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Full text of "History of Washington County : from its first settlement to the present time ..."

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HISTORY /^^ 



WASHINGTON COUNTY 



^ / FROM ITS FIRST SETTLEMENT 



prese:n^t time, 

FIRST UNDER VIRGINIA AS YOHOGANIA, OHIO, OR AUGUSTA COUNTY 
UNTIL 1731, AND SUBSEQUENTLY UNDER PENNSYLVANIA; 



SKETCHES OP ALL THE TOWNSHIPS, BOROUGHS, AND VILLAGES, ETC. ; 

AND TO WHICH IS ADDED 

A FULL ACCOUKT OF THE CELEBEATEP MASON AND DIXON'S LINE, THE 

WHISKEY INSURRECTION, INDIAN WARFARE, TRADITIONAL 

AND LOCAL HISTORICAL EVENTS. 



Wh<%tever makes the past, the distant, or the future preponderate over the present, 
advances us in the dignity of thinking heings. — Dr. Johnson. 



BY 



ALFRED CREIGH, LL.D. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1870, by 
ALFRED CREIGH, LL. D. 

in the Office of the Clerk of the District Court of the United States in and for the 
Western District of Pennsylvania. 



\-'l^lH3> 



\ 



TO THE CITIZENS 

OK 

WASHINGTON COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA, 

WHOSE DEVOTION TO PATRONIZE AND ENCOURAGE 

MORALITY, LITERATURE, PATRIOTISM, AND RELIGION 

IS NOT SURPASSED 
BYANY BODY OF CITIZENS IN THE 

AMERICAN UNION, 

%\i^ Mmt 

IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED 
BY THEIR FELLOW-CITIZEN, 

ALFRED CREIGH. 

ELLE5DALE ViLLA, 

Washington, Pa., June 29, 1870- 



( 3 ) 



PREFACE. 



For the last nine years, the author of this volume has been en- 
gaged in collecting and arranging materials for the history of 
Washington County, a county whose existence (not, however, in its 
present organized chartered form) is coeval with the chartered rights 
both of Pennsylvania and Virginia. These States claimed control 
over its territory, until the disputed question was finally settled and 
adjusted by extending the celebrated Mason and Dixon's line, in 
1785, although the chartered history of Washington County dates 
back to 1781. 

There has been a growing desire, for the last few years, among the 
people of this and other counties to investigate and become acquainted 
with their local history. It is eminently proper and praiseworthy in 
any people to rescue from oblivion memorials of unpublished facts, 
reminiscences, and traditions; to call to memory the primitive days of 
our forefathers, their frontier life and hardships, their struggles with 
the red men of the forest, and to collect and preserve valuable and 
interesting statistical information and reliable facts which will tend 
to perpetuate their history. 

Under such influences, and at the request of a committee of my 
fellow-citizens, I entered the hitherto untrodden field to collect all 
these memorials, and now present them for your consideration and 
approval. I do not intend to convey the meaning that it is entirely 
perfect; it will take time and more diligent research to procure the 
memorials which have not 3'et been published; but this volume is 
intended to be the starting-point from which the future historian can 
gain reliable facts. I have been particularly careful not to give 
any traditionary facts, without being corroborated by authentic docu- 
ments or strong circumstantial evidence. 

To natives and their descendants of Washington County, settled 
i'. distant places, this volume will prove of great interest, recalling 
( 4 ) 



PREFACE. 5 

to memory old associations, friends of former years, and the recollec- 
tion of events and incidents passed from memory. 

The causes which led to the preparation of this history of Wash- 
ington County may be gathered from the perusal of the following 
correspondence : — 

Washington, January 9, 186]. 
Dr. Alfred Creigh, 

Dear Sir: Our "old men" are fast passing away, and with them, unless soon 
rescued, will be lost many facts connected with tlie early settlement and history 
of our borough and county. Many accounts are doubtless in existence which 
are also liable to be lost when the present possessors cease to own them. 

We believe it to be the duty of some one to gather unpublished facts, 
reminiscences, memorials, and traditions of the early settlement of the county, 
and present them to the public in an historic form. A history of Washington 
Borough and County would prove deeply interesting to the present inhabit- 
ants and to their children scattered all over the land. As a work of future 
reference, it would be invaluable. Knowing your zeal and perseverance in 
matters of this kind, we would respectfully suggest that you undertake this 
work. We will cheerfully aid you in obtaining facts and gaining access to 
documents. 

We believe that sufficient numbers of the book could be sold to repay you 
for your labor. Hoping you will comply with the request. 

We remain yours, &c., 
ALEXANDER WILSON, JOHN L. GOW, 
JOHN H. EWING, THOS. W. GRAYSON, 

C. M. REED, G. W. MILLER, 

J. L. JUDSON, DAVID AIKEN, 

JOHN R. DONEHOO, WM. VANKIRK, 

WM. HOPKINS, FREEMAN BRADY, Jr., 

JAMES B. RUPLE, W. S. MOORE, 

H. A. PURVIANCE, JAMES W. KUNTZ, 

WM. HUGHES, R. H. KOONTZ, 

A. H. ECKER, GEO. S. HART, 

WILLIAM SWAN, W. A. MICKEY, 

W. H. HORN, H. J. VANKIRK. 

REPLY. 

Washington, January 21, 1861. 
Gbstlemen: Your letter of .January 9th is now before me, and after mature 
deliberation upon its contents, I shall avail myself of preparing, and at the 
earliest opportunity of presenting to the public a full history of Washington 
Borough and County. The reminiscences, memorials, and traditions which 
exist in this county will make an interesting work, more especially as this 
was the.^r.s< county which was organized in Pennsylvania after the Declaration 
of Independence. 



b I'REl^ACE. 

It is true that the history which I am about to write will require untiring 
diligence, unwearied perseverance, and industrious research, yet with the 
promised aid of yourselves and the co-operation of my fellow-citizens who may 
be iu possession of any facts or traditions tending to elucidate our history, I 
have no fear of the result. As Washington County was the Jirxt organized, 
let her likewise be i\\*i Jjrst in the State to inaugurate a system by which, 
every county, following her example, will present their separate histories to 
the American people, whereby incalculable good will result not only to the 
State of Pennsylvania, but to the rising generation. 

With sentiments of respect and esteem, I remain yours truly, 

ALFRED CREIQH. 
To Alexandkr Wilson, Esq., and others. 

The materials for the work have been derived chiefly from the 
Colonial Records and Archives of the State, the records of the 
county and borough, files of newspapers, pastors of churches, and 
kind friends who felt a deep interest in procuring for my use these 
memorials. To the committee wdio addressed me on the subject, to 
my friend Hon. James Veech, of the city of Pittsburg, am I particu- 
larly indebted for the use of his notes on Washington County, and 
the Mason and Dixon question; to David S. Wilson, Esq., who 
aided me by his counsel and research, and to Rev. Dr. James I. 
Brownson who, from the moment of its undertaking, felt a deep and 
abiding interest in its publication, with many others, I return ray 
sincere thanks, fondly trusting that the work may meet the approval 
-of all my fellow-citizens; fully convinced that any imperfections will 
be overlooked by the reader, in the contemplation of the variety of 
subjects presented for his consideration. 

Where any error is discovered, I shall be thankful to the reader 
to inform me by letter of the inaccuracy, and I shall have it corrected 
in a subsequent edition, my desire being to give a faithful, truthful, 
and reliable history of Washington County. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

WASHINGTON COUNTY — ITS PRIMITIVE HISTORY UNDER VIRGINIA. 

Spottsylvania County; its boundaries — Orange County — Frederick Coun- 
ty; its boundaries — Augusta County ; its boundaries — District of West 
Augusta — Justices' Courts — Oath of allegiance — Oath of supremacy — 
The test oath — Oath of abjuration — Youghiogheny County; its boun- 
daries, courts, and court-houses, and punishments — Pillory and stocks 
described — Whipping-post and ducking-stool — Ohio County ; its boun- 
daries and court-house — Monongalia County — Courts and roads — Or- 
phan children — Taverns — Coutin-ental money — Ferries — Attorneys-at- 
law — Sheriffs and deputy-sheriffs — Surveyors — Military officers — Grist- 
mills — Salts — Cotton, and wool cards — Counterfeit money — Allegiance 
— Naturalization — Passports — Benevolence of Youghiogheny County — 
Marriage extraordinary — Reflections ....... 9 

CHAPTER II. 

A GENERAL OUTLINE HISTORY OP PENNSYLVANIA. 

History of Pennsylvania, from the date of its charter to the present time, 
embracing a list of all the Indian titles to lands — Historical and sta- 
tistical facts — The date of the formation of each county of the State, 
with the number of acres and population in each, and a list of the 
Governors from the accession of William Penn, its proprietor, in 1681 
to 1870 .27 

CHAPTER III. 

ORIGINAL AfcT ESTABLISHING WASHINGTON COUNTY. 
Divisions by the formation of townships — Its original and present town- 
.ships and boroughs — Its present boundaries with topogrp.phical and 
geographical description and its streams — Its early religious element 
and the religious agreement of 1782 — Marriage custom and ceremony — 
School-bouses 39 

CHAPTER lY. 

PROCEEDINGS OP THE SUPREME EXECUTIVE COUNCIL. 

A brief history of the Provincial Conference — The Constitution of 1776 ; 
the Council of Censors; the Convention of 1789; the Constitution of 
1790 ; the action of the Legislature of 1825 ; with regard to a conven- 
tion, and the vote of the people ; the Convention of 1837 ; the Consti- 
tution of 1838, and the full proceedings of the Supreme Executive, 
from 1781 to 1791, which relates to Washington County . . .54 

CHAPTER V. 

TOWNSHIPS AND BOROUGHS IN WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

The history of the Townships and Boroughs in their chronological order, 
detailing interesting events in each — Also the history of churches and 
the present state of education in each township and borough . . 87 

( n 



8- CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VI. 

ELECTED OFFICERS OF WASHINGTON COUNTY FBOM 1T90. 

Members of Congress — Senators and Representatives — President Judges 
— Associate Judges and Deputy Attorney-Generals — Attorneys-at-Law 
— Prothouotaries — Registers — Recorders — Clerk of the Courts — SheriflFs 
— Coroners — Commissioners — Clerks to Commissioners — Treasurers — 
Auditors — Notary Public — Directors of the Poor — Deputy Surveyor- 
General — Justices of the Peace ........ 250 

CHAPTER VU. 

MILITARY HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Brig. -Gen. Clark's expedition in 1781 — Col. David Williamson's expedi- 
tion iu 1782 — Col. William Crawford's expedition in 1782 — Whiskey 
Insurrection in 1791-4 — Outrage on the Chesapeake Frigate, 1807 — 
War of 1812— Texas Revolution, in 1836— Mexican War in 1846— South- 
ern Rebellion in 1861 278 

CHAPTER VIII. 

HISTORY OF ASSOCIATIONS, AND EVENTS WHICH TRANSPIRED IN 

WASHINGTON COUNTY . . . .341 



APPENDIX. 
CHAPTER I. 

THE VIRGINIA AND PENNSYLVANIA CONTROVERSY, FROM 1Y52 TO 1783, 

The date of the earliest settlements by Virginians and Pennsylvanians — 
The difficulties between the Governors of both States arising from these 
settlements — The names of the first settlers — The various acts of Capt. 
Connolly as the representative of Virginia in claiming Fort Duquesne 
(Pittsburg) as within Virginia — His treason — Commissioners appointed 
by both States to run a temporary line until the Revolutionary War 
would terminate — The action of botli States approving of the same, and 
the necessity of erecting Washington County ..... 3 

CHAPTER II. 

THE MASON AND DIXON'S LINE. 

Its full history — the line run by Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon — the 
claim of Pennsylvania — the claim of Lord Baltimore — the appointment 
of commissioners — the labors of Mason and Dixon ended iu 1767 — new 
commissioners appointed iu 1783 by the States of Virginia and Penn- 
sylvania — letter from Joseph Reed on the scientific ajjparatus to be 
used — report of the joint-commissioners — report of the Pennsylvania 
commissioners — cost of running the line — the western line of Pennsyl- 
vania run by commissioners appointed by both Stales, and the report 
of the commissioners thereupon — the origin of the Pan Handle in West 

Virginia 24 

CHAPTER III. 

INDIAN HISTORY OF WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA AND VIRGINIA. 

Names of all the tribes of North America in 1764 — Those inhabiting West- 
ern Pennsylvania and adjoining territory — Letters on the Indian wrongs 
from 17(ir) to 1780 — Rice's fort — Letters from Dr. J. C. Hupp on Miller's 
block-house — Captivity and escape of Jacob Miller, and the cruel mur- 
der of live of Miller's friends — Vance's fort — Well's fort — Liudley's fort 38 

CHAPTER IV. 

WHISKEY INSURRECTION. . . .59 



HISTOEY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



CHAPTER I. 

WASHINGTON COUNTY— ITS PRIMITIVE HISTORY UNDER VIRGINIA. 

Spottsylvania County; its boundaries — Orange County — Frederick County; 
its boundaries — Augusta County ; its boundaries — District of West Augusta 
— Justices' Courts — Oath of allegiance — Oath of supremacy — The test oath — 
Oath of abjuration — Youghiogheny County ; its boundaries, courts, and court- 
houses, and punishments — Pillory and stocks described — Whipping-post 
and ducking-stool — Ohio County ; its boundaries and court-house — Monon- 
galia County — Courts and roads — Orphan children — Taverns — Continental 
money — Ferries — Attorneys-at-law — Sheriffs and deputy sheriffs — Survey- 
ors — Military officers — Grist-mills — Salt — Cotton, and wool cards — Counter- 
feit money — Allegiance — Naturalization — Passports — Benevolence of You- 
ghiogheny County — Marriage extraordinary — Reflections. 

To trace the history of Washington County from its primitive 
existence, the historian should give facts, but the inferences and 
reflections should be left to the reader. It will be our province, 
therefore, to examine into the history of the colony of Virginia 
from its first settlement on the 25th day of March, 1584, to the 23d 
day of August, 1785, at which date the commissioners of the States 
of Virginia and Pennsylvania entered into conciliatory measures 
whereby that portion of Western Pennsylvania claimed by Virginia 
became vested in our own State. 

Our chartered rights, therefore, are deduced from charters granted 
by the reigning King of England, either to the colony of Virginia 
in 1584, or to the colony of Pennsylvania in 1681, as the records 
will demonstrate. 

In 1584 Sir Walter Raleigh obtained letters patent for discovering 
unknown countries, by virtue of which he took possession of that 
part of America which he afterwards named Virginia, in honor of 
Queen Elizabeth. He attempted its settlement, but failed. He 
took an active part in many enterprises in England ; and, among the 
number, he endeavored to place Arabella Stewart on the throne, 
and for this conspiracy was tried and condemned, on November 11, 
1603, to be hanged, drawn," and quartered. Notwithstanding his 
conviction and sentence, he was not executed, but was confined in 
2 



10 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

the Tower as a prisoner, where he remained many years, devoting 
his time to writing the History of the World. On the accession of 
James I. to the crown, Raleigh was released, and sent on a mining 
expedition to South America, with the necessary number of men and 
ships, of which Spain was informed; but the expedition failing, and 
one of the Spanish towns being destroyed by fire, tlie Spanish am- 
bassador demanded satisfaction by the return and death of Raleigh. 
He was, tlierefore, immediately seized, and, without any new trial, 
was beheaded on his former conviction, on the 29th of October, 1618, 
to appease the anger of Spain. 

In 1606 James I., by virtue of his prerogative as king, divided 
the colony of Virginia between two companies : the southern com- 
pany was granted to Thomas Gates and others, and called the London 
Company; the northern company was called the Plymouth Company. 
This grant embraced all the lands in Virginia from Point Comfort, 
along the sea-coast, to the northward two hundred miles, and from 
the same point, along the sea-coast, to the southward two hundred 
miles, and all the space from this precinct on the sea-coast up into 
the land, west and northwest, from sea to sea, and the islands within 
one hundred miles of it. Subsequently, on the 12th day of March, 
1612, by other letters patent, the king added all islands in any part 
of the ocean between the thirlieth and forty-first degrees of latitude. 

On the 24th of July, 1621, the colony of Virginia established a 
form of government, subject to the approval of the "General Quarter 
Court of the Company in England." To this was added the proviso 
that no order of the Council in England should bind the colony 
unless ratified in the General Assembly of Virginia. Thus early 
in our country's history was introduced those principles of republi- 
canism, which eventually secured to us our present form of govern- 
ment. 

The king and the Company, however, quarrelled, and he suspended 
their powers by the Proclamation of July 15, 1624. King James I. 
having died on 27th March, 1625, Charles I. took the government 
into his own hands. He made extensive grants of plantations in a 
high state of cultivation, and also woodlands, in the colony of Vir- 
ginia, to his particular friends. Lord Baltimore and Lord Fairfax, to 
the former of whom he even granted the separate and sole right of 
jurisdiction and government. Charles I. having been deposed by 
Oliver Cromwell in 1650, and assuming the title of Protector, he 
considered himself as standing in the place of the deposed king, and 
as having succeeded to all the kingly powers, without as well as 
within the realm, and therefore assumed control over the American 
colonics. Virginia, however, had expressed herself as opposed to 
Cromwell and his parliament, and invited Charles II. (the son of 
the deceased king), who was then an exile in Breda, Flanders, to 
come into Virginia and become their king, but on the eve of 
embarking, in 1660, he was recalled to the throne of England, on 
the 29th of May, of the same year. After Charles II. had ascended 



■HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 11 

the throne, and desirous of giving a substantial proof of the pro- 
found respect he entertained for the loyalty of Virginia, he caused 
her coat-of-arms to he quartered with those of England, Ireland, and 
Scotland, as an independent member of the empire. Hence the 
origin of the term Old Dominion. It also derives this term from 
the fact that it was the first of the English settlements in the limits 
of the British colonies. 

Having thus exhibited the chartered rights of the colony of Yir- 
ginia for sixty-six years, let us retrace our steps to the year 1634, 
when the colony of Virginia was divided into eight shires or coun- 
ties. Six of these were situate between the James and York rivers, 
viz. : Henrico, Charles City, James City, York City, Warwick, and 
Elizabeth City shires.' The Isle of Wight Shire was between the 
James and Caroline rivers, while the Northampton or Accomac 
Shire was on the eastern shore. From these eight original shires or 
counties have been erected the one hundred and fifty-eight counties 
of the Old Dominion, fifty-six of which are situate west of the Blue 
Ridge Mountain, which is broken by the Potomac River at Harper's 
Ferry, and traverses the State in a line of about two hundred and 
sixty miles, separating it into the two great divisions of Eastern and 
Western Virginia. 

Spottsylvania County. 

The territory of Washington County, Pennsylvania, was, according 
to the original chartered rights of Virginia, claimed as belonging to 
the county of Spottsylvania. This county was formed from parts of 
Essex, King William, and King and Queen counties, in 1*720, dur- 
ing the reign of King Georgfe I. It was named in honor of Alexan- 
.der Spottswood, who was then Governor, and also in commemoration 
of the fact that he made ihQ first discovery of the passage over the 
Appalachian Mountains. 

The preamble to the act erecting this portion of Western Vir- 
ginia into a county reads thus : That the frontier toward the high 
mountains is -exposed to danger from the Indians, and the late set- 
tlements of the French to the westward of the said mountains, 
therefore it is enacted, that Spottsylvania bounds upon Snow 
Creek up to the mill ; thence by a southwest line to the North 
Anna River, thence up said mountains, as far as convenient, and 
thence by a line to be run on the northwest side thereof, so as to 
include the northern passage through the said mountains, thence 
down the said river until it comes against the head of the Rappa- 
hannock River and down that river to the mouth of Snow Creek, 
which tract of land shall become the County of Spottsylvania, 
from May 1, 1721. 

By the act of 1730, Williamsburg was declared to be the county 
town, and the same act, on account of the large area of territory to 
be travelled by the judicial ofiicers, provided that the burgesses 
should be allowed for four days' journey, in passing and returning. 



12 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

In 1712, Virginia was divided into forty-nine parishes, which act 
also determined the salary of each clergyman, but in 1130 St. 
George's parish was divided by a line running from the mouth of 
the Rappahannock to the Pamunkey River, the upper portion to be 
called St. Mark's, and the lower portion St. George's parish. 

In 1734 the names of these parishes were changed, St. George's 
was called Spoftsylvania and St. Mark's was named Orange, and 
all settlors beyond the Shenandoah River were exempted for three 
years from the payraeut of public and parish dues. It is apparent, 
therefore, that the first settlers endeavored to mould their religious 
government and make it conform as near as possible to the church 
of England. 

Orange County. 

In 1734, Spottsylvania County was divided, and from it Orange 
County was formed, which comprised the whole of the colony of 
Western Virginia. 

Frederick and Augusta Counties. 

In 1738, the act of legislature erected two more counties out of 
the extensive county of Orange, by naming one Frederick, and the 
other Augusta. Frederick County was bounded by the Potomac 
on the north, the Blue Ridge on the east, and a line to be run from 
the head spring of Hedgeman to the head spring of the Potomac, 
on the south and west. Augusta County was to embrace the re- 
mainder of Virginia west of the Blue Ridge. 

Augusta County. 

In October, 1776, the legislature of Virginia passed an act to 
ascertain the boundary between the county of Augusta and the dis- 
trict of West Augusta, and to divide said district into three distinct 
counties. 

District of West Augusta. 

The preamble to the act, which embraces much historical informa- 
tion, is in these words : Whereas, it is expedient to ascertain the boun- 
dary between the county of Augusta and the district of West Au- 
gusta — Be it therefore enacted by the General Assembly of the 
Commonwealth of Virginia, that the boundary between the said dis- 
trict and county shall be as follows : beginning on the Alleghany 
Mountains, between the heads of the Potomac, Cheat, and Green 
Briar Rivers (Haystack Knob, or north end of Pocahontas County), 
thence along the ridge of mountains which divides the waters of 
Cheat River from those of Green Briar, and that branch of the Mo- 
nongahela River called Tyger's Valley River, to the Monongahela 
River ; thence up the said river, and the west fork thereof, toBing- 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 13 

erman's Creek, on the northwest side of the said west fork ; thence 
up the said creek to the head thereof; thence in a direct course to 
the head of Middle Island Creek, a branch of the Ohio, and thence 
to the Ohio, including all the waters of said creek in the aforesaid 
District of West Augusta, all that territory lying to the northward 
of the aforesaid boundary, and to the westward of the States of 
Pennsylvania and Maryland, shall be deemed, and is hereby declared 
to be, within the District of West Augusta. 

At a court of the District of West Augusta, held at Fort Du- 
quesne (Pittsburg), September 18th, 1716, the court decided that on 
the passage of the ord'nance, they became a separate and distinct 
jurisdiction, from that of East Augusta, and as such, West Augusta 
assumed and exercised independent jurisdiction over its entire terri- 
tory. 

After tlie thirteen colonies had declared themselves free and inde- 
pendent, the General Assembly of Virginia passed an act on the 
20th of August, 1816, enabling the present magistrates to continue 
the administration of justice until the same can be more amply pro- 
vided for. 

Justices' Courts. 

Justices' courts were organized by John Eare; of Duumore, his 
majesty's Lieutenant and Governor-in-Chief of Virginia, as early as 
December, 1114. He also issued, the same year, a commission ad- 
journing the county court of Augusta, from Staunton to Fort Dun- 
more. This fort was originally called Fort Pitt, but in 1773 the 
British government abandoned it, and Dr. John Connelly took pos- 
session of it in the name of Virginia, and named it Fort Dunmore. 
It is evident, therefore, that as late as three years before the Decla- 
ration of Independence, Pittsburg and the surrounding country was 
claimed as belonging to the district of West Augusta. This inter- 
resting cjuestion will be fully discussed in the Appendix, Chapter II., 
wherein we shall treat of and examine the celebrated Mason and 
Dixon's line. 

George Croghan, Edward Ward, John Stephenson, Isaac Cox, 
George M'Cormick, Joseph Beckett, John Campbell, Dorsey Pen- 
tecost, John Connelly, John Gibson, George Vallandigham, Thomas 
Smallman, William Crawford, and William Goe took the usual oaths 
to his majesty's person and government, subscribed the abjuration and 
test oaths, as also the usual one of justices of the peace, justices of 
the county court in chancery, and justices of the oyer and terminer. 

As these oaths are peculiar in their character I shall add them. 

Oath of Allegiance. — I, A. B., do sincerely promise and swear 
that I will be faithful, and bear true allegiance to his majesty King 
George the Third. So help me God. 



14 HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Oath of Supremacy. — I, C. D., do swear that I from ray heart 
abhor, detest, and abjure as impious and heretical, that damnable doc- 
trine and position, that princes excommunicated and deprived by the 
Pope, or any authority of the See of Rome, may be deposed or mur- 
dered by their subjects, or any other whatsoever. And I do declare, 
that no foreign prince, person, prelate. State, or potentate, hath or 
ought to have any jurisdiction, power, superiority, pre-eminence or 
authority, ecclesiastical or spiritual, within this realm. So help me 
God. 

Tlie Test Oath. — I, E. F., do declare that I do believe there is 
not any transubstantiation in the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, or 
in the elements of bread and wine at or after the consecration thereof, 
by any person or persons whatever. So help me God. 

Oath of Abjuration. — I, G. H., do truly and sincerely acknow- 
ledge, profess, testify, and declare in my conscience before God and 
the world, that our Sovereign Lord, King George the Third, is lawful 
and riglitful king of this realm and all other his majesty's domin- 
ions thereunto belonging. 

And I do solemnly and sincerely declare that I do believe in my 
conscience that the person pretended to be Prince of Wales during 
the life of the late King James, and since his decease pretending to 
be and takes upon himself the style and title of King of England, by 
the name of James the Third, or of Scotland by the name of James 
the Eighth, or the style and title of King of Great Britain, hath not 
any right or title whatsoever to the crown of this realm or any other 
the dominions thereunto belonging, and I do renounce, refuse, and 
abjure any allegiance or obedience to him. 

And I do swear that I will bear faith and true allegiance to his 
majesty King George the Third, and him will defend to the utmost 
of my power against all traitorous conspiracies and attempts what- 
soever, which shall be made against his person, crown, or dignity, 
and I will do my utmost endeavors to disclose and make known to 
his majesty and his successors all treason and traitorous conspiracies 
which I shall know to be against him or any of them. 

And I do faithfully promise to the utmost of my power to support, 
maintain, and defend the succession of the crown against him, the 
said James, and all other persons whatsoever, which succession (by 
an act entitled an act for the further limitation of the crown and bet- 
ter securing the rights and liberties of the subject) is and stands 
limited to the Princess Sophie, late Electress and Duchess Dowager 
of Hanover, and the heirs of her body being Protestants — and all 
these things I do plainly and sincerely acknowledge and swear, ac- 
cording to these express words by me spoken and according to the 
plain and common sense and understanding of the same words, with- 
out any equivocation, mental evasion, or secret reservation what- 
soever, and I do make this recognition, acknowledgment, abjuration. 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 15 

renunciation, and promise heartily, willingly, and truly upon the true 
faith of a Christian. So help me God. 

After this digression we shall resume our narrative of the district 
of West Augusta, which, by an act of the General Assembly of Vir- 
ginia, from and after November 8th, 1776, was divided into three 
counties, viz : Youghiogheny, Ohio, and Monongalia — to each of 
which we will refer seriatim. 

Youghiogheny County. 

The boundaries of this county lay to the northward of the fol- 
lowing lines, and began at the mouth of Cross Creek, running up its 
several sources to the head thereof; thence southeastwardly to the 
nearest part of the dividing ridge (which divides the waters of the 
Ohio from those of the Monongahela) ; thence along the said ridge to 
the head of Tenmile Creek ; thence east to the road leading from 
Catfish Camp (Washington) to Red Stone Old Fort (Brownsville) ; 
thence along the said road to the Monongahela River ; thence crossing 
the river to the said Fort ; thence along Dunlap's old road to 
Braddock's road, and with the same to the meridian of the head 
fountain of the Potomac (w^est line of Maryland), shall be called and 
known by the name of Youghiogheny County, 

This act defined the qualifications of electoi's and various essen- 
tial matters for the future prosperity and government of these new 
counties. Electors were required to be free white male persons over 
twenty-one years of age, residing in the county and State one year, 
and in possession of twenty-five acres of land with a house thereon; 
claiming an estate for life in the said land in his own right or in the 
right of his wife. 

Courts and Court-house. 

The electors were required to meet on the 8th day of December, 
1776, at the house of Andrew Heath, on the Monongahela River, to 
choose the most convenient place for holding courts for the county of 
Youghiogheny. ]S otices for election were to be given by the sheriff, 
ministers, and rectors in the same manner as for representatives to 
serve in the General Assembly. The law also provided that if pre- 
vented holding the election on the day aforesaid, by rain, snow, or 
rise of waters, the sheriff was authorized to adjourn to that day week, 
or as often as so prevented. 

The electors met at the appointed time and selected the farm of 
Andrew Heath as the most convenient place. This farm is on the 
Monongahela River (now Washington County) nearly opposite and 
a little above Elizabethtown, Alleghany County. 

The court directed Thomas Sraallman, John Canon, and John 
Gibson, or any two of them, to provide a house at the public expensed 
for the use of holding the court, and that the sheriff contract with 
the workmen to put the same in repair. 



IG HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

The original records show that the court directed Isaac Cox to 
contract with some person or persons to build a complete bar and 
other work in the inside of the court-house to be completed by the 
next court. 

On the 24th of November, 1778, Messrs. Kuykendall and New- 
all were authorized to contract with some person to junk and daub 
the court-house, and provide locks and bars for the doors of the 
gaol, and to build an addition to the eastern end of the court-house 
and gaol, sixteen feet square, one story high, with good, sufficient 
logs, a good cobber roof, a good outside chimney, with convenient 
seats for the court and bar, with a sheriff's box, a good iron pipe 
stove for the gaol room, and that they have a pair of stocks, whip- 
ping-post, and pillory erected in the court yard. 

The ancient laws of Virginia declared that the court in every 
county shall cause to be set up near the court house a pillory, pair 
of stocks, a whipping-post, and a ducking-stool in such place as they 
shall think convenient, which not being set up within six months 
after the date of this act, the said court shall be fined five thousand 
pounds of tobacco. 

Punishments. 

In 1780 Andrew Heath was ordered to have the court-house 
and gaol repaired and to erect a pillory and slocks. It appears 
that the price paid for these articles of punishment at this time was 
two thousand dollars, continental money, to Paul JNIatthews, the con- 
tractor, which amount was equivalent to three hundred and seven 
dollars. 

On the 24th of June, 17 18, the court ordered Colonel William 
Crawford and David Shepherd to lay out the prison boujids for the 
county of Youghiogheny, and make report to the court. This com- 
mittee subsequently reported the prison bounds to be as follows, 
viz: Beginning at a large black oak standing easterly from the court- 
house and marked with six notches, and extending thence south- 
easterly by a line of marked trees to a white oak near and including 
the spring ; thence northerly by a line of marked trees, including the 
house of Paul Matthews, to a white oak ; thence b}^ a line of marked 
trees to the place of beginning, which prison bounds were approved 
by the court and ordered to be recorded. 

Paul Matthews, whose house. was included in the prison bounds, 
was appointed the gaoler, and for the year 1778 was allowed seventy- 
five pounds five shillings and tenpence for furnishing prisoners with 
victuals and finding iron for criminals. 

On the 24th of January, 1780, the following curious entry is made 
in the minutes of the court: Ordered, that Isaac Justice, John 
Chamberlain, William Bruce, and William ]\Iaybell be allowed one 
hundred and twenty-five pounds of tobacco for seven days' attendance 
as a guard on a prisoner, and eighty-four dollars each for finding 
their own provisions, and the sheriff was directed to pay the same. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 11 

At the same sitting of the court we find that Andrew Heath was 
directed to have the upper story of the gaol put iuto order for ajury 
room. 

We have spoken of the corporeal punishments inflicted upon 
criminals, which consisted of the pillory, the stocks, the whipping- 
post, and the ducking-stool, each of which I shall describe for the 
benefit of those who are unacquainted with these relics of barbarism. 

The Pillory is one of the most ancient corporeal punishments in 
England, France, Germany, and other countries. As early as 1275, 
by a statute of Edward I., it was enacted that every stretch-neck or 
pillory should be made of convenient strength, so that execution 
might be done upon oifeuders without peril to their bodies. The 
pillory consisted of a wooden frame erected on a stool with boles 
and folding boards for the admission of the head and hands. The 
heroes of the pillory have not been the worst class of men, for we 
find that a man by the name of Leighton, for printing his Zion^s Plea 
against Prelacy, was fined £10,000, degraded from the ministry, 
pilloried, branded, and whipped through the city of London, in 1637, 
besides having an ear cropped and his nostrils slit. The length of 
time the criminal stood in and upon the pillory was determined by 
the judge. 

The Stocks was a simple arrangement for exposing a culprit on 
a bench, confined by having his ankles made fast in holes under a 
movable board. Sometimes the stocks and wMp)piing-pod were con- 
nected together, the posts which supported the stocks being made 
sufficiently high were furnished near the top with iron clasps to fasten 
round the wrists of the offender and hold him securely during the 
infliction of the punishment. Sometimes a single post was made to 
serve both j^urposes, clasps being provided near the top for the 
wrists when used as a whipping-post, and similar clasps below for 
the ankles when used as stocks, in which case the culprit sat on a 
bench behind the post, so that his legs, when fastened to the post, 
were in a horizontal position. 

On the 23d of February, 1775, Luke Jolifl" was tried for deserting 
from the militia with a stand of arms and preventing the Indians 
from returning prisoners held by them. He was courted at Fort 
Dunmore (Pittsljurg), and sentenced to receive five hundred lashes 
with a cat-o'-nine-tails on his bare back, well laid on, at such hours 
and in such manner as not to endanger life and member. 

At a court held in Washington Connty, June, 1786, Richard Burke 
was convicted of larceny and sentenced to seventeen lashes at the 
public whipping-post well laid on, between 4 and 6 o'clock P. M., 
to restore the goods and pay fine and costs. 

For the purpose of restraining evil, men suffered in the stocks, 
but women in ducking-stools. This punishment was extensively used 
in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The following descrip- 
tion was given by an intelligent Frenchman in the year 1700 : He 
says this method of punishing scolding women is funny enough. 



18 mSTOEY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

They fasten an armed chair to the end of two strong beams, twelve 
or fifteen feet long and parallel to each other. The chair hangs upon 
a sort of axle, on which it plays freely, so as always to remain in the 
horizontal position. The scold being well fastened in her chair, the 
two beams are then placed, as near to the centre as possible, across 
a post on the water-side, and being lifted up behind, the chair, of 
course, drops into the cold element. The ducking is repeated ac- 
cording to the degree of shrewishness possessed by the patient, and 
has generally the effect of cooling her immoderate heat, at least for 
a time. 

The ducking-stool forYoughiogheny County was erected at the con- 
fluence of the Ohio and the Monongahela rivers on February 2 2d, 
1115. 

We are glad, however, in this enlightened age, that all these varied 
punishments are done away with, especially the one for the weaker, 
if not always the gentler sex. 

While on the subject of punishments in Youghiogheny County, 
we may add that many persons were fined from five to twenty 
shillings for drunkenness, profane swearing, &c., &c., while the 
sheriff, George McCormick, received one pound, seventeen shillings 
and sixpence for executing a negro boy on the 28th of November, 
It 88, belonging to James Decamp. 

Previous to the ratification of the report of the surveyors by the 
legislature of Virginia, October 8th, 1785, Ohio County had been 
formed from Youghiogheny by the line of Cross Creek. On the settle- 
ment of the boundary question, that portion of Youghiogheny County 
lying north of Cross Creek was added to Ohio County, being too 
small for a separate county ; and the county of Youghiogheny became 
extinct ; hence Hancock and so much of Brooke as lies north of 
Cross Creek was the last of the ancient Youghiogheny County. 

Other facts connected with Youghiogheny County we shall reserve 
until we give the boundaries of Ohio and Monongalia Counties, the 
former of which is intimately connected with Washington County. 

Ohio County. 

Ohio County originally constituted a part of the district of West 
Augusta. Its boundaries, according to the act of Assembly of Octo- 
ber, 177G, were as follows — that from and after the 8th of November, 
1776, all that part of the said district lying within the following lines, 
to wit, beginning at the mouth of Cross Creek, thence up the same to 
the head thereof; thence southeastwardly to the nearest part of the 
ridge which divides the waters of the Ohio from those of Mononga- 
hela ; thence along the said ridge to the line wiiich divides the coun- 
ty of Augusta from the said di.strict ; thence with the said boundary 
to the Ohio ; thence up the same to the beginning, shall be known by 
the name of Ohio County. 

The electors of Ohio County were to meet at the house of Ezekiel 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 19 

Dewit, on the 8th of December, 17 V 6, to choose the most convenient 
place for holding courts in said county. It is said that for some 
time the courts of this county were held at Black's Cabin, ou the 
waters of Short Creek, on January 16, 1777, at or near where West 
Liberty is. 

Rev. Dr. Smith says : The first court for the county of Ohio was 
held at Black's Cabin. There is every reason to believe that this 
was the first civil court held in the valley of the Mississippi. On 
the 7th of April, 1777, the court ordered a court-house and jail to 
be erected. The first attorneys admitted to practise in the court 
were Philip Pendleton and George Brent, on the 2d November, 1778. 
Mr. Pendleton was appointed the commonwealth's attorney. 

In a work by the Rev. Joseph Smith, D. D., entitled "Old Red- 
stone," which contains historical sketches of Western Presbyterian- 
ism — its early ministers, its perilous times, and its first records, we 
find that the Presbytery of Redstone met on the 25th of October, 
1782, at Dunlap Creek, and one minister was appointed as a supply 
at Ohio court-house. This place, says the Rev. Dr. Smith, was 
some miles west of the present town of Washington, and was a seat 
of justice under the government of Yirgiuia, as all Washington 
County, together with Fayette and Greene and a large portion of 
Allegheny and Westmoreland counties was claimed by that State 
and considered a part of Augusta County, Yirginia. The records 
show no other appointment for a supply at this place. 

Monongalia County, 

This was the third county into which the district of West Au- 
gusta was divided. It was northward of the county of Augusta, 
westward of the meridian of the head fountain of the Potomac, and 
to the eastward of the county of Ohio. 

The Monongalia court-house was on the farm of Theophilus 
Phillips from 1776 to 1782 (now owned by Everhart Bierer), near 
New Geneva in Fayette County. By an act of the General Assem- 
bly of Virginia of May, 1783, it declares that by reason of the late 
extension of Mason and Dixon's line the court-house of Monongalia 
had fallen within the limits of Pennsylvania, therefore, the house of 
Zachwell Morgan (the present location of Morgantown, Virginia) 
should be made the future place of holding courts until a court-house 
should be erected. 

The county lines of Youghiogheny, Ohio, and Monongalia were 
adjusted in the summer of 1778 by Col. William Crawford, Richard 
Yeates, Isaac Leet, William Scott, and James McMahon. 

Courts. 

The courts of each judicial district were required to administer 
and dispense justice, establish ferries, confirm roads when reported 
necessary, bind out orphan children, grant letters of administration, 



20 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

probate wills, appoint subordinate oflBcers, grant tavern licenses, re- 
cord marks, try crimes and misdemeanors, and perform such duties 
as would advance the interests of the community. 

When the court met at Fort Dunmore, originally Fort Pitt, on 
the 21st of February, 1T*75, many questions were presented to them 
at this and their subsequent sittings, some of which we shall give to 
gratify the taste of the antiquarian, and as calculated to throw some 
light on our early history. 

Roads. 

Viewers appointed to report a road from Fort Dunmore to Fort 
Dunfield; from Gist's to Fort Dunmore and Paul Freeman's on Shir- 
tee (Chartiers) Creek, by James Devore's ferry. From P. Mountz 
mill by Arbergus ferry and from thence to Catfish Camp (now 
Washington). This road ran from Mountz mill by way of Beeler's 
ferry; thence to the east fork of Chartiers' Creek; thence to Catfish 
Camp. From Fort Dunmore to Becket's Fort the points were from 
Becket's Fort to James Wilson's ; thence to the Monongahela River ; 
thence to the head of Sawmill Run ; thence to Fort Pitt (Pittsburg); 
from the court-house -to Pentecost's mill on Chartiers' Creek. This 
road began at the court-house on Andrew Heath's farm ; thence to 
Spencer's Point ; thence near Richardson's school-house ; thence 
through Gabriel Cox's land ; thence crossing Peters' Creek near to 
John Cox's ; thence to Joshua Wright's ; thence to William Ste- 
phenson's ; thence to Thomas Crook's ; thence to said mill. This 
road confirmed April 24, 1778. From Catfish Camp (Washington) 
to Pentecost's mill; confirmed May 26, 1778. Overseers were 
Thomas Ashbrooke and John McDowell. From Fromau's mill on 
Mingo Creek to the road leading from the court-house to Pente- 
cost's mill, between the plantations of Johnson Wrights and John 
Johnston. From Fort Dunmore to Dunfields, to join Dunfields on 
Chartiers' Creek. From old Redstone fort (Brownsville) to Conrad 
Walker's, foot of Laurel Hill. From Thomas Gist's to Paul Free- 
man's on Chartiers' Creek. From Redstone old fort (Brownsville) 
to Chartiers' Creek and to Paul Freeman's. From the mouth of the 
Youghiogheny River at McKee's ferry to the road from Devore's 
ferry to Reno's, near Sampson Beaver's and to Freeman's mill. From 
Fort Dunmore to Charles Brice's on Raccoon Creek. From Dorsey 
Pentecost's by Peter Barrackman's ferry to Fort Dunmore. From 
Major William Crawford's to near the forks of Indian Creek. From 
the foot of Laurel Hill at Conrad Walter's, by William Teagarden's 
ferry on the Monongahela to the mouth of Wheeling Creek. The 
points of this road were from the confluence of Wheeling Creek to 
the confluence of Tenraile Creek, on the Monongahela River; thence 
to Walter's. In the construction of roads the tithables (that is, all 
persons between the ages of 10 and 45) within three miles of the pro- 
posed road, were required to work upon the road under supervisors 
appointed to superintend the making and grading of the same. 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 21 



Orphan Children. 

The orphan children were bound out by the court as apprentices. 
They were required to serve until they arrived at the age of twenty- 
one ; were instructed in some art ; taught to read and write, and 
arithmetic as far as the rule of three ; given two suits of clothing, 
and if brought up on a farm, each male also received an axe, maul, 
nugs, and wedges. 

Taverns. 

Taverns were licensed by the court of Yougbiogheny County, and in 
1778 we find that the court fixed the following bill of prices for the 
keepers of taverns. Whiskey by the half pint, two shillings ; whis- 
key made into toddy, two shillings and sixpence ; beer per quart, 
two shillings and sixpence ; hot breakfast, three shillings ; cold 
breakfast, two shillings and sixpence ; dinner, four shillings ; supper, 
three shillings; lodging with clean sheets, one shilling and sixpence; 
stabling with hay and fodder, five shillings ; corn per quart, nine- 
pence ; oats per quart, sixpence. But in 1781, when continental 
money was depreciated, the prices were changed by the court, who 
ordered tavern keepers to sell at the following rates : For half pint 
of whiskey, $4; breakfast or supper, S15; dinner, $20; lodging with 
clean sheets, $3 ; one horse over night, $3 ; one gallon of corn, $5; 
one gallon of oats, $4 ; strong beer per quart, $6. The rates of 
license were published by the crier of the court, and also set up in 
the most public places. 

Continental Money. 

While upon the subject of finances, as there will be occasion to 
refer to the continental money, I may add that this money was issued 
by Congress to carry on the Revolutionary War, for the redemption 
of which the faith of the colonies was pledged. I therefore give 
the dates and amounts of issues from a reliable source. 

1775, June 22, $2,000,000. Other emissions from this date to 
1780, amounting to $200,000,000, had been issued and none re- 
deemed. 

1777, January, paper currency 5 per cent, discount, and in July 25 
per cent., but before the end of the year, $3 in paper would not 
command a silver dollar. 

1778, April, $4 in paper to one dollar in coin. September, $5 to 
one in coin, and December, $6 50 to one dollar in coin. 

1779, February, $8 50, May $12, and September $18 to one in 
coin, and before the close of the year a paper dollar was worth but 
four cents. 

1780, March, one dollar in paper worth 3 cents; May, a dollar 
worth but two cents, and in December, $74 in paper was worth one 
dollar in silver. 



22' HISTORY or WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



Ferries. 



The court licensed the following persons to establish ferries at 
different localities within the county of Youghiogheny, from IT 75 

to mo. 

Henry Heath, on his own plantation on the Monongahela River. 
William Lynn, on the Monongahela River, from his house to the land 
of Francis Hall. Michael Cressay, at Redstone, old fort (Browns- 
ville), to the land of Indian Peter. James Devore, from his house 
on the Monongahela River, to the mouth of Pigeon Creek. To 
Samuel Sinclair, who lives in the forks of the Monongahela and 
Youghiogheny rivers, to have a ferry over each of the rivers. Jacob 
Bausman, across the Monongahela River, from his house to the town 
opposite (fort Dunmore). Christopher Carpenter, across the Mo- 
nongahela River, for the purpose of conveying over the militia men 
on muster days. William Anderson, on the southeast side of the 
Monongahela River, to the lands of Andrew Heath. The prices 
established by the court for ferriage were, fourpence half penny for 
any head of neat cattle, and the same for a foot person ; two shil- 
lings and sixpence for a man, and the same for a horse. 

Attorneys at Law. 

The lawyers were required to take the abjuration, test, and other 
oaths to which I have referred. The record gives the following per- 
sons as having complied therewith during the years 1T75 and 1776. 

George Brent, Philip Pendleton, George Rootes, David Semple, 
James Berwick, Andrew Ross, Henry Peyton, John G. Jones, 
Charles Simms, Samuel Irwin. 

Sheriffs and Deputy Sheriffs. 

During the years 1775 and 1780, John Christian and Joseph Hor- 
ton, George McCormick, ]\Iattliew Ritchie, William Harrison, Benj. 
Kuykendall, Thomas Smallman, and Edward Ward exercised the 
office of sheriff, and Patrick McElroy, Francis Worm, David Steel, 
William Hawkins, Hugh Sterling, John Dossmau, John J. Wood, 
Richard Burns, that of deputy sheriff. 

Surveyors. 

David Steel, William Crawford, Edward Sharp, Gabriel Green, 
Samuel Fincli, John Harry, and Daniel Leet were appointed survey- 
ors, who acted as such for several years. 

On the 17th of April, 1770, Daniel Leet produced a commission 
from the College of William and Mary to be Surveyor of the County 
of Augusta, which embraced the county itself and the district subse- 
quently divided into three counties. He took the usual oaths in open 
court, and gave as his securities for the fulfilment of the duties of 
his ofiBce, George Rice and George McCormick, Esquires. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 23 

It appears that in the early history of our country, these certifi- 
cates or commissions from a college were absolutely necessary, for in 
examining the records of Culpepper County, Virginia, is the follow- 
ing record : 20th July, 1T49 (0. S.), George Washington, Gent, 
produced a commission from the President and Master of William 
and Mary College appointing him to be a surveyor of Culpepper 
County, which was read, and thereupon he took the usual oaths to 
bis majesty's person and government, and other oaths according to 
law. X/' 

Military Officers. 

All military officers were required, in ojjen court, to take the test 
and other oaths. Among the list of officers commissioned is the name 
of the notorious Simon Girty, who subscribed these oaths February 
22d, 1775, in Pittsburg, and yet proved recreant to all his obligations, 
renounced civilized life and assisted the Indians in torturing the 
noble and heroic Col. William Crawford, at Sandusky, in 1782, 
where he suffered the most terrible death which Indian ingenuity 
could devise. 

Grist-Mills. 

Before a mill could be erected, so tenacious was the law of the 
rights of individuals, that it required the sheriff to summon twelve 
freeholders of the vicinage to meet on the land to determine if any 
of the adjoining lands would be affected by the back-water from the 
dam, and the jury there assembled were to value the damages and 
make report to the court. Applications were made by the following 
persons, and confirmed by the court, establishing mill-seats at the 
localities designated : Paul Froman on Mingo Creek ; Col. John 
Campbell on Campbell's Run emptying into Chartiers' Creek on the 
west side near the mouth of Robinson Run ; Nicholas Pease on 
Chartiers' Creek ; Basil Brown on Big Redstone Creek ; Dorsey Pen- 
tecost on the eastern branch of Chartiers' Creek. These mills were 
erected from 1777 to 1781. 

Salt. 

The early condition of the inhabited country west of the Laurel 
Hill can be easily imagined from the decree of the court in refer- 
ence to this article. 

In 1778, November 24, the court ordered that Isaac Cox be 
empowered to account with all persons that hath neglected any 
business relation to this (Youghiogheny) county's salt, lodged with 
Israel Thompson, of Loudon County, and that he receive the 
remainder of said salt and transport it to this county and issue the 
same to the inhabitants to whom it is due, at six pounds ten shil- 
lings per bushel, and the profits thereon shall be his full satisfaction 
for his said services, and that the said Colonel Cox shall also pay 



2-4 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

all demands on said salt, either for the original purchase or other- 
wise. 

On September 29, 1719, the court ordered that Col. John Canon 
have the public mil, which now lies at Alexandria, brought up to 
this (Youghiogheny) county and distribute it to the persons entitled to 
receive it, and that he be authorized to contract for the carriage on 
such terms as he can, taking care in the distribution to fix the price 
so as to raise the money due thereon for the original cost. January 
3, nSO, Bonjamin Kuykendall was directed to bring up two hun- 
dred bushels of salt from Alexandria on the same principles. 

Cotton and Wool Cards. 

Intimately connected with the foregoing subject was that of cot^ 
ton and wool cards, provided for at the public expense, under the 
direction of the court, as the sequel will show. 

May 27, 1778, the court ordered Isaac Cox, Thomas Freeman and 
Andrew Swearingen, to distribute the cards assigned for this 
county, upon proper and suitable satisfaction produced to them. On 
the 24th of June, of the same year. Col. John Stephenson and 
Isaac Cox were directed to distribute one-half of the foregoing cards 
to the battalion of Col. Stephenson. In the distribution of the cards 
the Committee were instructed to conform to the Governor's letter of 
November 26, 1777, which provided that if there are more women in 
either battalion, the Committee were to sujjply according to the num- 
ber of persons who had the right to obtain the same. 

Counterfeit Money. 

The law authorized the court to appoint suitable persons to decide 
upon counterfeit money. Accordingly, we find that in 1779 Thomas 
Gist, Thomas Warren, and John Irwin, of Pittsburg, Matthew Rit- 
chie and Dorsey Pentecost, of the then county of Westmoreland, 
but in 1781 were residents of Washington County, were appointed 
and sworn in as judges of counterfeit money 

Allegiance. 

1778, June 22d. Rev. Edward Ilughy produced a license from 
the Presbytery of Londonderry, in the kingdom of Ireland, to preach 
the Gosi)el of Jesus Christ, which was read in open court, whereupon 
the said Edward Ilugliy came into court and took the oath of alle- 
giance and fidelity to this commonwealth. The Presbytery of Done- 
gal reported to the Synod of Philadelphia, May 19th, 1773, that they 
had received the Rev. Mr. Hughy as a member, and that on May 
14th,' 1774, they had suspended him for unchristian conduct and 
character. 

1778, August 28th. Rev. William Renno, a minister of the Gos- 
pel, also came into court and took the required oaths. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY, 27 

The advantage to be derived from this chapter is that we became 
acquainted with the topography of the country, its boundaries, 
streams, laws, customs, and names of the leading public characters, 
and thus we are enabled to localize facts, events, and persons. 



CHAPTEE II. 

A GENERAL OUTLINE HISTORY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

History of Pennsylvania, from the date of its charter to the present time, 
embracing a list of all the Indian titles to lands — Historical and statistical 
facts — The date of the formation of each county of the State, with the num- 
ber of acres and population in each, and a list of the Governors from the 
accession of Wm. Penn, its proprietor, in 1681 to 1870. 

On the 4th of March, 1681, Charles the Second granted to Wil- 
liam Penn a charter for the Province of Pennsylvania, the king 
having a regard to the memory and merits of William Penn's father 
in divers services, and particularly in his late conduct, courage and 
discretion, under James, Duke of York, in that signal battle and 
victory fought and obtained against the Dutch fleet, commanded 
by Heer Von Opdam, in the year 1655. In consideration thereof, 
King Charles II. granted to William Penn, his heirs and assigns, 
all that tract or parcel of land in America, with all the islands 
therein contained, as the same is bounded on the east by Delaware 
River, from twelve miles distance, northwards of New Castletown, 
unto the three and fortieth degree of northern latitude, if the said 
river doth extend so far northward, but if the said river shall not 
extend so far northward, then by the said river so far as it doth 
extend, and from the head of the said river the eastern bounds are 
to be determined by a meridian line to be drawn from the head of 
said river, unto the said three and fortieth degree. The said land 
to extend westward five degrees in longitude, to be computed from 
the said eastern bounds, and the said land to be bounded on the 
north by the beginning of the three and fortieth degree of northern 
latitude, and on the south by a circle drawn at twelve miles dis- 
tance from New Castle northward, and westward unto the begin- 
ning of the fortieth degree of northern latitude, and then by a 
straight line westward to the limits of longitude above mentioned. 
This charter is in the office of the Secretary of Pennsylvania, and 
is written on parchment in the old English handwriting. Each line 
is underscored with red ink, the borders are gorgeously embla- 
zoned with heraldic devices, and on the top is a portrait of his 
majesty. This document is nearly two hundred years old. 



28 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Under the provisions of this charter, William Penn, by and with 
the advice, assent, and approbation of the freemen of the said 
country, had authority to ordain, make, and enact laws. Accord- 
iuf^ly, on the 25th of April, 1(582, William Penn framed a form of 
government for the Province of Pennsylvania. It consisted of a 
preface and twenty-four articles, confirming, unto the freemen 
thereof, their liberties, franchises, and property. 

On the 24th October, 1682, William Penn arrived with an addi- 
tional number of colonists at New Castle, (now in the State of 
Delaware), and entered into a solemn covenant with the Indians by 
purchasing their lands and giving them full satisfaction. It must 
be remembered that William Markham, his deputy, had preceded 
him to America, and had entered into negotiations wiih the Indians 
on July 15, 1682, but it was stipulated therein that this act was 
to be publicly ratified by William Penn on his arrival. Conse- 
quently, the Sachems and their tribes, with Penn and his colonists, 
met at Coaquannoc (Pliiladelphia), but the treaty was confirmed 
at Shackamaxon (Kensington), under the Elm Tree. 

In connection with the subject of lands, their extent and limits 
as purchased from the Indians, it will be proper to remark, that 
from the arrival of William Markham, deputy of William Penn, 
until the year 1*192, a period of one hundred and ten years, the 
whole right of soil of the Indians within the charter bounds of 
Pennsylvania, has been extinguished by the follow thirty -three trea- 
ties and purchases : — 

1. — 1682, July 15. Deed for lands between the falls of Delaware and 
Neshaming Creek, confirmed by William Penn, October 24, 
1682, under the elm tree. 

2. — 1683, June 23. Deed for lands between Pennepack and Nesha- 
ming, and to run two days' journey with a horse, backward up 
into the country. 

3. — 1683, June 25. Wingebone^s release for lands on the west side of 
Schuylkill, beginning at the first falls and backward on the same 
as far as his right extended. 

4. — 1683, July 14. Deed for lands between Schuylkill and Chester 
Creek. 

5. — 1683, July 14. Deed for lands between Schuylkill and Pennepack. 

6. — 1683, September 10. Kake Tappan\'i docd for his half of all his 
lands between Susquehanna and Delaware, on the Susquehanna 
side. 

7. — 1683, October 18. 3Iachaloha's deed for lands between the Del- 
aware River and Chesapeake Bay, and up to the falls of the 
Susquehanna. 

8. — 1684, June 3. 3Ia)ighe)ighsin^sre\eQ.se for his land on Perkioming. 

0. — 1684, June T. Richard MeUammiconVs release for lands on both 
sides Pennepack on Delaware River. 

10. — 1685, July 30. Deed for lands between Pennepack and Chester 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 29 

Creek, and back as far as a man can go in two days from a point 

on Conshohocken hill. 
11. — 1685, October 2. Deed for lauds between Duck and Chester 

creeks, and backward from Delaware, as far as a man could 

ride in two days with a horse. 
12. — 1692, Juae 15. Acknowledgment of satisfaction for land be- 
tween Neshaming and Poquessing creeks, and back to the 

bounds of the Province. 
13. — 1696, January 13. Dongan''s&tQdi to William Penn for lands on 

both sides of Susquehanna, from the lakes to the Chesapeake 

Bay. 
14. — 1697, January 5. Taming^s deed for the lands between Penne- 

pack and Neshaming, and as far hack as a horse can travel in 

two summer days. 
15. — 1100, September 13. Deed of the Susquehanna Indians for 

the lauds on both sides of the Susquehanna and next adjoining 

the same, and comprising Dongan's deed (No. 13) 
16. — 1101, April 23. Ratification of Dongan's deed and the deed of 

September 13, 1100 (No. 14), by the Susquehanna, Shawnese, 

Potomac, and Conestogoe Indians. 
11 1118, September 13. Deed of release by the Delaware Indians, 

for the lands between the Delaware and Susquehanna rivers, 

from Duck Creek to the Lehigh hills. 
18. — 1120, December 16. Controversy respecting the boundary of 

the lands, arising from the distance which a man and horse can 

each travel in a day, and satisfactorily arranged by deed. 
19. — 1126, May 31. Deed for lands on both sides of Brandywine 

Creek. 
20. — 1132, September 1. Deed for lands between Lehigh hills and 

Kittatinny Mountaijis, between Schuylkill and its branches, and 

the branches of Delaware. 
21. — 1136, October 11. Deed for the river Susquehanna and the 

lands on both sides thereof, eastward to the head of the branches, 

or springs running into the Susquehanna, and westward to the 

setting of the sun, and from its mouth to the Kittatinny hills. 
22. — 1136, October 25. The preceding deed declared by the In- 
dians to include the lands on the Delaware, and northward to the 

Kittatinny hills. 
23. — 1131, August 28. Deed comprising the walking purchase, or, 

as far as a man can go in a day and a half from the westerly 

branch of Neshaming up the Delaware. 
24.— 1149, August 22. Deed for lands from the Kittatinny Mountain 

to Mahanoy Mountain, and between Susquehanna and Delaware 

on the north side of Lackawaxen Creek. 
25. — 1154, July 6. Deed at Albany for the lands on the west side of 
Susquehanna, from Kittatinny Mountain, to a mile above the 

mouth of Penn's Creek, thence northwest and by west, as far as 

the Province extends to its western boundaries. 



30 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

26. — 1T58, October 23. Deed of surrender of part of the purchase 
of 1754, and new boundaries declared and confirmed from 
Penn's Creek, northwest and by west, to Bufi'alo Creek, then 
west to Alleghany Mountain, and along the east side thereof, to 
the western boundary of the Province. 

27. 1768, September 5. The end of Nittany Mountain assumed 

as a station, per deed made, and surveys not usually made north 
thereof. 

28. — 1768, Xovember 5. Deed at Fort Stanwix, commonly called 
the new purchase. 

29. — 1784, October 23. Deed explaining the boundary at the treaty 
at Fort Stanwix and Pine Creek, declared to have been the 
boundary designed by the Indians. 

30. — 1784, December 21. Deed declaring Lycoming to be the bound- 
ary. 

31. — 1785, January 21. Deed at Fort Stanwix and Fort Mcintosh, 
for the residue of the lands within the Commonwealth, made 
October 23, 1784, and January 21, 1785. 

32. — 1789, January 9. Indian cession of lands at Presque Isle. 

33. — 1792, March 3. It is necessary to state that on the 3d of 
October, 1788, an Act was passed authorizing the Supreme 
Executive Council to draw on the State Treasurer for a sum of 
money for defraying the expense of purchasing of the Indians, 
lands on lake Erie. It is usually called the imrchase of the tri- 
angle from the United States. This triangle contains two hun- 
dred and two thousand one huudi'ed and eighty seven acres of 
land. 

To the student of Pennsylvania history, these facts are worthy of 
reraemberance, because it gives the date and extent of the purchases 
made from the Indians. We shall now turn our attention to the 
government of the Province of Pennsylvania, when in its infancy. 

On December, 1682, William Penn, in accordance with the sixteenth 
article of the frame of his government, assembled all the freemen of 
this Province at Chester (then called Upland), as well as those of 
the three territories (as they were called), of Newcastle, Kent, and 
Sussex. At this purely democratic meeting, an act of union passed, 
annexing the three lower counties (now the State of Delaware) to 
the Province of Pennsylvania, in legislation. 

The Proprietor, l)y and with the consent of the first Assembly, 
divided the Province of Pennsylvania into three counties, and 
named them Philadelphia, Bucks, and Chester, while the Terri- 
tories retained the names of New Castle, Kent, and Sussex, For 
each of the counties and territories, sheriffs and other proper officers 
were appointed by the Proprietor; but the Council and Assembly- 
men were elected by the people. 

On March 10th, 1683, the Council and Assemblymen met in Phila- 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 31 

delphia ; each county having returned three members for the Council 
and nine for the Assembly. 

In the year 1684, William Penn returned to England, leaving 
commissioners with a President to administer the government during 
his absence. But this mode of government not proving satisfactory 
to the three lower counties, its form was changed in 1691 ; William 
Markham was appointed Deputy Governor by William Penn. It 
was at this period that separate legislatures were formed and the 
Provinces became finally separated. 

In August, 1699, William Penn sailed from England to Penn- 
sylvania, and reassumed the reins of government to the entire 
satisfaction of the people. On the 28th of October, 1701, he pre- 
sented the Council and Assembly with a new charter of privileges, 
and having appointed Andrew Hamilton Lieutenant-Governor, 
sailed for England. This charter continued the supreme law of the 
Province until the Declaration of Independence was promulgated 
July 4th, 1776. A court then assembled at Philadelphia, July 8th, 
17*76, to form a constitution for the State of Pennsylvania, and on 
the 28th of September following, a constitution was adopted by re- 
presentatives for the city of Philadelphia and the counties of Phila- 
delphia, Bucks, Chester, Lancaster, York, Cumberland, Berks, North- 
ampton, Bedford, Northumberland, and Westmoreland, being all the 
counties (eleven in number) which then composed the State of 
Pennsylvania. It is eminently proper to remark that Benjamin 
Franklin was President of the Convention which formed the first 
Constitution for Pennsylvania. Immediately upon his taking his 
seat, the repi'escntatives unanimously passed a resolution inviting 
the Rev. William White (who afterwards officiated for many years 
as Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church of this diocese) to 
perform divine service for the Convention, to jointly offer up their 
prayers to Almighty God to afford His divine grace and assistance 
in the important and arduous task committed to them as the repre- 
sentatives of the people of Pennsylvania, and to offer up their praises 
and thanksgiving for the manifold mercies and the peculiar interpo- 
sition of His special providence in behalf of the injured, oppressed, 
and insulted United States. 

This Constitution was the supreme law of the State, from Septem- 
ber 28th, 1776, the date of its final adoption, until September 2d, 
1790, when a second constitution was formed by the representatives 
of the people. On the 9th of October, 1838, a third constitution 
was adopted by the people ; the same having been submitted by a 
vote of the Convention which had previously assembled to make the 
necessary amendments. 

Having thus briefly narrated a concise history of the State, and 
to which we shall often have occasion to refer in the history of 
Washington County, I shall now turn our attention to the boundaries 
of Pennsylvania for the like reason. 



32 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Pennsylvania extends from north latitude 39° 43' to north latitude 
42°; from 2° 17' east to 3° 31' west from Washington city. It 
is bounded, in common with the State of Delaware, from the Dela- 
ware River by a circular line, around New Castle County to the 
northeast limits of Cecil County, Maryland, . . 24 miles. 

Due north to the northeast angle of Maryland, . . 2 " 

Along the northern limits of Maryland, . . . 203 " 

In common with Virginia, from the northwest angle of 

Maryland to the southwest angle of Green County^, . 59 " 

Due north in common with Ohio and Brooke counties 

of West Virginia to the Ohio River, . . . 64 " 

Continuing the last noted limit in common with the Ohio 

to Lake Erie, 91 " 

Along the southeast shore of Lake Erie to the Western 

limit of New York, 39 " 

Due south, along Chautauque County of New York, to 

north latitude, 42° 19 " 

Thence due east in common with New York, to the 

right bank of the Delaware River, .... 230 " 

Down the Delaware to the northeast angle of the State 

of Delaware, 230 " 



Having an entire outline of ... . 961 " 

The greatest length of Pennsylvania is due west from Bristol, ou 
the Delaware River, to the eastern border of Ohio County in West 
Virginia, through three hundred and fifty-six minutes of longitude 
along north latitude, 40° 09' This distance, on that line of latitude, 
is equal to two hundred and eighty American statute miles. 

The greatest breadth is one hundred and seventy-six miles, from 
the West Virginia line to the extreme northern angle on Lake Erie, it 
being one hundred and seventy-five miles. It contains forty-four thou- 
sand three hundred and seventeen miles; or twenty-eight million three 
hundred and sixty-two thousand eight hundred and eight acres of land. 

The following table will exhibit the population of Pennsylvania, 
both as a Province and a State, from 1731, at periods of ten years. 

1731— 10,000. 1780— 128,293. 1830—1,348,170. 

1740— 14,325. 1790— 474,373. 1840—1,724,033. 

1750— 21,000. 1800- 602,545. 1850—2,314,897. 

17(iO— 31,667. 1810— 810,091. 1860—2,905,215. 

1770— 39,065. 1820—1,049,313. 

I shall now close this general history of the State of Pennsylvania, 
by giving the names of each county ; the date of its formation; the 
number of acres in each, with their respective population, premising 
the following tabular statements, with the remark, that Cameron 
County was not organized until after the census of 1860 had been 
taken, and the population is included in the counties of Clinton, 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



33 



Elk, MeKean, and Potter, from which it was taken ; while with the 
part of Venango which was added to Forest by act of Assembly- 
approved October 31st, 1866, the population was transferred but not 
ascertained. 



Name. 



Date of Formation. 



Acres. PopulaVn. 



Philadelphia Mar. 10 

Chester Mar. 10 

Bucks Mar. 10 

Lancaster May 10 

York Aug. 19 

Cumberland Jan. 27 

Berks Mar. 11 

Northampton Mar. 11 

Bedford Mar. 9, 

Korthumberland.. Mar. 27 



11. Westmoreland -"eb. 26 



12. Washington Mar. 28, 

13. Fayette Sept. 26 

14. Franklin Sept. 9 

15. Montgomery Sept. 10, 

16. Dauphin Mar. 

17. Luzerne Sept. 2.5 

18. Huntingdon Sept. 20 

19. Allegheny Sept. 24, 

20. Mifflin Sept. 19, 

21. Delaware Sept. 26, 

22. Somerset April 17, 

23. Greene Feb. 9 

" 24. Wayne Mar. 26 

25. Lycoming April 13 

26. Adams Jan. 22 

27. Centre Feb. 13, 

28. Armstrong Mar. 12, 



Beaver Mar. 12, 

Butler Mar. 12, 

Crawford Mar. 12 

Erie Mar. 12 

Mercer Mar. 12 

Warren Mar. 12 

Venango Mar. 13 

Indiana Mar. 30 

M'Kean Mar. 20, 

Clearfield Mar. 26, 

Jefferson Mar. 26, 



Potter Mar. 

Cambria Mar. 



Tioga Mar. 26 

Bradford* Feb. 21 

Susquehanna Feb. 21 

Schuylkill Mar. 1 

Lehigh Mar. 6 

Lebanon Feb. 16 

Columbia Mar. 22, 

Union Mar. 22, 

Pike Mar. 26 

Perry Mar. 22, 

Juniata Mar. 

Monroe April 



1682, one of Penn's original counties 80,640 

1682, " " " 472,320 

1682, " " " 387,200 

1729, from a part of Chester 608,000 

1749, " " Lancaster 576,000 

1750, " " Lancaster 348,160 

1752, from a part of Philadelphia, Chester, 

and Lancaster 588,800 

1752, from a part of Buck.s 240,000 

1771, " " Cumberland 636,160 

1772, from a part of Cumberland, Berks, 

Bedford, and Northampton 292,480 

1773, from a part of Bedford, and in 1785 

part of the Indian purchase of 1784 

was added 672,000 

1781, from a part of Westmoreland 373,410 

1783, " " Westmoreland 527,360 

1784, " " Cumberland 480,000 

1784, " " Philadelphia 303,080 

1785, " " Lancaster 3.57,760 

1782, " " Northumberland 896,000 

1787, " " Bedford 637,600 

1788, from a part of Westmoreland and 

Washiugton 482,560 

1789, from a part of Cumberland and North- 

umberlaud 2.36,800 

17S9, from apart of Chester 113,280 

1795, " " Bedford 682,240 

1796, " " Washington 389,120 

1796, " " Northampton 460,800 

1796, " " Northumberland 691,200 

1800, " " York 337,920 

1800, from a part of Mifflin, Northumber- 
land, Lycoming, and Huntingdon.. 688,000 

ISOO, from a part of Alleghany, Westmore- 
land, and Lycoming 408,960 

ISOO, from a part of Alleghany and Wash'n. 298,240 

1800, " " Alleghany 502,400 

1800, " " Alleghany 629,760 

1800, " " Alleghany 480,000 

1800, " " Alleghany 416,000 

1800, " " AUeg'y and Lycoming 5.)1,040 
1800, " " AUeg'y and Lycoming 330,240 

1803, from a part of Westmoreland and Ly- 

coming 492,800 

1804, from a part of Lycoming 716,800 

1804, from a part of Lycoming and North- 
umberland 761,600 

1804, from a part of Lycoming 412,800 

1804, " " Lycoming 384,000 

1804, from a part of Huntingdon, Somerset, 

and Bedford 428,800 

1804, from a part of Lycoming 714,240 



1810, 
1810, 
ISll, 
1812, 
1813, 
1813, 
1813, 
1814, 
1820, 
1831, 
1836, 



Luzerne and Lycoming 751,360 

Luzerne 510,080 

Berks and Northamp. 485,400 

Northampton 232,960 

Dauphin and Lancast. 195,840 

Northumberland 275,840 

Northumberland 165,120 

Wayne 384,000 

Cumberland 344,960 

Mifflin 224,640 

Northampton and Pike 384,000 



565,529 
74,578 
63,578 

116,314 
68,200 
40,098 

93,818 
47,904 
26,736 



53,736 
46,805 
39,909 
42,126 
70,500 
46,756 
90,244- 
28,100 

178,831 

16,.340 
30,597 
26,778 
24,343 
32,239 
37,399 
28,006 

27,000 

35,797 
29,140 
35,594 
48,755 
49,432 
36,850 
19,190 
25,043 

33,687 

8,859 

18,759 
18,270 
11,470 

29,155 
31,044 
48,734 
36,267 
89,510 
43,753 
31,831 
a5,065 
14,145 
7,655 
22,793 
16,986 
16,758 



* Previous to March 24, 1812, this county was called Ontario. 



34 HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Name. Dale of Formation. Acres. Populat'n. 

54. Clarion Mar. 11, 1S39, from a part of Venango and Arms'ng. 384,000 24,988 

65. Clinton June 21, 1839, " " Lycoming aud Centre 591, .360 17,723 

66. Wyoming April 4, 1842, from a part of Northumberland and 

Luzerne 261,760 12,540 

57. Carbon Mar. 13, 1843, from a part of Northampton and Mon- 
roe 256,000 21,033 

68. Elk April 18, 1843, from a part of Jelferson, Clearfield, 

and McKean 446,720 5,915 

69. Blair Feb. 26, 1846, from a part of Huntingdon and Bed- 

ford 380,160 27,829 

60. Sullivan Mar. 15, 1847, from a part of Lycomiug 275,200 5,637 

61. Forest Aprilll, 1848, " " Jefferson and Venango 284,800 898 

62. Lawrence Mar. 25, 18.50, " " Beaver and Mercer. .. 229,120 22,999 

63. Fulton April 19, 1850, " " Bedford 268,800 9,131 

64. Montour May 3,18.50, " " Columbia 94,720 13,0,53 

65. Snyder Mar. 2,185/5, " " Union 187,520 15,035 

66. Cameron Mar. 29, 1S60, from a part of Clinton, Elk, M'Kean, 

Potter (not organized Tvhen census 

•was taken.) 268,480 

Pennsylvania has been called the Keystone State from the fact 
of having six of the old original States on each side of her. It is 
not my province to speak of her majestic mountains, her beautiful 
rivers and lakes — the variety of her soil — the salubriousness of her 
climate — and her agricultural, manufacturing, and commercial inter- 
ests. Mine is a humbler sphere, confined henceforth in this volume 
exclusively to the history of Washington County — thej^r.s-^ county- 
formed by the legislature of Pennsylvania after the Declaration of 
Independence had been promulgated to all nations, and Pennsylvania 
had assununl her rank and place as a free and independent State ; and 
therefore named after the immortal Washington. With this remark, 
we can truthfully say that our citizens therefore will be pre-eminently 
proud of the character of Washington County, whether viewed in a 
moral, educational, political, or religious view. 

In concluding this chapter I shall add a list of the chief magis- 
trates, or governors, from 1681 to the present time, as being more 
immediately connected with the general matters therein contained. 

ACCESS. NA.MES. EXIT. 

1 1681. William Penn, Proprietor. August, 1684. 

2. — 1684. Thomas Lloyd, Pres't of Governor's Council. December, 1687. 
3. — 1687. Thomas Lloyd, Robert Turner, Arthur Cook, John 
Symcock, and John Eckley appointed Deputy Lieutenants 
by William Penn. 
4. — 1688. Capt. John Blackwcll, Lieutenant-Governor. 1690. 

5. — 1690. Thomas Lloyd, Deputy and Lieutenant-Governor. 1693. 

6. — 1693. Benjamin Fletcher, Captain-(jeneral and Lieutenant 
Governor of New York, Pennsylvania, aud the county of 
New Ciistle and territories. September, 1698. 

7. — 1698. William Markham, Lieutenant-Governor. 1700. 

8. — 1700. William Penu again acted as Governor to November 1, 1701. 
9. — 1701. Andrew Hamilton, Deputy-Governor. February, 1703. 

10.-17(13. Edward Shippen, President of Council " 1704. 

11. — 1704. John Evans, Deputy-Governor, " 1709. 

12._170!>. Charles Gookin, " May 31, 1717. 

13.— 1717. Sir William Keith, " June 22, 1726. 

14.— 1726. Patrick Gordon, " , August 5, 1736. 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 35 



15. — 1736. On the death of Governor Gordon, the Council con- 
sisted of James Logan, Samuel Preston, Anthony Palmer, 
Clement Plumstead, Thomas Lawrence, Ealph Asheton, 
Samuel TIasill, and Thomas Griffits, who elected James Lo- 
gan President of Council. June, 1738. 

16. — 1738. George Thomas, Lieutenant-Governor. " 1747. 

17. — 1747. Anthony Palmer, President of Council. November, 1748. 

18. — 1748. James Hamilton, Lieutenant-Governor. October, 1754. 

19. — 1754. Robert Hunter Morris " August, 1756. 

20—1756. William Denny " November, 1759. 

21.— 1759. James Hamilton " October, 1763. 

22. — 1763. John Penn, son of Rich'd Penn, Deputy-Governor. May, 1771. 

23. — 1771. Richard Penn, Governor. August, 1773. 

24.— 1773. John Penn, " July, 1775. 

Under the Council of Safety. 
25. — 1775. Benjamin Franklin, President of the Council, August, 1776. 

Under the Constitution of September 28, 1776. 

26. — 1776. Thomas Wharton, President of the Supreme Execu- 
tive Council. October, 1777. 

27. — 1777. Joseph Read, President of the Supreme Executive 

Council. November, 1781. 

28. — 1781. William Moore, President of the Supreme Executive 

Council November, 1782. 

29. — 1782. John Dickson, President of the Supreme Executive 

Council. November, 1785. 

30. — 1785. Benjamin Franklin, President of the Supreme Ex- 
ecutive Council. November, 1788. 

31. — 1788. Thomas Mifflin, President of the Supreme Executive 

Council. September, 1790. 

When the Constitution went into operation. 

Popular Vote of Candidates for Governor under the Constitution of 
September 2, 1790. 

ELECTION. MAJORITY. 

32.— 1790. Thomas Mifflin, 27,725 

Arthur St. Clair, 2,803 24,522 



Whole number, 30,528 

32.— 1793. Thomas Mifflin 19,590 

F. A. Muhlenburg, 10,700 8,890 



Whole number, 30,290 

32.— 1796. Thomas Mifflin, 30,029 

F. A. Muhlenburg, 10,011 20,018 

Whole number, 40,040 

33.— 1799. Thomas McKean 37,244 

James Ross, 22,643 14,601 

Whole number, 59,887 



36 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



ELECTION. 

33.— 1802. 



33.— 1805, 



34.— 1808, 



Thomas McKean, 
James Ross, 
Scattering, 



Thomas McKean, 
Simon Snyder, 
Samuel Snyder, 



Simon Snyder, 
James Ross, . 
John Spayd, . 
Scattering, 



. 47,879 
. 17,037) 
94 j 

Whole number, 57,472 

. 43,644 
. 38,4831 
395 J 

Whole number, 82,522 

. 67,975 
. 39.575 
. 4,006 



34.— 1811. Simon Snyder, 

William Tilghman, 
Scattering, . 



34.-1814. 



Simon Snyder, 
Isaac Wayne, 
George Littimore, 
Scattering, . 



35.— 1817. William Findley, 
Joseph Hiester, 
Scattering, . 



36.-1820. 



37.— 1823. 



31—1826. 



Joseph Hiester, 
William Findley, 
Scattering, . 



J. Andrew Shultz, 
Andrew Gregg, 
Scattering, 



J. Andrew Shultz, 
John Sergeant, 
Scattering, . 



Whole number, 111,564 



52,319 
3,609 
1 



,609) 
,675 j 



Whole number, 57,603 

. 51,099 

. 29,566 

910 

18 



Whole number, 81,593 

. 66,331 
. 59,272' 
11 



Whole number, 125,614 

. 67,905 
. 66,300' 
21 



Whole number, 134,226 



89,928 
64,211 



Whole number, 



1.54,147 

72,710 
1,175) 
1,174 J 



30,748 



4,766 



8 J 24,386 



47,035 



20,605 



7,048 



1,584 



8j 25,709 



70,361 



Whole number, 75,059 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



3t 



ELECTION. 

38.— 1829. George Wolf, 
Joseph Ritner, 
Scattering, 



38.— 1832. George Wolf, 
Joseph Ritner, 



39^—1835. Joseph Ritner, 
George Wolf, 
H. A. Muhlenberg, 



78,219 

61,776 

12 






W^ole number, 140,007 

. 91,335 

. 88,165 



Whole number, 179,500 

. 94,023 
. 65,8041 
. 40,586) 



Whole number, 200,413 



16,433 



3,170 



Of these votes Messrs. Wolf and Muhlenberg had 
Joseph Ritner, .... 

Thus making Joseph Ritner a minority Governor by 



106,390 
'94,023 

12,377 



Under the Constitution of October 9, 1838. 



40.— 1838. David R. Porter, 
Joseph Ritner, 



40.-1841. David R. Porter, 
John Banks, 
F. Julius Lemoyne, 
Scattering, . 



41.-1844. Francis R. Shunk, 
Joseph Markle, . 
F. Julius Lemoyne, 



41.-1847. Francis R. Shunk, 
James Irvin, 

E. C. Reigart, 

F. Julius Lemoyne, 
Scattering, 



42.— 1848. William F. Johnston, 
Morris Longstreth, 
E. D. Gazzam, 
Scattering, 



. 127,821 
. 122,325 

Whole number, 250,146 

. 136,504 

. 113,473 

763 

23 



Whole number, 250,763 

. 160,322 
. 156.040) 
2,566 j 



Whole number, 318,928 

. 146,081 

. 128,148] 

. 11,247 ( 

1,861 j 

6J 



Whole number, 287,343 

. 168.522 
. 168,225) 
48 \ 
24 J 



5,496 



22,245 



1,716 



4,819 



225 



Whole number, 336,819 



38 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



KI.ErTinx. 

43.— 1851. 



Williiirn Bigler, . 
"William F. Johnston, 
Kitnber Cleaver, 
Scattering, 



44. — 1854. James Pollock, . 
William Big^ler, . 
B. Rush Bradford, 
Scattering, 



45.— 1857. William F. Packer, 
David Wilmot, . 
Isaac Hazelhurst, 
Scattering, 



46.— 1860.— Andrew G. Curtin, 
H. D. Foster, 



46.-1863. Andrew G. Curtin, 

George W. Woodward, 
Scattering, 



47.-1866. John W. Geary. 
Hiester Clyraer, 



48.— 1869. John W. Geary, 
Asa Packer, 



. 186,499 

. 178,034 

1,859 

. 67 

Whole number, 366,459 

. 203,822 

. 166,091 

... . 2,194 

. 33 

Whole number, 373,040 

. 188,846 

. 146,139 

. 28,108 
12 



Whole number, 363,165 

. 262,349 

. 230,239 

Whole number, 492,588 

. 269.506 

. 254,171 



i} 



Whole number, 523,679 

. 307.274 

. 290.096 

Whole number, 597,370 

. 290,5.52 

. 285,956 

Whole number, 576,508 



6,539 



34,604 



14,527 



32,110 



15,333 



17,178 



4,596 



Although the State of Pennsylvania has had but forty-eight governors, 
yet from the numbers attached to their names we learn some have filled the 
office two and even three terms. 

We shall close this chapter by giving an extract from the 41st 
chapter of the acts of the first General Assembly of Penn.'^ylvania, 
passed December 7tl), 1082, from which it appears that the fir.st set- 
tlers began the year in March, and repudiated the heathen names as 
now applied to the days of the week, evidently dcmoiislraliiig that 
our forefathers w(!re governed by a religious sentiment in our organi- 
zation as a colony. The following is a literal copy : — 

" And bee it enacted by the authority aforesaid, that ye days 
of ye week and ye months of ye year sh.all be called as in Scrip- 
ture, and not by heathen names (as are vulgarly used), as ye first, 
second, third dales of ye week, and first second and third months of 
ye year, beginning with ye day called Sunday and ye month called 
March." 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 39 



CHAPTER III. 

ORIGINAL ACT ESTABLISHING WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Divisions by the formation of townships — Its original and present townships 
and boroughs — Its present boundaries with topographieal and geographical 
description and its streams — Its early religious element and the religious 
agreement of 1782 — Marriage custom and ceremony — School-houses. 

Having ia the preceding chapters confined myself to the primi- 
tive history of what is now known as Washington County, originally 
belonging to Virginia, and also a general outline history of Penn- 
sylvania, and thereby laid the foundation stone upon which to erect 
the superstructure, I shall now proceed with the general history of 
Washington County. 

On the 28th of March 1781, the legislature of Pennsylvania passed 
an act for erecting part of the county of Westmoreland into a sepa- 
rate county, and the reasons given in the preamble to said act are in 
these words: Whereas, the inhabitants of that part of Westmore- 
land County which lies west of the Monongahela River, have repre- 
sented to the Assembly of this State the great hardships they lie 
under, from being so far remote from the present seat of judicature 
and the public offices ; for to remedy these inconveniences they there- 
fore passed the act of separation. The act is in eighteen sections 
(the preamble being numbered the first), which we will refer to, 
either at length or by giving a summary of the contents of each sepa- 
rately. 

Section second gives the boundaries of Washington County as 
follows : all that part of the State of Pennsylvania west of the 
Monongahela River, and south of the Ohio, beginning at the junc- 
tion of the said rivers, thence up the Monongahela River aforesaid, 
to the line run by Mason and Dixon ; thence by the said line due 
west to the end thereof; and from thence the sajxie course, to end of 
five degrees of west longitude, to be computed from the River Dela- 
ware ; thence by a meridian line, extended north, until the same 
shall intersect the Ohio River, and thence by the same to the place 
of beginning (the said lines from the end of Mason and Dixon's line 
to the Ohio River to be understood as to be hereafter ascertained by 
commissioners now appointed or to be appointed for that purpose), 
shall be and the same is hereby declared to be erected into a county, 
henceforth to be called Washington. 

Section third gives the same rights and privileges to the inhabit- 
ants as enjoyed by other counties in the State. 



40 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Section fourth authorizes the trustees to take assurance of ground 
whereon to erect a court-house and prison, and divide the county 
into townships, before July 1st, 1181. 

Section fifth empowers the inhabitants to elect Inspectors, two 
Representatives for the Assembly, one member of the Supreme Exe- 
cutive Council, two persons for Sheriff, two for Coroner, and three 
Commissioners. The election was ordered to be held at the house of 
David Hoge, at the place called Catfish Camp, now Washington. 

Section sixth. Justices of the Supreme Court to have like powers 
and authorities in Washington County. 

Sections seventh and eighth provide for an election for justices 
of the peace, to beheld on the 15th of July, 11 SI, for the various 
townships, after judges and inspectors have been elected. 

Section ninth. Justices of the peace authorized to hold courts of 
General Quarter Sessions and Gaol Delivery. 

Section tenth. James Edgar, Hugh Scott, Van Swearingen, Daniel 
Leet, and John Armstrong appointed commissioners to purchas. 
ground for a court-house, as provided for in section four. 

Sections eleventh and twelfth provide for the mode of defraying 
the expenses of the public buildings. 

Section thirteenth. For the continuance of suits commenced in 
the original county. 

Sections fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth provide for the appoint- 
ment of a collector of the excise, his powers and fees. 

Section seventeenth directs the Sheriff and Coroner of Westmore- 
land County to officiate until those officers could be chosen in the 
new county. 

Section eighteenth directed the amount of the security to be given 
by the Sheriff and Treasurer. 

Division of Washington County. 

The inhabitants of Washington County, with those of Westmore- 
land, considering their counties were too extensive, and that they 
were subject to many inconveniences from their being situated at so 
great a distance from the scat of justice, conceived that their inter- 
ests and happiness would be greatly promoted by being erected into 
a new and separate county ; the legislature, on the 24th of September, 
1T88, gratified their requests, and erected Alleghany County. We 
shall give the original boundaries of this new county, so that we can 
trace on the map, the territory which was struck off from Washing- 
ton County. Beginning at the mouth of Flaghertxfs Run, on the 
south side of the Ohio River, from thence, by a straight line, to the 
plantation on which Joseph Scott, Esquire, now lives, on 3Ion- 
iour''s Run, to include the same; from thence, by a straight line, to 
the mouth of Miller^s Run, in Chartiers^ Creek ; thence by a straight 
line, to the mouth of Perry^s Mill Run, on the east side of Monon- 
gahela River; thence up the said river to the mouth of BeckeVs- 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY 41 

Run ; thence by a straight line to the mouth of Sewickley Creek, on 
Youghiogheny River ; thence down the said river to the mouth of 
Crawford's Run ; thence by a straight line to the mouth of Bush 
Creek, on Turtle Creek; thence up Turtle Creek to the main fork 
thereof; thence by a northerly line until it strikes Puckety's Creek ; 
thence down the said creek to the Allegheny River ; thence up the 
Allegheny River to the northern boundary of the State ; thence 
along the the same to the river Ohio, and tlience up the same to the 
place of beginning. The above portion of the line italicized is the 
portion taken from Washington County. 

But the inhabitants of Washington County still seemed desirous 
of having justice administered to them at their very doors, again 
petitioned the legislature to annex a certain part of this to Allegheny 
County; and on the 17th of September, 1789,' the General Assembly 
believing their prayer to be just and reasonable, granted their re- 
quest. The boundaries of that part of Washington, annexed to 
Allegheny County, began at the river Ohio, where the boundary line 
of the State crosses the said river; from thence in a straight line, to 
White's mill, on Racoon Creek; from thence by a straight line, to 
Armstrong's mill, on Miller's Run, and from thence by a straight 
line, to the Monongahela River, opposite the mouth of Perry's Run, 
where it strikes the present line of Allegheny County. 

By this act of annexation, the whole of Dickinson and part of 
Cecil toivnship became part of Allegheny County; according to a 
decision of the Supreme Executive Council. Peter Kidd and John 
Beaver were authorized to have the boundary lines marked, each 
being allowed twenty-five shillings per day, out of the treasury of 
Allegheny County. 

On the 9th of February, 1796, another portion of the territory 
of Washington County was erected into Greene County. The 
boundary line began at the mouth of Tenmile Greek, on the 
Monongahela River ; thence up Tenmile Creek to the junction of 
the north and south forks of said creek ; thence up said north fork 
to Colonel William Wallace^s mill; thence up a southtvesterly 
direction to the nearest part of the dividing ridge betiveen the north 
and south forks of Tenmile Creek; thence along the top of the 
said ridge to the ridge which divides the waters of Tenmile arid 
Wheeling creeks; thence a straight line to the head of Enlow^s 
branch of the Wheeling; thence down said branch to the western 
boundary of the State; thence south along the said line to the 
southern boundary line of the State ; thence east along said line to 
the river Monongahela, and thence down the said river to the place 
of beginning. 

The words italicized form the southern line separating Washing- 
ton and Greene counties. 

The ofiScers of Washington County were authorized to exercise 
the duties of their office in the new county (except justices of peace) 
until similar officers were appointed. Washington and Greene were 
4 



42 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

to elect, jointly, four representatives ; while Washington, Allegheny, 
and Greene were to compose the congressional district. 

On the 22d of January, 1802, by authority of the legislature of 
Pennsylvania, the following alteration took place in the line between 
the counties of Washington and Greene; beginning at the present 
lino, on the ridge that divides the waters of the Tenraile and 
Wheeling creeks, near Jacob Bobbett's ; thence a straight line, to 
the head-waters of Hunter's fork of Wheeling Creek, and thence 
down the same, to the mouth thereof, where it meets the present 
county line. 

The act of the same date declares that so much of the county 
of Greene, which, by the act, is reunited to the county of Washing- 
ton, as lies west of the road called Ryerson's Road, is hereby an- 
nexed to Findley township, and shall hereafter be a part of the 
district called Stevenson's election district, and that part thereof, 
which lies east of said road is hereby annexed to Morris township, 
and shall hereafter be a part of the Washington elected district. 

The Governor was authorized to appoint two commissioners to 
run and mark the aforesaid line ; the expense to be borne equally 
out of the treasury of both counties. 

By the erection of Greene County, Morgan, Cumberland, Frank- 
lin, Greene, and Rich Hill townships became component parts of 
Greene County. 

On the 12th of March, 1800, an act was passed by the General 
Assembly, erecting parts of Washington and Alleghany counties into 
a new county, to be called Beaver. The boundary line began at 
the mouth of the Sewickley Creek on the Ohio River; thence up 
the said creek to the west line of Alexander's district of deprecia- 
tion lands ; thence northerly along the said line, and continuing the 
same course to the north line of the first donation district ; thence 
westerly along the said line to the western boundary of the State ; 
thence southerly along the said boundary, across the Ohio River to 
a point in the said boundary, from which a line to be run at right 
angles easterly will strike White'' s mill on Racoon Creek, and from 
such point along the said easterly line to the said mill ; thence on a 
straight line to the mouth of Big Sewickley Creek, the place of 
beginning. (The words italicized is the boundary line between 
Washington and Beaver counties). The expense of running the 
line was to be borne by Beaver County. 

Original Townships. 

The organic act authorized the trustees to divide the county into 
a suitable number of townships. In accordance therewith, the trus- 
tees subdivided it into thirteen townships, in commemoration of the 
thirteen States which formed the United States. Their names in 
alphabetical order were : 1. Amwell ; 2. Bethlehem ; 3. Cecil ; 4. 
Cumberland; 5. Donegal; 6. FalluwOeld ; 1. Hopewell; 8. Mor- 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



43 



gan ; 9. Nottingham; 10. Peters; 11. Robison ; 12. Straban ; 13. 
Smith. 

These townships went into operation on the 15th of July, IT 81, 
by the provisions of the act of the legislature and the election of 
township officers. 

As the county became more thickly settled, the people felt the 
necessity of forming new townships and boroughs. This power was 
confined to the legislature until the 24th of March, 1803, when it 
was transferred to the courts of Quarter Sessions, although it appears 
that in some few cases the courts had exercised it. 

By the erection of new counties out of Washington, whole town- 
ships and parts of townships were cut off, and at the present time, May, 
1870, we find that Washington County has eleven boroughs and thir- 
ty-one townships within her limits. 

We shall now add this list with their respective organizations, 
from the formation of Washington County. 



_0. T.' 
O.T. 
o. T. 

O.T. 
O.T. 
O. T. 
O. T. 
O.T. 
O.T. 



1. — Amwell township, formed July 15, 1781. 
2.— Bethlehem " " 



3.— Cecil 

4. — Cumberland " 

5. — Donegal " 

6.— Fallowfield " 

7. — Hopewell " 

8. — Morgan " 

9. — Nottingham " 

o. T. 10. — Peters " 

O.T. 11. — Robisoa " 

O.T. 12. — Straban " 

0. T. 13.— Smith " 

T. 14. — Somerset township, formed April 3, 1782. 
T. 15. — Greene " " " 

T. 16. — Dickinson " " September 15, 1785. 

B. 1. — Washington, (town,) formed February 6, 1786. 
T. 17 — Hanover township, " March 11, 1786. 

T. 18.— Franklin " " July 16, 1787. 

T. 19.— Findley " " May 6, 1788. 

T. 20.— Morris " " March 13, 1788. 

■>.T. 1.— East Bethlehem " " January 18, 1790. (See Bethlehem 

township.) 
D. T. 2. — West Bethlehem township, formed January 18, 1790. (See Beth- 
lehem township.) 
T. 21. — Chartiers township, formed March 12, 1790, 



T. 22. — Cross Creek 

T. 23. — Canton 
D. T. 3. — Pike Run 
D. T. 4.— Rich Hill 

T. 24.— Buffalo 

B. 7. — Cannonsburg 
township.) 



March 23, 1790. 
June 10, 1791. 
January 8, 1792. 
March 13, 1793. 
May 8, 1799. 
February 22, 1802. 



(See Chartiers 



* Explanation of letters — o. t, means original townships; d. t. divided townships; 
B. boroughs. 



44 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

-Mount Pleasant township, formed May 12, 1806. 

-West Middlctown liorout^h, formed March 27, 1823. 

-East Findley township, formed December 24, 1828. (See Findley 

township.) 
-West Findley township, formed December 24, 1828. (See Find- 
ley township.) 
-North Straban township, formed May 2, 1831. (See Straban 

township.) 
-South Straban township, formed May 2, 1831, (See Straban 

township.) 
-Claysville borough, formed April 2, 1832. 
-Carrol township, formed September 30, 1834. 
-Greenfield borough, formed A pril 9, 1834. (See Pike Run township.) 
-Union township, formed March 31, 1836. 
-East Pike Run township, formed March 9, 1839. 
-AVest Pike Run township, formed March 9, 1S39. 
-Monongahela City, formed April 1, 1837. (Sec Carrol township.) 
-Millsborough, formed April 16, 1840. (See Bethlehem township). 
-West Brownsville borough, formed April 2, 1852. (See Pike 

Run township.) 
-Beallsville borough, formed February 16, 1852. (See Pike Run 

township.) 
-Allen township, formed June 14, 1853. 
-Jefferson " " June 16, 1853. 

-California borough, formed November 26, 1853. (See Pike Run 

township.) 
-Independence township, formed. May 19, 1855. 
-Franklin " " August 13, 1855. 

-Beutleysville borough, formed May 2, 1868. (See Somerset 

township.) 

Of these boroughs and townships we shall give a detailed account 
in Chapter Y. as far as we have been able to ascertain their history, 
and particularly those which now embrace this county. 

Its Boundaries. 

The present limits of Washington County, therefore, may be thus 
defined geographically — bounded on the north by Beaver County, 
northeast by Allegheny County, east by Westmoreland and Fayette 
counties, south by Greene County, and west by the State of West 
Virginia. Its greatest length is thirty-two miles, its mean width, 
twenty-eight miles, containing 896 square miles, or 573,440 acres of 
land, in latitude 40°10'21'' north, and longitude from Washington 
3012'53" west. Its population in 1700 was 23,866 ; in 1800, 28,293 ; 
in 1810, 36,289 ; in 1820, 40,038 ; in 1830, 42,860 ; in 1840, 41,279 ; 
in 1850, 44,939, and in 1860, 46,805. 

Topographical Description. 

This county is watered by many streams (which will be given in 
a separate chapter), but suflice it to say, however, that many valleys 
are formed, of greater or less widtii and depth, by their indentation, 





T. 


25.- 




B. 


10. 


D. 


T. 


5.- 


D. 


, T. 


6. 


D. 


T. 


7.- 


D. 


T. 


8.- 




B. 


8. 




T. 


26. 




B. 


4.- 




T. 


27.- 


D 


. T. 


9. 


D 


. T. 


10. 




B. 


3. 




B. 


2. 




B. 


5. 




B. 


6. 




T. 


28. 




T. 


29. 




B. 


9, 




T. 


30. 




T. 


31. 




B. 


11. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 45 

hence, the county presents a rolling character, and although not 
belonging to the class called mountainous, yet may be termed hilly. 
These hills are cultivated to the very tops, and in point of agri- 
culture and grazing are not inferior to any in the State. The undu- 
lating surface of the county presents scenery unsurpassed and pic- 
turesque, supporting thousands of sheep, and is truly deserving the 
name of being the largest wool-growing county in the State, and the 
second in the United States for the quality of the wool. 

Geological Description. 

In a geological view, the rocks belong to the upper series of our 
bituminous coal formation, consisting of alternate strata of sand- 
stone, shales, and limestone, with interposed beds of coal from 
three to six or eight feet it thickness. These nearly level strata 
extend over the whole surface of this and a great part of the adjoin- 
ing counties, are sometimes cut through by the deep valleys of the 
streams and exposed in varied succession in the steep banks and 
along the hill sides, in situations favorable to access and affording 
great facilities for mining and quarrying. Coal for domestic con- 
sumption is abundant in every part of the county and along the bank 
of the Monongahela. It is mined in great quantities and sent down 
the Ohio River in boats. 

Streams. 

We add a list of the streams of this county, with their tributaries 
and localities. 

The Monongahela River, which flows through the eastern part 
of Washington County, rises in Randolph County, Virginia, at the 
foot of the Laurel Mountain, 'and flowing northwardly for about 
three hundred miles, empties into the Allegheny River at Pittsburg 
and forms the Ohio. It is nearly four hundred yards wide at its 
mouth, and is navigable for light boats sixty miles, to West Browns- 
ville, in this county, and for small boats nearly two hundred miles 
from its mouth. Its principal tributaries are the Youghiogheny and 
Cheat rivers, which enter into it on the east side, but on the west 
side, in Washington County, are Tenmile Creek, Pigeon Creek, 
Baker and Fish Pot runs, Pike Bun, South Fork and Maple Fork, 
Mingo Creek. 

Tenmile Creek empties into the Monongahela River at Clarks- 
ville, Greene County ; the north fork of this creek rises in Morris 
township and waters the townships of East and West Bethlehem, 
Amwell and Morris, its tributaries being Middle Fork, Craft's Fork, 
Road's Fork, Hoosang's Fork, McFarlane's Fork, Bane's Fork, with 
Kembler's and McGiffin's Run. Coniconick empties into Craft's 
Fork at Prosperity. Its Indian name is Cusuthee. 

Little North Fork, with its tributaries. Brush Run, Camp's 
Fork, Carter's Run, Daniel's Run, Hawkin's and Plumb Hill forks, 



46 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

empties into it. On both branches of Tenmile Creek are many 
grist and saw-mills. 

Pigeon Creek empties into the Monongahela at Monongahela 
City. It rises by two branches in Somerset township and flows 
northeast through Fallowfield township. Its length is about fifteen 
miles. 

Mingo and Little Mingo creeks rise in Nottingham township, 
and flow east to the Monongahela. 

Baker and Fish Pot runs empty into it in East Bethlehem 
township. 

Peters' Creek and its branch called Pine Branch, Fry's Branch, 
and Bruce's Run, empty into the Monongahela River. 

Chartiers' Creek flows a north-northeast course of thirty-five or 
forty miles and empties into the Ohio River ^efe miles alwv e Pitts- 
burg. Its tributaries are Catfish Run, Braddock's Run, Weirich's 
Run, Leet's Run, north branch of Chartiers', Quail's Run, Little 
Chartiers' Creek and its tributaries, Vance's, Little's, Pollock's, 
McCorkle's, Kenny's,, and Brush runs on the east and west side of 
this creek, emptying into the Ohio River below Pittsburg. Miller's 
Run rises in Mount Pleasant township and empties into Little 
Chartiers' Creek. Robeson's Run rises about two miles north .of 
Candor and empties into Racoon. This creek flows through the 
townships of Robinson, Cecil, Mount Pleasant, Chartiers', Canton, 
North and South Strabane, Somerset, Amwell, and Morris. 

This creek derives its name from Peter Chartiers, who went among 
the Indians on the Ohio and tributary streams to deal for peltries. 
He was an influential Indian interpreter, and joined the French In- 
dians on the Ohio, to the injury of Pennsylvania. Chartiers had a 
trading station on or near the mouth of the creek. Governor Thomas, 
in 1745, said that the perfidious blood of the Shawnees partly runs 
in his veins. 

Big and Little Racoon rise in Mount Pleasant township ; the 
former near Hickory, and the latter near David Lyle's, in the vicinity 
of Prospect Church. The tributaries of these creeks are Boyd's, 
Burgett's, Cherry Valley, Bailey's, Painter's, Patrick's, and Brimner 
and Brush runs. These different streams water the townships of 
Hanover, Robeson, Smith, and Mount Pleasant. 

Harman's Creek rises in Smith township, and with its tributaries 
of Tucker and Buffalo runs, empties into the Ohio River near 
Georgetown, watering the townships of Smith, Hanover, and Cross 
Creek. Its length is al)out twelve miles. 

Indian or Kino Creek (northeast branch) and Tomlinson's Run 
rise in Hanover township near Florence. 

Cross Creek rises in Mount Pleasant township and runs northwest 
to the Ohio River, a few miles above Wellsburg, West Virginia. Its 
tributaries are Stewart's Run — the middle fork, with Smiley's Run, 
Lyle's Run; the North Fork rises near Cross Creek Village. This 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 47 

creek flows through the township of Mount Pleasant, Cross Creek, 
and empties into the main branch of the creek at Patterson's mills. 

Buffalo Creek rises in East Pindley ; its tributaries are Brushy 
Run, Mill Run, Indian Camp Run, Buck Run, and Dutch Fork. 
These streams flow through the townships of East Findley, Donegal, 
Hopewell, and Buffalo, and the creek itself empties into the Ohio 
River. 

Wheeling Creek rises in East Findley, having for its tributaries 
Templeton's and Enslow's Fork, Hunter's Fork, and Tucker's Fork; 
these streams water East and West Findley townships. 

Little Wheeling Creek rises in Donegal township ; Middle 
Wheeling Creek, in West Findley township ; these two creeks meet 
at Triadelphia and empty into Wheeling Creek at Shepherd's mills. 

Early Religious Element. 

Our first settlers were composed of the Scotch-Irish element, those 
who emigrated from the west of Scotland and the north of Ireland, 
while many others came from Cumberland and York counties, where 
the same element prevailed, and not a few from Virginia. These early 
pioneers, one hundred years ago, crossed the rugged steeps of the 
Allegheny Mountains, the boisterous waves of the swift-flowing rivers, 
and penetrated into an unknown wilderness to secure the blessings 
of civil and religious liberty. No county in the State of Pennsyl- 
vania, or probably in the United States, can boast of a purer, better, 
more intelligent and devoted company of Christians than those who 
settled in Washington County. Military men are praised for their 
heroic deeds, statesmen for understanding the great principles of 
government ; but in this instance, men from all nations meet together 
around one common altar, and declare in the very commencement of 
their labors, their religious principles — in other words, they laid the 
corner stone of the religion of Jesus when they first settled Washing- 
ton County, by entei'ing into solemn engagements. These engage- 
ments were binding not only upon the males, but upon the females 
also. Whole families united in the league or covenant, and the princi- 
ples of Presbyterianism which they brought with them, as well as 
those of other religious sects, are so intimately interwoven with our 
political affairs, that our civil and religious interests are carefully 
guarded by their descendants. 

To illustrate the positions I have assumed, I add a religious agree- 
ment entered into between these early pioneers, which I received 
from the Rev. John T. Fredericks, pastor of the Presbyterian Church 
at Burgettstown, Washington County ; and before giving it I will 
give the causes which led to its adoption. This " Religious Agree- 
ment," entered into on the 14th day of February, 1782, is in the 
hand- writing of James Edgar, Esq., deceased, who was an Associ- 
ate Judge of this county. He with five others left York County in 
1779 — all members of the Presbyterian Church. They made an agree- 



48 HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

ment to lociite near each other, so that they might secure to them- 
selves and their families the ordinances and preaching of the gospel, 
and be tlie means of collecting a church with like principles together, 
as they themselves professed. 

These families left their eastern homes and travelled through Ty- 
gart's Valley and crossed the Monongahela River at Parkinson's 
Ferry (now Monongahela City). Mr. Ifugh Scott, one of the six, 
settled west of this place ; another where BuflFalo Church and Village 
now stand ; James Edgar in Cross Creek township, on the farm 
now owned by Finley Scott, Esq. ; another settled near to Briceland's 
Cross Roads (now Florence) ; and another, Patrick McCullough, in 
what became Mill Creek Congregation, in Beaver County ; yet no two 
settled together, but in contiguous neighborhoods, and each had the 
pleasure of seeing a church of their denomination to which he be- 
longed erected to (rod and dedicated to his glory. At the time of 
this " Religious Agreement" there were no altar and no church but 
the forts and the woods, in which God ^Yas worshipped with pure 
hearts, and in the beauty of holiness and the purity of truth. This 
ADVANCE GUARD of the church met, and while the minister officiated, 
and prayer and praise went up from pure hearts, sanctified by the 
grace of God, they grasped the faithful rifle to defend themselves 
against the insidious attacks of the Indians. The Rev. Dr. John 
Stockton, in his fortieth anniversary sermon, says: "In these forts 
(Wells' and Vance's) social and afterwards public worship w^as kept 
up for seven years, especially in summer and autumn, the seasons 
when the Indians were out west to make their raids, and it was a 
common thing for men to go to these meetings armed with their trusty 
rifles, and to stand guard during the services." Dr. Stockton also 
adds, that the Rev. James Powers " preached the first gospel ser- 
mon under an oak tree just outside the gate of Vance's Fort. It was 
on this occasion that Dr. Powers baptized the child of Mr. Marquis, 
which was the first person who received that rite in that region of 
country." 

"With these remarks we now add the document itself, with the list 
of names attached, many of whose descendants are living lives of 
virtue, of honor, and of honesty, around and near the old family liearth- 
.<toncs, consecrated by the prayers of many an aged fallier and mother, 
who have crossed the Jordan of death, and beckon their descendants 
to the ineffable joys of the spirit world. 

Religious Agreement. 

We, and each of us, whose names arc underwritten, being chiefly 
the inhabitants of the western frontier of Washington County, con- 
sidering the many abounding evils in our own hearts and lives, as 
also the open and secret violation of the holy law of God, which 
dishonors 11 is name and defiles and ruins our country ; such as ig- 
norance, unbelief, hardness of heart, contempt of God in his ordi- 
nances, law, and gospel (in particular in setting our hearts upon the 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 49 

creature in one line or another more than upon God), breach of his 
Sabbath, disobedience to parents, backbiiings, entertaining bad 
thoughts, and receiving groundless evil reports of others, unfaith- 
fulness to Grod for His mercies, profaning His name, uncleanness, 
lascivious songs, iilthy discourse, promiscuous dancing, drunkenness, 
defraud, deceit, over-reaching in bargains, gaming, horse racing, 
cock fighting, shooting for prizes, lying, covetousness, discontent, 
fretting against the dispensations of God's providence, unfaithful- 
ness for God (in suffering sin to remain on our neighbor unreproved), 
denying God in the neglect of family and secret worship, catechizing 
and instruction of our children and servants or slaves, vexatious 
wranglings, and law suits, together with innumerable evils, provoking 
God to send down heavy judgments on our land, and to withhold or 
withdraw His gracious presence, and unfit our soul for enjoying any 
solid happiness, which we desire to acknowledge with shame and 
sorrow of heart before God, and do in the strength of God and de- 
pending on His Grace for support, solemnly promise (to our power, 
according to our various places and stations) to engage against, 
both in ourselves and others, as providence shall give us opportunity, 
and prudence direct. 

- In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands, this 14th day 
of February, 1*782. (N. B. This is not to be a barrier to prevent 
any from signing at any time hereafter.) 

Robert McCready, William Vance, John Stone, James Edgar, 
William McCandless, Robert Dunbar, Jojin Robinson, John Donahey, 
Matthew Hilles, Benjamin Bearkus, John McMillen, Samuel Hind- 
man, George McCuUoch, John Ekin, Moses Wallace, David Thomp- 
son, Henry McBride, John Dodds, John Strain, James Barr, Thomas 
Hanna, James Dabbin, Thomas Strain, Samuel Jefferey, Alex. Mc- 
Candless, Samuel Leeper, James Matthews, William Smith, Thomas 
Bay, Ebenezer Smith, John Cowen, Thomas Barton, Hugh Sherer, 
Hugh Newel, Arthur Campbell, John^ephenson, Samuel Johnston, 
James Loop, John Hustein, William Thompson, William Reno, 
William Rannells, Henry Graham, William Hughes, William Camp- 
bell, Patrick McCormick, John Singer, Joseph Patterson, Daniel C. 
McCoy, David Kerr, John Morrison, John Stone, William Park, 
William Smiley, George Marquiss, Mary Marquiss, Thomas Mar- 
quiss, Joseph Vance, John Marquiss, William Wallace, Samuel Reed, 
James Marshall, Elias Newkirk, John Cooper, William McCullough, 
Alexander Wright, James Jackson, Agness Jackson, Mary Cowen, 
Sr., Mary Cowan, Jr., Martha Dunbar, Prudence Matthews, Eliza- 
beth B. Hughes, Janet McCandless, Anne Vance, David Rannells, 
Elizabeth McCullough, Ruth Rannells, Annie Park, Mary Johnston, 
Martha Edgar, Mary Graham, John Hughes, Gabriel Walker, Alex- 
ander Kidd, Jean Patterson. — 86. The above signed the first day. 
Attached is a second additional clause, with 28 names added to 
the first list. The second clause and names read thus : — 

We desire to acknowledge the goodness of God, who hath con- 



50 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

tinned his precious gospel with us in purity, and especially for his 
late gracious outpourings of divine influence on many parts of the 
land, and especially here where we were so sunk in carnal security 
and wordly niindedness, floating along with the flood of vanity. 
And we desire to lament our barrenness and leanness under these 
gracious favors, and we do now, in the strength pf God, rejying on 
His grace, resolve that we will seek to the Lord for help to improve 
these precious favors, and knowing that some do oppose the work, 
and aspersing it as a delusion, &c., we will be guarded in our con- 
duct, careful of our company, and we believe that it is the duty of 
awakened sinners next to their supplication to the throne of grace, 
to lay open their case to ministers and experienced Christians, lest 
Satan and corruption might get the advantage of them, and that we 
will be careful and watchful to perform the duties required by Chris- 
tian rules in the families we belong to, as we stand related severally 
as parents and children, husbands and wives, masters or mistresses, 
and servants. 

Signed in 1186 by Angas Sunderland, Jane Sunderland, Thomas 
Bay, Elizabeth Bay, Mary Patterson, Sarah Vance, Jean Marquis, 
Martha Rannells, Robert Morgan, Margaret Marshall, Susannah Pat- 
terson, Robert Marshal, Elizabeth Thompson, Tabitha Kirk, Sarah 
Marquis, Susannah Parke. 

May 31, 1787, Thomas Hays, Jos. Colville Yance, William Hus- 
ton, John M. Cloan, Joseph Wiley, Catharine Edgar, Catharine 
Phillis, John Sanders, Andrew Ferguson, Elizabeth McMillen, Mary 
Edgar, Sr., Hannah Huston. 

To which names are added these words, "Whole number 114 — 
dead 26." James Edgar, Esq., makes a note below the additional 
clause of these words, " I believe this additional clause was made on 
the second day's signing." 

Time would fail me were I to give a history of most of these men 
whose names were sul)scribed to this religious agreement. Many 
of them filled high and important stations in church and State, and 
have licqueathed to their posterity a priceless inheritance. Their 
descendants linger among us, and the rural cemeteries of Cross Creek, 
Buffalo, Racoon and Burgettstown, contain the remains of those of 
whom it can be truthfully said, " Blessed are the dead who die in 
the Lord." 

Marriage Custom and Ceremony. 

In connection with the church, I shall add a sketch of an old- 
fashioned wedding party, from the rare work of Rev. Dr. Dodridge, 
such as was practised by the first settlers. 

When neighborhoods became in some degree settled, and boys 
and girls had grown to manhood and womanhood, mutual love 
resulted in marriage, whicli was celebrated different from weddings 
of tlie present day. An eye-witness and a participant gives the 
following glowing description of a wedding day among our early 
settlers: — 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 51 

In the morning of the wedding day the groom and his attendants 
assembled at the house of his father for the purpose of reaching the 
mansion of his bride by noon, which was the usual time for cele- 
brating the nuptials, which for certain must take place before dinner. 

Imagine an assemblage of people, without a store, tailor, or man- 
tua-niaker within a hundred miles, and an assemblage of horses 
without a blacksmith or saddler within an equal distance. The 
gentlemen dressed in shoepacks, moccasons, leather breeches, leg- 
gings, linsey hunting shirts, and all home made. The ladies dressed 
in linsey petticoats and linsey or linen bed-gowns, coai'se shoes, 
stockings, handkerchiefs, and buckskin gloves, if any. If there were 
any buckles, rings, buttons, or ruflles, they were the relics of old 
times, family pieces from parents or grandparents. The horses were 
caparisoned with old saddles, old bridles or halters, and pack-sad- 
dles, with a bag or blanket thrown over them. A rope or string as 
often constituted the girth as a piece of leather. 

The march, in double file, was often interrupted by the narrow- 
ness and obstructions of our horse-patlis, as they were called, for we 
had no roads, and these difficulties were often increased, sometimes 
by the good and sometimes by the ill-will of neighbors, by felling 
trees and tying grape-vines across the way. Sometimes an ambus- 
cade was formed by the wayside, and an unexpected discharge of 
several guns took place, so as to cover the wedding party with smoke. 
Let the reader imagine the scene which followed this discharge, 
the sudden spring of the horses, the shrieks of the girls, and the 
chivalric bustle of their partners to save them from falling. Some- 
times, in spite of all that could be done to prevent it, some were 
thrown to the ground. If a wrist, elbow, or ankle happened to be 
sprained, it vpas tied with a handkerchief, and little more was thought 
or said about it. 

Another ceremony took place before the party reached the house 
of the bride. When the party were about a mile from the place of 
their destination, two young men would single out to run for the 
bottle of whiskey, the worse the path, the more logs, brush, and 
deep hollows, the better, as these obstacles afforded an opportu- 
nity for the greater display of intrepidity and horsemanship. The 
start was announced by an Indian yell, logs, brush, muddy hollows, 
hill and glen, were speedily passed by the rival ponies. The bottle 
was always filled for the occasion, so that there was no use for 
judges, for the first who reached the door was presented with the 
prize, with which he returned in triumph to the company. On 
approaching them, he announced his victory over his rival by a 
shrill whoop. At the head of the troop he gave the bottle first to 
the groom and his attendants, and then to each pair in succession 
to the rear of the line, giving each a dram, and then putting the 
bottle in the bosom of his hunting shirt, took his station in the 
company. 

The ceremony of the marriage preceded the dinner, which was a 



52 HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

substantial backwoods feast of beef, pork, fowls, and sometimes veni- 
son and bear meat, roasted and boiled, with plenty of potatoes, 
cabbage, and other vegetables. During the dinner, the greatest 
hilarity prevailed, although the table might be a large slab of tim- 
ber hewed out with a broadaxe, supported by four sticks set in 
auger holes, and the furniture, some old pewter dishes and plates, 
the rest, wooden bowls and trenchers ; a few pewter spoons, much 
battered about the edges, were to be seen at some tables. The 
rest were made of horns. If knives were scarce, the deficiency was 
made up by the scalping knives, which were carried in sheaths, sus- 
pended to the belt of the hunting shirt. 

After dinner the dancing commenced, and generally lasted till the 
next morning. The figures of the dancers were three and four hand- 
ed reels or square sets and jigs. The commencement was always a 
square four, which was followed by what was called jigging it off, 
that is, two of the four would single out for a jig, and were followed 
by the remaining couple. The jigs were often accompanied with 
what was called "cutting out," that is, when either of the parties 
became tired of the dance, on intimation, the place was supplied by 
some one of the company without any interruption of the dance. 
In this way a dance was often continued till the musician was 
heartily tired of his situation. Towards the latter part of the night, 
if any of the company, through weariness, attempted to conceal 
themselves for the purpose of sleeping, they were hunted up, paraded 
on the floor, and the fiddler ordered to play " hang out till to-mor- 
row morning." 

About nine or ten o'clock a deputation of the young ladies stole off 
the bride and put her to bed. In doing this it frequently happened 
that they had to ascend a ladder instead of a pair of stairs, leading 
from the dinirfg and ball-room to the loft, the floor of which was 
made of clapboards lying loose and without nails. This ascent one 
might think would put the bride and her attendants to the blush, 
but as the foot of the ladder was commonly behind the door (which 
was purposely opened for the occasion), and its rounds at the inner 
end were well hung with hunting shirts, petticoats, and other arti- 
cles of clothing, the candles being on the opposite side of the 
house, the exit of the bride was noticed but by few. 

This done, a deputation of young men in like manner stole off the 
groom, and placed him snugly by the side of his bride. The dance 
still continues, and if seats happen to be scarce, which was often the 
case, every young man when not engaged in the dance was obliged 
to offer his lap as a seat for one of the girls, and the offer was sure 
to be accepted. In the midst of this hilarity, the bride and groom 
were not forgotten. I'rotty late in the night some one would remind 
the company that the new couple must stand in need of some refresh- 
ments. Black Betty, which was the name of the bottle, was called 
for, and sent up the ladder. But sometimes black Betty did not go 
alone. I have many times seen as much bread, beef, pork, and cab- 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 53 

bage sent along with her, as would afford a good meal foi' a half 
dozen hungry men. The young couple were compelled to eat and 
drink more or less, of whatever was offered them. 

In the course of the festivity, if any wanted to help himself to a 
dram, and the young couple to a toast, he would call out, " Where is 
black Betty? I want to kiss her sweet lips." Black Betty was soon 
handed to him, then holding her up in his right hand, he would say, 
" Here's health to the groom, not forgetting myself, and here's to the 
bride, thumping luck and big children." This, so far from being 
taken amiss, was considered as an expression of a very proper and 
friendly wish, for big children, especially sons, were of great import- 
ance ; every big son being considered as a young soldier. 

It often happened that some neighbors or relations not being asked 
to the wedding took offence, and the mode of revenge adopted was 
that of cutting off the manes, foretops, and tails of the horses of the 
wedding company. 

On returning to the infare, the order of procession and race for 
black Betty was the same as before. The feasting and dancing often 
lasted for several days. 

School-Houses. 

The school-house was considered as necessary to the prosperity of 
a settlement as the church, and the requirements of the schoolmaster 
were, that he could read, write, and cipher as far as the double rule 
of three. When such a man offered himself, the neighbors would 
employ him, and immediately set about the erection of school-house. 
One would give the ground, some would cut the logs, some would 
haul them to the appointed place, others would put them up. In 
the erection of the school-house, a log would be kept out the entire 
length to answer the purpose of a window. The fireplace was 
built with logs, with a stone back wall calculated for a back log six 
feet long. The chimney was built with what was then called " cat 
and clay chimney." The seats were made of small trees, cut about 
twelve feet long and split, the flat side dressed smooth with the axe, 
and legs put in the round side, which stood on an earthen floor. In 
summer time the dust would be sometimes two inches deep, hence the 
scholars for amusement would amuse themselves by "kicking up the 
dust " (which is likely the origin of the expression), to the great an- 
noyance of the schoolmaster, who would use his cat-o'-nine-tails very 
freely. 

In old times, they had a custom which is now, we believe, entirely 
laid aside. About a week before Christmas the larger scholars 
would meet in the night to bar out the master. On his arrival at 
the school-room he would endeavor to force his way in, but finding 
his efforts unavailing, he would enter into an agreement to give them 
holiday between Christmas and New Year's, give a gallon of whiskey, 
and lots of ginger-cakes on Christmas day, and play corner ball with 
the scholars on that occasion. 



54 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



CHAPTER IV. 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE SUPREME EXECUTIVE COUNCIL. 

A brief history of the Provincial Conference — The Constitution of 177G ; the 
Council of Censors ; the Convention of 1789 ; the Constitution of 1790; 
the action of the Legislature of 1825 ; with regard to a convention, and the 
vote of the people ; tlie Convention of 1837 ; the Constitution of lS;-i8, and 
the full proceedings of the Supreme Executive, from 1781 to 1791, which 
relates to Washington County. 

Supreme Executive Council. 

Before proceeding with the acts of this body, as connected with 
Washington County, it is necessary to give a history of its rise and 
origin, as interwoven with the Constitution of 1776. 

A provincial conference of committees of the several counties 
of Pennsylvania convened at Carpenter's Hall, in Philadelphia, on 
25th of June, 1776, in consequence of a circular letter from the 
committee of the city and liberties of Philadelphia, inclosing the 
resolution of the Continental Congress of the 15th of May, 1776. 
Returns of delegates were laid before this provincial conference fi'om 
the city of Philadelphia, and the counties of Philadelphia, Bucks, 
Chester, Lancaster, Berks, Northampton, York, Cumberland, Bed- 
ford, Northumberland, and Westmoreland (these ten counties then 
composing the province) Thomas McKean was chosen President, 
Joseph Hart, Vice-President, and Jonathan B. Smith and Samuel 
C. Morris, Secretaries. 

The President directed the reading of the resolution of the 15th 
of May, 1776, passed by the Continental Congress, which was in 
these words : — 

Whereas, his Britannic majesty, in conjunction with the liords and 
Commons of Great Britan, has, by a late act of Parliament, excluded 
the inhabitants of these United Colonies from the protection of his 
crown ; and whereas no answer whatever to the humble petitions of 
the colonies for the redress of grievances and reconciliation with 
Groat Britain has been or is likely to be given, but the whole force 
of that kingdom, aided by foreign mercenaries, is to be exerted for 
the destruction of the good people of these colonies; and whereas 
it appears absolutely irreconcilable to. reason and good conscience 
for the people of these colonies now to take the oaths and other 
matters necessary for the support of any government under the 
crown of Great Britain, and it is necessary that the exercise of every 
kind of authority, under the said crown, shall bo totally suppressed, 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 55 

and all the powers of government exerted under the authority of the 
people of the colonies, for the preservation of interval peace, virtue 
and good order, as well as for the defence of their lives, liberties, 
and properties, against the hostile invasions and cruel depredations 
of their enemies ; therefore, 

Resolved, That it be recommended to the respective assemblies 
and conventions of the United Culonies, where no government suffi- 
cient to the exigencies of their affairs has been hitherto established, 
to adopt such government as shall, in the opinion of the representa- 
tives of the people, best conduce to the happiness and safety of their 
constituents in particular and America in general. 

The Conference adopted the resolution, and resolved to adopt a 
new government in the province of Pennsylvania, on the authority 
of the people only. 

The Convention appointed Monday the 8th day of July, 17*16, for 
electing members in the different counties to said Convention, and 
fixed Monday the 15th of July, 1*7 76, for the assembling of the dele- 
gates. 

On the 15th of July, 1716, delegates from the city of Philadel- 
phia and the ten counties of the State as above specified, met in 
Philadelphia, and organized by electing Dr, Benjamin Franklin, 
President ; Col. George Ross, Vice-President ; John Morris, Secre- 
tary. The Convention terminated their session on the 28th of Sep- 
tember, 1776, and adopted a constitution, containing a declaration 
of rights and the frame of government. The commonwealth was 
to be governed by an Assembly of the representatives of the freemen 
of the State, a President and Council. In the House of Representa- 
tives the supreme legislative power was vested, but in the President 
and Council the supreme executive power was vested, under the title 
of Supreme Executive Council. 

The first Constitution of Pennsylvania, adopted July 15, 1776, 
provided that this council should consist of twelve persons, chosen 
from the counties then in existence, but provided that in case of 
the formation of new counties, such county or counties shall elect a 
councillor. The Council was required to meet annually at the same 
time and place with the General Assembly. 

The duties of the President and Executive Council (five of whom 
constituted a quorum) were to appoint all officers, civil and mili- 
tary, except such as were chosen by the people or the General 
Assembly, and to fill vacancies, grant pardons, remit fines, grant 
reprieves, see that the laws were faithfully executed, &c. &c. &c. 
Two justices of the peace for each district were elected for seven 
years. 

The Constitution also provided that a Council of Censors 
should be elected by the people on the second Tuesday of October, 
1783, and in every seventh year thereafter, whose duty was to 
inquire if the Constitution had been preserved inviolate, whether the 
different branches of government had performed their duties faith- 



56 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

fully, and whether the taxes wore justly laid, &c. &c., and to call 
a convention to amend any article of tt)e Constitution which might 
be defective. 

The first Council of Censors met on November the 10th, 178;{, 
when Waxhington County was represented by James Edgar and 
John McDowell. After examining the Constitution and its opera- 
tion, they appointed several committees and adjourned to June 1, 
IT 84, and after hearing the opinions of the members, they passed a 
resolution by a vote of fourteen to ten, that there was no absolute 
necessity to call a convention to alter, explain, or amend the Con- 
stitution, but drafted an address to the people on the necessity of 
supporting the Constitution by giving it a fair and honest trial, and 
if at the end of seven years it did not answer the desired purpose, 
to make the necessary change. 

On the 24th of March, 1789, a resolution was adopted by the 
General Assembly by a vote of forty-one to seventeen, that it was 
necessary to call a convention to revise, alter, and amend the Con- 
stitution, and for this purpose the authority was given to the people 
to elect delegates for that purpose, to meet in Philadelphia on the 
24th of November, 1789. 

This Convention met at the day appointed, with delegates from 
the city and county of Philadelphia, and the counties of Bucks, 
Chester, Lancaster, York, Cumberland, Berks, Northampton, Bed- 
ford, Westmoreland, Washington, Fayette, Franklin, Montgomery, 
Dauphin, Luzerne, Huntingdon, Delaware, Northumberland, and 
Alleghany (there being twenty counties in the State). The delegates 
from Washington County were Alexander Addison, John Hoge, 
David Reddick, and James Ross. Thomas ]\lifilin was elected 
President. This convention adjourned on the SOth of February, 
1790, to assemble on the 9th of August following, after having 
adopted a constitution, which was ordered to be printed for the 
consideration of the people of Pennsylvania. The reason given for 
a change is thus explained by Thomas McKean. The balance of 
the one, the few, and the many, is not well poised in the State; the 
legislature is too powerful for the executive and judicial branches. 
We have now but one branch ; we must have another branch, a 
negative in the executive, stability in our laws, and permanency 
in our magistracy, before we shall be reputable, safe, and ha)ipy. 

The delegates reassembled at the time and place appointed, and . 
after a careful review and an investigation of the Constitution, 
adopted the same on September 2, 1790, by a vote of sixty-one to 
one, and was officially proclaimed as such. 

In the Constitution of 1790, the legislative power was vested in 
the Senate and House of Representatives, and not in the House of 
Representatives alone, as in the Constitution of 1776. 

The supreme executive power was vested in the Governor, while 
in the Constitution of 1776 it was in the President and Supreme 
Executive Council. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 51 

The Constitution of 1790 going into effect, the Supreme Executive 
Council was abolished, and on the 22d of April, 1794, an act was 
passed vesting- all the powers of the late Supreme Executive Coun- 
cil in the Governor, unless otherwise vested by law. On the 28th 
of March, 1825, an act was passed by the legislature to ascertain 
the opinion of the people relative to the call of a convention. 

On the second Tuesday of October, 1825, the people, by ballot, 
decided against the proposed convention. On the second of May, 
1837, a State Convention assembled at Harrisburg to amend the 
Constitution. Hon. John Sergeant, of Philadelphia, was chosen 
President. This Convention continued in session until the July 
following, when it adjourned and reassembled in October. In the 
following December the Convention removed to Philadelphia and 
finally closed their labors on the 22d of February, 1838. The pro- 
posed amendments to the Constitution were adopted by the people 
at the annual October election of the same year. 

I shall now proceed to give extracts from the proceedings of the 
Supreme Executive Council, on subjects referring to Washington 
County. 

Philadelphia, Monday, April 2, 1781. 

Present: His Excellency Joseph Reed, Esq., President, the Vice- 
President, and members of the Supreme Executive Council. 

The Council taking into consideration the act of Assembly passed the 
28tli inst., entitled " An act for erecting part of the county of Westmore- 
land into a special county" called by the name of Washington. 

Resolved, That Thomas Scott, Esq., be appointed and commissioned to 
be the Prothonotary of the said county of Washington. 

Resolved, That James Marshal, Esq., be appointed and commissioned to 
be Lieutenant of the county of Washington, and that John Cannon and 
David Lite (Leet) be appointed and commissioned to be the sub-Lieuten- 
ants of the said county. 

Philadelphia, April 4, 1781. 

Present : His Excellency Joseph Reed, Esq., President, and Executive 
Council. 

James Marshal, Esq., appointed by the Honorable House of Assembly 
to be Register for the Probate of Wills and granting letters of administra- 
tion, and Recorder of Deeds for the county of Washington, and by this 
Board to be Lieutenant of the said county, attended in council and took 
the several oaths necessary to qualify him for the said offices respectively. 

Philadelphia, April 20, 1781. 

Present : His Excellency Joseph Reed, Esq., President, and Executive 
Council. 

Ordered, That Colonel James Marshal, Lieutenant of the county of Wash- 
ington, be authorized and directed to call out forty men of the militia of 
that county, or if the militia shall not be organized sufficient for that pur- 
pose, to raise the said number of men for the purpose of escorting and 
guarding the commissioners appointed to run the line between this State 
and Virginia^ during the time they shall be on that service, and that he be 
5 



58 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

authorized to call on the commanding officer at Fort Pitt for ammunition 
for that purpose. 
Col. Daniel Broadhead was commandant at Fort Pitt. 

Philadelphia, August 23, 1781. 

Present : His Excellency the President and E.xeculive Couueil. 

Ecturns of Justices for the following townships in the county of "Wash- 
ington were received and read, by which it appears that the following gen- 
tlemen were elected : — 

Peters township. John Douglass and Robert Thompson. 

Nottingham toivnship. Benjamin Parkinson and Joseph Parkinson. 

Strabane toivnship. (In which is the place called Catfish Camp, ordered 
bylaw to be the seat of justice). Daniel Leet, Henry Taylor, John White, 
Jsicholas Little, Alexander Eddy, and David Clark. 

Amwdl toionship. Abner Howell and John Craig. 

Donegal toivnship. Samuel Mason and Samuel Williamson. 

Hopewell toivnship. William Scott and John ]\Iarshall. 
> Fallowfield toivnship. John Parker, John Hall, east end, and John Ste- 
venson and Patrick McCnllough, west end of said township. 

Smith's township. Samuel Johnston and James Edgar. 

Cecil toivnship. Matthew McConnell and John Reed. 

On consideration. 

Resolved, That Henry Taylor, William Scott, John Craig, John White, 
Daniel Leet, John Marshall, John Douglass, Benjamin Parkinson, John 
Reed, Abner Howell, Matthew McConnell, Samuel Johnston, and Samuel 
Mason, be ap])ointed and commissioned justices of the peace, of the court 
of Common Pleas, and of the Orphans' Court of the county of Washing- 
ton, and that a general commission be issued accordingly. 

Philadelphia, October 11, 1781. 

Present : The Honorable the Vice-President and Executive Council. 

The Council took into consideration a resolve of Congress of the 24th of 
September last, appointing Brigadier-General William Irvine to the com- 
mand of Fort Pitt, and thereupon 

Ordered, That agreeably to the said recommendation, the Lieutenant of 
the county of Washington be ordered to call forth, agreeably to law, upon 
his requisition," such militia as may be necessary for that post and the pro- 
tection of the county. 

Philadelphia, Nov. 19, 1781. 

Present : His Excellency the President, the Vice-President, and Execu- 
tive Council. 

Dorsey Pentecost, councillor elect for the county of Washington, attend- 
ed in council and took the oath of allegiance and oath of office required by 
the Constitution, and thereupon took his seat at the Board as a member 
thereof. 

Philadelphia, 'Nov. 21, 1781. 

Present : His Excellency the President, Vice-President, and Executive 
Council. ' 

A return of an election said to have been held at the house of Pjzekiel 
Roe, in Bethlehem township in Washington County, for electing justices 
of the peace for said township, was presented and read, and on inquiry, it 
appeared that the said election was not appointed by a justice of the peace 
for the said county, where a "vacancy had happened," the ■case provided 
for by law, but in consequence of a neglect to choose according to the di- 
rections of the law, wherefore the said election isvoid. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 59 

The Council therefore proceeded to the choice of a justice of the peace 
for the said township of Bethlehem, agreeably to the directions of the act 
of Assembly, entitled "A further supplement to an act entitled, 'an act di- 
recting the mode and time of electing justices of the peace for the city of 
Philadelphia, and the several counties in tliis commonwealth, and for other 
purposes herein mentioned,' " and appointed Thomas Crooks, Esq. 

Ordered, That he be commissioned accordingly. 
In Council. Philadelphia, Nov. 24, 1781. 

A free conference being had, it appeared to be the sentiments of the 
Council and of the Committee, that an additional company is necessary for 
the defence of Washington County, and to complete the four companies 
now established, and that it might loe proper to make application to Con- 
gress for such assistance from the United States as would render an incur- 
sion into the Indian country prudent and practicable. 
In Council. Philadelphia, Nov. 30, 1781. 

A petition from Thomas Bay, of "Washington County, praying to be re- 
imbursed for sundry expenses he has been at in raising twelve volunteers 
in the spring of the year 1780 for the defence of the said county was read, 
and thereupon 

Resolved, That the said petition be presented to the General Assembly. 

A return of the general election of the county of Washington was read, 
by which it appears that the following gentlemen were duly elected, viz : 
Councillor, Dorsey Pentecost; Reprcnentatives, James Edgar and John 
Cannon; Sheriffs, Van Swearingen and Andrew Swearingen ; Coroners, 
William McFarlane and William McComb ; Commissioners, George Vallan- 
dingham, Thomas Crooks, and John McDowell. 

On consideration, 

Resolved, That Van Swearingen be appointed sheriff of the county of 
Washington, and that William McFarlane be appointed coroner of the said 
county, and that they be commissioned accordingly. 

Van Swearingen, P]sq., sheriff elect for the county of Washington, now 
offers Andrew Swearingen and Richard Yeates as sureties for the faithful 
performance of the duties of his office of sheriff, according to law, and the 
same are approved. 
In Council. Philadelphia, Dec. 6, 1781. 

Resolved, That William Scott of Cross Creek, and Andrew Heath be 
appointed agents of forfeited estates in the county of Washington. 
In Council. Philadelphia, Dec. 11, 1781. 

Ordered, That Col. Lewis Farmer be directed to purchase the following 
articles of clothing for the company of rangers to be raised in Washington 
County.* Fifty coats, fifty waistcoats, fifty pair of overalls, fifty hats, one 
hundred shirts, one hundred pairs of shoes, and fifty blankets. 

The Hon. Dorsey Pentecost, Esq., presented to the Board a state of the 
accounts of James Marshal, Esq., Lieutenant of the county of Washing- 
ton, agreeably to the 19th section of the militia law of this State, and the 
same being considered. 

Resolved, That the said accounts be transmitted to the Auditors of the 
public accounts. 

Philadelphia, Dec. 1, 1781. 

A letter from John Conner, Esq., of the 10th inst., inclosing his com- 
mission of sub-Lieutenant of the county of Washington, and praying this 
Board to accept his resignation thereof, was read, and on consideration, 
Resolved, That the same be accepted. 

* See December 27, 1781. 



60 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

On consideration, Philadelphia, Dec. 19, 1781. 

Ordered, That Captain Joseph Stiles, commissary of military stores, be 
directed to deliver to the Hon. Dorsey Pentecost, Esq., five hundred vreight 
of gunpowder, one thousand weight of lead, and one thousand flints, to be 
forwarded to Col. James Marshal, Lieutenant of the county of AVashing- 
ton, for the defence of the frontiers of the said county. 

Philadelphia, Dec. 20. 1781. 

An order was drawn on the Treasurer in favor of the Honorable John 
Piper, Esq., for the sura of three pounds specie and the sum of nineteen 
pounds specie, being money advanced by him for the carriage of Captain 
Boyd's Company of Rangers in Bedford County, and for the carriage of pow- 
der and lead for the counties of Washington, Westmoreland, and Bedford. 

The Honorable Dorsey Pentecost, Esq., presented to the Board his ac- 
count for 31 days' attendance in Council from the 19th of November to the 
20th of December inst., at 25 shillings per day £38.15 

Mileage. 350 miles coming from Washington County at 1 shilling 

per mile 17.10 



Balance specie £56.05 

And therefore an order was drawn on the Treasurer in favor of the Honor- 
able Dorsey Pentecost, Esq.. for the sum of fifty-si.K pounds, five shillings 
specie, amount of the said account. 

Philadelphia, Dec. 24, 1781. 

The Council took into consideration the appointment of sub-Lieutenants 
for the county of Washington, agreeably to the militia laws of this State ; 
and William McCleary, William Parker, George Yallandingham, and Mat- 
thew Ritchie being recommended ; on consideration. 

Resolved, That William McCleary, William Parker, George Yalanding- 
ham, and Matthew Ritchie be appointed sub-Lieutcuants of the county of 
Washington, and that they be commissioned accordingly. 

Philadelphia, Dec. 27. 1781. 

The Council, taking into consideration the appointing ofiBcers for the 
Ranging Company for the county of Washington, 

Resolved, 'i'hat John Hughes, Esq., be appointed and commissioned to 
be Captain of a company of Rangers to be raised in the county of Washing- 
ton, and that Gabriel Peterson be appointed Lieutenant and James Morri- 
son, Ensign of the said company, and that they be commissioned accord- 
ingly. 

Philadelphia, Dec. 29, 1781. 

On consideration of the proposals made by John Cannon, Esq., for sup- 
plying the militia and Rangers of the county of Washington which may be 
employed for the defence of the frontiers of said county 

Ordered, That twelve pence per ration, in specie, be allowed for the ra- 
tions delivered at such places as the said troops may from time to time be 
stationed within the said county of Washington. 

The rations to consist of 

One pound of bread ; one pound of beef or three-fourths pound of pork ; 
one gill of whiskey per day and one quart of salt and two quarts of vinegar, 
to every hundred rations. 

Eight pounds of soap and three pounds of candles to every seven hundred 
rations. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 61 

Philadelphia, Jan. 5, 1782. 

Resolved, John Hughes be appointed Captain, Gabriel Peterson Lieu- 
tenant, and James Morrison Ensign of the Company of Rangers to be raised 
in the county of "Washington for the defence of the frontiers. 

Resolved, That the sum of two hundred and fifty pounds specie be paid 
into the hands of Henry Taylor, Esq., to be by him delivered out to Captain 
John Hughes, Lieutenant Peterson, and Ensign Morrison for the purpose 
of recruiting the company of Rangers for the county of Washington. 

Philadelphia, Jan. 8, 1782. 

The Council, taking into consideration the exposed situation of the fron- 
tier counties, tlie probability of invasions of them by parties of Indians, and 
the impossibility of obtaining particular orders from the Council for calling 
out in due time the militia of the said counties iu such cases. 

Ordered, That the Lieutenant of the county of Washington be authorized 
and empowered to call out such and so many militia, according to law, as 
they may judge necessary for repelling the enemy. 

Philadelphia, Jan. 29, 1782. 
An order was drawn on the Treasurer in favor of John McCashem for 
the sum of ten pounds specie for paying for the transportation of clothing 
for the ranging companies of Washington and Westmoreland counties from 
Philadelphia to Shippensburg. 

Philadelphia, Feb. 26, 1782. 
A letter from the Commissioners of the Taxes of the county of Washing- 
ton, respecting the collection of the taxes was received and read, and on 
consideration ordered that the same be transmitted to the General Assem- 
bly of the State. 

Philadelphia, March 5,1782. 
Ordered, That Captain Joseph Stiles, Commissary of Military Stores, 
be directed to deliver to the Honorable Dorsey Pentecost one thousand 
flints, fifty stand of arms, and fifty pouches, to be forwarded to the Lieuten- 
ant of the county of Washington for the use of the Ranging company to be 
raised in the said county. 

Philadelphia, March 9, 1782. 
An order was drawn on the Treasurer in favor of the Honorable Christo- 
pher Hayes, Esq., for the sum of eighteen pounds fifteen shillings specie 
for paying for the transportation of arms and ammunition from the city to 
Conocheague for the defence of the frontiers of Washington, Westmoreland, 
and Bedford counties. 

Philadelphia, March 18, 1782. 
The Honorable Dorsey Pentecost, Esq., pi-esented to the Board the fol- 
lowing account, viz., 

Dr. The State of Pennsylvania in account with Dorsey Pentecost, Esq., 
For attendance in council from the 20th of December, 1781, to the 23d of 

March, 1782—94 days at 17s. 6. £82.5 

And thereupon an order was drawn on the Treasurer in favor of the 
Honorable Dorsey Pentecost, Esq., for the sum of eighty-two pounds, five 
shillings specie, amount of the said account. 

Philadelphia, March 30, 1782. 
Ordered, That James Alison be appointed sub-Lieutenant of the county 
of Washington in the room of Daniel Leet, who has resigned. 



62 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Philadelphia, March 30. 1782, 
The Board being informed by letter and a return inclosed, on the 4th oi' 
February last, from Col. James Marshal, Lieutenant of the county of 
Washinfrton, that there were irregularities in the election of some of the 
militia officers of the said county, and others had refused to serve, 

Resolved, That the said Lieutenant be directed to proceeded with all 
convenient speed, to fill up the said vacancies agreeably to law, in order 
that commissions may issue. 

Philadelphia, April 2, 1782. 
An order drawn on the Treasurer in favor of the Honorable Dorsey Pen- 
tecost, Esq , for the sum of twelve pounds ten shillings specie, to be paid 
to Adam Poe for taking an Indian scalp in the county of "Washington, 
agreeably to the proclamation of the Board. 

Philadelphia, April .3, 1782. 

A return of justices for the township of Somerset, in the county of 
Washington, was received and read, by which it appears that Wm. Parker 
and John Stevenson were duly elected justices for the said township, there- 
upon 

Resolved, That Wilham Parker, Esq., be appointed a justice of peace for 
the county of "Washington, and commissioned accordingly. 

Philadelphia, April 6, 1782. 
Ordered, That the Lieutenant of the county of Washington be authorized 
and required to call into service, and put under the direction of Alexander 
McClean, Esq., such number of militia as the said McCleun may judge ne- 
cessary for guards to the commissioners for running the line between the 
States of Virginia and Pennsylvania, not exceeding one hundred. 

Philadelphia. April 8, 1782. 

The Honorable Dorsey Pentecost, Esq., presented to the Board the fol- 
lowing account for his attendance in council, from the 24th of March, till 
the 9th of April, 1782 ; 17 days at 17s. 6d. £14 17s. 6d. 

Thereupon an order was drawn on the Treasurer in favor of the Honorable 
Dorsey Pentecost, Esq., for the sum of fourteen pounds seventeen shillings 
and sixpence specie, amount of the above account. 

Philadelphia, April 15, 1782. 

A return of justices from Robinson township in the county of AVashing- 
ton was received and read, by which it appears that Alexander Wright 
and James Krvins were duly elected justices for said township, thereupon, 

Resolved, That Alexander Wright be appointed a justice of peace for 
the county of Washington, and commissioned accordingly. 

Wherkas, It hath been represented to this Board, that the freeholders 
of the townships of Cumberland and Morgan in the county of Washington 
{noio Greene) have each of them neglected to choose two fit persons, on 
the 15th day of July, 1781, agreeable to the act of Assembly passed the 
28th of March, 1781, entitled an "Act for erecting part of the county of 
Westmoreland into a separate county" to serve as justices of the peace. 

And whereas, By a clause in an act of Assembly entitled "A further 
supplement to the act entitled 'an act directing the mode and time of elect- 
ing justices of the peace for the city and the several counties of the com- 
monwealth, and for other purposes therein mentioned,' passed August 31, 
1778," it is enacted that where the freeholders of any district, county, town, 
township, or ward within this commonwealth have refused or neglected, 
or shall hereafter refuse or neglect to elect justices of the peace, agreeably 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 63 

to the directions of the before recited acts, or of the further provisions 
herein made, that then it shall and may be lawful to and for the President or 
Vice-president in council, to commission a suitable number of justices of 
the peace to fill up such vacancies agreeably to the number -settled in 
the aforesaid recited acts, therefore 

Ordered, That John Minor be appointed a justice of the peace for the 
township of Cumberland, and Levi Karrod be a appointed a justice of the 
peace for the township of Morgan in the county of Washington, and that 
commissions be issued accordingly. 

In Council. Philadelphia, April 17, 1782. 

An order was drawn on the Treasurer in favor of John Cannon, Esq., for 
the sum of one hundred pounds specie, in part of contract for supplying 
the troops stationed in the county of Washington with provisions, for which 
he is to account. 

The Honorable Dorsey Pentecost, Esq., presented to the Board the fol- 
lowing account for his attendance in council, viz.: — - 

From the 9th till the 17th of April, 1782, 8 days at 7s. 6d. $7.00, and 
thereupon an order was drawn for the amount of said account. 

In Council. Philadelphia, June 12, 1782. 

An order was drawn on the Treasurer in favor of Captain John Hughes 
of the company of Rangers to be raised in the county of Washington, for 
the sum of sixty-five pounds specie, being two months pay for himself. 
Lieutenant Gabriel Peterson and P]nsign James Morrison, officers of the 
said company for which they are to account. 

Ordered, That Captain John Hughes, of the company of Rangers to be 
raised in the county of Washington, be directed to give a bounty, not ex- 
ceeding nine pounds specie, for such recruits as he may raise till his com- 
pany be completed. 

In Council. Philadelphia, July 12, 1782. 

Ordered, That the Lieutenant of the county of Washington be directed 
not to call out a greater number than one hundred militia at any one time 
for the defence of the frontiers of the county, but by special order of this 
Board. 
In Council. Philadelphia, July 25, 1782. 

Ordered, That a special commission of Oyer and Terminer and General 
Gaol Delivery, directed to the Honorable Christopher Hayes and Dorsey 
Pentecost, Esquires, and Edward Coolie, Esq., be now issued to the county 
of Washington, for the trial of divers persons now confined in the gaol of 
the said county charged with high crimes and misdemeanors. 

In Council. Philadelphia, August 14. 1782. 

Ordered, That the county of Washington be directed to make out and 
return to the Board pay rolls of moneys due to the militia of the said county, 
with the proper vouchers for the same. 

In Council. Philadelphia, September 28, 1782. 

Ordered, That the Lieutenant of the county of Washington be directed 
to call out no more militia after the expiration of the time of those now in 
service ; his Excellency George Washington having received intelligence 
that the British have called in all the savages, and that no more parties are 
to be permitted to be sent out against the frontiers. 

In Council. Philadelphia, October 26, 1782. 

A letter from Thomas Scott, Esq., of Washington County, with a return 
of justices for Cumberland township in said county, was received and read. 



C4 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

by •which return it appears that William McCleary and John Armstrong 
wore duly cloctcd justices. On consideration: Ordered, That the said 
letter and return lie on the table for consideration. 

In Couxcil. Philadelphia, October 26, 1782. 

The Council resumed the consideration ul'tlic letter from Thomas Hcott, 
Esq., and the return of justices for Cumberland township, Washington 
County ; and thereupon, 

Ordered, 'JMuit a letter be written to the said Thomas Scott, Esq., inform- 
ing him that Council think it not quite prudi'ut to issue a commission upon 
so old a return as that in which Mr. Edgar is mentioned, unless a petition 
iVom the people of the district had supported the sentiment expressed in 
his letter ; and that they have also thought it best to delay their decision 
on the return now received, as they are informed it is probable that one of 
the gentlemen named therein may he returned a member of the General 
Assembly ; but when that point is known, the Council will nominate and 
issue the commission, so as to forward it by the first opportunity. 

Ix Council. Philadelphia, November 26, 1782. 

Petition of David Hoge was read, stating that he had conveyed a piece 
of land to the commissioners to build a courthouse and prison in Wash- 
ington County, and praying the said commissioners may lie ordered to report 
their proceedings as soon as may be to this Board. (See March 14, 1783.) 

In Council. Pliiladelphia, December 4, 1782. 

A return of the general election for the county of AVashington was 
received and read, by which it appears that the following gentlemen were 
duly elected : — 

liepreseutah'ves. Matthew Ritchie and William McCleary. Sherijff^s. 
Yan Svvearingeu and Andrew Swearingen. Coroners. William ]McFar- 
lane and John Marshall. Commissioner. George McCormick. And the 
same being considered. 

Ordered, That Van Swearingen, Esq., be appointed sheriff of the county 
of Washington, and that AVilliam jNlcFarlane l)e appointed coroner of the 
said county, and that they be commissionc*;! accordingly. 

Yan Swearingen, Esq., sheriff elect for the county of Washington, offers 
Matthew Ritchie and John Cornaghan as sureties for the faithful discharge 
of the duties of his office of sheriff of the said county, according to law, 
which the Council approve. 

In Council. Philadelphia, February 1.5, 1783. 

An order was drawn on the Treasurer, in favor of Col. John Cannon, 
for ninety-live ])ounds si.x shillings, balance of his account for rations fur- 
nished to the militia and rangers in AVashington County, from February, 
1782, till February, 1783. 

In Council. Philadelphia, March 5. 1783. 

A petition from Anne'Browne, Jean McCulloch, Frances Morgan. Agnes 
Reed, Catharine I'ecas, Leah Norris, Anne Straight, Hannah Russel, 
Nancy I'eckerol, Elizal)eth Shanks, Elizabeth Palmer, and Mary Patter- 
son, convicted of fornication and Inistardy, in the county of Washington, 
and sentenced each of them 1o pay a fine of ten pounds to the use of the 
State, praying remission of tlieir fines, was read, and thereupon 

Ordered, That the fines adjudged to be paid to the use of the State by 
the persons before mentioned, be remitted. 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 65 

In Council. Philadelphia, March 6, 1783. 

An order was drawn on the Treasurer in favor of the Honorable Dorsey 
Pentecost, for sixteen pounds, for three hundred and twenty miles' riding 
to Philadelphia, at one shilling per mile. 

In Council. Philadelphia, March 14, 1783. 

A report from Hugh Scott, Daniel Leet, Van Swearingen, and John 
Armstrong, of the county of Washington, appointed by an act of General 
Assembly of the 28th of March, 1781, to purchase a piece of land in said 
county, thereon to build a court-house and prison, was received and read, 
setting forth that, agreeably to the directions of the said act, they have 
purchased from David Hoge a piece or parcel of land, within one mile of 
the centre of said county, for the purpose expressed in the said act, and 
submitting the same to the approbation of the Council; whereupon. 

Ordered, That the said report be accepted and approved accordingly. 

In Council. Philadelphia, March 17, 1783. 

Ordered, That an order be drawn on the Treasurer in favor of Captain 
John Hughes, Lieutenant Gabriel Peterson, and Ensign James Morrison, 
of the company of rangers in the county of Washington, to be charged to 
their account ; 

Ordered, That a letter be written to Henry Taylor, Esq., of the said 
county, requesting him to pay to the non-commissioned officers and privates 
of Captain John Hughes' Company of Eangers two months' pay. 

In Council. Philadelphia, March 21, 1783. 

An order was drawn on the Treasurer, in favor of Mr. Matthew Ritchie, 
for twenty-five pounds specie, to be paid by him to Alexander Wright and 
William Minor, being the reward allowed by proclamation of Council for 
two Indian scalps taken in the county of Washington. 

The Council taking into consideration the proclamation of the 22d day 
of April, 1780, offering a reward for Indian scalps, and the reasons upon 
which the same was founded no longer continuing, 

Resolved, That the same be made null and void, anything therein con- 
tained to the contrary notwithstanding. 

Ordered, That the foregoing resolution be sent to the Lieutenants of the 
county of Washington. 

In Council. Philadelphia, March 22, 1783. 

Resolved, ThatCouncil has no further use for the service of Captain John 
Hughes, commanding the Washington County Rangers, after the 5th of 
April next. That Captain Hughes be informed that Council return him 
thanks for the service he has rendered the State while in their employ. 

An order was drawn in favor of Captain John Hughes, for thirty pounds 
specie, being two months' pay advanced to him, for which he is to account, 
to be paid out of the fund appropriated to the frontier defence. 

In Council. Philadelphia, March 25, 1783. 

An order was received on the Treasurer in favor of Honorable Dorsey 
Pentecost, Esq., for forty pounds, seven shillings and six pence, specie, 
amount of his account for his attendance in council from the 10th of 
February till the 26th of March, 1783. 

In Council. Philadelphia, April 1, 1783. 

The Comptroller General's report upon the account of James Marshall, 
Esq., Lieutenant of the county of Washington, was read and approved. 



6G HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

In Council. Philadelphia, May 1, 1783. 

Ordered, That Capt. Joseph Stiles, Commissary of Military Stores, be 
directed to deliver four hundred and fifteen pounds of powder and eight 
cwt. weight of lead, to Col. Christopher Hays, for the use of the militia of 
Washington and Westmoreland counties. 

Ordered, That letters be written enjoining it upon the Lieutenants of the 
said counties not to issue any part of this ammunition upon the receipts of 
the officers commanding corps, and that the same obligation be carried 
down to the private soldier. 
In Council. Philadelphia, May 24, 1783. 

A letter from John Cannon, Esq., contractor for the subsistence of the 
Washington Rangers, was read. 
In Council. Philadelphia, May 29, 1783. 

The Comptroller General's report upon the account of Thomas Scott, 
Esq., Prothonatory of Washington County, was read and approved. 

In Council. Philadelphia, June 6, 1783. 

Ordered, That the Washington Ranging Company be immediately dis- 
charged from the service of the State, but that in settlement of accounts 
they be entitled to pay and rations till the first day of July next. The 
eldest officer of the company lately commanded by Capt. John Hughes, is 
therefore directed to put all his vouchers, &c., into the hands of Captains 
Boyd and Stokely. The corps is also informed that Council, under a sense 
of their many services, will take some early moment to call the attention of 
the Assembly to their situation, and that no disposition or good offices 
shall be wanting to render it as easy as possible. 

In Council. Philadelphia, August 27, 1783. 

A letter was delivered to the Clerk of the General Assembly from 
Thomas Scott, Prothonotary of Washington County, in reply to several 
letters from Council upon the subject of the late communication from Vir- 
ginia. 
In Council. Philadelphia, August 28, 1783. 

The Comptroller Genei-al's report upon the accounts of James Pollock 
and William Cocheran, Esqs., was read and approved. 

In Council. Philadelphia, September 23, 1783. 

An order was drawn on the Treasurer in favor of the Honorable Dorsey 
Pentecost, Esq., fur thirty-one pounds, fifteen shillings, in full fur his attend- 
ance in council to this day, inclusive, and his mileage. 

In Council. Philadelphia, October 6, 1783. 

The Honorable Dorsey Pentecost, Esq., sent in a resignation of his seat 
at this Board, which was read and accepted. 

In Council. Philadelphia, October 7, 1783. 

The following report from the Comptroller General was read and 
approved, upon the accounts of Thomas Scott, Esq., Prothonotary of 
Washington County, for ta.\ arising from writs in said county. 

In Council. Philadelphia, October 10, 1783. 

An order was drawn on the Treasurer in favor of Honorable Dorsey Pen- 
tecost, Esq., for fifteen pounds fifteen shillings specie, in full for his attend- 
ance in council till the Gth inst., inclusive. 

In Council. Philadelphia, October 31, 1783. 

Resolved, That Dorsey Pentecost, Esq., be appointed a Judge in, and 
President of, the Court of Common Pleas for the county of Washington. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 67 

In Council. Philadelphia, November 10, 1783, 

The roturn of the General Election held in the county of Washington 
was received and read, by which it appears that the following gentlemen 
were duly elected, viz : — 

Censors. James Edgar, John McDowell. 

Councillor. John Neville. 

Representatives. John Stephenson, Matthew Ritchie. 

Sheriffs. Van Swearingcn, Andrew Swearingen. 

Coroners. William McFurlanc, William McComb. 

Commissioner. Demas Lindley. 

On consideration. Ordered, That Van Swearingen be appointed sheriff, 
and William McFarlane coroner of the county of Washington, and that 
they be commissioned accordingly. 

Van Swearingen, Esq., now offers John Neville, Andrew Swearingen, and 
Dorsey Pentecost, Esqrs., of the county of Washington, as sureties for the 
faithful performance of the duties of his ofBce for the said county, accord- 
ing to law, which the Council approve. 

In Council. Philadelphia, November 14, 1783. 

A representation from the magistracy of Washington County, upon the 
complaints of John Campbell and John Coxe, was read. 

In Council. Philadelphia, November 20, 1783. 

The following order was drawn on the Treasurer, viz : In favor of John 
Cannon, Esq., for two hundred and seventy-four pounds five shillings, in 
full, for rations furnished to Rangers and militia in Washington County 
till August 1783, inclusively, to be paid out of the frontier fund. 

In Council. Philadelphia, January 20, 1784. 

The Comptroller General's report upon the account of James Marshall, 
Esq., Lieutenant, and James Allison, late sub-Lieutenant of Washington 
County, was read. 

In Council. Philadelphia, March 26, 1784. 

The Comptroller's report upon the account of Samuel Beeler for pro- 
visions furnished to the Washington County militia, was read and approved. 

In Council. Philadelphia, March 30, 1784. 

The Comptroller's report upon the account of Matthew Ritchie, late 
sub-Lieutenant of the county, was read and approved. 

In Council. Philadelphia, April 5, 1784. 

The report of the Comptroller-General upon the account of Colonel Wil- 
liam Parker, late sub-Lieutenant of Washington County, was read and 
approved. 

In Council. Philadelphia, June 10, 1784. 

John White attended, and Council agreed to allow him twenty-one pounds 
ten shillings for riding express to the counties of Washington, Westmore- 
land, Bedford, Cumberland, York, Lancaster, and Chester, with dispatches 
to the several sheriffs of said counties, for calling the General Assembly, 
and thereupon an order was drawn in his favor for fifteen pounds specie in 
part of said sum. 

In Council. Philadelphia, July 23, 1784. 

A letter from James Marshall, Esq., Lieutenant of the county of Wash- 
ington, was read. 



68 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

In Council Philadelphia, August 12, 1784. 

'J'he Comptroller General's report upon the accounts of Hon. John 

McDowell and James Edfar, Esqs., and orders drawn on the Treasurer for 
the "..•... - , n , •„• , . n „ . ., . .. , 




In Council. Philadelphia, September 10, 1784. 

The record of the conviction of Thomas Richardson of burglary in the 
count}' of Washington, was read and considered ; upon which it was 

licsolved, That execution of the sentence of the court be made and done 
upon him, the said Thomas Richardson, on Saturday, the 2d day of Octo- 
ber next, between the hours of ten of the clock in the forenoon and two of 
the clock in the afternoon of the same day, at the most proper and public 
place within the said county. 

In Council. Philadelphia, September 25, 1784. 

An order was drawn upon the Treasurer of the State in favor of James 
Edgar, Esq. (for fifty-six pounds eighteen shillings), amember of the Coun- 
cil of Censors, for his wages, for attendance in the said Council until this 
day, to be paid according to the resolution of the General Assembly, dated 
the 22d day of November, 1783. 

In Council. Philadelphia, September 27, 1784. 

An order was drawn on the Treasurer in favor of Henry Taylor, Esq., 
for the sum of two pounds five shillings specie, for his services in paying 
the Ranging Company of Washington County, late commanded by Captain 
Hughes, agreeably to the Comptroller-General's report. 

In Council. Philadelphia, September, 28, 1784. 

The Comptroller-General's reports upon the following accounts were 
read and approved : For provisions furnished to the AVashingtun County 
militia by William Cam])bell, Richard Elson, John Smith, William Rankin, 
Thomas Cherry, John Nichols, Henry Enoch, David Shepherd, Thomas 
Rankin, Stephen Treacle, Demus Lindley, James Marshall, Jr., and George 
Atkinson. 

In Council. P/i?7arfe7p7(m, September 29, 1784, 

The Comptroller-Generara report upon the account of Captain Craig 
Ritchie, for the pay of his company of Washington County militia — also 
upon the account of William McCleary, Esq., sub-Lieutenant of the county 
of Washington, was read — and approved September 30, 1784. 

In Council. Philadelphia, October 6, 1784. 

Matthew Ritchie and John Cannon, Esqs., were appointed justices of the 
county Court of Common Pleas in and for the county of Washington. 

In Council. PJiiladelphia, October, 19, 1784. 

A petition from divers inhabitants of AVashington County, complaining 
of the conduct of the commissioners of taxes in said county, in laying the 
taxes in a partial manner to the great injury of the petitioners, was read 
and thereupon 

Ordered, That a copy of said complaint be transmitted to the said com- 
missioners, and that they be directed to explain to Council their conduct 
with respect to the petitioners (which was accordingly done). 

\ 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 69 

In Council, Philadelphia, October 26, 1784. 

Upon the petition of Rachel Cotton, convicted of fornication in the 
county of Washington, it was 

Ordered, That her fine be remitted. 

In Council. Philadelphia, November 1, 1784. 

The return of the general election held in the county of Washington 
was received and read, by which it appears the following gentlemen were 
duly elected : — 

Representatives. Matthew Ritchie, John Stevenson. 

Sheriffs. James Marshall, Daniel Leet. 

Coroners. William McCombs, Robert Benson. 

Commissioner. James Allison. 

On consideration. 

Ordered, That James Marshall, Esq., be appointed and commissioned 
to be sheriff of said county of Washington, and that William McCombs, 
Esq., be appointed and commissioned coroner of said county. James Mar- 
shall, Esq., offered John Hoge and John Stevenson, Esqs., as sureties for 
the faithful discharge of the duties of his ofiTice of sheriff for the said county, 
according to law, which the Council approved. 

James Marshall's resignation of his office of Register and Recorder of 
Deeds in and for the county of Washington was read. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Nov. 3, 1784. 

A bond was executed in Council by James Marshall, John Stevenson, 
and John Hoge, in the sum of one thousand pounds, for the said James 
Marshall's faithful performance of the duties of his office of sheriff" of the 
county of Washington according to law. 

James Marshall's resignation of the office of Lieutenant of the county of 
Washington, was read and not accepte 

In Council. Philadelphia, Nov. 10, 1784. 

The Comptroller-General's report upon the account of Col. James Mar- 
shall, Lieutenant of the county of Washington, by which it appears that a 
balance of eight hundred and twenty-six pounds eighteen shillings and 
three pence, specie, is due to him, was read and approved and an order 
drawn in his favor for the sum of fifty pounds specie, in part of the said 
balance. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Nov. 16, 1784. 

The Comptroller-General's report upon the account of Captain John 
Hughes, late of a company of rangers raised in the county of Washington, 
was read and approved. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Nov. 17, 1784, 

A dedimus potestatem was issuea to Thomas Scott and Thomas Stokely, 
Esqs., of the county of Washington. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Nov. 19, 1784, 

Thomas Stokely, Esq., was commissioned to be register of, and probate 
of wills, and granting letters of administration, and recoi'der of deeds in 
the county of Washington, in consequence of an appointment to those of- 
fices by the General Assembly. 

In Council. Philadelphia, January 22, 1785. 

The Comptroller- General's report upon the account of Ensign James 
Morrison, of Captain John Hughes' company of rangers of the county of 
Washington, was read and approved, the balance due to him being ninety 
pounds. 



70 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Jn Council. Philadelphia, Jan. 25, 1785. 

An order was drawn upon the Treasurer iu favor of Lieut. James Morri- 
son, late of Capt. John Hughes' company of rangers in Washington Coun- 
ty, for the sum of fifteen pounds, being two months' pay, for which he is to 
be accountable. 

In Council. Philadelphia. Jan. 27, 178.'3. 

The Comptroller-General's report upon the following accounts were read 
and apj) roved, viz : — 

Of Jonathan Hennard and David Buble, for provisions furnished to the 
Washington County militia. ""' 

Of Dorsey Pentecost, Esq., for disbursements in raising Capt. Hughes' 
company of rangers. 

Of AVilliam Marshall, for losses sustained in the Indian expedition of 1781. 

Of the pay due the non-commissioned officers and privates of Captain 
Hughes' company. 

Of Lieut. Gabriel Peterson, for pay in the said company. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Feb. 11, 1785. 

Henry Vanmetre elected justice of the peace for Cumberland township, 
and commissioned according to law. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Feb. 24, 1785. 

The Comptroller-General's report upon the account of Captain Andrew 
Swearingen's ranging company, for pay from Marsh to November, 1781. 

In Council. Philadelphia., March 1, 1785. 

The return of an election of justices of the peace for the district of Fal- 
lowfield and county of Washington, was read and postponed. 

In Council. Philadelphia, March 2, 1785. 

The Comptroller-General's reports upon the following accounts were read 
and ap]) roved, viz : — 

Of Craig Kitchie and Andrew Munroe, for horses lost in the Sandusky 
expedition. 

Of Lieut.-Col. George Vallandingham, for militia services. 

Of the aforesaid Capt. Craig Ritchie for rations due him from the 20th 
of May to the 20th of June, 1782. 

Of Van Swearingen, Esq., for provisions furnished the ranging company 
of Andrew Swearingen, captain, and for seven thousand one hundred and 
forty rations furnished the militia of Washington County, from April 1st 
to September 2d, 1782. 

Of John Smilie, for a horse and rifle lost in the Sandusky expedition. 

Of James Curry and John Geigcr, for team hire in transporting baggage 
of the troops employed in escorting the convention army in 1778. 

In Council. Philadelphia, March i^, 1785. 

The Comptroller-General's report upon the account of Joseph Holmes, 
of the county of Washington, for provisions furnished himself when on 
militia service, was read and approved. 

In Council. Philadelphia, April 7, 1785. 

AVilliam Graham was appointed collector of excise for Washington, 
Westmoreland, and Fayette counties. 

In Council. Philadelphia, April 27, 1785. 

On consideration, 

Ordered, That tJeneral Neville be authorized upon his return to AVash- 
ington County, to place some lit person in possession of the buildings at 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 71 

Fort Mcintosh (near Beaver, Pa.), with directions to keep them and the 
public timber upon the adjoining land in a state of as much preservation 
as possible. 

In Council. Philadelphia, May 3, 1785. 

A letter to John Story, Esq., additional commissioner for settling accounts 
(of this State with the United States), requesting him to enter upon the 
execution of his office as soon as possible in Washington County, and 
Westmoreland and Fcyette, unless circumstances shall hereafter require 
any alteration of this direction. 

In Council. Philadelphia, May 7, 1785. 

An order was drawn upon the Treasurer in favor of Dorsey Pentecost, 
Esq., for three pounds specie, being money advanced by him to Mr. William 
Croghen, for the transportation of two hundred and fifty pounds from this 
city to the county of Washington, and its deposit in the hands of the lieu- 
tenant of said county. 

In Council. Philadelphia, May 20, 1785. 

The fine imposed upon Annie Essicks, of Washington County, upon being 
convicted of fornication, was remitted. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Aug. 30, 1785. 

The Comptroller-General's report upon the account of William Shearer, 
of the county of Washington, for a horse lost in the Sandusky expedition, 
was read and approved. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Sept. 22. 1785. 

A return of a magistrate for the township of Donegal, and county of 
Washington, was read. (See Feb. 6, 178G.) 

A certificate from the Court of General Quarter Sessions of the peace of 
the county of Washington, accompanied by a petition from the inhabitants 
of the town of Washington, that it is become necessary and pro|)er, and 
will be useful that the aforesaid town of Washington be erected into a dis- 
trict for the election of a justice of the peace, was read and approved, 
agreeably to law. (See Feb. 6, 1786.) 

A return of ofiicers chosen to command the troops of Washington 
County light horse was read and approved, and commissions directed to 
issue. 

In Council. Philadelphia, October 26, 1785. 

A return of the general election for the county of Washington was re- 
ceived and read. 

In Council. Philadelphia, December 15, 1785. 

James Marshall, Esq., was commissioned sheriff and William McCombs 
coroner for the county of AVashington ; David Reddick and John Hoge, 
Esquires, were offered as securities for James Marshall and accepted. 

In Council. Philadelphia, February 6, 1786. 

William Johnstone, Esq., was appointed a justice of the peace upon a 
return of an election of justices for the district of Donegal, in the county 
of Washington, and commissioned accordingly ; to this commission was 
added that of a justice of the Court of Common Pleas. 

On motion of Mr. Neville: — 

The town of Washington was this day erected into a distinct district for 
the election of justices of the peace, agreeably to a certificate of the court 
of the county of Washington. 



72 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

In Council. Philadelphia, March 8, 1786. 

A certificate of the court of Washington ('ounty, for dividing the town- 
ship of Smith, in the said county, was read. (See September 2, 178G.) 

In Council. Philadelphia, April 19, 1786. 

The Compti'oller-General's report upon the following accounts was read 
and approved : — 

Of Hugh Sprouls, of the county of "Washington, for a horse lost in the 
Sandusky expedition. Of Joseph Brown, of said county, for rations fur- 
nished to the militia employed on the said expedition. Of 'J'homas Brown, 
of said county, for rations furnished as aforesaid. Of William McGlaughlin, 
of said county, for pork furnished for the use of the militia when iii service 
on the frontiers of Washington County, in 1782. 

In Council. Philadelphia, July 25, 1786. 

John Craig, Esq., of the county of Washington, was appointed collector 
of excise for the county aforesaid, and for the counties of Westmoreland 
and Fayette, in the room of William Graham, resigned. 

In Council. Philadelphia, September, 2, 1786. 

A certificate of the division of the township of Smith, in the county of 
Washington, by the Court of Quarter Sessions of the Peace held at Wash- 
ington, for the county aforesaid, on the 5th of January last, was read and 
order taken that the decision be confirmed, agreeably to the decree of the 
said court. 

In Council. Philadelphia, October 24, 1786. 

A return of the general election for the county of Washington was re- 
ceived and read, by which it appears that David Keddick was duly elected 
counsellor; James Marshall and AVilliam Wallace, sheriffs, and William 
McComb and Joseph Wherry, coroners for the said county. 

In Council. Philadelphia, November 20, 1786. 

David Reddick, Esq., took his seat at this Board, agreeably to a return 
of the general election for the county of Washington (read on the 24th of 
October last), having previously taken several oaths of qualification. 

In Council. Philadelphia, November 21, 1786, 

A certificate of the division of Peters township, in the county of Wash- 
ington, by the Court of General Quarter Sessions held at Washington, for 
the county aforesaid, the last Tuesday in September, 1784, was read and 
order taken that the decision aforesaid be confirmed, agreeably to the decree 
of the said court. 

John Hogeand Thomas Scott, Esquires, were appointed and commissioned 
justices of the peace for the district of Washington, in the county of AVash- 
ington. John lloge and Thomas Scott were also appointed and commis- 
sioned justices of the Court of Common Pleas iu and for the county of 
Washington. 

James Marshall, Esq., was appointed and commissioned sheriff, and Wm. 
McCombs, coroner of the county of Washington. John Hoge and David 
Reddick, Esqs., were accepted as sureties for Mr. Marshall. 

In Council. Philadelphia, November 25, 1786. 

An order was taken upon motion, that as Dorsey Pentecost, Esq., late 
judge of the Court of Common Pleas and president of that court for the 
county of Washington has removed from the county aforesaid and is now 
settled in a neighboring State, that he be suspended in the oflBces afore- 
said. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 73 

In Council. Philadelphia, December 12, 1786. 

Ordered, That the commission of Collector ot' Excise for the counties of 
Washing-ton, Westmoreland, and Fayette be revoked, and that John Dodd 
be appointed collector for the county of Washington, and Joseph Douglass 
for that of Fayette. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Dec. 20, 1786. 

An order was drawn upon the Treasurer in favor of the Hon. David 
Redick, Esq., for twenty-three pounds five shillings in full for his attendance 
in council until this day inclusively. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Feb. 9, 1787. 

The Comptroller-General's report upon the account of James Marshall 
Esq., Lieutenant of AVashington County from November, 1784, until No- 
vember, 1786, was read and approved. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Feb. 12, 1787. 

An order was drawn upon the Treasurer in favor of Col. James Marshall 
for three hundred and seventj'-eight pounds ten shillings and nine pence, 
in part of the balance due upon his account as Lieutenant of the county of 
Washington, according to the Comptroller General's report, to be paid out 
of the fund arising from militia fines. 

In Council. Philadelphia, March 21, 1787. 

An order was drawn upon the Treasurer in favor of the Hon. David Re- 
dick, Esq., for forty pounds five shillings in full, for his attendance in coun- 
cil until this day, inclusively. 

In Council. Philadelphia, April 12, 1787. 

An order was drawn upon the Treasurerin favor of the Hon. David Re- 
dick, Esq., for thirty-five pounds in full for his attendance in council from 
the 21st of March to the 14th of April inclusively, and his mileage. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Aug. 18, 1787. 

The fine of ten pounds imposed upon Ruth Grenaugh, convicted ot forni- 
cation and bastardy in the county of Washington, was remitted upon her 
petition and a recommendation in her favor. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Sept. 3, 1787. 

On motion ordered, Thomas Stockley, Esq., was appointed and commis- 
sioned a justice of the Court of Common Pleas in and for the county of 
Washington. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Sept. 14, 1787. 

Monday next was assigned for going into the consideration of the return 
of the proposed road through the western counties of the State and Pitts- 
burg, together with the several petitions against it, and the Secretary was 
directed to request the members of the General Assembly from the counties 
of Washington, Westmoreland, Fayette, and Bedford to meet council on 
that day to give them some information upon the subject. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Sept. 1787. 

The members of the General Assembly from the counties of Washing- 
ton, Westmoreland, Fayette, and Bedford, attended in the council chamber 
agreeably to the request of the council of the 14th inst., and a conference 
was held upon the subject of the proposed road from Miller's Spring into 
Cumberland County to Fort Pitt. 



74 UISTOBY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Sept. 25, 1787. 

Joseph Scott, Esq., was appointed and commissioned a justice of the 
peace for the district of Robinson township, in the county of Washington, 
and also appointed and commissioned a justice of the Court of Common 
Pleas in said county. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Oct. 5, 1787. 

An order was drawn upon the Treasurer in favor of the Hon. David 
Redick, Ksc].. for fifty-two pounds fifteen shillings in full, for his attendance 
in council until the 4th inst., inclusively, and his mileage. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Nov. 2, 1787. 

An order was drawn upon the Treasurer in favor of Col. Jamos Marshall, 
Lieutenant of Washington County, for thirty-seven pounds two shillings 
and six pence, to be paid by him to vVbraham Knslow, Frederick Crow, Ste- 
phen Gapen, Peter Clawson, William Crawford, Jesse Yanmetre, W. Har- 
rod, Sr., Michael Dougherty, John Floiia* John Heaton, William Tarpine, 
Harrod Newland, Robert Flora, Alexaiulcr Brown, and Peter Dailey for 
their services in watcTTingthe movements of Indians, and protecting the 
frontiers from Indian depredations in the year 1782, agreeably to the act of 
Assembly, dated December 1781. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Nov. 12, 1787. 

It appearing from intelligence received from AVashington County that the 
Indians have murdered some of the inhabitants of the said county, and that 
the people there are in want of arms and ammunition. 

Resolved, That one hundred stand of arms, four hundred weight of pow- 
der and eight hundred weight of lead, and one thousand flints be purchased 
by the Comptroller General, and sent to the Lieutenant of Washington 
County. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Nov. 15, 1787. 

Whereas, It is represented to the Board that the Indians have recently 
committed divers depredations on the frontier settlements in this State, 
therefore, 

Pesolved, That the Lieutenants of the several frontier counties may, from 
time to time, order into actual service for the protection of the inhabitants, 
such part of the militia of their respective counties as may appear to them, 
or any of them, necessary, not exceeding at any one time the proportion 
allowed by law. 

In Council. Philadelphia. December 3, 1787. 

An order was drawn upon the Treasurer in favor of the Honorable David 
Rcdick, Esf|., for forty-five pounds, in full for his attendance in council to 
this day, inclusively. 

In Council. Philadelphia, December 4, 1787. 

Re.Hoived, That the Lieutenants of the city and the several counties within 
the State, be directed to collect all the public arms within their respective 
counties, have them repaired, and make return to council, with the accounts 
and vouchers necessary for payment. 

In Council. Philadelphia, May 6, 1788. 

Two certificates of the division of Cumberland and Morgan townships, 
and of the township of Donegal, in the county of AVashington, by the Court 
of General Quarter Sessions of the Peace of the said county, in order for 
the more convenient election of justices of the peace, were received, read, 
and ordered to be filed. (See August 7, 1788.) 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 75 

Samuel Glassgow, Esq., was appointed and commissioned a justice of 
the peace and a justice of the Court of Common Pleas in and for the 
county of Washington, upon a return made according to law, for the dis- 
trict of the township of Hanover. 

In Council. Philadelphia, June 6. 1788. 

An order was drawn upon the Treasurer in favor of the Honorable David 
Eedick, for thirty-one pounds five shillings, in full of his account for attend- 
ance in council from the 5th day of May until the 5th of June, 1788, inclu- 
sively, and his mileage. 

In Council. Philadelphia, June 30, 1788. 

William Wallace, Esq., was appointed and commissioned a justice of the 
peace, and of the Court of Common Pleas in and for the county of Wash- 
ington, upon a return made according to law, for the district of Somerset. 

In Council. Philadelphia , August 5, 1788. 

An order was drawn in favor of David Eedick, Esq., for the sum of fifty- 
three pounds fifteen shillings, in full of his account for his attendance in 
council from the 6th day of June until the 5th of August, 1788, and his 
mileage from Philadelphia to Washington County. 

In Council. Philadelphia, August 7, 1788. 

Two certificates from the Court of General Quarter Sessions of the Peace 
for the county of Washington, that a division of the district of the town- 
ships of Cumberland and Morgan, and of the district of the township of 
Donegal, in the said county, agreeably to act of Assembly, dated the 31st 
of March, 1784, for the election of justices of the peace, is become proper 
and will be useful, which were received and read on the 6th of May, were 
this day taken into consideration, and the division, as made by the said 
court, was confirmed. 

In Council. Philadelphia, August 8, 1788. 

An order was drawn upon the Treasurer in favor of the Honorable David 
Eedick, Esq., for four pounds ten shillings, in full for his attendance in 
council from the 6th until the 12th of this month, both days included. 

In Council. Philadelphia, August 23, 1788. 

An order was drawn upon the Treasurer in favor of Col. James Marshall, 
Lieutenant of Washington County, for seventy-seven pounds eighteen shil- 
lings and four pence, payable out of the moneys arising from militia fines, 
being in full of two several accounts for militia services on the frontier of 
the said county in September and October, 1787, and in March, April, and 
May, 1788, according to the Comptroller General's report. 

An order was drawn upon the Treasurer in favor of James Chambers and 
William Marshall, for fifty pounds nineteen shillings and seven pence, pay- 
able out of the militia fines of the county of Washington, in full of their 
accounts for repairing the public arms belonging to the said county, 
according to the Comptroller-Geuerars report. 

In Council. Philadelphia, September 30, 1788. 

Henry Taylor, Esq., was appointed and commissionated a justice of the 
peace for the district of the township of Straban ; James Edgar a justice 
of the peace for the district of the township of Smith, and William McFar- 
lane a justice of the peace for the district of the township of Amwell, in 
the county of Washington, upon returns made, according to law, for the 
said several districts. They were also appointed and commissionated justices 
of the Court of Common Pleas in and for the county of Washington. 



76 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

On motion, 

Ordered, That the said Henry Taylor be appointed and commissionated 
President of the Court of ('oiiimnn Pleas, of llie Court of General Quarter 
Sessions of the Peace and Jail Delivery, and of the Orphan's Court of 
Washington County. 

Two returns of justices from the districts of the townships of Cecil and 
Dickinson, in the county of Washington, were read and not allowed, as the 
whole of Dickinson, and part of Cecil district, has been struck off to the 
county of Allegheny. 

In Council. Philadelphia, October 15, 1788. 

The oath, directed by the Constitution was administered to the Hon. 
David Redick, Esq., to qualify him for the exercise of his office of Vice- 
President of this board. 
In Council. Philadelphia, November 7, 1788. 

Returns of elections of justices of the peace, lately held in several dis- 
tricts of Nottingham, Hopewell, and Findley, together with a petition against 
the latter, were also received and read. 

In Council. Philadelphia, November 8, 1788. 

The return of an election of justices of the peace for the district of 
Findley township, in Washington County, wliich was read yesterday, was 
read the second time, together with a petition from several freeholders, 
resident in said district, complaining of illegal proceedings at said election, 
whereupon it was 

Ordered, That John Hoge, Thomas Scott, and William McFarlane, 
Esqrs., justices of the peace in and for the county of Washington, living- 
near the said district, be authorized and directed to investigate the facts 
stated in the said petition, upon the oaths of such witnesses as may be 
adduced, and make report thereof to this Board in manner and form pre- 
scribed in and by an act of Assembly, entitled '• An act to remedy the 
defects of the several acts of Assembly heretofore made for regulating 
the elections of justices of the peace throughout this State, &c.," passed 
the 31st day of March, 1784. (See March 31, 1789.) 

John Reed and Hugh Scott, Esqrs., were appointed and commissionated 
justices of the peace and of the Court of Common Pleas, in and for the 
county of Washington, the former for the district of the township of Cecil, 
and the latter for the district of the township of Nottingham, upon returns 
made according to law from the said several districts. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Nov. 10, 1788. 

William Smiley, Esq., was appointed and commissioned a justice of the 
peace, and of the Court of Common Pleas, in and for the county of AVash- 
ington, upon a return made according to law for the district of the town- 
ship of Hopewell. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Nov. 25, 1788. 

An order was drawn upon the Treasurer in favor of the Hon. David 
Redick, Esq., for seventy-two poinds seven shillings and four pence in full 
of his account for his salary as Vice-President from the 14th of October 
until the 4th of November, 1788, and for his pay as Councillor until this 
day, including his mileage and cash j^^fxid for postage of letters on public 
business. 
In Council. Philadelphia, Dec. 6, 1788. 

On motion, 

Rrsolved, That Monday the 8th inst. be assigned for going into the ap- 
pointment of a sheriff for the county of Washington. 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. Y7 

In Council. Pliiladelphia, Dec. 8, 1788. 

Mr. Wood's motion for appointing a sheriff for the county of Washing- 
ton was referred to Col. Miles, Col. Smith, and Col. Wood. 

In Council. Phtladelplna, Dec. 23, 1788. 

On motion, 

Resolved, That the Secretary employ two proper persons to ride to the 
counties of Washington, Westmoreland, Fayette, Bedford, Huntingdon, 
Northumberland, Cumberland, Luzerne, Franklin, and Dauphin, to bring- to 
Council from those counties the returns of electors for the choice of Presi- 
dent and Vice-President of the United States, and that he assign to the 
said expresses their proper counties, give them the necessary instructions, 
and direct the said expresses to set off on Monday next. 

In Council. Philadelphia. Dec. 27, 1788. 

James Dunwood was employed as one of the persons to ride to the coun- 
ties of Washington, Westmoreland, Fayette, Bedford, Huntingdon, Cum- 
berland, Franklin, and Dauphin agreeably to the minutes of the 23d inst., 
and it was agreed to allow him two dollars and a half in specie per diem 
while he is employed in the said business. 

In Council.. Philadelphia, Dec. 31, 1788. 

The return of members to represent this State in the Congress of the 
iJnited States having been received by Council from the city of Philadel- 
phia, and the several counties, except the county of Fayette, 

Resolved, That for the information of the public, the following state of 
the returns be published. 

Fred. A. Muhlenberg 
Henry Wynkoop . 
Thomas Hartley . . 
George Clymer . . 
Thomas Fitzsimmons 
Thomas Scott . . 
Peter Muhlenberg . 
Daniel Hiester . . 

In Council. Philadelphia, Jan. 17, 1789. 

A return of the general election of sheriffs and coroners held in and for 
the county of Washington, in October, 1788, was received and read, and 
David Williamson, Esq., thereupon appointed and commissionated sheriff, 
and Robert Benham coroner of the said county. 

William Parker and Josiah Scott, of the county of Washington, were 
offered and accepted as sureties for the said David Williamson's faithful 
performance of the duties of his office of sheriff for the county aforesaid 
according to law. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Feb. 3, 1789. 

Resolved, That the several returns of electors for choosing a President 
and Vice-President of the United States, which have been transmitted to 
Council, be referred to Mr. McClay and Mr. Smith to inspect the same and 
report to Council the names of the ten highest to vote, which being done, a 
proclamation was issued embracing the names of the following electors : 
Edward Hand, John Arndt, Lawrence Kecne, James O'Hara, Samuel Potts, 
George Gibson, Coleman Read, James Wilson, David Grier, and Alexander 
Grayson. 



8707 


John Allison ... 


. 7067 


8246 


Stephen Chambers . 


. 7050 


8263 


William Findley . , 


. 6586 


8094 


William Irvine . . , 


, 6492 


8067 


Charles Pettit . . , 


. 6481 


8068 


William Montgomery , 


. 6348 


7417 


Blair McClerrachan . 


, 6223 


7403 


Robert Whitehill . , 


, 5850 



78 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Feb. 17, 1789. 

The report of the Committee to whom was referred the letter from Thomas 
Scott, Esq.. with the proceedings of the General Assembly thereon, was 
read and adopted as follows, viz : — 

Resolved, That the letter from Thomas Scott, Esq., of the 20th of Janu- 
ary last, together with the proceedings of the General Assembly on the 
same subject, be transmitted by the earliest opportunity to the said Thomas 
Scott, with an intimation that it would be agreeable to Council if he would 
endeavor to serve during the first session of Congress, or until his place can 
be supplied without expense to the State at the next annual election. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Feb. 28, 1789. 

Eleazer Jenkins, Esq., was appointed and commissioned a justice of the 
peace and of the Court of Common Pleas in and for the county of Wash- 
ington upon a return made according to law for the district of the township 
of Bethlehem in said county. 

In Council. Philadelphia, March 12, 1789. 

Absalom Baird and John Douglass, Esqs., were appointed and commis- 
sionated justices of the peace, the former for the district of the town of 
Washington, and the latter for the district of the township of Peters in the 
county of Washington, upon returns made according to law from the said 
districts. 

The said Absalom Baird and John Douglass, Esqs., were also appointed 
and commissionated justices of the Court of Common Pleas in and for the 
said county of Washington. 

In Council. Philadelphia, March 12, 1789. 

Upon consideration of the report of the Committee to whom was referred 
the petition and recommendation in favor of William Stewart, Aaron Lyle, 
James Ross. James McClellan, John Donat, Josias Gamble, Samuel Aguew, 
Robert Ralston. William Campbell, Joseph Wells, Samuel Hanna, and John 
Rankin for remission of the fines which have been imposed upon them by the 
last Court of Oyer and Terminer held in the county of Washington upon 
their being convicted severally of a riot in said county, 

Pesolrcd, That the several fines due to the Commonwealth, imposed upon 
the petitioners as aforesaid, be remitted. 

In Council, Philadelphia, March 18, 1789. 

An order was drawn upon the Treasurer in favor of Hugh Spear, for five 
pounds seventeen shillings, in full, of his account for hauling public arms 
and ammunition from Philadelphia to the county of Washington, for the 
defence of the western frontiers. 

In Council. Philadelphia, March 24, 1789. 

Mr. Redick, member of this Board, was offered and accepted as suretj' 
for 'I'homas Scott, Esq.. Prothonotary of the county of Washington, in the 
room of John Neville, Esq., who was approved by the Board on the 19th 
instant as surety for Mr. Scott. 

On motion, 

Kfsolvcd, That a dedimus potestafem issue to Thomas Scott, Thomas 
Stokely, John Hoge, and Absalom Baird, Esqs., of the county of Wash- 
ington. 

In Council. ' Philadelphia, March 25, 1789. 

An order was drawn in favor of Peter Daily for three pounds fourteen 
shillings and eleven ])ence, payable out of the militia fines of AVashington 
County, being the amount of his account for thirty-one days' militia service 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. (9 

as a rang'er on the frontiers of "Washington County, by order of the Lieu- 
tenant of said county, and for subsistence during the said service. 

Also, in favor of Abraham Inlow, Edward Sergent, Andrew Farley, and 
Alexander Burns, for fourteen pounds nineteen shillings and eight pence, 
amount of their several accounts for thirty-one days' militia service each, 
on the frontiers of said county, by order of the said Lieutenant, from the 
25th of March till the 25th of April, 17S8, inclusively, and for subsistence 
during the said term, payable out of the militia fines as aforesaid. 

In favor of Thomas Orr, John Lesnet, John Yance, and Hercules Roney, 
for fourteen pounds nineteen shillings and eight pence, payable out of the 
moneys arising from militia fines as aforesaid, amount of the several 
accounts for militia services from the 8th of April till the 8th of May, 1788, 
inclusive, and for subsistence as aforesaid. 

In favor of Abner Braddock and Francis Braddock, for seven pounds 
nine shillings and ten pence, payable out of the moneys arising from militia 
fines, amount of their several accounts for militia services from the 8th of 
April till the 8th of May, 1788, inclusive, and for subsistence as aforesaid. 

In Council. Philadelphia, March 28, 1789. 

AVhereas, Thomas Scott, Esquire, Prothonotary of the county of Wash- 
ington, hath informed this Council by letter that he hath been elected a 
representative of this State in the Congress of the United States, and that 
he is on his way to New York to take his seat as such ; 

And whereas, The said 'i'homas Scott, Esqui.'e, by the acceptance of his 
appointment as representative in Congress, is incapable of discharging the 
duties of prothonotary of the county aforesaid ; and it is therefore proper 
that a prothonotary for the said county should forthwith be appointed in 
his room and stead : 

Resolved, That Alexander Scott, son of the said Thomas Scott, Esquire, 
be and he is hereby appointed Prothonotary of the county of Washington in 
the room and stead of Thomas Scott, Esquire. 

James Marshall. David Redick, and Thomas Scott, Esquires, were offered 
and accepted as sureties for Alexander Scott, Esquire, Prothonotary of 
the county of Washington. 

In Council. Philadelphia, March 30, 1789. 

Agreeably to the Comptroller-General's reports, orders were drawn upon 
the Treasurer for the following sums, payable out of the moneys arising 
from militia fines of Washington County. 

For one pound nineteen shillings, amount of pay due to seven men of the 
Washington County militia, two days in July, 1787, and four pounds nine- 
teen shillings and four pence, pay due to the seven men of the said militia 
from the 8th to the 10th of June, 1788, for militia services. 

For five pounds twelve shillings, amount of pay due to Captain Thomas 
Axtell's company of said militia in actual service two days to the 19th day 
of October, 1787. 

For one hundred and thirty-seven pounds seventeen shillings, amount of 
pay due to Captain Elcazer Jenkin's company of said militia in actual ser- 
vic,e from August the 6th to the 20th of September, 1788. 

For ninety-three pounds nine shillings and four pence, amount of pay 
due to Captain James Scott's company of said militia in actual service for 
two days to Sept. 1787. 

For sixty pounds eight shillings and two pence, amount of pay due to 
Lieutenant Jonathan Ross's company of said militia, in actual service from 
July 17th to August 13th, 1788. 

For two pounds ten shillings, amount of pay due to a party of said 



80 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

militia for six days in actual service, ending the 22d of October, 1787, and 
for two pounds fifteen sliillinji^s, amouut of pay due to seven men of said 
militia, for seven days' actual service, eiidin2^ the 1st of November, 1787. 

For fifty-three potinds fourteen shillinj^s, amount of pay due to Ensign 
Sampson Nicholas's company of said militia from June 9th to July 15th, 
1788. 

For nine pounds, amount of John Custard's account for a horse lost on 
the Sandusky expedition under Colonel Crawford in 1782. 

For seven pounds, amount of Richard Hale's account of a gun taken 
into actual service and lost in 1782, in the expedition under Colonel Craw- 
ford. 

In Council. Philadelphia, March 31, 1789. 

A report from John Hoge and Thomas Scott, Esquires, two of the jus- 
tices who were appointed by Council on the 8th day of November last to 
investigate the complaint against an election of justices of the peace held 
in Findley township, in the county of Washington, on the 2;5d of September, 
1788, was read, by which it appears that notice of the time of holding the 
said election was not given according to law; therefore, 

RpHolved, That said election of justices of the peace in the township of 
Findley be set aside and made void, and that a writ under the lesser seal 
be now issued for holding a new election of justices of the peace in and for 
the said township, on the 28th day of July next, according to law. 

In Council. Philadelphia, April 8th, 1789. 

On motion, 

Resolved, That Thomas Ryerson be appointed and commissionated a 
justice of the Court of Common Pleas in and for the county of Washington. 

In Council. Philadelphia, April 27, 1789. 

An order was drawn upon the Treasurer in favor of the Honorable David 
Redick, Es(i., for fift_v-six pounds in full of his account for attendance in 
Council until the 1st day of May, 1789, inclusively, and for mileage coming 
from Washington County to Philadelphia. 

In Council. Philadelphia, May, 13, 1789. 

'J'he account of Thomas Scott, Esq., Prothonotary of AVashiiigton County, 
for fees upon tavern licenses received from July to September, 1788, 
amounting to nineteen pounds eight shillings, was read and approved. 

In Council. Philadelphia, May 20, 1789. 

I'lie petition of Elisha Mills, of the county of Washington, praying 
remission of a fine often pounds, payable to the use of the Commonwealth, 
to which he has been sentenced by the Court of General Quarter Sessions 
of the Peace of the said county, upon being convicted of fornication, was 
read and an order taken that the prayer of the said petitioner be granted. 

In Council. Philadelphia, June 17, 1789. 

Two orders were drawn in favor of the lion. David Redick, Es(|., one 
for forty-four pounds fifteen shillings, in full of his account for his attend- 
ance in Council from May 2 to June 19, 1789, inclusively of his mileage 
from IMiiladelphia to AVashington city, and the other for thirty-three pounds 
and eight pence, being a balance due upon an account settled by the Comp- 
troller and Register-tJeneral. for his services and expenses, in surveying two 
islantls in the rivers Ohio and Allcirheny. and for surveying and dividing the 
reserved tract of land opposite Pittsburg into town and out lots, agreeably 
to the order of Council dated November 28, 1787, and an act of Assembly 
dated September 1 1, 1787. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. ' 8l\ 

In Council. Philadelphia, August 3, 1789. 

A petition and representation from a number of inhabitants of "Washing- 
ton County, complaining that Thomas Stokely, the Register and Recorder 
of that county has been absent for upwards of six months from the county, 
and praying Council to appoint some person in liis room to hold and exer- 
cise those offices until the General Assembly of the State shall meet, was 
received and read. 

In Council. Philadelphia, September 2, 1787. 

The following account of Thomas Rogers was read and approved, for 
provisions furnished to Captain William Leet's company of Washington 
County militia from the 15th of April to the 16th of May, 1782, amounting 
to three pounds six shillings and ten pence, and for provisions furnished to 
Captain William Hogeland's company of the said militia, in April, 1782, 
amounting to one pound fourteen shillings and four pence. 

In Council. Philadelphia, September 29, 1789. 

The following account of Thomas Rankin, of Washington County, for his 
services on the frontiers in 1781, amounting to ten shillings, was read and 
approved. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Nov. 6, 1789. 

A return of the general election held in the county of Washington on 
the second Tuesday of October last, was received and read, by which it 
appears that the following gentlemen were duly elected: Henry Taylor, 
councillor ; David Williamson and William Wallace, sheriffs- Samuel 
Clark and Sashbazer Bentley, coroners ; whereupon 

Resolved, That David Williamson be appointed and commissioned sheriff, 
and Samuel Clark, coroner, of the county of Washington. 

William Parker and John Leman were offered and accepted as sureties 
for the sherifiF of the county of Washington. 

In Council. Philadelphia, November 30, 1789. 

John Minor, Esq., was appointed and commissionated a justice of the 
peace, and of the Court of Common Pleas in and for the county of Wash- 
ington, upon a return made according to law from the district of the 
township of Greene in the said county. 

In Council. " Philadelphia, December 1, 1789. 

An order was drawn upon the Treasurer, in favor of John Cannon, Esq., 
for fiftj'-three pounds ten shillings, for his attendance in Council from the 
7th to the 11th of February and from the 10th of August until the 2d of 
October, 1789, and his mileage coming to Philadelphia and returning to 
Washington County. 

In Council. Philadelphia, December 3, 1789. 

Henry Taylor, councillor elect for the county of Washington, appeared, 
and being qualified as the Constitution and the act of Congress of the first of 
June last directs, was admitted to his seat at the Board. 

In Council. Philadelphia, December 5, 1789. 

A letter from Daniel Broadhead, Esq., Surveyor-General, dated Novem- 
ber 23, 1789, nominating agreeably to act of Assembly of the 8th of April, 
1785, Messrs. Presley Neville and Matthew Richie, as "deputy surveyors 
of a district late part of Washington County, part whereof has since been 
erected into a separate county called Allegheny, bounded by the great 
road leading from Fort Burd to the town of Washington, late Catfish 
Camp, from thence to the nearest head-waters of Buffalo Creek, thence 



8 J * HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

down the said creek to the line of the State, thence along the same to the 
River Ohio, thence up the same to the mouth of the Monongahela River, 
and thence up the same to the beginning," was received and read, and 
thereupon 

Resolved, That the Board concur with the said nomination. 

In Council. Philadelphia, December, 8, 1789. 

General John Gibson and John Neville, Esqs., were offered and accepted 
as sureties for Messrs. Presley Neville and Matthew Richie, deputy sur- 
veyors of part of Washington and Alleghany counties. 

A petition from Margaret Jeffries, now confined in the workhouse of 
this city for larceny, praying remission of the fine, payable to the use of the 
State, and the punishment at hard labor, to which she was sentenced for 
the said offence, was read, and Mr. Taylor, member of Council, having in- 
formed the Board that the petitioner had agreed to enter into an indenture 
of service to him, and that he will send her to the county of Washington, 
if Council are pleased to pardon her, thereupon 

Resolved, That the said Margaret Jeffries be and she is hereby pardoned. 

In Council. Philadelphia, December 9, 1789. 

A certificate of the division of the township of Cecil, in the county of 
Washington, by the Court of Quarter Sessions, for the more convenient 
election of justices of the peace, which was read on the first day of Septem- 
ber last, was this day read the second time, and an order taken that the 
said division for the purpose aforesaid be, and the same is hereby confirmed, 
according to the bounds and limits following, that is to say, beginning at 
Chartiers' Creek, at the junction or mouth of Brush Run, and continuing 
up the same as high as to Matthew Johnston's, to include his farm in the 
upper division; thence leaving James Read's farm to the lower division, 
directly to include General Washington's and Henry Guy's land in the 
upper division, and immediately to intersect to outside line of the township. 

[In the Western Telegraph and Washington Advertiser, the following 
advertisement is published under date of Aug. 26, 1795. Land for Sale. 
A tract of land of about three thousand acres, late the property of Gene- 
ral Washington, lying on Miller's Run, in Washington County, Pennsylva- 
nia, of an excellent quality, rich,, evel, well timbered, and well watered, 
with a suitable proportion of meadow land, will be sold by the subscriber, 
living in Washington. There are thirteen farms cleared and cultivated on 
the land, and to accommodate purchasers, it will be divided into small 
tracts. Matthew Richie.] 

In Council. Philadelphia, Dec. 10, 1789. 

The Comptroller and Register General's reports upon the following ac- 
counts were read and approved, viz : — 

Of Demus Lindley, for seven thousand and fifty-four weight of flour is- 
sued by him, from June the 14th until the 21st of November, 1788, to the 
Washington County militia, in actual service on the frontiers, by order of 
the Lieutenant of said county, amounting to fortj^-four pounds one shilling 
and nine pence, for which sum an order was drawn on the Treasurer for the 
sum, payable out of the militia fines of Washington County. (See March 
4,1790.) 

Of Adam Miller, for one month's service as a spy, watching the motions 
of the Indians on the frontiers in the year 1788, amounting to two pounds 
fifteen shillings, for which sum an order was drawn on the Treasurer as 
aforesaid. 

Of Ensign Isaac Lindley, for the pay of his company of Washington 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 83 

County militia, for nine days' militia service on the frontiers, in October, 
1787, amountinj^ to four pounds nine shillings, for which sura an order was 
drawn upon the Treasurer, payable as aforesaid. 

Of George Tompoh, for his provisions employed as a militia man on the 
frontiers of Washington County, and for a blanket, a pack saddle, and two 
bags, lost on the said expedition, under Colonel Crawford in 1782, amount- 
ing to two pounds seven shilling and sixpence. 

Of John Hill, for a saddle, blanket, two bags, and a wallet or knapsack, 
lost on the said expedition, amounting to four pounds two shillings and 
sixpence. 

Of Robert Taylor, for thirty days' provisions due him while employed on 
the said expedition, amounting to one pound two shillings and sixpence. 

Of Richard Hopkins, for a horse lost on said expedition, amounting to 
four pounds. 

Of John Turvey, for thirty days' provisions due to him while employed 
on the said expedition, amounting to one pound two shillings and sixpence. 

A certificate of the division of Hopewell township, in the county of 
Washington, by the Court of Quarter Sessions, for the more convenient 
election of justices of the peace, agreeably to the act of Assembly, passed 
the thirty-first day of March, 1784, which was read on the first day of Sep- 
tember last, was this day read the second time, and an order taken that the 
said division for the purpose aforesaid, be, and the same is hereby confirmed 
according to the bounds and limits following, that is to say, beginning at a 
certain spring on the head-waters of Cross Creek, which rises about ten 
perches from the township of Straban, between the dwelling houses of James 
Anderson and Timothy Spencer, thence down the south branch thereof to 
Wells' mills, thence down the creek to the State line. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Dec. 17, 1789. 

The Comptroller and Eegister-General's reports upon the following ac- 
counts were read and approved, viz : — 

Of Robert Walker, Jr., of Washington County, for provisions furnished 
by him for the Sandusky expedition under Colonel Crawford, in the year 
1782, amounting to one pound two shillings and sixpence. 

Of Captain John Reed, for the pay of his Washington County militia, in 
actual service against the Indians, by order of the Lieutenant of said coun- 
ty, from the 24th of September to the 29th of October, 1788, amounting 
to forty-six pounds seven shillings, for which sum an order was drawn upon 
the treasurer in favor of the said Captain John Reed, payable out of the 
militia fines of said county. 

Of Lieutenant Alexander Kidd, for the pay of his company of the said 
militia in actual service as aforesaid, from the 22d of October to the 24th 
of November, 1788, amounting to forty pounds sixteen shilling and eight 
pence, for which sum an order was drawn upon the Treasurer in favor of 
the said Alexander Kidd, payable out of said fines. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Dec. 28, 1789. 

Upon the second reading of the return of an election of justices of the peace, 
held in the township of Findley, in the county of Washington, on the 28th 
of July last, with a petition against it. 

Resolved, That William Smith, Esq., be appointed and commissi»nated a 
justice of the peace and of the Court of Common Pleas in and for the 
said county of Washington, he having a majority of votes. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Jan. 11, 1790. 

James Bell, Esq., was appointed and commissionated a justice of the peace 
and of the Common Pleas in and for the county of Washington, upon a re- 



84 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

turn made according to law, from the district of the township of Morgan 
in said county. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Jan. 18, 1790. 

A certificate from the Court of Quarter Sessions of Washington County, 
of the division of Bethlehem township in the said county, by a straight 
line run from Peter Drake's to Weise's mills, for the more convenient elec- 
tion of justices of the peace, agreeably to act of Assembly passed the 
thirty-first day of March, 1784, was read the second time, by which it ap- 
pears that the said division has become proper and will be useful, it was 
thereupon 

Resolved, That the same be confirmed. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Jan. 22, 1790. 

An order was drawn upon the Treasurer in favor of Hon. Henry Taylor, 
Esq., for the sum of forty-nine pounds fifteen shillings, in full for his at- 
tendance in council, from the Hd day of December, 1789, until the 22d day 
of January, 1790 (deducting six days' absence), and his mileage coming to 
Philadelphia and returning to Washington County. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Jan. 25, 1790. 

Mr. Ross and Mr. Addison, members of Convention, and Mr. Ryerson. 
member of Assembly for the county of Washington, attended and produced 
in writing, a statement of the depredations committed by the savages with- 
in that county from time to time, and submitting the same to the consider- 
ation of Council, whereupon 

Resolved, That Mr. Findley, Mr. Miles, and Mr. Taylor, be appointed a com- 
mittee to confer with the said gentlemen, upon the subject of a defence for 
the western counties against the Indians, and that they make report to 
Council. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Feb. 13, 1790. 

A letter from Daniel Broadhead, Esq., Surveyor-Ueueral, of the 2d day 
of February inst., informing Council that he has appointed Messrs. David 
Redick and John Hoge deputy surveyors of a district bounded and described 
as follows, viz : Northerly by the great road leading from Fort Bird to the 
town of Washington, thence by a direct course to the nearest head-waters 
of Buffalo Creek, and down the said creek to the State line, easterly by the 
Monougahela River, southwardly by the continuation of Mason and I)i.\on's 
line, and westerly by the State line aforesaid, and submitting the said ap- 
pointments to Council for their approbation, agreeably to act of Assembly, 
passed the 8th day of April, 1785, was received and read, and theroupon 

Resulted, 'J'hat Council approve of the said appointments, and that Col. 
James Marshall and Andrew Swearingen be accepted as sureties for the 
said deputy surveyors. 

In Council. Philadelphia, Feb. 18, 1790. 

The Comptroller and Register-General's reports upon the following ac- 
counts were read and approved, viz : — 

Of Joseph Brown for one month's pay as a volunteer militia-man, while 
stationed at one McDonald's, for the defence of the frontiers of the county 
of Washington, in August, 1782, amounting to live pounds five shillings. 

Of Samuel Brown for forty days' jiay as a militia-man in Captain Robert 
Miller's Company, stationed on llie frontiers of said county in the year 1782 
and 1783, amounting to four pounds. 

Of Alexander Lashley for a horse which was taken into public service 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 85 

and lost on the Sandusky expedition against the Indians, under Col. Craw- 
ford, in the jear 1782, valued at twelve pounds, and allowed. 

Of Georg-e Sharp for bacon and flour furnished the militia of Washino^ton 
County under his command, on the frontiers of said county, in March, 1785, 
amounting to two pounds four shillings. 

In Council. Ph/'Iadelplna, March 4, 1790. 

Upon the second reading of the report of the Committee to whom was 
refe^'red the application for a new order in favor of Demus Linsley :^ 

Resolved, That the order which was granted to him for forty-four pounds 
one shilling and ninepence, on December 10, 1789, on the militia fines of 
Washington County, be cancelled, and that a new order for the same be is- 
sued, payable out of the militia funds of the county of Lancaster. 

In Council. Philadelplna, March 8, 1790. 

A letter from Thomas Eyerson, Esq., member of Assembly, relative to 
the defence of the western frontiers, against the invasion of the Indians, 
was received and read, whereupon it was 

Resolved,, That to-morrow be assigned for taking into consideration the 
several papers now before the Council, on the subject of a frontier defence. 

In Council. PhiladelpMa, March 22, 1790, 

A letter from his Excellency, the President of the United States, dated 
the 15th inst., in answer to the letter from the President of this State, of 
the 10th, which inclosed the representatives from some of the inhabitants 
of Washington County, respecting the mischiefs which have been committed 
for several years past by the Indians in that county, was received and read, 
and the same was transmitted to the General Assembly in a letter from the 
President to the Speaker. 

In Council, Philadelphia, April 6, 1790. 

An order was drawn upon the Treasurer in favor of the Honorable Henry 
Taylor for the sum of fifty-five pounds ten shillings in full of his account 
for his attendance in council, from the 23d day of January until the 6th 
day of April, 1790, inclusively. 

James Archer, Esq., was appointed and commissionated a justice of the 
peace and of the Court of Common Pleas in and for the county of Wash- 
ington, upon a return made according to law, from the district of the town- 
ship of Franklin, in the said county. 

In Council. Philadelphia, April 19, 1790. 

A letter from Henry Knox, Secretary of AV'ar, of the 15th inst., inclosing 
a copy of a letter which has been forwarded by him to the Lieutenant of 
Washington County in this State, authorizing him to embody any number 
of men, not exceeding eighty, for a temporary security to the frontiers of 
this State, was received and read. 

In Council. Philadelphia, August 19, 1790. 

Resolved, That the Lieutenant of the county of Washington be directed to 
transmit to Council as soon as maybe, a return of the officers of the militia of 
the said county in order that commissions may issue to them, and that the Sec- 
retary write to the said Lieutenant and inclose him a copy of this resolution. 

In Council. Philadelphia, August 24, 1790. 

James Mitchell, John Cannon, and Henry Graham, Esquires, were ap- 
pointed and commissionated justices of the peace and of the Court of 
Common Pleas in and for the county of Washington, upon returns made 
to Council of elections held, according to law, in the following districts, 



86 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

viz : Jamos Mitchell elected in the district of Peters township ; John Cannon 
in the district of Cbartiers, and Henry Graham in the district of Cross 
Creek. 

In Council. Philaddphia, August 28, 1790. 

The report of the Comptroller and Register-Generals upon the following 
accounts was read and approved : — 

Of Moses Cook, for a horse which was lost on the Sandusky expedition 
agninst the Indians, in the year 1782, amounting to fifteen pounds. 

Of James Brownlee, for flour furnished to the militia of Washington 
County, in tlio month of May, June, and July, 1787. under the command 
of Colonel Marshall, amounting to nine pounds three shillings and three- 
pence. 

In Council. Philadelpliia, September 4. 1790. 

It having been determined at a conference of members of the General 
Assembly; the members of the Supreme {Executive Council; the Judges 
of Supreme Court, Judges Shippen and Wilson; the Attornej'-General of 
the State, and Alexander AVilcocks and Jared Ingersoll, Escjuires, Attor- 
neys-at-law, that the powers of the legislature of the present year expired 
on Thursday the second instant, and that the office of State Treasurer and 
Register-General of the accounts of this commonwealth, and of Register 
of Vrills and a Recorder of Deeds in each county of this State, in like 
manner expired on the said day ; therefore 

Resolved, 'J'hat by virtue of the powers vested in this Board by the Con- 
stitution of this State, 

Thomas Stokely be and hereby is appointed Register for the Probate of 
Wills and granting Letters of Administration, and Recorder of Deeds, in 
and for the county of Washington. 

In Council. Fhiladelphm, September 22, 1790. 

The following accounts were read and approved, viz : — 
Of Thomas Scott, Esq., Clerk of the Peace of the county of Washington, 

for moneys received by him for fees upon tavern licenses from December, 

1788, until June, 1789, amounting to thirty-nine pounds twelve shillings, 

■which sum hath been paid into the treasury. 

Of Daniel Beam, for his pay for sixty days' service as a Ranger on the 

frontiers of Washington (bounty, in the militia, in the months of April and 

June, 1788, and i'ur provisions during the same time, amounting to five 

pounds ten shillings. 

In Council. Philadelphia, November 10. 1790. 

Andrew Swearingen and Gabriel Blakely were ofl'ered and acce])ted as 
sureties for Thomas Stokely, Esq., who was, on the 4th day of Sojiteniber 
last reappointed Register for the Probate of Wills and granting Letters of 
Administration, and Recorder of Deeds, in and for the county of Wash- 
ington. 

In Council. Philadelphia, December 11, 1790. 

A letter from John Hoge, Esq., informing council that at tlie last general 
election held in the district composed of the counties of Washington and 
Fayette, he has been elected to represent that district in the Senate of this 
State, and recpiesting that Council would be pleased to accept his resigna- 
tion of the offices of justice of the peace, and of the Court of Common 
Pleas for the county of Washington, which ho now holds, previous to his 
taking his seat, was read, whereujion it was 

Hesulved, To accept the said resignaliim. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 87 

In Council. Philadelphia, December 14, 1790. 

It being represented to-Council that William Wallace, Esq., Sheriff of the 
county of Washington, and Samuel Clarke, Coroner of the said county of 
Washington, are prevented from attending in Philadelphia to enter into 
negotiations and to give bonds with sureties, as the act of Asse.mbly of the 
5th of March last diierts ; thereupon 

Refiolved, That a cuiitmission under the great seal be issued to Alexan- 
der Scott and Dr. Absalom Jiaird, of the said county, authorizing them to 
take from the said sheriff and coroner th^said recognizances and bonds, in 
the manner prescribed in and by the said act of Assembly, and that the 
said commissioners make a report to council of their proceedings in the 
premises. 

Thomas Scott and John Hoge, Esqrs., were accepted as sureties for the 
said William Wallace, and John Hoge, and Henry Taylor, Esqrs., as sure- 
ties for the said Samuel Clarke. 

In Council. Philadelphia, December 20, 1790. 

The following order was drawn upon the Treasurer, viz : — 
In favor of the Honorable Henry Taylor, for forty-four pounds ten shil- 
lings, for attendance in council from the 14th of November to the 21st of 
December, and mileage coming to Philadelphia and returning to Washing- 
ton County. 

The Constitution of 1790 going into. effect, the oiiice of Supreme 
Executive Council was abolished. But very few persons having 
access to the twenty-eight octavo volumes which compose our colo- 
nial records and archives, I concluded to incorporate in this volume 
every fact contained therein in relation to Washington County, so 
that in the future it could be referred to. 



CHAPTER V. 

TOWNSHIPS AND BOROUGHS IN WASHINGTON COUI^TY. 

The history of the TowDships and Boroughs in their chronological order, de- 
tailing interesting events in each — Also the history of churches and the 
present state of education in each Township and Borough. 

We now proceed to the history of the townships of Washington 
County, which have been enumerated in chapter three, commencing 
with the thirteen original townships, and placing them in alphabeti- 
cal order ; these townships having been organized on July 15th, 1781. 
When one of the original townships has been subdivided, or boroughs 
formed therein, we shall place its history with the township from 
which it was taken, yet giving a separate history. New townships 
and boroughs we shall place in chronological order. * 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



Amwell Township. 



In the original record of this county its name is written "Aim- 
well." At the date of its organization, July 15th, 1781, it was 
bounded on the north by Strabane township, east by Bethlehem 
township, south by Morgan township (a township of Greene County 
since 1T9G), and on the west by Donegal. 

Its present boundaries are South Strabane on the north, Morris 
and Franklin on the west, West Bethlehem on the east, and Greene 
County on the south. On the 19th of June, 1838, part of Am- 
well was annexed to Strabane township, and at the ^lay terra of 
court in 185G, the township lines between Amwell and Morris were 
changed and confirmed. It is centrally distant from the borough of 
Washington ten miles. Its population in 18G0 was 2042, of which 
seven were colored. Its greatest length is ten miles, breadth four 
and one-half miles. 

This township is drained by the north fork of Tenmile Creek, 
by the little North fork and Bane's fork of the same creek. It con- 
tains four stores, one distillery, and ten schools, employing five male 
and five female teachers, the former receiving thirty-eight dollars and 
thirty-eight cents, and the latter thirty-three dollars and five cents 
each per month, with five hundred and nineteen scholars, of which 
two hundred and eighty-six are males and two hundred and thirty- 
three are females — the tuition costing each scholar per month eighty- 
three cents. Amount of tax levied for building purposes, four hun- 
dred and thirty-eight dollars and ninety-five cents — total amount 
levied for school purposes, two thousand four hundred and thirty- 
nine dollars and fourteen cents ; amount received fronx the State 
appropriation one hundred and eighty-three dollars and thirty cents. 
The towns are Amity and Claiiktown (Tenmile Tillage.) 

Amity is about ten miles from tlie county seat, and is on Bane's 
fork of Tenmile Creek and on the road leading from Washington to 
Wayncsburg, containing thirty-four dwellings, two stores, a Presby- 
terian church* under the care of Rev. J. W. Hamilton, and a Metho- 
dist Protestant church, the pastor of wdiich is Rev. F. A. Da}^ 

This town was located about the year 1790 by Daniel Dodd, Esq., 
a brother of the Rev. Tliaddeus Dodd, who owned the land, fonned 
the plan, and numbered the lots. The position being central, on the 
main thoroughfare to Greene County, a hewed log Presbyterian 
church, stores, tavern, .and dwrliing houses were soon erected. At 
that earh'^datc the churches were destitute of heating apparatus, and 
the church-going members sat in their ]>ews with their great coats 
and mittens, while the women were muffled up — not in furs, but in 
home-made dresses and comfortable shawls. Here we may remark, 
that both before and after preaching by Rev. Dodd, the male part of 
the congregation used to resort to the tavern to warm themselves, 
tlie house being now occupied as a private dwelling by Squire Clutter, 
no tavern l)eing licensed in the place. In those early days athletic 

* See pp. 217, 218. 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 89 

sports were much more in vogue than at present; long bullets, the 
ball alley, and target shooting were the favorite exercises, and the 
party losing paid their forfeit by ordering drinks for all hands. 

MORMONISM. 

The village of Amity, in all coming time, will be regarded as the 
Mecca of Mormonism. It was in the year 1816 that the Rev. Solo- 
mon Spaulding, a graduate of Dartmouth College, settled in this ru- 
ral village, with a view to banish ennui. He was (what is familiarly 
known as) an antiquarian, and travelled far and near to investigate, 
scientifically, Indian mounds, and everything else _ connected with 
American antiquities, for the purpose of tracing the aborigines to 
their original source, a portion of one of the lost tribes of ancient 
Israel. While pursuing these investigations, and to while away the 
tedious hours, he wrote a romance, based upon -fiction ; his investi- 
gations and history at the same time leaving the reader under the 
impression that it was found in one of these mounds, and through his 
knowledge of hieroglyphics he had deciphered it. As time and cir- 
cumstances would permit, he would often read to his friends in 
Amity portions of his fabulous and historical romance. 

Rev. Spaulding resolved to publish it under the name of " The 
Manuscript Found," and actually entered into a contract with a Mr. 
Patterson, of Pittsburg, to publish the same, but from some cause the 
contract was not fulfilled. The manuscript remained in the posses- 
sion of Mr. Patterson between two and three years before Mr. Spauld- 
ing reclaimed and recovered it. In the mean time a journeyman 
printer of the name of Sidney Rigden copied the whole of the manu- 
script, and hearing of Joseph Smith, Jr.'s, digging operations for 
money through the instrumentality of necromancy, resolved in his 
own mind that he would turn this wonderful manuscript to good ac- 
count and make it profitable to himself. An interview takes place 
between Rigden and Smith, terms are agreed upon, the whole manu- 
script undergoes a partial revision, and in process of time, instead 
of finding money, they find curious plates, which, when translated, 
turn out to be the Golden Bible, or Book of Mormon, which was 
found under the prediction of Mormon in these words (see Mormon 
Bible, p. 504): " Gro to the land Antura, unto a hill which shall be 
called Shin, and there have I deposited unto the Lord all the sacred 
engravings concerning this people." Oliver Cowdery, David Whit- 
mer, and Martin Harris, certify that they have seen these selfsame 
plates which wei'e deposited by Mormon — that they were faithfully 
translated by the gift and power of God, because God's voice declared 
it unto them, that the work was true, and to place the testimony of 
its truthfulness beyond a peradventure, eight witnesses, viz : Chris- 
tian Whitmer, Jacob Whitmer, Peter Whitmer, John Whitmer, Hirara 
Page, Joseph Smith, Sr., Hiram Smith, and Samuel H. Smith (al- 
most all of the witnesses belonging either to the Whitmer or Smith 
7 



90 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

family), testify that Joseph Smith, Jr., the translator, showed them 
the plates of gold, that they handled them with their own hands, 
saw the curious engravings, and that the plates were of curious 
workmanship. Such is the account of the most stupendous imposture 
which has been perpetrated for many centuries, but more especially 
upon so intelligent a nation as the American people. An imposture, 
at which the religious world stands amazed, paralyzing the marriage 
vow, and defying the power of the general government. 

To place this question beyond the possibility of a doubt, and to 
demonstrate the fact that the Book of Mormon was originally written 
in Amity, Washington County, Pa., I shall take the testimony of 
living witnesses, whose characters are bcj'ond reproach, and beloved 
by the entire community as persons whose veracity cannot be ques- 
tioned, and whose intelligence has no superior. The testimony I 
shall offer is a letter from the Rev. J. W. Hamilton, pastor of the 
Presbyterian church in Amity, Pa. — a letter from Joseph Miller, Sr., 
the intimate and confidential friend of Rev. Solomon Spaulding, and 
lastly, a letter from the wife of Rev. Spaulding, which was originally 
published thirty-one years since, or in 1839. 

1. Letter of Rev. J. "W. Hamilton 

BOOK OF MORMON. 

Some time since I became the owner of the book of Mormon. I put it 
into tlie hands of Mr. Joseph Miller, Sr., of Aniwell township. After ex- 
amining it he makes the following statement concerning the connection of 
Rev. Solomon Spaulding with the authorship of the book of Mormon. 

Mr. Miller is now in the seventy-ninth year of his age. He is an elder 
in the ('umberhmd rresbytcrian Church. His judgment is good and his 
veracity unimpeachable. He was well acquainted with Mr. S. while he 
lived at Amity. He waited on him during his last illness. He made his 
coffin, and assisted to bury his remains where they now lie, in the Presby- 
terian graveyard at Amity. He also bailed Mr. S.'s wife when she took 
out letters of administration on his estate. 

Mr. Miller's statement may be relied on as true. J. W. Hamilton. 

2. Letter of Jos. Miller, Sr. 

When Mr. Spaulding lived in Amity, Pa., I was well acquainted with 
him. I was frc(iuently at his house. He kept what is callod a tavern. 
It was understood that he had been a preacher ; but his health failed him 
and he ceased to preach. I never knew him to preach after he came to 
Amity. 

He had in his possession some papers which he said he had written. He 
used to read select j)ortions of these papers to amuse us of evenings. 

These papers were detached sheets of foolscap. He said he wrote the 
papers as a novel. He called it the " Manuscrij)t Found," or " The Lost 
Manuscript Found." He said he wrote it to i)ass away the time when he 
was unwell ; and after it was written he Ihougiit he would publish it as a 
novel, as a means to support his family. 

Some time since, a copy of the book of Mormon came into my hands. 
My son read it for me, as I have a nervous shaking of the head that ])re- 
vents me from reading. I noticed several passages which I recollect having 



I 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 91 

heard Mr. Spaulding read from his " Manuscript." One passage on the 
148th page (the copy I have is published by J. 0. Wright & Co., New York) 
I remember distinctly. He speaks of a battle, and says the Amalekites 
had marked themselves with red on the foreheads to distinguish them from 
the Nephites. The thought of being marked on the forehead with red was 
so strange, it fixed itself in my memory. This together with other passages 
I remember to have heard Mr. Spaulding read from his "Manuscript." 

Those who knew Mr. Spaulding will soon all be gone, and I among the 
rest. I write that what I know may become a matter of history ; and that 
it may prevent people from being led into Mormonism, that most seductive 
delusion of the devil. 

From what I know of Mr. Spaulding's "Manuscript" and the book of 
Mormon, I firmly believe that Joseph Smith, by some means, got possession 
of Mr. Spaulding's " Manuscript," and possibly made some changes in it 
and called it the " Book of Mormon." Joseph Miller, Sr. 

March 26, 1869. 

3. Letter of Mrs. Davidson, formerly Mrs. Spaulding. 

THE MORMON BIBLE. 

Joseph Miller, Esq., an old and highly respected citizen of Amwell town- 
ship, sends us by hand of Rev. J. W. Hamilton, of Amity, the following 
communication, which originally appeared in a magazine entitled the Evan- 
gelist of the True Gospel, published at Carthage, Ohio, in 1839. 

Mr. Miller has, on various occasions heretofore, furnished us with many 
interesting incidents connected with the career of Solomon Spaulding, and 
the oi'igin of the so-called Mormon Bible. The present contribution, which 
consists of a statement from the wife of Mr. Spaulding, seems to furnish 
conclusive evidence that the " Manuscript Found," written by her husband, 
and the "Book of Mormon," are one and the same. 

Origin of the "Book of Mormon,'' or '^Golden Promise." — As this 
book has excited much attention, and has been put by a certain new sect in 
the place of the Sacred Scriptures, I deem it a duty which I owe to the 
public to state what I know touching its origin. That its claims to a divine 
origin are wholly unfounded, needs no proof to a mind unperverted by the 
grossest delusions. That any sane person should rank it higher than any 
other merely human composition, is a matter of the greatest astonishment; 
yet it is received as divine by those who dwell in enlightened New England, 
and even by those who have sustained the character of devoted Christians. 
Learning recently that Mormonism has found its way into a church in 
Massachusetts, and has impregnated some of its members with its gross 
delusions, so that excommunication has become necessary, I am determined 
to delay no longer doing what I can to strip the mask from this monster of 
sin, and to lay open this pit of abominations. 

Rev. Solomon Spaulding, to whom I was united in marriage in early life, 
was a graduate of Dartmouth College, and was distinguished for a lively 
imagination and a great fondness for history. At the time of our marriage 
he resided at Cherry Valley, New York. From this place we removed to 
New Salem, Ashtabula County, Ohio, sometimes called Conneaut, as it 
is situated upon Conneaut Creek. Shortly after our removal to this place 
his health sunk, and he was laid aside from active labors. In the town 
of New Salem there are numerous mounds and forts, supposed by many to 
be the dilapidated dwellings and fortifications of a race now extinct. These 
ancient relics arrested the attention of the new settlers, and becajne objects 



92 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

of research for the curious. Numerous implements were found, and other 
articles evincing great skill in the arts. Mr. Spaulding being an educated 
man, and passionately fond of history, took a lively interest in these devel- 
opments of antiquity, and in order to beguile the hours of retirement, and 
furnish employment for his lively imagination, he conceived the idea of giv- 
ing a?i hiftoncal sketch of this long lost race. Their extreme antiquity of 
course would lead him to write in the viost ancient style, and as the Old 
Testament is the most ancient book in the world, he imitated its style as 
nearly as possible. His sole object in writing this historical romance was 
to amuse himself and his neighbors. This was about the year 1812. Hull's 
surrender at Detroit occurred near the same time, and I recollect the date 
from that circumstance. As he progressed in his narrative, the neighbors 
would come in from time to time to hear portions read, and a great interest 
in the work was excited among them. It claimed to have been written by 
one of the lost nation, and to have been recovered from the earth, and 
assumed the title of " Manuscript Found." The neighbors would often 
inquire how Mr. S. progressed in deciphering the manuscript, and when he 
had a sufficient portion prepared he would inform them, and they would 
assemble to hear it read. He was enabled, from his acquaintance with the 
classics and ancient history, to introduce many singular names, which 
were particularly noticed by the people, and could be easily recognized by 
them. Mr. Solomon Spaulding had a brother, I\lr. John Spaulding, resid- 
ing in the place at the time, who was perfectly familiar with this work, and 
repeatedly heard the whole of it read. 

From New Salem we removed to Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. Here Mr. S. 
found an acquaintance and friend in the person of Mr. Patterson, an editor 
of a newspaper. He exhibited his manuscript to Mr. P., who was very 
much pleased with it, and borrowed it for perusal. He retained it a long 
time, and informed Mr. S. that if he would make out a title page and pre- 
face, he would publish it, and it might be a source of profit. This Mr. S. 
refused to do, for reasons which I cannot state. Sidney Rigdon. who has 
figured so largely in the history of the Mormons, was at this time connected 
with the printing-office of Mr. Patterson, as is well known in that region, 
and as Rigdon himself has frequently stated. Here he had ample oppor- 
tunity to become acquainted with Mr. Spaulding's manuscript, and to copy 
it if he chose. It was a matter of notoriety to all who were connected with 
the printing establishment. At length the manuscript was returned to its 
author, and soon after we removed to Amity, Washington County, Pa., 
where Mr. S. deceased in IHIG. The manuscript then fell into my hands 
and was carefully preserved. It has frequently been examined by ray 
daughter, Mrs. M'Kinstry, of Monson, Massachusetts, with whom 1 now 
reside, and by other friends. After the " Book of Mormon" came out, a 
copy of it was taken to New Salem, the place of Mr. Spaulding's former 
residence, and the very place where the "Manuscript Found" was written. 
A woman-preacher appointed a meeting there; and, in the meeting, read 
and repeated copious extracts from the " Book of Mormon." The historical 
part was immediately recognized by all the older inhabitants as the iden- 
tical work of Mr. Spaulding. in which they had been deeply interested 
before. Mr. John Spaulding was present, who is an eminently pious man, 
and recoqnized ferfevtly the work of his brother. He was amazed and 
afflicted that it should have been perverted to so wicked a purpose. His 
grief found vent in a flood of tears ; and he arose on the spot, and ex- 
pressed in the meeting his deep sorrow and regret that the writings of his 
sainted brother should l)e used for a purpose so vile and shocking. The 
excitement in New Salem became so great that the inhabitants held a 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 93 

meeting and deputed Dr. Philastus Hurlbut, one of their number, to repair 
to this place and to obtain from me the original manuscript of Mr. Spaul- 
ding, for the purpose of comparing it with the Mormon Bible, to satisfy 
their own minds, and to prevent their friends from embracing an error so 
delusive. This was in the year 1834. Dr. Hurlbut brought with him an 
introduction and request for the manuscript signed by Messrs. Henry Lake. 
Aaron Wright, and others, with all of whom I was acquainted, as they 
were my neighbors when I resided in New Salem. 

I am sure that nothing could grieve my husband more, were he living, 
than the use which has been made of his work. The air of antiquity which 
was thrown about the composition doubtless suggested the idea of convert- 
ing it to purposes of delusion. This historical romance, with the addition 
of a few pious expressions and extracts from the Sacred Scriptures, has 
been construed into a new Bible, and palmed off upon a company of poor 
deluded fanatics as divine. I have given the previous narration, that this 
work of deep deception and wickedness may be searched to the foundation, 
and its author exposed to the contempt and execration he so justly deserves. 

Matilda Davidson. 
The Rev. Solomon Spaulding was the first husband of the narrator of the 
above history. Since his decease she has been married to a second husband, 
by the name of Davidson. She is now residing in this place, is a woman of 
irreproachable character, and an humble Christian, and her testimony 
worthy of implicit confidence. 

A. Ely, D. D., 
Pastor Congregational CJmrch, Monso7i. 

D. R. Ei,Y, 

Principal of Monson Academy. 

Tenmile Village. 

I have been favored with the followinf^ description of Clarktown, 
or Tenmile Village, by J. C. Milliken, M. D., one of our most suc- 
cessful physicians in this county : — 

This town is situated in the southern part of the county, near the 
line of Greene County, on North Tenmile Creek. It is one of our 
neatest country villages, with one main street and another running 
across it at nearly right angles ; the houses are generally neatly 
painted, with yards in front ornamented with evergreens, shrubbery, 
and flowers. The town contains one large flour and saw-mill, one 
blacksmith shop, one dry-goods store, one carriage and wagon fac- 
tory, one shoemaker shop, two physicians, and a population of 
about two hundred and twenty. It contains a Masonic lodge, and a 
school-house capable of containing one hundred scholars, in which 
the usual branches are taught nine months in the year. 

Early Settlers. 

Of the earhj settlers in this part of the county, as well as the ad- 
joining county of Greene, we desire to speak. The first settlers 
were squatters who purchased the land from the native Indians for a 
gun, trinket, or gewgaw, of whom were John Rutman and Dennis 
Smith, the former dying at the age of ninety-nine and the latter at 



94 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

one hundred and four ; these two, with William Gordon, Russel 
Reese, John Lorrison, and John James constituted the principal 
original settlers. 

From the year lYYO to ITOO they were followed by a different 
kind of men, who patented their lands and obtained them legally ; 
these early pioneers were Nathaniel McGiffin, David Evans, James 
Milliken, Abel McFarland, George Cooper, and John Bates, some 
of whom served in the Revolutionary war with marked distinction 
with Washington, La Fayette, Green, Marion, and Sumpter. 

Forts. 

For their protection these early settlers erected two forts, one 
called Fort 3Iilliken, situated on a beautiful mound on the farm of 
Mrs. Samuel Braden, the other was named Fo7't McFarland, and 
located on the farm of Peter Garrett. There was a third fort or 
blockhouse on the farm now owned by Nehemiah Woodruff, Esq., 
where many bones, arrows, wares, and trinkets are unearthed by the 
farmer's plough. The mound that encircled the area of this third fort 
until recently was covered with large trees, and in the immediate 
vicinity are numerous burying-grounds of the Indians. 

Churches. 

In the fall of the year 1831 the Revs. A. M. Bryan, John Morgan, 
A. Chapman, R. Burrow, and R. Donnel came as missionaries to 
proclaim the doctrines of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. 
They held a camp-meeting on Abel Milliken's farm near Fort Milli- 
ken. In May, 1832, another camp-meeting was held, and another in 
January, 1833 ; the result of these camp-meetings was the organi- 
zation of a church on the 22d of January, 1833, which was called 
Pleasant Hill. The church is built of brick, and located about 
half a mile from the village. 

The following pastors have officiated, viz: Rev. John Morgan, 
for one year and a half; Rev. Alexander Robinson, one year ; Rev. 
S. P. Allen, one year ; Rev. E. Howland, six months ; Rev. Milton 
Bird, five years ; Rev. James McFarland, six months ; Rev. John 
Carey, twelve years ; Rev. Philip Axtell, four years ; Rev. Ste- 
phen Winget, ten years ; Rev. Jesse Adams, two years. Rev. 
Philip Axtell is the present incumbent. 

North Tenmile Baptist Church 

Is situated on a ridge two miles north of Tenmile village. Its his- 
tory runs back as far as the year 1772. In their first labors they 
were much troubled with the Indians, and were often compelled to 
hold their meeting in Fort McFarland. Their present church is 
the third which has been erected on the same ground. The Rev. 
James Sutton was their first regular pastor ; he was chosen February 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 95 

4, 1774; he served for seven 3'ears. His successor was Rev. Joh 
Corbly, who remained for two years. He was followed by Rev. 
David Sutton. How long he preached cannot be ascerta,ined, because 
the church records are lost, and our ne.xt preacher of which we have 
any sure knowledge was Rev. Charles Wheeler, who became the 
.pastor in 1831 and served five years. In 1836, Rev. A. B. Bow- 
man became the pastor and resigned in 1839, when the Rev. Levi 
Griffith was elected, and officiated until 1842, His successor was 
Rev. F. Downey, who served until 1846, then followed Rev. Wm. 
Whitehead for eighteen months ; Rev. S. Kendall Lenning, for six 
and a half years ; Rev. T. C. Gunford, for one year ; Rev. W. Scott, 
for six months; Rev. B. P. Ferguson, for, two and a half years; 
Rev. J. Boyd, for three years. In 1865, Rev. W. B. Skinner 
became pastor, who remained until 1867. His successor, until 1868, 
was Rev. S. Kendall, who was followed by the present incumbent, 
Rev. C. W. Tilton. 

American Patriotism. 

On February 6, 1839, the citizens of Amwell township met and 
elected John Carter President, and Samuel L. Hughes Secretary. 
The object of the meeting was to adopt measures to check the bit- 
terness of party strife, sink the character of the politician, and arise 
superior to party dictation and party influence, by assuming the 
character and attributes of an American patriot. 

Bethlehem Township 

Was one of the original townships, organized July 15, 1781. It was 
at that period bounded by Straban and Fallowfield townships on 
the north, the Monongahela River on the east, Amwell and Frank- 
lin townships on the south, and Amv/ell on the east. 

Application was made to the Court of Quarter Sessions on March 
13, 1788, to divide the township into East and West Bethlehem 
townships, and on the 18th of January, 1790, the court directed 
the division to be made by a straight line running from Peter Drake's 
to Weise's mill. 

On the 29th of March, 1788, before the division of the township, 
we find Michael Simon and Anne Ottia his wife conveying to the 
trustees of the Dutch Presbyterians two and a fourth acres of land 
situate on Brush Run, a branch of Tenmile Creek, to be used for 
divine worship, and teaching of school, and a burial-ground. 

April 12, 1792, Joseph Townsend and wife conveyed to James 
Crawford, Nathaniel Heald, Abraham Smith, John Townsend, John 
Heald, and Isaac Jenkinson, as trustees of the Quaker Westland 
raeetiug-house, a certain lot of ground, containing twenty acres, for 
a meeting-house, burying-ground, and other necessary purposes, in 
consideration of twenty pounds, Pennsylvania currency. This land 
is on the draws of the Monongahela River and Twomile Run. 



96 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



East Bethlehem Township. 

It is bounded north by East and West Pike Run, east by tlie 
Monongaliela River, south by Greene County, and west by West 
Bethlehem. It is centrally distant from AVashington eighteen miles, 
its greatest length, nine miles, breadth, four and a half miles. The 
National road crosses the river by a bridge in the northeast angle 
of this township. On this road are Fredericksfoivn and Mills- 
borough, but have been erected into separate boroughs. 

East Bethlehem has five stores, one distillery, and ten schools, 
employing three male and seven female teachers; the average 
monthly salary of the former is $30.66, and of the latter $33.14. 
The number of scholars is four hundred and thirty, of which two 
hundred and twenty-eight are males, and two hundred and two are 
females; the cost of tuition per month, $1.18 per scholar; amount 
levied for school purposes, $1792.39 ; received from the State appro- 
priation, $115.89. Population in ^860, white, 1825; colored, 3Y, 
amounting to 1862. 

August 25th, 1843, an alteration was made and confirmed by the 
court on the division line between West Pike Run and East Bethle- 
hem townships. 

November 30th, 1848, the court, upon petition and hearing the 
report of viewers, attached all that part of East Bethlehem to East 
Pike Run except West Brownsville, which is north of the National 
road. At the August term, 1861, the line between East and West 
Bethlehem was changed, so as to include Thomas Martindale ia East 
Bethlehem. 

Fredericktown 

Is on the west bank of the Monongahela River, below the great bend, 
two miles north of the mouth of Tcnmile Creek, eight miles above 
Brownsville, and twenty miles southwest of Washington. It was 
laid out by Frederick Wise, on August 21, 1790, although the land 
was patented March 22d, 1788, under the name of sugar-tree bottom. 
In laying out the town, the proprietor reserved one acre of ground 
for a cemetery, and lot No. 44 for a school-house, upon which a brick 
edifice has been erected, containing one graded school with two de- 
partments. 

The town was surveyed and laid off by Isaac Jonkinson ; lots 
measured 60 by 180, having Water, Main, and Bank streets running 
parallel with the riv(>r, and Washington, Walnut, and Sycamore run- 
ning at right angles to the former; each street being 50 feet wide 
e.\cept Main, which is 60. Tlie proprietor of the town entered into 
an agreement with Isaac Jenkinson and others September 20, 1793, 
recorded in t)ie Recorder's office of this county, that no distillery for 
the destruction of grain or fruit shall be at any time erected on the 
premises, by or under said Wise or any purchaser of his or their pur- 
chase. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 9T 

In 1793 a public library was established, which continued in opera- 
tion until the 31st day of July, 1825, when it was closed and the 
books sold. 

The town contains a population of 320 inhabitants; a ^oneware 
pottery, manufacturing' 30,000 gallons annually ; a grist and saw- 
mill ; two hotels; a rectifying distillery; fifty dwellings; and salt 
works, the well being 520 feet deep. 

About a mile below Fredericktown is a curious cave called the 
Panther^s den. It enters the hill half way from its base, by a small 
fracture or rent in the rock. After going a few yards through a narrow 
and descending passage, you enter a wide but low room in which 
you can walk nearly upright; to the roof of this room the exploring 
party found bats hanging in a stupid kind of sleep. By clambering 
up another fracture in the rock, they entered another room ; they 
were required to roll themselves through this room, and entered a third 
by a narrow and descending passage, occasioned by another rent in 
the rock. This room was high eliough to walk upright in, and was 
divided by a partition of petrifactions, formed by the drippings of 
water through the roof. The party explored it about forty yards. 

David S. Wilson, Esq., of Washington, has kindly permitted me 
to copy the following letter, the original of which is in his posses- 
sion, and is a proud monument to the citizens of Fredericktown 
and its vicinity, showing their devotion to our government in its in- 
fant state. The letter is in the hand-writing of John Adams, Presi- 
dent of the United States. 

To the inhabitants of Fredericktown and its vicinity, in the county of 
Washington and the State of Pennsylvania — 

Gentlemen: Your memorial to the President, Senate, and House of Rep- 
resentatives has been presented to me by Judge Addison, for which I return 
you my thanks. 

From the beginning of the world, the elements of division of opinion 
among the people have existed; the distinctions of the wise and foolish, 
learned and ignorant, industrious and idle, strong and weak, virtuous and 
vicious, have ever prevailed, and while these continue men will think differ- 
ently. One would imagine that under a constitution of their own choice 
they might agree, but we find that they do not; to be sure to seek shelter 
under a foreign power is another thing ; they must be depraved and lost, 
who are capable of this. Very few, if any, whose blood was first distilled 
from the American soil can be of the number; these will very generally 
pledge themselves to a cordial attention to every duty incumbent on citi- 
zens of a free and independent Republic. John Adams. 

Philadelphia, July 7, 1798. 

MiLLSBOROUGH 

Was Inoorporated as a borough on April 16, 1840. Its population 
in 1860 was 292. It is 21 miles distant from Washington, and 
is situate in East Bethlehem township, and was laid out by Jesse 
Bomgarner in the year 1700 (the land being patented June 3, 1769) 
on the north bank of Tenmile Creek, at its confluence with the 



98 HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Monongahela River, at which there is a ferry. The streets are 50 
feet wide — lots, GO by 180 feet. The houses, generally frame, and 
some brick ; yet a few of the old landmarks (log houses) still re- 
main to remind the inhabitants of the days of " Auld Lang Syne." 
There are sixty dwelling-houses and three churches, viz., a Cum- 
berland Presbyterian, under the care of Rev. J. S. Gibson ; a Mcr 
thodist Episcopal, under charge of Rev. Mr. Ilill, and a Methodist 
Protestant Church ; two cabinet-makers, five stores, two cooper 
shops, one blacksmith shop, two foundries, one hotel, one wagon 
'manufactory, a steam grist-mill, a saw mill, and one rectifying dis- 
tillery in this borough. Mill Street is the principal street, being 60 
feet wide, while the remaining streets. Ferry, Walnut, Water, and 
Morgantown, are but 40 feet. Three of these run east and west, and 
the others intersect them at right angles. 

Millsboro' has two school-houses with 82 scholars, 34 males and 
48 females ; cost of tuition per month is $1.09; amount of taxes 
levied for school purposes, $2.77 ; State appropriation, $36.66. 

Half a mile from the town, on the opposite side of the river, is a 
rock of about twenty feet square, upon which are curious hierogly- 
phics which can scarcely be deciphered. The rock is of a sand-stone 
character, and upon it are impressions of Indians, animals, pipes, 
feet, heads, claws, &c. 

The Monongahela River at this place is slack water, twenty miles 
up the river from this point, as far as Geneva. Steamboats ply this 
river and carry freight to and from Pittsburg, and supply this and 
the adjoining counties and West Virginia. An old water grist-mill 
still remains, to which the inhabitants in the old times came fifty 
miles. 

West Bethlehem Township 

Is bounded on the north by Somerset, on the east by Somerset and 
E. Bethlehem, on the south by Greene County, and on the west by 
Amwell and S. Strabaue. This township is centrally distant from 
Washington 15 miles. In 1860 it contained a population of 11)61, 
of which 4 were colored. It has 13 schools, with 652 scholars, of 
which 324 are majcs and 228 females; the cost of tuition per month 
being 98 cents ; the total amount of tax levied for school and build- 
ing purposes, $2421.97 ; the State appropriation being $193.83. Its 
length is 10 miles ; its breadth, 6 miles. 

The towns are Hillsborough and Zollarsville. Hillsborough 
is on the National Road, midway between Washington and Browns- 
ville, 11 miles from each. It contains 38 dwellings, 3 preachers, 5 
physicians, 3 shoe shops, 2 saddle and harness shops, 1 hotel, 1 
blacksmith shop, 1 wagon-maker shop, 1 cabinet-maker, 2 carpen- 
ters, 4 stores, a Presbyterian and Methodist Episcopal church. It 
is elevated 1750 feet above tide water — 917 feet above the Monon- 
gahela River at Brownsville, and 1002 feet above the Ohio at 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 99 

Wheeling. It was laid out by Stephen Hill and Thomas McGififen, 
Esq., deceased, and has a population of 180 inhabitants. 

The land upon which Hillsborough (now called Scenery Hill) was 
laid out, was patented September 15, 1784, by Wm. Hill, Esq., and 
named Springtown, and contained 393| acres, for and in considera- 
tion of three pounds five shillings and sixpence. This tract is now 
divided thus : the land upon which the town is laid out, and the 
respective farms of Oliver Lacock, Valentine Kinder, John Taylor, 
and Joseph W. Cowan, Esqrs. The aggregate value of these tracts 
is estimated at $75,000. 

The first church in Hillsborough was erected about 1850 by the 
Presbyterians and Lutherans ; the second church, by the Methodists, 
in 1852, by Hiram Winnett. Before their erection divine service 
was performed in the school-house. The Methodist denomination has 
had the efficient services of Revs. J. White, Geo. S. Holmes, Wake- 
field, Hudson, Yarnall, and many others who have labored success- 
fully in the cause of their Divine Master. The Methodist church has 
about eighty members. 

The first postmaster was the late Samuel Stanley. He worked at 
the carpenter business in 1810 at the large storehouse of Oliver La- 
cock ; settled and became a resident of the place, and died ten years 
since at an advanced age. As a man, a citizen, a Christian, and a 
Freemason, he had no superior. His daughter fills his place in 
the post-office department, 

Zollarsville is on the north branch of Tenmile Creek, 16 miles 
from Washington. It was laid out by Stephen Ullery in 1856, and 
is a small and thriving village. Near the residence of ex-sheriff E. 
R. Smith is the remains of an Indian fort. The entrenchment 
around the fort, which can yet be traced, is about 100 feet from the 
fort. Bones, pipes, arrows, &c., have been found. None of the 
inhabitants of the surrounding country can trace its origin ; but a 
tree was lately cut down within the inclosure of the grounds of the 
fort, and its age, according to the mode of computing the age of 
trees, amounted to about 300 years. Coal is found at 180 feet, 
and salt water at 400 feet. 

There is a Methodist Episcopal church northwest of Zollarsville, 
and a Dunkard Baptist church near Mr. Wherry's. 

This township has a number of grist and saw-mills. 

Half a mile below Hillsborough there was erected an Episcopal 
church, under the supervision of Rev. Joseph Dodridge (but the 
site can only now be traced), near George Taylor's, Esq. 

Cecil Township. 

This was the third of the original townships formed July 15, 1781. 
Its boundaries were Robinson township on the north ; Peters, Dickin- 
son, and Strabane on the east ; Amwell on the south ; and Smith and 
Hopewell on the west. 



100 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

By the act of Assembly of September 24, 1788, a part of this 
township, with the whole of Dickinson, was ceded to Allegheny Coun- 
ty, at which time the county was formed and confirmed by the Su- 
preme Executive Council, September 30, 1788. An application was 
made to the Court of Quarter Sessions of this county, praying for a 
division of the township, beginning at Chartiers' Creek at the junction 
of the mouth of Brush Run, and continuing up the same as high as to 
Matthew Johnston's, to include his farm in the upper division, thence 
leaving James Reed's farm in the lower division, directly, to include 
General Washington's and Henry Guy's land in the upper divi- 
sion, and immediately to interstjct the outside line of the township. 

December 9, 1789, the Supreme Executive Council confirmed the 
same, and the township thus formed was called Chartiers. 

Cecil township is now bounded by Robirson township and Allegheny 
County on the north, Peters township and Allegheny County on the 
east, Chartiers and North Strabane on the south, and Mount Plea- 
sant and Chartiers on the west. Its greatest length is 7^ miles, 
breadth, 4| miles. Miller's branch of Chartiers' Creek passes south- 
east through the middle of the township, upon which are several mills. 
Its population in 1860 was 959, of which but one is colored. It 
contains three stores. The township line between this and Mount 
Pleasant township was adjusted and confirmed by the court. 

The only town in this township is Venice, 12 miles from Washing- 
ton, named, by its founder, after the famous maritime city of Italy. 
We cannot say with the poet, 

" From out the wave her structures rise 
As from the stroke of the enchanter's wand," 

there being but 26 dwelling houses, a Presbyterian church south of 
Venice, with a parsonage attached. There is another Presbyterian 
church east of the place. 

Tiiis township has seven schools with two male and five female 
teachers, receiving a monthly salary of $35.00, having 210 scholars, 
of which 112 are males and 98 females, tuition costing each scholar 
per month §1.35. Amount of taxes levied, $1991.11, and receiving 
from the State appropriation, $98.67. 

Gen. Washington's Land. 

From our county records we learn the history of this land. A 
patent was issued July 5, 1775, by John, Earl of Dunmore, Lieute- 
nant and Governor-General of the colony of Virginia, to George 
Washington, for lico tlwunand eight hundred and Ihii^teen acres of 
land, in Augusta County, in the State of Virginia, on the waters of 
Miller's Run, one of the branches of Shirtee Creek, which is a branch 
of the Ohio River. Gen. Washington held this land until June 1, 
1796, when he conveyed the same to Matthew Richie, Esq., of this 
county, in consideration of the sum of twelve thousand dollars. 
Witnesses to the deed were James Ross, Esq., and Charles Lee, the 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 101 

deed being acknowledged in Philadelphia by the grantor, before 
James Biddle, President of the Court of Common Pleas of the first 
district. The payments on the land were $3180 cash, and the balance, 
$8820, in three equal annual payments with interest. 

Matthew Richie, Esq., in his advertisement to sell the land after 
he had jDurchased it, says, there are thirteen farms cleared and cul- 
tivated on the land, which is of excellent quality, rich, level, well tim- 
bered, and well watered. 

Gen. Washington came to visit his lands (which were, when patent- 
ed, in Augusta County, Virginia), and brought ejectments for their 
recovery. During his stay, the mother of James Reed (silversmith, 
formerly of this place) cooked a dinner on or near the lands for the 
General, and on his return stayed one night with Col. John Cannon, the 
proprietor of Canonsburg. 

Before the sale to Matthew Richie, Esq., the record of the court 
shows that suit was instituted for the recovery of this land. 

Smith. His Excellency George Washington, Esq., 

No. 110. vs. 

{Samuel McBride, James McBride, Thomas Big'gart, Wm. 
Stewart, Brice McGehan, John Reed, John Glen, James 
Scott, William Hillis, and Matthew Johnson. 
Ejectment served. Hugh M. Breckenridge, Esq., appears, pleads non cul, 
and enters into the common rule and rule for tryal next term. March, 178.5. 
Removed per certiorari. Clerk, £1. 4. 4. Sheriff, £4. 19. Mileage, 5 shillings. 

Our court records alsohave the name of the illustrious Benj. Frank- 
lin as plaintiff. April 1, 1T88. 

D f Benjamin Franklin, Esq., President of the Supreme Executive 

I Council, vs. 

Bradford. David WilUamson, Andrew Swearingen, and Thomas Stokely. 
Summons. Debt £1000, served on each. Entered by plaintiff's attorney, 
J. Ross. 

The suit was brought against David Williamson, who was elected 
sheriff of this county October 26, 1787, and his securities. 

The United Presbyterians have a church formed by the union of 
the Associate and Associate Reformed churches in 1858. The Associ- 
ate congregation of Miller's Run was organized in September, 1849, 
the Rev. A. Anderson, D. D., and Rev. Thomas Beveridge, D. D., 
officiated respectively as pastors from November, 1849, to June, 1855. 

The U. P. congregation of Venice was organized in 1858; the Rev. 
A. R. Anderson has officiated as pastor from April 17, 1860, till the 
present time, with a membership of 182. 

, Cumberland Township 

Was the fourth of the thirteen original townships, which was orga- 
nized by the trustees of the county on July 15, 1781. It was 
bounded by Morgan township on the north. Mason and Dixon's 
line on the south, the Monongahela River on the east, and the State 
line on the west. 



102 HISTORY OF AVASHINQTON COUNTY. 

Fort Jackson was situate in this township, on Tenmile Creek, 
just below Wayuesburg. The watei's of Muddy Creek flow through 
this township, upon and near whicli so many Indian murders were 
committed. Garrard's Fort was situate on Big Whitley Creek. 

By the erection of Greene County, on the 9th day of February, 
ItOG, this township became a component part thereof, Greene 
County, at its organization, being composed of Cumberland, Frank- 
lin, Greene, Morgan, and Rich Hill townships. These five town- 
ships have been subdivided into the following townships, viz : 
1. Aleppo; 2. Centre; 3. Cumberland; 4. Dunkard ; 5. Frank- 
lin ; 6. Gilmore ; 1. Greene ; 8. Jackson ; 9. Jefferson ; 10. 
Marion; 11. Monongahela ; 12. Morris; 13. Morgan; 14. Perry; 
15. Rich Hill; 16. Spring Hill ; 17. Washington; 18. Wayne, 
and 19. Whitely, whose population in 1860 was 23,816, and whose 
territory embraces 364,460 acres of land. 

Donegal Township 

Was organized July 1.5, 1781, by the trustees of the county, and 
ranks fifth in alphabetical order out of the thirteen. 

It was originally bounded by Smith township on the north, Mor- 
ris township on the east, Mason and Dixon's line on the south, 
and the State line on the west. 

On the Gth of May, IT 88, an application was made to the court 
for a division of the township, who granted it and ordered a copy 
to be forwarded to tlie Supreme Executive Committee, and on the 
7th of August following it was confirmed by the Council, by the 
name of Finley township. 

Its present boundaries are Independence township on the north. 
East and West Findley on the south, Buffalo and East Findlcy on 
the east, and West Virginia on the west. It is centrally distant from 
Washington, twelve miles, its greatest length is eight miles, breadth, 
six and a half miles. The township is drained by the Dutch Fork 
of Buffalo Creek, Bush Run, and Castleman's Run. The National 
road runs southwest through it, upon which lie Claysville on the 
east, and WestAlexande?- on the west. 

In 1860 its population was 1690, of which thirteen are colored. 
It contains nine stores, nine schools, employing seven male and two 
female teachers, the former receiving $39.48, and the latter, $36.00 
per month, having 376 scholars, of which 205 are males, and 171 
females. Cost of tuition per month, $1.25; amount levied for 
school purposes, $1776.69 ; levied for building puri>oses, $1332.52, 
and receiving from the State appropriation, $146.25. 

West Alexander is on the western boundary of this town.ship, 
fifteen miles southwest of Washington, containing ninety-two dwell- 
ings, an academy, a Presbyterian church and parsonage, and a 
Methodi.st Episcopal church. 

This town was laid out by Charles De Hass, on May 12, 1817; 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 103 

the sale of lots took place the 10th of June following. Three miles 
east of this place is a Roman Catholic church. It was first built of 
logs, on laud given by Mr. Dougherty, at which time the Rev. Mr. 
Horner officiated. The log chapel has been removed and a brick 
edifice erected. 

The Ilempfield Railroad passes through this township from its 
eastern to its western boundary, through the borough of Claysville 
and West Alexander. 

On September 7, 1795, Thomas Stokelj, of Washington, and 
Jesse Evans, of Fayette County, conveyed three acres and forty- 
eight perches, in consideration of seven shillings and sixpence, to 
James Armstrong, William Gaston, William Bower, Samuel Byers, 
and John White, trustees of the Presbyterian church belonging to 
the Ohio Presbytery and now supplied by Rev. John Brice. It 
appears from a deed executed May 30, 1796, that the same trustees 
purchased the same property from William Smith, William Slater, 
and James Stevenson, trustees of the Associate Congregation of 
Three Ridges (near West Alexander). This land was originally 
conveyed by Robert Humphreys and wife to the trustees of the 
Associated church, and is described as being in the townships of 
Finley and Donegal, although Humphreys claimed his title under the 
Virginia law. The question of title, however, was referred to John 
Hoge, Isaac Leet, and James Edgar, who awarded it to the Presby- 
terian church, called the Three Ridges. Its pastors have been Rev. 
John Brice, Rev. Mr. Stephenson, Rev. John McCluskey, and Rev. 
W. H. Lester. 

Claysville. 

The town of Claysville is in Donegal township, and was erected 
into a borough the second day of April, 1832, and the lots sold on 
the 8th of May following. Each lot is fifty by two hundred feet 
deep, with suitable and convenient streets and alleys to each block. 
The town is on the National road from Cumberland to Wheeling, 
beautifully located, w^ell watered, in a fertile section of the county, 
and with a good population. 

It has eighty-five dwellings, two churches — a Presbyterian and 
Methodist Episcopal — a tannery, a steam mill, four stores, one con- 
fectionery and one distillery, with a population of four hundred and 
sixty-seven ; two schools employing one male and one female teacher, 
ninety-two scholars, thirty-eight males and fifty-four females, tuition 
costing per month seventy-two cents ; amount levied for building 
purposes five hundred and sixty-four dollars and thirty cents ; receiv- 
ing from the State appropriation forty dollars and nineteen cents ; 
amount levied for school purposes, five hundred and sixty-four dol- 
lars and thirty cents. 



104 history of washington county. 

Presbyterian Church, 

The Presbyterian church at Claysville was organized September 
20th, 1820. Its first liouse of worship was a frame building. Its 
present house of worship is of briclv, and was erected during tlie sum- 
mer of 1830, at a cost of about three thousand dollars. The first 
pastor was Rev. Thomas' Hoge, of Washington. Ilis pastorate con- 
tinued fifteen years, at the close of which he removed to Philadelphia. 
His successor was the Rev. Peter Hassinger, who officiated for four 
years. From 1838 to 1846, the church- had only supplies. On the 
first Sabbath of October, 1846, the Rev. Alexander McCarrell, the 
present pastor, entered upon his duties, and breaks the bread of life 
to a devoted Christian people. This church has a Sabbath-school 
connected with it. 

Donegal township has always been noted for its morality and high- 
toned religious sentiment, as the following notice will show : the 
dockets of the justices of that period exhibit the fact that many 
persons were brought to trial and fined. 

Whereas, A number of the inhabitants of the vicinity of Three Ridges 
(West Alexander) have entered into au association and formed an acting 
committee for the ])urpose of aiding and assisting the civil authority in the 
suppression of evil and immorality, they take this method of informing the 
public that after the date hereof, all persons driving wagons, pack-horses, 
or unlawfully travelling through said vicinity, or doing other things contrary 
to the penal laws of this State, may expect to be dealt with as the law 
directs. 

W. Smith, Secretary. John McPherson, President. 

The United Presbyterian church of West Alexander is composed 
of the Associate and the Associate Reformed congregations of West 
Alexander. 

The Associate Congregation was organized in 1839. Rev. Joseph 
Shaw was pastor from June 20th, 1843, until April 20th, 1852. 
Rev. James Murch from September, 1853, until 1858. The pastors 
of the Associate Reformed Congregation, previous to 1859, were 
Rev. Joseph Buchanan and Rev. Gr. D. Bradford. 

In 1859, these two congregations were united under the pastorate 
of Rev. Josias Stevenson. The present membership of the congre- 
gation is one hundred and eighty. 

The Associated Reformed Presbyterians had a church at West 
Alexander, in which Rev. Alexander McCoy officiated as pastor in 
1800. His successors were Rev. AV'illiam Patterson and Rev. Wil- 
liam Shaw in 1845. During Mr. Shaw's pastorate the church became 
Seceders, and afterwards United Presbyterians, whose pastor was 
Rev. J. Stevenson. 

Fallowfield Township 

Was the sixth of the original townships of this county. Its original 
bounds were Nottingham on the north ; the Mouougahela River on 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 105 

the east ; Bethlehem township on the south, and Strabane township 
on the west. Its present limits are Nottingham and Carroll on the 
north; the Monongahela River, Allen, and Carroll townships on the 
east ; E. and W. Pike Run and Allen on the south ; and Somerset 
and Nottingham on the west. It is centrally distant from Washing- 
ton, 17 miles. The population in 1860 was 897, of which 30 were 
colored. Its greatest length 8i by 6 miles. 

It contains two stores, seven school-houses, employing 3 male 
and 4 female teachers, with 267 scholars, 165 male and 102 female; 
the tuition costing $1.15 cts. per month; amount of tax levied for 
school purposes, $1050.15 cts.; the State appropriation was $81.90 
The male teachers receive monthly, $35.16; the female, $34.75. 

The towns in this township are Jonestown and Ginger Hill. Jones- 
town is six miles from the Monongahela River, on the State road 
leading from Canonsburg to Bellvernon ; it was laid out by John 
Jones, in 1828, and has a population of about fifty. 

Ginger Hill is on the Williamsport and Washington Turnpike, 
and in the northern part of the township, near the township line. 

There are four churches in this township: The Presbyterian Church 
on Maple Creek, two miles from Jonestown, founded in 1842. The 
pulpit was first filled with supplies ; Rev. J. W. Kerr was elected 
its first minister ; the ministers who have succeeded him were the 
Rev. James Carson, Rev. A. Virtue, Rev. Thomas Yaneman, and 
Rev. W. Hanna. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church is on the State road from Jones- 
town to Bellvernon, four miles from Jonestown. The church was 
built in 1849, and has had the successive ministerial labors of the 
Rev. Warren Long, Rev. T. M. Hudson, Rev. J. G. Sansom, Rev. 
Geo. W. Cranage, Rev. John Spencer, Rev. David Sharpe, Rev. J. 
W. Kessler, Rev. Henry Neff, Rev. D. B. Campbell, Rev. J. W. 
Weaver, Rev. Charles H. Edwards, and Rev. McClure. 

The Methodist Episcopal Chui'ch, in the upper end of the town- 
ship, was erected in 1836, on the road leading from Bentleysville to 
Monongahela City ; it is called Pigeon Creek Methodist Episcopal 
Church. Its first preacher was the Rev. Samuel E. Babcock; his 
successor was the Rev. Wm. Tipton. 

The first church built under the direction of the Rev. Mr. Bab- 
cock was of brick, 30 by 40 feet, but a new one has been erected 
about 200 yards from the site of the first one ; its dimensions being 
42 by 60 feet; 18 feet to the_ square, with a basement for Sunday 
school, lecture-room, &c. 

A Disciple Church was established, and a church built in 1866, on 
the farm of Button Shannon, Esq. It is a brick edifice 30 by 40 
feet; Rev. Samuel Fry being its pastor. 

The township has one tannery; two grist-mills; one distillery; 
two manufacturers of sorghum ; five saw-mills ; one extensive vine- 
yard. 

8 



106 history of washington county. 

Hopewell Township 

Is the seventh of the thirteen original townships organized by the 
trustees of Washington County, July 15, 1781. 

At its formation, it was bounded on the north by Smith township ; 
on the east by Robinson and Cecil; on the south by Donegal; on the 
west by Virginia. 

On the 1st day of September, 1789, an application was made to 
the court for a division, which w^as subsequently confirmed by the 
Supreme Executive Council, on December 10th, 1789. This division 
was formed by running a line, commencing at a certain spring on the 
head-waters of Cross Creek, which rises about ten perches from the 
township of Strabane, between the dwelling-houses of James Ander- 
son and Timothy Spencer ; thence down the south branch thereof 
to Wells' mill ; thence down the creek to the State line. This divi- 
sion formed Gross Creek township. 

The present boundaries of this township are Cross Creek and 
Mount Pleasant on the north ; Mount Pleasant and Canton on the 
east ; Buffalo on the south, and Independence on the west. It 
is centrally distant from Washington 12 miles; its greatest length 
six miles; breadth three and a half miles. Its population 1213, of 
which 87 are .colored. 

It contains six schools, employing one male and five female teach- 
ers ; receiving as their monthly pay $30.00; having 197 scholars, 
110 males and 87 females ; tuition costing per month, §1.15. Amount 
levied for school purposes $1563.67 ; receiving from the State appro- 
priated $78.78. 

This township is drained by the waters of Buffalo and Cross creeks. 

The towns are West Middletown, Buffalo Village, and Egypt -ov 
Midxcay. 

West Middletown being a borough, we shall speak presently of it 
in connection with this township. 

Buffalo Village is on a fork of Buffalo Creek, seven miles south- 
west of Washington, and contains twenty dwellings. 

Midway is on the Pittsburg and Steubcnville Railroad, which 
passes through this township, and is destined to be a place of con- 
sideraljle importance. 

In the Register's office of this county, in the will of the Rev. 
Joseph Smith, of Hopewell township, made July 28, 1788, he be- 
queaths to each of his beloved children a Bible, to be paid out of 
his personal estate, and by so doing "mean to intimate to them as I 
am a dying man and in the siglit of God, that it is ten thousand 
times more my will and desire that they should find and possess the 
pearl of great price hid in the field of Scriptures, than enjoy anything 
else which I can bequeath to them, or even ten thousand worlds, were 
they composed of the purest gold, and all brim full of the richest 
jewels, and yet be ignorant of the precious treasures in God's Word 
that are entirely hid even from the most eagle-eyed and quick-sighted 
men that are properly of this present world." 



history op washington county. 101 

Upper Buffalo Presbyterian Church, 

In connection with the name of this great and good man, we may 
state that he was elected first pastor of this church, organized June 
21, 1779, on the eastern part of Hopewell township, at Buffalo Vil- 
lage, lying north of Brush Run. 

Rev. Smith served until April 19, 1792. The Rev. Thomas Mar- 
quis, of Cross Creek church, served as a supply, by the sanction of 
Presbytery, until March 9, 1800, when the Rev. John Anderson ac- 
cepted a call, and entered upon his pastoral labors ; his labors ceased 
June 18, 1833, and his successor is the Rev. John Eaglesou, D, D., 
its present popular pastor, who was ordained January 19, 1834, and 
zealously labors in the promotion of his Master's cause. Thus, in 
the course of ninety years, hnt four ministers have filled the pulpit, 
one of whom is still living. 

Pleasant Hill Female Seminary 

Is located in this township, and was organized in 1846, near the 
borough of West Middleton. It is on the dividing ridge between 
the waters of Buffalo and Cross creeks, enjoying the advantages of 
a country location, salubrity of air and water, delightful rural scenery, 
and above all, retirement, which is essentially necessaiy to study. 
It is surrounded by a highly moral and industrious population, 
engaged generally in agriculture, hence the advantage is, that the 
faculty of the seminary are not compelled to impose formal restraints 
upon young ladies, nor to cause them to incur inordinate expense 
in relation to appearance or dress. 

This seminary has large and convenient buildings, halls for the 
literary societies, libraries, philosophical apparatus. 

The seminary is under the control and management of Mrs. Mar- 
tha McKeever, who is fully competent to sustain the institution as 
well as to oversee and provide for the pupils committed to her 
charge. She has as assistants, Rev. T. A. Crenshaw, Miss Kate 
M. Bigger Aurie T. Burkett, John M. Bigger, Esq., Miss Ella E. 
McKeever, Miss Eliza McFadden, Mrs. G. B. Crenshaw. 

West Middletown Borough 

Is situated in Hopewell township, and was erected into a borough 
on the 27th day of March, ^823. 

It is in the northwest part of the township, eleven miles from 
Washington. 

It contains ninety-two dwelling-houses, six stores, one confection- 
ary, the usual number of the mechanical professions, one extensive 
machine shop, one tannery, a United Presbyterian church, and a 
Wesleyan Methodist Protestant church, a Disciple church, with 
Rev. T. A. Crenshaw, pastor of the Disciple church at Middletown, 
and a colored Methodist church, and a population of about eight 
hundred. It contains two schools, with one male and one female 



108 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY, 

teacher, the former receiving $56.00, and the latter $31.00 per month, 
with ninety-six scholars, fifty-two males and forty-four females, tui- 
tion costing eighty-seven cents per month. Amount of tax levied 
for shool purposes, $701 00, receiving from the State $42.50. 

The pastors who have filled the pulpit of the United Presbyterian 
church of West Middletown, were Rev. S. Findley, D. D., Rev. 
William Wallace, D. D., Rev. S. Taggert, from 1835 until the 
present time. It has a membership of 128. 

Robert Fulton. 

But few of the present generation are aware that the celebrated 
Robert Fulton, of steamboat notoriety, owned a farm in Hopewell 
township, in this county. The farm contained about eighty-four 
acres, and the patent granted by the State to Rev. Joseph Smith, 
December 12, 1785. On May 6, 1786, Thomas Pollock sold it to 
Robert Fulton, and his father, mother, and three sisters resided on 
it. After the death of his father the widow and three daughters 
resided upon it. About 17 'J 9 his mother died. In 1814 Robert 
Fulton made his will in the city of New York, and among other 
legacies he left to his sister Elizabeth, married to a Mr. Scott, one 
thousand dollars and the above farm, with all the stock, during her. 
life, and at her death to be sold and divided. To his sister Isabella 
Cooke he left two thousand dollars, and to each of the children of 
his deceased sister Mary Morris he left five hundred dollars. Both 
Mrs. Cooke and Mrs. Morris resided in the town of Washington. 

Morgan Township. 

This was the eighth of the thirteen original townships organized 
July 15, 1781. It was bounded on the north by Amwell township, 
on the east by Bethlehem, on the south by Cumberland, and on the 
west by Donegal and the Virginia line. 

On the 9th of February, 1796, with Cumberland, Franklin, 
Greene, and Rich Hill townships, was struck ofi" from Washington 
County, and formed Greene County. 

Nottingham Township ' 

Was the ninth of the original townships organized July 15, 1781. It 
was then bounded on the north by Peters township, on the east by 
the Monongahrla River, on the south by Fallowfield township, and 
on the west by Strabane township. Its present boundaries are, Pe- 
ters on the north. Union and Carroll on the east, Fallowfield and 
Somerset on the south, and N. Strabane on the west. It is cen- 
trally distant east from Washington borough 13 miles. In 1860 the 
population was 916, of which 8 were colored. It is drained by Pe- 
ters Creek on the north, Mingo and Little Mingo Creeks on the 
south. Its greatest length is 6 miles; breadth 4 miles. 

It contains five stores, five schools, employing three male and two 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 109 

female teachers, the former at $32 per month and the latter at $28, 
having 214 scholars, of whom 96 are males and 108 females; cost 
of tuition 23er month 81 cents ; amount levied for school purposes 
$9 V 0.89 ; received from State appropriation $80.34. 

Its town is Dunningsville, a small village with a population of sixty. 

The Old School Presbyterian church of Fairview is situated on the 
headwaters of Peters Creek in this township. It was organized by 
an order of the Presbytery of Ohio on the petition of James McClane, 
at the instance of Rev. George JNlarshall, by a committee consisting 
of Revs. C. Gr. Braddock, Robert McPherson, and J. Hazlett, Feb. 
24, 1860, with twenty-one members. The organization was perfected 
in the district school-house near where the church now stands, and 
which was occupied as a church until the new building was completed. 

The church from its oi'ganization until September, 1861, received 
the services of Rev. Geo. Marshall, Rev. James Black, Rev. George 
Birch, Rev. S. M. Nebling, and Rev. John Aiken, at which date the 
Rev. John Ewing became the regular pastor. He served acceptably 
until April 1, 1864, when he resigned, and the pulpit was supplied 
by Rev. Mr. Gray until September 9, 1864, when Rev. William 
Hanna took charge of the congregation. lie was the first installed 
pastor, and served until April 1, 1869, when the pastoral relation 
was dissolved, since which time Rev. Wm. Brown has been supplying 
the pulpit. 

The following persons have been ordained ruling elders, viz : Liver- 
ton Thomas, John P. Cochran, William Rees, and Jonathan Case- 
ber. The trustees are James McClane, James Roney, and William 
Thomas. The building coramitttee consisted of James McClane, 
John P. Cochran, and Samuel Hamilton. There is a Sabbath school 
connected with the church. 

A United Presbyterian church, called Mount Prospect, has been 
established at Munntown, under the care of Rev. J. Ralph, which 
promises to do much good in the dissemination of evangelical truth. 
It was organized in January, 1860, and the pulpit filled by supplies 
until September 29, 1864, when Rev. Mr. Ralph took charge of it. 
It has a membership of about one hundred and thirty-two. 

The most extensive establishment in any township of this county 
is that carried on by Kammerer Brothers. Besides a very large 
store, embracing general merchandise of every variety, they have a 
flour-mill in which forty bai-rels are made in ten hours. The build- 
ing is stone, thirty-six by fifty-six feet, three stories high, with a 
tile roof, running it by a forty horse power engine. In connection 
with the store and flour-mill they carry on a distillery. Its capacity 
is forty bushels per day, or one hundred and fifty gallons. 

Peters Township 

Was the tenth of the original thirteen townships formed by the trus- 
tees July 15, 1781, appointed for that purpose by the act forming 
Washington County. 



110 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

In September, 1784, a petition to the Court of Quarter Sessions 
was presented, asking for a division of the township, which was in- 
dorsed by the court, and afterward confirmed by the Supreme Execu- 
tive Council on the 21st day of November, 1*186. This division 
formed Dickinson township, taken out of its northern part, which 
township was struck off to Allegheny County. Its original bounda- 
ries were the Monongahela River on the north and east, Nottingham 
on the south, Robinson and Cecil on tlio west. It is now bounded 
by Allegheny County on the north, Union township and Allegheny 
County on the east. North Strabane and Nottingham on the south, 
and Cecil and North Strabane on the west. Its greatest length is 
six miles; breadth three and a half miles. The population of this 
township in 1860 was 934. 

The towns are Bower Hill and Thompsonville. These are 
small but thriving villages, with post-offices at each. 

Peters township contains two stores, has five schools, employing 
three male and two female teachers who each received $30 per 
month, with 300 scholars, of whom 166 are males and 134 females, 
tuition costing per month 68 cents. Amount levied for school pur- 
poses $1555.50, and receiving from the State appropriation $90.09. 

LlJSUS NATURiE. 

On September 29, 1708, upon Esquire Mitchell's farm in Peters 
township, a child was born^ with two natural heads, one affixed to 
each shoulder, the body perfect, but no parts of generation. The 
child was dead born, and appeared to have been dead some days 
previous to its birth. 

The United Presbyterians have a church in this township called 
Peters Greek. It was organized in 1808, and the following pastors 
have respectively filled the pulpit, viz : Rev. R. Bruce, D. D., 
from December 14, 1808, to December 16, 1816. Rev. Alex. Wil- 
son, from October 8, 1817, to May 4, 1839. Rev. James Brown, 
D. D., from September 10, 1840, to December 5, 1843. Rev. J. C. 
Herron, from October 15, 1845, to January 4, 1853. Rev. J. B. 
Whitten, from October 6, 1854, to January 17, 1856. Rev. A. Y. 
Houston, from March 19, 1857, to June 16, 1868. Rev. John Pat- 
terson, from July 13, 1868, until the present time. This church has 
a membership of 134. 

'Centre Presbyterian Church 

Is located in Peters township, on land donated by David Bell. The 
Presbytery of Ohio, at a meeting held at Bethany church, Allegheny 
County, April 16, 1828, granted the request of a number of jiersons 
living within the bounds of the congregations of Bethel, Bethany, 
Chartiers' and Mingo creeks, and allowed them to erect a meeting- 
house, in order that they might enjoy the occasional administration 
of the ordinances among then). A brick meeting-house, forty by fifty 
feet, was immediately erected, costing twelve hundred dollars. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. Ill 

On the 29th of August, 1829, the congregation was regularly 
organized by Dr. Matthew Brown. At a meeting of Presbytery, 
held at Canonsburg, January 5, 1830, Centre congregation obtained 
permission to call a pastor. On May 4, 1830, Rev. John H. Ken- 
nedy, Professor of Mathematics in Jefferson College, was elected the 
pastor, and entered upon his pastoi'al duties, but was not installed 
until June, 1831. On account of ill health he resigned in 1840. 

Rev. Alexander B. Brown became stated supply in 1841 and offi- 
ciated until 1845, when he resigned, and Rev. W. H. Orr, Professor 
in Jefferson College, was chosen in the same year. He officiated 
about seven years, and near the close of his pastorate, in 1851, a 
new brick building was erected, located a few rods south of the old 
structure, on a more elevated piece of ground. It cost two thousand 
dollars. 

The Rev. J. W. Hamilton became pastor in 1852 and served about 
two years and six months. 

Rev. Alexander B. Brown, D. D., having resigned the Presidency 
of Jefferson College and removed to the country, in 1856, preached 
occasionally at Centre church, and at length, in 1858, became pastor. 
His health failing. Dr. Brown resigned the pastorate December 16, 
1862. 

Rev. Francis J. Collier, a licentiate of the Presbytery of Phila- 
delphia, was called in October, 1863, began to labor in November, 
and was ordained and installed April 27, 1864. He is pastor at the 
present time. 

In connection with the church there is a Sabbath school, having 
eight teachers and about ninety scholars, which holds its sessions 
every year during the summer months. The church is in a prosper- 
ous condition. The number of members is one hundred and sixty ; 
the numbcF of families about seventy ; the number of elders, seven. 
The church is neatly painted, papered, and carpeted. It is heated 
by furnaces. The yard surrounding the building is securely inclosed 
and tastefully ornamented. 

Robinson Township 

Was the eleventh of the original townships formed by the trustees, 
July 15th, 1781. It was then bounded by the Ohio River on the 
north, the Monongahela River on the east, Cecil township on the 
south, and Smith township on the west; but its large proportions 
have been considerably decreased, and it is now bounded by Alle- 
gheny County on the north and east, North Strabane and Notting- 
ham on the south, and Hanover and Smith on the west, centrally 
distant from Washington borough, north sixteen miles. Its greatest 
length is ten miles ; breadth three miles. 

Population in 1860, eight hundred and forty, of which twenty- 
three are colored. It is drained on the north by Racoon Creek, on 
the east by branches of Chartiers' Creek and Montour's Run. The 



112 HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY 

pike from Pittsburg to Steubenville runs through this township. 
On December 22cl, 1836, the lines between Robinson, Cecil, Mount 
Pleasant, and Smith were adjusted and confirmed by the court. It 
has five stores, five schools, with one male and four female teachers — 
the former receiving $34, and the latter $30 per month, with 156 
scholars (76 males and 80 females), tuition costing $1.20 cents per 
month ; the tax levied being seven hundred and forty-two dollars 
and eighty-four cents ; the State appropriation, eighty-eight dol- 
lars and ninety-two cents; amount levied for building purposes, ten 
hundred and fourteen dollars and fourteen cents. The towns are 
Candor* and Havelock Station. 

1793, January 19th. John Clark and Jane his wife conveyed to 
William Rankin, Peter Kidd, William McCandless, Matthew ]3ailey, 
John Dunlap, and Alexander Wright, trustees of Racoon congre- 
gation, in consideration of nine pounds specie, all that lot of ground 
whereon the congregation has erected their church, under the pas- 
toral care of Rev. Joseph Patterson, containing seven acres strict 
measure. 

Upper Racoon Presbyterian Church 

Is located in Robinson township. Rev. Joseph Patterson was in- 
stalled as the first pastor, November 11th, 1789, and remained as 
such until October 16th, 1816. He was succeeded by the Rev. Moses 
Allen the 27th of May, 1817, who officiated until October 16th, 
1839. Rev. Clement N. McKaig was ordained his successor, June 
14th, 1841, and served until Rev. John W. Kerr became its pastor in 
1862 and resigned in 1865. The pulpit is filled with supplies. 

There is a tradition in the northern part of this county in regard 
to the Rev. Mr. Patterson, verified by the most substantial aged 
men of our county, which I shall relate. Mr. Patterson was a 
great and good man — pi'ompt to his word and conscientious in the 
discharge of his every duty. A subscription was being made up to 
erect a meeting house, 'and the day appointed for its payment. The 
day arrived and he was disappointed in not receiving the promised 
money which would liquidate his subscription, amounting to six dol- 
lars. Nevertheless he concluded to attend the meeting at the school- 
house (the place appointed), and make such a statement as would be 
satisfactory. He accordingly started with his gun on his shoulder. 
Wending his way along to the meeting, he arrived at a beautiful grove, 
where God and nature seemed to invire him to pour out his soul in 
prayer and by faith to look up for the blessing. In the midst of this 
devotional exercise, and when his soul w^as earnestly engaged in 
prayer, he hoard a rustling among the leaves. He opened his eyes, 
and, behold, a panther was approaching him. He raised his rifle and 

* Cnjirlor i.s in tho southern part of the township and has forty dwellin;^ house.', with 
apopuintion of two hundred and ten. Ilavolook Station is on the railroad, on the 
properly belonfjinfj to tho estate of Col. McDonald. This road passes through the 
southern part of the township into Smith. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 113 

killed the wild animal. He took the scalp and skin with him to the 
meeting as a trophy of his victory. He sold them for six dollars, 
and was thereby enabled to redeem his subscription. 

There is a United Presbyterian church not far from the Allegheny 
County line under the care of Rev. J. C. Rankin. 

Robinson U. P. Church 

Was organized in 1833. The Rev. William Wilson ofiBciated from 
1S33 to 1842. , Rev. John Scott, D. D., from September 19th, 1843, 
to June, 1845. Rev. James G. Rankin, from September, 1849, to 
November, 1868. The Rev. W. R. McKee has accepted a call 
and commenced his pastorate in 1869. It has a membership of one 
hundred and thirty-seven. 

Strabane Township 

Was the twelfth of the original thirteen townships. It was bounded 
by Cecil on the north, Nottingham and Fallowfield on the east, Beth- 
lehem on the south, and Cecil on the west. On the 22d of Sep- 
tember, 1785, the Court of Quarter Sessions of this county received 
a petition from the citizens of the town of Washington, praying that 
it might be set apart as a separate district from this township. The 
court recommended the petition to the Supreme Executive Coun- 
cil, and in February, 1786, the request was confirmed. On Octo- 
ber 7, 1830, the township was again divided into North and South 
Strabane townships. It is drained by Chartiers' and Little Chartiers' 
creeks. The town of Washington was originally in this township. 

An alteration of the boundary lines was confirmed by the court 
between this and Amwell township, at the October term in 1830, 
the line running from the house of Thomas Hastings to the mouth 
of the lane at or near Peter Dager's. 

Chartiers Presbyterian Church. 

June 20, 1798, Josiah Haines conveyed two and a fourth acres 
of land to the Presbyterian congregation, holding the principles of 
the Presbyterian church as adopted in 1788, and on the 26th of 
June following, Craig Ritchie, Esq., attorney of Samuel Gilpin, of 
Cecil County, Maryland, conveyed to the trustees of the same 
church seven acres and three-fourths (the remaining two and a fourth 
acres) of the ten acres being exchanged by the said trustees for 
other land more convenient. 

The trustees were enabled to hold land as a body politic in law, 
an act of incorporation having been procured February ]5, 1798. 
The first trustees were Robert Hill, William Kerr, James McCreedy, 
William Hays, John Mercer, James Morrison, George Craighead, 
James Bradford, and John Cotton. The following members of the 
congregation (February 15, 1798) petitioned for the charter: John 
McMillen, John McDowell, Craig Ritchie, Moses Coe, Robert 



114 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COLNTY. 

Hill, William Cochran, George Craighead, William Kerr, Robert 
Hughes, James Foster, James Allison, John Johnston, W^illiam 
Welch, James Officer, Hans McClean, Abraham De Haven, Robert 
Welch, Robert Rowland, William Hays, John Macahey, Wm. 
Hartapee, Nicholas Smith, Daniel Kirkpatrick, James Wishart, John 
Donnell, William Gault, Alexander Frazer, John Lindsey, Thomas 
Brysland, Samuel Logan, Thomas Bracker, John McClain, James 
Gaston, John Crawford, George McCook. 

This church is now, by a division of the township, in North Stra- 
bane. It is one mile south of Canousburg, on the road leading to 
Monongahela City. 

It is supposed that this church was organized by Dr. John McMil- 
lan, soon after his ordination, in ItTG, as he received a call from 
both this and Pigeon Creek church. He continued its pastor until 
April 21, I80O. His successor was Rev. F. Leake, who was installed 
July 12, 1831, and served until June 21, 1843. He was succeeded 
by Rev. Alexander A. Brown (son of Rev. Matthew Brown), Sep- 
tember 3, 1844, and continued to officiate until January 11, 1848. 
Rev. Robert White was installed September 6, 1848, and died 
December 14, 1848. The Rev. Joseph R. Wilson became the pas- 
tor on the 20th of June, 1849, and resigned bis pastoral care 
January 15, 1851. Their present pastor. Rev. William Ewing, 
was installed January 14, 1852. This church is one of the oldest" 
west of the Allegheny Mountains. 

In a public newspaper of this county of May 12, 1796, a meeting 
of Dr. Millan's church was held, and after the religious service of 
Thursday was over. Dr. Millau intimated that business of a public 
nature and of great importance required the consideration of the 
meeting. He was chosen Chairman, and Craig Ritchie, Esq., Sec- 
retary. The Chairman then stated the present critical state of the 
country and the danger of an Indian and perhaps a British war, 
when, after discussion, the following resolutions were adopted : — 

Besolved, unanimously, That, in the opinion of this meeting, the 
interests of this county require that the British treaty should be 
carried into execution with good faith. 

Resolved, unanimously, That a petition be circulated and signed, 
and sent to the House of Representatives to this effect. 

Resolved, unanimously, That the following petition be adopted. 

To the Honorable the House of Representatives of the United 
States : — 
The petition of sundry inhabitants of the western counties of 
Pennsylvania, humbly showeth : Having lately, with great cordiality 
and good intentions, very generally united in a petition, that the 
House of Representatives would concur in the execution of the 
British treaty, we had believed that no further expression of our 
wishes would be necessary. But it having been suggested that the 
Spanish treaty was the main object of our petition, and that we were 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 115 

indifferent as to the British treaty, and seeing our apprehensions 
that the British treaty might be defeated were but too well grounded, 
and are not yet removed, we feel ourselves constrained by a regard 
both to safety and duty, again to address your honorable House. 

We consider the British treaty as peculiarly advantageous to us 
and essential to our enjoying the blessings of liberty and peace. 
Its ratification made it a solemn national act, according to the 
terms of the Constitution, binding the people and every branch of 
government, and we consider its execution necessary for public 
faith which we regard, interest which we pursue, and peace which 
we cherish. We therefore pray that the House of Representatives 
will concur with the other branches of government in a full and 
faithful execution of the treaty between the United States and Great 
Britain. 

This petition being signed by all present, the meeting also passed 
the following: — 

Resolved, That the Chairman be requested to write to his breth- 
ren, the ministers, on this side of the mountains, requesting them to 
call their congregations together as soon as possible, on some week 
day, and take their sentiments on this interesting subject. 

In connection with the history of this church we will mention a 
providential incident. The Rev. Dr. John McMillan, in 1802, and 
who was pastor of this church, met with a severe trial, both of his 
faith and patience, as well as his Christianity. His biographer gives 
the following account of this domestic affliction : Two young minis- 
ters of great promise had married two of his daughters. The Rev. 
John Watson, the first President of Jefferson College, under the 
charter, had married his second daughter, Margaret. The Rev. 
William Moorehead had married his eldest daughter, Jane. For 
a time the prospect for enlarged domestic and social enjoyment 
shone brightly on the doctor and his family, but by the Allwise, yet 
deeply mysterious providence of God, these two ministers, who had 
been married to two sisters, by their father, on the same day, took 
sick on the same day, died on the same day, and were buried in the 
same grave at the Chartiers Presbyterian church. The two funeral 
processions, one coming from the house of Dr. McMillan, the other 
from the village of Canonsburg, met at the same point where the 
roads united, a few hundred yards from the graveyard. 

North Strabane Township. 

By a decision of the Court of Quarter Sessions on the 2d day of 
May, 1831, Strabane township was divided into North and South 
Strabane. This township is bounded on the north by Cecil, Peters, 
and Chartiers ; on the east by Peters and Nottingham ; on the south 
by Somerset and South Strabane ; and on the west by Chartiers and 
South Strabane. Its greatest length is 6 miles ; breadth 6^ miles. 
In 1860, the population was 1213, of which 48 are colored. 



116 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Munntown is the only town in the limits of the township with a 
population of sixty. 

Tlie township has two stores, six schools, with two male and four 
female teachers, each receiving per month $30, with 285 scholars, of 
whom 130 are males and 155 are females ; cost of tuition per month 
77 cents. Amount levied for school purposes, $1463. 06 ; received 
from the State appropriation $119.34. 

CoL. Geo. Morgan 

Lived and died at the " Morganza" farm, two miles below Canons- 
burg, in this township. He was appointed Indian agent as early as 
177G, and held the appointment until 1779, when he resigned. Dur- 
ing the time he held the office, he made Pittsburg his head-quarters. 
History represents him as a man of unwearied activity, great per- 
severance, and familiar with Indian manners and habits. He won 
their confidence by his frank manner, soldierly bearing, generosity, and 
strict honesty. After an eventful military life, being an officer in the 
United States army, he retired to his Morganza farm, and devoted 
himself to agricultural pursuits, and the high honor belongs to North 
Strabane township of one of her sons (Col. Morgan), on the 7th of 
February, 1786, receiving a gold medal from the Philadelphia So- 
ciety for Promoting Agriculture, for furnishing the best Essay on a 
Farmyard. Hon. Timothy Pickering, in the letter forwarding the 
medal, says : "It is the first premium ever given in America in agri- 
culture." The medal is in the possession of David T. Morgan, Esq., 
of Washington, Pa. It is of gold, one and three-fourths inches in 
diameter ; on the obverse side, a farm-house with a man ploughing 
with two oxen ; on the reverse, the motto, " Venerate the Plough." 

South Strabane Township. 

This township was formed May 3, 1831, by a division of Strabane 
township, and is bounded on the north by North Strabane and Char- 
tiers ; on the east by Somerset and W. Bethlehem ; on the south by 
Franklin and Amwell, and on the west by Washington, Canton, and 
Franklin. Its greatest length is 9 miles ; breadth 4^ miles. In 
1800, the population was 1003, of which 53 are colored. It contains 
seven schools with seven female teachers, who receive thirty dol- 
lars per month, having 232 scholars (120 males and 100 females); 
tuition costing $1.40 per month. Amount levied for school purposes 
$1189 12 ; received from the State appropriation $103 35. 

The townsare Cloakeyville and Williamsburg, although sometimes 
called Martinsburg The former is situated on the Williamsport and 
Washington turnpike, six miles from Washington, and the latter on 
the national road two miles cast of the borough of Washington. 
On the 28th of February, 1863, the lines between Canton and South 
Strabane were confirmed by the court. 

November 8th, 1857, the township lines between Canton, Chartiers, 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 117 

and South Strabane were confirmed by the court, the question having 
been referred to a vote of the people. 

Smith Township. 

This was the thirteenth, or last township organized July 15, 1781, 
at the organization of Washington County. 

The original boundaries were the Ohio River on the north ; Rob- 
inson and Cecil townships on the east; Hopewell on the south, and 
Virginia on the west. 

On the 5th day of January, 1Y86, an application was made to the 
court for a division, which being sanctioned, a certificate was sent 
to the Supreme Executive Council who, on the 11th of March, 1786, 
confirmed the decree of the court, and Hanover township was there- 
by erected. October 7, 1830, part of the division line between Hano- 
ver and Smith townships was confirmed by the court. 

At the May session of the court, held in 1856, the boundary lines 
between Cross Creek and Smith were changed and confirmed. 

Its present boundaries are Hanover and Robinson townships on 
the north; Robinson and Mount Pleasant on the east; Cross Creek 
and Mount Pleasant on the south; Jefferson, Hanover, and Cross 
Creek on the west. Its greatest length eight miles ; breadth six 
miles. It is centrally situated northwest from "Washington borough 
sixteen miles. 

It is drained northwest by Racoon Creek and its branches. Popu- 
lation in 1860, 1417, of whom twenty-four were colored. 

It contains fourteen stores, ten schools, with five male and five fe- 
male teachers, the former receiving $4 3. .33 per month and the latter 
$33; having 394 scholars, of whom 203 are males and 191 females; 
tuition costing per month, $1.33. Amount of tax levied for school 
purposes, $2730; received from the State appropriation $131.04. 

The Pittsburg and Steubenville Railroad passes through the town- 
ship. 

The towns are Burgettstown, Bulger, Bavington, and Whitetown 
coal works. 

On February 28, 1795, George Burgett laid out Burgettstown on 
the south fork of Racoon Creek, one mile north of the centre of the 
township. Then it was called West Boston, but the neighbors de- 
siring to honor the founder of their village called it Burgettstown. 

It is seventeen miles northwest of Washington, and on account 
of its locality, being on the Pittsburg and Steubenville Railroad, 
has become one of the most important towns of our county. The 
Rev. J. T. Fredericks laid out an addition to the town in 1865, 
whereon is the railroad station. The lots are selling rapidly and the 
town increasing by the erection of good and substantial buildings, 
and an energetic and thriving community. 

Bulger is a small village near Bulger station, about three miles 
northwest of Burgettstown. 

Bavington is in the northeast corner of the township, and White- 



118 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

town coal works is on the railroad, and laid out on Mr. Simpson's 
farm. 

On the 10th of June, 1810, Captain John Bavington of this town- 
ship attcmi)ted to cross the Ohio River at Kelley's Ferry ou a flat- 
boat (the mouth of Harman's Creek) with a wagon loaded with 
whiskey and flour and four liorses. When half way across, by the 
stamping of the horses, one of the boards became loosened, the boat 
filled with water, the load sank, and Capt. Bavington and the ferry- 
man were drowned When the bodies were found Capt. B had his whip 
firmly grasped in his hand. The depth of the Ohio River did not 
cover the bows of his wagon. He was buried at the cross roads 
near Florence. 

Presbyterian Church. 

In the year 1845, a petition was sent to the Presbytery of Wash- 
ington, for the organization of a church at Burgettstown, which 
prayer was denied, and an appeal taken to the Synod of Wheeling, 
who granted the request and directed the Presbytery to organize 
the church. This was effected October 18, 1849, and Reverend Joel 
Stoncroad was elected the pastor. In October, 1850, he was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. James P. Fulton, and remained its pastor until 
1857; and in the spring of 1858 the Rev. James T. Frederick, the 
present pastor, Avas called, and ordained in October following. 

In 1800 the church was enlarged and refitted. 

There are two United Presbyterian churches in this township, the 
former in Burgettstown. It was organized about 1809, the Rev. W. 
C. Brownlee, D. D., was pastor from JNlay 3, 1809, to September 1, 
1812 ; Rev. Alexander Donnan, from July 6, 1819, to May 12, 1840; 
Rev. R. J. Hammond from 1845 to April 15, 1856; Reverend S. H. 
Graham is the present pastor. 

It has a membership of 160. 

Centre IT. P. Church was organized in 1859. Rev. P. 8. Kennedy 
has been its pastor from September 4, 1802, until the present time, 
with a membership of 150. 

There was, many years since, on the farm of David Leech, Esq., 
on the road leading from Hickory to Burgettstown, about half way, 
a United Presbyterian church called Mount Vernon, but the organi- 
zation docs not now exist. 

Poets. 

Smith township has the honor of contributing more poetry to the 
intellectual world than any township or borough in the county. 

Mr. David Bruce, a native of Scotland, emigrated to America in 
1784, and in the year 1794 he settled in Burgettstown as a merchant. 

In his leisure moments he devoted his time to composing poems, 
written in the Scottish dialect, under the signature of the Scots 
Irishman, which were first published in the Western Telegraph, pub- 
lished in Washington by John Colerick, who afterwards embodied 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 119 

them into a valuable work on account of their merit. In these poems 
Mr. Bruce displays a vivid imagination, and both wit and satire are 
at his command, while patriotism flows in gentle and harmonious 
strains. 

The dedication of the work is to the Hon. Alexander Addison, 
President of the Court of Common Pleas of the 5th district. The 
concluding verse reads thus : — 

An' when your enemies hae gaen 
To that black hole was made by sin, 
May ye your honorable seat maintain, 

Right to dispense, 
Wi' mind discriminating, keen. 

An' manly sense. 

In writing of Washington retiring from public life, he says : — 

His parting precepts ever dear, 
A father's love, a father's care 

On every heart impress; 
Illum'd by Wisdom's purest ray, 
Their light directs the surest way 

To peace and happiness. 

On earth will future bards rehearse 

His deeds in never-dying verse, 

And when all mortal things shall cease, 

And time has run his span; 
In regions of eternal spring, 
The blest their heavenly harps will string. 
And to seraphic airs will sing 

The friend of peace and man. 

In the year 1800 Mrs. Sally Hastings removed from Donegal 
township, Lancaster County, to this county, and composed many 
fugitive pieces of poetry, which she afterwards collected into a 
volume, together with her diary, and published in the year 1808. 
Her family commenced their journey on Oct. T, 1800, in the mode 
then used — a wagon — to travel two hundred and eighty miles, and, 
after twenty-three days' journey, arrived in Washington County, of 
which she says, " The inhabitants appear to be a sober, rational, and 
even courteous people, who prefer convenience to parade, and par- 
take those blessings which bounteous Providence allots them, with- 
out ambition, envy, or stupidity." On October 31 the family left 
Canonsburg for their new home in Smith township, and having 
arrived on the land, she thus writes, "I shall take a seat on the 
trunk of a tree, while the men are cutting a road to the house, and 
endeavor to describe the spot of which I am now to consider myself 
an inhabitant." 

Great Nature, in her loose arrray, 

Derives from art no foreign aid ; 
The lofty oak, the spreading bay, 

With shade still deepening into shade. 



120 HISTORY OP AVASHINGTON COUNTY. 

The moss, the ivy, and the vine 

Increase the awful gloom profound, 
"Whilst bills and lonely wilds combine 

To shed fantastic terrors round. 

Time would fail me were I to undertake to make extracts from 
this volume of poems written by SaPy Hastings — one must suffice 
to demonstrate that nature forms the poet, and breathes into the mind 
beautiful ideas, magnificent conceptions, and eternal thoughts. 

That hand that wheels the spheres, upon the tree 
Was nail'd, and torn and crucified for me 1 
Here let eternal wonders ceaseless rise ! 
"J'he creature lives — the Great Creator dies ! ! 
And dies for whom ? — Oh, wonder ever new ! — 
My guilty soul, your Maker dies for you ! ! ! 
The Lord of Life, who breath and being gave, 
And immortality to all that live, 
He dies — how can He die ? — 'tis wonder new — 
Yet in His hand He holds death's fatal keys — 
Heaven, earth, and hell his sov'reign will obeys, 

Somerset Township 

Was erected into a township by the Court of Quarter Sessions, and 
afterwards confirmed by the Supreme Executive Council, on April 
3, 1782. It was bounded by Strabane, Peters, and Nottingham 
townships on the north ; the Monongahela River on the east ; Fal- 
lowfield and Bethlehem on the south, and Amwell and Strabane on 
the west. 

Its present boundaries are North Strabane and Nottingham on 
the north ; Fallowfield and "West Pike Run on the oast ; AVest 
Bethlehem and "West Pike Run on the south, and "West Bethlehem 
and S. Strabane on the west. It is centrally distant from "Washing- 
ton 12 miles. Its greatest length is 10 miles — breadth, miles. It 
is drained by the the north and south forks of Pigeon Creek on the 
east, and by branches of Little Chartiers' Creek on the west. 

In 1860 its population was 1723, of which 62 were colored. The 
"Williainsport and "Washington turnpike runs along the northern 
boundary. It contains four stores, nine schools, with six male and 
three female t(>aclu'rs, the former receiving $35 and the latter $30 ; 
having 348 scholars (180 male and 168 female), tuition costing 
$1.14 per month. Amount of tax levied for school purposes, $1347, 
and receiving from the State appropriation $11L93. 

The towns in the township are Bentleysmlle and Vanceville. 

The BoROuaH op Bentleysville. 

This town was laid out by Shesbazzar Bentley, Jr., on the 4th of 
March, 1816, on the waters of Pigeon Creek. It is 25 miles from 
Pittsburg, '.) miles from Monongahela City, 10 miles from Browns- 
ville, and 15 miles from Washington. Shortly after the town was 
laid out tiie Presbyterian, Methodist, and Baptist families united 



X 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 121 

and erected a union church, which was destroyed by fire about the 
year 1828. 

In 1848 the Methodist Episcopal church was built, in which Rev. 
J. B. Yarnall officiates. 

On May 2, 1868, by a decree of the court, it became a borough, 
and contains 36 dwelling-houses, 3 stores, 1 school-house with two 
apartments, a literary society, 2 grist and saw-mills, 1 steam tan- 
nery, and has a population of about 300. 

Vanceville is a small village, having about twelve houses, and is 
situated on the south branch of Pigeon Creek. 

Pigeon Creek Presbyterian Church, 

The diary of the Rev. John McMillan throws much, light upon 
the early history of this church, in which it is stated : — 

1775, the fourth Sabbath of August, preached at John McDowell's. 
Monday, rode about six miles to Patrick McCullough's, on Pigeon 
Creek. Tuesday, preached at Arthur Forbes's, and lodged with 
Patrick Scott. Patrick McCullough lived on the farm now owned 
by David McNary, Esq., and Arthur Forbes's farm is the property 
of Frederick Whitely, and Patrick Scott's residence is the property 
of Adam and Samuel Wier. The sermon alluded to was the first 
sermon preached within the bounds of the Pigeon Creek congrega- 
tion, and on that day of August, 1869, the congregation celebrated 
its centennial anniversary. 

Rev. John McMillan returned to his father's home, at Foggs' 
Manor, in October, 1775, but returned and preached at Pigeon 
Creek on the 4th Sabbath of January, 1776, and on the following 
Sabbath at Chartiers. He returned to the east in the following 
March, and was ordained by the Presbytery of Donegal, which met 
at Chambersburg, June 19, 1776, to take charge of Pigeon Creek 
and Chartiers congregations, having received a call from these 
churches April 23, 1776. His connection with Pigeon Creek church 
ceased early in the spring of 1794, and the Rev. Boyd Mercer was 
called to its pastorate April 22, 1794, and served until 1799. Rev. 
Andrew Gwin was installed in 1800, and the pastoral relation was dis- 
solved in 1817. He was succeeded by Rev. Andrew Wylie, D. D., 
January 24, 1822, and ceased to act in September, 1829. The church 
had no regular pastor until September 26, 1831, when Rev. W. C. 
Anderson was elected. He was ordained and installed April 17, 
1832, and served until July 15, 1836. His successor was Rev. 
Ebenezer S. Graham, called September 30, 1837, and installed the 
following month, and the pastoral relation was dissolved in October, 
1842. 

The congregation did not elect a pastor until April 8, 1844, when 

James Sloan, D. D., was elected, and he was subsequently installed 

in the December following. The pastoral relation was dissolved in 

October, 1862. His successor was Rev. S. M, Henderson, called 

9 



122 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

June 5, 1863, ordained and installed November 4, 1863, and pasto- 
ral relationship closed April 24, 1867. The present efficient and 
honored pastor is the Rev. John S. Marquis, who was called March 
2, 1868, and installed on June 5, 1868. As a successful laborer in 
his Master's cause, for humility and charity, and in dispensing gos- 
pel truth, he has no superior in the bounds of the Presbytery. To 
him am I indebted for the history of this church, which was planted 
in the wilderness more than one hundred years ago, and has proven 
itself a fruitful vine. 

Thejirst Elders of the church were Patrick McCullough, Patrick 
Scott, Hugh Cotton, and Hugh Scott. This session was subse- 
quently increased by the election and ordination of James Smith, 
John Hosack, James Kerr, Joseph Vaughn, John Stevenson, Wil- 
liam Ferguson, Robert Moon, and John Atkinson. 

July 17, 1836, John Vance, Samuel Gamble Samuel Ritchey, Dr. 
Boyd Emery, William Kerr, and David Riddle, Esqrs , were ordained. 

February 13, 1849, Attdrew Smith, James Vance, John Leyda, Greer 
Mcllvaine, and John Scott were elected, and ordained April 8, 1849. 

March 3, 1856, William Smith, William Ramsey, and Edward 
Paden were elected, and ordained elders April 14, 1856. 

March 5, 1860, Alexander Hamilton, Zechariah Peese, James 
Rankin, and John C. Messenger were elected elders, and ordained 
April 8, 1860. At the present time the session consists of Messrs. 
Greer Mellvain, William Smith; William Ramsey, Edward Paden, 
Alexander Hamilton, Zechariah Peese, and John C. Messenger. 

The fust Deacons of the church were ordained March 7, 1864, 
and consisted of Messrs. Isaac V. Riddle, James Jones, William 
Barkley, and William Davis. This church has 306 communicants. 

It is worthy of remark that iho fird meeting of the Presbytery of 
Red Stone was held in this church, on September 19, 1781, the fol- 
ing ministers being present: Rev. John McMillan, Rev. James 
Power, and Rev. Thaddeus Dodd, with Joseph Neil, Demas Lind- 
ley, and Patrick Scott as ruling elders. 

The fird church was a cabin of round logs, with a clap-board 
roof. It stood within the present graveyard, and was neither 
chunked nor daubed the first winter after its erection. 

The second was built of stone, and stood in the graveyard. The 
aisles were earthen, with a floor of boards under the pews. Every 
family had a pew or bench, according to their own wishes, hence 
there was a great variety of pews, benches, <fec. 

The third, building was en<cted in 1829. Proposals having been 
issued, on March 14, for a brick meeting-house, 56 by 70 feet (15 feet 
to the s(iuare). The Building Committee or the trustees were John 
Atkinson, Henry Vance, Samuel Gaml)le, and W. Paden. 

Sabbath School. 
The Sabbath school was organized in 1822. Hon. Joseph Law- 
rence first brought the subject of a Sabbath school to the notice of 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 123 

the congregation, John C. Messenger, Esq., is the present super- 
intendent, and it has 225 scholars. 

Other Churches. 

A Methodist Episcopal church was built in 1849, on the road 
from Hillsborough to Bentleysville. • It is a neat frame building. 
Rev. J. B. Yarnall is the officiating minister. 

Within one mile of Yanceville is a Baptist and a Disciple church, 
on the road from Bentleysville to Washington. The Rev. Mr. 
Hardzoth occupies the pulpit of the latter church, and the Rev. Mr. 
Skinner the Baptist pulpit. 

Pigeon Greek U. P. C/utrc/i was organized in 1820. Rev. Alex- 
ander Wilson was pastor from its organization until January 10th, 
1834; Rev. Bankhead Boyd from September 24, 1834, to 1860; 
Rev. D. S. Littell from October Itth, 1861, to the present time — 
with a membership of one hundred and sixty-four. 

Greene Township 

Was erected into a township on the 3d of April, 1782, by the Court 
of Quarter Sessions and approved by the Supreme Executive Coun- 
cil. Its boundaries were as follows : Beginning at the mouth of 
Little Whitely Creek and running therewith to the dividing ridge 
between that and Big Whitely Creek; thence with that ridge be- 
tween Big Whitely and Muddy Creek to Mason and Dixon's line ; 
thence to the Monongahela River ; thence by the river to the place 
of beginning. It had Cumberland township on the north ; the Mo- 
nongahela River on the east ; Mason and Dixon's line on the south ; 
Virginia on the west. By the act of February 9th, 1796, this town- 
ship, with Cumberland, Morgan, Franklin, and Rich Hill townships, 
was struck off from Washington County to form Greene County. 

Jarrett's Fort was built in this township. 

The town of Greensburg, Greene township, Washington County 
(but afterwards Greene County), was laid out by Elias Stone on the 
31st day of May, 1791. Greensburg is situated on the Mononga- 
hela River, on a part of a tract of land called "Delight," patented 
to Elias Stone and Elizabeth his wife, in 1787. Each lot contains 
eighty-one perches; streets forty feet wide. Lot number sixty was 
appropriated for public use and at the discretion of the inhabitants. 
The town contains eighty lots. The names of the streets, counting 
from the Monongahela River, were Water, Front, Second, Third, and 
Fourth streets. Counting from the eastern side of the town were 
Diamond, Stone, Clear, Walnut, Minor's, and County streets. Lot 
number sixty was at the corner of Third and County streets. 

Dickinson Township. 

The Court of Quarter Sessions made application to the Supreme 
Executive Council to organize this township, and on September ITth, 



124 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

1775, by its action ratified the application of the court with the fol- 
lowing boundaries — the Monongahela River on the north and east ; 
Nottingham and Peters on the south ; Ilobinson and Cecil on the 
west. 

By an act of the legislature passed September 24th, 1788, Alle- 
gheny County was erected into a county, part of which was taken 
from Washington County. The proceedings of the Supreme Exe- 
cutive Council of September 30th, 1788, says: "Two returns from 
the districts of the townships of Cecil and Dickinson, in the county 
of Washington, were read and not allowed, as the whole of Dickin- 
son and part of Cecil district has been struck off to the county of 
Allegheny." 

Washington. 

The town of Washington originally belonged to Strabane town- 
ship, one of the thirteen original townships of the county, erected 
in July, 1781. On the 25th of September, 1785, the Court of Quar- 
ter Sessions, upon a petition of the citizens requesting to be formed 
into a separate election district, indorsed the application, and the 
Supreme Executive Council confirmed the proceedings of the court 
on the 6th of February, 1786. From its being originally a portion 
of Strabane township, so many have been the changes that its present 
chartered boundaries are Canton and South Strabane on the north. 
South Strabane on the east, Franklin and South Strabane on the south, 
Canton and Franklin on the west, being now entirely surrounded by 
new townships. 

The original name of this town was Bassett, which was laid out 
by David Hoge, Esq., of Cumberland County, the survey being made 
by David Roddick, Deputy Surveyor, October 13, 1781. Another 
plot states that a true copy of the plan remains in the hands of 
John Lukens, Surveyor General, which was made November 4, 
1784, by Edward Lynch, Deputy Surveyor. This second plot was 
made prior to the sale of David Hoge to his sons John and William. 
On the 18th of October, 1781 (five days after the town was laid out), 
David Hoge, Esq., the proprietor, conveyed to James Edgar, Hugh 
Scott, Van Swearingen, Daniel Lect, and John Armstrong, as trus- 
tees of Washington County, a lot for a court house and prison, 
in the town of Bassett, containing two hundred and forty feet square, 
being bounded by Monongahela (now Market) Street on the east, 
Ohio (now Beau) Street on the north, lot No. 123 on the west, and 
Johnston's (now Cherry) Alley on the south. 

The name of the town was permanently changed to Washington 
on the 4th of November, 1784, the date at which the second plot 
was made, although we have tlie evidence of receipts for lots being 
given by the proprietor in October, 1781. both as Basscttown and 
Washington, for in the deed of David Hoge to John and William 
Hoge, of November 7, 1785, it is stated that the said David con- 
veys to his sons, John and William, a tract of land in Washington 



HISTOHY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 125 

County, on the waters of Chartiers' Creek, and known by the name 
of Caffishes Gamp, containing eight hundred acres, which was to 
include the town of Washington, excepting the southwest fourth 
of said town, which said David reserved for himself. Subsequently, 
however, on the 10th of March, 1787, he also conveyed the remain- 
ing southwest fourth of the town to his sons, John and William. 
This deed also mentions the fact of the name of the streets being 
changed, based upon the second plot of 1784. 

The act of the General Assembly of March 28, 1781, directs the 
electors to meet at the house of David Hoge at the place called 
Catfishes Camp, to hold their elections and courts until a court 
bouse shall be built. 

To understand the Hoge purchase, we will state that there were 
three tracts of land originally surveyed and purchased by David 
Hoge, as follows : One from Martha Hunter, dated November 4, 
1769, containing three hundred and thirty-nine acres and sixty-nine 
perches, and called "Martha's Bottom." The second was pur- 
chased from Joseph Hunter, November 11, 1769, containing three 
hundred and thirty-one acres and twenty-one perches, called " Grand 
Cairo," and the third from Abraham Hunter, surveyed and pur- 
chased November 11, 1769, containing three hundred and thirty-one 
acres and twenty-one perches, called " Catfishes Camp." 

The town of Bassett was laid out on a portion of the two tracts 
of land known by the name of Grand Cairo and Catfishes Camp, 
but most generally known by the latter name. It was laid out by 
David Reddick, Esq., at the request of David Hoge, Esq., on Octo- 
ber 18, 1781; it then embraced all the lots within Walnut Street 
on the north, College Street on the east, Maiden Street on the south, 
and West Alley on the west, containing two hundred and ninety-one 
lots. 

Upon the plot of the town of Bassett are the following memo- 
randa : Lots marked A for a court-house and prison. This is 
the same public square now occupied with a court house, prison, 
&c. &c. Lots B, C, D were reserved by Mr. Hoge. B included 
the lots from Pine Alley, the residence of the late John L. Gow, 
deceased, to the corner of Main and Ohio (Beau) streets, the resi- 
dence of William Smith, Esq. C included the lots from the Fulton 
House, owned by Messrs. Little and Melvin, to Johnston's (now 
Cherry) Alley, or the house occupied by Alexander Murdoch, Esq. 
D all the lots from Pine Alley, the property of the heirs of William 
L. Oliver, deceased, to the corner of Main and Ohio {now Beau) 
streets, or the iron hall front, owned by William Smith, Esq. The 
plot also states that the two principal streets, viz., Monongahela 
(Main) Street and Ohio (Beau) Street, are sixty-six feet wide. The 
lots are sixty feet front by two hundred and forty feet deep. B, C, 
D were each divided into six lots of forty feet front and two hun- 
dred and forty deep. Lot 171, on the corner of Race and Char- 
tiers streets (now Chestnut and Second), and at present owned by 



126 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Mrs. E. H. Turner, was given gratis for a place of public worship, 
while lot 172, directly opposite and owned by William H. Taylor, 
was appropriated for a school-house. Lot 43 was presented to 
General Washington. This lot is on the corner of Ga}' and Char- 
tiers (now Belle and Second) streets, and with the adjoining lot, 42, 
is owned by the First Presbyterian church. This lot was the site of 
the old red school-house, in which many of our citizens were edu- 
cated under George K. Scott, deceased, while lot 102, which was 
presented at the same time and occupying the opposite corner, 
being the southwest corner of the college square, is owned by David 
S. AVilson, Esq. 

The plot of Bassett has marked upon it three springs, designated 
by the letters a, b, c. a is a spring given for the use of the town ; 
b and c are springs. Where the spring run is parted, the water sinks 
under ground. One of these springs is on the corner lot owned by 
Jacob Koechline, on the corner of Main and Maiden streets, and in 
the cellar of his brick house. The other two springs are on the 
property of Wm. Huston, the adjoining lot, south of Mr. Koechline's. 

In the year , when Judge Baird erected his steam mill at the 

foot of Main Street, the water for running the mill was conveyed by 
wooden pipes from this spring, and several of the lot owners through 
which it passed had fountain pumps connected with these pipes. 
Catfishes Camp is marked upon it, near the spring on the property 
of Patrick Bryson, deceased. 

In addition to the foregoing memoranda, at the northwest corner 
of the plot and outside of the limits of the town of Bassett, is the 
letter a and the words, " Great plain given by Mr. Hoge for a com- 
mon, about seventy or eighty acres." In an examination of the 
minutes of the Town Council of June 6, 1811, is the following 
record : — 

Whereas, A portion of the ground heretofore considered as a 
common has been sold and is about to be improved, to the prejudice 
of the rights of the borough and to the serious injury of several of 
the inhabitants, therefore 

Resolved, That a committee be appointed to call on the proprie- 
tors of the town and the surviving commissioners who negotiated 
with Mr. David Hoge, the original proprietor, and obtain such infor- 
mation respecting the claims of the borough to said ])roperty as 
may be procured. Messrs. Alexander Reed, John Wilson, and 
Robert Anderson were appointed the committee. The burgesses 
were also instructed to give notice to all persons who are or may 
attempt building, inclosing, or improving, in or on the reputed com- 
mons or property of the borough, to desist therefrom. The minutes 
of the Council do not show that the Committee ever reported. 

David Iloge having sold all his interest to his sons, they extended 
the original limits of Bassett by adding thereto on the east of Col- 
lege Street to the alley, called Brewery Alley, commencing at the 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 12t 

eastern end of Maiden Street and running to Walnut Street. Also 
adding on the south, from Maiden Street to Hazel Alley, forty build- 
ing lots and many outlots. 

A small stream running through the southern and western part of 
Washington bears the name of Catfish Run. It will also be re- 
membered that the tract of land purchased from Abi-aham Hunter 
was called Catfishes Camp, and before even Bassett was laid out the 
few hamlets which occupied the southern part of Washington were 
called Catfish. The stream, the land, and the town all derived their 
name from a celebrated Indian Chief, whose Indian name was Tin- 
goocqua or Catfish, who belonged to the Kuskuskee tribe of In- 
dians, and occupied the hunting grounds between the Allegheny 
Mountains and the Ohio River. 

In the records of the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania, we find 
him participating in a conference meeting held in Philadelphia, Dec. 
4th, 1759, at which Governor Hamilton and his council with chiefs 
from the Wyoming, Delaware, and Kuskuskee Indians were present. 
At this council the Indian chief Catfish made the following speech, 
after taking four strings of wampum and holding two of them sepa- 
rate in his fingers, thus spoke : — 

I have not much to say; I am only a messenger. I came from the Kns- 
kuskees. The nation that I belong to as well as many others to the west of 
us, as far as the setting of the sun, have heard that you and Teedyuscung 
(Chief of the Delawares) sat often together in council and at length agreed 
npon a peace, and we are glad to hear that the friendship and harmony, 
which of old always subsisted between our and your ancestors, was raised 
up again and established once more. This was very agreeable to us, and we 
came here to see if what was related was true, and we find it is true, which 
gives us great satisfaction. \_Then taking hold of the other two strings he 
proceeded.^ 

Brother. Now that Teedyuscung and yon have, through the goodness of 
Providence, brought about a peace, we entreat you to be strong ; don't let 
it slip ; don't omit anything to render it quite secure and lasting ; hold it 
fast ; consider our aged men and our young children, and for their sakes be 
strong, and never rest till it be thoroughly confirmed. All the Indians at 
Allegheny desire you to do so, and they will do all they can likewise. [Gave 
a string of wampum.^ 

Brother. We make eleven nations on the west of the Allegheny who have 
heard what you and 'I'eedyuscung have concluded at the treaty of Easton 
(in 1758), and as we all heartily agreed to it and are determined to join in 
it, we have opened a road to where Teedyuscung lives, and we the messen- 
gers, have travelled much to our satisfaction on the road which he has made 
from his habitation to this town (Philadelphia). We have found it a very 
good road, and ail our nations will use this road for the time to come. We 
say nothing of the Si.x Nations. We do not reckon them among the eleven 
nations. We leave you to treat with them yourselves, we make no road for 
them. This is your own affair. We only tell you we do not include them 
in anything we say. I have done. [Gave four strings of wampum.^ 

At what period Catfish settled in this part of the country tradition 
gives us no account. We know, however, from our aged citizen. Col. 
George Kuntz, whose father removed from the east to Washington 



128 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

in 1788, that he knew the old chief when he had a camp in the rear 
of the lot on wliicli William lluston's inn now stands, near the three 
springs (which I have spoken of as being designated on the plan of 
Bassettown). Afterwards he moved his camp near to the spring now 
caUed Patrick Bryson's spring ; from thence he removed his camp to 
Shirl's woods ; from thence he went to Ohio and died. 

Local tradition has falsely placed his tomb in the graveyard at 
Washington, Pa., marked by a large unhewn stone ; but such is not 
the fact. This stone was procured by Alexander Lytle, Esq., de- 
ceased, on the Williamsport road, and had it placed at the grave of 
his wife. Ilis daughter Harrier, on her death-bed, requested that the 
bodies of her father, and mother, and family, with the same stone, be 
taken to the cemetery. The circumstance, however, gave rise to a 
few verses, written by a young man named Hiram Kaine, Esq., a 
})rinter by profession, yet unassuming as a poet. To preserve his 
memory, therefore, who composed these verses, and who in his own 
language desired not to obtain popularity in the drawing-rooms of 
the wealthy, but in the workshops and homesteads of his native 
place, was the reason why he tuned his rude unlettered harp. 

The Grave of Catfish, 

1. A fitting monument was that 

For one so proud and stern — 
More striking than a marble bust 
Or consecrated urn ! 

2. Unbending as that massive rock, 

You braved the battle storm. 
And reared amidst its fiercest shock 
Thy dark, majestic form. 

3. Thou needst not fear the pale face race, 

Who slumber by thy side ; 
They cannot tear the home from thee, 
Which living they denied. 

4. The unlettered stone above thy head 

Is not more still than they, 

The marble not more motionless 

That tells us where they lay. 

5. The rank green grass is twining, 

Its wreath above thy head. 
As it ever richly twineth 

Bound dwellings of the dead, 

6. Oh ! does thy spirit ever come. 

To gaze upon this mound, 
And tread upon the springing grass 
Above the hallowed ground ? 

7. Dost ever wander o'er the hills 

Where once thy tribe did roam, 
And curse the race wlio on tlieir graves 
Have built themselves a home? 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 129 

8. Thou hearest not, dark Chieftain — 

Thy funeral song' is sung, 
Tbe emblems of thy power have flown, 
Thy last war-whoop hath rung. 

9. But yet thy name, hy kindred ghosts, 

Is heard by yonder rill, 
As comes its murmuring midnight chime 
In echoes from the hill. 

When Bassettown was laid out, David Hoge, in October, 1181, 
issued tickets to purchasers of lots in these words : — 

No. 15. Basseftotvn, October, 1781. 

This will entitle Charles Dodd to receive a sufficient title, subject to one 
dollar a year in specie, for a lot marked in the original plan of said town, 58, 
provided there shall be erected thereon, on or before the thirtieth day of 
October, 1784, a house eighteen feet square at least, with a stone or brick 
chimney therein. David Hoge. 

On the 21st of July, 1784, this lot, with the house, was sold to 
John Dodd, for £300 Pennsylvania currency. It is situated on 
Main Street and the corner of Strawberry Alley, now owned by Jas. 
G. Strean, upon which is erected a three-story house, iron front, oc- 
cupied by Mr. Robert F. Strean's hardware store and the Reporter 
printing office. 

William Darby, Esq., in the year 1845, and then in the 71st 
year of his age, in speaking of Bassettown (now Washington), 
said: In the fall of 1782, the site where Washington now stands 
was a vast thicket of black and red hawthorn, wild plums, hazel 
bushes, shrub oaks, and briers ; often I have picked hazel-nuts where 
the court-house now stands. The yell of the savage rung in fancy's 
ear and alas too often in the heart of the dying victim. The whole 
country was a dense forest, only broken by small patches, with dead 
trees, made so by the axe of the early pioneer. 

Bassettown, under the proprietorship of David Hoge, improved 
but slowly, there being but two deeds on record prior to its sale in 
1785, one to James Marshall, February 8, 1785, and the other to 
Charles Dodd, July 21, 1784. After John and William Hoge had 
purchased the town, and added the addition thereto of all the lots 
south of Maiden Street, and divided the land into outlets, a new im- 
petus was given to the town, and lots sold rapidly and houses were 
speedily erected thereon. 

In this connection, we may add that Robert Fulton, of steamboat 
notoriety, held three lots in Washington. While sojourning in Lon- 
don, in 1793, he directed Mr. Hoge to make deeds of these three lots 
to his three sisters, Mrs. David Morris ( No. 4), Mrs. Isabella Cook 
(No. 118), Mrs. Peggy Scott (No. 125). 

In looking over the original lot-holders, and up to the date of in- 
corporation, we find the names of John, William, and David Hoge, 
Dr. Moore, William Horton, James Marshall, Charles and John Dodd, 



130 HISTOKY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Absalom Baird, S. Darley, Anthony Horseman, J. Lochman, Jos. 
Harris, Rev. Jobn Casper Sinclair, Thomas and David Acheson, 
Van Swearingen, D. G. Mitchell, Leonard Boyer, Thomas Hutchin- 
son', D. Moody, Mary Miller, Philip Milsach, Thomas Stokcly, Hugh 
Mears, ^largaret Scott (sister of Robert Fulton), D. Blackmore, 
Hugh AVorkman, Edward Lynch, "Wm. Findley, Alexander Addison, 
M. Collins, Thomas Bristor, John Standley, T. Woodward, Reasin 
Beall, Robert Fulton, David Morris, Archibald -Kerr, John Wilson, 
Alexander Reed, John Flake, Daniel Moore, James Goudy, James 
White, James Gilmore, Isabella Cooke (sister of Robert Fulton), 
James W. McBeth, Stephen Way, Matthew Ritchie, Hugh Wiley, 
Robert Hazlett, James Ross, William Meetkirke, Daniel Kehr, Abra- 
ham Lattimore, Joseph Seaman, James Orr, J. Purviance, Gabriel 
Brakeny, Stephen Wood, Hugh and Samuel Workmen, Patrick Bry- 
son, Daniel and Jonathan Leet. 

But what changes have been wrought since ! The town from several 
hundred inhabitants has increased to many thousand, its manufactur- 
ing, commercial, educational, moral, and religious interests have all 
been largely developed. The second generation of these pioneers have 
also been gathered to their fathers, and while the old landmarks re- 
main to point out their homes, where brotherly love, truth, and 
friendship reigned supreme, the graveyard and the cemetery point 
to their sacred ashes. Amid the multiplicity of changes, we find 
the original property only remain in the descendants of John Wilson, 
Alexander Reed, David Acheson, and Patrick Bryson. 

The citizens of Washington knew that their town was inferior to 
but few of the towns of Pennsylvania, but that it was destitute of 
many useful improvements, which could not be accomplished without 
being incorporated as a borough. Their streets were not regulated, 
and, during some of the winter months, not being piked, were almost 
imyassal)le; the sideways were not paved, neither was there public 
spirit enough to purchase afire-engine to make provision against ^i>e. 
In the midst of these discouragements and difficulties, a town meeting 
was called on February 6, 1795, to consider the necessity of petition- 
ing the legislature for an act of incorporation. The people met and 
discussed the question, but the principal objection was that the taxes 
would be greatly increased, and that a few men would have the control 
and direction of the borough affairs. These sentiments prevailed, and 
the question was ventilated through the Weste7'7i Telegraph, then 
published at Washington. A writer, who signs himself " Tom Stick 
in the Mud,'' thus sarcastically^ writes upon the subject : " For my part 
I've lived all my born days, and my posterity before me and my^ child- 
ren after me, up to the eyes in mud and never a bit the worse for it, 
and I can't see why other people should think themselves better stuff 
than we. I loves fun, and, at our end of the town, it would some- 
times make you die with laughing to see your calico-carcassed, spin- 
dle-shanked f(jlks sticking fast in a crossing-place and leaving their 
shoes behind them." 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 131 

"A Bachelor," in answering tne foregoing communication, gives 
one reason wliy the town should be incorporated, in these words : 
" It wouhl prevent emigrants and strangers from giving as accurate 
a description of the ladies' ankles as I myself can do. I can tell any 
of them whether they are flat-footed, beef-shanked, knock-kneed, or 
whether either of them or not. Oh 1 how I have shaken my sides 
to see them straddling through the mud up street to a tea drinking. 
I hope, therefore, that the people will see that a corporation is abso- 
lutely necessary." Notwithstanding this newspaper description, the 
town, however, was not incorporated until the 13th day of February, 
1810. 

The act of incorporation defines its boundaries as follows : — 

" Beginning at a post on the land of James Ashbrook ; thence by land 
of Robert Anderson, Thomas Officer, and others, south seventy-seven de-' 
grees west one hundred and fifty-nine and one-half perches to a post; 
thence by land of Thomas Jones, William Hoge, and others, south fourteen 
and three-fourth degrees east one hundred perches to a post; thence by 
land of James Ashbrook, William Sherrard, and others, south thirteen de- 
grees east sixty-three and one-half perches to a post ; thence by land of 
John Hoge, south fifty-one and one-half degrees east twenty-nine perches 
to a- post ; thence by land late of John Simonson, Hugh Workmen, and 
others, north seventy-seven degrees east one hundred and twenty perches 
to a post ; thence by land of Thomas McFadden, Daniel Kehr, and others, 
north, four and one-half degrees west eightj'-four perches to a post; thence 
by land of Robert Hazlett, Isaiah Steen, and others, north ten degrees west 
one hundred and two perches to the place of beginning." 

This act gives them authority to elect officers, make and enforce 
laws, hold property, and perform such acts as are usual to corporate 
boroughs. 

On the 2'7th of March, 1852, the borough authorities were in- 
structed to apply to the Court of Quarter Sessions for the admission 
of the borough of Washington to the benefits and privileges of a 
charter under the act of Assembly of the 3d of April, 1851, which 
was subsequently confirmed by the court on the 18th of May, 1852. 

This general act provides, in Section 30, for the enlargement of 
borough limits, by not less than twenty of the freeholder owners of 
lots petitioning the council, and they declaring by ordinance that the 
limits have been enlarged. 

June 10th, 1854, and 6th of January, 1855, the borough limits 
were extended to the present lines. At the May term in 1855, the 
borough was divided into two wards by Main Street, named respec- 
tively the East and West Wards. 

With these preliminary remarks, we may now state that the 
borough of Washington is situated near the centre of Washington 
County, on the National road, twenty-four miles from Brownsville 
and thirty-two miles from Wheeling; twenty-seven miles from Pitts- 
burg and twenty-two miles from Monongahela City. Its population 
in 1860 was 358T (but in 1870 about 4500). Its situation is salu- 



132 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



brious, and from its position locally adapted to become a manufac- 
turing centre. Bituminous coal underlies the town and valley, while 
a railroad of seven miles would not only add Canonsbnrg to Wash- 
ington, but develop for manufacturing purposes all the coal which 
exists on Chartiers' Creek. 

The streets are rectangular, and are all sixty feet wide except Main 
and Beau streets, which are sixty-six feet wide. 

Before entering upon a history of the public buildings we shall 
give a list of the burgesses and town council, treasurers and town 
clerks, since the date of its charter to the present time — I have there- 
fore prepared them from the official record for future reference, 
knowing that our borough history would be incomplete and imper- 
fect without such a record. 



BURGESSES. 

24.- 
25.- 
26.- 
27.- 



1.— 1810. Alexander Reed, 

John Wilson. 
2.— 1811. Ee-elected. 
3. — 1812. David Alorris, 

Thomas Officer 
4.-1813. Re-elected. 
5. — 1814. Daniel Moore, 

James Orr. 
6.— 1815. David Shields, 28. 

John Wilson. 29. 

7. — 1816. Alexander Murdoch, 

Alexander Reed. 30. 

8.— 1817. John Wilson, 

David Morris, 31. 

9. — 1818. James Blaine, 

James Shannon. 32.' 

10.— 1819. James Blaine, 

John Gregg. 33. 

11.-1820. Re-elected. 34. 

12.— 1821. Re-elected. 
13.— 1822. Re-elected. 35. 

14.-1823. James Orr, 

James Ruple, 36.- 

15.-1824. James Ruple, 

Daniel Moore. 37. 

16.-1825. Re-elected. 
17.— 1826. Hugh Workman, 38. 

James Orr. 
18.— 1827. Re-elected. 39. 

19.-1828. Re-elected. 
20.-1829. James Orr, 40. 

John Kuntz. 
21.-1830. Re-elected. 41. 

22.— 1831. George Kuntz, 

James Orr. 42. 

23.— 1832. John S. Brady, 
John Wilson. 



-1833 Archibald Kerr, 

John Wilson. 
-1834. James Orr, 

John S. Brady. 
-1835. Archibald Kerr, 

James Ruple. 
-1836. John R. Griffith, 

James Ruple. 
-1837. Re-elected. 
-1838. John L. Gow, 

James Ruple. 
-1839. James Blaine, 

John R. Griffith. 
-1840. Robert Officer, 

John S. Brady. 
-1841. Robert Officer, 

George W. Brice. 
-1842. Re-elected. 
-1843. Robert Officer, 

Thomas McGiffin. 
-1844. Isaac Leet, 

James Langley 
-1845. Mathew Griffin, 

Sample Sweeney. 
-1846. L. P. Hitchcock, 

John L. Gow. 
-1847. William McKennan, 

Alexander Murdoch. 
-1848. James Ruple, 

James liangley. 
-1849. Collin M. Reed, 

Alfred Creigh. 
-1850. William Hopkins, 

Collin M. Reed. 
-1851. Alex. W. Acheson, 

Peter Reimund. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



133 



43.— 1852. 

44.-1853. 

45.— 1854. 

46.— 1855. 

47.— 1856. 

48.— 1857. 

49.-1858. 

50.-1859. 
51.-1860. 

52.— 1861. 

53.— 1862. 
54.-1863. 



Alex. W. Acheson, 
Hufj^h VV. Reynolds. 
William Workman, 
Charles W. Hays. 
Charles W. Hays, 
James Sprisrgs. 
Alexandel Murdoch, 
Samuel Cunningham. 
Jacob Slagle, 
James Brown. 
James B. Ruple, 
William Hopkins. 
James W. Kuntz, 
James Rush. 
Re-elected. 
James W Kuntz, 
Thomas J. Walker. 
James AV. Kuntz, 
James Rush. 
Re-elected. 
James W. Kuntz, 
Alfred Creigh. 



55.-1864. Andrew Brady, 

James Rush. 
66.— 1865. Re-elected. 
57.-1866. Charles Hayes, 

William Smith. 
58.-1867. H. J. Vankirk, 

John Hoon. 
59.-1868. John D. Boyle, 

John McElroy. 
60.— 1869. John D. Boyle, 

J. Y. Hamilton. 

Municipal elections changed by the legis- 
lature March 16, 1869, and directed to be 
held in October of each year. In Wash- 
ington borough the burgess and two coun- 
cilmen were directed to be elected, and 
the subsequent year the assistant burgess 
and three councilmen — these officers to 
continue in office two years. 

61.-1869. John D. Boyle, 

Theodore f! Slater. 



TOWN COUNCIL. 

1. — 1810. Hugh Wilson, Thomas Acheson, Hugh Workman, Robert An- 
derson, and Parker Campbell. 
2.-1811. Re-elected. 
3.— 1812. John Scott, Matthew Dill, Hugh Workman, Parker Campbell, 

and Thomas McGifiin. 
4. — 1813. Thomas McGiffin, Parker Campbell, Daniel Moore, James Orr, 

and Hugh Workman. 
5. — 1814. Parker Campbell, Thomas Officer, Thomas McGiffin, Hugh 

Workman, and David Morris. 
6. — 1815. James Orr, Parker Campbell, Hugh Workman, Thomas McGif- 
fin, and Daniel Moore. 
7. — 1816. Thomas McGiffin, James Lattimore, James Blaine, Parker 

Campbell, and George Baird. 
8. — 1817. Alexander Reed, James Blaine, James Lattimore, James Orr, 

and Thomas H. Baird. 
9. — 1818. Thomas M. T. McKennan, Hugh Workman, John Wilson, James 
Garret, and William Hunter. 
10.-1819. Hugh Workman, John Wilson, William Hunter, Thomas M. T. 

McKennan, and James Garret. 
11.-1820. Re-elected. 
12. — 1821. Thomas M. T. McKennan, John Wilson, David Eckert, James 

Stevens, and John Koontz. 
13.-1822. Re-elected. 
14. — 1823. Hugh Workman, Thomas M. T. McKennan, Jacob Stagle, John 

Wilson, and James Stevens. 
15. — 1824. Archibald Kerr, Thomas Good, James Lattimore, Thomas M. 

T. McKennan, and James Kerr. 
16.-1825. Re-elected. 

17.-1826. Thomas M. T. McKennan, Thomas McGiffin, George Kuntz, 
John S. Brady, and John Wilson. 



134 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

18. — 1827. Thomas M. T. McKcnnan, George Kuntz, John Wilson, Jacob 

Slaple, and Georfrc L. Morrison. 
19. — 1828. Thomas M. T. INIcKcnnan. George Kuntz, Jacob Slagle, John 

K. Wilson, and Samuel Hazlelt. 
20. — 1829. Thomas M. 'J\ McKennan, Jacob Slagle, George Kuntz, Wil- 
liam Ilobinson, and William Hunter. 
21. — 1830. John K. Wilson, Thomas M. T. McKcnnan, James Shannon, 

William Robinson, and John Wilson. 
22. — 1831. William Baird, William Robinson, John Wilson, James Shan- 
non, and John K. Wilson. 
23.— 1832. Re-elected. 
24. — 1833. Hugh AVorkman, Isaac Leet, George Kuntz, Thomas Officer, 

and John ]\lorro\v. 
25. — 1834. Isaac Leet, John Morrow, George Kuntz, John K. Wilson, and 

Thomas Officer. 
26. — 1835. James Shannon, Isaac Leet, John K. Wilson, John L. Gow, and 

John AVilson. 
27. — 1836. Isaac Leet, Andrew Shearer, John N. Dagg, John Morrow, and 

John Bradficld. 
28. — 1837. John L. Gow, John N. Dagg, Andrew Shearer, John Morrow, 

and Georsre Black. 
29.— 1838. George Black, John R. Griffith, Robert Officer, Andrew Shearer, 

and John Morrow. 
30. — 1839. Alexander W. Acheson, John Best, Henry Langlej, James H. 

Pattison, and Peter Wolfe. 
31. — 1840. Alexander W. Acheson, Peter Wolfe, John ]\[orrow, Adam Sil- 

vey, and Oliver Lindsey. 
32. — 1841. Alexander W. Acheson, Peter Wolfe, Oliver Lindsey, James 

Brown, and Matthew Griffin. 
33._1842. Re-elected. 
34. — 1843. Alexander W. Acheson, George Lonkert, George W. Brice, 

John Grayson, and John S. Brady. 
35.— 1844. Oliver Lindsey, John Best, John R. Griffith, Peter Wolfe, and 

Jacob Kissler. 
36. — 1845. William Smith, Oliver Lindsey, John Best, Peter Kennedy, and 

David Wolfe. 
37. — 1846. John Morrow, James Brown, Joseph Henderson, Thomas 

Logan, and George Lonkert. 
38. — 1847. James M. Hutchinson, James Brice, T. W. Grayson, Alfred 

Thirkield, and Robert cer. 
39. — 1848. John Morrow, William Hopkins, Charles W. Hays, George 

Black, and James Rush. 
40. — 1849. Peter Kennedy, William Hopkins, Charles AV. Hays, Jacob 

Single, and Oliver Lindsey. 
41. — 1850. John Bausnian, Philip Kuhn, Jacob Kissler, John S. Brady, 

and Tiiomas B. Bryson. 
42. — 1851. Sample Sweeny, Oliver Lindsey, Freeman Brady, Sr., Collin M. 

Reed, and 'J'homas W. Grayson. 
43. — 1852. Freeman Brady, Sr., Oliver Lindsey, William McKennan, John 

Wiley, and James Brown. 
44. — 1853. John Morrow, William R. Oliver, James Rush, John Wiley, and 

« William T. Fleming. 

45.-1854. Jacob Kessler, J. L. Jndson, James D. Best, Dr. M. U. Clarke, 

and Collin M. Read. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



135 



46.— 1855. Thomas W. Grayson, T. S. McKinley, H. W. Reynolds, A. R. 

Frisbie, and John McClelland. 
47,-1856. L. W. Stockton, Dr. J. R. Wilson, Simon Cort, John McElroy, 

and Th. B. Bryson. 
48. — 1857. James TV. Kimtz, Charles W. Hays, Thomas B. Bryson, John 

McAllister, and S. R. Witherow. 
49.-1858. John Prigg, Jacob Goldsmith, N. F. Brobst, David Wolf, and 

W. H. Stoy. 
50. — 1859. James Walton, James W. Humphreys, William T. Fleming, 

Charles W. Hays, and Jackson Spriggs. 
51.— 1860. Re-elected. 
52. — 1861. Charles W. Hays, Freeman Brady, Jr., Andrew Brady, John 

Prigg, and Alexander Frazer. 
53.— 1862. Charles W. Hays, Thomas D. O'Hara, Andrew Brady, John 

Prigg, and Samuel Beatty. 
54. — 1863. John Prigg, John Naghtan, James Walton, John W. Lockhart, 

and W. T. Fleming. 
55. — 1864. Jacob Miller, Thomas Seamans, Alphew Murphy, A. J. Caton, 

and P. Waldron. 
56. — 1865. Ira Lacock, John Naugtan, G. Jackson Dagg, Wm. H. Drury, 

A. H. Ecker. 
57.— 1866. Thomas Walker, T. J. Hodgins, Nelson Vankirk, William Fitz- 

william, and David Aiken. 
58. — 1867. James C. Acheson, Thomas McKean, Charles V. Grier, Alex. 

Seaman, John Hallam. 
59.— 1868. William Taylor, John Templeton, G. 0. Jones, Robert Davis, 

and Samuel Hazlett. 
60.— 1869. Alfred Creigh, A. B. Caldwell, J. L. Judson, A. C. Morrow, and 

James Huston. 
By act of the legislature, March 16, 1869, three councilmen were to be 

elected biennially with the assistant burgess, at the October election 

in 1869, term of service to commence April, 1870, which resulted in 

the election of 

61. — 1870. George S. Hart, Martin Luther, and James Huston. 







TREASUREKS. 






1810- 


-12. 


Daniel Moore. 


1863- 


-65. 


George Kuntz. 


1813- 


-15. 


Alexander Reed. 


1866. 




David Aiken. 


1816. 




Daniel Moore. 


1867. 




John C. Hastings. 


1817- 


-19. 


John Barrington. 


1868. 




John Aiken. 


1820- 


-35. 


John Gregg. 


1869. 




L. R. W. Little. 


1836- 


-5G. 


George Kuntz. 


1870. 




M. G. Kuntz. 


1857- 


-62. 


George Baird. 

TOWN 


CLERKS 






1810- 


-11. 


David Shields. 


1848- 


-50. 


William J. Wilson. 


1812- 


-14. 


Samuel Cunningham. 


1851- 


-54. 


Joseph O'Hara. 


1815- 


-16. 


John Cunningham. 


1855- 


-62. 


William B. Rose. 


1817- 


-31. 


John Marshall. 


1863. 




Ashford Engle. 


1832- 


-33. 


Samuel Doak. 


1864. 




Henry Brown (2 mos.) 


1834. 




Henry Langley. 


1864- 


-65. 


Thaddeus Stanton. 


183.5- 


-40. 


George W. Brice. 


1866. 




I. Goodrich Ruple. 


1841- 


-42. 


Robert K. Shannon. 


1867. 




John Aiken. 


1843- 


-44. 


Henry M. Brister. 


1868. 




Joseph A. McKee. 


1845- 


-46. 


James McKinley. 


1869. 




John AValdron. 


1847. 




David Wherry. 


1B70. 




Wesley Wolf. 



136 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



Public Buildings. 

The pi>blic buildings in Washington Borough consist of the 
court-house, containing the court, jury, and library room, and the 
public oiEccs, the gaol, the old market house, town hall, containing 
an audience room, council chamber, post office, citizens' library, 
engine house, and market house, Washington and Jefferson college, 
Fii'st Presbyterian church, Methodist Episcopal church, United 
Presbyterian church, Methodist Protestant church, Trinity Episco- 
pal church, German Evangelical Lutheran church, Second Presby- 
terian church, Koman Catholic church, Cumberland Presbyterian 
church. Disciples of Christ, Baptist church, African Methodist 
Episcopal church, Wright's Chapel (African), Franklin Bank of 
Washington, Female Seminary, Union School building, Washington 
gas works, Washington cemetery, Washington coal works. 

CouRT-HousE. 

On the 18th of October, 1781, David Hoge, of Cumberland 
County, conveyed to James Edgar, Hugh Scott, Yan Swearingen, 
Daniel Lcet, and John Armstrong, a piece of land in the town of 
"Bassett" for the use of the inhabitants of Washington County, 
to erect thereon a court-house, prison, &c., for and in consideration 
of the good-will he beareth to the inhabitants, and also the sum of 
five shillings. The ground conveyed is thus described : Situate 
in Bassettown, fronting and extending along Monongahela (Main) 
Street, 240 feet, and in the same manner along Ohio (Beau) Street, 
240 feet; thence with the lot marked in the original plan, 123 (now 
owned by Pvobert Boyd, Esq.); thence with Johnston's (Cherry) 
Alley 240 feet to the Monongahela Street aforesaid. The witnesses 
to the deed were Henry Taylor and David Ileddick, which was 
recorded in the Recorder's office February 7, 1785. 

The organic law of the county, dated March 28, 1781, section 9, 
directed the courts to be held at the house of David Hoge, Esq., 
until a court-house shall be built or otherwise provided for. The 
courts were held at the designated place until 1783. The courts 
were afterwards held at the house of Charles Dodd in 1783, at the 
house of James Wilson in 1784, and John Dodd's from 1785 to 
1787, each of these persons receiving a stipulated rent. The house 
of Charles Dodd was upon the lot now owned by James G. Strean, 
Esq., but afterwards John Dodd bought the same property. The 
house rented from James Wilson was on the lot where Mr. William 
H. Drury resides. The courts were held there but one year, and 
returned to Mr. Dodd's. The gaol occupied the first floor and the 
court the second. It was in this court-house that Thomas Richard- 
son was tried for larceny in 1784, convicted, and sul)sequently 
hainjrd, an account of which we shall give in Chapter VIII. 

In 1783 the commissioners began the erection of a log court- 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. loT 

house aiifl other public buildings, which were not completed until 
July, 1787- In 1784 a tax of £500 was laid for the purpose of 
building a court-house, and in 1788 an additional sum of £150 to 
pay the balance on the same, the whole amounting to £650. This 
LOG court-house, the Jirst which was erected, was occupied until the 
winter of 1790-91, when it was destroyed by fire. Rev. Thaddeus 
Dodd taught a classical school in this court-house, and afterwards 
kept by David Johnston. It was during the time Mr. Johnston kept 
school therein that it was burned. He afterwards took charge of 
the Canonsburg Academy. The commissioners, on the 1st of 
January, 1792, laid a tax of £1500 to erect a brick court-house and 
other public buildings. 

Local traditions have placed our first court-house at many points, 
sometimes in different parts of our town, sometimes at Razortown, 
on the Middletovvn road, and sometimes on Mr. William Gabby's 
farm. We have investigated all these traditionary reports, and will 
give a solution to the whole, remarking that not much confidence 
can be placed in tradition without being sustained by history. 

No other places for holding courts were ever held in Washing- 
ton County except at the places designated, the records showing of 
whom the several houses were rented in the town of Washington. 
/" Our readers must bear in mind that Washington and the adjoin- 
ing counties were claimed by Virginia, of which I have already 
given the history, that the line separating Ohio and Youghiogheny 
counties, Virginia, ran near the western limits of the borough of 
Washington. Youghiogheny County occupied the territory cast of 
this line, and Ohio County west of it. The court-house of You- 
ghiogheny County was on the farm of Andrew Heath, nearly oppo- 
site Elizabethtown, Allegheny County, while that of Ohio County 
was on the farm of William Gabby, two miles west of this place. 
Mr. William Gabby assures me that the logs of the court-house 
were used by bis father in the erection of a kitchen, and that the 
court-house stood between the brick house (now occupied by his son 
James) and the barn, near the spring. John Gabby, Esq., received 
his deed for the same farm as early as the spring of 1784. In cor- 
roboration of this statement, I quote from the writings of Rev. Dr. 
Joseph Smith, who says, " One of these Virginia court-liouses (west 
of the Monongahela River) stood a few miles west of the present 
town of Washington. Washington itself did not exist, but a few 
miserable hamlets, called Catfish, after the Indian chief of that 
name who once dwelt there. In the records of the Presbytery of 
Red Stone, also bearing date October 16, 1782, a minister was 
appointed as a supply to preach at Ohio County -court-house, a seat 
of justice under the government of Virginia. 

The traditional story of a court-house at Razortown is a myth, 
mentioned in the life of Patrick Gass ; being an aged man when he 
wrote his life, he mistook the Gabby farm, two miles west of Wash- 
ington, and placed it two miles northwest of this place. Having 
10 



138 HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

thus disposed of the court-house question, we resume our narrative, 
and shall speak of the second court-house which was erected on the 
pulilic square. 

The second court-house was erected of brick, being commenced 
in 1792, in the centre of the public square. The cost of this court- 
house may be thus estimated : — 

£ s. d. 

1792, Nov. 6. Paid James Marshall for materials for public 

buildings 60 

" " 7. " John Benjaniin and William Reed in full 

to date for court-house, &c. . 807 11 1 

" " 7. " William Gray for measuring and calcu- 

liiting public buildings . . . 6 6 1 

1793, Jan. 8. " Messrs. liccds, in full, lor work done 

court-house and jail . . . 157 8 10 
" March 23. " Alexander Cunningham for materials . 12 14 8 



£1044 8 



" April 10. John Reed was directed to build a wall around the 

pulilic buildings, which he had completed on No- 
vember 6, 1793. 
1794, Feb. 28. Messrs. Price and Leet reported to the commissioners the 

price of the carpenters' and joiners' work of the 

court-house. 
" March 4. A tax for £.ir)0 was levied for finishing the mason work, 

and plastering the jail. 
" July 7. Bill for cleauiug court-house and jail-yard, twenty-four 

dollars and seventy-one cents, approved and paid. 
" Sept. 3. A bill of John and James Reed for three hundred and 

thirty-four dollars and eighty cents ordered to be 

paid for work done. 
" July 19. The commissioners employed carpenters to work on the 

cupola of the court-house, finish the same, and have 

the vane gilded. 

This court-house was improved in 1819 by an addition thereto, the 
commissioners having awarded the contract to Thomas II. Baird, 
Esq., who gave as liis securities David Shields and George Baird, 
Esqs. October 18, 1836, a county meeting was held in the court- 
house to take action with regard to the erection of a court-house 
and other public buildings, which meeting, after a full discussion, 
resolved that the question should be determined by a vote of the 
electors of the county, who decided against its erection. But on 
March 9, 1839, the grand jury considered the erection of a new 
court-house, and the question was laid over to the next grand jury, 
who indorsed the proposition. The commissioners then certified 
that a new conrt-liouse would cost $12,000, and the repairs, $5000, 
and tlic subsequent grand jury sanctioned its erection, as the public 
buildings were unfit for pul)lie purposes ; and the whole of the public 
square should be entirely changed, and present an apjiearauce which 
would be alike creditable to the county and luive all the conve- 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 139 

niences which the wants of the people required. Before, however, 
giving a description of the improvements which were made, it will 
be interesting to many unacquainted with the buildings which were 
upon the public square to state what buildings occupied it. 

Commencing on the corner of Main and Beau streets, and going 
south, was the market-house, with a superstructure containing six 
rooms (a full description of which wnll be found under the title of 
"Market House"); next to and adjoining the market-house was the 
engine-house ; then an alley, which led directly into the kitchen of 
the sheriff's house, through which access was had to the jail ; next 
was the sheriff's office and house attached, and the prothonotary's 
office ; then came the court-house. On the south of the court-house 
were the clerk of the court's and register's offices ; adjoining which 
was a small shop of Alfred Gait (watchmaker, well known as an ec- 
centric genius) and three offices, from which a rent was derived — 
these filled up the square. 

These three offices on the southeastern corner of the public 
square, and immediately in front of the present market-house, were 
leased, on a ground-rent of twenty years, on the 1st of June, 1817. 
Each office was required to be in size 22 by 24 feet (with an alley 
10 feet in the rear), to be built of brick, and range with the other 
public buildings. No. 1, next to the court-house, was leased to Wil- 
liam Hunter, Esq., at $3.01 per foot per annum. No. 2 was leased 
to John Neal, Esq., and No. 3, on the corner of the street and alley, 
to David Shields, Esq., each at $2.54 per foot. 

We now resume the history of the third or present court-house. 
On the 22d July, 1839, Jehu Jackson, Matthew Linn, and Andrew 
Shearer advertised to receive sealed proposals until July 15, 1839, 
at 10 o'clock A.M., for the erection of new public buildings, accord- 
ing to the plan adopted, for the accommodation of the courts and 
offices of the county, and for the safe keeping of the records ; and a 
house for the sheriff. On the 16th July, 1839, the carpenter work 
was awarded to Henry Shearer, Esq. ; the stonework, to Freejnan 
Brady, Esq. ; the cut-stonework, to Alexander Ramsey, Esq. ; fur- 
nishing and laying the brickwork, to David White, Esq. 

On the 25th of September the commissioners caused all the old 
buildings to be removed from the public square, except the offices on 
the southeast corner of the square, whose leases had expired, in which 
the public offices should be temporarily kept. In addition to these 
two rooms the commissioners also rented the corner room of the 
"Round Corner," now occupied by James C. Acheson. They also 
leased the Methodist Protestant church from James L. Porter and 
Charles E. Jones (trustees), from the 29th of August, 1839, to the 
29th August, 1843, for the sum of $200, in which the courts should 
be held, with the privilege of leaving the same when the new court- 
house should be finished. 

On the 25th of September, 1840, the commissioners, Matthew 
Linn, Andrew Shearer, and James Pollock, Esqs., articled with 



140 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Freeman Brady and David White, Esqs., to build the jail walls, 
and, with David Ilall and William Wylie, to plaster the court-house. 

1842, May 27. The statue of Washington was ordered to be 
placed upon the dome of the court-house, and, on the 15th of October, 
James Sterret, of Allegheny County, James Chambers and William 
E. Erret, of Washington County, were selected to measure the car- 
penter work. 

On December 9th, 1842, the commissioners contracted with Wil- 
liam McFarlane and William E. Erret to build a portico to the 
sheriflF's house, for which they were to receive one hundred and 
seventy-five dollars. 

The cost of the court-house of 1839 was twenty-nine thousand 
eight hundred and eight dollars, to which is to be added the sheriff's 
house, costing four thousand five hundred and sixty-eight dollars, 
amounting in all to $34,3Y6. 

We shall now advert to the improvements made on the public 
square in 186T-8 and 9. Xeither the court-house nor jail answered 
the purposes of their erection ; the former required an arbitration 
room, library room, and sherifiPs office, and jury room, and the latter 
an entire new building. The commissioners, consisting of Messrs. 
Jos. W. Cowan, Thos. J. Bell, and Jas. Walker, on the 23d of July, 
1866, authorized J. W. Barr, Esq., a superior architect of Pittsburg, 
to inspect the county jail, with a view of repairing or rebuilding the 
same. The jail undergoing a thorough inspection by Mr. Barr, he 
gave it as his opinion that it was unfit for use, upon which the com- 
missioners very judiciously decided that he should submit a plan for 
a new jail with the probable cost, and another forrepairing the same. 

On the 24th of August, 1866, the commissioners submitted these 
plans to the grand jury, who nnanimously approved the erection of 
a new jail, and the plan thereof was submitted to the Secretary of 
the Commonwealth, who approved of the same. It being too late in 
the season to commence so large a building, it was postponed until 
February 28, 1867, when the new ]5oard of Commissioners, consist- 
ing of Thomas J. Bell, James Walker, and Samuel Weirich, Esqs., 
resolved to proceed to the erection of the jail under the approval of 
the grand jury and the direction of the court. 

On March 5th, 1867, the commissioners, accompanied by David S. 
Wilson, Esq., their attorney (who was desirous of submitting certain 
other improvements in connection with the court-house, by which 
all the necessary rooms could be obtained, and tlie jail connected 
with the court-room), went to Pitts1)urg, to confer with Messrs. Barr 
and Moser in regard to the plans and specifications and estimates of 
the new county prison, and the improvements therewith connected. 

March 22d, 1867, the commissioners, after having adopted the pre- 
sent plan, and under the instructions of David S. Wilson, Esq., ap- 
pointed Messrs. Barr and Moser general superintendents of the 
work, to be allowed one per cent, of the cost of the jail as their com- 
pensation. Nelson Yankirk, Esq , was appointed superintendent and 



I 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 141 

foreman under Messrs. Barr and Moser, his compensation being $5 
per day; Samuel Hargraves, superintendent of the brick and mason 
work, at $5 per day. The general superintendents were authorized 
to select all the materials, and Messrs. Yankirk and Hargraves, in 
their respective departments, were to employ and superintend all the 
hands necessary for its completion, but subject to the inspection and 
condemnation of the commissioners and general superintendents. 

On the 23d of April, 186*7, the contract for the brick was awarded 
to Chas. V. Grier and Joshua R. Forest, with John Hallam as 
security. 

The new prison and extension to the court-house, including sheriff's 
office, arbitration room, library room, &c., cost forty-eight thousand 
five hundred dollars. 

The stone wall inclosing public square, grading, and improve- 
ments to sheriff's house, cost thirty-five hundred dollars, amounting in 
the aggregate to fifty-two thousand dollars. Before the jail was 
finished, and in the northeast corner, about ten feet from the ground, 
a box, containing much valuable information, was deposited in the 
wall by A. T. Baird and C. M. Ruple, Esqs., on September 6, 1861, 
generally relating to county and borough affairs. 

Market-House. 

In the spring of 1195 the citizens of the town of Washington 
held a public meeting, at which it was unanimously resolved, that the 
wants of the people required a market-house, and to carry this re- 
solution into effect, the meeting appointed two of their prominent 
citizens (Alexander Addison, Esq., and Dr. Absalom Baird) to 
procure the necessary amount of subscriptions, and employ compe- 
tent workmen to erect a market-house. 

On the 8th of September following, the market-house was finished 
and occupied, the commissioners having granted the northeast corner 
of the public square, on the corner of Main and Beau streets, for that 
purpose. It was opened under the following regulations : That 
public markets should be opened on Wednesday and Saturday of each 
week ; that they should be kept open from early dawn to 10 o'clock 
A. M. of the appointed days, and, by agreement of the citizens, no 
provision or produce of any kind was to be purchased within the 
prescribed hours, except at the market-house only. 

The committee having discharged the duty enjoined upon them, 
and the market-house fulfilling the expectations of the people, yet 
they were compelled to issue the following notice on Noveiuber 24th, 
1195:— 

"We, whose names are hereunto annexed, state to all concerned in the 
market-house of Washington, that the e.xpenses of building it amount, as 
it appears by the several bills in our hands, to ' . . $202.96 

We have received for subscriptions only . . . 126.81 



There is, therefore, due to us . . , . 76.15 



142 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

" We suhmit it to all interested iu the market-house, whether they oujrht 
not immediately to pay into our hauds severally, according to the ability 
and inclination of every individual, a further contribution to reimburse us 
for what we have laid out for this building, which is a common benefit to 
all. There are yet some arrears unpaid of the subscription, but much is not 
expected from them, and if all were paid, it would be proper to have a small 
sum in reserve for occasional repairs, which will always be wanting to a pub- 
lic building like this, which being as it were the property of no particular 
person, no one thinKs it his duty to preserve it. The delinquent subscri- 
bers are informed that the subscription papers are lodged in the hands of 
William !Meetkirk, Esq., who will receive payments, and unless payments 
are made before the 1st day of December next, he will issue process against 
the delinquents. Alexander Addison. 

Absalom Baikd." 

Tliis notice had the desired effect, the delinquents paid their indebt- 
edness, and the citizens with commendable zeal paid the balance by 
additional subscriptions. 

Immediately after the borough was incorporated, in 1810, the 
Council passed wholesome laws to regulate the markets. Yet the 
wants of the people required a larger and better market-house, con- 
sequently the town council, on the 23d day of October, 1813, ap- 
pointed a committee consisting of Parker Campbell, James Orr, 
and Thomas McGiffin, Esquires, to report on the expediency of erect- 
ing a new market-house on the same ground. This committee re- 
ported (on the 30th of October) favorably, and on the 6th of Nov. 
following, the chief burgess was directed to call a meeting of the 
inhabitants on the 12th of November, to consider the subject. It 
appears, however, that the minds of the people were greatly agitated 
at this time on account of pecuniary affairs, the war and other mat- 
ters ; and action thereon was indefinitely postponed. 

On the Kith of January, 181.5, another meeting of the citizens 
was convened, when the usual officers were appointed and the follow- 
ing resolution adopted : — 

"Resolved, That it is expedient to change the site of the market- 
house from the north to the south side of the public square, for the 
purpose of erecting a banking-house on the northeast corner of said 
square, and for the better accommodation of the citizens at large; 
provided, however, that no change or alteration in the present site of 
the market-house shall take place until the consent of the proper 
authority shall be first had and obtained to erect a banking-house on 
the northeast corner of the public square, and a market-house on the 
southeast corner of said square, nor until arrangements be made 
and a contract entered into for the building of said banking-house 
on tliat ground." Alexander ]Murdoeh, Thomas H. Baird, and 
James Orr, Esquires, were a])})ointi'd to procure the necessary au- 
thority and grant for said market-house and banking-house from the 
legislature and commissioners of the county. 

Subsequently the Committee ascertained that the public square 
was to be used only for public purposes, and if diverted from that 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 143 

the property would revert to the original owners ; accordingly the 
project was abandoned. 

On the 21st of June, 1816, however, and at the request of the 
citizens, the commissioners granted to the borough permission to 
erect a market-house on the following plan, viz: On a range with 
the public offices and parallel with Main Street, to front on Main 
Street 53 feet and on Beau Street 130 feet, according to diagram 
adopted. 

On November 2, 1816, the commissioners, consisting of John 
Reed, David Little, and Jonathan Knight, made a second grant, 
giving permission to the borough to erect another story upon the 
pillars or frame of the market-house, provided that one room should 
be used as a council room, and that after the expiration of twenty- 
five years, or at any time thereafter, the borough shall, upon receiving 
the sum originally expended in building the market-house, deliver 
the same to the commissioners for the use of the county. 

On the 5th of November following, the citizens met at the court- 
house to consider the expediency of erecting a superstructure or story 
on the pillars of the market-house, and after a full discussion the 
burgesses and Council were instructed to erect said superstructure in 
the manner contemplated by the commissioners. The Council there- 
upon convened and appointed Parker Campbell, Alexander Murdoch, 
and Thomas McGiffin a committee with authority to borrow not ex- 
ceeding two thousand dollars, for the purpose specified, which amount 
they procured from the branch Bank of Philadelphia established in 
"Washington. The contract for the building of the superstructure 
was given to James Ruple, Esq. 

On the 20th of October, 1817, possession of the market-house 
rooms was given to the burgesses and Council, who rented the same 
on the 25th to the following persons: No. 1, Robert Estep ; No. 2, 
John Purviance ; Nos. 3 and 5, Thomas H. Baird ; No. 4, John Mc- 
Cluney; No. 6, Matthew Brown. Subsequently some of these rooms 
were occupied as school-rooms, and the mention of the names of 
Philip Potter, Stephen Wood, George Preeby, and Henry Williams 
will recall to the recollection of many of our inhabitants the incidents 
of school-life, the rod and the cat-o'-nine-tails. At one time one of 
the rooms was occupied by the venerable Judge Grayson, who was 
then editor of the Washington Examiner. 

After mar.y years it appears that the spirit of enterprise seized upon 
our citizens, and they awoke from their Rip Van Winkle sleep by 
being admonished by the commissioners of the county, in 1839, that 
the lease of the market-house grounds would soon expire, and that 
the public square would be occupied by a new court-house, suitable 
buildings for sheriff, &c. A meeting of the Town Council was 
called July 15, 1839, and Messrs. Alexander W. Acheson, Henry 
Langley, and John R. Griffith were appointed a committee to exa- 
mine the lease and to make inquiries in regard to changing the site 
to the south side of the public square. 



144 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

On the 2d of August, the Town Council called a meeting of the 
citizens, whereupon the following preamble and resolutions were 
adopted : — 

Whereas, Tlie commissioners of the county are about to erect 
new public buildings for the use of the county, and in the execution 
of their plan of erection it will be necessary to remove the borough 
market-house to make room for the erection of a contemplated sheriff's 
house, tlierefore 

Resolved, That the burgesses and Council are hereby authorized to 
make such arrangements with the county commissioyers for the ex- 
change of the present market ground for a site or location on the 
south side of the public square, and obtain from said commissioners 
a perpetual lease of the same for the use of the borough. 

The Council at their meeting on November 25th, appointed Henry 
Langley, Esq., to meet the commissioners on the subject of the re- 
moval of the market-house, who subsequently reported that the 
commissioners would in due time make a lease. In December follow- 
ing, however, Messrs. A. W. Acheson, James Blaine, and Henry 
Langley were directed to view the ground, ascertain the probable 
expense of erecting a market-house, and how to dispose of the old 
one. The Committee, on the 8th of January, 1840, reported a plan 
which was adopted, and on the 6th of February, the Committee en- 
tered into Contract with John Wilson and John AV. Seamans, Es- 
quires, for building the same, the price being settled at nine hundred 
and fifty dollars. Messrs. James Blaine, John Iv. Griffiths, and J. 
H. Pattison were authorized to sell the old market-house, which they 
accordingly did, and made report thereof to the Council. To the 
burgesses and Council of 1839-40, therefore, were we indebted for the 
market-house which adorned the southern part of our public square, 
the stalls of which were first leased August 2, 1840. 

The reason of the market-house being set so far back from a range 
with the other public buildings was owing to a lease made by the 
commissioners of G6 feet of ground on Main Street, and running 
back about 40 feet, upon which was erected three offices, the lease 
of which did not expire until after the market-house was erected. 

Town Hall. 

The first effort for the erection of a town hall was made May 
6th, 1842, when the commissioners of that date executed a lease to 
the borough of Washington for all the ])ubh'c ground south of a 
line conmiencing at the curb-ston(! on Main Street, nine feet south 
of the new court-house, and running back until it strikes a lot of 
William Smith's, and now owned (1870) by RoJbert Boyd, Esq., on 
condition of their erecting a town hall. 

March 23d, 1843. The Council called a meeting of the citizens to 
ascertain their views on the expediency of erecting a town hall, 
and engine-house, which, after discussion, was decided affirmatively, 
and the Council appointed Robert Officer, John S. Brad}', and Thomas 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 145 

McGiffin to report a plan and the probable cost. A plan was pre- 
pared by Mr. Erret and adopted by the Council ; but on the 6th day 
of May, 1843, the citizens called a public meeting and refused its 
sanction to the erection of a town hall. 

No further efforts were made until the year 1868, when the ques- 
tion was again agitated, and the burgess and Council called a meet- 
ing of the citizens to ascertain the public sentiment on this question. 
Many urgent reasons were given for its erection, but that which 
operated upon the public mind was the generous offer of Dr. Francis 
J. Lemoyne, who proposed to donate ten thousand dollars for the 
purchase of a public library if a fire-proof vault was made for its 
reception in said building. The question was referred to a vote of 
the people, and decided affirmatively. The terra of office of the bur- 
gess and Council elected March, 1868, was about expiring, and the 
plans and erection of the town hall were committed to the Council 
of 1869, consisting of John D. Boyle, Burgess ; J. Y. Hamilton, As- 
sistant Burgess ; and Alfred Creigh, J. L. Judson, A. B. Caldwell, 
A. C. Morrow, and James Huston, Councilmen. A plan and speci- 
fication, as drawn and prepared by J. Kerr, of Pittsburg, was adopt- 
ed. Messrs. Boyle, Creigh, and Judson were appointed the Building 
Committee, and Messrs. Boyle, Caldwell, and Morrow the Finance 
Committee. 

It IS eminently due to the Council of 1868, consisting of John D. 
Boyle, burgess ; John McElroy, assistant burgess ; Samuel Hazlett, 
Robert H. Davis, William Taylor, John Templeton, and George O. 
Jones, to state that the citizens of the borough are indebted to them 
for taking the incipient measures of the erection of a town hall. 
On February 16th, 1869, they procured legislative action authorizing 
the commissioners to lease a portion of the public ground to erect 
thereon a town hall, to be used as a post-office and for other purposes ; 
and also an additional act on February 17th, 1869, authorizes the 
burgess and Council to borrow thirty-thousand dollars to be applied 
to the erection of a town hall, at seven and three-tenths per cent, 
per annum ; the said bonds not liable to be taxed for county, muni- 
cipal, or school purposes. 

The contract for excavating the cellar, executing the cut-stone, 
stone, and brickwork, was awarded to Andrew Brady ; the oak 
timber to "William B. Cundall; the carpenter work was given to J. 
Noble Porter; the manufacture of the brick to Andrew Ford; the 
pressed brick to Samuel Hutson ; the tinwork to Jesse Jordan ; the 
ventilators to Jacob Miller ; the plastering to Thomas Dagg and 
Jeremiah Marshall, and the painting to Col. Samuel Bulford. In 
connection with this subject it is proper to remark that the brick- 
work was sub-let by Mr. A. Brady to Messrs. James Huston and 
John Dye, and the cut-stonework to Edward Little. 

The town hall is a substantial brick edifice of the Franco-Italian 
style, fronting fifty-six feet on Main Street and extending back one 
hundred feet, with a cellar underneath the whole building. 



146 HISTORY OF AVASHINQTON COUNTY. 

The first floor is occupied by the post-office and vestibule, a read- 
ing room, a library room with a fire-proof vault in which the library 
is kept, an engine-house, and a market-house. 

The second floor consists of the council chamber and an audience 
room with a gallery, capable of seating one thousand persons. 

As the post-office is now permanently located in the town hall, 
I shall give the names of the postmasters as far back as can be asser- 
taincd, and the year in which they entered upon the duties of their 
office. 

1797. "VVilliam Meetkirke. 1844. Jonathan D. Leet. 

1801. Daniel Moore. 1848. James M'Dermot. 

1805. Iluijh Wvlio. 1851. George W. Aiken. 

1828, Joseph Henderson. 1852. David Acheson. 

1829. Thomas Morgan. 1856. Freeman Brady. 

1839. Samuel Workman. 1860. James M'Dermot. 

1840. Robert Colmery. 1865. William C. Wylie. 

On September 18, 1869, the corner-stone was laid by U. S. Grant, 
President of the United States, and so rapid was the work carried 
forward, that on April 1, 1870, the post-office room was finished and 
occupied. We give below the ceremonies of laying the corner stone, 
and matters connected therewith. 

A desire being expressed on the part of many citizens that the President 
should be present, and deposit a box containing curiosities in the corner 
stone of the town hall, the following correspondence between the Burgesses 
and Council and President Grant took place : — 

Washington, Pa., September 17, 1869, 
General U. S. Grant, President of the United States : 

lIoxoKKD Sir : The unders*igned, the Burgesses and Councilmen of the 
borough of AVashington, representing its citizens, would respectfully solicit 
you to deposit within the corner stone of the town hall, now in process of 
erection, on Saturday next (September 18th), a box containing the memo- 
rials of the present and the past, so that future generations may learn our 
history to the present time, when these memorials shall come to light. 

The occasion is one worthy of your consideration, because this was the 
first county and town named after the Revolutionary struggle in honor of 
the illustrious Washington, who was first in peace, first in war, and first in 
the afl'ections of his countrymen ; and you, honored sir, as his successor, 
both as President and Commander-in-Chief, will add additional interest to 
the many interesting remiuiscenceswhichclusler around our ancient borough 
by complying with our lequest. 

With seutimcuts of high esteem we remain truly yours, 

John D. Bovi.e, Chief Burgess. 

I. Y. Hamilton, Asa't Burgess. 

Alfred Creioh, "| 

A. B. Caldwell, 

Jamks HisTON, } Council. 



J. L. Jldson, 

A. C, MOKBOW, 



J 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 147 

[reply.] 

Washington, Pa., September 17, 1869. 

John D. Boyle, Chief Burgesfi ; I. T. Hamilton, Assistant Burgess ; 

Alfred Creigh, A. B. Caldwell, James Huston, J. L. Judson, A. C. 

Morroiv, Councilmen : 

Gf.ntlemen : Your letter of this date, requesting' me in behalf of the 

citizens to deposit within the corner stone of the Town Hall now in process 

of erection, on Saturday, September 18th, 18G9, a box containing memorials 

of the present, is received. 

It will afford me pleasure to comply with this request — enhanced pleasure, 
because your county and town were named in express honor of the Father 
of our Country (whose name they bear), whose name is revered by every 
American citizen who loves his country. 

With great respect, vour obedient servant, 

U. S. Grant. 

The time fixed for the ceremonies above alluded to was 2^ o'clock on 
Saturday afternoon. 

About two o'clock Burgess Boyle and Dr. Creigh, a member of Council, 
proceeded in a carriage to Mr. Wm. Smith's residence, to accompany the Pre- 
sident to the public square. Upon the arrival of the President the Wash- 
ington brass band, being on the ground, played a national air, after which 
Major Ewing announced the programme. Rev. W. A. Davidson, D. D., 
was then introduced, and asked the blessing of Heaven upon the undertak- 
ing being inaugurated, and returned thanks for the success and prosperity 
of the country. David S. Patterson, Esq., counsel for the Council, was 
then introduced, and delivered the following pertinent, terse, and eloquent 
remarks : — • 

The speaker said he would confine himself to a brief statement of facts, 
rather than attempt any formal or lengthy address. A town was laid out 
on the site of our present substantial and beautiful borough, in October of 
the year 1781, by David Hoge, and named Bassettown. Three years later 
it was sold to the two sons of its founder, and they gave it its present name 
in honor of the one who had just led a brave people to independence. In 
1810 the little village obtained a borough charter. Favored by its fortu- 
nate location on the line of what was then the great national thoroughfare 
from East to West, its citizens enjoyed the privilege of greeting all the dis- 
tinguished statesmen of the West, on their journeys to and from the national 
capital. Almost on the very spot where we are gathered to-day her glad 
people extended a joyful greeting and cordial welcome, in succession, to 
Presidents Monroe, Jackson, John Quincy Adams, Harrison, Polk, and 
Taylor. 

For twenty years past the railroads have whirled statesmen and traffic 
over other routes, leaving our town to a lagging inland growth ; but the 
evidences of both public and private improvement, during the last year, 
seem laden with better hopes. The work on the public edifice with which 
the people had determined by their votes to ornament the public square, 
having progressed to the point of laying the corner stone, the borough 
authorities had wisely determined to deposit beneath that stone a box, con- 
taining contributed memorials of the present and the past, so that coiping 
generations might learn our history to the pi-esent time, when these memo- 
rials shall come to light. With equal wisdom had they embraced the 
opportunity afforded by the presence of General Grant amongst us to have 
that collection of testimony to the future deposited by the hands of a no 



148 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

less distinguished personagre than the President of the United States him- 
self, 'i'he speaker said there was a peculiar fitness in this feature of the 
ceremonies, in view of the fact that tliis was the first town named, after the 
first great struggle for independence, in honor of the illustrious hero who 
became the first President of the United States, and first Commander-in- 
Chief of her army and navy. AVliiit a happy thought was it, then, that 
secured on this pleasant occasion the presence and aid of the distinguished 
hero of the nation's last great struggle — the present, living successor of 
the good Washington, both as President and Commander-in-Chief. 

The speaker, in conclusion, turned to President Grant, and addressed 
him as follows : *' And now, most honored sir, the craftsmen having reported 
the foundation ready for the corner stone, and that stone being e.xactly 
squared and now ready to be placed in its proper position, by virtue of the 
authority of the Burgesses and Council of the borough of Washington, this 
bo.x of memorials is delivered into your hands, to be deposited beneath it." 

At the coDclusion of Mr. Patterson's speech, the President silently took 
the bo.x from the hands of Dr. Creigh and deposited it within the corner 
stone, after which the l)and struck up a lively tune, and the Committee of 
Reception escorted the President to the court room, where, after some 
introductory remarks by Messrs. Kwing and Hopkins, the citizens generally 
came forward and "shook hands." After remaining in the court room 
about an hour, the President retired to the residence of Mr. AVm. Smith. 

List of articles which the box contained, and which was deposited in the 
corner stone (northeast corner) of the town hall, collected by Dr. Alfred 
Creigh : — 

Borowjh Affairs. — Charter, by-laws, and ordinances of the borough of 
Washington; roll of present officers elected April, 18G9 ; roll of officers 
from 1810 to the present time, prepared by Alfred Creigh ; blank borough 
bonds, upon which funds were raised for the erection of the town hall ; 
carpenter work awarded to J. Noble Porter, with the names of all the car- 
penters ; mason and brickwork awarded to Andrew Brady, with the roll of 
Lis workmen ; the manufacture of the brick awarded to Andrew Ford — the 
pressed brick to Samuel Hutson — the oak timber to AV\ B. Cundall, and 
the tinwork to Jesse Jordan ; register of voters in the borough (also the 
names of all females owning property), with their respective occupations 
and residence ; letter of John D. l?oyIe, Chief Burgess, to his successor 
when the box shall be oi)eued ; autograph of General U. S. Grant— letter 
from the Burgesses and Councilmen, and his reply, and notices of his arri- 
val and reception ; autographs of the President and Associate Judges of 
Washington County, together with those of the Prothonotary, Register, 
Recorder, Clerk of the Courts, Commissioners and their Clerk, with the 
impressions of the respective seals of each office, as well as the autographs 
of the Borough and County Treasurers, High Sheriff, and District Attor- 
ney ; list of pastors, church officers, and trustees of the churches of the 
borough ; list of the school directors of the Union school, with the name of 
the superintendent, as well as of the teachers and scholars, with their ages, 
including the colored school ; officers of the First National Bank of Wash- 
ington, with the seal ; history of Washington cemetery ; catalogue of 
Washington Female Seminary, 1868-()1) ; catalogue of Washington and 
Jefl*erson College, 1868-G9 ; proceedings of semi-centennial celebration of 
Washington college in 18riG ; premium list of Washington C^ounty Agricul- 
tural Society, IHG'.) ; Directory of First Presbyterian church, with the his- 
tory of tlie Sal)ltalh school from its organization; forms used in the bank- 
ing houses of W. Smith & Son and Samuel llazlett ; officers of the Wash- 
ington Gas Company ; specimen of men's and boys' wear in 1869, of woollen 



, HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 149 

goods, presented by A. B. Caldwell & Co., and W. Smith & Son ; specimen 
of ladies' dress proods, and three styles of bonnets as worn in 1H69, and 
presented by A. B. Caldwell & Co.; eng-ravings representing gentlemen's, 
boys' and girls' fashion of clothing and ladies' style of bonnets for 18G!). by 
S. Shaler and Mrs. G. Lonkert ; specimen of domestic goods (for ladies) 
manufactured in Washington County ; specimen of every variety of paper 
collars, by Geo. Metzner & Co. ; specimens of Saxony wool, raised in Wash- 
ington County, and presented by Maj. Jacob Morgan, I. Y. Hamilton, and 
Col. S. Beatty ; style of carriage, buggies, and velocipede, by S. B. Hayes 
& Co. ; style of mowers and reapers, with descriptive pamphlets, by J. T. 
Kirk ; specimen of sewing machines, with descriptive pamphlets, by J. T. 
Kirk; a bottle of pure Monongahela rye whiskey, by J. C. Ruple; Insurance 
agencies in Washington, by David and J. Aiken ; specimen of cotton raised 
in Washington, by Miss Ellen Griffith; by-laws of Washington Lodge, 164, 
with its officers since 1819 — of Washington Chapter, 150 — of Council No. 
1 of Royal and Select Masters — of Jacques DeMolay Commandary No. 3 
of K. T. ; by-laws of Lodge 81 of I. 0. O. F. ; bj'-laws of Harmony Lodge 
575 of Good Templars, with a list of officers and members ; Jacob Gold- 
smith's advertisement ; specimen of cigars manufactured by W. L. Euple ; 
autographs and history of Samuel Cunningham and George Freeby ; set of 
artificial teeth manufactured by Dr. S. Fulton. 

Coins, Ancient and Modern. — This class consists of a great variety pre- 
sented by Miss Clara McCracken, R. M'llvaine Drury, A. C. Morrow, 
John Harter, David Aiken, W. H. Drury, John A. Templeton, J. R. 
Kelley, Jesse Jordan, and John Wilson ; American coin ranging from 1776 
to the present time. 

Currency. — Bank af Washington and Franklin Bank of Washington, by 
D. S. Wilson, Esq. ; twelve and a half cent note issued by Frederick Mary- 
land in 1840, by J. A Templeton ; postal currency prior to April, 1808, by 
D. S. Wilson; postal currency since April, 1868, by W. C. Wiley; Con- 
federate money from $5 to $500, by J. A. Templeton ; Continental money, 
by Dr. W. S. Mitchell ; Continental money, by S. M. Hall. 

General rnatters. — Specimen of the registry system of the Post Office 
Department, by W. C. Wiley; seal of the State of Pennsylvania and of 
the Secretary of State, by D. S. Wilson ; blanks, &c., used in the U. S. 
Revenue office, by John E. Bell ; pamphlet containing acts on stamp duties, 
by J. B. Ruple ; National Tax law, by M. L. A. McCracken ; History of 
Washington County, title page and contents, by Alfred Creigh; An In- 
viting Call to the Children of Israel, by F. Hood; Pittsburg Business 
Directory of 1867, by John D. Boyle; almanacs, religious and medical, by 
Messrs. C. M. Reed, F. Hood, S. M. and J. A. Templeton; Vicksburg 
paper at its surrender, by J. B. Ruple; stamps placed on cigar boxes, by 
J. C. Ruple; engraved plate of names, &c., by J. and S. Post; History of 
Knighthood in two volumes, by Alfred Creigh. 

Curiosities. — A piece of cloth from the pall of Henry Clay, deceased, by 
D. S. Wilson, Esq. ; a portion of the hair of Gen. Anthony Wayne, who 
died in 1796, by D. S. AVilson, Esc].; a piece from the weeping willow 
which hangs over the grave of Napoleon at St. Helena; a shell from the 
Bay of Biscay ; a piece of the great tree in California, a Japanese writing 
desk, and some postal rebel stamps, by J. R. Kelley, Esq. ; two pair of 
revolutionary shoe-buckles, by AV. '1'. Creigh. 

Newspapers. — Western Telegraph, edited by Colerick & Co., of 1797 
Washington Examiner of 1829, by John Grayson ; Our Country of 1840, 
by T. J. Morgan ; the Tiny Buffer of 1840, by W. Duane Morgan ; Wash- 
ington Examiner of 1843, by T. W. Grayson; and the Loco Foco of 1844, 



150 HISTORY OF WASrilNGTOX COUNTY. 

by R. "W. Jones, presented by Messrs. Swan & Ecker ; the American Union 
of 1856, by J. B. Musser ; Washington Examiner of 1860, by A. li. Ecker 
and J. R. Donchoo; Washington Review of 1866, by Wm. Swan; and 
Wasliington Tribune of 1865, presented by W. T. (Jreigh ; Washington 
Review and Examiner of September 14, 1869, and AVashington Reporter of 
September 14, 1861); The Revolution, by Mrs. Cady, and Harper's Bazar, 
by Geo. Metzner. 

"Washington and Jefferson Colleges. 

On the 24th of September, llStjthe legislature of Pennsylvania 
passed an act iucori)orating and endowing Washington Academy. 
The trustees were Rev. John McMillan, Kev. Joseph Smith, Rev. 
Thaddeus Dodd, Rev. John Clark, Rev. Mr. Henderson, Rev. John 
Corby, Judge Allison, and J. McDowell, Col. Marshall, and Thomas 
Scott. On the 15th of December following, Thomas Scott and Col. 
Marshall, two of the trustees, addressed a letter to Benjamin Frank- 
lin, as President of the Supreme Executive Council, respectfully so- 
liciting the warrant for 500 acres of the donation lands which were 
appropriated by the legislature, and also requesting him to direct 
the surveyor-general to lay off these lands, which were located in 
what is now known as Beaver County, and were sold to James Alli- 
son about 1835. 

In 11 Sd the Academy went into operation with twenty students 
under Rev. Thaddeus Dodd, who was its first principal, in the upper 
rooms of the court-house. He continued to teach until tlie winter of 
1*790, when he returned to his congregation in Amwell township, 
where he had previously opened a classical school in 1782, the first 
institution west of the Allegheny Mountains in the great valley of the 
Mississippi. James Hughes, John Brice, Daniel Lindley, Robert 
Marshall, and Francis Dunlaney were his first scholars ; the school 
house was near his dwelling. It continued in operation three and a 
half years. His successor in 1790 was Mr. David Johnston, who, 
upon the destruction of the court-house, accepted Urn situation in 
the Caiionsburg Academy, as its first principal, in July, 1791. June 
14, 1796, Mr. James Dobbins, of York, was elected and served un- 
til 1804, when Benjamin Mills became the principal, who officiated 
as such until AVashington Academy w^as incorporated into a college. 

In 1790, Benjamin Franklin, Esq., presented to the Board of Trus- 
tees fifty pounds, to be applied to the purchasing of a library, which 
was the foundation of the college library. 

On November 19, 1792, AVilliam Hoge, Esq., for the love he bears 
to useful learning, and for the promotion of the useful arts, sci- 
ences, and literature, presented to the trustees of Washington Acad- 
emy four lots of ground, being 240 feet square, in the eastern 
extremity of said town, bounded on the east by the outside line of 
the town (now College Street), on the south by Belle Street, on the 
west by lot No. 104, and on the north by Cherry Alley, fronting on 
Belle Street 240 feet, and running back to Cherry Alley 240 feet, 



HISTORY or WASHINGTON COUNTY. 151 

being lots numbered on the plan of the town, 105, 106, lOT, and 108. 
These lots are the southeast corner of the present college campus, 
which, however, now embraces two entire squares, bounded by Beau 
Street on the north. Belle Street on the south, College Street on the 
east, and Second Street on the west, containing fourteen lots from 
No. 102 to 115 both inclusive. I shall enumerate these lots and from 
whom purchased or derived by gift, in their order. 

No. 102 was the gift of David S. Wilson, Collin M. Eeed, Joseph Mc- 

Knight, Joseph Henderson, Esqs., and Dr. Thomas McKennan. 
" 103 and 104 were purchased by the trustees. May 9, 1833, from Johu 

Sheaffer, Esq. 
" 105, 106, 107, and 108 was the gift of 'William Hoge, November 19, 

1792, being the original academy grounds. 
" 109 was purchased from David Shields, August 4, 1835. 
" 110 was purchased from Daniel Moore, October 23, 1837. 
" 111 was purchased from Henry Langly, executor of Samuel Marshall, 

deceased, July 1, 1835. 
" 112 was purchased from George Mitchell, March 27, 1837. 
" 113 was purchased from Rev. David Elliott, June 27, 1836. 
" 114 was purcliased from John Wilson (carpenter), January 10, 1838. 
" 115 was purchased from the School Directors, March 8, 1837. 

To these lots were added Cherry Alley, which separated the tw^o 
squares. The college campus hg,s a front of 500 feet by 420 in 
depth, or about five acres. 

April 8, 1793, the trustees were authorized by the legislature to 
locate all or any part of the granted lands westward of the Alle- 
gheny and Ohio rivers. 

In 1793 the trustees erected buildings on the four original lots 
(105, 106, 107, 108), thirty by thirty-five feet, two stories high, for 
the use of the Academy. This is the centre part of the southern 
block of buildings. The hall in this building was originally used by 
the Presbyterians as a place of worship. 

February 16, 1796, the trustees made application to the legisla- 
ture, praying for a donation to erect additional buildings. On the 
2d of May, 1797, the legislature generously donated three thousand 
dollars to complete the buildings, on the condition that ten indigent 
students should be educated for a period not exceeding two years 
each. 

Washington College. 

On March 21, 1806, Washington College was incorporated and all 
the property belonging to the Academy was vested in the trustees of 
the college and their successors Depending on its own resources, 
the college, under judicious management, prospered, and so grati- 
fied were the friends of literature throughout the State, that the 
legislature, in 1820, granted a donation of five thousand dollars, 
payable in annual payments of one thousand dollars each. 

This was followed in 1831 by another donation of five hundred 



152 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY." 

dollars annually, for five years, to qualify young men for the higher 
duties of life, and especially qualify such as should become teachers. 

Washington College as a Synodical College. 

On November 9, 1852, bj an agreement between the Board of 
Trustees and the Synod of Wheeling, Washington College became 
a Synodical College, by which the trustees and professors were 
first nominated by the synod and were required to be confirmed by 
the trustees. The synod was also required to keep the college in 
operation by means of a permanent endowment fund, but the pro- 
perty was to remain in the hands of the trustees as heretofore, under 
the charter. 

It will be proper at this time to give the plan of this endowment 
fund. It was placed under the control and management of a board 
of seven members, the corporate style being " The Board of Trus- 
tees of the (college Endowment Fund of tlie Synod of Wheeling." 
It was chartered by the State of Ohio. Its treasury was established 
at Steubenville, and the proceeds were to be paid to the trustees of 
the college. 

The plan of endowment was as follows : — 

1. Twenty-five dollars paid shall entitle the subscriber to two years' 
tuition in any department of the college. 

2. Fifty dollars paid shall entitle the subscriber to the tuition of one stu- 
dent durin? the entire course in the college proper, or to four years' tuition 
of one student in such departments of the institution as he may prefer. 

3. One hundred dollars paid shall entitle the subscriber to a family 
scholarship, embracing the tuition of all his sons during the entire course 
in the coll(>ge proper, or to four years' tuition of each of his sons, in such 
department of the institution as he may prefer; and for every additional 
one hundred dollars paid he shall have the privilege of designating the sons 
of any additional family he may choose. 

4. Two hundred dollars paid by an individual, association, or congrega- 
tion, shall entitle said individual, association, or congregation, to a perpetual 
scholarship, transferable, as other property, to which the subscriber or sub- 
scribers may appoint any individual whom they may select. 

.5. Five hundred dollars paid shall entitle the subscriber or subscribers 
to a perpetual scholarship transferable as other property. 

The subscription upon this endowment was not to be considered as bind- 
ing until sixty thousand dollars shall be subscribed, when certificates should 
be issued by the trustees of the college endowment fund. 

In pursuing this history we shall next take up the action of the 
Board of Trustees of Washington College, held September 6, 1864, 
who passed the following preand)le and resolutions : — 

Whereas, The Synod of Wheeling, with which Washington Col- 
lege is connected, and several other synods of the Presbyterian 
church, in October last, made a formal and earnest proposition to 
the trustees of Jefferson and Washington colleges for the union of 
these two institutions upon some equitable basis, accompanying the 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 153 

said proposal with an offer, pledged by a responsible person, of 
$50,000 towards the endowment of the united college, and further 
proposed that the question of the location of the college proper, 
rendered difficult by local interests and feelings, be left to the deci- 
sion of a disinterested and impartial board of arbitrators to be chosen 
jointly. 

And whereas, The public mind seems now more than ever not 
only to approve but to demand such an union for the sake of the 
claims of education in this region of country : 

Therefore this Board deem it due to themselves and to all con- 
cerned, without the slightest design to reflect upon any other party, 
to make known the fact that at a meeting held shortly subsequent to 
the reception of the proposition of the synod, they, by a unanimous 
vote, accepted the proposition with its conditions, agreeing to abide 
by any decision of the question thus fairly made. Also to declare 
that after a conference of a committee appointed by this Board with 
a like committee of the Board of Jefferson College on the subject of 
the proposed union, which was fruitless of success, owing to the 
declared unwillingness of the Jefferson Board to submit the question 
of location to the judgment of any persons outside of their own 
body, or in any way to imperil the interests of Canonsburg in regard 
to this question, or even to negotiate at all, except on the admitted 
condition that the college proper shall be located at that place. We 
are still, as we have from the first been, willing to adopt the pro- 
posal of disinterested arbitrameiit as originally made, and to join in 
asking such legislative sanction of a settlement so made, as the 
nature of the case may require ; and fai'ther, to set it forth as the 
deliberate judgment of this Board in harmony with the public voice, 
that the interests of education, as well as of the State and church, 
would be promoted by a proper union of these two colleges. 

1. Resolved, That in order that the attitude of the Board in 
regard to the question at issue may not be misunderstood, the Sec- 
retary be directed to report the foregoing statement to the Synod of 
Wheeling, and also to publish the same in the Presbyterian Banner. 

2. Resolved, That the Board approve the action of the faculty 
and local trustees in proposing to the faculty and local trustees of 
Jefferson College to unite in an effort to obtain a portion of the State 
agricultural fund on condition of a union of the colleges as calcu- 
lated to facilitate the desirable end in the manner proposed by the 
synods. 

Washington and Jefferson Colleges Consolidated. 

It may justly be remarked that from the year 1807 the records of 
the trustees of Jefferson and Washington colleges (situated but 
seven miles apart, the former at Canonsburg and the latter at Wash- 
ington), looked forward to a united college. It is unnecessary in a 
work of this character to go into the details of the consolidation ; 
11 



V 



154 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

suffice it to say, that to accomplish the consolidation of these two 
rival institutions, the Rev. Dr. C. C. Beatty, of Steubenville, in 1804, 
proposed to give fifty thousand dollars if a union were efiected. The 
trustees and alumni of both institutions, after preliminary meetings, 
were fully convinced of its necessity, and labored incessantly to bring 
about the desired union, and to enable the reader to judge impar- 
tially and decide for himself upon the merits of the initiative pro- 
ceedings, we give the following preliminary proceedings, which 
eventuated in their consolidation. 

On Sei)teniber Tth, 1864, the Alumni Association of Washington 
College held its annual meeting. The records of that body are given 
in these words: "The Rev. Francis J. Collier, of Canonsburg, ap- 
peared as one of a committee appointed by the Alumni Association of 
Jefferson College, and presented the following series of resolutions 
adopted by that body touching a union of Washington and Jefferson 
colleges." 

" 1. Resolved, That the good of the community, the cause of education, 
and the welfare of the country, and the best interests of the kingdom of 
Christ imperatively demand the union of Wnshinijton and Jefferson colleges. 

2. Brsalvcd, That it is with ])rof'ound gratification that ■w"e learn that a 
plan has been agreed upon by the officers of the colleges depending for its 
consummation u])on the appropriation by the legislature of the State, of a 
liberal portion of the funds for agricultural colleges and their ui;e. 

3. Eesolvcd, That in view of the fact stated, we hereby respectfully and 
earne.'stly petition the legislature of the State to take early and liberal 
action in this Itehalf. So far as we can understand the Ci\?e, jiifit ire does 
seevi to demand that no small part of the funds in the hands of the legisla- 
ture for distribution ought to be appropriated for the benefit of this part of 
the State. 

4. Nesolved, That a committee of three be appointed to present these 
resolutions to the Alumni Association of Washington College, and in con- 
nection with a committee from that association, to the Board of Trustees 
of the colleges and to the legislature. 

The committees appointed in pursuance of this 4th resolution were, 
Rev. George P. Hay, of Baltimore, Rev. F. J. Collier, of (Janons- 
burg, and R. B. Patterson, Esq., of Grcensburg, on behalf of the 
Jefferson Alumni. 

The Rev. James I. Brownson, W. S. Moore, and Hon. Robert 
R. Reed, of Washington, on behalf of the Washington Alumni. 

The following is the action of the Washington Alumni Associa- 
tion : — 

Whereas, at a meeting of the Alumni of Jefferson College, ou the 3d of 
August last, it was resolved, "that tiie good of the community, the cause 
of education, the welfare of the country, and the best interests of the king- 
dom of Christ imperatively demand the union of Washington and Jefferson 
colleges"^A.\D WUKHKAS, it is understood that committees of the Hoards of 
Trustees of the two colleges have lately been appointed to confer on the 
subject of union, but alter trial iiavc failed tlms far to agree upon a ])lan of 
union — and wukueas, a wish has been expressed at this meeting in behalf of 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 155 

the Alumni of Jefferson Collenfe, by one of their number acting as a mem- 
ber of a comnjittee appointed for that purpose, for our co-operation in 
efforts to brintj about the desired consummation — therefore 

Resolved, That inasmuch as a suggestion has been made through the 
papers, of a convention of the Alumni of both colleges to assemble at an 
early day in the city of Pittsburg, for the consideration of the whole sub- 
ject of the union, this association heartily approve such suggestion. 

Resolved, That a committee consisting of Rev. Dr. James I. Brownson, 
Hon. E,. R. Reed, and William S. Moore, be appointed to co-operate with 
the Alumni of Jefferson College in calling a convention, and to take such 
other action as in their judgment may be proper to further the proposed 
object. 

The call for the convention read thus : — 

To the Ahmini of Jefferson and Washington colleges : — 

The undersigned, representing jointly, though unoflScially, the Alumni of 
Jefferson and Washington colleges, and believing that they express a wish 
very common, if not universal among the sons of the colleges, do hereby in- 
vite their brethren, the alumni of both, to meet in convention at the city of 
Pittsburg, on Tuesday, the 27th day of September inst., at 4 o'clock P.M., 
in the lecture room of the First Presbyterian church, to take such action 
as may be deemed advisable to further the consolidation of the two colleges. 
It is earnestly hoped that all the alumni, who possibly can, will be present 
at the proposed convention, as it is believed that the question of union 
will probably be decided within the next few weeks. 

On behalf of Jeff'erso7i College. — Boyd Crumrine, Francis J. Collier, 
Alonzo Linn, D. A. French, James G. Dickson, A. C. McClelland, David 
McKinney, Robert P. Nevin, A. Williams, Thomas Ewing, J. P. Penney, 
John M. Kirkpatrick, Jacob H. Miller, James P. Sterritt, John M. Ken- 
nedy, James J. Kuhn, W. G. Hawkins, Jr., T. J. Bigham, Algernon C. Bell, 
David W. Bell, James Yeech, James Allison, and R. Patterson. 

On behalf of Washington College. — James I. Brownson, William S. 
Moore, Thomas McKennan, John H. Ewing, William McKennan, D. S. 
Wilson, A. T. Baird, N. Ewing, R. R. Reed, James Black, Marcus Wishart, 
David Reed, Thomas C. Lazear, Marcus W. Acheson, J. M. Gallagher, S. 
J. Wilson, J. S. Morrison, A. P. Morrison, W. A. Childs, and 0. H. Miller. 

This call was also indorsed thus : — 

The undersigned approve the object of the proposed convention, and 
unite in the above call. 

J. W. ScoTT, President Washington College. 
D. H. Riddle, } r> ^ /y -u 

Wm. Smith, | ^''''■f'- C««ons&«rg. 

In pursuance of this call, a large majority of the alumni of both 
colleges met in the lecture-room of the First Presbyterian church, 
Pittsburg, on September 2T, 1864, and organized by appointing the 
Rev. Dr. Chester, of Philadelphia (not an alumnus of either college) 
President, Thomas Ewing, Esq., Aaron Williams, D. D., and Samuel 
J. Wilson, D. D., Secretaries. 

The meeting was opened with prayer. 

A list of the alumni of both colleges was then taken and sixty- 



156 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

nine alumni of Jefferson College, and sixty-six of Washington Col- 
lege were enrolled. 

On motion of Rev. Jaracs I. Brownsou, the following gentle- 
men were appointed a coniniittee on business, viz: John K. Ew- 
ing, Vi. JNIcKennan, Esq., and S. J. Wilson, D. 1)., of Washington 
College, and Loyal Young, D. D., D. McKenney, D. D., and R. P. 
Nevin, Esq., of Jefferson College. 

Papers being now called for, Rev. F. J. Collier, on behalf of Jef- 
ferson College, and A. W. Acheson, Esq., on behalf of Washington 
College, read extended papers proposing plans of union, which were 
reported to the Business Committee. 

While the Business Commiteewere preparing their report afriendly 
discussion on the whole subject of the proposed union took place, in 
which Rev. Watson Hughes, J. E. Caruthers, F. J. Collier, John 
M. Smith, Geo. Frazcr, John H. Ewing, Esq., James I. Brownson, 
and others took part. The report was read the same evening at an ad- 
journed meeting, and action on the same continued until the next day. 

The I'eport of the committee read as follows : — 

We, Alumni of Washington and Jefferson colleges, seriously wishing to 
promote the best interest of education and religion, having met in conven- 
tion and discussed in a candid and fraternal spirit the proposed union of 
the colleges, do express our views as follows : — 

1. Resolved, That we see the hand of Providence pointing to the union 
of the two ancient colleges whose sons we are, and fi.xing the present as 
the time for the happy consummation by such evident facts as these : The 
great and constantly increasing number of literary institutions in the laud ; 
the urgent need in Western Pennsylvania of an eminently influential and 
richly endowed college ; the desire for a union of Jefferson and AV^ashington 
colleges, soon to be made more apparent by the completion of a connected 
railway; the very unsatisfactory condition of their antiquated buildings; 
the reduced number of students, partly the result of our national troubles: 
the inadequacy of the old salaries to meet the demands of the times and 
afford to professors a competent support; the difficulty of obtaining aid for 
either institution in its separate existence; the several offers made by 
liberal and reliable men to furnish large amount of funds in case a union is 
effected, and depending also upon that event, the possible donating by our 
legislature of a valuable grant of land given by Congress to the State for the 
advancement of agricultural knowledge. 

2. Resolved, 'J'hat inasmuch as the fund which constitutes the present 
endowments of Washington and Jefferson colleges, were contributed for 
educational purposes by men of various religious creeds, justice urgently 
demands, and in our opinion also very deserv(>dly, and in case of a union, the 
institution, which being thoroughly Protestant and evangelical in its govern- 
ment and teachings, should not be under the control of any ecclesiastical 
body. 

3. Reaolvcd, That the following be the plan of union recommended for 
the adoption of the trustees of the two colleges : — 

The two institutions shall he united and consolidated under the name of 
Washington and Jefferson College. All the real estate, college property, 
and funds of each of said colleges, shall be transferred to, and be invested 
in, the united institution. 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 15T 

The scholarships heretofore granted by either of said colleges shall be 
respected and their terms fulfilled by the united colleges. 

The Board of Trustees of the united college shall consist of twenty-one 
members — to be elected as follows, to wit : The present Board of Jefferson 
College shall choose ten persons, and the present Board of Washington Col- 
lege shall choose ten persons, and the said twenty persons so cliosen shall 
constitute the Board of Trustees of the united college, and shall have power 
to fill the remaining vacancy, and vacancies thereafter arising from death, 
resignation, or otherwise, shall be filled by the said Board. 

The control and management of the property and funds of the united 
college, as well as the election of the President and professors, and the 
conducting of its business generally, shall be vested in and exercised by 
the Board of Trustees. 

At the place where the college proper shall not be located, that is to say, 
at either Washington or Canonsburg, there shall be established as an inte- 
gral part of the united college, two distinct and separate departments — 
one to be called the Preparatory Department and the other the Scientific 
Department of the college. The Preparatory Department to be of a high 
grade, and of such a character as to fully prepare students for admission 
into the Freshman Class of the college proper, or to the Scientific Depart- 
ment. The Scientific Department to afford such instructions in the higher 
English branches — natural sciences, belleslettres, mathematics, civil and 
military engineering, mechanic arts, and modern languages as may be 
necessary to fully prepare young men seeking education therein, for the 
degree of S.B. shall be conferred upon the graduates of said department. 
If practicable, an Agricultural Department shall be connected with the 
Scientific Department. 

To overcome a difiSculty which seems to be otherwise insuperable, the 
location of the college proper shall be determined by lot, in a mode to be 
agreed upon by the Boards of the two colleges. Before the lot shall be cast 
appropriate legislation shall be procured to effect the consolidation of the 
colleges agreeably to the foregoing plans, as a fundamental basis of the 
union, and providing that as said lot shall result the location of tiie college 
shall be finally and irrevocably fixed and determined; and thereupon the 
real estate, property, and funds of each of said colleges shall be i^pso facto 
vested in and become the property of the united college ; the charters of 
the said colleges shall cease and determine, and their respected existence 
be merged in the united institution. 

4. Resolved. That in case our hopes are realized, commodious buildings 
shall be erected in the best style of modern architecture and furnished with 
everything essential to the comfort and convenience of the professors and 
students. 

5. Resolved, That on account of their eminent ability, their exemplary 
demeanor, their faithful services, and their self-sacrificing spirit, the Presi- 
dent and Professors now installed in the colleges which we represent, are 
entitled to our highest admiration and esteem, and we will accordingly take 
pleasure in mentioning their superior claims and commending them to the 
favorable consideration of the new Board of Trustees, whose duty it will be 
to reorganize and enlarge the present faculties in the event of a union being 
consummated. 

6. Resolved, That we pledge as individuals our earnest and constant 
efforts to furnish money and appliances to the united college, and to per- 
suade young men to seek instruction there in preference to any other 
institution. 

7. Resolved, That a committee be appointed to make known our pro- 



158 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

ceedings to the Board of Trustees of Jefferson and Washington colleges, 
and to urge tliem to convene at an early day, and take action concerning 
the matter which we so unanimously recommend, stating as a strong reason 
for promptness, the determination on the part of Dr. Beatty to withdraw 
and not renew his most generous and long-standing offer of ^50,000, if there 
is no immediate prospect of a union; and in case said Boards adopt the 
recommendations of this convention that the said convention be further 
empowered to co-operate with the said Boards in secunng such legislative 
action as may be recpiisite to carry into effect the plan proposed, and also 
to secure for the Agricultural Department a liberal proportion of the Con- 
gressional grant of lands. 

8. Kesolccd, That in the judgment of this meeting it is extremely desir- 
able that the continued co-operations of all the religious denominations here- 
tofore patronizing these colleges should be secured, and it is therefore 
recommended to the old Boards, in selecting the persons who shall consti- 
tute the new Board, to give a due representation to such of the ecclesiasti- 
cal denominations as are now represented in the Board. 

The report and resolutions were unanimously adopted, and, iu 
accordance with the seventh resolution, the Rev. Dr. Jacobus and 
the Business Committee, who drafted the report and resolution, were 
appointed to make known the proceedings to the trustees of both col- 
leges. 

Accordingly, on the 4th of March, 18G5, an act of incorporation 
was passed by the legislature uniting these colleges, with the com- 
bined name of both. By this arrangement the senior, junior, and 
sophomore classes were placed at Canonsburg, and the freshmen 
class with the scientific and preparatory department at Washington. 
This experiment after a trial of four years failed, because the ma- 
chinery was entirely too complicated. The people were losing 
confidence in its usefulness, and the public mind was discussing the 
question of a united and consolidated college. The trustees of both 
institutions, feeling the responsibility which rested upon them as 
the custodians of private and public funds, as well as of the church, 
commenced taking the preparatory steps for a consolidated college. 
Accordingly, on April 4, 1866, the Rev. Jonathan Edwards, D. U., 
was formally inaugurated as the first President of the united college, 
with an able corps of learned professors. But even this dividing of 
interests — this separation of faculty and students — did not answer 
the desired end, because it produced alienation, jealousy, and even 
distrust, and the trustees felt the necessity of an absolute consolida- 
tion of both colleges at the same location. A committee of five was 
appointed to consider and report upon the whole subject, AVashing- 
ton and Canonsburg being represented by one member. 

To aid the trustees and their committee in the momentous ques- 
tion before them, the aluniini of Jefferson College held a meeting at 
Canonsburg, vVugust 5, 1868, at which a series of resolutions were 
adojjtod urging immediate consolidation as necessary to the success 
of tlie college, and ])ledging the acquiescence of the aluniini in 
whatever decision the Board of Trustees might reach relative to the 
location of the college. 



HISTORY Ui' WASHINGTON COUNTY. 159 

The Committee of the trustees in due time made a report recom- 
mending a modification of the charter, which amendment was care- 
fully prepared by Hon. James P. Sterritt (an alumnus of Jefferson 
College), chairman of the Committee. On this subject we shall give 
the words of a committee who addressed the citizens of this county 
on this important question : — 

"The legislature, ia passing it, February 26, 1869, made only a single 
change, which limited the competition for the site of the college to the 
State of Pennsylvania. The Board of Trustees, in adopting this amend- 
ment before its enactment by the legislature, and then in accepting it 
after its passage, were unanimous, with the exception of one member, who 
resides at Pittsburg — all the members residing at Canonsburg and Wash- 
ington voting for it." 

This act authorized the trustees, by a vote of not less than two- 
thirds of the members present, to iix the location of the consoli- 
dated college at Canonsburg, Washington, or some other place 
within this commonwealth. If the trustees did not determine 
its permanent location within sixty days after the passage of this 
act, then the governor was to appoint five commissioners, four 
of whom should agree. The trustees were also authorized to place 
as much of the property as was necessary in the hands of seven 
local trustees, to the place losing the college, as would be neces- 
sary to establish an academy, normal school, or institution of a lower 
grade than a college. 

April 20, 18C9. The trustees, in accordance with the act, met 
this day in Pittsburg to determine the question, twenty-seven mem- 
bers being present out of the thirty trustees. Although several 
places wished its locality, the question was finally limited to Canons- 
burg and Washington — the former offering a subscription of sixteen 
thousand dollars, and the latter fifty thousand. On the first ballot 
(one member having withdrawn) sixteen voted for Washington, and 
ten for Canonsburg. On the eighth ballot it was decided by a two- 
third vote in favor of Washington — thus finally settling the ques- 
tion, and consolidating Jefferson and Canonsburg Colleges as one 
college. 

From the furnished report of each college, at the time the union 
was perfected, we find the endowment fund of each college was as 
follows : — 



Jefferson College Endoioment. 



James O'lTara's mortgage, 
James Robb's mortgage, 
Stock in Bank of Pittsburg, 
Stock in Canonsburg Saving Bank, 
In Treasury, .... 



$60,000.00 

5,000.00 

850.00 

820.00 

400.00 



$67,070.00 
Liabilities of Jefferson College 10,296.79 

Real Assets, 56,773.21 



160 HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY, 



Washington College Endoioment. 

Five-twenty bonds, U. S., $2.5,150.00 

Premium on same, 5 per cent., .... 1.2,")7.50 

Interest for lour months, 1,0.56.25 

Seven-thirty bonds, U. S., 3,600.00 

Interest accrued on same, ..... 32.40 
J. C. Ramsey's note, secured by mortgage and 

interest 5,4.50.00 

W. S. & H. Woodruff's note 1,2.50.00 



„ 7.796.15 
Sundry notes, with interest, 6,124.50 

$43,920.65 

By a late report, it appears that the endowment fund of the con- 
.solidated college is as follows : — 

Jefferson Collerre fund, $56,099.29 

Washington Colleije fund, 42,698.33 

Eev. Dr. C. C. Beatty, donation, . . . 50,000.00 

Citizens' subscription of Washington, . . 50,000.00 

$198,797.62 



From a gentleman acquainted with both endowment funds, I 
learn that the interest accruing on both is about equal, the one 
being invested generally in bonds and mortgages upon real estate, 
while the other is in government securities, which, although differ- 
ing in the amount of the capital, say $12,852, yet the interest is 
square. 

The trustees of Cauonsburg and some of its citizens, dissatisfied 
^ with the recent action of the Board of Trustees, and believing that 
the act consolidating the union of Washington and Jefferson colleges 
as invalid and unconstitutional, not only sued out an injunction 
from the Circuit Court, but brought suits in the Supreme Court of 
Pennsylvania, for the result of which we refer to the following 
pages : — 

At the September term of the Circuit Court of the United States, 
held at Wiliianisport, Ta., in the year 18G9, Judge McCandless 
granted a preliminary injunction, restraining the Board of Trustees 
from removing the collegiate department of Washington and Jeffer- 
son colleges from Canonsburg to AVashington, concurrently with 
the bill. In tlie Circuit Court the following bills in equity were 
filed by the friends of Canonsburg in the Supreme Court of the 
Western District of Pennsylvania, viz: The Trustees of Jefferson 
College VH. Washington and Jefferson College ; David C. Houston 
and others vs. Washington and Jefferson College ; Francis J. Col- 
lier and otiiers vx. Wa.-^hington and Jefferson College. The case 
was fully i)repared by James Veech. George Shiras, Jr., and Boyd 
Crumrino, P>qs., for plaintiffs, and M. W. Acheson and D. S. Wil- 
son, Esqs., for defendants. The oral argument, however, before 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. IGl 

the Supreme Court was opened by George Shiras, Jr., for the com- 
plainants, who was followed by M. W. Acheson and D. S. Wilson, 
Esqrs., for the respondents, and James Veech, Esq., closed the argu- 
ment for the complainant. 

The following arguments were presented by the counsel for com- 
plainant. 

1. Canonsburg is the place for the performance of the scholarship con- 
tracts. 

2. The legislature could not relieve the corporation from the full and 
complete performance of the scholarship contracts at Canonsburg. The 
power reserved in the charter of 1802 does not authorize a repeal of the 
charter nor any alteration of it, other than as the powers and privileges 
conferred upon the trustees. 

3. Legislation could not be accepted by the trustees, which infringes upon 
their contracts. 

4. The act of 1869 is invalid, because it does not aver injurious results 
from the act of 1865, and does not protect the right of corporators, and 
delegates the power to fix the location of the college. 

5. The assent of donors (scholarship holders) is demanded to authorize 
any change in the charter of Jefferson College. 

6. The act of 1865 was a contract between the trustees of the two col- 
leges, or at least evidences such contract, and the agreement thus evidenced 
is violated by the act of 1869. 

To this the respondents replied by giving the following statement 
facts : — 

That Jefferson and Washington colleges were separate institutions of 
learning, located respectively at Canonsburg and Washington, both in the 
county of Washington, and seven miles distant from each other. Jeffer- 
son College was incorporated by an act of Assembly passed January 15, 
1802, and Washington College by an act passed March 28, 1806. 

On the 4th of March, 1865, the legislature passed an act to unite the 
colleges and erect them into one corporation under the name of Washing- 
ton and Jefferson College, and providing for the instruction of the senior, 
junior, and sophomore classes at Canonsburg, and the other class and 
department at Washington. 

On the 26th day of February 1869, a supplement to the act was passed, 
providing for the concentration of all the departments of the college at one 
place, and under this act they were located at AVashington. 

The trustees of Jefferson College and Francis J. Collier, and others, in 
their several bills, assail the act of February 26th, ]869, as unconstitutional, 
and David C. Houston and others in their bill assail both the acts of March 
4th, 1865, and February 26th, 1869, as invalid and unconstitutional. 

Messrs. M. W. Acheson and D. S. Wilson submitted arguments 
to the court tending to establish the following proposition : — 

1. That the corporation, the trustees of Jefferson College in Canonsburg, 
in the county of Washington, was, by the very terms and nature of its poli- 
tical existence, subject to dissolution by a surrender of its corporate fran- 
chises. 

2. That by the acceptance of the act of March 4th, 1865, Jefferson Col- 
lege surrendered its corporate franchises, and therefore ceased to exist. 



of 



102 HISTORY OF WASUINUTON COUNTY. 

3. That the frcneral and unconditional power to alter its charter is dis- 
tinctly reserved by the legislature, and is an integral part of the contract 
between the State and the corporation. 

4. That this power may be exercised whenever the legislature deems it 
expedient to do so. and such exercise of it does not impair the contract 
between the State and the corporation. 

5. That the rights of the plaintiffs, growing out of their contracts with 
Jefferson College are subject to the power of the legislature to alter the 
charter of that institution. 

6. That the legislature was therefore constitutionally competent to trans- 
fer the location of Jefferson College to Washington, and by consequence to 
fix that as the place of performance of the plaintiffs' contract. 

7. That in any aspect of the case the complainants are not entitled to 
the remedy by any injunction. 

At the opening of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, in Phila- 
delphia, ou January 3d, 1870, Chief Justice Thompson delivered 
the unanimous opinion of the Supreme Court of the State in the 
several cases involving the right of the Board of Trustees to con- 
solidate all the departments of the Institution at this place. 

David C. Houston, John Jounson, et al. 

vs. 

Washington and Jefferson College. 

The Trustees of Jefferson College in Canonsburg 

vs. 

Washington and Jefferson College. 

Francis J. Collier, Wm. Jeffrey, et al. 

vs. 

Washington and Jefferson College. 

The unanimous opinion of the court was delivered at Philadelphia, Janu- 
ary 3, 1870, by Chief Justice Thompson. 

These three bills, relating to the same institution, and involving con- 
siderations common to all, were argued together, and as they can be most 
satisfactorily disposed of together, we now propose to do so. 

The first of them raises the question whether the contracts of scholar- 
ship between the complainants and others, and Jefferson College, did not 
interpose a constitutional barrier to any legislative grant of authority to 
the trustees of the college to surrender its former charter and accept a 
new one, by which the college was eventually removed from Canonsburg 
to Washington, in the same county. 

The second is by the Trustees of Jefferson College, in which the same 
question is raised by them ; and 

'i'he third is by some of the members of the Board of Trustees of Wash- 
ington and Jefferson College, in which they complain of the defendant, that 
its trustees are, under pretence of authority conferred by the act of 2Gth 
February, lH(/.>, about to violate the provisions of the act of 4th March, 
1BG5, by which Washington and .reffl'rson College was authorized to pro- 
vide for the instruction of the Senior, Junior, and Sophomore Classes at 
Canonsburg, and students in the Freslnnan Class and in the Scientific and 
Preparatory Department, and the Department of Agriculture and Art in 
Washington, and, in disregard thereof, about to unite all the classes at 
Washington, and to remove thither the library and other movable pro- 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. K'j 

perty of the college, and to sell or dispose ©f its real estate, charging that 
such intended acts and doings would be, and are, in contravention of the 
rights, duties, and obligations conferred by the act of 4lh March, 1865, 
referred to. 

Each of these cases was set down, and all were heard together, on bills 
and answers. The argument took a wide range, and counsel had an atten- 
tive hearing, such as the magnitude of the seeming consequences of a de- 
termination of the controversy demanded. The questions presented, how- 
ever, were not numerous or complex ; and notwithstanding the possible 
discontent which may for a time follow the displacement of an ancient 
and cherished institution of learning, if the law require it, we must so de- 
termine. We do not make the law. 

A question to be answered in passing on the merits of the first of these 
bills is, could Jefferson College surrender its charter, with the consent of 
the legislature, and accept a newone consolidating it with another insti- 
tution or college of the same nature and kind, without the consent of the 
holders of scholarships in the college? 

The general right of a private corporation to surrender its franchises 
may possibly have exceptions, but undoubtedly this is the rule. This is 
generally described as an inherent right, which would necessarily defeat any 
attempt by legislation to enforce upon a corporation qualities of perpetuity. 
Such a thing would be impossible in the nature of things. Corporations, 
like individuals, die by the decay or loss of their vital functions, and this 
effectually defies authority to render them perpetual. A surrender of a 
franchise is the voluntury death of the corporation, and is one mode by 
which it may cease to exist. (19 John. 474; 8 Pte. 381.) If anybody ever did 
dispute the right of a corporation to surrender its franchises of its own 
mere motion, it is not likely that such a contest about the question could be 
maintained long where both parties (the State and the corporation, the 
grantor and the grantee) consent to it absolutely or on condition. This I 
take to be incapable of being disputed, and the history of this college will 
show that this is just what has transpired in its case. It is iadisputed in 
the pleadings. 

But, independently of this mutual consent, there is in the act of the 
15th of January, 1802 (the original act of incorporation of Jefferson Col- 
lege), a reservation of a right to do all that was done by the legislature by 
the act of 1865. In the 5th section of the original act it is provided 
"that the constitution of the said college hereby and herein declared and 
established shall be and remain the inviolable constitution of said college 
forever ; and the same shall not be altered or alterable by any ordinance or 
law of the trustees, nor in any other manner than by an act of the legis- 
lature of the commonwealth." In the Commonwealth vs. Bonsall, 3d 
Wharton 559, a provision like this was held to be a good reservation of the 
right of the legislature to change and alter the charter of the corporation 
of the " Public School of Germantown." The reservation in that act of 
incorporation was in the same words almost as those used here ; there is 
not a shade of difference in their meaning, and but a single literal differ- 
ence. Granting the rule to be that a private charter of the date of 1802 
could not be changed by the legislature without the assent of the corpo- 
rators, or by virtue of the right reserved that such charter stand on the foot- 
ing of contracts, we have no difficulty here, for there is not only assent 
here, but a sufficient reservation of the right to sustain the action of the 
legislature in the enactment of 1865. So far as that act is concerned, no 
body objected to its passage, nor to what was done under it, in consoli- 
dating Washington and Jefferson Colleges into one body. The holders of 



104 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

the scholarships now complainins: made no objection, and we must presume 
them to have been satisfied. What was done was not done in a coroer, and 
thoy do not allege they were uninformed of it. Thus the surrender of the 
charter of Jefferson College, and the acceptance of the new one, may 
strictly be said to have been with the assent, in point of fact, of the trus- 
tees, the legislature, and the scholarships. This is an assent of every in- 
terest to the new organization, and ought to silence all complaints by any 
person having a legal right to complain or interfere. But in order to meet 
the objection of the holders of scholarships in the Jefferson College directly 
on the merits of their objection, which is that their contracts are impaired 
by tlie acts of 186.5 and 1869, let us consider it and see whether there is 
anything sound in it. If I understand it, it is supposed that these scholar- 
ships are impaired in value by the establishment of Washington and Jeffer- 
son College, at the town of Washington, some seven miles distant from 
Canonsburg, under the authority of th» act of 26th February, 1869. It 
may be noticed that these scholarships are, as stated in the certificates, for 
the endowment of Jefferson College. This designation does not alter the 
matter. 1'hey are contracts for tuition in consideration of a prepaid sub- 
scription, and as ordinary contracts are to be interpreted. This is their 
effect, no more and no less. 

By the act of March, 186,5, Jefferson and Washington Colleges were 
consolidated under a new charter, accepted by both. The legislature was 
careful in granting the new charter to avoid the very question now intro- 
duced ; and, to do entire justice to the holders of certificates and scholar- 
ships, and others, provided as follows: " All the several liabilities of the 
said two colleges or corporations, by either of them suffered or created, 
including the scholarships heretofore granted by and now obligatory upon 
each of them, are hereby imposed upon and declared to be assumed by the 
corporation hereby created ; which shall discharge and perform the same 
without diminution or abatement." The whole and entire of these con- 
tracts are thus saved in their identity and integrity. This was one of the 
terms of acceptance of the new charter, and there is no pretence even now that 
itis not obligatory on the new institution, and may be enforced againstit, after 
acceptance of the charter, by every means known in the law applicable to 
or under the original charter. The nature of the new college as an insti- 
tution of learning, the subjects and mode of instruction, organization, and 
even the professors, I believe, are the same as they were in Jefferson Col- 
lege. 'J'here is no pretence of impairment of these contracts on grounds 
of dissimilarity of instruction, or capacity on part of the new institution to 
impart it. In passing I may say that no objection, on any grounds, was 
made to the change during the three years in which the college acted 
partly at Canonsburg and partly at Washington, under the most cum- 
brous and unheard of arrangement for a college. 

It is not therefore on either of these grounds that these scholarship con- 
tracts can be, or are claimed to be impaired, but another and different 
ground is insisted on, namely, that the contract for tuition, &c., contained 
therein, was to be performed at Canonsburg and not elsewhere. 

When we recur to the contracts there is no word or provision to this 
effect in them, or in the plan or prospectus put forth to induce investments 
in them. No doubt it was e.\i)ected, from the fact that Jefferson College 
was located at Canonsburg, that that was to be the place of the perform- 
ance of the contract. On the face of the contract — and there is nothing 
but this in the case — the contracts are personal to the corporation, and it 
could perform or offer jierformance anywhere, whether at Washington or 
Canonsburg. The contracts are complete so as to bind both contracting 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 1G5 

parties without designating the place. The party liable to perform, like in 
any other personal contract, is liable on it wherever found. It was not 
even an incident of the contract that it was to be performed at Canons- 
burg. It was an expectancy perhaps— even that we do not know — we 
simply infer it, not from the contract, but from the situation of the con- 
tracting parties. We all know that even the incidents of contracts may be 
changed without impinging on the constitutional prohibition against im- 
pairing contracts. Stay laws which change the remedy and rights of the 
parties, to some extent at least, have from time to time been passed in this 
and other States, and they have been uniformly sustained, wherever the 
contract did not specially provide to the contrary. Chadwick vs. Moore, 8 
W. & S. 50. Bunn, Raiguel & Co. vs. Gorgas, .5 Wright 441, Bilmyer vs. 
Evans et al. 4 Wright, 324, contain all that need be cited on this point, and 
in regard to the distinction noticed. In these cases, and in every one of 
the kind, it has been usual to present the argument that the contract 
having been made in view of the remedy existing at the time for its en- 
forcement, it was a part of it, or at least an inseparable incident of it, and 
to permit it to be controlled by a new rule was to impair the contract. 
These are instances, it must be admitted, very near the outer verge of legis- 
lative power, but they have been always sustained, and in these apparently 
objectionable features are incomparably stronger than anything which can 
be assumed or predicated of the contracts in question. 

The argument in support of the plaintiff's position, not being sufBciently 
self-sustaining, an equity is invoked to its aid. That, as a consideration in 
the question before us, is outside of the case, excepting as it may serve to 
illustrate the argument. This equity is that the subscribers for scholar- 
ships made them in view of their proximity to Jefferson College, and the 
convenience of maintaining scholars at home while attending upon a col- 
legiate course of instruction, and that they will be deprived of this advan- 
tage by the removal of the college to Washington. As nothing of this 
appears by the contracts, and there is no proof of it aliunde, it may or it 
may not be so. It may have induced some or all to subscribe, but this is 
surmise. Certain it is it could have had no effect on subscribers for per- 
petual scholarships, for the college in such cases finds boarding, lodging, 
and tuition to the scholar, and it is no matter to the subscriber where that 
may be done as far as expense is concerned. This is a matter of indiffer- 
ence to him. But disappointed expectations, the motive in entering into a 
contract, do not affect the existence of the contract. All that may occur 
and the contract remain in full vigor. No constitutional provisions extend 
to cure this oft necessary result. We must not at this point overlook the 
great fact, in any contract, that it is always made in view of, and subject 
to, the natural or legal contingencies affecting it, or to which the contract- 
ing parties may be subject If a contract be made with a corporation, to 
be executed in the future, the contingencies of existence must be regarded 
as having been in view as much as between man and man. The risk is 
taken by both parties. They know themselves to be subject to such con- 
tingencies, and not the contingencies subject to them. It must be presumed 
that the subscribers to these scholarships knew that the legislature might, 
with the assent of the corporation, alter its fundamental law, or might do 
it on the terms of the reservation already referred to, and thus defeat their 
motive for subscribing, and that it had power to do so, only preserving their 
contract. This might be done, and this the law presumes all parlies to 
have known. Therefore in no sense could just expectation even have been 
disappointed by the act of removing the college to Washington. The case 
of the Genesee College and the opinion of Judge Johnson, at chambers, I 



166 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

presume, have been considered. The occasion of the delivery of that 
opinion was upon a motion to vacate an injunction order restraining the 
removal of tlie collcjre at Lima to Syracuse, pending litigation as to the 
right to remove. It is true, he seems to have gone beyond the limits of the 
question somewhat, and discussed the question of scholarships, injecting 
the force of a contract into the motives for Rul)scribing, but as 1 understand 
the case (no facts being reported with the opinion furnished us on a sepa- 
rate leaf) the contest was between the scholarships and the college, unaf- 
fected by the authority of the legislature. This might make a material 
difference between that case and the one in hand. I incline to think it would. 
]5c that as it may. if the case goes further than this, while we acknowledge 
great respect for the learned jurist who delivered the opinion, we cannot fol- 
low it to the extent claimed here. 

Lastly, the argument in this case culminates in an assumption that the 
legislature and corjioration of Jefferson College, and so of any other cor- 
porate body, may be controlled in changing, altering, repealing, and sur- 
rendering the charter by the contractors with the corporation. 'J'he one 
may consent and the other act upon such consent and yet this may be set 
aside by outside parties. This position is only true of corporations gene- 
rally to the extent of leaving intact contracts and preserving legal remedies, 
obviously no more. 'J'hat is always provided for by the legislature. 1'he 
loth section of Art. 1 of the Constitution of the United States would pro- 
bably require this, although the ICth section, of Art. 1 of the Constitution 
of the State, expressly provides only that in repealing or revoking charters 
by the legislature, no injury be done to the corporators. But we need not 
elaborate this consideration, as both the contract and remedy are preserved 
in this case. 

In conclusion, as far as the first of these cases is concerned, it must be 
recollected that "Washington and Jefferson College was incorporated by 
act of 4th March, 186.i, and located for certain specified purposes, l)oth at 
Canonsburg and Washington, and that the act was accepted by both of 
the old institutions to be consolidated. Thenceforth the corporation is 
under that act. The act of 24th February. 18(i9, therefore, providing for its 
removal, as the trustees or a majority might decide, was clearly within the 
constitutional power of the legislature, sec. 16. Art. 1. Constitution of 
Pennsylvania, and being assented to, it is valid beyond question or contro- 
versy. 

For all these reasons the bill in this case is not sustained, and must be 
dismissed. 

Bill dismissed at the costs of the plaintiffs. 

2. As to the second of the above-mentioned bills, viz : The Trustees of Jef- 
ferson College in "Washington andJefl'erson College, but little is required to 
be said. We have virtually decided it in holding, as we have done in the 
first of these cases, that, by the acceptance of the act of 186"! in connection 
with Washington College, it ceased to exist under its original charter. 
There is therefore now no such Board as the trustees of Jefi'erson College, 
with tlie right of suit in the name of that corporation. (8 Pet. 281.) Con- 
sec|uently the plea of the defendant is sustained, and this bill must be dis- 
missed. 

Bill dismissed, and Wm. Jeffrey, who filed it, is ordered to pay the costs, 
no other name appearing of record as complainant, and there being no legal 
Board of 'I'rustet'S such as that which purpdrts to the plaintiff in the bill. 

3. The third and last of these l)ills is filed by a minority of the Board of 
Trustees of Washington and Jefferson College, and they claim that the act 
of Assembly of 18Gy, authorizing the removal of the college as consoli- 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 107 

dated by the act of 1865, in obedience to the decision of the requisite num- 
ber of trustees, is unauthorized for the reason, it is alleged that it infringes 
the contracts of scholarship with the Jefferson College, which they assume 
could only be performed by the college at Canonsburg. This question we 
have disposed of in our views in regard to the first of these cases. We 
need not i-epeat them, but refer to them as showing that the ground of un- 
constitutionality is not tenable. It is difficult to discover wherein the act 
of 1H69 is obnoxious to the charge made, and the act of 1865, which was 
not complained of by the plaintiffs, was not. By that act the Freshmen class 
and preparatory department of the college were to be at Washington, and 
the Senior, Junior, and Sophomore classes were to be taught at Canonsburg. 
Now, unless the scholarships exclude the Freshman and Preparatory de- 
partment of the college — which they do not — there was just the same im- 
pairment of the contract, if any, of scholarships in obliging scholars to go 
to Washington for tuition in the Preparatory department and Freshman 
class as to require them to go there to pass through the remainder of the 
course. Yet this objection was not made by the plaintiffs or anybody else. 
This, I admit is rather argumentum ad honiinem than an illustration of the 
question on principle, but that, we think, we have already done. 

To another charge in the bill the respondents answer that they intend to 
remove the classes of the college to Washington, the place fixed as the 
site of the college, under the provisions of the act of 18G9, and to dispose 
of the realty strictly pursuant to the authority of the act; and as this 
was not replied to by the complainants, it must he taken to be true; and as 
we have already, in the first of these cases, held the act of Assembly of 
1869 to be constitutional, it follows that this bill also must be dismissed at 
the cost of the complainants. 

Ordered, That the several bills of the several plaintiffs herein considered 
be dismissed at the costs of the several plaiutitfs in the said bills I'espec- 
tively, and that it be so entered in each of the cases. 

The decision being thus rendered iu favor of Washington, the 
Board of Trustees, through their attorneys, went into the Circuit 
Court at Erie immediately, and moved to dissolve the injunction, 
which motion resulted in its dissolution, thereby removing the re- 
straint that had been imposed upon the Board, and permitting them 
to put all the departments of the institution in operation at Wash- 
ington. 

An appeal, however, has been taken from the decision of the Su- 
preme Court in the case of D. C. Houston and others to the Supreme 
Court of the United States, which is now pending. 

Washington and Jefferson College. 

The Board of Trustees held a special meeting at Washington on the 1st 
inst. The object of the meeting was to take proper steps to put the college in 
effectual operation, now that the injunction granted by the Circuit Court of 
the United States had been removed. The injunction was allowed by his 
Honor, Judge M'Caudless, as announced by him at the time, simply to afford 
the complainants an opportunity, by means of equity suits iu the Supreme 
Court of Pennsylvania, to test the legality of the action of the Board of 
Trustees in consolidating the several departments of the college at Washing- 
ton. The Supreme Court having unanimously sustained the action of the 
Board by their late decision at Philadelphia, Judge M'Candless promptly 



1G8 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

dissolved the injunction, thus leaving the Board of Trustees free to perfect 
the organization of the college as provided by the amended charter. 

This has been done accordingly, and the undersigned were appointed a 
committee by the Board to announce the result to the public. The higher 
classes in the college proper have been restored and are now in full opera- 
tion, and the prospect of success in all the departments of the institution 
is highly flattering. The Board have assurance of additions to the Senior, 
Junior, and Sophomore classes by the return of some of their members who 
repaired to other colleges during the pendency of the injunction. From 
recent letters and inquiries, a considerable accession to the present number 
of students is confidently expected. 'J'here are now enrolled and in actual 
attendance eighty-five students. In view of the obstacles now so happily 
surmounted, this fact furnishes the most gratifying assurance of undimin- 
ished public confidence, and is a good omen of future and permanent suc- 
cess. 

We are gratified to state that, with but comparatively few exceptions, 
we have had the steadfast approval and warm sympathy of the joint alumni. 
This has been our source of strength; and now that the unexpected and 
extraordinary attempt to break down our college union has signally failed 
we can turn with assured confidence to the repeated pledges of the joint 
alumni to sustain the consolidated college in the higher and wider sphere of 
usefulness upon which it has just entered. 

The Committee having in charge the nomination of a President have been 
instructed to act promptly, and to convene the Board as soon as they are 
ready to make a nomination. 

In the mean time the college has been placed in the charge of the Rev. J. 
J. Brownson, T). I)., as President pro tcin., to whom the Board is specially 
indebted for consenting to occu])y the position temporarily, as well as for 
the good service he has heretoibre rendered the college as Vice-Presi- 
dent p?-o ^cm. With him are associated in earnest work. Professors Linn 
and Jones, formerly of the department at Cauonsburg, and Professors 
Woods and Vose, of that at AVashington, as well as Professor Simonton, 
lately inducted into the chair of mathematics. The full amount of instruc- 
tion demanded by the academical and scientific courses of study is now 
given by these gentlemen, and preparations are in process for the enlarge- 
ment of the laboratory and the employment of an assistant in laboratory 
practice. It is the design of the Board to enlarge the faculty hereafter to 
meet the advancements and wants of the college. 

The Committee on buildings and improvements were instructed to proceed 
to the discharge of the duty assigned them, and have their reports ready 
to lay before tlie Board at their next meeting. 

Arrangements entered into by the Franklin, Washington, Philo, and 
Union Literary Societies of the college, whereby they are to be consolidated 
under the names of the " Franklin and Washington" and " Philo and Union" 
Societies, were approved by the Board, and a committee appointed to co- 
operate with said societies in carrying into effect the proposed design. 

In order to correct an erroneous impression derived from newspaper pub- 
lications, we desire to state for public information, that the allowance of 
the appeal from the decree of the Supreme (^ourt of Pennsylvania, by a 
•Judge of the Supreme Court of the United States, does not imply an ap- 
proval of said appeal on its merits. It is simply and only an authorization 
of the removal of the case into the Supreme ('ourt of the United States, 
which any judge of that court is bound to allow in a casein which the con- 
stitutional validity of a State law is drawn in question, and involves no 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 169 

commitment whatever in regard to the merits, or even to the consideration 
of such a question. 

We have only, therefore, to express our assured conviction that the 
judgment of that court, even should the case be prosecuted, will be concur- 
rent with that of the Supreme Court of our own ytate. Abiding in this faith 
and confidence, the Board will continue to go forward in the work of com- 
plete and efficient organization of the college in all its departments, thereby 
worthily commending it to the support and patronage of the friends of 
education. John Eagleson, | 

A. W. AcHEsoN, > Committee. 
February 2, 1870. J. E. Johnston, J 

List of Presidents and Professors from Organization in 1806. 

PRESIDENTS. 

1806.— December 13. Rev. Matthew Brown, D. D., April 13, 1817. 
1817.— April 13. Rev. Andrew Wylie, December 9, 1828. 

(The college was closed for two years.) 
1830.— February 26. Rev. David Elliott, D. D., December, 1831. 
1831.— December 31. Rev. David McConaughy, D. D., October 12, 1849, 

(who continued until May, 1850.) 

1850.— May 6. Rev. James Clark. D. D., July, 1852. 

1852. — July. Rev. James I. Brownson, D. D., pro tem., September, 1853. 

Synodical College. 

1853.— September. Rev. John W. Scott, D. D., 1866. . 

Under the Union of Jefferson and Washington College. 

1865.— March 4. Rev. D. H. Riddle, D. D., pro tem., April 4, 1866. 
1866.— April 4. Rev. Jonathan Edwards, D. D., April 20, 1869. 

Under Consolidated College of Jefferson and Washington, at Washington. 

1869.— April 21. Rev. Samuel J. Wilson, D. D., pro tem. 
Rev. James I. Brownson, D. D. 

VICE-PBESIDENTS. 

1856.— Rev. Wm. P. Alrich, 

1859.— Rev. James Black, D. D., 1866. 

1868. — Rev. James I. Brownson, D. D. 

1868.— Rev. John W. Scott, D. D., February 23, 1869. 

PROFESSORS. 

1806. — James Reed, Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, 

1823. 
1806.— Isaiah Blair, M. D., Professor of Medicine, 1828. 
1815. — John Reed, Professor of Ancient Languages, 183 7. 

(Prior to this period the languages were taught by tutors, viz : An- 
drew K. Russell, Christopher Rankin, and T. M. T. McKennan.) 

1817. — Rev. Francis McFarland, Professor of Ancient Languages. 
1818. — Rev. James Rowland, Professor of Ancient Languages. 
1819. — Mays Smith, Professor of Ancient Languages. 
1820. — -Rev. Guerdon Gates, Professor of Ancient Languages. 
1821. — Rev. John Stockton, Professor of Ancient Languages. 
1822. — Rev. John Graham, Professor of Ancient Languages. 
12 



no HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

1823. — James Workman. Professor of Mathematics. 

1824. — John AV. Scott. Professor of Mathematics. 

1830. — AVilliam D. Smith, Professor of Ancient Languages. 

1830. — Rev. William P. Alrich, Professor of Mathematics. 

1831. — Rev. J. Holmes Agnew, Professor of Ancient Languages. 

1831. — John L. Gow, Esq., Professor of English Literature. 

1832. — Joseph Ritner, Esq., Professor of French, Civil Engineering, and 
Natural Science, 1833. 

1833. — Wm. K. McDonald, Esq., Professor of Belles Lettres and Political 
Economy, 1836. 

1834. — Rev. R. H. Lee, Professor of Ancient Languages, 1837. 

1837. — Rev. R. H. Lee, Professor of Political Economy, 1854. 

1837. — Rev. D. Ferguson, Professor of Ancient Languages, 1844. 

1840. — Robert Milligan, Professor of English Literature, 1851. 

1844. — Rev. Nicholas Murray, Professor of Ancient Languages, 1853. 

1846. — John L. Gow, Professor of Constitutional and Municipal Law, 1851. 

1846. — James King, M. D., Professor of Anatomy, Phys'iology, and Hy- 
giene, 1851. 

1851. — Rev. James W. McKennan, Professor of English Literature and 
Ancient Languages, 1854. 

1851.— Robert Alilligan, Professor of Natural Science, 1852. 

1853. — Rev. E. C. Wines, Professor of Ancient Languages. 

1853. — Rev. Samuel J. Wilson, Professor of Ancient Languages. 

1854. — Rev. W. J. Martin, Professor of Natural Sciences, 1858. 

1858. — Wm. H. Brewer, Professor of Natural Sciences, 1859. 

1859. — Rev. James Black, Professor of Ancient Languages, 1868. 

1860. — Alexander Muckle, Professor of Natural Sciences. 

1861. — Rev. Henry Woods, Professor of Ancient Languages. 

1861. — George W. Miller, Professor of Mathematics. 

1862. — Rev. Joseph Waugh, Professor of Mathematics. 

1864. — W. J. Bruq-h, Professor of Mathematics, 1866. 

1865.— R. D, Wyl'ie, Professor of Mathematics, 1866. 

1865. — Rev. E. F. Farrier, Professor of English Literature, 1867. 

1866. — Geo. B. Vose, Professor of Mechanics and Civil Engineering. 

1866.— C. M. Podd, Professor of Latin. 

1866. — Rev. Alouzo Linn, Professor of Greek and Latin Literature. 

1865. — D. Kirkwood, LL. D., Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy, 
l!S67. 

1866. — Samuel Jones, Professor of Natural Philosophy and Chemistry. 

1866. — E. 11. Twining, Professor of Natural Sciences, December 23, 1869. 

1867. — Rev. J. S. Roberts, Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy, Dec. 
23, 1868. 

1868.— S. F. Peckham, Professor of Natural Science. 1869. 

1869. — J. S. Simonton, Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy. 

(For the history of Jefferson College see Canonsburg, title, Chartiers 
township.) 

In connection with Washington College are two literary societies, 
viz : the Union Literary Society, and the Washington Literary 
Society, each of which has large and valuable libraries. 

The Union Literary Society was founded November 10, 1809, by 
Jonathan Kearsley, Andrew Stewart, Josepli B. Beeket, John Ste- 
phenson, Thos. S. Cunningham, and John AlcKeunan. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. lYl 

The founders adopted as the motto of the Society, " Deo juvante 
in ardua nitimmry 

The Washington Literary Society was founded February 22, 
1814, by Alexander Gilleland, F. J. Lemoyne, William Heaton, 
James Page, A. 0. Patterson, Robert McLean, Andrew Page, Jacob 
Wolf. 

The motto of the Society is " Doctrina vim promovet insitam." 

James Monroe, 

President of the United States, arrived in Washington May 4, 1817, 
accompanied by Gen. Brown and his aid Major Worth, General 
McComb and his aid Captain Root, and Governor Lewis Cass of 
Detroit. They were conducted to David Morris's hotel by a com- 
mittee of arrangement appointed by the citizens, and escorted by 
Capt. McCluney's company of infantry. 

The President the next day left for Canonsburg and Pittsburg, 
accompanied by Gen. Sutton, Col. Hill, and Maj. Dunlap. 

President Monroe. 

During the presidency of Rev. Andrew Wylie, James Monroe, 

President of the United States, visited Washington on May 4th, 
181*7. He was received and welcomed to the hospitalities of the 
place. Dr. Wylie addressed him in the following language : — 

Honored Sir : It is with no small degree of pleasure that I present to 
your Excellency, in behalf of the trustees, faculty, and students of Wash- 
ington College, our sincere congratulation on your safe arrival at this place. 

It would be superfluous to attempt, by our feeble testimony, to add to 
the evidence of that universal satisfaction with which an enlightened and 
happy people behold your Excellency placed in the highest office that their 
grateful suffrages can bestow. The public expression of this satisfaction 
is infinitely remote, both from the interested adulation of sycophants, and 
the constrained applauses of the slaves of arbitrary power. It is the voice 
of nature, the utterance of the heart, the spontaneous effusion of the souls 
of freemen, too dignified to feign what they do not feel, and too intelligent 
and generous not to appreciate your past distinguished services to the re- 
public, and the unequalled advantages of that government whose executive 
functions you are called to discharge. Participating in this universal sen- 
timent, permit us to join in the public expression of it. 

A kind Providence bestows upon us liberty, abundance, and health, and 
we acknowledge, as a blessing which enhances all the rest, the exercise of 
that spirit of benign wisdom which sheds its radiance on the commence- 
ment of your administration. We hail its orient lustre as the precursor of 
a still happier day than any we have yet seen — may not its brightness be ob- 
scured by the mists of prejudice, nor its serenity disturbed by the storms 
of faction ! 

As friends in literature and mental refinement, which require for their 
successful cultivation a state of concord where all the charities of nature, 
unembittered by party rancor, have free scope for exercise, we cannot but 
notice, with peculiar satisfaction, every influence calculated to produce 
such a state. An influence of that happy character we recognize in that 



112 HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

liberal poh'cT/ which dictated, and which everywhere attends, your journey 
through the different sections of the United States. Inferior in its harmo- 
nizing tendency to no influence but that of the religion of Immanucl, may 
it meet no obstacle in the minds of the people to prevent its having its full 
effect in allaying the jealousies of party, and increasing the action of those 
moral ties which, still more than those of interest, are requisite to bind 
together this confederated republic. 

We are especially sensible of the honor you have done us by visiting this 
western region, which is but just commencing its ascent in the scale of 
improvement. Those institutions which are calculated to accelerate this 
ascent are but in their infancy; yet we believe your Excellency will view 
them with some degree of interest, especially such as have for their object 
the cultivation of the mind, since this is the source to which all those im- 
provements which render a people great, respectable, or happy, must be 
referred. That your Excellency may have the happiness of contemplating 
the progress of our beloved country in virtue, literature, arts, and power, 
becoming still more rapid in every successive year of your administration, 
and that you may enjoy a life prolonged amidst the choicest gifts and bless- 
ings of Heaven, honored sir, is our fervent desire. 

To which President Monroe replied : — 

Sir : I accept with unfeigned pleasure this expression of your sentiments 
in behalf of the trustees, faculty, and students of Washington College. 
The object of my present tour round a very considerable extent of our 
maritime and inland frontiers was that I might be enabled, from a personal 
knowledge of the state of our country, to discharge my official duty by pro- 
viding for its best interests. In this journey I have derived great satisfac- 
tion in contemplating the increased prosperity of our beloved country, and 
observing those indications of patriotism and harmony which so generally 
prevail among my fellow-citizens, and which this movement has tended to 
draw forth. 

The sentiments expressed in your address do honor to yourself and to 
the literary institution over which you preside, and are not, 1 am persuaded, 
the language of adulation, but a just expression of your esteem for our 
happy Constitution, which secures to us our civil and religious rights, and 
is so well calculated to answer every object of the social compact. 

In providing for the prosperity and happiness of a country, a careful 
attention to literary institutions and the education of youth ought ever to 
occupy a high place. To the youth wc must look with an eye of deep 
interest — they are the hope of our country — and I cannot omit mentioning 
the peculiar gratification I have received from observing the growth of 
literary institutions, and the attention which is paid to the instruction of 
youth, and which is certainly the best and most permanent basis on which 
our privileges, civil and religions, can be founded. 

For the notice you have taken of the few services that I have been 
enabled to render to my country — for the friendly wish expressed for the 
prosperity of the republic under my administration, as well as for my per- 
sonal comfort and happiness. I pray you, sir, to accept my thanks, and per- 
mit me to reciprocate my best wishes for the prosperity of the institution 
over which you preside, and for the happiness of the trustees, faculty, and 
students, that the College of Washington may not only retain its present 
celebrity, but that under your direction it may be growing in a state of 
progressive and rapid improvement, is my sincere desire. 

Accept, sir, for yourself, the trustees, faculty, and students of Washing- 
ton College, the assurance of my respect. 



history of washington county. 173 

First Presbyterian Church. 

We are chiefly indebted to the Rev. Dr. James I. Brownson, the 
present efficient and highly esteemed pastor of this church, for the 
historical facts contained in the following history of this church. 

Previous to the organization of 'the Presbyterian church the Pres- 
byterians who resided in the town of Washington, in October, 1T81 
(at the time it was laid out), held their membership in the church of 
Chartiers, near Canonsburg, under the care of Rev. Dr. McMillan. 
From this period to 1793 Presbyterial supplies preached in the court- 
house. However, when the stone academy, now the central build- 
ing of the old college, was erected, it served both for educational 
purposes and religious worship. A place of worship, however, being 
procured, an organization was effected in 1793, by the consent of the 
Presbytery of Ohio, and Andrew Swearingen, Joseph Wherry, Ro- 
bert Stockton, and William McCombs were ordained as the first 
elders. 

This being the first regular organization of the Presbyterian 
church, it would be well to remark as an historical fact that the re- 
cords of the Presbytery of Redstone show that Alexander Addi- 
son, a licentiate from the Presbytery of Aberlour, Scotland* and 
afterwards the distinguished president judge of this judicial district, 
preached in Washington in December, 1785, when application was 
made for him as a stated supply, which request was granted April 
18, 1786, until the meeting of the Synod. 

This church having placed itself under the care of the Presbytery 
of Ohio, which was organized in 1793, the Rev. James Welsh occu- 
pied the pulpit as a stated supply from Aprils 1794, for one year. 
Rev. Thaddeus Dodd, Rev. Boyd Mercer, Rev. John Anderson, 
and Rev. Samuel Potter officiated occasionally as supplies. On the 
23d of October, 1800, William McCamant and Robert Anderson 
were appointed commissioners from the church to attend a meeting 
of the Presbytery, and were authorized by the Washington congrega- 
tion to take such steps as would procure the settlement of Rev. 
Thomas Ledlie Birch, as there were a number of his old hearers 
and neighbors from Ireland in the congregation. The Presbytery 
of Philadelphia indorsed his papers, and also many distinguished 
divines in the east. It appears, however, that the Presbytery did 
not receive such satisfaction as would induce them to give him the 
charge ; yet he continued to exercise his ministry in Washington, 
under an appeal to the General Assembly. In January, 1801, at a 
meeting of the Presbytery at Cross Creek, the Rev. I3irch under- 
went another examination of his experimental acquaintance with 
religion, but was rejected. The Presbytery then appointed sup- 
plies, and a portion of the church retained Rev. Mr. Birch, The 
Rev. Birch also preached in Pittsburg one Sabbath in each month, 
for which they paid him one hundred dollars per annum, while 
his salary in Washington was six hundred dollars. On the 26th 



174 HISTORY OF WASHINQTON COUNTY. 

April, 1801, the congregation appointed John Wilson, Samuel 
Young, and William Smylie commissioners to present tlicir com- 
plaint and supplication to the General Assembly in the May following. 
The letter was signed by Samuel Whann, James Chambers, Wil- 
liam McCamant, Hon. Henry Taylor, Dr. Absalom Baird, and 
Robert Anderson, in which they state all the circumstances, and 
repel the idea of an attempt to establish a congregation within the 
bounds of an old organized congregation, which the Presbytery deems 
irregular, and contrary to the order of the Presbyterian church. 

This committee also state a fact to the General Assembly w^orthy 
of being recorded to show the state of religion at that period in 
Washington — "We doubt not but that your humanity and zeal for 
the gospel will be moved at hearing of our state. Our town, the 
most populous in this part of the continent, is in the centre of a 
close settled country, not less than sixteen miles square. The Lord's 
Supper never was dispensed during the last fifteen years, and our 
families not even comforted by one ministerial visit, until lately by the 
Rev. Mr. Birch ; and not more than two or three solitary supplies in 
a season, until now they are sent to us from a spirit of contention. 
We therefore humbly and respectfully supplicate that you will be 
pleased to take the Rev. Thomas Ledlie Birch under your protec- 
tion, and take such steps towards the settlement of our congregation 
as your wisdom shall seem meet, as many of our principal members, 
now grown weary from all their attempts to obtain a gospel minis- 
ter, being so many times frustrated, have declared that if Rev Mr. 
Bii'ch is obliged to leave us they will withdraw, and in consequence 
we must nearly cease from being a worshi[)ping society." 

The General Assembly having examined Rev. Mr. Birch on his 
experimental acquaintance with religion decided, May^ 20, 1801, 
that they find no obstruction against any Presbytery to which he may 
apply, taking him up and proceeding with him agreeably to the 
rules and regulations in this case made and provided. 

At the first meeting of the Presbytery at Buffalo, however, July, 
1801, a majority of the Washington congregation petitioned the Pres- 
bytery to take Rev. Mr. Birch under their care, in accordance with 
the decision of the General Assembly; but the Presbytery resolved 
to have nothing farther to do with the Rev. Mr. Birch as to his trials 
for the gospel ministry, as well as from the general report which 
Dre vailed with respect to his imprudent and irregular conduct. 

This led to an open rupture between the friends of the Rev. Mr. 
Birch and the congregation of Washington, rei)resented by its el- 
ders, Messrs. Swearingen, Stockton, Wherry, and McComl). These 
four elders procured the Washington Academy in January, 1802, for 
religious v/orship, while it was closed against the adherents of the 
Rev. Mr. Birch. The Rev. Thomas L. Birch was buried in the old 
Presbyterian churchyard, in Buffalo township, where he was settled 
as pastor. This unchristian strife ceased after much unchristian 
conduct on both sides, and peace and tranquillity were restored through 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 175 

the instrumentality of a gifted young man who preached in the 
stone academy in the spring of 1805. That young divine was the 
Rev. Matthew Brown, a graduate of Dickinson College, who, by his 
urbanity of manners, Christian conduct, unassuming habits, and being 
an able and eloquent minister in defence of the principles of his Divine 
Master, received a uuanimous call, and was ordained October 16, 1805 
— the Rev. Mr. Snodgrass having preached the sermon from 1 Tim. 
iv. 16, and Rev. John Anderson delivering the usual charges. Im- 
mediately after his installation Rev. M. Brown commenced the 
undertaking of raising funds for the erection of a suitable place of 
worship. He was pre-eminently successful, and through his indefa- 
tigable labors and noble exertions a brick building, seventy by fifty- 
five feet, capable of seating 600 persons, was erected in the south- 
west part of the town, on lots Nos. 6 and 7 on First Street. It 
is the same building which is now used by the Messrs. Hayes & Co. 
for a coach and carriage factory. Lot No. 6 was purchased from 
Andrew Swearingen, executor of Van Swearingen, deceased, for $20, 
and No. 7 from Samuel Wherry for five pounds — the titles of these 
lots being vested in Joseph Wherry, John Simonson, Parker Camp- 
bell, Hugh Wilson, and Daniel Moore, trustees of the congregation. 
The cost of its erection was $3000, although for several years it was 
used with unplastei-ed walls, without pulpit and pews, and a perma- 
nent floor, the necessary funds being wanted to complete it. The 
Lord's Supper was first administered in it in June, 1807, and it was 
occupied as a house of worship for the last time September 7, 1851, 
when the Rev. James I. Brownson preached a sermon. Psalm 
xlviii. 9 : " We have thought of thy loving kindness, God, in the 
midst of thy temple." 

This history of this church edifice, from its erection to 1851, em- 
braces the history of all the regularly settled ministei's of the Pres- 
bvterian church of Washington. 

1. Eev. Dr. Matthew Brown was its first pastor from its erection until 
April 1.5, IS'23, a period of about eighteen years, when he resigned in order 
to accept the Presidency of Jefferson (JoUege. During his ministry, or 
from 1806 to 1816, he was the first President of Washington College. 

The members of session inducted at different times during Dr. Brown's 
pastorate were James Brice, Josiah Scott, William Sherrard, Hugh Wylie, 
Thomas Stockton, Thomas Officer, Robert Johnston, Thomas Fergus, Oba- 
diah Jennings, James Orr, and Dr. John Wisbart. 

2. His successor was the Rev. Obadiah Jennings (formerly one of Dr. 
Brown's elders), who had been a distinguished lawyer and also pastor of 
the First Presbyterian Church of Steubenville, Ohio. He was elected its 
pastor and his election approved by Presbytery on the 8th of October, 
1823, and installed on the 23d of the same month. In 1828 he resigned 
and accepted a call from the Presbyterian church of Nashville, Tennessee, 
and died in 1832. 

During his incumbency Charles Hawkins, Robert Colmery, Jacob Slagle, 
Robert OfiBcer, Adam Wier, and Alexander Ramsey were added to the 
session. 

In 1824, this church was transferred to the Presbytery of Washington 



176 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

(which, however, was formed October 18, 1819), having been included here- 
tofore in the Presbytery of Ohio. 

3. The Rev. Samuel C. Jennings (nephew of Rev. Obadiah Jennings), 
filled the pulpit as a stated supply for one year. 

4. In the summer of 1829 a call was tendered to Rev. David Elliott, of 
Mercersburg, Pennsylvania, which he accepted, and was installed in the 
fall of IH'29. He served until 1836, when he was elected to the chair of 
Theology in the Western Theological Seminary. 

During Rev. Dr. David Elliott's pastorate, Hugh Fergus and Samuel 
Vance were made ruling elders. 

5. In November, 18157, Rev. Daniel Deruelle entered upon the duties of 
pastor, and labored until October, 1840, when he resigned and accepted an 
agency in the General Assembly's Board of Missions. He died in 1858. 

6. Rev. James Smith, of Scotland, succeeded Rev, D. Deruelle, in De- 
cember, 1840, and continued its pastor until April, 1844, when ill health 
compelled him to resign. He returned to his native country and died 
March 12, 184.5, leaving in the hearts of his people in Washington the in- 
heritance of his labors, the result of his devotion to their eternal interests,' 
looking forward to that period and to that eternal city, when and where he 
would present them faultless at his Father's throne. 

7. In the fall of 184"), Rev. William 0. Anderson, D. D., accepted a call 
from this church, and although not installed, he preached until January 9, 
1846, when he removed to Dayton, Ohio, and is at present laboring in 
New Albany, Indiana. 

8. In 1847, Rev. John B. Pinney was elected pastor and served until 
April, 1848, when he resigned to accept the agency of the New York State 
Colonization Society. 

During his pastorate George Baird, James Boon, Joseph Henderson, and 
Dr. Robert R. Reed were set apart as eiders, and Isaac Hewitt, John Wil- 
son, John K. Wilson, and John Grayson, Jr., as deacons. 

It is proper to remark at this place, that the reverend and venerable 
Dr. David M'Conaughy having accepted the Presidency of Washington 
College, in May, 1832, the pulpit was chiefly occupied by him as a supply 
when there was no regular pastor. 

9. On the 1st of January, 1849, the Rev. James Irwin Brownson was in- 
stalled pastor of the church, since which time ho has been officiating at^ts 
altar, offering prayers and thanksgivings to God for his loving kindness and 
tender mercies to his flock over which the Holy Ghost has made him over- 
seer. 

On the .5th of August, 1855, Isaac Hewitt, James Ewing, and Dr. John 
Wilson Wishart were ordained elders, and on the 12th of the same month, 
H. H. Clark, John Wiley, and James C. Acheson were ordained deacons. 

On the IGth of January, 18.59, John AViley, II. H. Clark, and Dr. Thomas 
McKennan were set apart as ruling elders, and Jackson Spriggs and David 
P. Lowary as deacons. 

On the 12th day of June, 1804, Thomas McKean, Edward G. Cundall, 
Jr., James C. Acheson, and John lloon (who had previously been an 
elder in the Presbyterian church at Claysville), were installed elders, and 
Samuel Beatty, William Praull, and M. Wilson McClain as deacons. 

January 19, 1808, John B. Miller was installed a deacon. 

December 19, 1869, William Davis. Sr., M. Wilson McClain, and William 
Praull were ordained elders, and William Davis, Jr., and Geo. W. McCombs 
installed deacons. 

'I'he sccornl house of worship was erected on the corner of Second and 
Belle streets, on lots No. 43 and 42, the former of which was given by the 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. Itt 

proprietor of the town, David Hoge, to General Washington, while the 
opposite corner (lot 102) was presented to Mrs. Martha Washington. This 
building was ninety feet long and sixty-five feet wide, and, including the 
gallery, would contain from eight hundred to one thousand persons. It 
was dedicated to the Triune God, September 11, 18.51. The dedicatory 
sermon was preached by Rev. Dr. James I. Brownson, the pastor, from 
1 Kings viii. 27-30. He was assisted in the exercises by Rev. Elisha P. 
Swift, D.D., of Allegheny City, Rev. Dr. D. McConaughy, and Rev. James 
Clark, D.D., President of Washington College. The church contained one 
hundred and fifty-four pews, besides a gallery. The basement contained a 
lecture-room and Sabbath school-room. The whole building, including the 
purchase of the lot, cost $12,000. 

We come now to speak of the third house of worship. Early in 
the spring of 1868 the congregation determined to make certain 
improvements to the church, which, according to the estimates of 
Messrs. Barr & Moser, architects, of Pittsburg, would cost about 
$8000. In removing the roof it was found that it would be neces- 
sary to take down the walls to the foundation. The basement, after 
examination, was decided to be most solid and enduring, and upon 
it the trustees resolved to erect the present beautiful superstructure, 
which is unsurpassed for architectural beauty and symmetry by any 
church, and is an ornament to the place. The carpenter work was 
awarded to Mi*. Nelson Vankirk, the stonework to Mr. Hargraves, 
the brickwork to James Houston and John Dye. 

Being built upon the foundation of the second church, it is 
ninety by sixty-five feet, with proportionate height of ceiling. The 
walls and ceiling are beautifully frescoed. The pews, pulpit, and 
woodwork arc in imitation of walnut ; the windows of stained 
glass; the spire rises in height 143 feet; the building is covered 
with slate ; the tower contains a bell costing $500, upon which are 
the words "Ploliness to the Lord." The cost of the building, or 
rather the present improvements, are $20,600. The lots could not 
be purchased and a similar building erected for less tlian $40,000. 
The church is lighted by a chandelier with eighteen burners, and 
forty-two additional lights. Each pew is provided with a cushion 
and carpeted, the cost of furnishing the church was $1800 ; while 
the matting for the Sabbath school-room cost $220. 

This third edifice was dedicated on March 27, 1869, with the 
following exercises : — 

A portion of Scripture was read and prayer offered by Rev. J. R. John- 
son, of the U. P. Church; a sermon from Psalm xcii. 13, and an historical 
address by the pastor, Rev. James I. Brownson, D.D. ; prayer by Rev. Mr. 
Caldwell, of Second Presbyterian Church. It was thus dedicated and set 
apart for the worship and service of the Triune God, without any debt 
BESTING UPON IT. An offering thus made cannot but receive the approval, 
acceptance, and blessing of the Redeemer of the world. 

The Sabbath School 

Of the First Presbyterian Church was organized June 15, 1816, 
although a general Sabbath school for all denominations was opened 



178 HISTORY OF WASniNGTON COUNTY. 

February 11, 1814, a meeting of the citizens having been called to 
take the preliminary measures. The meetings of this general Sab- 
bath school, however, were held in the Presbyterian church. 

Tlie persons who have filled the office of superintendent were 
William C. Blair, James Williamson, Charles Hawkins, Peter De- 
Haven, George Baird, John W. Scott, Abner Leonard, G. Holmes 
Agnew, AVilliam McCombs, John McClintock, Henry Williams, Dr. 
Robert R. Reed, who filled the office for twenty-six years, and James 
C. Acheson, many of whom were students of Washington College, 
and became ministers in the Presbyterian Church. 

The school is under the care of one superintendent, J. C. Ache- 
son ; one assistant superintendent. Dr. Thomas McKennan ; a secre- 
tary and treasurer, Thomas McKean ; a librarian, A. T. Baird, with 
two assistants, Alex. Brown and A. M. Todd ; having ten male 
teachers, twenty female teachers, and three hundred and five scholars. 
The average attendance is 210 upon each Sabbath. The infant 
school, under the care of Miss Maria McKean and Miss Martha 
Wiley, contains eighty-six scholars. 

Methodist Episcopal Church. 

At what precise date the Methodist Episcopal denomination was 
established in Washington, the records of the church do not state, 
but the memory of some of our oldest inhabitants informs us that itin- 
erant Methodist preachers occasionally preached in the court-house 
and school-houses about 1198. It is worthy of remark here with 
regard to the origin of Methodism in this place, that about this 
period, Robert Ilazlett and his wife (the parents of our esteemed 
fellow citizen, Samuel Hazlett, now deceased), left Carlisle to settle 
in Washington. As they were descending Gallows Hill, the old 
road from Fort Redstone leading to Washington, the husband re- 
marked to his wife, that as they were about to make new acquaint- 
ances, he hoped she would avoid those of the Methodist persuasion. 
She in a truly Christian spirit replied, that with the blessing of God 
she would seek them out and adhere to them through evil and through 
good rei)ort. Her subsequent Christian life, her devotion to the 
church of her choice, and the undying influence she has left to Me- 
thodism and her family, is the best evidence of her change of heart 
and acceptance with her Redeemer. She died in 1844, and has ever 
been recognized as the principal agent in introducing and fostering 
Methodism. The first official meetings took place about the year 
1800, as the deed of property is the ofiieial evidence on this subject. 

As early as February 5, 1801, John Hogo and wife conveyed to 
Thomas Lackey, Abraham Carier, Abraham Johnston, Titus Rigby, 
and John Cooper, trustees of the Methodist Episcopal church, for 
and in consideration of the sum of ten dollars, lot No. 194. This 
lot was on the corner of Chestnut and First streets, and now owned 
by Parker Thompson. Mr. Hoge, in his deed to the trustees, binds 
them to erect a church for the use of the members of the Methodist 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 119 

Episcopal church, according to the rules and discipline of said church 
as adopted by the ministers and preachers at their general confer- 
ence, and in further trust that they shall at all times forever hereafter 
permit such ministers and preachers of the said M. E. church and 
none others, to preach and expound God's holy word therein. He 
also provided in the same deed, that if any of the trustees advanced 
money for the use of said church, the sum shall be raised by mortgage 
or by selling the property, after giving notice to the pastor in charge, 
the surplus to be at the disposal of the next yearly conference. 

We have ascertained by our venerable friend, John Harter, Esq., 
whose whole lifetime has been devoted to Methodism, that Mr. 
Hoge in making out his deed, conveyed lot No. 124, instead of lot 193, 
and that after the log church was erected on lot 193, the deed was 
changed by the following act of the legislature. On the 5th of Jan- 
uary, 1811, the legislature authorized the trustees of the Methodist 
Episcopal church to convey the right of the said church in lot No. 
194, in consideration of lot No. 193, to be conveyed by said Hoge 
for the use of the church. Accordingly we find that John Hoge and 
wife, on the 11th of January, 1812, did convey to James Chambers, 
Thomas Lackey, Abraham Johnston, James Shannon, and Israel 
Brown, lot No. 193, bounded by Chestnut Street on the north, lot 
192 on the east, Pine Alley on the south, and First Street on the 
west, for and in consideration of one dollar, and under the same re- 
strictions as lot No. 194 on the opposite corner was held. 

The congregation erected upon lot 193, a log church (long since 
weather boarded), which yet stands upon the corner and is occupied 
as a dwelling ; the trustees after the erection of the brick church 
having made the change. 

The log church being to small for the growing congregation, they 
erected in the year 1816, a substantial brick building, fifty-five by 
forty feet in the centre of the same lot, fronting First Street, with 
a gallery round the same, at an expense of six thousand dollars, the 
brickwork having been done by Wm. Richardson, and the carpenter 
work by James Orr and John Wilson. After this church had been 
occupied for thirty-one years, the interest of the church and the in- 
crease of population, demanded that a more appropriate house and 
one better arranged with Sabbath-school and class-rooms should be 
erected. Accordingly on November 22d, 1847, the congregation 
appointed a committee to procure subscriptions and select a suitable 
location. On the following 6th of December, the Committee report- 
ed that they had purchased lot 85 from Mrs. Abbot for $400, and 
exchanged the parsonage property on Beau Street, with John R. 
Grififitli, for lot No. 84, adjoining the former lot, making a front of 120 
feet by 240 feet deep. These lots are on Belle Street (formerly 
Wheeling Street), east of Main. 

The Committee estimated the cost of the church at $3864, of which 
over $2000 wei'e subscribed. 

On December 8, 184Y, the trustees resolved that when the sub- 
scriptions should reach $2800, and with the proceeds of the sale of 



180 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

the brick church (then occupied) they could erect both the church 
and a parsonage. A building committee, consisting of Ilcv. Edward 
Birkett, John Ilarter, Samuel Hazlett, Samuel Mounts, Alexander 
Sweeny, and George Lonkert, were appointed to receive proposals 
for a church edifice, to be fifty feet wide and seventy feet long, with 
a basement appropriately divided, and J. W. F. White was appointed 
treasurer of the building funds. Subsequently, however, Samuel 
llazlett, Esq., and John Harter resigned, aud J. S. Sheaffer was 
added to the Committee. After the sale of the old church property 
to the school directors, on April 1, 1848, at which time possession 
was given, the Building Committee awarded the contracts as follows : 
The bricklaying and furnishing all the materials to Absalom Huston, 
for $1628.25, and the foundation at $1.50 per perch, and the range 
work at 40 cents per foot; the carpenter work and painting to 
Messrs. Kuhn and Davis, for $2205 ; the pjastering to William 
Wiley & Son, for $360; the aggregate amounting to $4825.65, 
including the purchase of the $400 lot. 

The trustees also awarded the following contracts for the erec- 
tion of the parsonage : The carpenter and brickwork to Messrs. Prigg 
and Dye, for $1067.50, and the plastering to William Wiley & Son, 
for $100, amounting to $1167.50, to which must be added $55.75 for 
additional work, making the aggregate amount $1223.25. The 
church was finished on December 31, 1848 (being fifty by seventy 
feet and containing seventy-two pews), and was dedicated to God 
by Rev. Bishop Hamlin. The entire cost of church and ]>arsonage, 
including purchase and exchange of lots, furnishing church, making 
stone wall, fence, and pavement, amounted to $7845.78, of which 
amount the Ladies' Sewing Society furnished $400. 

On the 18th of May, 1848, an act of incorporation was procured 
from the court, constituting Samuel Hazlett, Alexander Sweeny, 
John Harter, John Sheaffer, Joseph Reynolds, William Wiley, A. 
B. Wolf, George Lonkert, and Samuel Mounts, as trustees. Upon 
the organization of the trustees, Samuel Hazlett was elected Presi- 
dent and Samuel Mounts Secretary. 

It is worthy of remark that during the erection of the church 
edifice, and through the kindness of the pastor and members of the 
Cumberland Presbyterian church, the Methodists occupied their 
meeting-house one-half the time each Sabbath, until the church was 
finished. 

We shall now proceed to give the list of ministers who have 
officiated in the Methodist Episcopal church since the year 1801, 
with their respective dates : — 

1801. Rev. William Miinroc. 1806. Rev. Thornton Fleming. 

1802. " Archibald iMcKlroy and 1W)7. " Daniel Hite. 
Rev. William I>ambden. 1808. " James Roilcy. 

1803. Rev. John Monroe. 1809. " Wm. Brandeberry. 

1804. " Jacob Dowal and Daniel 1810. " John White. 

riitt. 1811. " Jacob Gruber. 

1805. Rev. Jacob Young. 1812. " Amos Barnes. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



181 



1813. 


Rev. 


John West. 


1814. 




William Barnes. 


1815. 




John Connelly. 


1816. 




Jaraes Laws. 


1817. 




Joshua Monroe. 


1818. 




Thornton Fleming. 


1819. 




George Brown. 


1820. 




John Baer. 


1821. 




Georffe Brown. 


1822- 


3. Rev. Henry Furlong. 



1824. Rev. Charles Cooke. 

1825. " Jos. G. Sansom. 
1826-7. Rev. Asa Shinn. 

1828. Rev. Alfred Brunson. 

1829. " Daniel Limerick. 
1830-1. Rev. John Waterman. 

1832. Rev. Daniel Limerick. 

1833. " J. G. Sansom. 
1834-5. Rev. Wesley Kenney 
1836-7. " Robert Boyd. 



1838. Rev. James Mills. 
1839-40. Rev. George S. Holmes. 
1841-2. Rev. S. R. Brockunier. 
1842-3. " Charles Thorn. 
1844-5. " Charles Cook. 
1846. Rev. Thomas Hudson. 
1847-8. Rev. Edward Birkett. 
1849-50. Rev. Wesley Kenney. 
1851-2. Rev. Franklin Moore. 

1853. Rev. James Henderson. 

1854. " Edward Birkett. 
1855-6. Rev. Charles A. Holmes. 
1857-8. " A. G Williams. 
1859-60. Rev. William Cox. 
1861-2. Rev. Hiran^ Sinsabaugh. 
1863-4. " Hiram Miller. 
1865-6. " J.S.Bracken. 

1866. Rev. Hiram Sinsabaugh. 

1867. " W. B. Watkins. 
1868-70. Rev. W. A. Davidson, D.D. 



In August, 1809, Rev. Dr. Kendree, bishop of the church, and 
Rev. Francis Asbury, preached in Washington. In 1818 Wash- 
ington was set apart as a new district. Rev. Asa Shinn being 
appointed presiding elder, and Rev. Thornton Fleming minister in 
charge. 

Sabbath School. 

In connection with the M. E. church is a Sabbath school, under 
the efficient management of V. Harding, Esq., as Superintendent, 
assisted by W. J. Wilson, as Assistant Superintendent, with Samuel 
Hazlett, Treasurer, Joseph M. Spriggs as Secretary, and J. Nick 
Hainer, Wm. Underwood, A. H. Litle, and John Seaman, as 
Librarians. The school was organized March 1, 1825. Engaged 
in the benevolent work of imparting Christian instruction to the 
youth of the church, are nine males and fifteen females, together 
with two additional females teaching the infant school, numbering 
twenty-six teachers, with three hundred and thirty scholars. 

In 1831, when John Harter, Esq., was Superintendent of the 
Sabbath school, he organized the Missionary Sabbath school by 
the scholars pledging to pay one cent monthly for this purpose. 
At the end of the year it amounted to $7.87 ; at the present time 
the sum contributed amounts to near $300. 

United Presbyterian Church. 

The history of this church may be dated to the 27th day of No- 
vember, 1815, when the first meeting was held. An adjourned meet- 
ing of the Seceder body, friendly to the erection of a house of pub- 
lic worship, was subsequently held at the house of Major James 
Dunlap, on December 22, 1815, to make the necessary arrangements. 

At this meeting the followmg persons were elected but not ordained 



182 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

elders, viz : Samuel Fergus, William Wylie, and John McClelland. 
These things transpired when under the control of the Seceders, but 
no house of worship was erected, nor congregation definitely estab- 
lished because Samuel Fergus had become a prominent member of 
an organization styled the Associate Reformed Church. 

This body purchased lot No. 64, originally owned by Col. D. 
"Williamson, on Belle Street, and erected thereon a brick church, but 
not having funds to finish the church it was sold by the sheriff to 
the Associate Church, who purchased and finished it. Its Jirst 
minister was Rev. David Carson, who was elected Professor of He- 
brew and Church History in the Theological Seminary of the Asso- 
ciate Presbyterian Church, located at Canonsburg, which had received 
a charter from the legislature, April 8, 1833. He preached occa- 
sionally in Washington, but was elected pastor of the church on July 
1, 1834, and died September 25, 1834. His successor was the Rev. 
Thomas Beveridge, D D., who officiated from February 2, 1836, to 
September 16, 1849, when he resigned, he being a professor in the 
Theological Seminary, and its transfer to Ohio occasioned his resig- 
nation. The church called Rev. Thomas Hanna, D.D., November 
16, 1849, which he filled to his death, October 1, 1862. His succes- 
sor, the present pastor, is the Rev. J. Rankin Johnston, elected 
March IS, 1863. During the pastorate of Rev. Dr. Hanna, or in 
the year 1858, the Seceders (or Associates) and the Union (or 
Associate Reformed bodies) united as the United Presbyterian 
Church, and in 1863, five years after the union, its General Assem- 
bly consisted of seven synods, fifty-four presbyteries, four hundred 
and sixty-two ministers, six hundred and seventy-one congregations, 
fifty-seven thousand five hundred and fourteen communicants, and 
thiee theological seminaries. 

Through the influence of Rev. J. Rankin Johnston and the zeal 
of the members, tlie United Presbyterian Church erected a new and 
beautiful church on Belle Street near Main Street, on lot No. 55, 
originally owned' by Samuel Clark. It is built of brick, sixty by 
eighty feet, with a gallery, and contains one hundred and eight pews. 
It has in addition to the audience room (which is twenty feet high, 
an arched ceiling of a six feet raise) a basement story of twelve feet, 
containing a lecture and Sabbath school room. The walls of the 
church are frescoed. The cost of the church was $22,500. 

Tne Eldership of the church consists of AVilliani Gabby, Sample 
Sweeny, John G. Clark, Dr. M. H. Clark, and Joseph McNary. 

The IVustees are John E. Bell, Lewis Barker, J. P. Fergus, A. 
W. Pollock, Ebenczer Rodgers, and James Leiper. 

Sabbath School. 

This churcli hag a Sabbath school, organized in 1850, with six male 
and twelve female teachers, and one hundred and twenty scholars, 
with a library of seven hundred and twenty volumes. 



history of washington county. 183 

Methodist Protestant Church. 

When this denomination was organized in 1833, its meetings were 
held in the court-house until 1836, when the church removed into 
its own edifice erected on Beau Street, on lot No. 123, now owned 
by R. Boyd, Esq. The edifice was built of brick, thirty-five by 
forty-five feet, with a basement story for class and Sabbath school ; 
the trustees being James L. Porter, Wm. S. Ilutchinson, Wm. 
Hunter, S. B. Robinson, and Charles E. Jones. The lot was the 
bequest of William Hunter, deceased, who in his will, dated April 
23d, 1839, said: "It is my desire that my executors make a deed 
to the trustees of the Methodist Reformed Church for a part of the 
lot on which their church is built, sixty by ninety feet. It is how- 
ever distinctly understood, that on the completion of the, above title 
I am to be clear from all responsibilities, either in a private capacity 
or a trustee of said society." 

On April 20th, 1841, Robert Officer, executor of William Hunter, 
dec'd, executed a deed to Charles E. Jones, John R. Griffith, William 
Bushfield, W. S. Hutchinson, and James L. Porter, trustees of 
said church. The church was incorporated January 5th, 1850 — its 
trustees being James L. Porter, John R. Griffith, Peter Kennedy, 
Simon Wolf, and David Schultz. The church was destroyed by fire 
in 1851, and on November 19th of the same year, the trustees, con- 
sisting of John R. Griffith, I. D. Seaton, James T. Dagg, Peter 
Kennedy, and Simon Wolf sold and conveyed the lot to George W. 
Brice, Esq. 

The second church edifice was also erected on Beau Street and 
nearly opposite the former, on lot No. 148. It was commenced 
November 1st, 1851, under the supervision of the following trustees, 
(one of the original trustees having resigned): John R. Griffith, I. D. 
Seaton, James T. Dagg, Peter Kennedy, and A. B. Houston. 
James T. Dagg was appointed general superintendent. The build- 
ing is of brick, forty-eight by sixty-eight feet, having sixty-seven 
pews with a basement divided into class-rooms and for Sabbath- 
school purposes. The cost of the lot and building was $1200, and on 
its completion was dedicated to Almighty God in 1853, by the name 
of "Avery Chapel." It was named after that distinguished philan- 
thropist and eminent Christian, Charles Avery, who by deeds and 
words assisted in its erection, and a marble slab bearing his name 
is placed in the front wall of the church by direction of a resolution 
of the board of trustees, adopted June 27th, 1852. 

The following persons have officiated as pastors of this church since 
its organization in 1833 : — 



1833. 


Rev. 


W. Russell. 


1840. 


Rev. 


Nelson Burgess. 


1835. 




Eiios Woodward. 


1842. 




J. B. Roberts. 


1836. 




John Burns. 


1843. 




John Cowell. 


1837. 




J. Woodrufi". 


1844. 




James Robinson. 


1838. 




James Porter. 


184.5. 




Samuel Clawson. 


1839. 




W. Hughes. 


1847. 




J. 0. Hazlett. 



184 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

1848. Rev. G. B. M'Elroy. 1860. Rev. W. M. Smith. 



1850. ' 


' F. A. Davis. 


1852. ' 


' A'al. Lucas. 


1853. ' 


Nol>le Gillespie. 


1854. ' 


' S. J. Dorsey. 


1855. ' 


' John Scott 


1857. ' 


' AV. H. Phipps. 


1859. ' 


' J. D. Herr. 



1862. 




W. Wallace. 


18G3. 




Henry Palmer. 


1865. 




D. I.'K. Rine. 


1867. 




J. D. Herr. 


1868. 




W. Griffiths. 


1869. 




A. S. Woods. 


1870. 


No 


settled pastor. 



This church has a Sabbath school under the care of Peter Ken- 
nedy, with 4 lualo and 5 female teachers and 55 scholars. 

Trinity Episcopal Church. 

Before entering upon the immediate history of this church it would 
be proper to remark that the beautiful and impressive ceremonials of 
the Episcopal Church had been performed in Washington as early as 
1810. From my notes I find there was a meeting of the Protestant 
Episcopal clergymen in that year, and among other resolutions 
they passed the following resolution : — ■ 

Resolved. That the Rev. Dr. Joseph Dodridge open a correspondence 
with the Right Reverend Bishop White, of Pennsylvania, for the purpose 
of obtaining through him permission from the GenerrJ Convention of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church to form a diocese in the western country, em- 
bracing the western counties of Pennsylvania, Western Virginia, and the 
State of Ohio, to elect a Bishop. 

In 1812 Rev. Wm. David, of Somerset, Pennsylvania, preached 
occasionally in a school-house near the site of the Baptist Church, 
on Belle Street. 

Time rolls by and several families settled in Washington, who 
brought with them the religious principles of their choice, and in 
which they had been educated. They were not numerous enough 
to establish a church, and although they united with other Christian 
associations, yet the germ was planted in early life, and they looked 
forward to the period when it would both bud and blossom like 
Aaron's rod. 

In 1843 the Rev. Enos Woodward, of Brownsville, sent word to 
the Episcopalians that he would occasionally preach to them if a 
suital)le place could be obtained. The college chapel was bad 
through Professor R. 11. Lee, and the fourth Sunday of each month 
the services of this church were performed by Rev. E. Woodward. 
On November 12th, 1843, he, with the assistance of Rev. Mr. Dyer, 
of Pittsburg, administered the Lord's Supper to their communi- 
cants, the first time which this rite had ever been given according to 
the ceremonies of the Protestant Episcopal Church in this place as 
far as we can ascertain. 

While these few Episcopalians were thus meeting time and again, 
they were visited by Rev. K. J. Stewart, of Connellsville (who 
preached both in the court-house and Cumberland I'resbyterian 
church), who advised the erection of a church, and also the pro- 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 185 

priety of the members holding a prayer-meeting, asking Goa to direct 
thera in such measures as would secure a house in which their prin- 
ciples would be taught, and in accordance with God's holy word. 
They met at the house of Professor Leo, and after earnest and im- 
portunate prayer, so strong was their faith that before the services 
were ended, a committee consisting of Mrs. F. A. Barlow, Prof. R. H. 
Lee, R. P. Lane, M. D., and James R. Shannon were appointed 
a committee to solicit subscriptions, while the Rev. Stewart pro- 
raised that he would bring the subject before a special convention 
which was shortly to assemble at Uniontown, and also the Bishop. 
The effect of that prayer-meeting was the erection of the church, of 
which we shall now give a full account. 

On April 22d, 1844, a meeting of the congregation was held to 
effect a permanent organization. Rev. Enos Woodward was called 
to the chair, and Prof. R. H. Lee was appointed Secretary. After 
a mutual exchange of sentiments the meeting resolved that it was 
expedient to organize a Protestant Episcopal Church in Washington, 
and the following persons associated themselves together under the 
name, style, and title of the " Parish of Trinity Church," viz : Rich- 
ard Henry Lee, Joseph Grey, Curtis P. Browm, Abigail M. Brown, 
Mary C. Brown, Seth T. Hurd, Daniel Brown, William Howe, Hugh 
H. Reynolds, R. P. Lane, Anna E. Lee, Eliza H. Hill, Francis H. 
Lee, Eliza M. Crafts, Letitia Poole, James R. Shannon, John Bull- 
ing, R. Foster, Samuel Potter, Harriet Bulling, F. Anika Barlow, 
Rebecca Burton, Harriet Burton, Flora Lee, J. Bowman Sweitzer, 
James M'Corkle, Leslie Carrons. 

The church being thus organized, they elected R. H. Lee, R. P. 
Lane, Leslie Carrons, Joseph Gray, Wm. Howe, James R. Shannon, 
and Hugh H. Reynolds as the vestry, and the Rev. Enos Wood- 
ward as the pastor, to which he consented. 

On the 13th May, 1844, the church procured an act of incorpo- 
ration from the court. 

Rev. E. Woodward officiated as the rector of the church from 
its organization until May, 1845, when he resigned, and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. E. J. Messenger, who preached until the following 
August, when he tendered his resignation to become a missionary, 
went to Africa, and died March 28, 1846. From their organization 
to August, 1845, the church occupied the college hall ; but after 
this period they removed to the Lutheran church. The pulpit was 
filled by supplies and Prof. Lee as a lay reader, from 1845 to 1850. 
In June, 1850, the congregation resolved to build a church, and for 
this purpose they purchased lot No. 160 on the east end of Beau 
Street, and directly opposite the college edifice, from David Shields, 
for four hundred dollars. William McKennan and James R. Shan- 
non, Esqs., were appointed the Building Committee, with full power 
to act. They awarded the carpenter work to Frederick Hayes, the 
mason work to Messrs. William Cline and A. B. Houston. It was 
opened for divine worship December 15, 1850, when a sermon was 
13 



186 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

preached from Genesis, chapter xxviii. verse IT, by Rev. Samuel 
Clements, who had become the rector, ajid took charge of tlie church 
on December 1, 1850. The cost of this churcli edifice was $2725 15, 
including the price of the lot. The furniture of the church was 
presented by several donors ; the carpets by Trinity Church, of 
Pittsburg, the chancel furniture by Christ Church, of Brownsville, 
the lamps by the Female Episcopal School of Philadelphia, and the 
chairs by St. Andrew's Church, of Philadelphia. 

The entire indebtedness of the church edifice being liquidated, the 
Rt. Rev. Bishop Alonzo Potter consecrated the church on Septem- 
ber 10, 1854. March 31, 1855, the Rev. Samuel Clements resigned, 
and Prof. R. H. Lee was elected a lay reader, to officiate as such 
according to the forms and canons of the church. In January, 1856, 
Rev. George Hall accepted the rectorship of the church, having been 
previously elected, and served until December, 185G, when he re- 
signed, and Prof. R. H. Lee was again elected lay reader. 

In February, 1858, Prof. R. H. Lee was ordained a deacon by 
Rt. Rev. Bishop Potter, and in the following October was ordained 
a priest by Rev. Bishop Bowman, Assistant Bishop, and took charge 
of Trinity Church as its rector. Rev. R. H. Lee served the church as 
a faithful and consistent ambassador of Christ until January 3, 1865, 
when he exchanged the church militant for the church triumphant. 

The devoted friends of Rev. Dr. Lee have placed in a niche in the 
west wall of the chancel of the church, a beautiful marble tablet, 
containing the following appropriate and touching inscription to his 
memory : — 

In memory of Rev. Richard Henry Lee, LL. D., Rector of this Parish 
from A. ]). 1858 to A. 1). 180"). Born in Fi»irfax County, Viririnia, A.D. 
1794. He received a claspjcal education at Dickinson Co]lep;e, Pennsj-I- 
vania, and frraduated with hifrli honors at an early aire. Devoting himself to 
the legal profession, he practised in the courts of his native State until the 
year 1834, when he accepted the Professorship of Ancient lianguages in 
Washinjrton College, Pennsylvania, a ])osition which he exchanged in 1837 
for the chair of Ik'lles Lettres and Political Economy in the same institu- 
tion. In 1h54 he resigned his connection with the college, and was shortly 
afterwards commissioned Lay Reader by the Bishop of Pennsylvania. He 
was ordained l)eacon, Fehruary 10, 1858, and became Rector of this 
Parish, which owes to him, under Cod, its origin and organization. On 
Sunday, Ochihcr 31, 1858. he was ordained Priest. He labored in his holy 
office faithfully and lovingly until the close of his life. 

He died January 3, 18(;5, aged 71 years, and was gathered unto his fathers, 
having the testimony of a good conscience, in the communion of the Catholic 
Church, in the comfort of a reasonable religious and holy hope, in favor 
with Gud, and in perfect charity with the world. 

It is proper to remark that during the rectorship of Rev. Dr. Lee, 

the church edifice had been found so defective that it became neces- 
sary to erect another, more durable and more commodious. In con- 
sequence thereof the congregation, with commendable zeal, erected 
the present beautiful Gothic church, at an expense of $3697 20, 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 18T 

which is now estimated worth $10,000, which was consecrated by 
Bishop Potter November IT, 1863. During the time of its erection 
church services were held in the court-house. 

The successor of Rev. Dr. Lee was James Mcllvaine, who was 
commissioned lay reader until Rev. James A. Brown became the 
rector, December 22, 1865, and served until December 23, 1867, 
when he resigned, to enter upon a larger field of labor. His succes- 
sor was Jacob B. McKennan, Esq., who was commissioned as lay 
reader by the Bishop on January 1, 1868. 

The present vestry of the church consists of Wm. McKennan, 
Wra. W. Smith, James Mcllvaine, Jacob B. McKennan, Jr., Wm. 
B. McKennan, H. H. Reynolds, Hugh Q. Miller, and Samuel 
Hargraves. 

On October IT, 1869, Rev. J. K. Mendenhall preached his first 
sermon in Trinity church, and was oi'dained November 5, 1869, 
Rector of the parish, by Rt. Rev. Bishop J. D. Kerfoot, Bishop of 
the diocese. The church purchased a bell weighing 2040 pounds; 
the tenor bell of a peal of bells, which was placed in its proper 
position in the bell-tower, between the church and parish school- 
house, and first rung January 16, 18T0. 

Sunday School. 

On June 9, 1844, a Sunday school was established, with Professor 
Lee as its superintendent, having four male and five female teachers. 
This school has an excellent library. 

Parish School-house. 

The congregation resolved, on August 29, 1868, to erect a parish 
school-house on the church property in the rear of the church. This 
praiseworthy object, through the liberality of its members, was 
completed, February 2T, 186i), at an expense of nine hundred and 
twenty-three dollars and sixty-six cents. 

Bequest to Trinity Church. 

On the 11th of May, 1865, Wm. L. Bowman, son of James Bow- 
man, Esq., of Brownsville, died in the 26th year of his age. When 
a student of law in Washington, he became a communicant in this 
church; and so greatly attached was he to the church in which he 
devoted his life, his heart, his all to his Redeemer, that he manifested 
his love for it by providing in his will that his executors should pay 
the legal representatives of the church two thousand dollars, the in- 
terest of which should be annually applied to the rector's salary, and 
the principal invested for this purpose. 

German Church. 

The German Evangelical Lutheran and Reformed church is bound- 
ed by Walnut Street on the north ; lot No. 262 on the east; Spruce 
Alley on the south, and lot No. 265 on the west; the church own- 



188 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY, 

ing lots Nos. 263 and 264, upon which is a frame meeting-house and 
attached thereto is a burial-ground. These lots were sold by John 
and William Iloge to Thomas Woodward August 29, 1786, and 
conveyed by him to Peter Snyder September 12, 1787. On May 5, 
1812, P. Snyder and wife sold to Jacob Weirich, Lewis Hewitt, 
David Sedicker, and Christian Hornish, trustees and managers of 
the German Lutheran and Presbyterian Church. 

On October 13, 1840, they procured an act of incorporation from 
the court, authorizing the election of nine trustees, and incorporated 
as the German Evangelical Lutheran Clmrch. 

We shall give the respective ministers of the church as far as we 
have been able to ascertain them; although the records of the church 
are very unsatisfactory, we must depend alone upon oral testimony. 

The first minister was the Rev. Mr. Monesmith ; his successor was 
the Rev. Henry Weygandt, who officiated for sixteen years. In 
1832, Rev. Abraham Winters, of the United Brethren, filled the pul- 
pit; his successor w^as Rev. John Brown, a Lutheran; after him was 
Rev. Charles Swissler, a Reformed German preacher. He was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Mr. Doubert; his successor Rev. Mr. Beckerman, a 
Lutheran. Then followed the Rev, H. B. Miller, from 1830 until 
March 14, 1836, when Rev. Abraham Weills occupied the pulpit for 
eighteen years, or until 1854. His successors were Rev, C. G. Fred- 
ericks, Rev. T. Hartley, Rev. P. Sweigert, and Rev. Z. H. Gable. 

This church has lately been refitted, and although the peo})le have 
been scattei'ed, our German population are uniting in the noble efiort 
of resuscitating the waste places of this branch of Zion, so that the 
church of their fathers may again take its place among those of our 
ancient borough, dispensing evangelical truths. 

Second Presbyterian Church. 

On the 9th day of December, 1860, a meeting of the First Pres- 
byterian Congregation of Washington was held in the church to 
consider the necessity of enlarged church accommodations, and ap- 
pointed the following Committee to report at an adjourned meeting 
on December 27, 1860. The Committee consisted of Collin M. Reed, 
D. S. Wilson, Thomas McKeau, Robert F. Strean, Jackson Spriggs, 
Dr. J. W. Wishart, J. D. Chambers, and William Hughes. The 
congregation met at the time appointed to hear the report of the 
Committee. A majority of the Committee reported that the only 
feasible plan for increasing eiiurch accommodations was another 
church organization, and suggested the following preamble and reso- 
lution : — 

Believinir it to be our duty to furnish the means of hearing to all who may 
desire or can l>e conslrainccl to listen to the' preaching of the diviuc mes- 
sage ; that said accommodation is not furnished at our present church, and 
any increase of sittings is impracticable and inexpedient, and that the size 
of our congregation justifies llic rocgniinendatiou of the formation of anew 
congregation as the only effectual remedy in the present exigency, therefore 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 189 

Resolved, That in the opinion of this congregation the interest of religion 
would be promoted by the organization of a Second Presbyterian congregation 
in Washington, and whenever any number of persons will signify their willing- 
ness to engage in a new church enterprise, this congregation will lend them 
all the aid, comfort, and encouragement in its power, and to that end do 
now appoint a committee to co-operate with them in the accomplishment of 
this object. The Committee appointed were Collin M. Reed, Thomas 
McKean, John Grayson, Jr., H. H. Clarke, and W. B. Cundall. 

This committee had a conference with the session of the First 
Presbyterian church on February 2, 1861, for the purpose of fulfil- 
ing the above-mentioned wishes of the congregation, and requested 
the session to designate two or more members of their number who 
may favor the project, and carry out the desire of the congregation. 
In view, therefore, of the congregation's action in initiating the move- 
ment, a movement prompted by a sincere regard for the interest of 
religion and the advancement of Presbyterianism in this community, 
the session unanimously 

Resolved, That as the Committee requested the session, if in accordance 
with their views, to designate two of their number to gooff, and the session 
having learned that the two members desired by the persons favorable to 
this movement are Dr. John W. Wishart and H. H. Clarke, therefore, if 
these brethren should feel themselves assured that such is their duty, whilst 
retaining unabated and unqualified confidence and Christian affection for 
them as brethren, and also expressing our sorrow at the thought of their 
separation from our number, yet we cannot withhold our consent, and will 
follow them with our prayers for the blessing of the Master upon themselves 
individually, and upon the enterprise with which they are to be connected. 

Resolved, That we recommend to the members of the church and con- 
gregation, so far as they may severally feel enabled and inclined, to lend 
this movement all the aid, comfort, and encouragement in their power. 

An application was accordingly made to Presbytery on March 12, 
1861, for the organization of a Second Presbyterian church, which 
held a pro re nata meeting in the First Presbyterian church, Rev. 
Dr. John W. Scott being moderator, and Rev. W. B. Keeling clerk. 

Dr. John W. Wishart, representing one hundred petitioners, of 
whom thirty-six were communicants, presented the necessary papei'S, 
when, on motion of Rev. James I. Brownson, the prayer of the 
petitioners was granted. 

On motion of Rev. N. B. Lyon, the new organization was styled 
the Second Presbyterian church. 

On motion of Collin M. Reed, the following persons were desig- 
nated as ruling elders, viz : Dr. J. W. Wishart, H. H. Clarke, 
Wm. B. Cundall, and John Grayson, Jr. 

On motion of H. H. Clarke, David Aiken and Wm. J. Matthews, 
were elected deacons. 

A constitution was adopted and the following gentlemen were 
elected trustees, viz : Collin M. Reed, Andrew Brady, Norton 
McGiffin, William Blair, and John Baird. 



190 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

The Rev. R. V. Dodge, of Wheeling, was unanimously chosen the 
pastor, and the trustees directed to procure the college hall for the 
meetings of the congregation, until more satisfactory arrangements 
could be made. 

Notwithstanding all these preliminary movements, the church was 
not at that time organized, but the members returned to the first 
church, as the following minutes of the church record show. A 
meeting of the session of the first church was held September 7, 
18G1, and adopted the following preamble and resolution : — 

Whereas, On the 12th day of March, 1861, the session dismissed a num- 
ber of members of this church to be organized into a Presbyterian church ; 
AND WHEREAS, iu the present disturbed state of the country and the depressed 
condition of money matters, there would seem to be no possibility of such 
organization being carried forward ; and whereas, the present church rela- 
tions of the persons so dismissed are peculiar and embarrassing to all par- 
ties, therefore it was unanimously 

Resolved, That this session do most cordially invite the persons thus 
dismissed to renew their former relation to this church, assuring them of a 
most hearty welcome to our fellowship and to a participation in the cares 
and responsibilities of private and official membership, as heretofore. 

The hindrances being removed, the members generally composing 
the Second Presbyterian church held a congregational meeting on 
April Ith, 1864, and unanimously resolved to proceed at once to 
carry out the object originally contemplated by their organization. 
A unanimous call was given to Rev. R. Y. Dodge, Avho accepted 
the same, and on the 15th day of May, 1864, he preached his intro- 
ductory sermon in Smith's Hall, the present place of worship, but 
was not installed as pastor until October 4, 1864. 

On June 26, 1864, the first communion was administered. 

During the pastorate of the Rev. R. Y. Dodge, H. II. Clarke, 
Esq., was installed ; and W. B. Cundall and John Grayson, Jr., were 
ordained elders on June 19, 1864; 11. J. Yankirk and Wm. Rlaii 
were installed as deacons. April, 1868, Freeman Brady, Jr., and 
Morgan Hayes were installed as deacons. 

Rev. R. Y. Dodge resigned his charge May, 1868, and the Rev, 
J. C. Caldwell was elected June 1, 1868, and installed August 1, 
1868. 

February 14, 1869, Robert Boyd and Hugh McClelland were in- 
stalled elders ; and Freeman Brady and John B. Yowell were or- 
dained elders. 

Rev. J. C. Caldwell officiated as minister until December 28, 
1869, when he resigned. On April 12, I8t0, Rev. Henry Wood, 
Professor in Washington and Jefferson College, was elected. 

Sabbath Scuool 

The 2d Presbyterian church has a Sabbath school connected 
therewith, having an excellent library. It was organized July 17, 
1864, by a vote of the congregation, which was held May 23, 1864. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 191 

The first officers of the school were John Grayson, Jr., superintend- 
ent; H. H. Chirke, assistant-superintendent; John Baird and W. 
Blair, librarians ; H. J. Vankirk, treasurer and secretary. Its pre- 
sent officers are Robert Winters, superintendent ; H. H. Clarke, 
assistant-superintendent ; J. B. Vowell, Charles Butts, and James 
McCoUum, librarians ; H. J. Vankirk, treasurer ; B. McColluin, 
secretary. The school has ten male and ten female teachers, with 
150 scholars. It has also an infant school, under the care of Miss 
Anastasie Morgan, having upon the roll 82 members. 

The Board of Trustees consists of Col. W. Hopkins, Charles 
Hayes, A. B. Caldwell, A. Winters, and M. G. Koontz. 

The number of members connected with the church is two hun- 
dred and fourteen. 

Roman Catholic Church. 

The first account we have of preaching by this denomination in 
Washington was on February 1, 1824, at the house of Matthew 
Blake, by the Rev. P. Rafiferty, although preaching was held pre- 
viously at Wiliiamsport, now Monougahela City, in this county. 
After an interval of ten years, or in 1834, the Rt. Rev. Bishop 
Francis Patrick Kenrick, who had already established a chapel near 
West Alexander, on the 27th of March, 1825, and to which the 
members of this church were attached, on account of the distance, 
made Washington a missionary station, and sent the Rev. S. Maz- 
zuchelli as the first missionary. He preached at the Old Good 
tavern, the sign of the black horse, south of Catfish Run. The 
property is now owned by Dr. F. J. Leraoyne. In this house mass 
was celebrated for the first time in Washington, and also preaching. 

This denomination at that time were all German Catholics, except 
Michael Kaine, deceased (the father of C. C. Kaine, formerly one 
of the editors of the "Examiner^'), who was an Irishman. Shortly 
after this period the congregation was visited by Bishop Kenrick, 
but the preaching was held in the court-house. In 1836 the bishop 
made another visit, and confirmed many in the faith of the church — 
this being the first time the rite was held here. June 21, 1837, 
Bishop Kenrick preached in the German Lutheran church. In 1835, 
however, the bishop sent the Rev. Mr. Gallagher to this missionary 
field, which embraced this place, Waynesburg, and Brownsville. 
Rev. Gallagher officiated until 1843. His successors were Rev. 
James Kearney in 1844, Rev. Mr. Duffy in 1845, Rev. Jerome 
Kearney in 1846, Rev. Mr. Gallagher in 1847, Rev. Dennis Kear- 
ney in 1848, Rev. Mr. Reynolds in 1849, Rev. Wm. Lambert in 1850, 
Rev. Mr. McGowan in 1851, Rev. Daniel Hickey in 1852 — who 
died at West Alexander in 1854 — Rev. James Farran in 1854, Rev. 
Francis Joseph O'Shea in 1855, Rev. Jerome Kearney in 1856, Rev. 
Francis Joseph O'Shea in 1857, Rev. Dennis Kearney in 1858, Rev. 
Wm Noland in 1859, Rev. F. J. O'Shea in 1861, Rev. Patrick 



192 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Shehan in 18G2, Rev. John P. Tenney in 1864, Rev. John Scanlon 
in 1866, and Rev. Thomas McEnrue in 1868. 

In the full of 1841 a lot was purchased for a chapel on the na- 
tional pike, nearly opposite the gas-works, where the house of John 
D. Martin now stands; but, after its purchase, so strong was the 
opposition to Catholici.«m that several of the purchasers of the ad- 
joining lots gave the proprietor notice that they would not build 
upon them if tlie church was established in that part of the town. 
The matter was finally adjusted by the Rev. M. Gallagher and 
Ephraim Blaim, Esq. — the church waiving her interest in the lot. 

On the 5th of March, 1842, a lot was bought on the east end of Belle 
Street from John M. Davis, of Pittsburg (the present site of the 
chapel), being forty by sixty feet, for sixty dollars. The purchase 
money was subscribed by the following persons, viz : Anthony Renz 
$10, Francis Egan $10, William Erret $10, James Rush $10, Michael 
Metzner $5, Michael Kirchner $10, and Rev. M. Gallagher $10. 

Mr. Anthony Renz and Marie Jane his wife presented an adjoin- 
ing lot of twenty by eighty feet, on March 22, 1842. Both deeds 
were made to Bishop Kenrick in trust for the church. 

The church was commenced in 1843, and finished in 1844. The 
carpenter-work was performed by Henry B. Roswell and Wni. Mc- 
Ilvaine ; the mason-work by James Hamilton, at a cost of twenty- 
five hundred dollars. Although preaching Nvas held in it, the chapel 
was not entirely completed and consecrated until 1854, when it was 
dedicated and consecrated by Rev. Bishop Wheelin. 

Bishop Kenrick felt a deep interest in the prosperity of this church, 
and visited it four times ; in addition to the places he preached which 
we have mentioned, he also preached once in the Lutheran church 
and once in the court-house. 

At the confirmation held in 1836, there were but eight families, 
consisting of sixteen persons, enrolled themselves under the Inmner 
of the church; in 1869 there are forty families, and the church has 
three hundred members. 

It is worthy to remark that Mrs. Carrol, a member of the denomi- 
nation, died and was buried in the lot, and her grave is beneath the 
altar of the church. 

Cumberland Presbyterian Church. 

Rev. Robert Dnnnell, Rev. Reuben Burrow, and Rev. Alfred 
Bryan, regularly ordained ministers of the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church, on the 29th of Scptemlier, 1S31, met in the court-house at 
Washington, and organizecl the church, by receiving into its commu- 
nion Al)el M. S. Gordon, William Fleming, Charles Andrew, J. IIu- 
per, Elizabeth Wiley, ]Mary Jordan, Ann Jordan, Martha Mahafifey, 
and Amelia Mahaffey. 

On the 30th October, 1831, this church held its second meeting in 
the Baptist Church, when the Rev Alfred Bryan was assisted by Rev. 
John Morgan, and twenty-nine ]ktsoiis were added to the church. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 193 

On the 2Tth of November, its third meeting was held in the court- 
house, and ten persons were added. On January 23, 1832, Rev. A. 
Bryan was assisted by Rev. Milton Bird, and six persons received. 
February 24, 1832, an election for ruling elders was held. Peter 
Wolfe, Moses Little, and A. M. S. Gordon were elected and or- 
dained ruling elders. December 25, 1832, John Hewitt and Andrew 
Bell were elected and ordained elders. 1835, June 14, the church 
dedicated by Rev. Alfred Bryan. September 21, 1835, James Mc- 
Dowell; March, 1838, James Gutter}^, Ezekiel Tharp, and William 
Smith ; 1844, Odel Squier; 1851, William Smith, were elected elders. 

March 24, 1832, Samuel McFarland, Alex. Ramsey, John Wilson, 
William Smith, were elected trustees. March 24, 1846, William 
Smith, Matthew GriflBn, Joseph Martin, and Ezekiel Tharp. Janu- 
ary 11, 1858, Hugh Munnel, John Guthery, James McElree, and H. 
B. McCollum. 

The first Board of Trustees were authorized to procure a house 
of worship. 

In 1834, Samuel McFarland erected the church edifice on Belle 
Street, from voluntary contributors and his own private funds, and 
in 1856, it appears the church was in debt to him $970. The 
reason given on the records why the church did not prosper, was 
their failing in their contract on this occasion, and also promising 
preachers more than they gave them. 

The ministers who have been ordained as pastors were Rev. S. 
M. Aaston, Rev. J. Shook, Rev. J. Eddv, Rev. Milton Bird, Rev. 
A. T. Reese, Rev. W. E. Post, Rev. S.'E. Hudson, Rev. S. Mur- 
dock, Rev. P. Axtel, Rev. Robert Martin, Rev. J. C. Thompson, 
Rev. A. S. Robertson, Rev. Frederick Wall, Rev. John R. Brown, 
Rev. Weaver, and Rev. John Edmiston. 

In 186*7, from a variety of causes, the church did not meet, there 
being no pastor, and the people united with other churches. The 
building is rented to the Disciple Church. 

"Disciples of Christ." 

Before giving a history of the different church organizations in 
this county, we would prefix the following account of this religious 
denomination: — 

In their associated organization they aro called the Church of 
Christ, or the Christian Church, but in their individual religious ca- 
pacity "Disciples of Christ." As early as 1803 a church was con- 
stituted in the Pigeon Creek settlement, under the labors of Rev. 
Matthias Luce, the Rev. Specrs, and others, taking the Holy Scrip- 
tures for their rule of faith and practice. The record itself styles 
this organization "The Gospel Church." This church was after- 
wards called the Baptist church, the cause of its origin being brought 
about by Rev. Charles Wheeler, w^ho, in an effort to introduce the 
creed of that denomination, said, "Those that subscribed to the creed 



194 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

would be known and recognized as the regular Baptist Church of 
Pigeon Creek, those who would not, as Campbellites." 

In 1807, Rev. Thomas Campbell emigrated to the United States 
(a member of the General Associate Synod of Scotland) and was 
received by the Presbytery of Chartiers. So zealous was he in the 
advocacy of the all-sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures designed ex- 
pressly for the edification and perfection of the Christian church, 
that he felt it to be his duty to remonstrate against the doctrines and 
commandments of men in the form of creeds, confessions, and cate- 
chisms, arguing therefrom that Protestant denominations had usurped 
more or less the forms, the teachings, and the preachings of the 
divinely commissioned apostles. This teaching was opposed by his 
co-presbyters, and on the 17th of August, 1809, a meeting was held 
on the head waters of Buffalo, in this county, in which a declaration 
and address of the Christian Association of Washington was adopted 
"for the sole purpose of promoting simple evangelical Christianity, 
free from all mixture of human opinions and inventions of men." 
In its declaration, this society " by no means considers itself a church, 
nor does it at all assume to itself the powers peculiar to such a society, 
nor do the members as such consider themselves as standing connected 
in that relation, nor as at all associated for the peculiar purposes 
of church association, but merely as voluntary advocates for church 
reformation. Notwithstanding these principles as announced in the 
declaration and address, we find here, on the 4th day of May, 1811, 
organized a number of those who belonged to the (Buffalo) Christian 
Association, into a church with no other creed but the Bible. 

While upon this sul)ject, we may remark that at a meeting of the 
Synod of the Presbyterian Church, held October 4, 1810, Rev. 
Thomas Campbell, formerly a member of the Associate Synod, but 
representing himself as a member of the Christian Association of 
Washington, applied to be taken into Christian ministerial standing. 
The records show that Rev. Mr. Campbell was heard at length, but 
the Synod unanimously resolved that however specious the plan of 
the Christian Association, and however seducing its professions, as 
experience of the effects of similar projects in other parts has evinced 
their baleful tendency and destructive operations on the whole in- 
terests of religion by promoting divisions instead of union, by de- 
grading the ministerial character, by providing free admission to any 
errors in doctrine, and to any corruptions in discipline, whilst a 
nominal approbation of the Scriptures as the only standard of truth 
may be professed, the synod arc constrained to disapprove the plan 
and its natural effects. It was also resolved that Rev. Mr. Camp- 
bell's request to be received into ministerial and Christian communion 
cannot be granted. The Synod's disapprobation was not on account 
of moral charnctcr, but on account of his peculiar views, as being 
inconsistent with the standards of the Presbyterian church. 

Afterwards Rev. Thomas Caniplicll sought to persuade his breth- 
ren to a stricter observance of the literal teachings of the New 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 195 

Testament. Meeting, therefore, with opposition, and being driven to 
a closer examination of the Scriptures, he continued to impart the 
light which dawned upon his own mind to his hearers, and following 
out their own convictions they soon found themselves drifting away, 
not only from church standard, but from every other organization 
built upon what they styled a human platform. He found all his 
proposals to his Presbyterian friends as embodied in the Buffalo de- 
claration and address rejected, and himself and friends cut off fi'om 
all church privileges, hence they sought a closer union to Christ, by 
announcing that they believed that the primitive apostolic mode of 
worship could be attained without the embittered feelings of selfish- 
ness engendered by sectarian strife. Consequently, on the 4th of May, 
1811, a number of those who had belonged to the Christian associ- 
ation were organized into a church with no other creed but the Bible. 

At this meeting Thomas Campbell was appointed elder, his son 
Alexander was licensed to preach the gospel, and John Dawson, 
George Sharp, William Gilchrist, and James Foster were chosen 
deacons. 

Upon the basis of the declaration and address, elder Thomas 
Campbell formed two congregations, one at Cross Roads, six miles 
northwest of Washington, Penna., and the other on Brush Run, 
eight miles southwest of the same place. 

This denomination has the following churches in Washington 
County, one in Washington, formerly at Martinsburg, two miles east 
of the borough, one at Pigeon Creek, one at Maple Creek, one at 
Peters Creek, one at West Middleton, one at the Dutch Fork, one 
at Independence, and one at West Findley. 

Washington Cumberland Church. 

The church in Washington worships regularly in the Cumberland 
Presbyterian church, having leased the same for this purpose. It 
was originally organized at the house of Richard B. Chaplin, in 
Washington, on Thursday evening, the 12th day of May, 1831. 
The persons present on that occasion were Richard B. Chaplin, Samuel 
Marshall, Henry Langley, Frederick Huffman, and Franklin Dun- 
ham, Mrs. Sophia Chaplin, Jane McDermot, Hannah Acheson, and 
Hannah Marshall, who, after mature deliberation, formed themselves 
into a church, having for their rule of faith and practice the Holy 
Scriptures, and submitting themselves to the teachings of Jesus 
Christ and the apostles. They also appointed R. B. Chaplin and 
Samuel Marshall to preside at their meetings for worship and to ad- 
minister the ordinances. 

On May 15, 1831, the church met at R. B. Chaplin's house for the 
first time, and the brethren and sisters broke the loaf and partook of 
the wine, in commemoration of the sufferings and death of Christ. 
Since which time they continued to meet at the house of Samuel 
Marshall, and the school-house on the farm of Henry Vankirk, Sr., 
four miles south of Washington, until the fall of 1836, when they 



196 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

removed to the brick meeting house in Williamsburg, where the 
church continued to meet until June, 1867, when they removed to 
Washington, to hold their meetings in the Cumberland Presbyterian 
church. 

The ministers who have regularly officiated were Professor Robert 
Milligau, of Washington College, and Rev. L. P. Streater, when 
the clunx'h was at Williamsburg, but since its removal to Washing- 
ton, Rev. J. B. Crane took charge of it in 1867, and Rev. T. A. 
Crenshaw in 1869. 

Baptist Church. 

This church was regularly constituted on October 14, 1814, in 
Washington, by delegates previously appointed by each of the Bap- 
tist churches of Peters Creek, Tenmile, and Uniontown, with such 
others as should meet as an advisory council. Peters Creek church 
was represented by Rev. David Phillips, Charles Daily, and Joseph 
Phillips; Tenmile Creek by Rev. Matthias Luse; Uniontown church 
by Rev. William Brownfield. 

On the 15th of October, 1814, the Rev. Charles Wheeler was or- 
dained to the ministry and received the imposition of hands by Rev. 
D. Phillips, M. Luce, and W. Brownfield. 

This church adopted the covenant and constitution as expressed 
in the Confession of Faith adopted by the Philadelphia Baptist Asso- 
ciation. 

On the 25th of March, 1811, the legislature passed an act to 
confirm the title of the First Baptist church to lot No. 77, on Belle 
Street, in the town of Washington. 

The members of the (^iigrogation met at the brick school-house in 
the rear of the lot, on November 17, 1817, to take into consideration 
the building of a house of worship, when a subscrii)tion paper was 
opened and a coraniiltce appointed to procure subscriptions. Feb- 
ruary 1, 1819, the subscril)ers were notified to pay their subscriptions 
without delay to John Barringtou and Hugh Wilson, as the church 
edifice was finished. This is the plain substantial brick church which 
stands on the western end of Belle Street. 

Rev. Charles Wheeler was pastor of the church from 1S14 to 1839. 
Rev. Mr. Anderson was his successor, and resigned in March, 1842. 
Rev. C. T. Johnson was elected October 15, 1842, and served until 
September 9, 1843, when he was succeeded by Rev. J. B. W. Tisdell, 
who preached until October 2, 1846. His immediate successor was 
the Rev. Thomas Swain, who resigned September, 1850. Rev. 
George W. Young took charge of the congregation December 19, 
1850, and upon his resignation he was followed by Rev. Malachi 
Taylor, who was installed December 5, 1855 ; he resigned and Rev. 
John Boyd became his successor, Ai)ril 16, 1858, who preached until 
January, 1860, when the Rev. William Wood sup])licd the pulpit un- 
til the election of Rev. Robert Telford, on February 18, 18(;6, but 
he resigned June 10, 1868, since which time the church has had no 
regular minister, but is occasionally supplied. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 19T 

In connection with the Baptist church, we might add that a meet- 
ing of the stockholders of the brick school-house erected upon the 
Baptist church lot was held on the 27th of May, 1816, to establish a 
Female Baptist Seminary, when a constitution was adopted. The 
seminary was subsequently opened by Kev. Charles Wheeler, assisted 
by Miss C. Cairns. 

A. M. E. Church 

Was organized in the year 1818. Of its history all I could glean 
were the names of its founders, viz : Benjamin Dorsey, George Bol- 
den, John Clouby, Caleb Eddy, Hark Lives, Margaret Cramer, 
Hannah Smith, Terry Robinson, Maria Conner, Betsy Phillips, and 
Chloe Warfield. They have a neat frame church with a Sabbath 
school connected. 

WrighVs Chapel (an African church) has a small building near 
the former, with a Sunday school. 

Branch Bank of Philadelphia. 
Bank op Washington. 
Franklin Bank of Washington, and 
First National Bank of Washington, 

These four institutions have existed in our town, and we shall 
speak of them separately. 

The Bank of Philadelphia was chartered March 5, 1804. By 
additional legislation on March 3, 1809, it was permitted to establish 
eight branches, provided the people of the place in which it 
was proposed to be located would sanction it. Washington was 
selected, and its citizens sanctioned its establishment. Its original 
charter was limited to 1814, but afterwards extended to May 1, 
1824. 

They erected a banking-house on the corner of Main Street and 
Strawberry Alley (now owned by David Aiken, Esq.), which cost 
$11, TOO, and sold it when the bank closed to the Bank of Washing- 
ton. Parker Campbell was President, and John Neale Cashier. It 
existed from 1810 to 1822. 

Bank of Washington. 

On the 10th of January, 1814, the people of Washington County, 
in general meeting assembled, considered the expediency of establish- 
ing an original bank, with a capital stock of five hundi'ed thousand 
dollars; shares to be valued at fifty dollars each. The people 
sanctioned the project, and the grand jury indorsed it in the follow- 
ing words : " We conceive it to be our duty to countenance and en- 
courage all institutions, companies, or associations that have for their 
end the genuine interests of the county. They conceive the contem- 
plated association called the Bank of Washington, is of that 
character. They, therefore, earnestly recommend it to the attention 



198 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY, 

of the legislature, and pray that a charter of incorporation be 
granted to said bank." Tliis indorsement was siprned b}^ Daniel 
Leet, foreman, and eighteen grand jurors. This influence had the 
desired effect upon the legislature, for we find that they passed a 
general banking law on the 24th of March, 1814, dividing the State 
into twenty-seven districts, limiting its charter for eleven years, or 
until the year 1825. 

Thomas H. Baird was elected President, and John Barrington 
Cashier ; the capital stock to be not less than one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars, or more than two hundred and twenty thousand. 
The Directors named to sell stock on May 4, 1814, were Thomas 
Patterson, David Sliields, Thomas McGiffin, Thomas Hoge, Alex- 
ander Murdoch, Daniel Moore, and Parker Campbell. 

In January, 1818, the Bank of Washington forfeited its charter, 
but it was afterwards revived, February 2, 1818, the causes having 
been removed ; but on March 23, 1818, it was rechartered under the 
name of the 

Franklin Bank of "Washington. 

It must be borne in mind that this is not the present institution, 
of which we shall speak presently. On account of the mismanage- 
ment of its finances, and continued lawsuits, it ceased to exist, 
although the legislature was required from time to time to extend its 
charter. 

Franklin Bank of Washington, 

On March 9, 1836, an act was passed incorporating the Franklin 
Bank of Washington, and appointed as Commissioners Alexander 
Reed, Daniel Moore, William Hunter, Robert Officer, Thomas 
McGiffin, F. J. Lemoyne, David Eckert, Jacob Slagle, Henry Lang- 
ley, John K. Wilson, Tliomas McCall, William BroAvnlee, George 
Wilson, Samuel Murdoch, Walter Craig, Samuel McFarlaud, James 
Stevens, Tliomas Morgan, John Cooke, Enoch Wright, William 
Smith, Joseph Henderson, Alexander Sweeney, Samuel Mount, C. 
M. Reed, Aaron Fenton, James Ruple, George Black, John Morgan, 
James Watson, John S. Brady, and T. M. T. McKcnnan. These 
Commissioners met, and on April 30th, appointed Robert Officer, 
David Eckert, and Dr. F. J. Lemoyne to sell eight hundred shares 
of the capital stofk of the Bank, it being limited to five hundred 
thousand dollars. TJie amount being sold on May 19, the balance 
of the stock was disposed of 

September 15, 1836, the stockholders held an election for direc- 
tors, which resulted in the selection of Alexander Reed, Daniel 
Moore, Daniel Houston, David Eckert, William Hunter, Samuel 
Murdoch, Nathan Pusey, William Brownlee, Thomas McCall, Robert 
Wylie, John S. Brady, Aaron Fenton, and George Wilson. 

The directors elected Alexander Reed, President, and John Mar- 
shall, Cashier. On account of the decease of Alexander Keed, the 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON CODNTY. 199 

directors, on September 22, 1842, elected Daniel Houston, who 
served as President until December 21, 1843, when T. M. T. McKen- 
nan, Esq., was elected. Mr. McKennan having deceased, Collin M. 
Reed was elected July 29, 1852, and filled the office until the Bank 
became the First National Bank. 

John Marshall continued as Cashier until March 16, 1857, when 
James Mcllvaine, the present incumbent, was elected. On April 
20, 1837, Samuel Cunningham was elected Clerk. 

First National Bank. 

The Franklin Bank of Washington was reorganized by the stock- 
holders as the First National Bank of Washington, on January 1, 
1865, with C. M. Reed as President, James Mcllvaine as Cashier, 
Samuel Cunningham as Clerk. On May 1, 1865, Andrew S. Ritchie, 
Esq., was appointed Teller. The capital stock of the Bank is one 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars, with a surplus fund of seventy 
thousand dollars. It owns a fine two-story brick banking-house, on 
Main Street and Bank Alley, valued at four thousand five hundred 
and sixty-eight dollars. The first Board of Directors of the First 
National Bank were C. M. Reed, A. W. Acheson, J. S. Brady, M. 
H. Clark, William Davis, H. H. Clark, John H. Ewing, Joseph 
Henderson, Thomas McKean, Jacob Slagle, Alexander Seaman, 
John Stewart, and James Watson, 

Banking Houses. 

There are two banking houses also in Washington, William 
Smith and Son, and Samuel Hazlett, both of which are extensively 
engaged in their legitimate business. 

Washington Female Seminary. 

The origin of this seminary can be truthfully dated to the 26th 
November, 1835, when the following citizens met at the house of T. 
M. T. McKennan, Esq., to take the initiatory movement to organize 
a female seminary in this borough. The citizens referred to were 
Rev. David Elliott, John Harter, John Wilson, James Reed, Wm. 
J. Wilson, William Huntei', Jacob Slagle, Robert Officer, William 
Smith, David Eckert, John Koontz, and T. M. T. McKennan. Rev. 
Dr. D. Elliott appointed Chairman, and T. M. T. McKennan, Sec- 
retary. Many other citizens were, from business and professional 
duties, prevented from attending the first meeting, but their devo- 
tion to the establishment of a female seminary was afterwards 
evinced by their zeal and perseverance in advancing its interests. 
Their names are Alexander Reed, Dr. F. J. Leraoyne, Thomas 
Morgan, Samuel Mount, Samuel McFarland, John Grayson, John 
H. Ewing, James Brice, John K. Wilson, Dr. James Stevens, Alex- 
ander Ramsey, James Ruple, Alex. Sweeney, Wm. Sample, James 



200 HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

McCadden, John Marshall, Andrew Shearer, Dr. John Wishart, 
Samuel Hazlett, George Kuntz, Robert Wylie, Rev. Dr. D. McCon- 
aughy, Janie.s McCoy, Joseph Lawrence, Dr. Robert R. Reed, John 
L. Gow, Samuel Cunningham, Collon M. Reed, John S. Brady, 
Hugh W. Wilson, D. Houston, Dr. H. Buchanan, Sample Sweeney, 
John Bausinan, Daniel Moore, James G. Strean, Rev. Thomas 
Hanna, Dr. R. P. Lane, N. F. Brobst, Joseph Templeton, Samuel 
Yance, Hon. Abraham Wootring, Wm. Brownlee, James and Henry 
Langley, Wm. McKennan, George Lonkert, Samuel Clokey, Wm. 
Gabby, Rev. James 1. Brownson, Dr. M. H. Clark, Dr. John W. 
Wishart, Dr. Thomas McKennan, Thomas McKean, and V. Hard- 
ing, who have been its warm and steadfast friends, promoting its 
interests pecuniarily, by subscription to stock and otherwise, as -the 
records of the Board of Trustees constantly show. It is eminently 
due, therefore, that their names should be perpetuated, many of whom 
will appear in its history as its trustees. 

At the meeting of the 26th of November, referred to, and after a 
full interchange of opinion, Messrs. Jacob Slagle,John Koontz, and 
David Eckert were appointed to ascertain if a suitable place could 
>be procured for opening a seminary in the spring of 1836, while 
Messrs. T. M. T. McKennan, Wm. Hunter, John Harter, Dr. F. J. 
Lemoyne, and Thomas Morgan were authorized to confer with 
Alexander Reed, Esq., on the prospect of purchasing lots for the 
erection of a seminary on the east end of Maiden Street. 

The Committee to procure a suitable place reported on November 
30th that the Masonic Hall, which stood on the eastern end of the 
lot, upon which was the residence of John Grayson, Esq., with an 
entrance from Maiden Street, east of Main, could be rented, where- 
upon the same committee were instructed to rent the same, based 
upon the encouraging fact that Messrs. David Eckert, James Reed, 
and Samuel Mount had ascertained that between thirty and forty 
scholars would be obtained, the tuition of which would yield between 
si.x and seven hundred dollars. While these committees were making 
the preliminary arrangements about a suitable place and tuition, the 
Committee on the purchase of ground upon which to erect seminary 
buildings reported that Mr. Alexander Reed would sell the lots 
for the contemplated purpose. 

The friends of the establishment of the seminary believing that its 
varied interests would be better promoted by procuring the sale of 
stock, in which every citizen would feel a deep interest, appointed 
Dr. F. J. Lemoyne, Alexander Sweeney, and James Reed to ascer- 
tain what amount could be procured, who, on December 18, 1835, 
reported the sale of eighty-five shares, equivalent to $4250. 

With such encouraging prospects Messrs. F. J. Lemoyne, T. M. 
T. McKennan, Samuel McFarland, and Thomas Morgan were in- 
structed to procure two suitable persons for teachers. This com- 
mittee, at a subsequent meeting, reported that they had procured 
the services of Mrs. Francis Biddle, and had given her authority to 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 201 

select an assistant. Her stipulated salary to be six hundred dollars, 
clear of rent, fuel, furniture, and incidental expenses. The trustees 
also resolved that all excess over the six hundred dollars, derived 
from tuition, and the payment of all incidental expenses, should be 
paid to Mrs. Biddle in addition to her salary. 

T. M. T. McKennan, Esq., chairman of the Committee to confer 
with Alexander Reed, Esq., on the purchase of his lots, reported 
December 18, 1835, that Mr. Reed v/ould sell the lots for two hun- 
dred and fifty dollars, and the price of the fencing, which would be 
about fifty dollars ; which report was accepted, and the trustees in- 
structed to purchase the lots. 

The lots being secured, and $4250 subscribed, Messrs. Alexander 
Sweeney, James Reed, and W. J. Wilson were appointed to obtain 
plans, &c., for the contemplated seminary buildings; and, on the 
14th March, 1836, the stockholders held their first meeting for a 
permanent organization, under the articles of association which had 
ijeen prepared by Rev. Dr. McConaughy, Alexander Reed, and Dr. 
F. J. Lemoyne. The building committee delayed making a report 
until March 14, 1836, when they reported and recommended that a 
building committee be elected, with full power to adopt a plan, ob- 
tain sealed proposals for work and materials, contract for sinking a 
well and putting a pump therein, to have a general superintendence, 
and draw upon the treasurer to meet the necessary expenses. This 
well-matured recommendation met the unanimous approval of the 
trustees, and the following persons were elected said committee, viz : 
Dr F. J. Lemoyne, James Reed, James Ruple, Robert Officer, and 
James Brice. 

John Harter was appointed treasurer, instructed to collect one- 
fifth part of each share of stock, and pay the same out to the order 
of the building committee. He served as such until July 30, 1836, 
when Alexander Sweeney was appointed, and served until October 
26, 1837, when John Grayson was elected. Messrs. John Koontz, 
David Eckert, John Grrayson, R. H. Lee, and Rev. Dr. D. Elliott were 
instructed to provide suitable furniture, and act as a board of trus- 
tees and visitors for the present year. The trustees directed the 
building committee, on July 30, 1836, to call in the remaining instal- 
ments in such proportions as may be necessary to defray the expenses 
of the new buildings and premises. 

On the 14th of February, 1837, the stockholders adopted a new 
constitution, having in view the necessity of procuring an act of in- 
corporation from the legislature. This constitution contained fifteen 
articles, vesting certain powers in the board of trustees — to consist 
of nine members, elected annually by the stockliolders ; to fill 
vacancies, to provide the mode of election on shares of stock, to 
employ a principal, and manage the preliminary affairs of the insti- 
tution, placing the edifice and appurtenances under the care of the 
principal and trustees; the principal to have charge of the domestic 
affairs of the seminary, under the sanction of the trustees ; the 
14 



202 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

principal and her assistants to instruct the scholars in such a course 
of studies as the trustees would approve ; dividing the seminary 
into three classes, and requiring three years' study to complete the 
course and receive a diploma ; the trustees to establish the price of 
tuition, fees, &c. ; the treasurer to be elected by the stockholders, 
and dividends to be declared when the institution is free of debt, and 
an annual report to be made. Such were its provisions, which in- 
strument, after discussion, was unanimously adopted. 

Under the constitution an election for nine trustees was held 
February IT, 1837 : the Board consisting of Dr. F. J. Lemoyne, 
John Marshall, Jacob Slagle, Dr. John Wishart, Rev. D. McCo- 
naughy, Joseph Lawrence, Dr. Robert R. Reed, John L. Gow, and 
Alexander Reed. While upon the subject of trustees I shall at this 
time add the names of those who have filled and are now filling the 
office : — 

September 26, 1837, Dr. F. J. Lemoyne, Dr. R. R. Reed, Jacob 
Slagle, Rev. Dr. D. McConaughy, were re-elected, and John H. 
Ewing, James Brice, John Grayson, Samuel Hazlett, and Samuel 
Cunningham constituted the Board. 

December 11, 1850, Dr. Wilson Addison and Mr. Ross, executors 
of the estate of Mrs. Jane Addison, deceased, executed a deed for 
four feet of ground adjoining the seminary lot, which enabled the 
trustees to adopt a plan for the building so as to occupy the ground 
up to the Addison grant. 

On the 14th of April, 1838, the legislature incorporated the 
Washington Female Seminary, and appointed as trustees Rev. Dr. 
D. McConaughy, Dr. F. J. Lemoyne, Dr. John Wishart, John 
Grayson, Jacob Slagle, Dr. R. R. Reed, John Marshall, John L. 
Gow, and Joseph Lawrence. 

April 4, 1839, John Grayson and John L. Gow were instructed 
to prepare an address to the citizens of the surrounding counties of 
Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Ohio in reference to the prospects of 
the seminary. 

November 18, 1839, John L. Gow resigned the office of trustee, 
and Alexander Sweeney was appointed. 

March 1, 1838, the trustees signed a memorial to the legislature 
asking an appropriation of $1000 per annnm, for five years, which was 
granted, the law requiring the payment to be made quarterly, and 
the treasurer was authorized from time to time to receive the same. 

December 7, 1841, Dr. R. II. Reed and John Marshall tendered 
their resignations as trustees, and T. M. T. McKennan and Collin 
M. Reed were appointed. 

July 14, 1846, John II. Ewing was appointed a trustee in the 
room of Joseph Lawrence, Esq. 

December 13, 1849, the trustees ordered a perpetual insurance of 
$6000 on the seminary buildings. 

August 24, 1858, on account of the death of the Rev. D. D. 
McConaughy and T. M. T. McKennan, Esq., the Board proceeded 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON' COUNTY. 203 

to fill the vacancies by the election of Rev. James I. Brownson and 
Dr. M. H. Clark. 

December 17, 1858, Dr. John Wishart resigned bis trusteeship, 
and on January 19, 18o9, Dr. John Wilson Wishart was elected to 
fill the vacancy ; at the same time Dr. Thomas McKennan was 
elected in place of Hugh W. Wilson, deceased. 

January 12, 18G6, Alexander Sweeney having died, T. Harding 
was elected, and Dr. John Wilson Wishart having resigned Thomas 
AIcKean was elected. 

With this necessary digression we shall return again to the gene- 
ral history of the seminary, commencing at the period before the 
charter was obtained, and when arrangements were being made to 
complete and furnish the seminary. At the meeting of June 8, 
1837. it was stated that if the whole amount of 84250 were paid in, 
it would require an additional one thousand dollars ; wliereupon 
Messrs. James Brice, Alexander Reed, Samuel McFarlaud. T. AT. 
T. McKennan, and Samuel Hazlett were appointed to sell additional 
stock, who, on the 22d of June following, reported that they had 
obtained seven shares, equal to eight hundred and fifty dollars. 
Being thus encouraged the trustees directed the building committee 
to have the buidin^ painted, provide suitable furniture, and borrow 
$500, and to pledge the new stock for its payment. 

At a meeting of the trustees held December 18, 1840. the trus- 
tees taking into consideration the increase of pupils and the liealthy 
state of the Seminary, determined that it was both expedient and 
necessary to erect additional buildings, thev therefore appointed Dr. 
R. R. Reed, Dr. John Wishart, and^T. M. T. McKenuan, to sell 
new stock for that purpose. So successful were the committee, that 
on January 28, 1841, the Board appointed Dr. F. J. Lemoyne, John 
Grayson, and Dr. R. R. Reed, to receive plans for the proposed 
building and issue sealed proposals for the work and materials. On 
the 8th of March, 1S41, the execution of the work was awarded to 
Messrs. Wm. Allen and Thos. Cooper, for the sum of 83231.59, 
but Mr. Allen removing from town, Henry Shearer was substituted 
in his place. The contractors were required to have the buildings 
finished by October 20, 1841. An insurance was placed upon the 
building amounting to 85000, and 8200 appropriated for this purpose. 
Dr. Jno. Wishart, Alexander Sweeney, and Jacob Slagle, appointed 
to contract for the furnishing of the additional building. 

January 28, 1846, Messrs. T. M. T. McKennan'', Dr. F. J. 
Lemoyne, and C. M. Reed were appointed to obtain subscriptions 
of new stock to erect an cast wing to the building, and on February 
28th they reported the sale of twenty-six shares, equal to 81300. 
This amount not being considered sufficient to justify the trustees, 
the question was postponed and renewed at a meeting of the stock- 
holders on February 3, 1848, when various plans were suggested 
and the whole question postponed for the action of a future meet- 
ing. While the trustees and stockholders were deliberating upon 



204 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

the necessity of crcetiiip^ additional buildings;, a fire occurred on 
December 1, 1848, destroying tlie new building wbicli bad been pre- 
viously erected. The Franklin Fire Insurance Company, having 
been notified of the fact, telegraphed that the loss would bo promptly 
met, and on December 13th Dr. F. J. Lemoyne, T. M. T. McKen- 
nan, and Sample Sweeney were appointed to sell additional stock, 
who reported the sale of forty-three shares, equal to $2150. The 
trustees met on February 17, 1849, and appointed Dr. F. J. Lemoyne, 
John II. Ewing, Sample Sweeney, James Brice, and James Iluple 
a building committee to borrow money and make a contract for the 
erection of the west wing to the Seminary building. On the ISth 
of May the committee report that they have contracted with Robert 
Pi.amsey for the erection of the west wing and an additional story on 
the old building, for the sum of $4900, to be completed by October 
1, 1849. On January 30, 1850, the building committee made a. final 
report and received a vote of thanks for the able manner in which 
they had discharged their duties. 

In connection with the subject of the erection of the buildings 
and purchase of the lots and other incidental expenses, I might add 
that on January 19, 1859, John Grayson, Esq., treasurer, reported 
the institution free from debt, there being a balance in his hands 
of $590. Since this time the stockholders have been receiving a 
dividend upon their shares of stock, and a contingent fund has been 
established. 

Principals of the Seminary. 
1. Mrs. Frances Biddlk. 

On April 9, 1836, Rev. Dr. D. Elliott, Prof. Richard H. Lee, 
John Grayson, David Eckert, and John Koontz, trustees of the 
Seminary, published an address, stating that some time during the- 
present month a female seminary for the education of young ladies, 
under the direction of Mr'i^. Frances Biddle, an experienced teacher, 
highly recommended by competent persons as a lady well qualified 
for the superintendence of a female institute. She will bo aided 
by a well educated female assistant. The course of education will 
Ix! extensive, embracing the various branches taught in the best fe- 
male seminaries. Mrs. Riddle opened the seminary 21st of April, 
1830, assisted by Miss Mary Clark, and during her term of office 
had also as assistants, Miss Henrietta M. Post (afterwards ^[rs. U. W. 
Wise), and Miss Sarah Chapman (afterwards Mrs. Collin M. Reed). 

On the 2d day of January, 1840, Rev. Dr. McConaughy, Dr. R. 
R. Pvced, and John Grayson were instructed to confer with Mr.s. 
Biddle on the present and future ])rospects of the Seminary, who 
reported on the 24th, that the Principal intended to resign her office 
at the close of the present session in March, which she accordingly 
did, and her resignation was accepted. On the September previous 



J 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 205 

of 1839, three years having elapsed since the organization of the 
Seminary, the first class of young ladies graduated, consisting of six 
in number. 

2. Miss Sarah R. Foster (Mrs. Sarah R. F. Hanna). 

After the trustees had received notice of the resignation of Mrs. 
Biddle, Rev. Dr. McConaughy, Dr. F. J. Lemoyue, and John Mar- 
shall were appointed to obtain information of a suitable person for 
Principal of the Seminary. This committee, on the 14th of March, 
1840, reported that they had procured the desired information, and 
would recommend Miss Sarah R. Foster, of Cadiz, Ohio, as pre-emi- 
nently possessing all the qualifications which would insure thorough 
education and perpetuate the institution. These recommendations 
being entirely satisfactory. Miss Foster was unanimously elected on 
the terras embraced in the existing contract with Mrs. Biddle. Dr. 
F. J. Lemoyne, Jacob Slagle, and John Marshall were appointed 
to execute the contract and publish the election and acceptance of a 
Principal, the studies and terms of tuition. 

Miss Henrietta M. Post and Miss Laura Simmons were appointed 
as assistants, with the consent of the Principal. During the period 
Miss Foster presided over the Seminary and to the present time, as 
Mrs. Hanna, highly educated and accomplished assistant teachers 
have aided her in the discharge of her arduous duties. 

On the 2nh day of Sept., 1848, Miss Sarah R. Foster was united 
in marriage to the Rev. Thomas Hanna, pastor of Seceder Congre- 
gation, and on the 11th of March following he was elected by the 
trustees Superintendent of the Seminar^-, which office he held until 
his death, which occurred February 9, 1864. Mrs. Hanna, however, 
has always filled and exercised the office of Principal with marked 
ability and pre-eminent success, which is owing to her unwavering 
energy, kindness, and efficiency, joined with her judicious selection 
of assistants. 

In connection with this subject we shall add the whole number who 
have graduated yearly since the first class graduated in September, 
1839, which numbered six, the remainder having graduated under 
Mrs. Hanna, numbering in all five hundred and ten graduates, whose 
parents reside in fifteen States of the Union, thereby demonstrating 
that the fame of Washington Female Seminary is not confined to 
State bounds. 

Officers of the Board of Trustees. 

Rev. Dr. David McConaughy was the firat President, and served 
until his death. His successor was the Rev. Dr. James I. Brown- 
son, who was elected August 30, 1858. 

The Treasurers were elected in the following years: 1st. John 
Harter, March 14, 1836. 2d. Alexander Sweeney, July 30, 1836. 
3d. John Grayson, October 26, 1837. 4th. James Brice, March 31, 



206 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY, 

1838. 5th. John Grayson re-elected May 12, 1838. And 6th. 
Thomas ^VIcKean, January 8, 1807. 

The following gentlemen have filled the ofTioc of Secretary by 
election, viz: T. M. T. McKennan, at the organization. 2d. Samuel 
Cunningham, October 2G, 1837. 3d. John L. Gow, May 12. 1838. 
4th. Dr. F. J. Lemoyne, December 7, 1841. 5th. Collin M. Reed, 
January 14. 1842. 6th. Y. Harding, January 8, 1867. 

The present Board of Trustees consists of Rev. Dr. James I. 
Brownson, President; Thomas McKean, Treasurer ; Y. Harding, 
Secretary ; and John Grayson, Jacob Slagle, Collin M. Reed, John 
H. Ewing, Dr. M. H. Clarke, and Dr. Thomas McKennan. 

In connection with the name of Hon. John Grayson, a member 
of the Board of Trustees, and who served as treasurer for thirty 
years, the Board at its meeting on January 16, 1867, presented him 
with an elegant family Bible. I might add also that John Grayson 
and Jacob Slagle, Esquires, are the only two trustees who have 
served thirty years each as a trustee, and their devotion to the inte- 
rests of the Seminary, with their fellow laborers, the Principal and 
her assistant teachers, continues unabated. 

We cannot better close our remarks upon the origin, progress, and 
success of the Washington Female Seminary, both as regards the in- 
telligence of its teachers and the acquirements of the young ladies, 
mentally and morally, than by quoting an extract from the address 
of Rev. James I. Brownson, D. D., at the Quarter Centennial Cele- 
bration held on the 27th of June, 1866, who, in speaking of Mrs. 
Hanna, the efficient and beloved Principal of the Institute, said : — 

"But especially Mrs. Hanna is here, almost as you last saw her; 
with the same clear voice, firm step, commanding presence, kindly 
heart, and wise and firm yet tender administration, which, in your 
school days, brought you at the same time under the power of fear 
and love ; and, as you can see for yourselves, she is after all not much- 
older. All the period of your absence she has borne you in memory 
and heart, and now she waits to tell you all about your alma mater, 
its fluctuations of prosperity and trial, its struggles and triumphs, 
and to hear your full history from your own month." 

ITnion School Building. 

This building is placed on a lot two hundred and forty feet square, 
on the west end of Beau Street, and west of the college. The plan 
was suljuiitted by John Chislett, Esq., of Pittsburg. It is seventy- 
four by eighty-four feet, three stories high, the first and second four- 
teen feet each, and the third fifteen feet, the elevation of the first floor 
being three feet. 

Tlie Jlrst floor has four rooms, with a hall. These rooms contain 
closets for books, clothos-rooms, broad double stairways, and the 
necessary apparatus fur heating and ventilation. The aecond floor 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 201 

is divided in like manner, wliile the thii^d floor has a hall of forty by- 
seventy feet, with two rooms. 

The hall is used for public examination, declamation, &c. The 
building cost about $16,000, and the furniture $2500. 

Since the erection of this building the following gentlemen have 
filled the office of Principal, viz : Alexander M. Gow, Rev. David P. 
Lowary, Alexander Wishart, Rev. L. P. Streator, D. F. Patterson, 
Rev. W. J. Wilson. 

The borough of Washington contains twelve schools; number of 
months taught are ten. The schools employ one male and eight female 
teachers, male teachers receiving $81.50, the females $33 per month. 
The colored children are taught by a male teacher in another building. 
There are 496 male scholars, and 506 females, amounting to 1002 
scholars enrolled, although about 831 are the average number in 
attendance. The cost of tuition per month is 58 cents; amount 
levied for school purposes, $4740; for building purposes, $1600; 
total amount, $6685. The State appropriation was $330.33; the 
debt remaining on school is $7087.90. 

Washington Gas Works, 

The first meeting for the establishment of gas works in the borough 
of Washington was held on the 26th of August, 1856. The citizens 
engaged in the enterprise ; procured a charter, which designated 
as its managers Collin M. Reed, Jos. Henderson, Simon Cort, Jacob 
Slagle, Charles W. Hays, Freeman Brady, Jr., J. L. Judson, Jas. 
W. Koontz, and Alexander Seaman. This Board of Managers pro- 
cured the sale of stock, and by the terms of the charter, a new Board 
was elected January 18, 1857, consisting of Samuel Hazlett, C. M. 
Reed, Dr. P. J. Lemoyne, William Smith, Jacob Miller, Alexander 
Wilson, and Joseph Henderson. After its organization Messrs. Le- 
moyne, Hazlett, and Miller were appointed to purchase a suitable 
lot of ground, erect the necessary buildings, and contract with Mr. 
Stephenson for their erection. 

The company has a capital stock of twenty thousand seven hun- 
dred and seventy-five dollars, divided into eight hundred and thirty- 
one shares of twenty-five dollars each. 

The estimated value of the gas works is thirty thousand dollars. 
The officers are C. M. Reed, President ; John C. Hastings, Secretary 
and Treasurer. 

Washington Cemetery. 

A desire among the people of Washington and its vicinity to 
have an appropriate place for their honored dead led to the organi- 
zation of the Washington Cemetery Company. An apj^lication was 
made to the court, and on the 3d day of March, 1853, a charter 
was granted to the following corporators, viz : Samuel Cunningham, 



208 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Jaracs Watson, f George Lonkert, John D. Chambers, Hon. Alex. 
W. Achesou, f James Brown, Joseph Henderson, flv. F. Cooper, 
f James Ewiiitr, fJohn L. Gow, John H. Ewing, Dr. John AV. 
Wisliart, Hon. Wm. JNlcKennan, David S. Wilson, O. B. McFadden, 
Alex. Murdoch, AVilliain Hopkins, S. B. Hays, John Hall, Franklin 
Xichol, and Dr. M. H. Clark. 

The charter pbtained, named the following persons as the Board of 
Managers : Rev. Thos. Hanna, D. D., John L. Gow, Hon. Alex. W. 
Aeheson, William Hopkins, James AVatson, Jas. Brice, and D. S. 
Wilson, who were authorized to purchase land, fdl vacancies, and per- 
form such otiier acts as would ])romotc the interest of the cemetery. 

The legislature passed an act that all the lots should be forever 
exempt from taxation and free from seizure, levy, and sale, and also 
provided for its general protection. The company owns fifty acres 
of land, and have sold lots amounting to twenty-two thousand dol- 
lars, which has been appropriated to the erection of a superintend- 
ent's house, fencing and improving the grounds, as originally laid 
out by Mr. Cliislett. So devoted have the lot-holders been to beau- 
tif3Mng and adorning the resting-place of those who were near and dear 
to them, that the estimated value of the improvements is two hundred 
thousand dollars. While the larger portion of the lot-holders reside 
in the borough, yet the people of the eount}^ feel interested in this 
cemetery, and here deposit tlieir friends in an ap])ropriate resting- 
place, which we may well call the great city of the illustrious and 
honored dead. 

The managers of the company have generously appropriated 
grounds for the burial of the soldiers who died in defence of the 
Constitution, and in these grounds the soldiers' monument is to be 
erected, which will add another beautiful structure to the many 
whigh already can be seen, calling to remembrance the virtues of 
those who have passed into the spirit-land, and whose names are 
engraved not only upon marble, but upon the tablet of the memory 
of human hearts. 

Washington Coal Company. 

This company is situate in the western limits of the borough, the 
owners of wliich arc Messrs. Parkin, Marshall & Co., who on August 
24, 18()4, commenced sinking a sliaft for bituminous coal, with which 
our county aljounds. They were successful on the 12th day of Au- 
gust, 18(i5, being one year engaged in the enterprise before their 
wishes were both realized and gratilied. The periiendicular depth 
of the shaft is three hundred and fifty feet, but at an angle of forty- 
five degrees, which is the descent to the coal, by a stationary engine 
and cars, it is five hundred feet. The company employ thirty hands, 
digging daily one thousand bushels, and the improvements, with the 
coal right, are estimated as worth thirty thousand dollars. 

t Those to whose nnmes a cross is preCxed. linve since died, and are buried in the 
cenielerj', except 11. F. Cooper, who died on the buttle-field. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 209 

As it will be interesting to ray geological readers to know the 
various strata through which the workmen passed, I shall give them 
as detailed to me by Mr. Parkin, the senior partner. Passing down 
below the soil and clay four feet, was blue clay, then five feet of 
gravel, then eighteen inches of black slate, like roofing slate, then a 
four feet bed of limestone, next fifteen feet of a blue clay or schale 
like fire-proof brick is made of, then an eight inch vein of coal, next 
six feet of gray schale like fire-proof clay, then five feet of freestone, 
then one hundred and seyenty feet of gray limestone between beds 
varying from six inches to three feet. In this, however, is twenty 
feet of white limestone, about the centre of the foregoing depth of one 
hundred and seventy feet. In this white limestone, which is one 
hundred and fifty feet from the surface, are salt springs. Immedi- 
ately below the gray limestone is twelve feet of black slate, such as 
is found at Cook's Mill, two miles north of Washington, then eight 
feet of gray limestone of a soft nature, then five feet of gray flinty 
limestone (the hardest they had met with), fifty feet of blue schale, 
and mixed with iron, until they reached sandstone, which was fifteen 
feet deep, mixed with fossils of various kinds, then three feet of slate, 
under which was a vein of pure bituminous coal of five feet six 
inches, 

Hanover Township. 

By reference to the history of Smith township we learn that this 
township was a part thereof, but on the 11th day of March, 1786, 
after application had been made to and certificate granted by the 
court, the Supreme Executive Council confirmed the action of the 
court. When formed into a township its boundaries were the Ohio 
Kiver on the north and east. Smith township on the south, and Vir- 
ginia on the west. It will be remembered that after a part of Beaver 
County was taken off Washington, a part of Hanover township was 
thereby struck off. Yet each county retained the original name of 
Hanover for one of its townships. 

It is bounded by Beaver County on the north, Robinson and Smith 
on the east, Jefferson and Smith on the south, and West Virginia 
on the west. 

The turnpike road from Pittsburg to Steubenville on the Ohio 
Kiver runs westerly through the township, and upon it is Florence, 
called originally Briceland's Cross Roads. The Pittsburg and Steu- 
benville Railroad runs through its southern part. This township 
contains several valuable grist and saw-mills, also ten stores, fourteen 
schools, employing six male and eight female teachers, with 494 
scholars (274 males and 220 females) ; the male teachers receive 
$3t 50 per month, and the females $26 25 ; the tuition costing per 
month for each scholar $1 16. Amount levied for school purposes 
$2552 92 ; from State appropriation $182 91. 

Its population in 1860 was 2090, of which 38 were colored. Its 
greatest length is 11, breadth 7 miles. 



210 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY 

In this township resided the celebrated Adam Poe, who lived in 
a cabin about two miles west of Florence, situate on a little knoll 
on the farm of the late John Fulton, deceased. 

Its towns are Florence, Paris, Murdocksville. 

On the 14th day of August, 1814, a town was laid out by James 
Briceluud and Moses Proud fit, who named it Floi'cnce. It was 
originally named Briceland's Cross Roads, from the fact of the Pitts- 
burg and Stcubenville pike crossing the Washington and Georgetown 
road at this point, where James Briccland kept an hotel. It is 
twenty-six miles from Pittsburg, sixteen from Washington, and 
twelve from Steubenville. 

Presbyterian Church. 

The Cross-roads Presbyterian Church is located at Florence. It 
was organized originally at a place called King's Creek, in 178(5, but 
the location was changed to its present site in 1798. The church 
has had as its pastors Rev. Elisha McCurdy, who was installed in 
June, 1800; Rev. Daniel Deruelle, in 183G; Rev. Wm. Burton, in 
1838; Rev. James W. McKennan, in November, 1839; Rev. Joel 
Stoneroad, in 1842 ; Rev. J. S. Wylie, in 1850 ; Rev. Oliphant M. 
Todd, November 9, 1852; Rev. J. P. Caldwell, in 18G0 ; Rev. 
Andrew W. Boyd, in 18G4; and Rev. David M. Miller, in May, 
1867, its present efficient and highly esteemed pastor, who informs 
me that the numl)er of families connected therewith numbers eighty- 
nine, with a Sabbath school of one hundred and twenty children. 
This was one of the churches that shared in the great revival which 
took place at the beginning of the present century, which was accom- 
panied by what was known as the " falling exercises." 

The United Presbyterians have a church on King's Creek, near 
Florence. The present pastor is Rev. James L. Purdy, with a 
membership of eighty. 

Paris is in the western part of the township, and contains about 
thirty-five dwellings, a Presbyterian church under the care of the 
Rev. Fulton jNIagill, and a United Presbyterian church, which has 
had the ministerial labors of Rev. Mr. Galloway, Rev. Mr. Backus, 
Rev. J. Y. Calhoon, and llev. James C. Campbell, with a membership 
of one hundred and twenty. It has also one extensive threshing- 
machine maimfactory, cabinet-makers, blacksmiths, shoemakers, &c. 

Murdocksville is in the northeast part of the township. 

August 20, 1811, in Pittsburg, two officers had a dispute, and 
they resolved to settle their difficulties by fighting a duel. Arrange- 
ments were made that the affair should I)e settled in Virginia. One 
of the parties travelled as far as Briceland's Cross-roads (Florence) 
th« first day, and in the morning rose by daylight and practised with 
his pistol. One of the shots struck the headstone of Capt. liaving- 
ton, and can be seen at this day. After breakfast he left for the 
designated spot. The same day his antagonist left Pittsburg, but 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 211 

when he came neai' to the place called the old IS'orth Star, formerly 
kept by Joseph Crawford as a tavern, he was thrown from the 
sulky and had his leg broken. The wounded officer was taken back 
on a litter to Pittsburg, by soldiers sent for that purpose. Thus 
ended this duel. 

July 3, 1793. We give the substance of a lease between George 
McCormick and Solomon Hule and Sarah his wife ; the former convey- 
ing to the latter on lease, one hundred acres of land, on the waters of 
King (or Indian) Creek, in Hanover township. The rent required 
was one bushel of Indian corn yearly, and the taxes to be paid on 
four hundred acres, and at the expiration of three lives the land to 
revert to George McCormick and his heirs. 

Franklin Township. 

On the 16th of July, 1*787, the Supreme Executive Council, upon 
the proper certificate of the Court of Quarter Sessions of Washing- 
ton County, formed this township, adopting as its boundaries Am- 
well township on the north, Cumberland on the east, Greene on the 
south, and Donegal on the w^est. 

With Cumberland, Morgan, Greene, and Rich Hill, this township 
constituted Greene County by an act passed February 9, 1796. 

FiNLEY Township 

Was formed out of Donegal on the 6th of May, 1788. Its boun- 
daries were Donegal on the north, Franklin, Cumberland, and Greene 
'on the east, Mason and Dixon's line on the south, and Virginia 
on the west. 

It was subdivided into East and West Finley December 24, 1828, 
by a decree of the court. The history of each we shall give after 
referring to some other subjects. 

About the year 1S07 there existed in this township several 
religious sects, of which we shall speak, to show the influence which 
superstition has upon the human mind. The leader of this sect was 
a man by the name of Sergeant. He professed to have a revelation 
direct from heaven, through the ministry of an angel, in which was 
communicated to him the very convenient doctrine that there was 
no hell. He preached in that and the adjoining townships for about 
thi'ee years, and had many followers. Firmly believing in this doc- 
trine, and concluding that there was no punishment hereafter, he 
committed forgery and was imprisoned in Cumberland, Maryland. 
However, before he committed this crime his fame as a minister had 
preceded him to Wheeling, and thither he went and preached. His 
services were interrupted by a lawyer, and Sergeant instituted suit 
against him for disturbing the solemnity of the sanctuary and the 
religious services in which he and his followers were engaged. The 
trial came off; the lawyer was acquitted and the Halyconites were 
declared not to be a religious sect. It was immediately after this 



212 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

he was arrested ajid sent to Cumberland, Maryland, for trial. As 
soon as the lawyer heard of this, he composed the following poetry, 
which is still repeated from memory by some of the old inhabitants 
of Finley township. The lawyer styles himself St. DavicVs son, and 
Sergeant, St. Bones. It reads as follows : — 

1. Saint Bones, to show that all his ways 
Demand the most unbounded praise, 
Returned St. David's son to court, 

Of which St. Bones became the sport, 
With all the Halycon union. 

2. Saint David's son did prove full well, 
St. Bones did preach there is no hell; 
It was thus decided Ijy the laws 
That his was not a Christian cause, 

AVith all the Halycon union. 

3. Saint David's pon to Bacchus bows. 
And in his temple pays his vows ; 
Being thus inspired he moves along, 
Amidst the enthusiastic throng 

Who compose the Halycon union. 

4. Now adieu, St. Bones, whene'er you die, 
Directly to heaven you will fly. 

But father Abraham, with a club. 
Will beat you down to Belzebub, 
With all the Halycon union. 

This lawyer, whose name we are not authorized to give, wrote, 
another piece upon this man Sergeant — upon his confinement — which 
we also give as a relic of the olden times. The lawyer represented 
the devil as saying : — 

1. Now I'll away to Cumberland 
To see a friend in iron l)ands ; 
To see a friend in awful dwell. 

Who always preached there was no hell. 

2. He took his leave, away did gc. 

He found his friend both mean and low, 
He found his friend in iron band. 
Which put the Devil to a stand. 

3. Oh, now, dear son, what brought you here ? 
Oh, father, pray, don't be severe; 

The truth to you I won't deny. 
They put me here for forgery. 

4. Oh, now, dear father, if you can. 
Release me from these iron bands — 

' Release me now — don't let me swing, 

And I'll to you new subjects bring. 

5. Oh, yes. dear son. that I can do. 
And soon he burst the bands in two. 
For this here thing you shall not swing. 
This day I'll crown you Halycon King. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 213 

This was a death-blow to the Halyconites, but on their ruins 
arose a more wonderful sect. Among the followers of Sergeant 
was an old lady by the name of Rhoda Fordyce, who, in addition 
to the doctrine that there was no hell, taught that it were possible 
for persons to live entirely on a vegetable diet, such as parched corn, 
sassafras buds, &c. &c., for a certain number of days and then be 
bodily translated to heaven. This sect was called Rhodianites, after 
their founder. 

A man by the name of Parker, it is said, in attempting to carry 
out this doctrine, was absolutely starved to death in the house of 
this woman Foixlyce. She kept the body concealed in her house for 
three days and three nights, and as he did not make the ascension 
in his lifetime, it was not probable that he would after death. The 
neighbors, missing Parker, and knowing the influence she was exer- 
cising upon his mind, went to the house and were refused admit- 
tance. They broke the door open, found the body and buried it. 

To the doctrine of passing bodily to heaven, she added another 
point, which was required of all her followers, viz : That of form- 
ing a chain. To perfect this chain required a man and woman to 
make the link. The way it was formed was on this wise : Each were 
sewed up in separate sacks, with their head out, arms tied close against 
the body, and feet tied together; they were then put to bed by the 
old lady. In the morning they were brought before the old woman 
as Inspector-General, and if they stated that they had slept inno- 
cently together, they became a link in the chain of the Rhodianite 
church. Tradition tells us that many husbands were separated from 
their wives to form a link in the Rhodianite church. 

After this sect arose a new sect, called New Lights, who made 
converts from the ranks of both the Halyconites and the Rhodian- 
ites by scores. They believed in immersion as the true mode of 
baptism, and that the Saviour was not equal to God, the Father, and 
was not from everlasting. They also believed in washing each other's 
feet at their communion. They wonld strip oif their feet, get a 
basin of water and a towel, and go amongst all the brethren and 
sisters and wash their feet. These New Lights increased rapidly 
for a few years on the borders of Washington and Greene County, 
Marshall County, Yirginia, and the adjoining counties of Ohio. They 
held both camp and bush-meetings. 

In connection with this subject we might say that "Mormonism" 
had its origin in Amity, in the township of Amwell, whose history 
we have riven under that township. Thus have we finished the 
history of superstition, which exerts so baneful an influence upon the 
human mind. 



214 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



School-House. 

Alexander Frazer, Esq., of this place, informs me that the first 
school taught in the western part of Fiuley township commenced in 
the spring of 1799 and continued for one year. The teacher's name 
was McDonald, who could read, write, and cipher to the double rule 
of three. The books used were Dihvorth's spelling book, the Old 
and New Testament, and the Shorter Catechism. 

1801. A young man by the name of Carroll, of Fiuley township, 
with another by the name of Richmond, went out early in the morn- 
ing to hunt wild turkeys. The experienced hunter can give the 
turkey call so exact that the turkeys themselves are deceived by it. 
This unfortunately was the result of this case. These hunters be- 
came separated, and after a time Carroll, who was hid in the bushes, 
gave the turkey call. Richmond being a long distance olf, hearing 
the call and seeing something dark moving in the brush, shot, and 
the ball passed through the head of his companion. Richmond, at 
the accident, became almost frantic, took up Carroll's gun, shot it off 
and laid it across his body and went home. He revealed the secret 
to his sister, who advised him to keep the secret, fearing he might be 
apprehended for murder, they being ignorant of the law. Richmond 
and his sister went that night and watched the corpse lest the wolves 
might devour it. The next day Carroll was missing, search was 
made, the body found, and the opinion was he had shot himself. 
This remained a profound secret until Richmond, on his death-bed, 
revealed the secret. 

East Finley Township 

Was formed from the eastern part of Finley township, on the 24th 
day of December, 1828. Its boundaries are — Donegal and Buffalo 
on the north, Franklin and Morris on the east, Greene County on the 
south, and Donegal and West Finley on the west. It is centrally 
distant from Washington, southwest, ti{"teen miles. It is drained by 
the branches of Wheeling Creek. In 18G0 its,i)opulation was 1201. 
It has eight schools, employing five male and three female teachers, 
the former receiving §35.80, the latter §33.50 per month, with 300 
scholars (180 males and 120 females). Cost of tuition per month 
$1.0t cents. Total anK)uut of taxes levied for school purposes 
$1557.04, from the Stale appropriation §108.42. It has five stores. 
There are four churches in this township, a Bai)tist church near 
Pleasant Grove in the eastern end, a Methodist Episcopal church 
near school-house No. 4, on Mr. Enslow's farm, in the centre, a 
Presbyterian church near Mrs. Jordan's in the west, and a United 
Presbyterian church in the southeast on Lockhart's Run near Dr. 
Simpson's. East Finley has several valuable steam grist and saw- 
mills. Its greatest length is nine miles, breadth four miles. 

The Baptist church called Pleasant Grove, in this township, was 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 215 

constituted November 14, 1840, by Elders Isaac Pettet, Simeon Sieg- 
fred, and Levi Griffith, with fifty-three members who had been mem- 
bers of Mount Herman church, the old Tenraile Baptist church. 

Those who have officiated as pastors are, Elder Levi Griffith from 
its organization to October, 1847. Rev. Isaac Winn supplied the 
pulpit for six months, when Rev. Eli C. Town was elected and served 
to April, 1848. Rev. A. J. Davis served six months, when Rev. 
John Thomas became the pastor and served until April, 1857. His 
successor was Elder John Scott, who preached until July, 1857. The 
church had occasional supplies until February, 1858, when Rev. Job 
Rossel was chosen pastor and served until 1861, when Rev. John 
B. Liusked was elected and served until April, 1866. His successor 
and present pastor was elected May 5, 1866. 

The following persons have been Deacons of this church at various 
times since its organization : Messrs. John Tilton, Samuel Kelly, 
Elliott Patterson, Daniel Tilton, Thomas MaKahan, J. Y. Holmes, 
Josiah Patterson, William McCleary, Joseph Ryan, and Manson 
Trussel. 

Church Clerics from organization, Edward 0. Town, Ezra Town, 
Thomas McKahan, and Robert Kerr. The following persons have 
been licensed to preach the gospel at official meetings held in this 
church, viz : Eli C. Town in 1847, Hugh R. Craig and AVni. Scott 
in 1854, and J. Y. Holmes in 18G1. This church has been instru- 
mental in establishing churches at Buffalotown and North Wheeling, 
West Finley township. 

Wheeling U. P. Church was organized August, 1836. Rev. 
Joseph Shaw was pastor from June 20, 1843, to April 20, 1852. 
Rev. James C. Murch from September, 1853, to 1859. Rev. James 
A. McKce from August, 1860, until the present time, with a mem- 
bership of 75. 

West Finley Township 

Was organized the same time as East Finley, on the 24th of Decem- 
ber, 1828. Its boundaries are Donegal on the north. East Finley 
on the east, Greene County on the south, and West Virginia on the 
east. This township is centrally distant southwest of Washington 
17 miles. It is chiefly drained by Templeton's and Robinson's forks 
of Wheeling Creek. The population in 1860 was 1453, of which 33 
are colored, with four stores. It has ten school-houses employing 
five male and five female teachers, the former receiving $27.19 and the 
latter $23 03 per month, with 468 scholars, 251 males and 217 females, 
the tuition costing per month 65 cents ; taxes for school purposes 
$1468.70, and its State appropriation $146.25 ; levied for building i 
purposes $587.48. 

Its towns are Good Intent and Burnsville. 

Burnsville is in the southern part. 

Good Intent and Burnsville are small thriving villages. 



216 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

The greatest length of this township is 9 miles, breadth 4-| miles. 

There is a Presbyterian church on the northwest of Burnsville, 
and Disciple church north of the same town. 

In this township the United Presbyterian congregation is under 
the care of Rev. J. A. McKee. 

Morris Township 

Was formed by an order of the Court of Quarter Sessions, March 
13, l^SS. Its original boundaries were Amwell on the north, Beth- 
lehem on the east, Franklin on the south, and Donegal on the west. 
It is at present bounded by East Fiuley, Franklin, and Amwell on 
the north, Amwell on the east, Greene County on the south, and East 
Finley on the west. Centrally distant from the borough of Wash- 
ington 9 miles southwest. Greatest length C^ miles ; breadth 4 
miles. It is drained by the north fork of Tenraile Creek and its 
branches. The population in 1860 was 1148, of which one is color- 
ed. It has three stores, seven schools, employing four males and 
three female teachers, the former receiving $35.25, and the latter $31 
per month, with 288 scholars, 1*76 males and 112 females ; the cost 
of tuition is 94 cents per month ; amount of taxes raised for school 
purposes $1664.6*7 ; from the State appropriation $95.94. 

Its towns are Sparta, Prosperity, and Lindley's Mills. 

Sparta and Lindley's Mills are small villages, but Prosperity has 
twenty-two dwelling-houses, two stores, grist-mill, and several de- 
partments of the mechanical arts, and is ten miles from Washington. 

Two miles west of Prosperity is a Methodist Episcopal church, 
called Mount Zion, near Robert S. Andrew's farm. 

IJppER Tenmile Presbyterian Church 

Is located in Morris township. It»was organized August 15, 1*781, 
at the house of Jacob Cook, with 25 members, Rev. Thaddeus 
Dodd being elected and ordained its first pastor. It is worthy of 
remark that he was the second minister who settled west of the 
Monongahela River, the Rev, John McMillen having preceded him. 
Through his instrumentality and the Upper Tenmile church, the 
FIRST classical school west of the Alleghenies was established as 
early as 1*782, of which he was its first principal. Rev. T. Dodd 
occupied the pulpit of both Upper and Lower Tenmile congrega- 
tions ; the Upper was at Lindley's settlement, and the Ijower at 
Cook's settlement. The site of the Upper Tenmile church was given 
by Denias Lindloy, upon which they built a ni(>eting-house of hewn 
logs, while in 1785 was erected the same kind of a church for the 
people of Lower Tenmile. The Rev. Thaddeus Dodd taught a 
classical school in tlie log court-house in Washington about 1*788 or 
1789. Rev. Thaddeus Dodd died in 1793, and was succeeded by 
Rev. Thomas Moore, who labored until 1803. On the 14th of De- 
cember, 1803, Rev. Cephas Dodd (son of Rev. Thaddeus Dodd), 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 2 IT 

was ordained as the minister of both Upper and Lower Tenmile 
churches, like his predecessors, but in 1817 they separated, each 
having a minister, session, &c., Rev. Cephas Dodd remaining with 
the Lower Tenmile church. 

In 181*1, or immediately after the separation, Rev. Thomas Hoge 
served this congregation as a stated supply for three years, and 
during his labors the frame meeting-house was erected. From 1819 
to 1821 the pulpit was filled by Rev. Andrew Wylie, D. D., President 
of Washington College, as a stated supply. In 1821 and 22, Rev. 
Boyd Mercer was the pastor. Rev. L. Robbins preached for one 
year. After this the church was vacant for several years, only filled 
by supplies from Presbytery. However, in December 1821, the 
Rev. Cornelius Laughran was elected and installed and served 
for eighteen months. The church was again without a pastor until 
1880, when Rev. Jacob Lindley became the stated supply. From 
18.32 to 1838 this congregation had the occasional labors of Rev. 
David Elliott, Rev. John Stockton, and Rev. John McCluskey. In 
1838 the Rev. James M. Smith was ordained and served until 1841. 
From 1841 to 1846 the church was supplied by appointments of 
Presbytery, viz: Rev. Alfred Paull, Rev. J. Miller, and Rev. John 
R. Dundas, but in the spring of 1846 Rev. Nicholas Murray (a 
Professor in Washington College) accepted a call as the stated sup- 
ply; he labored until 1853, when he "fell asleep in Jesus." His 
successor was Rev. Cyrus Braddock for one year. After him was 
the Rev. E. C. Wines, D. D., who took charge of the church in 1855, 
and resigned in 1859. 

The successor to the pastorate of the church after Rev. Dr. 
Wines had resigned was the Rev. N. B. Lyon, who faithfully and 
zealously discharged his ministerial duties, and in the very manhood 
of his ministry was called away to his eternal rest, to receive the 
crown for his labors of love on eai'th. His remains are buried in the 
beautiful Cemetery at Washington, Washington County. Rev. N. 
B. Lyon, deceased, was succeeded by Rev. Henry Wood, the present 
pastor. Professor of Ancient Languages in Washington and" Jefl'er- 
son College, and is doing noble and efficient service in the cause of 
his Divine Master. 

There is a Sabbath school connected with the church, which was 
organized in 1825, having fifteen teachers, one hundred and twenty 
scholars, and near four hundred volumes in their library. 

In the year 1854 the congregation erected their third place of 
worship. The present one occupies the same site where its two pre- 
decessors stood. 

In connection with the Upper Tenmile Church we will add the 
history of the 

Lower Tenmile Presbyterian Church. 

It is true this church is located in Amity, Amwell township, and 
its history properly belonged to that township, but as we could not 
15 



218 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

well separate their history, we delayed it until it could be more ap- 
propriately and understaudinfrly given, for it must be remembered 
that both "Upper and Lower Tenmile Congregations" were but one 
ecclesiastical organization, with the same pastor and session, from 
their organization in 1781 until 1817, when they became two distinct 
bodies. 

The ministers who officiated from 1781 to the division of the 
church were Rev. Thaddeus Dodd, Rev. Thomas Moore, Rev. Ce- 
phas Dodd (who at the separation remained with the Lower Ten- 
mile Church), Rev. James W. McKennan, Rev. W. P. Harvison, 
and Rev. J. W. Hamilton, its present esteemed pastor. Several 
years while the church was without a pastor, it had the services as 
stated supplies of such ministers as the Rev. James Black, D. D., 
and Rev. W. J. Brugh. 

The original church was of hewn logs, and the present neat and 
chaste edifice is in close proximity to the former, while in the rear 
is the rural cemetery of Amity, in which repose the honored remains 
of many loved ones, loved in life and honored in death. There is a 
Sabbath school connected with the church, which was organized in 
1826, having eleven teachers, eighty scholars, and three hundred 
and twenty volumes in the library. 

Chartiers Tow^nship 

Was formed out of Cecil on March 23, 1790. Its original boun- 
daries w^ere Robinson on the north, Strabane on the east and south, 
and Cecil on the west. Its present boundaries are Mount Pleasant 
and Cecil on the north, Cecil north and south, Strabane on the east, 
South Strabane and Canton on the south, and Blount Pleasant and 
Canton on the west. It is centrally distant north of the borough 
of Washington six miles; its greatest length, seven miles; breadth, 
five miles. October fi, 1831, the line of this township was changed 
and part given to Mount Pleasant township, and at the August term 
of Court, 1863, the boundary lines between Chartiers and Canton 
townshii)s were altered and confirmed by the court. 

Chartiers Creek flows on the southern boundary. 

Population in 1800 was 1795, of which 211 are colored. 

Within the township limits are two stores, eight schools, employ- 
ing one male and seven female teachers, their monthly pay being 
$29.37 each. The schools contain 337 scholars, of which IG3 are 
males, and 174 are females, the tuition for each costing 84 cents per 
month; amount levied for school purposes, $1020; and the fuud 
received from the State $141.57. 

Towns. 

Its towns are Canonsburg and McConnellsville, the former being 
a borough ; its history will be given in connection with and after the 
townsiiip history. 

McConnellsville is a small village near the ceutre of the township, 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 219 

with thirty dwelling-houses and a population of about one hundred 
and forty. 

Incident. 

In connection with the early history of this township we mention 
the following incident from the Pittsburg Gazette of May 15, 1790, 
speaking of the navigation of Chartiers' Creek : — 

" About five or six days since a number of men to the amount of thirteen 
left Canonsburg', on Chartiers' Creek, and, with the advantage of a rising 
flood, conducted two boats from thence in about twelve hours into the Ohio 
River. One was large and heavy, built for the purpose of carrying flour to 
New Orleans, forty-seven feet in length and twelve in breadth; a small part 
of the cargo to the amount of forty barrels on board. The other, a barge 
25 feet in length, built for the genteel reception of passengers. The 
amazing facility with which these boats passed down the creek to the mouth, 
their sate crossing of two mill-dams, one of which was about twelve feet 
high, with the rudeness of the creek in its natural state, especially at the 
falls, sufficiently show what immense advantage might arise to thousands of 
people in the county of Washington were the legislature to attend to the 
improvement of its navigation. 'From Canonsburg and nearer Washington 
the charge of carriage to Pittsburg, on account of hills and deep roads, is 
not less than three shillings and ninepence per barrel for flour; j'et were 
attention paid to the cultivation of this excellent stream of water, one boat 
of the afore-mentioned size would, in all probability, carry two hundred 
barrels to the Ohio without detriment thereto or a farthing of expense." 

We learn from old residents of Canonsburg that Col. Canon headed 
this flotilla, while about the same time a load of flour was also sent 
from Bradford's mill, afterwards owned by Dr. Robert R. Reed, and 
now owned by Mr. Wilson. There can be no doubt of the truthful- 
ness of these facts, because, in addition to the evidence, we have 
legislative action on the subject, wherein, on April 8, 1793, Chartiers' 
Creek from its mouth to David Bradford's mill was declared to be a 
public highway for boats and rafts, and all natural and artificial ob- 
structions were required to be removed 

Churches. 

On December 26, 1797, John Canon conveyed to Nicholas Little, 
Samuel Agnew, Thomas Menary, David Reed, John Hays, John 
White, and Jeremiah Simpson, Trustees of the Associate Congrega- 
tion of Chartiers township, four acres, two rods, and fifteen perches 
of land for $45. This church is situated about one mile southwest 
of Canonsburg, and is generally known as Rev. Dr. Ramsay's Church, 
from his long, faithful, and efiicient services. His successors were 
Rev. John B. Clarke and Rev. David Huston French. The old 
church has been torn down, and the congregation has in process of 
erection in the borough a beautiful brick edifice. 



220 history of washington county. 

Chartiers Cross Road Church. 

This is situated on the Hickory road, and south of McConnells- 
yille. The following ministers have successively filled the puli)it as 
regular pastors : Kev. Dr. Finley, Rev. Mr. Graham, Rev. David 
Ferguson, Rev. A. McCahan, Rev. Thomas L. Spears, Rev. Joseph 
Andrews, Rev. J. C. Herron, from June 19, 18fi0, to April 1, 1S6T. 
This church has a membership of 140; it belongs to the United 
Presbyterian denomination, and is built of brick. 

Spears' Spring Church 

Is on the bank of Chartiers' Creek, one-half mile northwest of Ca- 
nonsburg, and belongs to the United Presbyterians, and is a plain, 
substantial brick edifice. It has a rural and beautiful cemetery. 

Its ordained ministers have been Rev. Alexander McCahan, Rev. 
Thomas Callohan, Rev. William Wallace, Rev. David Paull, Rev, 
Wm. H. Andrew, Rev. John W. Bane, and Rev. James G. Carson. 
This church has a membership of 214. 

Chartiers U. P. Church has been removed during this year, 1869, 
from its original site to near the borough limits. It ■vras organized 
about 1180. Rev. Matthew Henderson was ordained in 1781, and 
officiated until October 2, 1795, when Rev. — Smith was elected 
pastor; his successor was Rev. James Ramsey, D. I)., who served 
from September 4, 1805, to June 12, 1849; Rev. John B. Clark, 
D. D., from May 12, 1853, to June 9, 1860; Rev. D. H. French, 
from May 2, 1861, to June 20, 1866; Rev. H. A. McDonald was 
ordained pastor October 14, 1869. It has a membership of 175. 

Canonsburg. 

Canonsburg was laid out by Col. John Canon, of Chartiers town- 
ship, on the 15th of April, 1788. It is situated on Chartiers' Creek, 
17 miles from Pittsburg, 7 miles from Washington, and 40 miles 
from Wheeling. The country around it is elevated, beautiful, 
and fertile. A daily line of stages pass through it, and on the 
route of the Chartiers Valley Railroad. By reference to the 
recorder's office I fine a plot of the town recorded in volume P., 
page 441, on January 24, 1800. This i)lot has twenty-eight lots, 
with the names of the purchasers, viz: Dr. Thompson, Daniel 
McCoy, James Morrison, David Garret, Andrew Munroe, John 
Todd, Robert Rowland, Craig Pvitchie, Col. Matthew Ritchie, Wil- 
liam Marshall, and Abraham De Haven. This plot contains the con- 
ditions of purchase, viz: To those who have as well as those who 
may become purchasers Col. Canon conveys to them, their heirs 
and assigns, their respective lots of ground in which their names 
are in.serted. The inhal)itaiits of the town to have the privilege of 
cutting and using underwood, and taking coal for their own use for- 
ever, gratis. The purchaser to pay the said Canon three pounds 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 221 

purchase money, and one dollar annuallj^ forever afterwards ; and 
to build a stoue, frame, or hewed log house, at least twenty feet 
in front, with a stone or brick chimney, within two years from the 
date of their purchase. A convenient road to be allowed to the 
coal near John Laughlin's ; the road to be only as laid off on the 
plot, and the bank as described on the same. 

This plot also designated the following roads : to Mr. McMillan's 
meeting-house, to Washington, to Mr. Smith's meeting-house on 
Buffalo, to Mr. Henderson's meeting-house, to the coal bank, to 
Gamble's mill, to Wells's mill, and to Devore's ferry. 

This town became a borough on the 22d of February, 1802, and 
is the oldest borough in the county. In 1860 it had a resident 
population of 975, but the number of students attending Jefferson 
College increased it about one-third. It has one hundred and ninety- 
five dwelling-houses, fifteen retail stores, two confectioneries, one 
saving fund society, one furniture manufactory, one woollen manu- 
factory, one broker. It has four schools, employing one male and 
three female teachers, the former receiving $52.03, and the latter 
$31.28, per month ; having 314 scholars, 171 males and 143 females; 
cost of tuition per month, 60 cts. ; amount levied for school pur- 
poses, $1271.70; from State appropriation, $112.76. One female 
Seminary and Jefferson College. In 1829 thg Associate body or Se- 
ceders established a Theological Seminary at this place, and erected 
the requisite buildings ; but a few years since it was removed to 
Xenia, Ohio, 

Jefferson College. 

This college was originally chartered by the legislature, under the 
name of the "Academy and Library Company of Canonsburg," in 
1794, although its origin may be dated to July, 1791, when David 
Johnston became the first teacher. As soon as a convenient house 
was built the Rev. Mr. McMillan transferred a Latin school, which 
he had been teaching at his own house for six or seven years, to the 
chartered academy. This building was erected on a lot given by 
Col. Canon as a present to the academy. 

In October, 1791, the Redstone Presbytery approved of the ac- 
tion of the Synod of Virginia, to appropriate funds to the Canons- 
burg Academy as a Presbyterian institution, and appointed Dr. 
McMillan to receive contributions for that purpose, the Presbytery 
having previously determined that Canonsburg should be the seat 
of learning; and, in 1793, we find that the Presbytery passed a 
resolution that if the wants of the church demanded another institu- 
tion they would not oppose it. 

Col. Canon erected a stone building on the lot presented by him 
for college purposes, for which the trustees were to reimbui'se him, 
and on December 1, 1796, he and his wife made a deed to the trus- 
tees of the Academy, for the lot, on the payment of three hundred 



222 insTORY OF Washington county. 

and seventy pounds, the balance in full for the building. This lot 
contained two acres and thirty-two perches ; he reserved, however, 
cue half acre of said lot for the use of an English school, with a free 
access of fifteen feet wide from Main Street to the English school lot. 

In the Pittsburg Gazette of IV92, it is mentioned that a grammar 
school was in successful operation at Canonsburg, under Mr. David 
Johnston, while Mr. Miller was employed as professor in the mathe- 
matical sciences. 

In this year, 1T96, the trustees petitioned the legislature that in 
case a college was established west of tlie Allegheny Mountains, to 
make Canonsburg its site, as their Academy w^as a perfect success, 
dispensing its benefits throughout this section of county. The trus- 
tees employed David Johnston and James Mountain as teachers, for 
one year, at the end of which Mr. Johnston became engaged in 
other business, but Mr. Mountain continued teaching until April, 
1797. 

These teachers were succeeded by Mr. Jas. Canahan and Joseph 
Stockton, who taught until November, 1797, when John Watson 
was employed for one year, with authority to engage the services of 
an uslier. In 1798, for the eminent services rendered to the Acade- 
my by Dr. McMillan, he was elected president, as an honorary office. 
In 1800, the Academy received a grant of one thousand dollars from 
the legislature, which enabled the trustees to pay off all outstanding 
debts, and in October of this year, the trustees made a movement to 
convert the Academy into a college, which event was not consum- 
mated until January 15, 1802, when the State legislature granted a 
charter for Jefferson College-. 

The trustees named in the charter met on the 27th of April, 1802, 
and were organized by Judge Edgar, who administered to each trus- 
tee an oath to execute the duties of his office. Dr. McMillan was 
elected President of the Board, and Craig Ritchie, Clerk. At this 
meeting they arranged the number of professors and classes, as well 
as the studies ai)pertaining to each class. They elected Kev. John 
Watson President of the College, and Professor of Moral Philoso- 
phy and the Languages ; Kev. Dr. John McMillan Professor of 
Divinity; Samuel Miller Professor of IVlathematics, Natural I'hiloso- 
phy, and Geography. On November 30, 1802, the Rev John Wat- 
sou, the fii'st President of the College, died. 

In the spring of 1803, the Rev. James Dunlap.was elected Presi- 
dent, and he was empowered to engage his own tutors. To the 
duties of President, he added the Pastorate of Miller's Run church, 
five miles from Canonsburg. In 1805, Rev. Dr. John Mc.'\lillan 
was elected A'ice-President of Jefferson College. In this year the 
college received a second donation from the State legislature of 
$3000, while in 1807 Gen. Hamilton, who was the representative of 
this district in Congress, through his personal exertion, received from 
his friends two hundred and ten dollars, to be applied to the building 
of a college edifice. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 223 

In September, 1807, the trustees of Jefferson College received a 
communication from the trustees of Washington College, asking the 
appointment of a committee to devise a plan for the union of the 
two colleges, both being in Washington County, and but seven miles 
apart. This communieatiun was referred to a committee, who, in 
April, 1808, I'eported that the committees could agree on no terms, 
yet regretting that it could not be accomplished on liberal and equit- 
able principles. 

On 25th of April, 1811, Rev. Dr. Dunlap resigned the Presidency 
of the College, and the duties of the office devolved upon Dr. Mc- 
Millan the Vice-President, who was authorized to employ the neces- 
sary professors. 

In April, 1812, Rev. Dr. Andrew Wylie was elected President, 
with authorily to select his assistants. The College prospering, by 
the accession of students, the trustees deemed it expedient, in 1815, 
to appoint a committee to make preparations for the erection of a 
new college edifice, but while this committee was maturing a plan, 
the trustees, in September of this year, received a communication 
from the trustees of Washingtoa College, respecting a union of the 
two colleges. The committee from Washington College trustees were 
Rev. John Anderson, Rev. Wm. Spear, Alexander Murdoch, and 
Parker Campbell, Esqs.; those from Jefferson College were Rev. 
Dr. McMillan, James Kerr, Mr. McDonald, and Samuel Murdoch, 
Esqs. These committees met on the 25th of October, when the 
committee from Washington College proposed that they would place 
at the disposal of the united Board all the present funds with $5000, 
provided that Washington was made the permanent site of the united 
college ; this proposition the committee of Jefferson College declined, 
as they could not consent that the college should be removed from 
Canonsburg, unless that the hand of Providence should be clearly dis- 
cernible in such measure, either by casting lots or leaving it to the de- 
cision of the legislature. They reported their action, however, to the 
trustees of Jefferson College, who passed a resolution stating that if 
the trustees of Washington College would not recede from their posi- 
tion claiming the site of the college at Washington, but would give 
$5000 in addition to their funds, half the trustees, and the casting vote 
in the choice of the faculty, the Board of Trustees of Jeii'erson College 
will unite in petitioning the legislature to effect the object in view. Final 
action was postponed until the professors, who v^-ere deeply interested 
in the movement, should be consulted. President Wylie and Prof. 
Miller replied that if the trustees of Jefferson College did not accede 
to the proposition from Washington College, they would continue as 
professors, and render the institution respectable ; but if these pro- 
posals should give the Board and Faculty of Jefferson College the 
preponderancy and priority they should accede to the proposition. 
The trustees, after hearing these views, were prepared to vote on the 
question ; the question being taken there was a tie vote, the Presi- 
dent not voting. On 4th of January, 1816, an adjourned meeting 



224 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

of the trustees was held, and the President voted afBrmativaly, but 
the students remonstrated, and the trustees passed another resolution 
that the union recommended could not be confirmed and ratified. 
This brought on a bitter and angry discussion, which resulted in the 
two colleges remaining separate as rival institutions. 

In the spring of 181G, the trustees bought the grounds upon which 
the present college buildings are erected from Mrs. Canon, and ap- 
pointed a committee to sell the old stone college and lot. 

On September 24, 1817, the Rev. Dr. Andrew Wylie resigned the 
office of President, and Rev. Dr. McMillan was chosen President. In 
April, 1818, Rev. Abraham Anderson was chosen Professor of Lan- 
guages. The trustees resumed the subject of building a new col- 
lege edifice, and in the spring of 1819 Dr. McMillan had permission 
to travel for two months and receive contributions for this purpose. 

In 1820 the legislature made athircl appropriation of $1000 to the 
college. In September of this year Prof. Anderson resigned, and 
Rev. Wm. Smith was elected Professor of Languages. 

In August, 1822, Rev. Dr. McMillan resigned, and Rev. Wm. 
Smith was elected President pro (em , but on the 24th of Septem- 
ber, 1822, Rev. Matthew Brown, D. D. was elected President. 

In June, 182fi, the Jefferson Medical College of Philade]i)hia was 
attached as a portion of Jefferson College and placed under its 
charter, the legislature authorizing the election of ten additional 
trustees to reside in Philadelphia. This act provided that the 
medical scliool was not to have any claims on the funds of Jefferson 
College. 

In 1827 the State legislature granted a fourth appropriation of 
$1000 for tliree successive years, and in 1833 a fifth for $2000. 

In 1829 the President, Dr. Brown, was appointed to raise the 
necessary funds for the erecting of new buildings, and so pre-emi- 
nently successful was Dr. Brown, that the trustees held a meeting 
in the new college building on the 27th of INIarch, 1833, and from this 
circumstance the building was named Providence Hall. It is 
si.xty by ninety feet, in which commencements and contests are held, 
and the T*resbylerian churcli of Canonsburg statedly worship therein. 

In 1830 the trustees purchased a farm adjoining the town to in- 
corporate with the college the manual labor system, but the enter- 
prise failed without loss to the college. 

After a long and prosperous Presidency, Dr. Brown resigned in 
1845, who was the instrument in raising Jefferson College to a state 
of unparalleled prosperity. His successor was Rev. Dr. R. J. 
Brackenridge, who filled the office until 1847, but not with the success 
of his predecessor. He was succeeded by Rev. Dr. A. B. Brown, 
who filled the office acceptal)ly both to the trustees, and the people, 
and the students, and had health been spared him, would have 
rivalled his lionored fiither both in his literary attainments and his 
superior" executive and administrative abilities, but ill health com- 
pelled him to resign in 1857, when Rev. Dr. Aldeu was elected 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 225 

PresideHt, and a permanent endowment fund of sixty thousand dol- 
lars was raised. 

In March, 1854, it was proposed to place Jefferson College under 
the care of the Synod of Pittsburg, but the Board of Trustees of 
the college declined the proposed ecclesiastical connection for the 
following reasons : 1. That it had received money and lands from 
the State. 2. That other religious denominations were alike inter- 
ested in its prosperity. 3. That the present prosperity did not call 
for the change. 4. That the funds of the college could be as well 
used for a " more sanctified education" in the present arrangement 
than by making it an ecclesiastical college. The college quietly 
proceeded to accomplish the intention of its founders, until the union 
took place with Washington College, for the history of which see 
Washington College, page 153. 

With this history I shall add a list of the Principals and Profes- 
sors of the Jefferson College from its organization. 

1802, April 27. — Rev. John Watson was elected President and Professor 
of Languages and Moral Philosophy. He died November 30, 1802. 
1802, April 27. — Rev. John McMillan was elected Professor of Divinity. 

1802, April 27. — Samuel Miller, A. M., was elected Professor of Mathematics 

and Natural Philosophy.' Resigned September, 1830. Died in 
1831. 

1803, April 27. — Rev. James Dunlap, A. M., was elected President and 

Professor of Languages and Moral Philosophy. Resigned April 

25, 1811. 
1805, Aprd 27. — Rev. John McMillan, D. D., was elected Vice President. 

Died November 16, 1833. 
1812, April 29. — Rev. Andrew Wylie, D. D., was elected President. 

Resigned April 24, 1816. 

1817, September 24. — Rev. William McMillan, A. M., was elected Presi- 

dent. Resigned August 14, 1822. 

1818, September 24. — Rev. Abraham Anderson, A. M., was elected Pro- 

fessor of Languages. Resigned September, 1821. 

1821, September 24. — Rev. William Smith, A. M., was elected Professor of 

Languages 

1822, September 25. — Rev. Matthew Brown, D. D., LL. D., was elected 

President. Resigned September 27, 1845. 
1824, April. — Rev. James Ramsey, 1). D., was elected Professor of Hebrew. 

1826, April. — Rev. Richard Campbell, A. M., was elected Professor of 

Languages and Mathematics. Resigned 1827. 

1827, February. — Alexander T. McGill, A. 13., was elected Tutor. 

1829, March. — Jacob Coon, A. B., was elected Tutor. 

1830, February. — Rev. John H. Kennedy, A. M., was elected Professor of 

Mathematics. Died December 15, 1840. 

1832, March. — Jacob Green, M.D., was elected Professor of Chemistry, 
Mineralogy, and Natural History. Died February, 1841. 

1834, March. — C. J. Haderraann, Esq., was elected Professor of Mathe- 
matics and Modern Languages. Resigned in 1836. 

1836, September. — Washington McCartney, Esq., A. M., was elected Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics and Modern Languages. Resigned Sep- 
tember, 1837. 



226 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

1837, September. — Rev. Charles S. Dodd, A.M., was elected Professor of 

Mathcmiitics and Modern Languages. Resigned September, 1839. 

1838, March. — William Darby, Esq., A. M., was elected Professor of His- 

tory, Geography, and Astronomy. Resis-ned 1839. 
1841, February.— Richard S. McCulloh, Esq., A. M., was elected Professor 

of Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, and Chemistry. Resigned 

September, 1843. 
1841, February. — Rev. A. B. Brown, A. M., was elected Professor of Belles- 

Lottres and Adjunct Professor of Languages. Resigned October, 

1847. 
1841, March. — ITenry Snyder, A. M., was elected Adjunct Professor of 

Mathematics. 
1841, July. — Charles ISfartin was elected Tutor. 

1843, July. — Rev. Hcury Snyder, A. M., was elected Professor of Mathe- 
matics. 

1843, September. — S.R.Williams, Esq., A.M., was elected Professor of 

Natural Philosophy and Chemistry. 

1844, September. — Rev. Roljert AV. Orr, A. M., was elected Professor of 

Civil Engineering and Natural Ilistorj-. 

1845, January 2. — Rev. Robert J. Brackkxridge, D. D., LL. D., was 

elected President. lie resigned June 9, 1847. 
1845, December. — Rev. A. B. Brown was elected Professor of Belles- 
Letters, Rhetoric. Logic, and History. 

1845, December. — Rev. Robert W. Orr was elected Professor of Latin 

Language and Literature. 

1846, March. — Rev. Thomas Beveridge, D. D., was elected Professor Ex- 

traordinary of Evidences of Natural and Revealed Religion. 

1846, March. — John D. Vowell, M. D., was elected Professor Extraordinary 

of Physiology and Comparative Anatomy. 

1847, October 14. — Rev. A. B. Brow.v, D. 1)., was elected President. 

Resigned July 31, 18.t5. Died September 8, 18G3. 

1848, June.— Rev. Robert M. White, A. M., was elected Professor Extra- 

ordinary of Rhetoric. Died December, 1848. 

1849, July. — Rev. Josei)h R. Wilson, A.M., was elected Professor Extra- 

ordinary of Rhetoric. 

1849, July. — W. W. West, A. B., was elected Principal of the Classical 

Department. 

1850, August.— Robert Patterson was elected Professor of Mathematics. 

Resigned November, 18r)4. 
1850, August. — Rev. William Wallace was elected Professor of Moral 

Science. Died January, 18.")1. 
1852. — Rev. Wm. Ewing, A.M., was elected Professor Extraordinary of 

History and Languages. 
1852. — Rev. Samuel R. Williams, A. M., was elected Professor Extraordi- 
nary of Natural Sciences. Resigned 1854. 
1852, September. — Samuel Jones, A. M., was elected Professor of Natural 

Philosophy and Chemistry. 
1852, December. — Rev. Aaron NVilliams, D. D., was elected Professor of 

Latin Language and Literature. Resigned August 2, 1859. 
1852, December. — Rev. Abm. Anderson. D. D., was elected Professor E.x- 

traordinary of llelirew. Died May, 1855. 
1855, February. — John Frazer, A.M., was elected Professor of Mathematics. 

Resigned April. 18G5. 
1855, February.— John B. Stilley, A. M., was elected Professor of Civil 

Engineering. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 227 

1855, July. — Rev. John B. Clark was elected Professor Extraordinary of 

Hebrew. 
1857, January 7. — Rev. Joseph Alden, D. D., LL. D., was elected Presi- 
dent, and inaufij-urated March 25, 1857. Resigned November 4, 

1862. 
1857, March. — Rev. Alexander B. Brown, D. I)., was elected Professor 

Extraordinary of History and Political Economy. Resigned 

August 4, 1857. 
1857, August. — Rev. Alexander B. Brown, D. D., was elected Professor 

Extraordinary of English Literature. Resigned July 31, 1860. 

Died September 8, 1863. 
1857, August. — Alouzo Linn, A. M., was elected Professor of History and 

Political Economy. 
1857, August. — M. B. Riddle, A. M., was elected Adjunct Professor of the 

Greek Language. 

1860, March. — Rev. Isaac N. McKinney, A, M., was elected Professor of 

the Latin Language. Resigned January 2, 1861. Died Novem- 
ber 20, 1864. 

1861, February. — C. M. Dodd, A. M., was elected Professor of the Latin 

Language. Resigned April, 1865. 
1861, March.— I. V. Herriott, A. M., M. D., was elected Professor of Ana- 
tomy and Physiology. 

1861, August. — Alonzo Linn was elected Professor of the Greek Language. 

1862, November 4. — Rev. David H. Riddle, D. D., LL. D., was elected 

President and Professor of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy, inau- 
gurated March 25, 1863. Resigned April, 1864. Rev. Riddle was 
President at the union of Washington and Jefferson Colleges. 

1864, August. — W. G. Barnett, A. M., M. D., was elected Professor of 
Anatomy and Physiology. 

1866, March 6. — Rev. Jonathan Edwards inaugurated President April 4, 
1866. 
For list of Professors under act of March 4, 1865, see Washington and 

Jefferson College, under title of Washington Borough. See page 170. 

Jefiferson College has a college library of 10,000 volumes, and 
philosophical and astronomical apparatus. In connection with Jef- 
ferson College are two Societies, viz : The Philo Literary Society 
and the Franklin Literary Society, each of which has a valuable 
library connected therewith of 3800 volumes. 

The Philo Literary Society was founded August 23, 1797. Its 
founders were the Rev. John Watson (first President of the Col- 
lege), Rev. Samuel Tate, Rev. Robert Johnston, Rev. James Satter- 
Jield, Rev. John M. Lain, Rev. Elisha McGurdy, William Fowler, 
Rev. John Boggs, Rev. liobert Lee, Rev. W. lloorehead. Rev. Wil- 
liam W. 3Iillan, D. D., and Josejyh Smith. It has a library of 3700 
volumes. 

The Franklin Literary Society was founded November 14, 1797, 
by James Garnahan, Gejohas Dodd, James Galbraith, Thomas 
Hughes, David Lnbrie, Jacob Lindly, Stephen Lindly, William 
Wood, and William Wick. 

The object of these societies is, mental and moral improvemcAt, 
and mutual friendship. The Christian Association has about 1200 
volumes. 



228 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

November 3, 1817, a female academy was opened in Canonsburg, 
under the superintendence of Rev. Matthew Brown and J. Williams. 

December 2!>, ISIT, first Sabbath school established in Canonsburg. 

Tliis township in 1789 had fourteen distilleries, in 1700 ten, and 
in 1791 sixteen, but this year (18G9) none are in operation. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church of Canonsburg was organized in 
1842. Its fird class was composed of but three members, viz : 
John Ramsey, H. N. Capron, and Henry Yerty. By perseverance 
and zeal they were enabled to purchase a lot and erect a brick build- 
ing thereon in 1845, forty by sixty feet. Its first pastor was Rev. 
I. Sutton; his successors have been Rev. I. Callendei', Rev. H. 
Snyder, Rev. D. A. McCready, Rev. R. A. Cunningham, Rev. A. 
Jackson, Rev. R. L. Miller, Rev. Latshaw McGuire, Rev. J. F. 
Jones, Rev. Sylvester Jones, Rev. Robert Miller, Rev. Alexander 
Scott, Rev. D. A. Pierce, Rev. H. Neff, Rev. I. C. Cassel, Rev. Mr. 
Iluddleston. 

There is a Sunday scnool connected with this church, having 
twelve teachers and one hundred and seventy scholars, with a library 
of 900 volumes. 

Presbyterian Church. 

The Presbyterian Church of Canonsburg was organized October 
25, 1830. Most of its original members were previously connected 
with the Chartiers congregation. Presbytery for some time hesitated 
about organizing a church at Canonsburg. At first Chartiers and 
Canonsburg churches formed one pastoral charge. The congrega- 
tion since their organization have used Providence Hall in the new 
college building as a place of worship. Rev. Matthew Brown, 
D. D., was its first pastor. On the 12th of DecenAer, 1845, the 
Rev. Robert J. Brackcnridge, D. D., was installed; he resigned the 
pastorate June 20, 1847. Rev. Alexander Brown, D. D., was elected 
pastor December 23, 1847; installed in February, 1848; and con- 
tinued to serve the congregation until April 7, 1857. Rev. Aaron 
Williams, D. D., was chosen co-pastor with Rev. Dr. A. Brown 
Septeinljcr 30, 1853; he served about six years. On April 7, 1857, 
Rev. Dr. Joseph Alden, President of Jellerson College, was invited 
to take part with Dr. AVilliams in Ihe ministerial labors of the con- 
gregation. At the resignation of Dr. Williams, Dr. Alden was fol- 
lowed by Rev. D. 11. Riddle, D. D., who was installed January 
1803; he resigned April 10, 18G8. 

His immediate successor was Rev. Dr. Jonathan Edwards, Presi- 
dent of Washington and Jefferson College. He became the stated 
supply and served until April, 1809. In March, 1870, Rev. Wm. 
F. Brown, of the Presbytery of Ohio, received a call, and is now 
laboring among the people ; his ordination will take place June 21, 
1870. 

There is a Sabbath school connected with the church of one hun- 
dred and twenty members. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 229 

Reception of James Monroe, President of the United States, at 
Ganonsburg, September 1, 1817. 

A committee on behalf of the citizens of Ganonsburg, and Capt. 
Miller's company of light infantry, met the President and conducted 
him to Mr. Emory's inn, where the Principal of Jefferson College, 
Dr. Matthew Brown, presented him the address of the Committee in 
behalf of the Corporation and College. 

Sir: The Faculty of Jefferson Colle<^e, together with the citizens of this 
borough, rejoice in the opportunity of presenting their respectful saluta- 
tions to the Chief Magistrate of the nation. We, with our fellow citizens 
in other sections of the Union, view your tour through the different States 
as a favorable indication of your devoted attachment to the real interests 
of the people over whom you preside. Under your auspices we anticipate 
the rising splendor of our literary institutions, and of all those establish- 
ments which contribute to the independence, wealth, and general prosperity 
of our country. 

"We therefore hail you, sir, upon your arrival a^ the original seat of lite- 
rature in the West, with sentiments of the greatest cordiality and respect. 
This was the consecrated spot which first gave birth to science in this 
western region. This institution as a college was founded in honor of your 
illustrious predecessor, Mr. Jefferson, in 1802, and has since been the prin- 
cipal nursery of literature in the western country. 

Besides the common elementary course of literature, it has been the con- 
stant aim in this institution to inspire the minds of youth with those prin- 
ciples of piety and virtue — with those ennobling sentiments, and that sin- 
cere love of truth and duty, which are the greatest ornaments of human 
character, and which are best calculated to form the man and the citizen. 

It has been the object of this seminary, according to the most enlightened 
views of human nature and the interests of society that we could obtain, to 
preserve in close alliance the interests of religion and learning, of piety and 
virtue, as essential to the energy and effect of our political institutions, and 
as greatly subservient to public order, harmony, and liberty. We have 
ever viewed souud morality and intelligence as the great supports of free 
government, and the principal guarantee of our rights and privileges, both 
civil and religious. 

In this representation of our views of the general object of public educa- 
tion, and the influence of sound morality and science in supporting our 
republican institutions, we are persuaded they accord with your own senti- 
ments, and refer to objects which you judge worthy of high consideration. 

We present to your view, sir, that portion of the youth of our country 
which now attend this institution, and we are happy that we can bear testi- 
mony of their regard to the interesting objects of literary pursuit, and to 
those attainments on which their future usefulness depends. We, indeed, 
exhibit an emblem of the simplicity of republican manners, which, to a man 
of your discernment and intelligence, cannot operate as a disparagement, 
provided we endeavor to cherish those generous affections, and aid at those 
solid accpiirements which shall bind us to our countrj-, and render us instru- 
mental in promoting its interests, and strengthening and protecting its 
precious institutions. * 

Permit us, with our fellow citizens, to congratulate you, sir, upon the 
auspicious circumstances which attend the commencement of your admin- 
istration — circumstances which cannot fail to unite you and the people 



230 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

together, find impress the public mind with the belief of your devoted 
attachment to the best interests of our common country. Accept our 
earnest wishes and prayers for its prosperous course and happy issue, and 
indulg-e us with expressiiijr the desire that when you are engaged in the 
appropriate functions of your high station, you may enjoy the favor and 
blessing of heaven, and that it may be our privilege, by fidelity and perse- 
verance in our respective spheres, under the smiles of the same beneficent 
Providence, to cooperate in the work of patriotism by diffusing the light of 
knowledge and the saving influence of rcligicm and morals. 

Craig Ritchie, Samuel ^Iiller, 

Wm. McMillan, Jas. P. Miller. 
Wm. Gibson, 

President Monroe's Answer. 

I thank you. Sir, and this committee, for the respect and friendship with 
which I have been received on my arrival here. It is with sincere gratifi- 
cation that I received your address. Be assured, sir. that I am deeply 
affected with it. 

"When I first meditated this tour, which was some time before I left the 
seat of government, I thought it would be practicable, and it was my desire 
to perform it in the character of a private citizen. But finding my fellow 
citizens wished otherwise, and everywhere met me with expressions of 
respect and attachment, I yielded to their wishes, and have met them with 
the same feelings. In tliesc expressions of public regard, which my humble 
services could not inspire, I see the fixed attachment of the people to the 
principles of our free government. 

I am happy in meeting with this Faculty, and these young men. The 
views of the nature and object of public education contained in your address, 
agree with my own. During my tour through an extensive continent I 
have met with many similar institutions, all entertaining nearly the same 
sentiments respecting the instruction of youth. And I ask you, sir. in 
•what more noble principles could they be instructed than those of virtue 
and our holy religion ? I'hese are the most solid basis on which our free 
government can rest, and that they should be instilled into the rising youth 
of our country, to whom its destinies are soon to be consigned, is of high 
importance. The aged pass away in rapid succession, and give place to 
the younger. Those who are now the hope of their country will soon l)ecome 
its pride. Educated in these principles, we can with conlidence repose our 
free government, and the interests of our beloved country, in tlieir care, 
assured that they will preserve, protect, and cherish them, and will fill the 
place of those who liave gone before them with equal honor and advantage. 
I was led into this sut)ject on which I have dwelt, because it is pleasing to 
me l)y the observations contained in your address. 

AVitli respect to the objects of ray tour, you do me justice. You all 
know how necessary it is that a person in my station should be acquainted 
with the circumstances and situation of the country over which he jiresides. 
To acquire this knowledge I liave visited our marine coasts and inland fron- 
tiers, parts most exposed to invasion. iFaving accom])lished the objects of 
my tour to the full extent I at first contemi)lated, to me, sir, it is peculiarly 
gratifying, now on my return to the seat of government, to be hailed with 
the sentiments of approbati(m contained in your address. 

To me it is a source of high satisfaction that, in all the places which I 
have visited in this tour, I have f(uind the people so generally united, and 
80 strongly attached to the principles of our excellent Constitution. In the 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 231 

union of the people our Government is sufficiently strong, and on this union 
I confidently rely. Our Government has proved its strength. We have 
terminated with honor a war carried on against a powerful nation, and that 
nation peculiarly favored by fortunate circumstances. Our army gained 
glory — our navy acquired renown — and all classes of citizens, as opportunity 
offered, and where the pressure was greatest, acquitted themselves with 
honor. 

This nation is now respectable for numbers, and more respectable as an 
enlightened people. That its future auspices and glory may answer to its 
present prosperity, is my sincere desire. 

Be assured, sir, that 1 shall always take a deep interest in the prosperity 
of this institution. It is known at a distance among scientific men. You 
have chosen for it a name not unknown abroad to science, and which to me 
is peculiarly interesting. I avail myself of this opportunity of bearing my 
testimony to the talents, learning, and great public services of that vene- 
rable statesman and philosopher whose name you have prefixed to your 
institution. 

Accept, gentlemen, my grateful acknowledgments for the kindness with 
which I have been received, and my sincere wishes for your individual hap- 
piness and prosperity. 

Cross Creek Township. 

On the 23cl day of March, 1790, the Court of Quarter Sessions 
erected this township out of Hopewell. Its boundaries are Smith 
and Jefferson on the north, Mount Pleasant and Smith on the east, 
Independence and Hopewell on the south, and Jefferson on the west. 
This township is fifteen miles northwest of Washington. The creek, 
which gives the name to the township, rises on the borders of Hope- 
well and Mount Pleasant, and runs northwest to the Ohio River. 
Harman's Creek pursues the same course to the same river. Several 
grist and saw-mills are located on these waters. Its population in 
1860 was 1110, of which 81 are colored. It has three stores, ten 
schools, with five male and five female teachers, the former receiv- 
ing $32 and the latter $28.58 per month, having two hundred and 
ninety-six scholars, of which one hundred and fifty-three are males 
and one hundred and forty-three females, tuition costing per month 
$1.28. Amount levied for school purposes, $19.16.10, and receiving 
from the State appropriation $101.40. 

Its town is Cross Creek village, having fifty-eight dwelling-houses, 
a Presbyterian church, a Methodist Episcopal church, a cemetery, 
an Academy, stores, bo(5t and shoe establishments, harness-maker, 
&c. &c. 

1787, Mr. Park, a brother of Mrs. Marquis, was tomahawked and 
scalped near his own dwelling-house, near where Cross Creek vil- 
lage now stands. 

1795, September 5, Mary Patterson, of Cross Creek township, 
directed her executors to pay into the hands of the treasurer of the 
fund for the education of pious youths for the gospel ministry, the 
sum of £5, under the direction of the Ohio Presbytery. 

1795, November 30, Henry Graham and Mary his wife, conveyed 



232 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

to Samuel Fleming, Aavon Lyle, and John Wilkins, trustees of the 
Cross Creek conjrrcgatioii, in consideration of £6, and now under the 
care of the Rev. Thomas Marquis, a member of the Ohio Presbytery 
and Synod of Virginia, both under the care of the General Assem- 
bly of the Presbyterian church, and to the only use of said congre- 
gation for ever, tlie said congregation holding to Calvinistic princi- 
ples, the lot to contain six and one-fourth acres and thirty-four and 
a half perches. 

This congregation has erected successively ^lue houses of worship, 
viz: In 1779, of unhewed logs, twenty-six by twenty-two feet; 
the second in 1784, of hewed logs, sixty by thirty feet, to this, 
some years afterwards, was added a gallery; the third in 1803, of 
stone, fifty-six by fifty-six feet ; the fourth in 1830, of brick, seventy- 
six by fifty-six feet, with a gallery on three sides, and the fifth in 
18G4, of brick, eighty-two by forty-two feet. Th e\v Jirst pastor was 
the Rev. Joseph Smith, who received a call on June 21, 1779, who 
was succeeded I)y Rev. Thomas Marquis, whose election bears date 
October 18, .1793. The third and present pastor is the Rev. John 
Stockton, 1). D., who accepted a call in April, 1827. Thus for 
ninety years has this church been signally blessed by having but three 
stated ministers, whose labors were acceptable to the people and 
blessed by the Lord. 

Original Settlers. 

From James Simpson, Esq., I learn that the following persons 
were the original settlers in Cross Creek township : Samuel John- 
son, John Tcmell, Alexander Wells, William Patterson, Ephraini 
Hart, Jacob Buxton, Thomas Beatty, William Renolds, David 
Renolds, Thomas Bay, Henry Graham, James Jackson, William 
Calvin, Col. James Marshall, George Marquis, David Vance, Thomas 
Crawford, Col. John Marshall, John Marquis, William McCombs. 

Forts. 

Wilson's Fort was at Wells' (now Fullcrton's) mill ; it was a regu- 
lar stockade fort. 

There was a blockhouse on the farm now owned by William M. 
Lee, Esq., called Renolds' Fort, from the owner of the land, Wm. 
Renolds, Esq. Another blockhouse, called Marshall's Fort (after 
Col. James Marshall), on the ])roperty now owned by Thomas 
McCorkle, Esq. Col. Marshall was the Jirst sheriff of the county. 

Canton Township. 

On the 23d of April, 1792, Canton township was formed by a de- 
cree of the court, bounded on the north by Chartiers, on the cast by 
Chartiers, AVashington, and Amwell, on the south by Amwell, and 
on the west by Hopewell. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 233 

As present boundaries are Mount Pleasant and Chartiers on the 
north, Chartiers, South Strabane, and Washington on the east, Frank- 
lin and Washington on the south, Hopewell and Buffalo on the west. 
The National turnpike and Hemptield railroad passes westerly 
through this township. It is drained by Chartiers' Creek and its 
tributaries. It adjoins the borough of Washington. The popula- 
tion, in 1860, was 587, of which 39 were colored. It has five schools 
employing two male aud three female teachers, the former receiving 
$30 and the latter $29.29 per month, with 198 scholars, 108 males 
and 90 females, the tuition costing 71 cents per month. Amount 
raised for school purposes by taxation $875.20, from the State ap- 
propriation $63.98. The National pike and Herapfield railroad 
passes through this township. It contains one fulling mill, one wool- 
len factory, one flouring mill, one grist-mill, and four saw-mills. 
Greatest length of this township is 6 miles, breadth 3 miles. 

The boundary lines between this and Chartiers changed August 
term, 1863. 

Pike Run Township 

Was formed by a decree of the court April 23, 1792. Its bounda- 
ries were Fallowfield and Somerset on the north, the Monongahela 
River on the east, Bethlehem township on the south and west. 

On the 9th day of March, 1839, it was divided into East and West 
Pike Run. Pike Run and Little Pike Run rise in the township and 
flow east to the Monongahela River. 

1797, December 26, John Samms conveyed to David Grave, Jacob 
Griffith, John Head, John Almund, Joseph Pennock, and Alexander 
Peden, trustees on behalf of the people called Quakers, appointed 
by the Westland monthly meeting for this special purpose, four and 
one-fourth acres of land, for the purpose of a meeting-house called 
"Pike Run Meeting." Upon this ground was erected a meeting- 
house, but subsequently a division was created, one party being 
called the orthodox and the other Hicksite church. Both churches have 
been abandoned, aud a Methodist Episcopal church erected within 
one hundred yards in West Pike Run township. This church was 
built about ten years since, and is called Clover Hill M. E. church, 
and on the circuit under the charge of Rev. J. B. Yarnall. 

East Pike Run 

Constituted the eastern portion of Pike Run township, but by a de- 
cree of the court it was divided into two townships, East and West 
Pike Run. The boundaries of East Pike Run are Fallowfield town- 
ship on the north, Allen and the Monongahela River on the east, E. 
Bethlehem and the Monongahela River on the south, W. Pike Run 
and E. Bethlehem on the west. It is centrally distant from Wash- 
ington 18 miles southeast. Greatest length 6 miles, breadth 3 miles. 
The population in 1860 was 1221. It has five schools with three 
male and two female teachers, the former receiving $45, and the lat- 
16 



234 HISTORY OF -WASniNGTON COUNTY. 

ter $40 per month, with 197 scholars, 113 males and 84 females; 
cost of tuition per month being $1.47 ; amount levied for school and 
building purposes being $1270.54, from .the State $S3.46. 

August 29, 1850, the township linos between East and West Pike 
Run changed and confirmed by the court. February 1, 1857, the 
lines between East and West Pike Run and Fallowfield were changed 
by a decree of the court. Its towns are West Brownsville, Green- 
field, California, and Granville, the three former of which being 
boroughs, their respectivp history will be inserted after that of Gran- 
ville. 

Granville is on the forks of Pike Run. It contains 25 dwelling- 
houses, a population of 130, and has an extensive pottery and a 
woollen factory. In the township is one woollen factory, one distil- 
lery, two grist-mills, and a saw-mill. There are also two excellent 
shipping coal works in this township. 

West Brownsville 

Was erected into a borough April 2, 1852, 

This town was laid out by Ephraim L. Blaine, Esq., in 1831, but 
Mr. J. Bowman added the addition to it west of the run. The 
land originally belonged to Neal Gillespie, deceased. The original 
town consists of 103 lots, GO feet front, and ranging from 93 to 270 
feet, on account of the abruptness of the river hill. The streets 
are 60 feet wide ; Water, Middle, and Main streets run parallel 
with the Monongahela River ; Bridge, Broadway, and Liberty cross 
these streets at right angles. 

In Bowman's addition there are 61 lots, 60 feet in front and 151 
feet deep, with two streets, viz., Pennsylvania and Vine streets. 

This place is connected with Brownsville, Fayette County, by a 
bridge over the Monongahela River, 630 feet long, which cost 
$50,000, and was erected in 1832. 

West Brownsville has a population of 540 ; three schools, three 
teachers, one male and two female, the former at $45 and the latter 
at $26.50 per month ; 187 scholars, 97 males and 90 females, cost 
of tuition being 05 cts. per month; amount levied for school pur- 
poses, $342.00; for building purposes, $400.00; received from State 
appropriation, $60.45. It contains ten stores, two confection- 
eries, and four distilleries, one stoneware manufactory, two hotels, 
blacksmith shop, &c., two boat yards, one owned by John S. Prin- 
glc, Esq., which employs 200 hands, the other by the Messrs. Cocks. 
From these yards have been launched the best boats on the Ohio 
and Mississippi rivers. Planing mills and sash factory are in suc- 
cessful operation l)y Messrs. Aubrey, Cromlow & Coon. 

West Brownsville has a town hall, which is used for a church, 
although the people generally have pews in the different churches 
in Brownsville. The national road passes through this place, and 
it is distant from Washington 23 miles. The town is supplied with 



HISTORY OP -WASHINGTON COUNTY. 235 

coal from a vein seven feet in thickness. There are the remains of 
an old Indian graveyard in West Brownsville, immediately above 
the Monongahela River. 

Greenfield. 

It was laid out as a town at the confluence of Pike Run with the 
Monongahela River, in 1819, by Robert Jackman, and was after- 
wards erected into a borough by the State legislature on the 9th day 
of April, 1834. 

It contains 82 dwelling-houses, eight stores, one confectionery, 
two churches, the usual number of mechanical branches, with a po- 
pulation of 465, and is twenty-two miles distant from Washington. 

There are two churches in this borough, one under the control of 
the Methodist Episcopal denomination, and the other, the Cumber- 
land Presbyterians. The Methodist church was erected in 18.38, 
but in a few years afterwards was enlarged. The pulpit is supplied 
by Rev. D. A. Pierce 

The Cumberland Presbyterian church is a new edifice, although 
the first was built about 1839. It has also a large school-house, 
containing two schools, employing two female teachers, at $30 per 
month, with lO'I scholars, 63 males and 44 females; the price of» 
tuition per month being 72 cents ; amount levied for school pur- 
poses being $242.45, and received from the State, $46.48. 

As a portion of the local history of the town of Greenfield we 
may state tliat on the 18th of July, 1814, an association was formed 
called the Farmers^ and Mechaincs' Commercial Store of Green- 
field, for the purpose of raising a fund to establish a store, and con- 
nect thereby a speedy market for their surplus produce. Capital 
stock, $20,000, in shares of $10 each, to be under the control of a 
president and nine directors, who were authorized to erect a store- 
house, and purchase keel-boats to carry the produce to Pittsburg. 

California, 

Situate in East Pike Run township, on the Monongahela River, be- 
came a borough on the 26th day of November, 1853. It was laid 
out on the 1st day of May, 1849, when four hundred lots were offer- 
ed for sale by the proprietors. Job Johnston, Abraham Fry, W. W. 
Jackman, George W. Hornbeck, John Wood, and Samuel Ashniead, 
who purchased the farm upon which it is laid out from John Ring- 
land. This towm is 55 miles from Pittsburg, 23 from Washington, 
and 1 miles from Brownsville. The ground upon which the borough 
is located is celebrated in the annals of Youghiogheny County his- 
tory, when Virginia claimed this portion of our State. It was at 
this point the Indians met in 1Y67, when the Rev. Dr. Steele, of Car- 
lisle, was sent out to persuade the white men not to invade the 
hunting grounds of the Indians. This land was known as belonging 
to " Indian Peter," who transferred it to Samuel Young, w^ho after- 



236 HISTORY OF ■WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

wards sold it to Robert Jackman, but in 1784 Mr. Jackman obtained 
a patent for the same. 

The town is beautifully laid out upon the river bank, with streets 
crossing each other at right angles, 60 feet wide, alleys 20 feet, 
and lots are 50 by 150 feet, with a resident population of G40. It 
is separated from the borough of Greenfield by Pike Run, which 
empties into the Monongahela River. 

It contains 88 dwelling houses ; the Southwestern Normal Col- 
lege of the tenth district, v/hich comprises the counties of W.ashing- 
ton, Fayette, Greene, and Somerset ; one large hotel conducted on 
temperance principles, built in the modern style ; one boat-yard em- 
ploying about sixty hands, which was established July 4, 1851 ; one 
steam tannery, one sash and door factory, five stores, one confec- 
tionery, and one drug store, with the usual number of mechanical 
branches, two grist-mills, a saw-mill, and two churches. 

Southwestern Normal College. 

A high school which had been established when the town was laid 
out, was the nucleus of the Normal College. In its infancy so pros- 
perous was the high school that in about ten years it became an 
academy, and the perseverance and zeal which had characterized the 
professors, trustees, and the citizens in their laudable efforts to pro- 
mote the educational interests of our State was crowned with tri- 
umphant success by the academy being changed into the Normal 
College on the 16th of March, 1865. 

The college grounds contain ten acres. The building has £l cha- 
pel, lecture-rooms, recitation-rooms, society hall, dining-room, dormi- 
tories. The object of this Normal College is to prepare teachers for 
the promotion and dissemination of the great cause of education, 
and thereby elevating the profession to that high standard of moral 
and mental culture which the interests of our State demand. 

The faculty consists of — 

J. C. Gii-riiRisT, Principal and Professor of Didactics, Mental and Moral 
Science, and Languages. 

J. G. Good, Professor of Higher Mathematics and Natural Science. 

G. G. Hcrtzog, Professor of Arithmetic and Book-Kccping. 

Mrs. H. C. Gilchrist, Professor of English Gramn\ar and Literature and 
History. 

Miss Annie M. Hurfort, Professor of the English Branches, Elocution, 
and Penmanship. 

Mrs. S. C. Hays and Miss H. N. Riggs, teachers of Model School. 

Miss Minnie Beacom, teacher of Instrumental Music. 

Methodist Episcopal Church 

Of this borough is under the care of Rev. D. A. Pierce. It is a 
large fine l)rick edifice, and erected near the centre of the town. 

The l)isciples also have a church organization. 

There are literary societies coiinected with the college, w^hile the 
town sustains Lodge 4i)l of Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY, 237 

the Temple of Honor No. 11, and the Social Temple No. 22, these 
two latter being temperance organizations. 

Bituminous coal abounds throughout the whole region of country. 

California has four schools employing one male and three female 
teachers, the former receiving $60 and the latter $33 per month, with 
202 scholars, 108 males and 94 females, tuition costing per month 71 
cents ; amount levied for school purposes $427.15, received from the 
State appropriation $70.98. 

West Pike Run 

Was formed into a separate township on the 9th day of March, 1839. 
Its boundaries are Fallowfield township on the north ; E. Pike Run on 
the east ; E. Bethlehem on the south ; Somerset and W. Bethlehem 
on the west. Greatest length six miles, breadth four miles. This 
township is centrally distant from the borough of Washington 14 
miles. Its population in 1860, was 869, of which 73 are colored. 

It has three stores, seven schools, with three male and four female 
teachers employed, the former at $31.19, the latter at $30, with 322 
scholars, 167 males, 155 females, tuition costing per month 85 cents ; 
tax levied for school purposes $1044.32, appropriation from the State 
$90.00. 

At the February term, 1858, the township lines between West 
Pike Run and Fallowfield were altered and confirmed by the court. 

Centreville and BealUville are on the National pike, which di- 
vides East Bethlehem and West Pike Run, as also the two towns. 
We have placed Centreville in this township, but Beallsville being a 
borough, its history will be given at its appropriate place. 

On the farm of Mr. West stands an Episcopal church called St. 
Thomas', which was erected in 1777, when this territory belonged to 
Youghiogheny County, Virginia. Its first minister was Rev. Mr. 
Ayres ; his successors Rev. Mr. Davis, Rev. Mr. Peiffer, Rev. Mr. 
Boston, Rev. Mr. Freeman, Rev. Mr. Temple, Rev. Mr. Tenbrooke, 
and others. It is on the Brownsville and Pittsburg road, 7 miles 
from Brownsville, 26 miles from Pittsburg, 3|- miles from Greenfield. 
It is built of logs, and weather-boarded, 30 feet square, two stories, 
with a gallery around it. It is the oldest church in the county. 

At the time of the whiskey insurrection, and during the ministry 
of Rev. Mr. Ayres, and while the insurgents were marching towards 
Parkinson's Ferry, they stopped at this church, in which Rev. Mr. 
Ayres was then preaching, and for his supposed disloyal sentiments, 
he advocating the duty of the citizen towards the government, these 
insurgents took him from the pulpit, determined to shoot him, but by 
a Providental interference the wrath of man was restrained, and he 
returned to the church and finished his sermon. 

Among the papers of Rev. Joseph Dodridge, I find the following 
memorandum : — 

"At a convention held at St. Thomas' Church, in Washing-ton County, 
Pa., September 25, 1803, present, Rev. Robert Ayres, Rev. Joseph Dod 



238 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

ridge, Rev. Francis Reno, and Rev. Mr. Seaton. After divine service Rev. 
R. Ayres was appointed chairman, and Stephen John Francis secretary, 
when the following resolution was adopted: — 

Resolved, 'J'hat application for supplies shall be made to the convention 
in writing, with the names annexed of those who wish the supply, and that 
they shall become responsible to the minister for a sum not less than four 
dollars. 

This convention passed another resolution that an adjourned meeting 
thereof should be held in six months, at the church near tjen. Neville's old 
place, on Chartiers' Creek; Rev. R. Ayres to preach the opening sermon." 

In 1810, a meeting of the Protestant Episcopal clergymen was 
held in Washington, when it was resolved that the Rev. Jos. Dod- 
ridge open a correspondence with the Rt. Rev. Bishop AVhite, for the 
purpose of obtaining, through him, permission from the General 
Convention to form a diocese in the western country eml)racing the 
western counties of Pennsylvania, Western Virginia, and tlie State 
of Ohio, and to elect a bishop. 

There is a Methodist Episcopal church in Ccntreville ; also two 
miles from this place is a brick church called Taylor's M. E. church, 
both under the care of Rev. J. C. Mclntire. 

The township contains two grist-mills, four steam saw-mills, two 
sorghum manufactories, one vineyard, which manufactures about 600 
gallons of wine annually, and one distillery. 

Cenlreville is three miles east of Beallsville on the National pike, 
and was laid out by Samuel Rogers in 1819. It derives its name 
from being midway between Ilillsboro and Brownsville. It contains 
fifty dwellings, four stores, and the usual number of the mechanical 
professions, with a population of 2G3. It is distant from Washing- 
ton eighteen miles. There is an Odd Fellows' Lodge in this place. 

Beallsville 

Was erected into a borough February 16, 1852. This town was 
laid out by Zephaniah Bcall|, George Jackson, Christian Kreider, 
and S. W. Blake, on the 2od of August, 1810, on the National pike. 
The lots (60 by 180 feet) were sold on tlie 12th of September follow- 
ing. It is eight miles from Brownsville, and fifteen from AVashing- 
ton, on the boundary line between Pike Run and E. Bethlehem, 
containing seventy-eight dwelling houses, two hotels, four stores, 
two groceries, two tailors, saddle and harness maker, blacksmith, 
wagon-maker, a marble manufactory, shoe makers, &c. &c., a]\[etho- 
dist Episcopal church, a Masonic hall, and one school-house, with a 
population of 410. 

The Presbyterian denomination some time since had an organiza- 
tion and a brick church, Init it has been sold to the Free ]\Iasons. 

It has two schools with two teachers, one male at $55 and one fe- 
male at $.'50 per moiith, having 95 scholars, 48 males, 47 females ; 
cost of tuition per month 98 cents; amount of tax levied, $219.08; 
received from the State appropriation $39.78. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 239 

Main Street, on the National road, is the principal street, although 
Gay Street crosses it nearly at right angles. This street is on the 
State road leading from Pittsburg to Morgantovvn. The lots are 
60 by 180 feet. 

There is a Baptist church west of Beallsville, near the township 
Mne of West Bethlehem, and a Methodist Protestant church near J. 
Baker, Esq., in the centre of the township. 

Rich Hill Township. 

The Supreme Executive Council, on March 13, 1*793, upon the 
application of the court of Washington County, established this 
township, assigning as its boundaries Finley township on the north, 
Franklin and Greene on the east. Mason and Dixon's line on the 
south, and Virginia on the west. By the act of the legislature of 
February 9, 1796, this township, with Franklin, Greene, Morgan, and 
Cumberland townships, comprised Greene County. 

Buffalo Township 

Was organized by a decree of the Court of Quarter Sessions, on 
8th May, 1799. It was bounded on the north by Hopewell, on the 
east by Canton, on the south by Morris and Finley, and on the west 
by Donegal. 

Its present boundaries are Hopewell and Independence townships 
on the north. Canton and Franklin on the east. East Finley and 
Franklin on the south, and Donegal on the west. Greatest length 
eight miles, breadth seven miles. It is centrally distant from 
Washington borough, seven miles. It is drained by Buffalo Creek 
and its branches, which flow northwest into the Ohio River. Upon 
this creek are many grist and saw-mills. In 1860 its population was 
1578, of which 2 were colored. At the February term of the court, 
1866, the lines between Buffalo and Franklin townships were con- 
firmed. 

It has two stores, one distillery, and eight schools, employing 
three male and five female teachers, the former at $36.66, the latter 
at $35, with three hundred and twenty scholars, one hundred and 
ninety males, one hundred and forty females ; cost of tuition, $1.51 
per month; amount of taxes for school purposes, $1484.63, and 
building purposes, $1487.63 ; State appropriation, $127.92. 

Its towns are Taylorstown and Buffalo village. Originally Tay- 
lorstown was called New Brunswick, and in 1808 elections were 
held at this place by law. Afterwards it became changed to its 
present name. It is situate on Buffalo Creek, eight miles west of 
Washington, containing forty-two dwelling houses and a popylation 
of two hundred and sixty-five. 

Buffalo village is on a fork of Buffalo Creek, seven miles south- 
west of Washington. 



240 history of washington county. 

Presbyterian Church 

Is situated in tliis township, on the head-waters of the east fork of 
Buffalo Creek, one-half mile south of the National road. 

This church was built about 1830, and has had the ministerial 
labors of Rev. W. P. Alrich until 18()4, when he resigned. Hffe 
immediate successor was Rev. Mr. Alexander, who has since died. 
The present incumbent is the Rev. R. W. Morton. There is a Sab- 
bath school connected with this church. 

There are also the following churches in this township, viz : A 
M. E. church, near Roney's Point, in the northern part, a Baptist 
church, southwest of the Railroad depot, near Mr. Caldwell's, and 
two United Presbyterian churches. 

Norlh Buffalo U. P. church was organized about ITSO. Rev. 
Matthew Henderson was pastor from 1781 until October 2,1795; 
Rev. Robert Laing from 1790 until 1805 ; Rev. David French from 
July 2, 1811, until June 14, 1853 ; Rev. W. M. C. Gibson from 
November 29, 1855, until November 12, 1861 ; Rev. R. C. Welch 
from May 14, 1867, to December 22, 1868, with a membership of 
one hundred and seventeen. 

South Buffalo U. P. church was organized in 1810. Rev. David 
French was pastor from July 2, 1811, until November 22, 1852; 
Rev. James Gr. Carson from November 13, 1856, until April 30, 
1867, with a membership of eighty-one. 

Mount Pleasant Township, 

This township, by a decree of the court, was erected 12th May, 1806. 

Its original boundaries were Cecil township on the northeast, 
Chartiers on the southeast. Canton and Hopewell on the soulli, Cross 
Creek on the west, and Smith on the northwest : greatest length 9 
miles, breadth 5^ miles. 

Its boundaries are Smith and Robinson townships on the north; 
Cecil and Chartiers on the cast; Chartiers, Canton, and Hopewell 
on the south ; and Smith, Cross Creek, and Hopewell on the west. 
It is centrally distant from Washington, northwest, 10 miles. In 
1860 its population was 1348, of which 20 were colored. It is 
drained north by Racoon Creek, south and east l)y Chartiers' Creek 
and branches of that stream, and west by the middle fork of Cross 
Creek. 

It has four stores, ten schools, employing three male and seven 
female teachers, the former receiving $32.26 and the latter $30.57 
monthly, with 366 scholars, 175 nniles and Ifll females, the cost of 
tuition being $1.04 per month ; amount levied for school purposes, 
$1620.-63; State appropriation, $129.48. 

Hickory is its chief town, and, from its position in the township, 
roads to all parts radiate from it. It contains 52 dwellings — fair 
grounds, beautifully located — a population of 280, and the neces- 
sary number of stores and mechanical branches. 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 241 

Adjoining the town is Mount Pleasant U. P. church, a hand- 
some brick building. It was organized about 1809. Its pulpit 
has been filled by Rev. W. C. Brownlee, D. D., from May 3, 1809, to 
September 1, 1812; Rev. Alexander Donan from July 6, 1819, to 
April 20, 1852; Rev. Joseph R. Thompson from April 28, 1853, to 
December 16, 1861 ; Rev. W. A. McCounel from July 4, 1865, to 
the present time, with a membership of 160. 

This congregation is occupying the third house of worship ; the 
present was erected in 1868, at a cost of $12,000, built of brick, 60 
by 80 feet, handsomely frescoed, and finished in modern style. The 
Sabbath school has one hundred scholars under competent teachers, 
with an excellent library. 

One mile west of Hickory is Mount Prospect Presbyterian 
church, which was organized in the year 1826. This congregation 
has had two church edifices, the first of frame, built immediately 
upon its organization, the second of brick, built two years since. 

The ministers who have officiated as pastors since its organiza- 
tion were : 1, Rev. David Hervey ; 2, Rev. John Moore ; 3, Rev. 
David R. Campbell; 4, Rev. W. B. Keeling; 5, Rev. J. C. Cald- 
well; 6, Rev. R. T. Price, the present faithful incumbent. There 
is a Sabbath school connected with the church. 

Carroll Township 

Was formed on September 30, 1834, from Nottingham and Fal- 
lowfield. It was originally named by the viewers Knox township, 
but the court changed it to Carroll. 

Its boundaries are the Monongahela River and Union township 
on the north, the Monongahela River on the east, Fallowfield and 
Monongahela River on the south, and Nottingham and Fallowfield 
on the west. It is centrally distant from Washington nineteen 
miles. In 1860 its population was 190T, of which 74 were colored. 
It has five stores, one confectionery, nine schools, with two male and 
seven female teachers, their pay being $35 per month, with 486 
scholai-s, 267 males and 219 females, cost of tuition per month being 
19 cents; amount levied for school tax purposes, $1480.92 ; State 
appropriation, $132.60; greatest length eight miles, breadth three 
miles. 

Its towns are Monongahela City (formerly Parkinson's Ferry, but 
subsequently called Williamsport); Columbia, population 200, on the 
Monongahela River. Monongahela City being a borough, its his- 
tory will be given after the villages. 

September 12, 1814. Charles DeHass laid out the town of Co- 
lumbia this day, on the farm of Mr. Hoover, four miles above Wil- 
liamsport. The proprietor, to induce people to purchase lots, says, 
it is in contemplation to form a new county, and from its being so 
very central in the contemplated county, he has laid ofi" the town 
with large lots, and wide streets and alleys, with public grounds for 
a church, academy, burying-ground, public buildings, &c. Colum- 



242 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

bia is in a deep bend of the river, twenty-one miles distant from 
Washington. 

There are the remains of an old Presbyterian church on the farm of 
"William Crawford, now owned by John Wilson, Esq. It was built 
about 1^85, and additions were made to it until it had sixteen cor- 
ners; the Rev. Mr. Ralston occupied the pulpit. The burying 
ground is used by the old citizens. The remains of this church are 
three miles from Monongahela City, and close to the township line 
which separates Carrol and Fallowtield. 

The Horseshoe Baptist Church is two miles from Monongahela 
City, erected in 1790. The first church was built of logs, but the 
present one is brick. Rev. Mr. Hargrave is the present pastor. 

This township contains two grist-mills, one paper mill, and five 
collieries. 

Ginger Hill Lutheran Church was erected in 184T; built of brick; 
of moclern style; Rev. Mr. Waters, Rev. Mr. Emory, Rev. Mr. Mel- 
hom, Rev. A. Wylie, Rev. Mr. Ryder were the pastors. 

There is an United Brethren Church near the tollgate, in which 
the difl'ercut denominations occasionally preach, with no settled 
pastor. 

Union Township. 

This township was organized March 31, 1836, from Peters and 
Nottingham townships. On September 1, 184:6, the boundary lines 
between Union and Peters were confirmed by the court, and another 
change and confirmation took place at the November term 1862. 

Its boundaries are Allegheny County on the north, Allegheny Coun- 
ty and the Monongahela River on the east, Carroll township on the 
south, and Peters and Nottingham on the west. It is centrally 
distant from Washington 14 miles. In 1860 its population was 1452, 
of which 10 are colored. Greatest length 6 miles, breadth 3 miles. It 
has nine stores, seven schools, employing four male and three female 
teachers, at $40 per month, with 435 scholars, 229 males 196 females; 
the cost of tuition l)eing 75 cents per month ; taxes levied for school 
purposes $1776.11 ; State appropriation $141.96. 

Its towns are Limetown and Finleyvillc. 

'Finleyville is on the road from AVashington to Pittsburg, 12 
miles northeast of Washington. It was laid out by a sea-captain 
who purchased the land and named the place Rogue Alley, after the 
name of his ship. He sold it to James Finley and Mr. Mellinger, 
about 1790, from which time it bears the name of Finleyville. It 
has a population of about eighty, and also an Odd Fellows' hall. 

Limetown is on the left bank of the Monongahela River. The 
town is chiefly composed of miners, there being many large and 
extensive collieries in tlie immediate vicinity of the ))lace. The town 
may ])e said to extend about four miles, the houses being built upon 
lots, on the narrow strip of land between the Monongahela River and 
the abrupt hills, under which lie immense strata of bituminous coal. 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 243 

There are about 650 inhabitants. Several extensive stores are doing 
a successful business. 

In connection with the original history of this township, we may 
state that John Wright, father of Enoch Wright, Esq., N. Powers, 
and another man started with produce to New Orleans, and below 
Wheeling were attacked by the Indians in ambuscade ; after wound- 
ing several Indians, Wright and Pomeroy were captured, Powers 
being wounded was killed, but Wright was burned at the stake after 
being taken to Sandusky. 

Near Findleyville is a Seceder church which was organized about 
1832 ; the last minister was Rev. Thomas Callohan. 

The Presbyterian church of Mingo was organized in the year lt86. 
It is two miles south of Findleyville on a branch of Mingo Creek. 
From the records of the Redstone Presbytery, I find that Mingo 
Creek, Horseshoebottom, and Pike Run churches applied to Presby- 
tery for a minister on August, 15, 1786. Rev. Samuel RalstOn, D.D., 
was its first regular pastor. He was ordained and installed Nov- 
vember 30, 1Y96, and took charge of this congregation and the one 
at Monongahela City, formerly Parkinson's Ferry, although he after- 
wards resigned its charge in, 1836. ife officiated in Mingo Creek 
for forty years. His successors were Rev. Mr. Shotwell, Rev. James 
M. Smith, Rev. John R. Dunlap, Rev. Mr. Rockwell, Rev. Mr. 
Grreenough, and Rev. J. J. Beacom. At present they have no set- 
tled pastor. 

In 1828 a Sabbath-school was organized. In 1864 it had thirteen 
teachers and eighty -four scholars, with a library of three hundred 
and eighty-two volumes. 

In February, 1794, the Mingo Creek Society was 'organized; it 
consisted of Col. Hamilton's battalion, and was governed by a presi- 
dent and council. The electors were those subject to military duty 
of eighteen years of age and upwards, who elected their respective 
captains in certain districts, and these captains elected the council, 
who by the constitution were required to be not less than twenty-five 
years of age. One councilman was chosen for each district. It 
met monthly at Mingo Creek meeting-house on the first Friday of 
each month. 

This society had power to hear and determine all matters in vari- 
ance and dispute between parties, encourage teachers of schools, 
introduce the Bible and other religious books into schools, encourage 
the industrious and men of merit. No money could be expended 
unless by vote of the society. 

Monongahela City. 

On July 25th, 1796, Joseph Parkinson laid out on the western 
banks of the Monongahela River and below the mouth of Pigeon 
Creek at Parkinson's Ferry, a town which he named Williarasport, 
but it generally took the name of Parkinson's Ferry, because the 



244 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

post-office was so called. In 1833 the name of the post-office was 
changed to Williamsport, and on April 1, 1837, it was changed from 
Williiimsport to Monongahela City. 

The town was situated on the main road leading from Philadelphia 
to Washington, being twenty miles distant from this latter place. It 
is well to be remembered tliat Mr. Parkinson reserved the Ferry for 
himself and his heirs, but sold the lots in three equal annual pay- 
ments, donating, however, one lot for a market-house and another for 
a meeting-house. All lots were sixty by two hundred feet with the 
necessary number of streets (sixty feet wide), and alleys (twenty feet 
wide). 

An addition to the original plan of the town was made by Adam 
Wickerham, who laid out the lots west of Capt. Harvey's hotel, and 
named it Georgetown, but when the act of incorporation was procured 
for Monongahela City, the charter embraced both Williamsport, 
Georgetown, and some additional outlots. 

This place has a world-wide fame as Parkinson's Ferry, as it was 
the rallying point during the whiskey insurrection, full particulars 
of which will be found in the Appendix, Chapter lY. 

We shall mention the public buildings and works as they were 
kindly pointed to us by several of the citizens. 

HORSESHOEBOTTOM PRESBYTERIAN ChURCH. 

Rev. Dr. Samuel Ralston, D. D., received a call from this and 
Mingo Creek congregations in November, 1*796, which he accepted 
and was therefore ordained. In the latter church he labored forty 
years, and in the former thirty-five years. This Ilorseshoebottom 
congregation was originally established three and one-half miles from 
Parkinson's Ferry, on the ridge road leading from this place to 
Brownsville on Simon Wilson's farm. It was a log church, had a 
graveyard connected with it, and part of the foundation is still 
visible. (See p. 240). 

Dr. Ralston preached in this church until ISOt, when it was 
removed to (Williamsport) Monongahela City. Mr. Moore, says : 
Dr. Ralston proaehed his first sermon in a little school-house near the 
present church building, preaching two years in the winter time in 
this school-house, and in the summer time in a tent in a sugar grove 
below town. Mr. Lamb and his wife were the first two persons who 
joined the church in Williamsport. The first communion was held 
in August, 1816, when Dr. Ralston was assisted by Rev. Matthew 
Brown, D. D. The whole number of communicants at that time 
were forty-five. 

The church is located on Chess Street, a neat, substantial brick 
ouilding ; its pulpit has been filled by Rev. Dr. Ralston until 1835. 
His successors have been Rev. George D. Porter, from 1835 to 1838, 
Rev. J. W. Kerr from 1839 to 1861, Rev. S. G. Dunlap from 1862 
to 1867, Rev. J. S. Sutchell from 1867 to the present time, but I 
learn he has sent in nis resignation. 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 245 

The following persons have been ordained ruling elders since the 
pastorate of Dr. Ralston, viz : James Hair, James McGrew, Jesse 
Martin, Robert McFarland, Aaron Kerr, Isaac Vanvoorhis, James 
Gordon, Henry Fulton, Joseph Kiddoo, John Power, James Dickey, 
James Curry, E. W. Tower, John Wright, Francis J. Gardner, David 
Moore, David D. Yohe, Samuel Hindman, three of whom have 
passed into the spirit laud, each upwards of eighty years of age, to 
receive a crown of righteousness. 

There is a Sabbath school connected with the church, which by the 
last report numbers 17 teachers, 250 scholars, and has a library of 
about fifteen hundred volumes. Its organization is placed at various 
dates, but the Rev. Mr. Dunlap thinks it was established in the year 
1822. 

Cumberland Presbyterian Church. 

Rev. John Morgan and Rev. Alfred Bryan as missionaries insti- 
tuted the Cumberland Presbyterian church on the 31st of Jan. 1833, 
in this place. A church was erected and ready for occupancy by 
September 1, 1833. The following ministers were ordained as pas- 
tors : 1833, Rev. Samuel M. Sparks ; 1834, Rev. Alexander Robinson; 
1835, Rev. S. M. Sparks; 1836, Rev. John Carev; 1837, Rev. Saml. 
E. Hudson; 1840, Rev. Mr. Dunlap; 1841, Rev. B. Miller; 1842, Rev. 
Mr. Brice. The books show a membership of one hundred and four 
members, but for the last twenty years there has been no regular 
meetings held, the members having joined other denominations. 

Methodist Episcopal Church 

Was organized about the year 1812. Two local preachers by the 
name of Riggs (who were brothers) held the first meeting on the 
farm of Mrs. Baxter, now owned by Ira Butler. In 1813 the ^rs^ 
class-meeting was held in the house which stood at the corner of 
Race Street and Cherry Alley, which was owned by Wm. Wicker- 
ham. The first Methodist preaching was held in the log school- 
house, on the same lot on which the Presbyterian church now stands. 
In 1833, Rev. Dr. Charles Cook being stationed preacher, applied 
himself diligently to the work, and the substantial brick edifice on 
the corner of Race and Chess streets was erected, at a cost of twenty- 
five hundred dollars, Wm. Imsen having presented the lot. The 
congregation worshipped in this edifice until 1868, when they erected 
a new building on Main Street, which cost forty-five thousand dol- 
lars, a magnificent structure, and does honor to that denomination. 
Rev. Hiram Miller is the present ofiiciating clei'gyman. We regret 
exceedingly our inability to procure the records of a church which 
in a little more than half a century held their first meeting in a log 
school-house, and now boasts of the finest architectural church in 
Monongahela City. 

There is a Sabbath school connected with the church, organized 



246 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

January 1, 1820, of which Thomas Collins, Esq., was chosen first 
superintendent. It has twenty teachers, and a library of three 
hundred volumes. 

Wesleyan Methodist Church. 
This denomination has an organization in Monongahela City. 

Protestant Episcopal Church. 

The parish of St. Paul's Episcopal Church was organized by Rev. 
Bishop Alonzo Potter, at Monongahela City, November, 18, 1SG3, 
the following persons being elected vestrymen : William Manown, 
John S. Markle, R. T. Robinson, R. M. Gee, Francis Nelson, James 
P. Shepler, and E. W. Crittenden. 

The corner-stone of their beautiful church was laid in 1866. It 
being a Gothic stone building of fifty by ninety feet, with a tower 
attached, at a cost of fifteen thousand dollars. December 4, 1863, 
Rev. H. Mackay took charge as the first rector. He served until 
March 1870, when Rev. J. B. Linskea was elected. 

It has a Sabbath school with eight teachers and eighty scholars. 
It was organized in the spring of 1862, by Rev. Mr. Ten Broeck, 
who preached as a missionary one year before the church was esta- 
blished. 

Church of the Transfiguration 

Have a church, which was organized as early as 1816, and has 
received the services of such eminent divines as father !McGuire, 
O'Conncr, &c. The Catholic church is named the church of the 
Transfiguration. It was built in 1865, and is situated in the west 
end of the city ; its erection cost six thousand dollars. The build- 
ing was commenced under the Rev. Dennis Kearney. He was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. John 0. G. Scanlon, who was followed by the Rev. 
William F. Hayes, the present pastor. 

There are one hundred and seventeen families connected with the 
church. 

Lutheran Church. 

This congregation has recently purchased the ^lethodist Epi.'^co- 
pal church edifice, on the corner of Race and Chess Streets, having 
paid for the same thirty-seven hundred dollars. It is under the 
pastoral care of Rev. Mr. Rider, who, by his zeal in his master's 
cause, bids fair to add another auxiliary to the propagation of the 
religion of Christ. 

First Baptist Church 

Was organized in 1860. Rev. R. R. Sutton was the first minister; 
his successor is Rev. Mr. Hardgrave. The congregation arc erect- 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 247 

ing a church thirty-seven by fifty feet. It was iucorporated in 
1869. There is a Sabbath-school attached. 

African Methodist Episcopal Church 

"Was founded in 1833. The ministers who have officiated as regu- 
lar pastors comprise the following persons: 1833, Rev. Samuel 
Clingman ; 1835, Thomas Lawrence ; 1836, Rev. S. Cliiigman ; 
1838, Rev. Wm. Newman; 1810, Rev. Fayette Uavis ; 1842, Rev. 
James Coleman ; 1844, Rev. George Coleman ; 1846, Rev. Augus- 
tus R. Greer; 1848, Rev. Wm. Morgan; 1849, Rev. James Cole- 
man; 1850, Rev. Nelson Carter; 1853, Rev. Levan Gross; 1855, 
Rev. John W. Jones ; 1856, Rev. Shugart T. Jones; 1858, Rev. 
Levan Gross; 1860, Rev. S. T. Jones; 1861, Rev. Levan Gross; 
1863, Rev. A. Harwell; 1864, Rev. A. Harwell ; 1865, Rev. L. 
Gross ; 1866, Rev. Charles Greene; 1867, Rev. Alfred Newman ; 
1868, Rev. L. Gross; 1869, Rev. W. C. West; 1870, Rev. W. 
H. Thomas. 

The congregation rented different houses to worship in, until 1842, 
when it made arrangements to build a suitable house. In 1849 the 
basement was finished, in which religious services were held, but 
the church was finally finished in 1858. The church has a mem- 
bership of ninety-five, and a Sabbath-school connected, with the 
usual number of teachers and scholars. 

Monongahela Cemetery. 

This beautiful city of the dead attracts universal admiration, not 
only for its situation, but the manner in which it is laid out. Here 
the sorrowing son and daughter of sighing humanity can quietly, 
peacefully, and with Christian resignation, commit the remains of 
their loved ones, buoyed up by the message of our Saviour, who 
whispers to each disconsolate heart, "What I do thou knowest not 
now, but thou shalt know hereafter." 

This company was established in 1863, and immediately after its 
organization purchased thirty-two acres for the purposes contem- 
plated by the charter. The improvements are estimated at' sixty 
thousand dollars. Its officers are James Stockdale, Esq., President, 
William J. Alexander, Esq., Treasurer, and Dr. R. C. King, Sec- 
retary. 

Union School-House 

Is a beautiful, substantial, and plain three-story edifice, built in 
modern style, to promote the educational interests of the pupils. 

Monongahela City has eight schools, employing two male and six 
female teachers, the former receiving §55 and the latter §40 per 
mouth, with four hundred and thirty nine scholars (224 males and 
215 females). Cost of tuition per month, ninety-three cents for 



248 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

each scholar. Amount of tax levied for school purposes, $2903.88, 
and receiving from the State appropriation, $181.74. 

It would be invidious were we to enter into a full account of the 
iron foundries, glass works, plauing-inills, saw-mills, and others of 
private enterprise, but we believe in doing justice to the banking- 
house of Alexander & Co., and Union Paper Mills. 

Banking House 

"Was established in 1861, by Alexander & Co. The firm has now 
in process of erection a magnificent banking house on Main Street, 
with the private residence of W. J. Alexander, Esq., attached. The 
building is ornamented with a ^lansard roof. Every possible pre- 
caution lias been taken to make the banking departments not only 
fire but burglar proof The establishment of this house, the gentle- 
manly and courteous manner, and obliging disposition of those who 
regulate it, have secured the entire approbation of the whole com- 
munity. 

Union Paper-Mills 

Were originally erected by S. D. Culbertson. They are now owned 
by his son, Albert Culbertson, Esq. They employ thirty hands, and 
manufacture monthly one hundred and twenty-five tons of paper 
straw boards, using two steam engines, one forty horse power and 
one twelve horse power. 

A description of the Odd Fellows' Hall we will reserve for Chapter 
VIII., as it more appropriately belongs there. 

Allen Township 

Was erected on the 14th day of June, 1853. 

It is bounded on the north and west by Fallowfield township, on 
the east and south by the Monongahela River. Its greatest length 
4 miles, its breadth 3 miles. 

The lines of Allen township were changed by the court. May, 
1859, by which the lands of T. C. Huggins, H.' S. Chalfant, and 
Lucinda Chalfant were transferred to East Pike Run township. 

Independence, the only village in this township, is opposite Cooks- 
town. The post-office is named Bellzane. 

There are two INIethodist p]piscopal churches in this township. 
Howe's Methodist Episcopal Church is one-half mile from Green- 
field, on the road from Greenfield to Belle Vernon. The laud was 
deeded to the cliurch by Mr. IIowc in the year 1818. 

The other church is called Mount Tabor M. E. Church. The 
land was formerly owned by the Quakers, who use the burying 
ground. It is situate half way between Cookstown and Greenfield. 
Its pastor is Kev. C. II. Edwards. 

Speers' Baptist Church is on the banks of the Monongahela 
River, at Speers' Ferry. The church was organized in 1795. Its 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 249 

first preacher was Rev. Mr. Speers. His successors were Rev. Mr. 
Winnet, Rev. Mr. Whitlack. 

This township contains four extensive collieries, two stores, and 
two grist-mills. Baldwin's water-mill, turned by water power, 
was among the oldest mills in the county, to which persons came for 
many miles. In 1860 it had a population of 635, of which 14 were 
colored. At this time it has four schools, employing two male and 
two female teachers, the former at $37.50, the latter at $36.25, with 
185 scholars, 93 males and 92 females, the cost of tuition monthly , 

being 99 cents ; tax levied for school purposes, $58t.52 ; amount 
received from State appropriation, $66. 69. 

X, Jefferson Township 

Was erected out of Hupp w oil township on the 16th day of June, 
1853. 

It is bounded north by Hanover, east by Sr iv i HIi aff^ Cross Creek, y y?^,,;^, 
south by Independence a u d Croso Cpeok , and Avest by West Vir- 
ginia. Greatest length Y^- miles, breadth 4 miles. 

Eldersville is the only town in the township in its northern part, 
containing 40 dwellings and a Methodist Protestant church, with a 
population of 218. It is 19 miles from Washington. 

The township has four stores, six schools, employing three male 
and three female teachers, at $30 per month, with 303 scholars, 159 
males and 144 females, tuition costing per month 77 cents; tax 
levied for school purposes, $767.33; for building pui'poses $767.33, 
and receiving from the State appropriation $90.48. 

There is a Methodist Episcopal church near Mr, Gillespie's farm, 
on the road leading from Eldersville to Wellsburg, and a Presby- 
terian church near Mr. Weaver's; also, several grist and saw-mills. 

The Pittsburg and Steubenville Railroad passes through the north- 
ern part of this township. 

The township in 1860 had a population of 984, of which 8 were 
colored. 

Independence Township 

Was formed May 18, 1853, fi'om -O^oS'^e^ township. 

It is bounded noi'th by Hg&Mcr , east by Smith an d Cross Creek/y /i^^/^^^.^^ 
south by Indop oodaaee ^^d—Cross ^eek, and west by West Yir- / 
ginia. Greatest length 7 miles, breadth 4 miles. 

The only town is called Independence, 16 miles from Washing- 
ton, and 7 miles from Wellsburg, West Virginia, in the western part 
of the township, containing 40 dwellings, a Presbyterian church, 
under the care of Rev. J. Fleming, a Methodist Episcopal church, 
and a United Presbyterian church. 

This township contains five stores, six schools, employing three 
male and three female teachers, at $45 per month, with 29.5 scholars, 
166 males and 129 females, tuition costing $131 per month ; tax 

/ 



250 HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

levied for school purposes, $1.S52 OT ; receiving from the State ap- 
propriation, §1)1.33; bad a populatiun in 18G0 of 1078, of which 97 
were cohered. 

Mount Hope U. P. Church was organized as early as 1800. 
The l\cv. Thomas Allison was pastor from February 4, 1802, to 
Kovcmbcr 28, 1837 ; Rev. David Thompson from September 12, 
1888, to June 15, 1847 ; Rev. John T. Brownlee from June 12, 
1851, until the present time, with a membership of 100. 

Franklin Township 

Was erected out of parts of Canton and Morris, August 18, 1855. 

It is bounded on the north by Bufi'alo, Canton, AVashington, and 
S. Strabane ; on the east by S. Strabane, Annvell, and AVashing- 
ton ; on the south by Morris, and on the west by E. Fiuley and 
Buffalo. Greatest length 7^ miles, breadth 4^ miles. 

This township has seven schools, employing three male and four 
female teachers, at $35 dollars per month, with 252 scholars, 137 
males and 115 females, tuition costing $1.25 per month ; amount 
levied for school purposes, $918.09 ; for building purposes, $088.54, 
and receiving from State appropriation $102.57. 

Bethel Church is located near Van Buren, under the Cumberland 
Presbyterians. 

Concord Church is connected with the same denomination, and 
is situated on the farm of Elias Day. 



CHAPTER YL 

ELECTED OFFICERS OF WASHINGTON COUNTY FROM 1790. 

Members of Congress — Senators and Representatives — President Judges — 
Associate Judges and Deputy Attorney-rienerals — .\ttorne_vs-at-T,aw — Pro- 
thonotaries — P>egisters — Recorders — Clerk of the Courts — Sheriffs — Coro- 
ners — Commissioners — Clerks to Commissioners — Treasurers — Auditors — 
Notary Public — Directors of the Poor — Deputy Surveyor-Generals — Justices 
of the Peace. 

Members of Congress 
Under the Constitution of September 2, 1790. 

1. — October, 1790. lion. Thomas Scott, for Washington County. 

2. " 1797. " Albert (iallalin and John Woods, for AVash- 

inj^ton and Allegheny. 

3. " 1798. " AllxTt Gallatin, for Washington, Alloghcny, 

and Greene. 

4. " 1801. " William Uoge. for Washington, Allegheny, 

Greene, and Crawford. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 251 

5. — Octobei, 1808. Hon. Aaron Lyle. 

6. " 1816. " Thomas Patterson. 

7. " 1824. " Joseph Lawrence. 

8. " 1828. " William McCreary. 

9. " 1830. " Thomas M. T. McKennan. for Washington. 

10. " 1838. " Isaac Leet, for Washington. 

11. " 1840. " Joseph Lawrence (died April 17, J842) for 

Washington. 
12.— May, 1842. " Thomas M. T. McKennan, for Washington. 
13. — October, 1843. " John Dickey, for Washington and Beaver. 

14. " 1844. " John H. Ewing, for Washington and Beaver. 

15. " 1846. " John Dickey, 

16. " 1848. " Eobert R. Reed, M. D., for Washington and 

Beaver. 

17. " 1850. " Thomas J. Power, for Washington and Beaver, 

18. " 1852. " John L. Dawson, for Washington, Fayette, and 

Greene. 

19. " 1854. *' Jonathan Knight, for Washington, Fayette, 

and Greene. 

20. " 1856. " William Montgomery, for Washington, Fayette, 

and Greene. 

21. " 1860. " Jesse Lazear, for Washington, Fayette, and 

Greene. 

22. " 1864. " George Y. Lawrence, for Washington, Greene, 

Beaver, and Lawrence. 

23. " 1868. " J. B. Donnelly, for Washington, Greene, Bea- 

ver, and Lawrence. 

Senators 

Who have been elected and served the period of their election, 
under the Constitution of 1790 and 1838. 

1. — 1790, October. Hon. John Hoge, for Washington and Fayette coun- 
ties. 

2.— 1792, " " John Hoge and John Smilie, for Washington 

and Fayette counties. 

3.— 1794,* " " Thomas Stokely and Absalom Baird, for Wash- 

ington and Allegheny. 

4. — 1796, " " John Hamilton and Thomas Moreton, for 

Washington and Allegheny. 

5. — 1800, " " John Hamilton and John Woods, for Wash- 

ington, Allegheny and Greene. 

6. — 1806, " " Isaac Weaver and James Stevenson, for Wash- 

ington and Greene. 

7.— 1810, " " Abel McFswland, for Washington and Greene. 

8.— 1812, " " Isaac Weaver, 

9.— 1814, " " Abel McFarland " 

10.— 1816, " " Isaac Weaver, " 

11.— 1818, " " Thomas McCall, " 



* The Senate declared the election held in October, 1794, as unconstitutional on 
account of the four western counties being in a state of insurrection, and ordered a 
special election in February, 1795, when the same Senators were re-elected. See 
History of Whiskey Insurrection (Appendix, Chapter 4), for full particulars. 



252 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

12. — 1820, October, Hon. Isaac Weaver, for Washington #,n»l Greene. 
13.— 1822, " " Joshua Dickerson, " " " " 

14. — 1824, " " Jonathan Kniijhtand Wm. G. Hawkins, for 

Washin<rton and Greene. 
15. — 1828, " " Thomas liiugland and Wra. G. Hawkins, for 

Washington and Greene. 
16. — 1834, " " Isaac Leet, for Washington. 

17.— 1838, " " John H. Ewing, for Washington. 

18.-1842, " " Walter Craig, " 

19.— 1845, " " E. G. Creacraft, " 

20.— 1848, " " Geo. V. Lawrence, for Washington. 

21. — 1851, " " M. McCaslin, for W^ashington and Greene. 

22. — 1854, " " John C. Flenniken. for Washington and Greene. 

23.— 1857, " " George W. Miller, " 

24. — 1860, " " George V. Lawrence, for Washington and 

Greene. 
25. — 1863, " " William Hopkins, for Washington and Greene. 

26. — 1866, " " A. W. Taylor, for Washington and Beaver. 

27.— 1869, " " James S. Rutan, 

Representatives to the Supreme Executive Council. 

1781, November 30. — Hon. James Edgar and John Canon. 

1782, December 4. — " Matthew Ritchie and William McCleary. 
1733, November 10. — " ]\Iatthew Ritchie and John Stephenson. 
1784, November 1. — " Matthew Ritchie and John Stephenson. 

Representatives elected to the House op Representatives. 

Under the Constitution of 1190 and 1838. 

1790, October. — Hon. Thomas Ryerson. 

1791, " " John Minor, Thomas Scott, Daniel Leet, and Thomas 

Stokely. 

1792, " " Thomas Stokely, Daniel Leet, John Canon, and 

David Rradford. 

1793, " " Thomas Stokely, Craig Ritchie, John Minor, and 

Benjamin White. 
1794* " " James Brice, William Wallace, Benjamin White, 

and Craig Ritchie. 

1795, " " John Minor, William Wallace, David Acheson, and 

Craig Ritchie. 

1796, " " David Johnson, William Wallace, David Acheson, 

and William IToge. 

1797, " " William lloge. William Wallace, David Acheson, 

and David Johnson. 

1798, " " John McDowell, Absalom Baird, and Aaron Lyle. 

1799, " " John McDowell, Samuel Urie, and Aaron Lyle. 

1800, " " John McDowell, Samuel Urie, and Aaron I^ylc. 

1801, " " John McDowell, Samuel Urie, Aaron Lyle, and 

James Kerr. 



* January h, 1795. These member.s, with those of Westmoreland, Fayette, and 
Allegheny counties, were declared unconstitutionally elected, on account of the 
Whiskey Insurrection, and, at a special election held in February, 1795, were re- 
elected. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 253 

1802, October. — Hon. Samuel A^new, Joseph Vance, John Marshall, and 

James Kerr. 

1803, " " Samuel Ao^new, Joseph Yance, John Marshall, and 

James Kerr. 

1804, " " Samuel Agnew, David Acbeson, John Marshall, and 

James Stephenson. 

1805, " " Samuel Agnew, Aaron Lyle, John Marshall, and 

James Stephenson. 
i806, " " James Kerr, Abel McFarland, Ebenezer Jennings, 

and James Stephenson. • 

1807, " " James Kerr, Abel McFarland, Ebenezer Jennings, 

and James Stephenson. 

1808, " " Abel McFarland, John Colmery, Thomas McCall, 

and Robert Mahon. 

1809, " " James Kerr, John Colmery, Thomas McCall, and 

Andrew Sutton. 

1810, " " Thomas Hopkins, John Colmery, Joshua Dickerson, 

and Andrew Sutton. 

1811, " " Thomas McCall, Richard Donaldson, Robert Ander- 

son, and Joshua Dickerson. 

1812, " " Thomas McCall, James Kerr, Robert Anderson, 

and Joshua Dickerson. 

1813, " " Thomas McCall, James Kerr, James Stephenson, 

and Joshua Dickerson. 

1814, " " ThomasMorgan, Andrew Sutton, James Stephenson, 

and Joshua Dickerson. 

1815, " " Thomas Morgan, John Hamilton, James Stephenson, 

and William Vance. 

1816, " " Joshua Dickerson, Jacob Weirich, James Kerr, and 

William Vance. 

1817, " " Joshua Dickerson, Jacob Weirich, James Kerr, and 

John Reed. 

1818, " " Joseph Lawrence, Walter Craig, James Keys, and 

John Reed. 

1819, " " Joseph Lawrence, Walter Craig, James Keys, and 

John Reed. 
Ib20, " " Joseph Lawrence, Thomas McCall, Dickerson Rob- 

erts, and John Reed. 

1821, " " Joseph Lawrence, Thomas McCall, Joseph Ritner, 

and John Reed. 

1822, " " Joseph Lawrence, Jonathan Knight, Joseph Ritner, 

and James Keys. 

1823, " " Joseph Lawrence, Jonathan Knight, Joseph Ritner, 

and James Keys. 

1824, " " William McCreary, Aaron Kerr, Joseph Ritner, and 

James Keys. 

1825, " " William McCreary, Aaron Kerr, Joseph Ritner, and 

Thomas Ringland. 

1826, " " William McCreary, Aaron Kerr, Thomas Ringland, 

and Joseph Ritner. 

1827, " " William McCreary, Aaron Kerr, Samuel Workman, 

and Thomas Ringland. 

1828, " " William Waugh, Aaron Kerr, Samuel Workman, 

and William Patterson. 

1829, " " William Waugh, Samuel Workman, and William 

Patterson. 



254 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



1 830, October. — Hon. William "Waugh, Wallace McWilliams, and William 

Patterson. 

1831, " " William Waugh, Wallace McWilliams, and William 

Patterson. 

1832, " " William Waugh, Robert Love, and Joseph Hen- 

derson. 

1833, " " William McCreary, Robert Love, and William Pat- 

terson. 

1834, " " William Hopkins, Joseph Lawrence, and David 

Frazier. 

1835, " " John H. Ewing, Joseph Lawrence, and Edward 

McDonald. 

1836, Feb'y 18. — " Thomas McGifiBn elected at a special election in 

place of Jos. Lawrence, elected State Treasurer. 

1836, October. — " Robert Love, William Hopkins, and John Parke. 

1837, " " Robert Love, William Hopkins, and John Parke. 

1838, " " Robert Love, William Hopkins, and John Parke. 

1839, " " Robert Love, William Hopkins, and John Parke. 

1840, " " Jonathan Leatherman, Samuel Livingston, and 

Aaron Kerr. 

1841, " " Wallace McWilliams, James McFarren, and Jesse 

Martin. 

1842, " " Samuel Livingston, William McDaniel, and John 

Storer. 

1843, " "0. B. McFadden and George V. Lawrence. 

1844, " " Daniel Rider and John IMeloy. 

1845, " " Daniel Rider and Richard Donaldson. 

1846, " " George V. Lawrence and Richard Donaldson. 

1847, " " Thomas Watson and Jacob Cort. 

1848, " " John McKee and Jacob Cort. 

1849, " " Jonathan D. Leet and Thomas Watson. 

1850, " " Jonathan D. Leet and David Riddle. 

1851, " " Hugh Craig and John Meloy. 

1852, " " John N. McDonald and J. W. Alexander. 

1853, " " Matthew Linn and Jehu Jackman. 

1854, " " Samuel J. Krepps and James McCulloch. 

1855, " " John W. Miller and David Riddle. 

1856, '* " John C. Sloan and J. S. Vanvoorhis. 

1857, " " John N. McDonald and James Donehoo. 

1858, " " George V. Lawrence and William Graham. 

1859, " " George V. Lawrence and William Graham. 

1860, " " John A. IFappcr and Robert Anderson. 

1861, " " John A. Happer and William Hopkins. 

1862, " " William Glenn and William Hopkins. 

1863, " " Robert R. Rood and J. R. Kellcy. 

1864, " " Robert R. Reed, J. R. Kelley, and M. S. Quay, 

Washington and Deaver. 

1865, " " Joseph Welsh, J. R. Kelley, and M. S. Quay, Wash- 

ington and Beaver. 

1866, " " John ICwing, J. R. Day, and M. S. Quay, Washing- 

ton and JJeaver. 

1867, " • " John Fiwing, J. R. Day, and Thomas Nicholson, 

Wa'^hington and IJeaver. 

1868, " " A. J. Bufliugton, II. J. Vankirk, and Thomas 

Nicholson, Washington and Beaver. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY, 255 

1869, October.— Hon. A. J. Buffington, H. J. Vankirk, and W. Davidson, 
Washington and Beaver. 

President Judges 

Of the Court of Common Pleas, Orphans' Court, Quarter Sessions, 
and Oyer and Terminer since 1781. 

1781, Oct. 2. Hon. Henry Taylor. 1788, Sept. 30. Hon. Henry Taylor. 
1783, Oct. 31. Hon. Dorsey Pentecost. 

These were Presiding Judges of the County Court, composed of 
Justices of the Peace, who held office under the Constitution of 
Pennsylvania adopted September 28, 1776. 

1791, Sept. 22. Hon. Alexander Addison for "Washington, Fayette, West- 
moreland, and Allegheny counties. 

1803, June 2. Hon. Samuel Roberts for Washington, Fayette, Greene, and 
Beaver counties. 

1818, Oct. 19. Hon. Thomas H. Baird for Washington, Fayette, Greene, 
and Somerset counties. 

1838, Feb. 28. Hon. Nathaniel Ewing for Washington, Fayette, and Greene 
counties. 

These presided over the various courts of the district under the 
Constitution of September 2, 1790.* 

Under the Constitution of 1838 

the following" persons distinguished for their legal abilities have been 
elected in this district : — 

1848, Feb. 28. Hon. Samuel A. Gilmore, Washington, Fayette, and Greene 

counties. 
1851, Oct. 11. Hon. Samuel A. Gilmore, Washington, Fayette, and Greene 

counties. 
1861, Oct. 11. Hon. James Lindsey, Washington, Fayette, and Greene 

counties. 

1865, Jan. 9. Hon. J. Kennedy Ewing, Washington, Fayette, and Greene 

counties. 

1866, Feb. 19. Hon. B. B. Chamberlin, Washington and Beaver counties. 
1866, Nov. 15. Hon. Alexander W. Acheson, Washington and Beaver 

counties. 

Associate Judges 

were first appointed under the Constitution of 1790 during good 
behavior. The law of March 21, 1806, provided that no vacancy 
in the office of Associate Judge could be supplied in any county 
uuless the number of Associates shall be reduced to less than two, 

* The Constitution of 1838 provided that one half of the commissions of those 
Judges who held office for ten years or more at its adoption, should expire February 
27, 1839 ; and the commissions of the other half on the 27th of February, 1842 ; and the 
commissions of the remaining Judges, who had not held ofiSce for ten years, should 
expire on the 26th of February next after the end of ten years from the date of their 
commission ; under this provision Judge Ewing held his of&ce until February, 1843. 



25G 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



when that number shall be completed. In 1838 by the Constitation 
the life tenure of office was abolished and Associate Judges were 
elected. 



1791, April 16. Hon. Henry Taylor. 
1791, April 16. Hon. James Edg-ar. 
1791, April 16. Hon. James Allison. 
1791, April IG. Hon. Matthew Kit- 
chie. 



1798, April 6. William Hoge. 
1802, May 31. John McDowell. 
1802, May 31. John Hamilton, 
1806, Jan. 1. Rev. Boyd Mercer. 



When the Constitution of 1838 went into operation, Hon. John 
Hamilton and Rev. Boyd Mercer were on the bench, and the follow- 
ing persons were elected : — * 



1838, Oct. Hon. Boyd Mercer. 

1838, Oct. Hon. Thomas McKeever. 

1840, Mar. 26. Hon. Samuel Hill. 

1843, Mar. 18. Hon. John Grayson. 

184;"), Mar. 8. Hon. James Gordon. 

1849, Feb. 19. Hon. Isaac Hodgens. 

1851, Mar. 12. Hon. William Van- 
kirk. 

1851, Oct. 16. Hon. Abraham Wo- 
tring. 

1851, Oct. 16. Hon. John Freeman. 



1856, Oct. 12. Hon. James G. Hart. 
1856, Oct. 12. Hon. Jacob Slagle. 
1861, Oct. 23. Hon. James G. Hart. 

1861, Oct. 23. Hon. Wm. Vankirk. 
(his election declared illegal and his 
opponent was sworn in.) 

1862, June 3. Hon. Thomas McCar- 

rol. 

1866, Oct. 9. Hon. James C. Cham- 
bers. 

1866, Oct. 9. Hon. John Farrar. 



Prothonotaries 

Under the Supreme Executive Council. 

1.— 1781, April 2. Thomas Scott. | 2.— 1789, Mar. 28. Alexander Scott. 

Under the Constitution of September 2, 1*790. 



3.— 1791, Aug. 14 
4.— 1803, Jan. 11 



David Roddick. 
AV'm. McKen- 
nan. 
5. — 1811, Dec. 17. Alexander Mur- 
doch. 
6.— 1819, May 6. William Sample. 
7.— 1821, Feb. 12. Thos. Morgan. 



8— 1823. Dec. 30. William Sample. 
9.— 1H30, Feb. 10. Thomas Officer. 
10.— 1836, Jan. 8. George W. Ache- 
son. 
11.— 1837, Oct. 25. John Uric. 
12.— 1839, Feb. 5. John Grayson, 
Sr. 



Under the Constitution of 1838, elected by the people for three years 
Grayson, 



13.— 1839, Oct. 14. John 
Sr. 
U._1842, Oct. 12 
15.— 1845, Oct. 17 
16.-1848, Oct. 5, 
17.— 1851, Oct. 22 



Eph. L. Blaine. 
O.n.McFadden. 
James Brown. 
James Brown. 



18.-18.54, Oct. 14. Wm. S. Moore. 
19.— 1857, Oct. 11. James B. Ruide. 
20.-1860, Oct. 10. James B. Ruple. 
21.-1863, Oct. 9. John E. Bell. 
22.-1866, Oct. 9. John L. Gow. 
23.-1869, Oct. 12. D. M. Donehoo. 



* By the Constitulion the Associate Judges were thus cla.isified ; they were divided 
into four classes by the lefrislatiire. The commission of the first clnss expired Feb- 
ruary 27, 1840 ; the 2d class on February 27, 1841 ; the 3d class, February 27, 1843. 
Their commissions were arranged according to seniority. 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



25t 



Registers 

Under the Sui:)reme Executive Council. 

1.— 1781, April 4. James Marshal. | 2.— 1784, Sept. 30. Thos. Stokely. 

Under the Constitution of September 2, 1790. 

3. — 1791, Aug. 17, James Marshall. 
4. — 1795, March 6. Samuel Clarke. 
5.— 1800, Jan. 15. John Israel. 
6.— 1806, Dec. 24. Isaac Kerr. 
7.— 1819, May 21. Robert Colmery. 
8.— 1821, Feb. 22. Samuel Lyon. 



9.— 1824, Jan. 27. Robert Colmery. 

10.— 1830, Mar. 19. John Grayson, 
Sr. 

11.— 1836, Jan. 20. Sam'l Cunning- 
ham. 

12.-1839, Mar. 3. James Gordon. 



Under the Constitution of 1838. 



13.— 1839, Oct. 14. Geo. Morrison. 
14.— 1842, Oct. 12. James Sprigg. 
15._1845, Oct. 17. Wm. Workman. 
16.— 1848, Oct. 6. Odel Squier. 
17,-1851, Oct. 22. John Grayson, 

Jr. 
18.-1854, Oct. 14. John Meloy. 



19.— 1857, Oct. 11. Harvey J. Van- 
kirk. 
20.-1860, Oct. 10. Wm. A. Mickey. 
21.— 1863, Oct. 9. Wm. A. Mickey. 
22.— 1866, Oct. 9. Geo. Buchanan. 
23.-1869, Oct. 12. I. Y. Hamilton. 



Recorder of Deeds 
Under the Sujoreme Executive Council. 
1. — 1781, April 4. James Marshall. 
Under the Constitution of 1790. 



2.— 1791, Aug. 17. Jas. Marshall. 
3.-1795, Mar. 6. Samuel Clark. 
15. 



4._1800, Jan. 
5.-1806, Dec. 
6.— 1819, May 
7.— 1821, Feb. 



John Israel. 
1. Isaac Kerr. 
9. Robt. Colmery. 

Samuel Lyon. 



12 



8.-1823, Dec. 30. Robert Colmery. 

9._1880, Feb. 19. William lloge. 
10.— 1836, Jan. 8. William H.Corn- 
wall. 
12.-1839, Feb. 5. James Brown. 



13.-1839, Nov. 14. James Brown. 
14.— 1842, " 12, James Brown. 
15.-1845, " 17, James Brown. 
16.-1848, " 5. F. Cooper Mor- 
rison. 

17.-1851, " 22, F. Cooper Mor- 
rison. 
18. — 1854, Nov. 14. Cyrus Underwood 



Under the Constitution of 1838. 

19.-1857, Nov, 13. Freeman Brady 

Jr. 
20.-1860, " 23. Wm. H. Horn. 
21.-1863, Dec. 1. Alvin King. 
22.-1866, " 3. M 



23.— 1869, Oct. 12. 



. L. A. Mc- 
cracken. 
John P. Charl- 
ton. 



Clerk op the Quarter Sessions, Orphans' Court, Oyer and 
Terminer, &c. &c. 

Under the Supreme Executive Council. 



1.-1781, April 2. 
2.— 1789, March 28. 



Thomas Scott. 
Alexander Scott. 



258 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



Under the Constitution of 1790. 



3.— 1792, Sept. 2. 
4.— 1803, Jan. 11. 
5.— 1811, Dec. 17 

6.— 1819, May 6, 



David Reddick. 
AVm. McKennan. 
Alexander Mur- 
doch. 
Wm. Sample. 



7.— 1821, Feb. 12. Robt. Colmery. 

8.— 1823, Dec. 30. Jos. Henderson. 

9.— 1830, Feb. 19. James Ruplc. 
10.— 1836, Jan. 8. James Blaine. 
11.— 1839, Feb. 5. James Ruple. 



Under the Constitution of 1838. 



17.— 18.54, Nov. 14. David Aiken. 
18.— 18.07, " 13. David Aiken. 
19.— 1860, " 23. David Aiken. 
20.-1863, Dec. 3. Wm. A. Kidd. 
21.— 1869, " 5. Samuel Ruth. 



12.— 1839, Nov. 14. James Ruple. 
13.-1842, " 12. Alex. G. Marsh- 
man. 
14.-1845, " 17. William Hays. 
15.— 1848, " 5. Robt. F. Cooper. 
16.— 1851, " 22. Geo. Passmore. 

The ofiBces of Prothonotary and Clerks of the court were com- 
bined until 1821, and those of Register and Recorder until 1S30; at 
these dates they became separated as they now exist. 

Sheriffs 

Under the Supreme Executive Council. 

1.— Nov. 30,1781. Van Swearingen. I 3.— Oct. 26, 1787. David Williamson. 
2.— Nov. 1, 1784. James Marshall, | 4.— Nov. 9, 1790. William Wallace. 

Under the Constitution o/ 1T90, elected Second Tuesday of October 
every TJiird Year. 



5. 


-1793, 


Oct. 


22. 


John Hamilton. 


14.- 


-1820, 


Oct. 21 


Robert Officer. 


6. 


-1796, 


Nov 


. 2. 


Thus. Hamilton. 


15. 


—1823, 


11 


Sam'l Workman. 


7. 


—1799. 


11 


' 2. 


Absalom Baird. 


16. 


-1826, 


i( 


Robert McClel- 


8. 


—18(12, 


11 


6. 


Geo. Hamilton. 








land. 


9. 


—1805, 


Oct. 


21. 


• John McC'hiney. 


17. 


-1829, 


<< 


Jos. Henderson. 


10. 


-1808. 


" 




Rob't Anderson. 


18. 


—1832, 


i< 


Samuel Cunning- 


11. 


-1811, 


(( 




George Baird. 








ham. 


12. 


—1814, 


11 




Thomas Officer. 


19. 


—1835, 


" 


John Marshall. 


13. 


—1817, 


<i 




Dickcrson Rob- 
erts. 


20. 
21. 


—1836, 
—1837, 


<t 


John Wilson.* 
James Spriggs. 



Under Constitution of 1838. 



22.— 1840, ct. Sheshbazzar Bentley, 

Jr. 
23.-1843, " Jehu Jackman. 
24.— 1846, " Alex. (i. Marshman. 
2.5.-1849, " Peter Wolfe. 
26.— 1852, " Jno. McAllister. 



27.— 1855, Oct. Andrew Bruce. 
28.-18.58, " Norton McGiffin. 



29.— 1861, 
30.-1864, 
31.— 1867, 



James M. layers. 
Edward R. Smith. 
Hugh Keys. 



Coroners 

Under Supreme Executive Council. 

1.-1781, Nov. 30. Wm. McFarland. I 3.-1787, Oct. 26. Robert Benham. 
2.-1784, " 1. Wm. McCombs. 14.-1789, Nov. G.Samuel Clarke. 



* Succeeded as coroner. 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



259 



Under Constitution of 1*790. 



5.— 1790, Samuel Clark. 

6.— 1794, Feb. 16. James Marshall. 

7.— 1799, Nov. 18. Wm. Slemeus. 

8.— 1802, " 6. Dorsey Pente- 
cost. 

9.— 1805, Oct. 21. Thos. Hutchinson. 
10.— 1811, " Wm. Marshall. 

11.— 1814, " William Carter. 



12.-1817, Oct. 
13.— 1820, 
14.— 1823, 
15.— 1826, 
16.-1829, 
17.— 1832, 
18.-1835, 
19.— 1837, 



20.-1840, Oct. 
21.— 1843, " 

22.-1846, " 

23.-1849, 

24.-1852, 



Under Constitution of 1838. 
26.— 1858, Oct. 



William Tweed, Jr. 
Wm. J. Wilson. 
Oliver Lindsey. 
James D. Best. 
William B. Cundall. 



25.— 1855, " Moses Little. 



27.-1861, 
28.— 1864, 
29.-1867, 
30.— 1868, 



James Ruple. 
John Johnston. 
George Sowers. 
Alex. Gordon. 
Moses Linn. 
Jas. McCadden. 
John Wilson. 
John R. Griffith. 



Jonathan Martin. 
John E. Black. 
Isaac Vance. 
Chas. W. McDaniel. 
Lewis Barker. 



Commissioners. 

The Board of County Commissioners is composed of three electors, 
one of whom is elected at the annual October election ; consequently 
to ascertain who constitutes the Board, it will only be necessary to 
compute any three successive years and the Board can be easily as- 
certained. 



1. 

2.- 

3.- 

4.- 

5.- 

6.- 

7.- 

8.- 

9.- 

10.- 

11.- 

12.- 

13.- 

14.- 

15- 

16.- 

17.- 

18.- 

19.- 

20.- 

21.- 

22.- 



1781. 
178L 
1781. 

-1782. 

-1783. 

-1784. 

-1785. 

-1786. 

-1787. 

-1788. 

-1789. 

-1790. 

-1791. 

-1792. 

-1793. 

-1794. 

-1795. 

-1796. 

-1797. 

-1798. 

-1799. 

-1800. 

-1601. 

-1802. 



George Vallandigham. 
Thomas Crooks. 
John McDowell. 
George McOormick. 
Demas Lindley. 
James Allison. 
James McCready. 
James Bradford. 
Thomas Marquis. 
Henry Vanmetre. 
James McCready. 
WilUam Meetkirke. 
James Brice. 
Zachariah Gapen. 
Isaac Leet, Jr. 
Samuel Clarke. 
William Seaton. 
John Colton. 
Robert McCready. 
James Brice. 
William Campbell. 
Joshua Anderson. 
Isaac Leet, Jr. 
Robert Mahon. 



23.-1803. 
24.-1804. 
25.-1805. 
26.— 1806. 
27.-1807. 
28.— 1808. 
29.— 1809. 
30.-1810. 
31.— 1811. 
32.— 1812. 
33.— 1813. 
34.— 1814. 
35.— 1815. 
36.— 1816 
37 
37 

38.-1818 
39.-1819. 
40.-1820. 
41.— 182L 
42.-1822. 
43.— 1823. 
44.-1824. 
45.— 1825. 



1 1817. 



John Lyle. 
Thomas Hopkins. 
Edward Todd. 
Joseph Alexander. 
Aaron Lyle. 
Joseph Alexander. 
William Marshall. 
Moses McWhirtcr. 
Isaac Leet, Jr. 
Daniel Kehr. 
William Vance. 
John Brownlee. 
John Reed. 
Walter Craig.* 
Jonathan Knight- 
Moses Lyle. 
John Lacock. 
Alexander Scott. 
Matthias Luse. 
William McCreary. 
John Urie. 
John Macoy. 
Robert Moore. 
Robert Patterson. 



* Walter Craig resigned and two Commissioners elected iu 1817, James Gordon 
appointed to serve until the following October, 1818. 



260 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



46.- 
47.- 
48.- 
49.- 
50.- 
51.- 



53.. 
54. 
55. 



66 



-1820. Wallace McWilliams. 
-1827. Robert Love. 
-1828. Thomas Axtell. 
-1829. Isaac Hodgens. 
-1830, Samuel Cunningham. 
-1831. James McBurney. 
1 Q-io i Jesse Cooper. 2 years. 
'^^■^'^- \ James Miller. 3 years. 
-1833. William McElroy. 
-1834. James Lee. 
-1835. S. Bentley. Jr.* 

I B. Anderson. 1 year. 

I J. Jackman. 3 years. 

Matthew Linn. 
Andrew Shearer. 
James Pollock, 
Samuel Linton. 
Hugh Craig. 
Thomas Byers. 
George Passmore. 
James Donehoo. 
Alexander Frazier. 
Dutton Shannon. 



56:— 1836. 

57.— 

58. 

59. 

60, 

61 

62, 

63 

64 

65, 



—1837. 
—1838. 
—1839. 
,—1840. 
—1841. 
.—1842. 
—1843. 
,—1844. 
( 1845. 
■ 1 1846. 



67.- 

C8.- 
69.- 
70.- 
71.- 
72.- 
73.- 
74.- 
75.- 
7G.- 
77.- 
78.- 
79.- 
80.- 
81.- 
82.- 
83.- 
84.- 
85- 
86.- 
87.- 



89.— 



1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
18.52. 
■1853. 
18.54. 
1855. 
1856. 
■1857. 
■1858. 
■1859. 
■1860. 
■1861. 
-1862. 
-1863. 
-1864. 
-1665. 
-1866. 
-1867. 
-1868. 
1869. 



John McAlister. 
John Birch. 
Andrew Bruce. 
Samuel Bccket. 
Isaac Thompson. 
Thomas McCarrol. 
Daniel Swickard. 
John Stewart. 
John N. Walker. 
Nathan Cleaver. 
Joseph Vankirk. 
O. P. Cook. 
George Taylor, 
James S. Elliott. 
Abel M. Evans. 
Frank Neilson. 
Joseph W. Cowan. 
T. J. Bell. 
James Walker. 
Samuel K. Weirich, 
H. B. McLean. 
James Kerr. 
S. P. Riddle. 



Clerks to the Commissioners. 



1.— 1782. 

2.-1783. 

3.-1793. 

4.— 1796. 

5.-1800. 

6.-1801. 

7.-1803. 

8.-1804. 

9.-1805. 
10.— 1808. 
11.-1814. 
12.— 1819. 



Thomas Byers. 
James McCready. 
Thomas Swearingen. 
John Colerick. 
Isaac Kerr. 
Robert Moore. 
John Gilmore. 
David McKeehan. 
Alexander Blair. 
William Baird. 
John Baird. 
Robert Jackson. 



13.-1822. Thomas Good. 
14.-1834. James Palmer. 
15.— 1841. William Hughes. 
16.— 1843. AVilliam R. Oliver. 
17.-1845. Adam Silvey. 
18.-1853. David P. Lowary. 
19.— 18.54. John Gamble. 
20.-1857. Ellas McClelland. 
21.— 1858. Samuel Linton. 
22. — 1864. Isaac II. Longdon, 
23.— 1869. Joseph A. McKce. 
24. — 1870. John Grayson, Jr. 



Deputy Attorney-Generals. 



1.— 1781. 

2.-1783. 

3.— 1790. 

4.— 1796. 

5.— 1805. 

6.-1809. 

7.— 1829. 

8.-1824. 

9.-1830. 
10.-1835. 
11.— 18.36 
12.-1837. 



David Sample. 
David Bradford. 
John Purviance. 
Parker Campbell. 
James Ashbrook. 
Thomas H. Baird. 
William Baird. 
William Waugh. 
Isaac Leet. 
Alex. W. Acheson. 
R. H. Lee. 
AVilliam McKennan. 



13.-1839. Alex. W. Acheson. 
14. — 1845. William Montgomery. 
15.-1846. Alex. W. Acheson. 
16.-1847. George S. Hart. 
17.-1848. Robert H. Koontz. 
18.-18.50. George S. Hart. 
19.— 1853. William Lynn. 
20.-1856. Alexander Wilson. 
21.-1862. James R. Ruth. 
22. — 1865. Boyd Crurarine. 
23.— 1808. lanthus Bentley. 



* S. Bentley resigned October 25. 
Cunningham. 



W. V. Leet appointed August 31, in place of S. 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



261 



List of Attorneys 

Who were admitted to practise law in the courts of "Washington 
County, from its organization to the present time, with the term in 
which they were admitted. Those marked thus f were resident 
attorneys. 



Term. 
fAcheson, Hon. Alexander AV. 

June, 1832. 
Acheson, George May, 1843. 

fAcheson, George W. Dec, 1830. 
fAcheson Marcus Dec, 1868. 

Acheson Marcus W. May, 18.52. 

f Addison, Hon. Alex. Mar., 1787. 
f Addison, Alexander Dec, 1820. 
f Aiken, John Dec, 1869. 

Alden, T. J. Fox May, 1838. 

Allison, Alexander Sept., 1835. 

Allison, William Dec, 1838. 

f Alter, Solomon May, 1843. 

Andrews, A. June, 1819. 

Appleton, George Aug., 1846. 

fAshbrook, James Nov., 1798. 

Avery, P. J. Mar., 1838. 

Ayres, William Nov., 1798. 



Bailey, Isaac 
fBaird, Hon. Th. H. 
fBaird, Thomas H., Jr. 
fBaird, William 
Baird, William 
Baldwin, Henry 
Baldwin, Henry 
Barr, S. Gailey 
f Beall, Thomas B. 
Beckett, J. B. 
Beebe. Walter B. 
Bell, D. B. 
fBell, Solomon 
fBentley, lanthus 
Biddle, Richard 
Big^am, T. J. 
Black, Ross 
Black, J. L. 
Blair, David 
Boice, Ebenezer 
Bowman, John 
Bowman, J. L. 
Bowman, William 
fBoyd, Thomas 
Brackenridge, Alex. 
Brackenridge, H. H. 
Brackenridge, H. M. 
fBraden, John D. 



Aug., 1862. 

Mar., 1808. 

Feb., 1846. 
June, 1812. 
Aug., 1849. 
June, 1815. 

Mar., 1838. 
Aug., 1865. 

Oct., 1834. 

Dec, 1812. 

Oct., 1818. 

May, 1852. 

Dec, 1867. 

Feb., 1866. 
Mar., 1824. 
June, 18.37. 

Feb., 1841. 
Aug., 1869. 
June, 1838. 
Aug., 1844. 
June, 1837. 

Jan., 1817. 

Nov., 18.52. 

" 1861. 

Mar., 1818. 

Oct., 1814. 
" 1781. 

Feb., 1851. 



f Bradford, David 
fBrady Freeman, Jr. 
Brady Jasper B. 
fBrady, John S. 
Brown, D. W. 
Buchanan, Andrew 
Buchanan, J. A. J. 
Buckingham, S. 

Caldwell, Alexander 
Caldwell, George W. 
Callender, Robert 
Campbell, Charles 
Campbell, Francis C. 
Campbell, Henry M. 
Campbell, James 
fCampbell, Parker 
Carson, John 
Chapline, John H. 
f Clarke, J. Murray 
Cleavinger, Samuel 
Cloyd, John 
Cochran, A. G. 
Cochran, George R. 
Cochran, S. N. 
Cole, Samuel, Jr. 
Coleman, Charles 
Collins, Thomas 
fCooper, R. F. 
Craft, James S. 
Craig, David 
Craig, I. H. 
Crawford, David 
f Creacraft, E. G. 
fCreigh, Samuel 
Creigh, Thomas 
fCrumrine, Bishop 
fCrumrine, Boyd 
Cunningham, Thomas 

Dawson, John 
Denny, Harmar 
Dodridge, Philip 
tDonehoo, John R. 
fDonnan, John W. 
Donaldson. John W. 
Douglass. John 



Teem. 
April, 1782. 

May, 1860. 

Feb., 1857. 
June, 1817. 
Aug., 1869, 

July, 1811. 
Aug., 1848. 

May, 1863. 

June, 1817. 
Aug., 1862. 
Aug., 1799. 
Nov., 1823. 
June., 1830. 
June, 1818. 
Mar., 1830. 
June, 1794. 
Mar., 1786. 
July, 1810. 
Nov., 1861. 
Oct., 1832. 
Aug., 1798. 
Feb., 1868. 
May, 1868. 
May, 1855. 
May, 1855. 
June, 1826. 
Mar., 1796. 
May, 1842. 
Oct., 1818. 
Feb., 1848. 
May, 1856. 
Feb., 1862. 
Aug., 1846. 
Dec, 1829. 
July, 1796. 
Aug., 1867. 
Aug., 1861. 
June, 1812. 

June, 1819. 
Oct., 1818. 
July, 1811. 
May, 1858. 
Aug., 1867. 
Dec, 1867. 
Aug., 1805. 



2G2 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



fDugan, Henry M. 
Duncau, lion. Thomas 

Edging'ton, Jesse 
Ej^e, Peter F. 
Ellmaker, Ellis E. 
Espy, David 
fEwing. John H. 
JEwing, Hon. Nathaniel 
Ewing, Thomas L. 

Fanning. N. D. 
Ferero, E. 
Fetterman, N. P. 
Fetterman, W. W. 
Fitzhngh. S. H. 
Fitzwilliaras. F. P. 
Flenniken, John 0. 
Flcnuiken, R. P. 
Forrest, Joshua R. 
Forward, AV alter 
Foster, AV. Alexander 
Fi'ew, Samuel 

Galbraith, Robert 
Gantz, Henry 
Gapen, AV. A. 
Garret, John S. 
Gazzam, Edward D. 
tGibson, R. M. 
Gilmore, John 
Glenn, John 
Goodenow. John M. 
Gorraley, Samuel 
Gow, Alexander M. 
Gow, George L. 
fGow, John L. 
fGow, John L.. Jr. 
Grayson, ^^'illiam 
Gregg, Ellis 

Haddcn, Thomas 
fHainilton, Isaac Y. 
Ilamilton, John 
fHart, George S. 
Ilarvey, William 
Hawkins, AVilliam G. 
Hasbrouck. Cicero 
Hays, Charles McClure 
Hays, Joseph 
fllazzard, T. R. 
ileaton, Hiram 
fUenderson. Joseph 
Hoffman, R. C. 



Term. 




Term. 


Mav, 


18G9. 


fHopkins, Andrew 


Nov., 1^ 


Dec., 


1782. 


Howell, Alfred 


Feb.. 1& 






Howell, Joshua B. 


June, lb 


Oct., 


1810. 


Huffnaglc, AVilliam 


Dec. 1' 


Aug., 


1840. 


Humbrickhouse, T. S. 


Oct.,ie 


Feb., 


1805. 


tHurd, Seth T. 


May, It 


Jan., 


1782. 






June, 


1818. 


Ingall, R. C. 


Feb., If 


June 


1816. 


Irwin, Samuel 


Oct., r 


Feb., 


1858. 


Israel, Charles H. 


Nov., li 


Aug., 


18,58. 


Jennings, David 


June, If 


Nov., 


1855. 


Jennings, Obadiah 


Nov., li 


Jan., 


1831. 


Johnston, B. AV. 


Nov., U 


Mar., 


1824. 


fJohnston, Job 


Feb., U 


Sept. 


1819. 


Johnston, F. AA''. 


Auir., U 


Aug., 


18.58. 


fJohnston, Thomas G. 


Nov., r 


Aug., 


1849. 


fJudson, J. Lawrence 


Aug., li 


Nov., 


1842. 






May, 


18G9. 


Kane, Daniel 


Aug., If 


Dec., 


1812. 


fKelso, Charles AV. 


Oct.. U 


Feb., 


1802. 


tKeppelle. George H. 


Sept., 1 


Mar. 


1839. 


Kennedy, Hon. John 


AUET., 1 






Kerr, Isaac 


Aug., If 


April, 


1782. 


King, Sampson, S. 


Feb.. If 


Mav, 


1SG5. 


tKing, W. AV. 


Jan., If 


Feb., 


1859. 


Kingston, J. 


Aug., 1 


Dec, 


1820. 


Koote, Ephraim 


Sept., 1 


Mar., 


1827. 


tKoontz, Robert H. 


Aug., If 


Aug., 


1853. 


K repps, John B. 


Aug., 1 


Aug., 


1800. 


Kurtz, \Vm. K. 


Jan., 1 


June, 


1829. 






June 


1817. 


Lacey, B. AV. 


Nov., 1 


June 


1830. 


Lacock, Ira J. 


Auij., 1 


Feb. 


1857. 


Lane, Richard Carr 


July, 1 


May 


1867. 


tLee, R. II. 


Oct.,.l 


June 


1824. 


fLect, Isaac 


June. 1 


Feb. 


1SG6. 


Lect, Daniel AV. 


May; 1 


Aug. 


1846. 


fLeet, Jonathan, D. 


Nov., 1 


Nov. 


1850. 


Lewis, R. P. 


Feb., 1 






Lindsey, Hon. James 


Nov., 1 


Oct. 


1706. 


Lindsey, AVilliam C. 


May, 1 


Mav 


1861. 


fLittle, Le Roy AVoods 


May, 1 


Mar 


1785. 


fLynn, AVilliam 


May, 1 


Aug. 


1846. 


Lyon, John 


July, 1 


Sept. 


1819. 


Lyon, Samuel 


Oct., 1 


Mar. 


1821. 






May 


1869. 


Mahon. Samuel S. 


Oct., 1 


Aug. 


ISGO. 


Marsh, RoswcU 


Nov., 1 


Nov. 


, 1865. 


Marshall, John 


Feb., 1 


Nov. 


1840. 


Massey, M. B. 


Muy, 1 


Sept. 


, LSI 9. 


Meason, Thomas 


Aug., 1 


Mav 


, 1S39. 


Meredith, AVilliam 


Nov.. 1 


Feb. 


, 18G8. 


fMt'ssinger, John 


Aug., 1 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



263 



Miller, Alexander 
fMiller, George W. 
Milligan, I. M. 
Mills, William 
Montgomery, James 
fMontgoraery, William 
Moody, R. S. 
Moore, Robert 
Moore, J. 

tMoore, William S. 
Moreland, W. 0. 
Morrison, A. P. 
Morrison, James 
Morrison, Joseph S. 
Morrison, R. L. 
fMorgan, Thomas 
Morgan, Thomas Gibbs 
Moss, J. W. 
Mountain, A. S. 
Mountain, James 
fMurdoch, Alexander 

McBride, Archibald 
McCarrel, L. 
McComb, John H. 
McConnell. R. A. 
MoCook, George W. 
fMcCracken. M. L. A. 
McDonald, John 
tMcDonald. Wm. K. 
McDowell, J. W. 
McEddingvon, Daniel 
tMcFadden, 0. B. 
fMcFarlane, Samuel 
McGiffin, George W. 
fMcGiffin, Thomas, Sr. 
fMcGiffin, Thomas, Jr. 
Mcllvaine, G. W. 
tMcIlvaine, John A. 
Mcllvaine, R. F. 
McMahon, Peter B. 
McKee, John 
McKeehan, David 
fMcKennan, James W. 
fMcKennan, Th. T. M. 
fMcKennan, William 
fMc Williams, John W. 

Nesbitt, Thomas 
Neville, Morgan 
Nicholls, John 
Nickcrson, Wm. 



Term. 

Mav, 1845. 

Feb., 1851. 

Feb., 1866. 
Aug., 1855. 

Oct., 1796. 
Nov., 1841. 

May, 1848. 
Aug., 1800. 

Mar., 1809. 
Nov., 1848. 
Aug., 1867. 
Nov., 1853. 
Sept., 1795 
Nov., 1847. 

Feb., 1868. 

Mar., 1813. 
June, 1821. 
Nov., 1858. 
Mar., 1823. 
Nov., 1801. 
Aug., 1843. 



Aug., 
Aug., 
May, 
Feb., 
May, 
May, 
Dec, 
June, 
Aug., 
Mar., 
Feb., 
Dec, 
Nov., 
Feb., 

Aug., 



May, 
Nov., 
Dec, 
June, 
Oct., 
June, 
Dec, 



1859. 
1869. 
1843. 
1862. 
1867. 
1867. 
1807. 
1831. 
1869. 
1839. 
1843. 
1827. 
1846. 
1807 
1841. 
1844. 
1867. 
1844. 
1855. 
1847. 
1792. 
1825. 
1814. 
1837. 
1867. 



July, 1797. 
Dec, 1806. 
May, 18.54. 
Aug., 1868. 



Oliphant, Ethelbert P. Dec, 1829. 



Oliver, Addison 
Oliver, George M. 
Owens, William, Jr. 

Pane, George A. 
tPatterson, David F. 
Patterson, R. B. 
Patton, Hon. Benjamin 
Patton, William J. 
Paul, George 
Paxton, Wilson N. 
Penny, John P. 
Pentecost, Dorsey B. 
fPentecost, Joseph 
Pentecost, J. Ross 
Pepper, Samuel G. 
Pierson, Hon. John J. 
Pollock, H. C.- 
Porter, John 
Pnrman, Andrew A. 
fPurviance, John 
Purviance, John, Jr. 

Quail, Huston 

Ralph, John 
Rutan, J. S. 
tReddick. David 
Reddick, Jonathan 
Reed, David 
Roberts, Lewis 
Rodgers, H. Gould 
Rodgers, Thomas L. 
Ross, Hugh 
Ross, James 
fRuple, Charles M, 
fRuple, John G. 
fRuth. James R. 
Runyan, Hill 

Sample, Cunningham 
Sample, David 
Sampson, John P. 0. 
Sayer, James P. 
fScott, Thomas 
Selden, George 
Seney, Joshua 
Shaler, Charles, Hon. 
Shannon, John 
Shields, Thomas L. 
Shiras, George, Jr. 
Simison, James C. 
Smith. David S. 
tSmith, Jonathan B. 



Term. 

Feb., 1857. 

Nov., 1848. 

May, 1867. 



Nov., 
May, 
Dec, 
Mar., 
Nov., 
May, 

Nov., 

July, 

Sept., 

Nov., 

May, 
Aug., 

Feb., 
Mar., 
Feb., 



1853. 

1865. 
1867. 
1833. 
1861. 
1805. 
1860. 
1846. 
1823. 
1792. 
1823. 
1850. 
1848. 
1867. 
1805. 
1860. 
1790. 
1805. 



Feb., 1850. 



June, 

Feb., 

Dec, 

Nov., 

May, 

Feb., 

Nov., 

June, 

Sept., 

Oct., 

May, 

April, 

May, 

Feb., 

Nov., 
Oct, 

June, 
Dec, 

Sept., 

June, 

Mar., 
Oct., 

June, 

Jan., 
Aug., 
Nov., 



1790, 
1863. 
1782. 
1803. 

1846. 
1840. 
1860. 
1824. 
1792. 
1781. 
1866. 
1861. 
1861. 
1805. 

1798. 
1781. 
1815. 
1869. 
1791. 
1825. 
1822. 
1817. 
1808. 
1831. 
1867. 
1824. 
1865. 
1823. 



264 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



Smith, Thomas 
Slagle, Jacob, Jr. 
St. Clair, Arthur 
St. Clair, David 
Stewart, J. 

tStewart, Benjamin S. 
Stockdale, John 
Stokely. Samuel 
Stokes, Will. A. 
SwartzwoldcT, Marshal 
Sweitzer, Bowman 



Term. 

Jan., 1782. 

Nov., 1852. 

Sept., 1794. 

" 1789. 

June, 1819. 

" 1829. 

May, 18.51. 

Oct., 1816. 

May, 18r)8. 

Feb., 1865. 

Nov., 1845. 



Tarr, John Oct., 1808. 

Taylor, James Sept., 1806. 

Taylor, Samuel 0. Aug., 1863. 
tTcmpleton, William F. May, 1860. 

tTodd, Alexander M. " 1868. 

Todd, James June, 1824. 

Tomlinson, W. F. May, 1860. 

Vallandigham, George April, 1786. 

tVaukirk, Harvey J. Feb., 1851. 

Veech, James Jan., 1834. 



Walker. Stephen D. 
AValkcr, David 
t Watson, David T. 
Watson, George 



June, 1819. 
Dec, 1832. 
July, 1866. 
Jan., 1842. 



fWatson, James 
Watson, John 
fWaugh, John 11. 
fWaugh, William 
Weiglev. Joseph 
Weills,'john S. C. 
White, John 
fWhite, J. W. F. 
White, S. F. 
Whitohill, Robert 
Wiley. John Wishart 
Wilkins, William 
Williams, E., Jr. 
Wilson, Alexander 
fWilson, Alexander 
fWilson, A. AViley 
t Wilson, David Shields 
AVinge, Isaiah 
tWise, Uriah W. 
Withey, Griffith, Jr. 
tWolf, Westley 
Woods, Henry 
Woods, John 
Woods, J. G. 
Woods, Robert 
Wright, John C 

Young, John 



Terh. 

Oct., 1831. 
Aug., 1^-41. 
Sept., 1820. 
June, 1S18. 

Oct., 1810. 

May, 1866. 
" 1806. 
" 1844. 
" 1864. 

Oct., 1797. 
Aug., 1867. 
Mar., 1808. 

May, 1867. 
June, 1826. 
Nov., 18.52. 
Aug., 1863. 
" 1849. 
Sept., 1820. 

Feb., 1844. 
June, 1830. 
Aug., 1863. 
June, 1794. 

Dec, 1783. 

Aug., 1867. 

" 1840. 

Mar., 1813. 

Nov., 1789. 



Treasurers. 



1. — 1783. Feb. Andrew Swearingen. 

2. — 1795. June. David Reddick. 

3.— 1801. " Isaac Kerr. 

4.— 1806. " Daniel Kehr. 

5. — 1811. Aug. Robert Colmery. 

6.— 1815. " William Baird. 

7.— 1817. " Thomas Good. 

8.— 1822. " Samuel Workman. 

9. — 1823. Nov. James Dougherty. 
10. — 1824. Jan. James Allison. 
11.— 1826. " Isaac Leet. 
12.— 1829. " Samuel McFarland. 
13.— 18.32. " Samuel Marshall. 
14._1833. " Benj. S. Stewart. 
15.-1834. " Saniuel Marshall. 
16.-1835. Feb. Henry Langlcy. 
17. — 1838. Jan. Zachariah Reynolds. 



18.-1841. Oct. William Workman. 
19._1843. " William Hughes. 
20.— 1845. " James D. McGugin. 
21._lis47. " Robert K. Todd. 
22.— 1849. " Norton McGiffin. 
23.— 1851. " John Hall. 
24—1853. " Thaddeus Stanton. 
25.— 18.55. " H. B. Elliott. 
26.-1857. " Thomas Martindale. 
27.-1859. " John E. Bell. 
28.-1861. " James Pollock. 
29.-1862. Feb. William S. Moore. 
30.-1863. Oct. J. W. Douds. 
31.-1865. " A. W. Pollock. 
32.— 1867. " James P. Hart. 
33. — 1869. " James B. Gibson. 



Auditors. 

On the 10th of March, 1809, an act of the General Assembly was 
passed, authorizing the election of Auditors at the general election 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



265 



as a more effectual mode of settling the public accounts of the Com- 
missioners and Treasurer. Prior to this time the courts appointed 



1809. 
1809. 
1809. 
1810. 
1811. 
1811. 
1812. 
1813. 
1813. 
1814. 
1814. 
1815. 
1816. 
1817. 
1818. 
1819. 
1820. 
1821. 
1822. 
1823. 
1824. 
1825. 
1826. 
1827. 
1828. 
1829. 
1830. 
1831. 
1832. 
1833. 
1834. 
1834. 
1835. 
1836. 
1837. 
1838. 



Thomas Acheson. 
Isaac Kerr. 
Joshua Dickinson. 
Eleazer Jenkins. 
Isaac Kerr, 3 years. 
Thomas Patterson, 1 year. 
John Colmery. 
Dickinson Roberts, 3 years. 
Samuel Scott, 1 year. 
Isaac Kerr, 3 years. 
Jacob Crabbs, 2 years. 
James McQuown. 
John Wilson. 
William Sample. 
Richard Crooks. 
Isaac Kerr. 
William Colmery. 
Robert Bowland. 
Joseph Henderson. 
Joseph Pattou. • 
William Welsh. 
James Gordon. 
James Orr. 
Robert Officer. 
Samuel HiU. 
Stephen Wood. 
Robert Officer. 
William Hopkins. 
James Pollock. 
Thomas Enlow. 
Benjamin Bubbett, 3 years. 
Jehu Jackman, 2 years. 
Joseph Henderson. 
James McClelland. 
H. J. Rauhauser. 
Henry Langley, 3 years. 



1838. R. Donaldson, 2 years. 

1839. Dickinson Roberts. 

1840. John K. Wilson. 

1841. Thomas Watson. 

1842. John Macoy. 

1843. E. B. Marsh. 

1844. Abraham Wotring. 

1845. Jacob Morgan. 

1846. John K. Wilson. 

1847. John McCullough. 

1848. Joseph W. Cowan. 

1849. John Stephenson. 

1850. Adam AVinnett. 

1851. Jehu P. Smith, 1 year. 

1851. J. E. Black, 3 years. 

1852. James Taggart. 

1853. Isaac J. Newkirk. 

1854. Robert C. Burns. 

1855. W. C King (appointed). 
1855. J. D. Irwin, 3 years. 

1855. J. B. Ringland, 1 year. 

1856. Joseph W. Douds. 

1857. Isaac Newkirk. 

1857. John Murphy. Jr. 

1858. John L. Phillips. 

1859. Samuel Scott. 

1860. David Bradford. 

1861. James Ely. 

1862. Thomas D. Ohara. 

1863. James P. McCord. 

1864. D. M. Leatherman, 

1865. George Buchanan. 

1866. Grier Mcllvaine, Jr. 

1867. Joseph Linton. 

1868. A. E. Walker. 

1869. G. W. Morrison. 



Directors of the Poor. 



The act of incorporation to provide for the erection of a house for 
the employment and support of the poor in the county of Wash- 
ins^ton, was approved bv Governor George Wolf on the sixth day 
of' April, 1830. 

The commissioners appointed by the said act to determine upon 
and purchase a site or farm, on which suitable buildings should be 
erected, were James Lee, of Cross Creek ; Alexander Reed, of 
"Washington ; Joseph Barr, of Nottingham ; Wallace Mc Williams, 
of Buffalo; Zephaniah Beall, of West Bethlehem ; William Patterson, 
of Tenmile ; and David Eckert, Esqs., of Washington. 

After diligent inquiry, both as to its situation and locality, they 
purchased one hundred and seventy-two acres of land in Chartiers 
18 



2G6 HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

township, one mile and a half north of Washington, from Robert 
Colmery and Maria his wife, for two thousand seven hundred and 
fifty-two dollars, being sixteen dollars per acre. 

On the 26th April, 18C5, John Burns, John L. Cooke, and Wil- 
liam Davis, constituting the Board of Directors, purchased from John 
Melone and Mary his wife, six acres of land, contiguous to the 
poor-house farm, for six hundred dollars. 

On April 1, 1867, William Davis, William Dinsmore, and Wil- 
liam Wylie, Esqs., the Board of Directors, purchased from Juhn L. 
Cooke and Catharine D. his wife, twenty-eight acres and one hun- 
dred and fifty-one perches, at one hundred dollars per acre. This 
farm now contains, by recent survey, two hundred and nine acres. 

So faithful, so diligent, so devoted to the interests of the unfor- 
tunate poor who become tenants of the county farm, that the office 
of superintendent has been filled during this entire period by but 
three persons, viz : Dr. John Logan, who was elected the first 
superintendent in 1832, and continued as such until September, 
1851, a period of nineteen years ; his successor was Major Wil- 
liam W. Wilson, who served seven years, or until Ai)ril 1, 1858, 
when the present incumbent, John Gamble, Esq., assumed its oner- 
ous duties, and for the last eleven years has been discharging his 
duties satisfactorily to the inmates, the directors, and the citizens of 
this county. 

It will be interesting to remark that during the first twenty years 
of its existence the entire cost of the i)urchase of land, erection of 
buildings, support of the inmates, and all other expenses pertaining 
to the institution, amounted to one hundred and seven thousand 
one hundred and four dollars, averaging per )^ear $5289. During 
the next seven years the cost was fifty-two thousand nine hundred 
and ninety-five dollars and twenty-eight cents, averaging per year 
$1570.15 ; during the last eleven years the entire cost was sixty- 
four thousand five hundred and eighty-three dollars and nineteen 
cents, averaging per year $5871.19. This last item includes the 
purchase of two parcels of laud, amounting to thirty-five hundred 
dollars. 



1830. John Watson. 

" Williiim Hunter. 
" Stephen AVoods. 

1831. Enoch Wright. 

1832. Lewis Hewitt. 

1833. John Cooke. 

1834. Kobort Moore. 
183.^. Williiim Wylie, 
183G. John Brownlee. 

1837. .7(tlin Morgan. 

1838. John Horn. 

1839. John IJower. 

1840. AVilliiim Lindley. 

1841. John Johnson. 



1842. Joseph Yanewan. 

1843. James McClaskey. 

1844. Joseph Wise. 
184.5. John Kenna. 

1846. Daniel Darragh. 

1847. Joseph Wier. 

1848. Aaron Miller. 

1849. John Holland. 

1850. Joseph Vankirk. 
l8riL IJenjamin Anderson. 
18.'')2. James Fife. 

]8.")3. John Sampson. 
1H.')4. James lirown. 
1855. Thomas Buchanan. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



267 



1856. James Stroud. 

1857. William Wjlie. 

1858. Alexander Sprowls. 

1859. A. B. Scott. 

1860. William Wylie. 

1861. William Davis. 

1862. Jehu Burns. 



1863. John L. Cooke. 

1864. William Davis. 

1865. William Dinsmore. 

1866. William Wylie. 

1867. William Davis. 

1868. J. Miller Day. 

1869. Workman Hushes. 



Deputy Surveyor-Generals. 



1.— July 15, 1769. Jas. Hendricks. 

2— April 17, 1776. Daniel Leet. 

3.— March 27, 1780. Thos. Stokely. 

4. — March 8, 1784. John Hoge. 

5.— Dec. 7, 1784. David Reddick. 

6. — Aug. 12, 1785. Pressly Neville. 

7.— " " " MatthewRitchie. 

g_ u u « Alex. McClean. 

9.— June 5, 1801. Jonathan Leet. 
lO.—Feb. 2, 1810. Wm. Hawkins. 
11.— Sept. 10, 1811. Jonathan Men- 

denhall. 
12.— Dec. 15, 1817. James Reed. 



13.— April 12, 1822. Wm. V. Leet. 
14.— Feb. 8, 1825. Stephen Woods. 
15.— May 10, 1836. James McQuow- 

en. 
16.— Aug. 27, 1839. E. G. Creacraft. 
17.— March 19, 1846. T. C. Noble. 
18.— March 17, 1851. H.J.Vankirk. 
19.— Dec. 10, 1854. T. C. Noble. 
20.— Dec. 13, 1858. Thos. J. Boyd. 
21.— Oct. 28, 1862. Francis Reader. 
22.— Dec. 1, 1865. Demas Benning- 
ton. 
23.— Oct. 1869. Jacob Gayman. 



Justices of the Peace. 

The organic law provided that the trustees should divide the 
county into the necessary number of townships, in each of which 
justices should be elected. Accordingly, on the 15th July, the elec- 
tors of the thirteen townships met in their respective election dis- 
tricts, and elected these of3ficers. The justices of the peace were 
also commissioned to be justices of the Court of Common Pleas, 
and of the Orphans' Court. But by the constitution of 1790 the 
judiciary system was changed, and their powers as judges of the 
court ceased February, 1792. This constitution provided for the 
appointment of justices of the peace by the governor with limited 
powers.* In 1838 justices were elected by the new constitution, 
and have continued so until the present time. 

In the following table the Roman numerals refer to the number of terms to which 
the individual was elected. 

NAME. DATE. DISTRICT. 

Adams, Alexander. Nov. 18, 1811. Cross Creek and Hopewell. 
Ailes, Isaac ; ii. April 14, 1839. East Pike Run. 
Allen, Thomas G. April ]5, 1845. Hopewell. 



* By an act of legislature of May 4, 1803, the commissioners divided Washington 
County into eleven districts for the appointment of justices. 1st district, Washing- 
ton und Strabane townships ; 2d, Buffalo and Canton ; 3d, Hopewell and Cross Creek ; 
4th, Smith, Hanover, and Robinson ; 5th, Cecil and Chartiers ; 6th, Peters and Not- 
tingham ; 7th, Pike Run and Fallowfield ; 8th, Somerset ; 9th, East and West Beth- 
lehem ; 10th, Morris and Amwell ; 11th, Finley and Donegal. At the same session 
of the legislature the Court of Quarter Session was authorized to lay off, alter, and 
divide townships by appointing three impartial men, if neeessarj', to inquire into 
the proprietj' of granting the petition ; and it shall be their duty to make a plot or 
draught of the townships proposed to be divided. 



268 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

NAME. DATK. DISTRICT. 

Alexander, Andrew J. April 10. 1849. East Bethlehem. 

Alexander, Henry. Dec. 10, 1817. E. Bethlehem. 

Alexander, Joseph. Feb. *.), 1799. Donegal. 

Alexander, Joseph. March 26, 1817. Donegal and Finley. 

Alexander, William S. May 19, 18r)7. Donegal. 

Allison, Adam. Jan. 7, 180.5. Canton and Buffalo. 

Allison, Patrick. April 16, 1792. 

Ammons. Joshua M. April I'i, 18.59. Millsborough. 

Archer, David T. Dec. 8, 1823. Cross Creek, Hopewell, Mt. Pleasant. 

Archer, Ebenezer. Aug. 6, 1845. Peters. 

Archer, James. April 6, 1790. Franklin. 

Armstrong, Hugh. Oct. 29, 1829. Finley and Donegal. 

Bailey, Eli. April 21, 1794. Cumberland. 

Baird, Absalom ; ii. March 3, 1789. Washington. 

Baird, George. April 11, 1848. Washington. 

Barnett, Samuel. May 13, 1858. AVest Bethlehem. 

Baker, Lewis F. April 10. 1860. West Pike Eun. 

Barr, John. April 10, 1849. Somerset. 

Barr, John A. April 13, 1869. Somerset. 

Beall, Zephaniah ; ii. Aug. 24, 1790. Bethlehem. 

Bean, Isaac. April 16, 1792. 

Bearley, Nicholas ; III. April 14, 1839. Claysville. 

Bebout, Ira C. April 9, 1850. North Strabane. 

Bell, James. Jan. 11, 1790. Morgan. 

Bentley, Shazbazzar, Sr. Feb. 8, 1819. Somerset. 

Bentley, Shazbazzar, Jr. Feb. 18, 1830. Peters, Nottingham, Mt. Pleasant. 

Bentley, Shazbazzar, Jr. April 10, 1860. Monongahela City. 

Bennington, Moses ; ii. Oct. 17, 1836. Pike Run and Fallowfield. 

Berry, William. Dec. 13, 1815. Chartiers and Cecil. 

Bigger, Thomas. June 12, 1822. Smith, Hanover, and Robinson. 

Birch, John ; II. April 15, 1845. Claysville. 

Blaine, James ; in. Jan. 1, 1817. Washington. 

Blaine, Eph. L. ; n. April 12, 1827. East and West Bethlehem. 

Blackeny, Gabriel. Feb. 26. 1793. Washington. 

Boggs, Andrew. Feb. 17, 1797. Fallowfield. 

Bowers, John ; ii. Jan. 16, 1819. Peters and Nottingham. 

Bowers, John, Jr. April 14, 1854. Hanover. 

Bowers, Andrew ; n. Aug. 13, 1836. East and West Bethlehem. 

Bower, George. April 10, 1849. Peters. 

Bower, Benj. F. April 10, 1860. East Bethlehem. 

Botkins, G. W. March 9. 1861. Claysville. 

Boyd, John. Nov. 17, 1837. Cross Creek, Hopewell, Mt. Pleasant, and 

West Middleton. 
Boyd, John; in. April 14, 1840. West Middletown. 
Boyd, Geo. W. April 15, 1845. Canton. 
Brackcnridge, John. June 18, 1800. Peters. 
Bramley, William. April 10. 1849. Millsborough. 
Brenton, Joseph. April U. 1854. East Pike Run. 
Brice, George W. ; iv. April 14, 1839. Washington. 
Brice, Henry. April 14, 1840. Buffalo. 
Brownlee, James. July 24, 1821. Canton and BuflFalo. 
Brownlec, John. April 14. I.s40. Canton. 
Brownlee. John; in. April 16, 1856. Franklin. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 269 



Brown, Joseph ; ii. April 9, 1850. Canonsburg. 

Brown, David. April 14, ISfiT. Hopewell. 

Buchanan, David. April 18, 1870. Independence. 

Buchanan, John. Dec. 9, 1799. Hopewell. 

Buchanan, John. Dec. 13, 1824. Smith, Hanover, Robinson, and Mount 

Pleasant. 
Buchanan, James S. Nov. 6, 1869. Mount Pleasant. 
Buchanan, Walter; iii. April 11, 1848. Hanover. 
Buck, Thomas. April 10, 1860. Buffalo. 
Bubbet, Benjamin T. Dec. 8, 1823. Smith, Hanover, Robinson, and 

Mount Pleasant. 
Buffington, Seth, Jan. 23, 1819. Pike Run and Fallowfield. 
Burgan, Daniel. April 14, 1839. Somerset. 
Bumgarner, Jesse. Jan. 3, 1816. East and West Bethlehem. 
Bumgarner, David. April 9, 18.50. Millsboro'. 
Burns, John ; iv. April 14, 1839. AVest Finley. 
Burns, Alexander. June 23, 1845. West Middletown. 
Butler, Ira R. ; iv. April 15, 1845. Carroll. 
Butz, David. April 21, 1862. Beallsville. 
Baker, D. G. C. April 11, 1865. California. 
Boyd, D. M. ; II. April 11, 1865. Hopewell. 
Baker, L. F. April 11, 1865. West Pike Run. 
Baker, L. J. April 17, 1866. Greenfield. 
Boyd, Thomas. April 14, 1868. Independence. 

Caesber, Jonathan. April 11, 1865. Nottingham. 

Caldwell, John ; ii. April 14, 1839. Somerset. 

Caldwell, Robert. April 9, 1850. Peters. 

Campbell, John. Feb. 8, 1799. Peters. 

Campbell, John. April 14, 1840. Smith. 

Canon, John ; iii. Oct. 6, 1784. Chartiers. 

Carrol, William ; ii. April 11, 1854. California. 

Carson, Thomas. Jan. 1, 1806. Pike Run and Fallowfield. 

Carson, Washington. April 11, 1865. Fallowfield. 

Carter, John. Dec. 8, 1823. Amwell and Morris. 

Castner, Daniel. April 11, 1865. Carroll. 

Chalfant, H. S. April 12, 1859. Greenfield. 

Chalfant, H. S. April 11, 1865. East Pike Run. 

Chester, Morrison. April 15, 1845. East Pike Run. 

Clark, David. July 15, 1781. Smith. 

Clark, David. July 15, 1781. Strabane. 

Clarke, Andrew ; IV. August 25, 1845. Nottingham. 

Clarke, Harvey H. ApriflO, 1849. Canton. 

Clarke, William. April 3, 1799. Chartiers. 

Clarke, J. Murray. April 15, 1851. Robinson. 

Cleaver, Isaac N. ; in. April 9, 1850. East Bethlehem. 

Clemens, William. Feb. 5, 1801. Donegal and Bufi"alo. 

Clemens, John. March 28, 1836. Peters, Nottingham, and Carrol. 

Clemens, John ; v. April 14, 1839. Monongahela City. 

Clemens, John ; ii. April 10, 1860. Buffalo. 

Cloakey, John S. April 14, 1839. Carroll. 

Cloakey, John S. April 13, 1847. Canton. 

Cole, John; ii. April 15, 1845. Cross Creek. 

Colmery, John. April 1, 1811. Washington and Strabane. 



270 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



Colmery, William. Jan. 5, 1825, Chartiers, Cecil, and Mount Pleasant. 

Colinery. Robert. April 14, 1840. South Strabane. 

Collins,' Thomas ; V. April 14, 1839. Carroll. 

Conklin, AVilliam ; II. March 9, 1860. Morris. 

Cook, Zeba. April 2, 1802. Amwell. 

Conn, Jacob ; ii. April 17, 1864. Millsboro'. 

Cooper, Jesse. April 20, 1829. East and West Bethlehem. 

Cooper, Robert F. April 10, 1860. Monongahela City. 

Cowen, Joseph W. April 9, 1844. West Bethlehem. 

Cox, Andrew; III. Jan. 18, 1838. East and West Bethlehem. 

Crabs, Jacob. June 5, 1801. Fallowfield. 

Craig, John. July 1.5, 1781. Amwell. 

Craig, John. July If), 1781. Strabane. 

Craig, William. Oct. 24, 1807. Amwell and Morris. 

Craig, Hugh ; III. April 14, 1839. Buffalo. 

Craighead, George. Jan. 19, 1799. Strabane. 

Crawford, William. Nov. 12, 1838. Pike Run and Fallowfield. 

Creacratt, William ; ii. April 14, 1839. Morris. 

Creighton, Edward ; iii. April 9, 1850. Fallowfield. 

Crooks, Thomas. July 15, 1781. Bethlehem. 

Crooks, Thomas. Nov. 21, 1781. Bethlehem. 

Crouch, George. April 14, 1840. Nottingham. 

Crow, Benjamin. April 10, 1860. Fallowfield. 

Crow, Azariah ; iii. April 10, 1855. Allen. 

Curry, Milton B. April 11, 1865. Amwell. 

Darragh, Daniel; ii. March 6, 1823. Peters, Nottingham, and Mount 

Pleasant. 
Day, Luther. April 15, 1836. Amwell and Morris. 
De France, Hugh. April 13, 1853. 
De Pue, Daniel. March 12, 1793. Fallowfield. 
Devore, Samuel. April 14, 1839. Monongahela City. 
Dolby, Thomas. April 11, 1848. Millsboro'. 
Donaldson, James. April 14, 1839. Greenfield. 
Donaldson, Richard. April 2, 1803. Robinson. 
Donaldson, Richard; II. April 14, 1840. Robinson. 
Donahoo, James; v. April 14, 1839. Cross Creek. 
Donnell, Henry; iii. April 15, 1845. Cecil. 
Dowler, Thos. H. April 13. 1853. 
Douglass, John. July 15, 1781. Peters. 
Douglass, John. March 3, 1789. Washington. 
Dugan, Robert. April 11, 1848. West Bethlehem. 
Duncan, John S. April 12, 1859. Cross Creek. 

Eddie, Alexander. July 15, 1781. Strabane. 
Edgar, James ; ii. July 15, 1781. Smith. 

Elliott, George ; ii. Nov. IS, 1830. Cross Creek, Hopewell, West Middle- 
town, and Mount Pleasant. 
Elliott, James S. April 10, 1866. Cecil. 
Elrod, Johnston. April 16, 1866. Monongahela City. 
Enlow, Henry. Dec. 10, 1816. Finley and Donegal. 
England. Samuel. Oct. 24, 1807. Canton and Buffalo. 
Ervins, James. July 15, 1781. Robinson. 
Evans, Abel M. April 10, 1867. Amwell. 



HISTORY or WASHINGTON COUNTY. 211 



DISTRICT. 



Evans, David J. April 10, 1840. Amwell. 
Ewart, John ; iii. April 10, 1850. Beallsville. 

Farley, John. April 9, 1850. South Strabane. 

Fee, AVilliam ; ii. April 14, 1840. Chartiers. 

Fergus, Hugh ; ii. April 9, 1850. Chartiers. 

Ferguson, John ; iii. April 15, 1845. Smith. 

Finiey, Henry B. April 12, 1842. Union. 

Finley, Levi. March ], 1836. Peters, Nottingham, and Union. 

Fleming, Samuel. Feb. 9, 1799. Hanover. 

Fleming, Robert W. Sept. 24, 1818. Pike Run and Fallowfield. 

Frazier, Alexander ; iv. April 14. 1839. West Finley. 

Frazier, David. Dec. 10, 1816. Finley and Donegal. 

Frazier, Thomas; ii. May 22, 1856. West Finley. 

Freeman, John ; ii. April 14, 1839. B. Bethlehem 

Galbraith, William. April 15, 1845. Smith. 

Gardner, David. April 17, 1864. Jefierson. 

Garret, Robert. May 25, 1815. Cross Creek and Hopewell. 

Garret, Samuel. April 17, 1866. West Bethlehem. 

Gaston, Joseph S. ; iv. April 11, 1843. Union 

Gaston, W. R. April 14, 1868. Union. 

Gaston, Joseph S. April 13, 1869. Union. 

Gillespie, James, June 5, 1801. Hopewell. 

Gilmore, James. Jan. 1, 1807. Canton and BufiFalo. 

Glassgow, Samuel. May 6, 1788. Hanover. 

Goble, Ebenezer. Feb. 29, 1793. Morris. 

Gordon. James. April 9, 1850. Monongahela City. 

Graham Henry. Aug. 24, 1790. Cross Creek. 

Gray, David. April, 1792. Rich Hill. 

Grayson, John, Jr. ; iii. April 14, 1863. Washington. 

Gregg, Andrew; iv. April 20, 1829. Pike Run and Fallowfield. 

Gregg, A. T. April 10, 1855. Carroll. 

Gregg, Henry. Feb. 27, 1796. Fallowfield. 

Griffith, Elisha. April 28, 1858. West Brownsville. 

Guthrey, John. April, 1792. 

Guy, Shepherd L. May 19, 1857. Donegal. 

Howell, John. July 15, 1781. Amwell. 

Hair, John. Julv 4, 1806. Peters and Nottingham. 

Hall, John. July 15, 1781. Fallowfield. 

Hallam, William. Dec. 23, 1818. A mwell and Morris. 

Hamilton, David. Feb. 29, 1792. Nottingham. - 

Hanna, Thomas ; ii. April 16, 1856. Morris. 

Hart, David. June 10, 1822. Somerset. 

Hart, James G. April 15, 1845. East Bethlehem. 

Harvey, D. W. C. April 10, 1855. West Brownsville. 

Hawthorne, W. W. ; vi. April 13, 1841. Millsborough. 

Hay, John ; iii. April 14, 1840. Chartiers. 

Hays, John B. April 10, 1860. Smith. 

Hays, William. April 3, 1799. Chartiers. 

Hazzard, T. R. April 15, 1845. Monongahela City. 

Hedge, William ; ii. May 18, 1858. West Bethlehem. 

Henderson, Joseph. Jan. 7, 1805. Finley and Donegal. 



2T2 HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

HAUE. DATE. DISTRICT. 

ITenderson, John. April 10, 1855. Chartiers. 

Hcnkins, Abm. ; ii. April 9, 1850. Morris. 

Hormill, John. April 10, 185"). East Bethlehem. 

ITorvey, John C. April 10, 1860. Donegal. 

Hill. Joseph. May 20, 1795. IJethlehera. 

Hill, Stephen. April (5, 1827. Pike Eun and Fallowfield. 

Hill, Stephen. April 10, 1849. AVest Bethlehem. 

Hilliard, John "Wilkes. Feb. 24, 1798. Chartiers. 

Hippie, George. May 30, 1831. Somerset. 

Hodgens, Isaac. April 12, 1842. Buffalo. 

Hodgens, John ; ii. April 10, 1860. Chartiers. 

Hoge, John. Nov. 21, 1786. "Washington. 

Hootman, David, Jr. May 5, 18G6. Nottingham. 

Hopkins, "William. April 12, 1827. Pike Run and Fallowfield. 

Hopkins, White F. ; ii. April 14, 1840. "West Pike Run. 

Hornish, "William ; ii. Ajjril 24, 1857. Canonsburg. 

Hornish, William. April, 1868. Washington. 

Howe, John. April 10, 1860. East Fiiiley. 

Howell, Abner. July 15, 1781. Amwell. 

Howell, John W. ; ir. May 16, 1862. Chartiers. 

Hughes, Ellis. March 7, 1825. Amwell and Morris. 

Hughes, James; v. April 14, 1840. Mount Pleasant. 

Hughes, Remembrance. July 31, 1840. Millsborough. 

Hughes, Samuel L. ; vi. April 14, 1839. Amwell. 

Hughes Thomas. July 14, 1792. Cumberland. 

Hughes, William. April 13, 1858. Washington. 

Hughes, Workman. April 10, 1«60. South Strabane. 

Hunter, Archibald. Feb. 4, 1825. Smith, Hanover, Robinson, and Mount 

Pleasant. 
Hyde, Saml. April, 1792. 

Irons, Joseph. April 2, 1803. Canton. 
Irwin, Thomas S. June 9, 1856. Claysville. 
Irwin, William. June 5, 1801. Fallowfield. 

Jackman, Simeon. April 14, 1839. East Pike Run. 

Jackson, George. Dec. 8, 1823. Pike Run and Fallowfield. 

Jamison, John. April 11, 1865. Donegal. 

Jeffry, John. April 10, 1860. Independence. 

Jenkins, Eleazer. Feb. 28, 1789. Bethlehem. 

Jenkinson, Isaac. May 26, 1795. East Bethlehem. 

Johnston, Job ; ii. April 10, 1860. California. 

Johnston, Richard. March 22, 1819. AVashington and Strabane. 

Johnston, Samuel. July 15, 1781. Smith. 

Johnston, AVilliam. Feb. 6, 17S6. Donegal. 

Judson, J. Lawrence ; in. April 13, 1853. Washington. 

Karrod, Levi. July 15, 1781. Morgan. 

Kennedy, John; III. April 14, li">39. Union. 

Kennedy, John. June 1, 1S36. I'eters, Nottingham, Union, and Carrol. 

Kerr, James; iii. Ai)ril 12, 1859. N. Strabane. 

Kerr, Willison. April 13, 1869. Beiitleysville. 

Kerr, AVilson. June 2, 1857. Unicm. 

Keys, James. May 16, 1818. Smitli, Hanover, and Robinson. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 273 

NAME. DATE. DISTRICT, 

Keys, David. April 16, 1856. N. Strabane. 
Kidd, Alexander. April 14, 1840. Smith. 
Kidd, William. April 12, 1859. Jefferson. 

Leech, James. Dec. 5, 1818. Smith, Hanover, and Robinson. 

Leet, Daniel. July 15, 1781. Strabane. 

Leet, Jonathan. Jan. 12, 1802. Canton. 

LefSer, Jacob. Jan. 7, 1805. Finley and Donegal. 

Leonard, Isaac. April 2, 1802. Somerset. 

Little, Nicholas. July 15, 1781. Strabane. 

Lindley, AVilliam; iv. March 4, 1824. Amwell and Morris. 

Liudley, James E.; in. April 10, 1849. Hopewell and W. Middletown. 

Linn, James. April 13, 1841. S. Strabane. 

Linn, Matthew; Vf April 15, 1845. N. Strabane. 

Linnville, George. April 10, 1855. Hopewell. 

Logan, James. Dec. 31, 1838. Canton and Buffalo. 

Lytle, Alexander. April 6, 1805. Washington and Strabane. 

Lyttle, Isaac. April 15, 1862. Union. 

Mahon, Robert. Jan. 23, 1801. Somerset. 
Marshall, John. July 15, 1781. Fallowfield. 
Marshall, John. May 20, 1822. Washington and Strabane. 
Marshman, A. G. April 14 1868. 
Martin, Jonathan; ii. April 14, 1846. S. Strabane. 
Mason, Samuel. July 15, 1781. Donegal. 
Mayes, Isaac. April 14, 1839. Donegal. 
Mayes, Joseph T.; ii. April 21, 1862. Donegal. 
Meetkirke, William. Feb. 26, 1793. Washington. 
Melchie, E. M. April 9, 1850. W. Brownsville. 
Melchie, E. M. April 9, 1867. California. 
Melov, John. April 12, 1842. Buffalo. 
Mickey, William A.; ii. April 9, 1850. W. Pike Run, 
Miller, David. March 4, 1824. Smith, Hanover, and Robinson. 
Miller, John ; ii. April 15, 1845. Donegal. 
ISliller, Thomas. April 4, 1822. Finley and Donegal. 
Minor, John. July 15, 1781. Cumberland. 
Minor, John ; n. April 15, 1782. Cumberland. 
Minton, Mathias. April 14, 1868. Morris. 
Mitchell, David. April 13, 1847. Carroll. 
Mitchell, David, Jr. April 13, 1869. Bentleysville. 
]\[itchell, James. July 28, 1790. Peters. 
Mitchell, March; II.' April 15, 1845. Fallowfield. 
Moffitt, James, Jr.; iii. April 11, 1843. E. Bethlehem. 
Moffitt, Jumes. April 13, 1858. W. Brownsville. 
Moore, Andrew. April 10, 1855. Nottingham. 
Moore, James. April 14, 1819. Chartiers and Cecil. 
Moore, John. April 11, 1848. Buffalo. 

Moore, W. W. June 7, 1836. Smith, Hanover, Robinson, and Mt. Plea- 
sant. 
Monroe, Andrew. April 6, 1798. Chartiers. 
Monroe, Joshua. March 12, 1819. Washington and Strabane. 
Montgomery, William ; n. April 11, 1854. E. Finley. 
Morehead, John. April 14, 1840. Cecil. 



274 HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY 

NAME. DATB. DISTRICT. 

Morgan, John. Oct. 25, 1832. Chartiers, Cecil, Mt. Pleasant, and Canons- 
burp. 
Morgan, Thomas. Dec. 3, 1823. Washington and Strabane. 
Morrison, J. L. July 21, 1839. Pike Run ami Fallowfield. 
Morrison, Samuel. April 15, 1845. Nottin<jham. 
Murdoch, Alexander. April 2, 1804. Chartiers and Cecil. 
Murphey, John, Jr. July 12, 1860. Canonsburg, 

McAfee, Henry. April 10, 1860. Canonsburg. 

McAllister, James. April 10, 1855. Monongahela City. 

McBurney, Ebenezer. April 11, 1854. S. Strabane. 

McBurney, James. April 3, 1799. Cecil. 

McBurney, Robert. April 14, 1846. Robinson. 

McCalmont, James; ii. April 11, 1854. Robinson. • 

McCarrol, Thomas; ii. April 10, 1860. Mt. Pleasant. 

McClain, William. May 18, 1818. Cross Creek and Hopewell. 

McClaskey, Hugh. April 9, 1850. Claysville. 

McClaskoy, James. April 13, 1853. Mt. Pleasant. 

McCleary, Alex. April 17, 1866. AV. Finley. 

McClces, Alexander; iii. April 15, 1845. Buffalo. 

McClure, R. B. ; ii. June 17, 1864. W. Middletown. 

McClelland, Hugh. April 15, 1845. E. Finley. 

McClelland, James. March 15, 1836. Chartiers, Cecil, Canonsburg, and 

Mt. Pleasant. 
McClelland, James ; iv. April 14, 1837. Canonsburg. 
McConaughy, James K. May 13, 1858. Independence. 
McConaughy, R. April 14, 1863. Independence.. 
McConneli, Matthew. July 15, 1781. Cecil. 
McConncll, Matthew. July 15, 1781. Smith. 
McCord, John A.; iii. April 9, 1850. Cecil. 
McCoy, 0. H. P. April 13, 18G9. Buffalo. 

McCreary, William. Dec. 10, 1816. Smith, Hanover, and Robinson. 
McCullough, James. April 14, 1839. Canonsburg. 
McCullouirh, .lohn; v. April 15, 1845. Hanover. 
McCullough, Patrick. July 15, 1781. Fallowfield. 
McCullough. Patrick. July 15, 1781. Fallowfield. 
McDonahl, Edward. Aug. 15, 1822. Smith, Hanover, Robinson, and Mt. 

Pleasant. 
McDonough, Henry; v. Feb. 23, 1801. Somerset. 
McDowell, James. May 19, 1830. Washington and Strabane. 
McElroy, Jumos. April 10, 1860. Chartiers. 
McFadden, James. April 14, 1840. West Middletown. 
McFadden, 0. J{. June 21. 1839. E. and W. Bethlehem. 
McFadden, Thomas. May 25, 1857. AVest Aliddletown. 
McFarland, AVilliam. Sept. 30. 1788. Amwell. 
McFarren, James. Aug. 29, 1821. Pike Run and Fallowfield. 
Mc(jibbony, Ceorgc. April 14, 1839. Nottingham. 
McGaugh, Samuel. April 13, 1869. Jefferson. 
Mc(;uire, John B.; ii. April 10, 1860. AV. Finley. 
Mcllvaine, R. F. April 15, 1845. Greenfield. 
Mcllvaine, S. B. April 13, 1869. Somerset. 
McJunkin. John. May 30, 1857. Beallsville. 
McKce, Robert. April 9, 1850. Hopewell. 
McKeen, Matthew. June 3, 1865. Finley. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 275 



McKennan, "William. Jan. 2, 1804. Washington. 

McKeever, A. B. April 9, 18.50. Mt. Pleasant. 

McKeever, Thomas. July 2, 1824. Cross Creek, Hopewell, Mt. Pleasant, 

and W. Middletown, 
McKinley, Robert; ii. April 14, 1863. W. Brownsville. 
McLoney, John. April 14, 18H9. Peters. 
McMannis, John. June 3, 1865. Buffalo. 
McNall, Joseph. June 3, 18G5. Robinson. 
McNary, James ; iii. April 9, 1850. Nottingham. 
McNary, Matthew. Dec. 4. 1820. Washington and Strabane. 
McNary, Matthew; II. April 14, 1840. N. Strabaue. 
McNary, Thomas. Feb. 1,1799. Strabane. 
McLean, H. B. April 17, 1866. W. Pike Run. 
McPherson, Samuel; ii. April 14, 1839. Cecil. 
McVay, Jacob. August ^^ '827. Finley and Donegal. 

Nailor, Wm. April, 1792. 

Nelson, Francis. April 14, 1864. Carroll. 

Nesbitt, John ; ii. April .5, 1845. S. Strabane. 

Neely, Robert ; II. April 14, 1863. Hanover. 

Nicholls, Atkinson. April 19, 1851. 

Nicholls, James. April 9, 1850. E. Finley. 

Noble, James ; ii. February 18, 1837. Finley and Donegal. 

Noble, James ; iv. April 14, 1839. Claysville. 

Palmer, Daniel. May 7, 1819. Washington and Strabane. 

Parker, John. July'lS, 1781. Fallowfield. 

Parker, Silas ; in. April 11, 1848. Amwell. 

Parker, William. April 3, 1782. Somerset. 

Parkinson, Benjamin. July 15, 1781. Nottingham. 

Parkinson, Joseph. July 15, 1781. Nottingham. 

Parkinson, Washington. December 13, 1820. 

Parsons, Abraham. April 13, 1853. W. Pike Run. 

Patterson, Robert. December 5, 1818. Smith, Hanover, and Robinons. 

Patterson, Thomas M. April 10, 1860. Cross Creek. 

Patterson, James L. June 3, 1865. Smith. 

Passmore, George. April 14, 1837. Fallowfield. 

Peden, David. April 14, 1840. E. Finley. 

Pees, James B. April 10, 1849. N. Strabane. 

Phillips, David ; ii. April 10, 1855. Peters. 

Plummer, Geo. June 13, 1822. Cross Creek, Hopewell, and Mt. Pleasant. 

Plummer, George. April 14, 1837. Hopewell. 

Pollock, James, Jr. December 26, 1822. Peters and Nottingham. 

Pollock, James ; v. April 14, 1840. Robinson. 

Powell, James. April 10. 1792. 

Proudfit, John L. April 10, 1855. Smith. 

Quail, David ; ii. January 31, 1822. Washington and N. Strabane. 
Quail, Robert; ii. March 6, 1823. E. and W. Bethlehem. 
Quail, J. W. July 12, 1865. E. Bethlehem. 

Ramsey, John. October 29, 1829. Cross Creek, Hopewell, Mt. Pleasant 

and W. Middletown. 
Rankin, James. April 14, 1868. Mt. Pleasant. 



276 HISTORY OF WASrilNGTON COUNTY. 

NAME. DATE. DISTRICT. 

Ray, "William. March 24, 1823. Cross Creek, Hopewell, and Mt. Pleasant. 

Reader, Francis. April 14, 1839. Union. 

Reader. F. Francis ; v. June 11, 1844. Greenfield. 

Reed, John. July 15, 1781. Smith. 

Reed, John. November 8, 1788. Cecil. 

Reed, John; iv. April 14, 1800. Mt. Pleasant. 

Reed, Joseph. April 10, 18.55. Cecil 

Reed, Dr. Robert R. April 15, 1845. Canton. 

Reed, Thomas R.; iii. Jan. 26, 1853. Allen. 

Reynolds, D. L. April 10, 1866. S. Strabane. 

Riddle, John. March 4, 1796. Smith. 

Riddle, Hugh. April 15, 1845. Canonsburg. 

Riddle, Samuel P.; ii. April 10, 18G0. Smith. 

Rider, John. April 15, 1845. Fallowfield. 

Richardson, Richard. April 16, 1856. Fallowfield. 

Ritchie, Andrew S. April 10, 1860. West Middletown. 

Ritchie, Craig. Nov. 14, 1784. Chartiers. 

Ritchie, Matthew. October 6, 1784. Strabane. 

Robb, Ebenezer. March 28, 1837. South Hanover, Robinson, and Mt. 

Pleasant. 
Robb, William L. April 14, 1839. Hanover. 
Roberts, Dickinson. April 14, 1839. South Strabane. 
Ross, Timothy. March 9, 1861. Morris. 
Ryerson, Thomas. Aprils, 1789. Greene. 

Samuels, John. Nov. 1, 1836. Peters, Nottingham, Union, Carroll, and 

Mt. Pleasant. 
Sanders, Michael. April 10, 1855. Union. 
Sanders, William. June 23, 1856. Morris. 
Schmidt, Charles. April 9, 1867. South Strabane. 
Scott, Hugh. Nov. 8, 1788. Nottingham. 
Scott, A. D.; III. January 11, 1852. Beallsville. 
Scott, John; III. April 11, 1854. Somerset. 
Scott, Joseph. Sept. 25, 1787. Robinson. 
Scott, Josiah N. April 10, 1855. Jefferson. 
Scott, Parker. May 28, 1819. Pike Run and Fallowfield. 
Scott, Samuel. Feb. 8, 1799. Robinson. 
Scott, Thomas. Nov. 21, 1786. Washington. 
Scott, William. July 15, 1781. Hopewell. 
Sedgwick, Thomas. April, 1792. 
Shannon, Samuel. May 26, 1795. Washington. 
Sharp, Isaac. April 11, 1854. 
Simpson, R. L. May 10, 1861. Buffalo. 
Siemens, William. Nov. 1, 1799. Hopewell and Canton. 
Smiley, William. Nov. 10, 1788. Hopewell. 
Smith, George E.; in. May 13, 1858. Peters. 
Smith, Henry. Jan. 18, 1838. Cross Creek, Hopewell, Mt. Pleasant, and 

W. Middletown. 
Smith, James. April 3, 1821. Canton and Buffalo. 
Smith, James. Dec. 13, 1820. Somerset. 

Smith, John. Dec. 7, 1836. Huuovcr, Robinson, and Mt. Pleasant. 
Smith, John H.; 111. April 14, 1H39. Hopewell. 
Smith, Lewis E.; ii. April 9, 1850. Greenfield. 
Smith, Robert. April 11, 1854. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 2Yt 

NAUE. DATE. DISTEICT. 

Smith, Samuel. March 4, 1796. Cross Creek. 

Smith, William. Dec. 21, 1789. Finley. 

Springer, C. J.; ii. April 21, 1862. East Pike Eun. 

St. Clair, Jesse. August 13, 1827. Finley and Donegal. 

Stephenson, Moses. March 12, 1822. Smith, Hanover, and Robinson. 

Stevenson, John. July 15, 1781. Fallowfield. 

Stevenson, John. April 3, 1783. Somerset. 

Stevenson, John. March 12, 1793. Donegal. 

Stevenson, John. April 9, I860. Smith. 

Stevenson, Robert. April 2, 1803. Finley. . 

Stockdale, Robert. April 14, 1866. Amwell. 

Stokely, Thomas. Sept. 3, 1787. Washington. 

Stewart, James A.; ii. April 10, 1860. Jefferson, 

Stroud, James ; ii. April 14, 1839. Fallowfield. 

Sutherland, John ; iii. April 11, 1843. Donegal. 

Swabe, Samuel. April 10th, 185.5. Fallowfield. 

Swearingen, Andrew. April 3, 1789. Chartiers. 

Talbert, Richard. April, 1792. 

Taylor, George ; in. April 13, 1853. W. Bethlehem. 

Taylor, Henry ; ii. July 15, 1781. Strabane. 

Taylor, Samuel. August 29, 1797. Donegal. 

Templeton, Wm. H. April 11, 1854. Cross Creek. 

Thompson, Robert. July 15, 1781. Peters. 

Townsend, Elijah. December 3, 1823. Peters and Nottingham. 

Townsend, Elijah. April 14, 1840. Peters. 

Urie, Samuel. April 21, 1794. Hopewell. 

Yance, Isaac. April 10, 1860. S. Strabane. 

Vaneman, Jos. April 19, 1838. Chartiers, Mt. Pleasant, and Canonsburg., 

Vanmetre, Henry. April 3, 1782. Cumberland. 

Vansbinder, John. April 10, 1855. Hopewell. 

Vanvoorhis, Abm. March 6, 1823. Amwell and Morris. 

Vernon, Persifor F. April 15, 1845. Millsboro'. 

Yore, Isaac W. April 15, 1851. W. Pike Run. 

Walker, Alexander E. April 13, 1869. Cross Creek. 

Wallace, Oliver M. April 10, 1855. Bufi"alo. 

Wallace, William. June 30, 1788. Somerset. 

Wallace, William. October 14, 1807. Somerset. 

Wells, Jefferson. April 16, 1856. Independence. 

Wells, William. April 13, 1841. Greenfield. 

Welsh, William. December 10, 1816. E. and W. Bethlehem. 

Welsh, Joseph B. April 13, 1869. East Bethlehem. 

Weirich, Samuel K. April 15, 1845. Canton. 

Wherry, James. April, 1792. 

AVhite, Alexander. April 13, 1853. Claysville. 

White, Benjamin. April 9. 1850. W. Pike Run. 

White, John. July 15, 1781. Strabane. 

White, John. July 1, 1817. E. and W. Bethlehem. 

White, John. January 23, 1819. Chartiers and Cecil. 

White, James. April 14, 1839. Canton. 



278 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



Wilkins, John. April 2, 1803. Smith. 
"Williams, Abraham ; ii. April 9, 1850. Buffalo. 
Williamson, Hamucl. July 15, 1781. Donegal. 
Wilson, John ; II. February 1, 171)9. Washington. 
Wilson, John V. April 10, 18G0. Franklin. 
Winter, David. September 20. 1819. Finley and Donegal. 
Wise, Freeman. April 10. 18G7. W. Brownville. 
AVolfe, Jacob. June 7, 1793. Donegal. 
Wood, Israel. April 10, 1855. E. Finley. • 
AVorth, John. November 1, 1786. Fallowfield. 
Wotring, Abraham ; in. April 14, 1857. Hopewell. 
Wright, Alexander. July 15, 1781. Robinson. 

Yoke, Daniel ; iv. April 9, 1850. Carroll. 

Young, Abraham ; ii. April 15, 1845. E. and W. Bethlehem 

Zediker, John. April 10, 1855. S. Strabane. 



CHAPTER YII. 

MILITARY HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Brig.-Gen. Clark's expedition in 1781 — Col. David AVilliamson's expedition in 
1782 — Col. ^VilIiam Crawford's expedition iu 1782 — Whiskey Insurrection 
in 1791-4 — Outrage on the Chesapeake Frig.ate, 1807 — War of 1812 — 
Texas Revolution, in 183G — Mexican AVar iu 184(3 — Southern Rebellion in 
18G1. 

Brig.- Gen. George Clark's History and Expeditions. 

Brio. -General Clark (formerly Col. Clark) was raised to the 
office of Brigadier-General by the State of Vir^rinia for his meri- 
torious services against the Indians. Col. Daniel Brodhcad, under 
date of Fort Pitt, Sept. 5, 1780, to President Keed, of Supreme 
E.xecutive Council of Pennsylvania, says : "I am informed that Col. 
Clark had destroyed two of the Shawnee towns, killed si.x men and 
one woman, and is returned to the Falls of Ohio." On 25th Feb- 
ruary, 1781, Col. Clark was ordered to proceed from Fort Pitt (to 
which place he had returned) to the Falls of Ohio, and from thence 
to Wabash. His instructions were from General Wasliington, 
the Commander-in-Chief, because he exercised unbounded induence 
over tlie inhabitants of the western country by his military skill and 
indomitable energy. On March 10th of the same year we find him 
busily engaged in purchasing large quantities of Hour and Indian 
corn to carry on an expedition against the Indians. Thomas Jeffer- 
son, Governor of Virginia, writes to Col. Brodhcad, February 13, 
1781 : "Gen. Washington's letter, transmitted by you to Gen. Clark, 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 279 

will no doubt have satisfied you how earnestly he espouses the service 
on which that gentleman is ordered, and that it is his desire he should 
receive from you every aid of men and necessaries which you can 
help him to. I rely, for your cordial execution of this desire, on 
your zeal for the common cause, as well as your respect for the 
wishes of the Commander-in-Chief." 

On the 2od March, ITSl, Gen. Clark addressed a letter to Presi- 
dent Reed, in which he says: "I am ordered to the command of the 
greatest consequence to the frontiers of Pennsylvania and Vii'ginia, 
if our resources should not be such as to enable us to remain in the 
Indian country during the fair season. I am in hopes tliat they 
will be sufficient to visit the Shawnees, Delaware, and Sandusky 
towns. Defeating the enemy and laying those countries waste would 
give great ease to the frontiers of both States, whom I think equally 
interested. lam confident from the nature of the intended expedition 
you would wish to give it every aid in your power. I hope, sir, that 
you will inform the inhabitants on this side of the mountain that 
such are your sentiments. I hope that you will honor me with an 
Immediate answer per express, as it is of the greatest consequence 
to us, and that the fate of the Indians at present appears to depend 
on the resolutions you may take." 

President Reed replied on the 23d of March, that "the enter- 
prise you refer to has never been officially communicated to us, but 
from common report we learn that an expedition under your command 
is destined against Detroit. We are very sensible of its importance 
to this State, as well as Yirginia, and there is no gentleman in whose 
abilities and good conduct we have more confidence on such an oc- 
casion. After this it seems unnecessary to add that it will give us 
great satisfaction if the inhabitants of this State cheerfully concur 
in it, and we authorize you to declare that so far from giving off'ence 
to their government we shall consider their service with you as 
highly meritorious. At the same time we must add that, from the 
exhausted state of our treasury, we are in no condition to answer 
any demands of a pecuniary kind, and therefore do not mean by 
anything we have said to raise an expectation we cannot answer." 

The position thus taken for an expedition was, therefore, not only 
approved by President Reed, but urged by other letters to Col. 
Brodhead and Governor Thomas Jefferson, the necessity of imme- 
diate and energetic action. 

Gen. Clark, under these influences, on the 3d June, 1781 ad- 
dressed the officers of Westmoreland and Washington counties to 
raise an expedition against the Shawnees, Delawares, and Sandusky 
towns. The people assembled on the 18th of June, 1781, and 
adopted the following preamble and resolutions : — 

Whereas, There was a number of the principal people met on said day, 
and unanimously chose John Proctor, John Pomroy, Charles Campbell, 
Samuel Moorbead, James Barr, Charles Foreman, Isaac Meason, James 
Smith, and Hugh Martin a committee to enter into resolves for the defence 



280 HISTORY OF -WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

of our frontiers, as they were informed by Christ. Hays, Esq., that their 
proceedings would be approved of by the council — 

1. Resolved, That a campaign be carried on with Gen. Clark. 

2. Resolved, That Gen. Clark be furnished with 300 men out of Pomroy's, 
Beard's, and Davis's battalions. 

3. Resolved, That Col. Archd. Lochry give orders to said Colonels to 
raise their quota by volunteer or draft. 

4. Resolved, That £6 be advanced to every volunteer that marches 
under the coiuniaud of Gen. Clark on the proposed campaign. 

5. And for the i'lirther encouragement of volunteers, that grain be raised 
by subscription by the different companies. 

6. That Col. I.ochry counsel with the officers of Virginia respecting the 
manner of drafting those that associate in that State and others. 

7. Resolved, That Col. Lochry meet (Jcn. Clark and other officers, and 
Col. Crawford, on the 23d inst., to confer with them concerning the day 
of rendezvous. 

On the 5th of June a council of the militia officers was held at 
the court-house of Youghioghcny County, and the fifth part of the 
militia of said county was drafted for Gen. Chxrk's expedition ; but 
the people, generally l)elieving that the territory of Youghioghcny 
County belonged to Pennsylvania, denied their authority, and re- 
fused to submit until the State line was finally determined. In this 
state of affairs Col. Hays gave public notice to the inhabitants of 
Washington and Westmoreland counties that he had money placed 
in his hands, by the Supreme Executive Council, for the purpose of 
protecting the frontiers. The people, therefore, resolved to raise the 
requi.site number of men to assist Gen. Clark to conquer the Dela- 
wares, Shawnecs, and Wyandott Indians, especially the Sandusky 
towns. The militia composing Gen Clark's command was made up 
of drafted men of the counties of Youghioghcny, Monongahela, and 
Ohio County of Virginia, although parts of each were claimed as 
Washington County by Pennsylvania. This expedition was sanc- 
tioned liy the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania. Presi- 
dent Reed sanctions Gen. Clark's cause, being well satisfied that if the 
people will sustain him he would give effectual relief to the frontiers, 
and expect very shortly to congratulate the country on Gen. Clark's 
success. President Reed also wrote to Col. Lochry advising him to 
encourage the people to assist in the expedition, as some aid and 
support would give effectual relief to the frontiers from the distresses 
they have so long and so seriously suffered. The influence which 
was brought about by the Supreme Executive Council had the 
desired effect. Comi)anies and battalions were organized and went 
into camp, as will ai)pear from the following letter from Dorsey Pen- 
tecost, Esq., to President Reed, dated Washington County, July 
27, 1781. 

" I am now in Gen. Clark's camp, about three miles below Fort Pitt, and 
am about to leave this county on the expedition under that gentleman's 
command." 



HISTORY or -Washington county. 281 

Dorsey Pentecost was Lieutenant of "Washington County, and 
through his zeal and. exertion furnished the quota of the county and 
marched the militia into camp. Notwithstanding the efforts of many 
patriotic men to protect the frontiers, yet such men as Thomas Scott, 
Esq., thought the expedition would be injurious to the interests of 
Pennsylvania, and oppressive on some who were steadfast friends of 
the government. Gen. Clark condemned all such would-be patriots 
in a letter to President Reed, and rebuked such as unworthy of pri- 
vate or public confidence. 

On the 4th of August, 1181, Col. Lochry wrote to President 
Reed that he had left Westmoreland County with Capt. Stokely's 
company of Rangers, and about fifty volunteers, to join Gen. Clark 
at Fort Henry, on the Ohio River, where his army had been in 
rendezvous for some weeks. The very fact of these men going into 
camp and placing themselves under Gen. Clark's command, caused 
new difficulties in Washington County. James Marshall had been 
appointed Lieutenant of the county, and was opposed to the expedi- 
tion. Many statements have been made by the enemies of Gen. 
Clark, charging upon him and his friends cruel treatment by appre- 
hending those who were drafted and did not obey. But the promi- 
nent inhabitants of Washington County addressed a letter to Presi- 
dent Reed on the 15th August, 1*781, stating that as Gen. Clark 
had an expedition carrying on for the salvation of the country, it 
was improper for an election to be held the same day, and the result 
of which was that men who lived in comparative security were 
elected to office, which caused more dissatisfaction than the drafting 
of the militia. President Reed having learned all the questions at 
issue, wrote to the people of Washington County that he could not 
help fearing that too many, in consequence of the unsettled state 
of boundaries, avail themselves of a pretence to withhold their ser- 
vices from the public at a time they are most wanted. " We cannot," 
he says, "help also observing that by letters received from the prin- 
cipal gentlemen in Westmoreland, it seems evident they approve of 
Gen. Clark's expedition, and that the lieutenants of both counties 
united on the plan of raising three hundred men for that service, 
and even now I am at a loss to account for the different opinions 
entertained on the point by the people of Westmoreland and Wash- 
ington counties." 

It appears from a letter of Hon. Christ. Hays to President Reed, 
dated August 25, 1781, that every obstacle was placed in the way 
of Gen. Clark's success — feelings engendered by jealousy — as the 
letter of Mr. Hays will abundantly show. 

"There have been divers meetings for devising the best mode for the pro- 
tection of this country, and there has been a majority of a small number of 
men at said meetings, who fell on a plan of joining Gen. Clark with a num- 
ber of troops from this county, as has been represented to you, which I 
by no means could consent or agree to, and yet has been forced by Col.. 
Lochry, contrary to the will and pleasure of the major part of the inhabit- 
19 



282 HISTORY OF WASniNGTON COUNTY, 

ants of this county, and to the great disadvantage of the distressed fron- 
tiers aud for tlie benefit of the State of Virginia alone, as has, since Gen. 
Clarlv's departure, been made known to me by Col. Gibson and several 
otlier Virginia officers, which obliged Col. D. Brodhead, with the assistance 
of the militia of this and Washington County, to carry on a campaign by 
the 5th of September against the same towns that Gen. Clark and Col. 
Lochry purposed to go to. Fifty-eight good men, belonging to Captain 
Stokely's and Captain Shearer's companies (in a manner naked), besides a 
number of volunteers, have been sent with Gen. Clark for the protection of 
the frontiers of Virginia. 

" I would have represented all matters in a clear light to you, concerning 
this affair, before Gen. Clark's departure from Washington County, could 
I have had the benefit of the last express that has been sent to you from 
this county, which, perhaps, might have altered the whole of the above 
mentioned proceedings, but, contrary to all promises, it was sent unknown 
to me." 

President Reed replied that Gen. Clark had no other authority 
than to take such volunteers as might ofifer, and to purchase provi- 
sions. At the same time, he says, we must observe that at a general 
meeting of the principal inhabitants, both of Virginia and Penn- 
sylvania, the expedition appeared so beneficial to the latter that the 
lieutenants of both joined to promote it, and agreed that three 
hundred men should be furnished. "We apprehend that parties have 
taken too deep root, and that there are too many Avho avail them- 
selves of the dispute of State boundary to withhold their services 
from the public, a disposition which ought to have no countenance 
whatever. To this letter I would add that in a subsequent letter of 
President llccd to Mr. tiays he throws the whole weight of respon- 
sibility upon the latter gentleman, and asserts that his approbation 
of furnishing Gen. Clark with men, was founded upon representa- 
tions made by himself and other gentlemen, which, he presumes, was 
free and voluntary. 

While a war of words was progressing, Gen, Clark and his officers 
and soldiers were busily engaged in preparing for conquering the 
Indians; but on the 24th of August his command was defeated, as 
the following letter from Gen. Irvine, dated Fort Pitt, Dec. 3, 1T81, 
will show: — 

" I am sorry to inform your excellency that this connty has got a severe 
stroke liy the loss of Col. Lochry and about one hundred of the best men 
of AVestmorcland County, including Captain Stokely and his company of 
Rangers. They were going down the Ohio on Gen. Clark's expedition. 
Many accounts agree that they were all killed or taken at tlic moutli of the 
Miami River, I believe chiefly killed; the misfortune added to the failure 
of Gen. Clark's expedition has filled the people with great dismay. Many 
talk of retiring to the cast side of the mountain early in the spring." 

Col. Lochry, at the time of his death, held the office of Prothonotary 
and of Lieutenant of AVcstmoreland County. On the fact being made 
known to the Executive Council, Michael Huffnagle was appointed 
to the former and Edward Cook to the latter office in December, 1T8I. 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 283 

On the 3cl day of July, 1T82, President Moore received the follow- 
ing memorial from the prisoners, taken captives by the Indians : — 

" We the subscribers, inhabitants of the county of Westmoreland, beg 
leave to represent to your excellency and the council, that we had the mis- 
fortune to be made prisoners of by the Indians on the 24th of August last, 
and carried to Montreal, and there kept in close confinement until the 25th 
of May, 1782, when we were so fortunate as to make our escape, and after 
a long and fatiguing march through the wilderness, we got to this city 
(Philadelphia) yesterday at 3 o'clock. As we are at present destitute of 
both money and clothes, without which we cannot go home, we pray your 
excellency and council to take our case into consideration and order us pay 
from the time we were made prisoners to this. 

"We were under the command of Col. Lochry when taken, and have a 
list of all those, both officers and privates, who are now prisoners of this 
party, which together with such information as is in our power we are ready 
to give for the satisfaction of your excellency and council. 

" We have the honor to be your excellency's humble servants, 

Isaac Anderson. 
Lieutejiant Capt. Sherer^s Compa^iy Rangers. 

Richard Wallace, 
Late Quarter- Master to Col. Lochry.'^ 

The Council immediately granted nine pounds seven shillings and 
sixpence specie to Lieut. Anderson, and seven pounds seventeen shil- 
lings and sixpence specie to Richard Wallace, to bear their expenses 
from Philadelphia to Westmoreland County. 

On January 6, 1183, a representation was read to Council signed 
by John Boyd, Captain of the Rangers, and Thomas Stokely, Captain 
of the Second Company of Rangers, representing the situations of 
Henry Dugan, Sergeant of Captain Boyd's company, and Robert 
Watson, John Marus, and Michael Hare, of Capt. Stokely's company, 
now returned from captivity among the Indians; whereupon the 
Council ordered two months' pay to be advanced to each soldier, and 
that each also be furnished with a hat, two shirts, a waistcoat, a pair of 
overalls, a pair of stockings, a pair of shoes, and cloth and trimmings 
for a coat. 

CoL. David Williamson's Expeditions, 

In the fall of 1T81 the militia of the frontier counties of Pennsyl- 
vania resolved to break up the Moravian towns on the Muskingum, 
because it was very truthfully stated that it was half way between 
this county and the Wyandotte tribe of Indians. Through fear 
these Moravian settlements sheltered, protected, and procured for 
these hostile Indians provisions to carry on excursions into the set- 
tlements ; hence it was that the first campaign was undertaken. 
Col. Williamson marched his forces, found but few Indians there, the 
greater part having gone to Sandusky, and took them as hostages to 
Fort Pitt and delivered them to General Irvine. After their libera- 
tion, Dodridge says they crossed the river and killed or made priso- 
ners of a family of the name of Monteur, on Montour's Island, seven 



284 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

miles below Pittsburg. This island at that time was a part of 
Washintrton County. Also it was said that a family had been killed 
on Bufl'ulo Creek, and it was by one of them, who, after being made 
prisoner, made his escape, and that the leader of the party was a 
Moravian. Such were the reports prevalent in that day, and upon 
these reports Colonel "Williamson's character suflercd severely for 
not killing the Indians instead of sending them to Fort Pitt. 

This gave rise to the second expedition under the command of 
Colonel Williamson, who marched out with his command in March, 
1782, his soldiers being composed of the frontier settlers, whose 
hatred to the Indian was both implacable and irreconcilable. On 
their w\ay they passed through the settlement of the Moravian In- 
dians, who had the reputation of being both peaceable and Christian 
in character, but it is said that these soldiers found among the 
Moravian Indians many memorials of their families, trinkets, the 
gifts of love, clothing still bloody, and worn by their own wives and 
daughters, who had been tomahawked and killed. Without reflec- 
tion, and believing that this tribe of Indians were also guilty (being 
in possession of these articles), they, without the consent of their 
commander, whose orders they disregarded, massacred the Indians 
indiscriminately, because revenge, the worst passion of the human 
heart, had taken possession of every soldier. In this paroxysm of 
revenge, human nature forgot itself, and the blood of those who were 
near and dear to them seemed to call for retaliation, and the dying 
agonies of their own innocent ones all seemed to urge them on to 
complete the work of destruction. 

After their desires had been gratified, and reason had resumed 
her throne. Col. Williamson determined to go no further after wit- 
nessing this act of insubordination. He returned to Washington 
County with his men, having resolved to submit the massacre of the 
Moravian Indians to a decision of his fellow-citizens. Hence, at 
the October election in l^ST, he offered himself as a candidate for 
Sheriff, and for his acknowledged bravery, and devotion to their 
interests, he was triumphantly elected ; nor did the people ever hold 
him accountable for the insubordination which prevailed, and which 
no human power could prevent. His election thereupon to that 
important otfice is a complete refutation of the charge made against 
him by the historian Loskiel, who charges him with perpetrating 
the most inftimous act of border warfare, viz: the destruction of the 
peaceable Moravian Christian Indians. Kev. Jos. Dodridgc says : 
'In justice to the memory of Col. Williamson, I have to say that 
although at that time very young, I Avas personally acquainted with 
him, and I say with confidence that he was a brave man, but not 
cruel. lie would meet an enemy in battle and fight like a soldier, 
but not murder a prisoner. His only fault was that of too easy a 
compliance with popular opinion and popular prejudice. On this 
account his memory has been loaded with unmerited reproach." It 
is eminently due, after passion and prejudice have passed away, and 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 285 

the third generation of men can view history from a different stand- 
point, that the memory of Col. Williamson should be vindicated, 
and the fame of the brave and meritorious not blackened with un- 
founded charges. He has gone to accomplish his destiny, and we 
leave Col. Williamson in the hands of that God who in this case will 
"judge righteous judgment." 

In order to place this affair of the massacre of the Moravian 
Indians in its true light, I shall now give the official facts and the 
testimony of Dorsey Pentecost, Esq., who corroborates the position I 
have taken. 

In March, 1782, Col. Williamson set out upon his expedition, the 
result of which I have already stated, but in a letter of L. Weiss, to 
Charles Thompson, Secretary of Congress, dated April T, 1782, he 
says": " I received this afternoon a letter from Rev. Nathaniel, 
Bishop of the united churches of the brethren residing at Bethle- 
hem. He informs me that the same day a melancholy report was 
brought to him by one Mr. Leinbach, relative to a murder committed 
by white men upon a number of Christian Indians, at a place called 
Muskingum." 

It appears, however, that Mr. Leinbach himself was not at the 
scene of action, but he received it from two of his neighbors living 
near Easton, who had returned from a visit to their friends at the 
Monongahela River. The statement made was — 

" That some time in February, preceding, one hundred and sixty 
men, living upon Monongahela, set off on horseback to the Muskin- 
gum, in order to destroy three Indian settlements of which they 
seemed to be sure of being the towns of some enemy Indians. After 
coming nigh to one of the towns, they discovered some Indians on 
both sides of the river Muskingum. They theu concluded to divide 
themselves into two parties, the one to cross the river and the other 
to attack those Indians on this side. When the party got over the 
river they saw one of the Indians coming up towards them. They 
laid themselves flat on the ground waiting till the Indian was nigh 
enough, then one of them shot the Indian and broke his arm, then 
three of the militia ran towards him with tomahawks. When they 
were yet a little distance from him, he asked them why they fired at 
him ; he was minister Shebosh's (John Bull's) son, but they took no 
notice of what he said, but killed him on the spot. They then sur- 
rounded the field and took all the other Indians as prisoners. The 
Indians told them that they were Christians, and made no resistance. 
When the militia gave them to understand that they must bring them 
as prisoners to Fort Pitt, they seemed to be very glad. They were 
ordered to prepare themselves for the journey, and to take all their 
effects along with them. Accordingly, they did so. They were 
asked how it came they had no cattle. They answered that the small 
stock that was left them had been sent to Sandusky. 

In the evening the militia held a council, when the commander of 
the militia told his men that he would leave it to their choice either 



286 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY, 

to carry the Indians to Fort Pitt as prisoners or to kill them, when 
they agreed that they should be killed. Of this resolution of the 
council they gave notice to the Indians by two messengers, who told 
them that, as they had said they were Christians, they would give 
them this night to prepare themselves accordingly. Whereupon the 
women met together and sung hymns and psalms all night, and so 
did likewise the men, and kept on singing as long as there were three 
alive. 

In the morning the militia chose two houses, which they called the 
slaughter-houses, and then fetched the Indians, two or three at a 
time, with ropes about their necks, and dragged them into the 
slaughter-houses where they knocked them down. They then set 
these two houses on fire, as likewise all the other houses. This done, 
they went to the other towns and set fire to the houses, took their 
plunder and returned to the Monongahcla, where they kept a vendue 
among themselves. Before these informants came away it was agreed 
that six hundred men should meet on the 18th of March, 1182, to go 
to Sandusky, whicli is about one hundred miles from the Muskingum. 

John I]tv/ine, of Litiz, under date of March 31st of the same year, 
pays : " It is reported from Lancaster that one hundred militiamen 
from the Ohio have destroyed two Delaware Indian towns, and have 
killed ninety-five Indians." 

George Niser, of York, under date of April 2, says: "I have 
seen a letter written by a woman at Fort Pitt, dated March 21, 1182, 
which contains these particulars, viz : The militia have killed ninety- 
nine of the Moravian Indians, viz : thirty-three men and sixty-six 
women and children." 

In another letter by the same person, but dated April 5, he writes : 
" The Moravian Indian congregation at Sandusky is butchered, as it 
is reported by the Scotch. They came and told them they must 
prepare directly for death. The Indians requested but an hour's 
time for this purpose, which was granted. They went to their 
meeting-house to join in prayers to the Lord. After the hour had 
passed they fell upon them and butchered all of them in cold blood 
in the meeting-house and then set fire to the house." 

These various rumors, somewhat contradictory in their facts, 
reached the Supreme Executive Council, who directed Gen. Wra. 
Irvine, then stationed at Fort Pitt, by letter dated April 13, 1782, 
to inquire if a party of militia had killed a number of Indians at or 
near Muskingum, and also if a Mr. Bull was killed at the same time, 
and to transmit the facts relative thereto, authenticated in the 
clearest manner. To this charge Col. Williamson and Col. Mar- 
shall both replied, and by order of the Supreme Executive Council 
was laid before Congress. 

The following letter of Dorsey Pentecost, dated at Fort Pitt, 
May 8, 1782, throws much light upon this question. lie says : — 

" I arrived at home last Thursday ; yesterday I came to this place and 
had long conferences with Gen. Irvine and Col. Gibson respecting the ex- 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 28 1 

cursion to Muskingum. That affair is a subject of great speculation here, 
some condemning, others applauding the measure, but the accounts are so 
various that it is not only difficult, but almost, indeed utterly impossible to 
ascertain the real truth. No person can give intelligence but those that 
■were along, notwithstanding there seems to have been some differences 
amongst themselves about that business, yet they will say nothing. 

" I hear there is great preparation making for a descent on Sandusky, to 
set out the 20th of this month, which will be conducted by a gentleman of 
experience and veracity." The writer speaks of Col. Crawford's expe- 
dition. He then adds : "It is said here, and I believe with truth, that sun- 
dry articles were found amongst the Indians that were taken from the 
inhabitants of Washington County, and that the Indians confessed them- 
selves, that when they set out from Sandusky ten warriors came with them 
who hud gone into the settlements, and that four of them were then in the 
towns who had returned. If those Indians that were killed were really 
friends, they must have been very imprudent to return to settle at a place 
they knew the white people had been at and would go to again, without 
giving us notice, and besides to bring warriors with them who had come 
into the settlements and after murdering would return to their towns, and of 
course draw people after them filled with revenge, indignation, and sorrow 
for the loss of their friends their wives and their children." He also writes 
that "the people are greatly divided in sentiment about it (the Moravian 
affair) , and an investigation may produce serious effects, and at least leave 
us as ignorant as when we began, and instead of rendering a service may 
produce confusion and ill-will amongst the people." 

lie recommends to the Supreme Council to forbid that, in future 
excursions, women, children, and infirm persons should be killed, 
being contrary to the la^s of man as well as Christianity. 

Thus terminated the campaign under Col. Williamson. 

CoL. William Crawford's Expedition. 

In the summer of 1182 a third expedition was commenced after 
the return of Col. Williamson, by a regiment of four hundred and 
eighty-two men, who were principally from east of the Monougahela 
River, in Fayette County, except one company from the Tenmile 
settlement, in Washington County. Hence we give an account of 
this expedition. 

On the 20th of May, 1782, the regiment left Beesontown (now 
Uniontown) under the temporary command of Col. William Crawford, 
whose residence was at the forks of Youghiogheny, near Connellsville. 
On May 22, they reached Catfish (now Washington), where they 
were joined by a company from Tenmile, in this county. On the 
26th of May they encamped at old Indian Mingo town, where an 
election was held for Colonel, the candidates being Col. William 
Crawford and Col. David Williamson. The election resulted in 
favor of Col. Crawford. The regiment on that day took up the line 
of march by the same Indian trail which Col. Williamson had passed 
over, and on the 4th of June they encamped on the Sandusky plains. 
The battle was fought on the 5th and 6th of June, 1782. 

From the most authentic accounts we learn that the Indians were 



288 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY 

apprised of the approach of Col. Crawford, and were prepared for 
his rej^iment bj'^ being concrealed in ambush. At a preconcerted signal 
the Indians commenced firing, which was returned by the regiment. 
Both parties fought with great fury until dark (of June 5th), when 
the Indians retreated and the soldiers encamped upon the battle- 
ground, sleeping upon their arms. 

The next day (June 6th) skirmishing began and fighting ensued. 
Col. Crawford discovered that the Indian forces through the night 
had been greatly increased. A council of officers was held, and they 
determined that prudence would dictate a retreat, because many 
valuable lives were lost (about one hundred soldiers being killed), 
and that their ammunition and provisions were nearly exhausted. A 
little before midnight the remaining members of the regiment were 
arranged in order, and the retreat began, having left their camp- 
fires burning so as to deceive the Indians.* They had not proceeded 
far when shots were fired by the Indians, which necessarily caused 
great confusion and disorder, as the officers and soldiers believed 
that their movements had been discovered by their wily foe. Each 
man, therefore, determined to seek his own safety in flight ; but the 
savage Indians, thirsting for revenge for the death of the Moravian 
Indians, and with that sagacity which belongs to their race, overtook 
most of the soldiers, and they fell victims to the tomahawk. The 
massacre was terrible. 

Among the captives were Col. Crawford and his nephew, Dr. 
Knight. These they retained for a sadder and more terrible death. 
The Indians, failing to secure Col. Williamson, visited upon Col. 
Crawford the death of the Moravian Indians, although he had not 
in any of his Indian expeditions harmed a Moravian Indian. Here 
I may add that Wingenund, an old Indian chief who had known Col. 
Crawford for many years, and had even visited his (Crawford's) 
house, said to him, after they had painted him black (a symbol of 
the horrible death he was to undergo) : " Had we Williamson in 
your place, there might be some hope for you; but as it is, there is 
not." From the intimacy whicli always existed between this old 
chief and Col. Crawford, he said to him : " Col. Crawford, your fate 
is fixed. Meet it as a soldier should. Farewell. Tliey arc coming, 
and I will retire wlierc I cannot see you." These two brave men, 
representing entirely different interests, parted, each shedding tears. 

On the arrival of the band of Indians who were to take charge of 
Col. Crawford, their hellish work began. While Dr. Knight, his 
nephew, was seated close by as a witness of the torments which Col. 
Crawford was to endure. On the 11th of June, 1182, Col. Crawford 
was led to a stake driven in the ground, at Sandlisky Plains, with 

* The retreat of Col. Crawford's men was condueterl by Major Daniel Leet, who 
was the intimate friend of Col. Crawford. Their iiitiiiiaey arose from the fact that 
Gen. AViishinj^ton had .eelected theiii to survey and locate lands in Yirp;inia and Ken- 
tucky, hence ho was selected to lake c<Mnuian(i of the rii;ht wing of the army, in 
which was the company of the Tenmile tiettlemeut of this county. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 289 

his bands secured firmly behind his back by means of strong thongs. 
A rope was then fastened to these between the wrists, and the other 
end to the bottom of the stake. The rope was long enough to allow 
him to walk backward and forward several times, while around the 
stake, and within the circle which the rope would allow him to pass 
over, were heaped dry and combustible fagots. When these were 
ignited the tortures commenced. The Colonel bad previously been 
stripped naked, and after an Indian speech, about seventy loads of pow- 
der w^ere discharged upon bis naked body. His ears were cut off, and 
burning brands and fagots applied to bis body ; he was scalped, and 
squa-ws threw burning coals and hot embers upon his head and body. 
Col. Crawford, having committed himself to the Almighty, bore all 
his torments with manly fortitude. It seemed as if God in mercy 
and in answer to his prayer had so benumbed his nerves that be felt 
no pain. Dr. Knight, who was witness of it, and afterwards made 
bis escape, said that he seemed unconscious of the presence of his 
tormentors, and w-as exclusively engaged in close communion with 
bis Saviour. It is said by those who have visited the spot, about 
half a mile from Little Sandusky/ that nothing will grow within the 
circuit which Col. Crawford made when tied to the stake, and God,. 
as a memorial of the wickedness of the crime, thus marks the spot 
where an innocent man suffered a cruel death. 

/ It may be well to remark that Col. Crawford emigrated from 
Berkeley County, Virginia, in IT 68, to near Connellsville, Fayette 
County, Pennsylvania. He served as captain in Forbes's expedition 
in 1758. He was the intimate friend of Gen. Washington, who bad 
been an inmate of his hum]:)le dwelling during bis visit to this county 
to locate lands. At the commencement of the American Revolution 
he raised a regiment by his own exertions, and held a commission of 
Colonel in the Continental army. Thus perished, at the age of fifty 
years. Col. William Craw^ford, who held many positions of honor and 
profit under both Yirginia"and Pennsylvania, especially when Wash- 
ington County was considered as belonging to Virginia by the name 
of Youghiogheny County. Pennsylvania has honored his memory by 
naming one of the northwestern counties after him, to perpetuate bis 
fame and bis deeds. 

Since writing the above, my friend, J. T. F. Wright, sent me the 
narrative of Col. James Paul, who was with Crawford at his defeat. 
Col. Paul died in 1841, aged 84 years. Col. Paul corrects an error 
into which some writers have fallen, as to the motives of Col. Craw- 
ford and bis noble band of volunteers in going to Upper Sandusky, 
which object Avas in reality to conquer the Wyandottes and bands 
of hostile Indians, and to burn their town, and not, as erroneously 
reported, to complete the slaughter of the remainder of the peace- 
able Christian Moravian Indians. This narrative further states that 
a scheme was formed and put on foot, the. object of which was to 
check the Sandusky Indians, principally tliat of the Wyandotte tribe, 
which tribe was at that time the most bold, daring, and ferocious 



290 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

of any of the other hostile tribes, whose depredations on the frontier 
settlers had grown hard to be borne. A further object of this 
scheme was the destruction of the Indian town at Upper Sandusky, 
and thus to check and put a stop, if possible, to the scalping, mur- 
dering, and plundering which were continually committed on the 
defenceless frontiers of Western Pennsylvania and Virginia. Col. 
Paul thus nobly repels the charge made by Weems and some few 
others, who have misstated the object of these brave, noble-hearted 
volunteers who risked their lives in an enemy's country. 

To preserve the history of that memorable event with which Wash- 
ington County is so intimately connected, I shall add letters Avritten 
at the time by our own citizens. 

Dorsey Pentecost, Esq., under date of June It, 1782, to Presi- 
dent Moore, says : — 

" I have just time to tell you that on the 2r)th of May four hundred and 
seventy-eight (some say four hundred and eighty-eight) soldiers, mounted 
on horseback, set out, under the command of Col. Crawford, for St. Dus- 
kie. They were discovered at the Muskingum and from there all the way 
out spies were kept on them. The St. Duskie people collected the Shaw- 
nees and the light dragoons from the British posts between St. Duskie and 
the post at Detroit, they attacked our people in the plains of St. Duskie, 
near the St. Duskie River, on Tuesday was a week last. The battle con- 
tinued two daj-s, the first day was very close and hot work, the second day 
was at long shot only. On the night of the second day our people retreated, 
and the Indians broke in on them in the retreat and routed them. How- 
ever, about two hundred stuck together and brought off all the wounded 
except three, which were left on the ground. The next day the Indians 
attacked our people in the rear, but were repulsed with considerable loss 
on their side. They then pursued their retreat with success and unmolested. 

'"There are about twenty wounded (a few dangerous) and about half that 
number killed. There are a good many missing, amongst wliich is Colonel 
Crawford and a number of other valuable men, but as the scattered parties 
are coming in daily, I have hopes of them. As the people were much con- 
fused when 1 met them (at the Mingo bottom), I could not get the informa- 
tion requisite. What little I got was from M.ajor Ross, Aide-de-camp to 
Gen. Irvine, and who went aid to Col. Crawford, and I hope the General 
(Irvine) will give you a particular account, as he will receive it from the 
Major. I am told that the Indians were much superior to our people, and 
that in the engagement they suffered greatly, and also that Col. Crawford 
strongly recommended to return before they got to the town, alleging that 
our people were too weak, as the Indians had early intelligence of their 
coming, but he was overruled by the rest of the oflicers." 

July 5, 1782, Gen. Irvine writes from Fort Pitt, stating that 

"Dr. Knight has this moment arrived — the Surgeon I sent with the vol- 
unteers to Sandusky ; he was several days in the hands of the Indians, but 
fortunately made his escape from his keeper, who was conducting him to 
another settlement to be burned. He brings the disagreeable account that 
Col. Crawford and all the rest (about twelve to the doctor's knowledge) 
who fell into their hands, were burned to death in a most shocking manner. 
The unfortunate Colonel in particular was upwards of four hours burning. 
The reason they assign for this uncommon barbarity is retaUation for the 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 291 

Moravian affair. (I have given an account of this affair under Col. "William- 
son's expedition.) The doctor adds that he understood those people had 
laid aside their religious principles and have gone to war, that he himself 
saw two of them bring in scalps whom he formerly knew." 

Whiskey Insurrection. 

This was the fourth important military movement in this county, 
and which extended itself to Westmoreland, Fayette, Allegheny, 
and Bedford counties, and that part of Western Yirg-inia on the 
Ohio River and borders of Pennsylvania. To subdue this rebellion, 
which began July 27, 1791, and was ended in 1794, by an amnesty 
proclamation and an oath of allegiance subscribed by the people, it 
cost the government six hundred and sixty-nine thousand nine 
hundred and ninety-tivo dollars and thirty-four cents. I have given 
full particulars of this insurrection in the Appendix to this work 
in Chapter IV., on the Whiskey Insurrection, to which I would 
refer my readers. 

Outrage on the Chesapeake Frigate. 

The people of Washington County, on the 18th of July, 1807, 
jealous of their rights, their liberties, and their military fame, called 
a meeting to take measures with regard to the outrages committed 
on the Chesapeake frigate by a British ship-of-war. We may name 
this as the jifth military movement. Col. William McKennan 
was chosen Chairman, and Gen. John Morgan Secretary. The pro- 
ceedings* of citizens of Norfolk, Hampton, Philadelphia, and other 
cities, were read, and Parker Campbell, Gen. John Morgan, Thomas 
Acheson, Edward Todd, and John Simonson, Esqs., were appointed 
a committee to report resolutions, who reported that the people of 
Washington County sensibly feel the outrageous conduct of the 
tyrants of the ocean, and pledged themselves, by all the ties most 
sacred among men, to support, by every exertion and all the means 
in their power, all measures of defence or retaliation best adapted 
to prevent a repetition of such outrages, and enforce proper conces- 
sions for the past. 

The meeting also tendered their services to government, and 
promised to repair to the posts assigned to them at the first call, 
approving and applauding the executive prohibition of the entrance 
of British ships-of-war into the ports and harbors of the United 
States, and of all intercourse with them. They also wisely resolved 
that hospitality under such circumstances ceases to be a duty, and 
the honor and independence of our country forbid a continuance 
of it, and they also urge the necessity of a prompt attention to 
arms, equipments, &c., to defend an injured country. 

On the 10th of February, 1809, Col. Thomas Acheson issued the 
following military address in connection with this subject, to the 23d 
Regiment, in Washington County : — 



292 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

" Fellow Soldiers : It will be remembered that in consequence of the 
outrageous attack and cowardly murder of our fellow- citizens on board the 
Chesapeake by the slaves of Britain in the month of June, 1807, that the 
President ordered ten thousand militia of the United States to be held in 
readiness for actual service. That on the 10th of August of the same year 
you were called together for the same purpose of furnishing the proper 
quota of men from this regiment, when three hundred and five patriots 
tendered their services to the President to march at a moment's warning to 
any part of the Union or elsewhere. But the law under which that tender 
was made having expired, you once more have an opportunity of renewing 
that tender. 

'■ It appears that no kind of satisfaction was ever offered by the British 
government for the murder of our fellow-citizens on board the Chesapeake, 
but that notwithstanding the forbearance of our general government, in- 
sult was added to injury, hence the blood of your brethren still cries aloud 
for vengeance. While we are informed that the yeomanry of enslaved 
Europe are fighting for their task-masters, and thereby riveting their own 
chains, shall the free and independent citizens of this happy country shrink 
from the defence of our homes ? I trust not, but that all those young 
patriots who voluntarily tendered their services on the former occasion 
will now be first to renew that tender, and evince to the world that the 
honor, dignity, and independence of this injured country, so dearly pur- 
chased by their father's blood, is nearer to them than life, and that they 
will rally around the standard of liberty, and defend and support the go- 
vernment of their choice against insidious and domestic traitors." 

War between the United States and Great Britain. 

The sixth militaiy event in the history of Washington County 
was the interest she evinced in the Avar of 1812, commonly called 
the Second War for Independence. It will be remembered that war 
was declared by the United States on the 19th day of June, 1812, 
because England claimed the right to search all neutral vessels for 
British seamen, and all were claimed as such who could not exhibit 
official papers of their birth and regular shipment under a neutral 
government ; hence native born citizens of America were taken from 
under our flag and impressed into service, the consequences of wdiich 
was the war of 1812. The difficulties were hastened by the attack 
on the Chesapeake. On the 22d of June following, a public meet- 
ing of the citizens of this county was held to ascertain the public 
sentiment with respect to the measures of the general government, 
of which David Morris, Esq., was chairman. A committee consist- 
ing of Thomas Acheson, Robert Anderson, Alexander IMurdoch, 
Thomas II. Baird, and Parker Campbell, were aiipointed to prepare 
an address to be submitted to the people, at an adjourned county 
meeting, on the 2lth of June, at which meeting llev. Thomas L. 
Bircli, AVilliam Iloge, and Parker Campbell, Esqs., made patriotic 
addresses. 

On tlie 24th of August, 1812, Gen. Thomas Acheson, as chairman 
of the Committee, issued an address, in the following w^ords, to the 
people of Washington County : — 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 293 

"They owe it to the brave volunteers to make known to the world that 
the spirit of the Washington County militia is the spirit of liberty, of 
patriotism, and of humanity, and that when any emergency requires their 
exertions, no consideration of personal danger or inconvenience can pre- 
vent them from rushing to the scene of apprehended attack." 

On Wednesday, the 26th of July, news arrived in Washington, 
by express from Gen. Wadsworth, that Gen. Hull and his army had 
been captured, and that a body of five thousand British and Indians 
were advancing with barbarous ferocity upon our defenceless frontiers. 
This information was confirmed by several other express messengers, 
who arrived in Pittsburg with the alarming intelligence that they 
had in fact marched within nine miles of Cleveland, Ohio. 

A Committee of Safety and Arrangement was formed, who were 
directed to appeal to their fellow-citizens in Washington County, 
and to open a communication so as to secure a co-operation in their 
plans and organizations. They appealed, and they appealed not in 
vain. In forty-eight hours from the first call a company of young 
men from the town of Washington and its vicinity, of light infantry, 
under the command of Captain William Sample, volunteered them- 
selves to march to the scene of savage slaughter and devastation. 
By the amiable and spirited assistance of the Ladies of Washing- 
ton, they were completely uniformed and equipped. 

Another company was also formed within the bounds of the 
Washington regiment, and the " Rifle Rangers," under the command 
of Capt. (afterwards Governor) Joseph Ritner, volunteered their 
services as a body. A troop of horse from Col. Dickerson's regi- 
ment, under Capt. Lawrence, turned out with alacrity. A com- 
pany of infantry, under Capt. Buchanan, of Middletown, also offered 
their services. Two hundred and fifty brave volunteers, under the 
command of Col. Dickerson, informed Gen. Acheson that they were 
ready to march at a moment's warning. Capt. Cartey and part of 
his troop, and the troop of Capt. Shouse, from Williamsport (now 
Monongahela City) were also ready to march. The Williamsport 
Rangers, and Capt. Thomas's infantry held themselves subject to 
orders. From this brigade there were not less than seven hundred 
men, exclusive of two hundred and fifty men from Burgettstown, 
under the command of Col. Thos. Patterson, Major John Vance, and 
Capt. McCready. 

By the liberal contributions of spirited individuals, six hundred 
dollars were subscribed in Washington in a few minutes ; between 
three and four hundred dollars in Middletown ; four hundred dol- 
lars in Burgettstown, with considerable sums from other places, for 
the purpose of defraying the expenses of the detachment. 

A letter from Burgettstown, dated August 28th, 1812, says: — 

" I will inform you of the movement at this place for the last ten days. 
On Monday evening an express came who brought the news of the loss of 
Gen. Hull's army, and that the enemy were advancing by rapid marches 



294 HISTORY OF WASniNGTON COUNTY. 

towards Cleveland.* Expresses were despatched in all quarters, and on 
Tuesday evening the greater part of the 23d regiment, of "Washington 
County, met at this place. About two hundred volunteers volunteered to 
repel the enemy. On Wednesday evening all was bustle. A committee 
of arrangement was appointed to provide wagons, provisions, &c. The 
females, young and old, were employed in making knapsacks and hunting 
shirts. Children of ten years were engaged in scraping lint for the medi- 
cine chest. All were busily engaged in some necessary work ; blacksmiths 
making tomahawks and knives, carpenters handling them, &c. Yesterday 
Col. Patterson's detachment marched, consisting of about three hundred 
men, part of which were cavalry, and encamped nine miles from this place. 
The detachment is furnished with five baggage wagons and eighteen bul- 
locks, and supplied with everything for comfort and accommodation." 

From our aged and honored friend James McFarren, Esq., now 
deceased, we received the following letter on the same subject : — 

" In the month of August, 1812, an express arrived in the northwest part 
of Washington County from Gen. Beal, of Wooster, Ohio, stating that the 
British and Indians had landed in large numbers at the mouth of Huron 
Eiver, and were marching on Pittsburg. A number of riders set out and 
alarmed the inhabitants of the surrounding townships. On the second day 
a large meeting was held in Burgettstown ; a battalion formed of about 
three hundred volunteers. Ladies sat up the whole night making knapsacks, 
tents, &c. This battalion was composed of four companies commanded 
respectively by Capt. Thomas Patterson, Capt. Wm. Vance, Capt. Samuel 
Rankin, and Capt. Robert Withrew's light dragoons, who rendezvoused at 
the Brtcelnnd Cross Roads. After all were in readiness, the first day they 
marched to the edge of Beaver County, the second day they held an election, 
and John Vance was elected major. The battalion on the third day took 
up the line of march, crossed the Ohio River at Georgetown, and encamped 
on the bottom at the mouth of Dry Run. On the fourth day, being Satur- 
day, they arrived at New Lisbon a little before sunset. During this day's 
march they met a number of Gen. Hull's soldiers, and among the rest Gen. 
Lucas, who was afterwards Governor of Ohio, who informed us that Hull 
had surrendered his army at Detroit; that the men were taken to Maiden, 
U. C, where they were dismissed on parole and sent to the mouth of Huron 
River, and it was from this fact that the false alarm had arisen. 

" Major Vance's battalion, however, pitched their tents half a mile east of 
Lisbon, remained until Monday morning, when they struck their tents and 
took up their line of march fur home." 

"On September 7, 1812, tlie citizens of AVashiilgton County assembled for 
the purpose of raising a fund for the support of the families of such volun- 
teers as should ro(|uire aid, and also pledged themselves to use their influence 
with the legislature to procure the passage of a law to pay each volunteer 
a stipulated sum in addition to the pay allowed by the United States. 

" September 14, 1812, Gen. Acheson received additional orders to furnish 
a further quota of two hundred men, to assemble at AVashington on the 28th 
and march to Pittsburg, where two thousand men are to rendezvous on 



* Gen. Hull surrendered on 16th July, 1812, fourteen hundred men to three hun- 
dred Engli.>ih soldiers, four hundred Can.adinn militia, and a band of Indian allies, for 
which disgraceful conduct he was tried for treason and cowardice by a court-martial, 
convicted of the latter charge, and sentenced to be shot, but pardoned by the 
President. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY, 295 

Friday, October 2, 1812. From thence they will be required to march and 
join the army assembling in Ohio, for the defence of the western frontiers. 

" December 28, 1812, Capt. W. Sample returned irom Buffalo, N. Y., the 
six months volunteers having been furloughed or dismissed. He states 
that all are on their road home except Lieut. James Ruple, who was left at 
Buffalo, but is now convalescent. 

" February 15, 1813, Captain William Patterson, who had command of the 
Tenniile Rangers, unitedly and unconditionally volunteered their services, 
and marched to the beach several times for the purpose of embarking for 
Canada, but was ordered back by the commanding general. We need but 
add that the campaign of 1812 closed unsuccessfully, and the soldiers 
returned home Feb. 22, 181.3. The officers of the VVashington Infantry 
composed of Capt. William Sample, Lieut. James Ruple, and Lieut. George 
Tayloi', on behelf of the company, tendered their sincere thanks to Major 
James Herriott, for his conduct after their organization at Buffalo in 
December last, and in providing for the men on their way home." 

After the disgraceful surrender of Hull, the citizen soldier felt 
the necessity of retrieving the honor of the nation, by prosecuting the 
war. Yolunteer companies were raised in Ohio, Kentucky, Ten- 
nessee, Virginia, and Western Pennsylvania furnished her quota under 
Gen. Richard Crooks, who had been elected brigadier-general of the 
detachment rendezvousing at Pittsburg. The command of the 
army was given to Gen. W. H. Harrison, who established his head- 
quarters in January, 1813, at Franklinton, to recover Detroit and 
the Michigan territory. Of the victories of the American arms at 
Fort Meigs, Fort Stevenson, Lake Erie, and the Thames, under the 
command of Gen. Harrison, over the combined British and Indian 
armies under Gen. Proctor and Tecumseh, it is unnecessary for me 
to speak; suffice it to say that Western Pennsylvania, and especi- 
ally the soldiers of Washington County, fought valiantly in these 
battles, and after a twelve months' tour were discharged about the 
middle of September, 1813. 

In July, 1814, Admiral Cochrane's British fleet arrived for the 
supposed purpose of destroying the American flotilla which had been 
chased some weeks before up the Patuxent, but in August this British 
squadron landed a small army at Benedict, on the river Patuxent, 
under General Ross, to make an attack on Washington City, which 
it accomplished on the 24th of August, 1814, by the destruction of 
all the public buildings, library of Congress, &c., which vandal act so 
roused the spirit of the nation that the citizen soldiers volunteered 
their services to retrieve the honor of the nation. 

Emboldened by this vandal act. General Ross determined with his 
five thousand British soldiers to make his winter quarters in Balti- 
more; was met on September 12, 1814, by the American forces, 
when he was killed, with forty-six others, two hundred wounded, and 
many taken prisoners. 

While Major James Dunlap was on his march with his quota of 
soldiers from Washington County on November 24, 1814, to join 
the encampment at that place, his detachment was disbanded. Gov. 



295 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY; 

Simon Snyder having notified him that the services of the four thou- 
sand Pennsylvania militia were for the present dispensed with. 
The Governor added his high sense of the honorable feeling and 
patriotic spirit manifested by those who were ready to march and 
willing to subject themselves at this inclement season to the priva- 
tions and hardships always inseparable from military service, in de- 
fence of their beloved country, and to avert the dangers with which 
it was threatened. 

The soldiers having returned, the patriotic citizens of Washington 
still believed that the duty of preparing for war was essentially 
necessary, and to provide, should a new danger occur, for the supply 
of any force which may be required, kept up military organizations. 

The Hon. Alexander W. Acheson handed me the following paper, 
which throws much light upon the foregoing fact, and is worthy of 
being recorded, being indorsed in these words : Subscription of the 
citizens of Washington to equip a company of volunteers, to enable 
them to meet the enemy. 

AVe, the subscribers, do promise to pay the sums annexed to our respec- 
tive names for the purpose of equipping such of the volunteers now about 
to march on a tour of duty as are unprepared for the expedition. Witness 
our hands at Washington, October 31st, 1814. 

Thomas and David Acheson, SoO ; Alexander Murdoch, $20 ; Thomas H. 
Baird, $20 ; John Wishart, $5 ; H. Hagarty, $5 ; James Dougherty. $;> ; 
R. Anderson, $5 ; Thomas Mc(TifBn, $.'> ; David ]\Iorris, $5 ; William Hun- 
ter, $3; James Marshall, .$2; George Jackson, $1.50; James Orr, $1.50; 
Thomas Officer, $5 ; F. Julius Lcmoyne, $5 ; James Duulap, $5 ; John 
Kuntz, $5; Parker Campbell, $10; John Barrington, $10; Isaac Kerr, 
10 ; John Johnson, $5 ; John Gregg, $7 ; Hugh Wylie, $5 ; Robert Hazlett, 
$5 ; George Baird, $5 ; Alexander Reed, $10 ; John Neal, $5 ; James Blaine, 
$5 ; Richard Donaldson, $5 ; J. Patton, $1.50 ; James Reed, $3 ; William 
Baird, $6 ; James Cummins, $4 ; Col. Scott, $5 ; Thomas Ramsey, $4. 
Amounting to $253.50. 

On the 8th of January, 1815, under General Andrew Jackson, 
the last battle was fought with the p]nglish nation at Xew Orleans, 
by which a victory of the most unparalleled brilliancy and import- 
ance was achieved. It is unnecessary to enlarge upon its conse- 
quences; suffice it to say, however, that the most important commer- 
cial portal of our country was ]n'eservcd from the rude grasp of a 
foreign power, and the fruits of the industry of the soil preserved to 
its owners by the American eagle, the ensign of liberty triumphing 
over the British lion. 

Time would fail me, as well as the patience of my readers would 
DBComc exhausted, were I to recount and recapitulate the battles in 
which the officers and soldiers of Washington County have been 
engaged since the organization of this county ; I shall, therefore, 
leave this interesting question to the student of history to consult 
other general historical works, and give the names and present ages 
of the survivors of the war of 1812 residing in Washington County 
in 1870. 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 297 

John Conlin, 90 years ; George Howe, 89 years ; James McClelland, 86 
years ; Hon. John Grayson, 87 years ; John Urie, 86 years; Amos Pratt, 
84 years ; James Edgar, 83 years; James White, 83 years; Benjamin Ben- 
nett, 83 years ; Jonathan Hixon, 83 years ; Jacob Jordan, 83 years ; Allen 
Thompson, 80 years ; Alexander McConnell, 80 years ; John McCombs, 80 
years ; Joseph Miller, 79 years ; Samuel Cole, 78 years ; George Spence, 78 
years; James Boon, 78 years; John Fitzwilliams, 76 years; Horatio 
Molden, 76 years; James McDermot, 75 years; John Ritter, 75 years; 
Jacob Dimit, 74 years ; Joseph Henderson, 72 years. 

There are but six widows in Washington County drawing pen- 
sions for the services of their husbands in the war of 1812, viz : 
Mrs. Catharine A. Wilson, Mrs. Nancy J. Wolf, Mrs. Hannah Day, 
Mrs. Elizabeth Porter, Mrs. Mary Fowler, and Mrs. Margaret 
Black. 

Texas. 

The Seventh military event in which this county was engaged took 
place on September 6th, 1836, when Texas struggled to be free and 
become a component part of the United States. The address, written 
on the occasion by Thomas Jefferson Morgan, Esq., of this place, and 
editor of a paper called " Our Country," speaks for itself, giving all 
the reasons why we should assist Texas to gain her independence. 
It is in these words : — 

•To ALL Patriotic and Enterprising Men. 

Emigrants for Texas. 
To Rendezvous at Washington, Pa., on 6th September, 1836. 

The descendants of the Revolutionary heroes too well appreciate the 
blessings of freedom to fail in sympathizing with nations struggling for Inde- 
pendence. Greece asserted her rights, and the sons and daughters of our 
happy republic vied with one another in sustaining the cause of liberty upon 
the classic soil of Athens and of Sparta. Bleeding Poland sought to dis- 
enthral herself from the servile grasp of Russia's autocrat, and whilst 
France and England calmly gazed upon the scene of slaughter, permitting 
interest to subvert the heaven-born principles of justice and humanity, the 
people of the United States were again found actively engaged in contri- 
buting to the aid and succoring the cause of the chivalric and patriotic Pole. 
The plains upon which Sobieski fought and Kosciusko bled, are yet the 
haunts of the oppressor ; but do not their exiled heroes, their matrons, and 
their virgins, supplicate at the throne of the Great Eternal for the preser- 
vation of the liberties of our beloved Columbia? 

Freedom's call once more summons us to action. Humanity beckons, 
philanthropy beseeches, duty commands us to hasten to the rescue of our 
fellow countrymen 1 Not to go beyond seas ; not to rally around the stand- 
ard of strangers in a distant land, but we are called upon by all that is 
honorable, all that is sacred, all that is noble, to fly to the succor of our 
fellow-citizens and avenge the slaughter of our butchered brethren. 

The causes which produced the present Texan struggle for independence 
are too familiar to the citizens of the United States to require a recapitula- 
tion. Suffice it to say that the people of this country were invited to 
colonize certain districts of land in the Republic of Mexico. Our citizens 
were promised laws and a constitution similar to our own. This invitation 
20 



298 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

upon the part of the Mexican government being accepted, thousands of 
emigrants from the United States poured into Texas. The Mexicans, becom- 
ing jealous of their rapidly increasing strength, sought to circumscribe the 
energies of the Texans by' the "lenaction of tyrannical and unwarrantable 
laws, equally incompatible with liberty, justice, and humanity. The Texans, 
upon demanding a redress of their grievances, were treated with insult, and 
their commissioners cast into a dungeon. But it is unnecessary to follow 
the course of events which have enkindled the spark of freedom in the 
bosoms of the colonists, and lit the flame of revolution upon the hills and 
upon the plains of Texas. The damning treachery and demoniac thirst for 
blood exhibited by Santa Anna and his coadjutors in deeds of hellish cruelty, 
are ample evidence of their utter destitution of all those qualifications 
which should be the characteristics of the governors of afreejieople. 

The Texans are emphatically " blood of our blood and bone of our bone;" 
they confidently cast their eyes to the United States for assistance in their 
struggle for independence. Shall they be disappointed ? Shall the blood 
of Fannin, Travis, Bowie, Crockett, and a host of other martyrs in the 
cause of freedom have been shed in vain ? Look to yon fearful pile upon 
which are stretched the yet struggling forms of those victims of Mexican 
duplicity and worse than savage barbarity ! See, the torch is applied, and 
now the awful deafening shriek ensues. Anon, the curling smoke ascends 
towards heaven, and bones and ashes are the sad remnants of our country- 
men ! Who does not cry aloud for vengeance ? Who does not burn with 
impatience to chastise these Mexican bloodhounds ? If there be any one, 
let him eschew the appellation of American citizen ! Let him flee the land 
where liberty dwells, and seek a more congenial asylum within the walls of 
Constantinople or St. Petersburg. 

Countrymen ! I know full well it is unnecessary to mention any other 
inducement which is extended to volunteers, than that of a desire to estab- 
lish free and liberal principles upon the ruins of tyranny, fanaticism, and 
bloodshed, but for the sake of information I shall subjoin 

TnE Terms upon which Volunteers enter the Army of Texas. 

1st. Each volunteer serving three months shall receive 320 acres of land. 

2d. Each volunteer serving for six months shall receive G40 acres of land. 

3d. Each volunteer serving during the war and establishing himself in the 
country, shall receive 2110 acres of land if a single man, and if a married 
man he shall receive 5240 acres of land. 

In addition to these munificent bounties in land, emigrants serving in the 
army, both privates and officers, shall receive the same pay, rations, and 
clothing allowed by the United States. 

History does not furnish so wide and fertile a field for enterprise as ever 
having been presented to the view of any people. Those individuals who 
have no other aim in this life than the mere accumulation of riches, where 
Avill they have so favorable an opportunity to realize their hopes as is now 
offered upon the plains of Texas ? If wealth then be your sole desire, go 
to Texas, the fairest of a ilioasaiul la7ids. 

Countrymen 1 well do I realize the motives which alone will impel you to 
vigorous and speedy action. Woll do I know that the men whom 1 address 
set a higher value upon one moment of virtuous liberty than upon the 
massive piles of Persia's fabled treasure. 

The undersigned has been authorized to recruit 280 volunteers, and in 
accordance with this authority I now call upon the freemen of Western Penn- 
sylvania, and of the surrounding districts of Ohio and Virginia, and upon 



HISTORY OP WASHINaTON COUNTY. 299 

all patriots wherever may be their habitation to join me in my undertaking. 
It is my desire that all volunteers should rendezvous at Washington upon 
the 6th of September, or as speedily afterwards as practicable. Each indi- 
vidual should be well supplied with necessary clothing of a substantial cha- 
racter, particularly socArs and shoes or hoots with heavy soles. No one need 
be under the least apprehension of danger owing to the change of climate, 
the season of the year at which we shall reach Texas will be peculiarly 
favorable to emigrants. Any further information upon the subject can be 
obtained by addressing the subscriber (post paid), at this place. 

Rally! fellow-countrymen, rally! Thousands of our citizens from the 
south and from the west are pouring into Texas ; some of our greatest and 
best men are to be found among the number; will you be backward when 
the cause of Freedom is at hazard? No! I know you better! You will 
prove true to your ancestors, true to yourselves, and true to posterity ! 
Come on, come on ! Liberty calls you to her standard, the spirits of our de- 
parted heroes beckon you onward ! Come on, come on ! Riches, honor, 
happiness await you ! On ! on ! ! The free of every clime will pour forth 
to the god of battles their fervent supplications for your success, and un- 
born millions will bless your memories ! T. Jefferson Morgan. 

Washington, Pa. , Aug. 18, 1836. 

Meetings were held through different parts of Washington County, and 
committees appointed to solicit contributions in aid of the Texan emi- 
grants. On the 19th of Sept., the Morgan riflemen of Pennsylvania took 
up the line of march, under the command of Thomas Jefferson Morgan. 
who left Washington with thirty men, but was augmented at Wheeling. I 
shall add the list of names who composed the " Morgan Rifle Company." 

Officers. — T. Jefferson Morgan, Captain, Pennsylvania; John L. Gil- 
der, 1st Lieutenant, Philadelphia; John W. Brown, 2d Lieutenant, Upper 
Canada. 

NoN-CoMMissiONED OFFICERS. — Harrisou Gregg, 1st Sergeant, Pennsyl- 
vania; Lewis F. Shuster, 2d Sergeant, France; Thomas Ralston, 3d Ser- 
geant, Pennsylvania ; Melancthon Locke, 4th Sergeant, New York ; Isaac 
B. Noble, 1st Corporal, New York ; Wm. Richardson, 2d Corporal, Vir- 
ginia ; J. A. Henderson, 3d Corporal, Pennsylvania ; Jackson Proctor, 4th 
Corporal, Virginia. 

Privates. — John Adams, Pennsylvania ; J. W. Alexander, Kentucky ; 
W. Baker, Pennsylvania ; H. Bundhart, Germany ; George Barry, Penn- 
sylvania; John Breckle, Germany ; Jacob Buchanan, Germany; J. H. Bauer, 
Fi'ance ; John Blair, Tennessee ; John Collier, Maryland ; John Curtz, Ger- 
many; Fred. Drehler, Germany ; Francis Glenner, New York ; Chs. Garner. 
Germany ; W. C. Haymond, Virginia ; George HufF, Pennsylvania ; Theo- 
dore Hamar, France ; Joseph Hiller, Germany ; Joshua Hudson, Pennsyl- 
vania; James Hamilton, Pennsylvania; George Hamilton, Pennsylvania ; 
Fred. Happel, Germany; J. Holt, Virginia; G. S. Haas, Germany; Alex. 
Hunter, Pennsylvania ; Chs. Johnston, New York ; John Kelsey, Louisi- 
ana; Peter Knole, Germany ; Samuel Lint, Pennsylvania ; George Meyer, 
Germany; Henry Miller, Germany; Anthony Miller, Germany; W. F. 
Nicholson, Pennsylvania ; C. G. W. Nafiee, New Jersey ; John Rahn, 
Switzerland; Egelbert Reihl, Germany; J. Sappington, Pennsylvania; 
David Stoelzle, Germany ; Henry Smith, Germany ; Lewis Stuntzner, Penn- 
sylvania; Thomas Sharpe, Pennsylvania; Louis Thiner, Germany; R. M, 
Williams, Maryland; Anthony Weiss, France; Henry B. Ward, Kentucky; 
David Wyand, New York ; F. Walbold, Pennsylvania. / 



;>00 iriSTv^RY OF washixoton couxty. 

»Tuno 21. \S;>". C:»pt. Thoniftj! .1. Morsr.ui. promotoil to tho office of Briga- 
dier iionoral, with tho rauk and omolutiou of a major of cavalry. 

Goorjio W. Morgau was promoted from 2d Lieuteuaut to Isl Lioutenaut 
of Artillery. 

The Mexican, or Eighth W\vr 
m trhich Washington County teas efujaged. 

It i? an oj^tablifshod fact that tho Mexican war was brought on 
bv tho annexation of Texas to tho United States, as its minister at 
that time protested against it as an aet of aggression, and as des- 
poiling her of a considerable portion of her territory. The minister 
on presenting his prvUest demanded his passport. 

lu March. 1S4(>. Pn^sident Polk directed Gen. Z. Taylor to con- 
ivntrato his forces on tho loft bank of tho Del Norte, which formed 
tho southwestern iKnindarv of Texas, and was therefore an exposed 
froiuior. The Mexican g^»ueral, on hearing of the arrival of our 
anuy, held a couference with the United States officers, which 
resulted in our offieei's refusing to abandon tho country and their 
position. The Mexican General issued an appeal to the American 
army to abandon tho standard of their t.\Hintry, and not fight in so 
inglorious a cause. The appeal had no otToct either upon tho officers 
or soldiers, and from this time we may date the commencement of 
hostilities. The first cause happened on April '21. 1840. when the 
body of Col. Cross was found, having been robbed ami murdered by 
Mexican soldiers. 

History speaks in glowiug terms of the battles of Palo Alto — of 
the surrender of Monterey, of Buena Yista ; the siege of Vera 
Cruz, Cerro Gordo, Controras, Cherubuseo, Molino del Rev. Che- 
pultepec, Tampico. and finally the surrender of the city of Mexico 
to Gen. Winfield Scott and his soldiers, on September 14. lS4o. 

Although ^Yashiugton County, like many other counties, did not 
pariioipato larg-ely by sending companies, battalions, or regiments ; 
yet tho name of Col. Norton McGitVui, who loft his mother's home 
to risk life. fame, and fortune by doing a soldier's duty, will bo ever 
held in remembrance by our citizens. Ho volunteered his services, 
was accepted, and proved himself worthy of tho position tendered 
to and accepted by him. 

Col. McGiffin served bi^th as captain and lieut.-oolonel of the 12th 
regiment in the rebellion of ISGl. 

James Phillips, of Washington, went to the Mexican war. and 
proved himself a bravo and gallant soldier, as also did James Mac- 
key, Henry Woods, and Jack Lowrey, who were the only imme- 
diate representatives of Washington County. 

The Rebellion* of ISGl, or Ninth War 
i'» tchich Washington Count tf teas engaged. 

The soldiers of Washington County, emulating the patriotic deeds 
of their fathers, resolved to battle against the gigantic rebellion 
which attempted to destroy the best of governments. The history 
of their prowess on the battle-field is fresh in the hearts of the 



HISTORY OF WAKHINGTON COUNTY. 301 

living, wiiile memory siiods a tear to the brave ones who fell in 
defence of the Constitution. To preserve, therefore, the names of 
the livinf^ and the dead — soldiers of Washingt^jn County — who 
fought, hied, and died, I shall not only give their names, but the 
company in which they marched, as well as the casualties which 
happened to each on the battle-field. 

iiefore proceeding to this personal interesting history, it were 
well to remark that thirteen Southern States declared them.selves 
absolved from the government of the United States by each passing 
ordinances of secession. They severally proclaimed themselves as 
free and independent, with the right to levy war, conclude peace, 
negotiate treaties, and to do all acts whatever, that rightly apper- 
tain to free and independent States. These ordinances of secession 
were passed by the several States in the following order : — 

1. South Carolina, on December 20, 18fi0, Vjy a unanimous vote of 
one hundred and sixty-nine members. On April 3, 18G1, the State 
Convention ratified the Confederate Constitution by a vote of one 
hundred and fourteen to sixteen. 

2. MisaiHHipfji, on January 9, 18G1, passed the ordinance with fifteen 
dissenting votes, and on March 30, 18C1, ratified the Confederate 
Constitution by a vote of seventy-eight to seven. 

3. Florida, on January 12, 1801, by a vote of sixty-two to seven. 

4. Alabama, on January 11, 1861, by a vote of sixty-one to thirty- 
nine. 

5. Georfjia, on January 19, 1861, by a vote of two hundred and 
eight to eighty-nine. 

6. Louiniana, on January 26, 1861, by a vote of one hundred and 
thirteen to seventeen. 

The vote of the people was, for secession, 20,448, against IT, 296. 

7. Texan, on February 1, 1861, subject to a vote of the people, to 
be held on 23d day of February, and to take efifect on March 4, 1861, 
if approved. 

8. Virginia, on April IT, 1861, by a vote of sixty to fifty-three, 
repealed the ratification of the Constitution of the United States, 
subject to a vote of the people in the following May, and on the. 6th 
of May Virginia was admitted as a member of the Southern Con- 
federacy. 

9. Arkansas, on May 6, 1861, by a vote of .sixty-nine to one, and 
was admitted to the Southern Confederacy May 18, 1861. 

10. Tennessee, on February 19, 1861, voted against secession, but 
on May 6, 1861, it was proclaimed out of the Union by the legislature, 
which, however, gave the people the liberty to vote on the 24th of 
June following; the vote .stood for separation from the Government 
of the United States, 104,913; again.st, 47.238. 

11. North Carolina, on May 20, 1861, passed an ordinance of 
secession, also ratifying the Constitution of the Confederate States. 

12. Missouri, on August 5, 1861, through Gov. C. F. Jack.son, pub- 
lished a Declaration of Independence, and on the 2l8t of the same 



302 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

month tliis State was admitted into the Southern Confederacy on 
certain conditions, but a convention emanating from the people was 
hold on July 31st, and Hamilton R. Gamble was inaugurated as 
Governor on August 1, 18(5 1. In his position as Governor he was 
promised the aid and co-operation of the General Government. 

13. Kentucky, on November 20, 1861, adopted a Declaration of In- 
dependence and ordinance of separation, and on Deceml)er 14, 1861, 
elected, by its legislative council, delegates to the Southern Con- 
federacy, and on December 16, 1861, the Senators from Kentucky 
were sworn in, the State having been admitted. Kentucky was 
entitled to twelve representatives. 

The following seven States, by their representatives, held a con- 
vention at Montgomery, Alabama, on February 4, 1861, and adopted 
a constitution for the Confederate States of America, viz., Alabama, 
Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South 
Carolina. On February 9, Jefferson Davis was elected President, 
and Alexander II. Stephens Yice-Prosident, who were inaugurated on 
February 18th. This Congress continued in session until May 21, 
and adjourned to meet at Richmond Juh' 20. At the July session 
Virginia sent thirteen delegates, who were admitted. The meeting 
of the first session under its constitution was held February 18, 
1862, the following States being represented : Alabama, Arkansas, 
Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North 
Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Yirginia.- 

In connection with the Virginia question I may add that on June 
17, 1861, the convention emanating from the people of Western 
Virginia unanimously voted that by the action of the State of Vir- 
ginia they were independent of and declared themselves as the State 
of West Virginia. On June 20, the people elected a governor, 
and on June 26 the President of the United States recognized the 
State of West Virginia. 

With these preliminary remarks we shall proceed to the history 
of the rebellion. The firing of the first gun was on April 12, 1861, 
at 4.30 A. M., when an attack was made upon Fort Sumter from 
Fort Moultrie, the batteries on Mount Pleasant, Cummings' Point, 
and the floating batteries, numbering seventeen mortars and thirty 
large guns for shot, mostly columbiads. April 13, 1861, at 12.55 
P. M., the (lag of Fort Sumter was hauled down and the fort was 
surrendered on honorable terms by Major Robert Anderson, although 
he did not evacuate it until the 15th. President Lincoln on this 
day called for 75,000 men to serve for three months to suppress the 
rebellion, of which soldiers Pennsylvania's quota was fourteen regi- 
ments, each regiment to consist of seven hundred and eighty officers 
and men; yet Pennsylvania increased her quota to twenty-five regi- 
ments, and so patriotic were the feelings of the people that thirty addi- 
tional regiments were refused. These twenty-five regiments, consist- 
ing of twenty-nine thousand, nine hundred and seventy-nine soldiers, 
after honorably serving their full term, were mustered out of service. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 303 

Under this call Washington County responded by two companies 
marching to Pittsburg and organizing the 12th Regiment, under the 
supervision of General James S. Negely. 

On the 25th of April, 1861, these two companies, with eight 
others, elected their field officers — David Campbell, of Pittsburg, 
Colonel ; Norton McGiffin, of Washington, Lieutenant-Colonel ; 
Alexander Hays, of Pittsburg, Major. This regiment fulfilled its 
mission, and the term of enlistment, three months, having expired, 
it was mustered out of service at Harrisburg, August 5, 1861.* 

Company E was composed of the following officers and men, and 
was recruited in Washington, Pennsylvania, and mustered into ser- 
vice April 25, 1861:— 

Officers. — Norton McGiffin, Captain ; W. F. Templeton, 1st Lieu- 
tenant ; Samuel T. Griffith, 2d Lieutenant. 

NoN-CoMMissTONED OFFICERS. — Oliver R. McNary, 1st Sergeant ; David 
Brady, 2d Sergeant; John Q. A. Boyd, 3d Sergeant; David Acheson, 4th 
Sergeant ; John D. McKahan, 1st Corporal ; Henry Brown, 2d Corporal; 
Eobert B. Elliott, 3d Corporal ; George B. Caldwell, 4th Corporal. 

Musicians. — William A. McCoy and Simon W. Lewis. 

Privates. — John W, Achoson, Henry H. Alter, James Barr, Edwin W. 
Bausman, Peter Blonberg, Hugh P. Boon, John V. Brobst, John A. Byers, 
John L. Cooke, Henry M. Dougan, Horace B. Durant, Tertius A. Durant, 
Henry Erdman, Hardman Gantz, John L. Gettys, James Grier, John M. 
Griffith, Charles Hallam, Wra. T. Hamilton, Alexander C. Hamilton, Wm. 
Hart, Eli Hess, Wm. H, Horn, J. W. Hughes, Robert P. Hughes, Andrew 
J. Hyde, James B. Kennedy, John Kendall, PhiUp P. Kuntz, John Law- 
ton, Joseph J. Lane, Matthew P. Linn, Chas. L. Linton, John Loughman, 
John Laughlin, Taylor McFarland, Thomas M. McKeever, John McKeever, 
Caleb J. McNulty, James Munford, Wm. M. Morris, Henry C. Odenbaugh, 
George A. Perret, Rollin O. Phillips, Henry A. Purviance, Alexander 
Rankin, George B. Reed, Samuel B. Rickey, John B. Ritner, Alexander W. 
Scott, (!ephasD. Sharp, David Shepherd, Jas. Stocking, Andrew J. Swartz, 
John R. Sweeney, Samuel M. Templeton, Joseph H. Templeton, Robert 
Thompson, Robert L. Thompson, Wm. H. Underwood, Isaac Yance, Geo. 
J. Walker, Andrew W. Wilson, Jas. B. Wilson, Robert T. Wishart, Wes- 
ley Wolf. 

After Capt. Norton McGiffin was elected Lieut. -Col. Capt. James 
Armstrong, of Washington, Pa., was elected and served as Captain. 

Company G recruited at Monongahela City, Washington County, 
and mustered into service April 25, 1861. 

Officers. — Robert F. Cooper, Captain ; John S. McBride, 1st Lieu- 
tenant; Jesse C. Taylor, 2d Lieutenant. 

Non-Commissioned Officers. — Wra. W. Thompson, 1st Sergeant ; John 
Myers, 2d Sergeant ; Owen Bullard, 3d Sergeant ; John S. Slanger, 4th 

* This regiment, although impatient to be in the advance, yet were required to re- 
main to the end of their service preserving and protecting the Northern Central Rail- 
road, which runs from Baltimore to Harrisburg, it being on the main line of com- 
munication with Washington City. They became proficient in military drill. 



304 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Serpeant ; Eees Boyd, Ist Corporal ; Benjamin F. Scott, 2d Corporal ; John 
n. Woodward, 3d Corporal; A. 0. D. O'Donavan, 4th Corporal. 

Ml'sicians. — Frederick Layman and James S. Scott. 

Fkivatks. — Francis Allen, Isaac R. Beazell, Harrison Benninjjton. John 
Boyd, Wm. B. Brooks, John Bellas, Wm. P)axter. Jr., Samuel Beazell, Mi- 
chael Barry, Patrick Collins, Sylvester Collins, Wm. S. Cooper, Benjamin 
G. iJickey, John C. Dougherty, Andrew Elliott, W. H. H. Eberhart, Andrew 
Grant, Alexander Gregg, John M. Gibbs, Jos. D. V. Hazard, S. Bentley 
Howe, Wm. H. Howe, James S. Harris, W. H. Heath, Wm. J. Hofiman, 
Alexander Haney, David Kearney, II. B. King, Wm. G. Kennedy, James 
Long, Andrew Louderbeck, Ellis N. Lilly. George C. Leighty, David More- 
ton, James Mehaffey, Charles McCain, Wm. T. Meredith, Thomas Morgan, 
Thomas Mack, Wm. Mack, Daniel Mockbee, Jacob S. Miller, Augustus J. 
Miller, Hillery Miller, John Merrick, Wm. Ong, Charles Oliver, William 
Oliver, George W. Fotts, Samuel B. Paxton, Samuel Fritchard, Joseph G. 
Reager, John Rinard, Reuben Sutton, Geo. Stewart, Alfred ^1. Sickman, 
Jefferson G. Vangilder, Theophilus Vankirk, Robt. S. Wilson, Win. Wood- 
ward, W. H. H. Wickersham, James S. White, Samuel Young, Daniel D. 
Yates. 

On April 30, ISGl, tbo legislature of Pennsylvania convened, and 
passed an act on the 15th of May following, to organize fifteen 
regiments for the defence of the State, which should be called the 
Reserve Yolunteer Corps of Pennsylvania, and w'hose term of ser- 
vice should continue for three years. These fifteen regiments were 
composed of thirteen regiments of infantry, one of cavalry, and one 
of artillery. This Reserve Corps was called into the service of the 
United States on the 23d of Jul}^, 18G1, the day succeeding the dis- 
aster at Bull Run. The whole force of this corps comprised fifteen 
thousand eight hundred and fifty-six officers and men. 

It will be our province at this time to speak particularly of the 
37tli Regiment (numerically numl)cred) or usually called the eighth 
Reserve, because Company K of this regiment was recruited in 
Washington. This regiment numbered eight hundred and ninety 
men, w-ell equipped and well drilled, its Colonel being Geo. S. Hays, 
of Allegheny County. 

3Tth Regiment, Sth Reserve Corps. 

Roll of Company K, commanded by Capt. A. Wisbart, of Washing- 
ton, Pennsylvania, was called into service June 28, 1861, to serve 
for three years, and mustered out 24th of May, 1864. 

The battles in which this company was engaged were Dranesville, 
Mechanicsville, Gaines' Mill, New Market Cross Roads, Malvern 
Hill, Bull Run, South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Wil- 
derness, Spotlsylvania Court House, Gettysburg, Briscoe Station, 
Mine Run, North Anna, and Bethesda Church. 

This company was called the "Hopkins Infantry," after our 
esteemed fellow-citizen Col. William Hopkins, who was tendered tlie 
command ; but on account of physical inability to endure camp life 
declined, yet at all times he was untiring in his efforts to promote 
its interests. 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 305 

The regiment was first under the command of Col. Geo. S. Hays, 
elected Feb. 2.5, 1S62. He resigned July 6, 1862. Col. Silas M. 
Bailey was elected Sept. 14, 1862. 

Earplanatioj). of Small Capital Letters. — "W. Wounded, r. Resigned, p. Promoted. 
Dis. l)ischarged bj' surgeon's certiljcate for physical disability. D. Died. k. Killed. 
T. Transferred to another regiment to fill up their time. 

Officers. — Alexander Wishart, Captain, w. r. ; Samuel S. Bulford, 1st 
Lieutenant, p. ; Thos. Foster, 2d Lieutenant, t. 

NoN-Co.\nnssioNED Officers. — Peter Kennedy, 1st Sergeant, dis. ; Geo. 
W. Silvey, 2d Sergeant; John Mcllvaine. 3d Sergeant, w. dis. ; Alexander 
Hart, 4th Sergeant, p. ; James S. Dennison, 5th Sergeant ; Boyce Irvin Mc- 
Clure, 1st Corporal, w. ; And. S. Eagleson, 2d Corporal, p.; M. L. A. Mc- 
Cracken, 3d Corporal; Hugh Moore, 4th Corporal, dis.; A. J. Luellan, 5th 
Corporal, d.; L. E. Ozenbaugh, 6th Corporal, K. ; Theodore J. Dye, 7th 
Corporal, k. ; Hugh Gettiens, 8th Corporal. 

Musicians. — Francis W. Orr and Joseph W. Christy. 

Privates. — Alfred W. Anderson, d. ; Dennis Butler, k. ; David Bam- 
burger, w. ; James D. Brownlee, w. dis. ; James L. Boardman, dis. ; Geo. 
W. Brice, by order of C. M. ; William Burke, dis.; Michael Bell, John L. 
Butts, Wm. H. Barnet, k. ; Wm. Burns, t. ; William Conley, Ezekiel Clark, 
Amos P. Cline, k. ; Geo. W. Dye, d. ; Geo. M. Davis, t. ; Samuel A. Davis, 
dis. ; Andrew Daily, dis. ; Sylvester S. Durbin, k. ; Daniel Day. dis. ; James 
M. Evans, dis.; Samuel Eckles, d.; Geo. W. Freeby, d. ; And. D. French, 
K. ; David Gilmore, w. dis. ; John W. Greer, Hugh Gettiens, John M. 
Griffith, T. 191st, w. ; Henry Henderson, William Hart, dis. ; Andrew Harsh- 
man, Christian Hornish, dis. ; Henry A. Herrick, dis. ; William Immel, d. ; 
Wm. R. King, William Loafman, d. ; W. H. Harrison Link, t. ; Joseph M. 
Lennom, t. ; George Mallura, D.; George V. Miller, dis.; Antonio Moriles, 
Wm. M. Middleton, dis. d. ; George Martin. Thomas H. Marshal, k.; Wil- 
Ham Miles, Edward A. Myers, James D. McMillen, k. ; Robert McMillen, 
w. DIS.; Nelson R. McNeil, James McVehil, dis.; Joseph McCreary, dis.'; 
M. Taylor McFarland, t. ; Peter McCreary, J. Warren Oliver, dis.; John 
M. Oliver. James Plymire, Robert M. Poland, dis.; Cephas A. Ryan, d. ; 
Michael Rush, dis.; Randolph Rush, d. ; Robert M. Scott, t. ; Leander 
Sinclair, d.; James C. Spriggs, Arthur W. Sprouls, w. dis. ; Thomas M. 
Steep, Griffith D. Taylor, k.; H. H. B. Thompson, dis.; Francis L. 
Whcatley. t.; Theodore S, Webb, John B, Wolf, Geo. W. C. Wilkins, t.; 
William Wiles, w. 

The loss the Company sustained in battle was partially filled by 
the following recruits : — 

Ephraim Allen, t.; John M. Bane, William Barnes, t. ; John Brother- 
ton, T. ; John Bulford, t. ; Samuel Cowen, Samuel Dickerson, t. ; James 
Eckles, K. ; Caleb H. Golden, Lieut. Alexander Hart, w. ; F. A. Lleisley, t. ; 
Peter Hess, Charles W. Hoffman, t. ; Elias B. Polk, t. ; George A. Porter, 
T. ; George A. Quinn, t.; Henry Pethel, Henry Sleighter, Francis J. L. 
Steep, T. ; Henry Taylor. 

This company wh'en mustered out had but 24 men — 26 discharged, 
19 transferred to 191st Regiment, 22 died and killed in action, and 
7 deserters. 

The 8th Regiment had a regimental band attached, part of the 
same being from Washington County, whose names I add : — 



806 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

William H. Stoy, Leader; Alexander Rankin, W. 11. Boardman, James 
S. Seaman, and George A. Perrett. 

The band was discharged by General Order issued Aug. 8, 1862. 

We now take up the history of the IOtii Reserve Corps (39th 
Regiment) so far as Washington County is concerned. 

The companies composing this regiment rendezvoused at Camp 
Wilkins, near Pittsburg, and were organized June 30, 1861, by the 
election of John S. McCalraont as colonel, James T. Kirk, of 
Washington County, lieut.-coloncl, and Harrison Allen major. On 
the 9th of May, 1862, Col. McCalmont resigned, and Lieut. -Col. 
Kirk was promoted to the colonelcy. Col. Kirk afterwards resigned, 
and Col. A. J. Warner was elected October 18, 1862: he resigned 
November 23, 1863. 

Jefferson Light Guards, 

Or company D of the 10th Reserve Corps, was recruited at Ca- 
nonsburg, and tendered their services through their captain, William 
S. Callohan, to Governor Curtin, which were accepted ; but the 
quota being filled the Light Guards, under the command of Captain 
James T. Kirk, marched to Pittsburg on May 6, 1861, and enlisted 
for three years or during the war. Capt. Kirk resigned June 19, 
1861, on his promotion to lieut.-colonel, and Charles W, McDaniel 
was elected captain July 1, 1868. After Lieut. Coleman resigned, 
Charles Davis was elected 2d lieut. August 1, 1862. The bat- 
tles in which Company D was engaged were at Dranesville, Me- 
chanicsville, Gaines' Mill, Charles City Cross Roads, Bull Run, 
South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, Bristoe 
Station, Spottsylvania Court House, and Bethesda Church. On 
the 11th of June, 1864, the regiment was mustered out of service, 
but many of this regiment re-enlisted as veterans, and formed part 
of the 190th and 191st regiments. 
Roll of the Jefferson Guards : — 

Officers. — Charles W. McDaniel, Captain; John H. M'Nary, 1st 
Lieutenant; Frank Coleman, '2d Lieutenant, r. 

Nox-CoMMissioNED OFFICERS. — C. Frank Ritchie, Orderly Sergeant; 
Charles Davis, 1st Sergeant, p. ; Robert Brady, 2d Sergeant, w. ; John 
Gundy, 3d Sergeant, k. ; S. Beck, 4th Sergeant, dis. ; B. L. Anderson. 
1st Corporal, w. ; AVilliam S. ITouston, 2d Corporal, w. ; Samuel G. Ilodgehs, 
3d Corporal, w. nis. ; W. P. M'Nary, 4th Corporal ; William Glass, 5th 
Corporal, k. ; James S. Hughes, Gth Corporal, d. ; Thomas Paxton, 7th 
Cor])oral, k. ; William Maggs, 8th Corporal. 

MfsiciANs. — Josiah R. Chambers, t., and James C. Merriman, dis. 

Privates. — Alfred Ackcy, dis.; Samuel Anderson, W. L. Atlee, t. ; 
James L. 151ack, w. ; Samuel Brown, dis. ; Garland Briceland, T. J. Black, w. ; 
Joshua Brady, t. ; George Cain, dis ; David Crum, d. ; William Cain, 
Wilson Cochran, Hugh Cochran, dis.; William S. Caldwell, John V. 11. Cook, 
John S. Chambers, dis.: J. W. Cowan, dis. w. ; J. Z. Culver, dis. p. ; 
Samuel Cook, k. ; J. R. Chambers, William Dcvall, dis. ; J. B. Duff, t. ; 
Nathaniel E. Dickey, William Donaldson, t. ; Benjamin Evans, Frank B. 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 307 

Eaton, w. ; Luther C. Furst, t. ; Thomas Ford, k. ; F. W. Fleming, James 
Ferguson, w. t. ; P. M. Foreman. G. S. Graham, w. ; MathewH. Greer, d. ; 
William J. Hunter, dis. ; M. M. Havlin, dis. ; Daniel Hallas Hammond, d. ; 
Charles Horn, Alexander Houston, w. t. ; George Hallas, w. t. ; William 
Hallas, T. ; William Havlin, t. ; George Hayden,T. ; William Hollingshead, 
Daniel Hallas, t. ; William Harsha, t. ; George Hiles, t. ; A. lughram, 
Joseph Jackson, t. ; William Jackson, dis. ; John W. Jackson, John Jeffers, 
K. ; Thomas Jackson, w. t. ; R. N. Lang, d. ; J. E. Lang, George Lewellyn, 
Samuel Mackcy, w. ; James L. Mackey, Alexander M. Musser, w. ; J. 
McPeak. R. N. I\[cPeak, k. ; J. 0. McPeak, J. H. McPeak, w.; J. McCul- 
lough, William Mc Williams, James McCahan, w. ; John P. McCord, dis. ; 
John McClosky, t. ; James McFadden, H. Mc James, W. Pollock McNary, 
DIS.; James Perry, James R. Patton, t.; Henry H . Petitt, Alexander Prowitt, 
William P. Penuell, J. F. Phillips, dis ; James Quail, dis. ; William Rob- 
erts, J. H. Rhinehart, w. ; B. F. Ryan, dis. ; A. J. Strosnider, John Stor- 
meut, John Sutton, dis. w. ; W. Wallace Scott, x. ; James M. Scott, w. t. ; 
John Sarver, H. H. Sheaff, w. ; Brown Scott, dis. ; George Tibby, J. H. 
Thompson, w. t. ; Robert Wilson, w. ; J. E. Wilson, Joseph Wallace, dis. ; 
AMlliam Williams, k. ; Anthony Williams, t. ; James Young. 

Lieut. Charles Davis was promoted to Lieut., and also Lieut. 
R. N. McPeak. Both were killed. 

First Pennsylvania Cavalry (15th P. R. R. C.) 

This is also numerically called the 44th Regiment. It was com- 
posed of twelve companies. Company I was recruited in Wash- 
ington County, and Company K in Washington and Allegheny 
counties. These two companies, with Company H, of Fayette 
County, were mustered into the State service during the month of 
August, and soon after joined the regiment. 

Companies I and K participated in the battle at Dranesville, 
Harrisonburg, Cross Keys, Cedar Mountain, Gainesville, Bull Run, 
Fredericksburg, Brandy Station, Aldie, Gettysburg, Shepherdstown, 
Culpepper, Auburn, Mine Run, Todd's Tavern, Fortifications of 
Richmond, Hawes' Shop, Coal Harbor, Trenham Station, St. Mary's 
Church, Beam's Station, Bellefield. 

The campaign of 1863 was soon ended, and the army withdrew 
across the Rappahannock. Col. Geo. D. Bayard commanded the 
First Pennsylvania Cavalry, Jacob Higgins, Lieutenant-Colonel, 
and Thos. S. Richards, Major, when originally organized. 

Roll of Company I, recruited in Washington County, and was 
mustered into service September 6, 1861 : — 

Officers. — W. W. McNulty, Captain, r. p. ; Francis S. Morgan, 1st 
Lieutenant, p. ; George W. Seigrist, 2d Lieutenant, r. 

NoN-CoMMissiONED OFFICERS. — Samuel C. Work, 1st Sergeant, p. w. m. ; 
Samuel W. McKee, 2d Major-Sergeant, w. ; P. H. McNulty, Commissary- 
Sergeant, w. M. ; A. B. Wythe, Sergeant, dis. ; Jno. G. Wells, Sergeant, 
D. ; Jno. Richmond, Sergeant, dis. ; Wm. Deiftiiston, Sergeant, dis. ; Jas. 
D. Scott, Sergeant, m. ; Jno. L. Mustard, Sergeant, w. ; R. D. Wilkin, Ser- 
geant, M. ; D. Pollock, Sergeant, m. ; A. C. Elliott, Sergeant, w. t. m. ; 
Thos. R. Starer, Corporal, p. ; Jno. H. Gaston, Corporal, p. dis. ; Wm. C. 
Richey, Corporal, dis. ; David Ackleson, Corporal, k. ; Moses Hastings, 



30.8 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Corporal, k. ; ¥Ai Lescallett, Corporal, k. ; James Barry, Corporal, k. ; S. 
McConkey, ('orporal. k. ; Tbos. Richmond, Corporal, k. ; Hilleary Wilson, 
Corporal, M. ; John McKinley, Corporal, p.; l)avid McGugin, Corporal, 
w. M. ; Louis Kramer, Corporal, p. m. ; Thos. II. Cowan, Corporal, p. m. ; 
W. J. Rippey, Corporal, p. m. 

Musicians. — Wm. II. Rose, dis. ; Chester P. Murray, m. 

Privates. — Samuel F. Pitts, m. ; George Becroft, m. ; John Becroft, dis.; 
Alexander Berwick, dis. ; Frank Berwick, t.; John A. Bingham, w. t.; "VVm. 
Crider. m. ; John Clyde, m. ; Andrew Crouch, dis. ; "William A. Curtis, t. ; 
Thos. li. Conan, dis. ; John Chester, t. ; Thomas Dunkle, dis. ; Thomas J. 
Bowling; Robert C. Elliott, t. ; Rudolph Essick, t. ; John F. Foust, dis. ; 
Samuel A. Garret, .m. ; John H. Groff, m. ; Moses F. Gaumer ; John Gib- 
son. T. ; George W. Gist, d. ; Jacob George, d. ; Joshua J. Hunter, dis. ; 
Walter Johnson, m. ; John B. Loughead, t. m. ; George J. Labarre, t. ; 
William J. Lowry, m. ; William McElroy. m. ; AVilliam McCall. m. ; W. S. 
McCormick, m. ; H. C. McGregor, p. ; William INIcCarrel, >r. ; Peter Mulli- 
gan, M. ; And. F. McClure, dis.; James Miller, Jr., d. ; James Miller, Sr., 
dis. ; Isaac McConkey, t. ; Charles Morrow, t. ; James W. McKee, k. ; 
Hugh McGowan, m. ; Arch. Newell, m. ; Wm. F. Patton, dis.; Wra. P. 
Patton. M. ; Thos. Parkes, d. ; Wm. M. Porter, d. ; Thomas Patterson, d. ; 
Elmore Powelson ; Lewis W. Quilland, dis. ; David Richmond, m. ; J. B. 
Richie, p. ; A. B. Roseuberger, m. ; Lorenzo A. Rice, dis. ; J. L. Robert- 
son, T. ; James Smiley, m. ; Juo. G. Sauppe, m. ; Wm. F. Smith, dis. ; John 
G. Wells, D. ; A. L. Williams, x. ; Grafton Wells, t. ; Jacob Wolf, p. 

Remarks. 

Capt. W. TV. McNuLTY was mustered into service September 6, 
1861 ; be resigned same day to accept promotion. 

John Ross was promoted from 1st Lieutenant to tbe Captaincy, 
September 24, 18G1, and resigned November 23, 18G1. 

GrEORGE T. WoRK, promoted from 1st Lieutenant November 23, 
1861, and resigned June 21, 1S62. 

James M. Gaston, promoted to 2d Lieutenant August 24, 1861, 
to 1st Lieutenant November 23, 1861 ; to Captain Jul}- 12, 1862; 
to Major March 1, 1863, and honorably discharged August 1, 1864. 

T. C. McGregor, promoted to 2d Lieutenant May 10, 1862 ; to 
1st Lieutenant July 12, 1862; to Captain March 1, 1863; trans- 
ferred to battalion September 1, 1864, and mustered out by consoli- 
dation June 20, 1865. 

JosEi'H B. Richie was elected 2d Lieutenant July 12, 1862, and 
discharged February 18, 1863. 

Geo. W. IjYon, elected 2d Lieutenant February 25, 1863, and 
killed September 6, 1863. 

Company K, recruited in Washington and Allegheny Counties. 

This company's history is connected with the foregoing in their 
marches and battles. 

Cai)tain "\Vm. Boyce mustered into service September 6, 1861, 
resigned December 27, 1861 ; he was succeeded by Joseph H. "Wil- 
liams, who was elected January 1, 1862. The company was trans- 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 309 

ferred to a battalion September 1, 1864, composed of five companies ; 
mustered out September 21, 1864. 

Officers. — Wm. A. Kennedy, 1st Lieutenant, mustered into service Sep- 
tember 6,1861, wounded atHawes' Shop, Va., and mustered out September 
9, 1864 ; Samuel W. Morgan, 2d Lieutenant, entered service September 6, 
1861, wounded and mustered out September 9, 1864. 

NoN-CoMMissioNED OFFICERS. — William J. McEweu, 1st Sergeant, dis.; 
John T. Kennedy, Sergeant, d.; Arch. D. Darragh, Sergeant, p. m.; D. W. 
Boyce, Sergeant ; John A. Lattimer, Sergeant, m. ; "Wm. M. Foster, Ser- 
geant, p. ; Joseph Wright, Sergeant, dis. ; John W. Gault, Sergeant, d. ; 
Robert Boyce, Sergeant, p. m.; John W. Boyce, Sergeant, p. m.; John Pat- 
terson, Sergeant, p. m.; B. Morgan, Sergeant, p.m.; Jacob Hanna, Sergeant, 
p. M.; Joseph Boyce, Corporal, dis.; Andrew G. Happer, Corporal, t.; Saml. 
Morton, Corporal, dis. ; Thomas Conner, Corporal, dis. ; John M. Boyce, 
Corporal, m.; Samuel N. Ealston, Corporal, p. m. ; Joshua Connelly, Corpo- 
ral, P.M. ; Thomas Westerman, Corporal, p. m. ; Samuel R. Patton, Corpo- 
ral, p. M. H.^ 

Musicians. — Samuel Brown, dis. ; John C. Keifer, k. 

Privates. — John A. Anderson, m. ; James Beum out, dis.; Thomas D. 
Boyce, t. d.; Isaac N. Boyce, Robert Cain, dis.; Edward Curran,T.; Chas. A. 
Calligan, t.; Abraham Cox, t.; Geo. W. Coup, t. ; Jacob Coup, t. d. ; W. F. 
Coup, w. D. ; John Douglass, dis. ; John M. Duncan, t. ; Charles P. Dilks, 
John Dimler, Jas. F. Dodd, x.; Wm. Ewing, dis.; James Ewing, d. ; Hugh 
Flanigan, Joseph B. Fitterer, t.; Joseph Feather, William Gordon, t.; John 
Herriott, m.; Wilson Herrill, m.; Samuel Hopper, t.; Hamilton Ingram, dis.; 
John Jamison, Thomas Jones, m.; Joseph M. Kennedy, t.; Samuel Keifer, k.; 
Richard Lesnett, m. ; John H. Morgan, m. ; H. R. Moi-rison, m. ; John L. 
McAlister, m.; Mathew McCombs, m.; Jacob C. McDowell, m.; John McDon- 
ald, M.; William McDonald, m.; George McFeely, m.; Jas. M. G. Mouck, dis.; 
Thomas McCoombs, t.; John Meredith, t.; M. McBride, t.; William McMur- 
ray, t. ; William H. Meaner, t. ; Joseph Morrison, D. ; Joseph McClan- 
ahan, K.; William J. McClure, S. C. Obony, dis.; John C. Phillips, t. ; Fred- 
erick Quigg, m. ; John M. Reignaman, dis. ; William Roberts, dis. ; George 
W. Reed, t.; David Schaffer, m.; William Stewart, dis.; Joseph M. Sample, 
dis. ; B. F. Shield, dis. ; Joseph M. Shaffer, d. ; John Trimble, m. ; George 
Thompson, Sr., dis. ; George Thompson, Jr., dis. ; Henry Vance, t. ; J. H. 
Westerman, m. ; Samuel Wallace, dis. ; James Williams, t. ; W. S. Wilson. 

6 2d Regiment, Col. S. W. Black. 
Originally Co. B, now Co. K. 

Al. King, 1st Lieutenant, w. 

Corporals— T. R. Scott, G. T. Deems. G. M. Coulter. 

Privates. — M. Arthur, J. B. Baker, H. Koontz, H. S. Koontz, E. Crall, 
Josiah Fox, k. ; Wm. Gibbs, Charles Gibbs, k. ; M. Hayward, w. ; Wm. 
Henning, James Heines, J. Maloy, J. P. Mouk, k. ; T. McKean, Wm. 
McCormick, Thomas McElroy, James McGrew, G. W. McKinley, Jefferson 
McClain, J. T. McMillan, T. Patterson, R. Simpkins, k; W. H. Stoop?. W. 
C. Todd, K. ; R. Whittaker, k. ; R. Wilby, k.; S. Workman, k.; M. Work- 
man, Silas Wright, John Young. 

Co. G, George Watson Buchanan, d. 



310 history op washington county. 

Company D, 

Of the T9th Regiment Pennsylvania Yolunteers, was organized at 
Lancaster September 19, 18G1; its term of service was three years, 
and re-enlisted as a veteran organization. It was mustered out of 
service July 12, 1865, near Alexandria, Virginia. H. A. Hambright 
was the Colonel. Major Wm. S. Mcllinger was elected Major Oc- 
tober 18, 18C1, and resigned November 8, 18G2. Captain John S. 
McBride, of Company I), was elected Major December 20, 1864, 
and mustered out Avitli Com])any D as Captain July 12, 1865. Dr. 
Thomas H. Phillips was appointed Assistant Surgeon January 10, 
1865, and remained until mustered out. Captain John S. McBride 
elected September 21, 1861, and promoted to Major; his successor 
was Joseph D. Y. Ilazzard, elected December 20, 1864, and mus- 
tered out with Company as 1st Lieutenant July 12, 1865. 

Brisben Wall, 1st Lieutenant, elected September 21, 1861, resigned 
April 25, 1862; J. D. Y. Hazzard, 1st Lieutenant, elected May 1, 
1862, and promoted to Captain; Luke P. Beazell, 1st Lieutenant, 
elected December 20, 1864, and mustered out as 2d Lieutenant July 
12, 1865; J. D. Y. Hazzard, 2d Lieutenant, elected September 21, 
1861, promoted to 1st Lieutenant; Samuel P. Keller, 2d Lieutenant, 
elected May 1, 1862, resigned February It, 1863; Alexander D. 0. 
Donavan, 2d Lieutenant, elected March 29, 1863, honorably dis- 
charged October 14, 1863; Luke P. Beazell, 2d Lieutenant, elected 
April 1, 1865, and promoted to 1st Lieutenant. 

This company Avas called the Mellenger Guards, Co. B, and was 
organized in Monongahela City, September 16, 1861. 

NoN-CoMMissiONE0 OFFICERS. — Kcllcr, Ist Sergeant; 



Myers, 2cl Sergeant; A. 0. Donovan, 3d Sergeant; AVatson, 4lh 

Sergeant; lantlius IJcutlcy, 5th Sergeant; M. Berry, 1st Corporal; II. B. 
Hart, 2d Corporal, w. ; A. Frye, 3d Corporal; AV'. Woodward, 4th Cor- 
poral, w. ; J. W. Downer, ath Corporal ; W. Brooks, Gth Corporal ; J. Cibbs, 
7th Corporal; J. S. Miller, 8th Corporal, w. ; H. D. Cooper, Commis- 
sary, w. 

Musicians. — F. Layman and Amzi Eckles. 

Wagoner. — Wra. Galbrailh. 

Privates. — Geo. Allhonse, Chr. Anderson, k. ; John Anderson, d. ; 
Robert Boyd, n. ; George Barringcr, John Barriuger, Wm. l^arringer, D. 
C. Bitting. K. ; Fr. Burgan, k. ; Y. Brooks, w. ; W. Butler, w. ; AVm. Brown, 
Michael Bramin, B. Brubaker, K.; W. Bennington, k. ; Luke Beazle, L. 
Chester, E. Craven, W. S. Cooper, w. ; S. Collins, k. ; J. Cusworth. Lafay- 
ette Culbcrtston, W. Devlin, k. ; James Dutton, w. ; M. Dougherty, w. ; Al- 
fred Ktkles, Simon Fry, n. ; Thtjuuis Fry, d. ; J. Flowers, k. ; M. Ferguson, 
K.; Charles (Jalloway, w. ; W. Graham, d. ; J. Gundy, k. ; G. Gibson, w. ; 
.f. Gilmer, W. P. (Jilmer, S. IFcndrifkson, w. ; J. Hodge, D. Hobaugh, S. 
Jester, w. ; A. Johnson, w. ; 11. Kelly, W. S. Mellinger, J. Merrick, J. H. 
Miller, w. ; W. Miller, W. H. .Mortimer, H. McCain, w. ; H. McGrew, w. ; 
F. McGrecry, J. McLeod, J. Ostrander, w. ; I. Purcil, G. W. Potts, I. Par- 
kinson, II. Pace, w. ; T. Pritchard, w. ; J. Reynerd, J. Rose, B. Rollison. 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 311 

W. Shield, w. ; J. D. Stewart, W. T. Smith, w. ; G. Swenger, W. Wallace, 
J. W. Wolf, w. ; John AVarren, k. ; J. Wood, J. A. Watson, w. ; J. H. Wat- 
son, Wm. Young, J. M. Yohe. • 

85th Regiment Infantry 

Was organized at Uniontown, Pa., Oct. IG, 18 Gl, to serve tlii'ee 
years, and mustered out of service, except veterans and recruits, Nov. 
22, 18G4. The veterans and recruits were transferred to the 188th 
regiment. As Washington County soldiers were attached to nearly 
every company, we shall give the names of the officers of these com- 
panies, and the full companies from Washington County ; as we 
have no means of designating the individual soldiers from this county, 
which we deeply regret. 

This regiment was under the command of the following officers : — 

Joshua B. Howell, Colonel, Fayette County; Norton McGifSn, Lieut. 
Colonel, Washington County; Absalom Guiler, Major, Fayette County; 
John Murphy, Jr., Quartermaster, Washington County; Boyd Crumrine, 
Q. M. Sergeant, Washington County; Andrew Stewart, Jr., Adjutant, 
Fayette County ; James Lindsay, Sergeant-Maj or, Greene County; John 
Laidley, Surgeon, Greene County; John C. Levis, Assistant Surgeon, Bea- 
ver County ; Rev. John N. Peirce, Chaplain, Greene County ; Rev. J. P. 
Caldwell, appointed Chaplain Oct. 21, 18G2, and resigned May 1, 18G3 ; D. 
Ewing Hook, Drum Major, Fayette County ; Wm. Beall, Com. Sergeant, 
Somerset County ; F. H. Anderson, Sutler, Alleghany County ; Joseph Rea- 
ger, Color Sergeant, Fayette County. 

Mountain Rifles. — Hagan Z. Ludington, Captain, Fayette County; Rea- 
son Smurr, 1st Lieutenant, Fayette County; Stephen K. Brown, 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Fayette County. 

Hoioell Fencibles. — John R. Weltner, Captain, Fayette County ; E. H. 
Oliphant, 1st Lieutenant, Fayette County ; Houston Devan, 2d Lieutenant, 
Fayette County. 

Redstone Blues. — John C. Wilkinson, Captain, Fayette Cqunty ; Isaac 
R. Beazell, 1st Lieutenant, Westmoreland County; George J. Vaugilder, 
2d Lieutenant, Washington County. 

Monongahela Guards. — Isaac M. Abraham, Captain, Fayette County; 
John A. Gordon, 1st Lieutenant, Greene County; John M. Crawford, 2d 
Lieutenant Greene County. 

Washington Guards. — Henry A. Purviance, Captain, Washington Coun- 
ty ; Lewis Watkins, 1st Lieutenant, Washington County ; Richard W. 
Dawson, 2d Lieutenant, Fayette County. 

Union Guards. — Harvey J. Yaukirk, Captain, Washington County ; 
William W. Kerr, 1st Lieutenant, Washington County ; John Rowley, 2d 
Lieutenant, Washington County. 

Lafayette Guards. — William H. Horn, Captain, Washington County ; 
RoUa 0. Phillips, 1st Lieutenant, Greene County ; John E. Michener, 2d 
Lieutenant, Washington County. 

Ellstvorth Cadets. — Morgan W. ZoUars, Captain, Washington County; 
Robert P. Hughes, 1st Lieutenant, Washington County; George H. Hooker, 
2d Lieutenant, Brooke County, Ya. 

Tenmile Grays. — John Morris, Captain, Greene County ; Edward Camp- 
bell, 1st Lieutenant, Fayette County ; John Remley, 2d Lieutenant, Fay- 
ette County. 



312 HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Independent Blues. — James B.Tredwell, Captain, Somerset County; Jas. 
Hamilton, 1st Lieutenant, Somerset County ; Milton O. Black, 2d Lieu- 
teuant, Somerset County. • 

CoMPAXY A Union Guards. 

Officers.— H. J. Yankirk, Captain; AV. AV. Kerr, 1st Lieutenant; John 
Rowley, 2d Lieutenant; S. L. McHenry, 1st Serg-eant; S. McGregor, 2d 
Sergeant; J. M. "Welch, 3d Sergeant; A. W. Pollock, 4th Sergeant; R. 
T. Wishart, 5th Sergeant; R. Vv. Criswell, 1st Corporal ; Greer Hair, 2d 
Corporal; J. I\L S. Crafty, 3d Corporal ; M. Templeton, 4th Corporal; H. 
T. Reynolds, 5th Corporal; J. N. Morrison, 6th Corporal; J. N. Brown, 
7th Corporal; W. D. Shaw, 8th Corporal. 

Pkivatks. — James Allison, James W. Andrew. J. L. Bebout. S. M. IL 
Bebout, Robert H. Byers, J. B. Bell. David Baldwin. Thomas Briggs. Ariel 
Brownlee, Thomas J. Barr, Collin \V. Barr, John S. Butterfass. Jonathan 
Beatty, William Crasson, William H. Cheeks, Samuel L. Coulter, James 
Carothers, Joseph Campsey, James S. Craig, Charles Caldwell, Samuel R. 
Caldwell, Robert Caldwell, John Carothers, John Curren, Nathan A. Day, 
Walter Donnel, Frank Dillon, Dennis Farrell, Hugh D. Furgus, Thomas H. 
Fulton, A, Gilkisod, Cyrus Grieves, Thomas Griffith, Robert Greer, W. H. 
Hines, Greer Hair, Samuel Hendrickson, Franklin Henderson, James 
Higby. James Hardy, Andrew J. Hutchinson, John W. Ingles, Adam John- 
ston, Patterson Jobes, d. from wounds, Joseph Kerr, John R. Kline, Ham- 
ilton Lyon, Oscar F. Lyon, Andrew A. Lovcjoy, Matthew Lynn, John Low, 
John M. Moore, James H. McCune, John A. McMillin, Joseph E. McCabe, 
William Milligan, Philip Martin, Jr., William Morrison, John A. Mansfield, 
Henry W. Nickcrson, John Neil, Walter O'Donnel, d.; David G. Pascal, 
John Patterson, James A. Proudfit, John Park, Joseph Palmer, A. M. Ross, 
W. H. Randolph, Jacob Richison, Matthew Ross, Jr., Moses Ross, Henry 
T. Reynolds, William Sires, Joseph Schell, Joseph Shaw, AVilliam Scott, 
Thomas H. Sawhill, R. B. Thompson, Jacob L. Thompson, Thomas Thomp- 
son, Andrew Thompson, Alexander H. Vance, John Waible, William Wai- 
ble, Joseph Welch, W. J. Wilson, Wm. Weibley. 

Captain II. J. Yankirk elected September 13, 1861, resigned Xo- 
vember T, 18G2, when 1st Lieutenant William W. Kerr was elected 
Captain November 8, 1862, and served until mustered out Novem- 
ber 22, 1864. • 

1st Lieutenant W^. W. Kerr elected September 23, 1861, was pro- 
moted to Captain, and S. M. McGregor elected November 8, 1862, 
and mustered out with tlic company. 

2d Lieutenant John Rowley elected November 8, 1861, honorably 
discharged April T, 1862, at which time John AV. Acheson was 
elected 2d Lieutenant; he was transferred and promoted to 1st Lieu- 
tenant of Company C, and Robert T. Wishart was elected August 
2, 1862 ; he resigned November 20, 1862, when James M. AVelch was 
elected and served until August 14, 1863. 

Company B, or Ellsworth Cadets. 

Captain Morgan W. Zellars elected September 23, 1861, and re- 
signed May 19, 1864 ; he was succeeded by Captain Geo. H. Hooker, 
who was honorably discharged November 20, 1864 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 313 

First Lieutenant Robert 1?. Hughes elected September 23, 18G1, 
afterwards elected Captain of Company C, or Independent Blues, 
May 19, 1862, and transferred to 199th Regiment, Pennsylvania 
Volunteers. These were the only officers in this company from Wash- 
ington County. 

Corporals. — Jackson Crumrine. w. ; McCullough, w. 
Privates. — J. W. Smith, w. ; W. H. Butler, John Watson. 

Company C, or. Independent Blues, 

Was composed of soldiers from Washington and Somerset counties. 
It was originally organized by Captain James B. Treadwell, of Somer- 
set, October 1, 1861, but he being promoted to Major June 3, 1863, 
Lieutenant Robert P. Hughes, of Company B, was elected Captain, 
and transferred to 199th Regiment as Lieutenant-Colonel ; appointed 
Brevet Colonel April 2, 1865, and mustered out with regiment 
June 28, 1865. 

John W. Acheson, 1st Lieutenant, was elected August 2, 1862, 
from Company A, and promoted to Captain and Assistant Adjutant- 
General February 29, 1864. 

Wm. R. Davis, 1st Lieutenant, elected April 13, 1864, and mus- 
tered out with company. 

D. H. Lancaster, 2d Lieutenant, was elected July 1, 1862, and 
resigned March 6, 1863. 

Corporal. — John Wood, w. 

Privates. — Lewis Laclerc, w. ; G. Blackly, w. 

Company D, Lafayette Guards, 

Was organized September 20, 1861 ; it was commanded by Captain 
Wm. H. Horn, of Washington County, who was elected at that time 
and resigned July 6, 1862 ; he was succeeded by 1st Lieutenant 
Rollo O. Phillips, of Greene County, elected July 6, 1862, and mus- 
tered out Noveml3er 22, 1864. 

1st Lieutenant John E. Michener elected July 6, 1862, and trans- 
ferred to the Mountain Rangers, Company K. Lieut. Michener 
had entered the service as 2d Lieutenant September 21, 1861 ; he 
was elected 1st Lieutenant Dec. 3, 1863, and afterwards its Cap- 
tain ; he was succeeded by Lieut. Wm. H. Myers, on July 6, 1862, 
and honorably discharged April 29, 1864. His successor was George 
S. Fulmer, elected June 20, 1864, and mustered out with Company. 

In connection with these facts we give one or two items, however. 
Prior to their departure from Uniontown, each member of Captain 
Horn's company received from the Pigeon Creek Presbyterian 
Church (Rev. Dr. Sloan, pastor) a neatly-bound copy of the New 
Testament. These books were received by Captain Horn in a neat 
and appropriate address. J. E. Michener, Second Lieutenant of the 
company, was presented with an elegant sword by the citizens of 
21 



314 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Centerville, the present being accompanied by a highly complimen- 
tary address, by Colonel Howell. The Lieutenant responded in a 
felicitous manner. The company, as will be seen by the roll, numbers 
eighty-five men. 

Officers. — "William H. norn, Captain ; R. 0. Phillips, 1st Lieutenant, 
J. Pi. Michener, 2d, Lieutenant. 

Nox-Co.M>nssioNED Officers. — W. IT. Myers, 1st Sergeant, Howard Caar, 
Sergeant; John Horn, Sergeant; George McGiffin, Sergeant; John N. 
Donaghho, Sergeant; H. S. Spohn. Corporal; A. C. Morgan, Corporal ; H. 
S. Myers, Corporal ; Thomas M. Harford, Corporal ; Jacob B. Speers, Cor- 
poral ; W. W, Garber, Corporal; G. S. Fulmer, Corporal; S. O. Thomas, 
Corporal. 

Musicians. — James I. Wells, Isaiah Jordon. 

Wagoner. — William A. Rider. 

Privates. — George Aimes, Joseph Aimes, Wm. Allman, Enoch Brooks, 
Henry Bush, Joseph Burson, William A. Bell. Josias Bratton, John Brat- 
ton, James W. Burgan, S. Clendaiiicl, D. W. Crumrine, Hiram Crouch, 
Harvey Cox, Israel Cumson, M. D. Donaghho, Henry G. Dales, Geo. Dales, 
Abraham Finley, William H. Fulmer, George W. Fisher, George AV. Garber, 
T. J. Gage, Hezekiah Horn, Elias Horn, Jonas Horn, B. F. Hathway, 
Richard Hathway, T. J. Hathway, Alexander Hathway, Hiram Haver, 
Jacob Haver, Barnet Johnson, L. F. Jones, W. H. Jackman, George 
Ketchim, William B. Lash, A. R. Luker, James Meeks, Jesse S. Moore, 
John Milliken, Jasper Morgan, Oliver McVay, Abraham Miller, W. H. 
McGiffin, MUton McJunkin, Alexander McKay, John Mcllvaine, Benjamin 
Marshall, Wilson Pryor, Robert Pryor, James M. Roach, Edward Roberts, 
Boon Reese, John Reese, J. Sunedecker, Eli Smith, Adam Staub, William 
Stull, W. H. Virgin, Ames Walton, Henry Walton, Theophilus Wilson, 
Henry C. Yorty. 

It is due to the friends of Captain Horn, to state that he com- 
manded the brigade pickets as senior captain at the battle of Fair 
Oaks, and held his position until compelled to retreat by the superior 
forces of Gen. Stonewall Jackson. 

Company E, Washington Guards, 

Was organized in Washington, October 15, 1861, and elected H. A. 
Purviaiice, Captain, who was afterwards promoted to Licut.-Colouel, 
May 15, 1802, and killed Aug. 81,1863. Ilis successor was First 
Lieutenant Edward Campbell, of Payette County, who had pre- 
viously fdled the office of Second Lieutenant. Capt. Campbell was 
promoted to Major, and First Lieutenant Lewis AVatkins was elected 
Captain, Sept. 6, 1864. He died Sept. 28, 1864, from wounds re- 
ceived in battle. Ilis successor was Lieut. Jacob Davis, who was 
elected Sept. 28, 1864. He had filled the offices of both First and 
Second Lieutenant, and was mustered out of service with the com- 
pany, Nov. 22, 1864. Thomas S. Purviance was elected Second 
Lieutenant May 15, 1862, and killed at the battle of Fair Oaks, May 
31, 1862. His successor was llol)ert G. Taylor, elected May 31, 
1862, and resigned January 28, 186^. 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 315 

Officers. — H. A. Purviance, Captain; Lewis Watkins, 1st Lieutenant; 
Edward Campbell, 2d Lieutenant. 

NoN-CoMMissiONED OFFICERS. — OHver P. Henderson, 1st Sergeant ; Jacob 
D. Moore, 2d Sergeant ; Thompson S. Purviance, 3d Sergeant ; Moses 
McKeag, 4th Sergeant; John D. Heckard, .5th Sergeant ; Robert G. Taylor, 
1st Corporal; Jacob Hanna, 2d Corporal; James Peters, 3d Corporal; 
William J. Graham, 4th Corporal; James Watkins, 5th Corporal; Martin 
Pope, 6th Corporal ; Samuel Marshall, 7th Corporal ; Davis Kimmegar, 8th 
Corporal. 

Musicians. — Samuel Wood and Henry J. Eigdon. 

Teamster. — Eli Huston. 

Privates. — John Adams, Joseph Andrews, Matthew Axton, Thomas 
Byers, Elbridge Collins, Greenbury Crosland, Clark Chew, Josiah W. Craw- 
ford, William G. Crow, John Clark, Joseph Chase, Newton Chase, Andrew 
Devore, John Dean, Jacob Davis, John Dougan, George Downer, Jeremiah 
Dawson, w. ; Jacob Desellam, Charles Eckels, Milton Edingfield, John 
Flinder, John Fordyce, John Finnegan, Isaac Fisher, George Fisher, Henry 
Garrett, Jacob Grover, Benjamin Gill, William Hartman, William McC. 
Hill, James W. Huff, Andrew J. Huff, William B. Hayes, Henry M. Han- 
na, w. ; William Hanna, Jeremiah Hartzell, Milton S. Hall, Edward M. 
Hall, Thomas Henesy, Adolphus J. Inks, Thomas J. Jenkins, w.; B. Jenkins, 
w. ; Michael Keenan, Gideon Knight, Frederick Lowry, William Lynn, w. ; 
John Lynn, Mordecai Lincoln, Jefferson Lowe, David McKeag, John Means, 
Hugh B. McNeill, John F. McCoy, John McLean, Stephen McDowell, Ben- 
jamin McAllister, Henry J. McAllister, William McCoon, James Mayhorn, 
George Miller, William Mehaffy, Robert Mitchell, Joseph Neely, David R. 
Parker, George C. Rocky, Elijah Rockwell, Jacob Rockwell, William Rim- 
mell, Rudolph Smith, Henry Smith, Cyrus Sprowls, Henry M. Taylor, 
Charles Varndell, John Woodward, Christy Welsh, John White. 

IOOth Regiment Infantry, Penna. Volunteers, called the 
Round Head Regiment. 

This name was given to this regiment by Hon. Simon Cameron, 
Secretary of War, in 1861, and for six months after its organization 
was known by no other name. It was organized at Pittsburg, Aug. 
31, 1861, the term of service being three'years. It re-enlisted as a 
veteran organization at Blaine's Cross Roads, Tennessee, Dec. 28, 
1863, and was mustered out of service July 24, 1865, at Harrisburg. 
It participated in the following engagements, viz : Port Royal Ferry, 
S. C, Port Royal, S. C, James Island, S. C, Bull Run, Chantilly, 
South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, siege of Vicksburg, Jack- 
son, Blue Springs, Campbell Station, siege of Knoxville, Wilderness, 
Spottsylvania C. H., North Anna River, Coal Harbor, Petersburg, 
Mine Explosion, Weldon Railroad, Poplar Grove Church, and 
Hatcher's Run, Fort Steadman, and final assault on Petersburg, Ya. 
It joined the expedition under Gen. W. T. Sherman, returned to 
Virginia and joined Gen. Burnside's forces. It was originally 
commanded by Col. Daniel Leasure, of Lawrence, and subsequently 
by Lieut. Col. N. J. Maxwell, of Mercer. 

The following field and staff officers with company A, belonged to 
Washington County — 



316 HISTORY OF WASniNGTON COUNTY. 

Lieut. Col. James Armstrong, elected October 9, 1861, resigned 
July 12, 1CS2. 

Lieut. Col. Joseph II. Pentecost, elected August 15, 18G4, ap- 
pointed brevet Colonel March 25, 18G5. He died from wounds 
received in battle. 

Major James Armstrong, elected Juh' 12, 1862, and promoted to 
Lieut. Col. 

Adjutant H. M. Dougan, appointed August 1, 1864, and mustered 
out with the regiment. 

Assistant Surgeon H. B. Durant, appointed March 23, 1864, and 
honorably discharged March 17, 1865. 

Roll of Comx)any A. 

Capt. James Armstrong elected August 26, 1861, and promoted 
to Major and afterwards to Lieut.-Col. He was succeeded by Capt. 
TV. F. Templeton, Sept. 11, 1861, and killed at Bull Run, Ya., Aug. 
29, 1862. Joseph H. Pentecost, elected September 8, 1862, and 
promoted to Lieut.-Col. Both his successors were from Alleghany 
County. 

1st Lieut. William F. Templeton was elected August 26, 1861, 
and promoted to captain, his successors residing in "Washington 
County, were Joseph H. Pentecost, elected September 15, 1861, 
and promoted to captain. Lieut. James H. Montford, who was 
elected September 8, 1862, and resigned Septembers, 1864. Lieut. 
James S. Stocking elected August 15, 1864, and resigned January 
10, 1865, and William H. Billings, elected March 6, 1865, and mus- 
tered out with the company. 

The 2d Lieutenants of this company residing in Washington 
County were, Lieut. Joseph H. Pentecost, elected August 26, 1861, 
and promoted to 1st Lieut. Lieut. William Okcr, elected Sept. 
16, 1861, and resigned November 26, 1862. Lieut. E. W. Bausman, 
fleeted November 28, 1862, and resigned March 16, 1864. Lieut. 
James S. Stocking, elected September 22, 1864, and promoted to 1st 
Lieut. Lieut. W. H. Billings, elected February 22, 1865, and pro- 
moted to 1st Lieut. Lieut. Geoi-ge Metzner, elected May 12, 1865. 

Sergeants — John Cooke, Robert B. Elliott, Eleven Alvey, William A. 
Gabby, Joseph II. Templeton, w.; Monterville D. l")ewire. 

Corporals — .lohn B. Ib-obst, Morris B. McKeever, Horace B. Durant, 
(Teor"-e B. Caldwell, W. II. Horn, Alexander Adams, w.; Jame.s Mcllvaine, 
w.; I)avid A. Tomploton, John C. Ralston, John W. Kerr, William Claffey, 
w.; Isaac H. Richmond. 

J/a.s/cmn.s— William H. Walker, n.; and James P. Hays. 

Wagoner— \h\n\^\ B. Mowry. 

Pkivatks. — Joseph M. Aiken, w. ; Thomas Acton, dis. ; James Aiked, 
Charles Abcrly, Nelson F. Baker, Jaincs Barr, w. ; Stephen Billings, Peter 
A. Blomberg, n.; Thomas F. IJoon, John G. Brice, dis.; Martin Burke, Benj. 
U. Best, w.; James Brown, w.; Thomas Baty, Augustus Bupp, John Blake, 
Moses M. Bell, Castle Brookins, Cyrus' J. Barker, k. ; David J. Boynton, 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 311 

John C. Caldwell, Charles D. Chase, dis.; John Clemens, k.; John Clarke, w.; 
Thomas Couboy, w. ; Michael Curran, w. ; Patrick Collins, H. M. Dougan, 
DIS.; Tertius A. Durant, William Durant, dis.; Samuel M. Decker, Thomas 
Donley, d.; Michael Daguin, Patrick Danford, James Dalton, Andrew David- 
son, James C, Eckles, Samuel P. Ewing, d.; Samuel M. Fowler, w.; Sylves- 
tus G. Fowler, John D. France, w.; Leonidas A. Fowler, William J. Fenner- 
ty, Isaac R. W. Garretson, k. ; William Gray, k. ; Thomas Greer, William 
Greer, w. ; Robert Gordon, w. ; Lewis Haager, w. ; Daniel Hall, w. ; James 
Hart, DIS. ; Jacob Hartstein, d. ; Charles Heer, k. ; Alexander Howell, d. ; 
Thomas Hutcheson, dis.; H. T. Hamilton, d.; Jeremiah L. Hannen, w.; John 
Hanney, w. ; Lemuel Harris, w. ; James Higgins, John S. Johnson, dis. ; 
Robert D. Jobs, d. ; George 0. Jones, w. ; John S. Jeffrey, w. ; Alexander 
Kerns, w. ; Ferdinand Klcives, dis. ; John Klotzbarker, dis. ; John W. 
Koontz, DIS.; John B. Kendall, w.; William Lange, dis.; John W. Langfitt, 
w.; Fiiijah Linsley, dis.; James W. Lowry, d.; Simon W. Lewis, k.; William 
H. Lewis, C. 0. Lobinger, dis.; Henry H. Linley, d.; John W. Lanery, w.; 
George Leasure, dis.; Addison Liggett, George W. McClelland, dis.; Chas. 
B. McCoUum, dis.; Jacob L. McCuUough, k. ; John L. McCuUough, w.; 
Nathaniel McCuUough, w.; Joseph E. McCuUough, w.; Samuel McCuUough, 
Joseph McGill, w. ; W. T. McGill, w. ; John B. McKeever, d. ; Thomas 
McKeever, d. drowned ; Alexander C. McKeever, t.; Andrew McPeak,Dis.; 
Julius P. Miller, dis.; John Moloney, dis.; Josiah Mullen, w.; John Marsh, 
K.; JohnR. McClure, dis.; Samuel J. Melvin, George W. McFaiiane, Ben- 
jamin F. McClure, w.; Maxwell McCausland, w.; Ebenezer Mcllllroy, Enoch 
Mouutz, w. ; Martin Moore, w. ; Samuel Mishner, Thomas Miller, W. B. 
McGarvy, Daniel McCann, dis. ; Henry C. Obenbaugh, k. ; Thomas Orr, 
Jacob C. Pry, w.; Samuel Potter, Perry Phillips, w.; John Pier, Curtus R. 
Potter, Frederick Ran, dis.; Franklin A. Rose, Simon S. Russel, w.; James 
Reardon, George Robertson, d.; Thomas Russel, w. ; Theodore Robertson, 
Simon H. Reed, Thomas Reichter, d. ; Edward Riley, w.; David Shephard, 
DIS.; William S. Simcox, d.; George W. Smith, Isaac N. Stranger, John E. 
Stephenson, dis. ; George N. Stephenson, dis. ; Wm. Saunders, k. ; Henry 
Sloppy, Joseph E. Shatter, Wm. Stork, Robert J. Taggart, dis. ; Aaron 
Templeton, k.; James B. Thompson, d.; Andrew Thompson, d. ; Samuel F. 
Thompson, w.; George W. Thompson, Thomas B. Templeton, d.; John S. 
Weirich, d.; John Wherry, k.; Jackson Wimer, John Wonder, Lorenzo D, 
Wilgus, Henry Young, James Young. 

Company M. 

Jesse C. Taylor, 1st Lieutenant. 

John Merrick, 2d Sergeant, k. 

B. F. Taylor, Corporal. 

Privates. — J. W. Cocaine, Sam'l Grist, J. B. Haley, G. W. Haley, J. 
Housen, Isaac Housen, M. Lape, H. Lennox, J. R. Moss, George Rudge, 
Wm. Rothrick, Solomon Stroop, R. H. Sickles, Samuel Throp, Wm. Wad- 
dington, John West, John C. White. 

140th Regiment Infantry 

Was organized at Harrisburg, from August 26 to September 2, 
1862 ; term of service for three years. It was mustered out of ser- 
vice May 28, 1865, at W^ashiugton city, except new recruits, which 
were transferred to the 57th Volunteers. 

This regiment participated in the following engagements, viz : 



318 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Antietam, Kelly's 
Ford, Mine Run, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna, Talopo- 
tonecy, Coal Harbor, Petersburg, Strawberry Plains, Deep Bottom, 
Bristow Station, Poplar Spring Church, and Boydton Road. Five 
companies of this regiment were from Washington County. Its 
tirst field officers were. Colonel, llicliard P. Roberts, of Beaver, 
elected September 8, 1862, killed at Gettysburg July 2, 1863 ; Lieut- 
Colonel, John Fraser, of Washington County, at date of service; 
he was elected Lieutenant-Colonel September 8, 1862, and promoted 
to Colonel July 4, 1863, afterwards Brigadier-General, and honora- 
bly discharged ; Major, Thomas B. Rodgers, of Mercer, elected 
September 8, 1862, and promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel July 4, 
1863; Adjutant, John M. Ray, appointed October 20, 1864; Quar- 
ter-Master, Samuel B. Bentley, appointed September 12, 1862; Sur- 
geon, Dr. John Wilson Wishart, September 12, 1862; Assistant 
Surgeons, Dr. W. W. Sharpe, September 12, 1862, Dr. B. F. Hill, 
November 5, 1862; these officers belonged to Washington County. 

Roll of Company C, or Beady Artillery. 

Captain David Achesou organized the company, and was elected 
August 22, 1852, and killed at the battle of Gettysburg July 2, 1863. 
His successor was Captain Isaac N. Vance, elected Septcml)er 14, 
1863, and honorably discharged January 12, 1864; he lost his left 
hand at Gettysburg July 2, 1863. He was succeeded by Captain 
Alexander W. Acheson January 16, 1864, who was honorably dis- 
charged December 3, 1864. Lieut. John Milton Ray was elected 
Captain January 30, 1864, and mustered out with the company May 
31, 1865. Isaac N. Yance, 1st Lieutenant, elected August 22, 1862, 
and was promoted to Captain ; Alexander W. Acheson, 1st Lieu- 
tenant, elected September 14, 1863, and promoted to Captain ; John 
M. Ray, 1st Lieutenant, elected January 30, 1864, and appointed 
Adjutant; W. J. Cunningham, elected December 4, 1864, and 
killed April 7, 1865; Charles L. Linton, 2d Lieutenant, elected 
August 22, 1862, and promoted to Captain in Company D . Robert 
R. Reed, Jr., 2d Lieutenant, elected May 22, 1862, died July 19, 
1863; Alexander W. Acheson, 2d Lieutenant, elected August 16, 
1863 ; to 1st Lieutenant ; John M. Ray, 2d Lieutenant, elected 
August 20, 1863, to 1st Lieutenant ; John W. Wiley, 2d Lieutenant, 
elected December 18, 1864, transferred to 53d Regiment May 30, 
1865. 

NoN-CoMMissiONED Officers. — Robert R. Reed, Jr., 0. Sergeant; Jas. 
D. Campbell, 2d Serffcant; JL J. Boatman, 3d Sergeant; J. Milton Ray, 4th 
Sergeant; W.J. Cunningham, r)th Sergeant; John Cully, 1st Corporal; 
James Blako, 2d Corporal; K. II. Linton, 3d Corporal; James P. Sayer, 
4th Corporal; John 1). Wishart, Sth Corporal, transferred to Battery B, 
1st R. 1. artillery; J. M. Dye, (Jth Corporal, transferred to same artillery ; 
Thomas Ilardesty, 7th Corporal, also transferred to same ; John S. Martin, 
8th Corporal. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 319 

Privates. — Sandie Acheson, w. ; Wm. Amon, k; Wm. Armstrong, d.; 
Jas. Baird, trans, to Battery B, R. I. artillery ; Sam'l Baird, John Billick, J. 
K. Bishop, Dis., w. ; Julius Black, w. ; John Blair, w. ; Jas. Blake, Henry J. 
Boatman, Ephraim C. Brown, k. ; Samuel Bunnell, w. ; J. D. Campbell, 
Lewis M. Cleaver, w. ; Isaac J. Cleaver, David W. Cleaver, James B. 
Clemins, Ellis J. Cole, k. ; Philip A. Cooper, John P. Cully, J. W. Cun- 
ningham, Samuel Curry, N. D. Cutten, w. ; Benton Devore, w., d. ; John 

A. Dickey, w. ; David Dowling, J. W. Dowling, d. ; A. S. Duncan, J. W. 
Duncan, J. M. Dye, transferred to Battery B, R. I. artillery ; Jas. Eckert, 
w. ; Samuel Fergus, w. ; Nehemiah Gilbert, w. ; Aaron Gunn, w. ; Mason 
Hart, A. F. Hartford, Thomas Hardesty, Robert Henderson, Lewis Henry, 
w. and T>. ; William Horton, k. ; William Howard, deserted; Clarke Irey, 
w. ; Richard Jones, w. ; Thomas Jones, k. ; John J. Jordan, w. ; David 
Jones, D. L. Keeney, k. ; James S. Kelley, k. ; Frederick Kesner, Robert 
Lindsey, d. ; Thomas Long, w.; John Lowe, Thomas B. Lucas, k. ; James 
L. Martin, w., dis.; John S. Martin, Daniel McClain, John McConn, w. 
and D. ; Hugh B. McNeil, David McCoy, John E. McCullough, Thomas 
McCune, w. ; James H. McFarland, w. ; Frank B. McNear, w. ; Samuel 
Mills, Richard Miller, k. ; John Moore, Tellinghast Monrie, w. ; Anthony 
Mull, K. ; Alvin Newman, d. ; George Norris, w. ; Hugh Needham, w. ; 
Robert Patterson, deserted ; John Pattison, Albertus Pattison, missing ; 
Andrew Plants, William Pollock, William H. Pollock, Esau Powell, John 
W. Penney, William B. Post, w. ; Jackson Praul, k. ; Charles Quail, 
William J. Radcliffe, J. M. Ray, Robert R. Reed, Jr., Charles Rentz, Sam'l 
Rettig, Henry Richards, w. ; M. Austin Richards, Alexander Robinson, 
w. ; Sam'l Roop, w. ; Gales S. Rose, w. ; David Ruble, w. ; Silas A. Sanders, 
James Sayers, Presley H. Shipley, k. ; John Smalley, w. ; Wm. Stockwell, 
K. ; James Stockwell, w. ; John Stockwell, Jonathan Tucker, Simeon Van- 
kirk, Wm. Vankirk, Isaac Wall, Colin Waltz, w. ; James Wise, k. ; Samuel 
Wise, J. D. Wishart, t. to Battery B, R. I. artillery; Jefferson Younkin. 

Recapitulation. — Commissioned officers, 3 ; enlisted men, 99 — 102. 
Killed, 11 ; died, 5 ; transferred, 7 ; discharged, 3 ; deserted, 2 — 28. 

Company D, Tenmile Infantry. 

Captain Silas Parker, elected Aug. 22, 1862, and was honorably 
discharged, April 16, 1863. He died June, 1863, and was buried 
at Amity, in this county. He was succeeded by Charles L. Lin- 
ton, who served until May 1, 1865, when he was honorably dis- 
charged. 

First Lieutenant James Mannon, elected August 22, 1862, honor- 
ably discharged January 16, 1863. His successor was Matthias 
Minton, elected January 16, 1863, and served until August 19, 1863, 
when he was honorably discharged. On the 25th August James B. 
Yan Dyke was elected, and honorably discharged May 31, 1864. 
His successor was J. Fulton Bell, elected January 16, 1863, who 
was mustered out with the company. May 31, 1865. 

Second Lieutenant Matthias Minton, elected August 22, 1862, 
afterwards promoted to 1st Lieutenant. Second Lieutenant James 

B. Yan Dyke, elected January 16, 1863, afterwards promoted to 
1st Lieutenant. 

NoN-CoMMissioNED OFFICERS. — James B. Yan Dyke, 1st Sergeant ; Henry 

C. Swart, 2d Sergeant ; Moses McCollum, 3d Sergeant ; Cephas D. Sharp, 



320 UISTOKY OF ■WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

4th Sergeant ; Leicester Bebout, 5th Sergeant ; John A. Black, 1st Cor- 
poral ; Calvin Ramsey, 2d Corporal ; Leroy W. Day, 3d Corporal; Beden 
Bebout, 4th Corporal ; Isaac Sharp, 5th Corporal ; James A. Bebout, Gth 
Corporal; James M. Hughes, 7th Corporal; Fulton Bell, 8th Corporal; 
Alpheus Cunningham, Drummer; John B. McDonald. Commissary. 

Privates. — Abner Birch, Samuel Johnson, L. W. Day, A. J. Swart, 
Bedcn Behout, Amos Kenstwick, 'J'homas Doty, H. C. Swart, Enoch Baker, 
John Kelly, Wilson Doty, Cephas D. Sharp, Fulton J. Bell, Cyrus Liiulley, 
Lewis Dille, Emmor Smalley, Hazlett M. Bell, Milton Lindley, Al)ner 
Enoch, Isaac Sharp, Ira Baldwin, John W. Lewis, Joseph Evans, John 
Sibert, John A. Black, John Loaf'man, Nathan P. Evans, John W. Sanders, 
James A. Bebout, William Loyd, Enoch French, Joseph Sherrick, John L. 
Brannon, Isaac Lacock, Jaco!) Frazec, James Sibert, Lester Bebout, George 
Moore, Charles Guttery, William H. Teagarden, Milton Blachly, James 
Montgomery. James Hathaway, George AV. Teagarden, Robert Birch, John 
B. McDonald, John L. Hathaway, Jacob McAfee, Sample F. Bell, James 
Van Dyke, James Hilton, Joseph Meeks, William Bebout, William S. Wal/- 
son, Jacob Hatfield, James Miles, Zachariah Baker, Henry Watson, Jona- 
than W. Hughes, Moses McCoUum, Andrew Curry, Jacob Yodcs, James 
M. Hughes, Winder McKinney, Alpheus Cunningham, Andrew J. A^ankirk, 
Albert G. Parker, Calvin Ramsey, Charles Cunningham, Christopher C. 
AA^'elsh, Hamilton Parker, Daniel AA^ Sowers, Charles H. Cane, George 
Redd, Philo Paul, Hiram Tharp, John AY. Cooper, Isaac Tucker, Plarvey 
Pope, James Birch, Milton Clutter, James M. Miller, Judson AV. Paden, 
Joseph Swihart, Levi Curry, Joseph Brannon, Peter Phillips, James Stans- 
berry, Franklin Ijams, Simeon S. Sanders, AVilliam Rutan, Samuel Evans, 
James A. Jackson, Thomas Glenn, Amos Swart, AV. H. AVilliams, John 
Closser. 

James Montgomery d, from wounds. 

Killed.— V^mmor Smalley, Judson W. Paden, James Birch, Amos Swart, 
Philo Paul. John L. Brannon. 

Woimdcd. — Andrew J. A^'ankirk, H. C. Swart, James AIcAfee. Samuel 




Company E 

AVas organized Aug. 22, 1862. Its first captain was Aaron T. 
(iregg, elected at its organization, and honorably discharged Juno 
5, 1803. His successor, Irani F. Sansom, was elected June 5, 
1863, and discharged July 2G, 1864. Capt. Jesse T. Power was 
elected December 14, 1864, and mustered out with company May 
31, 1865. 

1st Lieut. Thomas A. Stone, elected Aug. 22, 1862, honorably 
discharged June 5, 1863; Irani F. Sansom was elected his suc- 
cessor Feb. 6, 1863, and afterwards promoted to Captain. John F. 
Wilson, elected July 4, 1863, and promoted to Captain of Conii)any 
G. James A. Russel, elected Sept. 28, 1863, and discharged April 
13, 1864. AVilliam B. Lank, elected Dec. 14, 1864, and killed at 
Sailor's Creek April 6, 186.5. 

2d Lieut. Iram F. Sansom, elected Aug. 22, 1862, and promoted 
to 1st Lieut. ; liis successor was Francis R. Stover, elected Feb. 6, 
1863, and honorably discharged Dec. 14, 1863. 



history op washington county. 321 

Company G — Brown Infantry, 

"Was recruited at Canonsburg by Capt. John Fraser, Professor of 
Mathematics at Jefferson College. Under his command the follow- 
ing families sent forty-seven sons to the army: John Gaston, 4; 
Thomas Jackson, 4 ; James Eyan, 4 ; Harmon M. Peck, 4 ; Sa- 
muel L. Hughes, 3 ; Samuel Stewart, 3 ; Kev. Wm. Smith, 3 ; 
John Paxton, 3 ; Dr. Stewart, 3 ; Mrs. Hallas, 3 ; James Coleman, 
3 ; John Brady, 2 ; Hugh Huston, 2 ; Samuel R. Cook, 2 ; W. H. 
McA^ary, 2 ; Wm. Black, 2. 

Capt. John Fraser was elected Aug. 22, 1864 ; promoted to Lieut.- 
Col. July 4, 18G3. He was succeeded by Capt. W. H. H. Bing- 
Jiam the same day, who was promoted to Major of U. S. Volunteers 
Aug. 1, 1864. His successor was Capt. John F. Wilson, elected 
Oct. 10, 1864, and died April 14, 1865, of wounds received in' 
battle. Capt Wilson N. Paxton was elected April 16, 1865, and 
honorably discharged as 1st Lieut. May 15, 1865, and he was suc- 
ceeded by Capt. John R. Paxton May 16, 1865, who was mustered 
out with the company May 31, 1865. 

1st Lieut. W. H. H. Bingham, elected May 22, 1864, and pro- 
moted to Captain. 

1st Lieutenant Wilson X. Paxton, elected Aug. 22, 1864, and 
promoted to Captain. 

1st Lieut. John R. Paxton, elected April 16, 1865, and promoted 
to Captain. j 

2d Lieutenant Wilson N. Paxton, elected Aug. 22, 1862, and 
promoted to 1st Lieut. 

2d Lieut. Jos. W. McEwen, elected Aug. 22, 1862, killed at 
Chancellorsville May 3, 1863. 

2d Lieut. Alex. M. Wilson, elected March 4, 1863, killed at Get- 
tysburg July 2, 1863. 

2d Lieut. John R. Paxton, elected Oct. 14, 1864, and promoted 
to 1st Lieut. 

NoN-CoMMissiONED OFFICERS. — Alcx. M. Wllson, Ist Sergeant ; Jasper 
E. Brady, Jr., 2d Sergeant; T. J. Weaver, 3d Sergeant; Benjamin Black, 
4th Sergeant; James Voltenburg, 5th Sergeant, k.; James M. Fatten, 1st 
Corporal; David L. Taggart, 2d Corporal; E. H. Martin, 3d Corporal; 
John R. Mitchell, 4th Corporal; Dunning Hart. 5th Corporal; G. Harold 
McGinuis, 6th Corporal ; John F. Wilson, 7th Corporal ; Bankhead B. 
Barr, 8th Corporal. 

Privates. — James Allison, Wm. Armstrong, James Armstrong, John 
Arnold, Simon Arnold, Boyd E. Atkinson, John Barr, James L. Berry, w. ; 
John M. Berry, David Berry, David W. Boyd, David Boyce, Josiah Car- 
roll, Stephen Champ, A. A. Coleman, Eli Crawford, James M. Crawford, 
Vincent Crawford, James S. Daggs, John C. Davis, George Davis, Charles 
R. Donaldson, Wm. G. Donaldson, E. G. Emery, Alexander Gaston, k. ; 
John Gilkeson, John L. Gow, Levi Griffith, w. ; James W. Griffith, Wm. 
I. Greer, George Grier, James Hamilton,* r>. ; David Havelin, Wm. A. 



* Died of typhoid fever, September 23d. 



322 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Helt. Joseph Hemphill. James Himmeger, John TV. Hogdens, Frank Ijams, 
J. B. Johnson, AVm. H. Jackson, James B. Jackson, Robert S. Jackson, 
Cornelius D. B. Kirk. James P. Kerr, Wm. A. Kerr, Joseph Lawson. Wm. 
H. Lauum, James Lynn, James S. McGlumphey, w. ; Samuel B. McBride, 
G. W. McGibbony, RobertR, McJunkin, John W. McMeans. T. M. McNary, 
John McNutt, John R. Mitchell, Joseph L. Moore, George R. Murray, 
Robert B. Parkinson, John R. Paxton. Wm. J. P. Patton, Thomas A. 
Pcrrine, David B. Phillips, Wayne J. Phillips. James W. Pollock, William 
Pollock. James S. Rankin, James G. Sloan, William Sheets. John Speer. 
Robert L. Speer, R. L. Stewart, John M. Stewart, Wm. B. Stewart, John 
T. Sumney, David Sumney, James Thomas, Cyrus Townsend, John M. 
Watson. James P. Weaver. Joshua Weaver, Thomas Weaver, Joseph 
Wilson, Hugh Wier, David White, James Young. 

Company G returned to Canonsburg, June 8, 1865, and was» 
received at the college chapel by an address from Rev. Dr. Riddle 
W. McDaniel, Esq., and Rev. F. Collier. The original roll was 

called by Pollock, 0. S., and as the roll-calling proceeded 

the absent one was accounted for ; but of the one hundred and 
three men all did their duty nobly, save one who deserted. They 
afterwards adjourned to Briceland's hotel, and partook of supper, 
and also were refreshed at Capt. Paxton's house. 

Company K. 

Capt. William A. F. Stockton was elected Aug. 22, 1862, appoint- 
ed Brigade Major April 9, 1805, and mustered out with company 
May 31, 1805. 

First Lieutenant Alexander Sweeney, Jr., elected April 22, 1862, 
and served until mustered out. 

Second Lieutenant William B. Cook, elected August 22, 1862, and 
houorably discharged May IT, 1865. 

Privates. — Edward Alexander, Jas. B. Allison, Abraham Andres, Peter 
Andres, James Arthrus, Jas. S. Berryhill, Milton R. Boyd, Benjamin B. 
Buchanan. 1). J. Butterfoss, Lazarus Briggs, George W. Carter, Jesse 
Carter, Thomas J. Carter, Andrew Chester, w. ; Isaac W. Chrisholm, Silas 
Cooke. James Cochran, Joseph Corbin, David W. Corbin, Ezra Conway, 
Benjamin H. Cummins, Andrew B. Davis, Michael Daugherty, John Day, 
Henry Dickson, Isaac Donaldson, Robert B. Dungan, Benjamin F. Earnest, 
John Fulton, James H. Fordyce, Joseph C. Frazier, John F. Gardner, 
William M. Geary, J. Smith Graham, Martin Grim, Joseph Guess, George 
A. Hanlin, William Ilanlin, Benjamin F. Hawthorn, Thomas C. Hays, John 
Henderson, Robert W. Hull, George W. Johnston, Robert Lyle, James 
C. Lyle, James K. P. Magill, John Makeowu, John Marshall, John Mar- 
shall, D. ; John D. McCabe, John A. McCalmot, Robert McCIurg, James 
K. McCurdy, Benjamin McCuUough, Harrison McCouncll, Owen McElfish, 
Robert A. Meldoon, John Meloy, N orris Metcalfe, William H. Miller, Isaac 
Miller, J. J. Morris, George Morrow, Enoch Mount z, John W. Nickerson, 
Colin R. Nickerson, James L. Noah, Thomas Ij. Noble, William Porter, 
Wm. R. H. Powelson, Benjamin F. Powclson, William Lewis Pry, Robert 
A. Pry, David McC. Pry, George Ralston. AVilliam M. Rea, William Ruff- 
ner. William Scott, Henderson Scott, Nathaniel Seese, Samuel K. Shindies, 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 323 

George Sprowls, Jesse M. Sprowls, Oliver Staley, George Star, William 
Stollard, John Toppin, Robert Virtue, Ulysses Wheeler, Thomas Wilkin, 
James Worstell, Marshall Wright. 

15 2d Regiment — 3d Pennsylvania Artillery, 

Was organized at Harrisburg and Philadelphia for three years' ser- 
vice, October 8, 1862, and was mustered out July 11, 1865. 

In Company K of this regiment were J. P. Charlton, Samuel C. 
Wolf, Edward Mouck, and Robert F. Cooper, of Washington County. 
R. F. Cooper was commissioned '2d Lieutenant, but died shortly 
afterwards. 

159th Regiment, Company H — 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry, 

Was organized by Capt. John J. Shutterly, of Canonsburg, who was 
elected Captain Nov. 24, 1862, and resigned Oct. 2, 1863. 

Henry McMurray, of Washington County, was elected 1st Lieu- 
tenant June 5, 1865, and honorably discharged Oct. 27, 1865 ; he 
had previously been elected 2d Lieutenant Oct. 2, 1863. His suc- 
cessor as 2d Lieutenant was James B. Johnson, who was honorably 
discharged July 31, 1865. 

NoN-CoMMissioNED OFFICERS. — Heury McMurray, 0. S. ; Benj. F. Craig, 
Quartermaster; Samuel Ruth, Commissary; Colton Donavan, 1st Duty; 
Alfred W. Murray, 3d ; James Chaney, 4th ; James Barker, 5th ; James B. 
Johnston, 3d Corporal ; David Orr, 4th Corporal ; James McAdoo, 7th 
Corporal. 

Privates. — John Brown, James Campsey, Simon Donovan, Frank C. 
Forbes, Jonathan Fox, John Gilmore, Edward McGlaughlin, Thomas J. 
McPeak, Wilson McMurray, Sylvester McElfish, Sylvanus'McAdoo, Andrew 
McPeak, Thomas Odey, George Ryan, James Sims, James Sees, Georo-e W. 
Trussel, Jonathan R. Wilson, .William Wilson, Thomas White, James White. 

The above were from Washington County; the remaining officers 
and soldiers from other counties and Virginia. The regiment was 
under the command of Col. James M. Schoonmaker. 

This regiment was in the following battles: Winchester, Cedar 
Creek, Fisher's Hill, Lynchburg. 

154th Regiment Pennsylvania Drafted Militia Company. 

This company was drafted for nine months' service October 16, 
1862, and was composed of one hundred and nine men. We give 
a list of the ofl&cers and non-commissioned officers and privates who 
resided in Washington County. The non-commissioned officers were 
appointed December 1, 1862. 

Officers. — John B. Hays, Captain; Samuel T. Griffith, 1st Lieutenant; 
Jos. S. McBribe, 2d Lieutenant. . 

NoN-CoMMissiONED OFFICERS. — Jam^s Blythe, Orderly Sergeant; John 
T. Roberts, 2d Sergeant; John Park, 3d Sergeant; Benjamin K. Kennedy, 
4th Sergeant; Samuel M. Decker, 5th Sergeant; Andrew M. Welch, 1st 



324 HISTORY OF WASUINGTON COUNTY. 

Corporal; Cyrua A. Foster, 2d Corporal; Samuel Davidson, 3d Corporal; 
Wm. Boon, 4th Corporal; John Bell, 5th Corporal; James P. Young, 6th 
Corporal; Joel England, 7th Corporal; Hagan H. Arnold, 8th Corporal. 

Privates. — Benjamin A. Ayres, Thomas Baldwin, James Caldwell, James 
Cavanaugh, Isaac B. Coates, Freegrift C. Cole, Samuel T. Decker, Nelson 
Ely, Henry A. Foster, Simon R. Hixenbaugh, William Hurley, Frank Ken- 
ner, F. Kalterlee. David Martin, John B. Miller, Carson Malone, Gilbert C. 
Marshall, Jonathan Morris, Hugh B. McKiiiley. Edward Mellon, Hugh 
McCoy, Davis Olds, Tyre Robinson. Thomas W. Ross, Robert C Hheplar, 
J. Taylor Simpson, Thomas M. Stewart, F. Scriber, Thomas Shanaieet, 
James P. Young. 

Company K of the 161st Regiment (IGtii Cavalry), 

This company we referred to when giving the history of Captain 
Work's company. 

It was organized under the command of Captain R. "W. Par- 
kinson, October 25, 1SG2; he resigned April 12, 1803, and was 
succeeded by Lieutenant Jonathan R. Day, April 30, 18G3, Lt. 
Day having filled the office of 1st Lieutenant from its organization. 
Upon the promotion of Lieutenant Day, Henry Granville was elect- 
ed Xovcmber 20, 1862, who served until February 20, 1863, when 
Edmund Dunn was elected 1st Lieutenant February 21, 1863, and 
served until the company was mustered out August 11, 1869. 2d 
Lieutenant Alexander A. Gunn served as such from its organization 
until February 27, 1863, when he resigned, when Luther Day was 
elected ; but he being killed in action December 1, 1864, J. Newton 
Minton was elected December 2, 1864, and regularly mustered out 
August 11, 1865. Lieutenant Jonathan R. Day was appointed Ad- 
jutant of this regiment October l8, 1862; Francis J. Lemoyne, M. 
D., Surgeon. 

This regiment participated in tlio following engagements: Kellys- 
ford, Middlel)urg, Ashby's Gap, Gettysburg, Shepherdstown, Sulphur 
Springs, Bristoe's Station, Mine Run, Todd's Tavern, Hawes' Shop, 
Fortifications of Richmond, Trevillian Station, St. Mary's Church, 
Deep Bottom, Ream's Station, Boydton Road, and Stony Creek 
Station. 

Officers. — R. W. Parkinson, Captain ; J. R. Day, 1st Lieutenant ; A. 
A. Gunn, 2d Lieutenant. 

NoN-CoMMissioNKD OFFICERS. — E. Dunu, Orderly Sergeant; L. Day, 1st 
Sergeant; C. H. McVay, 2d Sergeant; A. H. Miller, 3d Sergeant; M. 
Woods, 4th Sergeant; W. S. Craft, oth Sergeant; S. D. Waddic, Commis- 
sary Sergeant; N. I). Chutter, Quarter-Master Sergeant; J. N. Minton, 
1st Corporal; G. F. Sirajjson. 2d Corporal; T. J. Peun, 3d Sergeant; G. 
W. McDavid, 4th Corporal; G. W. Conger, 5th Corporal; 0. L. Garrett, 
Gth Corporal; J. Dunn, 7th Corproral; J. England, 8th Corporal; AVm. D. 
Carroll, 1st Bugler; S. Saunders. 2d Bugler. 

Privatks. — D. Archer. J. Ackley. J. Brooks, S. Birch, G. Baldwin, J. 
Baldwin, O. G. Boord, AV. Chester, R. Chester, N. Cheese. D. Cooper, J. 
Craft, H. Cranville. J. Caldwell, 0. Couklin, J. Cracraft, S. Carter, J. Car- 
ter, A. Clutter, G. W. Clutter. J. Dailey, H. P. Day, S. Denny, J. Denny, 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 325 

J. M. Dilley, J. Dickson, H. Dickson, J. Dewbery, J. Dougherty, A. Frazier, 
B. Fry, A. H. Hewit, J. Hazlett, H. Howell, J. Hanna, M. Jones, E. Low- 
ery, W. Lewis, H. Little, N. Little, William Lyon, w.; G. W. Hays, Louis 
Kendall, N. Lightner, S. Lindley, E. Mattox, J. W. Miller, B. Marsbmau, 
R. Marshman, T.J. Marshal, S. IMcDaniel, M. Mc:Mahon, Wm. IMendlen, C. 
Mears, I. Milligan J. W. Milligan, J. Milligan, S. Pipes, S. Potter, W. Pot- 
ter, M. Patterson, S. Porter, J. Post, J. Roney, J. Z. Riley, J. Riley, A. 
Stillwell, J. Saunders, J. B. Sheets, J. P. K. Smith, w.; J. Stewart, J. 
Throgmorten, A. Teagarden, S. Winget, F. Wingct, J. Wright, J. Walker, 
J. Wilson, S. Wilson. 

185th Regiment, 22d Cavalry Regiment, 

Was organized at Cumberland, Md., February 22, 18G4 ; its history 
fully given after the roll of this company. 

Ringgold Cavalry. 

Roll of Ringgold Cavalry, Company A, of the Ringgold Cavalry 
Battalion of Washington County. — This company was commanded 
by Captain John Keys, and takes rank from June 6, 1861. Its 
term of service was three years, and assigned to the 22d Regiment 
Pennsylvania Cavalry, organized February 25, 1864. 

Captain John Keys, mustered into service October 2, 1861, died 
November 10, 1863. 1st Lieutenant Henry A. Myers was elected 
October 2, 1861, and promoted to Captain November 12, 1863, and 
afterwards to Major 1st Lieutenant James P. Hart was promoted 
November 12, 1863, and on March 2T, 1864, elected Captain and 
mustered out with Company A, 3d Prov. Cavalry October 31, 1865. 
1st Lieutenant Henry Anisansel, who resigned and was commis- 
sioned by Gov. Pierrepont, of Virginia, to raise a regiment of cavalry, 
of which he served as Colonel. Captain Farrabces' company was 
in this regiment. 2d Lieutenant James P. Hart was elected Octo- 
ber 2, 1861, and promoted to 1st Lieutenant. 2d Lieutenant John 
Holland was elected November 12, 1863; March 17, 1864, elected 
1st Lieutenant, and mustered out August 23, 1864. 2d Lieutenant 
Geo. Gass was elected March 17, 1864, and 1st Lieutenant August 
24, 1864. 2d Lieutenant Thomas Nutt was elected August 24, 1864. 

NoN-CoMMissiONED OFFICERS. — Samucl B. Holland, Quarter-Master Ser- 
geant : Joseph E. Abell, Company Commissary Sergeant ; John Holland, 
1st Sergeant; Geo. Gass, 2d Sergeant; Adam Wickersham, 3d Sergeant; 
Thomas Nutt, 4th Sergeant; Hopkins Moffitt, 5th Sergeant; Wm. Par- ■ 
shall, 1st Corporal; Joseph Householder, 2d Corporal; Stephen P. Beatty, 
3d Corporal; Isaac P. Dawson, 4th Corporal; Hugh P. Hedge, 5th Cor- 
poral; Chauncey R. Dover, 6th Corporal; James Robinson, 7th Corporal, 
John Streiner, 8th Corporal. 

Musicians. — Napoleon B. Rigden and William M. Morrison. 

Blacksmith. — Jacob Dickson. 

Wagoner. — William Harford. 

Privates. — Alexander Artist, Joseph E. Abell, John L. Abell, Lewis 
Arthur, Thomas C. Buckingham, George W. Brevard, Madison Blackburn, 



326 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

George Baumgarnor, Samuel D. Bane, Sample S. Bane, William A. Bane, 
Patrick Baue, William Charlton, Samuel Conditt, John S. Corbitt, John 
Crouch, James Crouch, Michael H. Core, James A. Dudgeon, Angier 
Dobbs, Andrew J. Davis, Chancey R. Dever, John Z. Davis, Jas. Dorsey, 
John W. Elwood, Andrew S. Frazer, William H. French, Andrew J. Floyd, 
David W. French, Franklin Fitzsimmons, John Gregg, k.; Ivin Gregg, k.; 
James Gray, John W. Gray, Andrew B. Grant, L. Geo. Grant, Antuban 
Hill, John Hunter, Jacob Hoover, Michael Hemler, David A. Huston, 
Francis M. Hirst, David Hart, W. W. Holland, Wm. Hartranft, k. ; James 
A. Harrison, Thomas Kerns, Samuel Kerns, Christian Kinder, Christian 
Krepps, T. ; John S. Lever, Harrison Linn, Thomas M. Linn. John Linn, 
Jas. H. Lever, Joseph Lever, William Lafferty, Thompson McKinley, John 
Mc(iovern, Andrew J. Manning, John D. Manning, John A. Meeks, Henry 
Mitchell, William Mason, Joseph B. Morton, James McDow, Thomas P. 
Morton, James McBride, John M. Myers, Henry C. McJeukin, Lewis Noel, 
Ben. S. Province, George E. Parshall, James Patterson, Jacob L. Pierce, 
James S. Parshall, Amos Queen, Daniel Rhorer, James Robinson, Leonard 
A. Roberts, Thomas Reeves, t. ; A. B. Richardson, w. ; James Robinson, k. ; 
John M. Sinclair, Christian Snyder, k. ; George W. Snyder, k. ; Herman 
Sherholtz, Frank Smith, Elliot, F. Weaver, Francis M. White, David D. 
Williams, L. Williams, Thos. Williams, Israel Youmans, Harvey H. Young. 

In connection with this and the six succeeding cavalry companies 
we will state that the Ringgold Battalion, under the command of 
Major John Keys, was comprised of seven companies, viz: Ringgold 
Cavalry, commanded by Captain John Keys; Keystone Cavalry, 
commanded by Captain George T. Work; "Washington Cavalry, 
by Captain A. J. Greenfield ; Beallsville Cavalry, by Captain H. 
H. Young ; Patton Cavalry, by Captain A. J. Barr ; La Fayette 
Cavalry, by Captain A. V. Smith ; and Independent Cavalry, by 
Captain M. W. Mitchener. These companies were a part of the 
185th Regiment (22d Pennsylvania Cavalry Regiment), which was 
organized February 25, 1864, with the following officers : Jacob Ilig- 
gins, Colonel; A. J. Greenfield, Lieutenant-Colonel; Geo. T. Work, 
Elias S. Troxall, Henry A. Myers, Majors; J. G. Iscnberg, Adju- 
tant; W. E. Bailey, Quartermaster; S. Webster French, Acting 
Commissary Sergeant ; W. C. Phelps, Surgeon ; W. R. Lynch and 
S. M. Finley, Assistant Surgeons. 

On June 10, 18G5, the Beallsville Cavalry, at that time com- 
manded by Captain Hugh Keys, and the Independent Cavalry, by 
Captain James Y. Chessround, were mustered out of service at New 
Creek, Virginia ; the remaining companies consolidated with the 
lG3d Regiment (18th Pennsylvania Cavalry) June 24, 1865, and 
designated the 3d Regiment Pennsylvania Provisional Cavalry, and 
were finally mustered out of service at Cumberland, Maryland, Oc- 
tober 31, 1865. 

The companies in the 185th Regiment were numbered as follows: 
Capt Keys, A ; Captain Greenfield, B; Captain Work, C ; Captain 
Young, D; Captain Chessround, E; Captain Barr, F; Captain 
Smith, G. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 32t 

NoN-CoMMissioNED Stafp OFFICERS. — Robert A. Laird, Sergeant-Major ; 
Samuel T. Dodd, Hospital Steward; John Reynolds, Assistant; David 
Hoyt, Quarter-Master Sergeant, Levi Scott, Chief Bugler ; Wm. Ritchey, 
R. B. ; Dr. Z. B. Kent, Veterinary Surgeon ; John W. Cook, R. S. 

Washington Cavalry Company 

Was mustered into the service of the United States Aug. 19, 1861, 
and assigned to the 22d Regiment, Pennsylvania Cavalry, which 
was organized March, 1864, its term of service being three years. 
It was Company B in this regiment. 

Officers. — A. J. Greenfield, Captain ; John Dabinett, 1st Lieut. ; G. 
W. Jenkins, 2d Lieut. 

NoN-CoMMissioNED OFFICERS. — Jaoics M. Weavor, Q. M. Sergeant ; W. 
Brown, Orderly Sergeant ; Armour Thompson, 1st Sergeant ; Joseph W. 
Hill, 2d Sergeant; Theodore Day, 3d Sergeant; Samuel Sinclair, 4th Ser- 
geant; Ross Adams, 1st Corporal; Eli Moffit, 2d Corporal; Hardman 
Gantz, 3d Corporal ; Wm. Worcester, 4th Corporal ; Wm. Shaffer, ,5th Cor- 
poral ; Harvey Kinder, 6th Corporal ; Hiram Sargent, 7th Corporal ; Tho- 
mas Sargent, 8th Corporal. 

Privates. — Andrew Axten, John Ashman, Albert Allen, Harrison Ben- 
nington, W. F. Booth, D. M. Barnett, Frederick Bvanner, James P. Brock, 
David Claffey, Theodore Dwyer, Samuel Drumm, Silas Drumm, Stephen 
A. Day, Harrison Deems, John A. Dage, James S. French, Benj. Fitzen- 
burg, Patrick Grace, Peter Hickman, Hugh H. Horn, J. W. Hendricks, 
Jacob Horn, Henry Haler, Thomas Jackson, Joseph Knight, Jacob Kline- 
felter, George Lap, Geo. H. Murray, Nicholas Miller, Thomas Mason, 
Samuel Moore, Henry Myers, Clark Newcomer, J. A. Nichols, W. H. 
Plymire, Samuel Potter, Charles Rogers, Samuel J. Rogers, Andrew Smith, 
Henry Storer, John H. Smith, Amos Smith, James B. Sinclair, Charles 
Sinclair, W. H. Statters, Demas S. Snyder, Edmund Stone, Lewis Upper- 
man, Abraham Vanvoorhis, Wm. H. Watkins, William Wright, James 
White, Thomas Welsh, John West, James M. Weaver, w. 

Capt. Greenfield, being promoted to Lieut.-Colonel of the 185th 
Regiment, was succeeded by 2d Lieut. Geo. W. Jenkins, who was 
elected Feb. 28, 1864, and mustered out with the company Oct. 7, 
1864. 

Lieut. Dabinett remained with Company B from its organization 
to its mustering out. 

Lieut. Jenkins being promoted to the captaincy Feb. 25, 1864, 
Lieut. Wm. Brown was elected 2d lieut., and mustered out Oct. 7, 
1864. 

On November 26, 1864, the Washington Cavalry was reorga- 
nized by the election of the following officers : Captain, W. E. 
Griffith; 1st Lieut., J. B. Henderson; 2d Lieut., Joshua B. Deems. 
The officers served until mustered out, October 31, 1865. 

WiNFiELD Hussars, afterwards called Keystone Cavalry. 

On the 25th July, 1862, Capt. George T. Work was authorized 
bj Governor Curtin to raise a company of cavalry for the LTnited 



328 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

States' service. Capt. "Work applied himself diligently to the re- 
cruiting of men, and on the 10th of August following so successful 
was he in the undertaking that he divided the company by giving 
Capt. Parkinson fifty of his recruits, and again filled up his com- 
pany to the requisite number ; and on the Oth of September was 
mustered into service by Capt. Ludiugton, at "Washington. 

This company was attached to the 22d Regiment, Pennsylvania 
Cavalry (term of service for three years), which regiment was or- 
ganized March, 1804, under Col. Geo. D. Bayard, of. McCall's 
division. It was Company I in this regiment. "When the Ringgold 
Battalion was organized it became Company C. 

Officers. — Georsre T. "Work, Captain ; C. J. McNulty, 1st Lieutenant ; 
Robert C. Welch, 2d Lieutenant. 

NoN-CoMMissioxKD OFFICERS. — Joscph J. Lanc, 1st Sergeant; Joseph 
Porter, Quartermaster; Joseph C. Hunter, C. S.; S. W. French, 1st Duty 
Sergeant, Wm. R. Galbreath, 2d Duty Sergeant ; AVm. L. Oliver, 3d Duty 
Sergeant; Wm. Jamison, 4th Duty Sergeant; David Scott, 5th Duty 
Sergeant; Thomas Stewart, 1st Corporal; Samuel S. Armstrong, 2d 
Corporal; Samuel C. Brownlee. 3d Corporal; Abraham H. Wilkin, 4th 
Corporal; James C. Smith, 5th Corporal; Milton S. Davis, Gth Corporal; 
Samuel Donaldson, 7th Corporal ; Robert G. Rush, 8ih Corporal ; Samuel 
C. Forester, Blacksmith ; John S. Thornburg, Farrier ; Levi Scott, 1st 
Bugler; C. B. McKeever, 2d Bugler; Edward Linton, Wagoner. 

Privates. — Samuel C. Adams, Thomas Algeo, Joseph Armstrong, Ab- 
salom Asbbrook, n. ; Stephen P. Bane, John F. Bell, Charles Black, Fran- 
cis M. Bolles, Robert Boon, Joseph W. Brownlee, Wm. Burke, dis. ; 
William Barnett, Thomas Campsey, George R. Chambers, John S. Clark. 
Daniel L. Crider, p.; Thomas B. Craig, Wra. H. Cowan, Charles C. 
Colee, John L. Cummins, David S. Cummins, Wra. Delaney, Thomas E- 
Dowler, Hawthorn Dunkle, Michael Essick, Richard Fisher, Joseph Ful, 
ler, Benjamin Fuller, John Gardner, David Griffith, Joseph Guinea, 
Robert Henderson, William Hair, George Hardee, Hiram Headley. Peter 
Hoy, John W. Huston, J. Joshua Hunter, Henry Johnston, Samuel F. 
Kelly, Frederick Kitsner, Lemuel Laggett, Edward P. Linn, Jacob 
Loughman, Robert Loughman, AVilliam McCarty, Alex. W. McConnel, 
Archibald McClelland, James McFait, Ebenezer McGufifin, John McEwen, 
George AV. Mitchell, John F. MiUigan, Andrew Means, Edward C. Miller, 
Richard Mountz, John H. Murray, Robert D. Nesbit, Thomas B. O'Do- 
nald, Warren Joseph Oliver, John Patterson, Henry Pense, Hugh Porter. 
Rol)ert G. Rush, Wm. H. Rose, David H. Ralston, George W. Ramsej-, 
David Rizer, Washington Ritchey, AVm. C. Richards, AVm. Sears, James 
Stewart, James 15. Semult. Richard P. Shipley, John G. Stewart, Joseph 
Starr, James Smith, k. ; Adam A. Thornburg, Samuel Turner, Thomas J. 
AVhite. AVm. T. AVhite, Daniel 11. AVilsou, Samuel AVilliamson, AVm. AVood- 
burn, James R. AVoodburu. 

Capt. G. T. "Work, promoted to Major September 6, 1862 ; his 
successor, Lieut. C. J. McNulty, elected Feb. 25, 1864, and hono- 
rably discharged June 1, 1865 ; his successor, Lieut. Robert C. 
"Welch, elected March 3, 1865, and honorably discharged May 18, 
1865. 

Lieut. McNulty having been elected captain, Lieut "V\'elch was 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 329 

elected 1st Lieut. Feb. 25, 1864, and his successor was Joseph J. 
Lane, elected Nov. 26, 1864 ; he was succeeded by Lieut. Wm. R. 
Galbraith March 3, 1865, and mustered out with company Oct. 31, 
1865. 

Lieut. Welch being promoted Joseph J. Lane succeeded him as 
2d Lieut. Feb. 25, 1864, and served until Dec. 25, 1869, when Wm. 
R. Galbraith was elected. 

Beallsville Cavalry 

Was organized in Washington, September 2, 1862. John H. Bu- 
chanan promoted to 2d Lieutenant and took charge of a military 
school in Philadelphia, and subsequently officered in South Carolina 
and Florida. It was mustered into the service of the United States 
September 6, 1862, under the command of Captain Harvey H. 
Young. From 1862 to the organization of the 185th Regiment (22d 
Pennsylvania Cavalry), they were known as the Ringgold Cavalry 
Battalion. 

We give the names of the officers and men of Company D. 

Officers. — H. H. Young, Captain ; Hugh Keys, 1st Lieutenant ; Felix 
H. Crago, 2d Lieutenant. 

NoN-CoMMissioNED OFFICERS. — Isaac M. Regester, 1st Sergeant; Gideon 
H. Hawkins, Quartermaster, d. ; David M. Snyder, Commissary ; Robert 
Galbraith, 1st duty Sergeant; Wm. H. Wickersham, 2d duty Sergeant 
'John N. Horn, 3d duty Sergeant; Emmer H. Hill, 4th duty Sergeant; 
James M. Quivey, 5th duty Sergeant, p.; James A. S. White, 1st Corporal; 
Thomas W. Lynch, 2d Corporal ; Joseph Jennings, 3d Corporal ; Alex- 
ander C. Powell, 4th Corporal; John L. Cock, 5th Corporal; Cyrus 
Hoffman, 6th Corporal; Benjamin F. Floyd, 7th Corporal; Ellis B. Gregg, 
8th Corporal; George W. Dougherty, 1st Bugler, d. ; Wm. H. Crago, 2d 
Bugler ; William Sheets and Christopher Long, Farriers ; Adah Crough, 
Wagoner. 

Privates. — Isaac H. AUfree, Alexander R. Armstrong, Jessie A. Arm- 
strong, James Armstrong, Joseph E. Baue, Cyrus Baxter, k. ; Lawrence 
W. Bower, Jonathan D. Burk, d. ; George R. Bower, d. ; Alfred Burkhart, 
Alonzo Brightwell, Jesse Bcnner, Francis M. Clark, Simon S. Condit, 
Wm. C. Condit, w. ; Daniel W. Condit, Jabez Condit, Philip D. Campbell, 
William H. Cragg, dis. ; Thomas J. Crago, Henry C. Crago, Joseph F. 
Craven, Richard Crawford, Samuel R. Crawford, Jas. M. Crawford, Henry 
Dague, James N. David, Kennedy Davis, George W, Eagy, v. ; George 
I^icher, Sebastian B. Elliott, Elias A. Fleniken, Lewis Fry, Wm. Gardner, 
John T. (4ass, d. ; James B. Groomes, Jacob Guseman, Joseph Hamilton, 
Andrew Hamilton, Jonah Harris, d. ; John W. Hawkins, Isaac Hill, Andrew 
H. Holmes, p. ; Levi Horn, Wm. H. Horner, Wm. S. Hutchinson, d. ; John 
C. Jennings, Joseph S. John, John Kann, Geo. Keihl, Freeman Kelly, p.; 
George Kerr, Huston Kerr, Wm. Lee, Francis I. Luellen, p. ; Charles 
Luellen, Peter Malone, Jacob R. Maxwell, p.; Wm. McCIellan, Jas. Mc- 
Cloud, Samuel B. McLane, p. ; Thomas H. McLane, Emmor H. Miller, n. ; 
Isaac I. Mitchell, d. ; Adam S. Morton, k. ; Wm. H. Mosier, Jacob Nedrow, 
D. ; Thos. Nefif, dis. ; Wm. C. Nimon, Stewart Patterson, Albert G. Powell, 
Taylor Pyle, Jas. M. Phillips, p. ; John S. Reeves, John R. Regester, k. ; 
Stephen C. Richardson, Joseph H. Rogers, Robert E. Ross, John B. Shal- 
22 



330 HISTORY OF ■WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

lenberger, "Wm. Sheets, d. ; "Win. Shively. John Smith, d. ; George Sample, 
ilonrj- Suj-dcr, Wm. B. Sutton, r. ; Grifiith Taylor, John B Taylor, Benj. 
L. Taylor, p. ; Wm. H. White, David A. White, Sam'l H. White, AVm. F. 
White, James N. Wheeler, James S. Wickersham, Cephas Wiley, k, ; John 
M. Young. 

Captain Young served until February 25, 1864, when Lieutenant 
Hugh Keys was elected March 1, 1864, and remained Avitb the 
company until it was mu.stered out of service October 31, 1865. 

Felix H. Crago was promoted to 1st Lieutenant, and Isaac M. 
Regester to 2d Lieutenant March 1, 1864. 

Independent Cavalry, Company E, 

Was mustered into service at Wheeling, Virginia, October 13, 

1862, in the 185th Regiment (22d Pennsylvania Cavalry), under the 
command of Captain Milton W. Mitchcnor. He served until April 
1, 1864, when he was honorably discliarged, and James Y. Chess- 
round was elected Captain, who served until March 19, 1865, when 
Felix Boyle was elected. 

1st Lieutenant J. Y. Chessround was elected at the organization and 
afterwards promoted to the captaincy; his successor was Felix Boyle, 
elected February 12, 1863, and upon his promotion Lieutenant Jas. 
Gibson was elected 1st Lieutenant. 

2d Lieutenant R. S. H. Keys was elected 2d Lieutenant at the 
company's organization; he was honorably discharged February 12, 

1863, and Felix Boyle elected February 12, 1863 ; his successor was 
Lieutenant James Gibson, who was afterwards promoted to the first 
Lieutenancy. Clinton Tccple was elected March 19, 1865. The 
company was mustered out July 19, 1865. 

NoN-CoMMissioNKD OFFICERS. — CHnton Teeple, Orderly Sergeant; J. M. 
Teeple, Quarter-Master ; U. 11. Williaxns, Commissary; George Robson, 
1st Sergeant; John McCrackcn, 2d Sergeant, w.; John Behanna, 3d Ser- 
geant, w.; John K. Rail, 4th Sergeant; Robert White, 5th Sergeant, w.; 
I'eter Stacker, 1st Corporal ; John S. Yohe, 2d Corporal; Samuel Wright, 
3d Corporal, w.; W. W. Hess, 4th Corporal; C. Z. Koechline, r)th Corpo- 
ral; And. McDonell, 6th Corporal; Hiram Myers. 7th Corporal; James 
Kearney, 8th (,'orporal ; Chs. F. Troesher and 11. llobson, liuglers ; Joseph 
A. Scott, Saddler ; John Lutes and George Lutes, Blacksmiths. 

PuivATKS. — Andrew Amos, Vincent Amos, Abraham Anderson, John 
Atcheson, Samuel Atcheson. w.; Francis Allen, Jacob Baker, Jacob AV. 
Beck, Alexander Behanna, Samuel Behanna, Charles Behanna. John Be- 
hanna, Jr., Samuel Bhick, John Boyle, Jr.. Richard Burns, David Byers, 
James Boyd, James W. Baxter, George W. Brown, k.; B. F. Bowen, David 
Behanna, Jerome Byers, Samuel Caldwell. David Clarke, r>.; John W. Cra- 
ven, Abner J. Craven, John C/rouch, James Craven, John Dolen, Iliram 
Degarmo, d.; W. H. H. Degarmo, Holliday Donaldson, Thomas Flanagan, 
Noah Henry, James F. Henry, Franklin Hendrickson, w.; "Willis Hendrick- 
eon, Edward Hendrickson, Henry Hillman, B. F. Hclmick. John Hamilton, 
Robert Jones, John P. Jordan, Cardona Jordon, John M. Kiehl, James 
Kerns, Andrew Kimble, John Leyda, Henry Leaver, k.; B. F. Leonard, 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 331 

Marcus Mellinoer, Jobn S. Mareowu, Samuel Marker, Robert Molden, 
Jacob Molden, "William Mitchell, Samuel A. Munn, Jeremiah Myers, Thos. 
H. Moffit, Eli W. Mancha, w.; Eli A. ISIiller, Joseph A. McClure, George 
W. McClair, Thomas McAllister, Joseph Marker, Alexander McKee, Henry 
Minks, Enoch J. Newkirk, George W. Owen, Elymas Pettit, Year R. Por- 
ter, Clark Preston, dis.; Marshall Robinson, George W. Robb, w.; Charles 
E. Rose, D.; John M. Sutman, Aaron Sutman. Samuel Sullivan, John Sny- 
der, Frederick Surg, w.; John Stacker, W. P. Starr, k.; John Saunders. 
K.; James B. Smith, k.; Boyd E. Summey, d.; Thomas W. Teeple, J. C. 
Thompson, John Trussler, w,; James M. Williams, William White, k.; Peter 
Young. 

The battles and skirmishes in which this regiment were engaged 
were Stumps' Mills, Moorfield, Winchester, Pergetsville, JST. Moun- 
tain Depot, Petersburg, Williamsport, Burlington, Romne_y, Lost 
River Gap, Piedmont, Rockfish Gap, Lynchburg, Lexington, Salem, 
Dorcasville, Pleasant Yalley, Monterey, Taylorstown, Snicker's Gap, 
Ashley's Gap, Kearnstown, Martinsburg, Opequan Creek, Berry- 
ville, Charlestown, Martinsburg, Stephenson Depot, Bunker Hill, 
Strasburg, Fisher's Hill, Mount Jackson, Brown's Gap, Mount Ver- 
non Forge, Cedar Creek. 

Patton Cavalry Company 

Was mustered into the service of the United States October 14, 1862. 
This company was raised under the name of the Patton Cavalry. 
term of service three years, and assigned to the 22d Regiment, Penn- 
sylvania Cavalry, and subsequently organized in the Ringgold Bat- 
talion of Volunteer Cavalry as Company F. 

Captain Barr served until February 25, 1864, when Lieutenant 
Benjamin W. Denny was elected, and mustered out of service July 
19, 1865. Lieutenant Denny had served as 1st Lieutenant from tlie 
organization of the companJ^ David Wishart was elected 1st Lieu- 
tenant Ma}" 11, 1864, and honorably discharged May 16, 1865. He 
was succeeded by Lieutenant Benjamin F. Hasson, May 17, 1865, 
and remained with the company until mustered out. 

Lieutenant George T. Hammond served until November 29, 1864, 
when he was honorably discharged, and was succeeded by Lieut. 
B. F. Hasson, who served until his promotion to first Lieutenancy, 
May 11, 1865, when William Hedge was elected second Lieutenant, 
and mustered out with the company. 

Officers. — A. J. Barr, Captain ; B. W. Denny, 1st Lieutenant ; George 
T. Hammond, 2d Lieutenant. 

Privates. — John A. Arnold, David Braden, Samuel Barr. William Burk, 
James Bradley, Sol. S. Bane, Samuel B. Barnard, Lindsey Baker, John N. 
Braddock, John B. Buckingham, Silas Cowen, David Campbell, Alexander 
Crumrine, Peter Deems, Samuel H. Doak, Sylvester F. Dodd, Samuel T. 
Dodd, Zoliver Dotts, Harvey H. Eller, Andrew Elliott, Thomas C. Enochs, 
Martin V. Frazer, John Flowers, Terrance Farmer, Samuel Gayman, Ste- 
phen J. Guinea, Christian Garrett, Benj. Harden, Charles Hallam, Samuel 
S. Hallam, Benj. F. Hasson, William Hedge, W. P. Hayuer, George T. 



33-2 . niSTORY OF Washington county. 

Hammoud, Jr., ITiram A. Holmes, George Johnston, William Jenkins, George 
KaufTman, Dallas Link. Atlas Lacock, Nathan B. Marsh, Michael Moore, 
Abel Moore, Lect S. Moore, James S. Marsrenim. George W. Moninger, 
Martin ^Murphy, John W. Manning, James A. McDonald, Levi IL Pope, 
Thomas Patterson, John A. Prall, John N. Prall, Henry Prall, John W. 
Penny, Jo.'^eph R. Province, John H. Reynolds, Josephiis Ross, AVm. T. 
Rigg. Joseph Ritraan, Thomas Slasher, Henry Slusher, Andrew J. Sowers, 
Andrew Scott, Samuel Simons. Eberhardt 'I'eagarden, Hiram Tharp, Ro- 
bert Thompson, Samuel Trusler, Jacob Ulery, William Yankirk, Samuel 
Wilson. Samuel J. Wilson, David Wishart, Samuel K. West, Jacob L. 
AVise, James Watson, Richard White. 

La Fayette Cavalry 

Was mustered into the service of the United States October 23, 1862. 
Its term of service was three years, and served with the Riugold 
battalion until the organization of the 22d regiment of Pennsylvania 
cavalry, organized March, 1864. This company ranked in the regi- 
ment as Company G. 

Captain Alexander Y. Smith was elected its first Captain and 
served until September 5, 1SG3, when he was honorably discharged, 
and his successor was Captain William F. Spear, who was promoted 
from 2d Lieut., and who with the company was mustered out Octo- 
ber 31, 1865. 

1st Lieut. Frank B. Smith served from the organization until 
December 21, 1864, when, being honorably discharged on account of 
a severe wound, received at Charleston, W. Y., he was succeeded 
by Lieut. J. G. Yan Gilder, who had previously filled the office of 2d 
Lieut, from September 6, 1863. Lieut. James C. Hubbs, who was 
elected December 22, 1864, succeeded 2d Lieut. J. G. Yan Gilder; 
his successor was Lieut. AV. H. Frost, elected May 31, 1865, and 
mustered out with the company. 

McKennan Infantry 

Was organized April 2T, 1861, in Washington County. This com- 
pany tendered their services to the general government but were not 
accepted, the quota being full. They were invited to AYest A'irginia, 
marched to AVheeling, and on July 10, 1861, were received by author- 
ity of Governor Pierpont, and elected oCQcers who were duly com- 
missioned by him. 

Captain Smith was taken prisoner at Cattell's Station on the 
Manassas railroad, and after liis parole and exchange November 23, 
1862, resigned, and Lieut. N. Vi. Truxal was elected November 24, 
1862. 

Officers. — Lewis E. Smith, Captain ; A. A. Devore, 1st Lieut. ; N. W. 
Truxal, 2d. Lieut. 

NoN-CoMMiRsioNKD OFFICERS. — J. K. Rillingsly. Sergeant ; Thos. Young. 
Sergeant ; Jacob Kent, Sergeant, p. ; J. 15. Montgomery. Sergeant ; Jacob 
Qualk, Sergeant; X. Ledbeater, Corporal; J. Hornl)ake, Corporal,!'.; G. 
Underwood, Corporal, v.; John Lopp, Corporal; Samuel Kent, Corporal, 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 333 

P. ; S. Amalong, Corporal ; J. "Weaver, Corporal, p. ; Robert Jobes, Cor- 
poral. 

Privates. — J. F. Ailes, k.; Jesse Ammon, Henry Barnbart, Jas. F. Bige- 
low, p.; Jac. D. Billingsly, Thos. Bee, Geo. D. Boyd. Wm. Bunton, Nathan- 
iel Balding, James W. Blair, Sidney J. Benedict. Wm. H. H. Billingsly, N. 
Baldwin, D. 0. Carpenter, Geo. AV. Clendennel, John Cunnard, Jefferson 
Cleudennel, John N. Crow, Augustus Clark, Joseph "W. Chester, Marion 
Crumrine, Theophilus V. Devore, p. ; Henry E. Devore, Jehu Dehaven, 
Michael Bowling, James R. Dowliug, John C. Evans, Hamilton Fitzsim- 
mons, Lewis M. Freeman, d.; William Geho, DeWitt Clinton Graham, Jas. 
M. II. Gordon, Wm. Garton, p.; Andrew J. Harris, Wm. J. Harris, Wm. H. 
Hornbake, Osmond Hutchison, p.; Charles S. Hi.xeiibaugh, Robert Herron, 
Noble Houdon, Samuel J. Howe, Daniel Howe, k.; Lemuel B. Howe, Ewd. 
Jones, Samuel Jobes, Andrew N. Jobes, Jos. Jobes, Wm. W. Jobes, Robt. 
Jobes, Joseph Johnson, Jas. M. Johnson, Alex. S. Latta, p.; Hugh Lancas- 
ter, Elijah Lichteberger, p.; Wm. L. Latta. Allen Moore, Robt. McDonald. 
Robt. Mayhorn, p.; Jos. Mayhorn, Wm. McCoy, Robt. McCoy, Geo. Mar- 
ker, Sanson Miller, James P. McCain, Isaac S. McCain, John McLaughlin, 
William Norcross, Nathaniel Patterson, David R. Phillips, Hiram Qualk. 
Frank S. Reader, Jas. Reader, Jr., John Rimmel, Frederick Rimmel, Felix 
Russell, Augustus Shaffer, Cuthbert Soulsby, d. ; Wm. Showalters, Nehe- 
miah Sikes, Philip Thomas, John W. Truxal, Poster H. Truxal, d.; Elihu 
Underwood, Hiram AVells, Alfred D. Wolf, Wm. Worrell, AVm. AVilkin. 
Stephen Ward, Finley Wise, Thos. AValker, Abraham Weaver, John Wea- 
ver, J. R. Williams, Stephen H. Ward, p.; Robt. Young, Nathaniel Young. 

November 24, 1862, Lieut. jS". W. Truxal was elected Captain. 
Charles H. Day elected 1st Lieut. December 3, 1863. James R. 
Billingsly elected 2d Lieut. January 11, 1862, and promoted from 2d 
Lieut, to Captain March 5, 1863. James B. Montgomery elected 
2d Lieut. December 3, 1863. Lieut. A. A. Devore resigned Octo- 
ber 10, 1861. 

This company participated in the following battles, viz : Allegheny 
Mountain, Pluntersville, Monterey, McDowell, Cross Keys, Cedar 
Mountain, Kelley's Ford, Warterloo Bridge, Gainsville, Sulphur 
Springs, Bull Run, Beverly, Rocky Gap, and Drop Mountain. It 
was mustered out of service July 28, 1864, at Wheeling, Ya. 

6th Regiment, Pennsylyania Militia. 

This regiment was organized September 15, 1862, at Harrisburg. 
by the election of Capt. James Armstrong as Colonel. It marched 
to Camp McClure, two miles west of Chambersburg, and mustered 
out September 28, 1862. David Aiken was appointed Quarter- 
master Sept. 15, 1862; James E. Smiley, Assistant Quartermaster; 
Boyd Crumrine, Quartermaster's Clerk; Rev. Wm. P. Alrich, 
Chaplain ; Ordinance Sergeant, William Ilart. 

The Wayne Infantry left Washington Sept. 13, 1862, under the 
command of Capt. James Armstrong, numbering one hundred and 
forty men, but by the authority of the Adjutant-General it was 
divided into tw^o companies, Capt. Armstrong being re-elected 
captain of the Wayne Infantry, and Capt. Norton McGiffin of the 
McGiffin Riflemen. 



334 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Roll of Company A. 

Officers. — Norton McGiffin, Captain; S. M. Templeton, 1st Lieut.; 
H. 11. Alter. 2il Lieut. 

Nox-CoMMissioxF.n Offickrs. — J. B. Wilson, 1st Sergeant; H. B. Mc- 
<Jollum, 2d Sergeant; David Brady, 3d Sergeant; AVesley "Wolf, 4th Ser- 
geant; J. C. Acheson, r)tb Sergeant; J. M. Spriggs, 1st Corporal; H B. 
McCoUum. 2d Corporal ; J. F. Stcck, 3d Corporal ; John Wylie, 4th Cor- 
]ioral ; T. (i. Wolf, 5th Corporal; J. Ross Thompson, 6th Corporal; H. 
M. Aiken, 7th Corporal ; J. W. Dinsmore, 8th Corporal. 

^lusiciAN. — Charles White. 

PrjVATKS. — H. 11. Arnold. J. C. Alrich, Wm. Allen, Norton Braddock, J. 
N. Bane. Wm. Burk, Wm. T. lieatty, Samuel Cook. J. L. Cooke, S. A. Clark, 
U. W. Driver, G. L. Gow, Wm. Greer. Charles Glum, John llainer, J. N. 
Hainer, George Hammond. John Ilallams, G. 0. Jones, T. C. Kerr, J. C. 
Kieser, A. H. Little, George Lindsay, Gust Lonkert, Wm. McClaine. James 
McCrearv, J. E. McCullough. J. B. McKeunan. Jerry Marshel, G. W. Mur- 
phy. Wm'. Paul), S. 11. Rial, J. G. Ruple. J. G. Rode, J. P. Reimond, A. 
D. Rickey, James Seaman, J. W. Seaman, R. F. Strain, J. H. Scott, A. M. 
Todd. Theodore Turner. R. L. Thompson, F. P. Varro. Wm. M. Yance. D. 

C. Valentine, T. M. Wylie, J. W. AS^ylie. F. J. L. Wylie, J. C. S. Wiles, 
W. M. L. Wiles, J. G. Winsworth, Samuel Weirich, J. S. Wolf, F. R. 
Wotring, David Watson. 

Commissioned Officers, 3 ; Non-Commissioued Officers, 13 ; Mu- 
sician, 1; Privates, 5G; total, 13. 

Roll of Company F, Qth Regiment Pa. Volunteer Militia. 

Officers. — John H. Ewing, Capt. ; Alfred Creigh, 1st Lieut. ; Samuel 
O. Williams, 2d Lieut. 
Nox-CoMMissioNED OFFICERS. — James M. Byers, 1st Sergeant ; Thomas 

D. O'llara, 2d Sergeant; Wm. Hart, 3d Sergeant; Geo. Reed. 4th Ser- 
geant; Wm. T. Fleming, 5th Sergeant; Samuel T. Griffith, 1st Corporal; 
James Brown, 2d Corporal; R. B. Patterson, 3d Corporal; Jas. R. Ruth. 
4th Corporal ; ]Mathew Linn, 5th Corporal ; Wm. Phillips, Oth Corporal ; 
Wm. W. Smith, 7th Corporal ; F. Gabby, 8th Corporal. 

Musician. — Moses T. Scott. 

Privates. — Rev. Wm. Alrich, David Aiken, Wm. Anion, Agnew, Alex- 
ander, R. M. Andrews, A. J. BufEngton, N. B. Brobst, John Baird, Dr. ^M. 
H. Clark, Boyd Crumrine, John R. Donchoo, Richard R. Forest, Samuel 
Foster, Henry Foster, Charles Grier, David Guinea. I. J. Guinea, John H. 
Gregg, AVm. P. Hart, Joseph Henderson, Joseph Holmes, Samuel Haz- 
lett, Jr., George S. Hart, Samuel Hutson, Joseph Jones, J. E. Lucas, 
John Linn, John Lowe, Wm. J. Mathews, Jacob Metzler, Thomas ^Ic- 
Kennan, Thomas McKean. George Mitchell, John McElroy, J. A. Mar- 
chand, Wm. I'ost, Collin >L Reed, Thomas Stewart, Samuel Shealer, Rev. 
Jacob Schaffer, Rev. John W. Scott, Sample Sweeney John Sweeney, 
James E. Smiley, Scheller Thompson, John Wilson, Edward Wilkins. 
NN'illiani Wylie, Wright Tappan "Wylie, John A. Wills, John P. AVestley. 
J. S. Young. 

Commissioned Officers, 3; Non-Commissioued Officers, 13; 3Iu- 
sician, 1 ; Privates, 52 ; total, 69. 

Capt. Armstrong being re-elected Colonel, John H. Ewing was 
elected Captain. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 335 



1st Battalion, 100 Days' Artillery, Pennsylvania Volunteers, 

Under command of Major Joseph M. Knapp, organized June, 1864, 
and mustered out the following- September. 

David Watson, Lieutenant. 

R. T. Hall, Joseph McK. Aclieson, Sandy Clark, James Martin, William 
McMeillin, John Monniger, Privates. 

9th Reserve, Co. A. 

C. F. Jackson, Colonel. 

W. K.Bailey, M. R. Taggart, M. P. Morrison (Serg.-Maj.) w. 

Gth Heavy Artillery, 212th Regiment, Co. E. 

J. W. Downer, 2d Jun. Lieut.. William Woodward, 0. S., Abraham Yan- 
Voorhis, 1st Sergeant. 

Privates. — G. L. Bayhe, James Behanna. Ebert Newbold, James Flan- 
nigan, d. ; James Quigg, J. Rufner, John Ray. 

Provost Guard. 

By general orders, No. 172, of the War Department, dated June 

9, 1863, this State was divided into two military departments : 1st, 
the department of the Monongahela; and 2d, the department of 
the Susquehanna. In the department of the Monongahela, besides 
the 54th, 55th, 56th, 57th, and 58th Regiments of ninety days 
militia, there was one unattached company of artillery, and one of 
cavalry. 

There was also organized, August 8, 1864, in this department, 
for the six months United States service, the Provost Guard, sta- 
tioned at Pittsburg, under the command of the following officers : 
Capt. Samuel T. Griffith, 1st Lieut. Samuel M. Decker, 2d Lieut. 
William R. Jamison. 

The following non-commissioned officers and privates were from 
Washington County. 

NoN-CoMMissiONED OFFICERS. — Benjamin K. Kennedy, Orderly Sergeant; 
Henry H. Arnold, 2d Sergeant ; Thomas H. Stewart, 3d Sergeant ; Sa- 
muel T. Decker, 4th Sergeant. 

Corporals. — Hugh B. McKinley, Robert 0. Shepler, Charles Boyd, 
Theodore M. Turner, Wm. T. Decker. 

Privates. — Wm. T. Creigh, Joseph Day, Theodore Baches, John W. 
Frank, James S. Harter, Joseph A. Jones, Frank L. Oliver, Thaddeus 
Ryan, Samuel S. Stewart, J. Taylor Simpson, William Zelt. 

The number of men on the company-roll, including non-commis- 
sioned officers, was 103; all except the above were from adjoining 
counties. The company was discharged on the expiration of term 
of enlistment, January 29, 1864. 

Frank L. Oliver was discharged, by writ of habeas corpus, Aug. 

10, 1863. 



336 history op washington county. 

List of Officers from Washington County 

Who liave been connected with other regiments than those specified, 
with the rank of each : — 

Wm. S. Mellinger, Major 13th Rep:iment, elected April 25, 1861. Mustered 
out August G, 180 1. 
" " Major 79th Ecgiment, elected October 18, 1861. Re- 

signed November 8, 1802. 

A. G. Happer, 2d Lieutenant 11th Regiment, Company I, elected March 
21, 1804. Honorably discharged October 20, 180;"). 

J. W. Alexander, Assistant Surgeon 26th Regiment, appointed January 10, 
1862. 
" " Surgeon 85th Regiment, appointed June 10, 1862. Mus- 

tered out October 13, 1802. 
" " Surgeon 160th Regiment, appointed October 20, 1862. 

Mustered out June 21, 1865. 

Thomas B. Reed, Surgeon 31st Regiment, appointed June 6, 1861. Trans- 
ferred to U. S. volunteers April 20, 1862. 

Rev. Wm. Aiken, Chaplain 3Tth Regiment, appointed June 24, 1861. Mus- 
tered out May 24, 1h64. 

Rev. Thomas Patterson, Chaplain, 22d Regiment, Company D, appointed 
February, 1864. Mustered out. 

S. B. Bennington, Captain 3Tth Regiment, Company D, elected December 
28, 1862. Resigned December 25, 1863. 

Thomas McGee, 1st Lieutenant 37th Regiment, Company D, elected De- 
cember 14, 1862. Mustered out May 24, 1804. 

Solomon G. Krepps, 2d Lieutenant, 37th Regiment, Company D. elected 
October 1, 1861. Transierred to 4tli U. S. Infantry 
May 1, 1862. 

Frank J. Le Moyne, Assistant Surgeon 38th Regiment, appointed March 14, 
1863. 
'• " Surgeon 161st Regiment, appointed January 9, 1864. 

Mustered out July 24, 1865. 

Chill W. Hazard, 1st and 2d Lieutenant 41st Regiment, Company F, 

elected September 1 0, 1 861 . Transferred to Company I. 

" " Captain 41st Regiment, Company I, elected August 1, 

1862. Mustered out June 11, 1864; appointed brevet 

Major. 

J. B. ^IcDonough, Assistant Surgeon 46th Regiment, appointed January 
21, 1863. ]\lustered out July 10, 1805. 

S. J. McFarren, 1st Lieutenant 6()th Regiment, Company I, elected Feb- 
ruary 14, 1805. Mustered out August 7, 1805. 

Alvin King, 1st Lieutenant 02d Regiment, Company K, elected July 4, 
1861. H()noral)ly discharged March 19, 1863. 

Josiah P. Morrell, 2d Lieutenant 62d Regiment, Companv K, elected De- 
cember 17, 1862. Killed at Gettysburg July 2. 1863. 

Joshua C. Prall, 2d Lieutenant 64th Regiment, Company I, elected Decem- 
ber 24, 1861. Resigned December 25, 1862. 

Thomas H. Phillips, Assistant Surgeon 79th Regiment, appointed January 
10,1865. Mustered out July 12, 1865. Dr. P. served 
as Assistant Surgeon in the 196th Regiment, being 
appointed July 26, 1864, aod mustered out November 
17, 1864. 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 33t 

Jonathan 'Wotring, Assistant Surj^eon 83d Regiment, appointed Mai'ch 14, 

1863. Resigned May 13, 1863. 

T. 0. M. Stockton, Assistant Surgeon 83d Regiment, appointed April 26, 

1864. Mustered out June 28, 186;"). 

Rev. J. P. Caldwell, Chaplain 8oth Regiment, appointed October 21, 1862. 

Resigned May 1, 18G3. 
'S. J. Van Gilder, 2d Lieutenant 85th Regiment, Company IT, elected Sep- 
tember 23, 1861. Resigned July 31, 1862. 

J. E. Michener, 1st Lieutenant 85th Regiment, Company D, elected July 
6, 1862. Transferred to Company K. 
" " Captain 85th Regiment, Company K, elected December 3, 

1863. Term expired November 22, 1864. 

Samuel L. McHenry, 1st Lieutenant 85th Regiment, Company K, elected 
July 21, 1862. Appointed Adjutant and Assistant 
Adjutant General of Brigade June 1, 1863. 

Samuel S. Bulford, Lieutenant-Colonel 87th Regiment, elected June 15, 
1865. Mustered out as Captain of Company H, June, 
29, 1865. Colonel Bulford ranked as Captain of Com- 
pany H from March 15, 1865. 

Jesse C. Taylor, 1st Lieutenant 100th Regiment, Company M, elected 
August 26. 1861. Discharged March 8, 1862. 

Robert F. Cooper, Adjutant 101st Regiment, appointed Adjutant October 
15, 1861. Resigned June 21, 1862. 

M. P. Morrison, Assistant Surgeon 102d Regiment, appointed August 6, 
1861. Promoted to Surgeon September 15, 1862. 

George S. Ringland, Captain 108th Regiment (11th Cavalry), Company A, 
elected October 1, 1862. Served as 1st Lieutenant 
from Auo-ust 15, 1861. Mustered out at expiration of 
term October 4, 1864. 

George W. Bassett, 1st Lieutenant 108th Regiment, Company A, October 
1, 1862. 2d Lieutenant August 15, 1861. 

Thomas Moreley, 1st Lieutenant 113th Regiment (12th Cavalry), Company 
G, July 22, 1863. 2d Lieutenant June 26, 1862. He 
•was promoted to Captain of Company I, January 20, 

1865. and honorably discharged April 8, 1865. 
Robert J. Taggart, Major 116th Regiment, elected June 4, 1865, and mus- 
tered out as Captain of Company I July 14, 1865, 
having been elected Captain May 13, 1865, and 1st 
Lieutenant February 18, 1865. 

Wm. P. McNary, Adjutant 123d Regiment, November 28, 1862. Mustered 
out with Regiment May 13, 1863. 
" " Lieutenant-Colonel 58th Regiment, July 10, 1863. Mus- 

tered out August 15, 1863. 

Rev. Thomas Storer, Chaplain 133d Regiment, August 20, 1862. Mustered 
out with regiment May 26, 1863. 

Jas. R. Patten, Assistant Surgeon 139th Regiment, April 13, 1863. Mus- 
tered out with regiment June 21, 1865. 

Selden L. Wilson, 2d Lieutenant 160th Regiment, May 29, 1865. Mustered 
out with regiment June 21, 1865. 

James K. McCurdy, Assistant Surgeon 163d Regiment, December 29, 1864. 
Mustered out with regiment July 21, 1865. 

Wm. A. Young, 1st Lieutenant 163d Regiment, Company F, October 3, 
1864 (2d Lieutenant June 25, 1863). Mustered out 
October 31, 1865, as 2d Lieutenant of Company E, 3d 
Prov. Cavalry, October 31, 1865. 



338 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Vincent Colvin, 2d Lieutenant 163d Regiment, Company F, March 30, 

l;G3. Died June 24, 1863. 
John Murphy, Lieutenant-Colonel 168th Regiment, December 4, 1862. 

Mustered out July 25, 1863. 
Alexander M. Rea, Assistant Surgeon 168th Regiment, May 14, 1863. 

Mustered out July 25, 1863. 
Rev. John L. Staples, Chaplain 168th Regiment, March 12, 1863. Mus 

tered out July 25, 1863. 
R. P. Hughes, Lieutenant-Colonel 199th Regipient, November 28, 1864; 

appointed brevet Colonel April 2, 1865. Mustered 

out June 28, 1865. 
James R. Clark, 2d Lieutenant 204th Regiment (5th artillery), September 

16, 1864. Mustered out June 30, 1865. 
A. R. Wyeth, Assistant-Surgeon 208th Regiment, September 12, 1864. 

Honorably discharged March 3, 1865. 
J. L. Rea, Assistant Surgeon 212th Regiment (6th artillery], September 

13, 1864. Mustered out June 13, 1865. 
James L. Downer, 2d Lieutenant 212th Regiment, Company E. November 

■» 1864. Mustered out June 13, 1865. 
Fra. Eichelberger, 1st Lieutenant Battery C, Pennsylvania artillery, October 

11, 1864. Resigned June IT, 1865. He had served 

as 2d Lieutenant from June 30, 1864, to his promotion 

as 1st Lieutenant. 

Militia Mustered into State Service, 90 days. 

H. J. Vankirk, Major 58th Regiment. July 10, 1863. Mustered out August 

15, 1863. 
Mat Templeton Captain, | -g^^^ Regiment, Company B, July 10 .1860. 

Z A. W lute L.t Lieutenant, \ Mustered out August 14 1863. 
Thomas Foster, 2d Lieutenant, j " ' 

AVm. J. Carey, 2d Lieutenant 58th Regiment, Company D, July 4, 1863. 

Mustered out August 14, 1863. 
S. S. Rogers, Surgeon 10th Regiment, September 16, 1862. Mustered out 

with regiment. 

Wm. S. Calohan, Captain, 1 i )+i r) -^ j. ri t? o ^ ^r 

T Ai -M -wir ^ IT- i i 14th Regiment. Company L, Sept. 16, 

.). M. Alc\\ illKims. 1st Lieutenant, > -.^...^ t\- \ 1 "li ™ 

X , AX- IT r oi T- i * I 1802. Discharged with company. 
John v\ . Havelin, 2d Lieutenant, j ° ^ •' 

J»..iii C. Brown, Major 18th Regiment, September 12, 1862. Discharged 

with regiment. 

W. J. Alexander Captain, | 18th Regiment, Company G, Sept. 12. 

Irwin C. Stump, 1st Lieutenant. > to/>.i i\- i i Zi 

Wm. II. AVilson, 2d Lieutenant, J l^*'^' discharged with company. 
Jolin Weaver, Captain, ) ion t) • ,. r\ tt o i i 

Wm. Quail. 1st Lieutenant, I ^^ ^i ?'^!™'?v ^^mpany H September 
Wm. McMillan, 2d Lieutenant, ) ^ '' l^*^- Discharged with company. 

Wc close this chapter of tlic military history of Washington 
County by stating; that the Icg-islatnre passed an act autliorizinsr 
the cominissiouers oT each county to assess a tax for the relief of 
tliosc families who volunteered in the service of their country. 
Accordingly, on i\[ay 20, 18(11, ^Icssrs. Cook, Taylor, and Elliott, 
the commissioners, assessed one mill on tlie dollar, which was directed 
to be added to the duplicates in the hands of the treasurer 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 339 

On the subsequent clay the commissioners and associate judges, 
Jacob Slagle aud James G. Hart, Esqs., met as a Board of Relief 
and appointed Job Johnston, of California, T. R. Hazzard, of Monon- 
gahela City, Wm. MeDaniel, of Canonsburg, Andrew S. Ritchie, of 
West Middletown, and Andrew Brady, of Washington, to ascertain 
the families of such persons as are entitled to relief, and report the 
circumstances of each, to enable the Board to give the necessary 
relief. 

On June 3, 1861, disbursing agents were appointed to carry out 
the provisions of the law in the several localities where there are 
persons needing relief. The Board adopted, as a general rule, to 
give two dollars per week to the wife and fifty cents per week for 
each child, to be computed from the time the soldier entered the 
service. 

September 25th the Board reduced the appropriation to ten dol- 
lars per month, as the maximum for each family, and allowed dis- 
crimination below that according to circumstances. 

October 14th the appropriation was reduced to eight dollars per 
month, except in extreme cases. 

Thus the Board of Relief acted promptly and energetically in the 
discharge of their duties, to the satisfaction of the citizens of the 
county and the soldier and his family. 

The Soldier's Monument. 

The undersigned have been appointed a committee to decide 
upon a plan for carrying out the purpose of the contributors. This 
enterprise has been delayed for the want of adequate funds. The 
money heretofore collected was invested securely, and the accumu- 
lated fund, together with uncollected subscriptions deemed good, 
now amount to from five to six thousand dollars. In fulfilment of 
the wishes of the contributors it is now proposed to go fomvard and 
expend the money to the best advantage. The committee have 
two designs before them for their consideration. 

First : A Marble Monument of as large dimensions as the sum 
will warrant. It was originally proposed to inscribe on this monu- 
ment the name of every soldier of Washington County who had 
died in the service from disease or wounds during the war. On 
account of the large number (over eight hundred) this may be imprac- 
ticable, but some other method in connection with the monument, 
like that hereafter suggested, might be resorted to for perpetuating 
their memory. 

Second : A Memorial GhajJel, built out of our common red 
sandstone, of sufficient dimensions to allow the insertion of marble 
tablets in the wall, and between the openings, on which the soldiers' 
names from each township and borough would be inscribed, together 
with any private memorial which the friends of any particular sol- 
dier might desire to place on the walls, busts of distinguished mill- 



340 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY, 

taiy characters, and relics and trophies of the war. This design 
contemplates an indestructible book containing a brief historical 
account of each soldier, to be kept within the chapel, open to the 
inspection of visitors. 

These are the two plans under consideration. To accomplish 
either of them satisfactorily, and in such manner as to do credit to 
Washington County, would require larger means than we have at 
command. 

The Washington Cemetery is to be the location. Its central posi- 
tion, easiness of access and marvellous development rendering it the 
largest, as it is certainly the most attractive and beautiful burial 
place in the county, point it out as the most suitable site for the 
monument or memorial chapel. 

The committee desire to obtain the following information at as 
early a day as possible : — 

1. The name, company, and regiment of each soldier who volun- 
teered, enlisted as a substitute, or was drafted into the service of 
the United States during the late war, and who afterward^ died in 
the service, or after his discharge, from wounds received, or disease 
contracted whilst in the service, accompanied with a statement of 
his birth, age, and i)lacc of residence when he entered the service. 

2. The cause of death, and if from wounds, the place or engage- 
ment where received. 

3. The e.xactdate of death, giving the day of the month and year. 

4. The place of death. 

It is proper to say that as there is a call for the completion of 
the undertaking, all that the committee can do is to adopt some plan 
within the compass of the means furnished. Beyond that they can- 
not go, and the inadequacy of the fund is the great source of per- 
plexity and embarrassment. If the soldiers' memorial should not 
suit the public expectation, while it would be a source of regret to 
the committee, they would f(>el that they had performed their duty. 
But before final action is taken, we would solicit immediate volun- 
tary aiul individual sul)scription, by direct communication with the 
committee, from every citizen who feels an interest in the enter- 
prise, and desires the soldiers' monument to be worthy of the patri- 
otic dead who in the late war so nobly represented Washington 
County. 

a. w. aciieson, 
Boyd Crumuine, 
Thus. McKennan, 

Committee. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 341 



CHAPTER YIII. 

HISTORY OP ASSOCIATIONS, AND EVENTS WHICH TRANSPIRED IN 
WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

■ FREE MASONRY. 

Lodge 54. 

The oldest organization outside of the church, of which we have 
any knowledge, is the Masonic Order. 

Although Bassetville, or, subsequently, Washington, was laid out in 
1781, yet nine years afterwards we find its prominent citizens taking 
the necessary steps to organize a Masonic lodge. Six of the origi- 
nal sfettlers of the town made the necessary application to the R. W. 
Grand Lodge, and a charter was gi'anted to Brother Jas. Chambers 
as Worshipful Mas^ter, Brother Absalom Baird as Senior Warden, 
Brother Cyrus Beckwith as Junior Warden, Brother Alex. Roney 
as Treasurer, Brother James Whiteside as Secretary, and Brother 
James Farchar as Tyler. The lodge was constituted by Brother 
Matthew Patchie, D. D. G. M., June 25, 1792, and was numbered 54. 
It continued in existence until 1812, when the labors of masonry 
were temporarily interrupted by the representatives of the people 
declaring war against Great Britain. 

From its organization until 1802, it met in several places, but 
afterwards in their own hall, which stood in the rear of the lot now 
occupied by Brother John Grayson. 

During the term of its existence eight brethren presided as Wor- 
shipful Masters, viz : John Chambers, Dr. Absalom Baird, John 
Hoge, George H. Keppelle, David Cooke, Samuel Clark, John Wil- 
son, and Alexander Reed. 

It is worthy of remark that the written records of this lodge, under 
date of January 6, 1800, show the fact that the members were re- 
quired to wear a scarf on their left arm, and a black rose on their 
apron for one year as a memoi:al of the death of their brother Gen. 
George Washington. 

Washington Lodge, 164. 

This lodge was chartered upon the petition of the members of No. 
54, which had been in abeyance since the war. It was constituted 
March 1, 1819, by Hon. John H. Walker, D. D. G. M., and met in 
the hall of No. 54 until i825, when it erected a hall on Maiden St. 
(second house west of the Round Corner). This lodge continued in 



342 HISTORY OF WASIIIXOTON COUNTY. 

€uccessful operation until 1832, when it suspended labor until the 
officers should again summon the craftsmen to work. They suspended 
their labor on account of the wicked and persecuting spirit of anti- 
Masonry, which blighted church and State, and even separated fami- 
lies. 80 full of evil was this destroying spirit that good men 
shuddered at its wicked and iniquitous demands. But the fury of 
the storm soon passed over; ten years of anti-Masonic darkness, from 
the year 1826 to 1830, was sufficient to convince the people of its 
malignant designs, and the persecutors of the order were universally 
consigned to the tomb of oblivion. 

On the 14th of April, 1845, the W. M. Brother George Baird 
summoned the craft to labor, and during the thirteen years of its 
suspension, death had not robbed the Masonic Temple of either offi- 
cers or members, but all were present and participated in erecting an 
altar to God, and placing thereon its first great light. Since 1845, the 
progress of this lodge has been onward, her membership discharg- 
ing their entire duty, beloved and respected both as citizens and as 
Masons. 

From its organization to the present time the following persons 
have filled the office of Worshipful Masters, viz : George Jackson, 
Thomas H. Baird, George Baird, Alfred Creigh, William Wolf, Wil- 
liam Smith, H. H. Frisbic, William Boardman, W. Hart, Alexander 
Wishart, James C. Acheson, James M. Byers, James M. House, 
David Aiken, and Frederick Whittlesey, its present Worshipful 
Master. 

Hiram Lodge, No. 170, 

Was instituted at Monongahela City, December 6, 1810, and con- 
tinued in existence until 1827. Its onlv Worshipful Master was 
Dr. Pollock. 

HiLLSBORO Union Lodge, No. 209, 

Was chartered April 17, 1827, and located at Hillsboro, but its 
charter was vacated March Ifi, 1837. Its Past Masters were Brother 
John M. Davis, Hugh Keys, and George Morrison, 

Chandler Lodge, No. 237, 

Was located in Washington, and chartered March 5, 1849. It was 
subsequently removed to BcnlhmJlc in this county. 

Its Past Masters are Brother James T. Dagg, James B. Ruple, 
J. B. Musser, Samuel Thompson, (Jeorge Passmore, J. McDonough, 
Isaac Register, J. Madison Miller, John Evvart, and Ahira Jones, its 
present Master. 

Chartters Lodge, No. 297, 

Was chartered May 15, 185G, and constituted in Canonsburg. The 
following brethren have filled the office of Worshipful Master, viz : 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. o43 

John J. Shutterly, John Murphy, Jr., John Brown, William Hor- 
nish, J. B. Musser, Henry Sheaff, Adam Harbison, Jr., and Dr. J. 
W. Alexander, its present Master. 

H. M. Phillips Lodge, 337, 

Was chartered March 5, 1860, and located in Monongahela City. 
The following brethren have filled the office of Worshipful Master, 
viz : John Witherow, W. L. S. Wilson, S. Bentle}', Jr., Joel Grable, 
R. S. H. Keys, D. K. Stevenson, Edward Creighton, and John Hol- 
land. 

Tenmile Lodge, 356, 

Is situated in Tenmile village, and was chartered March 1, 1865. 
Its Worshipful Masters are Dr. J. C. Milliken, William H. Horn, 
Washington L. Dunn, and Jacob L. Bricker. 

Clays viLLE Lodge, 447, 

Was chartered by the R. W. Grand Lodge, September 1869, and 
located in Claysville. Its Worshipful Master is Isaac Teal, and was 
constituted October 4, 1869. 

Richard Yaux Lodge, 454, 

Is located in Burgettstown, and received a charter from the R. W. 
Grand Lodge, December 5, 1869, and was constitued January 21, 
1870. Its Worshipful Master is George T. McCord. 

Monongahela Valley Lodge, 461, 

Was chartered by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, March 2, 1870, 
and constituted at Greenfield, April 17, 1870. Its Worshipful Master 
is N. S. Yeatch. 

ROYAL ARCH MASONRY. 
Washington Chapter 150. 

In addition to these lodges, Washington Chapter claims an exist- 
ence under her present charter since Februar}^ 4, 1828, although the 
Royal Arch Degree was conferred under the charter of Lodge 164, 
as early as 1821. The companions who have been honored with the 
office of High Priest, were David Acheson, George Baird, John 
Best, Alfred Creigh, William Broadman, H. H. Frisbie, William 
Wolf, William Smith, J. B. Musser, William Hart, James M. Byers, 
Alexander Wishart, James C. Acheson, and James M. House. 



344 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



CRYPTIC MASONRY. 



Washington Council, No. 1, 

Of Royal Super-Excellent and Select ]\[astcrs was instituted by the 
K. P. Grand Council, November 16, 1847. The following illustrious 
companions have presided as Thrice Illustrious Grand Masters, viz: 
Alfred Crcigh, Andrew Hopkins, William Wolf, AVilliam Broadman, 
J. B. Afusser, H. II. Frisbie, William Hart, Alexander Wishart, J. 
C. Acheson, J. M. Byers, and J. M. House. 

CHIVALRIC ORDER OF MASONRY. 
Jacques Be Molay Commander y, No. 3. 

The Masonic fraternity of Washington County, desirous of having 
within her border all the various grades of Masonry, made applica- 
tion for a dispensation to open a Commandery. This was granted 
by Sir W. B. Hubbard, G. G. M. of Grand Encampment of the United 
States, September 12, 1849. Numerically it was immbered two, but 
after the union with the Grand Encampment of Philadelphia, it 
became No. 3. 

The following Sir Knights have filled the office of Eminent Com- 
mander, viz : Alfred Creigh, J. B. Musscr, William Wolf, Alexander 
Wishart, James M. Byers, John Hall, Boyd Crumrine, and John C. 
McCoy. 

ODD FELLOWSHTl'. 

AV^ashington County has nine lodges of this benevolent society 
within her limits. We give the location of each and the names of the 
Past Grands, those who have lionorably filled the chair to the satis- 
faction of the brethren, and for their efficient services are esteemed 
by the craft. Bro. G. L. Bayhe, of Lodge 371, was appointed I). D. 
a. Master, May, 18(19, and from his zeal in the cause and devotion 
to the principles of Odd Fellowship, ranks among the first District 
Deputy Grand Masters in the State. 

National Lodge, No. 81, 

Was established in Washington, February 13, 1843, by Joseph 
Browne, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of I. 0. 0. F. The 
lodge held its first meetings two lots south of the corner of Main and 
Maiden streets. In three years it was removed to the " Bound 
Corner." Subseciuently to Beau Street, on ihe property of William 
Smith, and in 1870 it has secured a permanent hall in J. S. Young's 
extensive buildings adjoining the public square. 

The following l)rethren from its organization have filled the office 
of Noble Grand, and are now ranked as Past Grands. The list is 
made out as they each presided. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 345 

1. Geo. Morrison ; 2. James W. Smith ; 3. Wm. K. Shannon ; 4. Thos. 
S. McKinley ; 5. Thos. Logan ; 6. Jas. M. Hutchinson ; 7. Alfred Creigh;8. 
Jas. McKinley; 9. Wm. AVolf; 10. Philip Kuhn ; 11. David Orr ; 12. Jona- 
than D. Leet; 13. John Davis; 14. Wm. J. Wilson; 1.5. Huirh H. Rey- 
nolds; 16. Wm. Harter; 17. Thomas Walker; 18. Peter Griffin; 19. O. 
B. McFadden; 20. Alfred McGowen; 21. Morgan Hays; 22. John Thomp- 
son ; 23. Thos. M. Hall; 24. John Allen ; 25. James F. Sarrat; 26. John 
Wilson; 27. Marshal H. Hays; 28. Saml. M. Decker; 29. Wm. R. Terry; 
30. C. Z. Koechline; 31. Mathew Griffin; 32. George T. Hammond; 33. 
Freeman Brndy, Jr. ; 34. H. B. McCollum ; 35. Frank Fitzwilliams ; 36. 
David Aiken ; 37. John Brady ; 38. Jos. M. Spriggs ; 39. Chas. Post ; 40. 
Thos. L. Birch; 41. Jacob Goldsmith; 42. J. Nick Hainer; 43. George W. 
Driver; 44. Thomas D. Ohara ; 45. Robert McBlheny ; 46. Wm. Allen; 
47. Henry Schoenthal; 48. John Low ; 49. Chas. H. Ruple. 

Peters' Creek Lodge, 248, 

Was instituted at Findleyville, May 17, 1847. The following breth- 
ren have presided as N. Gr. since its organization : — 

William Gaston, W. B. Lank, Wm. Gist, Isaac Lytle, James Angus. 
James Morrison, Joseph M. Curry, Samuel Atcheson, R. R. Bell, James 
McAlister, W. M. Mouck, John Huston, William Feree, Michael Sanders. 
Joseph Conlin, John Barclay, Frederick Snell, A. P. Heath, Isaiah Brown, 
John Stoeful, Thos. Snee, A. Y. Crouch, Josiah Estep, Abel Buckingham, 
Louis Welch, Geo. W. Lyons, E. N. Wright, Samuel P. Hutchinson, R. 
Campbell, Robert Cowen, Samuel Messner, Geo. Gibson, Frank R. Storer, 
J. M. Snee. 

Nucleus Lodge, 377, 

Was organized at Monongahela City on the 14th day of September, 
1849. The following is a list of its Past Grands. 

Robert Coulter, Raphael Coulter, J. W. Carraac, Peter S. Griffin, C 
Beach, A. T. Gregg, Shed. Hiser, T. R. Hazzard, W. S. Mellinger, D. J. 
Hamilton, Munson Clark, R. H. Young, J. W. Downer, F. M. Myers, Isaac 
Lowman, R. M. Gee, John GilfiUan, M. G. Gibson, Mark Boreland, David 
Lackey, Michael Bowman, George Callohan, J. B. Williams, Thos. Wilson, 
G. M. Groves, G. W. Frana, Thomas Coatsworth, J. L. Gee, Joseph Coats- 
worth, M. Sanders, G. L. Bayne, and H. C. Underwood. 

The Oaa Fellows have a convenient and elegant hall under the 
control of Nucleus Association, worth seventeen thousand dollars, 
situate on Main Street. It has all the necessary rooms handsomely 
furnished, also a room for public meetings, while the Odd Fellows' 
Mutual Co-operative Association has a large and extensive store on 
the first floor. The trustees of the Nucleus Association are, J. S. 
Crall, President ; T. R. Hazzard, Secretary ; R. M. Gee, J. B. 
Finley, A. C. Sampson, and A. T. Gregg, trustees. 

The Odd Felloivs' Mutual Go-operative Association has a capital 
of forty thousand dollars, and was organized April 6, 1867. Its 
trustees are J. L. Gee, President; R. M. Gee, J. B. Finley, Jas. 
23 



346 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Louted, H. A. Warran, J. W. Downer. Clerks in the store — T. 
Wilson and L. Shreckongost. 

Rebecca Degree, 

Nucleus Lodge has attached Priscilla Lodge for the benefit of 
females whose fathers, husbands, and brothers belong to the lodge. 
Bro. A. T. Gregg is the presiding officer, and Mrs. J. S. Crall is 
secretary. It was organized March 21, 1870. 

Pike Run Lodge, No. 491, 

Is located in California, Washington County. Its Past Grands 
are 

John S. Van Horn, James S. Lewellen, Jacob G. Huggins, G. Dowler, 
Jacob Hornbake, Samuel Lewis, John Clendaniel, Joseph S. Wilkins, John 
W. Paxlon, D. H. Jacobs, James L. Long, James Herron, G. G. Hertzog, 
and James M. Berkinsha. 

Tenmile Lodge, No. 552, 

Was chartered May 19, 1859, and is located at Amity. Its Past 
Grands are 

H. C. Swartz, S. M. Walton, James A. Bebout, Dr. W. W. Sharp, M. 
McCollum, A. J. McCollum, J. D. Huston, John McAfee, J. W. Denman, 
J. B. Vandyke, Isaac Sharp, Wm. Kelly, F. F. Ijams, W. C. Condit, J. B, 
McAfee, A. J. Swartz. 

Cedar Lodge, No. 633, 

Was chartered August 1, 1868, and is located in Centreville, East 
Bethlehem township. Its Past Grands are 

W. N. Hoskinson, E. S. Yeho, and E. H. Griffith. 

Lone Pine Lodge, No. 693, 

Is located at Pin Hook, and was organized March 26, 18T0, by D. 
D. G. M., G. L. Bayhe. Its Past Grands are 

J. D. Houston and John Closser. 

Vesta Lodge, No. 696, 

Was established at Greenfield, March 3, 1870, by Geo. L. Bayhe. 
Its Past Grand is Thomas Young. 

John F. Logan Lodge, No. 697, 

Was instituted at Coal Bluffs, by G. L. Bayhe, D. D. G. M., Janu- 
ary 28, 1870. Its Past Grands are 

Wm.. Wilson, H. McKinney, R. McMasters, J. Barclay, A, Fuller, S. 
Messner, and James Craig. 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 341 

ENCAMPMENTS OF I. O. O. F. 

Shakspeare Encampment, No. 20, 
Was chartered November 4, 1845. Its founders were James B. 
Ruple, William Smith, William Garrity, Thomas S. McKinley, S. B. 
Hayes, and William Gaston. It is located in Washington, Pa. 

The following persons have presided as Chief Patriarchs in the 
order given : — 

1. James B. Ruple ; 2. James M. Hutchison ; 3. John T. Port ; 4. John 
Davis; 5. WiUiam Wolf ; 6. Thomas Logan ; 7. Peter Griffin ; 8. William 
Harter ; 9. Thomas W^alker; 10. WiUiam J. Wilson; 11. Wm. Hamilton; 
12. Morgan Hayes ; 13. James F. Sarratt ; 14. Jacob Goldsmith ; 15. Mi- 
chael G. Kuntz ; IG. George F. Hammond. 

On February 24, 1863, it suspended meetings on account of the 
rebellion, but was revived February 25, 1870, its presiding officer, 
17th, is Marshal H. Hayes. 

Parkinson's Ferry Encampment, No. 175. 

Was instituted March 6, 1869, in Monongahela City. Its Past Chief 
Patriarchs are 

R. M. Gee, T. R. Hazzard, and J. L. Gee. 

EVENTS AND INCIDENTS. 

We shall advert to a few events and incidents which will interest 
the reader. 

1782. March 27. Jacob Cook, Jr., bequeathed to the trustees 
of the Presbyterian congregation of the middle fork of Tenmile 
Creek, fifty pounds for the use and benefit of the congregation. 

Wood Rangers. 

1788. April 16. The court ordered that William Campbell, An- 
drew McFarlane, Isaac Leet, Henry Dickson, and Henry Van Metre 
be licensed wood rangers for Washington County, and established 
the following fees : For entering each horse in the township book, 
2s. 6c?. ; advertising in three public places, 5s. ; for each search if 
found Is. Qd. ; if not found Dd ; for an order to the owner to take 
his horse out of the custody of him who has him in keeping. Is. 
For casual and necessary expenses a reasonable allowance was made. 

U. S. Senator. 
James Ross, of Washington, elected United States Senator. 

Locusts. 

1795. The summer of this year was remarkable for swarms of 
locusts which came up out of the earth until it was fairly covered. 
They remained about six weeks. Locusts have also made their ap- 
pearance in 1812, 1829, 1846, and 1863. 



348 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



Theatrical. 

1796. February 9. A tragedy called Tlie Revenge was performed 
at the hotel of Mr. Fisher (in the house formerly occupied by James 
Ross, Esq.,) composed of a company of young gentlemen of Wash- 
ington. The proceeds were devoted to benevolent purposes. 

These exhibitions were continued to ISIO. 

Royal Family. 

1*797. June 20. The three sons of the late Duke of Orleans 
passed through Washington Borough on their way to Philadelphia, 
having explored a great part of the western country. 

Tavern Signs. 

In early times tavern signs were more significant than at present. 
I shall enumerate some : The Harp and the Crown ; The Swan ; The 
Indian Queen; The Globe; The Green Tree; The Cross Keys; 
(xcneral Washington ; General Wayne ; The Buck. But the most 
conspicuous and which attracted most attention was the picture of a 
colored boy standing in a tub of water and a white boy endeavoring 
to scrub him white with a brush. The motto above the painting was 
" Labor in vain." 

Fairs. 

1798. Cattle fairs were held at Morganza in May and October 
of this year by Dennis Pursell. He advertised to supply a cold cut 
for 6(Z. ; a warm meal at Is. \0d. 

May Pole. 

1798. A May pole was put up in Washington upon which was 
placed the French flag. It was ordered to be cut down by the au- 
thorities of the town, as it excited in the minds of some fears that 
it might be metamorphosed into a liberty tree. The following 
lines written on the occasion explain themselves : — 

1. The pole stood firm with flying flag, 

And stripes sixteen in number, 
Columbia's boust and all her brag 
Red round with stripes of umber. 

2. But Dignity, whose eyes were foggy, 

Thought this the flag of France, 
Around wliich those who were so groggy 
Began to hop and dance. 

3. Up thro' the town he bent his course 

To hunt some honest soul. 
Who would by smih-s, if not by force, 
Cut down the pretty pole. 



HISTOBY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 349 



Snow. 

1199. In the winter of 1199 the greatest snow fell at one time 
ever known in this county. It commenced snowing on Friday even- 
ing and continued to snow until the next Monday moiming. The 
snow was three feet deep. It was almost impossible for cattle and 
horses to go to their watering places. One woman in Finley 
township (her husband being absent) went to a neighbor's house for 
fire (for in those days there were no matches), and to return home 
she was required to borrow a horse. Deer and other wild animals 
died from starvation. 

Phenomenon. 

1801. January 12. On Wednesday evening last about eight 
o'clock, the atmosphere being cloudy and the night very dark, an 
extraordinary glare of light arose near the southern horizon and 
illuminated the whole atmosphere for about five seconds, and 
in about four minutes and a half was succeeded by an explo- 
sion similar to a discharge of a large cannon at a distance, which 
considerably shook the houses in Washington and kept the windows 
and door-latches in continual trepidation for the space of about 
twenty seconds 

New County. 

On the 14th of September, 1799, a number of the inhabitants of 
Washington and the adjoining counties met at Parkinson's Ferry 
(now Monongahela city), with the view of taking the necessary steps 
towards the formation of a new count}^ the principal portion of the 
territory to be taken off Washington County. Joseph Beckett was 
chosen Chairman and John Hoge, Secretary. 

The following resolutions were unanimously adopted : — 

1. That it is the opinion of this meeting that a neiv county ought to be 
estabUshed by the following lines, viz : Beginning on the Monongahela 
River, at the mouth of Peters' Creek, thence up the said creek to that 
branch thereof which runs from the Rev. David Philliios' farm, thence by a 
direct line to-inchide the place on which James Mitchell, Esq., now lives, 
thence by a like line to include the place on which George Myers, Sen., now 
lives, thence to Bentley's upper mill on Pigeon Creek, thence to the Monon- 
gahela River opposite to the mouth of Little Redstone Creek, thence by 
a direct line to the mouth of Washington's Run on the Youghiogheny 
River, thence down the same to F. Moses' place, and thence by a direct hne 
to the place of beginning. 

2. That in the opinion of this meeting the seat of justice for the new 
county should be established at Parkinson's Ferry on the Monongahelu 
River. 

3. That John Hoge, Major Devore, and Captain Royall be appointed a 
committee to draft a petition to the next legislature praying for the estab- 
lishment of a new county. 

This measure was defeated by a remonstrance. The same ques- 
tion was successively renewed in 1820, 1822, and 1835, when it was 



550 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

proposed to make the county twenty miles square — 183T and in 
1S38 — but the attempt to divide or diminish the present limits of 
Washington County meets with a prompt rejection by the people. 

Burners. 

About the year 1194, and immediately after the Whiskey Insur- 
rection, "Washington County was thrown into consternation by 
anonymous notices stuck up in tlie night time on the houses and 
highways, calling upon certain individuals to pay certain suras of 
money by a certain day or their houses and barns would be burned. 
Those who refused to satisfy the demand sufiered the threatened 
penalty. Many meetings were held at Finleyville and other points, 
to detect the villains engaged in this nefarious plot, but these failed. 
At length Robert James took a determined stand, after having lost 
his barn, haystacks, outhouses, cattle, &c. &c., and prosecuted a 
man whom he suspected as the ring-leader. Before his apprehension 
he fled the country, and the burning operations ceased and peace 
and tranquillity reigned. 

My friend, Di'. W. B. Lank, of Finleyville, has furnished me 
one of the original notices, given to him by Samuel Gaston, Esq., 
who lived in those troublesome times. The letter is directed to John 
Finlcy, Henry Hulee, James Cildoo, with this notice : Jacobus 
Curkindale, if you donH car?y this to John Finley your ham will 
he hurnt. The letter reads thus : — 

John Finley, 30 dollars. 

James Cildoo 30 " 

Henry Hulee, 30 " 

90 dollars. 

My friend, if yon don't pay this demand five days after sight, I will fall 
to burning yonr property, such as haystacks, barns, mills, and still-houses. 
If you pay this demand no more will he asked of you — fail not, for the sake 
of your property. The undertakers of this plot are sure but slow. You 
may pay it to Thomas McMulm. Nothing will put a stop to this business 
but the detection of the authors. 

In this manner farmers and others were blackmailed, and suflfered 
severely if they did not comply with the notice. 

Newspapers 
Published in Washington County, with the date of their •publication. 

Western Telegraph and Washington Advertiser, August 22, 179."). by 
Messrs. Colerick, Hunter & Beaumont. On August 16, 1797, John Cole- 
rick sold out his interest to his partners. 
Herald of Liberty, May 21, 1798, by John Israel. 
Western Missionary Magazine, from 1803 tol806. 
Washington Reporter, August If), 1808, by B. Brown and Wm. Sample. 
" " Feliruary 12. 1810, by William Sample. 

" " May 31, 1819, by Samuel Workman. 



HISTORY OP WASHIXGTON COUNTY. 351 

Washington Reporter, May 28, 1821, by William Sample. 

" 1833, by B. S. Stewart and Geo. W. Acheson. 

" " 1835, by John Ramsey and S. B. Robinson. 

1837, by Uriah W. Wise. 
" " November 9, 1839, by John Bausman. 

" " April 22, 1848, by John Bausman and J. W. F. 

White. 
" " February 16, 1852, by John Bausman. 

" " February 16, 1856, by Jas. G. and R. F. Strean. 

" " and Commonwealth, April 1, 1858, by Jas. G. and 

R. F. Strean. 
« " and Tribune, April 1, 1860, by Wm. S. Moore, H. 

A. Purviance, and Jas. Armstrong-. 
" " " " August 30, 1863, by Wm. S. Moore 

and Jas. Armstrong. 
" " " " November20, 1867, by Wra. S.Moore 

and J. W. McWilliams. 
" " " " February 11, 1869, by Wm. S. Moore 

and Jas. W. Kelly. 
Democratic Eagle, August 25, 1828, by Thomas IVtorgan. 
Western Register, February 3, 1837, by Robert Fee. 
Washington Examiner, May 28, 1817, by John Grayson. 

" " 1833, by John Grayson and Jack. 

" " John and T. W. Grayson. 

" " June 10, 1840, by T. W. Grayson and 0. 0. Kaine. 

" " November 9, 1844, T. W. Grayson and Jas. B. 

Ruple. 
« " November 16, 1846, by T. W. Grayson and An- 

drew Hopkins. 
« « May 12, 1853, by T. W. Grayson and George S. 

Hart. 
" « 1858, by T. W. Grayson and A. H. Ecker. 

" " A. n. Ecker and John R. Donehoo. 

" " A. H. Ecker and D. F. Patterson. 

" " and Revieiv, A. H. Ecker and Wm. Swan. 

The Phoenix in Monongahela City, May 7, 1821, by B. Brown. 
TJie Pennsylvanian, " " June 25, 1828, by John Bausmon. 

Our Country (Washington) , June 5, 1835, by Thomas Jefferson Morgan. 
Washington Review, by Wm. Swan. 
The Commonioealth, 1848, by Seth T. Hurd. 
Tlie Patriot, 1843, by Russel Erret. 

Students' Enterprise (Oanonsburg), 1849, by Wm. S. Hamill. 
The Florence Enterprise, 1850, by James Robb. 
The Collegian, 1852, by B. W. Lacey. 
American Union, 1855, by J. B. Musser. 

Monongahela Valley RepuUican, July 7, 1848, established by Solomon 
Alter ; in 1851 it was purchased by David Ramaley and P. H. Rhien- 
hardt ; in 1855 they sold to T. R. Hazzard and Chill Hazzard. 
The Tribune, 1856, by John Bausman. 
Valley Spirit (California), by G. W. Hillier. 
Colleaguer, 1859, by J. W. Mosa. 



352 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



Education. 

1795, September 8, Charles Yisiiier opened a school in Washing- 
ton, to teach the French language, at $4 per quarter. 

1809, February 16, Mrs. Good opened a school to teach young 
ladies tambouring, embroidery, open work, painting, and drawing, 
together with plain sewing and reading. 

1812, November 12, Mrs. Baker's j'oung ladies' seminary held its 
semi-annual exhibition at Washington. Premiums were presented 
in the first class to Miss .Collins, of Pittsburg; Miss Clark, of 
Clarksville ; Miss Buchanan, of Canonsburg ; and Miss McKennau, 
of Washington. In the second class, to Miss Campbell, Miss Cooke, 
and Miss Neal, of Washington. In the third class, to Miss Cust, 
of Greensburg, and Miss Aclieson, of Washington. Miss Scott, of 
Gettysburg, on presenting the premiums delivered an appropriate 
address, to which Miss Collins, of Pittsburg, replied. Tlie exhibi- 
tion concluded with a ballet dance, exhibiting in the rural style the 
young ladies, with branches of roses and honeysuckles in their 
hands during the dance. 

1825, October It, Rev. 0. Jennings, assisted by Samuel Mar- 
shall, opened a French school. 

1834, November 4, in pursuance of an act of the legislature, to 
establish the common school system, a joint meeting of the county 
commissioners, and one delegate from the twenty-three boards of 
directors, into which number the county was divided,, met at the 
court-house, and determined by a vote of twenty-one to five to es- 
tablish the system, and levied a tax of four thousand eight hundred 
dollars. In 1835 the common school convention appropriated six 
thousand dollars. In 1836, twelve thousand dollars. The first 
tax levied for the education of children in Washington County 
was in LSOo ; and in the years 1805-6-7-8 respectively it was one 
hundred dollars; in 1809, eight hundred dollars; 1810-11-12-13-14 
it was two hundred dollars in each of these years; in 1815-16 
it was three hundred dollars each; in 1817-18 it was five hundred 
dollars each; in 1819 it was one thousand dollars; in 1820, five 
hundred dollars; in 1821, one thousand dollars; in 1822-23-24-25 
it was fifteen hundred dollars in each year; in 1826, twelve hundred 
dollars; in 1827, one thousand dollars; in 1828, twelve hundred 
dollars; in 1829, sixteen hundred dollars; in 1830-31, fifteen hun- 
dred dollars in each year; in 1832-33, twenty-five hundred dollars 
each. The amount of taxes paid from 1805 to 1836 inclusive, in 
Washington County, is fifty-one thousand three hundred and fifty 
dollars. Since 1836 the laws have been changed. In 1849 they 
were all collected and passed in one act, and in 1857 the normal 
school was adopted. 

Tiie first bill providing for a common school system was approved 
by George Wolf, April 1, 1834. 



HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 353 



Washington Mechanical Society. 

Was organized May 12, 1T92, with Jonathan Morris as president, 
and David Ileddiek as secretary. The object was to create a fund, 
and loan money, not exceeding three months, for charitable, politi- 
cal, and generous purposes, at six per cent. 

March 1, lT9i, the society resolved to adopt measures to procure 
an accurate account of the various machines in use in this western 
country, the prices of labor in the different mechanical employments 
in use, the amount of moneys expended for public buildings, the 
obstruction in the navigation of our creeks and rivers, and the 
mode of transporting our produce to market, with all other informa- 
tion connected with mechanics which may be useful in forming the 
history of the early settlements of this county. 

In 1795 the secretary was directed to open a correspondence with 
the Philadelphia Mechanical Society for the purpose of encourag- 
ing foreign mechanics to emigrate to this country. 

Hon. David Reddick delivered the annual oration on St. Tam- 
many's Day. 

In 1798 a committee, consisting of Robert Hamilton, Samuel 
Clarke, and D. Cook, was appointed to report the best mode of pro- 
curing tin for a tin manufactory. The mode and manner were 
approved, and a quantity brought to Washington to be placed -and 
made up. 

In 1800 Parker Campbell delivered the annual oration. 

These minutes close in 1801, and arc very interesting. The 
names of the old citizens of this town show that they were members 
of this society. 

Monongahela and Williamsport Manufacturing Company. 

1814, January 17, articles of association for a bank, to be enti- 
tled the Monongahela and Williamsport Manufacturing Company, 
was formed in Williamsport (now Monongahela City) with a capital 
of one huudred and twenty-five thousand dollars, in shares of fifty 
dollars each ; Samuel Black was president. Its charter was to ex- 
tend for twenty years. 

Extensive Carriage Manufactory. 

In the fall of the year 1841 Sheldon B., Charles, and Morgan 
Hays erected a carriage manufactory in the rear of the court-house, 
and on the southern part of the lot now owned by Robert Boyd, 
Esq. The factory was of frame, thirty by fifty feet, two stories 
high. The business of the firm was conducted under the name 
of S. B. Hays & Co. The wood-work, trimming, painting, and 
smith-work were all conducted in this building, the demand for car- 
riages and buggies not being so great as at present. 

The first bugg}^ body was made by Morgan Hays, the trimming 
and painting by Wm. Garrety (one of the founders of Lodge 81 of 



354 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

1. 0. 0. F. of Washington), the smith-work by J. Clark, of Kinder- 
hook, N. Y., and the first paint furnished by Dr. Alfred Creigh. 
The first apprentice was Henry Layton, whom we alt remember for 
his steadfast devotion to his Sunday school and church, and which 
he ever exemplified through his Christian life. 

Business increasing, a brick building was added, with horse- 
power attached to do the sawing and turning ; yet increased busi- 
ness required a four-horse engine, and three days in each week of 
the engine however being sufficient to do the necessary amount of 
labor to occupy the hands one week. About this time Morgan 
Hays sold out to his partners, and he became the foreman. Messrs. 
S. B. & C. Hays added another story to the main building, and also 
an additional room of thirty feet to the first floor. 

On November 8th, 1851, the entire factory, with nearly all its 
contents, was destroyed by fire, which occurred on Saturday. On 
the Monday following, Messrs. S. B. and C. Hays purchased from 
John H. Ewing, James G. Strean, Thomas McKean, T. M. T. 
McKennan, Alexander W. Acheson, and Collin M. Reed, Trustees 
of the Presbyterian church, their church edifice, with two lots situate 
on First and Maiden streets, and extending to Strawberry Alley, 
the congregation having removed to their new edifice, corner of 
Second and Belle streets. On the following Tuesday, the day after 
the purchase, the seats were taken out and all hands busily engaged 
in the manufactory, as if no fire had ever taken place. 

To this brick carriage factory (formerly the church) they added a 
brick smithshop thirty by seventy feet. In 1852 they erected a 
machine shop with an engine of sufficient power for sawing, turning, 
making vv^heels, &c. &c. The machinery, shafting, &c., was put up 
by Martin Luther, Esq., of Worcester, Massachusetts, and, from his 
I)ractical knowledge of machinery as well as of business, he has 
become a partner in the establishment. 

To these improvements a planing machine, and all the necessary 
machinery for planing, manufacturing flooring boards, making doors, 
sash, shutters, &c., have been added, with a seventy-horse power 
engine, while to the buildings have been added a boarding-house, a 
carriage repository, with two rooms thirty by sixty feet each, used 
expressly for sales room, 

January 1, ISGT, the establishment was changed to S. B. and C. 
W. Hays & Co., consisting of Sheldon B. Hays, Charles W. Hays, 
Martin Luther, and Morgan Hays. Thirty-three hands are employed 
in the manufactory. 

To this establishment has been added an extensive lumber yard. 

House's Carriage Manufactory. 

On the first of January, ISGS, James M. House and Eobert R. 
Forrest established a carriage factory on East Belle Street, the 
buildings being brick, two stories high fronting on Belle Street sixty 



HISTORY OP WASHINGTON COUNTY. 355 

by thirty feet. To this has been added auother brick building of 
the same height, ninety by twenty-three feet, costing six thousand 
dollars. The annual sales amount to twelve thousand dollars. 
Fourteen hands are employed, but no engine is used. 

On December 4, 1868, James M. House became sole proprietor, 
having purchased the interest of R. R. Forrest. 

Manufactories. 

1807. Several wool-carding establishments and other useful 
manufactories were established this year in this county. In 1808 
David and Thomas Acheson, in their advertisement, said : " Conceiv- 
ing it to be our duty to lend all our aid in order to promote the 
interest of this western country, and to encourage manufacturing, 
whereby we may become truly independent of foreign nations, assert 
that the v/estern part of Pennsylvania, being well adapted for the 
raising of flax and the manufacturing of linen, propose to purchase 
any quantity of flax and tow linen, if wove forty-two inches wide, 
so as to measure forty and one-half inches when bleached, for which 
we will pay from four to six cents per yard extra above the common 
price." 

1815, August 15. The wool growers of Washington County were 
invited to meet in Washington to consider the propriety of establish- 
ing a woollen manufactory to be erected by stock. 

HooN & McClain's Woollen Factory. 

In 1867 John Hoon established on the west end of Belle Street a 
woollen factory in a large two-story extensive brick building ; but 
on April 16th, 1869, he received as a partner John McClain. The 
estimated value of the establishment is eight thousand dollars. A 
twenty-horse power engine is used. The establishment manufactures 
thirty thousand pounds of wool by spinning it into yarn, carding and 
weaving it. They manufacture two thousand five hundred yards of 
blankets and sixteen hundred yards of flannel annually, employing 
five hands. 

Campbell's Woollen Factory. 

This is the oldest woollen factory in and about Washington, hav- 
ing been established by Philip Buckley as early as 1843, who carried 
it on very successfully to his death. In 1853 it passed into the 
hands of David Campbell, and since his death, who died in the Re- 
bellion in defence of the Constitution of his adopted country, it is 
now carried on by his widow, Mrs. Amelia Campbell. It is situated 
on West Beau Street and West Alley, has all the necessary improve- 
ments, and a fifteen-horse power engine. It manufactures annually 
from fifteen to twenty thousand pounds of wool, and about twelve 
hundred yards of flannel and blankets. The whole property is esti- 
mated to be worth six thousand dollars. 



356 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY. 



Steam Tannery. 

■When the steam tannery, which is situated on the west end on 
Belle Street, was established, the partners were Thomas J. Hodgens, 
John M. AYilson, and John McElroy, but in 18C2 Mr. Wilson sold 
out to Messrs. Hodgens and McElroy, since which time it has been 
under their control. The tannery is built of brick, two stories high, 
with a twelve-horse power engine. The estimated value of the 
establishment is ten thousand dollars. 

They manufacture annually four thousand sides of leather, and 
fifteen hundred calf and kip skins, using three hundred cords of oak 
bark, and employing eight hands. 

Steam Planing Factory. 

In 18G7 Thomas Walker and William Fitzwilliaras purchased the 
lot of ground on West Belle Street, which formerly belonged to the 
United Presbyterian congregation, and upon which was erected a 
brick church, in which the congregation worshipped from 1834 until 
they removed to their present edifice. The church being torn down, 
Messrs. Walker and Fitzwilliams erected a two-story frame building 
fifty by twenty-six feet, two stories high, as a planing manufactory. 
It contains a thirty-horse power engine, employing from six to eight 
hands. The cost of machinery in the estaljlishment was six thou- 
sand dollars. Being practical carpenters and builders (which busi- 
ness they carry on in connection with the factory), they manufacture 
for sale everything in connection with the finishing of buildings, such 
as flooring boards, doors, sash, shutters, brackets, &c. 

Steam Grist and Flour Mill. 

In 1844 Samuel Ilazlett and Daniel Dye erected on the west end 
of Belle Street a four story mill, forty by sixty feet, the carpenter 
work being performed by Messrs. John Prigg and Daniel Dye. Af- 
terwards Daniel Dye purchased the interest of Samuel Hazlett. 
After the death of Daniel Dye the mill was sold to John McElroy 
in 1850. About the year 1858 John McElroy sold to A. J. Caton. 
On February 15, 18(55, Messrs. Wilson and George M. and ^V. W. 
Warrick l)ecame the purchasers. The estimated value of the pro- 
l)ertyis seven thousand dollars; a thirty-horse power engine is used. 
The mill manufactures annually seven thousand five hundred barrels 
of Hour; grinds five thousand bushels of corn and rve ; has two 
pair i)f wlieat burrs and one pair of choppers, and employs three 
hands. 

The capacity of the mill on wheat is thi*ee barrels per hour; the 
cost of toll, three cents per barrel of flour. 



history or "washington county. 35y 

Inventions. 

1812, December 14. Colonel John G. Chambers, of Amwell town- 
ship has invented a gun which he can charge in such a manner that by 
a single operation on the trigger it will discharge six or eight loads in 
succession with space between each sufficient to take another aim. 
The gun has but one barrel, and does not exceed a common gun in 
size. On the 15th of January, 1815, the Senate of Pennsylvania 
appointed a committee to examine the utility of Colonel Chambers 
gun, and at three o'clock P. M., of January 22, 1815, an experi- 
ment was made of its utility on the State-house hill, in the presence 
of the legislature and other citizens. The gun was considered a 
very extraordinary piece of machinery, and a powerful instrument in 
the destruction of an enemy. 

Freeman Brady, Jr., of Washington, and John Noble, of Clays- 
ville, patented a repeating or magazine gun. It fires about twenty 
effective and forty random shots in a minute, equalling in range and 
far excelling in faculty of loading and rapidity of firing any gun of 
modern improvement. 

Dr. George W. Moffit has invented a self car coupler, intended to 
couple cars without any preliminary preparations, and with the com- 
mon link and pin now in use. Both for coupling and uncoupli