
quality when properly cured. The climate of Alaska being too moist, and the 
air of California drying them too much in the curing process, rendering them 
hard, it is believed that in Puget Sound may be found the requisite moisture, 
coolness, and evenness of climate to properly save the cod for export, but no 
systematic experiments have been made. It was the practice as early as 1 856-7 
to pickle cod instead of drying, and for several years 200 barrels annually 
were put up. In 1861 cod were very plentiful in the strait of Fuca, so that 
the schooners Sarah Newton, the Elizabeth, and other Puget Sound vessels 
picketl up several thousand pounds. In 1869 cod brought from §16 to §20 
per barrel. In 1864 Thomas H. Stratton fitted out the sch. Brandt for the 
cod and halibut fisheries. Morse's Wash. Ter., MS., xrii. 47-8. In Jan. 
1806 the legislature memorialized the president, asking that arrangements be 
made with Russia to enable U. S. fishing- vessels to visit the various ports in 
the Russian possessions to obtain supplies, cure fish, and make repairs; also 
to enable Puget Sound fishermen to obtain the same bomity paid to those of 


the Atlantic coast, and that ships be sent to surrey the banks to Bering 
Straits. The same year Crosby took the forty-ton schooner Sjjrai/ to the fish- 
ing-grounds, leaving Port Angeles June 1st, and returned in October with nine 
tons of codfish taken in the Kadiak Sea, 1 ,000 miles north of Puget Sound. In 
1869 two schooners, the Ada M. Fryeund Shooting Star, arrived on the North- 
west Coast from Rockland, Maine, with full crews, to engage in cod-fishing, 
other vessels following. Nineteen vessels sailed from S. F. the same season for 
the Okhotsk Sea on a fishing expedition, and returned with an average of 55,000 
fish each. The ensuing year the catch amounted to 1,000 quintals. As late 
as 1878 Slocum, of the schooner Palo, advised the Portland board of trade 
concerning the existence of codfish banks off the coast of Washington, from 
Shoalwater to Neah bays, and solicited aid in establishing their existence. 

Halibut grounds were known to be located nine miles west of Tatoosli 
Island, in 56 fathoms of water, and these fish abound in the Fuca Sea and 
Rellingham Bay, but are not found in the Sound or Hood Canal. Strong 
and Webster put up 100 barrels in 1857. In 1874 halibut was furnished to 
the .S. F. market, packed in ice, and again in 1879, the fish arriving in good 
condition. The schooner Emibi Stephens was built for this trade with ten ice 
compartments. Port Townsend Anjiis, Sejit. 5, 1874; Hesperian Mag., iii. 
409; Portland Oregonian, Aprils, 1879: llitteU's Commerce and Industries, 
359. The average size of the haliliut caught on this coast is 60 pounds, the 
largest weighing 200. They are taken with a hook and line from March to 

Herring have for several years been an article of export from Puget Sound. 
E. Hammond and H. B. Emery establislied a fishei-y at Port Sladison about 
1870. The herring, thougli of good flavor, are sm.aller than those of the At- 
lantic, and are caught with a seine. A thousand barrels of fish have been 
taken at a single haul. This fishery has put up 10,000 boxes, of six dozen 
cacli, of smoked and dried herring in a season, and delivered them on the 
wharf for 30 cents a box. Seattle Rural, March 1877, 36. This establishment 
has pressed from herring 2,000 gallons of oil per month. Other herring fish- 
cries were on San Juan Island and at various other points on the Sound. 

The eulachan, or candle-fish, so called becanso when dried it burns like a 
candle, is another marketable fish of the coast from Cape Blanco to Sitka. It 
resembles smelt, is very fat, and of fine grain and delicate flavor. It appears 
in shoals, and i.s tauylit with a scoop-net or rake. The Indians formerly took 
t'.iera to make oil, liut the H. B. Co. salted them down in kegs for eating. 
They are now dried like herring. 

Sturgeon are plentiful in the Columbia and Eraser rivers, and in the in- 
terior lakes of BritishColumbia. They are superior in size and flavor to the At- 
lantic sturgeon, being less tougli and less oily, and are found in the markets of 
Portland and S. F. The H. B. Co. manufactured isinglass from them for 

Rock-cod and tomcod are taken in the Sound, and are regnlarlj' furnished 
to the markets; as are also smelts, sardines, flounders, perch, turbot, skate, 
chub, plaice, stickleback, and other varieties. A kind of shark, known as 
dog-fish from its long jaws and formidable teeth, visits the Sound in great 
shoals in the autumn, and is used by the Indians for food and oil. Ebet/'s 
Journal, MS., iii. 42. In 1871 S. B. Pardee made oil from dog-fish at Gig 
Harbor. Ohjmpia Wash. Standard, April 8, 1871. In the following year a 
CO. was incorporated under the laws of Cal. as tlie North Pacific Commercial 
Company, the principal object of which was the taking of dog-fish for oil. 
The works were located on Fox Island, ten miles from Steilacoom, the site 
taking the name of Castlenook. The daily catch by means of wears, pounds, 
seines, and trawls was from 3,000 to 4,000 large fish. One hundred and sev- 
enty-seven fish were taken at one set of the lines at Oyster Bay. Olympia 
Transcript, May 2, 1868. 

As soon as spring opens, or whenever the weather will permit after the 
first of Jan., the Indians at Cape Flattery put out to sea in their canoes a dis- 
tance of 10 or 15 miles to catch seals, which at this season of the year are 


migrating north in myriads, and on a bright day may be seen for miles jump- 
ing, splashing, and playing in the water. When fatigued with this sport 
they turn over on their backs and go to sleep, at which time the Indians ap- 
proach cautiously and dart their spears into the nearest. They catch eight 
or ten a day in this manner. Later they used the pilot-boat to go out and 
return, taking their canoes and cargoes on board. Port Tovmsend Message, Jan. 
31, 1871. Occasionally they killed forty or fifty a day. 

Ten vessels were employed in 1S81 , the catch being about 8,000 seal-skins, 
worth from §7 to $9 each. The number of Indians engaged was over 200, and 
their profit on the season's catch about $200 each for skins, besides 1,500 gal- 
lons of oil for food. 

The sea-otter, which formerly was taken in great numbers at Point Gren- 
ville, GO miles north of Suoalwater Bay, has become comparatively rare. The 
Neah Bay Indians monopolize the hunt on that part of the coast, while at 
Gray Harbor white men take them, using rifles, and perching themselves on 
ladders placed at intervals aloug the beach, from which they can discern the 
otter, which seldom comes nearer than 300 yards. It requires skill to shoot 
them swimming at that distance, but thny have been killed at 800 yards. 
Tlie average was about two otter-skins a month to each hunter, worth from 
S30 to .SoO each. Land otter-skins were very rare; but about four thousand 
beaver pelts were annually shipped from Washington. 

The lirst discovery of oysters on the Pacific Coast was made at Shoalwater 
Bay by C. J. W. Russell, between 1849 and 1851. In the autumn of 1851 
the schooner Two Brothers, Capt. Fieldsen, came into the bay an<l loaded with 
oysters for S. F. Theyall died on the way, but another attempt by Anthony Lud- 
lum, was more successful. A writer in the Portland ]Yest Shore, Aug. 1878, 
claims the discovery for Fieldsen; but as Swan was on the ground soon after, 
and knew all the persons concerned, I adopt his account. Natural oyster-beds 
stretched over a distance of thirty miles in length and from four to seven 
in width. These beds were common property. The first territorial legisla- 
ture passed an act prohibiting the taking of oysters by any pei'son who had 
nut been a resident of the territory for one month, without a license. The 
next legislature prohibited their being gathered by non-residents. The use of 
dredgers was forbidden, the oystering season was designated, and all small 
oysters were to be returned to their beds. The legislature of 1364-5 granted 
Michael S. Drew and associates the exclusive privilege of planting, cultivat- 
ing, and gathering oysters in Port Gamble Bay, and to Henry Winsor and L. 
D. Durgin the same exclusive right in Budd Inlet. 

An act approved Oct. 31, 1873, granted to each person planting oysters in 
localities where no natural beds existed ten acres, to hold while the plantmg 
should be regularly maintained. Locations could be made in detached parcels, 
and in Shoalwater Bay 20 acres might be taken; but in no case might the 
beds interfere with the logging interest. \^ here marketable oysters were 
bedded a location was restricted to 20,000 feet supei-ficial area. Tliese 
privileges were to extend to citizens of the territory only. 

Li 1861-2 the oysters at Shoalwater Bay were nearly all destroyed by frost 
and low tides. Their enemies were the skates and drum-fish, co pirotect them 
against which it was sometimes necessary to surround the beds by a fence of 
closely set pickets. 

In 1853-4 there were from 150 to 200 men on Shoalwater Bay and affluents 
wlio lived chiefly by oystering. V]} to 1859 all the oysters shipped came from 
natural beds, but in that year planting began. The trade steadily increased 
until the opening of the first transcontinental railroad, when the shipment of 
eastern oysters began , which materially decreased the demand for the native 
moUusk. The shipments made from Shoalwater Bay in 1874 amounted to 
120,000 baskets. Portland Went Shore, Aug. 1878, 2. This locality had now 
to contend not only with the importation of eastern oj'sters, but with the beds 
of Totten Inlet and other parts of Puget Sound, which ship by railroad in any 
desired quantities, while the ,Shoalwater Bay oystermen must ship in large 
quantities, because they depend on vessels. Natural beds of oysters are found 


everywhere in Puget Sound, the quality and size being affected somewhat by 
the locality and tlie density of the masses iu wliich they grow, the better tish 
being where they are most scattered. Near Olympia they exist iu banks sev- 
eral feet thick. They are abundant iu all the tide-waters adjacent to the 
strait of Fuca, in Bellingham Bay, in Commencement Bay, and are found in 
Gray Harbor. The native oyster has a slightly coppery taste, which does not 
come from copper beds, but from the mud flats in which they grow, aud it 
disappears with cooking. They are of a delicate flavor, not so rank as the 
eastern oyster. The Olympia beds are said to be superior to others. In 1880 
$100,000 worth were shipped from the beds in the Sound to Portland. 

Another shell-fish which is found in inexhaustible quantities in Washing- 
ton is the clam, of which there are several species, from the immense quohog, 
the meat of which will weigh three pounds, to the small blue clam, preferred by 
some to the oyster, the white clam, also small, and the long razor-clam of the 
ocean beach. This testaceous fish has furnished many generations of Indians 
with a considerable portion of their food supply, and fed hungry white men 
as well in the early settlements of the country. Narrative of B. F. Brotun, 
MS. In 1879 a company was formed in Olympia for the preserving of clams 
by the process of canning, similar to the method used in preserving beef and 
salmon, and from which a delicious chowder was quickly prepared for the 
table. The company consisted of E. N. Ouimette, N. H. Ownings, S. G. 
Ward, J. K. Hayden. Olyvqna Wash. Standard, April 2, 1880. 

Salmon-fishing, one of the most important of the resources of both Oregon 
and Washington, I have treated of in my History of Oregon. There are 
many salmon taken in the Sound and its affluents, though not so easily caught, 
or of so uniformly good quality, as those of the Columbia. In 1873 V. T. 
TuU of Olympia established a salmon fishery at Mukilteo, principally for 
putting up fish in barrels. The first year 500 bbls were packed at Mukilteo, 
after which the fishery was moved temporarily to Seattle to take the late run 
up the Dwamish River, which is usually large. Fifteen hundred good large 
salmon have been taken at one h;iul of the seine in the Puyallup. Olymiia 
Columbian, Sept. 10, 1853. In 1877 Jackson Myres & Co., formerly of Port- 
land, erected a canning establishment at Mukilteo, and made of it a suc- 
cessful entei-prise; but it had not, in ISSO, been followed by any others. The 
catch of 1877 ^^■as ostimatcil at 10,(11 )lt cases, and over 2,000 barrels, valued at 
$77,300. Snolw.n^sh Xf.rili.nt ,Si,ir, Srj.t. 22, 1S77; Olympia Transcript, Dec. 
1,'1877. In lyyi CuiljLtt & iLieleay, of Portland, foimded a fishery at 
Tacoma. Sixty liarrtls %\eie packed iu five days, only three men being em- 
ployed. New Tacoma Tribune, Nov. 14, 1874. In 1S76 John Bryggot, a 
Norwegian, founded another fishery at Salmon Bay, six miles north of 
Olympia. In 1878 a company of Puget Sound men established a fourth at 
Clallam Bay. They put ux> the first season 600 casks of salmon and 700 
of halibut. Morse's Wash. Tcr., MS., xviii. 17-18. In the following season 
D. H. Hume established a fishery near Steilacoom for the puipose of salt- 
ing salmon. In 1880 H. Levy, of Seattle, went to London with 100 barrels 
to introduce Puget Sound salted salmon to that market. In 1SS2 a salmon- 
packing establishment was opened at Old Tacoma by Williams. Salmon ran 
in great numbers this year. One boat brought iu a thousand fish. Queniult 
River, on the coast, produced salmon quite equal to the best Chinook or 
Columbia River fish, though they were small, averaging five pounds. The 
territory has by legislative enactment endeavored to save the salmon product, 
it being unlawful to place traps, or other obstructions, across streams with- 
out leaving a chute for the passage of fish. An act of 1868 also pro- 
vided for an inspector of salmon in each county where it was put up for ex- 
port. All packages marked bad by the inspector were condemned. No pack- 
ages could be sold unbranded with the name of the packer and the year of 
the catch; and penalties were imposed for counterfeiting brands. 

Iu February 1859 an act was passeil prohibiting non-residents from taking 
fish on tlie beach of the Columbia, between Point Ellis and Cape Hancock. 
Wash. Stat., 1858-9, 26. On the 26th of Jan., 1861, J. T. Lovelace and W. 


H. Dillon were granted the exclusive right to fish in the Columbia for a dis- 
tance of one mile along its banks, and extending from low-water mark half a 
mile towiii-d the middle of the stream. An act of the legislature of 1805 
gave C. C. Terry and Joseph Cushman the right to introduce into and stock 
the waters of lakes Washington and Union with shad and alewives, with the 
exclusive privilege for 30 years of taking all these fish in these lakes, and 
their tributaries and outlets, provided the lakes should be stocked within 5 
years. This law was modified in 1S69 by substituting the name of Frank 
Matthias for that of Terry, by the addition of white-fish, and by extending 
the time for jilanting, and also making the grant 30 years from that time. 

The value of the salmon exported in barrels or cans is not given authen- 
tically in any published reports. During the season of 1880, 160,000 cases of 
canned salmon were shipped from the Washington side of the Columbia to 
foreign markets, each case containing four dozen one-pound cans, or 7,680,000 
pounds of fish ready for the table. The price varied from year to year. Be- 
tween 1870 and 1881 it ranged from §9.50 to S-i a case, averaging nearly 
$6 a case, making a total average for canned salmon of about §900,000 annu- 
ally. Pickled or salt salmon sold at from $G to 88 a barrel, and each cannery 
puts up from 300 to 800 barrels in addition to the canned fish. Giving a value 
merely conjectural but moderate for the salted salmon of the Sound from 
half a dozen fisheries, and that of the Columbia pickled salmon from eight 
or more factories, another §50,000 may be safely supposed to have been added 
to the sum total for salmon. 

Thei-e is but one other source of wealth to be noticed in this place, which 
pertains principally to the eastern division of the territory, namely, live- 
stock. Two thirds of this part of the territory is excellent grazing land, and 
has raised immense herds of cattle and sheep, which have been a convenient 
means of income to the people. Nothing has been required generally, exceiit 
to herd sheep and brand cattle, which fed at pleasure over the boundless 
stretches of unoccupied land. Great as has been the reputation of the Walla 
Walla Valley, from the time when Bonneville and Missionary Parker won- 
dered at the riches of the Cayuses, represented by their hundreds of horses, 
the Yakima country eclipses it as a, stock-range, both on account of pastur- 
age and mildness of climate. The Palouse region, later converted into grain- 
fields, has also been a famous stock-range for many years; and for many years 
to come there will be enough uufenced land to support millions of dollars' 
worth of cattle, horses, and sheep. Aboxit one winter in five is severe enough 
to require the housing and feeding of cattle. It is then that the stock-raiser, 
grown careless and confident, has cause to lament his indolence in not pro- 
viding for the protection of his property. Yet, with occasional severe, 
Washington has had from an early day a sure and easy means of livelihood, 
if not of wealth. 

To what an extent the people of the Puget Sound country and the Cowlitz 
and Chehalis valleys depended upon their cattle for sujiport was illustrated in 
1 8C3, wdien the government prohibited for a time the exportation of live-stock. 
The order was in consequence of Canada being made a field of operations for 
the leaders of the rebellion, and the danger that supplies might be shipped to 
them from the British provinces. It was not intended to aft'ect Washington. 
S. F. Alia, July 30, 1863: Portland Oreqonian, Sept. 3, 1863; Or. Argus, Aug. 
17, 1SG3. Exports into V.I. from the Pacific United States in 1862 amounted 
to three millions of dollars. Of this amount about one million was in cattle 
from Oregon and Washington that were carried by the way of Portland and 
Puget Sound to Victoria. Those driven into B. C. east of the Cascades were 
not taken into the account. They were to stock the country, as well as for 
beef. A small proportion of them only were from Oregon, while they repre- 
sented the ready cash of the farmers of Washington. The order from the de- 
partment of state deprived them of this income, as well as the British colonies 
of beef. Victor Smith was then collector of the Puget Sound district; and 
although Governor Pickering was of opinion that the law was not applicable 


to the territory, he insisted xipon its observance. Much of the hostility felt 
toward the collector and his schemes came from this. Pickering visited Gov. 
Douglas to explain the embargo, and for a number of months much excitement 
and evident inconvenience prevailed on both sides of the straits. When at 
last the embargo was raised, there wras a corresponding rejoicing. Instantly 
the H. B. Co. despatched a steamer for a cargo of live-stock, and the money 
market was relieved. But there had also been evasion of the law by the ship- 
ment of cattle to San Juan Island, then neutral territory, and thence to V. I. 
For a brief period the patriotic citizens of Puget Sound had cause to congrat- 
ulate themselves that the boundary question was still unsettled. 

The prices obtained for cattle in the early settlement of the country were 
great, as great almost as in Oregon when the Willamette Cattle Company was 
formed in 1838. I find several entries in Ebey's Journal, MS., which throw 
light on this subject. In volume v. 26, he says that his brother, I. N. Ebey, 
sold, in 1857, four Spanish cows with calves for §80 each. The following year, 
at a sale of cattle on Whidbey Island, by W. S. Ebey, 49 head brought §2,324. 
At another sale in 1859, at the same place, 25 cows and heifers brought §059, 
or an average of over $38 each, common stock. In 1863, when the embargo 
was raised, beef cattle on foot, for shipment, brought from 3 to 6 cents per 
pound, showing the gradual decline in prices with the increase of numbers. 

Notwithstanding this decline, the value of live-stock exported from 
Puget Sound in 1867-8 was $106,989 for 9,476 animals of all kinds. In the 
following year there were exported over 13,000 animals at an aggregate 
value of nearly $200,000. The total value of live-stock in the territory in 
1870 was $2,103,313; in 1873 there were 23,000 neat-cattle owned in Walla 
Walla county alone, and 20,000 sheep. For a number of years cattle and 
sheep were driven from the plains of eastern Washington to Nebraska to be 
shipped to eastern markets. Sheep were sometimes two or three years on the 
road, notwithstanding the first Oregon importations overland came through 
from the Missouri in one season. Sheep-raising both for mutton and wool be- 
came a most profitable industry in all parts of the territory, but particularly 
in the eastern division. Lirge tracts of land on the Cowlitz prairie, the Ni*j- 
qually plains, the idlamls of the Haro archipelago, and Whidbey Island are 
peculiarly adopted to shccp-farming, while the whole of eastern Washmgtou 
is favorable both in climate and natural food to the production and improve- 
ment of sheep. Inferior breeds average five pounds of wool per annum, and 
the finer breeds as much as in any country of the world. It was estimated 
that in 1865, 50,000 pounds of wool were shipped from Washington to Cal., 
which brought the highest average price in the market because cleaner than 
the Cal. wool. Yet sheep were comparatively scarce considering the demand, 
and worth $4 each by the drove. In 1870, according to the census report, 
nearly 200,000 pounds of wool were exported. Since that time large numbers 
of sheep have been driven out of the territory. 

Historically speaking, the H. B. Co. introduced the first sheep, both com- 
mon from Cal. and Saxony and merino from Eng. Watt and other Oregon 
stock-farmers followed later with various improved breeds. The first wool 
shipment of Washington was 15,000 pounds from Puget Sound in 1860 by 
William Rutledge, Jr, for which he paid from twelve to sixteen cents per 
pound. Olympia Pioneer and Dem., July 27, 1860. The wool was of good 
quality and neatly put up. A legislative act was passed in Jan. 1860 incor- 
porating the Puget Souud Woollen Manufacturing Company of Tumwater, 
but nothing ever came of it except the name, which was suggestive of what 
ought to be done, if no more. Again, five years later, the Washington 
Woollen Manufacturing Coiqpany of Thurston county was incorporated, with 
like results. There was an attempt made by A. R. Elder and Clark to estab- 
lish a woollen-mill on Steilacoom Creek. The carding-machine was purchased 
by Elder in North Andovcr, Massachusetts, with the design of putting it up 
in Olympia, but Clark selling out to Elder, it went to Steilacoom. A build- 
ing 50 by 80 feet was erected, four stories high. The factory had a capacity 
for carding 250 pounds a day, three spinning-jacks of 240 spindles each, and 


four looms of different sizes. The cost was over |33,000, and it wa.s com- 
pleted, together with a boarding-house for operatives, iu the spring of 1870. 
It was bid off at auction for f 16,OjO in June 1871, when it stopped running. 
Oli/mpiaPar. Tribune, April 11, 1868; Oii/mpia Commercial Age, Jan. 8, 1870; 
Oii/mpia Wash. Standard, Oct. 29, 1870; Olympia Transcript, June 17, 1871. 
Alfred Kidgely Elder was born in Lexington, Ky, Aug. 16, 1806. He re- 
moved to Springfield, 111., where he was a neighbor and friend of Lincoln. 
He came to Oregon in 1849 and settled in Yamhill county, where he farmed 
aud preached, being a presbyterian. In 1802 he was appointed Indian agent 
at the Puyallup reservation, where he resided for 8 years. He was subse- 
quently elected probate judge of Thurston county. He died Feb. 14, 1882, at 
Olympia. Three sous aud 4 daughters survived him. Olympia Conner, Feb. 
17, 1882. The first successful woollen company was one organized in Dayton, 
Columbia county, of which S. 51. Wait was president and Reynolds of Walla 
VValla a large owner. The foundation was laid in 1872, the capital stock be- 
ing .$40,000. Over $30,000 was paid out in 1878 for raw wool. 

The natives of eastern Washington found horse-raising a profitable pursuit, 
and white breeders are equally prosperous. They are raised with little ex- 
pense, which enables the owner to sell them cheap at home, while they bring 
a good price abroad for speed and endurance. Hog-raising, especially adapted 
to the coast counties, has been neglected, although hogs will thrive on clover 
and grasses, and could be cheaply fattened on pease, to which the soil and cli- 
mate are peculiarly favorable. Corn, upon which farmers east of the Missouri 
depend for making pork, does not produce a good crop in the moist and cool 
climate of western Washington, but grows and ripens well in the eastern 
portion of the territory, aud, together with the waste of the wheat-fields, 
should furnish the material for much of the meat consumed on the coast. 
Bees were introduced into the territoi'y about 1858 from southern Oregon, but 
little honey has been furnished to the markets. That which is made in the 
Columbia River region, and sold in Portland, is of great excellence, white, 
pure, and of a delicate flavor. 

Of manufactures from native resources, flour is one of the most important. 
The first flouring-mill in the territory was erected at Vancouver iu 1830 by 
the H. B. Co., and was a set of ordinary mill-stones run by ox-power. In 
1832 a mill was erected seven miles above Vancouver, on Mill Creek, to i-un 
by water-power. Whitman built a small flouring mill at Waiilatpu, which 
was in use about 1840. The first American colony on Puget Sound erected a 
rude grist-mill at the falls of the Des Chutes, in the village of Tumwater, iu 
1846. This sutBced to pulverize the wheat, but not to bolt the flour. In 
1851-2 a good grist-mill was erected by Drew at Cowlitz landing, and later 
in the same year a larger one on the Chehalis by Armstrong. In 1854 Ward 
& Hays of Tumwater built a complete flouring mill at that place, which 
superseded the pioneer mill of Simmons and his neighbors. The next flour- 
hig mill was put up by Chambers at the mouth of Steilacoom Creek, in 1858. 
In'lSliO there were, according to the U. S. census, no more than six mills in 
the territory. Langley's Pacific Coast Directory for 1871-3 gave a table of 23, 
all run by water-power except Yesler's, at Seattle, and erected at an aggre- 
gate cost of over §300,000, two thirds of that amount being invested in 
Walla Walla county, at that time recently settled. Several were erected iu 
that county between 1864 and 1867, among them a mill by S. M. Wait on the 
Touchet, in 1865, this being the initial point in the settling of Waitsburg. 
Wait's mill had a capacity of 100 barrels a day, being exceeded only by one 
other mill in the territory at that time, that of the Lincoln mill at Tumwater, 
which could grind 150 ban-els daily. The average capacity of all the mills 
was about 40 barrels, or a little over 900 barrels daily. S. M. Wait was the 
first man to export flour from tlie Walla Walla Valley. Having a surplus, 
he sent a cargo to Liverpool, realizing a profit of $1 a barrel, which, consid- 
ering the then high rates of transportation to Portland to be shipped alioard 
a vessel, was a noteworthy success. H. P. Isaacs of Walla Walla was one of 


the first millers in the valley, and became proprietor of the North Pacific 
iliUs at that place. In 18S0 there were 16 grist-mills east of the Cascades, 
against 11 in 1873. 

Lime was first made in 1860 on the west side of San Juan Island, by 
Augustus Hibbard. He was killed by N. C Bailey, his partner, in a quaiTel 
about an Indian woman, June 17, 1868. The works remained closed and in 
possession of the military authorities from that time to 1871, when Hibbard's 
heir came from the east and reopened them. Two years afterward he died. 
Before his death Bailey returned and took possession of his interest. James 
McCurdy held a mortgage on tlie works, taken in 1866, and when Bailey died 
in 1874 be came into possession of the whole. The San Juau Island lime- 
works are the largest north of Cal., and of great value to the country. The 
average sales for several years prior to 1879 were from 1,200 to 1,500 barrels 
per annum. The capacity of the kilns was 26,400 barrels. There were ten 
acres of limestone at the M cCurdy works. It was of a light gray color, very 
compact, and suitable for building stone if not too costly to work. 

New lime-works were opened on the north end of the island in 1879 by 
Messrs Ross & Scurr, who had as much limestone as McCurdy. The same 
year McLaughlin & Lee opened a third kiln on the east side of the island, 
with a capacity of 275 barrels, and burned about one kiln a week. This 
ledge was first worked by Roberts, who was drowned about 1863. La Name 
of Victoria then claimed it, but failed to perfect his title subsequent to the 
settlement of the boundary question, and it was taken by the present owners. 

On Orcas Island was the Port Langdou lime-kiln, situated on the east side of 
Buck's Bay, first worked about 1862 by Shottler & Co. It was sold to Daniel 
McLaughlin, of the last-named firm, and R. Caines in 1874, Caines subse- 
quently buying out McLaughlin. Between 1874 and 1879 more than 20,000 
ban-els of lime were sold from this quarry, which covered but two acres. The 
kiln had a capacity of 1 75 barrels, and burned forty per day. 

In 1S7S a quarry was opcue.l on land leased from the Northern Pacific R. 
Co., situiitea ill the riiyalUip Valley near Adlerton station. Two furnaces 
were miming in Xow, owned liy C'ronk & Gritfith, having an aggregate 
capacity of 27-3 lianels. An extensive quarry was discovered iu 1882 on the 
SUagit River; and limestone was reported as found near Walla Walla in 1872. 
The production of lime iu ISSO was 65,000 barrels, worth $84,500. 

A kindred industi-y was the manufacture of cement from nodules of a yellow- 
ish limestone found on the banks of the Columbia about the mouth of the 
river. This manufacture was commenced in 1868 by Knapp & Burrell of 
Portland, at Knappton opposite Astoria. The works yielded in the beginning 
35 barrels daily. 

Taking into consideration that both Oregon and Washington are stock- 
raising countries, little attention is paid to the manufacture of leather. 
Three small tanneries, at Tumwater, Olympia, and Steilacoom, complete the 
list. The first was erected by James B. Biles and Young, in 1857, and was still 
in operation iu 1 885. 

Soap was first made at Steilacoom in March 1862 by the Messrs Meekers. 
The manufacture was discontinued. 

The manufacture of tobacco, from plants grown by himself, was begun at 
Elhi, Pierce county, by T. E. Patton, in 1877. 

Fruit canning and drying was first engaged in by an organized company 
in 1883, at Walla AValla. 

Brooms have for several years been manufactured at Olympia, and broom- 
corn raised in Yakima county. 

Gloves were first made at a factory established in Olympia in 1880 by 
Weston & Swichart. 

A sash, door, and blind factory was established at Tumwater in 1871 by 
Leonard, Crosby, & Cooper. Cooper soon became .sole manager. 

A chair factory was erected at Seattle in 1879 by Newell k Cosgriff, 


The Seattle lumber mills run machinery for manufacturing sash, doors, and 
blinds, and scroll and ornamental work for house-building. 

Water-pipe was first manufactured in 1868, at Tumwater, by W. N. Hor- 
ton. In 1870 C. H. Hale and S. D. Howe were admitted to a partnership, 
and the company called the Washington Water -Pipe Manufacturing and 
Water Company. It subsequently passed into the hands of D. F. Finch. The 
capacity of the works was from 2,500 to 3,000 feet per day of finished pipe. 
The material used was wood, bored, bound with iron hoops, and soaked in as- 
phaltum. In 1877 a new company was organized in S. F., under the title 
fo American Water-Pipe Company, witli a capital of $250,000, for the Jpur 
pose of manufacturing wooden pipe at Tumwater for both gas and water 

Two stave, box, and excelsior mills are operated on a large scale at Seattle 
and Puyallup by the S. F. MattuUath Manufacturing Company. The build- 
ings at Seattle cover four acres, 200 persons are employed, and the staves and 
heads for 5,000 barrels a day turned out. The waste is used to make boxes. 
This company have patented several machines, and have a process of their 
own for making barrels. The sides are made of a single sheet, which takes 
the place of separate staves. These sheets are cut from a large log by revolv- 
ing it against a large knife. Another patent of this company is a petroleum- 
barrel, which is a tin cask inside a wooden one, the intervening space being 
filled with cement. HUteWs Commerce and Industries, 624-5. 

The Puyallup factory employs sixty men, and turns out 1,500 barrels per 
day, the staves and heads being sent to S. F. to be set up. Excelsior is made 
at this establishment from the Cottonwood trees of the bottom-lands. 

Wagon-making is carried on to some extent. The first stage-coach. Con- 
cord make, ever built north of S. P. was manufactured in Walla Walla in 

The first brick was made in the territory by Samuel Hancock, on the Cow- 
litz prairie. Good brick were scarce as late as 1867, and brought twenty dol- 
lars a thousand. 

The largest brewery in Washington is at Seattle, owned by Schaffer & 

Until quite recently no iron-works of any extent existed north of the Co- 
lumbia. The Port Madison Mills had a machine-shop attached to their lum- 
ber establishment previous to 1S70. In 1877 Lister & Burse opened work 
in an iron-foundery at Kew Tacoma, employing twenty men. In 1878 the 
North Pacific Foundery and Machine-shop, Seattle Coal Company's machine- 
shop, and the Williamson Machine-shop were all running at Seattle. The 
North Pacific Company put up new works the following year. There was 
also a foundery at Walla Walla. 

In 1880 the Puget Sound Iron Company, Cyrus Walker president, erected 
a furnace for smelting iron near Port Townsend. The place was called Iron- 
dale, where work was commenced in January 1881. The first iron was made 
on the 23d of that month. Ore used was obtained from the iron-beds which 
underlie the dairy farm of William Bishop at Chimacum, and from Texada 
Island in the gulf of Georgia. The Chimacum mine was a stratum of bog- 
ore twenty-two inches thick, lying two feet beneath the surface, and exten- 
sive enough to keep a forty-ton furnace running for twenty years. The Tex- 
ada mine was found in a fissure vein eighty feet wide, cont lining 62 per cent of 
metal, the quantity of which is inexhaustible, and the quality excellent, al- 
though the ore has to be desulphurized by i-oasting. The ores, delivered at 
the furnace, cost about two dollars a ton, including a royalty to the owners. 
The Chimacum iron being soft and the Texada hard, they are mi.xed to obtain 
the proper density. Charcoal is made from the timber at hand; lime is brought 
from San Juan and Orcas islands at a dollar and a half a ton— all of which 
greatly cheapens and facilitates the production of the iron, which is worth in 
the market thirty dollars per ton. The experiment being successful beyond 
expectation, the works are being enlarged. 
HiBT. Wash.— 2S 



Of the three judicial districts into which Washington is divided, the first 
comprises the counties of Walla Walla, Whitman, Stevens, Spokane, Colum- 
bia, Yakima, Lincoln, Garfield, Kittitass, and Klikitat; the second, Ska- 
mania, Clarke, Cowlitz, Wahkiakum, Pacific, Thurston, Lewis, Chehalis, and 
Mason; the third, Pierce, King, Snohomish, Whatcom, Island, San Juan, 
Clallam, Jefferson, and Kitsap. Walla Walla co. in 18S0 had an area of 
1,600 square miles, a population of 6,212, and taxable property to the amount 
of §2,971,560. New Tacomci N. P. Coast, Feb. 1, ISSO. Whitman co. was 
established by setting off the southern portion of Stevens, Nov. 21, 1871. It 
was named after Marcus Whitman, its first American settler. Recent settle- 
ment began in 1870. Its area was 4,300 square miles; population 7,014; 
taxable property 11,237,189. The first county commissioners were G. D. 
Wilbur, William R. Kexford, and Henry S. Burlingame; sheriff, Charles 
D. Porter; treasurer, W. A. Belcher; auditor, John Ewart; probate judge, 
John Denny; supt. of schools, C. E. Wbite; coroner, John Fincher; com- 
missioners to locate the county seat, William Lucas, Jesse Logsdon, and 
J. A. Perkins. The county seat is Colfax. Wash. Stat., 1871, 134-5. Henry 
H. Spaulding, son of the missionary Spaulding, was born at Lapwai, in Idaho, 
Nov. 24, 1839. He settled at Almota in 1872, and opened the first road to 
Colfax. In 1875 he married Mary Warren, and has several children. L. M. 
Ringer, born in Washington CO., Ind., in 1834, immigrated to Or. in 1870, 
settling at Eugene, In 1872 be took a land claim 3 miles from the present 
town of Colfax. Five years later he removed to Almota and erected a flouring 
mill, half of which he sold to Adams Bros & Co., forming a partnership with 
them in merchandising, subsequently purchasing their interest. He married, 
in 1859, Sophie W. Owen, and had in 1875 six children. Stevens co. had 
a remaining area of 3 or 4 times that of Whitman, and in 1879 Spokane co. 
was set off from it with a pop. of 4,262. Its valuation in 1 SS5 was over a million 
and a half. County seat, Spokane Falls. Daniel F. Percival, bom in Bangor, 
Me., in 1839, immigrated to Montana in 1866, whence he went to San 
Diego, Cal., and thence, after a residence of 2 years, to Or., where be spent 2 
years. In 1872 he spttled in Spokane co., at farming and stock-raising. He 
was elected county commissioner in 1876, and was a member of the legislative 
assembly in 1877 and 1879. He married Lizzie Blytho in 1871. Residenceat 
Cheney. Elijah L. Smith, bom in Jefferson, Iowa, in 1842, came overland to 
Or. with his father, Elijah Smith, a resident of Salem, aged 80 years, having 
a numerous family. Of 1 1 children of the elder Smith 3 sons resided in Wash- 
ington, and the remainder in the Willamette Valley. Elijah L. married Julia 
Tate in 1871. In 1862 he went to the Florence mines, and followed the Rocky 
Mountains from Kootenai to Arizona, working in every camp of importance. 
In 1873 he came to the Spokane country to engage in stock-raising, where he 
remained permanently, with the exception of 4 years spent in Or. In 1879 ho 
took up a body of land surrounding Medical Lake. William Bigham, bom in 
Amsterdam, N. Y., in 1831, came by sea to Cal. in 1852, where he mined for 
6 months, going to Or. in the autumn, and residing there until 1859, when he 
removed to the Walla Walla Valley, having manied, 2 years previous, Jane 
Ann Kelly. In 1870 he removed to Butte Creek in Wasco co., where he re- 
mained until 1878, when he returned to Washington and settled at Cheney in 
Spokane co. , where he engaged in the business of stock-raising. Vroman W. Van 
Wie, bom in Cayuga co. , N. Y. , in 1833, came overland to Cal. in 1852. Mined 
on the upper Sacramento until the following spring, and then drove a freight 
team to Shasta. He soon returned to San Francisco and suppbed milk to 
customers for 5 years, after which he farmed in the vicinity of San Jos6 for 
some time. In 1861 he came to the Walla Walla Valley, going lience to the 
Florence mines, and to Montana, following the Rocky Mountains south to 
the Colorado River, then going to Pabranagat and White Pine, Ncv._ He 
built the first house in Shcnnantown. Afterward he returned to Washing- 
ton with the N. P. R. R. party which first broke sod at Kalama, and remained 


in the Paget Sound country 3 years. In 1872 he settled in Stevens co. (later 
Spokane) and engaged in stock-raising. In 1 8S4 he went into merchandising at 
Medical Lake, the firm being Campbell & Van Wie. His farm was 3i miles 
from the lakes. He married, in 1871, Mrs M. L. Harris. Columbia co. was 
set off from the eastern portion of Walla Walla, Nov. 11, 1875. County seat, 
Dayton; pop. in 1880, 6,894; taxable property, $1,048,050; area, 2,000 square 
miles. S. L. Gilbreth, born in Knox co., Tenn., in 1825, immigrated to 
Oregon, and settled in Yamhill co., in 1852. In 1859, or as soon as the 
Walla Walla Valley was opened for settlement, he removed to his residence 
4 miles from Dayton, and was the first sheriff of the county. He married, 
in 1859, M. H. Fanning, and had in 1855 3 sons and 6 daughters. His 
brother, Joseph Gilbreth, who came to Or. with him, died in Yamhill co. 

Yakima co., established in 1865, area 9,224 square miles; had a popu- 
lation in 1SS5 of about 2,000, and a valuation of about §1,000,000. Comity 
seat, Yakima City. Among the settlers of Yakima co. was L. H. Adkins, who 
was bom in Syracuse, N. Y. , in 1838, and came to Honey Lake Valley, Cal., in 
1860. Thence he went to Nevada, and in 1862 started to the Salmon River 
mines in Id., but stopped in the Powder River Valley, Or., being one of the 
first California company which came overland to these mines. Adkins went 
to driving a freight wagon between Caiion City and The Dalles, or Boisfi City, 
and was so occupied 3 years. In 1865 he opened a photograph gallery In 
Umatilla, and subsequently a livery-stable, but failed, and went next into the 
dairying business. In 1867 he was appointed postmaster at Umatilla, and 
had a contract to carry the mail to the Yakima country for 6 years. In 1872 
he settled in Yakima City at hotel-keeping, having married Flora Markham 
of the former place. 

George S. Taylor, born in Fountain co., lud., in 1832, at 20 years of age 
removed to Iowa, where he resided 12 years, immigrating to Umatilla co. Or., 
in 1864, and removing to Yakima co., Washington, in 1866. He settled in 
the Selah Valley, 8 miles from Yakima City, on a stock farm, when there 
were but 2 families in the valley, those of Alfred Henson and William Mc- 
Allister. Taylor was married in 1857 to Rebecca McLaughlin. 

H. M. Benton was born in New Haven, Conn., in 1836. He came to Cal. 
by sea in 1S59, around the Horn in a sailing vessel. He sailed for 3 years 
between San Francisco and China and Japan, then came to the Columbia 
River and \ -as employed by the 0. S. N. Co. to run their steamers, until 1869, 
when be settled in the Ahtanam Valley, Yakima co., which was then with- 
out towns except the small settlement of Moxie, the county seat, opposite the 
present Yakima City. He was elected auditor in 1872, to succeed C. P. Cook, 
the first auditor of the county, and served 5 years. He was first clerk of the 
district court, when 1 clerk was allowed for each court, and deputy clerk 
when only one was allowed in a district. There being no county buUdings, 
he carried the county records about with him, until the district court was 
established. Judge J. R. Lewis organized the first court, and first sundajr- 
school, in what was known as Schanno's Hall, the only public room in tu? 
county. The first grand jury met in a small school-room outside the limits of 
the town. Previously justice had been loosely administered. James Cathrell 
was justice, in a case of assault, and there not being a sufficient num',er or 
men for a jury, put the sheriff on the panel. The man was bound over to 
appear at the next term of court at Colville — Yakima being, it was believed, 
joined to Stevens co. for judicial purposes, whereas it belonged to Walla 
Walla. Such was pioneer law. Benton married, in 1869, Mary A. Allen, a 
native of Oregon. They had 2 children, the eldest of whom was the first 
white native of Ahtanam Valley. 

A. J. Splawn, born in Holt co.. Mo., in 1845, immigrated to Linn co.. Or., 
with his mother and family in 1852. He settled in the Yakima Valley in 
1801 , when only 2 other men, Charles Splawn and M. Thorp, were in that part 
of the country, the former being the first sheriff of the county. Two other 
brothers settled in Yakima Valley. A. J. Splawn married Melissa Thorp in 
1868; and again in 1873 married Mary A. Davison. 


Garfield county was established in 1881 out of the eastern portion of Co- 
lumbia CO. County seat, Pomeroy. 

George W. James, born in Muskingum co., Ohio, in 1836, immigrated to 
Cal. overland, in company with 1 brother, Preston James, in 1856, remaining 
in Honey Lake Valley 3 years, when he went to Virginia City, Nev., anil 
froui there to Sacramento Valley in 1862, taking a farm near Marysville, where 
he resided 7 years. In 1878 he left Cal. for the Walla Walla Valley, settling 
in Columbia co. (now Garfield), near Ilia. He married Kosanna Sharp in 1856, 
and had 4 sons and 3 daughters. 

Moses Wright, born in Franklin co., Va, came to Cal. overland with the 
Tornado Train in 1851. He went to Siskiyou co. and engaged in packing, 
which he followed until 1857, when he removed to Benton co., Or., with his 
brother John, who resided near Corvallis. In 186-4 he returned to Cal. 
with horses and cattle, remaining there 3 years, settling in Walla Walla Val- 
ley in 1867, near Ilia, in what is now Garfield co. Ho married Louisa Spawr 
in 1863, by whom he has 3 sons. She died, and in 1884 he was married again 
to Mrs Huldah Lewis. 

Ransom Long, bom in Kanawha co.. West Va, in 1812, immigrated over- 
land in 1852 to the Willamette Valley, Or., with his brother Gabriel. In 
1872 he removed to Walla Walla Valley, settling near the present town of 
Pomeroy, in Garfield co. He was married, in 1833, to Rosette Clark, and had 
5 sons and 2 daughters. 

William C. Cams, born ia Niagara, province of Ontario, C. E., in 1835, 
came to Cal. in 1858 by sea. He resided in Cal. until 1865, when he went 
to Montana, i-emaining there until 1878. In that year he settled in Garfield 
CO., 8 miles from Pomeroy. 

N. C. Williams, bom "in Surrey co., N. C, in 1824, came overland by rail 
in 1873, settling near Pataha City. He married, in 1848, Catherine B. Martin, 
and had 5 sons and 6 daughters, all of whom, with one exception, settled 
about him. 

George W. Burford, born in Lloyd co., Ind., in 1832, immigrated overland, 
in Mason's Train, to Yamhill co., Or., in 1852, with his father and family, 
consisting of 8 children. In 1854 he went to Yreka, Cal., to work in the 
mines, and in 1858 returned to Polk co.. Or. In 1862 he married S. E. Cul- 
lough, by whom he has 3 daughters, and 3 years afterward went to reside at 
The Dalles, whence he came to Ilia in 1877. 

Kittitass county was organized out of Yakima county in 1884. County 
seat, EUensburg. It is rapidly filling up with farmers and stock-raisers. 
Some of the pioneers are the following: Samuel C. Miller, bom in Ashland 
CO., Ohio, in 1823, came to Cal. in 1852, overland, and settled in Nevada co., 
where he resided 9 years, less 1 spent east. In 1861 he removed to Umatilla, 
Or. , engaging in the business of packing freight to the mines of J ohn Day, 
taking two partners, so extending his lines in 1864 as to have trains running 
in all directions where packing was requu-ed. In 1872 the firm removed to 
the Wenatchee Valley,