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I. — Introductory ........ ^ 

ir.— The Advent of the White Miin 10 

III.— The Situation 12 

IV._1609 to 1700 13 

V. — Queen Anne's War 15 

VI.— The First Settlement, etc IB 

VII._The War of 1744 18 

VIII.— First Part of the " Old French War" ... 20 

IX.— Latter Part of the Old French War .... 27 

X.— From the French War to the Revolution . . . -32 

XI.— 1775 and 1776 40 

XII.— 1777 « 

XIII. — Remainder of the Revolution ..... 58 

NXIV.— The Era of Development 63 

yXV. — A General View 69 

isXVI.- 1800 to 1861 70 

XVII.— Regiments Raised in 1861 75 

XVIII.— The One Hundred and 'Twenty-third Infantry . . 80 

XIX.— Other Regiments 85 

XX.— Present Condition of the County .... 86 

XXI. — Geology of Washington County .... 89 

XXII. — -Freemasonry in Washington County ... 95 

^XXIIL— The Medical Society of Washington County . . 97 


XXIV.— Agricultural Societies . . . • . . .103 

XXV.— The Press of Washington County .... 106 

XXVI.— Washington County Civil List Ill 


Salem 121 

Granville 19-t • 

Argyle 230 

Cambridge ......••••• 2;>1. 

Dresden ........-•• 2S.i 

Easton 200 

Fort Ann 301 

Fort Edward SU 

Greenwioh 334 

Hampton ....-• 362 

Hartford 372 

Hebron ■^'' 

V^lackson ^"■' 

Kingsbury ■120 

Putnam *'^^' 

White Creek -1^^ 

Whitehall *''^ 

Patrons' Record Asn DiREtTORv 


View of Court-House, Salem .... facing title-page. 

Map of Washington County between 8, 9 

The " Post" Building 110 


een 128, 


United Presbyterian Church .... 

Residence of William Law .... 

Portrait of Judge C. L. Allen .... 

Residence of L. S. Sherman (with portraits) . 

Portraits of J. B. Stevenson and Wife 

Property of Thomas S. Stevenson (with portraits) 

Portraits of Isaac Bininger and Wife 

Residence of Clinton F. Wilson (with portraits) . " 

Portrait of S. Beaty between 136, 

Residence of Wm. J. Beaty (with portraits) . " 136, 

" John Cleveland " . . facing 

Portrait of Bernard Blair ...... " 

Dr. George Allen ..... " 

Residence of the late David Hawley . . . between 144, 
Portraits of David Hawley and Wife . . " 144, 

Portrait of J. A. MoFarland f.iciug 

Residence of the late Hiram Walker (with portraits) '* 

Portraits of Wm. MoKie and Wife .... '' 

Farm Residence of J. M. Thompson (with portraits) 
Residence of Sarah Fairley (with portraits) 
National Bank of Salem ..... 
Residence of B. F. Bancroft .... 
The Old Meeting-House in Salem 
Portrait of Gen. John Williams (steel) 

" Hon. James Gibson (steel) 

*' Benjamin F. Bancroft (steel) . 


facing 194 


Portrait of Asa Fitch 1S5 

" D. V. T. Qua 187 

Residence of Mary A. Steele and Son (with portraits) facing 190 

View of Salem, N. Y., in 1793 ....'. " l**- 


Residence of G. L. Bulkley .... 

" Mrs. Leonard C. Thome . '. 

Portraits of David and Hannah Rogers . 

" Stephen Dillingham, Sr., and Wife 

Residence of " " 2d (with portraits) 

" Edwin B. Temple (with portraits) 

" Truman Temple " " 

'f L. R. Tem]ile " " 

Granville Military Academy, North Granville 
Residence of Noah Day (with portraits) . 

" M. T. C. Day " " 

" Seymour L. Potter 

Portrait of Gen. Edward Bulkley 

" Leonard C. Thome (steel) 

Residence of Otis Dillingham (with portraits) 
Portrait of Daniel Woodard 
Residence of R. C. Betts (with portrait) . * 


Residence of Wm. D. Stevenson .... facing 2,'iO 

Portraits of John and Elizabeth Reid ... " 232 

" James and Jane Williamson ... " 232 

Portrait of George C. Dennis " 2:i2 

Residence of A. Barkley " 2;!6 

Portraits of Robert and Eleanor Culhbert . . " 240 

" James Foster and Wife .... " 240 

between lO.s, 

'•' 200, 

" 202, 


between 208, 
" 20.S, 



facing 212 

" 216 

" 222 

" 224 

. 226 

facing 228 



Residence of William Clapp 

" John R. Harsha . 

Farm Resilience of James MclJo 



Residence of Russell S. Fish 
Farm Property of Zerah Rider 
Portraits of John P. Putnam and Wife 
Residence of John h. Hunt 

" Horace and Phebe Valent 

Portrait of Rev. Henry Gordon (steel) 

" James Maxwell (steel) . 

" David Robertson . 

Portraits of Henry and Patience Hall 

" Thomas and Jane Skellie 

" James U. Austin and Wife 




between 278, 279 

278, 279 

facing 280 



. 282 


Residence of Col. Andrew Thompson, with portraits 

" E. W. Hollister 

" Homer B. Dixson .... 

" Horton Cottrell ..... 

Portraits of Adam Cottrell and Wife 

Late Residence of Adam Cottrell .... 

Residence of John Wilbur, Jr 

Portraits of John Wilbur, Jr., and Wife . 

Portrait of E. W. Hollister 





Residence of Israel Thompson, with portraits . . facing 301 
" John Hall, with portraits ... " 302 

" B. J. Lawrence, with portraits (double page) 

between 304, 305 
Kane's Falls Woolen-Mills .... " 306, 307 

Bridgeport Wood-Finishing Company's Works . " 306, 307 


Residence of A. C. Hodgeman .... 

" Amasa Howland .... 

" Alexander Carswell (with jiortraits) 

" John Wagman " 

Portraits of John and Lucy Mclntyre 

" John and Charlotte McGregor 

" John Clark and Wife . 

John S. and Mary Durkee 
Portrait of James Baldwin 
Portraits of Walter Rogers and Wife 
Portrait of Joseph E. King, Ph.D., D.D. . 

" h\ D. Hodgeman (steel) . 

Portraits of Walter C. and Margaret Gilchrist 
Portrait of James H. Gilchrist . 
Residence of the late Enos Howland, with portraits 


Residence of Edmund II. Gibson 

" David T. Ensign . 

Portrait of James I. Lourie 
Residence of Alphonso Dwelle . 

" William Hutton, with portraits 

" the late Thomas Rogers 

Portraits of Thomas and Betsey Rogers . 
Residence of James Boveridge . 
Portraits of James Beveridge and Wife . 
Residence of Horace Morse 
Portrait of Dr. Cornelius Holmes 
Portraits of Asa F. Holmes and Wife 

" Nelson H. and Emma B. Wing 

" George and W. G. Stewart 

Portrait of David A. Boies 
Residence of Nelson Pratt (with portraits) 
Portraits of Alphonso Dwelle and Wife 






between 320, 321 

320, .321 

" 322, 323 

" 322, 323 

324, 325 

" 324, 325 

facing 327 


. 331 

. 332 

facing 333 

facing 334 


" 338 



between 344, 345 

344, 345 

" 346, 347 

" 346, 347 

facing 350 

between 352, 353 

352, 353 




Portrait of Col. Franklin Norton 

Residence of Harvey Hanks (with portraits) 


Residence of Paulinos Millard . 
Residence of Fonrose Farwell . 
Portraits of Benj.-vmin and Paulinus Millard 


facing 360 



Residence of Hon. Ralph Richards (with portraits) . 


Residence of Hon. James M. Northup (with portraits) facing 380 
" Harvey Brown (with portrait) 



Residence and Farm of Arthur L. Smith ... fa 

" " John McConnell (with portraits) 

Portrait of C. J. White, M.D. . 
Residence of Jas. Craig (with portraits) . 
Methodist Church, West Hebron 
Residence of Nathan R. Hills (with portraits) 
Property of Edward L. Coy (with portraits) 
Portrait of Abraham Johnston . 
" Daniel Braymer 



Residence of J. H. Cleveland, with portraits 


between 406, 

" 406, 

" 408, 

•' 408, 

^* Samuel B. Hedges, with portraits 

" James H. Weir, with portraits . ** 

'* James E. Robertson ... " 

Portraits of James E. and John Robertson . *' 

Residence of James Coulter, with portraits (double page)" 410, 

Portrait of Paul Doig ...... facing 

Residence of Jonathan Warner .... " 

Portraits of Jonathan Warner and Wife ..... 

Portrait of Thomas B. Lourie ....... 

Residence of William Holden, with portrait . , facing 


Residence of Loren Allen ...... facing 

" T. M. Groesbeck " 

" Mrs. Benj. Ferris (with portraits) . " 

Carriage Manufactory of Wilber & Witpen . . " 

Hotel, Store, and Res. of Ezekiel Smith (with portraits) *• 
Residence of Joseph H. Harris (with portraits) . " 

'* Geo. Weston (with portraits) . . " 

Portrait of Charles Rogers ....... 

Farm Property of James P. Buck (with portrait) . facing 




Residence of the late Isaac Ashton (with portraits) . facing 455 

" I. Braton Perry (with portrait) . . " 458 

" Round Hill Farm," residence of John James (double page) 

between 462, 463 

Residence of L. S. Sweet ...... facing 466 

" Hugh Taber (with portrait) ... " 469 

Portraits of Jonathan B. Fowler and Wife .... 471 

Portrait of Nathaniel Cottrell 472 


Residence of William Hannas . 
Portraits of William Hannas and Wife 

" Dwight Hollister and Wife . 

" R. C. Johnson and Wife . 

'* Elisha A. and Mary C. Martin 

Portrait of Lambert H. Law 

" Robert Doig .... 

" Judge Asa Hawley . 

Residence of A. J. Long, M.D., with portraits 
Portrait of Col. Lemon Barns . 

between 474, 
" 474 



facing 488 

Residence of Mrs. Almira Bascom, with portraits 





between 128, 

between 136, 


between 144, 

between 19 

Judge C. L. Allen ..... 

The Stevenson Family .... 

General Isaac Bininger .... 

Samuel Beaty ...... 

Bernard Blair 

Dr. George Allen ..... 

David Hawley 

Prof. J. A. McFarland .... 

William McKie 

General John Williams .... 

Hon. James Gibson ..... 
Benjamin F. Bancroft .... 

Asa Fitch 

David Van Tuyl Qua .... 
James M. Thompson ..... 

Enoch S. Sherman 

William Law 

Hiram Walker ...... 

Joshua Steele ...... 

John Cleveland 

Fayette Wilson 

Hugh Fairley ...... 

Alonzo Gray ...... 

David Rogers ...... 

Hannah D. Rogers " 198, 

Stephen Dillingham, Sr " 200, 

General Edward Bulkley facing 

Leonard C. Thorne ......... 

Stephen Dillingham (2d) 

Otis Dillingham 

Deacon Noah Day ......... 

Marcus T. C. Day 

Daniel Woodard ......... 

Edwin B. Temple 

Truman Temple ......... 

Luther R. Temple ......... 

Royal C. Betts 

Seymour L. Potter ......... 

J. L. McArthur .......... 

Benjamin F. Ottarson 

John P. Putnam ....... facing 

Rev. Henry Gordon . . . . . . . . 

Zerah Rider . 

James Maxwell .......... 

Henry Hall .......... 

John L. Hunt .......... 

Russell S. Fish 

Adam Cottrell 

John Wilbur, Jr. 

B. W. HoUister 

Andrew Thompson . . . ' 

John Hall 

Israel Thompson ......... 

B. J. Lawrence 

John Mclntyre ....... between 320, 

John MacGregor 

John Clark 

John S. Durkee . 

James Baldwin . 

Walter Rogers . 

Joseph E. King, Ph.D., D.D. 

Frederick D. Hodgeman . ' 

John Wagman . 

Gilchrist Family 

Enos Howland . 

Amasa Howland . 





Alexander Carswcll '. 333 

James Irvine Lourie facing 338 

Thomas Rogers between 344, 345 

James Beveridge " 346, 347 

Cornelius Holmes, M.D " 352, 353 

Asa Fitch Holmes " 352, 353 

Nelson H. Wing facing 364 

Walter G. Stewart "356 

David A. Boies 358 

Hon. Leonard Gibbs 359 

Nelson Pratt 359 

■ Alphonso Dwelle 360 

Lieut.-Col. Franklin Norton facing 360 

Oapt. Harvey Hanks 361 

William Hutton 361 

Horace Morse 361 

Hon. Ralph Richards 370 

Albert Richards 371 

Mrs. Julia Norton 371 

Paulinus Millard 371 

Fonrose Farwell ' . 371 

Hon. James M. Northup 380 

Harvey Brown 381 

Dr. C. J. White facing 390 

Abraham Johnston 401 

Edward L. Coy 401 

Daniel Braymer 402 

Whedou Smith 403 

Nathan R. Hills 404 

James Craig .......... 404 

James E. Robertson between -108, 409 

Paul Doig facing 412 

James Cleveland ......... 414 

Jonathan Warner ......... 415 - 

The Hedges Family 416 

James H. Weir 410 

Thomas B. Lourie ......... 417 

William Holden 418 

James Coulter .......... 418 

Andrew McLean 419 

Warren Kenyon ......... 419 " 

Hob. Roswell Weston 440 

Charles Rogers . 442 . 

Ezekiel Smith 443 

Benjamin Ferris ......... 444 

John Dwyer .......... 445 ■' 

James P. Buck . 446 

Loren Allen 446 

James McCarty 447 

Joseph H. Harris 447 

HughTaber 469 

Israel Braton Perry ......... 470 

Dr. William Richards 470 

Jonathan B. Fowler 471 

John James .......... 471 

William Hannas between 474, 475 

Dwight HoIIister facing 476 

Randolph C. Johnson " 478 

Elisha A. Martin between 480, 481 

Lambert H. Law • " 484, 485 

Robert Doig " 484, 485 

Judge Asa Hawley ......... 487 

Alfred Jerome Long, M.D. 488 

Col. Lemon Barns 489 

Hon. Oliver Bascom . . 491 

H I S T O E Y 






The War-Path of America— The Great Battles on its Borders— The 
Design of this History — Its Arrangement — Boolfs Consulted — Ac- 
knowledgments to Individutils. 

Washington county is the war-path of America. 
Though other portions of the continent liave been the 
scenes of more terrible conflicts, no other of equal size has 
been crossed by as many hostile expeditions as the one 
which is the subject of this history. Occupying as it 
does the territory between the Hudson and the northern 
i lakes, it has been the ground over which Ilurons and Iro- 
quois, Canadians, New Yorkers, and New Englanders, 
French and English, Continentals and Hessians, have suc- 
cessively passed on their missions of attack and defense, of 
destruction and of vengeance. 

Curiously enough, while Wa.shington county is thus 
emphatically the " war-path" of America, it is not to any 
considerable extent a battle-ground. Fortune has so ordered 
that, while many minor conflicts have taken place within the 
present limits of the county in question, all the great battles 
which have made this region famous were fought outside — 
but barely outside — of its boundaries. From every one of 
those battles the roar of cannon could be heard in what is 
now the county of Washington, and several of them were 
fought within sight of its territory. 

Had a cordon of sentries been patrolling the boundaries 
of the county during the eventful quarter of a century 
which succeeded the great French and English war, some 
of them would have learned, by eye or ear, of the occur- 
rence of all the important contest for the mastery of this 
great strategic locality while they were being fought. Those 
who, in the autumn of 1755, had been guarding the west- 
ern line of the present towns of Fort Ann and Kingsbury 
would have heard the thunder of Gciieral Johnson's artil- 
lery, as he repulsed the columns of Dieskau from the rude 
breastworks on the shore of Lake George, only four miles 
to the westward ; those who occupied the same posts two 
years later might often have stayed their course to listen 
to the roar of Montcalm's guns, and the more feeble replies 
of the ill-fated Fort William Henry ; while they who, in 

July, 1758, had stood on the northernmost peaks of Put- 
nam would have known by the terrific cannonade that a 
desperate battle was being fought five miles northward, 
around the ramparts of Tioonderoga. In the Revolution, 
the famous fields of battle were still closer. The sentries 
on the sout ern line of the town of White Creek, in Au- 
gust, 1777, would have seen close before them, in the 
valley of the Walloomsac, the rude farmers of New Eng- 
land and New York driving in disastrous rout the dis- 
ciplined mercenaries of Brunswick and Hesse ; who, 
a month later, had stood where the western border of Easton 
is washed by the placid Hudson, might have watched the 
red-coated battalions of England on the other shore recoil- 
ing before the terrible fire of the Continentals in the first 
battle of Saratoga ; while those who had stood there on 
the 12th day of October would have seen those same proud 
battalions, English and Hessians alike, fleeing before their 
despised antagonists to the shelter of their intrenchments, 
and the fate of America decided in favor of independence. 

To give the public a lull aud, so far as possible, an accu- 
rate history of a county which has played so important a 
part in the history of America is the design of this work. 
We propose, in the first place, t« present a general view of 
the county's history from the earliest accounts to the pres- 
ent time, showing all the events of general importance or 
especial interest, following closely the chronological order, 
confining ourselves to the territory now included in Wash- 
inn-ton county and to the acts of the citizens of that ter- 
ritory, and mentioning outside matters only when necessary 
to make manifest the connection of those which are espe- 
cially our theme. This will be followed by sketches of 
various societies and other subjects pertaining to the county 
at large ; the whole, thus far, constituting the general history. 

While this covers all the time down to the present year, 
yet it will treat most cjpiously of the early history, and of 
the action of Washington county regiments in the recent 
war, leaving the details, and minor circumstances occurring 
since the era of settlement to be specified in the .separate 
town-histories. These latter follow the general record, and 
will portray the ordinary course of events in the various 
localities — events which the dignified Muse of History has 
too often neglected, but which are always interesting to 




those who participated in them and to their descendants, 
and which may be made to contribute to the true knowl- 
edge of a nation's life, at least as much as the more sono- 
rous record of stricken battle and legislative conflict. 

Interspersed among these town-annals will be found nu- 
merous separate sketches of the men and women of the 
county, both dead and living, while the monotony of the 
print is broken by portraits, views of residences, public 
buildings, etc. Certainly no reasonable person can com- 
plain of the amount of information furnished. As to the 
manner of its presentation, we must leave others to judge. 
In dealing with the events of two hundred and sixty mo- 
mentous years the compiler has found a difficult task, and 
if any have expected perfection they will doubtless be dis- 
appointed. To those who can appreciate the labor involved 
in compiling such a volume — the consultation of books, the 
harmonizing of conflicting authorities, and the still more 
difficult task of obtaining the town-histories from the lips 
of residents— we commend the woik for their favorable 
consideration, and trust it will not be found entirely unsat- 

The principal books consulted have been Parkman's 
" Life of Champlain," Smith's " History of New York," 
Gordon's and Botta's " Hi.stories of the American Revolu- 
tion," the " Documentary and Colonial Histories of New 
York," Bancroft's " History of the United States," Stone's 
" Life and Times of Sir William Johnson," Pouchot's 
" Memoir of the War of 1754," Lossing's " Life of Schuy- 
ler," Sparks' " Lives of Putnam, Stark, and Arnold," Ma- 
dame Riedesel's " Letters," " Memoirs of General Riedesel," 
" The Sexagenary," Neilson's " Campaign of Burgoyne," 
Stone's " Campaign of Burgoyne," Mrs. Bonney's " Legacy 
of Historical Gleanings," Hough's " Northern Invasions," 
Butler's " Lake George and Lake Champlain," French's 
" New York Gazetteer," Corey's " Gazetteer of Wa.shing- 
ton County," Childs' " Directory of Washington County," 
besides numerous manuals, registers, pamphlets, etc. ; and 
last, not least. Dr. Asa Fitch's " Survey of Washington 
County," published in the " Tran.sactions of the State Agri- 
cultural Society for 1848-49." 

For aid in the of compiling the general history we 
are especially indebted to Hon. James Gibson, of Salem, 
who has devoted much time and attention to the aiuials of 
this, his native county, whose pen has been often employed 
in elucidating its history, and from whom we trust the 
public may yet receive some permanent historical contribu- 
tion. S.carccly less is our obligation to the ladies in pos- 
session of the papers of their distinguished ancestor, Gen- 
eral John Williams, for the privilege of examining those 
valuable documents, which, admirably arranged in six pon- 
derous volumes, throw more light on the internal, home 
history of Washington county in early days than can bo 
obtained from any other source. Tlie courtesy of Mr. Mc- 
Farland, principal of Salem Academy, in afibrding the 
writer fref|ucnt and convenient access to the library of that 
institution, is thankfully remembered. 

We also beg leave to acknowledge the aid given to the 
general history through special contributions and personal 
reminiscences by Dr. Asa Fitch and Dr. John Lambert, of 
Salem, Rev. 8eth C. Carey, of Ma.ssachusetts ; Hon. John 

McDonald, Hon. Ebenczer McMurray, and Colonel Solo- 
mon W. Russell, Jr., of Salem ; General James C. Rogers, 
General Thomas J. Strong, Major William H. Kincaid, 
Major James McCarty, Captain JI. S. Teller, and Hon. U. 
G. Paris, of Sandy Hill ; Mr. Henry McFarland, of Fort 
Edward ; Colonel Antoine Renois and 5Ir. L. K. Pierce, 
of Whitehall; Mr. Lewis R. Harsha, of Argyle; and Mr. 
William Ladd, of Salem. 

Thanks, too, are due to the many others, too numerous 
to be named here, who have furnished aid to the town-his- 
torians in the compilation of their part of the work. The 
record which has thus been produced from all these numer- 
ous sources, and arranged and embellished with the best 
skill of the writers and artists, be the same more or less, is 
now respectfully submitted to the public. 



Sanmt-'! Champliiin discovers Lake Chaiuplain — Ilis Corapiinions — 
Mfeting of the Iroquois — Location of the Meeting — Taunts of the 
Savages — The Battle — Defeat of the Iroquois — -Disastrous Results 
to Canada. 

As near as can be ascertained, the very first white men 
who ever entered the territory of the State of New York 
found their way into the present county of Washington, 
and within the limits of that county was fought the first 
combat on New York soil in which men of Caucasian 
blood took part. 

On the fourth day of July, 1609, Samuel Champlain, 
the adventurous Frenchman who had founded the colony of 
Canada, discovered and entered the lake which still bears 
his name. He was accompanied by two Frenchmen and 
by sixty Huron Indians, whose cause he had espoused, and 
with whom he was on his way to attack their ancient ene- 
mies, the Iroquoh. The little army occupied twenty-four 
canoes, and with these they pushed on swiftly up the lake 
during the fourth and fifth days of July. Being now 
arrived in the vicinity of the locality where the Uurons 
expected to find their foes, the former adopted especial 
precautions, apparently with a view to surprise the enemy. 
They paddled on during the whole night of the fifth, but 
lay concealed on the shore all day of the sixth. At dusk 
they again set forth, and at ten o'clock at night discovered 
a war-party of Iroquois, also in canoes, near the western 
shore of the lake. The latter immediately went on shore, 
and with their stone axes began to hew down trees for a 
fortification, while Champlain and his Ilurons remained on 
the lake. 

The location of the point of meeting is somewhat doubt- 
ful, but the weight of evidence is that it was in what is 
now the town of Putnam, in the county of Washington. 
It is true a map made to illustrate Champlain's travels, but 
not drawn by him, represents the meeting and subsequent 
conflict to have taken place just north of Ticonderoga, but 
this is contradicted by Champlain's own account, which 
says that he saw the waterfall of Ticonderoga and the out- 
let of Lake George. The time, too, that the Indians spent 
on Lake Champlain, and the great length which the narra- 



tor assigns it (one hundred and twenty-five to one hundred 
and fifty miles), both go to show that the invaders were 
brought to a halt considerably south, rather than north, of 
Ticonderoga. At all events it would not do to ignore so 
important an event, whieh iiiir/ht have taken place in Wash- 
ington county. 

The Ilnrons remained on the lake, according to Cham- 
plain's narrative, while the Iroquois built their rude barri- 
cade of trees, the former keeping their canoes alongside 
each other, and fastened to poles, so that they could all 
fight together if they should be attacked. When all was 
ready they sent two canoes towards the shore, whose occu- 
pants hailed the enemy and asked them if they wished to 
fight. The latter promptly replied in the affirmative, but 
advised a postponement of the conflict until daylight. The 
llarons agreed, and the remainder of the night was spent 
by both parties in singing, dancing, and abusing each other. 
In the latter amusement both parties were great proficients. 

" You Hnroi* dogs are cowards," the Iroquois would 
shout from their barricade of logs ; " how dare you come 
against the Hedonosaunce ? Have we not whipped you 
often before?" 

" We will show you Minyo squaws what we are," the 
Ilurons would reply. " You have beaten us sometimes 
when you had two to one, but you dare not fight us man 
to man ; and now we will whip you, even if you have the 

" The scalps of the Ilnrons hang thick in our lodges ; 
our squaws and children play with them every day. Soon 
they will play with yours ; you cannot stand before our 

" Oh, ho !" would scream an indiscreet Huron, " your 
arms will be worthless before those which we have. We 
have weapons you have never seen before. You will I'all 
before them as if the Great Spirit had stricken you with his 

And thus with boasts and taunts, with shouts and screams, 
with plentiful repetitions of the epithets " dog," " coward," 
"slave," and "squaw," the summer night passed swiftly 
away. At daylight on the seventh Champlain's party went 
ashore, the French being clad in light coats of mail and 
armed with arquebuses, while their Huron allies were re- 
splendent in war-paint and feathers, and were equipped with 
bows, arrows, and tomahawks ; some of the latter being of 
stone and some of iron, fa.shioned in the forges of France. 

Seeing the apparent weakness of the invaders, the Iro- 
quois left their barricade, two hundred strong, and advanced 
slowly in line toward the foe, their bows and arrows in their 
hands, their faces hideously painted, their heads adorned 
with crests of gaudy feathers, and the bodies of at least a 
portion of them protected with arrow-proof armor, made of 
strips of wood fastened together with cotton thread. In 
front of them marched three chiefs, whose rank was denoted 
by the exceeding loftiness of their plumes, and the greater 
hideousness (if tliat were possible) of their war-paint, but 
who were in other lespects attired and armed like their 
followers. Champlain's French companions and a few of 
the Ilurons went into the bushes, while the main body 
marched rapidly in line toward the Iroquois, with their 
white leader. The latter had loaded his arquebuse with four 

balls ; the chiefs of the enemy had been pointed out to him, 
and he was expected to take the brunt of the fighting. 

Suddenly the line of Ilurons divided in the middle, and 
the bold Frenchman, arquebuse in hand, advanced into the 
view of the astoni.shed Iroquois. The latter halted, the 
chiefs clustered together, and all gazed in wonder at the 
white face, dark beard, flashing armor and curious weapons 
of their new foe. The Huron line closed up in the rear, 
and Champlain continued his onward course until he 
stopped within thirty paces of the Iroquois chiefs. Then, 
at length, the latter started from their stupor and fitted 
their arrows to their bows, determined to test the prowess of 
the strange intruders. Seeing this movement, Cliamplain 
at once lifted his, aimed at one of the chiefs, and 
fired. Not only the warrior at whom he aimed but one of 
the other chiefs fell dead before the shot, and one of the 
Iroquois in the rear was mortally wounded. 

This was, so far as known, the first time that the sound 
of firearms was heard within the present limits of the State 
of New York ; the first time that blood was shed by a white 
man within those boundaries. Nay, if we except the 
doubtful account of the entry of Jean Verrazzani into the 
harbor of New York city in 1523, Champlain and his com- 
panions were the very first Europeans to set foot within the 
Empire State. They were the pioneers of civilization, 
though probably the Iroquois did not look on them in that 

The Ilurons, when they saw the execution done by their 
foreign champion, rent the skies with their exultant yells, sent volley after volley of arrows among their foes. 
The latter were appalled by the apparently supernatural 
flash and report, and the fearful death of their leaders ; but 
for a few moments they kept their places and responded 
vigorously to the arrows of the Ilurons. Many were 
wounded on both sides by these feeble weapons, but none 
were killed. Ere Champlain could reload his arquebuse one 
of his companions, who had crept up in the bushes, fired 
another shot, and another of the Iroquois warriors fell dead 
in his tracks. Then the braves of the Ilcdonosaunee, who 
had triumphed over half the native tribes of America, lost 
their courage in presence of these incomprehensible disas- 
ters and fled into the forest, the French and Ilurons pur- 
suing them with shouts and yells, inflicting death upon sev- 
eral of the fugitives and capturing ten or twelve prisoners. 

The wounded Iroquois were carried off by their compan- 
ions. Fifteen or sixteen of the Ilurons were also wounded 
by the arrows of their enemies ; but their injuries appear 
to have been very slight, for Champlain says they were 
" promptly cured." After the victory the Hurons seized 
on the abandoned provisions and arms of the Iroquois, de- 
voted three hours to singing, dancing, and feasting in honor 
of their triumph, and then, in company with their French 
friends, turned the prows of their canoes toward their 
northern homes. 

Such was the first meeting of the French and the Iro- 
quois. It reads more like murder than does ordinary war. 
The taking part by the French in an aggressive movement 
in which they had no concern, the slaughter of the unsus- 
pecting Iroquois with weapons to them unknown and invin- 
cible, the needless destruction of the frightened fugitives. 



all give to this exploit a elifiracter of peculiar and revolting 

And most disastrous was it to the French. They had 
made enemies of the most powerful native confederation 
this .side of Mexico. Attacks on both sides soon deepened 
and fixed their hatred, and for a hundred and fifty years 
the people of Canada, by the sight of their blazing dwell- 
ings, by the shrieks of their slaughtered women, by the 
sound of the savage war-whoop, by the death-shots falling 
thick and fast among their devoted soldiery, were taught 
to rue the cruel rashness of the brilliant adventurer who 
devoted the colony he had founded to the vengeance of the 
Iledonosaiinee. Nay, it is not improbable that the power 
of the Iruqnois, by retarding the settlement of Canada, turned 
the scale between the French and the English, and that the 
final expulsion of the former power from this part of Amer- 
ica was indirectly due to the raid of Champlain into Wash- 
ington county in July, 1009. 



the Era of our History's Opening — The Territory which is our Sub- 
ject — Its Location — Its Geographical Features — Its Trees and 
Animals — Its Owners in 1609 — Prehistoric Traditions. 

At the time our history opens (July, 1G09), America 
had been discovered but a hundred and .seventeen years. It 
Was seventy-five years since Cartier had sailed up the great 
river St. Lawrence, but it was only six since Champlain had 
planted a permanent colony on its shores ; and it was but 
three years since the colonists of Jamestown had founded 
the first settlement in the United States. It was not till 
two months later that Henry Hudson, with his crew of 
Dutch and English, sailed up the river which still perpetu- 
ates his memory, and, as is generally but incorrectly sup- 
posed, became the pioneer discoverer of the Empire State ; 
and it was eleven years later ere the Pilgrim Fathers landed 
on the rock-bound coast of Plymouth. 

As it is the territory now forming the county of Wash- 
ington which is to be the theme of our story, a brief delinea- 
tion of its boundaries and description of its surface will aid 
in giving the necessary distinctness and individuality to the 
subject, especially during the long period between the first 
appearance of the white man and the formation of the actual 
county of Washington. 

The district under consideration extends from latitude 
forty-two degrees and fifty-four minutes north to latitude 
forty-three degrees and forty-seven minutes, — a distance of 
no less than sixty-one miles. It lies between longitude 
three degrees and ten minutes and longitude three degrees 
and twenty-one minutes east from Washington, its width 
for forty miles from its southern boundary being almost ex- 
actly eighteen miles. The remainder of the county dimin- 
ishes northward from nine to four miles in width. The 
area of the whole is eight hundred and thirty square miles. 

The narrow northern section just mentioned, comprising 
the present towns of Putnam and Dresden, is composed 
mostly of a high rocky ridge, bordered on the east by a long, 
narrow stretch of water and marsh, now called the southern 

part of Lake Champlain, and on the west by Lake George, 
that sparkling, island-gemmed, mountain-bound sheet of 
water, the beauty of which is renowned throughout the 
continent. The mountain range which occupies the pen- 
insula — and of which the highest peak (Black mountain) 
is two thou.sand eight hundred and seventy-eight feet above 
tide-water — is separated from the rest of the county by a 
remarkable depression, through most of which Wood creek 
runs, and which extends .southwesterly from the head of 
Lake Champlain to the banks of the Hudson, at Fort Ed- 
ward, forming a natural pathway for the armies which 
successively marched to the north and the south on their 
missions of invasion. 

Where this depression spreads out into the broad plain 
around Fort Edward and Sandy Hill, the Hudson comes 
rippling down from its source in the Adirondack wilds, turns 
something more than a right angle, and runs thence nearly 
due south along all the rest of the western border of the 
county. East of this are no less than three ranges of hills, 
all running northeast and southwest, with parallel valleys 
between. The first consists of the highlands of the present 
towns of Easton, Greenwich, Argyle, Hartford, Granville, 
Hampton, and the eastern part of Whitehall. Through this 
breaks the Batten Kill ; its branches, the White creek and 
Black creek, dividing the first from the second ridge. The 
latter constitutes the high ground of Cambridge, west Jack- 
son, and the eastern part of Salem and Hebron. This again 
is separated by the Owl Kill from the third range, only a 
small part of which is in Washington county, where it oc- 
cupies the eastern part of the towns of White Creek and 
Jackson. Poultney and Pawlet rivers, flowing from the 
highlands of Vermont into Lake Champlain, drain the 
northeastern part of the county, and the Hoosic, on its way 
to the Hudson, forms a part of its southern boundary. 

All these ridges and valleys were at the beginning of our 
history covered with a heavy growth of oak, ash, elm, beech, 
maple, and other common American trees, while occasional 
groves of lofty pine shaded some of the streams with their 
evergreen verdure. Here, the deer, the bear, the wolf, and 
the panther all had their lairs, while the deadly rattlesnake 
coiled among the rocks beneath, and the screaming eagle 
soared high in air over lake and river, vale and mountain- 
peak. The geology and natural history of the county will 
be treated in separate chapters, by a gentleman especially 
qualified for the task, and we do not desire to trench upon 
his province. We merely wish to give a rough idea of the 
territory where we are, in imagination, to dwell for two hun- 
dred and seventy years. 

That territory was undoubtedly, in 1609, under the con- 
trol of the easternmost tribe of the Iroquois, the fierce and Mvluiicks. They never have had a permanent res- 
idence there since the country became known to the white 
man, and there is no reason to suppose they ever had. 
They may have employed it as a hunting-ground, or they 
may, as in later years, have abandoned it to the use of their 
tributaries, the Mohicans of western jMassachusetts. 

Such was the situation in 1609. Of the prehistoric age 
little need be said, for nothing is known, and there is 
hardly any ground even for reasonable inference. Dim 
tradition asserts that the Iroquois were driven out of the 



territory now called Canada by the IJiirons ; that they 
located in central New York, and by means of their pecu- 
liar federation became stronger than their conquerors, with 
whom they waged ceaseless war. The only certainty is 
that when Champlain came to Canada, in 1603, he found a 
bitter feud in existence between the lliirons and their 
southern rivals, and was informed that such had been the 
case as far back as Indian knowledge ran. Doubtless the 
glades and hillsides of Washington county had many a 
time and oft resounded with the fierce war-whoop of Huron 
and Mohawk, and its soil was stained with the blood of 
these savage foemen, as they met on the great natural 
war-path which is the subject of our history. But they 
left no memorial of their deeds, and we turn without regret 
from the shadowy domain of tradition to the historic path- 
way beginning in 160'J, at first dim, but gradually growing 
plainer and broader as it is successively trodden by hunters, 
soldiers, pioneers, farmers, mechanics, merchants, by busy 
citizens of all classes and occupations, and sweeps onward 
down to this year of grace, eighteen hundred and seventy- 


1609 TO 1700. 

Three Lines of Conquest: Dutch, English, and French — Iroquois 
Friendship for Dutch and English — De Courcellcs' Kaid — Arent 
Van Corlaer— Dc Tracy's Expedition—Rival Claims— i'irst Pat- 
ent in Washington County — Indian Expeditions — King William's 
War — Winlhrop's Army — lis Return — John Schuyler's Raid — 
Peter Schuyler's Expedition the next Year — De Mantelle in 3693 
— The Peace of Ryswick — The enormous DcUius Patent — Its Va- 
cation by the Legislature. 

For nearly sixty years after 1609 very little occurred 
in Washington county which has become matter of record. 
Events of great importance, however, were happening all 
around, and from three directions three lines of adventure 
and conquest were converging towards this great natural 
focus. In September of that year Hudson sailed up the 
river which has since received his name, to the site of Al- 
bany, and took possession of the country round about in 
the name of his employers, the Dutch East India Com- 
pany, and of the States General of Holland. That people in 
a few years established several trading-posts along the Hud- 
son, and in 1623 began the work of permanent colonization. 

In 1620 the Pilgrims commenced the settlement of New 
England, and, in spite of a thousand obstacles, steadily pushed 
forward the work of civilization. The French gradually 
increased their possessions in Canada, though they showed 
themselves much more successful as fur-traders and mis- 
sionaries than as agricultural colonists. The Iroquois per- 
sisted in their hostility to the countrymen of Champlain, 
and doubtless often crossed the soil of Washington county 
on their mission of vengeance against the intruders who 
had so early earned their hatred, though no record remains 
of these stealthy forays. 

These powerful confederates were naturally impelled by 
their enmity against the French to cultivate friendly rela- 
tions with the Dutch, from whom alone they could obtain 
the death-dealing muskets and ammunition with which to 
do battle with their Gallic foes. When, in 1664, the New 

Netherlands were conquered by the English, and granted 
by King Charles the Second to his brother, the Duke of 
York (from whom the province was called New York), the 
Iroquois transferred their friendship to the new owners of the 
province, and still continued their warfare against the French. 

In January, 1660, a French officer. Monsieur de Cour- 
celles, set forth with four hundred French troops and two 
hundred Canadians, designing to inflict a severe blow on 
the Iroquois. Shod with snow-shoes and muffled with furs, 
every officer and man carrying thirty pounds of biscuit, be- 
sides his arms and ammunition, and accompanied by sledges 
loaded with supplies and drawn by dogs, the little army 
made its toilsome way on the ice to the head of Lake 
Champlain, and thence trudged through the forest to the 
vicinity of Schenectady, sufiering terrible hardships from 
the excessive cold. There a part of the force was am- 
bushed by the Mohawks, and about the middle of February 
all the remainder came ha.stening back to Lake Champlain, 
down which, half frozen and starved, they made their pain- 
ful way back to Canada. 

Several of the Frenchmen wounded in this expedition 
were rescued from the MoImioIcs and taken care of by 
Arent Van Corlaer, the manager of the colony of Rensse- 
laerswyck. This gentleman was a special favorite of the 
Iroquois, who looked upon him as the chief man among the 
whites, the actual governor being unknown to them, and 
ever after called the governors of New York by the appella- 
tion of " Corlaer." 

Monsieur de Tracy, the governor of Canada, was so 
pleased with the kindness of Corlaer that he invited the 
latter to visit him. He accepted the invitation, but on his 
way was drowned, by accident, in Lake Champlain. 

In the September following the expedition of De Cour- 
cellcs, De Tracy led another force of about six hundred 
up Lake Champlain. They occupied nearly three hundred 
bark canoes and a few light bateaux, and took with them 
two small pieces of artillery. These were more fortunate 
than their predecessors ; they were not defeated, but, as the 
jllohaioJis had learned of their approach, they could only 
burn the villages of the savages and return by the route 
they had come. Through the influence of the English 
colonial government, the Iroquois shortly after made peace 
with the French, which endured until about 1687. 

The grant of Charles the Second to the Duke of York 
covered all the territory east to the Connecticut river, and 
northward to the confines of Canada. The latter limits 
were not designated, but the English considered that they 
owned to the Canadian settlements, while the French 
claimed that Canada included the whole valley of Lake 
Champlain, which they had long since discovered. Wash- 
ington county was, however, much nearer the Anglo- 
Dutch settlements than those of the French. As for the 
title of the Indians, it was looked on as entirely worthless 
until it was transferred to one of the rival European claim- 
ants; then it became an excellent title in the eyes of that 
party, but of no value in those of their opponents. 

Nov. 1, 1683, the province of New York was divided into 
counties, the northernmost of which was Albany. This 
stretched indefinitely north and west into the wilderness, 
and included the present territory of Washington county. 



In 1684 the first patent for land within the limits of 
Washington eouiity was granted by the colonial govern- 
ment. The grantees were Peter " Philipse" Schu3-ler 
(Peter, the son of Philip), Robert Livingston, and other 
gentlemen of Albany and vicinity. The land thus granted 
extended back six miles on each side of the Hudson. On 
the west side its southern boundary was at Anthony's Kill, 
now Mcchanicville ; on the east side it began at the north 
bounds of the Schagticoke patent (the mouth of Hoosic 
river), and ran up the Hudson to the mouth of the Batten 
Kill ; thus covering the whole of the present town of Eiiston 
and a small part of Greenwich. 

This was commonly known as the Saratoga patent. It 
does not appear to have been recorded, and the land was 
certainly not settled on the east side of the Hudson till 
a long time afterwards. In 1708 it was confirmed and 
recorded, covering substantially the same ground. The 
Peter "" Schuyler mentioned in the grant was Colonel Peter Schuyler (son of Philip), the first 
mayor of Albany, one of the leading men of the colony 
and grand-uncle of General Philip Schuyler of the Revolu- 
tion. Robert Livingston was a Scotchman, recently settled 
in the colony, and the founder of the celebrated family of 
that name. 

In 1687 hostilities broke out between the Five Nations 
and the French, and the Marijuis de Dcnonville made a de- 
structive attack on the Senecas near the site of Rochester. 
That same year about sixty of the enraged Iroquois passed 
down Lake Chaniplain, inflicted severe damage on the 
French at Chambly, and returned in safety to their homes. 
The next year nine hundred warriors, mostly Moliawks, 
made their way to the island of Montreal, and devastated 
it with great slaughter up to the gates of the city. 

jNIeanwhile France had adopted the cause of James the 
Second, driven from the throne of England by William 
the Third in 1688, and war had consequently been declared 
between the two countries ; the conflict being commonly 
known as King William's war. 

In February, 17!)0, a detachment of French and Indians 
pushed through the forests, probably keeping to the west 
of Washington county, and committed the celebrated and 
terrible massacre of Schenectady. 

We now come to the appearance of the first Anglo-Ameri- 
can force on the territory under consideration. Shocked 
and enraged by the Schenectady disaster. New York and 
Connecticut raised a force, to be sent by the way of Lake 
Champlain, for the purpose of capturing Montreal. 

Fitz John Winthrop, of Connecticut, was commissioned 
a major-general and appointed to the command. General 
Winthrop reached Albany the 21st of July. Major Peter 
Schuyler, before mentioned, soon after moved in advance 
with a detachment of Dutch militia, on the west side of 
the Hudson, as far as the second carrying-place (now Fort 
Miller), where they proceeded to build canoes for the use 
of the army. On the 4th of August the general arrived at 
the same point with the remainder of his force. It consisted, 
all told, of four hundred New Yorkers (mostly Dutch), one 
hundred and thirty-five from Connecticut, thirty " River 
Indians," and about one hundred and fifty Moliawks ; not a 
very formidable army to compass the capture of Canada. 

On the fifth the command proceeded to the " great carry- 
ing-place" ( Fort Edward), the New Yorkers in canoes, and 
the New Englauders on foot ; their supplies being carried 
on horseback. The next day the meagre army proceeded 
over the swampy ground, abounding in Udl white-pines, 
to the forks of Wood creek, now known as Fort Ann ; the 
sturdy Hudson-river Dutchmen exciting the general's espe- 
cial admiration by the easy vigor with which they carried 
their canoes and provisions on their backs along the toil- 
some way. 

On the 7th of August, General Winthrop, with his mus- 
keteers, proceeded down Wood creek to its mouth in bark 
canoes, while a band of watchful Mohawks marched on 
either side of the boats to guard against any lurking foe. 
All camped near the mouth of the creek, on the north side. 

On the 9th of August a dispatch came from the Senecas 
and other Iroquois, who had been expected to meet General 
Winthrop near the north end of Lake Champlain, to the 
eff'ect that they could not go because the smallpox had 
broken out in their country. About the same time it was 
discovered that at this advanced season the bark would not 
peel, and no more canoes could be made ; also that the pro- 
visions were giving out, and that little more could be ob- 
tained from Albany. A council of war, held on the 15th 
of August, therefore resolved to return to Albany. 

In fact the whole expedition was miserably deficient in 
every respect, and it is likely the retreat was as much owing 
to the small number of men as to any other cause. Win- 
throp must have seen that five hundred militia and two 
hundred Indians were entirely inadequate to the capture of 
Montreal, even if there had been an abundance of pro- 
visions and canoes. 

Captain John Schuyler (a younger brother of Major 
Peter, and grandfather of the Revolutionary general, Philip 
Schuyler) was now directed to proceed, with forty soldiers 
and a hundred and twenty Indians, and see what he could 
do against the French at the other end of Lake Champlain. 
The " army" then moved back to the head of Wood creek. 

There Lieutenant Hubbell died of the smallpox, and was 
buried with military honors, a circumstance which is only 
noticeable because the lieutenant is the first person whose 
name is recorded as having been buried in Washington 
county. The boats, the stores, and the slight fortifications 
which had been erected, were all destroyed, and the troops 
proceeded in great haste to Albany. General Winthrop wa.s 
put under arrest by Governor Leisler, but could hardly be 
punished for not capturing Canada with his diminutive and 
ill-supplied force. 

Meanwhile, Captain Schuyler led his detachment down 
Lake Champlain. In a short time he met Captain Glen, 
who had been sent on a reconnaissance, and obtained thir- 
teen more whites and five Indians from his command, while 
the remainder followed the track of the retreating Win- 
throp. With his force of about a hundred and eighty 
persons, all told, Schuyler continued his course to the north 
end of the lake, and thence to La Prairie, where he inflicted 
considerable damage on the French, and then returned by 
the .same route to Albany. 

The next year Major Peter Schuyler collected two hun- 
dred and sixty whites and Iroquois, and made another 



assault on Canada. On the 26th of June his conmiand 
reached the site of Fort Edward, and on the 28th proceeded 
to that of Fort Ann. There they remained about sixteen 
days, building canoes and preparing for the journey. On 
the 14th the party floated down to the falls of Wood creek 
(now Whitehall), and two days later set forth in their frail 
fleet down the lake. At this time, however, the long, 
narrow strip of water reaching from Whitehall to Crown 
Point was not always considered as a part of Lake Cham- 
plain. Consisting as it does of a narrow deep channel, 
bordered on each side by a strip of marshy ground hardly 
covered with water, the whole was frequently spoken of 
as " the drowned lands," and was sometimes known by 
other names. 

On reaching the north end of the lake, Schuyler pro- 
ceeded to La Prairie, and had a fight with the enemy. He 
then made his way back to his canoes, and returned to the 
head of the lake, following thence the usual route, by way 
of Wood creek and the Hudson, to Albany. Boastful 
colonial accounts relate that Schuyler's party slew three 
hundred of the enemy on this expedition, but this was 
doubtless mere gasconade. He lost twenty-one men killed 
and had five wounded, and does not appear to have accom- 
plished anything of coasequence. 

Frequent depredations were made by the Lidians allied 
with the respective combatants, and in January, lti93, 
Count Frontenac, then governor of Canada, determined to 
strike a telling blow against the Mohawks, who were the 
most dreaded of his adversaries. He accordingly dis- 
patched against them a body of four hundred and twenty- 
five whites and two hundred Hurons, all commanded by an 
oflScer named De Mantelle. This force, all on snow-shoes, 
with its provisions on sledges, came up to Ticonderoga, 
strode along the western border of Washington county 
on the ice of Lake George, and from the head of that 
lake pushed through the forest toward the castles of the 

On the 22d of February they again arrived on the 
western shore of Lake George, having inflicted severe 
injury on the Moliawlcs and captured many prisoners, but 
having themselves been closely followed not only by their 
Lidian enemies, but by the two warlike Schuylers before 
named, with a body of white volunteers. These had 
severely handled the invaders, and De Mantelle, the com- 
mander of the latter, had been slain. When the fugitives 
arrived at Lake George the ice was found to be rotten, and 
the men in some places sank to the waist. The English 
and Mohawks had stopped at Hudson river, but were sup- 
posed to be close behind, and in the confusion a large por- 
tion of the prisoners escaped. The French pushed on 
down Lake George, while their Indian allies struck over 
the highlands of Putnam to Lake Champlain. They found 
their depot of provisions spoiled by the rain, and they all 
suficrcd great hardships before they reached Jlontreal, 
where they did not arrive until the 9th of March. 

In 1695 the peace of Ryswick was concluded between 
England and France, and for a while the red uicn of New 
York and Canada: buried the hatchet, in imitation of their 
transatlantic allies. The next year the territory of Wash- 
ington county came very near being transferred, almost 

entire, to a single individual. On the 3d day of Septem- 
ber, 1696, Benjamin Fletcher, the colonial governor, gave 
to the Rev. Godfredius Dellius, minister of the Dutch Re- 
formed church at Albany, a patent covering all the land 
north of Saratoga patent, on the cast side of the Hudson, 
the tract being twelve miles wide from the Saratoga patent 
until the east line struck Wood creek, and thence occupying 
all the land between Hudson river and what was then called 
Wood creek, but is now known as the southern part of Lake 
Champlain, as far north as Rock Retsio, or Regio, now 
known as Split Rock, on the shore of Lake Champlain, 
ninety miles from the north line of Saratoga patent. The 
Dellius patent is somewhat obscurely drawn, but this is 
evidently the meaning of it. 

The location of Rock Regio has been doubted, but it is 
shown to be near Split Rock by an aflidavit of John Henry 
Lydius and wife, mentioned in Butler's " Lake Champlain 
and Lake George," page 17. The patent describes it as 
seventy miles north of Saratoga patent, but little was known 
about distances at that lime, nearly all boundaries being 
determined by natural landmarks. Considering the long 
sweep of the Hudson to the westward, north of Sandy Hill, 
this patent must have embraced a tract of over two thou- 
.sand square miles, comprising more than half of Washing- 
ton county, almost all of Warren county, and a large part 
of Essex. The quitreut reserved to the crown was one 
raccoon-skin per year. 

The Rev. Godfredius claimed to have previously pur- 
chased the land of the Mohawks, and it is quite likely that 
some of the chiefs had made him a grant of some land 
after a due use of whisky and flattery. But, reckless as 
the colonial authorities often were in regard to large grants 
of land, this was too enormous to be successful. In April, 
1798, the Earl of Bellamont succeeded Colonel Fletcher as 
governor, and he was so impressed with the injury the 
grant would work in retarding the settlement of the country 
that he persuaded the Legislature to vacate it. Dellius 
denied the authority of the Legislature to do this, and, on 
returning to Holland, is supposed to have transferred his 
claim to Rev. John Lydius, his successor in the Albany 

Nothing further of especial consequence relating to Wash- 
ing county occurred during the seventeenth century. 



Beginning of the Conflict— Quiet here until 1709— E.xpcdition nga.inst 
Montreal — General Nicholson appointed Commander — Assembling 
of the Troops— Schuyler's Advance- Building of Fort .Saraghtogii 
—Also of Forts Nicholson and .Schuyler— Inactivity through the 
Summer— Retreat in November -Nicholson's Second Expedition- 
Building of Fort Anne- Its Change of Name— This Expedition 
also Abandoned — The Peace of Utrecht. 

Scarcely had the new century dawned upon the world 
ere its light was obscured by the smoke of battle. The 
long combat known as " Queen Anne's war" began in 1702, 
and the tomahawks were speedily at work in America, on 
account of the rivalry of France and England. Washing- 
ton county was again the war-path for numerous small 



parties on their errands of destruction against the French 
or English frontiers, but no expedition of much importance 
passed through it until 1709. 

In that year the British and the colonial authorities 
joined in a plan by which two expeditions were to co- 
operate for the capture of Canada. Five regiments of 
British regulars were to be joined at Boston by a body of 
Massachusetts levies, and proceed by sea to Quebec, while 
the troops of Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, and 
Pennsylvania were to concentrate at Albany, and follow the 
well-known track by way of Lake Cliamplain to Montreal. 
General Francis Nicholson, formerly lieutenant-governor 
of New York, was appointed commander of the latter ex- 
pedition by acting-Governor Ingoldsby. The four provinces 
last named furnished fifteen hundred, besides several inde- 
pendent companies from New York. These were joined by 
about a hundred Mohawks. About the first of June, the 
pioneers and artificers, escorted by three hundred men, 
under Peter Sehuylor, — now become a colonel, — set forth 
from Albany. This detachment built the first permanent 
fortification in Washington county, — a stockade called 
" Fort Saraghtoga," situated on the east side of the Hud- 
son, a little below the mouth of the Batten Kill, in the 
present town of Easton. 

They built other stockades at Stillwater and Fort Miller 
Falls, and constructed a road from the Batten Kill up the 
east side of the Hudson to the " groat carrying-place" at 
Fort Edward. Here Schuyler built a fort which he called 
Fort Nicholson. He then proceeded with his detachment 
to the forks of Wood creek (the site of Fort Ann), where 
a rude fortress was constructed and named Fort Schuyler. 
John Schuyler (now a lieutenant-colonel of his brother's 
regiment) was placed in command. A hundred bark canoes 
and a hundred and ten bateaux were also built, the latter 
capable of holding from six to ten men each. 

The main body of the army, under General Nicholson, 
soon afterwards moved up the Hudson. The largest por- 
tion, eleven hundred and fifty in all, was stationed at Fort 
Schuyler. Fort Nicholson was garrisoned by four hundred 
and fifty men, among whom were a few companies of 
British regulars, the first whose scarlet coats and precise 
manoeuvres were seen within the borders of Washington 
county. Forty soldiers were stationed at the post at Fort 
Miller falls (which had not yet received that name), and 
others at other points lower down. 

A French force, reported to number sixteen hundred, 
had stationed itself at the other end of Lake Champlain. 
Their services were not necessary, however, for Nicholson 
awaited action by the fleet against Quebec, and the summer 
pa.ssed away without any proceedings of importance. A 
severe sickness broke out in the English camp, to which 
large numbers fell victims, which made a hostile movement 
still more impracticable. The enterprising French sent 
frequent scouts into the territory occupied by the English, 
and one of these, near the 1st of October, captured Lieu- 
tenant Staats, in the immediate vicinity of Fort Nicholson. 
In November the English destroyed Forts Nicholson and 
Schuyler, and the po.sts at the second carrying-place, and re- 
tired down the river. Fort Saraghtoga was still maintained. 
In 1711 still another attempt was made to lead an expe- 

dition against Canada through Washington county. The 
plan was essentially the same as the previous one. A fleet 
was to operate against Quebec, and an army was to go by 
way of Lake Champlain to Montreal. General Nicholson 
was again selected as commander of the latter force. This 
consisted of three small regiments, — one of regulars, com- 
manded by Lieutenant^Colonel Ingoldsby ; one of New 
Yorkers, again commanded by Colonel Schuyler; and one 
of Connecticut men, under the orders of Colonel Whiting. 

It left Albany about the last of, following the 
route pursued two years before, to the ruins of Fort Schuy- 
ler. Here a new fort was built, half the expense being 
borne by the BritL-fh government and half by the colony of 
New York. It was at first called " Queen's Fort," doubt- 
less on account of the aid received from the crown in 
building it, but soon after received the queen's actual name 
and became Fort Anne. This name has been substantially 
retained ever since ; but for a long time everybody has in- 
sisted on spelling it " Ann," in utter contempt of the fact 
that her Majesty, from whom the name was received, always 
spelled it " Anne." This is particularly to be regretted, as 
it tends to break the historic chain which binds us to the 
events of a hundred and sixty-seven years ago. But uni- 
versal practice is sovereign in matters of orthography. It 
has made "Dutchess" county out of "Duchess," and in 
obedience to its authority we shall henceforth designate the 
fort under consideration, and the town named from it, as 
Fort Ann. 

Fearing that the Lake Champlain route would be un- 
healthy, Nicholson's army, now increased to four thousand 
men, took the route to Lake George, as being a more salu- 
brious locality. Before reaching that sheet of water, how- 
ever, Nicholson learned that the British fleet intended to 
operate against Quebec had been shattered on the sea, and 
that the expedition had been abandoned. He accordingly 
deserted Port Ann, withdrew his troops to Albany, and 
disbanded them. Fort Saraghtoga was still kept up as the 
northernmost protection of the Hudson river settlements. 
In 1713, Queen Anne's war was ended by the peace of 
Utrecht, and Washington county became once more a 
hunting-ground instead of a war-path. On other parts of 
the frontier the colonists were frequently assailed by the 
Indians, even when no European war was in progress ; but 
in this locality the Five Nations were so closely allied with 
the English, and the Hurous with the French, that peace 
between the two great nations of Europe usually gave peace 
to the shores of the Hudson and of Lake Cliamplain. 



The Saratoga Settlement — Probability that it was the First — Con- 
flicting Claims — Building of Crown Point — Agreement with Cap- 
tain Campbell — His Colony — His Disappointment — The Hoosic 
Patent — The Walloomsac Patent — -Colonel Lydius' Establishment 
—The First White Child— The Schuyler Patent- The Bayard 

Several years after the peace of Utrecht, the Schuylers 
and others interested in the Saratoga patent procured the 



settlement of a considerable tract near the fort of that 
name. This settlement has usually been spoken of as en- 
tirely on the west side of the Hudson. But the circum- 
stances attending its destruction, which will be mentioned 
later, clearly show that it was partially, at least, on the east 
side. In all probability it was begun on the east side, 
around the fort, though it may afterwards have been ex- 
tended to the west side. There is hardly a question that 
this was the first settlement in Washington county, but it 
was so thoroughly devastated afterwards that it has entirely 
escaped the attention of some writers who have treated on 
the early history of the county, and our investigations have 
failed to show us when it was begun. 

The dividing line between the French and English pos- 
sessions in America was loft in dispute by the peace of 
Utrecht, and in 1731 the governor of Canada made a move- 
ment to secure a large part of the disputed territory to 
France by building a fortress at Crown Point. Great 
alarm was felt along the northern frontier of New York ; 
for it was felt that in case of war much more facility would 
be afforded to the murderous expeditions of the French 
and Indians than ever before. The obvious counter-move- 
ment would have been for New York to build a fort at 
Tieonderoga, but the governor and Assembly were iu con- 
stant conflict with each other, and nothing was done. Even 
Fort Ann was left in ruins, and no defenses wore erectad at 
the head of Lake Champlain or Lake George. Fort 
Saraghtoga, however, was still kept up, though not very 

The only move towards counteracting the French ad- 
vance was an attempt made to settle the territory above 
Saratoga patent with a colony of fearless men, who might 
act as protectors of the lands below. In 1735 a proclamar 
tion was issued by the governor inviting " loyal Protestant 
Highlanders" to settle the lands between the Hudson and 
the northern lakes, — the men of the tartan and claymore 
being evidently considered the best defenders that the 
province could have. In 1737, Captain Laughlin Camp- 
bell, a Highland soldier of distinguished courage, came to 
America in response to the proclamation, and went over 
the territory of Washington county to sec if a colony 
could be L-^ated there. He was satisfied with the locality, 
and according to his statement, which was in all probability 
true, Lieutenant-Governor Clarke (acting governor) prom- 
ised him a grant of thirty thousand acres for the use of 
a colony, free of all expenses except survey-fees and quit- 

Campbell returned to Scotland, sold his property there, 
rai.sed a company of ibur hundred and twenty-three adults, 
besides children, to come to America, and in 1738 cro.ssed 
the Atlantic with a part of his charge. Ou his arrival, 
however, the governor insisted on his full fees and a share 
in the land. This Campbell refused to give, — the fees he 
was perhaps unable to give. Governor Clarke pretended 
to be very anxious to aid the emigrants, and recommended 
the Legislature to grant them assistance. But the Legis- 
lature was, as usual, at war with the governor, and refused 
to vote money to the emigrants, which they suspected, 
with good reason, the latter would be required to pay to 
the colonial officials for fees. The colony was obliged to 

separate to earn their living. Campbell, after various ad- 
ventures, died in poverty, and the further .settlement of 
Washington county was postponed nearly thirty years. 
These facts are derived from the statements of Captain 
Campbell and his friends, but the conduct of the colonial 
officials in other matters makes these charges appear ex- 
tremely probable. 

A little after the Campbell fiasco, the Hoosic patent 
was granted. This lay six miles back from the Hud- 
son, and mostly in Rensselaer county ; but it extended 
two miles north of the Hoosic, thus embracing a strip 
of that width in the south part of the town of Cam- 
bridge and the southwest part of White creek. East of 
this, the Walloomsac patent of twelve thou.sand acres was 
granted, lying partly in Rensselaer county, partly in the 
southeast portion of Cambridge, Washington Co., and 
partly in what is now the State of Vermont. 

Meanwhile, Colonel John Henry Lydius, son of Rev. 
John Lydius, who is supposed to have purchased the right 
of Rev. Godfredius Djllius to the vast tract granted by 
Governor Fletcher, being desirous of keeping up his claim 
of title, built a house, roughly fortified, so as to resist an 
Indian assault, on the site of Fort Nicholson (in the pres- 
ent village of Fort Edwards, and engaged in trade with 
the red men. The precise date of his making this estab- 
lishment (frequently called Fort Lydius) is not known, but 
it was between 1730 and 1744 ; and is believed to have 
been shortly after the former date, when Colonel Lydius 
left Canada. 

As the English and Dutch sold Indian goods much 
cheaper than the French in Canada, a large trade was 
attracted to Fort Lydius from the north, and Iliirons and 
Ottitwas from beyond the Saint Lawrence were found 
trafficking there beside the Molunrks and Mohicans of 
nearer localities. 

It is generally supposed that Lydius' daughter, Cath- 
arine, afterwards Mrs. Cuyler, was the first white child 
born in the present county of Washington, but there is 
every reason to believe that children were born before her 
in the little settlement around Fort Saraghtoga. In fact, 
Catharine was not exactly a white child. Her mother, 
Genevieve Masse, was a Franco-Indian half-breed, whom 
Colonel Lydius had married in Montreal, where he resided 
between 1725 and 1730. 

As the colonial officials did not recognize the title of 
Lydius to the land he claimed, they proceeded, on July 
18, 1740, to grant a tract of twelve thousand acres, com- 
prising the southern and larger part of the present town 
of Fort Edward, to John and Philij) Schuyler and others. 
The fir.«t we infer to have been John Schuyler, Jr., son of 
the lieutenant-colonel who took part in the Nicholson ex- 
pedition, and father of General Philip Schuyler of the 
Revolution, while the second was doubtless his brother, 
who was afterwards slain at Saratoga. The tract was 
commonly known as the Schuyler patent. The next year, 
Samuel Bayard, who was also one of the grantees, obtained 
an additional tract of thirteen hundred acres, lying north 
of the Schuyler patent, and extending to the middle of the 
present village of Fort Edward. But agaiu the clouds of 
war overshadowed the land. 




THE MTAR OF 1744. 

The Situation in 1744 — Strengthening Fort Saraghtogii — Marin .and 
his Band— Destruction of Lydius' Bstiiblishment— .attack on Sar- 
aghtoga— Death of Philip Schuyler— HuiKling of Fort Clinton— Its 
Location — De Mery on AVoud Creek — Kcpentigny near Fort Clin- 
ton — Other French and Indian Raids — La Corno de St. Luc 
marches against Fort Clinton— The Ambush— The Battle — The 
French Victory — Further Attempts — Ketreat of La Come — Fort 
Clinton destroyed by the English — End of English Occupation. 

In 1744, after what was then considered a long peace, 
of thirt}--one years, war broke out between England and 
France. In a short time Indians were lurking around the 
fortified house of Colonel Lydius and the little settlement 
at Fort Saraghtoga. No serious damage, however, was done 
that year. At this time Fort Ann was entirely in ruins, 
nor does it appear that the colony of New York had any 
fortified post on tlie upper Hudson except Fort Saragh- 
toga. This was somewhat dilapidated, but capable of being 

The next year, 1745, Colonel Philip Schuyler (uncle of 
the general) and Major Collins were employed to strengthen 
Fort Saraghtoga by building six block-houses, which they 
accordingly did. AVe infer that they were at convenient 
distances around the fort. The war was somewhat lan- 
guidly waged on both sides, and the summer of 1745 
passed without the occurrence of any event needing notice 
in the territory which is the subject of this history. Colo- 
nel Lydius, relying on the strength of his defenses, or on 
his influence over the Indians, remained at his little fort, 
the farthest outpost of the English. 

But in November, 1745, a French partisan officer, after- 
wards widely celebrated, named Marin (a name which the 
English and Americans have distorted into " Molang"), 
came down from Canada, with three hundred Indians and 
as many French, intending to attack the settlements on the 
Connecticut river. He changed his plan, however, and 
shaped his course toward the Saraghtoga settlement. Arriv- 
ing at Colonel Lydius' establishment, Marin laid it in ashes, 
taking prisoner the colonel and his son, both of whom he 
afterwards took with him to Canada. He then proceeded 
down the Hudson with his motley force, arriving at Saragh- 
toga before daylight on the morning of the 28th of No- 
vember (N. S.). 

The settlement consisted of about thirty families, many 
of them being tenants of Colonel Philip Schuyler, who 
was one of vhe chief proprietors of the land, and the 
principal man of the locality. As has been said, it is quite 
probable that the settlement was on both sides of the 
Hud.son. If any part of it was on the west side, Marin 
must have divided his force ; for, in a very brief time, the 
fort and all the dwellings wore captured and set on fire, 
and a hundred and nine of the inhabitants, — men, women, 
and children, — thus rudely awakened from their slumbers, 
were taken prisoners. A few escaped, and a few were slain. 
The number of the latter (considering the number captured 
out of thirty families) must have been very small in com- 
parison with the proportion usually slaughtered in Indian 

Colonel Schuyler, however, fell a victim to his own 

bravery. A French lieutenant, named Beauvais, who knew 
him, and who led the attack on his house (which was built 
of brick, and pierced for musketry), called on him to sur- 
render, assuring him he should not be harmed. Schuyler 
refused, called Beauvais a dog, and fired his " fusee" at him. 
Beauvais repeated the invitation to surrender, but Schuyler 
only fired another shot at his foe. The latter then fired his 
own gun, with better aim than Schuyler, and the latter fell 
dead in his tracks. This, at least, is the French account of 
the matter, doubtless derived from Beauvais him.self, and 
perhaps too favorable to him. 

We have included an account of Mr. Schuyler's death, as 
it was a part of the raid, which certainly extended to the 
Washington county side of the river, although it is not 
certain on which side he lived. 

In the winter of 174G, the Colonial Assembly, at the 
request of the Schuyler family, voted a hundred and fifty 
pounds (about three hundred and seventy-five dollars) to 
built a fort in place of Fort Saraghtoga. One of the objects 
was to guard the large fields east of the old fort, which, 
notwithstanding the destruction of the houses, it was still 
hoped might be cultivated. To do this more effectually the 
new fortress was built, in the spring of 1746, on a hill a 
considerable distance east of the site of Fort Saraghtoga, 
and not fiir from the present road from Schuylerville to 
Galesvillc. This fact, confirmed by the location of the 
ruins of the new fort (which were in existence at the time 
of the second settlement after the French wars), shows 
clearly that there must have been a part of the settlement 
on the east side of the river. In fact, notwithstanding the 
positive expressions of Lossing and others, we are strongly 
of the opinion that the whole settlement was east of the 
river, and that Schuyler's mill was on the Batten Kill instead 
of Fish Kill. The new fort was much larger than the old 
one, being a hundred and fifty feet long by a hundred and 
forty feet wide, with six wooden redoubts for barracks. It 
was armed with six twelve-pound and six eighteen-pound 
cannon, and received the name of Fort Clinton, in honor 
of George Clinton (father of Sir Henry Clinton, the British 
commander in the Revolution), who was then governor of 
the province. 

The locality of Fort Clinton has often been mistaken for 
that of Fort Saraghtoga, and much confusion has been 
caused in consequence. It is evident that the land was 
cleared as far back from the river as Fort Clinton, and 
probably a short distance beyond. 

Several small French and Indian parties made their w.ay 
into Washington county during the summer of 1746. In 
July, Mons. Do Mery, with about four hundred and fifty 
Canadians and Indians, came up Lake Champlain and 
camped on the shores of Wood creek, which the French 
called Riviere an Chicot. Into this stream, for several 
miles above its mouth, they felled the trees growing on both 
sides, so as to render its navigation impracticable and pre- 
vent or retard any English expedition against Canada. 

In the latter part of August, Mons. de Repentigny, an- 
other celebrated French partisan, led a party of twenty-five 
or thirty Al/cnaki Indians into the vicinity of Fort Clinton. 
Seeing a detachment of twenty soldiers escorting a cart-load 
of clay to build a chimney, the Abcnakis suddenly attacked 



them, killod and scalped four men close to the gate of the 
fort, and took four prisoners. 

The French records show nearly twenty such expeditions 
in that single year, 1746 (besides those ol' which no account 
remains), that went on their mission of murder to the 
frontiers of New York and Massachusetts. Blost of them 
passed over some part of the lon<>;-exteaded borders of 
Washington county, but it would be idle to recount the 
meagre annals of these inglorious exploits, so much alike 
in their atrocity and in their insignificance to all save their 
unhappy victims. One week a band of painted warriors 
(perchance led by one of their own chiefs, perchance by a 
French officer almost as wild and fierce as themselves) 
Would be gliding swiftly through the primeval forests on the 
banks of Wood creek, the Hudson, or the Batten Kill, 
toward the doomed locality; the next week the same forests 
would shadow their returning forms as they hastened to- 
ward Canada, their dark faces gleaming with triumph, 
their girdles adorned with the scalps of old and young, 
male and female, while in their midst there would perhaps 
be a few haggard men and weary women, urged forward by 
their brutal captors, and shuddering at the unknown fate 
which awaited them. 

The year 1747 opened with a general renewal of these 
scenes. The English and the Six Nations made some 
attempts at retaliation, but do not seem to have been as 
successful in their atrocities as their opponents. 

About the middle of June — old style, but in the latter 
part new style — St. Luc la Come de St. Luc, another of 
the French partisans who were so successful as leaders of 
these stealthy war-parties, made his way to the vicinity of 
Fort Clinton, at the head of twenty Canadians and near 
two hundred Indians, — Hiirons, JS^ipissiiiffs, Abeimhis, and 
French Iroquois. After watching for a day or two in the 
forest without seeing any good opportunity, as the Indians 
said, " to break somebody's head," La Corne determined to 
try an old stratagem to induce the English to come out of 
their fastness. He jjlaced six of his bravest Indians in 
ambush, near the fort, with orders to fire on the first that 
came out, and if attacked to beat a speedy retreat. 

The first day the ambushed warriors saw nothing, and 
the chiefs began to urge a retreat. But La Corne declared 
that it was not the French custom to retreat while there 
was a chance to strike a blow, and at nightfall again placed 
a party in ajiibush. 

At daybreak the next morning (the oOth, N. S.) the 
lurking warriors saw two Englishmen come out of the fort, 
and immediately fired on them. The gate was at once 
opened and a hundred and twenty of the garrison rushed 
out, formed in line, and fired on the assailants. The half- 
dozen Indians fled in accordance with La Comes plan, 
some of them throwing down their muskets and toma- 
hawks, running a little way, falling, running and falling 
again, as if severely wounded. The English, however, sus- 
picious of danger, advanced but slowly, and when they 
reached the place where one of the savages had thrown 
down his musket and tomahawk they halted. 

La Corne saw that he must make the attack quickly. He 
rose up and fired his gun at the foe, and all his men in- 

stantly did the same. Then, while the English line stag- 
gered under this sudden volley. La Come raised the war- 
whoop, swung his tomahawk, and rushed forward, followed 
by all his two hundred and twenty companions, running at 
the top of their speed and yelling like so many demons. 
The English fired a feeble volley, and those remaining in 
the fort also opened with their cannon. But the savages 
dashed furiou.sly on, and the next moment were plying their 
tomahawks on the English, who fled in all haste to the fort. 
Less than fifty of them succeeded in entering, and then the 
gates were shut, not only on the enemy but on the rearmost 
of their own men. The latter made but little resistance. 
In a few moments twenty-eight of them were killed and 
scalped, and forty-five more taken prisoners. A lew others 
rushed across the fields to the Hudscin and plunged in, fol- 
lowed to the bank by the yelling savages. Most of tlicse 
were drowned, or slain by the shots of their relentless 

Unable to secure an entrance into the fort, the savages 
retreated into the forest with their scalps and prisoners as 
quickly as they had advanced. How slight must have been 
the resistance of the English is shown by the fact that 
only one Indian was killed and five were slightly wounded. 
Having sent his party and their prisoners into the forest, 
La Corne with a few men waited near the fort to see what 
the garrison would do. A number which he estimated at a 
hundred and fifty came outside the gate (showing that there 
must originally have been over two hundred there), but, 
warned by the disaster of the morning, they did not ad- 
vance beyond the shadow of the wall, and soon returned. 
La Corne accordingly retired, and, at the head of his tri- 
umphant band, set forth toward Canada. 

The English continued to hold Fort Clinton during the 
remainder of the summer; but in the fall, probably near the 
last of October, the guns and stores were removed, the gar- 
rison withdrawn, and the fort burned, by order of Governor 
Clinton, his avowed reason being that the Assembly did 
not vote enough money to keep it up. 

This was the end of occupation, for the time, in that 
part of the county, — an occupation which was not renewed 
to any extent until after the concpiest of Canada, though 
occasionally some one may have built a residence amid the 
ruins of the old settlement. So completely had the mem- 
ory of this little colony passed away that when people's 
attention began to be turned to the early history of the 
country very little was said about this, the first settlement 
in Washington county. The existence of the two forts, 
Saraghtoga and Clinton, in different locations, but in the same 
vicinity, both of which were attacked by French and In- 
dians in the same war, added still more to the confusion, as 
did also the fact that both those forts were called " Sarastau" 
— meaning Saratoga — by the French. By collating various 
accounts derived from both French and English sources, 
we think we have obtained the first consistent and con- 
nected account of the events in Washington county from 
the peace of Utrecht, in 1713, to that of Aix-la-Chapelle 
in 1748. The preliminaries of the latter peace were signed 
in April of the last-named year, and for a time stopped the 
march of war-parties along the northern frontier. 





Six Years of Peace— The War begun in 1754— The Three Expedi- 
tions of ITSS— Movement against Crown Point— Advance liy Gen- 
eral Lyman — Building of Kort Miller; also of Fort Lyuian — Arri- 
val of General William Johnson at Fort Lyman— The Forces 
assembled there — Prominent Men : Johnson, Hcndrick, Lyman, 
Schuyler, Putnam, Koger.s, Stark, and Butler— The Council of 
War — Johnson goes to Lake George — Lyman follows — The 
" Dutch-Frenchman," Dicskau, at Tieoiidcroga — His Sudden Ad- 
vance — His Ignorance of American Warfare — He marches against 
Fort Lyman — The Indians refuse to attack it — The Army sets 
out for Lake George— Defeat of Colonel Williams and King Hen- 
drick— Attack on Johnson's Intrenchments— The Repulse — Dics- 
kau wounded and captured— Slill another Battle— The French 
Retreat — Honors to Johnson— Name of Fort Lyman changed to 
Fort Edward — Scouting Parties — Rogers and Putnam — Lieutenant 
Noah Grant- The Army disbanded— Rogers' Rangers— Movements 
of 1756— Extreme Slowness— Abercrombie frightened by Mont- 
calm — Rogers and Putnam attacking Marauders— Rogers goes 
beyond Ticonderoga — The Army again withdrawn — Rogers' and 
Stark's Remarkable Expedition— Attempt to Capture Fort William 
Henry — A Picturesque Army — A Surprise prevented — General 
Webb — Lieutenant Marin's Raid — Terrible Massacre at Sandy 
Hill — Another Surprise — Slaughter of Militia on Lake George 
—Montcalm moves against Fort William Henry — Colonel Munro 
made Commander — Webb's Call for Reinforcements — He refuses 
to aid Munro— Sir William Johnson sets forth to relieve him — 
Webb orders him back — Surrender of Munro — Arrival of Fugi- 
tives at Fort Edward — Their Story of Massacre — Coming in of the 
Stragglers- Montcalm falls back— A Raid by De Levis— Putnam 
aiding the Guard— Putnam subduing the Fire— Close of Ihe most 
Disastrous Period. 

From the peace of Ais-la-Chapello to the outbreak of the 
great conflict which is known distinctly as the " Old French 
and Indian War," there was ahiiost entire quiet in the ter- 
ritory of Washington county. There was not even a new 
patent granted. There is a dim tradition that a settlement 
was then begun on the south part of the Schuyler patent, 
in the present town of Greenwich, but there is no direct evi- 
dence to that effect. The feeble remnant of the llohican 
Indians, by the permission of the lordly Moliaicks, hunted 
over the lands in question, and occasional traders passed to 
and fro in their search for gain. Perchance a few settlers 
straggled back to the devastated fields of Easton, and a cir- 
cumstance which will be noted hereafter tends to sho\y tliat 
this was the case, but no record remains regarding their 
number or circumstances. 

The great war actually began in Virginia, in 1754, 
though not formally declared until two years later. At 
first the conflict did not extend to the northern frontier, 
but in 1755 it opened all along the far-extended line. 
England and her colonies prepared to send three expedi- 
tions against the principal French strongholds, — one, under 
General Braddock, against Fort Duquesne ; one, under 
General Shirley, against Fort Niagara ; and one, under 
Major-General William Johnson, against Crown Point. 
While the first was composed almost entirely of regulars, 
and the second largely so, the third consisted wholly of 
provincials, and yet was the only one which met with even 
partial success. 

The troops for the Crown Point expedition began assem- 
bling at Albany about the last of June. It was not, how- 
ever, until near the 1st of August that the advance moved 

up the Hudson under Major-General Phineas Lyman, of 
Connecticut. This force did not cross the river into Wash- 
ington county until it arrived opposite the site of Fort 
Nicholson and of " Lydius' house." It was on its way up 
that an intrenched depot was established, from which the 
village of Fort Miller, in Washington county, derives its 
name, though the post itself was on the west side of the 
river. On the site of Fort Nicholson a much larger fortress 
was laid out, to which the name of Fort Lyman was given. 
Work was immediately begun upon it, under the direction 
of Captain Eyre, an officer of engineers. It was of an 
irregular quadrangular form, protected on two sides by the 
Hudson river and Fort Edward creek, and was fifteen hun- 
dred and sixty feet (nearly a third of a mile) in circumfer- 
ence. On its ramparts, sixteen feet high and twenty-two 
feet thick, six cannon were mounted. Besides the usual 
barracks, magazine, hospital, etc., within the fort, large 
barracks were erected on the island in the Hudson river, 
opposite the fortress. 

To this point, on .\ug. 14, came Major-General William 
Johnson, with the remainder of the troops, except the New 
Hampshire regiment, the stores and artillery, and fifty Md- 
Jiaick braves, under the celebrated chief. King Ilendrick. 
There were already two hundred ilohaxck warriors with 
Lyman's comiuand. 

It was a busy period at the frontier post. There were 
nearly four thousand men assembled there, all newly be- 
come soldiers, but diligently striving to perfect themselves 
in drill and discipline. These consisted of two Connecticut 
regiments, the commanders of which were General Lyman 
and Colonel Goodrich ; three Massachusetts regiments, 
under Colonels Rtiggles, Titcomb, and Williams ; a Rhode 
Island regiment under Colonel Cockrofl ; and a New York 
regiment, — of which, however, three companies were from 
Connecticut, — commanded by Blajor Fitch, of the latter 
State. A New Hampshire regiment, under Colonel Blaiich- 
ard, arrived about Aug. 25. Many men, prominent in 
American history, were then taking some of their earliest 
lessons in the art of war around Fort Edward, a brief men- 
tion of whom may be interesting to our readers. 

General Johnson, the commander-in-chief, better known 
to the present age as Sir William Johnson, was then a 
broad-shouldered, bold-faced man of forty, a successful 
pioneer and Indian trader, energetic and vigilant, and par- 
ticularly distinguished for his influence over .the warriors 
of the Six Nations. " King Hcndrick" had long been re- 
cognized as the principal war-chief of the Muhawks, and, 
though now aged and corpulent, was zealous for war and 
ready to follow his friend, Johnson, to the last. 

General Phineas Lyman, the second in command, was a 
Connecticut lawyer of good standing, who had had some 
military experience, as indeed almost every one had in those 
days, and who showed himself a brave, faithful, and capable 
soldier. The captain of one of the two Albany companies 
in the New York regiment was a fair-faced, fine-looking, 
active young man of twenty-one, destined to become one of 
the most distinguished of Americans, and whose name was 
to be linked especially with the history of Washington 
county. This was Captain Philip John Schuyler, as he 
was then enrolled, but whose middle name was soon after 



dropped, and who is now known as General Philip Schuy- 

One of the Connecticut officers, Lieutenant Israel Put- 
nam, was a rough but sturdy farmer, already thirty-five years 
old, unlearned in book.s, but familiar with the lore of the 
forest, brave even to desperation, and whose name will be 
respected by all Americans as long as the memory of Bunker 
Hill shall last. 

Captain Robert Rogers, of Blanchard's New Hampshire 
regiment, had already become noted as a successful partisan, 
and although in the great Revolution which made his 
country free he engaged on the side of her oppressors, yet 
history should not neglect to record the bravo and faitliful 
services he rendered at an early day, in protecting her fron- 
tiers from devastation. In the ranks of Captain Rogers' 
company, too, was a shrewd, keen-faced young man, slender 
in form but tough as the hickory of his native forests, 
shrinking neither from the bullet of the Frenchman, the 
tomahawk of the Indian, the severest cold of a northern 
winter, or the hardest fatigue imposed by partisan warfare. 
This was John Stark, the hero of Bennington, and major- 
general in the army of the Revolution. 

There was still another young soldier from the valley of 
the Mohawk, whose courage none disputed, but who was 
destined to be hated with peculiar energy by nearly all the 
people of the American frontier, who have transmitted his 
name to their descendants as the synonym for all that is 
cruel and atrocious. We refer to Lieutenant John Butler, 
then commander of a company of Indians under General 
Johnson, but two decades later the most terrible scourge of 
the valleys of the Mohawk, of Schoharie, and of Wyoming. 

Soon after his arrival, General Johnson heard that six 
thousand Frenchmen were concentrating at Crown Point, 
with the intention of taking the offensive. He laid the 
information before a council of war on the 24th of August, 
and asked their opinion. They declared unanimously that 
reinforcements should be sent for, that the route to Lake 
Saint Sacrament was the best, and that two thousand men 
should be sent forward to make a road and prepare a depot 
of arms, etc., at the head of that lake. There were at that 
time only two thousand nine hundred and thirty-two men 
reported fit for duly, besides the New Hampshire men, then 
almost arrived. Before, however, General Johnson could 
send the report of this council to the colonial governors, the 
New York Legislature had already voted to raise four hun- 
dred more men, Connecticut five hundred, and !Massachu- 
setts no less than two thousand. 

On the 25th, Johnson started, with fifteen hundred sol- 
diers and all the Indians, for Lake Saint Sacrament, where 
he arrived on the 28th, and encamped. It was at this 
time that the name of " Lake George" was given by Gen- 
eral Johnson to the beautiful sheet of water previously 
known by the French name of Saint Sacrament, or the 
Indian one of Andiatiroote. 

Colonel Blanchard arrived about the time that Johnson 
left, and a few days later General Lyman followed his com- 
mander, leaving the first-named officer in command at Fort 
Lyman, with his own New Hampshire regiment and five 
companies of tlie New York regiment. 

The general's plan was to throw up some intrcnchraonts 

at the head of Lake George, then move to Ticonderoga, 
and there await reinforcements before advancing on Crown 
Point. But, in the mean time, the new French commander- 
in-chief took possession of the former locality, and assumed 
the offensive. This was the Baron de Dieskau, a soldier of 
German extraction in the service of Louis the Fifteenth, 
and whom the Americans called " the Dutch-Frenchman." 

Dieskau arrived at Ticonderoga on the 3d of September, 
having a force there and at Crown Point of seven hundred 
and twenty regulars, fifteen hundred Canadians, and seven 
hundred and sixty Indians. At Ticonderoga he heard 
from a prisoner (according to the Chevalier de Montrcuil) 
that Johnson had gone back to Albany, and that there were 
but five hundred men at Fort Lydius, as the French called 
Fort Lyman, now Fort Edward. This may have been an 
intentional deception, but it is quite as likely that the pris- 
oner had heard of Johnson's leaving Fort Lyman, and sup- 
posed, as a matter of course, that he had retreated. The 
baron at once determined to make a rapid movement, and 
capture and destroy the fort ere Johnson could send 

For this purpose he selected two hundred and twenty 
regulars of the battalions of La Reine and Languedoc, 
six hundred and eighty Canadians, and six hundred Indians, 
and started up Lake Champlain in canoes the very next 
day. This division of his force was in direct violation of 
the orders of the Marquis de Vaudreuil, the governor- 
general of Canada, who gave positive written directions 
thtit Dieskau should move against the enemy with his 
whole army, " without excepting any part of it, whatever 
report may be made of the situation and weakness of the 

De Vaudreuil was a native of Canada, and knew the 
great difficulty of obtaining any reliable information of an 
enemy's force in the American forests. Dieskau, however 
like Braddoek, Burgoyne, and so many other European 
officers, thought he knew the whole art of war and could 
not learn anything from natives or old residents of America. 
Strangely enough, however, since he intended to attack a 
fortified post, he left the bulk of his regulars behind ; for 
experience had often shown that the Indians, good in a 
bush-fight, were worthless in attacking fortifications, and 
the provincial militia were but little better for the latter 
purpose. But then Dieskau did not possess experience 
in American warfare, and would not consult those who 
did ; he seems to have supposed that the fierce-looking 
warriors from the banks of the St. Lawrence and the 
Ottawa would, at his order, march up to the mouth of 
the British cannon as readily as would the grenadiers of 
the royal guard. He probably selected so large a propor- 
tion of irregulars in order that he might march more 

Dieskau's force encamped at " Two Rocks," or " The 
Narrows," on Lake Champlain, the night of the 4th of 
September, and the next day disembarked at South Bay. 
Leaving the boats under a guard of a hundred and twenty 
men, the detachment set out for Fort Lyman with eight 
days' provisions on their backs. The second in command 
of this force, the largest body of French and Indians 
which had yet appeared in Washington county, was lieu- 



tenant-colonel the Chevalier de Moutreuil, and in it were also 
several of the encri^ctie partisans whoso name had hecome 
a terror to the inhabitants of the British frontier. 

The principal of these was Gardeur de St. Pierre, the 
same who commanded at Fort Dufjuesne when Wa.shingtou 
first visited it to demand the retirement of tlie French, 
and who, during 1754, had directed all the French opera- 
tions on that frontier. He was now in command of all 
the Indians under Dicskau, and, from some expros.sions 
used in the French reports, the Canadians appear also to 
have been under his charge. De Vaudreuil particulaily 
charged Dieskau to con.sult St. Pierre in regard to all the 
operations of these portions of his force. 

During the 6th and 7th of September, Dieskau and his 
men were marching towards Fort Lyman through the 
present towns of Fort Ann and Kingsbury, the little band 
of gayly-dressed regulars in the centre, the Canadians in 
front and rear, and the tawny warriors of the northern 
wilds spreading far out on cither flank, scouring every se- 
cluded glade and darksome thicket in the search for the 
scalps of lurking or straggling focs^ Among the numerous 
and needlessly minute orders for the march, drawn up by 
Dieskau before leaving Ticonderoga, was a direction to St. 
Pierre that he should not allow th.e Indians to " amuse them- 
selves scalping until the enemy be entirely defeated, inasmuch 
as ten men can be killed while one is being scalped." The 
worthy baron, it is very plain, neither understood the red 
man's character nor appreciated his dexterity. He might 
as well have ordered the Hudson to flow upstream as to 
have directed an Indian to refi'ain from using his scalping- 
knife when there was an opportunity, and it would have 
been a very swift slayer who could kill two men, let alone 
ten, while an experienced Huron or Moliaivh was denuding 
the head of a foeman. 

Arriving undiscovered within two or three miles of 
Fort Lyman, on the afternoon of the 7th of September, 
Dicskau encamped for the night, and called together the 
chiefs, in order to give directions for the intended sudden 
assault the next morning. To the great surprise of the 
European martinet, the Indians positively declined to join 
in the attack ; one account says it was because they con- 
sidered Fort Lyman as being on land belonging to the king 
of England that they refused to attack it, while they were 
willing to move against Johnson, as they said that Lake 
St. Sacrament undoubtedly belonged to the French. They 
may have given such a reason to Dieskau, but the true one 
unquestionably was that, like all Indian.s, they were afraid 
of cannon and fortifications. They knew there were both 
of these at Fort Lyman, while they supposed there were 
none of the latter, and few or none of the former, at Lake . 
St. Sacrament. 

In vain the baron, through St. Pierre as interpreter, 
argued in fiu'or of attacking the unfinished fort and the 
camp of Blanchard's New Hampshire men outside. The 
red men were impervious to his logic, and the. general prob- 
ably began to learn the difference between the veterans he 
had been accustomed to command and these reckless chil- 
dren of the forest. Compelled to submit, he at length 
arranged with them to make an attack on Johnson's camp 
the next day. 

At daybreak the morning of the 8lh the whole force 
set out for Lake St. Sacrament, soon striking into the road 
which Johnson had made, and pursuing it towards their 
destination. They now marched in three columns, the regu- 
lars in the centre, the Canadians on the right, and the In- 
dians on the lefl. In a short time they passed beyond the 
present boundaries of Washington county and entered the 
territory of the town of Queensbury, Warren Co. As was 
stated in our first chapter, it is no part of our design to 
narrate the details of event occurring beyond our limits. In 
order, however, to keep up the connection of the narrative, 
we will give a brief summary of the proceedings of Dies- 
kau's army ere it again recrossed the Washington county 

The baron soon learned from a prisoner that a detach- 
ment of a thousand men was approaching, sent by Johnson 
to reinforce Fort Lyman. About half-way between that 
post and Lake George the French general disposed his 
men in ambuscade and awaited the approach of the foe. 
The latter, consisting of Massachusetts and Connecticut 
troops and of Mohawks, were led by Colonel Ephraim 
Williams and King Hendrick. Supposing that the French 
were on the eve of attacking Fort Lyman, they hastened 
swiftly on, were caught in the ambuscade, and quickly de- 
feated with heavy loss; Colonel Williams and King Hen- 
drick both being slain. 

Dieskau pressed rapidly forward, intending to enter 
Johnson's camp along with the fugitives and take ad- 
vantage of the demoralization he expected would prevail. 
But the backwoods general had improvised a backwoods 
breastwork of wagons and felled trees, and had placed his 
cannon so as to command the wood. The Indians and 
Canadians swerved aside at the sight of the big guns, and 
engaged the flanks of Johnson's force, while the French 
regulars advanced in the centre. But the efibrts of all the 
assailants were unavailing, and after the battle had raged 
from noon till four o'clock the provincials and Moluncks 
sprang over the breastwork, made a grand charge, and ut- 
terly routed the foe. Dieskau was badly wounded and 
taken prisoner, Gardeur de St. Pierre was killed, and a 
hundred and ninety-four of their ofticers, soldiers, and In- 
dians were killed and wounded. General Johnson was also 
wounded early in the action, and during most of the battle 
the English forces were gallantly commanded by General 

Meanwhile Colonel Blanchard, hearing the firing, dis- 
patched two hundred and fifty men from Fort L^'man, 
under Captain McGinness, to aid General Jolin.son. Near 
nightfall they came up with a body of Canadians and In- 
dians, resting at the place where Williams and Hendrick 
had been defeated in the morning. These they attacked and 
routed with heavy loss. From the two engagements thus 
fought on its banks the pool called Bloody Pond took its 

The French were not pursued, and that night, or the 
next morning, they again entered the territory of Washing- 
ton county, but sadly changed from the confident little 
army which set forth the previous morning, flushed with 
high hopes of an easy victory. Under the command of the 
Chevalier de Montreuil they made their way back as best 



they might to South bay, embarked on their boats, which 
had not been disturbed, and rcturnfed sorrowfully to Ticon- 
deroga. To all appearances a vigorous pursuit by the victo- 
rious army would have resulted in the complete destruction 
of the foe before he could have reached and embarked on 
Lake Champlain. It is said that General Lyman eagerly 
sought permission to do this, but was overruled by General 

The latter also declined to move against Crown Point, 
and in this he was probably correct, as the French still had 
a force there and at Ticonderoga almost as large as his 
own, and with the aid of their fortification could doubtless 
have beaten him as easily as he had beaten the troops of 
Dieskau. Reinforcements came to Fort Lyman, but it was 
then so late that it was decided to return and disband the 
army. By Jolinson's orders Fort William Henry was 
built on Lake George, and Fort Lyman was improved, if 
not completed. 

With great shabbiness, he changed the name of the latter 
post from that of the gallant oflBoer who had really won the 
battle of Lake George (Johnson having been wounded and 
compelled to retire early in the engagement) to that of 
Edward, Duke of York, grandson of the reigning monarch 
(George the Second), and brother of George the Third. 
It was subsequently known as Fort Edward. With still 
greater meanness, Johnson entirely omitted all mention of 
Lyman in his dispatches ; thus appropriating to himself all 
the glory pertaining to the commander, a large part of which 
belonged to another. The result was that the general-in-chief 
was made a baronet, was given a gratuity of five thousand 
pounds, and became fiimous as Sir William Johnson, while 
General Lyman was entirely unnoticed by the home govern- 
ment, and had not even the poor satisfaction of seeing his 
name descend into history in connection with a frontier 

The reward to Sir William was liberal ; for, though the 
victory of three thousand men behind breastworks over 
fifteen hundred assailants was nothing to boast of, yet the 
British government were wonderfully well pleased that a 
victory of any kind should have been won in America. It 
was the year of Braddock's defeat on the Monongahela and 
Shirley's failure on Lake Ontario, and small favors were 
most thankfully received. 

While the troops were still at Fort William Henry, 
numerous scouting-parties were sent out to observe the 
enemy in the vicinity of Ticonderoga and Crown Point ; 
some of them going directly down Lake George, and some 
ranging the forests of Fort Ann, Dresden, and Putnam. 
The greater portion of these parties (in fact, nearly all the 
successful ones) were commanded either by Captain Robert 
Rogers, of the New Hampshire regiment, or by Captain 
Israel Putnam, of Connecticut. Sometimes they acted 
together and sometimes separately. Rogers was then the 
more prominent, and was soon after made a major. 

The report (to be found in the Colonial History of New 
York) of one of these scouts, made down Lake George the 
last of October, 1755, in which a party of French were 
defeated in a sharp skirmish, was signed by Captain Robert 
Rogers, Captain Israel Putnam, and Lieutenant Noah 
Grant. The last named was a Connecticut officer, and 

perhaps belonged to Putnam's own company. He was 
the father of Captain Noah Grant of the Revolutionary 
army, and the great-grandfather of General and President 
Ulysses S. Grant. He must have been a gallant officer, or 
he would not have been selected by Robert Rogers and 
Israel Putnam as their associate ; and the next year both 
he and his brother were slain in battle near Oswego. 

From some of these reports it appears that the English 
then gave the name of " South Bay" to the whole of the 
long narrow stretch of Like Champlain south of Crown 
Point, or at least of Ticonderoga. It was sometimes also 
called "The Drowned Lands," a name corresponding to 
the one given by the French, " Le Grand Marais," — tlie 
great marsh. 

When the main body of the army was disbanded in the 
fall, a small portion was retained to garrison Fort Edward 
and Fort William Henry. From the ranks of the New 
Hampshire regiment Captain Rogers enlisted a company 
especially for scouting purposes. His brother, Richard, 
was his first lieutenant, and John Stark his second lieu- 
tenant. Richard Rogers soon after raised another com- 
pany, and Stark became first lieutenant. 

These hardy men continued their perilous duties during 
the winter, making long trips on snow-shoes into the 
enemy's lines ; but as their routes at that time were 
mostly down the west side of Lake George, just outside 
the limits of our county, we cannot give them any ex- 
tended notice. 

When the spring of 175G opened, Putnam returned with 
some Connecticut troops to Fort Edward, and quickly re- 
sumed his favorite occupation of scouting, sometimes alone 
and sometimes in company with Rogers and Stark. 

Preparations were again made to capture Crown Point, 
but all the movements dragged with unaccountable slowness. 
The colonies raised a force of six thousand men, who ad- 
vanced to Fort Edward under the command of Gen. Seth 
Winslow, of Massachusetts. Here they were joined by a 
body of British regulars under Gen. James Abercrombie, 
who had been selected to command the northern army. 
Late in the middle of the summer the army advanced to 
Fort William Henrj', but ventured no fiirthcr. 

The Marquis de Montcalm, the new French commander- 
in-chief, came down to Crown Point and Ticonderoga in tlie 
forepart of July, and made himself so conspicuous that the 
dull-witted commander at Fort Edward was seized with alarm 
lest he should be attacked in his camp. Extensive fortifi- 
cations were actually erected at Albany to withstand the 
threatened assault. The Earl of Loudon, the British com- 
mander-in-chief in America, was even less vigorous than 
Abercrombie. Suddenly De Montcalm disappeared from 
Lake Champlain, re-appearing soon after on the shores of 
Lake Ontaiio, where he captured Oswego before Aber- 
crombie or Loudon knew that it was in danger. 

About the only warlike work done in or near Wa.shing- 
ton county in 175G was by Rogers and Putnam with tlieir 
companies of rangers. In the forepart of June the two 
indomitables were sent from Fort William Henry, with a 
Inindred men, to intercept a body of several hundred of 
the enemy, under St. Luc la Corne, who had landed from 
South bay, had plundered a train near Halfway brook, and 



were retreating by way of Lake Cliamplain. Rogers and 
Putnam and their men hastened in boats down Lalce George 
to a point opposite the narrows on Lake Chaniplain, and 
marched rapidly ovcrhind to the latter point. They were 
supplied with two very light pieces of artillery, which they 
dragged over the highlands of Dresden with them. 

Arrived at the narrows of Lake Chaniplain, they lay in 
wait for the returning foe. In due time the latter came, 
rowing tran(|uilly down the lake, unthinking of danger, 
and their boats heavily laden with the plunder of the un- 
fortunate train. A.s they came opposite the lurking-plaee 
of the rangers, a hundred well-aimed muskets were fired 
into the boats, and the little culverins sent a shower of grape 
in the same direction. Several of the boats were instantly 
sunk, and scores of the Frenchmen went down to rise no 
more. Not knowing the number of their assailants, the 
survivors thought only of escape, and under a heavy fire 
they pushed on with all speed down the lake. Their loss 
was apparently very severe, but they did not seek to avenge 
it, and the rangers returned in triumph to Lake George. 
The next morning they embarked for Fort William Henry. 
On their way they met a large body of French and Indians 
in boats. The rangers opened on them with a heavy fire 
at a short distance, when the enemy gave way and allowed 
them to pa.«s, with a loss of one killed and two wounded. 

On the 30th of June, Rogers, with«fifty men, went down 
Lake George nearly to its foot, where they hauled their five 
whale-boats ashore, and carried them on their backs over 
the mountains of the northern part of" Putnam. By this 
means they escaped the close watch kept by the French on 
the outlet of Lake George. They arrived at Lake Cham- 
plain (" South Bay," as Rogers called it) on the 3d of July, 
and went a short distance down it. On the night of the 
4th they slipped quietly by Ticonderoga, within sound of 
the sentry's hail. The audacious rangers afterwards passed 
Crown Point in the same manner, destroying some French 
vessels and their cargoes, left their own boats, marched by a 
long, circuitous route to the west side of Lake George, sent 
to Fort William Henry for bateaux, and then returned to 
that post. 

In October, General Winslow withdrew his army from 
Fort Edward, except a few troops left in garrison ; the rest 
being disbanded. The provincial levies were generally en- 
listed for eight or nine months, and disbanded every fall ; 
so that, although they bore some resemblance to our modern 
volunteers, they were far less efficient. 

One of the most audacious reconnaissances on record took 
place in January, 1757. On the 21st of that month. Major 
Rogei-s with seventy-four men. Lieutenant John Stark 
being second in command, went from Fort Edward to Fort 
William Henry, and thence set forth on snow-shoes over 
the ice of Lake George toward Ticonderoga. It will be 
remembered that that lake forms the northwestern boundary 
of this county, and that all the expeditions which pas.sed 
over it skirted that boundary. We therefore mention 
briefly some of the principal ones, even though, as iu the 
present case, the conflicts to which they led took place out- 
side the county. 

The reckless little detachment of rangers made their way 
to the foot of Lake George, then took a circuit overland. 

and boldly struck in between Ticonderoga and Crown Point. 
There one morning they attacked a jolly party of soldiers 
and teamsters, who were taking some sledges on the ice 
to the former post. The rangers captured seven sledges 
and their horees, but a part of the Frenchmen escaped 
to Ticonderoga. The commandant then at once sent out 
a force, estimated at two hundred and fifty soldiers, also 
on snow-shoes, who overtook the rangers in the present 
town of Crown Point. Then followed a battle on snow- 
shoes, with the snow four feet deep, lasting from three 
o'clock till sunset, in which the provincials lost twenty-six 
killed and missing, and from which the French finally 
retired with a of eleven killed and twent3'-six wounded. 

Rogers was severely wounded at the first fire, and Stark 
commanded throughout the action. At dark he drew ofi" 
his force, and marched all night through the woods, bear- 
ing his wounded with him, and reaching the western border 
of Lake George the next morning. Leaving his men 
twenty miles from William Henry, the young hero, with 
two companions, pushed on to that post, obtained hand-sleds 
and refreshments, got back to his command the following 
morning, and then drew a loaded sled to the fort that same 
day. An ambush, a two hours' battle, a march on snow- 
shoes of at least a hundred miles, combined with drawing 
a burden twenty miles, the whole occupying continuously 
three days and two nights, may fairly challenge compari- 
son with the hardiest deeds of ancient or modern warriors. 

In March the French sent an expedition of fifteen hun- 
dred men up Lake George to capture Fort William Henry. 
It comprised two hundred and fifty regulars, three hundred 
Canadian volunteers, six hundred and fifty militia, and 
three hundred Indians, and was commanded by lligaud de 
Vaudreuil, brother of the governor-general of Canada. 

Among all the many warlike bands which have passed 
over the historic Lake St. Sacrament, others may have 
made a more splendid appearance, but none could have pre- 
sented a more uni((ue and picturesque one than the little 
army which marched from Carillon (Ticonderoga) on the 
15th of March, 1757, under the command of Rigaudde Vau- 
dreuil. Fifteen hundred men, all on snow-shoes, regulars, 
irregulars, and Indians, is a sight probably never seen before 
nor since. Their provisions were loaded on sleds drawn 
by dogs. The men strode forward under the shadow of 
the Putnam highlands, slept at night on bear-skins in the 
snow, covered only with pieces of sail to keep off the 
wind, skirted the western border of Dresden and the north- 
western corner of Fort Ann, again reposed on their bear- 
skin beds, and on the evening of the 17th arrived within 
tffo or three miles of Fort William Henry. 

They failed to surprise the fort, owing, it is said, to the 
vigilance of Captain Stark, who, by a ruse, prevented his 
Scotch-Irish New Hampshire men from celebrating St. 
Patrick's day ; so that while the regulars were all drunk, 
there were sober rangers for sentinels, who discovered the 
approach of the enemy. Nor did De Vaudreuil, though he 
invested the fort and cut off communication with Fort 
Edward, dare to risk an assault. After waiting a few days 
and burning an immense amount of stores, vessels, etc., 
the French retired down the lake. 

When spring was fairly opened, the English authorities 



again made preparations for important operations on the 
novtliern frontier, and again the colonies poured forth their 
thousands of volunteers to second those efforts ; but nothing 
could prosper under Loudon and Abercrombie, especially 
when pitted against the Mar(|uis de Montcalm. Aber- 
crombie, who was the nominal commander of the north- 
ern army, remained at Albany, while General Daniel Webb 
was placed in the immediate command, with his head- 
f|uarters at Fort Edward. This officer had fled down the 
Mohawk the previous year, after the capture of Oswego, 
with such rapidity that he wa.« looked on with great dis- 
favor by the soldiers and the people. An army of several 
thousand provincials assembled under Webb's orders, and 
there were also several regiments of British regulars. 

On the 25th or 26th of July, Lieutenant Marin, so 
often mentioned as one of the most daring French parti- 
sans, landed at the head of South bay with about two 
hundred regulars and Indians, and set out to make a dash 
against Fort Edward. They moved forward entirely undis- 
covered, and on the morning of the 27th arrived in the 
vicinity of that post. An English patrol of ten men was 
first cut off, all of whom were killed. Marin pressed for- 
ward, attacked the guard of fifty men, and quickly cut 
them to pieces with heavy loss. Several regiments came 
out of the fort and formed in line, but the cautious Webb 
would not let them advance, and Marin retired without 
loss. On his return to Montcalm he reported thirty-two 
scalps and one pri.soner, and claimed to have killed many of 
the guard who were not scalped. He said, in the peculiar 
idiom of the French language, that he " did not amuse 
himself by taking prisoners." 

There is reason for believing that it was on this expe- 
dition that there occurred the terrible yet thrilling incident 
of the murder of sixteen captive soldiers by Indians, at 
what is now Sandy Hill, leaving only one man, the team- 
ster, John Quackenboss, related by Dr. Fitch in his " Sur- 
vey" of Wa.shington County. The large number of scalps 
taken in proportion to the " one prisoner," and the locality 
of the events, all correspond closely to Dr. Fitch's account. 
The time, also, is nearly the same, though the precise 
period of the Sandy Hill incident is not known. There 
were various traditions regarding this latter event, but the 
only account of reasonable authenticity was derived by 
Dr. Fitch from a nephew of the hero of the story. A 
detailed account of this incident is to be found in the 
town history of Kingsbury. 

Such wholesale slaughter of prisoners as Quackenboss 
described and Marin hinted at was not common even 
among the French and Indians, and there is reason to 
believe that the murderers acted under positive orders, the 
slaughter being designed to strike terror into the soul of 
Webb and the garrison of Fort Edward, and prevent any 
interference with the coming a.ssault on Fort William 
Henry. If such was the design it succeeded with the 
general if not wit'i the soldiers. 

Almost at the same time another scene of slaughter was 
taking place on the farther border of the county. All day 
and all night of the 25th of July Lieutenant Corbierie, 
with fifty Canadians and three hundred Otttnciis, lay in 
ambush among the islands of Lake George, above what is 

now called Sabbath-Day point. On the morning of the 
26th there came gliding down the lake in twenty-two 
barges a New Jersey regiment of three hundred soldiers, 
under the command of Colonel John Parker. 

Aft«r the first volley, the French and Indians at once 
urged their bark canoes towards the barges of the Jersey- 
men, as if to board them, but the latter took fright on the 
approach of these hideous warriors ; many of them dropped 
their arms, and all sought safety in flight. Rut the arrow- 
like canoes quickly overtook the barges, and a fearful mas- 
sacre ensued. Those even who sought the western shore 
were soon run down by the light-footed savages. After a 
hundred and thirty-one were killed, the Indians became 
satiated with blood, and began taking prisoners. Of these 
they captured a hundred and fifty-seven. Only twelve of 
the whole three hundred escaped death or captivity. On 
the other hand only one Indian was wounded, — the strong- 
est possible evidence of the panic of their opponents. 

A French writer (Roubard) states, of his own knowledge, 
that one of the slain provincials was actually boiled and 
eaten by the ferocious Otlawas! 

These terrible events were but the preludes to a far more 
important movement. On the 31st of July a thousand In- 
dians, in their canoes, came flashing swiftly over Lake St. 
Sacrament, on their way to Fort William Henry. Nearly 
a thousand more, witU two thousand whites, had taken 
their way towards the same post, through the forests of the 
western shore. On the 1st of August the main army of 
the Marquis de Montcalm came sweeping over the lake. 
It was the largest force yet seen on those waters, — number- 
ing over two thousand French regulars and two thousand 
Canadians, besides the Indians in advance and the division 
on shore. The total force numbered about seven thousand 
five hundred men ; three thousand being regulars, nearly 
three thousand militia, and eighteen hundred Indians. On 
the 2d of August the whole army arrived in the vicinity of 
Fort William Henry, and proceeded to operate against it. 
Without giving .special attention to the eventful siege 
which occurred in the present county of Warren, we will 
turn to the main English army at Fort Edward. 

Near the last of July, General Webb left that post for 
Fort William Henry, under the escort of Major Putnam, 
with two hundred men. A reconnaissance by that officer, on 
the 31st, having revealed the approach of Montcalm, Webb 
immediately returned with his escort to Fort Edward, 
and dispatched Colonel George Munro, a sturdy Scotch 
officer, with his regiment, — the latter to reinforce, the 
former to command, the endangered fortress. Muni-o set 
forth on the 2d of August, arriving at Fort William Henry 
just before the French stationed themselves on the road be- 
tween the two posts. This raised the garrison there to 
about two thousand two hundred men, while AVebb had 
between four and five thousand at Fort Edward. 

General Webb also sent expresses through the colonies, 
asking for reinforcements. The call was promptly re- 
sponded to. All the militia of New York north of the 
Highlands was called out, a fourth of the able-bodied men 
of Connecticut wore drafted, other colonies responded with 
almost equal energy, and bodies of militia were soon march- 
ing from every direction towards Fort Edward. But the 



patriotism of the people was nullified by the cowardice of 
the general. 

Sir William Johnson, hearing of the danger at Johns- 
town, mounted his horse, gathered a few militia and In- 
dians, and in two days made his way to Fort Edward. 
Meanwhile, intelligence had been coming thick and fast to 
that post regarding the progress of the French. Webb 
knew that but few i-einforceraents could arrive in time to 
do any good, and ho knew, too, that he had sufficient men 
to relieve Fort Wiliiiim Henry. But he lay quietly in his 
intrenchments, and when Munro applied to him for aid, 
replied by a letter declaring that he could not advance 
until the militia arrived, and if Munro could not hold out 
till then, he must make the best terras of surrender he 

On the 8th of August, Sir William Johnson obtained 
permission from the general to advance to the relief of 
Munro, with such volunteers as he could obtain. Putnam 
and his rangers at once volunteered to go, and so did most 
of the provincial regiments. Not the militia, however; 
some of these had begun to arrive, but they were mutinous 
and Indian-frightened, and many deserted. It is difficult 
to learn whether thoy were most disgusted with Webb, or 
Webb with them, and both sides appear to have had equal 

Sir William drew out his men, but ere the march had 
hardly begun the general countermanded the permission, 
and ordered them back. It was the last chance for Fort 
William Henry. The next day Munro surrendered the 
fort, it being stipulated that the troops, with their arms 
and baggage, should retire the following morning to Fort 

On the afternoon of the tenth, while the garrison of the 
latter post were eagerly watching for news from William 
Henry, a weary, panic-stricken band of four or five hun- 
dred men were seen hastening, with scarcely a semblance of 
military order, towards that haveu of shelter. Many had 
thrown away their arms, some bore still bleeding wounds 
from the tomahawks of the savages, and all showed every 
appearance of the most complete demoralization. Arrived 
in the fort, they told their horror stricken comrades how, on 
setting forth in the morning in accordance with the capitu- 
lation, the savages had first mingled in their ranks, then 
began plundering them of whatever their cupidity dictated, 
and finally, grown more fierce through impunity, had used 
the tomahawk and sealping-knife on their victims with all 
their native ferocity. 

If the narrators told the whole truth, they must have 
added that the massacre was almost as disgraceful to the 
English as to the French. The former outnumbered the 
Indians, and were all armed, organized, and ready for battle, 
but they were seized with one of those panics so common 
in presence of Indians, and had fled in terror, without 
making hardly an efibrt at resistance. It would be beyond 
our purview to enter into any elaborate discussion of the 
question whether Montcalm was to blame for the massacre, 
but in view of the fact that there had been a similar, though 
less flagrant, breach of faith at Oswego the previous year, and 
that the marquis commanded a force of near six thousand 
French and Canadians, and less than two thousand Indians, 

it certainly seems strange that he should not have foreseen 
the trouble, or that he could not prevent it. 

The demoralized band before mentioned was all the con- 
siderable body of p]nglish troops who reached Fort Edward 
on the tenth. The others lay slaughtered by the road.sidc, 
or were prisoners in the hands of the Indians, or had sought 
refuge with the French, or were scattered far and wide 
through the forest in their efforts to escape from their 
bloodthirsty foes. Cannon were fired at intervals to guide 
the wanderers to Fort Edward, and all day and all night, 
and for two or three days afterwards, singly, by twos, by 
threes, and by half-dozens, the fugitives kept straggling 
in. It was the fifteenth of the month ere those who had 
retreated within the French lines, and those who had been 
rescued by Montcalm from the Indians, were sent forward 
under escort to Half-way brook, delivered over to an Eng- 
lish guard, and brought to Fort Edward. Some of the 
Indian war-parties departed for the Canadian wilds without 
taking leave of Montcalm, and bearing off their prisoners 
to long captivity and probable torture. 

The next day — the sixteenth — -the ever-vigilant Putnam, 
with his rangers, made his way circuitously from Fort Ed- 
ward to Fort William Henry, and found the French just 
departing down Lake George, and the ground thickly 
strewed with the ghastly remains of men, women, and chil- 
dren who had fallen victims to the fury of the savages. 

In a short time afterwards near twenty thousand militia 
reached Fort Edward. They were of course too late to do 
any good, and they vented their wrath on Webb in curses 
both loud and deep. Mutinous and useless, they were soon 

Webb was soon after relieved of his command, Fort Ed- 
ward being placed under the orders of General Lyman, the 
gallant officer before mentioned. But though the recreant 
general was ordered to England, his influence was such that 
he was able to escape all punishment or even censure. 

About the 1st of November the Chevalier de Levis, with 
several hundred French and Indians, made a rapid scout 
up Lake Champlain and Wood creek into the vicinity of 
Fort Edward. It may have been this party, or a detach- 
ment from it, that made the attack narrated in the life of 
Putnam, when that officer saved the detachment of Captain 
Little from destruction, and which is more fully narrated 
in the town-history of Fort Edward. 

As winter approached the bulk of the provincial levies 
were, as usual, disbanded. Putnam and Rogers, with their 
rangers, were, however, retained, the former being posted on 
the island in the Hudson opposite Fort Edward. Colonel 
Haviland, of the regular army, was placed in command of 
that post, which he retained during the winter. 

Up to this time nearly all the British operations in 
America had resulted in disaster, as well they migiit, con- 
sidering that the generals in the field were miserably inef- 
ficient, if not cowardly, while the statesmen at home were, 
if possible, still more incompetent. But from the winter 
of 17.o7 and 1758 a marked change was seen in the aspect 
of British affairs in America, and although there were 
occasional disasters, yet the general course of the Anglo- 
American arms was from victory to victory, down to the 
hour of final triumph. 





Pitt made Prime Minister — Justice to tlic Americans — Large Levies 
called out— Impressment of Teamsters— Colonel Bradstreet— 
French Indians near the Batten Kill— A Garden there — Lord 
Howe arrives at Fort Edward — Putnam at " Fiddler's Elbow"— 
The Moonlight Battle — Putnam's Return — Rencontre in the Forest 
— Abercrombie's Arrival— Composition of his Army— The Favor- 
ite Soldier— Lee, Schuyler, Gage, Wooster, William Franklin, Guy 
Johnson, and Philip Skene — Abercrombie's Advance — A Brilliant 
Spectacle — Death of Howe — A Fearful Disaster — A Demoralized 
Retreat— Braditreet's Expedition — Disgusted Teamsters— Another 
Raid by St. Luc la Corne — Rogers, Putnam, and Marin — A Bush- 
Fight— Putnam captured — Indian Amusements — Marin retreats — 
Preparations to burn Putnam — The Rcaoue — General Amherst 
made Commander-in-Chief — The Army in Winter-tjuarters — A 
Long Tramp — Another Rally — Capture of Ticonderoga and Crown 
Point— Amherst's Defect— Weakness— The Campaign of 1700— 
Final Success — Preparations for Settlement. 

The cause of the change noted at the conclusion of the 
hist chapter lay in the fact that William Pitt, the most 
vigorous statesman of the age, had been appointed prime 
minister of England. An earnest effort was at once made 
to retrieve the disasters which Britain had suffered at tlie 
hands of her active foes. Ever the friend of America, 
Pitt abandoned many of the arrogant pretensions which 
had long annoyed the colonists. He obtained an order 
from the king that colonial officers below the rank of 
colonel should hold equal rank with those of Great Britain, 
according to the date of their commis.sions. Early in 1758 
he sent a circular letter to the colonies, asking them to 
raise as large a force as possible, and engaging that the 
men should bo furnished by the crown with arms, ammu- 
nition, and provisions. 

The colonies promptly responded, and in the spring more 
soldiers than ever before sought the accustomed rendezvous 
at Albany. Early in June immense quantities of boats 
and supplies were sent up to Fort Edward, great numbers 
of teams and teamsters being impressed for the purpose. 
This was the usual method of obtaining transportation in 
" good old colony times," and naturally created great dis- 
satisfaction among its subjects. 

The writer known as the " Sexagenary" relates that his 
father was one of the teamsters thus impressed. The ope- 
rations were under the direction of the celebrated Colonel 
John Bradstreet, quartermaster-general of the army, and 
one of the most efficient officers in it. The road at that 
time ran up the west side of the Hudson to a point oppo- 
site the Batten Kill, then crossed and followed up the east 
side to Fort Edward. 

The Sexagenary states that his father, on one of his 
return trips from Fort Edward, saw a moccasin print in 
the mud on the east side of the river, near the Batten Kill. 
After he had passed over the Hudson a shot was heard in 
the locality just mentioned. A guard which was stationed 
on the west side crossed over to the east side, and there 
found a man killed and scalped " in a garden belonging to 
a Mr. De Ruyter." We mention this incident partly to 
show the audacity of the Indians in thus venturing so far 
south of our outposts, but more particularly because it 
furnishes evidence of the fact that there were settlers then 

living in Washington county, near the mouth of the 
Batten Kill. 

On the 5th of June Brigadier-General Viscount Howe, 
with the first division of the grand army of invasion, 
arrived at Fort Edward. Major Rogers, with fifty men, 
taking their boats with them in wagons, at once pushed on 
to Lake Champlain, and made a short reconnaissance, but 
discovered no enemy. Meanwhile Lord Howe moved for- 
ward to Lake George, where he arrived on the 22d of June. 
Putnam had at this time become a field-officer of a 
Connecticut regiment, but his services were so invaluable 
as a ranger that Lord Howe detached him from Lake 
George, with fifty men, to guard the head of Lake Cham- 
plain, and particularly to prevent the French from reeon- 
noitering in that vicinity. The veteran woodsman took 
post at a place now called " Fiddler's Elbow," three-fourths 
of a mile below Whitehall, where lofty, opposing rocks, 
concave on the east side and convex on the west, crowd the 
waters of Lake Champlain into a narrow gorge, through 
which a steamer has barely room to pass. 

On the promontory on the west side, overlooking the 
water, the rangers erected a low breastwork of stone, some 
thirty feet long, which they concealed with pine bushes 
arranged along its front. Sentinels were stationed, and for 
four days and three nights Putnam remained here, watch- 
ing for the approach of unwary Frenchmen. Fifteen out 
of his fifty men became ill, and were sent to Fort Edward, 
but still the remainder waited for their prey. 

At length, on the evening of the fourth day, the sentry 
on the north gave a whispered alarm, and a long line of 
canoes were seen making their way up the lake. Witii 
similar whispers all the sentries were quickly called in ; the 
thirty-five men ensconced themselves behind the rocky 
parapet, the muzzles of their muskets pointing between the 
evergreen bushes towards the channel where the enemy 
must pass. On they came, near five hundred French and 
Indians, led by the ever-active Marin, or " Molang," their 
paddles and their arms flashing in the light of the full 
moon, which flooded the narrow passage and disclosed 
every movement of the advancing foe. 

Silent as death the rangers waited the command of Put- 
nam. The leading canoes had glided by, when one of the 
eager band accidentally struck his musket on a rock. In 
the stealthy warfare then carried on, every sound caused 
suspicion, and the foremost canoes at once stopped. Others 
came up, a throng of boats was formed, and all the occupants 
instinctively gazed up towards the top of the promontory, 
where nothing met their eyes but a few insignificant pine- 
bushes. But Marin scented mischief in the air, and gave 
a whispered command to turn back. His men began to 
obey. Putnam saw that the time had come ; the word " fire !" 
rang from his lips with startling distinctness, and the next 
instant thirty-five muskets sent their messengers of death 
among the crowd below. 

Nearly every bullet .struck its man, and for a few moments 
the wildest confusion ensued, some trying to escape and 
some returning the fire, though their bullets made little 
impression on the stone breastwork. As quickly as possible 
the intrepid Marin got his men into order, placed them in 
as secure positions as possible, and engaged in a rapid inter- 



change of volleys with the rangers. But, notwithstanding 
the disparity of numbers, Putnam's temporary fortress pre- 
vented serious injury to his men, while their own bullets 
caused fearful execution among the enemy. 

After a few volleys, Marin discerned from the weakness 
of the fire that only a comparatively small force was opposed 
to him, and he sent a detachment in boats to land below 
the breastwork ; in modern phrase, to " flank" his foes. 
But Putnam discovered the mana-uvre, and dispatched Lieu- 
tenant Durkee (slain at Wyoming almost exactly twenty years 
afterwards) with twelve men to oppose the landing; and so 
thoroughly were the French demoralized, so great appeared 
the danger of venturing in the darkness among the rocks 
and trees and the deadly muskets of the rangers, that 
Durkee and his little squad actually accomplished their 

After that, Marin contented himself with placing his 
men under shelter, and exchanging a desultory fire across 
the gorge throughout the night. At daybreak he efiected 
a landing on Putnam's left, when the rangers withdrew, 
their ammunition being nearly exhausted, having only two 
men wounded in the whole conflict. It is said that when 
afterwards a prisoner in Canada, Putnam learned that half 
of Marin's force was killed or wounded, but we must take 
some of these old legends with a good deal of allowance. 

Putnam sent his two wounded men towards Fort Edward, 
one who could not walk being carried by two soldiers, while 
he with the remaining thirty took another direction. The 
former were pursued by Indians, and one of the wounded 
men was killed and the other captured. Meanwhile the 
squad of thirty was suddenly fired on, as they were making 
their way through the forest, and one of their number was 
wounded. Putnam knew that his men had but little am- 
munition, and instantly shouted, at the top of his voice, 
" Charge bayonets !" 

"Stop! stop!" cried the opposite leader, at the sound of 
the famous ranger's well-known voice ; " we are friends." 

" Friends or enemies," growled the veteran, " you ought 
to be cut to pieces for doing such poor shooting." 

They were soon after met by another stjuad, bearing 
orders for them to repair to Fort Edward, which they 
accordingly did. 

General Abercrombio with the main army arrived at 
that post on the 28th of July ; or at least the head of it 
did, for it is said that the army and its trains covered a 
distance of seventeen miles. Those who have seen far 
larger armies covering far less space, must remember that 
in these days nearly all the heavy baggage goes by railway, 
while then everything must be carried in wagons over fear- 
ful forest-roads, which caused innumerable intervals in the 
long-extended trains. 

The army which then collected at Fort Edward, including 
the division previously led to Lake George by Lord Howe, 
was by far the largest, best disciplined, and best equipped 
which had yet made its appearance in the northern wilds. 
No less than six thousand five hundred regulars, the flower 
of the British army, composed the centre of Abercrombie's 
force. There were the Twenty-seventh, or Enniskillen 
Foot, under Lord Blakeney ; the Forty-fourth, General 
Abercrombie's own regiment ; the Fifty-fifth, Lord Howe's 

regiment ; the Forty-sixth Regiment, Lieutenant-General 
Thomas Murray; the Eightieth, under Colonel Thomas 
Gage ; two battalions of the Sixtieth, or Royal Americans, 
a corps raised in America but belonging to the regular 
British army; and last, not least, with "tartans broad and 
shadowy plumes," were seen the towering forms of the Forty- 
second Highlanders, the far-famed " Black Watch." 

Ten thousand provincial levies were also under arms, on 
the banks of the Hudson and Lake George, enlisted for such 
short terms as necessarily to be deficient in discipline, but 
largely composed and entirely officered by men who had 
seen one or more campaigns before, and almost as good as 
regulars in the vicissitudes of forest warfare. They com- 
prised, among others, a New York regiment under Colonel 
Oliver De Lancey (afterwards one of the proprietors of 
Salem), two New Jersey regiments, a Rhode Island regi- 
ment, a Massachusetts regiment, and three Connecticut 
regiments, one commanded by Colonel Eleazer Fitch, an old 
soldier of these wars, one by David Wooster, afterwards a 
general of the Revolutionary army, and one by the oflicer 
often mentioned before, General Phineas Lyman. There 
were other regiments the names of which we cannot give, 
though Rogers' New Hampshire rangers formed one impor- 
tant corps. There were also five hundred Iroquois warriors, 
even more lightly clad than the Highlanders, under the 
command of burly, energetic Sir William Johnson, who 
seems to have been assigned to a rather insignificant 
position, considering his reputation as the conqueror of 

General James Abercrombie, now commander-in-chief of 
the British troops in North America, and in immediate 
command of the forces at Fort Edward, was perhaps the 
best man whom Pitt was able to find for that important 
post among the higher officers of the British army, which 
shows what a dearth of good soldiers there was in that 
class of ofiicers. He was probably better than Loudon or 
Webb or Braddock, but he showed very few of the quali- 
ties of a good general. 

The favorite of both English and Americans, and, in 
common phrase, " the soul of the army," though only a 
brigadier-general, was the young Viscount Howe, the 
second in command. His zeal, energy, and courage were 
undeniable, and these, combined with his affable manners 
and soldierlike appearance, caused nearly every one to form 
the highest expectations of his success ; but he had little 
experience, and his untimely death prevented his qualities 
as a commander from passing through the crucial test of 
actual battle. Only thirty-two years of age, tall and fair, 
his luxuriant hair cropped short as an example to Ids offi- 
cers of what the forest required, his dress of the roughest 
materials, for the same rea.son, his table-furniture reduced 
from the gorgeous appointments of a British general to a 
knife and fork and tin plate, he moved with smiling face 
among his men, awakening the most ardent enthusiasm, 
especially among the Americans, accustomed to far different 
treatment from the haughty oflScials of the mother couiitiy. 

Among others destined to become prominent in the his- 
tory of the country was Charles Lee, then a rude and 
brawling captain of infantry, " full of strange oaths," and 
a great many of them, and earning as much dislike by his 



swaggering behavior as he gained of admiration by his 
reckless valor. As different from him as could well be 
imagined was young Major Philip Schuyler, still a gay and 
gracious youth, admirably skilled in all the details of busi- 
ness, and the right-hand man of Quartermaster-General 
Bradstroet in the important task of keeping the army sup- 
plied with the necessaries of war. 

There, too, was Colonel Thomas Gage, a burly, stolid 
officer of the Braddock type, afterwards a lieutenant-general 
and commander-in-chief of the British forces in America, 
whose blundering tyranny hastened the hesitating footsteps 
of revolution in 1775, but who was otherwise of little con- 
sequence in the eye of history. Another soldier, destined 
to less lofly but more honorable prominence, was Colonel 
David Wooster, of Connecticut, a valiant major-general in 
the army of the Revolution, who received his death-wound 
in the cause of freedom. Another was William Franklin, son 
of the great philosopher, then a young officer of twenty- 
six, but afterwards governor of New Jersey, and as promi- 
nent in the ranks of Toryism as the mere name of the 
great patriot leader could make him. Another was Captain 
Guy Johnson, a nephew of Sir William, a dark, stern young 
man, destined to be known in the Revolution as a bitter 
royalist, and a skillful organizer of savages in their work 
of murder ; and still another was Philip Skene, an enter- 
prising Scotch captain in the Enniskillen regiment, whose 
name was to be more intimately associated than that of any 
other man with the early history of Wa,shinglon county. 
Of Sir William Johnson, Lyman, Rogers, Putnam, and 
Stark, such frequent mention has been made that it is need- 
less to speak of them further here. 

On Sunday, the 5th of July, the whole army embarked 
on Lake George, proceeded to Sabbath-Day point, which 
then first received that name, and the next day continued 
their course to the vicinity of Ticonderoga. Of all the 
splendid armaments that have swept over the classic waters 
of St. Sacrament, and along the northeastern border of our 
county, this was the largest and most brilliant, and has 
been again and again described in the most glowing terms. 

From the highlands of Fort Ann, Dresden, and Putnam 
might have been seen the whole vast array of nine hundred 
bateaux, two hundred canoes, and numerous rafts laden with 
the artillery and supplies, the most conspicuous objects being 
two huge floating castles, each provided with two mounted 
cannon, to protect, if necessary, the landing of the army. 
In the forenoon of the 7th, however, the army landed 
without opposition on the western shore of the lake, aud 
began their march through the tangled forest towards the 
French stronghold. 

Then for several days the little garrisons left at Forts 
Edward and William Henry waited with the intense 
anxiety for news from their brethren in the field. The 
very first dispatch was ominous of some direful disaster, for 
it told that the gallant and generous Howe had been shot 
dead in a trivial skirmish, within a few hours after the 
landing. Two days later a swift-galloping expressman rode 
into Fort Edward with the terrible news that the whole 
army had been defeated, with fearful loss, in a great battle 
on the 8th of July. Englishmen and Americans could 
hardly believe the dreadful story, but it was all too soon 

confirmed. Flung with blundering bolt-headedness against 
a rude intrenchment protected by abatis, and defended by 
only three thousand Frenchmen and Canadians, under the 
fiery Montcalm, the sixteen thousand British and Ameri- 
cans wore out the long, hot summer afternoon in hopeless 
attacks, and retreated at night with the loss of two thou- 
sand men, while that of the enemy barely reached three 

Back over the lake came the beaten army, still numbering 
twelve thousand fighting-men, but demoralized and hope- 
less, and full of bitterness against the commander who, 
without sharing their danger, without seeking any aid from 
military skill, had subjected them to such feaiful loss. The 
main army was encamped around Fort William Henry, but 
the wounded were sent to Fort Edward, and some to Al- 
bany. Among the wounded were Captain Lee and Captain 
Skene, and Major Duncan Campbell of the gallant ' Black 
Watch." The hurt of the latter was mortal, and he died 
at Fort Edward on the 17th of July, and the rude slab of 
red sandstone which marks his grave is the oldest tomb- 
stone in Washington county. The remains of the gallant 
Howe were borne to Fort Edward in charge of his admir- 
ing friend. Major Schuyler, and sent thence to Albany, 
where they still rest beneath the Episcopal church of St. 

The energetic Colonel Bradstreet obtained permission 
from Abercrombie to try to counteract a part of the effect 
of the late defeat, and with the aid of Major Schuyler or- 
ganized a small force out of the demoralized army, obtained 
reinforcements elsewhere, hastened to Oswego and thence 
across Lake Ontario, and captured Fort Frontenac on the 
site of Kingston, with an immense quantity of stores. 
The " Sexagenary" relates that the colonel called the im- 
pressed teamsters together at Fort Edward, thanked them 
for their services in the late campaign, and informed them 
that he should want their aid on the Frontenac expe- 
dition. But the men were not at all anxious for that 
honor. As there was no hope of escaping along the main 
road with their wagons, most of them drove into the pine- 
bushes near the fort, unhitched their horses, abandoned 
their wagons, and each rode off one horse and led another 
through by-paths to the settlements, whence they speedily 
made their way to their respective homes. 

Meanwhile the main army began erecting extensive forti- 
fications at the head of Lake George, and the old war of 
predatory excursions between the French and English 
recommenced. On the 30th of July, St. Luc la Come, 
with a large body of Canadians, destroyed a train between 
Ford Edward and Lake George, taking a hundred and ten 
scalps and eighty-four prisoners. Majors Putnam and 
Rogers were, almost as a matter of course, selected to pur- 
sue the maraudei-s. With five hundred men they made 
their way as rapidly as possible to the head of South bay, 
but were too late to intercept La Corue, who escaped in 
safety to Ticonderoga. 

The rangers then divided, Rogers, with half of them, 
going over on to Wood creek, and Putnam, with the 
other half, scouting along South bay. Ere long they 
learned that the indef\itigable Marin (or " Mulang," as 
Putnam would call him) was in the vicinity with five 



hundred French and Indians. Tliey reunited their forces, 
and began retiring towards Fort Edward, in order, if prac- 
ticable, to intercept his movements. The rangers now moved 
in three cohimns, commanded respectively by Rogers, Put- 
nam, and Captain Dalzell. Rogers, it will be remembered, 
was the senior major, and was therefore in command of the 
whole force when united. 

The evening of the first day after the reunion (August 
7) they camped on Clear river, a branch of Wood creek, 
in the present town of Fort Ann, and about a mile west 
of the fort. The next morning, according to Putnam's 
statement, Rogers and an English officer, who was with 
the command, amused themselves by firing at a mark. 
One might ascribe this accusation of such strange miscon- 
duct to jealousy on the part of Putnam, were it not known 
that Rogers, with all his skill, was sometimes careless, and 
that he had previously been surprised near Ticonderoga, 
and his party entirely cut to pieces. 

Marin, at this time, was only a mile and a half distant, 
and he proceeded at once to arrange an ambuscade for the 
unwary rangers. Putnam evidently attributed this action 
to the French leader's having heard the firing of guns by 
Rogers and his friend, though it is quite likely that the 
lynx-eyed Marin had obtained a perfect knowledge from 
his own scouts of his enemy's location and course. 

After their rough breakfast the rangers moved forward ; 
Putnam in front, Dalzt'il in the centre, and Rogers in the 
rear. For a while their course lay over ground from which 
many of the large trees had been cut off in previous wars, 
for use at Fort Ann or on the military road, and on which 
a thick undergrowth had sprung up in their place. The 
mod(irn practice of covering the front of a scouting-party 
with a line of skirmishers does not seem to have been in 
use at that period; at least it is nowhere mentioned in the 
accounts given by the actors. 

About seven o'clock in the morning, just as the head of 
Putnam's party was on the point of emerging from the 
thicket just mentioned into the more open forest, a tre- 
mendous yell — five hundred war-whoops concentrated into 
one — burst forth close on their right or western flank. At 
the same instant, five hundred warriors, with the terrible 
Marin at their head, rose up among the bushes and fired a 
volley, and then dashed, tomahawk in hand, upon the 
astonished rangers. But, though astonished, they were not 
di.smayed. There were no complicated manoeuvres to go 
through ; instinctively every man, officers included, faced to 
the right, fired his fusee at the yelling crowd, and then 
sprang to the shelter of tree or stump and began to reload. 
The assailants were checked by the volley, and themselves 
sought similar shelter. 

Dalzell hurried forward and joined Putnam, but Rogers, 
understanding the situation, bore to the right with nearly 
two hundred men and fell upon the enemy's rear. Put- 
nam's biographers, deriving their accounts indirectly from 
him, carry the idea that Rogers neglected to support his 
comrade, because he did not hurry forward with Dalzell ; 
but the whole story of the fight, even on Putnam's show- 
ing, makes it plain that Rogers was soon engaged and con- 
tinued so to the end. Both these eminent partisans were 
men of extraordinary courage ; but, as in the case of many 

other brave soldiers, there seems to have been (at least 
afterwards, if not then) a good deal of jealousy between 
them, and this was doubtless intensified by the fact that 
they took opposite sides in the American Revolution. Tiie 
accounts of Rogers are also hardly just towards Putnam. 

In a short time all were engaged on both sides, and there 
ensued one of those fierce bush-fights so common on the 
frontier, in which every tree sheltered a fighter, and in 
which the whole business of both officers and men was to 
fire as often and as straight as possible, and at the same 
time shield themselves from the bullets of the enemy to the 
best of their ability. While Putnam was thus fighting, a 
powerful Indian warrior sprang towards him, tomahawk in 
hand. The major placed his musket against the very breast 
of the savage and pulled the trigger, but the treacherous 
flint-lock missed fire, and the red man's uplifted tomahawk 
compelled a surrender. Hurrying his captive to the rear 
of the French lines, he bound him securely to a tree, and 
again plunged into the contest. 

Still the battle continued to rage. French and Indians 
occasionally came to the rear, and from these Putnam had 
more to fear than from the fighters. A young warrior 
amused himself for a while by throwing his tomahawk as 
close as possible to the prisoner's head without hitting him; 
chuckling with delight when he saw the gallant ranger in- 
voluntarily flinch, as the keen weapon quivered in the tree 
within a half-inch of his skull. Scarcely had this tormentor 
left, when a Frenchman came up who had no patience to 
indulge in these refinements of torture. Leveling his mus- 
ket at the captive, he endeavored to murder him at once ; 
but his weapon missed fire, as Putnam's had done before, 
so that the latter owed both his captivity, on the one hand, 
and his life, on the other, to the inefficiency of the flint- 
lock musket. Failing in his attempt, the ruflian thrust his 
musket against the breast of the prisoner, struck him a 
severe blow with the butt, and then left him. 

And still the combat went on, amid Indian whoops, 
French vivas, and English cheers, amid the crackling of 
musketry, the groans of dying njcn, the dull crash of the 
tomahawk into the skull of some unfortunate victim, and 
the terrific yell of the conqueror as he tore the bloody scalp 
from the head of his foeman's corpse. Once the rangers 
fell back, but they soon rallied, and drove back the enemy 
beyond the place where Putnam was bound. The position 
of the latter was now more perilous than ever; several bul- 
lets struck the tree to which he was fastened, and some of 
them pierced his coat, though without inflicting a wound. 
Then once more the French lino pushed forward in front 
of the prisoner. 

At length, after about an hour of harder fighting than is 
seen in many a pitched battle, in which the French and 
their allies had ninety men killed and wounded, Marin or- 
dered a retreat, leaving the Americans in possession of the 
ground, but taking Putnam and the other prisoners along. 
Either Marin did not know the rank of the latter, or did 
not care to interfere with the Indians in favor of an enemy 
from whom he had suffered so much, so long as they did 
not slay him. At all events, his shoes and stockings were 
taken oft", and he was compelled to toil ail day under the 
packs of several Indians which were loaded on his back. 



But this was only a foretaste. Camping at night near 
South bay, the Indians prepared to oxeeute the direst ven- 
geance of which savage warfare is capable on the hated 
leader of the rangers. They were camped at some little 
distance from their French allies, and evidently did not ex- 
pect to be disturbed. They stripped the major naked, tied 
him to a tree, and piled a mass of brush and small limbs 
around his feet. To these they applied a brand of fire, but 
ere the flames were well under way a light shower extin- 
guished them. This, however, soon pa.ssed off, and again 
the torch wa.s applied. The bush caught fire and began to 
blaze and crackle around the unhappy Putnam, who saw no 
hope of escape from a horrible death, and around whom the 
savages now began dancing, singing, and yelling with every 
demonstration of demoniac glee. 

But suddenly, and before any serious injury had been 
inflicted, Marin, who had heard what was going on, 
dashed into the circle of yelling monsters, scattered the 
blazing brands, cut the withes which bound the prisoner, 
and took him under his own protection. He and the other 
prisoners were then taken to Ticonderoga, and thence to 
Montreal, where Major Putnam was exchanged the follow- 
ing winter. After the battle, Rogers and his men returned 
without further adventure to Fort Edward. 

On the 4th of October, General Jeffrey Amherst, the 
conqueror of Louisburg, arrived at Fort Edward, bringing 
with him four regiments and a battalion of Royal Ameri- 
cans, with which he had hastened by forced marches to the 
aid of Abercrombie on hearing of the disaster of Ticon- 
deroga. On the 3d of November orders were received 
from England recalling the inefficient Abercrombie and 
appointing General Amherst commander-in-chief. But it 
was then too late for active operations, and the greater part 
of the army retired into winter-quarters at Albany, and at 
other points still farther south. Eight hundred men were 
left in garrison at the head of Lake George, and fifteen , 
hundred at Fort Edward. To the latter place were brought 
nearly all the stores which had previously been kept at 
Lake George. 

The new commander-in-chief was the best which Britain 
had yet seen fit to vouchsafe to America, — brave, zealous, 
and energetic, but by no means a great soldier. He was 
then forty-one years old, had been successful at Louisburg 
and other points, and was almost the last hope of the 
English and Americans. During the forepart of the win- 
ter he remained at Fort Edward and vicinity, making the 
necessary arrangements for the events of the next year. 
By the 1st of January, 1759, he had completed his task, 
and desired to go to Albany and New York. As commu- 
nication through the snow-bound forests was extremely 
difficult, it is related that the general, with a few officers 
and men, set forth on foot, and probably on snow-shoes, 
and made the whole journey to New York in that manner; 
a fact which at least attests his physical hardihood. 

In the spring of 1759 the obstinate English and Amer- 
icans once more mustered their forces for the capture of 
Canada. Once more the red-coated Britons, the plaided 
Highlanders, the painted Iroquois, and the provincials in 
their motley garb, came crowding up the Hudson to Fort 
Edward, and preparing for another advance along the path 

on which they had been repulsed so oft before. From the 
first to the middle of June, General Amherst's headquar- 
ters were at Fort Edward. Regiments were constantly 
arriving from the south ; others were departing for Lake 
George ; others were perfecting themselves in military dis- 
cipline. Scores of settlers were encamped in the centre of 
the army, and a grand market was kept there for the sale 
of everything that officers and soldiers might desire. 

The army was not as large as that of the year before, 
consisting of six battalions of regulars, numbering nearly 
six thousand men, and nine regiments of provincials, 
containing about the same number. About the 20th of 
June, the general-in-chief, with the main body of the 
army, moved up to Lake George, only a small garrison 
remaining at Fort Edward. It was not, however, till after 
the 20th of July that the invaders passed down the lake. 

During the remainder of the year very little of especial 
interest took place in the territory of Washington county. 
Hardly even a French or Indian scouting-party relieved 
the monotony of garrison life ; for eveiy man that could 
possibly be spared had been taken by Montcalm to defend 
Quebec against the advancing columns of Wolfe, leaving 
only twenty-three hundred men at Ticonderoga to meet 
the army of Amherst. These retreated before that army, 
yielding up both Ticonderoga and Crown Point, which had 
so long been the terror of our northern frontier. But 
Amherst showed that he was not a great soldier by neglect- 
ing to press on to the aid of Wolfe ; and it was only by a 
series of fortunate accidents that that gallant soldier was 
able to achieve the victory which cost him his life. In the 
autumn Amherst once more went down the Hudson into 
winter-quarters, leaving the usual garrison at Fort Edward. 

Although the capture of Quebec had filled all England 
and America with the joyful belief in the ultimate capture 
of Canada, yet the latter event was by no means entirely 
certain, and in the spring of 17G0 no less than three armies 
were mustered for the purpose of striking the final blow. 
This time, however, for some unexplained reason, General 
Amherst led the main body by way of Oswego down the 
Saint Lawrence, while Colonel Haviland, with a compara- 
tively small force, took the old war-path through Washing- 
ton county. General JIurray at the same time moved up 
from Quebec with the army formerly commanded by Wolfe. 
All three commands met, without serious resistance, before 
the walls of Montreal, when the helpless governor-general 
surrendered that last stronghold of France, and with it the 
whole of Canada. The great contest was at length ended, 
— that is, the fighting was ended, — but the formal treaty of 
peace was not signed until the spring of 1763. 

General Amherst, having been in command of the vic- 
torious army at the closing scene, of course received the 
praise always given to successful soldiers. He became a 
baronet, and was known thenceforth as Sir Jeffrey Am- 
herst, and still later received the higher title of Lord Am- 
herst. But it has been truly said that if Wolfe had been 
such a soldier as Amherst the Gibraltar of America would 
not have been captured, and History has justly flung her 
laurels on the corpse of the hero of Quebec rather than 
bind with them the brow of the cautious and successful 



With the return of a portion of the triumphant army, 
by way of the lakes and the Hudson, Washington county 
ceased to be a war-path for nearly fifteen years. Even in 
the spring of 1760, before the final capture, men were so 
sure that Crown Point and Ticonderoga would never again 
be the headquarters whence gangs of bloodthirsty savages 
would ravage the frontier, that a few farmers returned to 
some of the deserted, brush-grown fields around old Fort 
Saraghtoga, and began to prepare them once more for culti- 
vation. When the news came that all Canada had suc- 
cumbed to British power hundreds turned their attention 
to the fertile valleys and heavily-timbered hillsides of the 
old Mohican hunting-ground, and many a young soldier 
determined to subdue with ase and plow a portion of the 
territory he had so often traversed with knapsack and 



New Beginnings of Settlement — Salem, Carahriilgc, and Skencs- 
borough — Progress in 1702 — Anaquassacook Patent — Kingsbury 
Township — Grant to the Cliildren of Csiptain Campbell — Skene 
returns from the West Indies— The Treaty of Peace— Land of- 
fered to Ex-Offieers and Soldiers — Amounts given to diflcrent 
Grades— Turner's Patent— Bribing the Officials— " White Creek" 
—The Argyle Patent— Provincial and Artillery Patents— The rest 
of the County— The Uighlanders— Dr. Clark and his Colony— 
Skcnesborough Patent and Township — The New Hampshire Grants 
— Sketch of the Controversy — Governor Wentworth's First Grant 
— The Dispute referred to Great Britain— Secret Grants by Went- 
wortli — The Discovery by New York — Proclamations and Counter- 
Proclamations — Decision in favor of New York — Beginning of the 
Riots — First Settlement in Argyle — Project for tive new Counties 
— Continuation of the Quarrel — Nature of Land Grants — First 
Church in the County— Settlement of Fort Miller— Captain William 
Ducr— The First Grist-Mill— Rapid Settlement- Skene's Koad— 
Albert Baker — Project of a new Province — Settlement by High- 
landers — Increased Resistance to New York — Simple Method of 
Conveying Land — Settlement at Ash Grove — Township of Argyle 
Organized- The E.xpulsion of Donald Mclntyre— Mobbing of 
Charles Hutchinson — Futile Proceedings — Organization of Char- 
lotte County — Cambridge ami Saratoga Districts — First Legisla- 
tive Act — Skene's Efforts — Colonel Schuyler made First Judge — 
Other Officers — Courts created at Fort Edward— First Court — Con- 
tinuation of the Hampshire Grant Troubles — Rev. Harry Monro — 
Approach of the Revolution— Strong English Inflnencc— Dr. Wil- 
liams—A Stormy Court — Crime Rampant — An Undaunted Judge 
-The End of the King's Rule. 

The year 17G1 saw no less than three distinct begin- 
nings, looking toward settlement, made within the territory 
of Washington county, besides the reopening of the old 
fields on the Hudson. In the spring James Turner and 
Alexander Conkey, of Pelham, Mass., visited the flats 
where Salem village now stands, and selected that locality 
as the place for their future residence. It is not certain 
whether they made any clearing that year or not, but from 
the language in which the facts are described it would be 
inferred that they did not. 

The same year, on the 21st of July, the governor and 
council of New York granted a patent for thirty-five thou- 
sand five hundred acres, situated north of the Hoosic 
patent, and comprising the central part of the present 

towns of Cambridge and White Creek, under the name of 
Cambridge patent. The patentees were Edmund Wells, 
Isaac Sawyer, Jacob Lansing, William Smith, Alexander 
Colden, Goldsborow Banyar, and others. The three per- 
sons last named were officials connected with the colonial 
government, who, in accordance with the morals of that 
day, which were certainly as bad as they have ever been 
since, blackmailed all would-be grantees of land, and com- 
pelled them to allow the officials a large share in their 
grants. Very soon afterwards the proprietors made a 
public offisr to give a hundred acres to each of the first 
thirty families who would settle in the new township, and, 
according to the record, some of the families who accepted 
the offer moved on to the land the same year. This was 
the customary way of settling a new county in those days ; 
that is, the land was granted in large tracts, and then the 
owners persuaded somebody else to do the work on it. 
Common people were hardly supposed to know enough to 
move into the wilderness and clear up a farm without 
somebody to tell them where to go. 

During the same season Philip Skene, whom we have 
seen leading a company of the Enniskillen Regiment, and 
wounded at the a.ssault on Ticonderoga, made a settlement 
at the head of Lake Champlain, where the village of White- 
hall now stands. He located thirty families there, all being 
in his employment, and began with great zeal the work of 
iiuprovenient. He was still an officer in the army, and had 
received the staff-appointment of brigade-major, from which 
he was called Major Skene, though his rank in the line was 
still that of captain. He had not yet obtained a title to 
the land on which he was settling, but is said to have been 
acting under the advice of General Amherst, and doubtless 
felt that there would be no difEculty in procuring a title 
if aided by that powerful patronage. Soon afterwards. 
Major Skene went to Cuba with the British forces sent 
there, where he distinguished himself in the attack on 
Jloro castle. 

Earlj' in the spring of 1702, Turner and Conkey returned 
to the place they had selected the year before, accomj)anied 
by Hamilton McCoilister, and the three built a cabin where 
the Ondawa House, in Salem, now stands. Each selected 
a form in the vicinity, and vigorously began clearing it oft'. 
Here, as elsewhere on the level ground of Washington 
county, the early settlers found but little jungle or under- 
brush, save where the forest had previously been cut down 
for the of an army. Gigantic oaks, elms, beeches, and 
maples, at a great distance apart, rose from the fertile soil 
in which their roots had been imbedded for centuries, 
while the knolls and sometimes the plains were shaded by 
lofty, dark, and fragrant pines. 

This section of country had long been the hunting- 
ground of the feeble remnant of the Mohicans, the con- 
quered tributaries of the mighty Iroquois, and they had 
been in the habit of burning over the ground every au- 
tumn, so that grass would spring up on which their game 
could feed. This, of course, destroyed the small brush and 
left the large trees more ample room for growth. 

On the 11th of May, 17C2, the "Anaquassacook" 
patent of ten thousand acres was granted by the governor 
and council to four Schcrmerhorns, three Quackenbosses, 



two Smiths, and one Jansen, all of Schenectady. The 
tract was situated in the present towns of Jackson and 
White Creek, and settlement was soon after commenced 
upon it. 

On the same day a tract of twenty-six thousand acres 
was granted by patent to James Bradshaw and twenty-two 
others, of Connecticut. The instrument which conveyed 
the land also incorporated the tract as a township by the 
name of Kingsbury, giving the inhabitants the right to 
elect supervisors, assessors, and a few other officers. 

The old township organization was by no means as com- 
plete as that of a modern town, yet it corresponded to it in 
some degree. "Township" or "district" was the usual ap- 
pellation applied by law to these organizations, but they 
were also sometimes called " towns." They were usually 
created by patent from the governor and council, but when 
once formed their privileges could not be annulled nor 
changed, except by an act of the Legislature. Sometimes 
these municipal privileges were conferred by the same 
patent which granted the lands, as in the case of Kings- 
bury ; but oftener the township or district was organized 
at a later date. By a law of 1 703, each " town" was al- 
lowed to elect a supervisor, two assessors, and a collector, 
on such days as should be designated in their charters or 
patents ; and supervisors were directed to meet at the 
county-town each year to examine accounts, proportion 
charges among the towns, etc. Inhabitants not included 
in an organized township might unite with an adjoining 
one until they were themselves organized. The township 
of Kingsbury was the first one incorporated in the territory 
of Washington county, and as town.ship, district, or town 
it has ever since retained the same name and boundaries as 
were first given it. 

In January, 1763, Donald, George, and James Campbell, 
sons of Laughlin Campbell, whose unfortunate attempt to 
settle in this county has been before narrated, presented a 
petition asking for a grant of a hundred thousand acres be- 
tween the Batten Kill and Wood creek. It is difficult to 
account for the extreme exorbitance of this request, though 
it has been suggested that the Campbells intended, or 
claimed that they intended, to provide for the descendants 
of the colonists who had expected to settle under their 
father's direction. 

The petition was rejected on the ground that the orders 
of the English government positively forbade the granting 
of over a thousand acres to any one person. Nevertheless, 
it was felt that Captain Campbell had been very badly 
treated, and there was a disposition on the part of the 
colonial authorities to give some relief to his children. 
Accordingly, in the autumn of that year, a grant of ten 
thousand acres in the present town of Argyle was made 
to the three brothers before named, their three sisters, and 
four other persons, three of whom were also named Camp- 

In this year, also, Major Skene returned from the West 
Indies, bringing with him a number of negro slaves, which 
he had purchased there. He proceeded to Skenesborough, 
but found that half of his thirty families had disappeared, 
many having fallen victims to the insalubrity of the loca- 
tion, and others having becoming discouraged and left. 

The major, however, immediately recommenced the work 
of improvement. 

After over two years of diplomatic man(Euvring, follow- 
ing the close of actual warfare, peace was formally con- 
cluded between England and France in the forepart of 
1763. A large number of British soldiers were conse- 
quently disbanded, and many officers were "reduced ;" that 
is, released from active service, but retained on the army- 
rolls on half-pay. In October a royal proclamation was 
issued, oiFering land in America, without fees, to all such 
officers and soldiers who had served on that continent and 
who wished to become settlers there, and many of them 
naturally turned their eyes towards the ground with which 
they had become so well acquainted during their military 
service. The provincial levies were not included in the 

Nothing shows more clearly than this proclamation the 
lofty position of an officer in the British service at that 
time compared with that of a private. A field-officer re- 
ceived four thousand acres ; a captain, three thousand ; 
and a lieutenant, or other subaltern commissioned officer, 
two thousand. From this there was an immense leap down- 
ward ; a non-commissioned officer, whether sergeant or cor- 
poral, receiving two hundred acres. 

Still more remarkable was the distinction made between 
non-commissioned officers and privates; two grades which 
in a regular army are usually considered so near on a level 
as to be equally beneath the notice of a commissioned officer. 
Yet by the proclamation in question, while a corporal was 
to receive two hundred acres a private was only to have fifty ! 
The venerable John McDonald, of Salem, still possesses one 
of the original patents for fifty acres, granted under this 
proclamation to a private soldier, and sold by him to Mr. 
McDonald's grandfather. Fifty acres of wild land, on the 
hillsides of Washington county, was certainly not an ex- 
orbitant reward for seven years' service amid all the dangers 
and horrors of French and Indian warfiire. 

It was not until the spring of 1764 that Turner, Conkey, 
and McCollister, who had been clearing ground on the 
Salem flats in summer time, and residing in Pelham, Mass., 
in winter, finally removed with their families to the former 
locality. They also obtained a patent from the governor 
and council covering the twenty-five thousand acres now 
constituting the greater part of the town of Salem. It was 
granted in the name of twenty-five citizens of Pelham and 
vicinity ; but whether any of the names were fictitious or 
not cannot now be ascertained, though it is probable some 
of them were. 

But what is quite certain is that before the colonists 
could obtain their patent they were obliged to bribe the 
colonial officials with a promise of half the land. Accord- 
ingly, as soon as the document in question was signed, and 
probably before it w;ls delivered, the patentees executed a 
conveyance of an undivided half of their tract to Colonel 
Oliver De Lancey and two other prominent persons con- 
nected with the colonial government. 

Twenty or thirty JIassachusctts (ivmilies proceeded within 
a year or so to occupy the lands in question, calling the 
territory " White Creek," from the stream which ran 
through it, and calling the stream so from the clearness of 



its waters, as compared with those of " Black creek," which 
came down from the north. 

Learning of the success of Captain Campbell's children 
in obtaining a grant, a large number of the descendants of 
the settlers whom he had brought over from Scotland, with 
a few of the original ones, made application for a similar 
recompense for their hardships and losses. Accordingly, in 
May, 1764, a grant of forty-.soven thousand four hundred 
and fifty acres, comprising the present town of Argyle and 
a small part of Fort Edward and Greenwich, was granted 
to the colonists and their descendants. Of the manner in 
which it was laid off and settled, notice will be found in 
the history of the town of Argyle. 

Although neither the provincial officers nor soldiers were 
included in the royal proclamation, yet by a special grant 
made in May, 1764, a tract of twenty-six thousand acres 
was given to twenty-six commissioned officers of the New 
York infantry, each receiving the same amount without 
regard to rank. The tract was situated in the present town 
of Hartford, and was known as the Provincial patent. 

Another similar patent conveyed twenty-four thousand 
acres, situated in the south part of the present town of 
Fort Ann, to twenty-four commissioned officers of the New 
York artillery. 

The rest of the town — the " Camden tract" in the south 
part of Salem, and the greater part of the present towns 
of Fort Ann, Granville, Hampton, Dresden, and Putnam, 
together with the tilla()le lands on both sides of Lake 
Champlain as far north as Crown Point — was set apart to 
officers and soldiers (principally the latter), under the royal 
proclamation. This exhausted nearly or quite all the 
lands in Washington county aside from the patents before 

For several years after 1764 settlements were constantly 
being made on these tracts by disbanded soldiers. It is 
noticeable, however, that in every case the settlers were 
Scotch Highlanders, mostly belonging to the Seventy- 
seventh Regiment. We have been unable to learn of a 
single instance in which an English or Irish private soldier 
claimed and settled on his tract of land under the royal 

Possibly the Scotch may have been, to some extent, 
drawn to this section by the fact that there was already a 
colony of Scotch descent located here. In the spring of 
1765, Dr. Thomas Clark, a Scotchman by birth, but for 
many years the pastor of a congregation of Scottish 
descent in the north of Ireland, came to what is now 
Salem to find a place for the settlement of his people, three 
hundred of whom, disgusted with the persecution they 
had suffiircd at lionie, had followed him to America. Sat- 
isfied with the locality, he proceeded to New York and 
bought that half of " Turner's Patent" which had been 
conveyed to De Laneey and liis friends as a bribe, and 
which with unconscious but most bitter satire was commonly 
called " the gentlemen's tract." Clark's colony, which 
was already at Stillwater, began settling immediately after- 

The patentees having conveyed an undivided half to " the 
gentlemen," the whole was divided into lots, and each set 
of owners took their choice successively. Consequently 

the Massachusetts and Scotch colonists lived all inter- 
mingled with each other. They both, however, adhered 
to their own customs, and were desperately determined on 
having their own way. The Massachusetts people had 
named the place White Creek, but the Scotch, or Scotch- 
Irish, were determined it should be called New Perth, in 
honor of the city of Perth in the land from which they 
derived their origin ; and for many years — in fact until 
after the Revolution — the locality was known by both those 

Dr. Clark was a man of marked ability, being not 
only a prominent minister but a regularly educated physi- 
cian ; and, there being no one else of the latter profession 
within a long distance, he had a considerable practice for 
many years. He was the first minister and the first phy- 
sician permanently settled in the present county of Wash- 
ington, and a house built for his use in the spring of 1765 
was the first parsonage in the county. 

In the spring of 1765, also, Major Skene obtained a 
grant of twenty-five thousand acres in the present town of 
Whitehall. The usual device was resorted to of associa- 
ting twenty-four other persons with him, whose interest 
was merely nominal, to evade the rule which permitted 
only a thousand acres to be granted to one person. There 
is a tradition that this land was first given to soldiers and 
non-commissioned officers, and was purchased from them by 
Skene, who only obtained the grant to confirm his title ; 
but we are sure this is incorrect. Skene settled there two 
years before the land was offered to the soldiers by royal 
proclamation. There is no evidence that this tract was 
ever set apart to them, and no probability that if Skene 
had once bought them out he would have associated twenty- 
four other persoas with himself in the title which he al- 
ready owned alone. He may have purchased small tracts 
of the soldiers, but not the town.ship. Probably the delay 
in obtaining a patent was occasioned by his resisting the 
blackmailing propensities of the colonial authorities. At 
all events, they obtained no interest in that tract. It was 
formed into a township, by the same patent which granted 
the title, by the name of Skenesborough. 

We have now reached a period when along the eastern 
border of Washington county there began to be a serious 
excitement about the title to the land. This was the 
famous controversy regarding the " New Hampshire grants." 
As this contest will necessarily affect, to some extent, the 
fortunes of Washington county for the succeeding twenty 
years, we will endeavor to give the reader an idea of its 
origin and character, although, as the more exciting events 
of the controversy took place outside the present limits of 
the county, our narrative will be a very brief one. 

Soon after the capture of New Netherland from the 
Dutch, King Charles the Second granted the government of 
the province, under the name of New York, together with 
the title to the ungranted lands therein, to his brother 
James, Duke of York, bounding it on the east by the Con- 
necticut river. On the accession of the duke to the throne 
as James the Second, .the title became vested in the crown, 
but the government established by him was always there- 
after recognized as the legal government of the colony. 

The ea.stern boundary, however, was claimed to conflict 



with earlier grants to the proprietors of Connecticut and 
Massachusetts, and the rapidly-increasinp: population of 
those colonies was permitted without much resistance by 
New York to occupy the territory up to within about 
twenty miles of the Hudson river. North of the north 
line of Massachusetts, however, no colony was organized 
till the middle of the eighteenth century, and no question 
was raised but that above that line New York extended to 
the Connecticut. But as that part of the colony was a 
mountainous wilderness, terribly open to murderous incur- 
sions from French and Indian foes, no one was anxious 
to ac((uire property there, and no grants were made. 

In 1749, Benning Wentwortli was appointed governor of 
New Hampshire. His couimis.sion directed him to pro- 
ceed to make grants of land for the purpose of settling up 
the country, and also gave the bounds of the territory over 
which he was to rule. The southern boundary was therein 
described as running from a point near Pawtucket Falls, on 
the Merriniac river, due west " till it meets with our other 
governments." The same year Wentwortli wrote to Gov- 
ernor Clinton, of New York, inquiring where his "govern- 
ment" began. The latter replied the next spring that the 
eastern boundary of New York was on the Connecticut 

Wentworth answered, asking how it was that Massa- 
chusetts and Connecticut went so far west, and stating 
that, previous to receiving Clinton's letter, he had already 
given a grant of a township six miles square, situated on 
the western border of the colony of New Hampshire, as he 
undenstood the lines. This was the famous Bennington, 
which received its designation from the first name of Gov- 
ernor Benning Wentworth. It is pretty evident that that 
official was playing a " grab game," or he would not have 
made his first grant on the disputed ground, at its farther- 
most extremity, passing over the rich lands on the west- 
ern shore of the Connecticut. He evidently thought that 
if he could get possession of the most distant portion of the 
tract, he could more easily seize upon the rest. 

Clinton and his council — all these letters emanated from 
the governors "in council' — explained the condition of 
affairs as regarded Massachusetts and Connecticut, and ex- 
pressed surprise at Wentworth's granting a township before 
hearing heard from them. The latter, in reply, proposed 
that both sides should send representations to the crown, 
and to this New York agreed. " If," wrote Governor 
WentworXh, "it [the grant] falls by his majesty's deter- 
mination within the province of New York, it will be void 
of course." 

The next year (1751) both governments sent representa- 
tions to the " Lords of Trade" in London, who seem to have 
treated them with the usual indifi"erence and tardiness of 
our aristocratic masters regarding the vital interests com- 
mitted to their charge. A prompt decision of the question, 
which was an exceedingly plain one, would have prevented 
twenty years of disturbance, riot, and bloodshed. But the 
Lords of Trade and the privy council delayed their decision 
until 1754, when the breaking out of the French war gave 
them an excuse for neglecting entirely all matters not im- 
mediately connected with the war. 

Meanwhile, sly old Governor Wentworth continued to 

grant land in the di.sputcd territory without the knowledge 
of the New York authorities, and in spite of the arrange- 
ment by which it had been agreed that the dispute should 
be referred to England. The object of this disreputable 
conduct was undoubtedly to get the fees, while the lands 
were bought by speculators for a trifling price, which they 
were willing to risk losing in order to have a chance of 
making a great profit if New Hampshire should get the 

Eighteen grants were thus made by New Hampshire 
before the French war, but from 1754 to 17G0 none were 
made, nor were any proceedings taken by either party. In 
1761, Governor Wentworth again began making grants, 
and in three years issued a hundred and eleven patents. 
He only claimed that the authority of New Hampshire ex- 
tended as far west as that of Massachusetts, or withiu 
twenty miles of the Hudson river. But in fact the grants 
were surveyed out so as to run within seventeen or eighteen 
miles of the Hudson. 

The New York authorities do not appear to have found 
out what was going on until 1763. In that year they re- 
ceived instructions to i.ssue patents to officers and soldiere, 
as before mentioned, and on looking around for land, dis- 
covered that Wentworth had been making numerous grants 
in spite of the agreement to refer the whole matter to the 
crown. In December of that year acting Governor Colden 
issued a proclamation warning every one that the title of 
New York extended to the Connecticut river, and enjoining 
the sheriff of Albany county, and other officers, to return 
the names of all who might take possession of land in the 
disputed territory, under New Hampshire, in order that 
they might be proceeded against by law. 

In March, 1764, Governor Wentworth came out with a 
proclamation, declaring that nothing was more evident than 
that New Hampshire extended as far west as Massachu- 
setts ; that the patent to the Duke of York was obsolete, 
and that grantees under New Hampshire might safely go 
on and settle their lands. But in the mean time New York 
had been urging the dilatory authorities of England into 
action, and in July, 1764, an order was issued by the king 
in council declaring that New York extended to the Con- 
necticut river, and that no grants west of that stream should 
be made by New Hampshire. In a legal point of view this 
was unquestionably correct. New Hampshire had never 
had any real claim, nor even a plausible pretext for one. 

Up to this time there had been no rioting. What few 
of the New Hampshire grantees had settled on their lands 
had held them peaceably, and so had a few New Yorkers, 
whose po.ssessions extended east of the sclf-cstabiished 
boundary of the New Hampshire men. But the next 
month a New Yorker was forcibly driven from the eastern 
part of the Hoosick patent by New Hampshire men, and 
thenceforward collisions were common all along the eastern 
border of what now constitutes Washington county, but 
mostly east of the present line. 

We have given an outline of the origin of the difficulty 
between New York and New Hampshire, and will now pro- 
ceed with the history of Washington county, noticing the 
various disturbances as they occurred. The New York 
officials offered to convey to the New Hampshire grantees 



wliat they had received from Governor Wentworth on pay- 
ment of the regular fees ; the latter refused, and petitioned 
the crown, wlio directed the authorities of New York not 
to issue any more grants until further orders. 

In 17C5 the first settlonient was made in Argyle, by some 
of the Scotchmen who had received grants there. 

It will be remembered that all this while the whole of 
the territory of northern New York, including the disputed 
territory now constituting Vermont, was nominally a part 
of the county of Albany. In October, 1763, Captain (after- 
wards General) David Wooster and others petitioned for the 
formation of five new counties from Albany. Two were to 
be east of the Green mountains. The third was to run from 
the .summit of the Green mountains " as far west as the 
government might think proper," having for its southern 
boundary the north line of Massachusetts, the Mohawk 
river, and a line connecting the mouth of that river with 
the northwest corner of that State ; while the northern 
boundary was to be an east and west line, cros.sing the 
Hudson at Fort Miller. The fourth county was to lie 
directly north of the foregoing, its northern boundary being 
an cast and west line running through the north end of Lake 
George ; the fifth was to extend to Canada. The project 
was, however, rejected by the New York government. 

During the year 176C a wordy conflict raged between 
the New Hampshire grantees and the New York authori- 
ties. The former declared that the latter refused to con- 
firm their grants except on the payment of exorbitant fees, 
and from what we know of the conduct of tjiose authorities, 
and the bribes they had exacted from their own people, 
there is little doubt that the charge is correct. 

It should be understood that the lands granted by colo- 
nial governments of that era were not sold outright, and no 
cash payment was required except the fees to the ofiieials. 
The grantees were in effect given a perpetual lease, and an 
annual quitrent was reserved to the crown. This quit- 
rent varied greatly. In the case of the Rev. Godfredius 
Diliius it was to be one raccoon-skin a year for several thou- 
sand square miles. But at the period we are now consid- 
ering the yearly quitrent was fixed at two shillings six- 
pence sterling for every hundred acres in the province of 
New York, but only about ninepence sterling in New 
Hampshire. The fees for a grant of a thousand acres were 
as follows: to the governor, §31.25; to the secretary of 
state, $10; to the clerk of the council, $10 to $15; 
to the receiver- geperal, $14.37; to the attorney-general, 
$7.50 ; making a total of about $75 besides the cost 
of survey. This does not look like a very large amount 
for a thousand acres of land, but money was scarce and land 
was plenty, and there were probably thousands of substan- 
tial citizens who would have been utterly unable to raise 
the amount in question. 

During this year the first church was built in the present 
county of Washington. So far as known it was the first 
one north of Albany. It was erected by Dr. Clark's colony 
at Salem. The material consisted of small logs, such as 
could bo brought by hand, there being then no teams in the 
settlement, according to the tradition among the descend- 
ants of the colonists. The logs were laid upon each other, 
and notched together at the corners in the most approved 

style of that kind of architecture ; the crevices being well 
filled with clay. The earth constituted the floor, while the 
roof was composed of black-ash bark, peeled oflf, laid upon 
the gi-ound and flattened with stones while drying. The 
seats were made of split logs laid upon blocks. This prim- 
itive temple of religion was forty feet long, and was the 
largest building in the county, except perhaps the barracks 
at Fort Edward. A school-house, also supposed to be the 
first in the county, was built at Salem the same year, out 
of similar materials and of like architecture. 

In this year (1766), also, the first settlement was made 
at the present village of Fort Miller, which derived its 
name from the old fortified store-houses on the other side of 
the Hudson. The pioneer here was Captain William Duer, 
a gallant young oflicer of the British army, who had served 
on the staff' of Ciive, the conqueror of India, but had de- 
termined to make his home in America, and had selected 
the locality just mentioned as the place for founding a colony. 
He married a daughter of Mr. Alexander, of New York, 
who claimed to be the rightful heir of a Scottish earldom, 
and was commonly known as Lord Stirling. Mrs. Ducr was 
generally known as "Lady Katy,' and a very high-toned 
establishment was kept up for several years, almost within 
the shadow of the primeval forest. 

Meanwhile, owing perhaps to the fact that two colonies 
were at woi'k settling the territory now known as Salem, that 
district filled up with residents faster than any other in the 
county. But both colonies adhered with true Scotch and 
New England obstinacy to their own appellation, and neither 
" White Creek" nor " New Perth" was acknowledged by more 
than half the population. The first grist-mill in the county, 
subsequent to the French war, was built in 1767, by a Scotch- 
man, named Bail, on Black creek, about a mile above 
Fitch's point. It had but one run, of small stone, and did 
very inferior work, but was resorted to for more than a score 
of miles around by the settlers, who now began to build 
their cabins in numerous localities on the various patents 
which have already been named. 

Settlement had so long been retarded by the fear of 
French and Indian enemies, that when the restraint was 
finally withdrawn pioneers rushed in with great rapidity, 
and very few counties in the State have been settled more 
rapidly than was Washington county between the close of 
the French war and the beginning of the Revolution. For 
the details of those settlements we must refer the reader to 
the town-histories ; we can notice here only a few of the 
more important points. 

The enterprising Major Skene continued to' push forward 
his improvements at Skenesborough, and in 1767 had a 
road cut out, at his own expense, from that point through 
the western part of Granville and central portion of Hebron 
to the settlement at White Creek or New Perth. It was 
afterwards extended to Bennington. It was passable only 
for sleighs, which were the vehicles chiefly in use. Not 
only in winter was the ox-sled the principal means of con- 
veyance, but even in summer it was a common thing for a 
settler to hitch his ox-team to a sled, throw on a bag of 
wheat and another of corn, and make his way eight or ten 
miles by that most tedious of methods. A man who owned 
a cart was considered to bo decidedly " forehanded," and 



one who possessed an actual wagon with four wheels might 
fairly claim to belong to the aristocracy. In 1768, Albert 
Baker made the first settlement in the township of Kings- 
bury, at the point now called Sandy Hill. 

Meanwhile, the troubles on tiie eastern border continued 
to increase. Sir Henry Moore, the governor of New York, 
still refused to confirm the New Hampshire grants without 
the payment of largo fees, as appears by the subsequent 
admissions of Lieutenant-Governor Golden ; the New Eng- 
land farmers who had bought out the original speculators, 
in more or less good faith, and become actual settlers on the 
lands, refused to pay the fees, and resisted with riotous 
force every attempt to put them out of possession. 

At this time there was a project on foot to form a new 
province, comprising the New Hampshire grants and north- 
ern New York, as appears by a petition of some Connec- 
ticut clergymen asking the influence of Sir William John- 
son in favor of a Mr. Partridge as governor of the proposed 
province. But the project was not carried out. 

Meanwhile, a number of the discharged Highland soldiers, 
especially of the Seventy-seventh Regiment, began to settle 
on the eastern border of this county, principally in Hebron, 
on both sides of the line claimed by the New Hampshire 
people. John McDonald, before mentioned, obtained a 
patent for the two hundred acres to which he was entitled 
as a corporal of the Seventy-seventh, returned to Scotland, 
married, remained a few years, and again returned to 
America, where he found that all but thirty acres of his land 
was cut off into Rupert by tiie line claimed by the New 
Hampshire grantees. 

The latter, too, who had previously only sought to obtain 
a confirmation of their titles by the New York authorities, 
without payment of fees, now began to insist on political 
independence of New York, and to refuse to allow persons 
holding under her authority to settle east of the line in 
question (the present ea,st line of Washington county), 
even on land unclaimed by any one else. And this not- 
withstanding the fact that the government of New Hamp- 
shire had acknowledged the title of New York to the land 
in question, and appointed no ofiicers to exercise jurisdiction 
there. The inhabitants were all the while laboring and 
hoping to get back under New Hampshire law, or else to 
become part of a new province. 

In the counties of Cumberland and Gloucester, formed 
from Albany county out of the territory between the Green 
mountains and the Connecticut river, the oificers appointed 
by New York managed to exercise a precarious authority ; 
but about Bennington, and northward along the ea.stern 
line of this county, there was no civil government whatever. 
Rude mobs, headed by Ethan Allen, Remember Baker, 
and other speculators, who had invested in New Hampshire 
grants, drove ofi' New York ofiicers and settlers, and all 
other off'enders went unpunished. 

Many of the Scotch soldiers sold out their grants to 
some of their countrymen. Their mode of conveyancing 
seems to have been very simple. Corporal John and Pri- 
vate Sandy would meet by the roadside or at the village 
ale-house, and after the preliminary greetings the subject 
of their American land would be introduced. Sandy 
would nut think his fifty acres worth crossing the ocean 

for, while the corporal, having two hundred acres, might 
consider it advisable to emigrate if he could purchase 
some additional tracts of his less fortunate comrades. The 
location and value of the land having been thoroughly di.s- 
cussed, and the price after long haggling agreed ujion, the would draw out his long leather puise and 
count down the amount in the coin of the realm, saying, — 

" There, mon ; there's your siller." 

Then the worthy private would dive into some inner 
pocket and bring forth his parchment patent, signed in the 
name of the king by " Henry Moore, baronet, our captain- 
general and governor-in-chief, in and over our province of 
New York, and the lands depending thereon, in Ameriea, 
chancellor and vice-admiral of the same." This document 
he would promptly hand over to the purchaser in ex- 
change for the money, at the same time saying, — 

" An' there's your land, corporal." 

No other formality, — no tedious drawing of deeds, wit- 
nessing, acknowledging, or recording ; the handing over of 
the patent was supposed to be all that was necessary to 
pass the title. 

Many of the .soldiers not desiring to settle, and being 
unable to sell, their land lay vacant. Squatters often 
settled upon it, and sometimes remained so long in un- 
interrupted possession that they or their heirs or assigns 
became the lawful owners. 

In 1769 or 1770 a colony of Irish Methodi.sts settled 
near Ash Grove, in the present town of Cambridge. The 
leading man among them was Philip Embury, who, though 
an adherent of the Episcopal church, had been favorably 
impressed by the zeal of Wesley, and is generally con- 
sidered the founder of Methodism in America. Soon after 
their arrival the colonists were organized into a Methodist 
church, said to have been the second ever formed on this 
continent ; the first being one also organized by Embury 
in New York city. 

In 1771 the township of Argyle was organized, em- 
bracing the present towns of Argyle and Fort Edward. 
During this year the warfare between the authorities of 
the province of New York, and e.specially of Albany county, 
with the holders of the New Hampshire grants, continued 
with unabated zeal ; the latter having, however, materially 
the advantage, as they held possession of the land, and 
expelled by force all other claimants, while the authorities 
confined themselves mostly to belligerent proclamations and 
futile warrants. It is diflicult to account for the failure of 
the chief officers of New York to enforce their plain legal 
rights, except on the theory that there was something in 
their own conduct which would not bear investigatioi). 

In this year William Tryon became governor of the 
province. In the latter part of he sent to Philip 
Skene, John Munro, Patrick Smith, and John MeComb, 
magistrates, living in this part of Albany county, notifying 
them of a riot perpetrated by Robert Cochran and his asso- 
ciates, in driving Donald Mclntyre and others from their 
lands, and requiring those officers to proceed against the 
wrong-doers. But the latter easily found shelter among 
their mountains, and nothing serious was done against 
them. The riot is spoken of as having been " near Argyle 
town." As ucar as can be ascertained it was close to the 



eastern boundary of Hebron, though it would be difficult 
now to say on which side of the present line it was. 

On Oct. 29, 1771, another serious riot took place, which 
is described in the deposition on which a warrant for the 
offenders was issued by Alexander McNaughton, Esq.. a 
justice of the peace residing in Arsryle. Charles Hutchi- 
son, formerly a corporal in Colonel Jlontgomery's Highland 
regiment, deposed that while at woi'k, on the day above 
mentioned, on a lot of two hundred acres granted by New 
York, " fifteen miles east of the Hud.son and four miles 
north of New Perth," nine men came and began demolish- 
ing his house. Four of them were known to be Ethan 
Allen, Remember Baker, Robert Cochran, and Se- 
ville ; the others were unknown. 

Hutchison requested them to stop, but they declared 
tliat they had determined t]iat morning to offer a burnt 
offering to the gods of this world by burning the logs of 
that house. They accordingly kindled four fires under the 
logs they had pulled down. Baker and Allen held clubs 
over Hutchison's head, ordered him to leave the locality, 
and declared he should be still worse used if he came back. 
On his remonstrating, Baker and Allen said, "Go and com- 
plain to that damned scoundrel, your governor. God damn 
your governor, king, council, and Assembly!' 

Hutchison attempted to stop the torrent of oaths that 
flowed from their mouths, but only caused increased pro- 
fanity and a peremptory order " not to preach to them." 
Allen and Baker declared that if a con.stable attempted to 
arrest them they would kill him, and if they were put in 
jail their friends would break it down and rescue them. 
Hutchison fled to New Perth with his family. The worthy 
Scotchman furthermore deposed that he was credibly in- 
formed that Allen denied the existence of both God and 
the devil. Eight or nine other families were also driven 
from the same locality at the same time, all of whom fled 
to New Perth (Salem), where they were hospitably received 
by their brother Scotchmen of Dr. Clark's colony. 

McNaughton issued his warrant, directing John Reid, 
constable, to call to arms as many good subjects as might 
be necessary, and proceed to Rupert and arrest Allen, 
Baker, and their associates, and bring them before him or 
some other magistrate. But Ethan Allen and his mob 
were not to be overcome by a constable's posse. 

The land of Hutchison and his neiglibors had not been 
occupied or cleared by any one else. They were expelled 
simply because Allen and his comrades were determined 
that no one should hold under a New York title east of the 
line they had themselves established as the eastern bound- 
ary of that province. If Hutchison's estimate was correct, 
and his residence was only fifteen miles from the Hudson 
river, it must have been near the centre of the present town 
of Hebron. The distance, however, was probablj' a little 
greater, and the location is supposed to have been just 
within the township which the New Hampshire men had 
laid out under the name of Rupert, and which they were 
determined that no New Yorkers should occupy. 

Twenty pounds reward was offered by the New York 
council for the arrest of the rioters, and another proclama- 
tion was issued by Governor Tryon, but tliese were as in- 
effectual as Esquire McNaughtou's warrant. 

Perhaps it was hoped that a new set of county officers, 
having convenient access to the scene of the troubles, would 
be able to act more efficiently in their suppression. At all 
events, on the 12th day of March, 1772, a county was 
formed from Albany by the Legislature of New York, to 
which the name of " Charlotte" was given, in honor of 
Queen Charlotte, the wife of King George the Third. This 
was the actual beginning of the county of Washington ; 
the organization having been I'etained from that time down, 
though both name and boundaries have been changed. 

On the east of the Hudson, the .south line of the new 
county began at the mouth of Stony creek ; ran thence east 
three miles and three-sixteenths ; thence south to the Batten 
Kill ; thence along that stream to the south line of Prince- 
town ; and thence east to the west line of Cumberland county, 
which was the summit of the Green mountains. From 
this point to Canada those mountains formed the eastern 
boundary of Charlotte county. From the mouth of Stony 
creek, the western and southwestern line followed the wind- 
ings of the Hudson up to the northwest corner of the present 
town of Luzerne, in Warren county, ran thence west along 
the present north line of Saratoga county to its northwestern 
corner, and thence northwardly along the present west line 
of Warren county extended to Canada. The north line of 
Charlotte was of course the south line of Canada, or the 
forty-fifth parallel of north latitude. 

It will be seen that the present towns of Easton, Cam- 
bridge, Jackson, White Creek, and the southwest part of 
Greenwich, remained in Albany county. On the other hand, 
Charlotte county contained all that part of the present State 
of Vermont west of the Green mountains and north of the 
northwest corner of Jackson, the whole of the present coun- 
ties of Warren, Essex, and Clinton in this State, and the 
eastern part of Franklin county. 

By a law passed on the same day Albany county was 
divided into districts, and all tliat part of it east of the dis- 
trict of Saratoga (which then included Easton) and north 
of Schaghticoke was formed into a district called Cambridge, 
f^he present Easton, with a large tract west of the Hudson, 
was formed into the district of Saratoga. Each district was 
authorized to elect one supervisor, two assessors, one col- 
lector, two overseers of the poor, two constables, two fence- 
viewers, and one clerk. It docs not appear that any dis- 
tricts were organized in Charlotte county, though the old 
townships seem to have answered very near the same pur- 

The first legislative act regarding Charlotte county after 
its formation was passed on the 24th of the same month ; it 
made Philip Skene, Patrick Smith, Jacob JIarsh, Philip Em- 
bury, Alex. McNaughton, Archibald Campbell, Jas. Gray, 
Thomas Clark, William Duer, Owen Spencer, Jonathan 
Baker, Simeon Metcalf, and Jeremiah French commis- 
sioners, with power to lay out, regulate, and repair the 
roads. They did not act under their first commission, but 
it was renewed, and they finally served under it. No steps, 
however, were taken that year to organize the county by the 
appointment of judges and other officers. 

It was about this time that the present town of Hampton 
was first settled. The conflict between the New York and 
the eastern rioters continued, though nothing occurred .so 



closely connected with the present county of Washington as 
the driving off of Mclntyro, Hutchison, and their neigh- 

In the spring of 1773 the questions of the appointment 
of county officers and the selection of a county-scat began 
to be seriously agitated. Major Skene made an earnest 
effort to have Skenesborough designated as the county-seat, 
and with the boundaries which the county then had, it 
would seem to have been the most proper place. A peti- 
tion to that effect was signed not only by Skene and his 
seventy tenants, but by the inhabitants of New Perth 
(Salem), thirty miles to the south, and near the south line 
of the county. 

The major would also liave liked to receive an appoint- 
ment to the most important oiEce in the new county, — that 
of first judge of the court of common pleas. Another can- 
didate for that position was Colonel Philip Schuyler, whose 
principal residence was at Albany, but who also had a large 
estate at Saratoga (now Schuylerville), at the mouth of the 
Fish Kill, near the border of Charlotte county, inherited 
from his uncle of the sau)e name, whose death, in 1745, has 
been previously noticed. There was much opposition to him 
on the part of the ultra-loyalists, his family having long been 
distinguished for their hostility to the policy of the royal 
governors, and he himself having already been recognized 
as one of the leaders of the people in opposition to the op- 
pressive acts of the British government. Oliver De Lancey, 
brother of the celebrated Lieutenant-Governor De Lancey, 
was especially active against the appointment of Schuyler, 
and curiouslj' enough the latter's biographer, Lossing, de- 
clares that De Lancey was successful, and that Schuyler was 
not appointed. This, however, is a mistake ; his great 
family influence, and his own high qualities, combined with 
the especial necessity of having such influence and such 
qualities to deal with the insurgents in the eastern part of 
the county, bore down all opposition, and Philip Schuyler 
was appointed the '"first judge" of the county of Charlotte, 
on the 8th day of September, 1772. William Duer was 
associated with him on the judicial bench. Philip P. Lan- 
sing, probably of Lansingburg, in Albany county, was at 
the same time appointed sheriff, and Patrick Smith, of 
Fort Edward, clerk. Ebenezer Clark (son of Dr. Thomas 
Clark) and Alexander McNaughton, both of New Perth, 
and Jacob Marsh and Benjamin Spencer, of the present 
State of Vermont, were appointed justices, and "of the 
quorum" ; that is, associates of the judges in holding the 
courts of common pleas and sessions. There was no pro- 
vision at this time for electing representatives from Char- 
lotte county to the Colonial Assembly. 

Nor was Major Skene more successful in regard to the 
location of the county-seat ; for the order in council organ- 
izing the county directed that the first term of court should 
be held at the house of Patrick Smith, at Fort Edward, 
which place was thus constituted, temporarily at least, the 
county-seat. The term was actually held at the appointed 
place by Judge Duer, Judge Schuyler being absent, sick. 
The three first named of the "quorum" justices were also 
present. The grand jurors at that first court were the fol- 
lowing : Archibald Campbell, foreman ; Michael Iluffnagle, 
Robert Gordon, Albert Baker, David Watkins, Joseph 

McCracken, Joshua Conkey, Jeremiah Burrows, Levi 
Stockwell, Levi Crocker, Moses Martin, Alex. Gilchrist, 
and Daniel Smith. 

All through 1774 the difficulties in the eastern part of 
Charlotte county kept increa.sing, though we do not go 
into the details of the numerous riots, house-burnings, 
whippings which occurred, as they were all outside tlie 
present limits of Washington county. In March, Ethan 
Allen and Remember Baker were outlawed by the New 
York Legislature ; but this extreme proceeding was as futile 
as indictments and warrants had previously been. Mean- 
while, too, the excitement regarding the measures of the 
British government was increasing rapidly and spreading 
throughout all the colonics, and the " Green Mountain 
Boys," as they called themselves, were able to mingle their 
cause with that of the patriots generally, and to appeal to 
the sympathies of all outside of New York who looked on 
the English as oppressors. 

In December of that year application was made for the 
privilege of electing a representative in the colonial as- 
sembly from Charlotte county. The petition to that effect 
was signed by Alex. Campbell, Alex. JIcNaughton, Duncan 
Campbell and ten others, of Argyle, and by Alex. Stewart, 
James Savage, Edward Savage, Alex. Webster and a hun- 
dred others, of " White Crick." 

It was about this time that Rev. Harry Munro, with six 
families, made a settlement in the present town of Hebron, 
at the point widely known as Munro's Meadows, where he 
had received a grant of two thousand acres as an ex-chap- 
lain in the royal army. His own house and those of his 
tenants were of logs, about sixteen feet by twenty, with 
bark roofs and dirt floors, and doubtless those of other set- 
tlers throughout the county were but very little better. 

The spring of 1775 opened with ever-increasing excite- 
ment regarding the insurgents in the eastern part of Char- 
lotte county and the far more important insurrection which 
was gradually taking form throughout the country. So 
many of the residents of Charlotte county were new-comers 
from England and Scotland, that it was much less unani- 
mous in opposition to English oppression than was usual in 
the colonies. Its leading men were nearly all of foreign 
birth : Judge Duer, Major Skene, Dr. Clark, Mr. Em- 
bury, and Dr. John Williams ; the last being a young 
English physician, who had settled in Salem early in 1773, 
and who soon displayed marked ability not only in his pro- 
fession, but as a man of business and a political leader. 

Notwithstanding his recent arrival from England, he 
was an ardent supporter of the patriot cause. Judge Duer 
took the same side. Dr. Clark and Major Skene were both 
believed to favor the British claims, though the former took 
no active part. Some have believed that even Major Skene 
would not liave become an active British partisan bad it not 
been for needless harshness on the part of the colonial 
authorities. Early in 1775 the major went to England for 
the, it is supposed, of procuring the organization 
of a new province, consisting of the New Hampshire grants 
and northern New York, with Skenesborough as the capi- 
tal and himself as governor. 

On the 21st of March a stormy court was held at Fort 
Edward. Judge Duer presided ; Judge Schuyler being in 



attendance on the Colonial Assembly defending the cause 
of the people. It was expected that numerous indictments 
would be found against the rioters in the eastern part of 
the county. Moreover, the disturbed condition of the 
country caused many criminals of a still more flagrant kind 
to ply their trade there, hoping, not entirely without reason, 
to find sympathy fiom the inveterate opponents of the law 
of whom so much has been said, even though the latter did 
not look on themselves as belonging to the class of ordinary 
criminals. These latter criminals comprised robbers, thieves, 
and especially counterfeiters, who turned out their bogus 
silver pieces with alarming facility. 

All these violators of the law and their friends crowded 
in and around the rude hotel at Fort Edward, in which 
the court was to be held, cursing and drinking, and threat- 
ening to pitch court, officers, and jury into the Hudson 
if they dared attempt to enforce the law. The excitement 
was all the more intense from the fact that only eight days 
before the court at Westminster, in Cumberland county, 
had been broken up by a similar mob, one man having been 
killed and several wounded in the affray. 

But William Duer, the East Indian soldier, was not easily 
daunted. Captain Mott, with a company of British soldiers, 
happened to be passing through Fort Edward on their way 
to Ticonderoga. Judge Duer persuaded the captain to re- 
main a few days, and then proceeded to hold his court. 
None of the rioters were disposed to run against the bayo- 
nets of the soldiers, the court was held in quiet, and indict- 
ments were duly found against the guilty parties, though 
the great national outbreak, which began before another 
month had pa.ssed, prevented their arrest or conviction. 

Judge Duer reported the disturbance to the Provincial 
Congi'ess, and requested their protection for the court to be 
held in June, saying, — 

" Your interposition in this matter may save the shedding 
of blood at the next court ; for so long as I know it to be 
the sense of the country that the courts of justice should 
be supported, and that I have the honor of sitting as one 
of the judges, I shall endeavor to keep them open even at 
the risk of my life." 

The court thus held by the resolute judge in March, 
1775, was the last public event in Charlotte county pre- 
vious to the beginning of the Revolutionary period. 


1775 AND 1776. 

Outbreak of the Revolution— Patriots and Tories— Capture of Ticon- 
deroga — Captain Herriclt at Slienesborough — Spoiling the Egypt- 
ians — Skene's Arrest — The Last Colonial Court — Amity with the 
Grants — Informal Elections — Meeting of the County Committee — 
Officers reconirnended — Drills ordered — Montgomery and Schuyler 
— Disasters to the Northern Army — Gloomy Prospects in 1776 — 
Tories required to give Bonds — Judge Duer — The Charlotte County 
Rangers — Levying Bounty-Money — Another Committee Meeting 
. — A Curious Bill— Declaration of Independonec^Renewal of the 
Feud with the Grants — Disaffection in Kingsbury, etc. — The 
Joneses — Raising a Tory Company. 

In the latter part of Ai)ril, 1775, messenger after mes- 
senger came galloping hard along the rude roads which led 

through the dark forests and scattered settlements of Char- 
lotte county, announcing that American blood had been 
shed by British bullets on the village green of Lexington, 
that a thousand farmers had left their homes to avenge the 
slaughter, and that these .soldiers of the moment had chased 
the veteran troops of King George in ignoble flight and 
with terrible lass over hill and dale, through wood and field, 
back to the shelter of their comrades' cannon in the town 
of Boston. 

The time had come for action, and a majority of the 
inhabitants of Charlotte county (even excluding the 
" grants") declared their intention to stand or fall with 
their brethren of New England, only waiting the directions 
of the Provincial Congress of New York to take up arms. 
At the head of these were the two Englishmen, Judge Duer 
and Dr. Williams. But a large minority, consisting mainly 
of natives of England and Scotland, could not so easily 
cast aside their allegiance to the king, though they gener- 
ally remained silent in presence of the prevailing excitement. 
The portion of Washington county then attached to Albany 
county (Cambridge, Easton, Jackson, and White Creek) 
was still more decidedly attached to the American cause 
than the inhabitants of Charlotte. 

Charlotte county was so far removed from the seat of 
war around Boston that its people might reasonably hope 
that they would long be exempt from any actual participa- 
tion in the conflict. But the American leaders were accus- 
tomed to deal with long distances, and were not accustoiued 
to let the grass grow under their feet. On the afternoon 
of the 10th of May canoes came flying up Lake Champlain 
to Skenesborough bearing the news that Ethan Allen, the 
renowned leader of the " Bennington mob," and a man 
named Arnold, from Connecticut, at the head of a few men 
levied in the " grants" and in western Massachusetts, had 
that morning surprised the fortress of Ticonderoga, and 
that Allen had demanded and received its surrender " in 
the name of the Great Jehovah and the Continental Con- 
gress," — to neither of which authorities had he ever before 
been supposed willing to yield obedience. 

The report spread swii'tly through the settlement in every 
direction, adding fresh fire to the enthusiasm of the patriots 
and tending to keep the Tories in a condition of prudent 
neutrality. The loyal tenantry of Major Skene, their leader 
absent, were alike astonished at the infidel Allen's claiming 
to act under a commission from Jehovah, and aghast at the 
idea of that terrible mountaineer's making his appearance 
among them at the head of the moss-troopers of the New 
Hampshire grants. It was not long ere their fears were in 
some degree realized. On the 13th, fifty men who had 
been levied in western Massachusetts, under orders given 
by Arnold, as he passed through on his way to Ticonderoga, 
appeared at Skenesborough, and took possession of the 
village in the name of the revolted colonies. Tliis company 
was commanded by a Captaiu Herrick, and was the first 
body of American soldiers who entered the present county 
of Washington during the Revolution. They seized on 
Major Skene's schooner, and took it with them to Ticon- 
deroga. Taking the absent owner's toryism for granted, 
they confiscated some of his property, among which was one 
very fine Spanish horse. This afterwards passed into the 



hands of Colonel Morgan Lewis, who loaned it to General 
Arnold to ride at the second battle of Stillwater, and it was 
shot under that daring commander when he was wounded 
in the hottest of the fray. 

This squad of patriots also made a prisoner of Skene's 
son, Andrew P. Skene, who, like his father, was commonly 
called " Major Skene."* They also made prisoners of fifty 
tenants and twelve negroes, and then joined Arnold at Ticon- 
deroga. That enterprising officer immediately manned the 
schooner, and proceeded down the lake on a successful 
cruise. In a short time he had a miniature navy under 
his command, — Skene's schooner, armed with four carriage 
guns and eight swivels, being the flag-ship, while a small 
sloop and several bateaux constituted the remainder of the 

Shortly after these startling events Jlajor Skene arrived 
from England in the harbor of New York, and it is believed 
from the surrounding circumstances that he brought with 
hira — what be undoubtedly went to obtain — a commission 
as governor of the province of Ticonderoga, consisting of 
the New Hampshire grants and the northern part of New 
York, though there is no direct evidence of the fact. It is 
also believed by some that had the major been in the 
country when policies and parties were so rapidly taking 
form, just before the Revolution, he, like his brother 
Englishmen, Duer and Williams, would have taken part 
with the patriots. 

But the American authorities at New York, like Captain 
Ilerrick's volunteers, took the major's toryism for granted, 
arrested him immediately on his arrival, seized all his 
papers, and threw him into prison. If he really had such 
a commission as is supposed, it would naturally be sup- 
pressed by the Continental authorities, anxious not to 
oifend the important province of New Y^ork, which would 
certainly be the effect of recognizing such a document. 

Skene was soon allowed to leave prison and live on parole 
at JMiddletown, Conn., but was not suffered to return to 
his home, and his property rapidly went to destruction. 
The next May he refused to renew his parole, and was im- 
prisoned ; but was finally exchanged. Embittered by his, and by what he considered his ill-treatment, he re- 
turned to Skenesboro' in the train of Burgoyne, mention 
of which will be made farther on. 

Although the Colonial Assembly, convened under royal 
authority, had adjourned on the 3d of April, 1775, and 
never met again, — its powers passing by general consent to 
the Provincial Congress, — yet in some counties the old 
courts were still held. The last court in Charlotte county 
which derived its authority from the royal governor was 
held on the 20th of June, 1775. The first judge, Philip 
Schuyler, had twelve days before been appointed the third 
major-general of the new American army, and was even 
then counseling with Washington regarding the invasion 
of Canada. 

Judge Duer held the court, which, like its predecessor, 
was annoyed by an angry and menacing crowd, who, not- 

* A. P. Skene is sometimes cilled the nephew of Philip, but in tlie 
original record.'! of the sale of their confiscated property the younger 
man is described as the son of the elder. 

withstanding the liberal proclivities of the judge, appeared 
to look on the tribunal as a suspicious relic of royal au- 
thority. "Very little business could be done, and the court 
was soon adjourned. Its clerk, Patrick Smith, afterwards 
espoused the royal side and fled to Canada, taking, as it is 
supposed, the records of the court with him. 

Meanwhile the friends of the American cause were 
active throughout the county. They organized a county 
committee, consisting of delegates elected from the various 
townships and patents, which assumed the general direction 
of affairs in the new and remarkable circumstances which 
had arisen. For a while even the long enmity between 
the New Hampshire men and New Yorkers appears to 
have been laid aside. The Provincial Congress of New 
York authorized the formation of a battalion of " Green 
Mountain Boys," five hundred strong, and the latter so far 
recognized the authority of their old-time foes as to organ- 
ize under this act. It is noticeable, too, that instead of the 
blatant Ethan Allen, the battalion chose Seth Warner as 
lieutenant-colonel commanding. 

At this period elections were very informal matters. In 
May, Dr. Williams, of the present town of Salem, and Wil- 
liam Marsh, of Vermont, had been admitted to seats in the 
Provincial Congress of New York, on presenting a certifi- 
cate of fourteen gentlemen, committees of White Creek, 
Camden, and several Vermont townships. Sub<e(|uently 
George W. Smith, David Watkins, and Archibald Camp- 
bell were chosen at a mass-meeting of the citizens of the 
county to act with Williams and Marsh as representatives 
of Charlotte county. 

On the 15th of August, 1755, an important meeting of 
the county committee was held, a record of which is pre- 
served in the papers of General John Williams, at Salem. 
It was held at Dorset, in " the grants," and was attended 
by delegates from the whole county, though for some pur- 
poses the delegates from the eastern and western sections 
seem to have acted separately. The delegates from the 
western portion (now Washington county) were Hamilton 
McCollister, Nathan Ilawley, Seth Sherwood, James Wilson, 
Samuel Crossett, Daniel Brundidge, and George Gilmore. 

The committee recommended to the Provincial Congress 
to organize a regiment of militia in the western part of 
Charlotte county, of which Dr. John Williams should be 
commissioned as colonel, Patrick Smith lieutenant-colonel, 
Nathan Hawley and Hamilton McCollister as majors, Seth 
Sherwood as quartermaster, and John Jones as adjutant. 
But it was hard to tell " who was who'' in those days. 
Patrick Smith and John Jones (a brother of David Jones, 
the lover of Jane McCrea) both espou.sed the British side 
of the controversy. 

There were already several companies of militia organ- 
ized in the territory in question, apparently attached to an 
Albany county regiment, and the county committee pro- 
vided for various arrangements and changes regarding 
them. It was resolved that the " Camden people do join 
Captain Nesbet's company." Also, that the county com- 
mittee confirm the division made by the sub-committee in 
the town.ship of White Creek. This may have reference 
to the setting off of the new district, now called Hebron, 
as it was immediately followed by a resolution that all the 



inliabitants north of White Creek, east of Argyle, south of 
the Artillery patent, and west of the New Hampshire line, 
should fall in Captain Webster's company. This embraced 
the present town of Hebron, and the company commander 
was Alexander Webster, long one of the most distinguished 
citizens of the county. By the expression " west of the 
New Hampshire line," it will be seen that while the com- 
mittee assumed to act for the wliole county of Charlotte, 
they yet practically recognized the line claimed by Allen and 
his followers. 

It was further resolved that Queensborough and the Artil- 
lery and Provincial patents be annexed to Kingsbury patent, 
and fall under the command of Captain Richardson. Also, 
that Argyle patent form one company, and Fort Edward 
district another. 

The committee also made recommendations, at consider- 
able length, to the effect that the militia officers should 
muster their respective companies at least once in every 
month, and oftener, if practicable, for the purpose of train- 
ing them in the military art ; that every able-bodied man 
from sixteen to sixty should obey the orders of their ap- 
pointed officers, and if any should neglect to appear at the 
designated times and perform the duties assigned them, 
they should forthwith, by order of the officers, be brought 
before the sub-committees of their respective towns or dis- 
tricts ; and if it should appear to the majority of such sub- 
committee that there was no good excuse for such neglect, 
then that the facts should be " published by advertisement 
in every town and street within the county of Charlotte, 
and also in the Gazette, to the end that all such foes to the 
rights of British America may be publicly known and 
universally condemned as the enemies of American liberty." 
This punishment by advertisement at first sight hardly 
seems as stringent as fine and imprisonment, yet it would 
doubtless be very unpleasant, especially as there were vari- 
ous irregular punishments which were often inflicted on 
those denounced as " enemies of American liberty." 

The convention finally adjourned to meet at Fort Edward 
on the third day of September following. 

It will be seen that the various subdivisions of the western 
part of Charlotte county were then spoken of as White Creek 
township, Kingsbury patent, Queensbury patent, the Ar- 
tillery and Provincial patents, Argyle patent. Fort Edward 
district, and the territory north of White creek, which was 
apparently without a name. Skenesborough was not men- 
tioned, probably the major's tenantry were all too 
loyal to the king to make it desirable to organize a company 
among them. Still, the people were by no means all Tories, 
even at Skenesborough. 

About the middle of August there passed through Char- 
lotte county a tall, handsome soldier of thirty-nine, on his 
way to take charge of the forces in the north. This was 
Richard Montgomery, lately appointed the second brigadier- 
general in the xVmerican army, who had more of the confi- 
dence of the soldiers than any of his superiors except 

He was followed in September by Major-General Schuy- 
ler, commander of the northern department, no longer the 
fair and gracious youth of the French war, but, at the age of 
forty-two, become gouty and ill-tempered, and, whatever his 

soldierly qualities, certainly quite unable to gain the good- 
will of the independent amateur soldiery with which ho had 
to deal. 

Small, ill-equipped bodies of troops and scanty trains of 
supplies passed down the lake from time to time through 
the autumn. Montreal was taken, and for a while the 
people of Charlotte county listened daily for the news of 
the capture of Quebec, and the subjection of all Canada to 
the American arms. But the repulse of the little army 
before Quebec, and then the death of the heroic Montgom- 
ery, soon damped the hopes of the patriots and cheered the 
hearts of their foes. 

The spring of 1770 opened with still more gloomy pros- 
pects, as the Americans were gradually forced back from the 
various positions they had seized in Canada. General 
Thomas was sent to take command, since Schuyler declared 
that his health would not permit him to serv'e in Canada. 
Ten of the best regiments in the American army were hur- 
ried forward over the old " war-path" to reinforce the depleted 
ranks of their comrades, but all was in vain. They were 
forced by disease, hardship, and the numbers of the foe to 
yield up post after post. Thomas fell a victim to the small- 
pox. Reinforcements poured to the aid of the British up 
the broad St. Lawrence, and at length the slender Ameri- 
can army abandoned the last foot of Canadian soil. 

Still, however, the patriot forces held possession of Crown 
Point and Ticnnderoga, and their brethren in the settled 
portions of Charlotte county had little fear of being dis- 
turbed by invaders from the north. 

Constant watchfulness had to be exorcised over the numer- 
ous residents of the county who were more or less friendly 
to Great Britain. In April thirteen persons suspected of 
such tendencies were required to sign a bond, with a pen- 
alty of a hundred pounds each, to obey the Continental Con- 
gress and defend the rights and liberties of America in her 
contest against the oppressive acts of the British Parliament. 
The same month an election was held to choose delegates 
to the Provincial Congress or Convention of New York. 
Judge Duer was chosen to the position by a decided ma- 
jority. There being some caviling at the manner in which 
the election was conducted. Judge Duer wrote to Colonel Wil- 
liams, then the chairman of the county committee, admitting 
that the election was not conducted strictly according to the 
ordinance of the Congress (as indeed was hardly practicable ), 
but claiming that he was fairly elected, and asking a strict 
scrutiny of the poll-list. This scrutiny established Duer's 
right to a seat, which he held during that and ensuing years. 
His colleagues during more or less time in 1 776, were George 
Smith, of Fort Edward ; John Williams, of Salem ; William 
Malcolm, of New York city ; and Alexander Webster, of 

A large company of partisans was organized to guard the 
northern frontier against small bodies of lurking foemen, 
which was known as the Charlotte County Rangers. In 
August, Colonel Williams, as chairman of the county com- 
mittee, acknowledged the receipt from the provincial au- 
thorities, through Alexander Webster, of five hundred and 
seventy-five pounds (New York currency), being half the 
bounty due for a hundred and twenty rangers. The county 
was also required to furnish men for the northern army, and 



.raised a home bounty to persuade the requisite number to 
enlist. It was resolved that the money should be divided 
among tlie several districts and patents, according to the 
number of voters in each, and that the sub-committees 
sliould levy the amounts on the inhabitants according to 
their property. The following schedule shows the number 
of voters in each district as estimated by the county com- 
niitteo, and the amount of bounty-money levied at this 
time : 

New Perth, lt!0 voters, 12 pounds; Argyle, 90 voters, 
6 pounds 14 shillings; Kingsbury, 75 voters, 5 pounds 7 
shillings; Black Creek (Hebron), 36 voters, 2 pounds 1-t 
shillings; Granville, 30 voters, 2 pounds ; Skenesborough, 
41 voters, 3 pounds 1 shilling and 6 pence ; Camden, 12 
voters, 10 shillings. Total, 434 voters, and 33 pounds of 
bounty-money. These voters were probably for the Legis- 
lature, for which but a small property-qualification was re- 
quired, and must have represented about three thousand 

There were frequent meetings of the county committee, 
but in many cases there was little business to do. On the 
4th of June there was a very full representation, the fol- 
lowing being the names of the delegates, with their re- 
spective districts: New Perth, John Williams, John Gib- 
son, John Rowan, Mowrey ; Argyle, Judge Duer, 

Mr. Bell, William Campbell, Mr. Johnson, Mr. Smyth ; 

Kingsbury, • Tyler (taking the place of John Jones), 

John Morehouse, Captain Johnson ; Skenesborough, Aaron 

Fuller, Johnson, Robert Gordon ; Camden, 

Halley ; Black Creek, David Hopkins, Crosier, James 

Wilson; Granville, N. Spring, Gideon Squire, Aaron Smith. 
The following were added at the same meeting : Ebenezer 
Russell, John Nisbett, David Tone, Isaac Mess, Thomas 

Sherwood, William Brundage, and Colwell. The 

members received eight shillings (a dollar) for each 

At one of these meetings a curious bill was made out 
for expenses, which shows that our Revolutionary ancestors 
were not averse to a comfortable indulgence of the inner 
man at the public expense any more than tlieir modern 
descendants. It ran as follows : 

Five suppers 6 shillings S pence. 

Liquor 8 '■ 

Eating 2 " S " 

Liquor 12 " 

Fourteen suppers IS *• S " 

Liquor 9 " 

Punch IS " 6 " 

Ditto 4 " 6 " 

Bowl of grog 1 " 6 " 

Binner and drinli 2 *' 3 *' 

This made an aggregate of 4 pounds 3 shillings and 
9 pence ($10.47), of which only 1 pound 10 shillings 
($3.75) was for food; the balance was for liquor in its 
various forms. This also shows the improvement of the 
age : if a modern committee had drank that amount of 
liquor which they wanted the public to pay for, they would 
have been virtuous and charged it as stationery. 

The same bill >hows that the ordinary price for 
meals at that time was " one and fourpence," or nearly 
seventeen cents ; unless, indeed, the landlord charged an 
extra price to cover the risk of getting his pay from the 
ill-provided treasury of the patriots. 

The Declaration of Independence on the 4th of July, 
1776, drew more clearly llian before the line between pa- 
triots and Tories ; some who had previously been on the 
American side, or at least doubtful, now advocating the cause 
of the king. 

The amity between the new government of New Y'ork 
and the people of the New Hampshire grants only lasted 
during the first excitement of the Revolution. The old 
antipathy soon returned, the two sections of Charlotte 
county ceased to act together, and in 1776 public sentiment 
on the grants was rapidly concentrating in favor of forming 
a separate State government, and supporting it at all 
hazards. New York persuaded tlie Continental Congress 
not to furnish arms to " the grants" until sufficiently as- 
sured that they would not revolt against the autliority of 
that State. But the grants-men went on with their revolt 
all the same, and the New Yorkers were in no condition to 
suppress it by force. 

In the latter part of 1776 it began to be rumored that 
a large army of British regulars and German mercenaries 
was gathering in Canada for the purpose of invading New 
York, — a rumor which was strengthened by each succeed- 
ing report, and which was especially calculated to dismay 
the people of Charlotte county, who would have to bear 
the first brunt of attack if once the enemy succeeded in 
capturing the fortresses on Lake Champlain. 

The di-saflection to the American was stronger in 
Skenesborough, Kingsbury, and Fort Edward than any- 
where else in the county. Among the most prominent 
Tories in the two latter districts were the members of the 
Jones family, emigrants from New Jersey, several of whom 
were influential farmers. In the fall of 1776 two of the 
younger brothers, Jonathan and David Jones, raised a 
company of near fifty soldiers in Kingsbury and Fort 
Edward. To their patriot neighbors and the American 
officials these soldiers declared that they were about to 
join the garri.son of Ticonderoga, but among themselves 
they had a very different understanding. All the men 
that the Joneses could trust having been enrolled, they set 
out for the north, but instead of stopping at Ticonderoga 
they passed through the woods in the rear of that fort, and 
joined the British forces in Canada. Jonathan Jones re- 
ceived a commission as captain, and David as lieutenant. 
The course of the latter became a subject of especial in-, on account of his subsequent connection with one 
of the saddest tragedies of the American Revolution. 

During the remainder of the year little of consequence 
■ occurred within the limits of Washington county, but the 
air was thick with runiors, too often of a gloomy nature. 
The di-sasters in Canada and those incurred by Washington 
around New Y'ork had filled the minds of the patriots with 
sad forebodings. It had become plain that the task of 
freeing the country could not be accomplished by an enthu- 
siastic uprising of minute-men. Men must go to soldiering 
in earnest and submit for years to danger, hardship, and irk- 
some discipline. But the poverty of the government was 
extreme, and there was little encouragement for the hardy 
farmers of Charlotte county to enlist in the ranks of the ill- 
paid, ill-clad, ill-fed battalions which garrisoned Fort Edward, 
Fort Ann, and other posts on the northeru frontier. 





Vermont declares itself a State— Charlotte County Committee act 
only for the Western Part — Fears of Burgoyne on.l his Indians — 
His Army set forth — Condition of Tieondcroga — The Charlotic 
County Rangers— St. Clair's Letter to Williams— The Charlotte 
County Militia — Capture of Ticonderoga — Great Consternation — 
Denunciations of Schuyler and St. Clair— Their Conduct con- 
sidered — American Invalids and Baggage arrive at Skenesborough 
— The British follow — A Small Battle — American Vessels sunk — 
Retreat of Colonel Long — The Battle of Fort Ann — Long meets 
the Enemy — Colonel Van Rensselaer aids him — Severity of the 
Fight — Van Rensselaer wounded — American Flank Movement — 
British Retreat up the Hill — Arrival of Indians — Final Retreat of 
the British — Anecdote of Van Rensselaer — Riedesel at Skenes- 
borough — St. Clair joins Schuyler — The Uerman Troops — Bur- 
goyne, Riedesel, Phillips, and Fraser — St. Luc and his Indians — 
Riedesel goes to Castleton— Strength of Schuyler's Army — Schuy- 
ler's Letter to Williams — Burgoyne's Advance — Schuyler's Retreat 
— Terror of the People — Meeting of the County Committee — Salem 
Fort — Murder of the Allen Family — Jane McCrea — Her Person, 
Character, and Family — She goes to Mrs. McNiel's — Indians at- 
tack Picket — Capture of Mrs. McNiel and Miss McCrea — Arrival 
at the Spring— The Quarrel— The Murder— The Flight— Mrs. Mc- 
Niel's Story — Mr. Baker's Account — Belief that Lieutenant Jones 
sent for Miss McCrea — Burgoyne's Letter — Restricting the Indians 
— Hopes of the British— Madame Riedesel— Hessian Women— The 
Pets of the Germans — Schuyler's Weakness — Baum's Command — 
Divers Projects — Baum sets forth — His Meeting with Grcig — 
Reinforcements sent to him — Breymann's March — He meets the 
Americans — The Battle of Bennington — Heavy Loss of the Ger- 
mans — Breymann's Battle and Retreat — Desertion of the Indians 
—Abandonment of Fort Salem- Long Halt of the British— Vic- 
lory of Fort Stanwi.x— British cross the Hudson— First Battle of 
Stillwater — Occupation of the Eastern Bank — Burgoyne hemmed 
in — A Naked Horseman — An Unnatural Father — Burgoyne's Sur- 
render — Return of the Whigs — Confiscations — Suffering of the 
People — A Petition by " Protectioners." 

In tlie month of January, 1777, a convention of the 
inhabitant.s of the New Hampshire grants declared that 
territory to be an independent State, to which they at first 
gave the name of New Connecticut ; an appellation, how- 
ever, which was soon after changed to the more convenient 
and euphonious one of Vermont. This organization has 
been able to maintain itself to the present time ; for, though 
the Continental Congress refused to recognize the self- 
constituted State, yet so overwhelming was the majority 
which supported it, within the boundaries claimed for it, 
and so little able was New York to make good its author- 
ity, that the constitution and laws of Vermont went into 
immediate, peaceful, and permanent operation. 

The boundaries then claimed were substantially the same 
as those which are now recognized. There was some de- 
sire to claim much farther westward, on the ground that 
the new province of Ticonderoga had been legally consti- 
tuted by the English government before the beginning of the 
Revolution, and Vermont had succeeded to all the rights 
of that inchoate government. But this theory found com- 
paratively few supporters, even among the grants-men 
themselves, who founded their claim to a separate State 
existence on the will of their people. An effort was sub- 
sequently made to annex Washington county to Vermont, 
of which mention will be made in the proper place. 

At first there was considerable perplexity on the part of 
the Charlotte county committee as to how they should 

treat the pretensions of Vermont, but they soon saw that 
it would be useless to interfere with the people on the grants, 
and they thenceforth confined their jurisdiction entirely to 
that part of Charlotte county west of the new State. 

With the opening of spring came the report that the 
large British and German army already partially formed 
in Canada was to come up Lake Champlain, under Gen- 
eral John Burgoyne, and thence march down to Albany or 
New York, accompanied by an immense horde of savages, 
whose deadly deeds upon a defenseless population were but 
too well remembered along the northern frontier. The 
people shuddered at the direful prospect, but they hoped 
much from the army of Schuyler, and especially from the 
fortifications of Ticonderoga, which twenty years before, 
when defended by only three thousand Frenchmen, had 
repelled with immense slaughter an Anglo-American army 
of near sixteen thousand men. 

So the three or four hundred militiamen of Colonel 
Williams' regiment mingled occasional drilling with the 
labors of their farms. Schuyler strove hard to fill up the 
feeble army on which the defense of the northern frontier 
rested, and long trains of provisions and other supplies 
passed from the southern counties by way of Fort Edward 
to Skenesborough and Lake George. The spring passed 
away, and it was not until late in June that Burgoyne s 
army was known to be on the move. Arrowy canoes and 
galloping messengers from day to day bore through the 
county of Charlotte, and thence southward, the news of 
his advance. He reached and occupied Crown Point. He 
invested Ticonderoga. Still the people relied on the 
strength of that fortress. 

General Schuyler was not there, considering it more 
necessary to keep his headquarters at Fort Edward and 
hasten the sending of supplies and ammunition by the lag- 
gard authorities and people. Ticonderoga, with a garrison 
of about twenty-five hundred men, was under the command 
of General Arthur St. Clair, a soldier of fair reputation, 
and no one doubted but that he would either repulse the 
enemy or would compel him to carry on a long and tedious 
siege, giving ample time to arrange a good defense farther 

The Charlotte County Rangers, at this time under the 
command of Captain Joshua Conkey and Lieutenants 
Isaac Moss and Gideon Squires, were patrolling the northern 
roads and forests, watching for British seottts or lurking 
Indians. Desperate efforts were made to get out the militia, 
and not without success. On the 2d of July. General St. 
Clair wrote to Colonel Williams saying he was happy to 
hear that the people turn out so well. The enemy, says 
the general, have been looking at us for a day or two, and 
we expect them to try what they can do perhaps to-night. 
He urges Colonel Williams and Colonel Seth Warner, the 
commander of the Green Mountain Boys, if they can bring 
but six hundred men, or even less, to do so. He directs 
them to march through the grants, on the east side of Lake 
Champlain, first on the "old road," and then on the new 
road, to make the enemy think there is a larger force. If 
attacked, the militia were to make directly for Mount Inde- 
pendence, opposite Ticonderoga, and St. Clair promised to 
send a force to support them. The general concluded : 



" If I had only your people here, I would laugh at all the 
enemy could do." Similar letters were sent to Colonels 
Robinson and Warner. 

The Charlotte county regiment accordingly set forth 
under Colonel Williams. We know from records before 
alluded to that there were at least five or six companies, 
and doubtless they all turned out on this expedition, but 
the only ones of whom there are any account are the one 
from New Perth (Salem), consisting of fifty -two men, under 
Captain Charles Hutchison, the Highland corporal whom 
Ethan Allen had mobbed in 1771 ; that of Captain Thomas 
Armstrong, numbering thirty men ; and that of Captain 
John Hamilton, numbering thirty-two men. The battalion 
marched, under Colonel Williams' command, to Skenesboro', 
and thence to Castleton, whence a portion of them were 
selected by the colonel to proceed to Ticonderoga. 

But while these movements were going on and the peo- 
ple still considered Ticonderoga a.s their certain bulwark, 
suddenly the news went through the county with lightning- 
like rapidity that Ticonderoga had fallen. General Bur- 
goync had taken warning by the fate of Abercrombie, and 
had not made a direct assault. Having taken possession 
of Mount Defiance (on the south side of the outlet of Lake 
George), which the American general and engineers had 
considered inaccessible, he planted a battery of heavy can- 
non on its summit, and from that commanding po.sitiou 
prepared to as.sail the defenses of St. Clair. The latter at 
once made up his mind that Ticonderoga was untenable. 
He sent liis sick and supplies by water to Skenesborough, 
and on the night of July 5 crossed with the bulk of his 
army to Mount Independence, and thence moved out towards 

Burgoyne pursued his advantage with great energy, 
breaking through the boom which the Americans had 
stretched across the lake and advancing to Skenesborough 
with his little fleet, at the same time sending Generals 
Fraser and Riedesel to follow the retreating St. Clair. 

The news of this disaster caused intense consternation 
throughout the country, but especially in the State of New 
York, and most especially in the county of Charlotte. The 
people felt as they did in that Massachusetts valley, a few 
years ago, when they heard that the dam had broken way, 
and the waters were rolling down upon their defenseless 
homes. Many, especially in the northern part of the set- 
tlements, made immediate preparations for flight with their 
families from the dreaded British, the more-dreaded Hes- 
sians, and the Indians, the most terrible of all. Others 
hastened to join the army, now more than ever in need of 
men, while still others, of Tory proclivities, furbished up 
their arms and consulted together how they might best 
serve the cause of the king. 

As is ever the case under such circumstances, the bitter- 
est denunciations were visited upon the generals who were 
held responsible for the disaster. In the cabins of the pa- 
triot settlers and by the camp-fires of the soldiers, General 
Schuyler, the commander of the northern department, and 
General St. Clair, the commander of the deserted post, were 
accused of cowardice and of treason to the American cause ; 
nay, in confirmation of the latter charge, the most absurd 
stories were told about Burgoyne's having fired silver balls 

from his cannon into the American lines to bribe our 

The evacuation of Ticonderoga had such a direct and 
momentous effect on the welfare of Charlotte county that 
we can hardly avoid giving some attention to the causes of 
that disaster ; yet we hesitate to enter on the consideration 
of a question in regard to which the facts are so difiicult to 
ascertain, and in the discussion of which so much bitter- 
ness has already been evoked. If Bancroft's opinion has 
only brought a storm of abuse upon his head, it is not 
likely that that of a mere county historian will have much 

But it is a well-\inderstood jirinciple of the military art 
that a fortress is a first-rate thing to hold on to. If a gen- 
eral surrenders or evacuates one, or allows it to be surren- 
dered or evacuated, the presumption is strongly against 
him. The burden of proof lies on him. It is not the 
duty of who question his course to show that he 
gave up the post without good cause ; it is his duty to 
show that he had good cause — nay, first-rate cause — for 
doing so. We cannot refrain from asking whether Gen 
erals Schuyler and St. Clair, or their friends, have shown 
suflicient cause for the evacuation of Ticonderoga. 

As to the charge of treachery, it may be cast aside with 
utter contempt. There is not a particle of evidence to support 
it, and the whole lives of both Schuyler and St. Clair utterly 
refute such an accusation. There is nothing to show even 
lack of zeal in the American cause, and there is no (jues- 
tion but that Schuyler throughout the Revolution made 
great exertions and sacrifices for that cause. But still the 
question recurs : Have they proven themselves void of 
ofi^ensc in regard to the evacuation of Ticonderoga ? 

Schuyler's excuse threw the blame, if any there were, 
on St. Clair. He had stationed that general there with a 
sufficient garrison and supplies to hold the fort, at least for 
a considerable time, and it was his duty to have done so. 
If there were any heights that commanded the fortress it 
was St. Clair's business to have occupied them, and if he 
allowed himself to be outgeneraled he alone was responsible. 
Such was the argument in fiivor of General Schuyler. 

But ought not General Sciiuyler to have been present in 
person at Ticonderoga ? This is a question we find it dif- 
ficult to answer in the negative. True, a commanding gen- 
eral can't be everywhere, but he can be at the vital point. 
And Ticonderoga was the vital point on the northern fron- 
tier. It was the key of the situation. With mountains, 
rocks and pathless forests crowding close to the narrow 
lake on either side, there was practically no way to approach 
the American settlements except by water, and Ticonderoga 
held in its iron grasp the waters of both Lake Champlain 
and Lake George. 

General Schuyler well knew, or ought to have known, 
these facts. The ground had been fought over again 
and again during the old wars, and so long as the French 
held Ticonderoga the great armies of the English and 
Americans were entirely unable even to approach the 
frontiers of Canada. There was not another place on 
Burgoyne's route which could even be compared with 
Ticonderoga as to the necessity for defending it. No one 
could foresee the subsequent dilator! ness and blundering 



of Burgoyne, and there was every reason to suppose that 
the evacuation of Ticonderoga would permit him to march 
through to Albany with hardly mure than nciminal oppo- 

Wiiile the British forces were still in Canada making 
tlieir preparations, probabl3' General Schuyler's place was 
in the American settlements, arousing the laggard patriot- 
ism of the people and bringing reinforcements and supplies 
from the dilatory authorities. But when the red-coated 
battalions moved up Lake Champlain, it would certainly 
appear that the commander of the northern department 
should have hastened at once to the spot where he had 
planned that resistance should be made, and should have 
taken with him almost every soldier in his department that 
could carry a musket, and every militiaman that could be 
drawn to his standard. And he could have obtained more 
of these than he did if they had seen the commanding 
general leading the way to the front. 

There was no other line of approach which it was abso- 
lutely necessary to defend. St. Leger did not appear 
before Fort Stanwix till a month later. Schuyler could 
concentrate all his efibrts on Ticonderoga. He had com- 
mitted himself to the plan of resistance at that point by 
stationing St. Clair therewith nearly half of his little army, 
and nothing could make that resistance so effectual as the 
presence of the commanding general. Then he could have 
seen to it in person that every point was properly guarded, 
and he might, probably, by mustering all his forces, have 
had enough men to guard them. 

The British commander was there with all his men ; 
Fraser was there ; Phillips was there; lliedesel was there ; 
but the American general was nearly fifty miles in the rear. 
Perhaps that was the proper place for him, but we have 
never seen any evidence to prove it. 

" But do you charge General Schuyler with cowardice ?" 
is the ready question of some one who cannot imagine that 
there are any colors but black and white; who cannot see 
that there are any gradations between extreme rashness and 
extreme timidity. Certainly not ; no doubt General Schuy- 
ler could go through a battle without discredit, and in his 
youth had done so. He was doubtless as brave as the 
average of the generals of either army, and his zeal for 
the American cause was beyond question ; but it does not 
appear as if he '' hankered after" a fight in the way that 
Arnold or Montgomery, Wayne or Morgan did, and just 
such unwavering valor as that was necessary to save Ticon- 
deroga and shield the northern frontier. Or the general 
may, with plenty of physical courage, have lacked the 
mental promptness, " the snap," that would have led him 
to gather up what men he could get, and fly with Mont- 
calm's rapidity to the defense of Ticonderoga. Or he may 
not have realized that that fortress was the key of the 
situation, which would have involved nothing worse than a 
grave defect of military judgment. There are plenty of 
reasons for his course, not involving the imputation of 
either cowardice or treachery ; but whatever the reason, 
the fiict remains that Ticonderoga was the most important 
point in the northern department, and that the commander- 
in-chief of the nortliern department was not present when 
it was invested and captured by the enemy. 

As to St. Clair, no one but an experienced engineer, who 
had carefully examined the ground, could tell whether be 
could have fortified Mount Defiance with the troops he had, 
or, whether, when that height was captured, he could still 
have held out for a time. It is plain, however, tliat he 
did not appreciate the danger he was in, for in his letter to 
Colonel Williams, before mentioned, he declared that with 
Williams', Warner's, and Robinson's men he could laugh 
at_ aught the enemy could do. Certainly he must have 
thought himself very secure if he supposed the addition 
of a few hundred militia would have made him entirely so. 

It was past noon on the 6th of July that the few anx- 
ious Americans at Skenesboro' saw a fleet of two hundred 
bateaux, under convoy of five armed galleys, hastening up 
the narrow lake with all the speed the arms of the weary 
rowers could give them. They soon reached the little port, 
and were found to be filled with stores from Ticonderoga, 
the guard of a few hundred men, largely invalids, being 
commanded by Colonel Long, of New Hampshire. That 
ofiicer at once set his men to unloading the stores into 
smaller boats, in order to send them up Wood creek, at the 
same time sending off an express to warn Colonel Van 
Ren.s.selaer, who commanded at Fort Ann. 

At three o'clock, and before the work of transferring the 
stores was completed, the British frigates "Royal George" 
and " Inflexible," with several gunboats, appeared in sight. 
They were withstood for a short time by the American 
galleys ; but these frail vessels were no match for the heavy 
guns and oaken bulwarks of the frigates, and were soon 
overcome. Three were blown up and two surrendered. 
The fort at Skenesboro' then opened fire on the British. 
Meanwhile, Colonel Long had sent all the bateaux he 
could up the creek, had set fire to the remainder, and also 
to the mills and iron-works; he then dismantled the fort, 
set it on fire, and hastened, towards Fort Ann. 

Amid all this thunder of cannon, blowing up of vessels, 
burning of buildings, and hurried march of troops, the 
inhabitants were plunged in terror. Those of patriotic 
proclivities generally hastened away into the country, — men, 
women, and children crowding such conveyances as they 
could obtain, or straggling on foot over the rude roads of 
the period. The friends of King George would have been 
willing to remain, but hardly dared to do so amid the 
universal uproar. 

While the frigates had followed the American galleys to 
Skenesboro', a considerable force of British soldiers had 
gone to the head of South bay in boats, landed, crossed 
the intervening heights, and descended into the valley of 
Wood creek, in hopes to cut off the retreat of Colonel 
Long. They were, however, too late to accomplish their 
desire, and the Americans made good their escape. Long 
reached Fort Ann, took command of all the forces, and, 
under orders from General Schuyler, prepared to defend 
the position as well as possible. 

On the 7th or 8th, Colonel Hill, with the Ninth British 
Regiment, probably seven hundred or eight hundred .strong, 
followed Colonel Long. If he left Skenesboro' on the for- 
mer day, he halted for the night before reaching Fort Ann ; 
for it was not until half-past ten in the forenoon of the 
8tli that he reached the narrow pass in Wood creek, half a 



mile below the fort. There he was met by Colonels Long 
and Yim Rensselaer, with all the men they could muster. 
They had in all near a thousand, but of these five hundred 
were Van Rensselaer's militia, fre.shly taken from the plow 
(they were all raised on the manor of Rensselaerswyck), 
while Long's Continentals were principally invalids and 
convalescents. To furnish even this small force with am- 
munition, Schuyler had sent forward nearly all he had at 
Fort Edward, retaining no lead except some which had 
been cut by his men from the windows of some of the 
Albany churches. 

The battle of Fort Ann was the most important one 
which has ever taken place in Washington county, and 
it was also, as attested by officers on botli sides, considering 
the number of men engaged, one of the most hotly-con- 
tested conflicts of the Revolution. We have therefore 
taken especial pains to gather as full an account of it as 
practicable. Many details, not to be found elsewhere, are 
recorded in the " Legacy of Historical Gleanings," by 
Mrs. Bonney, a granddaughter of Colonel Henry K. Van 
Rensselaer, one of the distinguished actors in the conflict. 

Long's force appears to have been encamped below the 
fort, near the pass, and first became engaged with the 
enemy, meeting him directly in front, and checking his 
advance by a heavy fire. Van Rensselaer marched out to 
assist him. Part of his force crossed the creek on Long's 
left, took post in a piece of woods, and poured in a galling 
fire on the enemy across the stream. Tiie latter returned 
it with great vigor ; and so severe was the conflict that a 
British officer, Captain Moouey, in giving his testimony 
before the House of Commons regarding the first battle of 
Stillwater, described the firing as much heavier than he 
had ever known anywhere else, " unless at the affair of 
Fort Ann." 

Terribly galled by the fire from the wood, the British 
made a desperate charge on that position, but were beaten 
back with heavy loss. At the same time Long and Van 
Rensselaer advanced in front. In the height of the con- 
flict, while the woods, the rocks, and the hills were re- 
echoing with the unceasing crash of musketry, the gallant 
Van Rensselaer was desperately wounded by a bullet, and 
fell behind a log over which he was just springing. 
Several of his men ran to his assistance. 

"Don't mind me," exclaimed the colonel, "don't mind 
me, but charge the enemy. Charge, I say ; charge !" 

They obeyed his orders and liurried forward into the 
fight, and for near two hours the wounded officer lay there 
while the battle was roaring around, and the bullets were 
ever and anon whistling above him. A portion of the 
Americans, emboldened by the enemy's failure, again 
crossed Wood creek still farther down, and attacked the 
British rear. Thus almost encircled with foes. Colonel 
Hill was obliged to retreat up the steep, rocky hill which 
lies to the east of the creek, and there maintain himself as he could in a defensive position. Thus the contest 
continued for an hour or two longer, the British appar- 
ently unable either to advance or retreat, and the Ameri- 
cans unable to capture the hill, though pressing close to 
its base. 

At length a band of Indians arrived from below. They 

raised the war-whoop, and the British troops answered with 
three cheers. The Americans, who were farthest advanced, 
brought in their turn between two fires, and becoming 
scant of ammunition, retired to join their comrades farther 
up the stream." Colonel Hill at once took advantage of 
this movement to beat a hasty retreat, and redcoats and 
redskins wore soon hastening at full speed toward Skenes- 
boro', leaving the victorious Americans masters of the 

One could hardly tell, from the ordinary histories of the 
Revolution, what followed after the arrival of the Indians ; 
one might infer that it was the Americans who gave waj-, 
and the invaders who remained in possession of the field. 
But the German author of the " Memoirs of General 
Riedesel," deriving his knowledge from the journals of the 
Hessian officers, says distinctly that Lieutenant-Colonel 
Hill was sent to take Fort Ann, but was attacked on the 
morning of the 8th of July by a superior force, and after 
a long fight " was forced to relreat." This is conclusive ; 
and it is confirmed by the fact that while many British 
wounded were captured by the Americans, — among them 
being Captain Montgomery, a relative of the patriot gen- 
eral who fell at Quebec, — the wounded Colonel Van Rens- 
selaer lay undisturbed upon the field until the close of the 
fight, as did also Colonel Armstrong and other wounded 
Americans. Bancroft correctly .states that the British 
were defeated, and suffered a loss of fifty killed and 

After the firing had ceased. Colonel Van Ren.sselaer 
looked up from behind his log and saw a young man 
coming towards him in rustic drpss, but with musket in 
hand, and with a black circle around his lips, indicative of 
frequent blowing into the dirty barrel of his gun. The 
colonel raised himself on his elbow and cried out, " Who 
comes there ?" 

" Halloo !" answered the startled youth, and then, .seeing 
that his interlocutor had a short " fusee" (such as officers 
appear to have frequently carried at that period), he sprang 
behind the nearest tree and loaded his musket. Not till 
then did he answer the colDnel's challenge. 

"I am a Continental soldier," said he; "who the devil 
are you ? ' 

" And I am Colonel Van Rens.selaer,'' replied the 

The prudent young warrior then obtained the assistance 
of several of his comrades and bore the crippled hero to 
the fort. 

Though Colonel Long had won a victory, he did not con- 
sider himself strong enough t« hold the frail block-house 
and pali-sade whicli constituted Fort Ann. He accordingly 
sent off' all his baggage and wounded, set fire to the build- 
ings, and then proceeded with his command to join Gen- 
eral Schuyler at Fort Edward. Colonel Xan Rensselaer 
was borne thither on the shoulders of his men, and thence 
sent to Albany on a bateau. He partially recovered from 
his wound, but was unable to perform active service during 
the remainder of the Revolution. He was the father of 
the gallant General Solomon Van Rensselaer, who was dcs- 
Ijcratoly wounded in Wayne's great victory over the Indians, 
who received six wounds while leading the attack on Queens- 



town Heights in 1812, and who was for a long time adju- 
tant-general of the State.* 

Meanwhile the bulk of the British army wa.s concen- 
trating at Skenesboro'. General Riedesel with his Germans 
arrived there on the eighth, having abandoned the fruitless 
pursuit of St. Clair. The latter general — his rear-guard 
having succeeded in checking the enemy at Hubbardton — 
marched from Castlcton with his depleted and demoralized 
force through Granville and Hartford, and joined General 
Schuyler at Fort Edward on the twelfth. 

At Skenesboro', notwithstanding the check received at 
Fort Ann, all was exultation over the past, and the most 
sanguine expectations of speedy triumph. And there was 
good reason for such feelings. The British had seized, 
with .scarcely an effort, the great fortress which had been 
designed both by nature and art as the chief defense of the 
northern frontier ; with it they had captured a hundred 
and twenty-eight cannon and immense quantities of warlike 
stores; and they had sent the army of St. Clair fleeing in 
scattered columns to join an almost equally demoralized 
horde on the banks of the Hudson. 

Nearly the whole of Burgoyne's army came to Skenes- 
boro', — five thousand British and over three thousand Ger- 
mans. The latter have always been called by the general 
name of Hessians ; but besides detachments from He.sse 
Cassel and Hesse Ilanau there was a full regiment of Bruns- 
wick infantry, a detachment of dismounted Brunswick 
dragoons, and a Brunswick general — Friederich Adolphus 
von Riedesel — was in command of the whole German con- 
tingent. Americans are in the habit of considering the 
British soldiery as sufficiently heavy in equipment and slow 
in motion, but the English of Burgoyne's army might con- 
sider themselves as models of lightness in comparison with 
the Germans. They used to declare that the helmet of a 
Hessian soldier weighed more than the whole equipment 
of an Englishman, and the statement is said not to have 
involved very much exaggeration. 

These slow, heavy, sturdy men (many of whom had been 
seized in their fields and their shops, or even as they were 
attending church, and forced into the army) had been sent 
across the ocean by their princes to fight the battles of 
tyranny, without the slightest interest in the result even 
on the part of the petty sovereigns who commanded the 
slaughter, but solely from the most degrading avarice. The 
dukes wanted gold, and they sold their subjects' blood to 
obtain it. 

The four thousand British troops who gathered at 
Skenesboro' (a small portion only of the army went up Lake 
George) had at least some national feeling in the contest in 
which they were engaged, and, as they marched to and fro 
in their resplendent red uniforms over the rocky roads of 
Skenesboro', might flatter themselves that their valor was 
destined to lift still higher the renown of F]ngland and the 
power of King George. 

» As a matter of curiosity, it may bo added that the widow of 
Colonel II. K. Van Rensselaer died only last year (February, 1S77) 
in Cattaraugus county in this State, aged over a hundred years. She 
was his second wife, and of course far younger than himself, having 
been but an infant when her future husband was winning imperish- 
able glory in the victory of Fort Ann. 

Ere narrating the subsequent events we will give a glance 
at the chieftains who were so confident of leading 
soldiers to victory. Lieutenant-General John Burgoyne, 
the illegitimate son of a British nobleman, was then forty- 
seven years of age, all of which since childhood he had 
spent in the military service of his sovereign. He had 
shown himself a brave soldier on the fields of Europe, and 
it was hoped that he would prove himself an energetic and 
skillful one amid the forests of America. A large, strongly- 
built man, the British general had a hard, rough counte- 
nance but a fine figure, and bore him.self with a habitual 
air of command which might have been due either to his 
semi-noble origin or to his long service as a military officer 
of high rank. Fond to extreme of the good things of the 
table, he did not consider that his easy task of conquering 
the Yankees laid on him any necessity for self-restraint, 
and his headquarters were often the scene of luxurious 
suppers, lasting far into night, where the wine flowed in 
ample streams, and which were often enlivened by the 
presence of the general's mistress, — the wife of a commis- 
sary in his army. 

Major-Gcneral Friederich Adolphus von Riedesel, the 
officer in command of the Gorman forces, has gained some 
fame in this country, rather through the published memoirs 
of his wife than through any brilliant achievements of his 
own. Descended from a noble Brunswick family, he had 
been a soldier from his youth to his present age of thirty- 
seven years, and had gained the reputation not only of 
valor in the field but of uprightness, activity, and entcr- 
terprise. His portrait, however, does not indicate activity 
nor enterprise ; it shows a plain, round, almost stolid face 
above a stout, heavy body, and looks as if the original 
might .stand fighting in his tracks as long as he could lift a 
sword, but who would hardly operate with the re(|uisite 
rapidity among the forests, the mountains, and the deadly 
riflemen of America. He had been followed to America 
by his wife, a lady of great beauty and many accomplish- 
ments, who was at this time at the north end of Lake 

Major-General Phillips, the second in command of the 
English troops, an officer of great impetuosity, was to be 
seen hurrying to and fro, hastening the transfer of stores, 
superintending the movement of troops, venting his fiery 
temper on all who displeased him, and showing more activ- 
ity than was often displayed by a British general, at least 
in those days. 

Brigadier-General Fraser, a keen-faced, middle-aged 
Scotchman, was akso noted for his energy, zeal, and pro- 
fes.sional skill, and, was probably much better fitted to load 
the army than was the lieutenant-general in command. 

Besides the English and German troops, two or throe 
hundred French Canadians had been persuaded by extreme 
exertions to join the invading army, and were to be seen at 
Skenesboro', in the service of their ancient enemies ; but as 
a rule the people of Canada showed no inclination to en- 
gage in the great contest which was shaking the continent, 
and the small number which had been enlisted scarcely paid 
for the great trouble which had been taken to obtain them. 

A few Indians had come with the army to Skenesboro', 
and soon after its arrival there it was joined by a body of 



about five hundred. These had been gathered at immense 
expense from a great distance, and comprised Sioux, Sacs, 
Foxes, Mennmonees, "Wlnnehagoes, Ottawns, and Chippe- 
wiis, from tlie forests of Canada, from tlie straits of Mich- 
ilimackinac, from the shores of Lake Michigan, nay, even 
from the far-off waters of the Mississippi. Tlie warriors 
of tlie Six Nations were at this time gathering at O.swego, 
to take part in the expedition of St. Leger. 

They were all under the command of that fierce partisan, 
St. Luc la Cornc de St. Luc, who, though he had reached 
the age of sixty-six years, willingly came forth to repeat, in 
behalf of the English, those exploits with the tomahawk 
and scalping-knife which he had so frequently performed 
against them, and which had made his name a terror to all 
the people of the frontier twenty years before. He was ac- 
companied by Charles de Langlade, another Franco-Indian 
leader, who, as a youth, had taken part in the defeat of 
Braddock, in 1755, who subsequently founded the settle- 
ment of Green Bay, and who is by some considered the 
pioneer of the State of Wisconsin. 

These savages had come, expecting an unlimited oppor- 
tunity to satisfy their love of plunder and their thirst for 
blood, and the reputation of La Corne de St. Luc, both for 
valor and ferocity, naturally strengthened their expectations. 
But Burgoyne, while desirous to frighten the Americans 
with the dread spectre of Indian massacre, shrank from 
actually letting the savages loose upon the inhabitants, and 
seems to have been sincerely anxious to restrain their worst 

On the 10th of July, General Burgoyne issued a con- 
gratulatory order to his army, on account of their recent 
successes, praising Generals Riedesel and Fraser for their 
good conduct in the pursuit of St. Clair, and directing that 
on the following day there should be special religious ser- 
vices by the various chaplains and a grand salute with can- 
non and small arms. 

On the twelfth of the month, General Riedesel, with 
several German regiments, proceeded by Burgoyne's orders 
to Castleton, Vt., where they remained until the twenty- 
fifth. The energy with which the lieutenant-general had 
assailed Ticonderoga and pressed forward to Skenesboro' 
seemed to have evaporated, and two or three precious weeks 
were consumed in making preparations to leave the latter 
place. Possibly this was necessary, but it seems improbable. 
A great deal has been said about the terrible difficulties in 
marching an army from Skenesboro' to Fort Edward, and 
much blame has been thrown on General Burgoyne because 
he did not go up Lake George and march from its head to 
Fort Edward. There are no very great difficulties between 
Skenesboro' and Fort Edward, and when Burgoyne once 
put his army in motion he made the march in three or 
four days. The time was mostly consumed in getting the 
supplies to Skenesboro', and it would probably have required 
almost as much time to take them to the head of Lake 

We turn to the desponding army of General Schuyler. 
On the 15th day of July, three days after the arrival of 
St. Clair, the forces at Fort Edward were mustered, and 
found to consist of four thousand four hundred men, in- 
cluding the militia, of whom there were at least fifteen 

hundred. More discouraging than the smallness of the 
numbers was the demoralization which prevailed among 
them. Right or wrong, the army had lost confidence in 
Schuyler, and the New Englandcrs were especially bitter 
against him. 

Yet he worked zealously for the cause. The baggage 
and stores were ordered in from Lake George. Bodies of 
militia were sent to obstruct the route from Skenesboro', 
by destroying the bridges, digging trenches across the road, 
felling trees in the road and creek, and in every other 
manner that could be devised. The farmers who remained 
in the vicinity were directed to send the cattle out of reach 
of the enemy. He also sent to the American authorities 
the most urgent requests for all the regular troops that 
could po.ssibly be sent him, and for all the militia that 
could be induced to take the field. 

He was also compelled to keep close watch for spies ; for 
there were Tories all around, who, in consequence of being 
closely intermixed with the rest of the population, were 
able with little difficulty to furnish information to the 
British regarding all the American movements. A letter 
from the general to Colonel Williams, dated the 14th of 
July, preserved among the Williams papers, states that the 
former has closely examined one Baker, sent under guard 
by the colonel to the general, and that he is clearly con- 
vinced that he is an agent of the enemy ; that he has 
placed him in close confinement, and shall send him down 
the river. 

In the same letter the general directs Colonel Williams 
to provision the militia as best he can ; informs him that the 
American scouts are out everywhere, and that he (Schuyler) 
has a large body at Fort Ann ; and adds that, until they 
come away, the people of White Creek need not fear an 
attack. Evidently Fort Ann, or rather the location of the 
destroyed fort, had been again occupied by the Americans, 
after its evacuation by Colonel Long. 

On the 16th of July, Schuyler ordered a brigade of Con- 
tinentals to assist the militia in obstructing the road from 

By the 21st Burgoyne had got sufficiently prepared to 
begin to think of an advance, and .sent out parties to re- 
connoitre Fort Ann and Fort Edward. The next day, 
preparatory to a movement, he issued a general order, de- 
claring that breaking into houses, plundering, and similar 
offenses should be punished, if it was the first offense, by 
whipping ; if the second, by running the gauntlet. As 
this curious order evidently intended that running the 
gauntlet should be a more severe punishment than whipping, 
he could not have meant any modified performance under 
that name, but must have referred to the real Indian oper- 
ation, with clubs, stones, and tomahawks. Certainly the 
punishment was severe enough ; but it would seem to have 
been inconsistent with the stern dignity of military law, 
and likely, moreover, if often inflicted, to sisriously deplete 
the ranks of his majesty's forces. 

Ob the 22d, General Fraser, with his command, marched 
from Skenesboro' to '' Gordon's house," in Kingsbury, 
having heard a report that Fort Edward had been abandoned 
on the 21st. General Schuyler had, of course, withdrawn 
his outlying force from Fort Ann, and on the 22d, the 



day of Fraser's advance, he fell back with his army from 
Fort Edward to Moses creek, leaving only a guard of a 
hundred men at the fort. Fraser was followed by Phillips, 
with the right wing of the British army. Burgoyne 
probably accompanied this body. It was not until the 25th 
of July that General Riedesel returned from Castleton to 
Skenesboro'. The next day he sent off the sick and the extra 
baggage to Skenesboro', whence the latter was to be taken 
to Fort Edward by way of Fort George. Immediately 
afterwards he followed Fraser and Phillips towards Fort 

The patriot inhabitants in the towns along the line of 
march nearly all fled before the invader and his Indian 
allies. The latter spread out on both flanks of the army, 
and, notwithstanding the disposition of Burgoyne to re- 
strain them, were but too ready to carry slaughter among 
the families of the " rebels." Even the Tories were not 
safe when there was a first-rate chance for booty or for 

The patriots in the southern part of the county were in 
nearly as much dismay. They were daily expecting the 
appearance of the Indians among them, and an order issued 
by General Schuyler directing them to leave their farms and 
seek refuge in the interior was almost equally dishearten- 
ing. The harvest time was upon them, and what were 
they to live on if they abandoned their crops ? 

The county committee met at New Perth, on the 25th, 
John Rowan being chosen chairman. After declaring that 
universal desolation had overspread the county, on account 
of General Schuyler's order to abandon their farms (though 
they admitted that it was unsafe to remain), they appointed 
Alexander McNulty, Richard Hoy, Wm. McCoy, Edward 
Savage, John Martin, Wm. McFarland, John Nesbitt, 

Robert Colwell, Daniel McCleary, David Hopkins, 

Henderson, and John Gray as appraisers to estimate the 
value of their crops and buildings, with a view to obtain- 
ing recompense in case they were lost through obedience 
to the order. Alas ! both the National and State govern- 
ments were unable to pay or feed their soldiers, much less 
to make good the loss of destroyed crops or burned build- 

Schuyler's order was borne by Captain Joseph McCracken, 
and soon after his arrival it was determined to build a fort 
at New Perth, which might serve as a refuge to the inhab- 
itants from wandering bands of red or white marauders. 
For this purpose the old log church, the first erected in the 
county, was torn down, and the logs were set in a stockade 
around the frame church more recently erected. It was 
finished on the 2(;th of July, and received the name of 
" Salem Fort." Captain McCracken was placed in com- 

This was the first use of the name Salem, so far as we 
can discover, in the town which now bears that appellation. 
It was probably derived from one of the towns in Massa- 
chusetts of that town, though it is possible that some biblical 
scholar may have thought the Hebrew meaning of " Salem" 
— Peace — might properly be applied to a foitress made of 
two churches, and intended to preserve peace to their 

We turn again to the terror-stricken towns to the north- 

ward. By the 25th of July the greater part of Burgoyne's 
army had reached Kingsbury street, in the town of that 
name, the general making his headquarters at Gordon's 
house. The next day the advance under Fraser moved 
forward to " Moss street," in the same town, and attacked 
the American pickets stationed there. A brisk skirmish 
ensued, but the Americans were of course easily defeated, 
and retired to Fort Edward. Several of their number 
were killed in the skirmish, and these were scalped by the 
Indians who were scattered along the front of the British 
army. General Fraser established his headquarters near 
the house of John Jones, one of the family already men- 
tioned as prominent Tories. 

The same day (the 26th), a band of Indians, who were 
scouting on the left wing of the British army, made their 
way into the present town of Argyle and slew the whole 
family of John Allen, consisting of the two parents and 
seven children, as they were seated at their noon-day meal. 
As Allen was a Tory, it is not known what directed the 
wrath of the savages against this particular family, — -very 
likely it was a mere freak of their capricious and blood- 
thirsty natures. They are also said to have slain on the 
same day and in the same vicinity an entire family named 
Barnes, and also a man named John White. 

The next morning the British advance took post at the 
present village of Sandy Hill. A small detachment of the 
Americans still remained at Fort Edward, and thither 
many of the families of Kingsbury and Fort Edward had 
fled for safety ; but the soldiers and citizens were alike pre- 
paring to move down the river. 

It was on this day that the sad tragedy took place which, 
from its peculiar circumstances, at once drew the attention 
of all America, and which has become celebrated wherever 
the English language is spoken, — the murder of Jaue Mc- 
Crea. Several widely-different, and some contradictory, 
accounts have been published regarding tliis event, all pur- 
porting to be derived from eye-wilncsses, or others intimately 
acquainted with the facts. On account of the very gen- 
eral interest which has always been manifested in the death 
of Miss McCrea, we have taken especial pains to sift and 
compare the various accounts referred to, and we feel 
satisfied that the one we are about to give is substantially 

Any young woman who suffers misfortune, and is conse- 
quently mentioned in print, is almost always described by 
gallant writers as beautiful in feature and lovely in disposi- 
tion. Had Jane McCrea been the plainest backwoods dam- 
sel that ever suffered the hardening influences of pioneer 
life, the mingled romance and tragedy of her death would 
have invested her with an aureole of transcendent loveli- 
ness. Yet there is evidence that the language of admira- 
tion, so often used without meaning in similar cases, was in 
this one justified by the truth. It is not so very many 
years since there were some still living who had seen her 
in their youth, and they all described the blooming maiden 
of twenty-three* as indeed most fair to look upon. Her 
hair, rippling in long, luxuriant tresses around her form. 

* She is described on her torabstonc as seventeen, but the 
iif the evidence is in favor of the more mature age. 



especially impressed itself on the memory of ber youthful 
admirers. Her family relations also were such as gave in 
that day — when class distinctions were more marked than 
now — some indications of superior refinement. 

Miss McCrea's father was a clergyman of New Jersey; 
but he having, after the death of her mother, married a 
second wife, she had made her home with her brother, 
John McCrea, who resided on the west bank of the Hudson, 
five or six miles below Fort Edward. This gentleman was 
a lawyer by profession , a man of considerable prominence, 
and colonel of a regiment of militia. Unlike many of the 
New Jersey emigrants, he was a decided patriot. He was 
afterwards appointed county clerk of Charlotte county, and 
removed to Salem, where he remained many years; finally 
removing to St. Lawrence county. Other brothers were 
prominent citizens of other parts of what is now Saratoga 

Miss McCrea had formed the acquaintance of David 
Jones, the son of a widow residing a mile or so below Fort 
Edward, on the east side of the Hudson, and who has 
already been mentioned as having aided to raise a companj' 
of royalists in the fall of 1776, and as having received a 
commission in it as lieutenant. The young people were 
quite intimate, and were believed to be betrothed. 

On the 26th of July, Jane McCrea was staying at a 
house close to the walls of Fort Edward, since known as 
the Baldwin The most probable account is that 
she had been visiting there for several days ; that her brother, 
learning of the enemy's advance, had more than once sent 
for her to accompany him down the river. She is supposed 
to have received a communication from her lover, in Bur- 
goyne's army, and to have been awaiting his approach. On 
the morning of the 27th she proceeded to the residence of 
Mrs. McNeil, a relative of General Fraser, of the British 
army. It is said she was a cousin of that officer, but Scotch 
cousinship extends a great way. Mrs. McNeil lived about 
a hundred rods to the north of the fort, and perhaps fifty 
rods from the foot of a hill up which ran the road to Sandy 
Hill, now called Broadway.* 

At the top of the hill, a quarter of a mile or more from 
Mrs. McNiel's residence, was a fine spring of water, with a 
solitary pine-tree standing beside it. Just beyond was a 
piece of woodland. In this wood was stationed an Ameri- 
crn picket of about a dozen men under Lieutenant Van 
Vechten. Near nine o'clock in the forenoon of the 27th 
a band of Indians suddenly swooped down upon this 
picket. It seems to have been something of a surprise, for 
in a few minutes Lieutenant Van Vechten and five men 
were killed and scalped and four others wounded. Samuel 
Standish, one of the picket, fired his musket at the 
Indian he saw, and then fled at full speed toward the fort. 
As he reached the level ground three Indians ran in be- 
tween him and the fort, wounded him in the foot, and took 
him prisoner. They tied him quickly with one of the cords 
which they usualis carried with them, and pushed him 
rapidly up the hill to the spring. 

Jleanwhile another band had rushed into the house of 

* The house is still in a good slate of preservation, and occupied 
by Mr. Rogers. 

Mrs. McNiel, had seized on that lady and her young gu&st, 
and started northward. Presently they caught two horses 
which were near Mrs. McNeil's residence, and attempttjd to 
place their captives upon them. The lightsome young 
woman was easily lifted to a seat, but the older one was 
fleshy and heavy, and the Indians were not adepts in aiding 
ladies to mount on horseback. Some of them accordingly 
led the horse directly up the hill with Jane upon it, while 
a couple of others pushed forward their other prize on foot 
on another path, which took her out of sight of the spring. 
In a few moments those who had charge of Miss ilcCrea 
arrived at the spring, where Standish already was. They 
halted a few moments, and the Indians almost immediately 
engaged in a sharp quarrel in their own language, which 
Standish could not understand, but which from its sequence 
he supposed to be about jMiss McCrea. From words they 
proceeded to blows ; not, however, using their most danger- 
ous weapons, but fighting with the butts of their guns. 
After a few moments of such combat, one of them in a fury 
leveled his musket at the unfortunate young lady and shot 
her dead. She fell, and the next instant the savage flung 
down his gun, seized her long, luxuriant locks with one hand, 
with the other passed his knife around nearly the whole 
scalp, and, with a yell of triumph, tore the beautiful but 
ghastly trophy from the victim's head. 

The fighting immediately ceased ; the infuriated com- 
batants turned their rage upon the senseless body of 
McCrea, stripping the clothes from her lovely form, and in 
the mere wantonness of barbarity inflicting nine wounds 
with tomahawk and scalping-knife upou her lifeless remains. 
Then, fearing an attack from the fort, the Indians hurried 
ofi" toward General Fraser's camp, taking Standish with 

In this account we have in most particulars followed the 
account of Mr. Standish. He recovered from his wound, 
was sent a prisoner to Canada, exchanged, and resided after 
the war in Granville, Washington county. He narrated 
the tragic story to Jared Sparks, himself a native of Wash- 
ington county, who publi.shed it in one of his " American 

Standish also stated that Mrs. McNeil was brought 
with Miss McCrea to the spring and was present at the 
murder. That lady, however, declared that she had pre- 
viously been separated from her friend, and we have thought 
it more probable that the young soldier, in the awful excite- 
ment of the time, was mistaken on that point, rather than 
that Mrs. McNiel had deliberately falsified the facts ; for she 
could not have been mistaken as to whether she was or was 
not present at that terrible tragedy. 

Her statement was, that after the separation she was 
hurried forward on foot to Fraser's camp. There she in- 
quired for her relative, the general, and when she found him 
claimed his protection, at the same time denouncing him 
roundly for letting his " rascally Indians" thus mistreat her. 
She had been stripped by her captors of all her clothing but 
her chemise, and the general gave her a soldier's overcoat for 
a temporary covering. Soon after her arrival she saw some 
Indians come into camp, one of whom bore a scalp, which 
she at once recognized by its long and ample locks as that 
of her unfortunate young friend. She accused them of the 


murder, but they at that time asserted that Miss McCrea 
had been mortally wounded by a party of Americans from 
the fort, who fired on them as they retreated, wlieroupon 
they thought there was no harm in stripping off her scalp. 

Stone, in his " Life of Brant," adopts this account, and 
argues that the Indians' story was probably true, since there 
was not as much reason for their murdering Miss McCrea, 
whom they had got on horseback, as there was for slaying 
Mrs. McNiel, whom they had to half-carry on foot. But 
this theory is in direct contradiction not only to's 
statement, but to Burgoyne's own confessions in his letter 
to Gates, of which further mention will be made. 

Standish, moreover, is corroborated by Albert Baker, a 
leading citizen of Sandy Hill, who had sought .safety in Fort 
Edward. His account is published in Neilson's " Cam- 
paign of Burgoyne." From the walls of the fort he and 
others saw the Indians chasing the pickets ; saw them rush 
into Mrs. McNiel's house and come out with their prey ; saw 
them taking one of the women up the hill on horseback ; 
saw them halt at the spring by the solitary pine, which, 
though half a mile distant, was plainly visible across the 
open space, and, as he thought, saw Miss McCrea shot from 
lier horse. 

He also stated that, so weak were the Americans and so 
strong was the enemy in the immediate vicinity, none of 
the former left the fort during the day; so that Miss Mc- 
Crea could not have been accidentally wounded by her 
friends. There are some minor discrepancies between 
Standish and Baker, but not greater than might naturally 
be expected, considering the excitement of the former and 
the distance of the latter. 

Thousands of men, women, and children have been mas- 
sacred during the wars between the Indians and the colo- 
nists, thousands more during the old French wars, and still 
other thousands during the Revolution and subsequent con- 
flicts, but not another case among them all has attracted so 
much attention as that of lovely Jane' McCrea. This was 
due partly to the youth, beauty, and social position of the 
victim, but still more to the romance that mingled with the 
tragedy. It was generally believed that Miss McCrea had 
lingered near Fort Edward to meet her betrothed lover, 
young Jones, probably vrith the expectation of marriage ; 
that he had sent two Indian chiefs to convey her to the 
British camp, promising them a reward for doing so ; that 
they quarreled over the reward before they received it, and 
that one of them slew their innocent captive to prevent the 
other from obtaining the pay. 

Though the evidence on these points is somewhat defect- 
ive, and though David Jones is said to have denied that he 
knew aught of the Indian raid, yet the circumstances tend 
strongly to show that the common report was substan- 
tially correct. The fact of her going from the residence of 
her brother, a prominent patriot, toward the enemy, and 
remaining at Fort Edward till the foe was almost in sight ; 
the fiict that she then went still farther forward ; the fact 
that the Indians at first undoubtedly attempted to take her to 
camp, and did take Mrs. McNiel there, though it certainly 
could not have been permitted to cumber the camp with 
captured women ; and the fact that, after getting started with 
her on horseback, they slew her during a quarrel among 

themselves, without any apparent cause, all tend to prove 
that the common version of the story is not far out of the 

News of the murder was sent down the river to Colonel 
John McCrea that day or evening, and he came up to the 
fort. The next morning a party ventured out to the scene 
of the massacre. The body of the slain woman was found 
where it had been flung into a small ravine, while the re- 
mains of Lieutenant Van Vechten and his soldiers lay 
scattered around. Miss McCrea and the lieutenant were 
removed and buried about three miles down the river ; but 
the remains of the lady were afterwards transferred to 
another resting-place, as naiTated in the history of Fort 

When General Gates took command of the American 
army, he wrote a very sharp letter to General Burgoyne in 
regard to his manner of waging warfare. After charging 
him with encouraging the Indians in cruelty, by offering a 
reward for scalps, he added : " Miss McCrea, a young lady 
lovely to the sight, of virtuous character and amiable dispo- 
sition, engaged to an ofiicer of your army, was, with other 
women and children, taken out of a house near Fort Kd- 
ward, carried into the woods, and there .scalped and mangled 
in the most horrid manner. Two parents, with six children 
[probably the Allen family], were treated with the same 
inhumanity while quietly resting in their own peaceful 
dwelling. The miserable fate of Miss McCrea was particu- 
larly aggravated, she being dressed to receive her promised 
husband, but met her murderer employed by you. Up- 
wards of one hundred men, women, and children have per- 
ished by the hands of the ruflfians to whom, it is asserted, 
you have paid the price of blood." 

This language shows that the opinion that Jliss McCrea 
was on the point of joining Lieutenant Jones, whether cor- 
rect or not, was prevalent at that time, and was not a piece 
of romance invented at a later period. 

General Burgoyne promptly repelled the specified charges 
in a letter to his opponent, asserting that he had from the 
first refused to pay for scalps, but liad offered the Indians 
rewards for prisoners, to encourage them in a more humane 
mode of warfiire. Speaking of Miss McCrea, he said, — 

" Her fall wanted not the tragic display you have labored 
to give it to make it as severely abhorred and lamented by 
me as it can be by the tenderest of her friends. The act 
was no premeditated barbarity. On the contrary, two 
chiefs, who had brought her off for security, not of violence 
to her person, disputed which should be her guard ; and in 
a fit of savage passion in one from whose hands she was 
snatched, the unhappy woman became the victim. Upon 
the first intelligence of this event, I obliged the Indians to 
deliver the murderer into my hands ; and though to have 
punished him by our laws or principles of justice would 
have been, perhaps, unprecedented, he certainly should 
have suffered an ignominious death, had I not been con- 
vinced, from my circumstances and observation, beyond the 
possibility of doubt, that a pardon, under the terms which 
I prescribed, and they accepted, would be more efficacious 
than an execution to prevent similar mischiefs. The above 
instance excepted, your information is false." 

It is very evident, from this letter, that there is no truth 



in the theory that Miss McCrea was accidentally killed by 
American pursuers ; though possibly the Indians might 
have tried to get rid of Mrs. McNiel with that statement. 
Of course, if that plea would have stood investigation, the 
Indians would have presented it to Burgoyne, and if it had 
even a semblance of truth, the latter would have eagerly 
seized on it to relieve himself and his army of the odium 
which lay upon them. That he keenly felt that odium is 
proven by the whole tenor of his letter. His statement, 
moreover, that two chiefs •' brought her off for security," 
confirms the common tradition that Jones employed them 
for the purpose ; though the strangeness of using such 
messengers has caused many to doubt that he did so. 

Gates' information was not entirely false as to other 
murders than that of Jane McCrea. Those of the Allen 
and Barnes families are the most prominent ; but there 
were doubtless many solitary instances resembling that of 
John White, in which some straggling countryman was 
barbarously deprived of life by these ferocious savages. 

Burgoyne reprimanded the Indians with great severity, 
and laid the most stringent restrictions on their native pro- 
pensity to plunder and murder ; nor do we hear, during 
the remainder of the campaign, of any of the more flagrant 
kinds of outrage on their part. But they were very much 
dissatisfied with this restraint, and ere long they began to 
desert. Their commander, St. Luc la Come de St. Luc, 
had too often led them against the English settlers, with 
unbounded license in the way of scalping, not to sympathize 
with them in their griefs at the present time ; and when, 
in a public letter, he afterwards excused their desertion, he 
did not deny the statement of Burgoyne in the House of 
Commons, that the principal rea.son for their abandonment 
of the royal cause was the restraint laid on them in regard 
to plundering and murdering the inhabitants. 

Burgoyne's chief fault, respecting the Indians, was in 
consenting to lead such cut-throats under any circum- 
stances ; and the conduct of the British ministry can never 
be too deeply execrated for employing those whom they 
knew to be universal murderers. 

There are numerous traditions, too, regarding the be- 
reaved lover in this terrible drama. One is that he was 
slain at the battle of Stillwater ; another, that he and his 
brother deserted and returned to Canada, where he long 
lived the life of a hermit, brooding in gloomy seclusion 
over his lost love and her tragic fate. 

On the morning after the murder, as soon as Miss 
McCrea's body had been recovered, the Americans aban- 
doned Fort Edward and joined Schuyler's army at Moses 
creek. On the twenty-ninth, Eraser's advance corps 
reached the neighborhood of Fort Edward, but it was not 
until the thirty-first that Generals Burgoyne and Riedesel 
establi-shed their headquarters there. General Phillips was 
sent to Fort George to expedite the transfer of stores by 
that route. 

Now that they had reached the Hudson, the British 
considered that the worst of their troubles were past, and 
supposed that they could march with comparative ease 
down its bank, with their baggage floating on its waters, 
walk over the demoralized American force in front of them 
if it got in their way, and join Sir Henry Clinton without 

diflBculty. But Burgoyne's advance was very slow. For 
six weeks his headquarters remained at Fort Edward. At 
this distance of time one can hardly form an opinion 
whether his tardiness was absolutely necessary or not, but 
it looks extremely improbable. 

Shortly after General Riedesel arrived at Fort Edward 
he was joined by his wife, who remained with the army 
during the remainder of the campaign. Besides her there 
were three other ladies with the army: Lady Harriet Aek- 
land, the daughter of an English peer and wife of Major 
Ackland of the Grenadiers, the wife of a Lieutenant Rey- 
nolds, and the commissary's wife, whom Madame Riedesel 
declared to be the mistress of Burgoyne. The latter re- 
sumed his revelings, and in place of the dispirited Ameri- 
cans the environs of the old fort rang with the jubilant 
clamor of the sanguine invaders. 

Madame Riedesel and Lady Harriet lived decorously 
but joyously, in fine weather eating under the trees in the 
open air, the table enlivened with smile and jest and sally ; 
thinking little of that other fair woman struck down by a 
terrible death only a Cew rods away. JIadame Riedesel 
does not mention the murder of Jane McCrea in her me- 
moirs ; possibly she did not hear of it. 

Many soldiers' wives accompanied the army, especially 
those of the Hessians and Brunswickere. These, dressed in 
their national costume, with their plain faces, and their 
bodies stiffened by out-door toil, had a strange, gypsy-like 
appearance in the eyes of Americans, accustomed to greater 
delicacy of form and feature, even in the most laborious of 
the sex. The men of the German contingent moved about 
their duties with their usual stolid faithfulness, but their 
minds often reverted sadly to the beloved homes from which 
they had been so ruthlessly torn. It has been stated by 
officers of Burgoyne's army that twenty or thirty Hessians 
at a time would have a presentiment that they were going 
to die and would never see the dear fatherland again. This 
greatly affected their health, and very often they did die, 
with no other apparent cause than homesickness and de- 

Domestic in their natures, they were fond of pets, and 
strove to make friends with the wild animals, which they 
frequently captured, to a much greater extent than the 
English. A Hessian column, as it marched through the 
forest-roads of Washington and Saratoga counties, would 
show here a young bear waddling along in the leash of a 
stalwart grenadier; there a fawn, shy and graceful, spring- 
ing at every unusual noise to the end of a cord held by a 
broad-faced infantry-man; while on the tops of the baggage- 
wagons might be seen raccoons, rabbits, owls, and other 
captured denizens of the wood. These cumbersome fiivor- 
ites were doubtless tolerated by the officers to divert the 
desponding minds of the homesick soldiers. 

Meanwhile, matters were apparently growing more des- 
perate for the Americans. On the 27th of July, Gen- 
eral Schuyler made a statement of his army encamped 
at Moses creek. Its strength consisted almost entirely of 
a body of two thousand seven iiundred Continental soldiers. 
Of the Connecticut militia all had deserted but "one major, 
one captain, two lieutenants, two ensigns, one adjutant, one 
quartermaster, one drummer, six sick men, and three rank 



and file for duty." Of those from Berkshire Co., Mass., 
who had at one time numbered twelve hundred, of 
whom half were to have remained in the army, all but 
two hundred had deserted. Out of one of the Hampshire 
county regiment.s, in the same State, all but twelve had 
deserted ; but the other regiments from the same county 
had done somewhat better, there being two hundred of them 
left. Of the Albany county militia about half were on duty. 

It is the same story, told again and again during the 
Revolution and the War of 1812, of the inefficiency of 
militia for any sustained effort against the enemy. Occa- 
sionally, in times of great entliu.siasm, and under peculiar 
circumstances, as at Bunker Hill and Bennington, they 
would make a good fight ; but tbey would not make a long 
resistance to an enemy, and the number of deserters was so 
great that it was practically impossible to punish them. 

A few days later. General Schuyler retreated from Moses 
creek, crossed the Hud.son at Fort Miller, and led his 
dispirited army nearly to the Mobawk ! On the 1st of 
August he was relieved of his command, and on the 4th 
General Gates was appointed in his place. On the 9th of 
August, Fraser with the British advance encamped near 
Fort Miller. He was followed by Colonel Baum with a very 
mixed force of dismounted dragoons, Tories, Canadians, and 
Indians. This force was intended by Burgoyne to make a 
move into the country to the eastward, for the purpose of 
harassing the Whigs, obtaining Tory recruits, seizing horses, 
etc. Riedesel had suggested such a movement before the 
army left Skenesboro', but his plan was that the detachment 
should move from the rear of the army, by way of Castleton, 
to the " flats of the Connecticut river," where it was be- 
lieved that supplies could be found in abundance. 

After much consideration, Burgoyne had determined to 
make such a flank movement, but with a still wider sweep. 
He selected Colonel Baum to head the movement, and at 
first directed him to march to Manchester, and thence to 
Rockingham, on the Connecticut river. Indians and pro- 
vincials were to be sent up and down the river to gather 
supplies, and then they were all to return by way of Brat- 
tlcboro', and join Burgoyne at Albany ! It is safe to say 
that if the force had ever crossed the Green mountains, 
very few indeed would have returned to this side. 

This order was drawn up by General Riedesel, under 
Burgoyne's direction ; the latter added some amendments, 
advising the taxing of districts for specific numbers of artil- 
lery-horses, etc. The general stated that Captain Sher- 
wood's company of royalists was expected to join the 
command at Arlington, with horses and cattle, which were 
to be sent to the army under guard of some of Peters' 
royalist regiment. Colonel Skene was to accompany Baum, 
" in order to distinguish good subjects from bad," procure 
the best intelligence of the enemy, and choose proper per- 
sons to carry intelligence to the main army. 

It was afterwards proposed to send the force only as far 
east as Manchester, whence they were to return to the 
main army by way of Bennington, where they were to cap- 
ture the stores the Americans had there. But at the last 
moment Burgoyne directed that Baum should march straight 
to Bennington, capture or destroy the stores, get what re- 
cruits and horses he could, and return. 

Von Riedesel prepared the detachment for the expedition, 
the rendezvous being at Fort Miller. General Riedesel gives 
the numbers as two hundred dismounted dragoons, a hun- 
dred Indians, a hundred and fifty of Peters' regiment of 
royalists, fifty-six Canadian and provincial volunteers, fifty 
of Fraser's riflemen, and two light guns with their can- 
noniers, — total, nearly six hundred men. Other accounts 
show that there were three hundred and twenty-seven 
Brunswickers, raising the total force to over seven hun- 
dred men. 

Baum left Fort Miller on the 11th of August, and en- 
camped near old Fort Saraghtoga that night. When about 
to move the next morning he received an order to wait for 
further instructions, and remained encamped through the 
day near the Batten Kill. The next day, August 13, 
he set out on his unlucky expedition. The advance con- 
sisted of Tories and Indians, and the inhabitants fled in 
dire dismay at sight of these dreaded foes ; though Bur- 
goyne's threat after the murder of Miss McCrea restrained 
them so that we hear of no serious outrages on this march. 

There were enough Indians, Canadians, etc., for scouting 
and skirmishing ; but in case of hard fighting the prin- 
cipal reliance was on the dismounted Brunswick dragoons, 
who, being unprovided with infantry arms, were in poor 
condition for such an encounter. As before stated, their 
equipments were of the heaviest description, and as they 
strode along the woodland roads of Easton and Cambridge, 
their short carbines on their shoulders, their long sabres 
clanking at their sides, they looked poorly adapted indeed 
to meet the riflemen of Charlotte county, of the Green 
mountains, and of New Hampshire. 

The night of the 13th Baum encamped near what is 
now called Wait's Corners, in the town of Cambridge. His 
advance had a slight skirmish with a few militiamen, and 
captured eight of them. They were released the next 
morning at the request of Colonel Skene, he having an 
idea that this would have a good effect on the large num- 
bers who were supposed to be inclined towards the king's 
cause. Colonel Baum had been directed to consult Skene 
in everything relating to the treatment of the inhabitants, 
whom he was supposed to know all about, but whom he 
really knew very little about. He had imbibed a notion 
that three to one of them were loyalists, whereas in that 
section hardly one in ten of them was so. 

On the 14th Baum's command proceeded southward 
through Cambridge, crossed the Hoosic into the present 
county of Rensselaer, and followed up the valley of that 
stream and its tributary, the Walloomsac, toward Benning- 
ton. In the afternoon of the 14th they met a force sent 
out from that point under Lieutenant-Colonel Greig. A 
brief contest ensued, and though the Americans retreated, 
yet they showed themselves so strong, and all the accounts 
received showed there was such a large body of militia at 
Bennington, that Baum halted and sent back a request to 
Burgoyne for reinforcements. 

Riding all night, the messenger reached the general's 
headquarters at six o'clock the next morning. Burgoyne 
immediately ordered General Riedesel to send Lieutenant- 
Colonel Breymann in support of Baum. Breymann set out 
with five hundred Hessian light infantry in light marching 



order, with two cannon. They were not so heavily equipped 
as Baum's men, but the previous rains had made the roads 
very tedious, especially for artillery, and Breymann was 
obliged, or thought he was, to encamp the night of the 
15th at a point seven miles northeast of Cambridge. 

The next morning he pressed slowly forward through 
Cambridge, and at three in the afternoon reached Sancoick 
bridge. There, as he states in his report, he met " Gov." 
Skene, who informed him that Baum was two miles dis- 
tant, but, strangely enough, did not tell him there had been 
a battle. As Breymann had heard no guns, he marched 
confidently forward, and, the first thing he knew, came in 
conflict with straggling bands of triumphant Americans. The 
Brunswickers, Tories, and Indians of Baum's command 
seem to have been so thoroughly beaten that there were 
none, at least on the main road, to tell the tale of defeat to 
the supporting column. 

For during that eventful 16th of August the great 
northern expedition, which was expected to effect the con- 
quest of America, had received its first serious check ; then 
and there began to rise the tide of American triumph 
which rolled forward with constantly-increasing volume, 
until the whole of Burgoyne's proud army lay, submerged 
and helpless, beneath its angry waves. 

Nay, it would hardly be too much to call the battle of 
Bennington the turning-point of the American Revolution. 
Notwithstanding the successes of the patriots in the begin- 
ning, there had been near two years of depression, and 
Britain was apparently moving steadily forward toward 
a complete triumph over the liberties of America. But 
Bennington led to Saratoga, and Saratoga led to the French 
alliance, and the French alliance led to Yorktown, and 
Yorktown led to independence. 

The battle of Bennington (which, it will be understood, 
was not fought in Bennington at all, but in the town of 
Iloosic, county of Rennselaer, and State of New York) was 
another of those important conflicts which fringe the border 
of Washington county with a red band of warlike wrath. 
It was barely outside the southern line of the present town 
of White Creek, in the valley of the Walloomsac, that the 
old Indian fighter, grim John Stark, having waited through- 
out the 15th for the rain to abate, on the morning of the 
16th led his militia against the motley forces of Colonel 
Baum. His men were principally from New Hampshire, 
though there was a considerable number from Vermont 
and Massachusetts, and some also from the towns of Cam- 
bridge, White Creek, Jackson, and Salem, in this county. 

It is not within the scope of our work to go into the 
details of that Rensselaer county " Battle of Bennington." 
Every history of the United States tells of Stark's pithy 
address to his men : " We must beat those red-coats before 
sun.set or Molly Stark will be a widow" (to be sure her 
name was Betsey ; but then, probably, heroes can't be ex- 
pected to remember their wives' names) ; of the enthusi- 
astic advance of the raw militia ; of their gallant attack 
on the intrenchments of their foes ; of the speedy dis- 
persion of the Indians and Tories ; of the desperate re- 
sistance against overwhelming numbers made by the 
Brunswick dragoons, who, when their ammunition was 
expended and their allies had fled, charged sword in hand 

upon their assailants ; of the mortal wounding of their 
leader ; of the almost complete destruction of the little 
band, and of the rapidity with which the triumphant 
militia scattered to plunder the conquered camp. Fifteen 
ofiicers of the Brunswick dragoons were reported killed 
and missing, and two hundred and three rank and file, 
making a total of two hundred and eighteen out of three 
hundred and twenty-seven of that regiment present, be- 
sides those who were wounded but were able to escape. 

So thoroughly were Baum's forces scattered that, as be- 
fore stated, the pursuers got ahead of them, and Breymann 
was in conflict with the latter before seeing any of his own 
friends except Colonel Skene. The solid column of Brey- 
mann's light infantry quickly drove back the straggling 
militiamen, and Stark saw all the fruits of victory disap- 
pearing by rea.son of the lack of discipline of his forces. 
But at this moment Colonel Seth Warner came up with 
his regiment of Green Mountain Boys, and after a sharp 
conflict Breymann was also obliged to leave his two pieces 
of artillery and retreat, though with less loss and in better 
order than the unlucky .soldiers of Baum. 

Breymann's command, with a few of Baum's who had 
joined it, reached Cambridge at midnight. Meantime he 
had despatched messengers to Burgoyne, who, galloping 
through darkness and mud, reached that general with news 
of both battles at three o'clock on the morning of the 17th. 
Startled by these unexpected disasters, and fearing lest 
Breymann, too, would be overwhelmed by an avalanche of 
New England riflemen, he consulted Riedesel, and resolved 
to start immediately with the whole army to support the 
defeated detachment, and sent ofi' an ofiBcer to inform 
Colonel Breymann of his intention. But ere he could put 
his design in operation, Riedesel received news that Brey- 
mann had escaped, and was within six miles of the Batten 
Kill. The order was then countermanded. 

In the course of that day (^the 17th) the wearied Hes- 
sians, covered with mud and almost dead with fatigue, 
marched mournfully into the camp at Fort Miller, while 
hour after hour the Brunswick dragoons, the Tories, and 
the Indians came straggling in with their tales of woe. 

The direct efi"ect of the battle was far less than the in- 
direct. Everywhere the Americans were stimulated to 
fresh exertions by finding that they could whip the enemy, 
and the British were correspondingly depressed. Especially 
did the battle have a great eff'ect on the Indians. They had 
been angered at the reprimands given them and the re- 
straints put on their murderous propensities after the 
slaughter of Jane McCrea, and now they found themselves 
not only without plunder or .scalps, but in danger of being 
soundly whipped into the bargain. 

A number, estimated at about one hundred and fifty, 
accompanied Baum, and thirty or forty of these were killed 
or captured. Their red brethren were very bitter against 
Burgoyne for not sending reinforcements in time. La 
Corne de St. Luc, if ho did not encourage them, certainly 
.sympathized with them. Complaint followed complaint, 
band after band deserted, and finally, at a general council, 
nearly all of them demanded permission to return. Bur- 
goyne used every inducement of which he was master to 
persuade them to remain, and they apparently yielded to 



his arguments, but the very next day a large number of 
them left, and they continued to desert till hardly one re- 

But the British ministry, less humane than Burgoyno, 
thenceforth made use of more pliant tools, in the Butlers 
and Johnsons, who gave the privilege of free slaughter to 
the tribes on the western border of the colonies, and those 
Indians remained faithful to the cause of royalty and 
murder throughout the Revolution. 

It was about this time that " Fort Salem," at New 
Perth, was abandoned by the Americans. The only con- 
temporary allusion to this event which we have seen is the 
statement by Colonel Joseph McCracken that the post was 
deserted on account of the approach of an overwhelming 
force of the enemy. The people all fled from the New 
Perth settlement, and the fort was destroyed ; but whether 
by our own men when they abandoned it, by a few scatter- 
ing Tories or Indians, or by a regular force, is unknown. 

From this time till the 11th of September, nearly a 
month, the British army lay at Fort Edward and Fort 
Miller ; or, as the latter point was then described, at 
" Duer's house," — referring to the residence and mills of 
Hon. William Duer, at the present village of Fort Miller. 
They were waiting for the means of transportation before 
advancing. Possibly this was necessary ; certainly it was 
the cause of their ruin. 

The right wing, under Major-General Phillips, was at 
Fort Miller ; the left wing, under Major-General Riedesel, 
was at Fort Edward. The former was so arranged that 
when it should advance the extreme front should be occu- 
pied by Canadians. The advance brigade was under Briga- 
dier-General Fraser, the next under General Powell, and 
the last under General Hamilton. The extreme advance of 
General Riedesel's division was composed of Indians ; the 
advance brigade was under Lieutenant-Colonel Breymann, 
the next under Brigadier-General Specht, and the last under 
General Gall. 

As early as the 19th of August a pontoon-bridge was 
built by the British across the Hudson, above the Fort 
Miller rapids, but afterwards a better place was found 
below, and one was erected there. 

Meanwhile the Americans were making good use of the 
time granted them through the dilatory action of the British. 
St. Leger was compelled to abandon the siege of Fort Stau- 
wix by the approach of a brigade which had been sent by 
Schuyler to its relief. Considerable additions were made 
to the number of the Continentals under Gates, and the 
militia, encouraged by the results of Bennington and Stan- 
wix, began to flock in large numbers into the camp of that 
general. The latter advanced from the Mohawk, whither 
Schuyler had retreated, and took up a position at Stillwater. 

It was not till the 11th of September that Burgoyne 
considered himself sufiSciently well provided with means of 
transportation to risk an advance. He determined to follow 
the Americans across the river, and move against their 
army. Many have considered him blameworthy in a mili- 
tary point of view for not moving down the east side of the 
Hudson. Clearly, however, if his object was to reach Al- 
bany, it would be easier to cross the upper Hudson, and 
then the Mohawk, than it would to transport an army in 

face of the enemy across the whole broad river opposite that 

On the last-named day the force at " Duer's house ' broke 
camp, but does not appear to have made much progress. 
The next day Riedesel moved forward from Fort Edward 
to Duer's house. On the thirteenth the crossing took place, 
Fraser moving first, while Breymann, with his light infantry, 
formed the extreme rear of Reidesel's division, and of the 
whole army. As soon as all were over Breymann's men 
destroyed the bridge. 

The two grand armies, on whose movements during that 
exciting campaign of 1777 largely depended the fate of 
America, have now passed out of our jurisdiction. Their 
marches and their battles will henceforth be in the territory 
which was then a part of the county of Albany, but which 
now answers to the historic name of Saratoga. But the 
great conflict frequently involved movements on the east 
side of the Hudson, and these we shall recount, occasionally 
throwing a glance across the stream, or listening to the 
sounds that are wafted from the western shore. 

After the crossing, Burgoyne pressed forward without any 
great delay, and on the nineteenth encountered Gates at 
Stillwater. Neither party could perhaps claim a victory, 
but it was at once evident that the British were not going 
to march to Albany without serious difficulty. The thun- 
ders of the cannonade rolled far and wide over the hills of 
Washington county. The venerable John McDonald, of 
Salem, relates that his father, then nine years old, distinctly 
heard the boom of the cannon at the home, in Hebron, of 
his father, the old campaigner of the French war. 

Next followed the three weeks when the two armies re- 
mained facing each other at Stillwater, the Americans all 
the while gaining strength and the British losing. Near 
the 1st of October, Gates was strong enough to send a 
division to occupy the east bank of the river. Fourteen 
hundred men wore posted at the point where the British 
had crossed, and two thousand somewhat farther down, the 
object being to prevent a retreat to Fort Edward. On the 
8th of October fifteen hundred were sent still higher up. 
It rained all day on the ninth ; but even in the rain, a body 
of militia pushed on to Fort Edward. Two or three hours 
later, a detachment from Burgoyne's army arrived on the op- 
posite side of the river, but on seeing that the fort was already 
occupied they returned. General Stark was in command 
of a large part, if not all, of the forces on the east side. 
The Charlotte county militia, under Colonel Williams, were 
all in arms at this period, and were ordered by General 
Gates to go to the rear of the enemy ; but we cannot learn 
the precise point at which they were stationed. 

Burgoyne was now completely hemmed in. His com- 
munications were cut olf, and, with scant supplies, he was 
compelled either to fight his way out very soon or surrender. 
The Charlotte county bank of the Hudson was lined with 
militia, who fired at every British soldier who showed his 
head on the other shore, and completely interdicted the use 
of the river to the British boats. 

The great battle of the 12th of October, and the splendid 
valor displayed by the Americans, made it plain that Bur- 
goyne could not fight his way through to Albany, and he 
immediately attempted a retreat. But he found every pas- 



sage guarded, and his scouts soon brought him word that 
tlie plateau was occupied by a large force with artillery, 
rendering the passage of the river there impracticable. 

It is said that at this time Burgoyne told Colonel Skene 
that the latter had got him into this scrape (alluding to his 
advising the Bennington raid), and now he wanted him to 
get him out. Skene replied, — 

" Have your men put all their provisions in their haver- 
.nacks, and their ammunition in their cartridge-boxes ; then 
put all the baggage and other valuables within reach of the 
Yankee militia, and they will be so busy plundering it that 
your whole army can escape to Ticonderoga before they will 
find out what is going on." 

But notwithstanding this sarcasm the militia kept very 
close watch on the river. Not a boat could appear but what 
a volley of rifle-bullets would whistle around it, and many 
a one, well loaded with provisions or other stores, was com- 
pelled to make its way to the American, or Charlotte county, 
shore, where its contents were soon appropriated. 

They even made forays into the enemy's country. One 
of them saw some British horses feeding in one of General 
Schuyler's meadows, on the west side of the river, and ob- 
tained permission of his captain to go over and get one. 
He forthwith stripped to the skin, plunged in, swam across, 
caught a fine bay, and, " accoutered as he was," he 
vaulted on his back. By striking the animal with fists and 
heels the .soldier forced him to a gallop, and guided him into 
the river. When he had got part of the way across the 
enemy began to find out what was going on, and saluted the 
daring horseman with a volley of musket-balls, but he made 
good his escape to the Charlotte county bank, where he was 
received with immense enthusiasm by his comrades. 

But he was not satisfied even with this feat. After he 
had rested, and the British, not dreaming that he would try 
to repeat his escapade, had retired to their post, the soldier 
again addressed his officer, saying, — 

" It isn't hardly proper that a private should have a horse 
to ride while a captain goes afoot. Let me go over again, 
and I will get one for you, and when we get home we will 
have lots of fun driving our matched team." 

The captain, nothing loath, assented, and again the Yankee 
Leander swam the Hudson, obtained another bay horse, a 
match to the first one, and, by the use of the same tactics 
as before, made his escape before the thick-headed British 
or Hessians could do more than fire a few random shots. 

Another incident, of a darker nature, is related (as is 
also the foregoing) by the " Sexagenary," and well attested 

by the older residents of Salem. A 31 r. M , formerly 

well known in that town, a Scotchman by birth, but a very 
rabid Whig, crossed the Hudson with a companion, in a 
canoe, to see what they could discover. They crawled cau- 
tiously up the western bank, peeped over the top, and saw 
a young man in the uniform of a Tory regiment unloading 

a cart, a short distance away. It was the son of Mr. M , 

who, notwithstanding his father's strong Whig principles, 
had espoused the c;iui-e of the king. 

" Now," muttered M to his companion, " that's my 

own son, Hugliey, but I'm dom'd, for a' that, if I sill not 
gie him a shot." 

And accordingly, to the horror of his companion, he ac- 

tually rested his musket on the bank, took deliberate aim, 
and fired. The youth, however, had heard the talking, 
and sprang around to the other side of the cart just as the 
gun went ofi'. The bullet lodged in a felloe of one of the 
cart-wheels. A guard which was near by immediately hur- 
ried to the spot, and the two men were obliged to take to 
their canoe, and make the best of their way, amid a storm 
of musketry, across the river. They escaped with their 
lives, but the unnatural father received a bullet in his 
shoulder. He lived in Salem till his death, at a very ad- 
vanced age, and there is no account of his having ever 
manifested any regret for his deliberate attempt tlie 
life of his son. 

But this guerrilla warfare across the Hudson soon ceased ; 
for, on the 17th of October, General Burgoyne, unable to 
advance or retreat with his army in column, and without 
sufficient enterprise to scatter his men and direct such as 
could escape to rendezvous at Ticonderoga, surrendered his 
entire force to General Gates. In the subsequent move- 
ments of the captured troops. Colonel Williams, of the 
Charlotte county militia, was directed to supervise the re- 
moval of the British hospital to Boston. 

Immediately after the surrender the roads of Charlotte 
county were alive with bands of New England militia, re- 
turning to their homes in triumph ; knowing that for the 
present the tide of war was averted from that section, and 
many of them believing that the combat was virtually de- 
cided in favor of America. 

Most of the Whigs of Charlotte county, also, who had 
left their residences on account of the enemy's advance, 
now returned and resumed their wonted avocations. There 
was a great increase of Whiggery, too. Those wlio had 
been lukewarm or undecided suddenly discovered that the 
patriot cause was the cause of justice, righteousness, and 
the heaviest battalions. But those unlucky persons who 
had openly espoused the king's cause were glad in their 
turn to make their escape from the wrath of their old 
neighbors, and very few of them ever returned to their 
former homes, except as members of marauding bands in- 
tent on the work of destruction and slaughter. 

Nor were the Americans at all disposed to wage war with 
rose-water. Officers styled " commissioners of forfeiture" 
were appointed by the State, and the property of every Tory 
•who had done any overt act in favor of the king, or had 
openly advocated his cause, was promptly seized. Their 
personal property was sold for what it would bring, but for 
the real estate there was very little demand, and most of it 
was not sold until after the close of the war. Some of the 
farms, however, were leased to Whigs who were willing to 
run the risk of being marked out for special vengeance in 
case of another invasion. 

Notwithstanding the surrender of foreign foes and the 
submission or flight of domestic ones, the Whigs of Char- 
lotte county were in a sad plight. All those in tlie north 
part of the county had been driven from their homes just 
before harvest, and many of those in the south part had 
abandoned theirs through well-founded fear of the enemy. 
Glory was a good thing, but as winter approached many of 
the patriotic inhabitants of Charlotte county were at a loss 
where to iret food to last them through the season. 



In the journal of the New York council, which sat in 
the recess of the Legislature for that year, is a petition for 
mercy by twenty-two persons, who state that they are mostly 
emigrants from Ireland, that they have always performed 
military duty when called upon, and that at the retreat 
from Ticonderoga some of them had fought on the Amer- 
ican side. On arriving home they found some of their 
neighbors fleeing to other States, though the latter were 
said to be on the eve of a famine, and to have set guards 
to stop new-comers. The petitioners had neither wagons 
nor money and could not go. While they were building a 
fort at New Perth, by General Schuyler's orders, there 
came a message from General Burgoyne denouncing ven- 
geance on all who did not fly to him for protection. The 
woods were full of Indians, who killed nine persons,* and 
who captured all they found going south. Under these 
circumstances the petitioners declare they fled to the rear 
of Burgoyne's army, where they lived on their own provi- 
sions, and did not take up arms against the Americans. 
Confessing their oifense and surrendering as prisoners, they 
implored the mercy of the council. That body ordered 
that the petitioners should be allowed to remain on their 
farms and should be protected from injury, and the next 
Legislature continued to show them mercy. 

These and others in the same position, however, were 
regarded with great disgust by their thorough-going Whig 
neighbors. They were called " protectioners,"' and it is 
said that in Cambridge the Whigs assembled and gave the 
" protectioners" a thorough flogging. 



Destitution of the People — The Vermont Trouble again — Fort Wil- 
liams — Beating up for Volunteers — A False Alarm — Doing Duty 
by Classes — Court-martialing the Disatfected — Light Punishments 
— Ticonderoga abandoned by the British — First Election under the 
State — Quiet in 1779 — A little more Trouble with Vermont — An- 
other False Alarm — Major Carlcton's Invasion — Surrender of Fort 
Ann — Ravaging of Kingsbury — Colonel Livingston's Ruse — Carle- 
ton's Retreat — Increasing Claims of Vermont — Practical Secession 
— New Hampshire Towns annexed — Intrigues with the British — 
Attempt to annex Charlotte County — Convention at Cambridge — 
The Act of Annexation ado])ted — Copy of the Instrument — Dele- 
gates chosen to the Vermont Legislature — Alarm of the Country 
at these Proceedings — Opposition of the Scotch Settlers and others 
— Continuation of the Intrigue with the British — Meeting of Com- 
missioners at Skenesborough — Mysterious Proceedings — Surrender 
of Cornwallis — Sudden Quiet of the Intriguers — New York autho- 
rity re-established in Charlotte County — Arrest of the Seceders 

Pleas for Mercy — New York disposed to yield Vermont — Declara- 
tion of Peace. 

So great was the devastation committed by the invaders 
that, in the forepart of 1778, numerous petitions for aid 
were sent to the Legislature by the people of Charlotte 
county, and also from Cambridge and Easton. That body 
directed the commissioners of forfeitures to sell two thou- 
sand bushels of wheat, rye, and Indian corn, taken from 

* The petitioners evidently refer to the Allen family : nor can we 
find any contemporary mention of the Barnes family, said by later 
tradition to have been slain on the same day. 

the Tories, to those in need, to be paid for afterwards on 
moderate terms. 

At the same period the old trouble came up in regard to 
the New Hampshire grants. The new State government 
of Vermont was now in full operation, and though its ap- 
plication for admission into the confederacy had been dis- 
missed by Congress, yet it exercised complete jurisdiction 
over all the territory now comprised within the territory 
of that State. New York, however, was naturally unwilling 
to give up so extensive a domain, and in February of this 
year the Legislature passed very liberal resolutions looking 
to a compromise of the difSculties. They admitted that 
the trouble had arisen largely from the exorbitant fees 
charged by the New York authorities, and by the new 
grants made of the royal decision regarding the boundary, 
in which grants servants of the crown were largely inter- 
ested. All these grievances the Legislature promised to 
remedy, but the Vermonters paid no attention to the offxir, 
and adhered to their own independent organization with 
unswerving pertinacity. 

Early in 1778, or possibly late in 1777, another little 
fort was built at New Perth. It was a log block-house 
about twenty feet square, well supplied with loop-holes, and 
surrounded at a considerable distance by a stockade of erect 
logs, after the usual fashion of frontier forts at that day. 
It received the name of " Fort Williams," in honor of the 
energetic young colonel who manifested such unceasing 
activity in the American cause. Besides being colonel of 
militia, he was also county treasurer, or perhaps treasurer 
of the county committee, which still exercised all executive 
functions over the county. 

Fort Williams was garrisoned much of the time by soiue 
of the Charlotte county regiment ; but in March of this 
year, it appears from the Williams papers, there was a 
regiment of Connecticut militia staying there. A draft 
was ordered from the militia in the spring, to fill up the 
Continental army ; but Governor Clinton wrote to Colonel 
Williams, under date of the 13th of April, that the Char- 
lotte county regiment was exempt from the draft, on condi- 
tion of its furnishing men for defense of the frontier, and 
urged him to complete the number designated for the latter 
purpose, which was seventy. 

Even this number it was almost impossible to raise. On 
the 22d of April Williams wrote to Clinton, stating that 
he had called his battalion together and could obtain only 
seventeen volunteers. He expected to get as many more, 
but could not possibly raise seventy. Enough to make 
three companies had moved down the river, and others were 
preparing to go. Of those who remained, the colonel said, 
about half were disaffected to the American cause, and most 
of these he feared would join the enemy. Of these he made 
the brief but pungent reniark, " No quarter will be given 

The county was almost always in a state of alarm. At 
the date of this letter, Willii^ms' little battalion had been 
called out to repel a threatened invasion ; it having been 
reported that a small party of Americans, who were patrol- 
ing within twelve miles of Ticonderoga, had been driven 
back by five hundred of the enemy, who were supposed to 
be advancing towards the American settlements. It does 



not appear, however, that any invasion was actually made 
at that time. 

The battalion was divided by its colonel into six classes, 
each being required to do duty a week at a time, until the 
seventy volunteers should be raised. He declared that if 
the militia was kept out more than eight or ten days at a 
time they could not get in their spring crop, and would be 
compelled to leave the county. He was desirous to obtain 
twenty of the required volunteers from Albany county, 
which he thought could be done by giving a lieutenant's 
commission to one Doty, residing in that county. 

On the 23d of March a regimental court-martial was 
held at 'Fort Williams, by order of Colonel Williams, to 
punish those who had been derelict the previous year, 
which created a good deal of excitement. The president 
was Captain (afterwards Major) John Armstrong; associated 
with whom were Captain Edward Long and Lieutenants 

McClary, Robert Stewart, and Alexander Turner. 

Ensign James Stewart was the clerk. Over sixty men were 
arraigned, some for neglecting to turn out when warned, 
some for accepting protection from the enemy, some for 
failing to take their cattle and retire to a safer place when 
so ordered by General Schuyler. Fifty-eight were convicted, 
but their punishments were not very severe, consisting en- 
tirely of fines, ranging from eight shillings (a dollar) up to 
thirt}' pounds. Those who merely failed to appear on muster 
when warned were generally amerced in the former amount. 
Alexander Webster, of Black Creek (Hebron), was lieuten- 
ant-colonel of the regiment at this time, and was also State 

The temporary abandonment of Ticonderoga by the Brit- 
ish caused a feeling of more security to prevail in Charlotte 
county, though the thought of the Indian tomahawk still 
caused many a mother and many a child to shudder with 
alarm at every unusual sound. 

On Sept. 8, 1778, took place the first election held 
throughout Charlotte county under the laws of the State of 
New York, and even this was by special enactment, the 
regular election-day having passed. Ninety-six votes were 
cast in Salem, twenty-nine in Kingsbury, twenty-four in 
Skenesboro', twenty-one in Granville, and twenty-eight in 
" Black Brook." This shows a total of only a hundred and 
ninety-eight vot«rs in the county, although there were 
doubtless more ; many people were not extremely anxious 
to exercise the elective franchise when such exercise might 
be considered evidence of rebellion against the king on one 
side or treason to their country on the other. Argyle. 
though a separate district, seems to have held no election 
that year. Another senator was chosen from Salem, and 
one assemblyman was re-elected, but three out of four of 
the latter class of officials were chosen from other parts of 
the county. It will be understood that at that period the 
work of election was much simpler than now, only town- 
officers and members of the Legislature, besides the gov- 
ernor and lieutenant-governor, being thus chosen ; the vast 
number of executive and judicial officers, now selected in 
the same manner, being then appointed by the council of 

The year 1779 passed away with comparatively little ex- 
citement on the northern frontier. Elsewhere the tide of 

conflict rolled to and fro, the American cause suffijring 
great depression, notwithstanding the aid furnished by 
France ; an aid which was slight compared with the ex- 
pectations which had been raised regarding it. From the 
western frontier, too, came news of terrible massacres and 
of the retribution inflicted by Sullivan, but on the banks of 
the Batten Kill, of White creek, and of Black creek the 
scattered inhabitants of Charlotte county planted, sowed, 
and harvested in temporary safety. 

The chief excitement there was in regard to the peren- 
nial question of jurisdiction over Vermont. Some New 
I'ork officers were seized in that State, whereupon Gov- 
ernor Clinton declared he would send an armed force thither 
to release them and defend the rights of his State. Thus 
Charlotte county had the pleasant prospect of foreign inva- 
sion, aided by domestic disaffection, from the north, and of 
civil war raging on the east. The captured officials were, 
however, released by order of the Confederate Congress, 
which also passed a law that neither New Y^oi'k nor Ver- 
mont should exercise jurisdiction over those who did not 
claim to be the subjects of such State. Thus the storm- 
cloud again passed over for the time, but Vermont still cpn- 
tinued to exercise authority over all who resided within the 
territory she claimed, even though they acknowledged the 
authority of New York. 

One of the legislative acts of that year, passed on Feb. 
17, is of considerable importance. It directed the holding 
of county courts and courts of sessions at New Perth (now 
Salem), which has ever since been the county-seat, or one 
of the county-seats, of the county. An act of the previous 
year had directed that the sheriff's mileage should be com- 
puted from the meeting-house at the same place. If there 
were any courts held under the act just mentioned the 
records have been lost or destroyed. 

On April 29, 1780, an American, who had been a pris- 
oner at Montreal and had escaped, reached Skenesboro' with 
the information that extensive preparations were being 
made in Canada for an invasion up Lake Champlain. 
Some other facts corroborated his statement, and a shock 
of alarm quickly rolled through all northern New York. 
The Charlotte county militia were now commanded by 
Colonel Alexander Webster, with Brinton Paine as lieuten- 
ant-colonel, and Joseph McCracken as major. They were 
ordered to be ready for instant action, and Governor Clin- 
ton ordered four regiments, under Colonels Yates, Van 
Schoonhoven, Van Wert, and McCrea, to assemble at Sara- 
toga. Clinton himself, with all the men he could rally in 
Albany and Charlotte counties, hastened to Fort George, 
which he reached in eight days after leaving Kingston. 
He proceeded thence to Ticonderoga and Crown Point, 
and, having satisfied himself that no invasion was to take 
place at that time, returned home. 

The summer passed away with only the usual number of 
small alarms. Several corps of State troops, intermediate 
between militia and regulars, were raised this summer to 
defend the frontiers. A company of these troops, number- 
in"- between fifty and seventy-five men, under Captain Adiel 
Sherwood, of Kingsbury, was stationed at Fort Ann. 

In the forepart of October, Major Christopher Carlcton 
(a nephew of Sir Guy Carlcton), of the Twenty-ninth Brit- 



ish Regiment, with about eight hundred regulars and royal- 
ists and a few Indians, came up Lake Clianiplain with eight 
vessels and twenty-six boats and landed at Skenesboro'. 
Thence he advanced rapidly to Fort Ann, and on Oct. 10 
demanded its surrender. The fort was a rude log block- 
house with a stockade around it. The garrison consisted 
of the company of State troops before mentioned and of a 
few Continentals, the whole making but seventy-five men. 
Though ill .supplied with ammunition, Slierwood at first 
declined to surrender; but, on learning the number of the 
enemy, he yielded himself and his command as prisoners, 
first stipulating for the privilege of sending the women and 
children who were present to their homes. 

On the ninth Captain Sherwood was dining with Colonel 
Henry Livingston, the commander at Fort Edward, being 
on his way to White Creek and not imagining any foe to 
be near. While he was at Fort Edward, however, an order 
arrived from Governor Clinton requiring Livingston and 
Sherwood to endeavor to re-enlist their men for two months 
more. Sherwood returned to Fort Ann for that purpose, 
but that night he sent word to Livingston that the enemy 
was close by. The next morning he was captured, as before 
stated. The same morning two of Livingston's oflncers 
came hurrying in from Kingsbury with the news that the 
enemy was burning and laying waste that district. Liv- 
ingston sent to Colonel McCrea at Saratoga and Colonel 
Webster at Black Creek for their regiments of militia. 

Immediately afterwards some of the frightened inhab- 
itants of Kingsbury came rushing down the hill north of 
Fort Edward, with such household goods as they could 
bring with them, seeking the protection of the post. They 
reported the enemy only four miles away, and the smoke 
of burning houses could plainly be seen from the fort. 
Livingston had but sixty-five men, of whom he sent twenty 
to menace the foe ; but though they remained out through 
the day, they found the marauders too strong to attack. 
After dark four scouts were sent out, who found some of 
the enemy three miles distant. Colonel Livingston then 
ordered a lieutenant and twenty men to assail the camp in 
question, but as he was about to march a terrible outcry 
was heard on the west side of the Hudson, where the 
Indians were yelling, burning, and killing cattle, and the 
detachment was ordered back. Two of the enemy came 
so close that they were fired on from the fort, but without 
efiect. The next day another .scout was sent out, who 
discovered that the main body of the enemy had taken the 
route to Fort George, and the same afternoon that post 
also surrendered to Carleton. 

On the eleventh and twelfth Livingston was reinforced by 
about three hundred militia, but the oificers did not think 
themselves .strong enough to attack the foe. n That day or 
the next Carleton retreated down Lake Champlain. More 
militia came, but Van Rensselaer declares them to have 
been more intent on plundering the public stores left at 
Fort George than on any other service. They were soon 
discharged, and all but thirty of Livingston's men also left, 
declaring that their time had expired. On the sixteenth 
and seventeenth Colonel Livingston learned from his scouts 
that small parties of the enemy had been seen, and on the 
latter day General Schuyler sent a messenger advising the 

evacuation of the post. Livingston accordingly marched 
his men to Saratoga. On the twenty-fourth, having ob- 
tained some reinforcements, he returned'to Fort Edward.* 

Some of our readers mayjiave thought we devoted more 
space to the troubles between New York and Vermont than 
belonged to them in a .strictly local history of Washington 
county. But, in fact, that imbroglio affected even the in- 
ternal affairs of Charlotte county, and in 1781 some very 
curious movements took place in several of the towns of 
that and Albany counties, which have seldom or never been 
treated in national histories, but which might have had a 
serious effect on the welfare of the whole country. 

As has been stated, the county of Charlotte and that 
part of Albany county now included in Wa.shington were 
principally settled by New Englanders, and by Scotch and 
others of foreign birth. The former had almost all adhered 
to the American cause, while many (though by no means all) 
of the latter were friendly to the king. As the Americans 
were most of the time in pos.session of the teriitory in 
question, the New Englanders were largely in the majority 
among the dominant class. 

These had generally sympathized more or less with their 
compatriots who were striving to set up an independent 
government in Vermont. The Vermonters, too, although 
they had openly claimed only to the present east line of 
that State, had kept up a kind of faint half-claim to the 
territory between that line and the Hudson, or even farther 
west, on the ground that it had been included in Skene's 
new province of Ticonderoga, of which they deemed their 
State in some way to be the political heir. 

Bloreover, the ties of State and national authority 
were naturally very loose in those troublous times, and wild 
ideas were afloat as to the right of every little community 
to change its allegiance at will. About the time in ques- 
tion, several townships in New Hampshire, on the east side 
of the Connecticut river, having become dissatisfied with 
the government of that State, had applied to Vermont to 
be received under her jurisdiction. A law was promptly- 
passed by the Legislature of that State authorizing a vote of 
the people on the subject, and a majority having declared 
in favor of the admission, it was dulj' announced that the 
towns in question had become a part of the State of Ver- 
mont. The astonished people of New Hampshire thus saw 
that the very State which they had so strenuously aided to 
create at the of New York, was disposed to requite 
their assistance by seizing on some of their fairest territory. 

There was still another clement of discord. Although 
the Green Mountain Boys had been decided and nearly 
unanimous in supporting the American cause, they wore as bitterly oppo.sed to the rule of New York as to 
that of Great Britain. This was especially true of the leaders, 
and several of these, especially Ethan Allen and his brother 
Ira, disappointed in their hopes of the admission of Vermont 
into the confederacy as a separate State, were willing at 
least to negotiate with the public enemy. 

* The above account of Carleton 's raid is largely from an autograph 
statement of Colonel Livingston preserved among the family papers 
in Columbia county. A further account of some of the exploits of 
the marauders will be foujjd in the town-history of Kingsbury. 



In the forepart of 1781 all these elements of disturbance 
began to ferment at once. In February the General As- 
sembly of Vermont boldly declared that the territory of 
that State reached to the Hudson river. In March nego- 
tiations were opened by the British commander in Canada 
with Colonel Ethan Allen, who communicated with his 
brother, Major Ira Allen, and others, and many secret 
messages passed back and forth between the paities. The 
Aliens held forth the prospect of neutrality on the part of 
their State, and in May the governor and council sent 
Major Ira to Isle Aux Noix to arrange the terms of an 
armistice with the British commander. The Tory captain, 
Sherwood, and Dr. James Smyth, formerly of Fort Ed- 
ward, were the British agents. 

The intrigue for the annexation of the territory before 
mentioned was going forward at the same time. Not liking 
to rest their claim on no higher authority than the sup- 
posed organization of tlie province of Ticonderoga, the Ver- 
monters also resorted to the secession doctrine. In April 
the Legislature of that State directed that a convention be 
held at Cambridge the following month, compo.scd of dele- 
gates elected by the people of the various districts of Char- 
lotte county and of that part of Albany county lying north 
of the south line of Vermont prolonged to the Hudson, 
which convention should decide whether, and on what 
terms, those districts should be united to the State of Ver- 

Delegates were accordingly chosen in many of the dis- 
tricts and patents. Those who remained faithful to New 
York apparently ignored the whole proceeding, so that the 
secessionists had everything their own way in the elections. 
There had, of course, been more or less dissatisfaction with 
the way in which New York enforced her tax laws and 
militia laws, which doubtless bore very hard on the people 
in those disastrous times, and though the seceders were 
mostly New Englanders, and originally determined enemies 
of Great Britain, yet doubtless there were some of them 
who were tired of war, and willing to take advantage of 
the armistice proposed between that country and Vermont. 

The " Union Convention," as it was called, met at Cam- 
bridge on the 9th day of May. The following districts 
and townships were represented: Hoosic, Little Hoosic, 
Scaghticoke, Cambridge, Saratoga (now Easton), Upper 
White Creek (Salem), Black Creek (Hebron), Granville, 
Skenesboro', Fort Edward, and Kingsbury. John Rodgers 
was elected chairman. A committee of the Vermont Legis- 
lature, of which Moses Robinson was chairman and Jonas 
Fay was clerk, was present with authority to accept or 
reject the propositions of the convention. 

At the close of their deliberations an instrument em- 
bodying their acts was drawn up and signed by the chair- 
man of the convention and the committee. This was cer- 
tainly intended to be a very important document, for it 
was designed to accomplish nothing less than the change 
of allegiance of a territory larger than some of the States 
of the republic. It being expected to have such immense 
effect on the people of Washington county, and it being 
also a curious evidence of the views in vogue among a por- 
tion of the people at that period, we here present it to our 
readers entire. It is evident that the convention adopted 

the propositions one by one, and then the committee acted 
on each one. Then the committee made other propositions 
and the convention agreed to them. 

" Proposed by Convention composed of the Representatives from the 
several districts of llosick, Scaghticoke, Cambridge, Saratoga, Upper 
White Creek, Black Creek, Grnnvil, Skcensborough, Kingsbury, Fort 
Edward, Little Hosick, convened at Cambridge aforesaid this 9 May 
1781. and by ad'jt to the 15 of the same, Inclusive. 

" Articlk 1. That the District or Tract of Land lying north of a 
line being extended from the North Line of the Massachusetts to 
Hudson's River, and south of Latitude 4.5, as comprehended in the 
late Jurisdictional Claim by the Legislature of the State of Vermont, 
be considered as part of the State, and the inhabitants as free Citizens. 
Agreed to. 

"2. That the whole of the Military force of the State of Vermont 
(as occasion may require) shall be e.xertcd in onr defense as free 
citizens against any Insurrection, Incursion whatsoever, hut es- 
pecially against the Common Enemy. Agreed to. 

"3. That application be made by the Legislature of the State of 
Vermont to the Congress to be admitted into Union with them as 
soon as Circumstances will permit. Agreed to. 

" 4. That as the People within the aforesaid late Claim have been 
called upon, and paid a Considerable part of the Contenental Tu.xua 
into the Treasury of New York, they shall have credit for the .same 
in case Vermont at some future period should be called upon to pay 
their proportion of money remitted by Congress. 

"Agreed to, provided the services done by Vermont in the present 
war be included. 

" Reply agreed to, provided the expence of the said District in tlic 
present war be likewise included. 

" 5. That all actions depending with the late Claim be transferred 
in the situation they shall be in at the Time of Completing the Union 
to Courts that may be then forthwith erected under the authority of 
Vermont, without costs to the parties other than would have accrued 
had they been terminated in Courts under Jurisdiction of New York. 
Agreed to. 

"6. That the change of Jurisdiction shall not be understood to 
affect or Aleaniate private property. Agreed to. 
" Articles proposed by tiie Legislatur. 

" 1. That the Independence of Vermont be held saered, and no mem- 
ber of the Legislature give his Vote or otherwise use his endeavors 
to obtain any act or Resolution of the Assembly that shall endanger 
the existence. Independence, or well-being of said State, by referring 
its independence to the arbitrament of any power. Agreed to. 

" 2. That whensoever this State becomes united with the American 
States, and there should be any dispute between this and any of the 
United States respecting Boundary Lines, the Legislature of Ver- 
mont will then, as they have ever proposed, submit to Congress or 
such other Tribunal as may be mutually agreed on for the settlement 
of such disputes. Agreed to. 

" The foregoing Articles severally, mutually agreed to by the Con- 
vention and Committee at Cambridge, 15 May, 17S1. 

"John RODGKR.S, Ch. *»/ Conveittiuu. 
"MosKS RoBi.ssox, Ch. Cum. 
"Attest: Jonas Fay, Clk. Cum." 

After the adoption of this instrument, the same conven- 
tion chose delegates to the Vermont Legislature. Two of 
these, Phineas Whiteside and Joseph Caldwell, were from 
Cambridge, in the present county of Washington. One of 
these, at least, actually attended the Legislature, and his 
name is to be found recorded in its proceedings. 

But by this time the ambitious young State began to find 
that she had attempted too much. New Hamp.shire bit- 
terly protested against the attempt to rob her of her river 
towns. New York was ready for war rather than yield any 
more of her soil to those whom many of her people consid- 
ered the outlaws of the Green mountains. All the other 



States, too, were alarmed at the advocacy of doctrines 
•which, if carried out, would give every county, nay, every 
township, the right of secession from its State, and would 
add triple confusion to the already chaotic condition of 
government brought on by the Revolution. 

A large portion, too, of the people of the territory pro- 
posed to be transferred in such a summary manner made 
most decided opposition to tlie scheme. Especially was 
this true of White Creek (Salem), which was one of the 
most thickly populated towns in the disputed territory, and 
which was still largely inhabited by Scotch. It will be 
remembered that several old Scotch soldiers, who had re- 
ceived lands near the east line of Hebron, had had their 
houses burned and had been otherwise ill-treated by Ethan 
Allen's mob before the Revolution. Some of them were 
still living in White Creek and Black Creek, and all their 
countrymen in those districts, with the usual olannishness 
of their race, had warmly espoused the cause of the injured 
Highlanders, and bitterly detested everything pertaining to 

These, with the many Americans who did not believe 
they could renounce their allegiance as easily as the Union 
Convention seemed to think, braced those districts firmly 
against the proposed transfer, and the scattered inhabitants 
of other districts to the northward and westward naturally 
followed the example of their powerful neighbors. 

Subdued by the opposition of the other States and of the 
people she would have absorbed, Vermont abated her ex- 
orbitant pretensions. She permitted New Hampshire to 
exercise jurisdiction over all the towns east of the Con- 
necticut, and did not interfere with New York in the 
management of Charlotte and Albany counties. Her 
claims, however, were not formally abandoned until the 
next winter, and perhaps they would again have been urged 
had not the surrender of Yorktown deprived the Aliens 
and Fays of all further opportunity to secure their objects 
by playing off the English and Americans against each 

The intrigue with the British commander in Canada 
was kept up during the summer of 1781. In September, 
commissioners on both sides met at Skenesboro", and some 
furtlwir progress was made in the negotiations, but nothing 
definite was decided on. The British were willing to 
grant very liberal terms, but the Vermont managers did 
not want to commit themselves beyond redemption. Bitter 
as was the feeling against New York throughout Vermont, 
the leaders were by no means sure of their own people if 
it should become public that they were plotting to separate 
the State entirely from the American cause. 

The British sailed up the lake, retreated, sailed up again. 
The Americans could not understand these mysterious 
manoeuvres. St. Leger was at Ticonderoga, waiting to 
learn the result of the negotiations. October came and 
had mostly passed, and still the diplomatic manceuvring 
was going forward. Suddenly the news of the surrender 
of Cornwallis at Yorktown came flying over the land. The 
people everywhere were almost intoxicated with joy. Alike 
in New York and Vermont bonfires blazed by every road- 
side, and cannons thundered in every village, in honor not 
only of the victory which had been gained, but of the 

liberty and peace which it was believed was assured by it. 
The Vermont intriguers would hardly have dared show 
their heads in their own State if it had been known what 
they were about. The negotiations were quickly sus- 
pended, the British fleet sailed back down the lake, and it 
was many years before it was known what kind of secret 
operations were going on between the Aliens and their 
friends and the British in the summer and fall of 1781. 

Notwithstanding the dawn of peace over the land, the 
people, impoverished by the long war, were in deep distress, 
and in many sections they were unwilling to bear the most 
necessary burdens of government. About the 1st of 
December an insurrection broke out in the northeastern 
towns of Albany county, which certainly extended as far 
north as Sancoick, and may have embraced a part of Cam- 
bridge, though apparently not. It related mostly to the 
performance of militia duty, and soon passed away. 

During the winter the. authority of New York was 
firmly established throughout Charlotte county, and a 
number of those who tried to transfer it to Vermont were 
arrested and lodged in Albany county jail. No effort was 
made to protect them by the authorities of Vermont. In 
fact, on the 24th of February, 1782, the Legislature of that 
State formally relinquished their claim both to the New 
York and the New Hampshire territory which they had 
attempted to bring within their own limits. 

On the 1st of March that portion of the Cambridge 
people which had sanctioned the Vermont movement met 
in convention and reafiirmed their allegiance to New York. 
They appointed a committee, which drew up, signed, and 
forwarded to Governor Clinton a very earnest submission 
on the part of the people, declaring that they had favored 
annexation to Vermont in the hope of averting the horrors 
of British and Indian invasion, expressing regret at their 
course, and asking for mercy from the State. Similar 
documents were forwarded from other districts. 

In March a petition was sent on from inhabitants of 
White Creek, declaring that they had ever been constant 
and faithful subjects of New York, and asking for mercy 
for those who had been led astray and had attempted to 
secede to Vermont. This was signed by Captain John 
Armstrong, John Henry, Edward Savage, John Gray, 
Matthew McWhorter, Robert Pennell, Alexander Turner, 
Pelatiah Fitch, Jr., Joshua Conkey, Thomas Armstrong, 
Robert Boyd, Alexander Kennedy, Samuel McWhorter, 
Thomas Lyon, and Sanford Smith. 

Owing to these representations, and to the fact that 
Vermont had formally released her claim, the prisoners 
were soon discharged. The status of Charlotte county was 
definitely fixed, but the old dispute about the sovereignty 
over Vermont itself was still unsettled. The New York 
authorities, however, had about made up their minds that 
whatever might be the legal aspect of the case, it would be 
impracticable to maintain their jurisdiction over the obsti- 
oate mountaineers who had so long defied them, and were 
desirous to retire from the contest with as little of 
dignity as possible. Accordingly, in the spring of 1782, 
they offered to submit the whole question to the Conti- 
nental Congress. 

Kingsbury was organized as a town or township during 



this year, with the same boundaries which it originally had 
as a patent, and which it still possesses. Though peace 
was not yet declared, the people felt so well satisfied that 
the surrender of Yorktown would result in independence 
that they began to address themselves in earnest to the 
work of rehabilitating their devastated country. In the 
spring of 1783 came the news of the actual declaration of 
peace and the recognition of the independence of America, 
and then the good work went on with still greater speed. 



Distrust of everything English— Change of Name from Charlotte to 
AVnshington County — Formation of Hartford — Law regarding 
Roads — First Court Kecord under the State — Courts directed to be 
held at Salem and Fort Edward — Adoption of the name "Salem" 
— Law recognizing and defining Towns — Legislative Aid — Preva- 
lence of Dram-Drinking— The First Temper.'vnee Pledge— Wolf- 
and Panther-Bounty — Effective Canceling of Proofs — Settlement 
of the great Vermont Dispute — The Boundary — A List of Super- 
visors — Vermont admitted into the Union — Cambridge and Easton 
annexed to Washington — Struggle for the County-Scat — Super- 
visors fix it at Salem— Courts held a part of the time at Fort Ed- 
ward — The First Academy — Remarkable number of Senators from 
this County — The -Explanation — Military Matters — The First 
Newspaper — Warning to Sabbath-Breakers — The Men who "ran" 
the County — A Quaint Summons — The Northern Inland Lock Navi- 
gation Company — Turning the Judges out of Court — The Punish- 
ment — Changing the County-Seat — Other Contempts — Severe Sen- 
tences — Pillory and Branding-Iron — Prevalence of Counterfeiting 
— The Second Newspaper — The First Successful One — Scarcity of 
Mails — The Post-Boys of Yore — Summoning a Grave-Yard — More 
Military— Election Statistics— The First Turnpike— Dividing the 
Vermont Fund— A Feeble Battalion. 

TuE long and deadly struggle of the Revolution, with 
its accompaniments of invasion, house-burning, and Indian 
outrage, had naturally developed a very bitter feeling among 
the people, especially on the frontiers, against everything of 
English name or origin. Even the name of Queen Char- 
lotte was not agreeable to the inhabitants of Charlotte 
county, whose forms had been devasted by the troops of 
Queen Charlotte's husband. Still more unpleasant was the 
name of Tryon county, derived from the last British gov- 
ernor of New York, to the people of the Mohawk valley, 
where the work of burning and ma.ssacrehad been carried on 
year after year by Tories and Indians in British employ. 

Accordingly, on the second day of April, 1784, the Legis- 
lature passed an act changing the two names just mentioned. 
It was a model of brevity and precision, and, after the 
enacting clause, read as follows : 

" From and after the passage of this act the county of 
Tryon shall be known by the name of Montgomery, and 
the county of Charlotte by the name of Washington." 

Thus the most honored appellation known to Americans 
was conferred upon this county. The name was not as com- 
mon then as now, and we believe this is the oldest " Wash- 
ington county" in the United States, — a venerable patri- 
arch with nearly forty namesakes among counties, besides an 
almost countless host of towns, villages, and post-offices. 

In the year 1784 the township or district of Hartford 

was formed from Westfield (now Fort Ann), and the settle- 
ment of Dresden was begun. 

Settlement was now going on rapidly in all parts of the 
county, and tlie need of roads was constantly felt. The 
first law regarding roads in this county after the Revolu- 
tion was enacted May 4, 1784. It authorized the inhab- 
itants of Charlotte county (and of six others named in the 
act) to elect commissioners in each town at their annual 
town-meetings, to lay out and regulate the highways, and 
also to elect as many overseers of highways (path-masters) 
as there were road-districts in each town. 

A large part of the land in the county had been owned 
by Tories and had been forfeited, by act of the Legis- 
lature. During the war there had been no sale for these 
lands, and they still remained in the possession of the State. 
On the 12th of May, 1784, an act was passed providing 
for the speedy .sale of the lands in question by the com- 
missioners of forfeiture. The commissioner for the east- 
ern district was Alexander Webster, and he began to sell 
forthwith. One of the oldest records in the county clerk's 
office is Colonel Webster's register of the sales of forfeited 
lands. It is headed as follows : 

" Registered for and by the direction of Alexander Web- 
ster, Esquire, commissioner of forfeiture for the eastern dis- 
trict of New York, in pursuance of an act entitled an act 
for the speedy sale of the confiscated and forfeited estates 
within the State, and for other purposes therein mentioned, 
passed the 12th day of May, 1784." 

One of the first records reads as follows : 

" Sold to Seth Sherwood the fee-simple of lot number 
thirty-nine in the Artillery patent, as it is distinguished by 
lot number thirty-nine in the map and field-book of said 
patent (special reference being thereto had), containing two 
hundred and forty-two acres of land, for the sum of four 
hundred and twenty pounds, on the twelfth day of Octo- 
ber, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-four ; forfeited 
by the attainder of Philip and Andrew P. Skene, late of 
Skenesborough, esquires." 

No less than a hundred and sixty-two tracts of Skene's 
land were thus sold and registered, every one being declared 
forfeited by the attainder of Philip and Andrew P. Skene. 
Probably the elder gentleman had conveyed the land to the 
younger, in the hope of thus .saving it from forfeiture ; but 
the retribution of the hard-headed old patriots was not to 
be thus eluded. The elder Skene wrote from England to 
Elishama Tozer, of Whitehall, declaring that he had always 
been desirous of promoting the welfare of America, even 
when serving the king ; that he had no tie binding him to 
England, and desiring to learn whether there was any 
chance for him to resume his residence at Skenesborough, 
and regain his forfeited lands. But his efforts in this 
direction were without avail. 

Besides the Skene lands, a hundred and thirty-one tracts 
were registered as forfeited by Oliver DeLancey, ten by Ed- 
ward and Ebenezer Jcssup, three by Jonathan and Daniel 
Jones, three by Michael Hoffnagle, and one by John Tabor 
Kemp, ex-attorney-general. Several tracts, amounting to 
about a thousand acres, had belonged to Donald Fisher, 
husband of the badly-celebrated Betsey Munro. 

The largest number of tracts sold to any one person was 



to General John Williams, who purchased sixty-five, sit- 
uated in all parts of the county. In a few cases the fee- 
simple was sold, but in most instances the commissioner 
conveyed " the equity of redemption of the rent and re- 
version," the lands havinj:; been originally sold with the 
reservation of a quitrent to the crown. 

Notwithstanding the act of 1779, directing the holding 
of courts in Charlotte county, there is no record of any 
such court until 1786. At that court the first judge was 
Alexander Webster, of Hebron ; the a.ssociatcs were Eben- 
ezer Russell, of Salem, and David Hopkins, of Hebron. 
The justices " of the quorum" were Moses Martin, John 
IMcAlIister, Albert Baker, John Rowan, and Aaron Fuller. 
The clerk was Colonel John McRea. The grand jurors 
were David Brundage, Robert Wil.son, William Graham, 
John Connor, Josiah Farr, Zebulon Fuller, Samuel Wilson, 
and John Gault, of Whitehall ; Samuel Hopkins, of He- 
bron ; Bartholomew Bartlctt, Thomas Collins, David Rood, 
Jonathan Crozier, and John Low, of Salem ; Asa Flint, 
John Sheldon, and Daniel Henderson, of Kingsbury; 
Noah Payn, of Fort Miller; Daniel Curtice, of Granville ; 
Manning Bull and Benjamin Atwater, of Westfield. 

On the 5th of February, 1787, an act was passed re- 
affirming the previous act and re((uinng the courts to be 
held at Salem. This law provided for a court of common 
pleas and general sessions of the peace to be held at that 
village three times each year. Fort Edward, however, to- 
gether with the rest of the western part of the county, ap- 
plied so strong an influence that on the 21st of April fol- 
lowing the law was changed so that one of the three terms 
should be held at the house of Adiel Sherwood, in the vil- 
lage of Fort Edward. 

The name of " Salem" was used in these laws in place of 
those which the people had .so long disputed about — -"White 
Creek and New Perth. The first use of the name now 
adopted — of which we have seen any record — was its appli- 
cation to " Fort Salem" in 1777. It would appear that 
when the inhabitants became tired of their long dispute, 
they agreed to adopt the name of their first fort ; this 
again deriving its name from a Massachusetts town. So 
the New Englanders had a name of their own, after all. 

Up to this period the political organizations subordinate 
to counties had been in a very chaotic state. The names 
of towns, , townships, districts, precincts, and patents had 
been used indiscriminately, and the privileges accorded to 
each were very indefinitely defined. But on the seventh 
day of March, 1788, a law was passed defining the bound- 
aries of all the counties in the State, and also giving the 
limits of the minor divisions under the general name of 
towns. Compilations frequently refer to certain towns as 
having been organized on the day just named, while in fact 
nearly or quite all of them posses.sed political organizations, 
more or less complete, previous to that time. They were rec- 
ognized as towns on that day, their boundaries were defined, 
the designations of district, township, etc., were dropped, 
and their municipal rights and duties, which had previously 
been to a great extent of a special character, were conformed 
to a general law, applicable to the whole State. 

The towns thus recognized in Washington county were 
Salem, Argyle, Hebron, Granville, Hampton, Whitehall, 

Kingsbury, AVestfield (Fort Ann), and Queensbury. In 
Albany county there were the town of Cambridge and the 
east parts of the towns of Saratoga and Stillwater, which 
have since been transferred to Wa.shington. 

How hard was the struggle of the pioneers with the 
wilderness is shown by the fact that, in the winter of 1789, 
an act was passed by the Legislature granting the sum of a 
hundred and twenty pounds to the county of Washington, 
to be divided by the supervisors among the towns " accord- 
ing to their need," and to be refunded by those receiving 
it. The men of that period had more faults than some 
historians are willing to allow, but a disposition to be 
dependent on charity was not one of them, and it must 
have been a very great stress of hardship, probably a failure 
of crops, which made it necessary for the State to unloose 
its purse-strings in their behalf. 

Among those faults, the propensity for absorbing an un- 
conscionable amount of rum and whisky was the 
prominent. The universal prevalence of dram-drinking and 
the great frequency of absolute drunkenness are attested by 
the evidence alike of tradition and of record. The first 
temperance pledge (if it can be so called) which we have 
found in the county dates back to 1789, and itself fur- 
nishes strong proof of the evil it was de.signed to remedy. 

It was a pledge by Colonel John Williams and others 
not to furnish their harvest hands with more than half a 
pint of rum per day ; that being, in the language of the 
document, '' enough to fit them for labor." 

The first law that we find ofiering a bounty for wild 
beasts in this county was passed in April, 1790. It pro- 
vided that for every wolf or panther, killed in the counties 
of Montgomery and Wa.shington, the sum of ten shillings 
(one dollar and twenty-five cents) should be paid if the 
animal was under a year old, and twenty shillings if it was 
over that age. In the counties east and south of those 
named the bounty was three times as much. 

The tricks that we read of as having been practiced in 
the bounty business in old times could not have been 
carried out under this law without the active assistance of 
a public ofiicial. The Legislatore had evidently had ex- 
perience in the ways of wolf-killers, and provided that each 
seeker for a bounty should take the unskinned head of the 
slain animal to a justice of the peace, who after due ex- 
amination .should proceed to " cancel" it, by cutting off the 
ears ; certainly a very efiicient method of preventiug it 
from ever being used again. He was then required to 
give without charge a certificate, on which the bounty 
could be drawn from the county treasurer. In October 
following, the bounty in the two counties was doubled both 
as to old and young animals. 

During this year (1790) the long contest between New 
York and the people of the " New Hampshire grants" was 
finally settled. The authorities of the former State became 
satisfied that they would never be able to extend their 
jurisdiction over the Green Mountain Boys, and conse- 
quently made a virtue of necessity by yielding what they 
considered their legal rights. Accordingly, on the 6th of 
March, a law was passed ceding to Vermont all claim to 
political jurisdiction and also to ownership of the land 
within that State, and appointing commissioners to meet 



with others from Vermont and settle the boundaries 
between the two States. 

Tiie commissioners met in October followinj;, and agreed 
on a boundary beginning at the northeast corner of Massa- 
chusetts and running thence northerly along the western 
bounds of the towns of Pownal, Bennington, Shaftsbury, 
Arlington, Sandgate, Rupert, Wells, and Foultney, as then 
held, to the Poultney river; thence down the middle 
of the deepest channel of Poultney river to East bay ; 
and thence down the middle of East bay and Lake Cham- 
plain to the forty-fifth parallel of north latitude. This 
boundary, from the southwest corner of Saleni north- 
ward to Clinton county, also formed the eastern boundary 
of Washington county. It was also agreed at the same 
time that Vermont should pay to New York the sum of 
thirty thousand dollars, to be divided among those who had 
lost by buying land from New York within the disputed 
territory. This was but a small fraction of the value of 
the lands patented by New Yorkers, but we suppose it 
served as a salve to the wounded dignity of the State. 

Chancing to have met a list of the supervisors of Wash- 
ington county for 1790, we reproduce it here, as it is per- 
haps the only complete list which ha.s come down from the 
last century, most of the early papers of the board having 
been destroyed. It is as follows: Salem, Hamilton McCol- 
lister ; Argyle, William Read ; Queensbury (now in War- 
ren county), William Robards ; Kingsbury, Seth Alden ; 
Westfield (Fort Ann), George Wray ; Whitehall, Cornelius 
Jones ; Hampton, John How ; Granville, Timothy Leonard ; 
Hebron, John Hamilton. 

In ,1791, Vermont was admitted into the Union as a 
State, thus putting the seal of Federal authority on the 
settlement arrived at this year. Washington county thus 
became permanently a border county along all of its enor- 
mous length. In this year also the counties of Rensselaer 
and Saratoga were formed from Albany. By the same act 
the town of Cambridge, comprising also the present towns 
of Jackson and White Creek, was transferred to Washing- 
ton county, and that part of the towns of Saratoga and 
Stillwater lying east of the Hudson was formed into a new 
town, by the name of Easton, and also annexed to Wash- 
ington. We do not know, but we imagine very strongly, 
that these transfers were managed by General John Wil- 
liams, of Salem, then an influential member of the State 
Senate, so as to strengthen the south end of the county, and 
get the county-seat permanently fixed at Salem. 

At all events, that same year a petition was circulated 
asking the Legislature to fix the county-seat permanently 
at Salem, and to authorize the building of a court-house 
and jail at that point, there having been no county build- 
ings previous to that time. Fort Edward and the neigh- 
boring towns of course resisted this movement. At the 
same time many of the Cambridge and Easton people local market was at Lansingburg, were anxious to 
be again transferred to Rensselaer county. An act to this 
effect actually passed the Assembly in March, 1791 , but was 
stopped in the Senate, where we again see the influence of 
General Williams. Edward Savage, of Salem (father of 
the celebrated Chief-Justice Savage), was also a senator at 
the same time, and of course opposed to the change. The 

fact of there being two State senators from a thinly-settled 
country town is a very remarkable one, of which more will 
be said flirther on. 

While Salem and Fort Edward were thus struggling for 
the honors of the capital, some of the river people desired 
to have it located at Fort Miller. The Legislature avoided 
a decision by the device so frequently resorted to since 
that time, and at length permanently incorporated in the 
law ; they authorized the board of supervisore to fix the 
locality. The board accordingly met, and located the 
county-seat at Salem. 

The next year Fort Edward made zealous efforts to have 
the vote reconsidered, but in vain. Failing in this, the 
people of that part of the county sought to have two 
county-seats established, and in this they were .so far suc- 
cessful as to obtain the passage of a law that the courts 
should be held as before, a part of the time at Fort Edward. 
No court-house was erected there, however, while in 1792 
an act was passed directing the county to raise money to 
build a and jail at Salem. These structures 
were accordingly begun, but were not completed until about 
four years from that date. 

Togo back a little, we find that in 1791 an institution of 
learning was incorporated, under the name of Salem Wash- 
ington Academy. There had previou.sly been a high school 
kept at Salem (part of the time in Fort Williams), but this 
was the first chartered academy or seminary in the county ; 
in fact, the first north of Albany. There were but five 
academies, then in existence in the State, which have sur- 
vived to the present time. A full account of this vener- 
able institution will be found in the town history of Salem. 

In 1793 another town was added to the Washington 
county list, Hartford being formed from Westfield on the 
12th day of March in that year. 

In the election held in January of the same year there 
were seventeen hundred votes cast for State senator. General 
Williams receiving twelve hundred, which was enough to 
overcome an adverse vote in Saratoga county and leave him 
still a handsome majority. 

And here we would advert to some very curious facts in 
the political history of the county. From 1777 till 1803 
Charlotte or Washington county was invariably repre- 
sented by two members in the State Senate, and almost all 
the time it had three of its citizens in that body. More- 
over, during the period from 1803 to 1826 the county was 
almost always represented by two senators. Since 1826 
it has been obliged to content itself with one senator, and 
of late years only has one from a half to a third of the 

What is still more remarkable is that during the fii-st- 
naraed period (1777 to 1803) nearly all the senators were 
from the southeast part of the county, and the single town 
of Salem generally had two of its citizens in the Senate. 
The adjoining town of Hebron came next in the senatorial 
roll, while during the whole period in question there were 
but three senators from all the rest of the county. 

Such a phenomenal concentration of political stars seems 
at first very strange, but it is not extremely difficult of ex- 
planation. It arose at first from the fact that the State 
was divided into four districts, each of which elected a cer- 



tain number of senators. Charlotte or Washington county 
belonged to the eastern district, to which were assigned 
three senators by the constitution of 1777. But besides 
Charlotte, the eastern district consisted only of Cumberland 
and Gloucester counties. Now Cumberland and Glouces- 
ter, as well as the eastcin part of Ciiarlotte county, were in 
the New Hampshire grants, which had erected themselves 
into the State of Vermont, and any one who there had un- 
dertaken to vote for a New York senator would have been 
probably sent to jail by the authorities of that State, besides 
being in great danger of a coat of tar and feathers. Con- 
sequently, all the senators allotted to the eastern district 
had to be chosen from Charlotte county. 

Even after the cession of jurisdiction by New York to 
Vermont the situation was unchanged ; for the number of 
senators allotted to a district was fi.xed by the constitution, 
and that constitution was not changed until 1802. Subse- 
quent to 1803, however, a porti(m of this unconscionable 
allowance of senators was allotted to the new counties 
formed out of Washington on the north. 

While the formation of Vermont prevented any senators 
from being chosen from the eastern three-quarters of the 
eastern district, the circumstances of the Revolution practi- 
cally confined the choice to the southwestern third of the re- 
maining quarter. In the northern and northeastern towns 
of what is now Washington county a large proportion of 
the inhabitants, including most of the leaders, were Tories. 
These towns, too, were ravaged by fire and sword during 
the Revolution, and it was a long time after its close before 
they regained sufiicient vigor to take a prominent part iu 
political management. Consequently, Salem and Hebron 
had a very wide scope for the gratification of their political 

The " general training" and the " company training" were 
important institutions of those days, and the leading citi- 
zens were nearly all ambitious of the honors to be derived 
from militia offices. Dr. John Williams, unquestionably 
the first man of the county, was brigadier-general. As the 
militia was then organized, there were no colonels, each 
regiment being under a lieutenant-colonel and two majors. 
In 1793 there were two or more regiments in Washington 
county, the field and staff of the one in the northwestern 
section being as follows : 

Lieutenant-Colonel commanding, Adiel Sherwood ; First 
Major, Peter B. ; Second Major, Isaac Hitchcock; 
Surgeon, Zina Hitchcock; "Surgeon's Mate" (now called 
Assistant Surgeon), John Perrigo ; Quartermaster, Charles 
Robinson; Adjutant, J. Adams ; Paymaster, Hugh Preble. 

The first new.spaper in a county is usually considered as 
a landmark of progress, and was much more so in those 
times than now, its establishment being a much harder 
task. Nowadays, Charlotte county would not probably 
have been in existence three weeks before some enterpris- 
ing typo would have started a journal, whether there were 
any inhabitants to read it or not. But it was not until 
1794, twenty-two years after the organization of the county, 
that such an institution was known in Charlotte or Wash- 
ington. It was called the Times or National Courier, and 
was Issued at Salem, on the 18th day of June in that 
year, by George W. Gerrish. Like all papers of that era. 

it was extremely defective in local news, so that we can 
learn little from it regarding the condition of the county. 
Late as it was, it was too early for the times, and after a 
seven-months' struggle with adverse fate it gave up the 
ghost. A more detailed account of this and sub.sequent 
journals will be found elsewhere. 

In this year, the court-house and jail not being completed, 
an act was passed providing for a tax on the county of four 
hundred pounds (one thousand dollars) to finish those 

Although, as has been said, drinking and drunkenness 
were more prevalent then than now, yet the feeling against 
the violation of the Sabbath was much stronger than at the 
present time. A public notice was issued on the 6th of 
June, signed by all the judges of the court of common 
pleas, four assistant justices (or justices of the quorum), 
the sheriff, and fourteen, justices of the peace, warning the 
people of their intention to enforce the law for the suppres- 
sion of immorality, and particularly reminding the constables 
of Washington county to arrest and detain all persons 
traveling without necessity on the Lord's day ; and request- 
ing all the good people of the county to aid in the effort to 
enforce the law, " as it has an immediate connection with 
the happiness and prosperity of that community of which 
they are a part." 

The notice was signed by Ebenezer Russell, first judge; 
Alexander Webster, John Williams, Ebenezer Clark, and 
David Hopkins, judges ; Samuel Crossett, Edward Savage, 
and Peter B. Tearse, assistant justices ; Andrew White, 
sheriff; and by the following justices of the peace: John 
M. Killip, William Dougall, Thomas Smith, Thomas Bel- 
lows, John Rowan, Daniel Curtice, Wm. Harkness, John 
Kincaid, Alexander Webster, Jr., Edward Harris, Walter 
Raleigh, Thomas Dennis, John McAllister, and David 
Thomas. Although the people were much more favorable 
to such a movement than they would be at the present 
time, yet it was not carried out without a good deal of diffi- 
culty, and there was much trouble on the subject for many 

It should be mentioned that the five judges named were 
all (except Clark, of Fort Edward, previously of Salem) 
from the southeastern part of the county, and were the 
same who so long represented Charlotte or Washington 
county in the State Senate. Russell and Williams were 
from Salem, and Webster and Hopkins from Hebron. The 
five men just mentioned, and James and Edward Savage, 
of Saleni, in modern phrase, " ran" the polities of the 
county for about a quarter of a century. 

As an instance of the quaint ways of doing things prev- 
alent in the old times, we may mention a notice sent by a 
magistrate of the county to a delinquent debtor (and re- 
corded by Judge Gibson), which, after a statement of the 
acccount of which payment was desired, concluded with 
the following pertinent quotation from Holy Writ : 

"Agree with thine adversary quickly, while thou art in the way 
with him, lest at any time he deliver thee to the judge, and the judge 
deliver thee to the officers, and thou be cast into prison. Verily, I 
say unto thee, thou shall by no means come out thence until thou 
hast paid the uttermost farthing." 

At this period an earnest effort was being made to improve 



the navigation jf Wood creek, and to build a short canal, so 
as to connect the waters of the Hudson with those of Lake 
Champlain. The Northern Inland Lock Navigation Com- 
pany was incorporated for the purpose of performing this 
much-needed work in the same manner actually done by 
the Western Inland Lock Navigation Company in connect- 
ing the waters of the Mohawk river and Oneida lake, General 
Philip Schuyler being the leading spirit in both enterprises. 
General Williams, who had bought the .forfeited estates of 
Major Skene, of Whitehall, was an active member and 
director of the Northern Company. 

The latter company commenced operations, and in June, 
1794, advertised for a contract " for cleaning Halfway brook 
from the present landing-place to its junction with Wood 
creek, and for cleaning Wood creek from the junction afore- 
said to the entrance of the canal at Whitehall." But owing 
to lack of means the company was obliged to stop work, and 
the desired communication wa.s not made until more than 
thirty years later. 

In 1796 a term of court was held, as one had been each 
year for nine years, at the hotel of Adiel Sherwood, at Fort 
Edward. This gentleman, who, it will be remembered, was 
the same who commanded as captain at Fort Ann, in 1780, 
now united the glittering dignity of a lieutenant-colonel of 
militia with the humble duties of a village tavern-keeper. 
The court appears to have been held in his dining-room. 
One day, as the dinner-hour approached. Colonel Sherwood, 
who had perhaps become disgruntled at something the hon- 
orable court had done, abruptly entered the room and per- 
emptorily ordered the judges to vacate it, as he desired to 
have the table set for dinner. 

Judges were important personages then, and, as has 
been stated, the judges of Washington county were its 
most prominent citizens. That, after having been allowed 
to set up their court in a room, they should be thus dicta- 
torially ordered out of it, even by a lieutenant-colonel of 
militia, was almost enough to paralyze them with horror 
and indignation. Sherwood, however, made so much ado 
that the court adjourned for the time being, but at their 
next session they proceeded to make a signal example of 
this irreverent offender. The record reads as follows : 
" Adiel Sherwood, having been guilty of contempt, it is 
ordered that the said Adiel Sherwood be committed to the 
common jail of Washington county for the space of fifteen 

It is highly probable that this contempt of Colonel Sher- 
wood had au important effect on the county-seat question, for 
three of the insulted judges were then senators, and, although 
the courts had been held at liis house for nine years, at the 
very next session of the Legislature the place of holding 
them was changed to the hotel of Mary Dean, in Sandy 
Hill. The consequence has been that Sandy Hill has been 
a county-seat ever since, and Fort Edward has not. 

Punishments for contempt seem to have been quite com- 
mon along about that period. Another occurred the same 
year. John McMichael, already under indictment, was 
committed during the pleasure of the court, " fur that he, 
in the presence of the court, was guilty of contempt, by 
using indecent, disrespectful, and immoral language, and 
insulting the court." And another person, a little earlier. 

" being charged" with having uttered contemptuous words 
against the court, was ordered to find two sureties for his 
good behavior till the next court, and to stand committed 
until he should do so, which was sufficiently stringent for 
" being charged" with contemptuous words. 

The individual in question was less fortunate than the 
one who was tried at Salem " charged with suspicion of 
horse-stealing," for he was acquitted of the curious crime 

As a rule the sentences were decidedly severe. The pil- 
lory, the whipping-post, and even the branding-iron were 
recognized instruments in the administration of justice, 
and the two first were the ornaments of every county-seat. 
Thus we find a record of one man, convicted of perjury, 
sentenced to stand in the pillory at Salem one hour, and 
then to be confined in the State's-prison, at hard labor, 
for a long term of years ; of another, sentenced for grand 
larceny, to be taken to the public, " and that 
he there receive thirty-nine lashes on his bare back, from 
the waist upwards;" and of still another, convicted of coun- 
terfeiting, and condemned " to be branded with the letter 
' C on his left cheek, with a rod-hot iron, and to confine- 
ment at hard labor in the State's-prison for life." 

It would seem that the punishment for counterfeiting 
was excessively severe even as compared with the other 
sentences just mentioned, and enormously so in comparison 
with one for burglary, — " breaking and robbing a store," — 
the guilty person being only fined ten pounds ! Probably, 
however, there were mitigating circumstances in that case, 
and the secret of the severity exercised against counterfeit- 
ing is to be found in the prevalence of that crime. Coun- 
terfeiters were as thick as horse-thieves in Texas, and they 
met with no more mercy. 

It was not generally bank-bills which were counterfeited, 
though doubtless there was some of this done, but silver 
dollars, half-dollars, quarters, etc. ; for the new money of 
America was already in circulation, though accounts were 
commonly kept in pounds, shillings, and pence. Bogus 
silver would seem to be comparatively easy to detect, yet 
there was a great deal of it in circulation eighty years ago, 
and the hills of Washington county and of Vermont fur- 
nished an excellent lurking-place for the lawless manufac- 

Hon. John McDonald, whose vigorous memory extends 
back into the hist century, states that the counterfeiters 
were commonly called " two-for-onc men," because they 
were in the habit of trading off two dollars of bogus money 
for one of good. There were bands of them in various 
parts of this county and Vermont, and one of their prin- 
cipal " runways" was at the house of the notorious Betsey 
Fisher (daughter of Rev. Harry Munro), whose own sub. 
sequent trial and conviction for forgery was among the great 
sensations of the day. 

The second newspaper published in the county was issued, 
like its predecessor, at Salem, in May, 1796, and was called 
the Washington Patrol (not Patriot, as has sometimes 
been stated). The patrol was duly represented in an en- 
graving at the head of the paper as pacing his beat to and 
fro, with shouldered musket and fixed bayonet, with the 
Icend, " All is well" issuing from his lips. Beneath was 



the inscription " Watch for the Republic," while above were 
the French words, "io niiit est jinssde" — the night is passed 
— evidently referring to the emergence of the country from 
the darkness of the Revolutionary period, and from the 
confusion preceding the adoption of the Federal constitu- 

Notwithstanding this very military and patriotic name 
and frontispiece, and notwitlistanding the literary merits of 
St. John Honeywood, the editor, there was still a lack of 
the sinews of war, and the " Patrol" marched into non- 
entity within less than a year after it entered on the journ- 
alistic war-path. 

It was not until 17!)8, nearly twenty-sis years after the 
organization of the county, that a successful and permanent 
newspaper was established within its boundaries. The 
lucky venture was made by Henry Dodd, and was called the 
Northern Centiitel, which martial name enabled it to ap- 
propriate the old engraved frontispiece of the Patrol. The 
first number was issued at Salem, on the first day of Jan- 
uary, 1798, and since then Washington county has never 
been without a newspaper. 

One good reason why it was so very difficult to support 
a journal in the county was because there were almost no 
post-offices nor mail-routes. Up to 1797 Salem was the only 
post-offiee in the eastern half of the county, supplying with 
mail not only almost all of this county but several towns 
in Vermont. Sandy Hill had no post-office till that year, 
when a mail-route was opened from there to Saratoga. For 
many years after a successful jiaper was established, it was 
delivered to subscribers by post-riders, or post-boys as they 
were commonly called, who traveled on horseback over hill 
and through dale, sounding their horns as they approached 
the residences of their patrons, and being usually met by 
some member of the family, who were the more anxious to 
learn the news from its so seldom reaching them. 

If it was night and no one came to receive the paper, 
after repeated warnings, the post-boy would throw it over 
the fence to await the arising of the inmates in the morning. 

It is related that on one occasion the rider, who was de- 
livering the paper in Cambridge, having absorbed too much 
spiritual consolation at the tavern, halted at the gate of the 
old grave-yard south of that village, and blew his horn for 
some one to come and take his paper. Again and still 
'again, each time louder than before, he repeated the call, 
but finding it still unheeded he threw the paper over into 
the grave-yard, and rode off, saying, " They will find it 
when they get up," which was doubtless true. 

For most of the facts and incidents related in the past 
two or three pages relating to the courts and the press, we 
are indebted to the published articles of Hon. James Gib- 
son, though we have also examined the records bearing on 
the subject. 

Keeping our eyes open for the military, then so import- 
ant an element of country life, we find that in 1799 the 
command of Brigadier-General Williams consisted of the 
regiments of Lieutenant-Colonel King, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Thomas, Lieutenant-Colonel White, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Kane, and Lieutenant-Colonel Lansing. One or two of 
these were probably out of the county, though in these 
days it did not require a very large population to justify 

five regiments of militia. The governor manufactured 
colonels on the slightest provocation. 

At the election that year Washington county, including 
Warren, cast three thousand and thirty-six votes ; of which 
the Republicans, afterwards called Democrats, had a hand- 
some majority. Edward Savage, the most popular Repub- 
lican candidate for the Assembly, received seventeen hun- 
dred and sixty-six votes ; while David Hopkins, the highest 
on the Federal list, had but twelve hundred and seventy. 
The county was almost invariably Republican, or Demo- 
cratic, those being then convertible terms throughout all 
its early history. 

By a law passed in March, 1799, the general manage- 
ment of the roads in the county was vested in three super- 
intendents of highways, appointed by the council of ap- 
pointment. To these superintendents appeals lay from the 
town commissioners. This arrangement, however, lasted 
but a few years, since when the road management has 
been entirely by towns, — -a fact regretted by some, who 
desire the unity secured by the system just mentioned, 
or by the still older one, which vested the entire manage- 
ment in county commissioners. 

Another important movement in regard to highways 
was the beginning of turnpikes. The Northern Turnpike 
Company, the first intended to operate within this county, 
was incorporated on the first day of April, 1799. It 
was designed to build a turnpike from Lansingburg, 
through Cambridge, Salem, and Hebron, to the house of 
Hezekiah Leaving, in the town of Granville ; and among 
its directors were William Hay, Edward Wells, Jr., David 
Long, Martin Van Buskirk, John Williams, and Edward 
Savage. The company immediately went to work, and not 
only built the road to the designated point, but continued 
it northward, through Hampton, to the State line, connect- 
ing with a similar road to Burlington, Vermont. Tlicy 
also built a branch from Salem northeastward to the State 
line, and another from Granville to Whitehall. 

We may mention in passing that the money received 
from Vermont at the settlement of the great dispute was 
divided in 1799 among the New York claimants for dam- 
ages. It would look as if various subterranean influences 
prevailed with public officials almost as much then as now. 
Of the thirty thousand dollars to be distributed. Golds- 
borough Banyar, of Albany, a large landed proprietor in 
Cambridge, as well as in other parts of the State, and one 
of the very provincial officials whose extortions had caused 
a great part of the difficulty, received seven thousand two 
hundred and eighteen dollars, while Charles Hutchins, the 
settler whose lands had been seized and house destroyed by 
Ethan Allen and his companions, received nine dollars and 
ninety-eight cents. The other residents of Washington 
county benefited by the fund were Ebenezer Clarke, thirty- 
seven dollars and forty-two cents; Archibald Campbell, 
forty-nine dollars and ninety-one cents ; and Samuel Stev- 
ens, six hundred and fifty-three dollare and sixty-three 

Numerous as were the colonels and captains of the mili- 
tia, their commands were apt to be deficient in men, and still 
more so in e(|uipments. A brigade return of the uniformed 
companies of Washington county militia, for the year 1800, 



shows that Captain Solomon Smith's troop of horse could 
muster but twenty-seven men and fourteen sabres. Captain 
K- Smith's troop had twenty-eight men and seven cartridge- 
boxes; Captain John Doty's light infantry had twenty-five 
soldiers, with fifteen firelocks; while Captain Morrison's 
company had but fifteen members. 

Having now reached the end of the eighteenth century, 
we will pause in our record of current events to take a 
somewhat comprehensive view of Washington county as it 
was at that era. 



Population in 180(1— Increase of Villages— Plight increase of Farms 
— Style of Houses— Principal Industries — Markets- Whisky — 
Methods of Traveling — Wolves and Bears — A Circular Hunt — An 
CNciting Scene — Slaughter of the Foe — Demoralization of the Sur- 

At this time' there were thirty-five thousand inhabitants 
in Washington county, of which probably twenty-five thou- 
sand, or half the present number, were in the territory 
which now goes by that name, and the rest in the present 
Warren county. The increase, however, has been largely 
in the villages, which were then very few and very small. 
The farming population was probably two-thirds or three- 
fourths as large then as now. Tiie amount of land cleared 
was, however, very much less then than now. Mr. John 
IMcDonald estimates it at one-fourth the area now cleared. 
Except in the villages, almost all the houses were of logs, 
and tiie barns of the same material. The inhabitants were 
still mostly of Scotch and New England blood, with a few 
Hudson river Dutchmen intermingled. 

The raising of grain — wheat, oats, and rye — was the prin- 
cipal industry of the farmers, though considerable attention 
was also paid to the rearing of cattle. Of sheep each 
farmer tried to guard a few against the wolves, so that his 
wife or daughters could make the flannel and the " fulled 
cloth" necessary for their own family. 

The main market for exports was at Montreal, by way of 
Lake Champlain, whither were transported not only the 
surj)lus grain of the farmers but large quantities of pot 
and pearl ashes, made from the timber which they were glad 
to get rid of in order to clear tlieir land. Potash, in fact, 
was one of tiie main resources of the pioneers ; for that, 
being easy of transportation in proportion to its value, would 
always bring cash, while grain could sometimes hardly be 
sold lor enough to pay the cost of freight. 

There was also a local market at Lansingburg (for Troy 
was not yet in existence), where small sales and purchases 
were made, especially in the winter, when Lake Champlain 
was closed by ice. Occasionally, too, some old-fashioned 
man would take a sleigh-load of produce or drive a drove 
of cattle overland to Boston, in accordance with the habit 
of a .still earlier day, but this was very seldom. The main 
travel being northward to Montreal and southward to Lan- 
singburg, the three great roads running north and south 
through the county frequently showed in winter a long 
procession of teams going to market with produce and re- 
turning with salt, hardware, and other purchased articles. 

Shout and song enlivened the way, and now and then one 

of the foremost drivers would produce a jug of whisky, re- 
spectfully salute it with upturned lips, and then set it in the 
snow beside the road, where each, as lie passed, would seize 
it, draw his rations, and again deposit the precious utensil 
in the snow. 

The general lic|uor-driiiking proclivities have been men- 
tioned before. It is said that there were from ten to fifteen 
taverns in the town of Salem alone, besides several other 
places where liquor was sold, and a distillery, where a dipper 
always hung beside the still, and where whisky was as free 
as cider at a cider-mill. Doubtless, however, this constant 
drinking, though sufficiently injurious, was not as harmful 
as it would now be, because the drinkers were nearly all 
devoted to hard, out-door, manual labor, and they " worked 
off" a good portion of the liquor so freely imbibed. 

Most of the teams which then drove over the road had 
harnesses with rope traces, harnesses entirely of leather 
being reserved for the aristocracy ; in fact, it was a sign of 
a man's being in pretty good circumstances if he even 
owned a horse-team. Probably a majority of the farmers 
had nothing but oxen, and who had horses used them 
principally for the road, doing their farm-work with the 
more humble species of team. As for pleasure-carriages, 
single or double, there was hardly one in the county, though 
possibly in two or three villages an old-fashioned chaise 
might have been seen rolling leisurely along on its two 
wheels, beneath the burden of some ponderous couple too 
aged for horseback riding. 

Nearly all the traveling by men on business was done on 
horseback, and the women, too, of the better class, were 
all at home on the side-saddle. Even the one-horse wagon 
was an unknown institution. While the poorer of 
farmers went to meeting with their families on ox-carts, one 
of the more " forehanded" ones would on Sunday hitch up 
his horses to his big lumber-wagon, take his wife and .six 
or eight children, perhaps fill up with the family of one of 
his poorer neighbors, and drive off to church with flying 
colors. Sometimes, however, when the family consisted 
only of a young married couple, the man would bestride 
his saddle, the wife would seat herself behind him on a 
pillion, and thus in proper state they would make their 
way to the house of the Lord. 

Toll-bridges were then quite numerous. There was one 
over the Hudson at Sandy Hill, another at Fort Miller, 
and another at Schuylerville ; also one over the Iloosic, 
long known as FJagle bridge. 

The wild animals were still plentiful, especially in the 
northern part of the county. Sheep had to be carefully 
folded for fear of the wolves, and it was not uncommon for 
a bear to scramble into a badly-constructed hog-pen, seize a 
convenient-sized young shote by the back of the neck, and 
trot off with him into the woods, as a cat does with a 
kitten ; always provided that the squeals of the captured 
animal did not bring out the pioneer with his rifle to put 
an end to the ursine exploit. Occasionally, too, the shriek 
of the panther, fiercest of American beasts, was heard at 
the edge of a clearing, when mothei's hastily gathered their 
children together, and shuddered at thought of the terrible 
danger nigh. 



To get rid of these numerous unpleasant visitors, espe- 
cially the wolves, the people were in the habit of forming 
great circles several miles in extent, and moving steadily 
forward towaids the centre, shooting at every animal they 
saw. Sometimes an unguarded place in the circle per- 
mitted the beasts to escape, but usually there was quite an 
extensive slaughter. One of the last and most successful 
of these circle-hunts was directed against Kingsbury swamp 
in the very first year of this century. As other sections 
had been cleared up and hunted out, the wild animals had 
retreated to this extensive tangled marsh as to their last 

The proper arrangements having been duly made before- 
hand, early one summer morning, when the swamp was 
comparatively dry, the farmers and villagers assembled 
from far and near, armed with rifles, muskets, and fowling- 
pieces, and plentifully provided with ammunition. A cap- 
tain and the necessary subordinates were elected, and a 
of signals and a code of rules were duly promulgated. 
Then, under the direction of the officers, the circle was 
carefully formed, and at a preconcerted signal the men ad- 
vanced into the swamp. IMoving forward as rapidly as the 
tangled undergrowth would permit, they soon began to 
rouse up some of their victims. Deer sprang from their 
lairs, and darted away towards the centre of the covert, 
some falling before the weapons of the hunters, while now 
and then an old buck would make a bold dash through the 
circle, and gain the freedom of the distant hills of Fort 

Still onward pressed the hunters, and at length they 
began to see the gray-backed sheep-eaters, the especial 
object of their search. These, too, retreated toward the 
centre. The circular skirmish-line grew closer. The firing 
was almost incessant, but it was only at long intervals that 
a wolf was slain, when shouts of triumph burst from a 
hundred throats, resembling the scalp-yell which erstwhile 
rose in these same forests over many a human victim. 

Wolves and deer were now intermixed, and for the time 
forgot their mutual antipathy in the common fear of a 
more deadly foe. More and more frequent grew the shots 
of rifle and musket and fowling-piece. More and more 
frequently some of the inclosed animals dashed through 
the circle and made their escape ; more and more common 
became the shouts of triumph over the slain. At length 
the centre is reached amid a grand fusillade of excited 
sportsmen, a frantic scattering of still surviving animals, 
and a tremendous chorus of yells that would have rejoiced 
the heart of Marin or St. Luc de la Corne. 

On counting the slain eleven wolves were found, — a 
most extraordinary yield, — together with deer and other 
smaller animals too numerous or too insignificant for record. 
Many of the wolves which escaped were doubtless wounded, 
and the rest were badly demoralized. In fact, they were 
sick of the country. Most of them made their way to 
join their comrades in the mountains of Dresden and 
Putnam ; and the central and southern portions of the 
county were never afterwards infested by these midnight 
assassins to ' anything like the same extent as before. It 
was by no means uncommon, however, for one of them to 
come down out of the hills, run riot in two or three flocks 

of sheep, slaughtering and sucking the blood of a dozen or 
more, hardly stopping to taste the flesh of the slain, and 
then escaping unharmed to his rocky fastness. Fox®, 
too, frequently killed young lambs as remorselessly as they 
would so many chickens, and, taking it altogether, the 
business of raising sheep in Washington county was a 
decidedl}' precarious one for a considerable time, even in 
the present century. 


1800 TO 1861. 

A Peaceful Era — Greenwich — Another Court-IIouse — Turnpikes- 
Dresden — Fort Ann — The County Clerk's Office — Sheep-raising — 
First Memoirs — An E.vpcnsive Experiment — Frame Houses — War 
of 1S12 — General Apathj— Flax-culture — Premium for Woolen 
Cloth — A Curious Tribunal — Warren County formed — Prospect of 
Invasion — Militia called out — Queer Stories — A Regiment on the 
Lake — News of Victory — White Cr.eek and Jackson — The Champ- 
lain Canal — Its Completion — General Improvement — The Stage- 
Coach Era — Some Distinguished Men — The Wool Business again 
— Population at various Periods — Progress of Improvement — 
Plank-Roads— The First Railroad— Approach of War. 

Wf, have now passed the old Indian period, the Revolu- 
tionary period, and the pioneer period, in the existence of 
Washington county. Henceforth, for sixty years, our steps 
will be along the beaten path of our more prosaic modern 
life, and we can therefore advance with much more rapidity. 
Another thing that will facilitate the progress of this gen- 
eral history is the fact that the town histories, and the 
numerous sketches there given of churches, lodges, manu- 
factures, etc., will give the reader a better idea of the later 
development of the county than any mere general account 
that we could compile. 

On the 4th of March, 1803, the town of Greenwich 
was formed from the southern part of Argyle. The next 
year was marked by the beginning of a court-house at Sandy 
Hill. The law providing for its erection was pas.sed on the 
20th day of March, 1804, and directed that it should be 
built within half a mile of the house of Daniel Cook in 
the town of Kingsbury. It was not completed until 1806. 
It was a plain, rectangular two-story frame building, about 
thirty-five feet by forty, and is still standing, in a fair state 
of preservation, near where it was originally erected. 

During the next few years, the most noticeable improve- 
ment was in regard to the roads ; numerous turnpikes being 
built iu various parts of the county during the first decade 
of this century. The most important was the Waterford 
and Whitehall turnpike. The company was incorporated 
in March, 180G, with a capital of one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars, and the road was built soon after. It was 
sixty miles long, and crossed the Hudson into this county 
at Fort Miller, running thence by way of Fort Edward 
and Fort Ann to Whitehall. Other turnpikes of the period 
were the " Whitehall and Granville," the " Whitehall and 
Fair Haven," the " Mitchell and Shaftsbury," and the 
"East Salem." All have ceased to take toll except the 
Whitehall and Granville. 

On the 28th of February, 1806, the long, mountainous 
peninsula lying between Lake Champlaiu and Lake George 



was severed from Westfield and formed into a new town, 
to which was very properly given the name of the sturdy 
warrior who had so often coasted along its shores and trav- 
ersed with wary steps its rock-bound ridges. The town of 
Putnam, as then organized, contained not only the territory 
wliich now bears that name, but also the present town of 

With even greater, on the sixth day of 
April, 1808, the unmeaning name of We.stfield was changed 
for the historic one of Fort Ann. It is only to be regretted 
that the same law did not provide some condign punishment 
for every reckless mortal who should dare to spell the name 
derived from Queen Anne in any other way than A, double 
n, e; but it did not, and time has now sanctified our fore- 
fathers' blunder, probably beyond the hope of remedy. 

Notwith.standing, or rather, there were twocounty- 
seats, the county clerk's office had not been located at either 
one of them. In fact, after it left Salem it had been kept 
wherever the county clerk happened to reside. But in 1806 
an end was put to its peregrinations, by a law which located 
it permanently " within one-half mile of the house of Peleg 
Bragg, in the town of Argylc ;" the person named being 
a noted tavern-keeper of that period and locality. Peleg 
Bragg has long since passed away, but the county clerk's 
office of Washington county is still kept within half a mile 
of the point where his house stood in 180G. 

We now turn -our attention to a branch of agricultural 
industry which up to this period had been little regarded, 
but which has since become one of the most important in 
the county ; we refer to the raising of sheep. For the facts 
relating to this subject we are indebted to Dr. Fiteh's ad- 
mirable " Survey of Washington County." Throughout 
the last century, as already stated, the farmers raised only 
sheep enough to supply their families with home-made 
clothing, — and they thought themselves lucky if they could 
circumvent the wolves with sufficient shrewdness to do that. 
The few that were raised were long-legged animals with 
light, coarse fleeces, and were inveterate rovers over hill and 
dale. Their principal good quality was the hardiness with 
which they withstood the severities and changes of this 
variant climate. 

But during the first years of this century the wolves 
were pretty well thinned out, and at the same time a few 
manufactures began to spring up in this country, aflPording 
a market for wool, while through the efforts of Chancellor 
Livingston a beginning was made in the importation of fine- 
wooled sheep. The first cross of the common sheep of the 
country was with an English variety, which produced a great 
improvement, the fleece being heavier than that of either 
parent, and the mutton being more plentiful and of equally 
good quality. The change, too, immediately obliterated the 
roving propensities of the common breed. 

The first merino sheep iu Washington county were 
brought into the present town of White Creek (then Cam- 
bridge) in 1809. The next year a flock was begun in 
Salem, and the great value set on these wonderful exotics 
is shown by a contract made between Alexander McNish, 
of that town, and Piobert Prince, a merchant of New York. 
By that contract, in consideration of Mr. I'rince's furnish- 
ing a merino buck and two ewes, Mr. McNish agreed to 

furnish a hundred common ewes, and bear the whole ex- 
pense of keeping and taking care of the flock for seven 
years ; the common ewes to be divided equally at the end 
of the first year, the buck lambs and wool to be equally 
divided every year, and the flock to be equally divided at 
the end of the seven years. Still it was not strange that 
Mr. Prince wanted a pretty good bargain, since his three 
merinos cost him eighteen hundred dollars. . 

There was a strong prejudice against the new-comers 
among many of the old-fashioned farmers. It was feared 
that they would cause a great degeneration of the hardy 
native sheep, and one of Mr.'s neighboi-s threat- 
ened to shoot that gentleman's merino buck, if ever found 
trespassing on the threatcner's land. In fact there was some 
reason for the fears so decidedly expressed, for the half-grade 
lambs died by the score, so that from a hundred ewes Mr. 
McNish only saved sixteen lambs the first year. It required 
many expensive and care-burdened years to acclimate the 
merino sheep in the United States, but when once the task 
was accomplished the benefits were immense. Further 
reference will be made to the wool-growing interests of Wash- 
ington county. 

By 1812 frame houses were rapidly taking the place of 
log ones on all the principal roads, and the landscape was 
widely assuming the characteristics of civilization. In June 
of that year war was declared between the United States 
and Great Britain ; but so completely had the condition of 
Washington and the adjoining counties been changed, that 
whereas they had once formed the great war-path and battle- 
ground of the continent, they now scarcely felt the shock 
of the conflict. A few of the young men enlisted in the 
regular or volunteer service, and a few more were occasion- 
ally called to the frontier in the militia ; but there was 
neither the intense interest caused by the actual presence 
of foreign and savage foemen, as in the Revolution, nor 
the grand enthusiasm which inspired the loyal North 
during the late struggle for the existence of the nation. 
The War of 1812 was a dreary, dragging, driveling con- 
test, marked alike by the extreme apathy of the people 
and the extraordinary imbecility of the administration. 
Occasional bodies of troops were seen marching northward 
over the old war-path, but no considerable armies. 

But while the military history of Washington county 
in the War of 1812 was very slight, that contest had 
a marked effect on its industrial progress. Flax, like wool, 
had previously been produced only in small quantities, such 
as could be manufactured by the " little wheel" and the 
loom of each family ; every farmer usually sowing a few 
square rods. In May, 1812, when the country was pr(?- 
paring for the war which was declared the next month, 
and when prices were rising in consequence, Mr. James 
Whiteside, of Candjridge, sowed three acres in flax. All 
his neighbors were astonished, and predicted that the labor 
of raising and dressing it would be so great as to more 
than use up any price which could be obtained. 

But the value still continued to rise, and tlie dressed 
flax was sold for eighteen and three-fourths cents per 
pound. As this gave a handsome profit, several of Mr. 
Whiteside's neighbors embarked in the same business, and 
flax-raising soon became an important industry in the 



southern part of Washington county. Even when prices 
went down after the war it was still found profitable, and 
attained a magnitude of no slight importance. 

The woolen manufacture also continued to flourish. 
Under a State law of the period a premium of forty dollars 
wa.s paid in 1813 to Scott Woodworth, of Cambridge, for 
the best woolen cloth made in the county, and another of 
thirty-five dollars to Adam Cleveland, of Salem, for the 
second best. The next year the first premium was carried 
off by Alexander McNish, and the second by Reuben 
Wheeler, both of Salem. The law vested the power of 
awarding the prizes in the judges of the common pleas in 
each county ; rather a curious tribunal, we should now 
think, to perform such a duty. It sliould be remembered, 
however, that at that time the "judges" were nearly all 
farmers, bu.siness men, etc., and perhaps as competent to 
decide on the value of woolen cloth as any other five men 
in the county. 

On the 12th day of March, 181.S, the county of Warren 
was erected. This reduced the area of Washington county 
to the limits which it has ever since retained. It also 
brought the eastern county-seat, at Sandy Hill, within a 
mile of the county line ; but, as the court-house was al- 
ready built, the location has been able to hold its ground 
against all rivals ever since. 

In August, 1814, there was a genuine excitement in re- 
gard to the war, and the militia were ordered out en masse 
to resist the threatened invasion by General Sir George 
Provost, by way of Plattsburg. As has previously been 
stated, we were a very military people in the sense of hav- 
ing numerous regiments of militia throughout the country. 
There were three or four in this county alone. These 
were all called out ; and all responded, so far as to turn out 
with a greater or less number of men, and turn their faces 
towards Plattsburg. There are .some queer stories told, 
however, regarding their movements, which tend to show 
that the .so-often vaunted .superiority of "the good old 
times" did not extend to military valor. Tradition stoutly 
asserts that one battalion occupied twelve days in marching 
from its place of organization to Whitehall ; but that, on 
hearing there that the battle had been fought, it only took 
them one day to march back again. Of an eminent general 
of the period it is said that he mistook the stern for the 
prow of his vessel, and went the wrong way on Lake 
Ciiamplain, when he heard the cannon at Plattsburg. It 
must be said, however, that not only were the militia 
freshly drawn from their fields, entirely unversed in war, 
but that they were often unprovided with arms or ammu- 
nition, without which it would be difiicult for any one to 

One of the regiments from the eastern part of the county 
was commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel John McClary, of 
Salem (there being no colonel of militia at that time); but 
Major William Root, of Hebron, was the ofiicer in actual 
command when it was called out. It rendezvoused at West 
Hebron, marched thence to Sandy Hill, and thence to 
Whitehall. The latter point was the general rendezvous 
for all this section of the country, as it had also been for 
McDonough's fleet. 

The regiment just mentioned, of whose movements we 

happen to know from Hon. John McDonald, who was a 
member of it (or, rather, who went with it of his own 
accord, although exempt by law from service on account of 
his being a student in an incorporated acaderayl, sailed 
from Whitehall in two sloops just before the battle of 
I'lattsburg. Jlr. jMoDonough says he does not believe 
there were six eflFective muskets in the regiment. 

The arrangement was for them to go to the arsenal at 
Burlington, Vt., and receive arms, and thence to Platt.s- 
burg, to meet the enemy. But just before reaching the 
former place, and while still twelve or fifteen miles south 
of Plattsburg, the thunder of cannon was heard booming 
over the wave. Crash after crash, broadside responded to 
broadside, and the raw recruits began to feel as if they 
didn't know whether they were in such a very great hurry 
to get their arms or not. After a brief but evidently 
furious combat, the warlike sounds ceased, and then the 
soldiers on board the sloops were in a tremor of anxiety 
to know which side was victorious. If the British had 
conquered there was nothing for the American vessels on 
the lake to do but to make their way southward with all 
possible speed. 

But after a short time a light vessel came flying up the 
lake with all sails set, and horsemen went galloping along 
the shores bearing the news that once again the flag of the 
self-styled mistress of the seas had been lowered before the 
upstart Yankee bunting. In every war in which America 
has been engaged her sailors have invariably covered them- 
selves with glory, and in the War of 1812 they employed 
for that purpose about all the glory there was in the market, 
leaving very little of that splendid raiment for the use of 
the forces on land. 

Immediately after the defeat of the British fleet, the 
army of Sir George Provost retreated to Canada, and so 
the militia were allowed to return home and relieve the 
minds of anxious women and children, to whom the 
thought of British invasion still brought up the old idea 
of brutal Hessians and murderous Indians, on their mission 
of devastation and butchery. 

Just after the close of the war, on the 17th of April, 
1815, the town of White Creek was formed from the east 
side of Cambridge, thus becoming the southeastern town 
of the county. Its appellation is derived from the stream 
of that name, which forms its western boundary ; but as has 
been said, it has caused considerable trouble among students 
of the early history of the county, who have confounded 
it with the old " White Creek," which for nearly a hun- 
dred years has gone by the name of Salem. 

Jackson was also formed from Cambridge about the 
same time, lying in a narrow strip between Cambridge and 
White Creek on the south, and Salem on the north. Its 
name, of course, was derived from the hero whose exploit 
at New Orleans was one of the few redeeming features of 
the War of 1812. 

Immediately after the close of that war, a very vigorous 
eflbrt was made to improve the means of transportation in 
this State, by the opening of canals along the main lines of 
travel and freightage. In fact some movements had been 
made in that direction before the war, but were abandoned 
at the commencement of hostilities. On the return of peace, 



however, the desire for a system of canals awoke with re- 
newed energy, and under the zealous leadership of De Witt 
Clinton it soon found voice in legislative enactments. 

One of the very first canals provided for by law — stand- 
ing on an equality in respect to time with the Erie and the 
Oswego — was the ChauipUiin canal ; the law for the con- 
.struction of which was passed in the forepart of the year 
1817. Its peaceful course followed the same route which 
had so often been followed by hostile armies, and which 
was selected, though not used, by the Northern Inland 
Lock Navigation Company. Beginning at the Erie canal, 
near Cohoes, the line crossed the Mohawk, pa.ssed up the 
west side of the Hudson to Schuylcrville ; thence crossed 
into Washington county by means of a dam seven hun- 
dred feet long ; thence followed the eastern bank of the 
river to Fort Edward. There it left the river and ran 
northwestward over a ridge into the valley of Wood creek, 
down which it ran (part of the time in the bed of the 
creek) to Whitehall, where it united with Lake Champlain. 
The work was begun on the 10th day of June, 1818. 

As in the case of nearly every other new improvement, 
many were frightened at the idea of a canal. It would 
take all the freight business, they said, and what would be- 
come of the hundreds of men who gained a livelihood during 
the winter by drawing produce to market and drawing 
freight back ? And, besides, when all the horses were taken 
off the road the price of oats would go down to zero, half- 
ruining the farmers. But, in spite of these and other 
similar forebodings, the canal was pushed vigorously for- 
ward. As first constructed it included eleven miles of 
slack-water navigation on the Hudson, — three miles below 
and eight miles above Fort Miller, — with a short canal, con- 
taining two locks, around the falls at that place. For the 
distance above specified the tow-path ran along the eastern 
bank of the river. 

On the 10th of September, 1823, the whole work was 
completed ; this being two years before the completion of 
the Erie canal, and the Champlain being the first canal of 
any length finished in the State. A large increase of busi- 
ness immediately followed ; the teamsters found pl(?nty to 
do in drawing freight to and from the canal, and the farmers 
were not ruined by the fall of oats. 

At this period (say 1820) a large majority of the log 
liouses of twenty years before had been replaced by small 
frame houses, generally unpainted, though on the by-roads 
many a log cabin sheltered a hardy family beneath its 
humble roof. The ordinary farm-house of the period, of 
which some specimens still remain, was a square " story 
and a lialf" or two-story building, standing broadside to 
the road, with a " stack of chimneys" in the middle and a 
kitchen in the rear. Probably about half the land was 
cleared up at this time ; nearly all the valleys and level 
places being brought into a state of cultivation, while a 
large portion of the hill-land was still covered by the pri- 
meval forest. 

The farmers still n de to church in their lumber-wagons, 
and the doctors invariably visited their patients on horse- 
back. Hon. E. MeJIurray, of Salem, informs us that even 
as late as 1820 there were not more than four or five one-, four-wheeled vehicles in that town, and a few chaises. 

There was still a great deal of home-manufacturing. Not 
only were fulled-eloth and flannel, tow-cloth and linen, 
made in nearly every Airm-house, but hats, caps, and shoes 
were made in every little village to an extent now unknown. 

The main roads (especially the great northern turnjiike 
through Cambridge, Salem, etc., and the road along the 
east bank of the Hudson) were now more than ever crowded 
with teams, fijrming an almost endless procession. These, 
too, were the days of the stage-coach. Every daj', over 
the two great roads, the big yellow carriages went swinging 
along with every seat filled, while the driver's horn re- 
sounded merrily over the hills, and the children ran lo the 
door to see the stage pass by with as much interest as their 
parents had manifested in childhood at the approach of the 
occasional post-rider, and with much more interest than is 
shown by the youth of to-day as they watch the long train 
of cars which the screaming, snorting locomotive drags over 
the plain. 

We have mentioned befiire the remarkable number of 
State senators hailing from Washington county during the 
first thirty or forty years of its existence. The prominence 
of the county was by no means confined to that ofiice, as will 
be seen by reference to the civil list in the latter part of 
this general history. It will be seen by such reference 
that, from 1795 to 1843, Washington had a member 
of Congress twenty-two out of twenty-six terms, besides 
furnishing the incumbents of several important State offices. 

Most of them are left to be mentioned in their respective 
towns. In 1823, however, a citizen of this county was ap- 
pointed to one of the two highest judicial offices in the State. 
We refer to Hon. John Savage, a native and resident of 
Salem, who held the office of chief-justice of the Supreme 
Court from 1823 to 1837; that being before the court 
of appeals, when the chief-justice had no rival in judicial 
rank except the chancellor. Previous to being appointed 
chief-justice Mr. Savage had for two years been comptroller 
of the State. 

In this connection wc may mention that a still more dis- 
tinguished jurist, who but a few years since left the bench 
of the Supreme Court of the United States, Hon. Samuel 
Nelson, was also a native of Washington county (town of 
Hebron), and received his education at Salem Academy, 
though he attained his celebrity while residing in another 
part of the State. 

Hon. Henry C. Martindale, of Sandy Hill, who ei:tered 
Congress in 1823, was likewise a gentleman of decided 
prominence in the councils of the State and nation. lie 
held a seat in Congress for four terms, that being the longest 
time that any one man has represented this county in the 
national legislature. It was an evidence of very marked 
abilities and popularity in the recipient of the honor, as it is 
very seldom that the people of any congressional district, 
at least in the North, choose to be represented for eight 
years by the same person. 

In 1822 the town of South Bay was formed from Put- 
nam, on the 15th of March. The name, however, did not 
suit, and on the 17th of the succeeding month it was 
changed to Dresden. 

In 1825 the Erie canal was finished, and the people of 
Washington county began to be anxious for still greater 



improvements in transportation. De Witt Clinton, then 
governor, was very willing to" second this desire, which 
chimed with his favorite hobby, and in that year he recom- 
mended to the Legislature that the Hudson should be made 
navigable for steamboats to Fort Edward, and, what is more 
curious, that the Batten Kill should be made passable for 
similar craft to the Vermont line. These projects failed, 
but the Champlain canal was improved by abandoning the 
slackwater navigation, and constructing a channel for boats, 
independent of the river, all the way from opposite Schuy- 
lerville to Fort Edward. This improvement was begun in 
1826 and finished in 1827. 

Meanwhile the production of wool had been .steadily in- 
creasing, and in 1825 Isaac Bishop, of Granville, began 
buying that article to send out of the county, the average 
price that year being fifty-two cents a pound. The business 
continued to increase, and for thirty years wool-raising was 
one of the leading industries of Washington county ; in 
fact it was the leading industry, so far as the obtaining of 
ready money was concerned. Granville, Salem, Cambridge, 
and one or two other points became so favorably known as 
wool-markets that large amounts of the article were brought 
thither to be sold from the State of Vermont and from tlie 
adjoining counties of this State. 

There were, of course, many fluctuations in the price, 
and many were the fortunes lost or made in the business. 
In 1825, as before stated, the highest price was fifty-two 
cents; in 1827 it had fallen to thirty-six cents; in 1831 it 
ranged from sixty to seventy-eight cents for common grades, 
while for the finest merino the price was a dollar a pound. 
In 1835 common wool sold at from forty to sixty-five 
cents per pound, while the best quality brought eighty-three 
cents. Great excitement was manifested at this period, and 
the .streets of the villages before mentioned were thronged 
at the wool-selling period with eager buyers, and many an 
industrious farmer or enterprising speculator thought he was 
about to secure unbounded wealth from the merinos nur- 
tured on the slopes of the Wa.shington County hills. But 
the excitement went down with many others of that inflated 
period, and though wool-growing continued to be an im- 
portant industry, prices never rose so high again until the 
great ascension caused by the war. In 1845, some grades 
went down as low as twenty-five cents. 

Few and brief are the annals of an agricultural county 
in a time of profound peace, after the hardships of early 
settlement have been passed through, and when no great 
public works are going forward. By 1840 the population 
had reached very near its present limit, being then forty-one 
thousand and eighty. In 1850 it was forty-four thousand 
Seven hundred and fifty, and in 18G0 it rose to forty-five 
thousand nine hundred and four. 

Another change came over the appearance of the faim- 
ers' homes. As, during the first quarter of the century, 
the old log houses were nearly all replaced by small red or 
brown frame dwellings, so during the succeeding forty years 
previous to the civil war there was a general change from the 
latter edifices to those of a larger and handsomer class. 
Sometimes the old brown cottage was renovated, repainted, 
and enlarged ; sometimes a new edifice was erected, better 
suited to the wealth and wants of a younger generation. 

The farms, too, were cleared ofiT and improved in divers 
ways, improved cattle as well as sheep were introduced, and 
the whole county showed a marked increase in wealth but 
very little in population. What increase there was, in the 
latter respect, was almost entirely in the villages. 

In 1847 there began what might be called a plank-road 
fever ; it sprang up and spread rapidly over a large part of 
the country. Washington county was as zealous as other 
sections in securing the benefits, more or less, of this new 
aid to transportation. In the course of a few years there 
were built and put in operation the Whitehall and Hamp- 
ton plank-road ; the Fort Edward and Fort Miller plank- 
road ; the Argyle and Fort Edward plank-road, and the 
Hartford and Sandy Hill plank-road. The two last are still 
in operation, which is a larger proportion than is usually 
seen ; all the plank-roads in many counties having been 
worn out and entirely abandoned. 

Up to 1848 there had been no railroad in Washington 
county. The Saratoga and Washington railroad company 
had been incorporated on the 2d of May, 1834, with a 
capital of §600,000, and the company had been fully or- 
ganized on the 20th of April, 1835. But the financial 
crisis of 1830 stopped its operations, and nothing was done 
in this county. The time for the company to complete the 
road was afterwards extended until 1850, and the capital 
stock was increased in 1847 to $850,000. They began 
laying the track in April, 1848, and in December of the 
same year the road was completed to Whitehall. The same 
year a law was passed permitting the company to extend its 
road to the Vermont State line, which was soon after done. 

In February, 1855, a mortgage was foreclosed, the road 
was sold, and in June following the purchasers formed a 
new company, called the Saratoga and Whitehall railroad 
company, which took control of the road. The name of 
the road was changed to correspond with that of the com- 

The Troy and Rutland railroad company was organized 
on the 6th of March, 1851. A road was surveyed from 
Hoosic, Rensselaer Co., through the towns of Cambridge 
and Salem, Washington Co., to the village of Salem ; 
work was pushed rapidly forward, and on the 28th of June, 
1852, it was opened for use. It was leased by the Rutland 
and Washington road, running from Salem to Rutland, Vt., 
until 1855, when it was put in the hands of a receiver, and 
run in connection with the Albany Northern. Its .situation 
since the war will be mentioned in the twentieth chapter. 

Thus, engrossed in peaceful avocations and enterprises, the 
people continued the even tenor of their way until, in the 
winter of 1861 and '62, they were startled by the ominous 
niutterings of coming war, rolling up from the south. Angry 
and astonished, they awaited the course of events, scarcely 
believing it possible that the wicked and suicidal attack on 
the life of the nation, which appeared to be imminent, 
could really be nuidc by men in a state of even partial 

When the storm burst on the 14th day of April, 1861, 
the .sons of Washington county responded as promptly to 
the call of their country, and served as valorously in the 
field, as did those of any other in all the land. In the fol- 
lowing pages wo have endeavored to give our readers some 


faint idea of the liavdships undergone, and the services per- 
formed, by these gallant defenders of their country. Owing, 
however, to the fact that there was no city nor very lars;e 
yillage to serve as a centre of action, and that the influence 
dyen of a county-seat was divided betwee'n two jjlaces, the 
yoilog men in different parts of the county generally joined 
regiments of which a majority belonged in other counties. 
Among all the thousands of volunteers which Washington 
county sent into the service of the country, there was only 
one distinctively Washington-county regiment. One regi- 
ment had four companies from this county, another three, 
and several had but one company, or part of a company, 
each. This has made it extremely difficult to ascertain 
the flicts regarding the services performed, except in the 
case of the r23d Regiment. In some cases, not a single 
representative could be found remaining in the county 
of a regiment which once contained quite a number of 
Washington-county soldiers ; in other cases, only one or 
two members are left. Under these circumstances, we have 
gathered up the meagre details as best we could ; being 
desirous to do all in our power to give due honor to the 
gallant soldiers of Washington county, and being fortunate 
in having a very complete account of the distinctively 
Washington-county regiment from the pen of its former 



The 22d Infantry— The Washington County Companies— A Balti- 
more Mob— The Right of the Whole Line— Second Battle of Bull 
Run — Severe Loss — Death of McCoy, Milliman, Lendrum, and 
Beattie — South Mountain and Antietam — Fredericksburg — Official 
Changes— Chancellorsville— Muster Out— The43d Infantry— Com- 
pany F — The Peninsuliir Campaign — Loss of Half its Number — 
Antietam, Chancellorsville, etc. — A Half-Dozcn return Home — 
The 44th Infantry— Its Services— The S7th Infantry— Company A, 
from Dresden and Putnam — Battles, Losses, and Consolidation — 
The 93d Infantry — Three Companies from Washington Count3- — 
At Yorktown — Capture of Colonel and Major — Acting as Provost 
and Headquarter Guard for a Year and a Half. The Wilderness 
— Great Number Killed and Wounded — The succeeding Battles — 
Before Petersburg — Mustered Out — The 9Gth Infantry — Company 
E, of Washington County— On the Peninsula— Services in North 
Carolina — Desperate Valor at Cold Harbor — The Siege and Tri- 
umph — Provost-Guard until 1866 — Officers of Company E — The 
2d Cavalry — Company A, from Salem — Stationed at Washington 
—The Harris Light Cavalry— Company E, of Fort Edward— Cap- 
ture of Falmouth — Second Bull Run — Kilpatriok's Raid — Br.andy 
Station and Aldie— The Dahlgren Raid— AVilh Sheridan in the 
Valley — Five Forks. 

The first regiment from this section was the 22d New 
York Infantry; of which four companies were raised in 
Washington county, one in Rensselaer, two in Warren, and 
three in Essex. Nearly all the towns in the county were 
represented, but the points of organization of the four com- 
panies were as follows : Co. B, Fort Edward ; Co. D, Cam- 
bridge; Co. G, Whitehall; Co. H, Sandy Hill. 

Early in June, 18G1, the various companies were marched 
to Troy, where, on the sixth day of that month, they were 
organized into the 22d Regiment. Walter Piielps, of War- 
ren county, was the first colonel ; Gordon F. Thomas, of 

Essex, the lieutenant-colonel ; and John McKie, Jr., of 
Cambridge, Washington county, the major. 

The officers rf the Washington -county companies were 
as follows : 

Co. B. — Robert E. McCoy, captain ; Duncan Lendrum, 
first lieutenant; James W. McCoy, second lieutenant. 

Oimpany D. — Henry S. Milliman, captain ; Thomas B. 
Fisk, first lieutenant; Robert Rice, second lieutenant. 

Cumpani/ G. — Edmund Boynton, captain ; succeeded by 
Benjamin G. Mosher before muster; Duncan Cameron, 
first lieutenant. 

Compaitij A. — Thomas J. Strong, captain ; William A. 
Piersons, first lieutenant ; Matthew S. Teller, second lieu- 

In the latter part of July the regiment set out for the 
seat of war. On the 28th of that mouth, while pa.ssing 
through Baltimore, they were attacked by a mob of the 
secessionists of that city. Stones were hurled furiously at 
the column of soldiers, guns and pistols were fired, and one 
of the men of the 22d fell dead, — the first sacrifice of the 
regiment to the spirit of rebellion. The 22d opened a 
return fire, several members of the mob fell wounded, and 
the regiment pas.sed on without further interference. 

The 22d was stationed in Washington at the time of the 
first battle of Bull Run, and crossed to Arlington Heights 
immediately afterwards. During the succeeding autuum 
and winter it was stationed at Upton Heights, being a part 
of the 1st Brigade and 1st Division in the 1st (McDowcH'-s) 
Army Corps. In that brigade the 14th New York (of 
Brooklyn) had the right of the line, and the 22d stood 
next ; so that it was a subject of remark that if all the 
armies of the United States had been drawn up in line — 
extending more than a hundred miles — those two battalions 
would have occupied the extreme right of them all. 

In the spring of 18G2 the 22d marched with the rest 
of McDowell's Corps to Fredericksburg, being the first 
Union troops to enter that city. When Stonewall Jackson 
was operating in the Valley of Virginia, the corps made a 
long and rapid march to Front Royal, only to find that 
ubiquitous warrior far on his way to Richmond. They 
then returned to Fredericksburg, where they remained 
till August. They then marched to Cedar Mountain, and 
returned from there to Rappahannock Station. Thence 
the corps proceeded northward to join Pope, and on the 
29th day of August the 22d was engaged in its first serious 
fight, — the bloody conflict commonly known as the second 
battle of Bull Run. 

The regiment under consideration was in the reserve 
division, and wa.s not engaged on the first day of the battle 
(the 28th), nor on the second day (the 29th) until about 
two hours before sunset. Scarcely had they opened Arc, 
when the foe, having already broken through McDowell's 
line, came pouring in immense numbers upon the right flank 
of the 1st Division, and crushing it up with resistless force. 
The 22d strove desperately, but in vain, to resist the over- 
whelming tide. The dead and wounded fell by the score. 
]jieut.-Col. Thomas was mortally wounded while gallantly 
leading his men. Major McKie was wounded. Capt. 
McCoy, of Co. B, when hard pressed by the enemy, 
might have saved his life by surrendering, but continued 



to fight on, and soon fell dead upon the field. His body 
was found the next day, pierced with several bullets. 
Capt. MilIiinan,of Co. D, was mortally wounded, and Lieut. 
Fisk, of the same company, was wounded. 

It was not till after sunset that the fighting ceased. 
During those two hours of battle the 22d lost about seventy 
men killed, and had four times as many wounded, besides 
a considerable number taken prisoners. 

The next day the wearied and shattered regiment again 
took part in the conflict, but was not stationed so as to bear 
the brunt of the attack. Many of its members, however, 
were killed or wounded ; among the former being Lieut. 
Lendrum, of Co. B, and Lieut. William S. Beattie, of Co. 
D, and among the latter, Capt. Cameron, of Co. G. and 
Lieut. Teller, of Co. H. 

When all was over the 22d Regiment had only about a 
hundred men for duty. Capt. Strong, who was almost the 
only captain left unharmed, reported fourteen men for 
duty ; and some of the companies had still less. 

From Bull Run the feeble battalion marched with Pope's 
army to Washington, and then, under McClellan, took part 
in the battles of South Mountain and Antietam. It did 
not suffer severely, however, losing but a few men in 
killed and wounded at South Mountain, and still less at 

At this period, Maj. McKie was commissioned as lieu- 
tenant-colonel in place of Col. Thomas, and Capt. Clendon, 
of Warren county, was made major. 

The 22d, strengthened by the addition of recruits and 
by the return of some of its wounded to duty, marched 
with Burnside to Fredericksburg in the mud and snow of 
November and December, 1862. In the battle at that 
place it crossed the Rappahannock river below the town, 
with the rest of the 1st Corps, but was not seriously en- 
gaged, and suffered but slight loss. Lieut.-Col. McKie 
was accidentally wounded at Fredericksburg, and resigned 
his commission in February, 1863, as did Maj. Clendon. 
Capt. T. J. Strong was successively commissioned and mus- 
tered as major and lieutenant-colonel. After Burnside was 
compelled to retreat the 22d remained with the Army of 
the Potomac throughout the winter and early spring. 

In the early days of May, 1863, the depleted battalion, 
with feeble ranks, but with unbroken spirits, again set forth 
(or Fredericksburg, the army being then under the com- 
mand of Gen. Hooker. They again crossed the Rappa- 
hannock, and were under some artillery fire at Chaneel- 
lorsviile; but, as at the previous battle in that vicinity, it 
chanced that they were not in a dangerous position, and 
suffered no injury. 

Shortly after this disastrous conflict, the last of the great 
Confederate victories, the 22d returned home, and was 
mustered out on the 19th of June. Hardly a quarter of 
those who had marched forth under its banners in the early 
summer of 1861 marched homeward in June, 1863. Bat- 
tle and disaster had laid many in the grave. Others had 
been discharged on account of wounds or sickness, and 
some still lingered in rebel prisons. Numerous changes 
had taken place among the officers. James W. McCoy was 
now captain of Co. B ; Capt. and Brev. Maj. M. S. Teller 
was in command of Co. H, with A. Ilalleck Holbrook and 

Marshall A. Duers as lieutenants. Duncan Cameron was 
captain of Co. G, and Lucius E. Wilson was in command 
of Co. D. 

When the war-worn battalion reached Fort Edward, it 
was received with a grand ovation by the excited people. 
A similar reception greeted them at Sandy Hill and Glen's 
Falls ; and then the first companies raised in Washington 
county for the defense of the national life were dismissed 
to their long unvisited homes. 


This regiment was raised in the summer of 1861, in the 
counties of Albany, Montgomery, New York, Otsego, and 
Washington. It was mustered into the United States ser- 
vice from Aug. 20 to Sept. 24, 1861. The only portion 
of the regiment from Washington county was Co. F, 
which was raised at Sandy Hill and vicinity. The first 
ofiicers were James C. Rogers, captain ; Geo. B. Culver, first 
lieutenant; and John W. Wilkinson, second lieutenant. 

After being mustered in, the regiment went to Washington, 
and remained camped in the vicinity of the " Chain Bridge" 
until the spring of 1862. It then proceeded with McClel- 
lan (in Hancock's Brigade) to the Peninsula, and took part 
in all the terrible campaign from Yorktown to the front of 
Richmond and back to Harrison's Landing. AVhen the 
" Seven-Days Fight" began, the 43d was at Mechanics- 
ville, on the extreme right of McClellan's line, where Lee's 
army first struck ; consequently, it had to pass over all the 
ground traversed in that memorable retreat, and partici- 
pated in a large proportion of the battles constituting col- 
lectively the Seven-Days Fight. In this brief period the 
regiment had half of its men killed, or so badly wounded 
as to be left behind and captured, and Co. F suffered in the 
same proportion. So heavy had been the loss that at Har- 
rison's Landing the ten companies were consolidated into 
five, and joined with five new companies from Albany. 
The regiment retained its old number, but Co. F became a 
part of Co. B, Capt. Rogers remaining the commander. 

The 43d next proceeded northward, and, being in 
Franklin's Corps, lay within sound of the guns of the 
second battle of Bull Run, but took no part in the con- 
flict. Thence the corps in question marched into Maryland, 
and the day before Antietam took part in the capture of 
Crampton's Gap from the enemy. At Antietam the 43d 
was on the right of the line, in the corn-field celebrated in 
the accounts of that battle. Company F lost several more 
men in these battles. On the 24th of September, Capt. 
Rogers, having been commissioned major of the 123d New 
York Infantry, resigned his commission, and was succeeded 
by Lieut. Wilkinson, who served as captain until the expi- 
ration of liis term of service, in the autumn of 1864. 

The 43d took little or no part in the battle of Fred- 
ericksburg, but at Chancellorsville, on the 3d of May, 
1863, it suffered severely, — Co. F losing its first lieu- 
tenant, Hugh B. Knickerbocker, and several men slain, 
besides a heavy list of wounded. These repeated losses 
being partially made good by recruits from other counties, 
Co. F could thenceforth hardly be considered as a Wash- 
ington-county company. The regiment was severely en- 
gaged in the battle of Gettysburg, in the great campaign of 



18G4, in the second battle of Winchester, and was finally 
mustered out on the 27th of June, 1865. Gen. Rogers 
states that he does not believe that half a dozen of the 
original members of Co. F came back to Washington 
county. A few had previously been discharged, a few 
went directly from the army to other localities, but the 
majority, stricken down by battle or disease, slept beneath 
the soil of Virginia. 


This was the regiment known as the " Ellsworth Aveng- 
ers," and intended to be composed of one or two picked 
men from every town in the State. There were between 
twenty and thirty, in all, from Wa.shington county. Among 
them was Edward Northup, of Sandy Hill, who afterwards 
became an officer of the regular army. 

The regiment was mustered into the United States ser- 
vice from Aug. 30 to Oct. 30, 1861. It served three years 
in the Army of the Potomac, taking part in the battles of 
Yorktown, Hanover Court-House, Gaines' Mill, Malvern 
Hill, Second Bull Run, Antictam, Fredericksburg, Chan- 
cellorsville, Gettysburg, Mine Run, Wilderness, Spottsyl- 
vania, North Anna, Weldon Railroad, Petersburg, and 
numerous minor engagements. It was mustered out of 
service on the 11th of October, 1864, the veterans and 
recruits being transferred to other regiments. 


This regiment was raised in the autumn of 1861, prin- 
cipally in Brooklyn. Company A, however, was almost 
entirely from the towns of Dresden aTid Putnam in Wash- 
ington county. The regiment conducted itself gallantly 
under the disheartening experiences of the early career of 
the Army of the Potomac, being present at the battles of 
Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, White-Oak Swamp, Malvern 
Hill, and Manassas Junction. So much were its ranks 
depleted by battle and disease that in September, 1862, 
it was found necessary to consolidate it with the 40th 
New York Volunteers, in which it was henceforth merged. 
The 40th afterwards took part in the battles of Fred- 
ericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Sline Run, Wil- 
derness, Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor, and the siege of 
Petersburg. It was not mustered out until June 27, 1865, 
by which time there were very few, indeed, of the old 
Company A remaining in it. 


The patriotism of Washington county was not yet ex- 
hausted, and in the autumn of 1861, John S. Crocker, a 
lawyer of Cambridge, took steps to raise another regi- 
ment, to be partly from this county. The regimental ren- 
dezvous was at Albany, and the command was mustered 
there in November of that year, receiving the appellation 
of the 93d New Y'ork Infantry. John S. Crocker was 
colonel ; B. C. Butler, of Warren county, was lieutenant- 
colonel ; IMichael Cassidy, of Albany, was major; and Mavi- 
land GiftbrdjOf Easton, was adjutant. The following were 
the companies from Washington county, with their officers 
and localities : 

CoinpKiii/ G. — Cambridge and vicinity ; Waller S. Gray, 

captain ; -W. V. S. Bcekman, first lieutenant ; Francis S. 
Bailey, second lieutenant. 

Compaiiy F. — Fort Edward and viciMity ; George B. 
Moshier, captain ; John Bailey, first lieutenant ; Silas S. 
Hubbard, .second lieutenant. 

Conipamj 1. — Granville, Argyle, etc. ; Nathan J. John- 
son, captain ; William Randies, lieutenant; James M. 
Crawlbrd, second lieutenant. 

The 93d remained at Albany until about the 1st of 
April, 1862, when they went to Washington, from which 
point they proceeded under MeClellan to Fortress Jlonroe 
and Yorktown. While engaged in the siege of the latter 
place, Col. Crocker and Maj. Ca.ssidy, having walked a 
short distance outside of the lines, were captured by the 

The regiment marched up the Peninsula with the Army 
of the Potomac, and was slightly engaged at Williams- 
burg, but without loss. Shortly afterwards four companies 
were detached as headquarter-guard for Gen. MeClellan, 
while six companies acted as provost-guard at White, 
on Y'ork river. Col. Butler being provost-marshal. 

In the great " Seven Days" fight before Richmond, the 
first-named detachment marched with the headquarters to 
Malvern Hill and Harrison's Landing, while Col. Butler's 
command destroyed the stores at White House, and then 
proceeded by water to the same point. From that time 
until December, 1863, the regiment was employed as head- 
quarter and provost guard in the Army of the Potomac, 
marching and countermarching through Virginia, but es- 
caping the stress of battle. 

About the 1st of January, 1864, seven companies rein- 
listed as veterans and came home on furlough to recruit. 
Col. Crocker had been released from imprisonment and 
resumed command. They returned with replenished ranks 
in February, and were assigned to the 1st Brigade and 
1st Division of the 2d Army Corps (Hancock's). 

The 1st of May, 18G4, the 93d, with the rest of the 
Army of the Potomac, set forth on the long and terri- 
ble march to the Confederate capital. On the 5th of 
May it was severely engaged in the great battle of the 
Wilderness, losing very heavily. Co. F alone lost five 
killed and thirty-two wounded out of fort3'-nine members 
present, only twelve being left uninjured. Other com- 
panies suffered in proportion. Capt. John Bailey, of Co. 
F, was killed. Then followed in rapid succession the 
battles of Spottsylvania, North Anna, and Cold Harbor, in 
all of which the 93d took an active part, suffering severely 
in killed and wounded, though not as heavily as in the 

From Cold Harbor the 2d corps crossed the James river, 
and took up its position in front of Petersburg. The 93d 
received two hundred recruits, and from that time till the 
breaking up of the rebellion it remained in that immediate 
vicinity, engaged in the incessant toils and conflicts of that 
fateful period. Col. Crocker was discharged at the expira- 
tion of his term of service, in September, 1864. Maj. 
McConihe was commissioned in his place, but, owing to the 
depleted condition of the regiment, was not mustered. 
Capt. Kincaid lost a leg in August, before Petersburg, and 
was soon af\er discharged. The regiment was engaged in 



two battles at Deep Bottom, on tho north side of the 
James river, but returned to continue tho conflict around 
Petersburg. In February, 18C5, Lieut. -Col. Butler and 
Maj. McConihe were mustered out, when Adjt. Haviland 
GifTord, of Easton, was commissioned and mustered as 
lieutenant-colonel, and remained in command of the regi- 
ment till the end of its service. He was also commissioned 
as colonel, but for the reason before mentioned could not 
be mustered. J. H. Northup, captain of Co. I, was about 
the same time mustered as major and commissioned as 
lieutenant-colonel ; so that, during the closing portion of 
the regiment's service, both of the field-officeis were from 
W^ashington county, although that county furui.shed but 
three out of the original ten companies. 

When the end came, the 93d was under Sheridan at 
Poplar Spring Church and on the Boydton road, and par- 
ticipated in tho final movements which throttled the hydra 
of rebellion. The regiment was mustered out on the 
29th day of June, 18G5. Few of the original Washington- 
county boys were among the number then dismis.sed to their 
homes. Only one of the original nine line-ofEcers from 
Washington county was mustered out with the regiment. 


This regiment was raised in tho autumn of 1861, prin- 
cipally in Warren, Essex, and Clinton counties. Co. E 
alone was from Washington county, being raised at and 
near Sandy Hill and Fort Edward. Its first officers were 
Hiram Eldridge, captain; A. J. Russell, first lieutenant; 
James S. Cray, second lieutenant. 

The regimental I'endezvous was at Plattsburg, and there 
the 9Gth remained during the winter of 18G1 and '02. 
In March, 1862, it joined the Army of the Potomac 
under the command of Col. Fairman, of New York city. 
It was assigned to Keyes' Corps, under whom they went 
to the Peninsula, taking part in the battles of Wil- 
liamsburg, Fair Oaks, the " Seven Days," and Malvern 

After the conflict, the 96th was ordered to 
Suffolk, Virginia, where it was under the command of 
Gen. Peck, and in Gen. Foster's department. It remained 
there for several months, when it formed part of an ex- 
pedition into North Carolina, passing through Kingston 
and Goldsborough, and reaching Newborn, North Carolina, 
in the spring of 1863. It then proceeded to Plymouth 
in that State, which it aided in fortifying, under the 
command of Gen. Wessels, and where it remained another 

In the .spring of 1864 the regiment was ordered to 
YorKtown. There it was made a part of Gen. Butler's 
newly-organized " Army of the James," and went with it 
to Bermuda Hundred. The last of May it marched from 
that point to join at the White House, on York river, the 
legions of Gen. Grant coming down from the north. 

On the 3d of June, 1864, the 96th took part in the ter- 
rible battle of Cold Harbor, charging again and again with 
dauntless valor up to the' foot of the enemy's intrench- 
ments, only to be again and again hurled back by the rebel 
battalions lying in safety behind their in)pregnable works. 
Out of twelve line-ofiicers present with the regiment on 

this awful day, seven were killed or mortally wounded, one 
of the latter being Capt. James S. Cray, of Co. E. That 
company also had about twenty of its rank and file killed 
and wounded, — nearly half of the number present. 

After Cold Harbor this regiment, with the rest of the 
Grand Army, crossed the James river, and engaged in the 
siege of Petersburg. It remained employed in the weari- 
some and often dangerous duties of that siege until the 3d 
of April, 1865. Then, with thousands of their triumphant 
comrades, the men of the 96th inarched into the desolate 
capital of the Confederacy, — a capital abandoned by the 
government which had so long dwelt there, and set on fire 
by the hands of its own defenders. 

The 96th was one of the few regiments which remained 
in service until 1866. It was on provost duty in Virginia 
during that time, Co. E being stationed at Culpepper, 
Fredericksburg, and Lynchburg. The regiment was mus- 
tered out in the spring of 1866. 

Besides those first named, the following-named gentlemen 
served as ofiicers of Co. E : Erastus Pierce, second lieu- 
tenant ; Alexander McLaughlin, captain, severely wounded 
at the battle of Chapin's Farm, and resigned ; William 
Bridgeford, first lieutenant ; Lucian Wood, first lieutenant ; 
James S. Sharrow, second lieutenant ; James McCarty, 
lieutenant and captain. The latter gentleman had also been 
regimental and acting brigade-quartermaster, and was 
breveted major by the President for gallant and meritorious 

d'epineuil's zouaves (fifty-third infantry). 

In the summer of 1861 Count Lionel J. D'Epineuil 
came from France to New York with the intention of 
raising a brigade of zouave.s — if possible, all Frenchmen — 
to serve in the Union army. He had a new and very 
peculiar drill which he wanted to put in practice, and was 
very zealous in his eflbrts to raise men. He obtained the 
assistance of Monsieur Antoine Renois, of Whitehall, who 
had already recruited a large number of men for the 22d 
Regiment, to raise a regiment of zouaves from northern 
New York and Lower Canada. 

Mons. Renois astablished recruiting-stations at various 
points along Lake Champlain, and obtained a goodly num- 
ber of recruits, forty or fifty being from Whitehall. There 
were not enough for a regiment, however, and on reporting 
in New York in the autumn it was found that the intended 
brigade would hardly make a full regiment, although many 
Germans and those of other nationalities had been en- 

In December an order came from the War Department 
to consolidate the detachment into a single regiment and 
send it to the front. Owing to weakness of numbers and 
other causes the regiment was mustered out in the spring 
of 1862. 

the second cavalry. 

A cavalry company was organized at Salem, by Solomon 
W. Russell, Jr., of that place, in September, 1861. The 
members were principally from the town of Salem, but Ar- 
gyle, Cambridge, Easton, Greenwich, Hartford, Hebron, 
Jackson, Kingsbury, Fort x\nn. Fort Edward, and White 



Creek were also represented. The company was mustered 
at Salem by Col. John S. Crocker, of Cambridge, special 
inspector, September 7, 1861. The company then pro- 
ceeded by railroad to Camp Stronsr, between Troy and 
Lansingburg, the place of general rendezvous, arriving 
there on the 13tb of September, and being the first com- 
pany at that camp. It there became the nucleus of the 
2d Now York Volunteer Cavalry, commonly known as the 
" Black Horse Cavalry," commanded by Col. A. J. Morri- 
son, and was designated as Co. " A." 

Its commissioned officers were as follows : Solomon W. 
Russell, Jr., of Salem, captain ; David E. Cronin, of New 
York city, first lieutenant; William Robertson, of Salem, 
second lieutenant. 

The regiment remained at Camp Strong until its organi- 
zation on the 22d day of November, ISGl. It then pro- 
ceeded to Washington, where it arrived on the 2-lth day of 
November, being stationed at a camp in that city designated 
as Camp Stoneman. The regiment remained at Camp Stone- 
man, performing duty within the defenses of Washington, 
through the winter of 1861 and '62. 

In the spring of 1862 the War Department concluded" 
there was too much cavalry in the field, and this regiment 
was accordingly mustered out of service on the 31st day of 
March. When mustered out, Capt. Russell's company 
consisted of ninety men, all told, — a majority of whom, after 
the reverses of the armies of the Union in 1862 and 
.spring of 1863, again volunteered in various organizations 
and arms of the service. Capt. Russell himself was one of 
those who thus re-entered the army, being detached on the 
staff of his distinguished and lamented relative, Maj.-Gen. 
Russell, also of Washington county, and being commis- 
sioned by the President as brevet major and brevet lieu- 
tenant-colonel for gallant and meritorious service in the 


On the 7th of August, 1861, a young man named Clar- 
ence Buell came up from Troy to Fort Edward, intent on 
raising a company of horsemen for the " Harris Light 
Cavalry," then being formed, and named after the newly- 
elected U. S. Senator, Hon. Ira Harris. The idea of enter- 
ing the mounted service impre.ssed the young men of Fort 
Edward very fiivorably, and Buell had only to set the ball 
in motion, when it rolled itself. He returned to Troy, 
leaving some of his recruits in charge ; the boys crowded 
in by the score to put down their names, and in two or 
three days the ranks were full. Most of the men were 
from Fort Edward, but there were a few from Kingsbury, 
Fort Ann, Whitehall, and Argyle. 

The company proceeded forthwith to New York city, and 
there the regiment was mustered into the United States 
service on the 14th day of August, 1861. Its colonel was 
Mansfield Davis, and its lieutenant-colonel was a boyish- 
looking young officer, just out of West Point, since known 
to fame as Maj.-Gen. Judson Kilpatrick. The company 
from Washington county was designated as Co. E, with 
the following ofiicers : Clarence Buell. captain ; John Lid- 
die, first lieutenant; Andrew Lowden, second lieutenant. 

Proceeding in the forepart of September to Washington, 
the regiment drew its horses, and camped on Arlington 

Heights throughout the succeeding winter. In tlie spring 
of 1862 it went with Gen. McDowell to Fredericksburg; 
capturing Falmouth after a sharp skirmish, in which it lost 
thirteen men. It remained with McDowell near Fredericks- 
burg until, when it marched to Cedar Mountain, 
arriving, however, too late for the battle. At the second 
battle of Bull Run, Col. Kilpatrick charged the enemy with 
two companies, losing heavily in men and horses. The 
regiment was in excellent condition, and covered the retreat 
to Washington with great steadiness. 

After Antietam, the " Harris Light," as it was still 
called (though its official name had been changed to the 
'•Second New York Cavalry," after the muster-out of the 
original Second or " Black Horse" Cavalry), was employed 
as body-guards, etc., until December, when it accompanied . 
Gen. Burnside to Fredericksburg. The brigade-com- 
mander. Gen. Bayard, was killed in that battle, but the 
regiment was not seriously injured. It will be understood, 
by all acquainted with the cavalry service during the late 
war, that that arm was used principally for scouting, skir- 
mishing, and " raiding," and sometimes for attacks on 
cavalry, but was rarely brought into use against the enemy's 

The regiment camped at Belle Plain, a little this .side of 
Fredericksburg, during the winter of 1862 and '63. In 
the spring it took the field, and two days before the battle 
of Chancellorsville it was engaged in a fight with the 
enemy's cavalry at Brandy Station. Immediately afterwards. 
Col. Kilpatrick, with three hundred of the best men in the 
regiment, including about thirty of Co. E, made his cele- 
brated raid to Richmond, the object being to destroy the 
communication in rear of Lee's army. This was done, 
fifteen miles of railroad being destroyed and near two mil- 
lion dollars' worth of property ; but as Lee was victorious at 
Chancellorsville the raid did not have the crippling efiect 
intended. Riding day and night, the three hundred reached 
the unmanned lines in front of Richmond. Col. Kil- 
patrick sent Sergt. Henry McFarland, of Co. E, with two 
men, to reconnoiter, supporting them with a platoon of men. 
Meeting no opposition, they galloped into the works, and 
the sergeant was probably the first armed Union soldier 
within those celebrated lines. The command entered the 
second line of intrenchments, and then turned back, no 
one, of course, having any idea of capturing Richmond with 
three hundred horsemen. Kilpatrick and his men made 
their way to Yorktown, and thence rejoined the main 

Next, they were engaged in the general cavalry fight at 
Brandy Station, and in the three days' fight near Aldie. 
The latter was remarkable for the imniber of horses slain 
by the enemy's bullets. Over thirty were killed in Co. E 
alone, yet not a man was killed, and only a few wounded. 
The regiment then marched to Gettysburg, where it made 
one charge ; then returned to the vicinity of Culpepper, 
where it remained during the autumn and winter of 1863 
and '64. 

About the 1st of March, 1864, it went on the celebrated 
Dahlgren raid into the vicinity of Richmond. Under the 
command of Sheridan, it accompanied Grant on his grand 
campaign, losing several men in the battle of the Wilder- 



ness, and engaging in numerous skirmishes until the army 
reached the vicinity of Petersburg. Shortly afterwards it 
went on a raid under Gen. Wilson to the line of North 
Carolina. The next move was under Sheridan back into 
the Valley of Virginia. There it was engaged in constant 
skirmishing with Early's army, which was almost annihi- 
lated by Sheridan ; and finally, when the latter brilliant 
officer intercepted the last of the rebel columns at Five 
Forks, the Harris Light Cavalry was still under his imme- 
diate command. It was shortly afterwards mustered out at 
New York city. 

The first captain of Co. E, Capt. Buell, was promoted to 
be colonel of an infantry regiment, and Francis M. Plumb 
was promoted from another company to fill his place. Lieut. 
Lowden was made captain of another company, and George 
E. Milliman, of Fort Edward, promoted to second lieu- 



Deep Feeling on hearing of the Disasters before Richmond — War- 
Meeling at Argyle — Resolution to raise a Washington-County 
Regiment — Its Enlistment and OBBcers — Mustered in as the 123d 
Infantry — Goes to the Front — .Services in the Autumn of 18fi2 — 
" The Mud March"— Winter- Quarters— The Campaign of Chaneel- 
lorsvillc — A Skirmish near Fredericksburg — Death of Lieut.-Col. 
Norton— The Battle of Cliancellorsville— The 123d repulses the 
Enemy— The Supports fall back— The Regiment retreats— Heavy 
Losses — March to Gettysburg — Services there — Pursuit of the 
Enemy — Ordered to the West — Services in Tennessee — The Grand 
Campaign of 1864— Resaca, Cassville, Pumpkin-Vine Creek- 
Col. McDougall mortally wounded— Flanking the Enemy— Pine 
Hill— Kulp's Farm— Capture of Kenesaw— Peach-Tree Creek- 
Entering Atlanta — " The March to the Sea"— Slight Opposition — 
Capture of Savannah— The Campaign of the Carolinas— Passing 
Columbia — Entering North Carolina— Bentonville — Goldsboro' — 
Moccasin Swamp— Raleigh— Off for Homc—Thi^ Grand Review- 
Sherman's Eulogy — Mustered out— List of Officers. 

When it became known that McClellan's campaign be- 
fore Richmond, in June and July, 18G2, had resulted in 
complete disaster. President Lincoln i.ssued a call lor " three 
hundred thousand more." The whole country was greatly 
moved, and all felt that a mighty efi'ort must be put forth 
to save the Union. This county was more deeply impressed 
than ever before. Something must be done ! On the 22d 
of July, a great war-meeting was held at Argyle, and this 
was followed by others in different parts of the county. 
War committees were appointed ; one for the county at 
large and one for each town. 

They began work at once, and it was decided that Wash- 
ington county should raise a regiment of her own. Re- 
cruiting commenced immediately. A camp was established 
at Salem and called Camp Washington. Before the mid- 
dle of August the companies began to assemble, and by the 
22d the regiment was practically full. The companies were 
mustered in as soon as full, and were made up from the 
different towns as follows : 

Co. A, Greenwich ; Co. B, Kingsbury ; Co. C, White- 

« By Rev. Scth C. Carey, foimerly adjutant. 

hall ; Co. D, Fort Ann, Dresden, and Putnam ; Co. E, 
Hartford and Hebron; Co. F, Argyle; Co. G, White 
Creek and Jackson ; Co. H, Salem ; Co. I, Cambridge 
and Easton ; Co. K, Granville and Hampton. 

The following is the roster of the original officers of the 
regiment : 

Field (171(1 Staff. — Colonel, A. L. McDougall ; lieutenant- 
colonel, Franklin Norton; major, James C. Rogers; adju- 
tant, George H. Wallace; surgeon, John Moneypenny ; 
assistant surgeons, Lysander W. Kennedy and Richard S. 
Connelly ; quartermaster, John King ; chaplain, Henry 
Gordon. ' 

Non-commisaioned Staff. — Sergeant-major, Walter F. 
Martin ; quartermaster-sergeant, Charles D. Warner ; com- 
missary-sergeant, Clark Rice ; hospital steward, Seward 

Company A. — Captain, Abram Reynolds ; first lieu- 
tenant, A. T. Mason ; second lieutenant, James C. Shaw. 

Cumpam/ B. — Captain, George W. Warren ; first lieu- 
tenant, J. C. Warren ; second lieutenant, Samuel Burton. 

Company C. — Captain, Adolphus H. Tanner ; first lieu- 
tenant, Walter G. Warner ; second lieutenant, John C. Cor- 

Company D. — Captain, John Barron ; first lieutenant, 
Alexander Anderson ; second lieutenant, E. P. Quinn. 

Company E. — Captain, Norman F.Weer; first lieutenant, 
George R. Hall ; second lieutenant, Seth C. Care}-. 

Company F. — Captain, Duncan Robertson ; first lieu- 
tenant, Donald Reid ; second lieutenant, George Robinson. 
Company G. — Captain, Henry Gray; first lieutenant, 
James Hill ; second lieutenant, Charles Archer. 

Company H. — Captain, John S. Crary ; first lieutenant, 
Benjamin Elliott; second lieutenant, Josiah W. Culver. 

Company I. — Captain, Orrin S. Hall ; first lieutenant, 
Marcus Beadle ; second lieutenant, Albert Shiland. 

Comp>any K. — Captain, Henry 0. Wiley ; lieuten- 
ant, Hiram 0. Warren ; second lieutenant, George W. Baker. 
On the 4th of September, 1862, the regiment was mus- 
tered into the LTnited States service as the 123d New York 
Volunteer Infantry, and the next day was on the way to 
the front. It reached Washington on the 9th, where the 
men received their arms and equipments. The regiment 
was attached to Pauls Brigade, of Casey's Division. It 
moved to Arlington Heights and thence to Frederick, Md., 
and on the 3d of October pitched camp in Pleasant Valley, 
two miles from Harper's Ferry. Here it was assigned to 
the 22d Brigade (Brig.-Gen. Thomas L. Kane), Lst Di- 
vision (Brig.-Geu. A. S. Williams), 12th Corps (Maj.-Gen. 
H. W. Slocum). 

The regiment soon after crossed the Potomac and Shen- 
andoah, and, after guarding the ford on the latter river, 
encamped on the 8th of November in Loudon valley. 
Here the men built winter quarters, but the day after they 
were finished the command was ordered to Fairfax Station, 
a few miles from Alexandria. On the 19th of January, 
1803, the regiment started on what was called the " mud 
march" towards Richmond. The mud was fathomless, re- 
quiring a six-mule team to draw an unloaded wagon out of 
a mud-holo. On reaching Stafford Court-House camp was 
made fur the winter. 



In the early dawn of Monday, April 27, 1863, with 
eight days' rations in haversacks and knapsacks, and sixty 
rounds of ammunition, the Army of the Potomac started 
on the campaign of Chancellorsville. Crossing the Rappa- 
hannock at Kelly's Ford, and the Rapidan at Germania 
Mills, the 123d struck the plank-road running to Fred- 
ericksburg, and near the " Wilderness Tavern" was fired 
upon by a division of rebel cavalry, being its first experi- 
ence in actual combat. That night the men bivouacked 
near the Chancellorsville House. 

On Friday, May 1, the regiment made a feint toward 
Fredericksburg, to allow the Union forces to secure Banks' 
Ford. Returning to its former position, Co. I was sent out 
on picket. Before our arms were fairly " stacked" .sharp 
skirmishing was heard in the direction taken by Co. I. 
The line advanced rapidly, and found that our skirmi.shers 
had run upon a division of rebel infantry concealed in the 
woods. Co. A was sent to strengthen the skirmish line, 
while the rest of the regiment took position on the edge of 
a bluff. The enemy opened upon us heavily, and as it was 
not desired that we should bring on a general engagement 
we were ordered back ; not, however, till Lieut.-Col. Norton 
had received a fatal wound in the side. That night we 
slept on our arms. 

Most of the next day was spent in building breastworks, 
but at three P.M. we were moved to the front (south) as a 
support to the 3d Corps. We were skirmishing with the 
enemy when we were ordered back, and reached our works 
in time to meet the broken debris of the 11th Corps. 
The enemy had struck their extreme right flank and driven 
them back in great disorder. The pursuers were checked 
by a force of artillery, handled with great skill by Gen. 
Pleasonton, a few cavalry, and a part of the 12th Corps. 
This artillery duel was grandly terrific as darkness came on, 
and night alone put an end to the scene. 

All that night was spent in reforming the lines and build- 
ing rude iutrenchments. The 12th Corps was facing the 
west, with its right resting on the plank-road, while the 
3d Corps extended still farther to the right, and also sup- 
ported the right of the 12th Corps. The 123d was in the 
front line, and in the edge of a wood, while behind us was 
an open field running back to the Chancellorsville House. 
Between our regiment and the plank-road was the 3d 
Maryland Infantry. Behind us were several lines of troops, 
and on the knoll in the rear the artillery was ma.ssed. 

With the early dawn of the Sabbath skirmishing began. 
The infantry were soon engaged, and the artillery opened 
all along the line. Soon the enemy's infantry charged 
down upon us, making the welkin ring with the " rebel 
yell." Again, and again, and again the heavy masses 
charge, but only to be again and again hurled back, as they 
meet the unflinching determination and withering fire of 
our intrenched soldiers. But the hours go by, and it is 
past eight o'clock. The lines begin to fade out in our rear, 
and there is nothing between our right and the plank-road. 
Soon there is nothing on our left, and soon, too, nothing 
can be seen behind us but the artillery. The enemy sweep 
down again and try to turn our right flank. The right 
wing of the regiment swings back, and a volley or two sends 
them staggering to the rear. But a battery is soon planted 

that enfilades our line, and the ammunition is nearly ex- 
hausted. There is no general to give orders, and we must 
be a law unto ourselves. Reluctantly the colonel gave the 
order to fall back, and the regiment obeyed. 

In this fight Second Lieut. John C. Corbett, of Co. C, 
was killed ; First Lieut. Marcus Beadle and Second Lieut. 
Albert Shiland, of Co. I, were badly wounded ; and roll- 
call revealed nearly one hundred and fifty men killed, 
wounded, and mis.sing in this our finst baptism of blood. 

In the afternoon we took position on the extreme left 
of the line near Banks' Ford. At three A..M., May 0, we 
passed out of our works, crossed the Kappahaimock at 
United States Ford, and reached our old camp at sunset. 
The 123d was now attached to the 1st Brigade, Brigadier- 
General J. F. Knipe commanding. 

On the 13th of June, 1863, the campaign of Gettysburg 
began. We passed through Fairfax and Leesburg, crossed 
the Potomac at Edwards' Ferry, and reached Frederick 
City, Md., on the 29th. Thence we passed through 
Taneytown and Littlestown, Pa., and in the afternoon of 
July 1 formed line of battle near AVolf Hill, on the right 
of the Baltimore pike, and within sight of Gettysburg. In 
the morning we took position nearer the cemetery, the 
right of the corps resting on Rock creek, and built strong 
works. Late in the afternoon we were ordered to the rear 
of Round Top, the extreme left of the line, to support our 
forces there, but were soon directed to return. We did 
not, however, reach our former position, but lay on our 
arms all night. 

In the morning of the 3d, part of our brigade, including 
the 123d, was sent to take the works which we had built 
the day before, and which, after we left tiiem, had been 
occupied by the enemy. At noon our regiment charged 
the works, which were taken with but little resistance. 
We had a sharp fight in the afternoon, and at four p.m. 
were ordered to .support our line just at the left of the 
cemetery. We reached that point in time to see the 
broken masses of the retreating enemy sullenly withdrawing 
from the field. In the twilight, as we were retiring to the 
right of our old position, we were fired upon by sharp- 
shooters concealed in McAllister's mill, beyond Rock creek. 
Capt. Norman F. Weer, of Co. E, received a wound in the 
knee, from which he died. After dark we moved to the 
rear of our old position, and lay on our arms all night. 

Saturday morning, July 4, with a few regiments and a 
battery from our division, Maj.-Gcn. Slocuni made a recon- 
naissance around our right, pa.ssing through Gettysburg and 
by the cemetery to our former position. 

On Sunday, at three p.m., we left our bivouac and moved 
out through Littlestown, passing thence through Frederick 
City, over the Catoctin mountains, and across the valley, 
rich in ripening wheat, over South Mountain, and through 
Bakerville, and on the 12th threw up some works just be- 
yond Playfair. On the 14th<jrted again in pursuit of 
the enemy, but after passing near Williamsport, and march- 
ing almost to Falling Waters, we found that Lee had crossed 
the Potomac and again eluded us. The next day we ate 
our noonday lunch on the battle-field of Antietam, and the 
next we halted to draw supplies in Pleasant valley. 

On the lltth we again set forth, crossing the Potomac at 



Harper's Ferry, marching up through Loudon valley, pass- 
ing Snicker's Gap, Upperville, Ashby's Gap, and Piedmont, 
and bivouacking, at eleven p.m. of the 23d, in Manassas 
Gap. At four a.m. the next morning, without breakfast 
(and having had neither dinner nor supper the day before), 
wo were pushed on into the Gap nearly to Linden. Rest- 
ing an hour or two, we were hurried back down the Gap, 
and at midnight bivouacked near White Plains. Thence 
we marched through Thoroughfare Gap, Haymarket, Green- 
wich, Catlett's Station, and Warrenton Junction, reaching 
Kelly's Ford on the 31st of July. We remained near the 
ford till Sept. 16. when we marched to Raccoon Ford on 
the Rapidan. 

On the 24th of September, the 123d was ordered to the 
west to help Geu. Rosecrans. We took cars at Brandy 
Station, passing through Washington, Wheeling, Indianap- 
olis, Louisville, and Nashville to Bridgeport, Ala. Thence 
we returned to Wartrace, chasing mounted guerrillas to Shel- 
byvilie in the night, and then marched through Tullahoma, 
Decherd, and Stevenson to Bridgeport again. Our regiment 
was in charge of that town, which was the base of supplies 
for the army at Chattanooga, and what with camp-guard, 
pieket-duty, railroad-patrol, unloading cars, building steam- 
boats, and running a saw-mill, our hands were quite full. 

The regiment remained there until Jan. 6, 1864, when 
it was transferred to Elk river, midway between Nashville 
and Chattanooga. Co. E was stationed at Estill Springs 
water-tank, to guard the tank and patrol the railroad, and 
Co. F was in a stockade, guarding the trestle-bridge over the 
Elk river. Near the last of the month, Cos. A, E, G, H, 
and K, under command of Col. McDougall, were sent into 
Lincoln Co., Tenn., on a foraging expedition, and to break 
up some bands of guerrillas, being absent about three weeks. 
In March, Co. E had a sliarp encounter with Champ Fer- 
gu.son's guerrillas, and repulsed them handsomely. 
" About this time the 11th and 12th Corps were united 
and called the 20th Corps, under the command of Maj.- 
Gen. Joseph Hooker. The 123d, was now in the 1st Brigade, 
1st Division, 20th Corps, Army of the Cumberland, Maj.- 
Gen. Geo. H. Thomas commanding. Our corps-badge was 
the five-pointed star, red for the 1st Division. 

On the 27th of April, 18G4, we started on the summer 
campaign. Crossing the Cumberland mountains at Uni- 
versity Place, where was to have been the great university 
of the Confederate States, we passed tlirough Bridgeport, 
and around the point of Lookout Mountain, and on the 3d 
of May encamped near Chattanooga. Thence the 20th 
Corps marched over the battle-field of Chickamauga, past 
Gordon's Mills and Cane Springs, and through Nickajack 
Gap to Trickem. Then by an all-night march we hastened 
to Snake Creek Gap, and out to the front of Resaca, Ga. 

On the 15th of May we were heavily engaged with the 
enemy near that place, but the next morning found their 
works deserted. We pushed on through Resaca, but before 
reaching the town saw a train of cars bringing up supplies 
for our army, showing the wonderful promptitude of our 
(juartermaster and commissary departments. Moving on 
across the Coosawattee river, we marched through Calhoun, 
and at ten P.M. of the 18th bivouacked near Cassville. 
Next morning we pushed on towards the town, and later in 

the day the 123d took part in a sharp fight in the outskirts 
of the village. The enemy abandoned their works that 
night. On the 23d we crossed the Etowah river, passing 
thence through Euharlee and Burnt Hickory, and reaching 
Pumpkin-Vine creek at noon of the 25th of May. 

Near that place Gen. Geary, with the 2d Division, 20th 
Corps, ran upon the enemy, with whom he had a sharp en- 
counter. When our division (the 1st) came up it was 
thrown to the front, and was soon pressing the enemy. 
We pushed them about two miles, during which time Col. 
McDougall received a bullet-wound in the leg, from which 
he died at Chattanooga, on the 23d of the succeeding 

Toward night, as we were in the front line, having driven 
the enemy into their works, they opened upon us with grape 
at short range, and kept up their fire long after dark. Hav- 
ing no artillery the men lay close to the ground, and this 
management, together with their nearness to the rebel works, 
saved them from destruction. In the darkness and rain we 
reformed our line, threw out videttes, and, gathering the 
branches of trees cut down by the enemy's artillery, made 
a rude breastwork. 

Late in the evening some troops came to relieve us. 
Contrary to special warning to be very quiet, the oflicer in 
command, in a loud, pompous tone, gave the order, " right 
dress." Instantly the enemy's guns belched forth and 
swept away the relieving force, who came near carrying us 
with them. But our men quickly and quietly obeyed or- 
ders, and the line was held. At three a.m. next morning 
we were relieved and passed to the rear. This was the 
battle of Pumpkin-Vine Creek, or New Hope Church, in 
which the loss of the 123d was twenty killed and wounded. 

From this time till the 5th of July, when we got our 
first view of Atlanta, we were under fire more or less severe 
every day. 

After the battle of New Hope Church Gen. Sherman's 
army was facing the east, with the left resting on the 
Etowah river, and the right at Dallas. Gradually moving 
to the right, our lines overlapped those of the enemy, and 
compelled them either to weaken their ranks or expose 
their base of supplies and line of retreat. Soon the enemy, 
thus outflanked, evacuated the Allatoona mountains, and 
Gen. Sherman threw a force across the railroad at Big 
Shanty. Then the lines were reformed, facing the south, 
with Lost Mountain on our right and Pine Hill in front of 
our left centre. 

On we went, steadily pushing the enemy before us, and 
having a sharp fight near Pine Hill, where the rebel Gen. 
Polk was killed. Still on we pressed, position after posi- 
tion of elaborately-constructed earthworks, furnished with 
ditches and abatis, being firet stubbornly defended, then 
outflanked, then abandoned, till at length we stood before 
the rugged heights of Kenesaw. 

Here we had a sharp skirmish on the 19th of June, 
and then moved about four miles to the southwest, where 
on the 22d the whole regiment was deployed as skirmishers. 
We were thrown to the front a mile and a half, the right 
being at Kulp's, with both flanks " in the air," till 
joined on the right by the 23d Corps. We were then 
ordered to extend our line to the left, which again left both 



flanks exposed. Late in the afternoon the enemy, having 
drawn in their skirmishers, who had annoyed us most of the 
afternoon, advanced upon us in line of battle. Twice they 
were repulsed, but the third time their heavy masses swept 
our light skirmish line to the rear on the double-quick. 
We passed swiftly through our own main line, which in 
the mean time had been fortified, when the enemy rushed 
forward and flung themselves against it, but wore hurled 
back with fearful slaughter. This is called the battle of 
Kulp's Farm, in which the loss of the 123d Wiis four killed, wounded, and seventeen missing. 

Gen. Sherman determined to again abandon his base of 
supplies and, with twenty days' rations in the wagons, strike 
for the Chattahoochie and Atlanta. Everything was in 
readiness at three A.M., on the 3d of July, but before 
starting the pickets reported that the enemy's intreuch- 
ments were abandoned. At six A.M. we were pushing on 
through their works, which we found to be very strong, 
consisting of a well-intrenched skirmish line, two light 
lines behind it, and still back of these a most elaborate 
main line, the parapet being ten feet wide on top, with 
ditch and abatis in front. On the 5th of July we reached 
a range of hills on the north bank of the Chattahoochie, 
from which we had our first view of Atlanta, the Gate City 
of the .south. 

In the afternoon of July 17 we left camp, crossed the 
Chattahoochie near Vinning's Station, and at noon of the 
20th lay just beyond Peach-Tree creek. Between four and 
five o'clock we were startled by rapid firing in front ; our 
pickets came hurrying in, saying that the enemy were close 
upon them. Our line was almost instantly formed, but 
none too soon, for we were hotly engaged before it was 
completed. Five or six times the enemy charged our lines 
with desperate valor, but every time they were disastrously 
repulsed. It was a hand-to-hand fight, without works or 
defenses of any kind. The loss of the 123d was about 
fifty killed and wounded, including Capt. Henry 0. Wiley, 
of Co. K, killed. First Lieut. John H. Daicy, of Co. E, 
mortally wounded, and Adjt. Seth C. Carey, severely 
wounded. The loss in our corps (the 20th) was nineteen 

The next day, after burying the dead, we left the battle- 
field of Peach-Tree Creek, skirmished with the enemy for 
several hours, and at night took a position about two miles 
from Atlanta. Skirmishing and artillery firing were now 
kept up daily. On the 30th of July Capt. Geo. R. Hall, 
of Co. E, advanced our line at daylight, captured the 
enemy's pickets, and established a new line close up to the 
rebel works. Thus we remained until the 25th of August, 
when the regiment moved back to the Chattahoochie and 
fortified the railroad-bridge. On the 2d of September the 
123d, together with a regiment from each of the other 
brigades in the division, made a reconnaissance toward 
Atlanta, and at two P.M. entered the town and occupied 
the works on the east side, thus ending the justly-famous 
campaign of Atlanta, a campaign characterized by Gen. 
Grant, in a letter to Gen. Sherman, as " the most gigantic 
undertaking given to any general in this war." President 
Lin(n)ln, in a letter of thanks to Gen. Sherman, said, "The 
marches, battles, sieges, and other military operations that 

have signalized the campaign, must render it famous in the 
annals of war, and have entitled those who have partici- 
pated therein to the applause and thanks of the nation." 

The usual duties of camp-life followed, to which was 
added the fortification of the city, foraging expeditions, etc. 

On the 12th of October the last train of cars went north 
from Atlanta, and on the 15th began the ever-memorable 
" March to the Sea," in which Gen. Sherman proposed to 
break through the " shell of the rebellion" and demonstrate 
its emptiness. We moved past Storm Mountain, Social 
Circle, and Madison, and on the 2d of November reached 
Milledgeville and crossed the Oconee river. At Buffalo 
creek we had a sharp skirmish with the enemy, who had 
burned the bridges, compelling us to build nine new ones, 
so wide and marshy was the creek. 

We continued on our course week after week, almost 
entirely unopposed, passing through Sandcrsvillc, Davi.s- 
borough, and numerous other unimportant localities, and 
on the 30th of November crossed the Ogechce and biv- 
ouacked at Linnville. We then marched down between the 
Savannah and the Ogechee rivers, through dismal swamps 
and over wretched roads, obliged to build miles of corduroy 
before our trains could pass, and at length, on the 8th of 
December, we bivouacked within sixteen miles of Savan- 
nah. We met the enemy the next morning posted in the 
edge of a swamp, having built two forts for their protec- 
tion and blockaded the roads with fallen trees. Our men, 
liowever, soon drove the feeble rebel forces out of their 
works, capturing considerable ammunition. 

On the 10th we advanced to within four miles of Savan 
nah, and formed our line with the left of the brigade on 
the Savannah river. Here we were shelled by the enemy 
daily, in addition to the usual skirmishing. The food con- 
sisted of rice and poor beef until the 17th of December, 
when we drew rations obtained from the fleet, and received 
the first mail since the 13th of November. On the 21st 
of December we entered the enemy's works, which had 
been evacuated the night before, and camped within a mile 
of the city, thus ending the far-famed " JIarch to the Sea." 

We remained here, performing the usual duties of camp 
life, till Jan. 17, 18G5, when we crossed the Savannah 
river into South Carolina, and camped that night about ten 
miles out. After considerable waiting for supplies in that 
vicinity, on the 4th of February we moved out, through 
rain and mud, and over most wretched roads, to the Coosa- 
hatchie, where we were compelled to build a bridge, and 
on the 8th camped at Beaufort's Bridge. On the 9th we 
marched nipidly to Blackville, and then on the next day to 
the South Edisto, where we made a bridge, cro.ssed, had a 
skirmish, and camped a mile beyond the river. We then 
crossed the North Edisto, piusscd Lexington Court- House, 
and on the IGth camped within four miles of Columbia, the 
capital of South Carolina. 

Crossing the Saluda and Broad rivers above the city, we 
passed through the ruins of Winnsborough, a large town 
which had been burned by the enemy, afterwards crossed 
the Wateree river, marched past Hanging Rock, and on the 
2d of March met the enemy near Chesterfield Court-House, 
driving them through the town and over Thomp.son's 
cre;;k. Then our column pushed forward to the Great 



Pedee river, and on to Cheraw. On the 8th of March we 
crossed into North Carolina, and hastened forward through 
Rockingham to Fayetteville, where we were reviewed by 
Gen. Sherman. 

Crossing the Cape Fear river, we moved steadily for- 
ward, and on the 15th of March occurred the battle of 
Avcrysboro'. This was fought in low, swampy ground, 
the soldiers often standing two feet deep in the water. At 
nine a.m. the 123d was put in position on the right of the 
3d Division, with Co. E as skirmishers, and were soon 
briskly engaged. The enemy attempted to turn the Union 
right, but were repulsed by our regiment. After fighting 
all day, and driving the rebels into their works, Co. E was 
relieved by Co. F, and the regiment bivouacked for the 
night in line of battle. The next morning we found that 
the enemy had retreated, but we could not pursue them, 
as the roads were so bad that they had to be corduroyed 
the most of the way. 

We forded Black river through water four feet deep, and 
continued on our course. On the 19th the battle of Ben- 
tonville was fought. The 123d was held in reserve 
during the day, but in the evening was thrown to the 
front and lay in line of battle all night. Crossing the 
Neuse river, we reached Goldsboro' on the 24th of March, 
and passed in review before Gen. Sherman. The army re- 
mained at Goldsboro' until the 10th of April, learning 
meanwhile the glad tidings of the fall of Richmond. 

At daylight on the 10th of April we again began the 
march, our regiment leading the corps. When four miles 
out from Goldsboro' the enemy appeared in front, and the 
123d was thrown forward as skirmishers. At eleven a.m. 
we reached Bloccasin swamp, a mile wide, with two deep 
streams running through it. The rebels had taken the 
planks from the bridges, and were strongly posted on the 
opposite bank. But the men sprang forward under a heavy 
fire, some wading through water from two to four feet 
deep, while others crossed on the stringers of the bridges, 
and the foe was soon driven in disorder from his works. 
The next night we camped at Smithfield, and on the 12th 
news came of the surrender of Lee. We pushed on, how- 
ever, and the next day camped near Raleigh. Here we 
remained till the surrender of Johnston, when we took up 
our line of march for Washington and home, passing 
through Richmond on the way. 

On the 24th of May, Sherman's army was reviewed at 
Washington by President Johnson and Gen. Grant. Gen. 
Sherman thus speaks of their appearance : 

" It was, in my judgment, the most magnificent army in 
existence, — sixty-five thousand men in .splendid phi/siqve, 
who had just completed a march of nearly two thousand 
miles in a hostile country. . . . The steadiness and firm- 
ness of the tread, the careful dress of the guides, the uni- 
form intervals between the companies, the tattered and 
bullet-riven flags, — all attracted universal notice. For six 
hours and a half that strong tread of the Army of the 
West resounded along Pennsylvania avenue, and when the 
rear of the column had passed by thousands of the spectators 
still lingered to express their sense of confidence in the 
strength of a government which could claim such an army." 

After the review the regiment was camped near Bladens- 

burg till the 8th of June, when they were mustered out of 
the United States service. The next day we started for 
home, passing through Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New 
York to Albany, where we were paid off. 

Thus closed the career of the " Washington County 
Regiment," which could inscribe upon its flag the names 
of more than a score of battles and almost innumerable 
skirmishes, which marched more than three thousand milas, 
and which bore an honorable part in five of the great cam- 
paigns of the war, viz. : the campaign of Chancellorsville, 
the campaign of Gettysburg, the campaign of Atlanta, the 
March to the Sea, and the campaign of the Carolinas. 

The following is a list of oflicers who ceased to belong 
to the regiment, from all causes, before the final muster-out : 

Col. A. L. McDougall; wounded at Pumpkin-Vine Creek, May 25, 
and died at Chattanooga, June 23, 1864. 

Lt.-Col. Franklin Norton ; died of wounds received at Chancellors- 
ville, May 2, 1863. 

Adjt. (tco. H. Wallace; promoted to capt. Co. C, and resigned 
to receive lieutenancy in the regular service. 

Surg. John Moneypcnny; resigned March 19, 1863. 

Asst. Surg. Lysander W. Kennedy; promoted to surg. in 119th N. 
Y. V. I., May 21, 1865. 

Quartermr. John King; resigned Oct. 25, 1862. 

Chaplain Henry Gordon ; resigned April 18, 1803. 

Capt. Abram Reynolds, Co. A ; resigned July 18, 1863. 

Capt. Geo. W. Warren, Co. B; resigned June 10, 1863. 

Ciipt. John Barron, Co. D; dismissed the service, Feb. 22, 1863. 

Capt. Norman F. Weer, Co. E; died of wounds received at Get- 
tysburg. July 3, 1S63. 

Capt. Jno. S. Crary, Co. H ; resigned July 22, 1863. 

Capt. Henry 0. Wiley, Co. K ; killed at Peach-Tree Creek, Ga., 
July 20, 1864. 

First Lt. James C. Warren, Co, B; resigned Jan. 28, 1863. 

First Lt. AV. G. Warner, Co. C ; resigned Feb. 11, 1863. 

First Lt. Benj. Elliott, Co. H; resigned Feb. 4, 1863. 

First Lt. John U. Daicy, Co. E; killed at Peach-Tree Creek, July 
20, 1864. 

Second Lt. Samuel C. Burton, Co. B; resigned Jan. 7, 1863. 

Second Lt. John C. Corbett, Co. C; killed at Chancellorsville, May 
3, 1863. 

Second Lt. Charles Archer, Co. G; resigned Feb. 16, 1863. 

Second Lt. Albert Shilaud, Co. I ; honorably discharged on account 
of wounds received at Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863. 

The following is the roster of oflicers who were mustered 
out with the regiment in June, 1865 : 

Colonel and brevet brigadier-general, James C. Rogers ; lieutenant- 
colonel, A. n. Tanner; major, Henry Gray ; adjutant, Seth C. Carey; 
surgeon, James Chapman ; assistant surgeon, R. fi. Connelly ; quar- 
termaster, A. L. Crawford: chaplain, Myron White. 

Cotupnny A. — Captain, A. T. Mason; first lieutenant, Geo. Robin- 
son ; second lieutenant, Henry M. Bosworth. 

Ciniipaut/ B. — Captain, Jas. C. Shaw; first lieutenant, Wm. W. 

Cnmpnny C, — Captain, Hiram 0. Warren; first lieutenant, George 
Robinson : second lieutenant, Luke H. Carrington. 

C'imjjuiiy D — Captain, Ale.x. Anderson; first lieutenant, E. P 
Quinn ; second lieutenant, Willis Swift. 

Compaiii/ £. — Captain, Geo. R. Hall; first lieutenant, H. P. Wail; 
second lieutenant, Duane M. Hall. 

Comjmny F. — Captain, Duncan Robertson; first lieutenant, Donald 
Reid; second lieutenant, W. F. Martin. 

Cunipfiiii/ G. — Captain, James Hill; first lieutenant, Jerome B. 
Rice; second lieutenant, Wm. G. Warner. 

Cinnpauy H. — Captain, Josiah W. Culver ; first lieutenant, Robt. 
Cruikshank; second lieutenant, Robt. R. Beattie. 

CoiiiptiHy f. — Captain, Orrin S. Hall; first lieutenant, Marcus Bea- 
dle; second lieutenant, David Rogers. 

Company K. — Captain, Geo. W.Baker; first lieutenant, Geo. W. 
Smith; second lieutenant, Judson H. Austin. 





The ]2oth IiiCantry — Part of a Company from Easton— Its Services 
— The 169th Infantry — One Company from Sandy Hill and vicin- 
ity — Services and Changes— The First Mounted Rifles— Men from 
Salem and Cambridge— The Kifles at Hluffolk and in the Array of 
the James — Consolidation — Final Muster-out — The Second Vet- 
eran Cavalry — Portions from Washington County — Pleasant Hill — 
Thrf Davidson Raid— Mitchell's Creek— Claiborne— Mobile — Ser- 
vices after the close of the War — The 16th Heavy Artillery — Col. 
Strong authorized to raise a Battalion — Rapid Recruiting — Co. I 
and its Officers — Co. K — The largest Regiment in America— A 
Battalion marches to Bermuda Hundred — An astonished General — 
Services in the Siege of Petersburg and Vicinity — Fort Fisher — 
Cape Fear River — Services of Officers — The End. 


This regiment was raised in the summer of 1863, mostly 
in Rensselaer county. Part of a company, however, were 
from Easton, in Washington county. The regiment was 
mustered in on the 29th of August, 1863. They pro- 
ceeded to Virginia, but were not engaged in any serious 
conflict until that of Gettysburg, where their colonel (Geo. 
F. Willard) was killed. The next year they took part in 
the battles of Mine Run, Wilderness, North Anna, and 
Cold Harbor. They then settled down to the siege of 
Petersburg, and were engaged in many of the minor con- 
flicts that signalized the famous siege which finally resulted 
in the fall of Richmond. In the course of service Lewis 
H. Crandell, of Easton, became successively second lieuten- 
ant, first lieutenant, and captain. The regiment was mus- 
tered out on the 5th of June, 1865. 


Warren B. Coleman, captain, John H. Hughes, first lieu- 
tenant, and Robert O'Connor, second lieutenant, were the 
officers of the single company, raised in Sandy Hill and vi- 
cinity, which represented Washington county in the 169th 
New York Infantry. The rest of the regiment was from 
Rensselaer county. The men were mustered into service from 
the 25th of September to the 6th of October, 1862. In 
1863 they were employed in the siege of Fort Wagner and 
at other points in the Carolinas, but in 1864 they came back 
to Virginia, and took part in the battles of Drury's Bluff, 
Cold Harbor, Dutch Gap, Chapin's Farm, and other conflicts 
around Petersburg and Richmond. They also participated 
in the successful expedition of Gen. Terry against Fort 

Lieutenant Hughes died Sept. 6, 1863, of wounds re- 
ceived in action. Capt. Coleman resigned in February, 
1863, and was succeeded by Capt. and Brevet Maj. Frank 
W. Tarbell, he in turn being followed on his retirement in 
October, 1864, by Capt. Emory W. Church. The regi- 
ment was mustered out on the 19th day of July, 1865. 


Previous to July, 1862, there had been a mounted bat- 
talion known as Wool's Body-Guard. In that month new 
companies were mustered in, and the command raised to a 
regiment, under the name of the 1st New York Mounted 
Rifles. The regiment was principally enlisted in Rensselaer 

county, but there were twenty or thirty men from Salem, 
Cambridge, and vicinity, and Cornelius S. Masten, of Cam- 
bridge, was one of the captains. In July, 1862, the 
" Rifles" went to Suffolk, Va., where they remained until 
August, 1863. Thence they proceeded to Williamsburg, 
where they stayed until the spring of 1864. 

In May of that year the regiment joined the "Army 
of the James," under Gen. Butler, at Bermuda Hundred. 
They remained there and in the immediat« vicinity of 
Petersburg, constantly employed in scouting, picketing, and 
raiding, throughout the siege of that city, and till after the 
surrender of Lee. In July, 1865, the Rifles were consoli- 
dated with the 3d New York Cavalry, the new regiment 
being called the 4tli Provisional Cavalry. This remained 
on duty in Virginia until November, 1865, when it was also 
mustered out of service. 


In the summer and autumn of 1863 many ex-soldiers, 
lately discharged from the two-years' regiments, were de- 
sirous of entering a cavalry command. Two regiments 
were accordingly organized out of that material, under the 
name of the 1st and 2d Veteran Cavalry. The latter regi- 
ment contained one full company (D) from Whitehall, com- 
manded by Capt. Thomas F. Allen. Parts of three other 
companies (A, E, and M) were also from Washington 
county. Duncan Cameron, ex-captain of Co. G, of the 22d 
Infantry, was major of the regiment, and Lucius E. Wil- 
son, previously captain of Co. D, of the 22d Inflmtry (af- 
terwards brevet major), was captain of one of the companies 
of the 2d Veteran. 

The regiment proceeded to Washington, and tlience to 
Louisiana, where it joined the Red River expedition of Gen. 
Banks. It took an active part in the battle of Pleasant 
Hill, where Co. D supported Nims' Battery, on the right of 
the Union line, while the remainder of the regiment, on the 
left of the line, charged the enemy and recaptured two 
pieces of artillery which had been taken by them. The 
2d Veteran was on duty in Louisiana during a large part of 
1864. It went with Gen. Davidson on a raid across 
Mississippi to cut the Mobile and Ohio railroad, having 
several small fights, and a pretty severe one at Mitchell's 
creek. In 1865 the regiment made a rapid march to Pen- 
sacola, Fla., having a severe contest on the way with the 
rebel Gen. Clanton, at Claiborne, Ala., and capturing six 
hundred prisoners. 

In March the active honsemen were back at Mobile, and 
were present at the capture of the forts which defended that 
city. During the summer of 1865, after the surrender of 
the Confederate armies, the 2d Veteran was engaged in 
riding through Alabama as a kind of traveling provost- 
guard, keeping order among the newly-conqucrcd secession- 
ists. This regiment was not mustered out until November, 


In the forepart of December, 1863, Thomas J. Strong, of 
Sandy Hill, who had served two years in the 22d Infontry, 
having been mustered out with it as lieutenant-colonel, 
went to Albany to obtain authority to raise a new regiment. 
No new regiments were then being authorized, but Col. 



Strong was favorably recommended to Col. Morrison, of 
New York city, who for near a year had been endeavoring 
to raise a force to be icnown as the l()th New York Heavy 
Artillery. It was intended to consist of twelve companies 
or batteries of a hundred and fifty men each. 

An understanding was soon arrived at between the two 
officers named, and Col. Strong returned to Sandy Hill with 
authority to raise a battalion of four companies for the IGth, 
of which he was to be major. He issued handbills inviting 
recruits, and on the 23d of December opened an office at 
Sandy Hill for the reception of names. Bounties were then 
hi<^, and, besides, there was a large number of young men in 
that vicinity who had been discharged from other regiments 
within a few months, and were already longing for the ex- 
citement of war. They came flocking to the rendezvous by 
scores and hundreds, and by the 5th of January Col. Strong 
had about eight hundred men enlisted, mostly from this 
county. Besides these, officers selected by Col. Strong had 
raised three or four hundred more in neighboring counties. 

Most of the men were taken to Elmira en masse, and 
there formed into companies without much reference to the 
localities from which they came. Co. I, however, was or- 
ganized at Sandy Hill, with the following officers : Captain, 
Henry C. Sherrill ; lieutenants, Norman S. Kenyou 
and llufus Gardner ; second lieutenants, Charles C. Smith 
and Low Washburn. There was also a detachment of 
twenty or thiity men from Salem and Cambridge, which 
went into Co. K. Thomas B. Fisk, of Shushan, and James 
S. Smart, of Cambridge (now editor of the Washington 
County Post), were first lieutenants. Recruiting also ad- 
vanced apace in other localities, and by the latter part of 
January the regiment was " running over" full. There 
were more companies than were required, and more men in 
each company. The last were mustered in on the 28th of 
January, 18G4. Col. Strong accepted the rank of major. 

Early in the spring the whole command was assembled at 
Gloucester Point, Va., numbering near four thousand men, 
and being the largest regiment ever seen in America. Hun- 
dreds upon hundreds were transferred to other commands, 
and still there remained fourteen companies of two hundred 
men each. The government was not prepared to supply 
them with cannon, and they were mostly armed as infantry. 
They continued in that vicinity until after Grant laid siege 
to Petersburg. In July, 1864, Maj. Strong was ordered 
with six companies, numbering twelve hundred men, to 
Bermuda Hundred. Co. K was one of those detailed for 
the purpose. When the command reached its destination. 
Gen. Birney accosted Maj. Strong, who was riding at the 
head of his twelve hundred men, saying, — 

" What brigade is that?" 

" That is not a brigade, sir," replied the major. 

" Well, it is as large as most of our brigades ; what regi- 
ment is it, then ?" 

" It is not even a regiment, sir." 

" What the deuce is it, then ?" 

" A detachment of six companies, sir." 

The general stared a moment, and then queried again, — 

" Well, what regiment does it belong to, then ?" 

"The IGth New York Heavy Artillery, sir," replied the 

" Ah ! yes ; I understand now. We have heard about 

That part of the regiment remained in service in the 
great siege throughout the remainder of the year, taking 
part in numerous conflicts at Dutch Gap Canal, Deep Bot^ 
tom. Signal Hill, and other localities, losing heavily by 
battle and also by disease. Maj. Strong lost a leg. On 
the 16th of September he was appointed lieutenant-colonel 
of the regiment. The rest of the regiment was alsp ac- 
tively engaged in the siege, though at a later date. The 
IGth was so large and was so much broken up, and the 
Washington-county men were so intermingled with those 
of other counties, that it is impracticable to give a de- 
tailed account of their movements. In January, 18G5, a 
detachment, including Co. K, was furnished with cannon, 
and sent to aid in the capture of Fort Fisher, N. C. In 
February they were engaged on Cape Fear river, in the 
same State. In the course of service Lieutenant Fisk 
became captain of Co. K in place of Capt. Otis. He re- 
signed in February, 18G5, and Lieut. Smart was made 
captain in his place, and remained as such until the muster- 
out of the regiment. Capt. Sherrill and Lieuts. Gardner 
and Smith, of Co. I, resigned in the spring of 18G4. First 
Lieut. Kenyon and Lieut. Wa.shburn, who was promoted to 
first lieutenant, were mastered out with the regiment. 
Lieut.-Col. Strong was breveted colonel and brigadier- 
general for gallant and meritorious services in the field. 
The regiment was finally mustered out on the 21st day of 
August, 1865. 



When the existence of the nation was a.ssured by the 
triumph of the Union armies, and the soldiers returned to 
their homes, Washington county returned to the quiet and 
peaceful existence which had before been characteristic of it. 
A few of the villages showed a gradual increase, but the firm- 
ing population has evidently reached its limit, unless there 
shall be some marked change in agricultural systems or in 
modes of life, which shall increase the number of persons 
who can be supported on a given number of acres. 

The wool-growing interest ha.s ceased to hold the pre- 
dominant place which it once maintained among the indus- 
tries of the county, though it is by no means extinct, many 
farmers devoting considerable land and capital to the raising 
of sheep. Potatoes, apples, and the products of the dairy 
have now become the principal resources of the farmer. We 
give below valuable information, compiled from the census 
of 1875, on these and other points of interest. Another 
industry which is rapidly assuming importance is that of 
slate- and marble-quarrying, which is carried on so exten- 
sively in the neighboring portions of Vermont, and which 
bids fair to be a source of considerable revenue in the east- 
ern part of this county, especially in Granville and vicinity. 
Not only roofing-slate, but large quantities of black marble 
have been quarried there, the latter taking a beautiful pol- 
ish and being convertible into valuable mantels, fire-places, 
brackets, and similar articles of domestic use. 



There has been some extension of the railroad facilities 
existing before 1861. Even while war was still raging in 
the land, in the year 1864, a survey was made for a rail- 
road from Johnsonville, on the southern border of the 
county, to Union Village, now called Greenwich. The first 
ground was broken for the Greenwich and Johnsonville 
railroad in 1857, and the road was completed to Greenwich 
in August, 1870. Its length is fourteen miles, running 
through the towns of Cambridge and Easton, and its cost, 
with ef)uipments, was three hundred and thirteen thousand 
dollars. Further details regarding this road are given in 
the town-history of Greenwich. 

The Glen's Falls railroad company was organized in July, 
1867, and a road was soon after built by its authority from 
Fort Edward to Glen's Falls, a distance, as the road runs, 
of five and three-fourths miles. It was immediately leased 
in perpetuity to the Rensselaer and Saratoga railroad com- 
pany, who pay for it as rent the interest on a hundred and 
twenty-five thousand dollars. The Rensselaer and Saratoga 
road itself, however, has since been leased to the Delaware 
and Hudson canal company, which uses it principally lor 
hauling coal and iron to and from the iron mines of north- 
ern New York and the coal mines of Pennsylvania. The 
Troy and Rutland road has also passed into the hands of 
the same corporation, which runs it in connection with the 
Rutland and Washington railroad, running from Salem to 
Rutland, Vt. 

The Delaware and Hudson canal company also procured 
the construction, in 1874-75, of a road called the New 
York and Canada railroad, extending northward from 
Whitehall along the west shore of Lake Champlain to the 
north bounds of the county, and thence northward, connect- 
ing with other roads leading to Montreal. This is also 
managed and " run" by the Delaware and Hudson canal 
company as a part of its great system of coal roads, and 
long trains, laden with iron ore going souCh, or with coal 
going north, may daily be seen thundering along the rocky 
shores where once resounded only the fierce yell of angry 
panthers, the deadlier war-whoop of Indian braves, or the 
triumphant shout of Putnam's rangers. 

The population of Washington county at each census 
from 1790 to 1875 was as follows: In 1790, 14,042; in 
1800, 85,792 (Cambridge and Easton added in 1791); in 
1810, 44,289; in 1814, 36,359 (Warren county taken off 
in 1813); in 1820,38,831; in 1825,39,280; in 1830, 
42,653; in 1835, 39,326; in 1840, 41,080; in 1845, 
40,559; in 1850, 44,750; in 1855, 44,405; in 1860, 
45,904; iu 1865, 46,244; in 1870, 49,568; in 1875, 

The increase of foreign population since 1845 has been 
as follows: In 1845, 2241; in 1850, 6004; in 1855, 
6787; in 1860, 6656; in 1865, 6767; in 1870,8294; 
in 1875,7136. 

Number of colored persons since 1790 : in 1790, 50 ; in 
1800,399; in 1810,3130*; in 1814, 439 ; in 1820,404; 
in 1825,376; in 1830, 393; in 1835, 332; in 1840,272; 
in 1845, 31 1 ; in 1850, 350 ; in 1855, 220 ; in 1800, 261 ; 
in 1865, 303 ; in 1870, 382 ; in 1875, 278. 

* Probablj' a mistake. 

Population by Totong in 1875, showing Native and Foreign, 
Male and Female, Persons of school age, Land-Owners, Voters, 
and those over twenty-one who cannot read nor write.* 



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1,21 111 



















































Total Value. 
























Fort Ann 







Ft. Edward. 













Greenwich .. 




],. 349,700 







Hartford .... 





































White Creek 






















































4,21 iO 


















Methodist Episcopal 


Protestant Episcopal 



S n 1 Advpntifits 



United Presbyti'iianJ 








' This and the succeeding tables arc compiled from the State census 
of 1875. , , „ . , 

t We give the figures a.« they arc in the census, but the official re- 
port of the Washington Union A.ssocialion (Baptist) mentions by 
name twenty-one churches instead of eighteen within the county. 
On this point the report is undoubtedly correct. It also estimates the 
church property at $190,500. , ^.^ 

X In regard to this denomination Washington ranks higher than 
anv other county in the State in every respect except as to value of 
church propertv, in which it is slightly exceeded by New York city. 



Acres of improved farm land 

Acres (if unimproved farm land 

Cash valno of farms 

Value of farm buildings other than 


Value of atocli 

Value of farm iini u m. nt- 

Acres plowed . I'- 

Acres in pasture 

Acrea in meadow 

Tons of hay produced, 1874 

Bushels of buckwheat, 1814 

Bushels of Indian corn, 1874 

Bushels of oats 

Bushels of rye 

Bushels uf wheat 

Acres of potatoes 

Bushels of potatoes 


Bushels of apples 

Pounds of niai)le-8ugar 

Fiirm-horses two years old and over 

Value of poultry owned ou farms 

Value of poultry sold, 1874 

Value of eggs sold, 1874 

Number of niilchcows, 1875 

Cows of which milk sent to factory 

Pounds of butter made in families 

Pounds of cheese made in families 

Gallons of milk sold in market 

Number of sheep shorn, 1874 

Pounds clipped 

Sheep killed by dogs, 1874 

Swiue wintered over 

Pounds of pork made on farm 


































, 29,005 


















27 ,.525 











81, 792,410 

$251, .3.37 




























































. $210,377 


















































































Acres of improved farm land 

Acres of unimproved farm laud 

Cash value of fai*mB 

Value of farm buildings other thati 


Value of stock 

Yaliie of firm implements 

Gross amount ol sales, 1874 

Acres plowed, 1875 

Acres in pasture 

Acres in meadow 

Tons of hay produced, 1874 

Bushels of buckwheat, 1874 

Bushels of Indian corn, 1874 

Bushels of oats 

Bushels of rye 

Bushels of wheat 

Acres of potatoes 

Bushels of potatoes 


Bushels of apples 

Pounds of maple.Bugar 

Farm-horses two years old and over..... 

Value of poultry owned on farms 

Value of poultrvsold, 1874.. 

Value of eggs sold, 1874 

Number of milch-cows, 1875 

Cows of which milk sent to factory 

Pounds of butter made in families 

Ponuds of cheese made in families 

Gallons of milk sold in market 

Nutnberof sheep shorn, 1874 

I'onnds clipped 

Sheep killed by dogs, 1874 

Pounds of pork made on farm 




























$70,21 ;i 

















$4 ,.558 



























































































































































Number of cheese-factoriei 

unty in 1875, 11. Number of pounds of cheese made in facto 





The Taeonic Rocks — The Taconio Theory — E.i!planatory Remark.* — 
The Lake George District — General Geological Sketch of the 
County — Its Geological Position — Granite — Postdam Sandstone — 
Calciferous Sandstone — Chazy Limestone — Trenton or B.ald Moun- 
tain Limestone — Hudson River Slate — Taeonic Slate — Tacnnic 
Sandstone — Sparry Limestone — Magncsian Slate — Rutland Marble 
— Granular Quartz. 

Washington county has been termed "classic ground" 
to geological scientists and amateurs. It is mo.stly under- 
laid by what are termed the Taconic rocks, these being 
the rocks of the Taconic or Taghkaniek mountains, a chain 
of outliers to the Green mountains upon their western side, 
whicli extend along the eastern border of the State from 
Dutchess county north, and, passing into Vermont, are con- 
tinued along the east border of the valley of Lake Cham- 
plain nearly or quite to the Canada line. These Taconic 
rocks are the strata which were originally named by Professor 
Amos Eaton the granular quartz, granular lime-rock, sparry 
lime-rock, and primitive argillite. JMore recently they have 
been termed the quartz-rock or brown sandstone. Stock- 
bridge limestone, magnesian slate, sparry limestone, and 
Taeonic slate. 

Geologists liave differed in opinion, and there ha.s been 
much controversy with regard to these strata, whether they 
were a di.stinct and independent series of rocks, or whether 
they were merely metamorphic or altered rocks, — the Tn- 
conic theory viewing them as being an independent series 
or system placed between the primary or granitic rocks and 
the transition or lower strata of the " New York system," 
thus being older than the latter ; and the metamnrphic the- 
ory regarding them as the lower members of the New York 
system, changed from their normal appearance by the 
agency of heat, by which also nearly all traces of their 
fossils have been burned out and obliterated. 
■ These Taconic rocks are in this county more spread out, 
and occupy a much wider belt of territory than in the 
counties south of this, where they were first examined and 
described. Being thus more expanded and opened to view, 
the discordant opinions respecting them have caused the 
exposures of these rocks at particular localities in this 
county to be visited and studied by a number of the most 
eminent geologists, both of this and foreign lands. 

To render the account of the geology of the county, 
which I here propose to present, more clear to the under- 
standing of readers in general, it will be necessary that 1 
first give a brief preliminary outline of this subject, naming 
the several strata of rocks in the order in which they occur, 
one after another, in pa.ssing across the county. 

The most elevated and mountainous part of the county 
is the district bordering upon Lake George, at the north 
end of the county. We here find ourselves upon the un- 
stratified or granillc rochs which constitute the primitive 
range of northern New York, and which occupy the vast 
wilderness-region that extends from this county northwest 
to the St. Lawrence river. Starting from this point, and 

> By Asa Fitch, M.D. 

traveling across the county in a southeasterly direction, we 
meet .successively with different rocks, as follows: upon 
reaching Wood creek and the Champhiin canal, we find 
resting upon the granite a hard, white sandstone, appearing 
in even, uniform layers, commonly in precipices facing the 
west, and resembling walls of masonry. This is the 7Vs- 
d(im sandslone. Crowning the precipices in which it ap- 
pears, and extt;ndiiig east from them, is a much softer gray 
rock, composed of lime and sand in variable proportions, — 
the calci/critiis smuhfone. As we pass farther east we 
come to a pure limestone, of a leadeii-blue color, very com- 
pact and fine-grained, — the Chazy limenlone. Twelve miles 
distant from this, in the Bald mountain range of hills, 
which skirt the valley of the Hudson along its eiist side, wc 
meet with a stratum of limestone resembling the last, being 
of a blue color, very compact and fine-grained, and yielding 
lime of a superior quality. Standing alone, so widely sep- 
arated from any other stratum of limestone, geologists have 
been much perplexed to determine to which of the strata 
of limestones this pertains, and differed widely with respect 
to it, until a fossil which I discovered in it showed it to be 
the Trenton limestone, thus belonging above the Chazy, in- 
stead of below it, where some had confidently placed it. 
Finally, bordering upon these limestones, and at a distance 
of three to six miles from the granite, we find a black, brit- 
tle shale, the ILulsoa river shite, which is seen everywhere 
in the bank of the river along the west side of the county, 
and extends east some three miles to the Bald mountain 
range of hills. 

From the granite upon which we started wc have thus 
far been passing over rocks of the New York system, which 
successively overlay each other, to this slate, which is the 
uppermost and, geologically, the highest .stratum in the 
county. We next come upon rocks of the Taconic group, 
on which, as we pass ea.stward, we descend from the highest 
to the lowest members of this series. 

Upon the east side of the Bald mountain range of hills, 
and forming these hills in several instances where the lime- 
stone does not occur,, we come upon slate-rocks of great 
variety, but for the most part of a grayish color, and in 
even layers of a firm texture, in which slate-beds of gray 
or Taconic sandstone and blue limestone are of frequent 
occurrence. This is the Taconic slate, the leading rock of 
the county, occupying its eastern half, and underlying about 
three-fifths of its area. In places on the cast border of the 
county, and beyond the State line in Vermont, we find slate 
of a green color and soft in its texture, — this being the 
magnesian slate. And here we come to a pale-blue lime- 
stone, much checked and traversed by veins and seams of 
white calcareous spar, — the sparry limestone. And beyond 
this is a snowy-white limestone, — tlie Stockhridge limestone, 
or Rutland marble, — which comes slightly within the south- 
east corner of the county. Beyond this we reach a white 
or light-brown and vitrified sandstone, — the quartz rock. 
And to this succeed the granite or primary rocks of the 
Green mountain range. 

From this sketch it will bo perceived that this county is 
sitiuited in a trough, as it were, that intervenes between the 
primitive formation of northern New York and that of New 
En-dand. In a direct line, it is here from twenty-five to 




thirty miles from the primitive rocks of one of these ranges 
to those of the other. Moreover, the strata of this county 
are the lowest palpeozoic rocks known to geologists, — that is, 
they are the lowest of those rocks that contain any organic 
remains. They were deposited when the first species of 
vegetables and animals began to have an existence upon our 
globe. They are admitted on all hands to be sedimentary 
rocks, — that is, they were deposited from water, and consist 
of the sand, mud, and silt that settled from the sea which 
enveloped our world before the dry land was made to appear. 
We now proceed to a more full and particular account of 
each of the strata named in the foregoing cursory view. 

This rock occupies the north end of the county, between 
Lake George and Lake Champlain, underlying nearly all of 
the town of Putnam, the whole of Die.sden, and those parts 
of Fort Ann and Wliitehall which are north of Half-Way 
brook and west of Wood creek. It is a granitic gneissoid 
rock of the same character as in the adjoining counties of 
Warren and Esses, and differs notably from the correspond- 
ing granitic rock of the Green mountains, being nearly des- 
titute of mica, and composed largely of feldspar, which is 
mostly of a gray or reddish color. Hornblende, garnets, and 
magnetic oxide of iron are in some places disseminated so 
largely through the rock that they seem almost entitled to be 
regarded as one of its constituents. From within the bounds 
of this county two valuable minerals are being furnished by 
this rock, viz., iron ore and black-lead. Beds of iron ore 
have been opened at Mount Defiance and Dresden, and there 
is little doubt but that such beds occur in all parts of this 
granitic range, from Ticonderoga to Fort Ann ; but it is 
only in the last of these towns, in the neighborhood of 
Mount Hope furnace, two miles up Furnace brook from the 
head of South bay, that the mines have been worked to any 
large extent. Black-lead (graphite or plumbago) is dissem- 
inated through most parts of this rock, and occurs in abun- 
dance in the north part of Putnam, whence, I am informed, 
is obtained a portion of the " Ticonderoga black-lead," which 
in market has taken the precedence, and has measurably 
superseded the supplies of this mineral from other sources. 


Wherever we step oft' from the granitic range just con- 
sidered, we come upon one of the hardest and most refrac- 
tory rocks within our knowledge. This is the Potsdam 
sandstone. It is well exhibited all along the valley of 
Wood creek from Whitehall to Fort AnTi, and thence west 
along Half-Way brook to the line of Warren county. At 
Whitehall the stratum has a thickness of two hundred feet 
or more, but becomes thinner toward Fort Ann. It is 
mostly seen in precipices facing the west, and occurs in uni- 
form layers a few inches in thickness, looking like regular 
courses of masonry laid up for the wall of some stupendous 
fortification. In the neighborhood of Winchell's creek and 
Ma.son hollow, deep, narrow delis and defiles occur, bounded 
by perpendicular walls of this rock, sometimes branching 
and running into each other, and having a most .singular 
and romantic aspect, causing the beholder to almost fixncy 
himself among the ruined c;istles and towers of the days of 

old. The rock is a white sandstone, often stained or tinged 
with red, of a harsh texture, and an earthy rather than a 
vitreous a.spect. The lower part of the stratum takes on 
a deep red color, and gradually changes into the gneiss 
rock beneath it, so that it is impossible to tell by which 
name certain specimens should be labeled. At the upper 
part of the stratum the layers become thin and slate like, 
and on the surfiice of these slaty layers occur slightly ele- 
vated ridges, branching and crooked, resembling the roots 
of trees. These are regarded as the relics of a fucoid or 
sea-weed, which is supposed by those who reject the Taconic 
theory to have been, probably, the first species of plant 
that was created in our world. Layers with these remains 
occur in Whitehall, on the west side of Skene's mountain, 
near the .summit. In some places, lower down in the stra- 
tum, the surfaces of the layers are beautifully covered with 
ripple-marks, as regular and perfect as those newly washed 
in the .sand on the sea-shore. The uses to which this stone 
is applied are few. It is so difficult to quarry, in consequence 
of its hardness, and breaks into blocks with such irregular 
sides, as to be valueless for laying a smooth-faced wall or a 
close-jointed pavement. It furnishes the best of fire-stones 
for furnaces and other situations where a high and continu- 
ous heat is maintained. It is considerably employed for 
building purposes in the villages of St. Lawrence county, 
where it abounds (the walls being of the rough "ashlar"' 
style), and is superior to any other stone for wall-fences and 
similar uses. 


This is a rock intermediate in its position and also in its 
composition between the sandstone below and the limestone 
above it; being, as its name implies, a sandstone in which a 
portion of lime is disseminated. Toward its lower part it 
is nearly a pure siliceous rock, but loses this character nmre 
and more as we proceed upwards ; the transition being so 
gradual that in many localities it is impossible to tell at 
what point this rock ceases and the limestone above it 
begins. Hence the amount of surface which it occupies 
cannot be estimated with any degree of definiteness, though 
it is not extensive. It forms the summit of most of the 
precipices of which the Potsdam sandstone is the base, and, 
like that, it is an even-bedded rock, its layers preserving 
a uniform thickness through long distances. Being so 
nmch softer than the Potsdam, it is readily raised from the 
quarry in square and smooth-faced blocks. Hence for flag- 
ging purposes it is in high repute, and is the most desirable 
stone of which we have any knowledge, its quarries furnish- 
ing slabs and blocks of any thickness and size that may be 
desired. In Kingsbury and Fort Ann several valuable 
quarries are open, and have been extensively worked for 
many years. At the quarry on the canal, north of Dewey's 
bridge, the stratum shows a thickness of about two hundred 


At a distance, commonly, of a mile to the east of Wood 
creek and the Champlain canal, the calciferous .sandstone 
is succeeded by the pale-blue or dove-colored Chazy lime- 
stone, which in Fort Ann has a breadth of two or three 
miles, reaching east to the Mettowee or Granville river. 
It occujiies the northwest part of the town of Hartford and 



the east border of Kingsbury, and. reappearing on the west 
side of the valley of Wood creek, skirting the calcifcrous 
sandstone, it passes through Kingsbury and onward to 
Glen's Falls, changing as it trends westward to a darker 
color, and finally to a jet-black. It is a remarkable and 
most interesting fact that, in tracing this stratum across this 
county, in a distance of ten or twelve miles, as we pass out 
(if the Lake Champlain into the Hudson river valley, it 
becomes altered from the most perfectly-marked Chazy lime- 
stone into eijually well-marked Bird.seye and Trenton lime- 
stones. The Miwhiren nutgna, the fo.ssil shell by which this 
limestone is distinguished, is abundant in the northwest 
part of Granville; its remains usually appearing as a coiled 
mark, elevated and rough, often six inches in diameter, and 
occurring, upon the weather-worn surface of this rock, over 
half an acre in extent. Other peculiar marks may be 
noticed, in some places, upon the surface of the layers of this 
limestone. In the vicinity of Dewey's bridge the lower part 
of this stratum, as well as the calciferous stratum under it, 
exhibits an oolitic structure, or, in other words, is marked 
with a number of concentric rings, like the successive waves 
extending out from where a pebble has been dropped into 
smooth water, circular spots being from an inch to 
over a foot in diameter. In several localities the layers of 
this limestone may be seen with the surface regularly 
marked and checked, as if creases had been cut in it with a 
knife when it was soft. Other layers may be observed with 
the surface covered with indentations, appearing as though, 
when it was in a soft state, loads of cobble-stones had been 
emptied upon it and then picked off, leaving their impres- 
sions crowded all over the face of the rock. In other places 
smaller indentations occur, identical in appearance with 
those made upon soft mud by a shower of rain-drops. 
Portions of this stratum are also much checked and veined 
with white calcareous spar. And in some places the ap- 
pearance is as though the original rock had been wholly 
broken up into irregular fragments of a few inches in size, 
and these fragments had been cemented together again, each 
in its place, by veins of spar. Slabs of this limestone have 
been got out, both in northwest Granville and in White- 
hall, which took on a fine polish, and showed that the stone 
in these places was suitable for being worked as a marble. 
Though much used for underpinning buildings, for wall- 
fences, etc., in the neighborhoods where it occurs, it is for 
burning into quicklime that this stone is most valuable. 
Numerous kilns have been erected at various points upon 
this stratum, many of them being now in operation. Much 
the largest business at this time is conducted by the Keenan 
Lime Company, at the ledge of this rock a half-mile east 
fi'om the canal at Smith's basin. This company has five 
draw-kilns in operation, turning out six hundred barrels of 
lime daily. To the eye the rock here appears much like 
that at Bald mountain, and it probably yields a lime similar 
to that in quality, and superior to the lime of most other 


One of the most valuable and best known deposits of lime- 
stone is at Bald mountain, in the town of Greenwich. This 
mountain is a mile or more in length, and, rising to a height of 

six hundred or seven hundred feet above the level of the sur- 
rounding country, is mostly made up of a blue limestone 
which has been long and widely celebrated for the superior 
excellence of the lime which it yields. As already stated this 
is one of a range of hills which skirt the valley of the Hud- 
son river upon its cast side ; and in these hills, both to the 
north and the south of Bald mountain, this limestone ap- 
pears, through a distance of eight miles, .standing up in 
the midst of the slate-rocks like an island in the sea, there 
being no other lime-rock within twelve miles of this, to aid 
in showing the stratum to which it pertains. It w;is for- 
merly supposed to be wholly destitute of fossils, and its 
lithological characters are quite discordant, it being of a uni- 
form blue color in one place, in another profusely trav- 
ersed by veins of white calcareous spar, and at Bald moun- 
tain being one of the purest of limestones, while two miles 
distant, at Galesville, it is nearly a fourth composed of .silex. 
Geologists have conse((uently been greatly embarrassed with 
this limestone, and have arrived at views very diiFerent and 
conflicting with regard to its age and its correct name. 
Professor Eaton considered the rock at Galesville to be 
calciferous sandstone, and that at Bald mountain metalifer- 
ous or Trenton limestone. Professor Mather thought there 
was no calciferous here, whilst Dr. Emmons regarded it as 
being all calciferous. As fossils would shed the clearest 
light upon this mooted subject, diligent .searches were made 
for them, but without avail. In an excursion made by Dr. 
Emmons, Professor Hall, and myself, over the mountain two 
miles north of Bald mountain, two vestiges of fo.ssils were 
discovered, which we all agreed were too slight and obscure 
for deciding anything, though I su.spect neither of us doubted 
that they were relics of the Maclurea magna. Afterwards, 
when making my agricultural survey of the county for the 
State Agricultural Society, in perfect preservation upon a 
fragment of limestone at the Friends" meeting-house, three 
miles south of Galesville, I discovered the buckler of the 
little trilobite Triiiuclcus coiiceiitricus, a fos.sil belonging to 
the upper layers of the Trenton limestone, and proving this 
beyond doubt to be the equivalent of that stratum. In fol- 
lowing this range of hiils north twenty-five miles, to where 
it is cut across by the IMettowee river, this limestone again 
appears, and at the spot where the Madarea magna occurs 
as uoticcd above, I met with this same fossil and some 
others belonging to the Trenton limestone, these having been 
in close proximity to, and one of them associated with, the 
Maclurea. Some of these fossils have since been found at 
Bald mountain also. And, from the indications stated a few 
lines back, I have no doubt that the Maclurea occurs also, 
two miles north from that mountain. These facts show 
that this limestone at Bald mountain and its vicinity, and at 
the Mettowee river, is the full equivalent of the Chazy, 
Birdseye, and Trenton limestones, and that it is impossible 
here to separate these and regard them as distinct strata. 
The rock at Bald mountain is almost pure carbonate of 
lime, it giving of that substance, on analysis, ninety-six to 
ninety-seven per cent., with but a mere trace of the silex or 
flinty matter which occurs in the lime-rocks of other local- 
ities. Thus it produces one of the richest of what are 
termed " rich limes," and the lime it yields has ever stood 
at the head of the market in our cities. Though many 



other places furnish iin article of the quality required for 
common uses, such as the making of mortar, manuring of 
land, etc., for all the finer kinds of .stucco work, hard-finish- 
ing, white-washing, etc., the brilliant, snowy whiteness of 
the Bald-mountain lime renders it unrivaled. The kilns at 
this mountain, and at the outlying ledges of rock imme- 
diately around it, had been producing about sixty thousand 
bushels of lime annually some twenty-five years ago, when 
the quantity in a short time was more than doubled by the 
energy with which the business was entered upon and con- 
ducted by Robert L. Lowber, who became proprietor of the 
main quarry. Eleven kilns, of the most approved con- 
struction, were here built by him, with every convenience 
for feeding them and for transporting their produce over 
a down grade, three miles, to the canal. A thrifty post- 
village of upwards of a hundred dwellings grew up at this 
place. Notwithstanding the large quantity that was fur- 
nished, this lime always met with a ready sale, and it is 
supposed that its high repute in our city markets was felt 
by other producers to be injuriously aiTecting their busi- 
ness ; as Mr. Lowber was prevailed upon five years ago to 
sell out his interest here to the Glen's Falls Lime Com- 
pany, since which the making of lime at this place has 
been almost totally .abandoned, and the tidy village has been 
deserted by its inhabitants and is rapidly going to decay. 
The hydraulic limestone at Galesville, from which an excel- 
lent water-lime is obtained, contains .so large a portion of 
silex that we think it must be regarded as pertaining to the 
underlying calciferous sandstone rather than to this Chazy- 
Trenton limestone stratum. Its analysis gives forty-two 
per cent, of lime, with twenty of silica. The Newburg or 
llosendale cement, with which the market at large is so 
abundantly supplied, contains but twenty-five per cent, of 
lime, with fifteen of silica. It also contains twelve per cent, 
of magnesia, of which there is not a half of one per cent, 
in the Galesville stone, which would thus appear to be a more 
pure hydraulic limestone than the former. But masons 
who have worked largely with both these kinds regard them 
as equal in value, merely preferring the Galesville cement 
as being newly ground, and hence hardening more speedily, 
that which is old eventually becoming as hard as the new. 


This slate is well exposed all along the Hudson, from 
Sandy Hill to Schuylerville, and in the banks of the 
streams entering this river. In several places, also, it is 
elevated into ridges which project above the clay soil by 
which it is commonly overlaid. It extends east from the 
river about three miles to the base of the Bald mountain 
range of hills, and is the basis-rock of nearly one-fifth of 
the county. This slate is of a black or blackish color, and 
is generally a shale rather than a slate, breaking and crum- 
bling, when exposed to the air, into small, angular frag- 
ments, forming a slaty gravel. It dissolves into soil more 
readily than most of the other .slates of the county, and 
therefore is not well adapted for wall-fences, nor any of the 
other uses to which stone is usually applied. At most 
places it appears so crushed and broken that it is difiicult 
to determine the direction and amount of its dip. And 
the friction produced by the rubbing and grinding of the 

beds of this rock in contact with other appears to 
have caused that smooth, glossy, striated surface which 
constitutes what is called " glazed slate. " In .some in- 
stances the heat which this friction has occasioned has 
been so great that it has actually melted a portion of the 
silex contained in the slate, causing it to run into all the 
crevices, filling them, and forming white veins of quartz in 
the rock, the sides of which veins show a striated surface 
similar to that which the glazed slate possesses. The fossil 
by which the slate is known is named Grnjttolithiis pristis. 
It resembles a very narrow blade of grass, having teeth like a 
saw along both its edges. One of the most abundant local- 
ities of this graptolite that is anywhere known is at Baker's 
Falls. Here a thickness of thirty feet or more in the slate 
is .so filled with these impressions that the thinnest layer 
can scarcely be split off without eiposing a surface 
covered with them. They also occur in Easton, in the bed 
of the brook which enters the Hudson a mile above Van 
Buren's Ferry. Though the general character of this rock 
is that of a brittle shale, exceptions occur in many places, 
particularly toward the upper part of the stratum, where 
it puts on an even lamination, and siliceous layers, some of 
them several inches in thickness, are found, so hard even as 
to form a good fire-stone. A quarry of this kind has been 
worked in Durkeetown, in a moderate uplift of this slate, 
whence the furnaces at Glen's Falls have been supplied 
with fire-stones. These siliceous layers are of a dark 
gray or black color. They correspond with the Frank- 
fort slate of the New York geological reports, and furnish 
specimens which perfectly represent those slates. The shale 
or slaty gravel of this rock, in many road districts, is one 
of the best materials accessible for top-dressing the high- 
ways. In the west part of the county, where the roads 
pass over a stiif clay, every moderate rain makes them slip- 
pery and fatiguing to a horse, and most unpleasant for foot- 
men. On such roads, merely a slight coating of this gravel 
makes a great improvement. And on sandy roads this 
material works wonders, binding the loose sands together 
and forming a firm, hard road-bed. The long stretches of 
deep sand upon the road fiom Schuylerville to Saratoga 
Springs have long been the odium viiitorium, the hatred 
of wayfaring men, until of late successive portions of these 
sands have each year been reclaimed, and now nearly the 
whole distance is changed into one of the best of roads. 


The rocks which we have thus far considered have all 
been members of the New York system, occupying the 
northwest and west parts of the county. We now pass to 
rocks which evidently pertain to the Green mountain range, 
and are New England rather than New York rocks ; and 
hence they have been considered by some of our best geolo- 
gists as having been deposited anterior to them, and as 
forming, as already stated, a distinct series, which has been 
called the Taconic system ; while others suppose that they 
were deposited at the same time, and that they are merely 
New York rocks altered in their appearance by a high 
degree of heat to which they have been at some period 
subjected. Having ascended upon the one series, we now 



descend upon the other, coming as we do first upon its 
liij;hcst member. 

The Tuconic .slate occupies all of the county to the cast 
of the Bald nmuntaiii range of hills, except some beds of 
■sandstone and limestone of limited extent. It is the basis 
rock of the eastern half of the county. On its west .side, 
where it is near the Hudson river slate, it is dark colored, 
and wherever it is seen in contact with the limestone in that 
direction it is ([uite black. But soon after passing from its 
western border it becomes lighter colored, and over most of 
its extent it is ash-gray, bluish gray, or grayish brown. But 
its color is everywhere putting on a ditt'erent hue, and from 
the different parts of this stratum may be gathered speci- 
mens passing through numberless shades of gray, brown, 
black, blue, green, clay-yellow, purple, and red. Silex is 
everywhere much the largest ingredient in the composition 
of this rock, combined with a fourth to a sixth part of 
alumine, and usually a slight percentage of lime. In places 
where the proportion of silex is less the rock becomes more 
friable, and disintegrates more speedily on exposure to the 
air. In many places, on the other hand, the rock becomes 
almost pure silex, often with its lamination so crushed, so 
pressed together and interwoven as it were, that it is broken 
up with the utmost difficulty. Generally these siliceous 
slates are coarsish-grained and ; but in some places the 
grains are exceedingly fine and compact, forming the most 
perfect hornstone and chert, as in the precipitous ledge by 
the roadside opposite the burying-grouud at South Gran- 
ville. This rock always exhibits a slaty structure, and its 
lamina; are usually flat and even ; but in many places they 
are much bent, undulated, and distorted. It is generally 
upturned, and dips to the east at an average angle of about 
forty-five degrees. But the amount of slope is everywhere 
changing. In some places it is vertical, in others it is hor- 
izontal. It is rare that this rock breaks and crumbles into 
small angular fragments like the shales which pervade the 
Hudson river slate. Natural seams everywhere occur, 
crossing each other in such a manner as to divide the rock 
into angular blocks of a rhombic form, but with the angles 
of their sides and corners all different. At these seams 
dislocations frc((uently occur, causing an abrupt and total 
change in the character of the rock, so as often to deceive 
and disappoint persons who open quarries. Excellent stone 
may be found at one place, and but a few feet distant, a 
joint and dislocation occurring, a worthless mass of shale 
may present itself, which has been crowded up to the same 
level. These dislocations are numerous. Veins of milky 
((uartz are of frequent occurrence in this slate. Iron pyrites, 
a worthless mineral resembling gold, is disseminated not 
only through this but through all the Taconic rocks. A 
pretty variety of this slate, of a bright red color, occurs in 
a nearly continuous range through the whole length of the 
stratum from Vermont to New Jersey. And, toward the 
east side of this Taconic slate, it in some places takes on 
the appearance of the mica-slate, which occurs fiirther east 
among the Green mountains. The characteristic fossil of 
this Taconic slate is a species of sea-weed, and is named 
Jiulhoi rephis flexuosa. It appears like curved and branch- 
ing marks painted upon the stone, of a black or at least a 
darker shade than its ireneral color. From mv examinations 

of this slate, I long ago became aware that in several places 
in the county good roofing slate could undoubtedly be made 
from it. And thirty years ago, in my "Agricultural Survey 
of the County,' § 210, I made the following statement: 
•' It is singular that no ([uarry of roofing-slate has ever yet 
been opened and worked within this county, particularly 
as so nmch business in this line has been done upon our 
southern border, in the town of Iloosic. There is no doubt 
that in many places slate of as good a quality as that of 
the Hoosic quarries exists within the bounds of this county, 
and that, in time, roofing-slate will be extensively furnished 
from hence." 

Time has signally shown the correctness of what I thus 
.stated. The slate-business has now become one of the 
leading interests of Washington county. In the towns of 
Granville, Hampton, and Salem, twelve quarries are bein" 
worked, some of them quite largely; their products in pros- 
perous years amounting in the aggregate to from two to 
three hundred thousand dollars. The slate here produced 
has acquired a world-wide reputation as being of the very 
best quality. In proof of this it may be stated that, though 
some largo orders received from abroad were recalled in 
consequence of the war between Russia and Turkey, one 
of the Salem slate companies, the Excelsior, the past year 
(1877) sent to foreign countries slate amounting to twelve 
thousand dollars ; the shipments being to England, Ger- 
many, South America, and Australia. In numerous places 
this Taconic slate is quarried in large, smooth tables, mak- 
ing fine flagstones for paving cellar-bottoms, the walks of 
village streets, etc. And for underpinning buildings, and 
all other common uses, it is also resorted to in neighbor- 
hoods where no better material is at hand. 


This sandstone constitutes a prominent feature in the 
geology of this district. Its fragments are widely scattered 
through our soils ; and from almost every valley may be seen, 
toward the summit of some of the adjacent hills, jutting 
out from among the bright verdure of the growing or 
grain, a naked rock of a grayish-white color, so compact and 
hard that it has withstood the warring elements by which 
the rocks around it have been broken and worn away to a 
lower level than its surface. It is a harsh gray sandstone, 
with a slightly vitreous lustre,'and is everywhere traversed 
with veins or thin slender seams of white quartz, which often 
abound with rook crystals. Its most striking peculiarity is that 
wherever portions of it are covered by the soil and exposed 
to the roots of vegetation, it loses the lime which it contains, 
and hereby its surface becomes changed to a porous and 
friable stone, of a snufT-yellow color commonly, but some- 
times brick-red, the inside of the stone remaining compact 
and unchanged. An analysis of this solid inner part 
showed it to consist of fifty-three per cent, of silica, six of 
peroxide of iron, fifteen of carbonic acid, thirteen of lime, 
and five of magnesia ; while the porous yellow surface of 
the same specimen yielded ninety-one per cent, of silica and 
five and a half of peroxide, with only a trace of the carbo- 
nates of lime and magnesia. This rock often appeai-s as a 
mere bed of limited extent in the slate, or as a layer a few 
inches or a foot (hick. But in places it protrudes from the 



slate, showing a thickness of one or two hundred feet ; 
and around Summit lake, in Argylc, if there is no duplica- 
ture of the stratum, it has a thickness of several hundred 
feet. It is frequently accompanied by the sparry limestone, 
though in such cases the two rocks are separated by an in- 
tervening mass of shale, some twenty feet or more in thick- 
ness. But in numerous places that rock docs not appear 
with this. Wherever it appears, this sandstone is preferred 
to any other stone in its neighborhood for the walls of 
buildings, and especially of cellars, as it can readily be 
quarried into narrow blocks, to form a double wall, as it is 
termed, which will be frost-proof,- — single walls requiiing 
to be banked on the approach of winter, to prevent the frost 
from penetrating through them. 


This rock is well defined as being a blue or bluish-gray 
limestone, veined and checked with white calcareous spar. 
A limestone of this character appears in insulated masses of 
various sizes at numerous points through the Taconic slate, 
and under the same circumstances as does the sandstone 
just described. Sometimes a limestone boulder, having a 
smoothly-worn surface, is seen imbedded in the slate. Some- 
times thin, even layers of limestone occur alternating with 
the slate. At other times we have a breccia of rounded or 
angular pebbles of limestone cemented together, forming a 
bed in the slate. But it is unneccessary to narrate these 
minor peculiarities further. Portions of the Chazy-Trenton 
limestone, as we have already stated, present this same 
sparry character. It is the upper layers of that rock, or 
is a separate stratum overlying that rock (whichever way 
we wish to consider it) in which these veins of white spar 
chiefly occur. And in this same situation in respect to the 
white granular limestone, namely, overlying it, this sparry 
rook occurs, though extensive beds of it may also be found in 
that rock, even in its lower part, as is seen on the east side 
of the plains in Manchester, Vt. This sparry limestone is 
more coarse-grained and bluL-rh-gray as it approaches the 
Green mountains, and more fine-grained, compact, and 
dove-colored or leadeu-hued as it recedes from them. 
And, extending through this Taconic distiict in broken 
masses among the slate as it does, it appears much like a 
chain, the successive links of which connect the Chazy- 
Trenton limestone on its west side to the granular limestone 
on its east side. 


In traveling east, after we have passed all the most con- 
spicuous exposures of the rocks last considered, we come 
upou this slate, apparently reposing directly upon the white 
limestone next to be spoken of Hence it is not inappro- 
priate to place it in this order, although we do not deem its 
geological place to be beneath the sparry limestone. We 
regard it as being the underlying portion of the Taconic 
slate, and the equivalent, probably, of the black pyritous 
shaley mass, which, upon the west side of this district, we find 
accompanying and alternating with the Tagonic sandstone. 
But on the opposite or east side of this district it presents 
itself as a green or light green isii-gray slate, so .soft that it 
may, in many places, be scratched with the finger-nail and 

carved with a knife like chlorite. It is often profusely 
permeated with veins of milky quartz, which mineral has 
run through it in every direction, like water soaked into a 
sponge. On its east side, where it meets the limestone, it 
presents an even and undisturbed lamination, while on its 
west side, where it approaches the Taconic slate, it is undu- 
lating, twisted, and contorted, often in a most astonishing 
manner. In this county it occupies but a limited space at 
its southeast corner. 


This white crystalline limestone, from the immense quan- 
tities sent from there to all, even the most distant parts of 
our land, is now everywhere known by the name of Hut- 
land marble. From quarries in other localities it also has 
the name of Stockbridge limestone, Dorset marble, Suther- 
land Falls marble, Arlington stone, etc., and as a variable 
portion of magnesia always enters into its composition, it 
has also been designated magnesian limestone. In much 
of the rock to the south of here the quantity of magnesia 
it contains is so large that it there becomes a friable dolo- 
mite, crumbling into sand upon a few years' exposure to the 
atmosphere. An analysis of Dorset marble gave eighty- 
five per cent, of carbonate of lime, with thirteen of carbo- 
nate of magnesia, which is somewhat less of the latter than 
is usual. The quantity which is quarried along the eastern 
borders of this county, in Vermont, is immense, much the 
largest part of the marble used in the country being from 
this vicinity. The stratum only touches upon the extreme 
southeastern corner of this county the length of a mile. 


Though this rock nowhere occurs in place within the 
borders of this county, it requires to be mentioned, being 
connected as it is with the strata of the county, and dis- 
seminated as its fragments everywhere are, in the form of 
pebbles and cobble-stones, through the drift or gravelly 
soils of the county. It appears all along the east margin 
of the white limestone, and has a light brown or white 
color. Sometimes it occurs bedded in even layers, in clifl's 
and precipices similar to the Potsdam sandstone, from which, 
however, it differs notably by the vitreous, glassy, or 
lustre which its surface presents. This is the lowest of the 
Taconic series of rocks, and on passing it we come 
upon the gneiss or granite of the main range of the Green 

In conclusion, it may be observed that all the geological 
facts exhibited in this district concur to indicate that, when 
the rocks here wore fiist deposited, the ridge which now 
forms the Green mountains was twice or thrice as distant 
from the Hudson river as it now is. Subsequently a 
period of great disturbance and disruption of the earth oc- 
curred, when it was everywhere convulsed and torn, as if 
lashed and goaded by a hundred earthquakes simulta- 
neously in full play. At that time the Hudson river and 
the Green mountains were crowded towards each other, 
causing the rocks that had previously lain in regular, even, 
horizontal beds to be pressed and pushed together, crush- 
ing, grinding, doubling up, and folding over each other 



in the most promiscuous and confused manner. Some 
idea of the effects which would be produced by such a 
convulsion may be formed by observing the mode in which 
the ice in our rivers breaks up in the spring of the year, 
when a mass from above becomes so loosened as to com- 
mence moving down the stream against a that is still 
firm, causing acre after acre of the thick-ribbed solid ice 
to crack and yield before the tremendous pressure, throw- 
ing huge massive blocks into every possible posture and 
making a perfect chaos where, a half-hour before, all wa.s 
regular, and apparently of enduring strength and firmness. 
Analogous to this seems to have been the operation of that 
force which was once in action, breaking asunder and over- 
turning the strata of solid rocks in this district, causing 
hills and mountains to shoot up, making valleys close 
together here and open out there, and producing such con- 
fusion of the strata as geologists may study upon for cen- 
turies, without being able to unravel and explain the phe- 
nomena presented at some of its localities. 



Military Lodges — Washington Lodge — Montgomery Lodge — Aurora 
Lodge — Livingston I^odge — Rural Lodge — North Star Lodge — 
Liberty or Granville Lodge — Farmers' Lodge — Ri-sing Sun Lodge 
—Hamilton Lodge— Brothers' Lodge— Social Hall Lodge— Hebron 
Lodge — Argyle Lodge — The Breaking up of Masonry — Re-open- 
ing of Phceni.'i, Granville, and Brothers' Lodges — Establishment of 
Fort Edward, Sandy Hill, Salem, and Cambridge Valley Lodges— 
Argyle and Ashlar Lodges — Royal Arch Masonry — La Fayette 
Chapter — Federal Chapter — Hartford Mark Lodge —Williams 
Chapter— AVashington Chapter- Champlain Chapter— Fort Ed- 
ward Chapter— Sandy Hill Chapter— Hartford Chapter. 

There were no lodges organized or existing- in the terri- 
tory composing the county, till after the Revolutionary 
war, except such as were created or had communications 
within the different regiments stationed here, and which 
were called " military lodges." 

There were many of these, and almost every worthy and 
distinguished officer on the American side wa.s a member 
of one of these lodges. But, as they were e.ssentially 
floating and ephemeral bodies, we know but little of their 

The first lodge established after the close of the war was 
located at Fort Edward, and was called Washington Lodge, 
A'o. 11; being warranted on the 12th of July, 1785, by 
the M. W. Grand Lodge of Now York, with Colonel Adiel 
Sherwood as Master, John Vernor as Senior Warden, and 
Hugh McAdam as Junior Warden. 

This lodge had a very large membership, composed of 
the leading and influential men of the county, and may be 
called the mother of all the other lodges in this section, 
among which was Montgomery, No. 28, warranted on the 
22d of October, 1791, with John Vernor, who had been 
Senior Warden of Washington Lodge, as Master, Cornelius 

■ By Hon. James Gibson. 

Vanderberg as Senior Warden, and Abraham Livingston 
as Junior Warden. It wtvs located at Stillwater, its 
membership, however, being largely from Wa.shington 

The .second lodge organized in Washington county 
was Aurora, on the IGth of January, 1793, located at 

Hampton, with General John Williams as Master ; 

Johnson, Senior, and Peter P. French, Junior Wardens. 
This lodge was remarkably successful, and many eminent 
men in the north part of the county were made Ma.sons 
in or affiliated with it. 

The third lodge organized was Liriiiysfoii, No. 2S, for 
which the Grand Lodge granted a warrant on March 6, 
1793, locating it at Kingsbury. 

The leading men in organizing this lodge were John 
Vernor, before mentioned, who was its first Master, John 
Hitchcock, Colonel Matthew Scott, Thomas Bradshaw, and 
the Hon. Zina Hitchcock. 

The fourth lodge organized was Rural L'idge, No. 32, 
warranted on the 4th of September, 1793, with St. John 
Honey wood as Master; Gerritt G. Lansing, of Easton, as 
Senior Warden ; and Andrew White, of Cambridge, as 
Junior Warden. It was located at Cambridge, but was au- 
thorized to hold its communications at Easton until such 
time as suitable accommodations could be provided at 
Cambridge aforesaid. This occurred soon, and the lodge 
was removed to and met thereafter permanently at Cam- 

The fifth lodge was located at Salem, and was warranted 
on Sept. 7, 1796, by the name of North Star Lodge, No. 
51, with the following officers: James Harvey, Master ; 
Alexander J. Turner, Senior Warden ; and Simon Stevens, 
Junior Warden. 

This lodge was probably one of the strongest in the 
character of its membership, if not in numbers, of any in 
the county. Among them were General John Williams, 
St. John Honeywood, Abram Allen, M.D., Hon. Asa 
Fitch, Amherst Wheeler, I]sq., Artemas Robbins, M.D., 
Jared Bostwick, Cornelius Holmes, M.D , William K. 
Adams, Samuel T. Shepherd, Philo Curtis, Jes.<e S. Leigh, 
Adam Jlartin, Hon. John Savage, Roger Crary, Hon. 
John Willard, Thomas Archibald, Henry Mathews, Jamos 

B. GIb.son, Samuel Stevens, Hon. Cornelius L. Allen, and 

The sixth organized was Liberty Lodge, located at 
Granville, and warranted on Djc. 7, 1796, with the dis- 
tinguished Rev. Salem Town as Master. 

The records of the Grand Lodge show that the officers 
of Liberty lodge, Granville, at its institution in 1796, were 
Zebulon R. Shipherd, Master; William Huggins, S. W. ; 
iand Abram Bishop, J. W. Tiiis lodge surrendered its 
warrant, and a new one was issued, in September, 1806, 
by the name of Granville Lodge, No. 55. On the grant- 
ing of the new charter, Salem Town was madoMaster ; Jolin 

C. Parker, S. W. ; and William Swctland, J. W. 

The seventh lodge warranted was located at Hartford, 
and named Jlerschel Lodge. The warrant was ordered by 
the Grand Lodge on the 3d of December, 1800. 

The eighth lodge authorized was named Farmers Lodge, 
located at Etiston, and warranted Dec. 1, 1802. 



The ninth lodge was named Rising Sun Lodge, war- 
ranted on Sept. 4, 1805, and located at Greenwich. 

The tenth lodge was Hamilton Lodge, located at Queens- 
bury, then in Washington county. The warrant was granted 
the same day as that to Rising Sun Lodge, and afterwards 
the name was changed to Rising Sun Lodge. 

The eleventh lodge was located at Port Ann, the war- 
rant being granted June 4, ISOG, by the name of Brothers' 

The twelfth lodge was located at Wiiitehall, for which a 
warrant was granted Sept. li, 1800, by the name of Social 
Hall Lodge. 

The thirteenth lodge was located in Hebron, the war- 
rant being granted on May 21, 1813, by the name of 
Hebron Lodge. The petition named for Master William 
Livingston, with Israel Ely for Senior Warden, and Isaac 
Hewitt for Junior Warden. The lodge was instituted 
under the warrant Nov. 4, 1813, but for some reason 
Isaac Hewitt was not installed as Junior Warden, William 
Brewster being elected and installed in his place. This 
lodge had no doubt worked under a dispensation from 
the Grand Jlaster for that purpose, from probably some 
time in November, 1810, up to the time of the granting 
of the warrant ; so that in fact the lodge was at work in 
Hebron for some years before it finally received a warrant. 

The fourteenth lodge was located at Argyle, and its war- 
rant was granted on the 3d of March, 1813, by the name of 
Argyle Lodge. 

All these lodges went down under the fierce persecution 
of the Anti-Masonic war of 1828-32. So bitter and last- 
ing were the consequences of this strife, that more than 
twenty years elapsed before a single lodge-fire was relighted 
in Washington county. 

The first lodge to reopen was that at Whitehall, and 
with eminent propriety, considering the ashes out of which 
it emerged, it was named Plioenlx, Lodge, and bore on 
its newly-issued banner the number by which it had 
been originally designated, — nlnetg-slx. This warrant was 
i.ssued mainly through the influence and exertions of Dan 
S. Wright, M.D., who subsequently became a representa- 
tive man and Mason, wielding a powerful influence in the 
Grand Lodge and over the fraternity. 

The second body of Masons reorganized in the county 
was located at North Granville, and its warrant was issued 
on the 5th of Juno, 1851. It took the place, name, and 
number of the old lodge at that place, and was called Grnu- 
vllle, No. 55. This lodge was subsequently removed to 
Middle Granville, and thence to Granville Corners, where 
it now remains and is in prosperous condition. 

The third lodge reorganized was located at Fort Ann, 
taking the place of Brothers' Lodge, and receiving a war- 
rant June 5, 1851, by the name of Mount Hope Lodge, 
No. 2G0. Mount Hope lodge was formed under dispensa- 
tion of Oscar Coles, then Grand Master, Feb. 12, 1852, to 
the following-named petitioners, viz. : A. Barlow, J. F. 
Coon, J. Sutherland, P. H. Lamb, I. W. B. Murray, Jo- 
seph Bacon, John T. Cox, Asa Root, Jos. Barker, William 
Weller, and Thomas McClure. were the " charter 
members." The warrant was granted June 14, 1852, the 
following being the officers named in the warrant, viz. : 

John T. Cox, Master; Joseph Bacon, Senior Warden; I. 
W. B. Murray, Junior Warden, 

The fourth establishment of a lodge after the revival was 
by the reopening of one at Fort Edward, on the 3d day of 
June, 1852, by the name of Fort Edward Lodge, No. 

The fifth was by the granting of a warrant for a lodge 
at Sandy Hill, on the 7th of June, 1855, by the name of 
Sandy Hill Lodge, No. 372. 

The sixth was by the issue of a dispensation, on June 7, 
1855, for a lodge at Salem, by the name of Salem Lodge, 
and this was followed, on the Cth of June, 1856, by the 
issue of a warrant to it as Salem Lodge, No. 391. One 
of the members of this lodge (James Gibson) has been 
elected Grand Master of Masons in this State, 

The seventh was by the issue of a warrant to a lodge in 
Cambridge, on the 8th of June, 1860, by the name of 
Candjridge Valley Jjodge, No. 481. 

The eighth was by the issue of a warrant to a lodge at 
Hartford, June 6, 1861, by the name of Herschel Ijodgc, 
No. 508. 

The ninth was by the i.ssue of a warrant to a lodge at 
Argyle, on the 9th of June, 1865, by the name of Argyle 
Jjodge, No. 567. 

And the tenth, and last, was by the i.ssue of a warrant 
to a lodge at Greenwich, on the 8th of June, 1866, by the 
name of Ashlar Jjodge, No. 584. 

These are all the lodges located in the county of Wash- 
ington for which warrants have been granted by the Grand 
Lodge of New York. 

It should be borne in mind, however, that a Grand 
Master of Masons has always had authority, by issuing a 
dispensation for that purpose, to create a temporary lodge, 
with the power to make Masons and confer the degrees of 
Masonry ; but such bodies were ephemeral, and could only 
last till the next annual General Assembly of Ma.sons, 
when, if a warrant was not ordered, or the Grand Master 
did not renew the dispensation, the lodge would cease to 
exist. The traditions of the existence of Ma.sonry in dif- 
ferent towns probably have arisen, in some cases, from a 
lodge or lodges thus created. 


This branch of the work of masonry existed in the 
county at a very early day, and probably commenced at or 
about the same time with the establishment of lodges of 
Master Masons. The details of its history, at that early 
date, are not readily accessible, and we therefore pass to 
occurrences after the institution of the Grand Chapter 
of the State, which took place at Albany, on the 14th of 
March, 1798, Dc Witt Clinton being the first presiding 

On the 3d of January, 1799, this body granted warrants 
to hold lodges of Mark Masters at Granville and Fort 

The dispensation for that at Granville was afterwards 
followed by a warrant, but the one for that at Fort Edward 
was revoked on the 4th of February, 1808. 

The first chapter opened in the county, under a warrant 
from the Grand Chapter of New York, was at Granville, 



and was named De La Fayette Chapter, No. 9, — warrant 
granted Feb. 3, 1801. It had previously been working 
under a dispensation, and Hon. Zi-bulon 11. Shipberd, at 
the same convocation of the Grand Chapter, on returning 
the dispensation obtained the warrant for the chapter, and 
was also elected Grand Scribe of the grand body. (See 
"Proceedings," Vol. I., 16). This chapter continued working 
till, with the other chapters in the county, it ceased to 
operate, about 1832. 

The second chapter was granted a warrant on the 4th 
of February, 1801, and was named Federal Chapter, No. 
10, being at first located at Cambridge. It was removed 
to Salem on the first of February, 1814. This chapter con- 
tinued to work with great prosperity, and from its mem- 
bership two of the grand officere have been elected, — 
Asa Fitch as Grand High Priest, in the years 1826, 1827, 
and 1828, and Ephraiui Allen, Grand Scribe. During the 
furor of anti-masonr}^ the chapter ceased to work, and did 
not resume labor till 1864, when, a dispensation being 
issued, it reopened. On the 8th of February, 1865, a 
warrant was granted, and the chapter is still working. 

The third act to establish a R. A. body in this county 
was the issuing of a dispen.sation in 1807, foi'miug a Mark 
lodge, at Hartford, and on the 2d of February, 1808, a war- 
rant was granted to it by the name of Hartford Mark Lodije, 
No. 45. This lodge continued to work till Feb. 7, 1826, 
when its warrant was returned to the Grand Chapter. 

The fourth was the issuing of a dispensation on the 
28th of April, 1808, to hold a Mark lodge at Glen's Falls, 
followed by the granting of a warrant for such body by tiie 
name of Felicity Mark Lodge, No. 56. This was followed 
by the issue of a warrant for holding a chapter on the 6tli 
of February, 1817, by the name of Glens Ftdls Chapiter, 
No. 55. As this chapter was located in the county of 
AVarrcn, then lately established and taken from Washing- 
ton County, its further history is not given. 

The fifth was the issue of a warrant forming Social 
Friends' Mark Lodge, No. 62, at Whitehall, Feb. 7, 1810. 
On the 2d of February, 1814, a warrant was issued constitu- 
ting this lodge a chapter, by the name of Williams Chapter, 
No. 37. On the 9th of February, 1829, this chapter was 
removed to Hampton, and with other similar bodies in the 
county soon ceased work. 

The sixth was the issue of a warrant to hold a chapter 
in Easton, by the name of Washington Chapter, No. 49, 
on the 8th of February, 1816. On the 3d of February, 
1819, this chapter was removed to Union Village, now the 
village of Greenwich. This chapter continued working till, 
with other chapters of the county, its work ceased. 

The seventh was the issue of a warrant, Feb. 3, 1819, to 
hold a lodge at Fort Ann, by the name of Fort Ann Mark 
Lodge, No. 83. This warrant was revoked Feb. 7, 1823. 

On the 5th of February, 1850, a warrant was issued to 
open a chapter at Whitehall by the name of Champlain 
Chapter, No. 25, which is still at work. 

On the 29th of February, 1860, a dispensation was issued 
to open and hold a chapter at Fort Edward. 

On the 7th of February, 1861, a warrant was issued or- 
ganizing this body by the name of Fort Edward Chapter, 
No. 171, and it is still at work. 

In 1865 a dispensation was issued, opening a chapter at 
Sandy Hill, and on the 6th of February, 1866, it was granted 
a warrant by the name of iSandy Hill Chapter, No. 189. 
It is still at work. 

In 1 865 a dispensation was issued, opening a chapter at 
Hartford, and on the 6th of February, 1866, a warrant 
was granted organizing it into Hartford Chapter, No. 192. 
This, the last of Wa.shington county chapters, is also in 
successful operation. 



Incorporation — First Meeting— First Members — First Officers — List 
of Presidents — List of Members — Character of the Society — Pro- 
posed Medical School — Testimony on Temperance — Thomas Clark, 
M.D.— General Williams— Dr. P. Fitch— Dr. Tomb— Dr. Proudfit 
— Zina Hitchcock, M.D.— Hon. Asa Fitcli— Dr. Dorr— Hon. J. 

Stevenson — Dr. Corliss— Dr. Holmes — Dr. Axtcll — Dr. A. Allen 

M. Stevenson, M.D.— Dr. P. V. N. Morris— Dr. While— Dr. Gray— 
Dr. P. Smith- Worthy Waters, M.D.— Dr. Long— Dr. Ingcrsoll— 
Dr. Clary- Dr. Bascom— D. S. Wright, M.D.— Dr. Porter— Re- 
marks — Old Time Practice — An old Doctor's Statement, 

The IMcdical Society of the County of Washington was 
incorporated under an act of the Legislature, regulating the 
practice of physic and surgery, pa.ssed on the 4th of April, 

The first meeting of the society was held at the court- 
house in Sandy Hill, July 1, 1806. 

(The history of the associated medical profession of the 
county antedates this period, but no records can be found of 
transactions, beyond the dates of certificate of licensure.) 

There were twenty-three members present, and constitut- 
ing the society, viz.: Zina Ilitclicuk, Philip Smith, Andrew 
Proudfit, Isaac Sargent, Leonard Gibbs, Stover, Cyrus 
Baldwin, William Livingston, Asa Fitch, Abram Allen, 
James Green, Ephraim Allen, Jonathan Mosher, John 
McKinney, Robert Cook, Daniel Hervey, Thomas Patter- 
son, Liberty Branch, Israel P. Baldwin, Artemus Robins, 
Asahel Morris, Penfield Goodell, and Cornelius Holmes. 

The following officers were duly elected : Andrew Proud- 
fit, president; Asa Fitch, vice-president; William Ijiving- 
ston, secretary ; James Green, treasurer. Dr. Philip Smith 
was elected delegate to meet with delegates from other 
counties to form the State Medical Society. 


Andrew Proudfit (Argyle), 1806; Zina Hitchcock 
(Sandy Hill), 1807 to 1810; Asa Fitch (Salem), 1811 to 
1871 ; Jonathan Dorr (Cambridge), 1818; A.sahel Morris 
(Cambridge), 1819 to 1820; James Stevenson (Cam- 
bridge), 1821 to 1823; Hiram Corliss (Greenwich?), 
1824; Asa Fitch (Salem), 1825 to 1831 ; William Rich- 
ards (Cambridge), 1832; Cornelius Holmes (Greenwich), 
1833; Salmon Axtcl (Fort Ann), 1834 to 1835; Abram 
Allen (Salem), 1836 ; Russel Clark (Sandy Hill), 1837 to 
1S39 ; Matthew Stevenson (Cambridge), 1840; Hiram 
Corliss (Greenwich), 1841 to 1843 ; S. V. N. Morris (Cam- 

» By John Lambert, JLD., Historian of the society. 



bridge), 1844 to 1845 ; Wm. S. Norton (Fort Edward), 
1846 to 1847: H. C. Gray (Cambridge), 1848 to 1852; 
S. V. N. Morris (Cambridge), 1853 to 18G1 ; C. J. White 
(Hebron), 1862 to 18G3; H. C. Gray (Cambridge), 1864 
to 1865; R. W. Blawis (Fort Miller), 1860; J. C. Sill 
(Argyle), 1867; Alfred J. Long (Whitehall), 1868 to 
1869 ; James Savage (Argyle), 1870 ; Joseph D. Stewart 
(Cambridge), 1871 to 1872; Asa W. Tupper (North Gran- 
ville), 1873 ; John Lambert (Salem), 1874 ; John L. Flint 
(Fort Edward), 1875; Henry Gray (Greenwich), 187G; 
S. B. Irwin (Hebron), 1877. 

The following is a list of the members, arranged according 
to years of admission : 

1807. — Jonathan Dorr, Isaac W. McLeary, Erastus 
Cross, John P. Little, John Collins, Zephaniah Tubbs, 
Jedediah Darrow, Jr., Salmon Dean, James Post, Nathaniel 
Cruikshank, David Long. 

1808.— James Dickson, William Richards, Eli Day, 
John Jackway, Herman Hoffman, Delucena Newcomb, 
Rev. Alex. Denham. 

1810. — Ru!5.sel Clark, Adolphus Freeman. 

1811. — John Thompson. 

1812. — Richard Sill, Reuben Gibson, John Woods, 
Burton Streeter. 

1813. — Benjamin Trumbull, Robert Henderson. 

1814.— William P. Cutter, Archibald McAllister, James 
Scott, Ebenezer Ingersoll, Zebulon Rood, Lemuel Boomer, 

1815. — James Mallory, Cephas Thompson. 

1817. — Alfred Freeman, James W. Porter, Samuel Stiles, 
Hiram Corliss, Benjamin Walworth, Jacob Vosburgh, Nel- 
son Porter, Nathan Colvin. 

1818.— William Pride, Rufus Whitney, William Hicks, 
Israel Town. 

1819.— William S. Norton, De Garvis, Simeon F. 

Crandell, Philip Van Ness Morris, Charies R. Mosher, 
William K. Scott, Benjamin D. Utter, Thomas M. Bowen. 

1820. — James Stevenson, Matthew Stevenson, James 
Savage, Tarmin. 

1821.— William N. K. McLean, Israel Putnam, Horace 
Smith, Augustus Milford, David McKnight, 

1822.— Worthy Waters, A. W. Robinson, Joseph S. 
Leigh, John Bostwick. 

1823. — George M. Turner, Asa II. Cogswell, James 
Lewis, Laomi Whitcomb, John Clapp. 

1824. — George Gillis, L. G. llarkness, Jonathan Dorr, 

1825. — Lyman H. Sprague, Sumer M. Smith, Salmon 
Axtel, Watson Sumner. 

1826.— John L. Dunlap, Robert M. Stevenson, Thomas 
Haskins, Jr., Otis Spurr. 

1827.— Philander Toby, Rial Wright, Zina A. Haines, 
Herman Rogers. 

1828.— Elijah Pratt, Roderick Row, James M. McNish, 
N. P. Colvin, Elihu Haliday, Daniel Pond, Amasa Allen, 
John M. Bowen, George Allen, Peter Sherwood, Ira C. 
Backus, Joseph W. Richards, Duncan Gillis, David Martin, 
Charies Jones White, John Seari, Alfred Gregory, Wm. 
McLeod, W. Carpenter, Blartin Mason. 

1829.— Benj. F. Cornell. 

1830. — John H. Hopkins, John B. Smith, George Post. 

1831.— Albert Wright, Orange D. Douglass, 

Hale, Asa Fitch, Jr. 

1832.— H. C. Gray, Wm. Stevenson. 

1833.— Benjamin S. King, Dan S. Wright, Frederic 
Wheelock, Jesse Everts, Jr., Eber F. Crandell, John Sar- 
gent, Jr., Marshall Littlefield. 

1834.— Charies De Vol, Kirkland T. Warner, Thomas 
Richards, Matthew R. Ransom, Nelson Munroe. 

1835. — Freeman Hopkins, Joseph Bates, John Steven- 
son, Jr. 

1836.— James D. Stewart, Thompson Burton, Asahel 

1837. — Cyrus Sayles, William Collins, James M. Foster, 
Alexander J. Spencer, Ira Hatch, Athelon Hall. 

1838. — John C. Mack, Henry Gray, Robert McMurray, 
Richard Sill, Jr. 

1839. — Ei-skine G. Clark, Moses A. McNaughton. 

1840.— Hugh P. Proudfit. 

1841. — Asa Hammond, Reuben Blawis, Albert Hon- 
drick, Aaron Goojspeed, Daniel M. Neil. 

1842— Andrew S. Dean,E. W. Carmichael, R. B. New- 
man, Orville Pool Gillman. 

1843. — Hiram J. Ward, David Darwin Dorr. 

1848.— Wm. G. Nelson, William Bullions. 

1849.— Morgan Cole. 

1851. — Warner Cleaveland. 

1853.— Oliver P. Yates. 

1856. — John Lambert. 

1859.— Charies H. Allen, John C. Sill, Theodore C. 
Wallace, James Fonsythe, John J. Flint, James McNeil. 

I860.— B. F. Ketchum, R. S. Connelly, William W. 

1861.— William H. Robertson. 

1862.- John E. Crampton, J. H. Madison. 

1863.— George W. Little, 0. M. Bump, Charie.s 0. T. 
Gillman, J. B. Blawi.s. 

1864.— Alfred M. Young. 

1865. — Burr Schermerhorn. 

18G6.— J. E. Comfort. 

1867.— William H. Miller, Edwin Philips, Samuel 
Shuuwvay^ohn Stevenson. 

1868. — Lysander W. Kenneday, William George Ste- 

1869. — Asa Tupper, Henry Gray. 

1870.- Daniel S. Smart, A. G. Pierce, Hewit, S. 

B. Irwin. 

1871.— D. D. Brayton, H. Renois, B. R. Ilolcomb, R. 
J. Senton. 

1874.— Asa B. Cook, Isaac Munroe, T. S. Nelson, John 
Knowl.son, William B. Slaynard. 

1875.— David Pierce, John Millington, E. W. Hill. 

1876.— G. L. Tripp, Hinds. 

1877.— Charies M. McLaurie, Z. P. Herbert. 

The medical history of Washington county furni.shes 
many honorable and prominent names not appearing on 
the records of this society as members, but who received 
licenses or diplomas from it. Its members have, from the 
beginning, occupied without challenge an enviable position 
in the profession, and it has never been wanting in men of 



learning, ability, and reputation. Its annual and semi- 
atuiual meetings were for a long series of years attended 
with interest and punctuality, recusant members being 
pronipted to duty by reprimands and fines. 

This society, from the otiset, has had a clear record in 
sustaining the laws of the State regulating the practice of 
medicine, and it has also enforced with decision the rules 
of medical ethics. Charlatanism has never found shelter 
within its ranks. It entered at an early date into active 
correspondence with other county medical societies in this 
State, and took its full share in the labors and responsi- 
bilities of establishing the medical profession of the State 
of New York upon an honorable and firm foundation. As 
early as 1809 it had under advisement the question of 
a medical school in the county, and beyond doubt it had 
within its membership capable men to fill its chairs. 

The society was instrumental in securing a modification 
of the State law regulating the practice of medicine; and 
also a repeal of that part of the military law which com- 
pelled physicians to do military duty, except in a profes- 
sional capacity. 

In 1829 the association unanimously bore the following 
testimony on the subject of temperance : " That in the 
opinion of this society, the use of ardent spirits is in no 
case necessary for the preservation of health, and rarely to 
the cure of disease." The influence of the society meet- 
ings has always been very decidedly in favor of progressive 
conservatism in practice. The records are remarkably free 
from evidences of cliquism ; and the few cases of discipline 
found necessary seem to have been conducted in a spirit of 
kindness and moderation. 

In making brief biographical sketches of the more prom- 
inent men connected with the medical profession of this 
county, I deem it eminently fitting to refer to such distin- 
guished men as I am able, who were in the field prior to 
the formation of the society. I regret to note that a few 
names worthy of meritorious mention must be omitted, 
because relatives have not responded to frequent requests to the needed data. 

Rev. Tiio.mas Clark, M.D., took his medical degree at 
the University of Glasgow, Scotland, about 1751. He 
came to Salem in 1765, and was the first and only physi- 
cian until the arrival of Dr. Williams, in 1773 or 1774. 
Dr. Clark evidently possessed rare abilities as a physician 
of the times, and he was often called upon by his parish- 
ioners and others to administer to the wants of the sick 
bodies as well as souls of men. Not unfrequently was he 
called from the pulpit to the bedside in the capacity of a 
jihysician. The department of midwifery was delegated to 
his housekeeper. 

General John Willi.\ms, M.D., was born at Barnsta- 
ble, county of Devonshire, England, in September, 1752; 
and died at Salem, July 22, 1806. 

Of his early life little is known, though he evidently had 
good educational advantages, and improved them well. He 
studied medicine in I is youth, and according to a diploma 
now extant, he walked St. Thomas Hospital, London, one 
year ; he was first surgeon's mate on board an English 
man-of-war. On the 6th of IMay, 1773, he was licensed 
at Edinburgh, for six months, as a traveling phyt^ician, a 

form of medical license quite common in those days. He 
soon came to America and settled in Salem ; as early, cer- 
tainly, as 1774, possibly in 1773. 

His professional services were immediately brought into 
requisition, and his practice soon became extensive and 
lucrative, requiring him to make many long and tedious jour- 
neys on horseback through the almost trackless forest. Many 
are the traditions of his success as a phy.sician, of his skill 
as a surgeon, and of his kindness to the poor. 

His professional as well as patriotic services were 
promptly given to the country in the Revolutionary strug- 
gle. He was engaged at the battles of Bennington, Bemus' 
Heights, Stillwater, and Monmouth, where he proved him- 
self not only an intrepid soldier but a devoted and skilful 
surgeon. Walking over the field at night, after the battle 
of Monmouth, he found his old friend Colonel McCraeken 
among the wounded, his left arm having been carried away 
by a cannon-ball. Taking him in his arms, he carried him 
unassisted to a place of safety, and then successfully ampu- 
tated his arm near the shaulder-joint. 

In evidence of his skill as a surgeon at this early date, 
the following incident is related : Sheriff Abner Stone had 
received a severe blow upon his thigh with a raw hide. 
His limb became greatly swollen, and symptoms of lockjaw 
appeared. His life was despaired of; when General Wil- 
liams, returning from Congress, carefully investigated the 
case, and decided that the trouble must be caused by some 
foreign substance lodged in the tissues of the limb. By a 
bold surgical operation he proved the correctness of his 
opinion and saved his patient. 

Dr. Peletiaii Fitch came from a long line of dis- 
tinguished ancestors, and was born in Norwich, Conn., May 
6, 1722. He received a thorough literary and professional 
education. After practicing medicine twenty-eight years in 
Connecticut, he removed to Vermont, and came thence to 
Salem, about 1780. Though eminently qualified, yet owing 
to his advanced age and the care of a rising family, Dr. 
Fitch did not enter largely upon general practice, but con- 
fined his services to his neighbors and personal friends. He 
was an active compatriot with General Williams, Judge 
Webster, and other distinguished men of that heroic era. 
Dr. Fitch died April 16, 1803. 

Dr. Joseph Tojib wa.s the son of David and Jean Tomb, 
who were among the first settlers of Salem. He studied 
medicine with Dr. Williams, with whom he was in company 
for a short time. He continued to practice in his native 
town of Salem until his death, at the age of thirty-seven 
years, on the first day of January, 1796. 

Andrew Proudfit, the first president of the society, 
was born in Pcqua, Penn. He studied medicine with the 
celebrated Benjamin Rush, and graduated from the medical 
college at Philadelphia. He settled in Argyle about the 
year 1795, where he practiced medicine until 1807, when 
he removed to Troy, N. Y., and engaged in mercantile pur- 
suits. He returned to Argyle in 1818, and resumed his 
profession, in which be continued till his death on the 16th 
of May, 1822. 

Dr. Proudfit was justly esteemed a man of superior edu- 
cation and professional skill. He was a communicant of the 
Presbyterian church. 



ZiNA Hitchcock, M.D., was born in Warren or New 
Milford, Conn., Nov. 6, 1755. He settled in Sandy Hill 
about 1783, soon becoming eminent both as a physician 
and a surgeon. 

He took a lively interest in the stirring political events 
of the day, and at an early period abandoned the active 
duties of his profession to engage in affairs of State. 

Dr. Hitchcock was appointed one of the judges of the 
court of common pleas in 1795, and remained upon the 
bench most of the time during his continuance in the 
county. He was also, as will be seen by the civil list 
elsewhere given, a member of the Assembly four years, and 
of the State Senate no less than ten successive years. He 
was a member of the first board of trustees of Washington 
Academy, and was also one of the first directors of the 
Northern Inland Lock Navigation Company, appointed as 
such in 1792. 

Dr. Hithcock died at Franklin, Ohio, in May, 1832, 
aged seventy-seven years. 

He was a man of more than ordinary abilities, and ex- 
erted an important influence iu Washington county and 

Hon. A.s.\ Fitch, M.D. — The name of this gentleman 
is one of the most highly respected in the medical history 
of Washington county. 

He was the youngest son of Dr. Peletiah Fitch, and was 
born at Noank, Conn., Nov. 10, 1765. He came to Salem 
at the age of fourteen, and at sixteen served nine months 
as a soldier, guarding the northern frontier, near the close 
of the Revolutionary war. At the end of this service he 
commenced the .study of medicine with his father ; finish- 
ing with Dr. Philip Smith. 

In 1788 the young doctor settled in Duanesburg, Schen- 
ectady county. After a very successful career at that place, 
both as a physician and as the financial agent of Judge 
Duane, he returned to Salem, for family reasons, in 1795, 
and soon secured a very lucrative practice, his ride extend- 
ing over the ground now occupied by four or five physicians, 
although the population was nearly the same then as now. 
During seasons of much sickness his daily charges often 
exceeded one hundred dollars. 

Many students were educated by Dr. Fitch, there being 
almost always from two to six in his oifice, some of whom 
became eminent practitioners. 

In 1797 he received a certificate as a regular practi- 
tioner of medicine from the county court. 

Dr. Fitch was president of the County Medical Society 
from 1811 to 1817, and again from 1825 to 1831 ; and he 
was often called upon to serve as its vice-president or secre- 
tary, and to fill other positions of honor and responsibility 
in the society. 

As a justice of the county court, as a member of Con- 
gress at a critical period of our national history, as a lead- 
ing elder in the first incorporated Presbyterian church, as 
a prominent member of the order of Free Masons, and as 
an active and eminently useful citizen, Dr. Fitch was richly 
deserving of the confidence and esteem so freely accorded 
to him ; but in nothing was he more devoted and deserving 
than in the arduous duties of his professional life. On the 
26th of February, 183-t, the regents of the University of 

New York conferred upon him a well-merited honorary 
degree of M.D. Unfortunately, during the last few years 
of his life, all the faculties of his mind were completely 
obliterated. He died Aug. 24, 1843. 

Jonathan Dorr, M.D., was born Jan. 1, 17G2, in 
the town of Lyme, Conn. Left dependent upon his own 
exertions at an early age, he " worked his way" until he 
came to Salem, and entered the office of Dr. Williams. 
After completing his studies he settled near the village of 
Cambridge, and commenced the practice of medicine, in 
which he continued with eminent success until smitten 
with paralysis, in January, 1826. He died, greatly la- 
mented, on the 2d of April following. 

Dr. Dorr was an indefatigable student and a man of un- 
tiring energy. He was distinguished as a surgeon of rare 
abilities, having probably performed the major operations 
more frequently than any other surgeon of his day in the 
county. In a series of twelve cases of lithotomy, he was 
successful in eleven. 

He was a member of the Presbyterian church, and was 
highly esteemed in the various relations of life. 

Hon. James Stevenson, M.D., the son of a profes- 
sional surgeon, was born in the parish of Kilsyth, Scot- 
land, on the 21st day of July, 1771. He was educated at 
the University of Glasgow, and came to America in 1789. 
He studied medicine with Dr.s. Williams and Tomb, of 
Salem. He settled in Cambridge in 1793, and was admitted 
to practice by a certificate given August 25, 1797, by John 
Williams, M.D., as judge of the court of common pleas. 
Ten years later he became a naturalized citizen. On the 
13th of March, 1827, the degree of M.D. was con- 
ferred upon him by the regents of the University of the 

Dr. Stevenson acquired an extensive practice, and as a 
consultant was held in very high estimation. He was 
several times elected to the State Legislature, and was 
also supervisor of his own town. 

The subject of this sketch was a devoted Christian, and 
a ruling elder in the Pre.sbyterian church. He was a man 
of undoubted intellectual and professional ability, was a 
diligent literary and scientific student, and possessed what 
was somewhat remarkable at that time, a library of a thou- 
sand volumes. Greatly honored and beloved, he died on 
the 14th of February, 1863, having retained his faculties 
unimpaired until fully ninety-one years of age. 

Hm.\ii Corliss, M.D., of English descent, was born in 
Easton, in this county, in 1793. He studied medicine in 
1812 with Drs. Nathan Thompson and Jonathan Mosher. 
In 1813 he went to New York city, and attended lectures 
at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, from which in- 
stitution he graduated in March, 1816. 

Dr. Corliss practiced medicine eight years in his native 
town, receiving his license therefor from the County Jledi- 
cal Society in 1817. In 1825 he removed to Union Village 
(Greenwich), where he continued during his long and 
eventful career. He was a short time associated with Dr. 
Cornelius Holmes. 

Dr. Corliss was for more than thirty years a prominent 
member of the State Medical Society, and was one of the 
founders of the American Medical Association. At a meet- 



ing of the former society, a short time prior to his death, 
his absence on account of ilhicss being noted, a special 
salutatory telegram was sent him by the unanimous vote 
of the members. 

Dr. Corliss was a diligent reader of current medical 
literature, having been for many years a regular subscriber 
to from six to nine medical journals. As a surgeon he 
performed many severe operations, and when eighty years 
old he successfully performed lithotomy on a patient who 
was also an octogenarian. 

Dr. Corliss was an active and zealous anti-slavery and 
temperance advocate; a man widely known and highly es- 
teemed. He was the father of the inventor of the world- 
renowned Corliss steam-engine. He died on the 7th of 
September, 1877. 

CoRNEiJUS Holmes, M.D., was born at Plymouth, 
Mass., June 15, 1774. He studied medicine with Dr. 
Graves, of Rupert, Vt., a short time, coming to Salem about 
1800, where he was for two years principal of Washington 
Academy. He completed his studies with Dr. Asa Fitch, 
and was licensed to practice in 1805. He went to Whijiple 
city (Greenwich) in 1808, when it was a mere hamlet, and 
for more than sixty years he discharged the various duties 
incumbent upon him as a phy.sician and citizen with such 
wisdom, fidelity, and kindness as to secure the confidence, 
respect, and affection of the entire community. 

Though a self-educated man. Dr. Holmes was an exten- 
sive reader, and took a deep interest in the establishment 
of schools. After a career of great activity, extending 
through three generations, he died, greatly lamented, on 
the 29th of January, 18G5, at the age of ninety years, in 
the almost perfect po.ssession of his mental faculties, and 
leaving a memory untarnished by a single blot. 

Salmon Axtel, M.D., was born at Wilmington, Vt., 
July 11, 1792. In 1815 he established himself as a phys- 
ician in Fort Ann, where he secured an extensive practice, 
which he retained for more than fifty years. He was a 
member of the Legislature in 1838, and was supervisor of 
his town eight years. He died from paralysis, Nov. 19, 

Abram Allen, M.D., was born in Sturbridge, Mass., 
and came to Salem about 1795. Being a man of good 
education and great energy, he soon established himself in 
a prosperous professional business. He became one of the 
leading surgeons of the. county, and was often called upon 
in cases requiring skill and 

The following case illustrates his characteristics and gave 
him notoriety. He was called to take part in a consulta- 
tion where the patient had received a heavy blow upon the 

He gave his opinion that the critical condition of the 
patient was caused by the formation of matter within the 
cranium, and proposed trepanning as the only remedy. He 
was not permitted to operate, and a serious personal ani- 
madversion grew out of his relations to the case. 

The patient died, and Dr. Allen resolved to verify his 
diagnosis, if pos.sible. He disinterred the body, cut off the 
head, took it to his office, and there, in the presence of sev- 
eral friends, demonstrated the correctness of his opinion. 
For this act he was arrested and tried, as ho desired to be. 

He took good care to have the court-house filled with spec- 
tators, and he had his case stoutly defended, calling numer- 
ous witnesses. He was fined two hundred and fifty dollars, 
which he paid with great pleasure, regarding the sentence 
iis the best advertisement he could desire, and the money as 
the best investment of his life. From that day he was 
known by the name of " Old Head." He died March 20, 
1845, aged eighty years. 

Russel Clark, M.D., was born in Wallingford, Conn. 
He pursued his preliminary studies in that town, and com- 
pleted his professional education at Philadelphia. He set- 
tled at Sandy Hill about 1809, where he contiuued until 
his death, on the 30th of May, 1849, aged sixty-seven 

Dr. Clark was a man of fine abilities, and devoted him- 
self with zeal to his profession. He was justly considered 
one of the ablest physicians in northern New York. His 
pi'actice extended over a wide range of country, and he was 
extensively called as a consultant. 

Mattuew Stevenson, M.D., son of Dr. James Steven- 
son, was born at Cambridge, Sept. 9, 1794. He obtained 
a classical education at Union College, studied medicine 
with his father, and graduated at the Medical College of the 
University of New York. 

He practiced his profession several years with his father, 
and then removed to Newburgh, on the Hudson, where he 
spent the remainder of his days. 

Most of his leisure time was devoted to the study of the 
natural sciences, botany being his especial favorite. He 
and his brother. Dr. Wm. Stevenson, collected and arranged 
all the known genera and species of plants in New York, 
and extended their researches as far west as to the Missis- 
sippi. After a long and painful illness, he died in July, 

Philip Van Ness Morris, M.D., was bom at Cam- 
bridge, Dec. 11, 1795; was a graduate of Williams Col- 
lege at eighteen, and studied medicine with his father. Dr. 
Asahel Morris. When twenty-one years of age he com- 
menced the practice of his profession with his father, at 
Buskirk's Bridge, where he continued during life. 

Dr. Morris was a man of simple and industrious habits, 
a bachelor, an intelligent and successful physician, and 
was held in high esteem by the profession and his numer- 
ous acquaintances. He was an earnest Christian philan- 
thropist, a member of the Dutch Reformed church, and a 
liberal donor for benevolent purposes, — for years devoting 
the avails of his Sabbath practice and one-tenth of his 
income to such objects. He died in November, 1864. 

Chas. J. White, M.D., was born at Waterford, Sara- 
toga Co., N. Y., in December, 1803. He studied medi- 
cine with Dr. Worthy Waters, and graduated at the Castle- 
ton Medical College in the class of 1825. He immediately 
entered upon a successful practice in Hebron, where he 
continued through life. 

Dr. White was a man of rare and .splendid gifts, a close 
student, an independent thinker, and a self-reliant practi- 
tioner. In his bearing he was a gentleman of the old 
school. As a Christian he w:\s an earnest advocate of the 
tenets of the Christian or Campbellite church during his 
later years. He died April 24, 1869. 



Henry C. Gray, M.D., the last of the distinguished 
presidents of the society who can be mentioned in the 
limits assigned me, was born in Mason, N. H., Jan. 7, 
1810. Ho received a good education, studied medicine 
with his father, Dr. Henry Gray, and graduated at Dart- 
mouth Medical College, Nov. 21, 1829. 

After practicing a year with Dr. Andrews, of Keene, 
N. H., and another with Dr. Dutton, of Manchester, Vt., 
he established himself at Cambridge, in 1831, and was for 
a year a partner of Dr. Jonathan Dorr, Sr. Subsequently 
to this time and until shortly prior to his death, he enjoyed 
an extensive and lucrative practice, having very early 
received the confidence of the citizens of Cambridge and 

Nature was most lavish in her physical and mental gifts 
to Dr. Gray. For many years he was the leading surgeon 
in Washington county, and perhaps no physician in the 
county was ever called more frequently in consultation than 
was Dr. Gray. At one time he is said to have been offered 
a professorship in one of the Philadelphia medical colleges. 
Ho was a permanent member of the State and National 
Medical Societies and was often in attendance upon their 

Late in life Dr. Gray became a zealous Christian, as a 
member of the Baptist church, laboring in season and, out 
of season to redeem the time, and taking manifest delight 
in the work. He died instantly on the 10th of March, 

Philip Smith, M.D., came from the north of England 
and settled at Buskirk's Bridge. The first notice of his 
being engaged in the practice of medicine is in the year 

He "was a member of the Assembly in 1794, 1798, and 
1799, and sheriff of the county from 1796 to 1798. He 
was one of the United States commissioners of taxes for 
Washington county under the act of 1799. 

Dr. Smith was a man of large influence in the public 
affairs of the county, yet ho found time to answer numerous 
calls to attend the sick, and had the reputation of being a 
skillful physician. He died Nov. 9, 1807. 

Col. James Green, M.D., was born in Cambridge, 
N. Y., and studied medicine with Dr. Williams, of Salem. 
In an. advertisement dated March 12, 1798, he notifies the 
people of Salem that he has taken a part of George 
Williams' house, where he intended to practice physic and 
surgery, and added : " He has on hand a supply of brim- 
stone, salts, Hooper's and Anderson's pills, court-plaster, 
and so on." The next week appeared the following bur- 
lesque of Dr. Green's notice : 

"to the rUBLIC. 
"I've lived in Salem, if I remember, 
Four years the tenth of last September, 
Have Hooper's pills of every sort, 
Brimstone, salts, and plaster-court; 
My friends may call, nor fear the cost, 
I've neither conscience or religion lost. 

[Signed] ABUASt Alle.n." 

About the first of the century Dr. Green was settled at 
Argyle. He was colonel of the 118th Regiment of State 
militia in the War of 1812. He was a man of superior 

education, and was held in high estimation as a physician. 
He removed to the western part of the State in 1815 or 

William K. Scott, M.D., attended medical lectures 
at Dartmouth in 1807. In January, 1808, he received 
the first license to practice medicine granted by the New 
York State Medical Society. In 1809 he graduated at the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York city. 

He commenced practice the same year at Nassau, Rensse- 
laer county, where he remained until 1818, when he re- 
moved to Argyle. In 1822 he went to Sandy Hill, where 
he successfully practiced his profession until 1835, when 
he removed to Buffalo. Dr. Scott was one of the most 
cultivated and accomplished gentlemen on the roll of the 

Worthy Waters, M.D., was born in Cambridge, 
N. Y., in 1798. He studied medicine with J. Dorr, Sr., 
and practiced successfully in Salem, Hebron, and Argyle. 
He was a man of eccentric character, but of acknowledged 
skill and success in the profession. He died at Argyle, 
May 29, 1828. 

David Long, M.D., a gentleman of Irish descent, was 
born in Upton, Mass., and studied medicine with his 
brother. Dr. John Long. He came to Hebron about 1785, 
where he continued in practice until 1810. He then re- 
moved to Pembroke, Genesee Co., N. Y., where he died 
about 1810. He was an active, resolute, successful, and 
Christian physician. 

Ebenezer Ingersoll, M.D., was born in Shaftsbury, 
Vt., Feb. 11, 1788, was a graduate of Middlebury College, 
studied medicine with Dr. Pitch, of Salem, and .succeeded 
Dr. Long in Hebron. He was a man of strong mental 
powers, and had an extensive practice, which wore him out 
prematurely. He had many students, and several partners. 

Dr. Ingensoll died May 2, 1825, having for many years 
previously been a member of the Presbyterian church. 

Ephraim Allen, M.D., was born at Sturbridge, in 
1766, and was a graduate of Yale College. He joined his 
brother. Dr. Abram Allen, at Salem, in 1797, and died in 

Isaac W. Clary, M.D , the first physician in the town 
of Hartford, was born in Massachusetts, about 1760. He 
settled in Washington county in 1780, and, as it was said, 
" had an extensive horse- and mule-back ride." He was an 
exemplary Christian and a useful physician. He died in 

Richard Sill, Sr., was born in Granville, N. Y., in 
1790 ; was a student with Dr. Clary about 1808 ; attended 
medical lectures at Columbia College in 1809, and 
quently received an honorary medical diploma from Castle- 
ton College. He succeeded Dr. Clary in practice, and con- 
tinued actively engaged in his profession fully fifty years. 

Dr. Sill was no common man ; of fine, commanding 
presence, possessing a strong and active mind, he held broad 
and comprehensive views of practice. He was a member 
of the Legislature in 1829. He was an earnest Christian, 
of the Congregationalist denomination. He died in July, 
1874, much lamented both by the profession and the laity. 

Ira Bascom, M.D., was a native of Newport, N. H., 
and was born in 1783. He graduated at Middlebury Col- 



lege in the class of 1807, and took high rank as a scholar. 
He studied medicine at Orwell, Vt., where he first practiced. 
He then removed to Granville, N. Y. He was established 
as a physician, at Whitehall, from 1809 to 1814. He died 
at Orwell, Dec. 6, 1820. 

Dr. Bascom was scholarly and gentle in his manners, and 
gained the esteem and confidence of the communities where 
he resided. 

Dan S. Wright, M.D., was born in Shoreham, Vt., 
March 5, 1802. He studied medicine with Dr. Jotham 
Allen, of Middlebury, Vt., and graduated at Castleton in 
the class of 1825. He commenced practice at Westport, 
N. Y^., but removed to Whitehall in 1832, where he con- 
tinued until his death, on the 31st of January, 1867. 

Dr. Wright wa.s a man above medium height, and of 
almost perfect physical organization. He had also marked 
intellectual power ; he observed and reasoned closely ; had 
great decision of character, and unliesitatingly carried his 
conclusions into practice. He was a member of the Assem- 
bly in 1842, and of the State Senate in 1852 and '53. 
. Dr. Wright never shrunk fiom a discharge of any of the 
numerous duties which devolved upon him as a citizen or 
physician. His health was permanently injured while 
attending patients during the prevalence of cholera and ship 

NeL!30N Porter, M.D., was born at Fort Ann in 1793. 
He studied medicine with the eminent surgeon, Dr. Valen- 
tine Mott, with whom he remained five years, enjoying the 
hospital privileges afforded by the city of New York. In 
1817 he returned to Fort Ann, established himself in prac- 
tice, and rapidly gained a high reputation as a surgeon. In 
1837 he removed to Whitehall, where he continued until 
his death, in 1852. 

Dr. Porter was an excellent physician, and his reputation 
as a surgeon has never been surpassed in the county. 
During the last eight years of his life, his healtli was such 
that he could only respond to the frequent calls made upon 
him as a consultant. He was a man of splendid presence, 
standing sis feet and three inches high, and weighing in 
his prime three hundred and fifty pounds. He was genial 
and social, had many attached friends, and was universally 
respected and mourned. 

Such, very imperfectly sketched, were some of the ancient 
members of the medical profession of the county of Wash- 
ington ; well may any profession or county be proud 
of such men, and well may the younger members of 
the medical profession emulate such illustrious examples. 
Nothing is hazarded in affirming that few counties in the 
State, if any, can produce a fairer record of professional 
ability or moral worth than does the county of Washington. 
The full record of the society gives a moral and Christian 
history that proudly refutes the oft-repeated slander upon 
the medical profession, — that it fosters infidelity. 

No space is left for the narration of personal incidents, 
nor for an elaborate statement of the principles of practice 
pursued in the early days. On the latter subject, however, 
we quote a few illustrative remarks from the letter of an 
aged, retired physician : " An apprenticeship with a phy- 
sician in those days included a large amount of toil in the 
preparation of pills, plasters, tinctures, ointments, etc. 

The student gradually worked his way into the extraction 
of teeth, bleeding, and minor surgery. I hesitate not to 
affirm, that during the last two years of my pupilage, I 
drew fully a barrel of the vital fluid ! We usually allowed 
it to flow until the patieut said enough, or thought he had 
gotten his money's worth, which was one .shilling cash, or 
two shillings to book it !" 



Organization of First Society — Protection from IIorso-Thicves — First 
Oflicers — A Series of Meetings — The First " Farmers' Holiday" — 
Succeeding Ones— Fair of 182»— Prize for Ladies' Dresses— F.Tir for 
1826— The Plowing Match— Dissolution of the Society- The Pres- 
ent Society — Its Organization — Its First Officers — Its First Fair 
—Fair of 1843— Extension to Two Days— Showing a Subsoil Plow 
— Fairs held in a Tent — Location of Successive Ones — Great Yield 
of Potatoes — Premiums for Silk — Woolen Manufactures — Exten- 
sion to Three Days— The Rebellion- No Fair for Two Years— A 
Permanent Arrangement — Nine Fairs at Salem — Incorj)orntion in 
I860— First Officers After Incorporation— Premiums for Trotting 
Horses — Horace Greeley delivers the Address — Transferred to a 
Point between Sandy Hill and Fort Edward— List of Presidents 
— Present Officers — The Stock-Breeders' Association — Its Objects 
and Organization — The Mettawee Valley Society — The Northern 
New Y'ork Poultry Association — Its Object and Officers. 


On the 2d day of December, 1818, four months before 
the passage of any law providing for the establishment of 
county agricultural societies, many of the most prominent 
and enterprising citizens of Washington county met, pur- 
suant to call, at the court-house at Sandy Hill, to consider 
how the interests of agriculture in that county could best 
be promoted. Hon. Asa Fitch, of Salem, father of the em- 
inent gentleman now bearing that name, was the chairman 
of the meeting, and Isaac Bishop, of Granville, was the 
secretary. After due discussion, it was resolved to organ- 
ize a county agricultural society, and Garret AVendell, Zeb- 
ulon R. Shipherd, David Russell, Asa Fitch, Isaac Bishop, 
and Roswell Weston were appointed a committee to pre- 
pare a constitution and by-laws. Hon. Z. R. Shipherd was 
requested to deliver an address at the organization. At an 
adjourned meeting, held at the same place the ensuing Fri- 
day, the committee was directed to report a plan to protect 
the members of the proposed organization from liorse- 
thieves. Of this scheme, however, we find no further 
mention, and it was doubtless found impracticable. 

A further adjournment to the 11th of February, 1819, 
took place, when the meeting was held at the house of 
Joseph Rouse, in the village of Argyle. Wide notice was 
"iven. and a large assemblage of farmers and others gathered 
on the appointed day from various parts of the county. 
An able address was delivered by Mr. Shipherd, his hearers 
responded with every indication of enthusiasm and liber- 
ality, a resolution for the immediate organization of the 
society was promptly carried, a constitution was adopted, 
and more than forty gentlemen put down their names as 



Hon. Asa Fitch was elected the first president ; Z. R. 
Shipherd, vice-president ; Roswell Weston, corresponding 
secretary ; Thomas N. Clark, treasurer ; Henry C. Martin- 
dale, auditor; and John C. Parker, clerk. Andrew 
Proudfit, M.D., John Reid, David Russell, John Kirkland, 
and Elijah White were appointed a viewing committee. 
The following gentlemen were selected to receive the signa- 
tures of those desiring to become members in their respec- 
tive towns: Jonathan Dorr, of White Creek; David 
McKillip, of Jackson ; Gerritt Wendell, of Cambridge ; 
David Austin, of Hartford ; Daniel JIcDonald, of Hebron ; 
Calvin Smith, of i]aston ; Moses Cowan, of Greenwich ; 
David Russell, of Salem ; Daniel Shipherd, of Argyle ; 
Collins Hitchcock, of Kingsbury ; William A. Moore, of 
Fort Ann ; Timothy Stoughton, of Fort Edward ; Melanc- 
thon Wheeler, of Whitehall ; James Burnett, of Putnam ; 
and Samuel Beaman, of Hampton. Such was the beginning 
of the first Washington county agricultural society. 

In the latter part of September, 1819, the society made 
a special effort to " wake up" the people on the subject of 
agricultural improvement, and a series of meetings were 
held throughout the county, at which addresses on this 
topic were delivered by various members of the society. 
These were held at Taylor's Inn, in Greenwich, at Free- 
man's, in Salem, at Root's, in Hebron, at Reid's, in Gran- 
ville, at Wiswall's, in Whitehall, at Bordwell's, in Kings- 
bury, and Ransom's, in Argyle. No county meeting was 
held that year. 

The first general assemblages were called by the very 
appropriate name of " Farmers' Holiday." They occupied 
but a single day each, and the object .seemed to be full as 
much to have a friendly gathering, and an interchange of 
views,.as to enter into competition over the products of the 
farm. The was necessarily small. 

The first farmers' holiday of which there is any positive 
record was held at the hotel of Major Andrew Freeman, at 
Salem, on the second Tuesday of October, 1822. Officers 
were on hand at eight o'clock, and entries for premiums 
were received till ten. A plowing match came off at 
twelve o'clock sharp, both with oxen and horses, the plow- 
men appearing in white frocks, with spears of wheat in 
their hats. There was an address delivered in a church, 
for the society had neither building nor tent. 

Several successive fairs or farmers' holidays were held 
during the ensuing years, in various parts of the county, 
but their records were not generally preserved ; nor if they 
had been, would they show any very extensive efforts, 
though their antiquity would make them interesting. 

The fair for 1825 was held at Taylor's inn at Union Vil- 
lage (now Greenwich), and, like the others of that period, 
occupied but one day. The badge of membership was a 
spear of wheat and a ribbon. There were only a few prizes 
for tillage, animals, domestic manufactures, and agricultural 
implements, the whole numbering scarcely a hundred. 
Among them was one of five dollars " to the female who 
shall appear in full dress, as far as practicable, of her own 
domestic manufacture." The officers for that year were 
as follows : President, Major John Reid ; Vice-President, 
Alexander Livingston ; Corresponding Secretary, John 
Crary ; Recording Secretary, Gerrett Wendell ; Treasurer, 

Colonel Thomas N. Clark ; Auditor, William K. Adams ; 
Viewing Committee, Aaron Cleveland, Asa Fitch, Robert 
Wilcox (2d), Elijah White, and David Whipple. The 
address was by Joseph Boies, Esq. 

The " fiirmers' holiday" for 1826 was held at the house 
of Joseph Rouse, in Argyle. The president for this year 
was John M. Reid ; the corresponding secretary, John 
Crary. Jesse S. Billings delivered the address. The 
first premium on plowing was awarded to the one who 
could plow an eighth of an acre in the best manner, turn- 
ing a furrow four to five inches wide and nine to eleven 
inches deep, and performing the work in not less than forty- 
five minutes with horses, or sixty minutes with oxen. This 
would not now be considered very fast time. The total 
amount of premiums offered was two hundred and eighty- 
three dollars, less than one-sixth of the amount usually 
disbursed at the present time. 

The State board of agriculture ceased to exist by the 
limitation of the law creating it in 1820, and shortly after- 
wards the Washington county society went down under 
the apathy of the public, as did those of nearly every other 
county in the State. The State Agricultural Society was 
formed in 1832, but it received no aid from the State and 
had little influence in the counties. 


In May, 1841, the Legislature passed an act appropri- 
ating eight thousand dollars annually for the encourage- 
ment of agriculture, seven hundred of which went to the 
State society, and the rest was to be apportioned among 
county societies, in the ratio of the Assembly representa- 
tion from their respective counties. On the 4th day of Au- following, a meeting was held at Argyle, pursuant to 
a call issued by Hon. Edward Dodd, then county clerk. 
Hon. John Crary was chairman, and Asa Fitch, Jr., M.D., 
was secretary. After full discussion, a county society was 
duly organized under the law just alluded to, and a consti- 
tution was adopted, to which those present subscribed their 
names. The following officers were then elected : Presi- 
dent, Henry Holmes, of Greenwich ; Vice-Presidents, John 
Crary, of Salem ; Thomas C. Whiteside, of Cambridge ; 
James Fall, of Fort Anne; and Harvey Brown, of Hart- 
ford ; Corresponding Secretary, John McDonald, of Salem ; 
Treasurer, Ransom Stiles, of Argj'le. 

The first fair of the new society was held at Greenwich, 
Oct. 12, 1841. Notwithstanding the brief time which 
there was for preparation, and for awakening the people, 
the secretary reported that " the display on this occasion 
was in the highest degree creditable and the attendance 
unexpectedly largo." The address was by John McDon- 
ald, Esq., of Salem. As was the case with the previous 
fairs before mentioned, all the business was transacted in 
one day. 

The next fair was held at Salem, when there was a very 
large attendance, and the secretary noted especially the in- 
terest with which the ladies participated in the doings of 
the day. 

In 1843 the fair was held at Argyle, and by this time 
the had so increased that the managers devoted 



two days to the exhibition. The people were so well 
suited with this movement that the time has never been 
reduced. There was an address each day ; the first by 
Ij B. Armstrong, of Kingsbury, and the secoiul by Isaac 
Thompson, of Granville. 

At the next fair, held at Greenwich, a subsoil plow, ex- 
hibited and operated by Mr. McDonald, was the object of 
most especial interest, being an entirely new instrument to 
the greater part of the assemblage. 

From this time till the outbreak of the Rebellion the 
annual fail's were held in various villages of the county. 
A large tent had been procured, and this constituted the 
only shelter from rain or sun during all this period. The 
locations for the successive years were as follows : Salem, 
1845 ; Cambridge, 1846 ; Greenwich, 1847 ; Argyle, 1848 ; 
Whitehall, 184'J ; Argyle, 1850; South Hartford, 1851; 
Greenwich, 1852; Granville, 1853; North White Creek, 
1854; Cambridge, 1855; Greenwich, 1856; Hartford, 
1857; Salem, 1858; Fort Ami, 1859; Cambridge, 1860. 

During this period there was usually a steady increase 
in the prosperity of the society, though there were occa- 
sional complaints of apathy. At the fair of 1848 Daniel 
McDonald produced proof of having raised three hundred 
and ninety-seven and a half bushels of potatoes on an acre 
of ground, the largest yield ever known in the county. 
INIost of them were sold at thirty-two cents per bushel, 
making the gross receipts a hundred and twenty-seven dol- 
lars and twenty cents. The cost of raising them was four- 
teen dollars and sixty-two cents, but that of marketing 
them is not known. The same year James Martin raised 
three hundred and seventy bushels on an acre, and, owing 
to the higher price he received, cleared even more money 
from the same area than Mr. McDonald. The premiums 
this year aggregated only two hundred and sixty dollars 
and twenty-five cents. 

In 1850 the committee on domestic manufactures awarded 
three premiums to Mrs. Elizabeth Gray, of Salem, one for 
a parcel of cocoons, one for a quarter of a pound of reeled 
silk, and one for fifty skeins of sewing-silk. The commit- 
tee gave considerable attention to the subject of silk culture 
in their report, claiming that the soil and climate of Wash- 
ington county were well adapted to this branch of industry. 

In 1852 it was voted to erect buildings and make a per- 
manent location in Argyle, but the vote was rescinded, and 
the society continued its peregrinations for .several years 

At this time there were twelve woolen manufactories in 
the county, all but one of which were creditably represented 
at the fair. 

The novel feature of the fair at Cambridge in 1855 was 
the ladies' equestrianship, then just coming in fashion at 
such exhibitions. Five prizes were distributed to the pro- 
ficients in this charming art. But the display was consid- 
ered too enchanting, causing the cattle and potatoes to be 
entirely overlooked, and after 1856 no prizes wore ofiered 
for ladies' equestrianship. 

Thus, with varying fortunes, the society continued until 

1860, considerable apathy being manifested during the last 

few years. In the last-named year, however, the time of 

holding the fair was for the first time extended over a period 


of three days. In 1861 the excitement of the war, and 
the fact that so many of the younger farmers had shoul- 
dered their rifles in defence of their country, caused the 
omission of the annual fair for the first time since the foun- 
dation of the society. In 1862 it was again postponed. 

Meanwhile the subject of a permanent location was se- 
riously discussed, and in 1 803 the proper committee made 
a contract with James Gikson, Jam&s McNaugbton, and 
Howe & McNaugbton, on behalf of the people of Salem, by 
which the latter agreed to furnish the ground and erect 
the necessary buildings for the society, on condition that 
the fairs should be held for ten years at that place, counting 
1862. This agreement was duly carried out, the buildings 
were erected at a cost of about two thousand dollars, and 
the first fair under the new system was held at Salem on 
the 9th, 10th, and 11th of September, 1863. Though the 
display of articles was not large yet the attendance was 
such that the receipts amounted to about a thousand dol- 
lars, being a larger sum than had resulted from any pre- 
vious exhibition. 

For the next eight years the fairs were regularly hold at 
Salem, and the wisdom of providing buildings and a per- 
manent location was shown by the great increase in the 
display, the attendance, and the receipts. 

On the 25th of March, 1865, the society was duly in- 
corporated under the law of 1855, by the name of "The 
Washington County Agricultural Society," to which all 
of the property was transferred by a resolution of the un- 
incorporated society. The corporators named in the cer- 
tificate were Bernard Blair, Samuel W. Crosby, John W. 
Eddy, James Gibson, John A. McFarland, S. S. Crandell, 
Hugh R. Cowan, Thomas Stevenson, James McNaugbton, 
John Howe, John II. McFarland, Ebenezer Beattie, Asa 
Fitch, William A. Russell, and William M. Holmes. 

It was provided that the property and business of the 
society should be controlled by a boai'd of managers, con- 
sisting of the president, first vice-president, secretary, 
treasurer, and six directors. The first officers of the society, 
after its incorporation, were as follows : President, Ralph 
Richards, of Hampton ; Vice-Presidents, Bernard Blair, 
of Salem ; Berry Long, of Cambridge ; B. J. Lawrence, 
of Fort Ann; E. Hopkins, Jr., of Granville; Alexander 
Barkley, of Argyle ; E. McMurray, of Salem ; Recording 
Secretary, S. S. Crandall, of Salem ; Assistant Secretary, 
J. A. McFarland, of Salem ; Corresponding Secretary, 
Milo Ingalsbee, of Hartford ; Treasurer, William M. Holmes, 
of Greenwich. The same year the buildings of the society 
were considerably enlarged. 

In 1867 the exhibition was for the first time kept open 
four days. For the first time, too, premiums were offered 
for the fastest trotting horses. Horace Greeley delivered 
the address. At the fair of 1870, the number of entries 
was nearly three thousand, while the total receipts were 
over three thousand dollars. 

The advantage of having good buildings was now ad- 
mitted by all, and, when the term for which the fair had 
been located at Salem expired, the board of managere lo- 
cated it for the next ten years at a point between the vil- 
lages of Sandy Hill and Fort Edward ; the consideration 
being that the inhabitants of villages and the vicinity 



should furnish and fit up a lot of twenty-five acres, and 
pay a bonus of two thousand five hundred dollars to the 
society. The first fliir on the new grounds was held in 
September, 1872, and since then the annual exhibitions 
have been regularly held there up to the present time, with 
Constantly increasing prosperity. 


Henry Holmes, Greenwich, 1841 ; John Savage, Salem, 
1842 ; Edward Long, Cambridge, 1843 ; David Sill, Hart- 
ford, 1844 ; John McDonald, Salem, 1843 ; Ahira Eldridge, 
White Creek, 1840; General Orviile Clark, Sandy Hill, 
1847; Asa Fitch, Salem, 1848; John H. Boyd, White- 
hall, 1849 ; James Farr, Fort Ann, 1850 ; Harvey Brown, 
Hartford, 1851; John M. Steven.son, Cambridge, 1852; 
Milo Ingalsbee, Hartford, 185:^; Leroy Mowry, Greenwich, 
1854; Peter Hill, Jackson, 1855; James Savage, Argyle, 
1856; Henry W. Beckwith, Granville, 1857; James S. 
McDonald, Salem, 1858 ; Hosea B. Farr, Fort Ann, 1859 ; 
Truman A. Fuller, White Creek, 18G0 ; Otis Dillingham, 
Granville, 1861 ; William M. Holme.s, Greenwich, 1862- 
63 ; Rev. E. H. Newton, Cambridge, 1864 ; Ralph Rich- 
ards, Hampton, 1865; George N. Bates, Granville, 1866; 
S. W. Crosby, Cambridge, 1867 ; J. M. Williams, Salem 
(resigned and I. V. Baker, Jr., elected), 1868; I. V. 
Baker, Jr., Fort Ann, 1869; Berry Long, Cambridge, 
1870-71 ; Deliverance Rogers, Granville, 1872 ; Milo 
Ingalsbee, Hartford, 1873 ; Edwin B. Nash, Fort Edward, 
1874; Edward S. Coy, Hebron, 1875; Zenas P. Buggies, 
Fort Edward, 1876 ; Leonard W. Cronkhite, Sandy Hill, 

The following are the present ofiicers : John M. Barnett, 
Fort Ann, president ; Alexander Barkley, Argyle, first 
vice-president ; E. H. Crocker, Sandy Hill, recording sec- 
retary ; F. B. Davis, Fort Edward, corresponding secretary ; 
Asahel R. Wing, Fort Edward, treasurer ; Samuel W. Cros- 
by, Cambridge, William M. Holmes, Greenwich, Milo In- 
galsbee, Hartford, and Granville M. Ingalsbee, Sandy Hill, 
counsellors; John R. Willett, Hebron, M. T. C. Day, 
Granville, George Shannon, Argyle, John Hall, Fort Ann, 
James Lytle, Hartford, and Lewis Potter, Easton, direc- 
tors. The board of managers is composed of the fore- 
going officers and the five last ex-presidents, viz., Edwin 
B. Nash, Fort Edward', Edward L. Coy, Hebron ; Milo 
Ingalsbee, Hartford; Z. P. Ruggles, Fort Edward, and L. 
W. Cronkhite, Sandy Hill. 

stock-breeders' association of WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

This society was organized on the 20tli day of February, 
1816. Its object was and is to preserve records of pedi- 
gree, sales of stock, etc., and to increase the interest in the 
culture and breeding of fine stock of all kinds, by the means 
of lectures, speeches, discussions, etc., at the various meet- 
ings of the association. Annual meetings are held in Feb- 
ruary each year, and regular meetings are also held quarterly 
and monthly. The officers are a president, vice-president, 
two secretaries, treasurer, sis directors, and an executive 
committee of seventeen — one from each town in the county. 
During its brief existence the association has met with 

marked success, and bids fair to exert a decided and benefi- 
cial influence in aid of the objects it is designed to promote. 


is a flourishing local institution, which is described in the 
town-history of Granville. 


On the 26th of February, 1878, the admirers of " high 
class poultry,'" mostly in the northern towns of Washing- 
ton county and adjacent parts of Warren county, organized 
the foregoing association, locating its headquarters at Sandy 
Hill. Its object is the improvement of such poultry, the 
advancement of the interests of poultry-breeders, and the 
giving of an annual show, with premiums large enough to 
induce breeders, far and near, to enter their " birds" for 
competition. Its career is still in the future, but those who 
have taken hold of the enterprise have little doubt that it 
will be a complete success. The following officers have 
been chosen for the ensuing year : J. H. Derby, Sandy 
Hill, president ; Leonard Fletcher, Cambridge, David H. 
Rice, Fort Ann, C. M. Ilolley, Glen's Falls, G. W. Little, 
Fort Edward, Hon. Ralph Richards, Hampton, C. K. 
Baker, North Granville, George D. Belden, Poultney, Yt., 
and F. P. Aiken, Greenbush, Rensselaer Co., vice-presi- 
dents ; Charles Witpen, Sandy Hill, secretary; George K. 
Hawlcy, Glen's Falls, recording secretary ; James H. 
Cheeseman, Fort Edward, treasurer ; General T. J. Strong, 
W. B. Clark, William Thomas, Charles Piersons, and Edgar 
Hull, executive committee. 



The first newspaper in Washington county was pub- 
lished in the town of Salem, and there is now before the 
writer one of the first issues. It is lettered and numbered 
" Vol. 1, No. 1," and the following is a copy, in small type, 
of its heading, with its motto, location, etc. : 

" The Times on National Coukier." 
'* May Tve never seek applause from party principles, but always de- 
sire it from public spirit." 
" Salem (State of New York). Printed by George Gerrish. 
'* Three doors south of the Court House. 
"Price, Simjle, id. Per Amnim, 12». 

"Wednesday, 18 June, 1791." 

On the inside of the paper is an address to the people, 
written, as is presumed from certain peculiarities of style 
and quotations, and its motto, by St. John Honeywood, 
at the time a practicing lawyer, residing at Salem. The 
article is in part as follows : 

" For the Coukiek. 
" The citizen's address to his countrymen on the opening of the 
first printing-press in the County of Washington. 
" Qiiis iioiiis luc Itospes? Virg. 

"Salem, IS June, 1794. 
** It is with great satisfaction, I congratulate you, my worthy fel- 
low-citizens, on the establishment of a printing-press in this place. 

■ Contributed by Hon. Jumes Gibson. 



It affords a pleasiag proof of our advancement in population, wealth, 
and respectability, and if it be judiciously conducted and suitably 
encouraged, it cannot fail of promoting very valuiiblc purposes. 
. . . . An industrious citizen, whose objcot is to procure an 
honest subsistence for himself and to deserve well of the public, has 
settled among us ; let us encourage him in his laudable undertaking. 
Let us cherish in his breast that spirit of independence which be- 
comes a man whose business it is to transmit the sentiments of 

freemen We wish to see him, as our printer, rise 

superior to all local and partial considerations, and pursue, as the 
object of his labors, the instruction and happiness of mankind." 

The Times or Courier was probably not su.staincd, for in 
tlie month of January, 1795, but little over seven months 
from his first, Mr. Gerrish issued his hist paper. 

Thus ended the first effort to establish a newspaper in 
tlie county. 

The necessity, however, for the newspaper still existed, 
and the people, having once tasted -the fruits and pleasures 
of reading it, could not long forego that enjoyment. There 
was probably no person living in this village at that time 
who had a stronger appreciation of this public craving, and 
liow to supply it, than St. John Honeywood, who as editor, 
and jointly with William W. Wands as publisher, made 
the second effort to establish a paper here. 

Mr. Honeywood was a finished artist, a gifted poet, and 
a highly-educated scholar. His associate, Mr. Wands, had 
previously, for a time, been the publisher of the American 
Spy, a newspaper printed at Lansingburg. Their first 
paper is now before the writer, and is headed : 

" Salem (Washington County), Wednesday, May 27, ITOfi." 

The mottoes adopted were beautifully appropriate for a 
journal, and are : 

" Nullui9 addictu^ jurare in verba inar/Utri." 
" Impartial and uninfluenced." 

At the head of the paper, and between the words " Wash- 
ington" and " Patrol" is an engraved plate, representing a 
sentinel marching on duty, fully armed and accoutred, and 
carrying his musket, with bayonet attached, at shoulder, 
while from his mouth apparently issue the words : 

"All is well .'" 

In a marginal border to the plate, on the upper side, is 
engraved this sentence : 

'* La unit est paxsce" 

and on the lower side the following one : 

" Watch for the Republic!" 

The introductory address, written by St. John Honey- 
wood, is so beautiful and appropriate, and so faithfully 
presents the duties and properties of journalism, that we 
cannot forbear giving it in full. 


" Too long have vile abuse and party rage, 
Employ'd the Press, and soiled the weekly page, — 
While Truth herself, by partial hands portrayM, 
Half met the light, and half was sunk in shade; 
And was the Press, fair Freedom's gift, designed 
To serve each baser purpose of mankind ? 
To flatter pride, to point the darts of spite. 
To blast the good, and screen the bad from light ? 
Forbid it Heaven ! — A nobler aim be curs 
To mend the heart, to aid the mental powers, 

To show thp world, on one extcnsivo plan, 
All that is good and great and dear to man ; 
The .statesman's plans and counsels to display — 
To point where Glory shapes the Hero's way. 
And while new wonders burst from every clime, 
To mark the unfoldings of eventful Time: 
Thus while our Youth, with sparkling eyes, shall read 
How Patriots conquer, or more nobly bleed. 
Their generous souls may catch the sacred flame, 
And join their country's love to that of fame. 
Co-]tatriots dear ! of every sex and age. 
Whom chance may lead to view this humble page. 
Protect our press— espouse a stranger's part. 
And deign to foster Learning's favorite art; 
With candor read, nor too severely blame — 
Is all we ask, who dare not hope for fame." 
In the editorial summary on public affairs allusion is 
made to the Times or Courier, as previously publLshed in 
Salem, and it is stated that it " was discontinued in Janu- 
ary previous, since which time, although the Albany and 
Lansingburg papers have circulated considerably among 
us, our fellow-citizens have not been in a situation to inform 
themselves of the important events which have engrcssed 
the attention of the world." 

Precisely how long the Patrol was published the writer 
has not been able to ascertain, but it ceased to exist in or 
during the year of its being established, or the succeeding 
year, and thus ended the second effort to publish a local 

The third effort was made by Henry Dodd, and those 
who recollect his character for pluck and resolution will not 
wonder that the effort was successful. One of his first 
numbers is now before the writer, and contains at its head 
the engraving already described as used in the title to the 
Patrol. The issue is lettered and numbered Vol. 1, No. 1, 
and is dated Monday, Jan. 1, 1798, and its title is North- 
ern Centinel. 

The place of publication, at first, was " in the house for- 
merly occupied by Alexander J. Turner, Esq., opposite 
Mrs. Yale's tavern." 

In his salutatory, addressed " To the Public," Mr. Dodd 
says, " The editor of the Northern Centinel this day re- 
sumes the task which has heretofore been tried by two of 
the profession without success." 

By the exercise of virtues which Mr. Dodd possessed 
in a very marked degree, — those of strict economy, persever- 
in" industry, and untiring care, — he .succeeded where others, 
as we have seen, totally failed. From Jan. 1, 1798, to 
the present day, Salem has never boon without a public 
newspaper printed and published within its borders, except 
for a short time after the Post was taken to White Creek, 
and before the Press was established here in 1850. 

The Centinel became a permanent institution, and was 
continued by Mr. Dodd, in regular weekly numbers, till 
May, 1803, when its publication cea.sed, but it was immedi- 
ately succeeded by the Northern Post, published by the 
firm of Dodd & Rumsey, composed of Henry Dodd and 
David Rumsey, by whom its publication was continued till 
June 6, 1814, when James Stevenson, Jr., was taken into 
the firm, the publishers thereafter being Dodd, Rumsey 
& Stevenson. This continued till December 21 of the 
same year, when the new firm was dissolved by the re- 
tirement of ."Mr. Rum,scy, and Dodd & Stevenson then 



continued its publication. They subsequently changed the 
name of the paper from the Norlhern Post to the Wash- 
ington County Fust. Prior to November 21, 1831, Ed- 
ward and Henry W. Dodd, both sons of the senior member 
of the firm of Dodd & Stevenson, purchased the print- 
ing apparatus connected with the Post, and continued its 
issue till the death of Henry W. Dodd, which occurred 
on Nov. 6, 183-1, after which it was published by Ed- 
ward Dodd alone for the remainder of the year. But 
he having been elected county clerk in the same fall, his 
intended removal to the clerk's office of the county of 
Washington, then located by law " within one-half mile of 
the house of Peleg Bragg, in the town of Argyle," made a 
change necessary. Negotiations had taken place between 
him and William A. Welles, who was then publishing the 
North l^tar at Whitehall, by which that brilliant luminary 
was absorbed in or consolidated with the Washington 
Connty Post, and on the 7lh of January, 1835, the new 
journal was issued at Salem as the County Post and North 
Star. Thus the Post, which for over thirty years had 
been more or less under the management of the Messrs. 
Dodd, father and sons, passed permanently into other hands, 
and the change was a great one. The Post, as published 
by Edward and Henry W. Dodd, had been conducted with 
exceeding ability, and had shown more of the characteristics 
of the live newspaper than was exhibited by all the other 
journals then published in the county combined. 

The County Post and North Star was published by Mr. 
Wells till May, 1837, when the establishment was pur- 
chased by Thomas G. Wait, who, on the 17th of May, 
1837, issued his first number, resuming the previous name 
of the Washington County Post. He continued the pub- 
lication till November, 1838, when it was purchased by 
James Gibson ; being edited and published by him for 
over two years, and through the presidential canvass of 
1840, known as the " Coon, log cabin, and hard-cider cam- 
paign," when General Harrison was elected over Martin 
Van Buren. 

The establishment was then purchased by William B. 
Harkness, who issued his first paper the first week in 
January, 1841, and continued the publication till the 
last issue in December, 1845. Then, a sale having been 
made by him to F. B. Graham, (he latter, with the first 
week in January, 1846, came before the public as editor 
and proprietor, and continued the publication (for a short 
time alone, and a portion of the time associated with Clark 
V. B. Martin) till 1848, when he became embarrassed, and 
was unable longer to i.ssue the paper, and the Washington 
County Post drew its last breath. The creditois of Mr. 
Graham afterwards sold the press and type to Robert G. 
Young, and in the spring of 1849 he commenced the pub- 
lication of a paper at North White Creek, which he named 
the Washington Connty Post. 

We return to the time when the Post was first published, 
which, as we have seen, was in May, 1803. 

This journal was strongly Federal in its politics, and the 
Democrats of Washington county determined that an anti- 
dote should be issued for this Federal poison. After an 
extremely energetic efl'ort, made by the Hon. Edward 
Savage and his son, John Savage, subsequently comptroller 

and chief-justiee, Hon. Nathan Wilson, and other active 
and leading Democrats, they succeeded in establishing at 
Salem a journal to advocate the principles of that party. 

The Washington Register, as it was named, was first 
issued in October, 1803, by John M. Looker as editor and 
publisher. This journal was also a success, and continued 
to be regularly issued under that name, teaching Demo- 
cratic principles for over twenty-five years. 

These two journals, the Post and Register, for about 
twenty years had no competitors in the county excepting 
an ephemeral journal issued at Cambridge, under the title 
of the Gazette, which had scarcely appeared before the 
public eye ere it ceased to exist. 

They were both conducted with more than ordinary 
ability, and as po/(V('ca? journals, though sometimes exceed- 
ingly bitter, coarse, and harsh toward each other, or distin- 
guished partisans on the other side, yet their influence was 
very great. 

But as neicspapers they would not compare favorably 
with those of the present day. 

The Register was edited and published by Mr. Looker 
till about the year 1805, when it was purchased by John 
P. Reynolds, who, in November, 180G, was appoir)ted one 
of the State printers, which office he continued to hold till 
May 4, 1809, when by law the number was reduced to one, 
and the office located at Albany. 

The Register, while conducted by Mr. Reynolds, was one 
of the best Democratic papers in the State, outside of the 
cities. He tran.sferred it to Timothy Hoskin in December, 
1815, and the first issue in January, 181G, was by Mr. H. 
as editor and publisher. The latter continued it till the 
24th of December, 1818, when he transferred it to James 
B. Gibson, Esq. The next week Mr. Hoskin retired, and 
the succeeding issue, in the first week of January, 1819, 
was by Mr. Gibson, as editor and proprietor. 

In January, 1820, Mr. Gibson materially enlarged the 
Register, and the following notice of this event is extracted 
from the Albany Argus of Feb. 3, 1820 : 

"It is with much pleasure we observe the enlargement of the 
Waahiu(/t(ni lieffititer. This is one of the tirst papers in tlic State of 
New York, and is conducted with a spirit and ability that does the 
highest honor to the head and the heart of Mr. Gibson, the editor." 

In 1822, Mr. Gibson was succeeded by Mr. Beriah Stiles, 
as editor and publisher, who continued the publication till 
the establishment was purchased by the firm of Reynolds 
& Warren, consisting of Linus J. Reynolds and Ansel 
Warren ; the first issue of the Register by them being on 
July 21, 1825. On the 27th of March, 1826, the interest 
of Mr. Warren was purchased by Mr. Reynolds, and the 
paper was subsequently under his sole charge, while he 
remained a resident of Salem. 

The Register, while edited by Mr. Reynolds, was con- 
ducted with more than ordinary ability, and with a courtesy 
and a refinement of manner that have never been excelled 
by any of the editors of this town. 

In the spring of 1827 he removed to Poultney, Vt., where 
for several years he published the Spectator, and it was in 
his office at that place that Horace Greeley learned the 
mechanical part of that profession in which he afterwards 
won such hiu-li distinction. 



The publication of the Register at Salem, after Mr. Rey- 
nolds left, was continued by Mr. Patterson, with Alex. Rob- 
ertson as editor, and its management continued under him 
till, in 1830, the paper ceased to be published. The press 
and types with which it had been printed were removed to 
Union village (now Greenwich), and used by L. Dewey in 
the publication of the Anti-Masonic Champion. 

The Washiiifftoiiian was commenced at Salem in June, 
1842, by Messrs. Wm. B. Harkness and John W. Curtis, 
being printed in the office of the Post, and was continued 
for several months, but went out and left no mark. It was 
published semi-monthly, in quarto form (eight pages to an 
i.ssue), at the low rate of fifty cents a year. It was devoted 
mainly to the advancement of the cause of temperance. 
It was not supported even by those who believed in its doc- 
trines, and, as might have been expected, had but a short 
life, and not a merry one, we presume, to its publishers. 

On the of May, 1850, Wm. B. Harkness resumed 
the publication of a newspaper at Salem, and named it the 
Salem Press. This was the largest newspaper then or ever 
previously published in the county, and remained such till 
the War of the Rebellion compelled its j)roprietors, from 
the scarcity and high cost of the raw material, to take in 
sail and reduce its extraordinary dimensions. 

Mr. continued the issuing of the Press until 
Oct. 30, 1855, when the establishment was purchased by 
Mes.srs. Daniel B. and B. ¥. Cole, its politics changed 
to the other side of the house, and it was issued as a Dem- 
ocratic organ. The Messrs. Cole published the /'yess jointly 
until the 25th of October, 1859, when Mr. B. F. Cole 
retiring, its publication was continued by Daniel B. Cole for 
nearly ten years. On the 10th of March, 1869, he trans- 
ferred the establishment to Col. Solomon W. Russell, by 
whom the Press was issued — still advocating Democratic 
principles — until the 25th of December, 1871, when it was 
transferred to Messrs. James Gibson, Jr., and Abner Rob- 
ertson, their first issue coming out with the opening of the 
year 1872, and taking ground in favor of Republican prin- 
ciples. This continued until the last week in June of the 
same year. 

At this time, Mr. Gibson having become a Liberal Re- 
publican and Mr. Robertson holding the views of the 
Republican party, the former purchased Mr. Robertson's 
interest, and conducted the Press as a Liberal Republican 
newspaper till July 16, 1875, when he sold the printing 
establishment to Henry D. Morris, formerly editor of the 
Whitehall Chronicle. It is a noteworthy fact that the 
father and grandfether of James Gibson, Jr., were both 
editors of newspapers in Salem, the former, editor of the 
Post, and the latter of the Register, as has been seen. Mr. 
Morris is still the editor and proprietor of the Press, which, 
ever since he assumed its management, has been devoted to 
the expression of Republican principles. 

On Dec. 8, 1877, Daniel B. Cole, a former editor of the 
Press, issued the initial number of the Salem Weekly Re- 
view. In politics it is Democratic, and is a wcU-conductcd 


The Sandy Hill Herald, a Republican journal, edited 
and published by John Dwyer, Esq., on Main street, oppo- 

site the park, is the lineal successor of the Sandy Hill 
Times, the first newspaper of the village, established by 
Adonijah Emmons, in the year 1810, in the interest of the 
Federal party. In 1824 it passed into the hands of James 
Wright, under whom the name was changed to that of The 
Political Herald, and about a year later to The Sandy Hill 
Herald, Democratic ; in which advocacy it continued until 
1865, when its political complexion was changed to that of 
Republican, and continued unchanged to the present time. 

In 1841, having then a circulation of not over four hun- 
dred, it was purchased by E. D. Baker, Esq., who continued 
as its proprietor until 1865, when it was sold to William 
Hammond ; the circulation having then increased to about 
one thousand. In the same year (November) it was pur- 
chased by Brown & Dwyer, under whom it continued until 
1869, when Mr. Dwyer became sole proprietor and editor, 
as at present. The office (Main street, opposite the park), 
presses, type, machinery, stock, and furniture of the estab- 
lishment were all destroyed in the great fire of Oct. 11, 
1876, and the present office of the Herald was at once 
erected on the same site. The paper is now one of the 
leading publications of the county, and is in a very pros- 
perous condition, its circulation being considerably over two 
thousand copies weekly. 

Several other journals have been published in Sandy Hill 
from time to time, none of which are now in existence. 
Among these, the earliest was The Sun, commenced in 
1826 by Mr. Emmons, the first proprietor of The Times. 
This died a natural death after a few years. 

The Temperance Advocate, the first total abstinence 
paper in the United States, was commenced at Sandy Hill, 
by S. P. Hines, in 1832. It was most ably edited, and .soon 
secured the largest circulation of any journal in this region 
of country, — a single subscriber, Mr. Edward C. Delavan, 
taking thirteen hundred copies, paying his subscription 
quarterly in advance. After three or four years this paper 
was removed to New York city, and was there published 
under the patronage of the State Temperance Society, with 
Mr. Hines as editor. 

The Independent Politician, a journal published in the 
interest of Henry Clay, was started by C. J. Haynes & Co. 
(C. J. Haynes and S. P. Hines), in 1832. The terra of 
its existence is not known. 

The Free Press — ^anti-Masonic — was started by A. Em- 
mons in 1832, being printed in the office of the Temper- 
ance Advocate. This was also short-lived. 


The Washington County Post. — A complete history of 
this journal would describe a large part of the journalism 
of Washington county, for it claims the right to trace its 
orin-in back, through an unbroken succession, to the first 
successful newspaper in the county, and the latter was the 
legitimate heir of the goods and chattels of two unsuccess- 
ful predecessors. 

In the preceding article it is shown how the Times or 
NationiU Courier was established there in 1794; how it 
died at the age of seven months ; how it was succeeded 
(doubtless on the same press and type) by the Washington 
Patrol; how this venture also failed in the of the 



year, and how on the 1st day of January, 1798, the first 
number of the Northern Ceiitiiicl was issued at Salem by 
Henry DoJd. In 1803 the name was changed to tlje 
Northern Post, which was the origin of the appelktiun 
now in use. 

Above will also be found the various changes of name 
and ownership while the journal remained in Salem, it 
having received the appellation of Waithington County Post 
there, — a name which it luis ever since retained, except 
from January, 1835, till May, 1837, when it was termed 
the County Post and North Star. In 1848 the Post was 
being issued at Salem by F. B. Graham, when that gentle- 
man became pecuniarily embarrassed and suspended publi- 

His creditors took possession, removed the office to 
North White Creek, now Cambridge, and sold the estab- 
lishment to Robert G. Young, who issued the first number 
in Cambridge village, March 15, 1849, under the old name, 
— The Washington County Post. Mr. Young continued 
the publication of the Post till Aug. 15, 1851, when ill 
health compelled him to relinquish charge of its columns. 
Edward Gardner then purchased the paper, and became 
sole editor and proprietor. He continued it till April 7, 
1854, when he associated R. K. Crocker with him, and on 
the 14th of July, 1854, he sold out his interest to Mr. 
Crocker. The Post remained under R. K. Crocker's editor- 
ship and management for eleven years. 

On the 17lh of November, 1865, the Post was sold to 
James S. Smart, who was its sole publisher and editor till 
March 1, 1869, when Henry Noble bought an interest and 
became joint publi-sher with Mr. Smart, — Mr. Smart still 
continuing as sole editor. The Post found its first home 
in Cambiidge, in the old Aaron Crosby store. In 1852 it 
was removed to the second floor of a new brick building 
erected by B. P. Crocker, just west of the railroad-track. 
It remained there till Oct. 29, 1875, when it was again re- 

moved, this time to a home of its own, erected by Messrs. 
Smart & Noble on what is known as the Blair lot, a few 
rods west of the railroad. A view of this building is here- 
with given. This building is the first erected in this 
county for the sole use of a newspaper. 

In politics the Post was first Federal, then Whig. For 
a short time it was True American, and now Republican, 

and it is largely due to the influence of the Post that Wash- 
ington county has stood so firmly by those parties. The 
size of the paper when first issued was ten by sixteen ; it is 
now twenty-eight by forty-one. During the major portion 
of its career it has been a well-paying establishment. It 
circulates now three thousand eight hundred copies weekly. 
Of its editors who survive, Hon. Edward Dodd, who may 
justly be called the first journalist the county ever pro- 
duced, is now living at Argyle and retired from business; 
Hon. James Gibson is engaged in the practice of law at 
Salem ; Edward Gardner is the editor of the Hudson County 
Times, published in New Jersey ; Hon. R. K. Crocker is 
practicing law ; Hon. James S. Smart is still editor of the 
Post. Two of the editors of the Post have been members 
of Congress, — Edward Dodd and J. S. Smart ; one a State 
senator, — James Gibson ; and one a member of Assembly, 
— R. K. Crocker. 


There are at present two weekly newspapers published in 
Whitehall, — The Chronicle (Republican) and The Times 

The Whitehall Chronicle wds established June IS, 1840, 
by H. T. Blanchard. It was continued about ten years, 
when the name was changed to The Washington County 
Chronicle, by W. G. Wolcott, then proprietor. In the 
times of Know-Nothingism, the Chronicle was purchased 
by Potter & Abell, who afterwards sold to Henry D. Morris, 
lu the fall of 1864 it wa.s sold by him to John A. Morris 
& Allen Clarke, who continued it till 1866. In September 
of that year it was purchased by W. H. TefFt, and by him 
published until the destruction of its office by fire, in 1870. 
The presses and some other property being recovered with 
but little injury, the paper was revived in the following 
spring as The Washington County Neivs, by Charles 0. 
Smith & Co., who afterwards admitted Stephen Carver, Jr., 
to their firm. In December, 1872, it was again purchased 
by W. H. Tefl't, who changed the name to that of The 
Whitehall Chronicle, and has continued until the present 
time as its editor and proprietor. 

The Whitehall Times is the successor of the American 
Sentinel, which was established by John E. Watkins in 
June, 1855. It was first published under its present name 
in the spring of 1860, by H. T. Blanchard, who the same 
year sold it to W. H. Bodwell & A. D. Vaughan. They, 
in turn, sold to E. E. Davis in the summer of 1861, at 
which time the editorial charge was assumed by Mr. Han- 
son. W. J. Smith became editor from 1862 to 1863, when 
W. G. Ilogan succeeded as editor and proprietor. In 1865 
the paper reverted to E. E. Davis, with George W. Biizee 
as editor. In 1866 it was purchased by Walter J. Don- 
nelly, who continued proprietor and editor till May, 1873, 
when W. A. Wilkins became editor and publisher, as at 
present. The Times has been an official paper of the 
county for the past four years, and is designated ;is such 
for the ensuing year of 1878. Its circulation is eighteen 
hundred, extending through the counties of Washington, 
Essex, and Clinton.'and into western Vermont. 

The journals which in years have been published 
in Whitehall for longer or shorter time have been as fol- 
lows : The Whitehall Emporium (before mentioned) from 



1822 to about 1B28 ; The Whitehall Republican, by J. K. 
Averell, 1832 to 18—; The North Star, by W. A. Wel- 
ler, from 1830 to 1832, and then merged in Washington 
County Post ; The Whitehall Democrat, aXixrioA in 1845, 
and afterwards published by J. B. Wilkins and H. Dudley ; 
The Whitehall Telegraph, a triweekly paper of short dura- 
tion, commenced in 1817 ; and The Whitehallcr, by W. S. 
Southmaid, in 1849. 


The Fort Edward Gazette was firSt issued Nov. 10, 
1866, by H. T. Blanchard, who still continues its editor 
and proprietor. In jjolitics it is Democratic. Circulation, 
seven hundred. Office of publication, Bradley's Opera 

llie Fort Edward Indejyendent was started in January, 
1877, by J. A. Morris, as a newspaper free from party bias. 
In January, 1878, it was sold to the present proprietor and 
editor, James E. Bennett, Esq. Office of publication, Opera 
House block. 

Of journals formerly published in Fort Edward, but now 
defunct, we mention The Fort Edward Institute^Monthli/, 
started in 1856 by William A. Holley; also The Public 
Ledger, which was started in 1854 by H. T. Blanchard, 
and continued by him till 1851. It was then sold to \V. A. 
Holley, who, after two or three years' publication, changed 
it to The Local Observer, which about a year later was 


Union Village* has been prolific of newspapers ; twelve 
in all having been published there, viz. : The Anti-Masonic. 
Champion, The Banner, The Union Village Courant, 
The Union Village Democrat, The Democratic Champion, 
The Washington County Sentinel, The Union Village Jour- 
nal, The Chamjiion, The Eagle, The Union Village Eagle, 
The UnionVillage Democratic Standard, and the People's 
Journal; all but the latter having been suspended prior to 
1850. The People's Journal has been published uninter- 
ruptedly from its origin, in 1842, by the following publishers : 
John W. Curtis, H. C. Page, C. L. Allen, Jr., W. J. King, 
E. P. Thurston, E. P. & D. P. Thur.ston, C. L. Allen, Jr., 
Corliss & Allen, Meeker & Mandoll, D. W. Mandell, and, 
since Aug. 3, 1876, by H. C. Morehouse, who has enlarged 
the paper to an eight-column sheet. 


In 1847 the Washington Telegraph was started in Gran- 
ville. It was a five-column four-page paper, edited by Ze- 
bina Ellis. He was a printer from Glen's Falls, to which 
jilaco he returned when, at the end of five or si.>; years, he 
had sold the paper to Marcellus Strong, who changed its 
name to the Granville Telegraph. This continued about 
six years, when it passed into the hands of F. W. Cook. He 
changed its name to The Granville Times, and stopped its 
publication in about one year. He is now a printer in the 
Herald office, Rutland. 

In June, 1849, a printing-office was again opened, and 
the Granville Register started by C. M. Haven, with A. S. 

Burdick, editor. At tlie end of the first year Mr. Burdick 
resigned his position, when Mr. Haven became the editor, 
and continued as such until Sept. 1, 1861. The paper 
was then sold to J. A. Morris of the Whitehall Chronicle, 
who continued its publication till December, 1864, when it 
was suspended. C. M. Haven is now an insurance operator 
in Troy, N. Y. ; A. S. Burdick is a lawyer at Saratoga 
Springs. The Granville News was established two years 
later by W. & H. C. Morehouse, who after two years dis- 
continued it. H. C. Morehouse is now publisher of a 
paper at Greenwich in this county. 

The Granville Reporter was started as a six-column paper 
in September, 1869, by George C. Newman and J. A. Mor- 
ris, who at the end of two months enlarged it to seven col- 
umns. Three months later it became the sole property of 
J. A. Morris, who enlarged it to nine columns, and con- 
tinued it at that size until Jan. 1, 1870, when he enlar-'ed 
it to eight pages of six columns each. The establishment 
was entirely burned the 10th of February, 1873, when so 
much other property was destroyed in Granville. 

This closed the printing business for a time. On the 1st 
of September, 1875, L. McArthur commenced the publi- 
cation of the Granville Sentinel, adopting a new name, as 
his predecessors had done at every change. It has now 
reached the middle of its third volume. It has an excellent 
local correspondence, is a bright, clear, and readable paper, 
and its editorial department is conducted with ability and 
taste. It apparently has before it a long and prosperous 



Members of Council of Appointment— Acting Governor— Chief Jus- 
tice and Justices of the Supreme Court — Comptroller — >"<tate Treas- 
urer — Inspector of State Prisons — Regents of (ho University — Clerk 
of Court of Appeals — Commissary-General — Canal Commissioner — 
Members of Convention to Ratify Federal Constitution — Members 
of Constitutional Convention of 1801 — Member? of Convention of 
1821— Members of Convention of 1846— Presidential Electors- 
Members of Continental Congress — Members of United States Con- 
gress — First Judges of Common Pleas — County Judges — Special 
County Judges — Surrogates — Special Surrogates — Sheritfs — Assist- 
ant Attorney-General — District Attorneys — County Clerks — County 
Treasurers — Members of Provincial Congress or Legislature — State 
Senators — Members of Assembly — School Commissioners — Justices 
of the Peace. 


The following were chosen by the Assembly from among 
the senators, one being selected each year in each of four 
senatorial districts into which the State was divided, from 
1777 till 1822, — no senator being eligible two successive 
years : 

Alexander Webster, of Hebron: appointed Sept. Ifi, 1777. 
Ebeneier Russell, of Salem ; appointed Oct. 17, 1778. 
Ale.tander Webster, of Hebron ; appointed Sept. 11, 1779. 
Ebeuezer Russell, of Salem : appointed Sept. 11, 1780. 
Alexander Webster, of Hebron ; appointed Oct. 2.i, 1781. 
Alexander Webster, of Hebron: appointed Jan. 21, 1784. 
Ebenezer Kusscll, of Salem: appointed Oct. 19, 1784. 
David Hopkins, of Hebron : appointed Jan. 19, 1786. 
Ebenezer Russell, of Salem ; appointed Jan. 18, 1787. 
David Hopkins, of Hebron; appointed Jan. 18, 1788. 
John Williams, of Salem ; appointed Jan. 2, 1789. 



Edward Savage, of Palera ; appointed Jan. lo, 1790. 
Alexander Webster, of Hebron; appointed Jan. 14, 1791. 
Zina Hitchcock, of Kingsbury; appointed Jan. 7, 1794. 
Ebenezer Russell, of Salem; appointed Jan. 7, 1796. 
Ebenezer Clark, of Argyle; appointed Jan. 4, 1799. 
Edward Savage, of Salem ; appointed Jan. 30, 1802. 
Stephen Thorn, of Granville; appointed Jan. 29, 1805. 
Edward Savage, of Salem ; appointed Jan. 28, 1807. 
John McLean, of Granville ; appointed Jan. 30, 1811. 
Koger Skinner, of Kingsbury; appointed Nov. 8, 1820. 

Nathaniel Pitcher, of Kingsbury; entered on office Jan. 1, 1827; 
after the death of Governor De Witt Clinton, Feb. 28, 1828, Mr. 
Pitcher acted as governor till the close of that year. 

John Savage, of Salem; appointed Jan. 29, 1823; held till 1837. 

Cornelius L. Allen, of Salem; held from Jan. 1, 1852, to Dec. 31, 1859. 
Joseph Potter, of Whitehall ; term began Jon. 1, 1872. 

John Savage, of Salem; appointed Feb. 12, 1821 ; held until Jan. 29, 


David Thomas, of Salem; held from Feb. 5, 180S, to Feb. 8, 1810, 
and again from Feb. 18, 1812, to Feb. 10, 181,3. 

Wm. A. Russell, of Salem; held from Jan. 1, 1856, to Dec. 31, 1858. 


{HoliUngfor life.) 
John Williams,'- of Salem; appointed May 1, 1784. 
John McCrea,* of Argyle (now Fort Edw.ard) ; appointed May 1, 1784. 
Ebenezer Russell, of Salem; appointed April 13, 1787. 
John McLean, Jr., of Salem: appointed April 8, 1835. 
Rev. Isaac Parks, D.D., of Cambridge; appointed April 7, 1857. 


Charles Hughes, of Sandy Hill; held from Jan. I, 1860, to Dec. 31, 


John McLean, of Salem; held from 1801 to 1813. 


Oliver Bascom, of Whitehall; held from Jan. 1, 1869, till death, in 
November, 1869. 


Albert Baker, of Kingsbury; David Hopkins, of Hebron; John 
Williams, of Salem ; Ichabod Parker, of Granville. 


John Gale, of Easton ; Solomon King, of Cambridge : Thomas Lyon, 
of Whitehall ; Edward Sav.ago, of Salem ; Solomon Smith, of 
Cambridge; John Vernor, of AVarren county. 


Nathaniel Pitcher, of Kingsbury; Melanchthon Wheeler, of White- 
hall; Alexander Livingston, of Greenwich; Wm. Townsend, of 

Albert L. Baker, of Greenwich ; Edward Dodd, of Argyle. 

* These two were members of the first board, which did not go into 



Cornelius L. Allen, of Salem ; Adolphus F. Hitchcock, of Kingsbury. 

St. John Honeywood, of Salem, 1796; Isaac Sargent, of Fort Ann, 
1804; Micajah Pcttit, of Kingsbury, 1808; James Hill, of Cam- 
bridge, 1812; Alexander McNish, of Salem, 1816: John Baker, 
of Kingsbury, 1820; Edward Savage, of Salem, 1824; Peter J. 
H. Meyers, of Whitehall, 1828; John Gale, of Easton, 1832 and 
1836; Josiah Hand, of Kingsbury, 1840 ; John Savage, of Sa- 
lem, 1844; Jamos McKie, of White Creek, 1848; Isaac W. 
Bishop, of Granville, 1852; Cornelius L. Allen, of Salem, 1864. 


William Duer, of Argyle (now Fort Edward) ; appointed March 29, 
1777; re-appointed May 13, 1777, and again Oct. 3, 1777; held 
until Oct. 17, 1778. 


John Williams, of Salem; held two terms, from March 4, 1795, to 

March 3, 1799. 
David Thomas, of Salem ; held three terms, from March 4, 1803, to 

Feb. 17, 1808 (resigned). 
Nathan Wilson, of Salem ; elected in place of Thomas: held from 

March, 1808, to March 3, 1809. 
Asa Fitch, of Salem ; held from March 4, 1811, to March 3, 1813. 
Nath.aniel Pitcher, of Kingsbury ; held two terms, from March 4, 

1819, to March 3, 1823; and again, one term, from March 4, 

1831, to March 3, 1833. 
Henry C. Miirtindale, of Kingsbury : held four terms, from March 4, 

1823, to March 3, 1831 ; and again, one term, from March 4, 1833, 

to March 2, 1835. 
David Russell, of Salem; held three terms, from March 4, 1835, to 

March 3, 1841. 
Bernard Blair, of Salem ; held from March 4, 1841, to .March 3, 1843. 
■Charles Rogers, of Kingsbury; held from March 4, 1843, to March 

3, 1845. 
Erastus D. Culver, of Greenwich ; held from March 4, 1845, to March 

.3, 1847. 
John H. Boyd, of Whitehall ; held from March 4, 1851, to March 3, 

Charles Hughes, of Kingsbury ; held from March 4, 1853, to March 

3, 1S55. 
Edward Dodd, of Argyle; held two terms, from March 4, 1855, to 

March 3, 1859. 
Adolphus H. Tanner, of Whitehall : March 4, 1869, to March 4, 1871. 
Jas. S. Smart, of Cambridge; March 4, 1872, to March 4, 1875. 


Philip Schuyler, of Albany county; appointed for the county of 
Charlotte, by the royal governor, Sept. 8, 1773. 

William Duer, of Argyle (now Fort Edward); appointed by the pro- 
vincial convention, Jlay 8, 1777 ; re-appointed by the council of 
appointment, after the formation of the State, Jan. 30, 1778 ; de- 
clined or resigned. 

Ebenezer Russell, of Salem; appointed March 17, 1778. 

Ebenezer Clark, of Argyle ; appointed March 12, 1800. 

Anthony I. Blanchard, of Salem; appointed March 12, 1810. 

John P. Wendell, of Cambridge; appointed Feb. 5, 1823. 

Roswcll Weston, of Kingsbury ; appointed April 25, 1825. 

John Willard, of Salem; appointed Feb. 13, 1833. 

John McLean, Jr., of Salem; appointed March 18, 1835. 


Martin Lee, of Granville: held from June, 1847, to Dec. 31, 1851. 
James Gibson, of Salem : from Jan. 1, 1852, to Dee. 31, 1855. 
A. Dallas Wait, of Fort Edward ; from Jan. 1, 1856, to Dec. 31, 1859. 
Oscar F. Thompson, of Granville : from Jan. 1, 1860, to Deo. 31, 1863 
Joseph Potter, of Whitehall; from Jan. 1, 1864, to Deo. 31, 1871. 
A. Dallas Wait, Fort Edward; term (six years) began Jan. 1, 1872; 
re-elected in 1877. 



Oscar F. Thompson, of Granville; held from Jan. 1, 1856, to Deo. 31, 

Henry Gibson, of Whitehall ; heM from Jan. 1, 1860, to Dee. 31, 1SG3. 
Royal C. Betts, of Granville; terra began Jan. 1, 1SG4. 
Samuel Thomas, of Granville; term began Jan. 1, 1S71. 
0. L. Allen, Jr., of Salem ; term began Jan. 1, 1875. 


Patrick Smith, of Fort Edward; appointed by royal governor, Jan. 

28, 1775. 
Ebenezer Clark, of Argylo; appointed by council of appointment, 

March 13, 1778. 
Edward Savage, of Salem ; appointed March 21, 1783. 
Melanchthon Woolsey, of Plattsburg, Clinton county ; appointed Juno 

23, 1786. 
Edward Savage, of Salem; appointed March 13, 1787. 
Isaac Sargent, of Fort .\nn ; appointed Feb. 16, 180S. 
Edward Savage, of Salem; appointed Feb. 9, 1810. 
Isaae Sargent, of Fort Ann; appointed Feb. 8, 1811. 
Nathaniel Pitcher, of Kingsbury ; appointed M.arch 24, 1812. 
Edward Savage, of Salem ; appointed March 5, 1813. 
Henry C. Martind.ale, of Kingsbury; appointed July 8, 1816. 
Calvin Smith, of Easton : appointed July 3, 1819. 
Leonard Gibbs, of Granville; appointed Feb. 21, 1821. 
Samuel Standish, Jr., of Granville; appointed by governor and 

Senate, Jan. 13, 1824. 
John Willard, of Salem ; appointed Feb. 7, 1832. 
Alexander Robertson, of Salem; appointed Jan. 10, 1837. 
John C. Parker, of Granville; appointed Jan. 15, 1S41. 
Luther Waite, of Kingsbury; appointed Jan. 27, 1S45. 
Joseph Boies, of Greenwich ; elected by the people, June, 1847 ; held 

till Dec. 1, 1851. 
David A. Boies, of Greenwich; held from Jan. 1, 1852, to Deo. 31, 

Marinus Fairchild, of Salem; held from Jan. 1, 1856, to Dec. 31, 

tJrias G. Paris, of Kingsbury; held two terms, from Jan. 1, 1860, to 

Dec. 31, 1867. 
J.ames J. Lowrie, of Greenwich ; held from Jan. 1, 1868, to Dec. 31, 

Lonson Frazer, of Salem ; began Jan. 1, 1S72, for term of six years ; 

re-elected in 1877 

John H. Boyd, of Whitehall; held from Jan. 1, 1857, to Dec. 31, 

Leonard Wells, of Cambridge; held two terms, from Jan. 1, 1860, to 

Dec. 31, 1865. 
Daniel M. Westfall, of Cambridge ; held from Jan. 1, 1866, to Dec. 

31, 1872. 
Leonard Fletcher, of Cambridge; term began Jan. 1, 1873 ; re-elected. 

Philip P. Lansingh, of ; appointed by the royal governor, Oct. 

12, 1772. 
Jonathan Parker, of Granville; appointed Nov. 12, 1774. 
Edward Savage, of Salem; appointed by the provincial convention. 

May 8, 1777; re-appointed by the council of appointment after 

the organization of the State, Jan. 4, 1778. 
Joshua Conkey, of Salem ; appointed March 22, 1781. 
Hamilton McCoUister, of Salem; appointed March 28, 1785. 
Peter B. Tearse, of Argyle (now Fort Edward) ; appointed Fob. 24, 

Andrew White, of Cambridge; appointed Feb. 18, 1793. 
Philip Smith, of Cambridge; appointed Sept. 30, 1796. 
Abncr Stone, of Salem; appointed Feb. 22, 1798. 
Nathan Wilson, of Salem; appointed Feb. 12, 1802. 
David Woods, of Granville; appointed March 13, 1806. 
Simon Stevens, Jr., of Easton; appointed Fob. 16, 1810. 
John Doty, of Fort Ann; appointed Feb. 8, 1811. 
Wadsworth Bull, of Granville; appointed March 5, 1813. 
John Doty, of Fort Ann ; appointed Feb. 13, 1819. 
John Gale, of Easton; appointed Feb. 12,1821; ro-electcd by people 

to hold three years from Jan. 1, 1823. 


Wm. McFarland, of Salem; term began Jan. 1, 1826. 
Warren F. Hitchcock, of Whitehall; term began Jan. 1, 1829. 
Darius Sherrill, of Kingsbury ; term began Jan. 1, 1832. 
Benj. Ferris, of Kingsbury ; term Jan. 1, 1S35. 
Philander C. Hitehoook, of Whitehall ; term began Jan. 1, 1S3S. 
Leonard Wells, of Cambridge; term began Jan. 1, 1841. 
Horace Stowell, of Whitehall ; term began Jan. 1, 1844. 
Daniel T. Payne, of Fort Edward; term began Jan. 1, 1847. 
William A. Russell, of Salem ; term began Jan. 1, 1850. 
James R. Gandall, of Fort Edward; term began Jan. 1, 1853. 
Hugh R. Cowan, of Cambridge; term began Jan. 1, 1856. 
Oliff Abell, of Whitehall; term began Jan. 1, 1859. 
Benj. F. MeNitt, of White Creek; term began Jan. 1, 1862. 
Dennis P. Nye, of Whitehall ; term began Jan. 1, 1865. 
James C. Shaw, of Salem ; term began Jan. 1, 1868. 

Orrin S. Hall, of ; term began Jan. 1, 1871. 

John Larmon, of White Creek; term began Jan. 1, 1874. 
George W. Baker, of Granville; term began Jan. 1, 1877. 


Anthony I. Blanchard, of Salem; appointed March 12, I79C. 

Anthony I. Blanchard, of Salem; appointed August, 1801. 

John Russell, of Salem ; appointed April 8, 1S03. 

John Savage, of Salem : appoin(ed April 5, 1806. 

Roger Skinner, of Kingsbury; appointed June 7, 1811. 

John Savage, of Salem ; appointed Aug. 11, 1812. 

David Russell, of Salem ; appointed March 23, 1813. 

Jesse L. Billings, of Salem ; appointed Feb. 13, 1815. 

John Savage, of Salem; appointed June 11, 1818. J 

Jesse L. Billings, of Salem ; appointed June 5, 1820. 

Henry C. Martindale, of Kingsbury; appointed B'cb. 24, 1821. 

Leonard Gibbs, of Granville; appointed 1828. 

Cornelius L. Allen, of Salem ; appointed 1836. 

Charles F. Ing,alls, of Greenwich ; appointed 1843. 

Henry B. Northup, of Kingsbury ; elected by the people, June, 1847- 

Joseph Potter, of Whitehall; term began Jan. I, 1851; rc-eleetcd. 

Archibald L. McDougall, of Salem; term began Jan. 1, 1857; re- 
elected and resigned in September, 1862. 

Joseph Potter, of Whitehall ; appointed Sept. 23, 1862. 

A. Dallas Wait, of Fort Edward; elected; term began Jan. 1, 1863 ; 

Royal C. Belts, of Granville ; term began Jan. 1, 1869 ; re-elected. 

Samuel Thomas, of Granville; term began Jan. 1, 1875. 

Marinus Fairchild, of Salem; term began Jan. 1, 1878. 


Patrick Smith, of Argyle ; appointed by royal governor, Sept. 8, 1773. 

Ebenezer Clarke, of Salem ; appointed by provincial convention, May 
8, 1777. 

John MeCrea, of Salem ; appointed by the council of .appointment, 
April 16, 1785. 

St. John Honey wood, of Salem ; appointed Feb. 24, 1797. 

Gerritt L. Wendell, of Cambridge; appointed Cot. 9, 1798. 

Daniel Shipherd, of Argyle; appointed April 7, 1806. 

John Cr.ary, of Salem ; appointed Feb. 27, 1807. 

Daniel Shipherd, of Argyle ; appointed Feb. 8, 1808. 

Matthew D. Danvers, of Argylo; appointed Feb. 24, 1821 ; re-elected 
by the people, term beginning Jan. 1, 1823. 

Jesse S. Leigh, of Argyle; elected; term beginning Jan. 1, 1826; 
twice re-elected. 

Edward Dodd, of Salem; term began Jan. 1, 1835; twice re-elected. 

Henry Shipherd, of Argylo; term began Jan. 1, 1844; re-electod two 

Nathaniel B. Milliman, of Kingsbury; term began Jan. 1, 1853; 

Philander C. Hitchcock, of Argylo; term began Jan. 1, 1859; re- 
elected three times. 

William H. Kincaid, Kingsbury; term began Jan. 1, 1871; re- 

Charles W. Taylor, Argyle; term began Jan. 1, 1877. 

» Corresponding to district attorney. 

t For district composed of Washington and four other counties. 

J For Washington county alone. 



When this oiBcer was appointed by the board of super- 
■vi-sors, Ebenezer Russell was county treasurer for about 
forty years. Since the treasurer was elected by the people, 
the following gentlemen have held the oiEce, begiuniug at 
the specified dates: 

Calvin L. Parker, of Hartford; term began Jan. 1, 1847. 

EtlwardBulkley, of Granville; term began Jan. 1, 1850; re-elected. 

John M. Barrett, of Fort Ann; term began Jan. 1, 185fi. 

John King, of Salem ; term began Jan. 1, 1859. 

Nelson G. Moor, of Greenwich; term began Jan. 1, 1862; re-elected. 

Samuel W. Crosby, Cambridge; term began Jan. 1, 1868. 

Asahel R. Wing, Fort Edward; term began 1S71. 

James M. Northup, Hartford; term began Jan. 1, 1874; re-elected. 


{lielicccn ilhsolution of Culi,„!,d Asr.embly ,„„l funmiHo,, ../ ,S7ft(c 

Archibald Camitbell, of Cambridge (now Jackson), 1775. 
"William Marsh, of Vermont, 1775. 
George Smith, of Fort Edward, 1775-77. 
David Watkins, of Kingsbury, 1775. 
John Williams, of Salem, 1775-77. 
William Malcolm, of New York city, represented Charlotte Co., 

Alexander Webster, of Hebron, 1776-77. 
William Duer, of Argyle (now Fort Edward), 1776-77.; 


William Duer, of Argyle (now Fort Edward) ; elected in summer of 

1777; held one year. 
John Williams, of Salem ; elected in summer of 1777 : held two years. 
Alexander Webster, Hebron ; elected in summer of 1777; held two 

terms of four years each. 
Ebenezer Russell, of Salem; elected in summer of 1778; held four 

Elishama Tozer, of Skenesborongh (now Whitehall) ; elected in 

summer of 1779 ; held one year. 
John Williams, of S.alcm ; elected in 1783; held three terms, of four 

years each. 
Ebenezer Russell, of Salem ; elected in 1784; held four years. 
David Hopkins, of Hebron ; elected in 1786; held four 3-ears. 
Edward Savage, of Salem ; elected in 1788 ; held four years. 
Zina Hitchcock, of Kingsbury ; elected in 17013 ; held ten years. 
Ebenezer Russell, of Salem ; elected in 1795 ; held two terms of four 

years each. 
Ebenezer Clark, of Argyle ; elected in 1796; hold six yeai-s. 
James S.iT.age, of Salem ; elected in 1796 ; held two years. 
Edward Savage, of Salem ; elected in 1801 ; served six years. 
Stephen Thorn, of Gr.inville; elected in 1804; held four years. 
John McLean, of Cambridge (now Jackson) ; elected in 1807; held 

four years. 
David Hopkins, of Hebron : elected in 1S09 ; held four years. 
Gerritt Wendell, of Cambridge ; elected in 1812; held three years. 
Allen Hascall. 

Roger Skinner, of Kingsbury ; elected in 1817 ; heM four years. 
David Shipherd, of Argyle; elected in 1821 ; served one year; term 

closed by constitution of 1821. 
Melanchthon Wheeler, of Whitehall; served two years, beginning 

Jan. 1, 1823. 
Slephen Thorn, of Granville; served three years, beginning Jan. 1, 

John Crary, of Sal-em ; served four years from 1. 1825. 
John McLean, Jr., of Salem; served four years from Jan. I, 1829. 
Isaac W. Bishop, of Granville; served from Jan. 1, 1834, to resigna- 
tion. May 22, 1836. 
John McLean, of Jaekson ; elected in place of Bishop ; served till 

Dec. 31, 1837. 
Martin Lee, of Granville ; served four years from Jan. 1, 1838. 
Qrville Clark, of Kingsbury ; served four years from Jan. 1, 1844. 

Dan S. Wright, of Whitehall ; served term of two years (under t 

stitution of 1847), beginning Jan. 1, 1852. 
Justin A. Smith, of Whitehall; term began Jan. 1, 1856. 
Ralph Richards, of Hampton ; term began Jan. 1, 1862. 
James Gibson, of Salem ; term began Jan. 1, 1866. 
Isaac V. Baker, Jr., of Fort Ann; term began Jan. 1, 1871. 
Charles Hughes, of Kingsbury; term began Jan. 1, 1878. 

John Barnes, of Salem, 1777-78. 
Ebenezer Clark, of Salem, 1777-78. 
John Rowan, of Salem, 1777-78. 
Ebenezer Russell, of Salem, 1777-78. 
Albert Baker, of Kingsbury, 1778-80. 
David Hopkins, of Hebron, 1778 to 1785, inclusive. 
Elishama Tozer,. of Whitehall, 1778-79. 
John Grover, of Granville, 1779-80. 
Noah Payn, of Argyle (now Fort Edward), 1779-80. 
Hamilton McCoIlister, of Salem, 1780 to 1784, inclusive. 
Matthew McWhorter, of Salem, 1780-82. 
John Williams, of Salem, 1781-82. 
Benjamin Baker, of Kingsbury, 17S2-S3. 
Joseph McCraeken, of Salem, 1782-83. 
Edward Savage, of Salem, 1784-85. 

Adiel Sherwood, of Argyle (now Fort Edward), 17S4-S5. 
Albert Baker, of Kingsbury, 1786-86. 
Joseph MeCrackeu, of Salem, 1786. 
Ichabod Parker, of Granville, 1786-87. 
Peter B. Tearse, of Argyle (now Fort Edward), 17SC to 1789, 

Adam Martin, of Salem, 17S7. 
Edward Savage, of Salem, 1787-89. 
Alexander Webster of Hebron, 1788-89. 
Joseph MeCracken, of Salem, 1788-89. 
John Rowan, of Salem, 1789-91. 

Zina Hitchcock, of Kingsbury, 1789 to 1793, inclusive. 
Daniel Curtice, of Granville, 1791-93. 
Thomas Converse, of Kingsbury, 1791. 
John Conger, of Cambridge, 1792. 
David Hopkins, of Hebron, 1792-93. 
William Whiteside, of Cambridge, 1794. 
Bcnj. Colvin, of Cambridge, 1794. 
Philip Smith, of Baston, 1794. 
David Thomas, of Salem, 1794. 
Samuel Beman, Jr., of Hampton, 1795. 
David Hopkins, of Hebron, 1795-96. 
Edward Savage, of Salem, 1795 to 1801, inclusive. 
Thomas Smith, of Hebron, 1796. 
Timothy Leonard, of Granville, 1796-97. 
Anthony I. Blanch vrd, of Salem, 1796-97. 
Gcrrit G. Lansing, of Easton, 1796-97. 
Daniel Mason, of Hartford, 1796-98. 
An.irew White, of Cambridge, 1790-97. 
Charles Kane, of Fort Ann, 1798-99. 
Reuben Pride, of Cambridge, 1798. 
Thomas Smith, of Hebron, 1798. 
Melanehthon Wheeler, of Whitehall, 1798. 
Seth Crocker, of Argyle (now Fort Edward), 1798-99. 
David Hopkins, of Hebron, 1798-99. 
Philip Smith, of Easton, 1798-99. 
David Thomas, of Salem, 1798-99. 
Mieajah Pcttit, of Kingsbury, 1800. 
Isaac Sargent, of Fort Ann, 1800. 
Benjamin Colvin, of Cambridge, 1800. 
David Hopkins, of Hebron, 1800-1. 
Gcrrit G. Lansing, of Easton, 1800-1. 
Timothy Leonard, of Granville, 1800-1. 
William McAuIey, of Cambridge (now Jackson), 1800-1. 
Alexander Cowen, of Argyle, 1802-3. 
Jason Kellogg, of Hampton, 1S02-3. 
John McLean, of Cambriige (naw Jackson), 1802 to 1806, in 

Mieajah Pettit, of Kingsbury, 1802. 
Isaac S.argent, of Fort Ann, 1802-3. 
David Austin, of llartlbrd, 1803-4. 



William Livingston, of Hebron, 180-1-6. 

Dr. John McKinney, of Hartford, ISO-t. 

Stephen Thorn, of Granville, IS04. 

Isaac Uarloiv, of Whitehall, 1804-5. 

Jason Kellogg, of Hamilton, 1S04-.5. 

.Solomon Smith, of Cambriage, 1S04-5. 

James Starbuck, of Easton, ISO !—:">. 

Isaac Sargent, of Fort Ann, ISO(>. 

Kathanicl Pitcher, of Kingsbury, ISOG. 

Daniel Shiphercl, of Argylc, 1S06. 

I'eleg Bragg, of Argyle, 18U7. 

John Gray, of Salem, IS07. 

James Hill, of Cambridge, ISOT-'J. 

Jason Kellogg, of Hampton, 1807. 

Thomas Cornell, of Easton, 1808. 

Lyman Hall, of Hartford, 1808. 

Henry Matteson, of Hebron, 1808. 

Gideon Taft, of Whitehall, 1808. 

Alexander Livingston, of Greenwich, lSOS-9. 

Roger Skinner, of Kingsbury, ISOS-IO. 

Reuben Whallon, of Argyle, 180S-y. 

John Gale, of Easton, ISIO. 

William Livingstin, of Hebron, 1810. 

John Baker, of Kingsbury, 1811. 

John Richards, of White Creek. 1811. 

Isaac Sargent, of Fort Ann, ISU. 

Reuben Whallon, of Argyle, 1811. 

David Woods, of Granville, 1811. 

Lyman Hall, of Hartford, 1812. 

James Hill, of Cambridge, 1812. 

John Kirtland, of Granville, 1812. 

Alexander Livingston, of Greenwich, 1812. 

John Beebeo, of Cambridge, 1812-13. 

Jason Kellogg, of Hampton, 1812-13. 

Francis McLean, of Cambridge, now Jackson, 1812-13. 

Ebenezer Russell, of Salem, 1812-13. 

Melanchthon Wheeler, of Whitehall, 1812-13. 

Raul Dennis, of Cambridge (now White Creek), ISU. 

Samuel Gordon, of Hartford, 1S14. 

John Richards, of , 1S14-U. 

John Savage, of Salem, 1814. 

Charles Starbuck, of Easton, 1814. 

John White, of Argyle, 1814. 

John Gale, of Easton, 1814-15. 

Henry Matteson, of Hebron, 1814-15. 

Nathaniel Pitcher, of Kingsbury, 1814-15. 

Isaac Sargent, of Fort Ann, 1814-15. 

Michael Harris, of Hartford, 1816. 

John Reid, of Argyle, 181C. 

David Russell, of Salem, 1816. 

James Stevenson, of Cambridge, 1810. 

Ruswell Weston, of Kingsbury, 1816. 

John Gale, of Easton, 1816-17. 

Nathaniel Pitcher, of Kingsbury, 1816-17. 

Isaac Sargent, of Fort Ann, 1816-18, 

David Woods, of Granville, 1816-17. 

Jason Kellogg, of Hampton, 1818. 

Alexander Livingston, of Greenwich, 1818. 

John McLean, Jr., of Salem, 1818. 

William K. Adams, of Salem, 1819. 

John Doty, of Fort Ann, 1810. 

John Gale, of Easton, 1SI9. 

William McFarland, of Salem, 1819. 

David Austin, of Hartford, 1820. 

Peleg Bragg, of Argyle, 1820. 

James Hill, of Cambridge, 1820. 

John Kirtland, of Granville, 1820. 

Wadsworth Boll, of Hartford, 1820-21. 

James Mallory, of Easton, 1820-21. 

John Moss, of Kingslury, 1820-21. 

William Richards, of Cambridge (now White Creek), 1820-21. 

John Baker, of Kingsbury, 1820-21. 

Silas D. Kellogg, of Hampton, 1822. 

James Teft, of Easton, 1822. 

Timothy Eddy, of Fort Edw.ard, 1823. 

John King, of Argyle, 1823. 
Martin Lee, of Granville, 1823. 
James McNaughton, of Cambridge, 1823. 
David Campbell, of Jackson, 1824-25. 
John Crary, of Salem, 1824. 
Silas D. Kellogg, of IlamptoD, 1824. 
Ezra Smith, of Whitehall, 1824-25. 
Lemuel Hastings, of Fort Ann, 1835. 
Samuel Stevens, of Salem, 1825. 
Hiram Cole, of Kingsbury, 1826. 
James Stevenson, of Cambridge, 182G. 
Israel Williams, of Greenwich, 1826. 
David Woods, of Granville, 1S26. 
John McDonald, of Hebron, 1827. 
Peter J. H. Myor.s, of Whitehall, 1S27. 
Samuel Stevens, of Salem, 1827. 
Jonathan Moshcr, of Easton, 1828. 
Henry Thorn, of Fort Ann, 1S2S. 
Henry Whiteside, of Cambridge, 1828. 
John McDonald, of Hebron, 1829. 
Robert McNiel, of Cambridge, 1829. 
Richard Sill, of Hartford, 1829. 
David Russell, of Salem, 18.30. 
Robert AVileox, of Cambridge, 1830. 
David Sill, of Hartford, 1830. 
George W. Jermain, of Cambridge, 1831. 
Henry Thorn, of Fort Ann, 1831. 
William Townsend, of Hebron, 1831. 
Isaac W. Bishop, of Granville, 1832. 
John McDonald, of Hebron, 1S32. 
James Stevenson, of Cambridge, 1832. 
Walter Cornell, of Cambridge, 1833. 
Charles Rogers, of Kingsbury, 1833. 
David Russell, of Salem, 1S3.3. 
Charles F. Ingalls, of Greenwich, 1834. 
Melanchtlion Wheeler, of Whitehall, 1834. 
James Wright, of Kingsbury, 1834. 
Jonathan K. Ilorton, of Greenwich, 1835. 
George MoKie, of Easton, 1835. 
Allen R. Moore, of Granville, 1835. 
Aaron Barker, of Easton, 183R. 
Alexander Robortsoa, of Putnam, 18.3S. 
Stephen L. Viele, of Fort Edward, 1836. 
Joseph W. Richards, of White Creek, 1837. 
Charles Rogers, of King.sbury, 1837. 
Erastus D. Culver, of Greenwich, 1838. 
Reuben Skinner, of Granville, 1841. 
Leonard Gibbs, of Granville, 1833. 
Salmon Axtell, of Fort Ann, 1839. 
Jesse S. Leigh, of Argyle, 1839. 
John U. Boyd, of Whitehall, 1840. 
Anderson Simpson, of Salem, 1840. 
Erastus D. Culver, of Greenwich, 1841- 
Reuben Skinner, of (rreenville, 1841. 
James McKie, Jr., of White Creek, 1842. 
Dan S. Wright, of Whitehall, 1842. 
Anson Bigelow, of Greenwich, 1843. 
James W. Porter, of Hartford, 1843. 
John Barker, of Granville, 1844. 
John W. Proudfit, of Salem, 1841. 
James Rice, of Fort Ann, 1845. 
John Stevenson, of Cambridge, 1845. 
James S. Foster, of Hebron, 1846. 
Lodovicus S. Viele, of Fort Edward, 1846. 
Adolphus F. Hitchcock, of Kingsbury, 1847. 
Samuel McDonald, of Cambridge, 1847. 
Benjamin Crocker, of White Creek, 1848. 
Elisha A. Martin, of Whitehall, 1848. 
Lo Roy Mowry, of Greenwich, 1840. 
Alexander Robertson, of Putnam, 1849. 
David Sill, of Argyle, 1850. 
Calvin Pease, of Putnam, 1850. 
Thomas C. AVhitesidc, of Easton, 1851. 
James Farr, of Fort Ann, 1S5I. 
Elisha Billings, of Jackson, 1852. 



David Nelson, of Whitehall, 1852. 

Charles R. Ingalls, of Greenwich, 1853. 

Samuel S. Beaman, of Hampton, 1853. 

Ebenezer McMurray, of Salem, 1854. 

George W. Thorn, of Fort Ann, 1854. 

James I. Lowrie, of Greenwich, 1855. 

Justin A. Smith, of 'Whitehall, 1855. 

John S. Crocker, of White Creek, 1856. 

Henry S. Korthuji, of Kingsbury, 185S. 

Anson Ingraham, of Cambridge, 1857. 

Henry AV. Beckwilh, of Granville, 1857. 

Thaddcus H. Walker, of Salem, 1S58. 

Ralph Richards, of Hampton, 1S5S. 

Andrew Thompson, of Easton, 1859. 

James M. Northup, of Hartford, 1859. 

James Savage, of Argyle, ISCO. 

Peletiah Jackw.ay, of Fort Ann, 18G0. 

Peter Hill, of Jackson, 18(51. 

Nicholas M. Catlin, of Kingsbury, 1861. 

George H. Taylor, of Fort Edward, 1802. 

Philip H. Ncher of Hebron, 1862. 

Asa C. Tefft, of Fort Edward, 1863. 

Ervin Hopkins, Jr., of Granville, 18G3. 

R. King Crocker, of White Creek, 18G4. 

Andrew G. Meiklejohn, of Putnam, 1854. 

Alexander Barklcy, of Argyle, 1865-66. 

Sylvester E. Spoor, of Hebron, 1865. 

James C. Rogers, of Kingsbury, 1866. 

Thomas Shiland, of Cambridge, 1867. 

Adolphus F. Hitchcock, of Kingsbury, 1867. 

David Underwood, of Fort Edward, 1868. 

Nathaniel Daily, of Hampton, 1868. 

William J. Perry, of White Creek, 1869. 

Isaac V. Baker, Jr., of Fort Ann, 1869-71. 

Thomas J. Stevenson, of Salem, 1870-71. 

Edward W. Hollister, of Greenwich, 1872-73. 

George W. L. Smith, of Kingsbury, 1872. 

Eleazer Jones, of Granville (died, and William H. Teffl, Whitehall, 

elected in his place), 1873. 
Alexander B. Law, of Salem, 1874-75. 
Emerson E. Davis, of Whitehall, 1874-75. 
Townsend J. Potter, of Fort Edward, 1876-77. 
Henry G. Burleigh, of Whitehall, 1876. 
Isaac V. Baker, Jr., of Fort Ann, 1877. 
Abr.aham Reynolds, of Greenwich, 1878. 
George L. Terry, of Kingsbury, 1878. 

First Distrtct.— Earl P. Wright, Robert Gr.aham, David V. S. Qua, 

Abram G. Cochran, Ezra H. Snyder. 
Second Distrct. — John Hall, Charles L. Mason, John C. Earl, 

Thomas 8. Whittemore, Isaac Parks, AVilliam H. Tefft, Ezra H. 

Snyder, E. J. C. AVhittemorc. 

The following are the justices of the peace from the or- 
ganization of the county of Charlotte (afterwards Washing- 
ton), and residing within the limits of Wa.shington county 
giving, as far as possible, the present name of the town : 


Appuiiilfd J Illy 1, 1773. 
William Duer, Fort Edward. 
Philip Skene, Whitehall. 
James Gray, Cambridge. 
Patrick Smith, Fort Edward. 
Ebenezer Clark, Salem; re-appointcd 1795, 1798, 1801, 1807, ISOS, 

Robert SncU. 

Alexander McNachtcn, Salem. 
Archibald Campbell, Jackson. 
Philip Embury, Salem. 
John Barnes, Salem. 
Stephen Rogers. 

Ajij^ointcd December 8, 1773. 
Alexander Webster, Hebron ; re-appointed 1786, 1789, 1792, 1795, 1798. 

Appointed March 12, 1774. 
Thomas Green, Cambridge. 

Appointed June 11, 1774. 
Garret Keating, Whitehall. 


Appointed June 23, 1786. 
Ebenezer Russell, Siilem; ro-appointed 1789, 1792, 1795, 1798. 
David Hopkins, Hebron; re-appointed 1789, 1792, 1795, 1798, 1801, 

1804, 1807, 1810. 
Moses Martin, Salem; re-appointed 1789, 1792, 1795, 1818. 
Albert Baker, Kingsbury; re-appointed 1789, 1792, 1795. 
John McAllister, Salem; re-appointed 1789, 1792, 1795. 
Aaron Fuller, AVhitehall. 

Samuel Crosset, Hebron; re-appointed 1792, 1798, 1801, 1807. 
Adiel Sherwood, Kingsbury; re-appointcd 1789, 1792. 
Silas Child, Granville. 

John Rowan, Salem; re-appointed 1789,1792, 1795, 1804, 1807, 1808. 
Asaph Cook, Granville; re-appointed 1789, 1792,1795, 1804, 1807, 

Gideon Warren, Hampton; rc-appoinfed 1792, 1795. 
William McDougall, Argyle; re-appointed 1789, 1792, 1795. 
Peter B. Tearse, Fort Edward. 

James Randolph, Argyle; re-appointed 1789, 1792, 1795. 
Aljihcus Spencer. 

Ap2>ointed May 5, 1789. 
John Williams, Salem; re-appointed 1792, 1795, 1798. 
Jonathan Foster, Argyle. 
William Keid, Argyle; re-appointed 1792, 1795, 1708, ISOl. 

Appointed A2)ril 6, 1792. 
John Younglove, Cambridge ; re-appointed 1795, 1798. /^ 
Edmund Wells, Jr., Cambridge; re-appointed 1795, 1798, 1801. 
Slanton Tefft, Easton; re-appointed 1795, 1798, 1804. 
Thomas Dennis, Easton; re-.appointed 1795, 1798, 1804, 1807, 1808, 

John Fish, Granville; re-appointed 1795. 
Setts Sherwood, Fort Edward. 
Medad Harvey, Fort Ann. 
Asahel Hitchcock, Kingsbury. 

Daniel Curtice, Granville; re-appointed 1795, 1798, 1801. 
Timothy Leonard, Granville; re-appointed 1795, 1798, 1801. 
John McWhorter, Granville ; re-appointcd 1705. 
Daniel Earl, Jr., Whitehall; re-appointed 1795, 1798, 1801, 1804, 

1807, 1812. 
Edward Harris, Salem ; re-appointed 1795, 1798, 1801, 1804. 
Asahcl Hodge, Hartford; re-appointed 1795, 1798, 1801, 1804, 1807, 

John MeKillip, Cambridge; re-appointed 1795. 
Jacob Van Valkenburg, Salem; re-appointed 1795. 
Sanford Smith, Cambridge; re-appointed 1795, 1798. 
Samuel Beamau, Hampton; re-appointed 1798, 1801, 1807, 1810,1818, 

William Whiteside, Cambridge. 

Thomas Smith, Easton; rc-ajipointed 1798, 1801, 1S04, 1807. 
David Sprague, Greenwich; re-appointed 1705. 
Alexander Webster, Jr., Hebron ; re-appointcd 1795. 
Thomas Bellows, Hebron; rc-appointed 1795, 1798. 
John Hamilton, Hebron ; re-appointed 1795. 
Walter Raleigh, Cambridge; re-appointed 1705, 1798. 

Appointed March 18, 1795. 
Zina Hitchcock, Kingsbury; rc-appointed 1798, 1810. 
Edward Savage, Salem; re-appointed 1798, 1801, 1804, 1807, 1810. 
John Law, Salem; re-appointed 1798, 1801, 1804, 1807, 1808. 
John Conger, Cambridge. 

John Harroun, Cambridge; re-appointed 179S. 
David Long, Hebron; re-appointed 1798. 
John Hitchcock, Hebron ; re-appointed 1798. 
Samuel Harris, Kingsbury; rc-appointed 1798. 



Api>oliilc<l July ], 1798. 
Charles Kane, Fort Ann. 
David Tbornc, Salfm. 
Phineas Hitchcock, Hebron; re-ajipointcd ISOl, 1807, 1808, ISIO, 

1815, 1818. 
Isaac Brinkerhoff, Hebron. 
William McAiiley, Cambridge. 
James Rogers, Fort Edward. 
Albert Baker, Jr., Kingsbury. 

David Thomas, Salem; re-appointcd 1798, 1801, 1804, 1811. 
William Harkness, Salem ; re-appointed 1798. 
Stephen Thorne, Granville; re-appointed 1801, 1804, 1808, 1811. 
Solomon Smith, Granville. 

Walter Martin, Salem; re-appointed 1798, 1801. 
Thomas AVhiteside, Cambridge; rc-appointed 1798, 1801, 181C. 
John Folsom, Argyle; re-appointed 1798. 
Manning Bull, Hartford. 

John Kincaid, Hampton ; rc-appointed 1798, 1801. 
Philip Smith, Easton. 

Micajah Pctlit, Kingsbury; rc-appointed 1801, 1808, 1811. 
Anthony I. Blanohard, Salem; re-appointcd 1810, 1811. 
Daniel Mason, Hartford ; re-appointed 1798. 

Alexander Cowan, Argyle; re-a]]pointcd 1798, 1801, ISOG, 1807,1815. 
Israel Lamb, Granville; re-appointed 1801, 1804. 
Phineas Freeman, Kingsbury. 
Ozias Coleman, Fort Ann. 
Gurdon Johnson, Granville. 
Matthew Ogden, Argyle. 

John White, Argyle; rc-appointed 1811, 1815. 
Simeon Stevens, Jr., Argyle; re-ai)iiointe(l 1801, 1804. 
John McLean, Cambridge; re-appointed ISOl, 1804, 1807, 1808, 1811, 

1815, 1818. 
Jonathan Harris, Kingsbury. 
Austin Underbill, Hartford; re-appointed 1801. 
David Austin, Hartford; re-appointed 1801, 1804, 1807, ISOS. 
Melanchthon Wheeler, Whitehall ; re-appointed 1807. 
Isaac Harlow, Whitehall; re-appointed 1801, 1804, 1807, 1808, 1811, 

Sanford Smith, Cambridge. 
Jason Kellogg, Hampton; re-appointcd 1801, 1804, 1807, 1808, 1811, 


Appohital July, ISOl. 
John Ball, Hampton. 
Joseph Wells, Easton. 

Appuinled A mjuKt 22, 1801. 
Asa Fitch, Salem; re-appointed 1804, 1810, 1815, 1818, 1821. 
John Gray, Jr., S.alem; re-appointed 1804, 1807, 1808, 1811, 1815. 
Robert Stewart, Salem; re-appointcd 1804, 1807, 1814. 
Wm. Livingston, Hebron; re-appointed 1804, 1807, ISll, 1S15. 
James Wilson, Hebron; re-appointed 1804, 1807, 1808, 1811. 
Henry Mattison, Hebron; re-appointcd 1807, 1808, 1811, 1815. 
Wm. Porter, Hebron; re-appointed 1804, 1809, 1811. 
Wm. Johnson, Whitehall; re-appointed 1805, 1811, 1815, 1818. 
Alexander Cruikshank, Whitehall; re-appointed 1804. 
Jabez Burrows, Hartford. 

Edward Riggs, Argyle; re-appointed 1804, 1807, 1808, 1815. 
Robert Perrigo, Jr., Argyle; re-appointed 1S04, ISIO. 
James Green, Argyle; re-appointed 1804, 1807, 1811, 1815. 
George Jackway, Argyle; re-appointed 1804, 1807, 1815. 
Lyman Hall, Argyle; rc-appointed 1804, 1807,1808, 1811, 1812, 1819. 
Martin Van Buskirk, Cambridge; 1804, 1807, 1808. 
Hczekiah King, Cambridge; rc-appointcd 1804, 1808, 1811. 
James Irvine, Cambridge; re-appointed 1804, 1807, 1808,_1811, 1815, 

Ebenezer Dwinnell, Cambridge; re-appointed 1807. 
Jonas Earl, Granville. 
Ebenezer Gould, Granville. 

Caleb Baker, Kingsbury ; rc-appointed 1804, 1807, 1811. 
John Stewart, Kingsbury. 
Daniel Beadle, Easton; re-nppointed 1804. 
Thomas Cornell, Easton ; re-appointed 1804. 
John McKenny, Easton. 

Appointed May Z, 180.'!. 
Solomon Smith, Greenwich; rc-appointed 1804, 1808,1811. 
Benajah Hill, Granville; rc-appointed 1804, 1808, 1811. 

James Rogers, Argyle; re appointed 1804, 1807. 

Reuben Skinner, Granville; re-appointcd 1804. 

David Shepherd, Easton ; re-appointed 1804. 

Henry Van Schaick, Easton ; rc-appointed 1804, 1812, 1815. 

David Pettys, Easton ; re-appointed 1804. 

Appointed July .1, 1804. 
Hugh Moor, Salem ; re-appointcd 1807, 1808, 1811, 1815. 
Daniel Hopkins, Salem; rc-appointed 1808. 
John Munson, Jr., Salem; rc-appointed 1807, 1808, 1811, 1815. 
Martin Van Duzen, Whitehall; re-appointcd 1808. 
Aaron Norton, Hartford. 

Joseph West, Hartford; re-appointcd 1808, 1811. 
Judah Thompson, Fort Ann. 
Nathan Hopkins, Salem; re-appointed ISO". 
Doty Collamer, Kingsbury; re-appointcd 1808, 1812. 
Wm. McCoy, Argyle; re-appointed 1807, 1808, 1811, 1815. 
Moses Carey, Argyle; re-appointed 1807, 1808, 1811, 1815. 
Wm. C. McLean, Argyle. 
Jonathan Sprague, Greenwich; ro-appointed 1807, 1808, 1811, 1815, 

1818, 1821. 
Alexander Livingston, Greenwich; rc-appointed 1807, 1808. 181 1, 

Jesse Fairchild, Cambridge; re-appointed 1807, 1808. 
Joseph Stewart, Cambridge; ro-appointed 1807, 1808, InII, Ibli, 

Solomon King, Cambridge ; re-appointcd 1807. 
Joseph Younglove, Cambridge. 

John Kirtland, Grtinvillc; rc-appointed 1807, 1808, 1811, 1815. 
Cornelius Whitney, Granville; re-appointcd 1807. 
Amos GoulJ, Granville; rc-appointed 1807, 1808, 1811, 1815. 
Samuel Hoopes, Hampton; re-appointed 1811. 
John Stewart, Kingsbury; re-appointed 1815. 
Nathaniel Pitcher, Kingsbury; re-appointed 1806, 1807, 1808, 1811. 

Ai>2>oinled April 8, 1805. 
Simon Do Ridder, Easton; re-appointed 1807i 1810, 1817. 
James Hill, Cambridge; re-appointed 1807, 1811. 
Solomon Dean, Cambridge; re-appointed 1808, 1811, 1815, 1818, 1821. 
Jonathan Wood, Hartford; re-appointed 1815, 1818. 
John White, Argyle; re-appointed 1808, 1814, 1815. 
Abraham Case, Hebron. 
David Root, Hampton. 

Appointed Mivvli 1.3, I80G. 
Reuben Wh.allon, Argyle; rc-appointcd 1807, 1811. 
Collins Hitchcock, Kingsbury; rc-appointed 1807. 
James Burnett, Putnam ; re-appointed 1807, 1808, 1809, 1811, 1815, 

1818, 1821. 
N.ath.inicI Porter, Easton; re-appointed 1807, 1808. 
Timothy Case, Granville. 

Aj,/;,inlcd M„rcli 30, 1807. 
Samuel Hough, Granville; re-appointed 1808, 1811. 

Appuinled April 3, 1807. 
Henry Adams, Hampton. 
Cornelius Holmes, Salem. 

Appointed June 10, )S07. 
Snyder Stevens, Cambridge. 
Thomas Cowcll, Easton. 
Moses Rice, Salem. 
David Russell, Salem. 
Henry Rico, Hebron. 
Shubael Simmons, AVhilehall. 

Nathaniel Cruikshank, AVhitchall; re-appointed 1809. 
Pliny Adams, Hampton. 

Samuel Hooker, Hampton: reappointed 1808, 1815, 1818. 
Samuel Underbill, Hartford; re apjiointcd 1808. 
Aaron Austin, Hartford. 

Jonathan Wood, Hartford; reappointed 1808, 1811. 
Jonathan Leigh, Argyle; rc-aiipointed 1810, 1813. 
John P. Raker, Greenwich. 
Artemas Bobbins, Greenwich. 
Roswcll Weston, Kingsbury. 



William Hill, Cambridge. 
Baiijamin Smith, Camljridgo; 
David Simpson, Cambridge. 
Obadiah Brown, Cambridge. 

-appointed ISII. 

Aj,p„intol Jiuw 10, 1S07. 

Eliud Smith, Granville. 
Joseph Tower, (iranville. 
Nathan Kogers, Easton. 
Richard Rogers, Easton. 
Daniel Shepherd, Easton ; 

inted ISOS, ISIO 

i-appointcd 181 1, 1815, 1818, 1821. 

Appointed Fv.bni(ir,j 1 Ij, 1808. 

Nathan Wilscm, Salom; re-appointod 1811. 
Gideon Taft, Whitchnll; re-appointed ISII. 
Leonard Gibbs, Granville: re-appointed ISII, ISIS. 
Alexander Simpson, Jr., Salem ; re-appointed 1811, 1815. 
James MuFarland, Jr., Salem. 

Amherst Wheeler, Salem; re-appointed 1811, 181,% 1818. 
John Baker, Fort Ann ; rc-appoinled 1815. 
Jesse L. Billings, Salem. 
Ezra Holmes, Salem. 
Wm. Raymond, Jr., Granville 
Rial Tracy, Granville. 
Benjamin Hill, Granville. 
Roger Skinner, Kingsbury. 

Collins Hitchcock, Kingsbury; rc-ajipointcd 1811, 1819, 1821. 
Wm. C. McLean, Cambridge; re-appointed 1811. 
■ Beniamin Smith, Cambridge; re-appointed 1811. 
Benjamin Brownell, Easton; re-appointed 1811. 

Appuhited Fvhniurij 10, 1808. 

James Tcfft, Easton ; re-appointed ISll. 

James Kenyon, Easton. 

John P. Webb, Ilartl'ord ; re-appointed 1811. 

Isaac Crocker, Argyle: re-appointed 1811. 

.Alexander McDougall, Argyle; re-appointcJ 1811, 1815. 

Samuel Hatch, AVhitehall ; re-appointed 1811. 

Reuben Jones, Whitehall; re-appointed 1811, 1815, 1818. 

Alexander Cruikshank, Whitehall; re-a])pointed 181G. 

Thomas McLean, Greenwich. 

Marmaduke Whipple, Greenwich ; re-appointcd 1811, 1815. 

Joseph Tefft, Greenwich; re-appointed 1811. 

Appointed April 2, 1808. 

Zachariah Sill, Hartford; re-appointed 1811. 

Thomas Gourley, Hebron; re-appointed ISll. 

Wm. Thompson, Easton. 

Calvin Smith, Easton. 

Thomas Eddy, Argyle. 

Zerah Rider, Salem. 

John Hall, Hebron; rc-apjiointeil 1811. 

Appointed Man/, 27, 1809. 
Ebcnezer Blinn, Whitehall. 
John Doty, Fort Ann. 
Wm. Pratt, Greenwich. 

Paul Dennis, Cu 
Pelatiah Bugbce 

Appointed June 5, 1809. 

nhridgc ! re-appointed 1811, 1815. 
Putnam; rc-appoinled 1811. 

Appointed M.oek 20, 1810. 
Wm. Richards, Cambridge. 
John P. Becker, Greenwich. 
William Williams, Salem. 
Theodoras Stevens, Salom. 
John H. Northrop, Hebron. 
Wm. McClellan, Hebron. 
Dennison Darrow, Hebron. 
Caleb West, Granville. 
Orla Hall, Granville. 
Martin Lee, Granville; re-appointed 1815, 1818, 1821. 

Jeremiah Spiccr, Granville. 

James Sntterlee, Hampton. 

Enoch Wright, Whitehall. 

Nathaniel Hall, Whitehall: re-.appointed 1814, 1S15, 181fi, 1818, 1819, 

John C. Parker, Hartford, reappointed 1815, 1818, 1821. 
Aaron Ingalsbc, Hartford. 
Thomas N. Clark, Argyle. 
Samuel T. Shepherd, Argyle. 
John Reid, Argyle; re-appointed 18M. 
Andrew Haggart, Argyle. 
Abraham Wright, Argyle. 
Jonathan Moshcr, Argyle. 
John F. Whipple, Greenwich. 
Charles Ingalls, Greenwich. 
Lemuel T. Bush," Fort Ann. 
Duty Saylcs, Cambridge; re-appointed 1816. 
Jacob Holmes, tiranvillc. 
John Thomas, Kingsbury. 

Appointed Febnmrn 20, 181 1. 
George Clark, Fort Ann ; re-ajipointed 1815, 1818, 1821. 
Stephen Easty, Salem. 

Stephen Ransom, Salem ; re-appointed 1815. 
Alexander Mcintosh, Salem. 
Joshua Steel, Salem. 
Calvin Smith, Easton. 
Abraham Wright, Easton. 

Zephaniah Kingsley, Fort Ann; re-appointed 1815. 
Reuben Baker, Fort \nx\. 

Lemuel Hastings, Fort Ann; re-appointcd 1815. 
John Crosby, Fort Ann ; re-ajipuintcd 1S15. 
Liberty Branch, Fort Ann. 
Asahel Hodge, Hartford. 

Samuel Gordon, Hartford; re-appointed 1815. 
Samuel Downs, Hartford. 
Daniel Hopkins, Hebron. 

Amos Smith, Hebron; re-appointcd 1815, 1818, 1821. 
Read Phillips, Kingsbury; re-appointed 1815. 
William Calvin, Kingsbury; re-appointcd 181-4, 1815, 1818. 
Beriah Rogers, Hampton; re-appointcd 1815. 
Edward Riggs, Argyle; re-appointed 1818. 
John F. Gandall, Argyle; re-appointed 1S13, 1815. 
John Robertson, Argyle; re-appointed 1815. 
John McNiel, Argyle. 
John McCoy, Argyle ; rc-nppointed 1815. 
Thomas McLean, Greenwich. 
Araspus Folsom, Greenwich; re-appoiuted 1815. 
Aaron M. Ferine, Greenwich. 
James Vanderwerker, Greenwich. 
Gardner Philips, Greenwich. 
William Pratt, Greenwich. 
Isaac Lacoy, Cambridge. 
Warbam Hastings, Cambridge. 
Abraham F. Vaudenburgh, Cambridge. 

Appointed April 6, 1811. 
Christian Seckrider, Kingsbury. 
Timothy Eddy, Argyle; rc-.appointed 1815, 1818. 

Appointed June 10,1811. 
Pliny Whitcomb, Griinville; rc-appointed 1817. 
Nathaniel Frank, Granville. 
Asa Northam, Granville; re-appointcd 1815. 
Elijah Dexter, Ciimbridgc. 

Appointed Morel, 24, 1812. 
David Woods, Fort Ann. 

App,. inted Jnne Ifi, 1812. 
Gardner McCracken, Fort Ann ; re-appointed 1815. 
Benjamin Copeland, Fort Ann; re-appointed 1815, 1818, 1821. 
Elisha Thornton, Argyle. 
Gerrct II. Van Schaick, Easton. 
Cyril Carpenter, Granville; re-appointed 1815. 
David Campl.iell, Cambridge. 



Appuinted March 25, 1814. 
Abner Stone, Salcm. 
Win. Van Nortwyok, Argyle. 
John Moss, Kingsbury; i-c-appointcd 1815. 
David Doane, Jr., Hartford ; re-appointcd 1818. 
Squire Bartholomew, Whitehall. 
Seth Peck, Hampton. 

Appointed April 16, ISll. 
Clark Rico, Cambridge. 
Jesse S. Leigh, Argylc. 
Daniel Carswell, Argyle. 
Thomas firiffiths, Whitehall. 

Appmiitcd March 3, 1815. 
James Sloan, Kingsbury; re-appointed 1818. 
Throop Barney, Kingsbury. 
Reuben Farr, Fort Ann. 

Luther Wait, Kingsbury ; re-appointed 1818. 
James Nichols, Hampton. 
Samuel Warford. Salem. 
Andrew Martin, Salem; re-appointed 181S. 
Levi Hcrrington, Granville. 
Ezekiel Smith, (iranvillc. 
Reuben Muz2.y, Argyle; re-appointed 1818. 
Wm. Van Nortwick, Argylc; re-appointed 1819. 
Eben Crandall, Greenwich ; re-appointed ISli). 
James McNaughton, Greenwich; re-appoited 1817, 1818. 
Levi Cole, Greenwich. 
Leonard 6. Bragg, Greenwich. 
John Paddock, Greenwich. 
John Wilson, Jr., Hebron. 

Samuel Livingston, Hebron ; re-appointed 1818. 
David Wbeadon, Hebron. 
James Carlisle, Hebron. 
James Hill, Cambridge. 
Oliver Sherman, Cambridge. 
Paul Cornell, Cambridge. 
James Tefft, Easton ; re-appointed ISIS. 
Philander Tobey, Easton; re-appointed 1817, ISIS. 
Calvin Smith, Easton; re-appointed ISIS. 
Rcdford Dennis, Easton. 
James Mallory, Easton ; re-appointed ISIS. 
James S. Tefft, Easton. 
Justin Smith, Whitehall. 
Thomas Lyon, Whitehall. 
Samuel Hatch, Whitehall. 

Appointed April S, 1815. 
Henry C. Martindale, Kingsbury; re-appointed 18IS. 
Solomon Smith, Greenwich. 
James Hill, Cambridge; re-appointed ISIS. 
Wm. C. McLean, Cambridge; re-appointed ISIS. 
Austin Wells, Cambridge. 
Benjamin Smith, Cambridge. 
Abram F. Vandenburgh, Cambridge. 
M'm. R. Adams, Salem. 

Gurdon Bull, Hartford; re-appointed ISIS, 1821. 
Alpheus Underbill, Hartford. 
David McXiel, Argyle. 
Elisha Thompson, Argyle. 

Thomas McLean, Greenwich; re-appointed 18IS. 
George Barney, Whitehall. 
Truman Clark, Putnam. 

Hiram Lawrence; Fort Ann; re-appointed 1821. 
Silas D. Kellogg, Hampton; reappointed ISIS, 1S21. 

Appointed March 1, 181 K. 
James B. Gibson, Salem; re-appointed 1818. 

Appointed March 2C, ISIC. 

John Bliss, Whitch.all. 

Robert Vredcnburgh, Whitehall. 

Dan Foster, Whitehall. 

01)adi.ih Dingmore, Whitehall. 

Wm. Briggs, White Creek; re-appointcd ISIS. 

Appointed Jnhj 8, ISlC. 
John Sprague, Salem. 

Appointed March 5, 1817. 

Ebenezer Kimball. 

David Simpson, Jackson; re-appointed 1818. 

Samuel T. Shepherd, Argyle. 

Franklin Hunter. 

Horace M. F. Smith, Hartford. 

Daniel Mosher, Jr., Cambridge; re-appointcd 1818. 

Hezckiah King. Cambridge. 

Benjamin Deuel, Easton. 

John D. Putuam, White Creek. 

Appointed March 19, 1817. 
Bethuel Church, Jr., Salem; re-appointed 1821. 

Appointed Febrnari/ 18, 1818. 
Lewis Shearer, Greenwich; re-appoiuted 1821. 
Josiah Sheldon, Easton. 
David Chase. 

Appointed April 24, ISIS. 

William Butlerfield, Putnam. 

John Bliss, Whitehall. 

Ransom Harlow, Whitehall; re-a]ipointed 1821. 

Hiram Lawrence, Fort Ann. 

lliram Cole, Kingsbury. 

Timothy Stougbton, Fort Edward. 

Warren Bell, Fort Edward. 

Stephen L. Velio, Fort Edward. 

David Sill, Argyle. 

Beriah Rogers, Hampton; re-appointed 1821. 

Nathan Smith, Hebron; re-appointed IS2I. 

Jedcdiah Darrow, .Tr., Hebron; re-appointed 1821. 

Richard Sill, Hartford. 

David Oatnian, Hartford; re-appointcd 1821. 

Seneca G. Bragg, Greenwich. 

David Campbell, Jackson. 

Oliver Sherman, Cambridge. 

Austin Wells, White Creek; rc-appointcd IS2I. 

John Willard, Salem. 

Appointed April 1.3, 1819. 
Lemuel IIasting,s, Fort Ann; rc-appointed 1822. 

Appointed JnljS, 1S19. 
David Congdon, Putnam. 
Jacob Viele, Cambridge. 

Appuinted Fehrnary 17, 1820. 
Alexander McLaughlan, Putnam. 
Daniel Adams, Hampton. 
Eliud Manvillc, Whitehall. 
Samuel T. Tanner, Granville. 
Joseph Boies, Greenwich. 

Appointed April 1, 1S20. 
Samuel Hubbard, Argyle. 

Appointed FehrHaru 2\, I82I. 
.Tohn Baker, Fort Ann. 
John L. Wendell, Cambridge. 
Alexander McLaughlan, Putnam. 
Daly Allen, Putnam. 
Robert Easton, Putnam. 
William II. Parker, Whitehall. 
Micah G. Bigelow, Whitehall. 
William Miller, Hampton. 
Elisha M. Forbes, Fort Ann. 
James Ilawley, Hartford. 
Archibald Hay, Hartford. 
Luther Wait, Kingsbury. 
Nathan P. Colvin, Kingsbury. 
Alexander McDougal, Argyle. 
Constant Storrs, Argyle. 
Benjamin Clapp, Argylc. 
William KciJ, Jr., Argylc. 



Timothy Eddy, Fort Edward. 

Samuel T. Shepherd, Fort Edward. 

Warren Bell, Fort Edward. 

Amherst Wheeler, Salem. 

Philo Curtis, Salcm. 

Alexander Robertson, Salem. 

Henry Bull, Hebron. 

Abel Wood, Hebron. 

Jonathan Conger, Hebron. 

Wheelock Keith, Hebron. 

Daniel Hatch, Hebron. 

Benjamin F. Skinner, Cambridge. 

Benjamin BrowncII, Cambridge. 

Rufus Pratt, Cambridge. 

Harmon S. Barnum, Cambridge, 

Joseph Stewart, White Creek. 

Augustus King, White Creek. 

William Briggs, White Creek. 

Thomas McLean, Greenwich. 

Enoch Hanks, Greenwich. 

John Davenport, Easton. 

Gideon Cornell, Easton. 

Ebcnezer Norton, Easton. 

James Tefft, Easton. 

Isaac Matthews, Whitehall ; re-appointed 1S22. 

Adonijah Emmons, Kingsbury; re-appointed 1S22. 

Simeon Dennis, Easton ; re-appointed 1S22. 

In 1821 a new constitution was adopted, and the justices, 
■who had before been appointed by the governor and senate, 
were made appointable by the board of supervisors and 
the court of common pleas combined. In 1827 tliey were 
directed to be elected by the people. The names from 
1821 to 1827 are not on record in the county clerk's office. 


Benjamin Clapp, 

November, 1S27 


Theodore Shepherd, 

« « 


William Reid, Jr., 

" " 


John Reid, 

« " 


Henry Shepherd, 

" 1828 


William Reid, Jr., 

" 1S29, 


Josiah Dunton, 

" 1827, 


James P. Robertson, 

« u 


Jesse Pratt, 

" " 


Julius Phelps, 

" " 


Robert Marshall, 

" 1828, 


Sidney Wells, 

" 1829, 


Abraham Conklin, 

" 1827, 


John Wright, 

« « 


Gideon Cornell, 

" " 


Lemuel Simmons, 

" " 


Ebcnezer Norton, 

" 1S2S, 


Martin Mason, 

" 1829, 


Lemuel Hastings, 


Fort Ann. 

Amos T. Bush, 

" " 


Benjamin Copeland, 

" " 


John Root, 

" " 


Kingsley M.artin, 



Amos T. Bush, 

" 1829, 


Samuel T. Shipherd, 

" 1827, 

Fort Edward 

David Sanders, 

" " 


Timothy Eddy, 

" " 


Timothy Stoughton, 

" " 


Edward Fullerton, 

" 1828, 


Warren Bell, 

" 1829, 


Eloathan Benjamin, 

" 1827, 


Doty Allen, 

" " 


Palmer Blunt, 

" " 


Jonathan Winn, 
Elnathan Benjamin, 
Jonathan Winn, 
Ralph Barber, 
John C. Parker, 
Esek Fitch, 
Jonathan Todd, 
Boswell Ellsworth, 
Roswell Ellsworth, 
Esek Fitch, 
Charles F. Ingalls, 
Duncan Peterson, 
Thomas McLean, 
Alfred Fisher, 
Thomas McLean, 
Robert Coon, 
Slade D. Brown, 
Luther Mann, 
Curry Maynard, 
Solomon S. Cowan, 
Luther Mann, 
Slade D. Brown, 
Jedediah Darrow, 
Samuel Livingston, 
John Button, 
John Woodward, 
Samuel Livingston, 
John Button, 
Henry Bull, 
John P. Adams, 
Moses Ward, 
William Miller, 
Samuel B. Hooker, 
Ethan Warren, 
John P. Adams, 
Beriah Rogers, 
Constant Clapp, 
Calvin Smith, 
Solomon Dean, 
George W. Robertson, 
Calvin Smith, 
Francis McLean, 
Collins Hitchcock, 
Hiram Colvin, 
John Moss, 
Luther Wait, 
Luther Wait, 
John Moss, 
Henry Mathews, 
John W. Proud fit, 
Aaron Martin, Jr., 
Warren Norton, 
Henry Mathews, 
Aaron Martin, Jr., 
Paul Cornell, 
Harmon S. Barnam, 
Henry Rice, 
Benjamin Crocker, 
Benjamin Crocker, 
Paul Cornell, 
Alexander McLaughlin 
Robert Easton, 
James Blair, 
Anthony D. Welch, 
Abel Comstock, 
Robert Easton, 
Isaac Wood, 
James I. Stevens, 
Ransom Harlow, 
William H. Parker, 
John Boyd, 
James I. Stevens, 

November 1827, Dresden. 
" 1823, " 

" 1829, " 

" 1827, Granville. 

" 1828, " 

" 1829, " 

" 1827, Greenwich. 

" 1828, " 

" 1829, " 

" 1827, Hartford. 

" 1828, " 

" 1829, " 

" 1827, Hebron. 

" 1828, " 

" 1829, " 

1827, Hampto 


" 1829, " 

" 1827, Jackson. 

" 1828, " 

" 1829, " 

" 1827, Kingsbury. 

" 1828, " 

" 1829, " 

" 1827, Salem 

" 1828, " 

" 1829, " 

" 1827, White Creek. 

" 1828, " 

" 1829, " 

" 1827, Putnam. 

" 1828, " 

" 1829, " 

" 1827, Whitehall. 

" 1828, " 

" 1829, " 

H I S T O E Y 





Salem is situated upon the east border of the county, 
south of the centre. It is bounded upon the north by 
Hebron, east by Vermont, south by Jackson, west by 
Jackson, Greenwich, and Argyle. It contains thirty-two 
thousand one hundred and eighty acres, or a fraction over 
fifty square miles. Its surface consists of moderately-ele- 
vated ridges, separated by narrow valleys, all extending in 
a northeast and a southwest direction. The hills are usually 
bordered by gradual slopes, and their summits are crowned 
with forests. There is very little waste-land in town. The 
Batten Kill, on the south boundary, and Black, White, 
and Trout creeks arc the principal streams. Lytle's pond, in 
the north part of the town, is a beautiful sheet of water, 
lying in a basin among the hills and surrounded with for- 
ests. The town is drained southwardly by the several 
streams that flow to the Batten Kill. At the east Jenks' 
brook unites with the main stream, a little east of the 
school-house in district No. 22. Next in order is the Cam- 
den creek, formed of two branches, the east and the west. 
This joins the Batt en K ill at a prominent northern bond. 
Steele's brook, a stream of but little importance, flows in, a 
short distance below the village of East Salem. Tracing 
the kill northward from the bend, where it makes nearly a 
right angle at the southernmost point of the town, the small 
stream that forms the outlet of Juniper swamp is the next 
in order. No other tributaries are found until the mouth 
of Black creek is reached, at the west town-line. This 
stream drains more than half of the town, and a large 
portion of the town of Hebron on the north. It has one 
considerable branch from the east, formed of Beaver creek, 
upper White creek, lower White creek, Dry creek, and 
Trout brook. Farther north is the West Beaver brook, 
rising partly in Hebron and draining one of the pleasant 
valleys of Salem. Black creek has some unimportant riv- 
ulets from the west. The outlet of Lytle's pond flows 
nortliward into Hebron before uniting with Black creek. 
McDougall's lake on the west town-line has its outlet 
through Livingston brook. Slate deposits are found in 
the northern part of the town, and a quarry for roofing 

material has been worked to soinc extent. Other natural 
features worthy of mention are the peal marsh, not far 
from the slate quarry, and the Juniper swamp, south uf the 


This town consists mostly of the Turner patent of twenty- 
five thousand acres, granted Aug. 7, 1764, to Alexander 
Turner, James Turner, and others. One half of this 
patent, however, became the property of Olivcir De Lancey 
and Peter Du Bois, two government oflicials. These last 
sold their share in 1765 to Rev. Dr. Clark, for his 
colony of Scotch and Irish emigrants, at a perpetual rent 
of one shilling per acre. This patent was survej'ed imme- 
diately after it was obtained from the colonial government, 
in 176-t. It was divided into three hundred and four lots, 
and a large lot, covered with splendid pine timber, w;js re- 
served for the common benefit and laid out into .small lots 
for division. Of the three hundred and four lots the full- 
sized ones contained eighty-eight acres each. The arrange- 
ment of the boundary lines, a part of the way on the 
Batten Kill, and also diagonally on the east, gave some frac- 
tional lots, and also some having more than eighty-eight 
acres each. The numbering of the lots, as made in 1764, 
is found on recent township maps, showing very clearly the 
ancient division lines. 

This patent was divided by lot between the New Eng- 
land patentees and Dr. Clark's colony. A record of the 
drawing is not preserved, or at least has not yet been dis- 
covered among the collections of old papers in the town. 
Each party first gave three lots, five hundred and twenty- 
eight acres in all, for religious purposes. Just how the 
drawing w;i8 conducted has not been ascertained in any re- 
cent investigations. Whether each party drew out numbers 
at random alternately until they were all taken, or whether 
the New England men did all the drawing until they had 
obtained their half, is uncertain. No account of trouble or 
litigation over the division has come down to the present 
time, and it is to be inferred that the method adopted for 
the drawing w;is mutually agreed upon and the results sat- 
isfactory. The Now Englanders and the Scotch-Irish were 




evidently intermingled all over the town, and one writer 
intimates that the rivalry in settlement and cultivation 
tended to develop the town faster than would have been 
the case if they had been a homogeneous people, all of the 
same nationality. 

Besides the Turner patent the town of Salem also 
contains, on the west, lots G7 and 08 of the Argyle pat- 
ent, lying between McDougall's lake and the Ratten 
Kill. At the northeast corner of the town is the Farrant 
Patent, or a portion of it, forming a small triangle. The 
southeast portion of the town, forming a large triangle, with 
the upon the Batten Kill, consists of Duane's patent 
and Cockburu's patent, with a small .separate tract around 
Jenks' brook, or Chunk's, to give the earlier name. The 
patents of Duane and Cockburn comprise the beautiful 
Camden valley. 

These patents will be more particularly explained under 
the head of Early Settlement in the Camden Valley. 


From the sermon of Rev. Edward P. Spraguo, delivered 
June 4, 1876, we take the following passage, as an excel- 
lent summary of the facts connected with the first settlement 
of Salem : 

" In the spring of 1701, t\vo racn from Pclham, Mass., James Turner 
and Joshua Conkey, visited this county, which they had perhaps 
traversed during the war before, and selected the flats where the 
pleasant village of Salem now stands as the site of their future resi- 
dence. Going back to Pelham for the winter, they returned the next 
spring, accompanied by Hamilton McColUster, the father of the late 
William MeCoUister, who died in 1S71. These three men, Turner, 
Conkey, and McCollister, were the original settlers of this place, and 
the first also in the entire county. Their lirst cabin (hut, it might as 
proi)erly be called) was erected where the Ondawa House now stands, 
and the stump of a large tree, cut oif as level as possible and left in 
the middle of their cabin, served as their first table. Each of these 
three selected a tract of land for himself, Turner taking that west of 
their cabin, and in the rear of the present academy building ; McCol- 
lister going up the creek, about where the present dam now is, and 
Conkey still a mile farther up the stream. After two summers here, 
with their winters in Pclham, they removed their families in the 
spring of J7G3, transporting their goods through the woods on horse- 
back, and fording or swimming "the streams. They made this place 
henceforth their permanent home. These three families were the first 
actual settlers in the county." 

The claim that this was the first actual settlement in 
Washington county, as well as in the town, can hardly be 
sustained. As we have fully shown in the general history 
of the county, there was a considerable settlement around 
old Fort Saragbtoga, in Easton, twenty years or more before 
the arrival of the pioneers of Salem. That settlement, 
however, has passed so completely out of the knowledge of 
men of later generations, that no one can be expected to be 
aware of it unless he has made a specialty of searching out 
the early history of the county. Salem, however, may con- 
tain the earliest continuous settlement in the county, though 
Cambridge claims to have been actually settled in 17C1, and 
all the accounts declare that in that year Philip Skene es- 
tablished his thirty families in Skene.sborough. These three 
settlements were within a few months of each other, and if 
Conkey and Turner actually built a house and commenced 
operations when they came to look at the land, then Salem 
was probably the first ; if not, then Skenesborough takes the 
lead. It is all a matter of probability at best. 

The best ancient documents throwing light upon the 
names and location of the early settlers of Salem are the 
following schedules, with the certificates attached. The 
first is dated January, 1789, the other about a year later. 

These papers show that the farms there described were 
the property of the signers ten or twelve years earlier, or 
not more than ten or twelve years after the first gen- 
eral settlement of the town, and before very many transfers 
would have taken place. In many eases positive pioneer 
location — 17G4 to 17G8 — is no doubt clearly shown. In a 
few instances the same family names yet appear upon town- 
ship maps on the very farms selected one hundred and ten 
yetirs ago. 

These documents show more than ownership. Actual 
residence is certified to, — residence earlier than the Rur- 
goyne campaign of 1777. These certificates must, however, 
be interpreted with some degree of liberality. The son of 
an early proprietor was permitted, no doubt, to offer " satis- 
factory proof" of his father's residence. An agent or 
hired man or subsequent purchaser might have been per- 
mitted to do so as the legal successor of an original proprietor. 
James Proudfit, coming here in 1783, was no doubt allowed 
to offer proof, not that he himself had been driven off' in 
1777, six years before he came to Salem, but, as pastor and 
tenant of church property, that his predecessor or the agent 
of the church had been obliged to leave. It may be thought 
strange that the two parties, loyalists and Federalists, Tories 
and rebels, could both furnish the same kind of proof, and 
have their titles confirmed, and both be released from (juit- 
rent for the same reason. It will easily be seen that, in a 
certain sense, both coh/i/ furnish the evidence, and no doubt 
conscientiously. The Unionists in arms against the king 
were directli/ driven off by the approach of the Rritish 
army and their allies. The loyalists had been obliged to 
leave indirecl/i/ for the same reason. The incursion of the 
enemy brought on a crisis in which — obliged to choose be- 
tween the rebels and the king, and choosing in favor of the 
latter— they had been compelled to leave. The difficulty 
of the times is illustrated by the story of one settlor whose 
house was visited by a party demanding to know whose 
side he was on. Thinking it a matter of prudence to give 
a cautious answer, he replied, " On the Lord's side." But 
the parties persisting, and asking again whether he was for 
the king, he replied, "Yes, I am for the King of kings." 
Failing to extract a political opinion from him, they left 
him undisturbed in his Scriptural meditations. 

As to the proof required for which quit-rent might be 
discharged and title confirmed, there was no doubt a dispo- 
sition on the part of the State authorities to conciliate and 
therefore harmonize existing difficulties. Men whose worth 
and integrity as citizens were unquestioned had taken sides 
in favor of adhering to the crown, — retaining the allegiance 
of their fathers, — and it was not deemed best to ostracize 
and drive from the country men of that stamp. 

The term " actuaUi/ resided" must also be construed in 
a .somewhat general sense. A man claiming two lots, upon 
one of which he lived and the other a wild, unsettled lot, 
no doubt brought them both in under the same term. 

Subject to these explanations, and interpreting the lan- 
guage of the certificates somewhat liberally, these schedules 



must be considered a reliable statement of the actual citi- 
zens of this town before and in the Revolutionary war 

1767 to 1777. 

Men of other towns and other patents could not well 
have been included to any great extent in these lists. 

The numbers attached to the names indicate the lots of 
the Turner patent. The acres in the original document 
are omitted hei'e. 

PiiRsesiiora Ntimliers of 

of LhiiiI. the Luts. 

Jolin Armstrong 1 40 iqi 

Thomas Armstrong J "' 

James Armstrong 129 

Wra. Beatty 154 

John Blakely 226, 250 

Bartholomew Bartlett 29i) 

Joseph Bartlett 274 

Wm. Bell 3'J 

Eliz. Boyd 256 

Thomas Boyd 12.^ 

Wm. Boyd 13.3 

Wm. Brown ...219, 220 

John Beatty 146, 221, 220 

John Beatty, Jr 156, 157 

Nathaniel Carswell I to ci le 
* I ry 1, ^ ...52, 51, 45 

Abner Carswell J ' ' 

Joshua Conkey 153. 63 

-Kobert Clark 229 

Benjamin Cleveland 1^ 3 

Palmer Cleveland J! ' 

John Chambers 24 

Thomas CoUancc 247 

Samuel Covenhoven....s„^... 193 

John Conner 295 

James Craig 204 

James Crossett 80 

George Cruikshank 108 

John Duncan 237 

David Edgar 60 

Elisha Fitch 219 

Wm. Feral 36 

James Gault 224 

Jane Gibson 31 

Samuel Gillis 40 

Ebenezer Getty 170 

Alexander Gaiilt 88, S4, 82 

Robert Getty 7 

i"\?'^.Yr \ 11'. 1« 

pJathanicl Gray J ' 

George Gun 167 

Calvin Gault 16 

John Gray, Jr 89 

Robert Gilmore..,. 83 

John F. Gault Ill 

John Harsha 69 

David Hanna 30 

Samuel Hopkins | 13" l^s 

Nathaniel Hopkins] ' 

Allen Hunsden 

James Henderson 152 

William Huggins 133 

John Henry 86 

Richard Hoy 48 

Wm. Hoy 44 

Isaac Linoey 37 

John Lyon 98 

Moses Lemmon 61 

John Livingston 179 

Robert Lowdon 158 

John Lytic 92 

Andrew" Lytic 191 

Thomas Lyon 121 

Edward Long 160, 40 

John McCartor I ,,, 

Samuel MeCarti-r f "- 

James MoFarland 84 

Wiii. M,-CI.Mrv 184 

Jauifs .\Io..r..". 276, 265 

Jolm McJlicbael 59 


Washington, J *** 
" I do hereby certify that the above-named persons, of the county 
of Washington, have given me satisfactory proof that they actually 
resided on the respective farms named to their names in the division 
of a patent of twenty-five thousand acres of land, originally granted 
to Alexander Turner and twenty-four others on the 7th day of .August, 
1764, ami that on account of the late war they were respectively 

Posspssora Numbirs of 

of Liiiul. tile Lots. 

Joseph McCrackcn, Jr 53 

Hezekiah Murdoch 101 

Hamilton McCollister 190 

Daniel MuNitt 73 

Daniel Mattison 58 

William Moncrief.Jr 32 

William McCov 44 

William Moocrief, Sr 41, 48 

Hugh Muncricf 28 

Ale.-Lander McNish 19 

David Muchelnea 141 

Samuel McCraoken 214 

Robert McMurray 230 

David Matthias..' 44, 60 

Matthew McClaughrey 1 ,- ,<, 
Thomas McClaughrey J -'^' '" 

Andrew McClaughrey 34 

Wm. Matthias 140 

James Moor, Sr 279 

John McMillan 297 

Hugh Moor 278 

Potter McDuugall 220 

Moses Martin I 

Aaron Martin j ^-^ 

Robert Matthias 32 

Joseph Nelson 104 

Thomas Oswald 228, 190 

Robert Orr 127 

James Ramagc 272, 273 

James Rowan 141, 138 

Wm. Rogers 173 

John Rowan, Esq 198 

James Rogers 160 

Andrew Robinson 176 

John Rowan, Jr 194 

Robert Stewart 26 

William Sloan 217 

Edward Savage, Esq 100, 15 

Margaret Savage 99, 18, 6 

Abner Stone 205 

John Steel 6 

James Stewart 95 

Ale.vandiT Stewart 47 

Alexander Simson 11 

James Stevenson 167 

David Scott 102, 109 

Joseph Slaraw 48 

Wm. Smith 198 

Thomas Steel 299 

Abraham Turner 10 

Wm. Thompson 22 

Josej)h Tomb 57 

Alexander Turner 9.3, 22 

Alexander Turner, Jr 50 

Reuben Turner 49 

Jennet Thomas 160, 159 

James Thompson 75 

Joseph WilKson 178 

Nathan Wilison 145, 135 

Patrick Wilison 1 j-j j-j. 

Nathaniel Wilison J ' ' 

Thomas Williams S3 

S.amuel Wilison 76 

David Webb 258 

John Williams 167, 77, 209 

Leonard Webb 235 

Siimucl Wright 196 

Alexander Wright 27 

obliged to quit thoir said farms by the invasion of tho enemy, as 
witness my hand this 24th day of January, 1789. 

" Davib Hopkins, 
" One 0/ Ihc Jiirlget 0/ the Court of Common I'lenn 
fur the County of WuMnglon. 

" Albany, January 24, 1789. 
" I certify that the within is a true copy of a certificate and sched- 
ule signed by David Hopkins, Esq., one of the judges of coinmoa 
pleas for Washington county, and I do further certify tho several 
persons therein named are free from paying all past as well as future 
quit-rents for the number of acres opposite their respective names. 


"State Auditor." 

A year later there is a similar list, as follows : 

Possessors Nultihers of 

or I.utid. the Luta. 

Thorn is Armstrong 122 

Robert Armstrong, Jr 130 

John Armstrong, Jr 42, 43 

John Armstrong 125, 131 

Thomas Beatty ) !i.> 1-. 

William Realty } ''*''' ^^* 

Samuel Beattv 218 

Robert Boyd.'. 192 

John Boyd 128 

Moses Bartlett 234, 238 

Joseph Bartlett 203, 267 

Mo.<es Bartlett, Jr. ) „-„ 

Bartholomew Bartlett, Jr. J ''"^ 

James Clark, Jr 237 

John Cooper 110 

John Crossett 245, 242 

Benjamin Cleveland, Jr 115 

David Cleveland 116 

John Crossett, Jr 66, 67 

Abel Cleveland 106 

Wm. Cruikshank 113, 114 

James Craw 139 

Samuel Covenhoven 282, 183 

Reuben Cheney 98 

Lemuel Clapp ) 3^2 

Stephen Clapp J 

Asa Cleveland 250 

John Crossett.... 134, 144 

Ebenezer Clark 161, 163 

Aimer Dwelly 283 

Silas Estee 243, 248 

Asa Eastey 257 

Pelatiah Fitch, Jr 54 

Wm. Graham, Jr 269 

John Graham 266, 288 

John Graham, Jr 289 

George Guthrie 201 

'John Guthrie 105 

Samuel GarabiU 175 

Joshua Gates 71. 72 

Samuel Gambill 232 

.Tames Gambill 181, 185 

James Gault 210, 211 

William Henderson 20, 26 

Benjamin Harvey 91 

Hugh Henry 74 

James Henderson 154, 159 

James Hopkins 202, 206 

Samuel Hopkins 207 

George Hopkins 203 

Timothy lUth 292 

John llarsha 168, 169 

Allen llunsden 253, 260 

John llunsden 261, 262 

Andrew Jackson 290 

Alexander Kenaday 199, 200 

Joseph Lyon 21 

.Tohn Law 264 

John Law. Jr 263 

John Linnin 149 

Francis Lamon 213 

John Lamon 215 

Samu<d Lamon 116 

Moses Lamon 218 

William Lamon 222 

Thomas Lyon 275, 282 

Samuel Lyon 240 

John MeCleary 217 

JohuM.-Nitt 5 

Moses Martin, Jr. { g- 25 

Martin Dessably J 

Elizabeth McCollister 15, 17. 

Ebenezer Henderson 18, 29. 

Possessors Nunili'^r.-' of 

of I-nu(l. tlie Lots, 

Daniel MoFarlan 1 241 

James McFarland 246, 247 

Henry Matthews 233, 214 

Hugh Hartin 268 

Wm. Matthews. Jr 236 

Matthew McWhortor 162 

John McWhorter 16, 14 

John Mc.VIurray 225 

John .\1oorc 9 

John McAllister 62 

Mary McAllister 63 

Alex. McNitt, Jr 23, 46 

Daniel McClearv 118, ISO 

John McClearv, Jr 119 

John Moor, Jr 78 

John May 188 

John Martin 85 

Alexander McDonald 150 

John -McDonald 264 

James Moor, Jr 249 

Hugh Moor 279, 291 

James Moor 255 

John McCollister ) «f., 

M. Conkey ( ■"" 

Adam Martin, Mill lot. 

ArchibaldMcCoUister 232 

Wm. Moncrief 124 

John McMillan 300, 303 

John McFarland 251, 252 

John Mains 230 or 216, 239 

James Mills 102, 103 

Alexander McDonald 189, 197 

John Nivins 164, 165 

John Nivins, Jr 16« 

Robert Orr 193 

James Proudfit 79 

Robert Penall 94 

Robert Penall, Jr 94 

Hugh Penall 87 

Christopher Page 281, 289 

Abraham Rowan 142 

Wm, Rowan 195 

Stephen Rowan 212 

David Rice 270 

David Rude 273, 271 

Alexander Simson 1, 3 

James Simson 2 

Alexander Simson, Jr 8 

Thomas Steel 254 

Aaron Stone 126 

Aaron Stone, Jr 127 

Henry Smith 283, 284 

Ebenezer Sulley 293 

James Tomb 69 

Wm. Thompson 223, 156 

Wm. Thompson, Jr 157 

David Tomb 66 

John Tomb 65 

.Tames Thompson 81 

James Takles 278, 280 

David Thomas 79,68 

John Williams Turner 55, 56 

Joseph Wright 298 

Alexander Wright 269 

.Toseph Welsh 90 

John AVillson 69, 70 

Samuel Wright 184 

Amas.x Wheeler 287, 288 

Ephraim Wheeler 291, 298 

John Webb 242 

Lewis Williams 82, 96 

Patrick Wilison 172, 174 



"County op 1 
Washington, J * 
" I do hereby certify that the above-named persons, of the county 
of Washington, have given me satisfactory ])roof that they actually 
resided on the respective farms named to their names in the division 
of the patent of twenty-five thousand acres of land, originally granted 
to Alexander Turner and twenty-four others on the seventh day of 
August, 1764, and that on account of the late war they were respect- 
ively obliged to quit their said farms by the incursions of the enemy, 
as witness my hand this 24th day of December, 1789, 

"Alexander Webstek, 
" One of the Jiulgei ../ the Court of Common Pleas 

for Wuahington Cunnlij." 

"AiiniTou's Office, New York, 
"4th March, 1790. 
"I do hereby certify that the persons mentioned in the foregoing 
certificate are thereby exonerated from paying all past quit-rent for 
the number of acres set opposite their respective names, amounting 
in the whole to twelve thousand three hundred and sixty-seven acres, 
in the before-mentioned patent. 


"Slate A utlilur." 

This differs from the first certificate by leaving out the 
words " as well as future quit-rents." This may, however, 
be an omission of the town clerk copying the document, 
for it is probable one party who could swear to the same 
thing, would obtain the same terms as the other. 

These schedules comprise one liundred and twenty family 
names; two hundred and eighty-two jn-oprietors. The 
number of faiuilies would be considerably greater than the 
former number, and somewhat less than the latter. 

Of the family names the following ten appear attached 
upon recent township maps to the same lots as their ances- 
tors are certified to have resided upon a hundred years ago: 
Boyd, 123 ; Beattie, 145 ; Carswell, 52 ; Ciuikshank, 108 ; 
McClaughrey, 38; Beattie, 218; Thompson, 223; Hop- 
kins, 206 ; Law, 264; McCleary, 118; Thompson, 156; 
McCleary, 119; Williams, 96. 

In the family notes given at another place it will appear 
that still other families are now upon the homesteads of 
their ancestors. 

Comparing those schedules with the last assessment-roll, 
1877, it appears that the following fifty-seven other names 
of the ante revolutionary families are still found in town, 
and in many cases in the same neighborhoods, and very near 
to the same lots attached to the names in 1789 : Edgar, 
Duncan, Fitch, Craig, Conner, Cleveland, Hanna, McMurray, 
Scott, White, Rogers, Wilson, Steele, Moore, McNitt, 
Brown, McMillan, Clark, McFarland, Martin, Lytic, McAl- 
lister, McNish, Armstrong, Law, Moncrief, Lyon, Nelson, 
McArthur, Gray, Campbell, Bartlett, Conkey, Craig, Gibson, 
Sillis, Lyon, Lytic, McCarter, Moore, Murdock, McNish, 
Robinson, Rice, Stewart, Simpson, Stevenson, Smith, Turner, 
Thomas, Webb, Wright, Clapp, Jackson, Kennedy, McDon- 
ald, Mills. 

In the of some more common names. Smith, Brown, 
etc., the families of the present may not be descendants of 
the former, and this may be true in other cases, but the 
statement is probably a fair exhibit of the permanence of 
the families. 

It may still further be noticed that this shows fifty-three 
of the old family names to have disappeared from the town, 
but one or two of these are due to a modern change of 
spelling, as McCoUister to McAllister. 

A large number of the fifty-three families are, no doubt, 
represented yet through the descendants of the daughters 
who could tranj-mit the virtves and the property of their 
ancestors, even the old homesteads with all their memories, 
but not the family name. 

We add the following notes re.«ipecting some of the pio- 
neer families who.»e names appear in the various papers 
embodied in this history, viz. : the list of soldiers from the 
rolls of Colonel John AVilliams' Regiment, 1776 to 1777 ; 
list of town officers, 1787 to 1788 ; list of claimants for 
exemption from quit-rent, 1789 ; and some others from early 
church records and miscellaneous soui'ces. 

It is not supposed that these hasty notes arc in every in- 
stance accurate, nor are they in any sense complete, but it 
is hoped they may afford some clue to future writers who 
may desire to compile either public or private history at 
greater length than our limits permit. If errors are found, 
even these may the more surely induce further investigation. 

This brief commentary upon family names will at least 
indicate the wealth of material existing in Salem, and already 
largely gathered by Judge Gibson and Dr. Fitch, well known 
as standard authorities upon this subject. 

And the documents presented here may well induce the 
people to ^»(j«c/((//y su.stain future efforts to place in per- 
manent form not only the interesting annals of early settle- 
ment, the records of social and civil life, but the very 
muniments of title upon which every man's possession of 
his home depends. 


Alexander Turner, of Pelham, Mass., who being the 
first named in the principal grant of lands located in Salem, 
caused the same to be called " Turner's patent," never 
came to Salem to reside, and indeed died shortly after the 
issuing of the grant. 

By his wife, Mary Conkey, had children — Alexander, 
James, Andrew, Daniel, Reuben and Sarah. 

1. Alexander, also a patentee, settled at Salem about 
1765, there remained till 1801, when he removed to 
Homer, N. Y., and there died on the 2d of April, 1835, aged 
ninety years. By his wife, Sarah (Pennell), had twelve 
children born at Salem, viz. : William, Archibald, Mary, 
Sarah, James, Esther, Andrew, who died young, Andrew 
again, Elizabeth, Alexander, Isaac, and Jane. 

2. James Turner, also one of the patentees, settled at 
Salem in 1764, having married Susannah Thomas, by whom 
he had Alexander J., who was the first white male child 
born at Salem, and who married Sarah McCrea, and about 
the year 1800 removed to and settled in St. Lawrence 
county, having a large family, and becoming a man of 
note ; Jeanette, who married General David Thomas, of 
Salem, and their only daughter and child, Jane, married 
George Vail, of Troy; Sarah, who married at Salem, Gen- 
eral Walter Martin, the founder of Blartlnsburg, Lewis 
Co., N. Y. ; James, who married Eleanor Hun.sden, and 
had children, viz. : William W., who settled at Fort Cov- 
ington ; James, long a blacksmith at Salem ; Susannah, 
who married John S. Hunsden, and settled at Shoreham, 

-^ By Hon. James tiibson. 


CouNELirs Lassixr Ali.rn was born in Lansingburg, Re 
Co., N. Y., July 17, 1800. He was the eldest son in a family of eight 
children of David Allen and Elizabeth Lansing, the former a native 
of Fairfield. Conn., born Sept. 22, 1773, and a son of David Allen 
and Sarah Hull, of Fairfield, Conn. ; the former born 1743, the latter 
born 1744, and married Nov. 10, 1768. 

The family of Allen is traced through several generations in this 
country, and are lineal descendants of Gideon Allen, a lieutenant of 
the British army during the reign of Queen Anne. 

The latter, Elizabeth Lansing, was eldest daughter of Cornelius 
Lansing and Hester Vanderheyden, and born in Lansingburg, N. V., 
Sept. 1, 1779. Her grandfather on the paternal side, Abraham 
Jacob Lanson (now Lansing), was born in Holland, April 18, 1720. 

His father, David Allen, was a lawyer by profession ; was admitted 
to the bar of the State of Connecticut; removed to Lansingburg, 
N. Y., in the year 1803 ; rapidly rose in his profession ; was member 
of the Assembly of New York State for three terms, and of the 
State Senate for one term of four years, and surrogate of Rensselaer 
county for one term. He died May 11, 1S20. 

Judge Allen spent his minority until he was fifteen years of age at 
home, receiving the advantages of academical instruction. At that 
age, in the year 1815, he entered Princeton College, N. J., taking 
high rank in his class, and graduating from that institution in the 
year 1818, September 30, with the usual honors. The same fall he 
came to Salem, Washington Co., N. Y., and entered the ofiice of Hon. 
David Russell as a student at law, where he remained for three years, 
and was admitted to the practice of the legal profession in the year 
1821, October. He at once entered upon a partnership with Mr. 
Ilussell, which continued for six years, when he formed a partnership 
with Hon. B. Blair. 

In the year 1828, October 1, he married Miss Sarah H. Russell, 
daughter of Hon. David Russell and Alida Lansing, of Salem. She 
was born May 7, 1806. During the six years Judge Allen was in 
partnership with Mr. Blair he was appointed district attorney, which 
ofiice he retained for nine successive years. He was also during this 
time master and examiner in chancery, appointed by the Senate and 
governor of the State, which ofiice he held for some five years, and 
also brigade inspector of the Sixteenth Brigade of the New York 
State Militia for four years. 

Since the close of his partnership with Mr. Blair, Judge Allen has 
remained by himself in the practice of his profession, rapidly rising 

in influence among the people, and held in high esteem by the mem- 
bers of the legal fraternity for his integritj' of purpose in giving 
counsel, his clear and conclusive elucidation of the law, and for 
his ripe judgment and sagacity foreshadowing the results of litigation. 

He has been a member of the board of trustees of Washington 
Academy for over half a century, and president of the same for some 
twenty years, which position he still retains. 

In November, ISol, he was elected justice of the Supreme Court 
for the Fourth Judicial district of New York State, which office he 
held for eight years. Judge Allen, previous to being elected justice 
of the Supreme Court, was active in the political interests aff'ecting 
his county and State; was early in life a member of the old Demo- 
cratic party, and at the time of the breaking out of the late Rebellion 
became an ardent supporter of the Republican party and the preser- 
vation of the Union. 

He has been connected with the Presbyterian society of Salem ever 
since he came to the place, and trustee of that church for over half 
a century. He was one of the organizers of the old Bank of Salem, 
and director and vice-president of the same during its existence, and 
since the organization of the National Bank of Salem, Judge Allen 
has been its president until May, 1878, when his feeble health com- 
pelled him to resign the duties of the oflSce. He was a member of 
the Constitutional Convention of New York State during the session 
of that body for the purpose of amending the constitution. 

Judge Allen has spent a life of activity in his profession, and 
ranked among the foremost members of the bar of the State in his 
day, and is now one of the old landmarks, pointing back to the 
early days of history in the legal profession of Washington county. 

Judge Allen was a man remarkably quick of comprehension. In 
his professional life was very alert to seize upon the weak points of 
his adversary and fortify bis own, and rarely taken by surprise. His 
generosity, and genial, courteous demeanor, not only to the members 
of the legal fraternity, but to all with whom he came in contact, were 
common characteristics of the judge. His marked recuperative 
power as an advocate, when accidentally placed under embarrassment 
in court, was uncommon, and worthy of note in undertaking to write 
a sketch of his life. 

Judge Allen has three surviving children, viz., Cornelius Lansing 
Allen, a graduate of Yale College of the class of '67; was admitted 
to the bar of the State at Schenectady in 1869, and is, in 1S7S, an 
attorney and connselor-at-law in Salem, N. Y.; Alida, and Kate. 



Vt. '; Eliza, who was brought up in the family of Ebenezer 
Proudfit, and that of his widow, and nian-ied Rev. John 
A. Savage, and Jaw, who married Wesley Piatt. 

James Turner, the first settler at Salem above named, 
died very suddenly at Salem, in February, in the year 


came from Pelham, Mass., to Salem with James Turner 
in 1761, as usually stated. Dr. Fitch does not regard 
this as determined, but considers it safe to state that he 
brought his family in 17()3. He located up the creek 
nearly two miles from the village, on the present Chester 
Billings farm. His children were Richard, who settled in 
Roxbury, Delaware Co., N. Y. ; John, who settled in 
Martinsburg, Lewis Co. ; Elizabeth, who married first 
Amos Saiford, of Salem, and after his death, Daniel Pratt, of 
Lakeville ; Margaret, who married William Miller, and 
moved to Martinsburg; Mary, who married Nathaniel 
Stearns, of Salem ; J]unice, who married Samuel Safibrd 
(brother of Amos), and settled in the vicinity of Caniiilus, 

Of Rev. Charles Conkey we learn that Richard's chil- 
dren were Joshua, of Salem ; Joel, who died unmarried ; 
John, who went to Western N. Y. ; and daughters, Mrs. 
Covel and Mrs. Wm. Montgomery. 

The children of Joshua, son of Richard, were Mrs. 
Jason Williams, Cambridge ; Mrs. Hiram Lewis, Salem, 
now living in Troy ; Rev. Charles Conkey, Salem ; Thomas, 
who died in Hebron; Nathaniel, now of Sandgate; and 
Daniel, who died in Salem in 1876. 

Silas, a brother of the pioneer, came from Pelham near 
the close of the Revolutionary war and settled at Fitch 
Point, erecting clothing-works ; after about twenty years he 
moved to Martinsburg. Of his children only one settled 
in Salem, Mrs. William Fitch. 


came to Salem with Turner and Conkey on their first 
return. If 1761 was the correct date for them, 1762 was 
the year of his arrival. He came as a single man in the 
employ of the others. He located a farm two miles down 
the creek from the village, on the place still owned by his 
descendants. He married a sister of the wife of Joshua 
Conkey. Of his children, two died young; Archibald 
settled in Salem ; Elizabeth, Mrs. Stephen Rowan, of 
Salem; Martha, Mrs. Elijah Mack, of Salem ; John settled 
in Martinsburg; Mary Ann, Mrs. Jesse Mack, of Argyle; 
Hamilton, Jr., moved to Ohio ; Charles settled in White 
Pigeon, Mich. ; William remained on the homestead in 

Judge McCollister, of Chicago, is a grandson of the 


came from Norwich, Conn., to Groton, Mass.; then to 
Halifax, Vt. ; and from there to Salem in 1779. He 
settled on what is now the present place of H. Flowers, 
known as Milliman's Corners. Of his children, Joseph 
remained in Groton; Chester became a sea-captain, and 
finally settled in the West Indies; Pelatiah, Jr., settled in 
Salem ; Elisha first settled in Salem, and afterwards re- 

moved to Leroy, Genesee Co. ; Benjamin settled in Salem ; 
and Asa in Salem. Of his daughters, Lydia became Mi-s. 
David Henderson, of Salem, afterwards of St. Lawrence 
Co.; Elizabeth, Mrs. Aaron Martin, of Salem. Asa Fitch, 
above mentioned, was a member of Congress, 1811-13, — 
the well-known Dr. Fitch of olden times, — and father of 
the now equally well-known Dr. Asa Fitch, Jr. To the 
latter we are indebted for much valuable assistance in the 
preparation of this town history, and for advice upon diffi- 
cult questions respecting dates, persons, and places. 


John Gibson was a sergeant in the Seventy-seventh 
Regiment of Highlanders, which served in America in 
the French and Indian war. He served through the war, 
and received a certificate of his service from Captain Rob- 
ertson, who commanded the company in which ho was a 

He was secretary to the committee of safety of the 
county of Charlotte, now Washington, during the Revo- 
lutionary war;j" and was paymaster of the Rangers in 
said county, commanded by Captain Joshua Conkey. \ 

He received a grant of land for his services in the 
French and Indian war ; but unfortunately the patent was 
located on the " Hampshire grants," and he lost the whole 
of it.§ 

He had a lease of a lot in New Perth from the Rev. Dr. 
Clark, which he held till 178(1. He seems then either to 
have left tlie premises, or been driven therefrom during 
some incur.sion, and never returned, or more jirobably he 
died about 1780, as his wife, Jean Gibson, got the land 
discharged from quit-rent on account of being driven off. || 

He had sons, John, Jr., James, and perhaps Thomas 
and Richard. John and James were both privates in 
Captain Armstrong's company, in Colonel Williams' regi- 
ment of militia, and served at times during the war. 

There was another Gibson family came into the town of 
Salem at a later day. 

James B. Gibson, of English ancestry, born at Johnston, 
near Providence, R. I., and died at Salem, May 10, 1827. 
He was educated at Plainfield Academy, Connecticut, and 
Middlcbury College; admitted as a lawyer in 1806; and 
immediately settled in and commenced the practice of law 
at Salem. He soon after married Margaret, the only 
daughter of Benjamin Townsend, of Hebron, and had 
children, viz. : Frances Ann, who married Jed. P. Clark, 
of Sheldon, Vt., and there died in 1859 ; Horatio, who 
died at Aurora, 111., in 1836; Esther Maria, who married 
Cyrus Stevens, and died in 1836 ; James, who is now a 
practicing lawyer at Salem ; Henry, who became a lawyer, 
settled at AVhitehall, and there died suddenly in 1875; 
William T., who has been largely in the insurance business 
at Indianapolis ; Allen, in the same business at Chicago ; 
and Sarah Margaret, who married Formau IToxie, and re- 
sides in Illinois. 

* 17 New York Land Papers, 71. 

t 2 Journal P. C, 338. 

+ 1 N. Y. Prov. Papers, 174. 

J S^eo return of the survey, IS N. Y. Land Papers, 73. 

11 See Town Records. 




Dr. James Proudfit, the second minister of the Scotch 
church, left eight children : 1st, Dr. Andrew Proudfit, of 
Argyle; 2d, John, a physician, of Norfolk, Va. ; 3d, Dr. 
James, of Philadelphia ; 4th, Dr. Daniel, of New York city ; 
5th, Rev. Alexander, colleague pastor with his father in 
Salem ; 6th, Ebenezer, a merchant, of Saleni ; 7tli, William, 
a farmer, of Saleni ; 8th, Mary, wife of John Reid, merchant, 
of Troy, and afterwards of Whitehall. 

David Tomb, the pioneer and elder in Dr. Clark's church, 
settled on what is now the Smith Barrett place. His sons 
were: 1st, James, who settled on the farm nest south of 
his father ; 2d, John, who inherited the homestead, and 
had an early distillery, finally removing to the vicinity of 
Syracuse ; 3d, Rev. Samuel, pastor of the Presbyterian 
church, Salem ; 4th, Dr. Joseph, of Argylc. 

Dr. Clark, the minister, had two sons, Ebenezer Clark, 
of Argyle, first judge of this county in 1800; Dr. Benja- 
min Clark, who went to South Carolina with his father. A 
daughter, Elizabeth, became Mrs. James Campbell. He 
was a son of Duncan Campbell, first supervisor of Argyle, 
moving afterwards to Greenwich, and finally to Canada. 

Robert Clark, a brother of Dr. Clark, came, it is sup- 
posed, with the colony, and settled on the Stewart farm, 
next south of Deacon James B. Stevenson's. His sons 
were Thomas, a physician, of Argyle, and Robert, also a 
physician, an early resident of Monroe, Mich. 

The pioneers of the Boyd family were three brothers, — 
Thomas, Robert, and John. Thomas settled north of Salem 
village, on the firm now owned by his granddaughter, ]Mrs. 
D. D. McCleaiy. Of his children, William and Robert 
settled in Salem ; John H., a lawyer, at Whitehall. The 
daughters were Mrs. Wm. Chapman, of Franklin county; 
Mrs. James Smart, of Salem ; Mrs. John McAllister, of 
Salem; Mrs. George McMillan, of Argyle. The pioneer 
Robert settled on land adjoining that of Thomas, and left 
two daughters, Catharine and Margaret, the latter becoming 
Mrs. Keracher. John, the third of the pioneer brothers, 
settled where James Moore now lives. There was also in 
town a family of Boyds, distinct from these, one of whom 
was known as John Boyd B., to distinguish him from other 
Johns. Of this family were also Joseph and William. 

The pioneer homestead of the Armstrong family was up 
the turnpike, in the " Bu.shes" district. There were evi- 
dently two, — John and Robert, — and each had a son of the 
same name. 

Benjamin Cleveland, from Rhode Island, came in before 
the Revolution, and settled on the present Solomon Moore 
farm. Of his sons, David and Palmer settled in Pawlet, 
and afterwards went west; Moses, Aaron, and Daniel set- 
tled in Salem, but Moses and Daniel finally went west. 

Job W. Cleveland came .six years later than his brother 
Benjamin, and settled on the farm still in the family. Of 
his son.s, Daniel C. went to Hebron, Job to Wyoming, Ira 
to Ohio, Levi H. remained on the old homestead, now liv- 
ing, and Benjamin, also living, in Salem village. Daughters 
were JMrs. Chester Fernam, of Hebron ; Mrs. Ames Lewis, 
of Rupert; Mrs. Alvin Grey, of Dorset ; Mrs. Elijah Gray, 
of Dorset ; Mrs. Morris Graves, of Salisbury, Vt. ; Mrs. 
Anson Gray, of Dorset. 

Job W., Sr., was a Revolutionary soldier, and was in 
many battles. His son, Benjamin, states that his father 
used to relate that he once heard General Washington ask a 
soldier to move a rail. The man, drawing himself up, re- 
plied, " I am a corporal !" Wa.shington an.swered quietly, 
" Oh, I did not know that," and getting down from his horse, 
immediately moved the rail himself Benjamin Cleveland's 
maternal grandfather, William Clark, was killed at the battle 
of Saratoga. 

Thomas Beaftie came from Ireland, one of Dr. Clark's 
congregation, and settled on the present farm of James 
Smart. Of his sons, John, already married in Ireland, set- 
tled in Salem, David in the Camden valley, Samuel, 
Thomas, Jr., and William, all in Salem ; James died young 
while obtaining an education. One daughter, Jane, became 
Mrs. Riley, went west, later in life returned to Salem, and 
died here. 

John H. Beattie, a grandson of Samuel, is now living in 
Salem. Robert Bsattie, a produce-dealer of Salem, is a 
grandson of Thomas, Jr. Colonel John C. Beattie, an ofiicer 
of Sing-Sing prison, is a grandson of William ; and Samuel, 
a prominent wealthy farmer of Salem, is a grandson of John, 
and resides on a part of John's old homestead. 

Malcolm McNaicyhton was a pioneer of Argyle, coming 
over in the same ship with the McDonalds. His son, Alex- 
ander, came to Saleni at an early day, and exchanged lands 
in Argyle for the farm of John Harsha, the latter removing 
to Argyle. A daughter of Alexander is Mrs. John H. 
Beattie, of Salem. 

John Ilnrslm was a brother (as understood by Ebenezer 
McMurray) of Dr. Clark's elder, who died at Stillwater, 
1765 or '66. 

R'lherl McMurray came in 1774, but was a member in 
Ireland of Dr. Clark's congregation that had come to Salem 
eight years earlier. He settled on what is still known as 
the McMurray farm, two and a half miles south of Salem 
village. Of his children, John settled on the homestead in 
Salem ; Robert, Jr., died young, having marrried a daughter 
of John Whiteside, of Cambridge ; James never married, 
died in 1815, a merchant in Salem ; William, a minister, 
died pastor of Market Street Reformed church. New York, 
in 1835 ; Jane became Mrs. John McCoy, of Argyle; 
Margaret, Mrs. Peter Cruikshank, of Salem ; Nancy, Mrs. 
Thomas Stevenson, of Salem ; Elizabeth and Su.san were 
the first and second wives of Abner Austin. 

Ebenezer McMurray, member of Assembly in 1854, now 
living in Salem, and Dr. Robert McMurray, of New York, 
are sons of John. The latter died at the age of eighty- 
seven, having passed all his life, except the last few months, 
on the farm where he was born. AVilliam McMurray, of New 
York, son of the minister mentioned, was one of the first 
police commissioners of that city under the authority of the 
State, associated with Thomas C. Acton. Robert, a son of 
the Robert who died young, is living on the Whiteside farm 
in Cambridge. 

Ziiccheus Ahoood came from Barre, Mass., about 1804, 
and settled in Salem on the present place of Mrs. McKie. 
He had a large family of children, — Elijah G., Charles, 
Abiathar, Jlrs. Benjamin Cleveland, Cyrus, Anson, Samuel, 
Mrs. Pliny Hall, Mrs. Dr. Turner, and Mrs. T. R. Weston. 




^^t-jt^/ycy ^ A/^--^-^ 

""^ C/y. 



Residence or E.S . SHERMAN, Salem, WASHiNoroN Co f v: 


tiTKo. »vl H fv(»rrj tCo.f'witA Pji 



Charles was a distinguished inventor, once selling the right 
to use an automatic machine for putting hooks and eyes on 
the papers for thirteen thousand dollars in a single town. 
Anson is also an inventor of note. 

Robert Stetcarf was one of the New England men ; set- 
tled about three miles south of Salem, in what is now 
school district No. 4. Of his children, James settled in 
Putnam ; Robert, not married, a merchant in Greenwich for 
a few years ; William settled adjoining the old homestead, 
and died there ; two daughters, Mrs. Joseph Clark and 
Mrs. Chester Billings, of Salem. The latter is still living. 

Alexuiider Steicart, another pioneer, left two sons, — 
David, of Salem, and James, of St. Lawrence countv ; 
daughters, Mrs. White, of Argylc ; Mrs. Blorcy, of Green- 
wich, and the second wife of Abner Carswell. 

Alexander McNlsh was an early pioneer. His father 
came to this town with him, and died at the age of one 
hundred and four ; remembered as a smart, hale old man. 
He went to town-meeting the last spring before he died, 
and voted. Alexander settled on the farm now owned by 
William McNish, a grandson. His children were William, 
who settled in Salem ; Alexander, Jr., who went west ; 
Dr. McNish, who, after practicing several years in Salem, 
also went west ; Sally, IMrs. Thomas Steele, of Salem ; 
Betsey, Mrs. Alexander Steele. Alexander, Sr., was a 
soldier of the Revolution ; at Schuylerville he was shot 
through the shoulder while, with one or two other bold 
spirits, endeavoring to capture horses from the fields just 
before Burgoyne's headijuarters, on the Schuyler farm. 
When wounded he is said to have been carried over the 
river by John Rowan. 

John Linnlit lived a little northeast of the village. Mrs. 
John H. Beattie states that she has heard her father speak 
of John Linnin and wife coming to the old church, the wife 
riding on the pillion, behind her husband, horseback. 

Joseph McGracken was a soldier of the Revolution. He 
lost an arm at the battle of Monmouth. He is intimately 
connected with the early history of Salem. He left three 
sons, — John, David, and Joseph, — who settled in Salem. 
A daughter became Mrs. Nathan Wilson. 

The pioneer McFarlands consisted of two brothers,— 
James and William, — and with them a nephew, — James. 
Another brother of the first two — Daniel — came somewhat 
later. The elder James was a bachelor. The j'ounger 
James had a large faiuily. Of his children, William, James, 
Jr., John, David, Daniel, and Mitchell settled in Salem. 
The latter never married, and another son, Robert, died 
young. Daughters were Mrs. Win. Steele, BIrs. James B. 
Stevenson, Mrs. William H. Stewart, of Salem, and one 
daughter died young. A son of John — James McFarland 
— is a produce dealer in Salem. A son of James, Jr., 
above is a merchant in Salem. William, the pioneer, is un- 
derstood by James B. Stevenson to have settled about three 
miles south of the village, and one son, William, removed 
to Whitehall. Daniel McFarland, the third of the pioneer 
brothers, had one son, — Wm. McFarland, .sheriff of Wash- 
ington county, elected in 1825, and father of John H. 
McFarland, lawyer, of Salem. Another son of Daniel — 
John — settled in Hebron ; unmarried. One daughter, un- 

William, John, and Daniel McCleary, three brothers, 
came over with Dr. Clark's colony. William settled just 
over the line in Rupert, on the farm now owned by the 
ftimily of the late Luther Sheldon. John in Hebron, on 
the farm known in late years as the 'Squire James Wilson 
place. Daniel in Salem, on the farm now owned by Wm. 
and D. D. McCleary. The family understand there was 
also a fourth brother, Tiiomas. 

The sons of William were William, Jr , Thomas, and 
another. William, Jr., married a sister of the Mormon 
prophet, Joseph Smith. 

John, the pioneer in Hebron, had one son, Daniel. 

Daniel, the other pioneer, had two sons, — one who died 
in youth, and John, who settled in Salem. Daughters, — 
INIrs. Chatham, Mrs. Joseph Nelson, Mrs. Turquoine, and 
Nancy, unmarried. 

D. D. McCleary, of Salem, is a son of John, grandson 
of Daniel. 

With reference to John Bhdceli/, I'^benezer Murray states 
that Rev. John B. Dales, of I'hiladelphia, is a connection 
of the Blakely family of old times living in Salem. 

John Rowan came with Dr. Clark's colony, and settled 
south of Salem village, on the farm known in late years as 
the Brown farm. One son — Stephen — settled in Salem, 
and kept a hotel on the site of the present depot. His 
wife was a daughter of Hamilton McColIister, and a son is 
Deacon Archibald Rowan, of Argyle. 

John Rowan (2d), another pioneer, known as " Little " 
John, was also here before the Revolution ; was at the bat- 
tle of Bennington. His place was" Rowan Hill." His sons, 
William and Abram. Daughters, Mrs. David Lytic, Mrs. 
Samuel V. Lytic. The two pioneer Johns were cousins. 

James Rowan, brother of " Little" John, was a third 
pioneer. His sons were Stephen, James, Jr., and Abram. 
The latter known as " Big" Abram. 

Stephen became the distinguished Rev. Dr. Rowan, of 
New York. 

Moses Barftelt lived two and a half miles from Shushan, 
on the present farm of Wm. H. Grocsbeck. His sons were 
Moses and Thomas, — perhaps others. 

Thomas lived where Samuel McArthur now resides, in 
Camden valley. 

William Bell was an early pioneer on the present place 
of Robert Shaw. Daughters were Mrs. Wm. McFarland, 
Mrs. David Edgar, Mrs. King, of Argyle, Mrs. Getty, of 

John Savaye and his sons Edward and James came with 
the New England colony, and were united in the Turner 
patent. They were from Pelham. Edward settled on the 
present Hatch place. James on the place next west. John 
Savage, the father, was a seafiviing man ; had lost one leg 
in the naval service. Edward Savage had one son, John, 
the well-known chief-justice of the State, and one daugh- 
ter, wife of the Rev. Mr. Sweetman, of Saratoga county. 

Of the children of James, Abram settled in Salem ; 
Thomas in Salem, afterwards removed to Argyle. Daugh- 
ters were 3Irs. Edward Riggs, of Argyle, Mrs. Thomas 
Clark, of Argyle, Mrs. Ralph Clark, of Argyle, and Mrs. 
John McMurray, of Salem. A daughter of Ralph Clark 
was the first wife of Schuyler Colfax. 



Dr. James Savage, now of Argyle, i.s a son of Abram, 
and another son was the late Professor Edward Savage, of 
Union College. 

Major Sle.pheii Clopp came from Connecticut before or 
during the Revolutionary war. He was a soldier; won his 
title in the service. His place was the present village of 
Baxterville, and from him it was known a.s Clapp's mills 
for many years, a term that might appropriately have been 
continued to the present time. 

Of his children. Constant settled tlie other side of the 
Kill, in Jackson ; Stephen, Jr., also in Jackson ; Wheeler 
remained at the mills, better known as Colonel Ephraim W. 
Clapp, of the War of 1812, finally removed to Anaquassa- 
cook ; Otis settled in Moriah, Essex county, after being a 
longtime merchant just below South Salem village; Leonard 
H., a merchant of Sulcm village, afterwards removed to 
Pittsford ; Samuel settled in Hebron, kept a tavern ; 
Dwelly now living in Adrian, Michigan. Mrs. Hiram 
Green, daughter of Stephen Clapp, Jr., is the only member 
of the family left in Salem. 

William Mattliews and David Matthews were pioneers 
from Ireland, and settled in the McMurray neighborhood. 
Wm. Matthews and Robert McMurray married sisters. 

David was the father of James M. Matthews, chancellor 
of New York University. 

Samuel Crozier's homestead was a part of the present 
Thomas Steele farm. Of his children, William settled on 
the homestead, and John in Jackson. A daughter was 
Mrs. William Thompson, of Salem. 

Wm. Brown. This name appears in the land certificate 
for No. 219, 220 of the Turner patent. This is just above 
the north end of Cockburn's patent. The name was after- 
wards common farther south in the Camden valley. 

The pioneer, Murtyii, came from Ireland in 1767 or 1768, 
and settled on what is now known as the Smith Brownell 
farm. His name was probably Hugh. He was accident- 
ally killed by the falling of a tree which his two sons were 
chopping. One of his sons, John, removed to New Jersey. 
The other, Hugh, settled in Salem. A granddaughter of the 
younger Hugh, Mrs. Frazier, is a resident of Salem at the 
present time. 

Archibald Gillis settled in Argyle about the time Dr. 
Clark's colony came to Salem. His sons were James, 
Joseph, and John, all of whom settled in Argyle, and one 
daughter, Mrs. Leigh, of Argyle. A son of James now 
resides in Salem. 

Gideon Safford was one of the New England colony. 
He settled on the present farm of Joseph Gillis, in Salem. 
His sons were Chester, Gideon, Nathan, Adin, Thomas, and 
at first settled in Salem ; afterwards scattered somewhat. 
Daughters were 3Irs. John Mclntyre, Mrs. Carswell, Mrs. 
James Turner, Mrs. James Gillis, Mrs. John Bradford, 
Mrs. David Stewart, Mrs. Elias Rhodes. 

John Duncan was an eaily pioneer from Scotland, and, 
according to the account of Miss Jane Duncan, of Salem, 
settled first in Hebron. He had at least two sons ; one died 
on the passage over the ocean. John Duncan, Jr., settled 
in Salem, on the place now owned by David Duncan. John, 
Sr., came with him, and died in Salem. A daughter in 
the original family was Mrs. Mclntyre, of Fort Edward. 

Mathew, Thomas, and Andrew McClaiighrey were three 
brothers, early pioneers. A sister became Mrs. Ebenezer 
Clark. He was cleik of the county of Charlotte, appointed 
May 8, 1777. 

David Thomas was the well-known general of old times, 
proprietor of the Turner farm, or Ondawa House, for many 
years, and father-in-law of George Vaif, the noted agricul- 
turist and stock -grower of Troy. 

John Gray was one of the New England colony from 
Pelham, Mass. He settled in Salem, on what is known 
among the older people as the Harkness place. 

Of his sons, John, Jr., settled in Salem ; Nathaniel also 
in Salem ; later in life removed to western New York ; 
Isaac, in Salem ; one daughter was Mrs. Hulett, of Hartford. 

The children of John, Jr. — William and John — settled 
in Salem. James kept tavern on what is now the John Clark 
place ; afterwards went west ; and another son is Judge 
Hiram Gray, of Elmira. 

Nathaniel Gray, of Camden valley, was a later settler, not 
connected to the preceding family. Of his sons, llossiter 
went west ; Alonzo was a merchant in Salem village for 
many years, and died in 187-4; Curtiss went west; Lyman 
settled in Salem. 

Colonel David Gray, of Camden valley, was of another 
distinct family, as his granddaughter, Mrs. Alonzo Gray, 
supposes. He had a brother, Mathew. Sons of David 
were David, Jr., Levi, William, Clark; daughters, Mrs. 
Hawley, Jlrs. Dr. Holmes, Mrs. Ebenezer Eldridge, Mrs. Dr. 
Wright, of Syracuse. 

Joseph Welsh lived near Salem village in the time of the 
Revolution. It is a story come down in the family, that 
Indians came to their home once and were offered some- 
thing to eat; refusing, they retired, but carried oflF a sheep 
and killed it. 

Ebenezer Russell was from New England, and settled on 
the farm now owned by Warren Burch. Of his children, 
William settled on the homestead ; another son. Dr. Rus- 
sell, of Cooperstown ; a daughter was Mrs. Isaac Powers. 
Ebenezer Russell was a distinguished public man of early 
times, an oflSeer and representative enjoying the confidence 
of the people for a long series of years. 

David Ilanna, one of Dr. Clark's elders, 17G5-1767, 
settled on the farm now owned by Michael Collins. Three 
sons, John, Robert, and David; two daughters, Mrs. 
William Lytic and Mrs. Sproules. John went to St. Law- 
rence county. David to Hebron. Robert remained on the 

William T/iompson, one of Dr. Clark's colony, settled in 
the north part of the town. His sons were William, David, 
and John. 

James Thompson was another pioneer at the .same time, 
and he had one son, James, Jr. 

James Stevenson was from Paisley, Scotland. He came 
to this country just before the ports were closed by the 
opening of the War of the Revolution, the vessel in which 
he sailed being one of the last to make the pa.ssage unmo- 
lested. He settled in Salem, about two miles east of the 
village, on the farm now owned by a grand.son, Thomas S. 
Stevenson. Of his children, James received a classical 
education, became a noted teacher of New Jersey, after- 

^ t ^u J juZF7^Zni\^ -frvv 



This family traces its descent back to the emigrant, James Steven- 
son, who was a native of Paisley, Scotland, and with his wife, Mar- 
garet Brown, came to America, settling in the town of Salem, Wash- 
ington Co., N. Y., in the year 1774, and just as the blockading of the 
liiirbor at Boston began in the beginning of the Revolutionary war. 
The children who emigrated were James, Jenny, and John, there 
being born to them after arriving in this country two sons, David 
and Thomas. 

Mr. Stevenson was one of the first settlers of the town of Salefti, 
and first took up one lot of eighty-eight acres upon which he settled, 
and on which his grandson, Thomas S. Stevenson, now resides, the 
same hind remaining in the family ever since. His first rude log 
cabin, tlie hardships endured to meet the obstacles of pioneer life, the 
embarrassments and dangers through which the family passed on ac- 
count of the presence of the Indians, would fill a volume, and can 
only be referred to in this sketch ; and although, pecuniarily, the 
family had a sufficient competence to secure the home, yet a home 
in the wilderness, the consequent labor in clearing off the forest, estab- 
lishment of school, church, and other kindred interests, required effort 
and resolution characteristic of the ancestry, and in which the grand- 
children are still largely interested. 

Mr. Stevenson and wife were united as members of the Presbyterian 
church established by Dr. Clark in 1765, at Salem, and he was prom- 
inent in the councils of that body; he was an elder in the church 
for many years previous to his death, which occurred in the year 
179S, his wife dying in the year 171*9. 

Of this family of children, James graduated in Columbia College, 
under Dr. Wilson; married Hannah Johnson, of Morristown, N. J., 
by whom he had six children; spent his life as a teacher, and was 
an instructor of wide repute, having been principal of the academies 
of Eli/abethtown and Morristown, N. J. Subsequently going to New 
Brunswick, he was principal of the academy there for some seven 
years, when he came to Salem about the year 1812 and took charge 
of the Washington Academy, which he conducted for some fifteen 
years, and afterwards was at the head of the schools at Canandaigua. 
The balance of his life was spent as a private instructor. He died, at 
the advanced age of eighty-two years, in the year 1843. 

John was a farmer the most part of his life; spent his early life in 
the county of his adoption, but subsequently moved to Steuben county, 
where he died, at the advanced age of ninety years, in the year ISfifi. 

Jenny married George Telford ; resided in the town of Argyle until 
her death. 

David was never married ; lived on the homestead, and died, a 
young man, about the year 1S12. 

Thomas remained on the home^ead ; spent his life as a farmer ; 
was an elder of the Scotch Presbyterian church at Salem for forty- 
five years, being elected and ordained to that office in 1S09, ten years 
after the decease of his father. Elder Thomas Stevenson was a man 
of God, of cultivated intellect and sound Judgment, and one whose 
whole deportment was characterized by simplicity and godly sin- 
cerity. It was frequently said of him, " Behold an Israelite in whom 
there is no guile." He died Feb. 11, 1854, aged seventy-six years. 

His first wife, Nancy McMurray (married 1800), had two children 
(twins), James Brown and Bobert McMurray. She died January, 
1802. Robert M. was educated for a physician, receiving his educa- 

tion at Washington Academy and Castleton, Vt. Practiced his pro- 
fession at Salem for several years, and died at the age of thirty-four 
years. He was a man of much skill and prominence in his profession. 

For his second wife he married Miss Mary Steele, daughter of 
Thomas Steele, of Salem, about the year 1S02, by whom he had two 
children, Thomas Steele and David ; the latter died at the age of eight 
years. Mrs. Stevenson died, at the age of seventy-seven years, 
March 22, 1856. 

James Brown Stevenson was born Dec. 28, 1801 : spent his early 
life on the old farm and at the district school, receiving the advantages 
of the academy at Salem. He at the age of twenty began teaching 
winters, which he followed for some five years. At the age of twenty- 
five he married Miss Martha, youngest daughter of Captain James 
McFarland and Margaret Matthews, of Salem. She was born Aug. 
29, 1807 ; was a woman of purity of life, retiring in her ways, an ex- 
emplary Christian, and received the respect of all who knew her. 
She died Aug. 29, 1855. 

Mr. Stevenson has followed the occupation of a farmer in the town 
of Salem, and by industry and economy secured a sufficient com- 
petence to place him beyond the apprehension of want. About the 
year 1829 he became a member of the chui-cb of his ancestors : shortly 
afterwards was elected and ordained elder of the church, and still 
retains that office. Elder Stevenson is a plain, unassuming man, 
possessed of that integrity of character that graces manhood and 
makes life valuable to others. He has never taken a very active part 
in politics : was first a AA^'hig, but is now a Republican. 

He has had four children ; the eldest died in infancy. Thomas re- 
sides on the homestead with bis father ; married Miss Alida, daughter 
of William A. Russell, of Salem. Is a man active in the political 
interests of his town and county, and has for two terms represented 
his assembly district in the Legislature of the State as a Republican. 

Robert M. is a merchant of Salem, of the firm of R. M. Stevenson 
A Co. : has been supervisor of the town of Salem for two terms, and 
is serving his first term as justice of the peace. 

James M. was a graduate of Union College and of Princeton 
Theological Seminary; of the latter, 1864, and installed as pastor of 
the Second Presbyterian church, Jersey City ; but after a very suc- 
cessful pastorate of six years returned home, where he died in 1871. 
AVas married to Miss Isabella Rich, daughter of Elder James Rich, 
of Delaware county. 

Thomas S. Stevenson was born in the year 1S03, December 17 ; has 
spent his boyhood and manhood on the farm first settled by his 
grandfather on coming to this county. In the year 1S40 he married 
Miss Sarah R., daughter of James Stevenson, who was a son of the 
emigrant. They have no children. Characteristic of Mr. Stevenson 
are his unobtrusiveness, self-denial, modest and unostentatious ways. 
He belongs to that class of men who contentedly and quietly move 
in the circles of society, leaving the busy bustle of the world at one 
side. AVith such men our court-houses would be without use, attorneys 
without labor, and society pure. He is a quiet member of the Re- 
publican party, and has been an unswerving standard-bearer of the 
old Whig party. 

Mrs. Stevenson is a lady of rare, good common sense and culture, of 
great decision of character, and retains remarkable activity of body 
and mind now in her seventy-ninth year, having been born in 1799. 

^A^nri^.J^, Jtmf^TTMrO 

t,^ }}v^, ^m 

RES.& Farm of THOMAS S . STEVENSON, Saum, Washington Co.N.Y. 



wards returning to Salem as principal of the academy. 
John settled in Salem, afterwards a merchant in Hebron, 
and then moved to Bath, Steuben county. IJavid died in 
middle life, unmarried. Thomas settled on the homestead, 
and died there. A daughter was Mrs. George Tilford, of 
Argyle. James B., a son of Thomas, resides in Salem, 
south of the village. 

The pioneer families of Wru/hls were from the north of 
Ireland. Mrs. Archibald, a descendant, st^ites that the 
father of two sons, Samuel and Alexander, came over with 
them, bought each a farm, furnished them with teams and 
farming implements, and bidding them for the future to 
succeed or fail by their own eflForts, set sail for the old 
world again, and was lost at sea on the return passage. Of 
the children of Samuel, Samuel, Jr., settled first in Salem, 
afterwards went to Argyle, and finally to Franklin county. 
Moses settled in Franklin county. Joseph went west. 
Alexander settled in Salem. A daughter of the pioneer, 
Alexander, became Mrs. Andrew Marty n. 

William Cniikshank came from Scotland, about the time 
of the emigration of Dr. Clark's congregation. His wife 
was the widow of a brother of Dr. Clark. He purchased 
a large tract of land in the north part of the town. Of his 
sons, Peter settled in Salem, where Peter, Jr., now lives, 
father of Robert Cruiksliank, postmaster of Salem. George 
moved to Ohio. 

Thomas Steele was from the north of Ireland ; was in 
Salem very early. The tradition of the family is that there 
was only one house in Salem village when he came, that of 
James Turner, on the site of the Ondawa House. He set- 
tled on the Shushan road, on a farm now the property of 
Thomas Steele, a grandson. Of his sons, John, born in 
Ireland, settled in Salem. Joshua, in Salem, on the home- 
stead of his father. Daughters were Mrs. Thomas Steven- 
son, Mrs. Andrew McNish, both of Salem, and Mrs. Rich- 
ard Hoy, who went west. A granddaughter of Joshua, 
Mrs. Frazier, resides in Salem village. 

James Getty was an early pioneer in Salem. The old 
homestead was the place known in later years as the Haw- 
ley farm, southeast of the village. Of his children, Ebeu- 
ezer settled in Hebron. Robert, in Lansingburg. Isaac, 
in Salem. A daughter, Mrs. Duncan JIcNaughton, of 
Argyle. Mrs. John J. Beattie, of Salem, is a grand- 
daughter of the pioneer, and daughter of Ebenezer. James 
Getty's certificate of church membership in Ireland is 
preserved among the papers of the family in Hebron. 

John Conner. — This is the same family name as the 
noted school-teacher and conveyancer of the Camden 

Thomas Collins was a New England man, — though he 
became an elder in the Scotch church. He was a man of 
sound judgment and lived to a great age. One son was 

John Lain, born in 1743, came from Lisburn, Ireland, 
to America in the summer of 1773. His family consisted 
of liis wife and two children. They sailed from Belfast, 
arriving in New i'^ork after a long and tedious voyage. 

After residing about a year in Albany they moved to 
Salem, and settled on a farm a little north of the present 
village of Shushan, now occupied by Oliver Shedd. In 

November, 1784, he purchased of John JIcFarland, for 
one hundred and eighty pounds, lot 205 of Turner's patent, 
in Salem. He ahso owned for a time a tract of two thou- 
sand acres west of Lake George, the tract bearing his name 
in after-years. 

He was appointed a justice of the peace, and an anecdote 
remains of one of his lawsuits. It was a case of assault 
and battery. Robert Simpson, the constable, with the par- 
ties, came to Mr. Law's, and the case opened with the fol- 
lowing address from the court : " Robert, we must make 
ourselves comfortable while this is going on. Y'ou go 
down cellar and draw a mug of cider, and the lads here 
will cut off some sticks for the fire ; and, lads, you had 
better leave your coats in the house, for it is a thick log. 
We want a back-stick and a fore-stick." The plaintiff and 
defendant, laying ofi' their coats, attacked the wood-pile. 
The next official step : " Robert, set the cider on the hearth, 
and just draw in the latch-string ; the lads uae come in till 
they settle." After the axes had been plied vigorously for 
some time the court, through the door, announced the 
terms: "Lads, ye nae get any cider, nor your coats, nor 
come in, till ye settle." And the order was executed. In 
due time they yielded without appeal, warmed up over the 
cider and the fire, and went home. 

Of the children of John Law. Thomas settled at the 
brick house east of Shushan, now occupied by his descend- 
ants ; Isabella became Mrs. James IMcJMorris, of Jackson ; 
John settled first in New Y^ork, and about 1800, returning 
to Salem on account of the yellow fever in the city, he 
opened a store near what is known as the " Red Grocerj'," 
and passed the rest of his life in Salem, his later years on the 
present farm of John S. Sherman ; Robert I. settled on the 
turnpike near Baxterville, was a merchant, came to Shushan 
in the same business, and afterwards succeeded John Law 
in the store at the " Red Grocery," and died on the present 
place of David Law ; Agnes became Mrs. John Irving, and, 
after Irving's death, Mrs. Wm. Monerief 

The sons of Thomas were Robert T., John T., Thomas, 
Jr., and Alexander B. Wm. Law, now of Shushan, is the 
son of John, and the sons of Robert I. were James, Isaac, 
David, — still living on the homestead, — and Edward, in 

Belhuel Chnrch, the pioneer at Shushan as early as in 
or before the Revolution, had two sons, — Bethuel, Jr., who 
lived for many years on the old homestead, finally removed 
to Grand Rapids, Michigan ; Leonard Chnrch, a lawyer at 
Shushan, died only a few years since. Of Leonard's chil- 
dren, A. ]M. lives in Troy, and Mrs. Piser, of Shushan, 
and Mrs. Bartlett are daughters. 

Marcns Liddlc, from Scotland, was an early pioneer in 
Argyle. His son Thomas settled in Salem. Of the chil- 
dren of the l-4^er, George and Thomas are still living. 
Leonard 31. Liddle, merchant, is a son of John, recently 

John iVeviit's pioneer place was the farm now owned by 
John H. Beattie. He had one son, — John, Jr. 

Geoiye Gitnn. — The land-certificate indicates that he 
w:is the owner of lot 1G7, in Blind Buck holl&w, in the 
time of the Revolution. The family of that name were 
principally known as engaged in the lumber business around 



Shushan. Two remembered by Wm. Law were Leander 
and William, probably sons of the pioneer. 

Robert Gilmore was the claimant of lot 83, north of 
Fitch's point, in 1789. 

It is known that John Law, Sr., married for liis second 
wife Widow Elizabeth Gilmore, with nine children, but it 
is not certain that these were of the same family. 

The Ihmsdeii family were connected by marriage to the 
Savage family, John Hunsden's wife being a sister of Ed- 
ward and James Savage. 

The Henderson family removed to Pittstown at an early 
day. Wm. Beattie succeeded to the Henderson homestead. 
One of the farms now owned by the sous of Thomas Law 
was called the.Henderson place. There were several names 
amcmg the pioneers of 1777, — James, Ebenezer, and Wil- 

The Hopkins name is frequent in the early times — very 
extensively in Hebron. In Salem the fiiniilies were in the 
northeast part of the town, near the Vermont line. 

Richard Hoy married the sister of John and Joshua 
Steele ; moved to Ohio at an early day. The Hoy family 
were mostly in Jackson, near the flax-mill west of JIcLean's 

The lands of the J/oncTfV/' family claimed in 1789 were 
in the Upper Black creek district, Nos. 32, 41,48; also 
124 at the peat marsh. A descendant in after-years oc- 
cupied the farm south and adjoining the farm of A. B. 
Law, at Shushan. The pioneers seem to have been Hugh 
and William. Hugh'.s homestead, the present William J. 
Hanna place; and his children, Coburn, John, William 
II., Hugh, Jr., James, Mrs. William Pierce, Mrs. Priudle 
Hebron, and another daughter, Hebron. The pioneer, 
William, had one son, William, Jr. The homestead was 
the present William McKinTiey place. 

Daniel Madison is supposed by Mrs. John H. Beattie 
to have been an early school-teacher. His homestead wa.s 
the AV. Barnsey place. No. 58. 

Alexander McDonald was a pioneer. He owned lot 
150 ; sons were Alexander, Jr., James, Isaac. The first 
was an early teacher. 

Matthew Mc Whorter was a son-iu-law of James Turner. 
His place was lot 162. 

James 3Ioore was an early pioneer, at the southeast 
corner of the town. He had two .sons, James and Hugh. 
The latter lived on the farm now owned by John S. Fos- 
ter, and kept a hotel. A long litigation is spoken of 
between the Moores and the proprietors, Church and others, 
owners of the water-power at Shushan. It is said that the 
two brothers, Hugh and James, were opposed to each 
other in the war times, — one loyalist, the other Federalist. 

The Smiths were very early settlers in the Camden 
valley. William, in 1789, was a claimant on Turner's 
patent for 198, nearly adjoining Cockburn's patent, and 
Henry Smith, for 283 and 284, on the Batten Kill, above 

The Simpson family were settlers of Jackson. Robert, 
the constable of John Law's early court, was from that 
side of the kill. Two distinct families were in this section, 
the one Simpson, the other Simson. 

John Livingston, claiming lot 179, John Maines, 239, 

and Benjamin Harvey, in 1789, wore probably Hebron 
men, either then or soon after. The latter became a Bap- 
tist preacher at the age of eighty, preached in the Taber- 
nacle, New York, when he was one hundred and twelve, and 
died in Western New York, at one hundred and fourteen. 

The Dwelly family were at Clapp's mills, and were con- 
nected to the pioneer Clapp. Abner Dwelly wa.s a claim- 
ant, in 1789, with Henry Smith, to lot 283, above Baxter- 
ville, on the kill. The family afterwards settled in Green- 

William Graham and John Graham each had a son of 
the same name. They lived north and east of Shushan, 
as will be seen in the certificates ; claimants, in 1789, to 
lots 2G6, 2G9, 288, 289. A sister of the pioneer brothers 
Law, Mary, married a Clark, and her daughter, Elizabeth, 
was the wife of John Graham, Jr. 

Robert I'ennell was an early pioneer in the Camden 
valley. The family all left town before 1815. 

Christopher Page. His homestead was near the " Red 
Grocery," and the family moved away at an early day. 

Andreto Jackson lived in the Black creek district, and 
was connected by marriage to the McNitt family. 

David Rice, a laud claimant for No. 270, just east of 
Shushan, was connected with the Eldridge fiimily, and is 
supposed to have soon after removed to Cambridge. As 
the certificates required satisfactory proof of actual resi- 
dence in the Burgoyne campaign, he must have been 
located liere for a time. 

Daniel Rood's homcfytend was the present farm of Thomas 
Kerslake. A family of the same name lived in after-years 
on the farm now occupied by Archibald Armstrong. 

John McCarters homestead was in Hebron ; Samuel's, 
the farm now owned by John McKeever ; Robert's, the 
present place of William SlcClary. They were three 
brothers, — pioneers. 

J'Jphraim Wheeler was an early settler at Baxterville, 
connected to the Clapp family, a son of the latter, Colonel 
Ephraim W., bearing his name. Two sons were Amherst 
Wheeler and Paul Wheeler. The latter removed to Wis- 

Ja)nes Gambill, claiming lot 232, in 178P, George 
Guthrie, 201, and Joseph Nelson, 104, were evidently 
Hebron men either then or soon after. 

The McArthur family were in the Camden valley, near 
the southeast corner of the town, and deseeudants are still 
in that neighborhood. 

Jonathan Barber was an early tavern-keeper at Centre 
Falls, Greenwich. About 1800, James Barber lived on a 
part of the present farm of John Sherman. 

Jolin Dnidap may have been the minister of that name 
in Cambridge. A son of the latter was John L. Dunlap, 
for many years a physician at Shushan. 

Abner CarsiccU's sons were Ira, David P., and Abner, 
Jr. The latter died young. Mre. James McDaniel was a 
daughter. The old homestead was the present Russell 
Smith place. Abner, the pioneer, was a soldier of the 
Revolution, and he had a brother David taken prisoner. 

Nathaniel Carswell was another early settler, a black- 
smith. Of his children, John A. went west, was sheriff of 
Racine county, Wis. ; Nathaniel Jr. also went west. His 



daughters were Mrs. Adams Lytle, Mrs. John Chamber- 
lain, and one unmarried still living in Hebron. 

Daniel Coon, an orderly sergeant of the Revolution, 
settled on the farm now owned by a great-grandson of the 
same name. His sons were Rufus, Samuel, and John. 
Daughters, ]\Irs. General Wm. Root ; Mrs. Wm. Getty, 
Hebron ; Sarah, married a Merrill, and for a second hus- 
band Stephen Rowan. The present owner of the farm is 
a grandson of Rufus by his son Thomas. 

John McMichacVs homestead was the present John 
Dillon farm. Sons were John and James. 

The McNilt homestead was the present Woodard farm. 
His sons, Daniel, known as the deacon, and Alexander, 
who went west. Daughters, Mrs. Thomas McClaughrey, 
Mrs. Whipple, Mrs. Thompson. Daniel was the father of 
Captain James. 

Alexander Sunsons homestead was the present Barkley 
farm. One son, Alexander Jr. Daughters, Mrs. Jacob 
McEachron, Mrs. David Carswell. 

Thomas Oswald lived in the east j)art of the town. His 
sons, George, James, Thomas, all moved away in early 

John Morey, a soldier of the Revolution, from Orange 
county, settled in 1785 on the present Chester Martin 
farm. April 1, 1792, changed to the homestead now 
owned by his grandson. Sons, John, Erastus, Matthew, 
Christopher. John went to Camillus, N. Y., Erastus to 
Iowa. Daughters, Mrs. Dratt, Mrs. Dr. James Turner ; 
Thankful and Julianna, unmarried. Tlie present owner is 
a son of Christopher. 

David Edgar was from Scotland, one of Dr. Clark's 
colony, 1765 to 17(57 ; settled on what is known as the 
Gray farm, now owned by B. B. Blair. Sons, D.ivid, Jr., 
Joseph, Robert. The last two went west about 1820 ; tlie 
former to Canada. A daughter was Mrs. James Burnett, 
of Shaftsbury. The latter came to Salem in 1803, and 
was killed in 1805, by being thrown from his horse. He 
had three sons. Andrew and Robert went west. John 
Burnett resides on his father's homestead, at an advanced 
age. His active mind, retentive memory, and clear state- 
ments have been of great assistance in preparing many of 
these notes. 

John McAllister was from Ireland. His homestead was 
the present place of James Ferguson. Of his children, 
Ebenezer, Dr. Archibald, and John, Jr., settled in Salem. 
Daughters, Mrs. Collins Whitehall, Mrs. Wm. McFarland 
(he was known as Yankee Billy), Mrs. Alvin Goodrich, 
Mrs. Ross, of Argjle. 

Thomas Baker, who was in the Revolutionary army, 
settled on the present Owen Smith farm. Sons were Asa- 
hel, Nathaniel, and Thomas, Jr. Daughters, Mrs. Wm. 
II. Moncrief, and there were others who went west. 


In securing the following special items upon this section 
of the town, we arc indebted to the courtesy of David V. 
T. Qua for the use of valuable papei-s in liis poissession and 
copious notes made by him as a member of the town his- 
torical committee, which was appointed in the spring of 
1S7G, consisting of Hon. James Gibson, Dr. Asa Fitch, 

William Law, Esq., Hon. John McDonald, and David V. 
T. Qua. 

Land Grants Inj the King. — May 19, 1770, a. patent fur 
two thousand three hundred acres of land was issued "by 
his majesty. King George the Third, to Bjnjamin Tinnoson, 
Moses Ibbet, Joseph Lawrence, John Watts, John Andrew 
Castroft, John Brodie, Muir Trotter, lati .sergeants, John 
Wesield, late corporal, George Goodshield, late drummer, 
Samuel Baines, William Fisher, John McPherson, Patrick 
Leary, Martin Askill, Timothy Hough, Casper Latlicrraan, 
Godfrey Ilarpest, John Brown, Herman Snow, Peter Li- 
braugh, Stephen Chasey, David Hartshorn, Patrick Mul- 
rany, William Blair, Martin, John Welch, George 
Younkers, John Clifford, and Donald Mclnnis, late private 
soldiers of our regiment of foot." 

The land is described as lying adjoining, and ea-st of 
what is known as Alexander Turner's patent, and the 
boundaries are as follows : 

•• Begins at a small beech tree on the west bank of Batten Kill, 
marked D. S. and I. JI., distant thirty-one chains and two rods on 
a course north forty degrees east from a hejniock tree or saplinj; 
standing on the south side of said kill, marked by ArchibaM Camp- 
bell, in .July, 1705, with the letters I. C. for the northeast corn':r of a 
tract of land granted to Ryan .Sebenncrhorn and others, and runs 
from said beech tree north twelve chains and two rols: then west 
forty chains : then north sixty-five chains and sixty-three links ; then 
east forty chains; then north one hundred and twonty-fivo chains and 
eighty-seven links; then west seventy chains to the east bounds of 
Turner's patent; then along the said east bounds of said patent to the 
Batten Kilt ; then up the stream of said kill, as it winds and turns, to 
the beech tree or place of beginning. Containing two thousand three 
hundred acres, with the usual allowance for highways." 

This is the original Carabden tract, and the name Caiub- 
den, in late years written Camden, seems to have been given 
to it either by Duane or the colonial authorities, as the 
name Camden is not among the patentees, nor does there 
seem to be anything in connection with it in this country 
to originate the name. It is an old English name. 

These lands became the property of James Duane in two 
or three years after they were granted by the king. 

May 23, 1770, under authority of Lieutenant-Governor 
Colden, the surveyor-general, Alexander Golden, surveyed 
and laid out for Archibald McFarland, late private soldier 
in his majesty's Sixth Regiment of foot, and John Foy, late 
private soldier in one of his majesty's independent compa- 
nies, a tract of land north of the Batten Kill, adjoining and 
east of the Camden tract, containing one hundred acres, 
with the usual allowance for higliw;iys. 

May 23, 1770, two hundred and fifty acres, north of 
and adjoining this land of Archibald McFarland and John 
Foy, was granted to Ross McCabe. Philip Kihier, late of the 
Eighteenth Regiment, John Swift, and Charles Rams;iy, 
late of the Sixtieth Regiment, and Thomas Eaton, late of 
the Forty-sixth. 

May 23, 1770, one hundred acres of land east of and adjoin- 
ing the lot of two hundred and filly acres described above, 
and extending to the Vermont lino, were granted to Edwjird 
Rogers and Crismus Howell, late private soldiers of hi.s 
majesty's Sixtieth Regiment. 

May 23, 1770, a tract of two hundred acres west of and 
adjoining the McCabe lot of two hundred and fifty, and ex- 
tending to the Turner patent, was surveyed for John Crab- 



tree, late sergeant in Lis majesty's Thirty-fifth Regi- 

June 12, 1775, a tract, containing seven hundred acres 
lying north of the Batten Kill and east of the so-called 
Camden tract of two thousand three hundred acres, and ex- 
tending to the Vermont line, was granted to William Blax- 
well, "gentleman, a reduced deputy commissioner of stores, 
having served in North America during the late war." Also, 
in the same patent to the same William Maxwell, a tract 
of eleven hundred and fifty acres farther north, comprising 
what appears on recent township maps as the north part of 
the Camden valley. 

The first tract of seven hundred acres now constitutes the 
farm of David Law and Almond Sweet, and has passed 
down from the original patentees with few changes. 
Though described as north of the Batten Kill, yet there 
seems, from the original papers in the possession of Wm. 
Law, of Shushan, to have been a small tract patented to 
Munro between the seven hundred acres and the kill. 

The several tracts thus far described constitute the tri- 
angular portion of the town southeast of the great Turner 
patent. There was apparently some interference in these 
grants. The patent to Trotter, and another marked Innis 
on the map, were on the Camden patent of two thousand 
throe hundred acres. This may have been due to the pur- 
chase of soldiers' rights beforehand by the patentees of the 
two thousand throe hundred acres, and therefore no real 

As already stated, James Duane purchased in a short 
time the Camden tract, and, according to the subsequent 
papers, he also became the owner of two other small lots, 
one a hundred acres, the other fifty. It is not exactly 
clear where the last two were, but they may have been the 
strip south of the Maxwell patent of seven hundred acres, 
and known as Munro 's. 

The lands acquired by James Duane^ under a leasehold 
tenure, were granted by him, reserving a perpetual annual 
rent of sixpence per acre, to Philip Embury. Tiiis docu- 
ment, written on parchment, is in the possession of BIr. Wil- 
liam Edie, now residing on what was the Philip Embury 
homestead. The lease is dated May 1, 1773. James 
Duane is named as party of the first part. Philip Embury, 
Esq., David Embury, Paul Heck, John Dulmage, Edward 
Carscallon, Peter Sparling, Valentine Detler, Abraham 
Bininger, Peter Miller, and Nathan Hawley, farmers, and 
Elizabeth Hoffman, widow, in trust and for the Uise of her- 
self and her children, all of West Camden, parties of the 
second part. 

The lands are described as in the township of West Cam- 
den, and granted by his majesty in three separate tracts, 
known as 1st lot, 2d lot, and 3d lot. The 1st lot, the 
Camden tract of two thousand three hundred acres ; the 
2d lot, fifty acres ; the 3d lot, two hundred acres, — the last 
two adjoining the Camden patent. 

The rent was payable on the first day of May in each 
year. The grantees, before signing this paper, executed 
an agreement (endorsed upon it) stating the respective 
amounts of land each was to have. Philip Embury, one 
hundred and eighty-seven and one-half acres ; Peter Spar- 
ling, one hundred and eighty-seven and one-half; David 

Embury, three hundred and seventy-five ; Edward Carscal- 
lon, tliree hundred and seventy-five ; Abraham Bininger, 
two hundred and fifty ; Paul Heck, two hundred and fifty ; 
John Dulmage, two hundred ; Elizabeth Hoffman, one 
hundred and seventy-five ; Valentine Detler, three hundred 
and twelve and one-half; Peter Miller, one hundred and 
twenty-five ; Nathan Hawley, having the right of the 
widow Moore, one hundred and nineteen and one-half 

This document not only considerable value for 
the purpose of explaining land-titles, but also much of his- 
toric interest, as the principal grantee was the founder and 
apostle of American Methodism ; and his autograph, writ^ 
ten one hundred and five years ago, leads the list of signa- 
tures. Here, too, may be seen the autograph of Abraham 
Bininger, one of the earliest Moravian ministers in the 
United States, and whose descendants were mainly instru- 
mental in sustaining for many years a church of that faith 
in the Camden valley. 

The names of John G. Leake, John Roberts, Jr., John 
Dulmage, and John Embury are appended as witnesses. 
A bond was attached, by which Duane was required to 
give separate conveyances to each of the grantees for their 
respective amounts of land, whenever a map executed at 
the expense of the grantees should be completed. The 
rent of these lands having fallen in arrears, new leases wore 
given, reserving an annual rent of six pounds of wheat 
per acre. 

A memorandum of the names and location of the lessees 
shows quite fully the early settlers of 1796 to 1800 : 

Lots 1, 2, 3 were leased to Peter Switzer, the farm now 
occupied by William Eddie. Lot No. 4 to John Patterson, 
a part of John L. Sherman's present farm. Lots Nos. 5 
and 6 to John Bininger, constituting now portions of the 
farms of John L. Sherman and Edward G. Fleming. No. 
7 to Jacob Patterson, a part of the present Fleming farm. 
Nos. 8 and 9 to IMichael McCabe, now a part of Sidney 
Ru.ssell's farm. No. 10 to Michael McCabe, now a part 
of John L. Sherman's farm. No. 11 to Jacob Patterson, 
now a part of John L. Sherman's farm. No. 12 to John 
Patterson and Jacob Archer, now a part of Samuel Mc- 
Arthur's farm. No. 13 to John Patterson, now a part of 
Abner West's fiirm. Nos. l-t and 15 to James Archer, 
now James Murphy's farm. Nos. 16 and 17 to Robert 
Montgomery, now divided into small wood-lots. No. 18 
to John Mack, now occupied as wood-lots. No. 19 to 
David Patterson, now a wood-lot. No. 20 to Robert Mont- 
gomery, now divided into wood-lots. No. 21 to David 
Gray, now occupied as wood-lots. No. 22 to William 
Cristy, now Ebenezer Austin's farm. Nos. 23, 24, 25, 20 
to James Wier, a part of Mrs. Thomas Liddle's present 
farm. No. 27 to William Cristy, now occupied as wood- 
lots. No. 28 to David George, now a part of William 
Grocsbeck's farm. No. 29 to Robert Montgomery, now 
the farm of Hollis Bruce. Nos. 30 and 31 to David 
Patterson, now portions of the farms of William Austin, 
Elijah Harris, and Ira Robinson. No. 32 to Abraham 
Bininger, now the farm of Freeborn Sweet. No. 33 to 
Robert Montgomery, now a part of Dyer Baldwin's farm. 
No. 34 to Jacob Patterson, now a part of William T. 
Foster's flu-m. No. 35 to James Archer, now belonging 


General Isaac Bininger was born in the town of Salem, 
Washington Co., N. Y., June 15, 1797. His great-grandfather, 
a Moravian minister, was a native of Switzerland ; left 
that country, with his wife and two children, on account of 
religious persecution, emigrated to America, and while on 
shipboard both the parents died, leaving the two sons, Abra- 
ham and Christopher, to come to the new country as orphans. 

On board the same ship was John Wesley, the founder of 
Methodism, and he was so impressed with the religious devotion 
of the Moravians on shipboard, that he thought he himself 
had never been converted. In possession of the general is 
now a mahogany chair brought over by the brothers, which is 
of historic interest, not only as a relic of over a century and 
a half, but also as having been a seat for the great John Wesley 
on shipboard. 

Of Christopher little is known after the two bi-others came 
to Bethlehem, Pa., where it is certainly known that Abraham 
was educated for the ministry. At the close of his studies he 
went as a missionary to the West Indies, where he had first to 
be sold as a slave before he was allowed to preach the gospel. 
He subsequently returned to Bethlehem, and was .sent out as 
a missionary among the Indians, under William Penn's pro- 
tection. The balance of his life was spent as a missionary, 
until he removed to Camden, Washington county, about the 
year 1764, settled on a farm, where he lived until he died, 
March 8, 1811, aged ninety-one years, leaving four sons, John, 
Joseph, Isaac, and Abraham. 

Isaac, father of the general, was drafted as a soldier in tlie 
Revolutionary war ; went to Whitehall and was taken prisoner 
by the Indians ; was taken to Montreal, and kept for some throe 
years, when he was released through the interposition of his 
brother John, who was in Canada, holding an office under the 
king. During this time the homestead was robbed by tlie 
Tories and Indians of everything of value. Eeturning to 
Camden valley in the year 1787, Nov. 15, Isaac went into 
business as a merchant in a general country store, receiving 
his goods from New York from his brother Abraham, and 
carting them with an ox-team from Lansingburg. He carried 
on this business, together with the manufacture of potash, for 
several years, and in the latter part of his life carried on farm- 
ing on the old homestead. He died July 30, 1827, aged sixty- 
seven years, leaving eleven children, of whom General Binin- 
ger was the eldest son. 




General Bininger spent his boyhood days on the farm at 
home. At the age of seventeen he engaged as a clerk in the 
store of Robert K. Law, of Shushan, where he remained for 
some five years, when he bought out Mr. Law's interest in the 
store, and successfully carried on the mercantile business for 
twent\--two years, a part of which time he had a store at 
Eagleville, which he had built and carried on. After the 
close of his career as a merchant, he bought a fixrm in the town 
of Salem, upon which he now resides. 

In politics, General Bininger has always stood an unswerving 
standard-bearer of the Democratic party, and took the front 
rank in the political interests of his vicinity in his day. While 
he was a clerk in the store of Mr. Law he was elected corporal 
of militia, and has been promoted through regular gradations 
of office to the rank of brigadier-general of the Sixteenth 
Brigade, Tenth Division New York Militia, with commission 
by Governor Marcj', dated Sept. 5, 1834, which rank he 
resigned at the end of about seven years, with resignation 
dated Dec. 31, 1840, and signed by Kufus King, adjutant- 

While a merchant at Shushan he was appointed postmaster, 
which office he held for some fifteen years. In the year 1825, 
Feb. 23, tie married Miss 3Iary, fourth daughter of Rev. Wni. 
McCullar, of Shushan. She was born May 23, 1801, was a 
member of the Baptist church, and an exemplary Christian 
woman in all her ways. She died Feb. 19, 1829. For his 
second wife he married, Oct. 4, 1830, Miss Gloreyanna, third 
daughter of the Honorable Simon Stevens, of Greenwich, 
Washington Co., N. Y. She was born July 13, 1807. 

To tlie General and Mrs. Bininger have been born seven 
children. Three died young, and four sons grew to manhood : 
William (deceased), Henry L. (deceased), Albert I., and 
Abraham. The two surviving sons reside with the general. 
The latter married Miss Maggie Robertson, of Cambridge, this 
county, Jan. 25, 1870. 

William was cut oft' prematurel.v. Had become a very suc- 
cessful merchant at Milwaukee, and his natural business 
ability and good judgment had won for him the very high 
esteem of the best business men with whom he had been 
associated. He died, while home on a vi-sit, at the age of 
twenty-eight years, having been married to Miss Harriet 
Volentine, of Aurora, 111., daughter of Daniel Volentine, for- 
merly of Shushan, Washington county. 



to the estate of Richard West and a part of tlie farm oc- 
cupied by I. Mattison. No. 36 to Robert Montgomery, 
now the farm of John Dwjer. No. 37 to David Patter- 
son, now a part of John Dwyer's farm. No. 38 to John 
Bininger, now a part of John L. Sherman's farm. No. 39 
to John Patterson, a part of John L. Sherman's farm. 
No. 40 to James Archer, now Henry F. Robinson's farm. 
No. 41 to Jacob Patterson, now James Law's farm. No. 
42 to James Potter, now a part of James Blatteson's 
farm. No. 43 to James Archer, now a part of tlie forms 
of James Wallace and James Matteson. No. 44 to Jacob 
Patterson, now a part of William T. Foster's farm. No. 
45 to Robert Montgomery, now a part of Dyer Baldwin's 
farm. No. 4C to Abraham Bininger, now a part of the 
farms of Dyer Baldwin and James Wallace. No. 47 to 
David Patterson, now occupied as a part of the farms of 
James Wallace and Dyer Baldwin. No. 48 to James 
Archer, now part of Henry P. Robinson's farm. No. 4!) 
to Jacob Patterson, now owned by James Law and George 
W. Robinson. No. 50 to John March, parts of which are 
now occupied by James Law, Worden Woodard, William 
T. Foster, and James Wallace. 

We add, also, tlie purchasers of the eleven hundred and 
fifty acres Cockburn patent, by lots : No. 1 , James Weir ; 
No. 2, William Cri.stie ; No. 3, D. Tyrrell ; No. 4, Gideon 
Smith ; No. 5, Hugh Montgomery ; No. 6, Henry Mont- 
gomery ; No. 7, William Cristie ; No. 8, David Gray ; No. 
9, William Henderson; No. 10, Edward Wheeler; No. 11, 
Hugh Montgomery ; No. 12, Henry Montgomery ; No. 13, 
Michael Conly ; No. 14, William Henderson; No. 15, 
David Gray; No. 16, William Henderson; No. 17, David 
Gray ; No. 18, Henry Montgomery ; No. 19, James Wier ; 
No. 20, William Cristie; Nos. 21, I. Freeman; Nos. 22, 
23, Michael Conly ; No. 24, James Wier. 

Upon the seven-hundred-acres tract of the Maxwell 
purchase the CaldwoUs were early settlers, and their de- 
scendants for many years ; Isaac Gerard and Thomas 
Flanders somewhat later ; John Gainer, Thomas McMorris, 
and Almond Sweet. 

Camden VuJley and the South fart of the Toivii — Fam'dij 
Notices and Miscellaneous Items. — Chunks brook, spelled 
Jenkes on the modern maps, takes its name from an old 
Indian who lived on its banks after the advent of the white 
men. This tradition comes down from George Peck, one 
of the earliest surveyors. 

Ebenezer Harris, of Connecticut, came to Camden in 
February, 1788. He traveled on foot, his wife on horse- 
back, bearing an infant six months old. He was the first 
teacher of Jared Sparks, afterwards the well-known historian. 
He taught a pioneer school in the valley for fourteen years, 
and in the same house. He was licensed to preach by 
Bishop A.sbury. At the time that Harris came to Camden 
there were inhabitants enough for a military company. It 
was commanded by Captain Gault. The captain was acci- 
dentally killed at a muster, and a dirge written by Edward 
Harris was sung at the funeral. Tiie latter was the father 
of Rev. Ebenezer Harris. 

Jared Sparks, the future historian, seems to have been 
in the Camden valley undtu' the care of Mrs. Eldridge, and 
to have been the pupil and ward of Ebenezer Harris. 

Tlie first interment in tlie old Camden burying-ground 
was the wife of Piiilip Hoffman, and the next was that of 
Philip Embury, tlie pioneer Metiiodist. 

Among the early settlers of this section may be mentioned 
Colonel David Gray, Nathaniel (iray, Theophiius Ransom, 
George Cloys, Lemuel and Gideon Smith, Noah Taylor, 
Zerah Rider, Silas Boers, Robert Weir, Ebenezer Eldredge, 
Ebenezer Harris, Edward Harris, James Harvey, mercliant, 
William Mitchell, Levi and Jethro Bonney (the latter 
succeeded by John Crocker), Ebenezer Allen, Isaac Binin- 
ger, merchant (whose son Jacob now occupies the old 

homestead), Daniel Squires, Dumphy (succeeded by 

Richard Sutlill'), Andrew McNi-sh (whose descendants now 
occupy the old place), Mr. Gould (who has numerous de- 
.scendants in town), Thomas Shepherd, Zalmun Squires, 
Daniel Clark, Nathaniel Tillotson, Nahum Ward (succeeded 
by James Getty), James Archer, Levi Patterson and 
brothers, James Beebe, Harvey Little, Alexander IMagoon 
and brothers, John Switzer. James Harvey, the merchant, 
kept store in the Camden valley, on the place now occupied 
by Dr. Elijah Harris. He was afterwards a merchant for 
many years at Salem village. 

The following epitaph from the Camden burying-ground 
has so much of historic value, we copy entire : 

"Here repose unto the resurrection of the just the mortal remains 
of the venerable father in Christ, Abraham Bininger, a missionary 
of the United Brethren church (commonly called tlie Moravians), who, 
after serving his Divine master with fidelity, both in the West India 
island of St. John and among the Indians of this country, retired in 
the decline of life to the vale of Camden, where, with patriarchal 
simplicity, he lived in communion with his Redeemer, a pattern of 
Christian holiness to all around, and fell asleep in Jesus, full of tito 
hope of glory, at the age of ninety-one years, two months, and eight 
days. lie was born at Buleich, Canton Zurich, Switzerland, January 
IS, 1720. Departed this life at Camden, March 26, 1811." 

Another : 

" In memory of three children who were burned to death in the 
absence of their parents, Thomas and Margaret Flanders, February 
'i, 1S08. James, eight years old; Thomas, seven; and Laura, five." 

Isaac Bininger, a son of the old minister, was in the 
military service of the United Stjites in 1779 for a month, 
under Captain Levi Stockwell. In October, 1780, he again 
joined the army, in Colonel Sherwood's regiment. At Fort 
Ann he was taken prisoner, carried to Canada, and re- 
mained a prisoner until the close of the war, three years. 

Among the very old inhabitants of the valley were the 
Smiths, Levi and jMattbew. 

Tiic first store at the " Lino" in Camden valley was kept 
by William Bristol, about the year 1835. A post-ofiico 
was established there, called " Line." 

Another early store was Bininger's. Edward Harris also 
kept store in the same building as James Harvey. 

A succession of stores were kept in the house now occu- 
pied by John Sherman. 

Dr. Boies was a physician in the valley about 1815. 

Gainer bridge w;is built by Caleb Orcutt, io 1840. A 
brid;^e was built by Robert Law ten years earlier, on the 
same abutments. Another bridge, a few years earlier than 
that, was placed about four rods above it. Still earlier by 
seven years the bridge had stood a few rods yet farther up 
the stream. The earlier bridges, however, from the first 
settlement down, had all been about thirty-five rods below 



the Gainer bridge. Over this was the main line from 
western Vermont to Troy. This bridge was very early. 

For thirtj' years or more a tavern was kept near it. 
Early landlords were Asa Hull, Andrew Powers, and, some- 
what later, John Gainer. 

Isaac Merriam, in early times, built a tavern now used as 
a dwelling-house by Sidney Russell. After Merriam, Aaron 
Dean, D.iniel Hobart, Thomas Edie, and Edward Law kept 
the tavern. 

The old " yellow store" was first occupied by John Law, 
about 1800 ; later by Robert R. Law ; and afterwards, about 
1858, by Robert I. Law. 

The bridge at the bend of the Batten Kill, between John 
Sherman's and William Edie's, was one of the earliest iu 
town ; originally built about 1785. It was used down! to 
about 1809. A foot-bridge was kept up some years later. 

The red bridge, a very old landmark, and so common as 
to become the_name of a school district, was the route of 
the old Northern turnpike over the Batten Kill. 

Earlier than this, however, the great line of Montreal 
travel southward passed farther up the valley to the great 
southeastern angle of the stream, and crossed at Bloore's 
bridge, now Foster's. Moore for a long time kept a noted 
tavern there. Another tavern was north on this same route, 
at the present Murphy Still another at the place of 
George Austin, better known to the older people ;is the 
Rowan hill. 

For this entire article upon the Camden valley and the 
south part of the town we arc largely indebted to Wm. Law, 
of Sliushan, who possesses many valuable documents, sur- 
veys, and maps, and who added his personal recollections 
upon many important points. 

Dr. Asa Fitch has courteously furnished the following 
notes upon matters of pioneer interest, as well as further 
family notices in addition to those ah-eady secured : 

On the Argyle patent, lot 68, adjoining Turner's patent, 
first lived Timothy Titus, a blacksmith, having his house 
and shop near the Batten Kill, on the southeast corner of 
the lot. The only other early resident was Silas Conkey, 
a clothier, who, towards the close of the Revolutionary war, 
came from Pelham, Mass., and bought the other lot, 67, 
and occupied a small log house upon it until he erected his 
clothing-works and a dwelling on the north side of the 
creek, nearly upon the east line of lot 68. These two were 
the only early residents in that part of Salem taken from 
the Argyle patent. 

The taverns licensed in 1787 had each been kept many 
years before. The tavern of Thomas & Turner was on 
the site of the present Ondawa House, where James Tur- 
ner kept a public-house from nearly the first settlement of 
the town. The tavern of Adam and Walter Martin was 
in the building which is still standing, and is the present 
residence of Dr. Asa Fitch. The Biningcr tavern was in 
Camden, in the old Biniuger house, which is still standing. 
Dr. Pelatiah Fitch, grandfather of the doctor, opened his 
house at Milliman's corners as a tavern for some years after 
he first came to town. Dr. Fitch supposes these were all 
the taverns iu the earliest years. 

It was by the act of the Legislature passed March 7, 
1788, that the town received the name Salem, — given to 

it, no doubt, by General John Williams, who was then the 
State senator. 

Dr. Clark's colony was scattered around among the inhabi- 
tants of Stillwater during their stay from August, 1704, to 
May, 1707, and also through Schaghticoke ; both the men, 
women, and larger children working wherever they could 
find employment, taking for pay whatever clothing, cooking 
utensils, furniture, or other articles they were going to need 
in their new home, many of them thus obtaining a cow and 
a pig. And for years after they were settled in Salem many 
of the men were accustomed to go back there to work during 
haying and harvesting to obtain things they needed. 

Sheep husbandry had long been a leading pursuit of the 
county, when the opening of the railroads completely revo- 
lutionized our agricultural pursuits ; the culture of potatoes 
becoming so much more remunerative (a single crop often 
e(jualing in value the gi'ound on which it grows) that sheep 
were no longer of any account, and the noted flocks of a 
former d.ay are nearly all extinct. The McNish flock is still 
preserved, in much diminished numbers. 

The first house at Fitch's point, and the first house 
(built of logs) in town, was on the bank of the Batten Kill, 
some eighty rods up the stream from the corner of this and 
the Argyle patent. It was built by one Germond, who also 
had several acres of land cleared and in cultivation, known 
in the neighborhood to this day as the " Jarniun field." 
He took title from Lydius, and on coming to find his title 
worthless he abandoned the place, and went no one knows 
where. When Wm. Blake and George Telford first came 
to this vicinity, August, 1772, they for a time occupied Ger- 
mond's vacated house. 

The leading exports of the town are potatoes, potatoes, 
potatoes, to both the New York and Boston markets. Next 
to this in value is probably butter. Besides agricultural 
products, roofing-slate is exported largely. 


Moses Martin, from Stockbridge, Mass., settled at Fitch's 
point about 1708 ; was supervisor, justice of the peace, etc. 
The children were, first, Aaron, a farmer and lumberman, 
of Salem ; second, Miriam, wife of Abner Dwelly, farmer, 
of Greenwich ; third, Triphena, wife of Augustus Angel, 
carpenter and millwright, of Jackson,— removed to Chester, 
Warren Co., N. Y. ; fourth, Moses, Jr., former and justice 
of the peace, of Salem ; fifth, x\dam, saddle- and harness- 
maker, of Salem ; sixth, Anna, wife of Abner Glines, of 
Greenwich, — Fort Miller, Ya. ; seventh, Asa, farmer, of 
Salem ; eighth, Lydia, wife of James McNitt, distiller and 
farmer, of Salem. 

Colonel Adam Martin, of Stockbridge, Mass., an older 
brother of Moses, during the Revolutionary war was a cap- 
tain of one of the Massachusetts companies in the Conti- 
nental army. On its close he removed to Salem, and, in 
company with his son Walter, purchased the grist- and saw- 
mill and farm of Wm. Reid, at Fitch's point, and erected 
the large dwelling-house in which they kept tavern. In 
1795 the}' sold out to Dr. Asa Fitch, and Walter then kept 
store in Salem village ; and having purchased a township 
(Martinsburg) in Lewis county, they removed thither in 
1803. The children of Colonel Adam were, first, Zerinah, 

34^.^/e 4'f'M^o^ 




wife of Silas Conkey ; second, Hon. Walter, above men- 
tioned ; third, Sarah, wife of Chillus Doty, — removed to 
Martinsburg. He was there sheriff and general agent of 
Walter Martin. Their son, James Duane Doty, — born in 
Salem, Nov. 5,1800, — was territorial governor of Wiscon- 
sin, and subsequently of Utah, also superintendent of Indian 
affairs ; fourth, Abigail, wife of Dr. Asa Fitch ; fifth, Eliza- 
beth, wife of Andrew Freeman, landlord, of Salem village. 

William Reid, a skilled millwright from Scotland, in 
1772 erected an excellent grist-mill and a saw-mill at 
Fitch's point, for doing which he received from the propri- 
etors of the town the lot of land which had been reserved 
for that purpose. In 1786 he sold and moved to a mill- 
seat in Argyle, to which town a more particular notice of 
his family belongs. 

John Lytic, one of Dr. Clark's colony, located a mile 
southwest of the village, on the road to Shushan. His chil- 
dren were, first, Elizabeth, wife of James Rowan, of Salem ; 
second, Isaac, of Hebron; third, William, of Lisbon, St. 
Lawrence Co. ; fourth, Rebecca, — Mrs. James Jlills, of 
Argyle; fifth, Esther, — Mrs. Robert Lytic, of Li-sbon ; 
sixtli, Susan, — ^Mrs. Robert Vance, of Hebron ; seventh, 
Jane, — Mrs. Wm. Russell, of Cambridge. 

Andrew Lytle (probably a brother of John), also of 
Dr. Clark's colony, lived west of John, on the place re- 
cently occupied by Hon. David Russell. Children, — 
first, James, of Lisbon ; second, Hannah,— Mrs. Charles 
Nelson, of Lewi-stown, Essex Co. ; third, William, of He- 
bron ; fourth, IMary, — Mrs. Dr. Andrew Proudfit, of Ar- 
gyle; fifth, Andrew, long an inn-keeper on his father's 
place, — finally emigrated to Milwaukee, Wis.; sixth, Mar- 
garet, — Mrs. James McClellan, of Hebron. 

Leonard Webb resided on the present Rich farm, some 
three miles south from the village, and had two sons, — 
John, removed to Pembroke, Genesee Co., and David, to 
the vicinity of Cooperstown, Otsego Co. 

Captain Joseph Slarrow, from Pelham, resided in the 
Perkins neighborhood, near the line of Vermont. His son, 
Jo-seph, was a miller, and his daughter, Betsey, became the 
wife of John Conkey, — removed to Martinsburg. 

James Long resided at the north end of the village, on 
the recent David Johnson farm. His only child, Edward, 
of Salem, was the father of Edward Long, st) many years 
the landlord of the " Checkered" in Cambridge. 

James Rogers emigrated from Londonderry, N. H., to 
Baskenridge, N. J., and ten years later, in 1775, to Salem, 
settling in the Blind Buck hollow, next above the Deacon 
Stevenson farm. His sons, Hugh and William, removed 
to Le Ray, Jefferson Co., and James settled in West He- 
bron, on the farm now occupied by his son David. His 
daughters were Jane, — Mrs. John Blair, of Cambridge, 
and afterwards Putnam ; Polly, — Mrs. Deacon Daniel Mc- 
Nitt, of Salem ; Peggy, the wife, first, of Samuel Banner, 
,of Hebron, and, second, of Robert Cox, Pawlet, Vt. ; and 
Sarah, — Mrs. Colonel David Rood, of Hampton. 

William Huggins emigrated from the north of Ireland to 
Penn.sylvania, and thence to Salem, settling on the present 
Odbert farm, two miles north of the village, where he kept 
a public-house. He had three sons and three daughters, 
namely : Sanuul, who resided in Catskill, Rochester, and 

Cohoes ; William, located in Dutchess county, and from thence 
moved west; John, finally settled in Pembroke, Genesee 
Co.; Elizabeth,— Mrs. Robert Stewart, of Salem; Mary, — 
Mrs. James Hammond, moved west; Isabel, — Mrs. James 
Rowan ; Hebron, also moved west. 

Nathan Wilson, from Greenwich, Mass., married Sarah, 
daughter of Colonel Joseph McCracken, and settled in the 
northeast corner of the town ; was sheriff, member of (Jon- 
gress, and county judge. His two sons, Nathan W. and 
Josiah, remained upon the same farm. 

James Gibson, one of Dr. Clark's colony, and no connec- 
tion to the Gibson family now in town, settled near the 
present Bu.shc8 school-house. Ilis son John located on 
the present John Cleveland farm ; was a rank Tory, and was 
driven from town vi et armis. Their father dying, the 
family — James, Andrew, ^Matthew, and Richard — all fol- 
lowed John to Canada. Richard and his mother sub- 
sequently returned to Salem. He remained in town many 
years, and finally went west. 

James Craig, one of Dr. Clark's colony, lived on the 
turnpike, adjoining the line of Hebron. His three sons, 
Joseph, Robert, and John, settled in Hebron. 

Thomas McCrea. of Dr. Clark's colony, took up the lot on 
which Clapp's mills were afterwards built. His children 
were Mary, wife of Deacon Thomas Collins, Salem, and 
Elizabeth and Martha, unn)arried. 

Abner Stone erected the tavern in the South village, 
which continued to be kept long afterwards by McKellip 
and by the Woodwortlis, father and son. Major Stone's 
daughter. Thankful, married James Y. Watson, farmer, of 
Salem, who removed to Wauke.sha, Wi.scon.sin. 

John Clark came from Andover, Mass., at an early day, 
and lived on the hill north of the present Hugh Perry 
place. His children were, first, Isaac, remained in Salem ; 
second, John, moved to Hamburg, Erie Co.; third, Joseph, 
a farmer of Salem and elder in the U. P. church ; fourth, 
Thomas, Kingston, N. Y., hotel-keeper; fifth, James, 
farmer, of Salem ; sixth, Elizabeth, wife of Dr. Seth 
Brown, Salem. 

Thomas Lyon resided in Sandgate and had three sons, 
Thomas, Samuel, and Joseph. 

Several names upon the land-lists of 1780 were prob- 
ably non-residents, or at most only in Salem for a short 
time, sufBcicnt to be included in the certificates. Dr. 
Fitch finds in old papers the names of Samuel Covenhovcn, 
Francis Lammon, James and Jonathan Tackles, Alex. 
Gault, James Crow, and others whom he concludes were in 
town for only a few years, and there remains here no 
record of their families. 

The following memorandum with reference to Philip 
Embury and his associates is furnished by Hon. James 
Gibson, from manuscripts prepared with a view to publica- 
tion by himself at some future date. This is also the case 
with reference to other papers appearing in this history 
from his pen : 


Paul Heck, one of the settlers who came to Camden 
with Philip Embury, died at Augusta, Canada West, in 



1792, aged sixty-two years, and is buried in the old " Blue 
church grave-yard" at that place. The venerable Barbara 
Heck outlived her husband, Paul Heck, twelve years, 
dying at the residence of her son Samuel, in the year 1804, 
aged seventy years, and her remains were buried beside 
those of her husband in the old " Blue church grave-yard" 
at Augusta. 

Andrew Embury, Philip Switzcr, Peter Switzer, and 
A'^ale Detlor, associates of Philip Embury in planting a 
colony at Camden, wore all loyalists, and went to Canada 
West soon after the breaking out of the Revolutionary 
war, and settled at and about Augusta. 

John Embury early removed to the city of New York. 
He attained the great age of nearly one hundred years. 

Edward Gainer, who came to Camden valley with Philip 
Embury, and married Catharine Lowe, died at the house 
of his daughter, Elizabeth Buck, on the border of Camden, 
in the year 1846, aged ninety-three years. His wife 
Catharine had previously deceased, on May 2, 1838, in 
the ninety-first year of her age. Both are buried in the 
old grave-yard at West Arlington. 

Catharine, the widow of Philip Embury, married John 
Lawrence, and both died in Augusta, and are buried in 
the old " Blue church grave-yard." « 

Philip Embury, it is well known, came to Camden, and, 
though young in years, was the patriarch of the settlement 
there, — its leader and adviser in all its spiritual and ma- 
terial interests. His early death, in 1773, left his people 
without any one competent to wisely advise and lead them, 
and nearly the whole flock he had lovingly gathered and 
faithfully governed became dispersed, most of them going 
to Canada, and there making for themselves new and per- 
uianent homes, and their places in the vallej' of Camden 
knowing them no more. 


The town having been settled by so large an emigration 
at once in 1764-65, it is inferred that a precinct or district 
organization of some kind must have been made soon after. 
There are many evidences of this, although the actual 
records of such an organization are not known to be in ex- 
istence. Between 1764 and 1787 was a period of twenty- 
three years, — a period in which the great contest that sepa- 
rated the colonies from England and gave to the United 
States a national existence was begun, fought through, and 
closed. In this same period was the exciting home struggle 
over the New Hampshire grants, that rolled its waves of 
fierce neighborhood dissension up to the very boundaries of 
New Pertli, and endeavored, though in vain, to lead away 
from their allegiance to New York the settlers upon the 
great patent. Questions that involved the title to every 
farm, the safety of every home, the personal allegiance of 
every citizen, were in daily and hourly discussion. The 
very foundations of civil society were shaken by the mighty 
tread of revolution. It is not possible that that period 
could have been passed in a chaotic, unorganized state by 
the intelligent citizens who had established homes for them- 
selves and their families in this valley. Committees of 
safety were to be appointed, roads were to be laid out, taxes 
to be levied, the poor- to be cared for. courts of justice to 

be sustained. All this required meetings and ofi&cers, and 
they must have been held and appointed. The names of 
road commissioners eight years before the first town- 
meeting are on record. That there was also a clerk, and 
that assessors and overseers of the poor were regularly 
elected, is also very certain. Where is the old book ? In 
whose attic is it waiting the grasp of a Fitch or a Gibson 
to be brought to light? 

It is in evidence that the question of submitting to the 
jurisdiction of Vermont actually came up at a town-meeting 
during this period, that it was a severe and hotly-contested 
struggle, and that the friends of New York triumphed by 
a regular lawful decision, though only by a small majority. 
Other proof of this " prehistoric" organization is found in - 
the amount of public business transacted at this point, the 
concerted movements for defense in 1777-78, all the records 
of which indicate a town of considerable population and a 
growing, organized community. 

A list of the oflBcers for those twenty-three years would 
possess much interest. But we cannot hope to give what 
the veteran students of history residing here have failed to 

Further traces of the district organization prior to 
that of the town appear in the first book. There is on 
record a road-survey, made June 19, 1781, by Joshua 
Conkoy, Robert Pennell, and Alexander Simson, in the 
town of New Perth, extending from Martin's Mills north- 
ward. It is recorded, however, by the first town clerk, 
June 20, 1788. The surveyor was Moses Martin. An- 
other survey, Dec. 12, 1782, was made under the direc- 
tion of Road Commissioners John Armstrong and Nathan 
Morgan. This was a road " extending from Salem to 
Cockburn's patent," the name Salem thus appearing to be 
used regarding the village five years before the organization 
of the town. 

There is also a petition fcir an alteration in the road 
"from David Hopkins' to the place of Mr. Rowan,' bear- 
ing date March 29, 1783, signed by John Hamilton, Da- 
vid Whitney, Joseph Nelson, Wm. Cruikshank, Josiah 
Parish, Sr., Robert Wilson, Joseph Hamilton, Thomas 
Armstrong, James Armstrong, David Gray, Samuel Hop- 
kins, Daniel McCleary, and sworn to before David Hopkins, 
justice of the* peace. 

A road was laid out, Nov. 22, 1782, " from Black Line 
by Mr. Monson's to Martin's Mills," Nathan Morgan, John 
Rowan, John Armstrong; commissioners. 

Still earlier, in 1779, a road was laid out " from Rupert 
to Dr. John Williams'," by Joshua Conkey and Robert 
Penall, commissioners, and Moses Martin, surveyor. 

As touching the Vermont question, it perhaps should 
be added that though this town, by a formal vote, refused 
to act under the jurisdiction of that State, yet White Creek 
district was represented in some way at the celebrated Cam- 
bridge convention, held May 9th to the 15th, 1781. It 
was this convention (hat resolved, in due form, to include 
in the State of Vermont all the district or tract of land 
bounded north by latitude 45°, west by the Hudson river, 
and south by the north line of Massachusetts extended to the 
Hudson. The " Documentary History of New York" (vol. 
iv. page 1004) gives the articles of union agreed upon at 

Samuel Beaty was born where he now resides, in the town of 
Salem, Washington, Co., N. Y., February 25, 1807. 

The Beaty family traces descent to Thomas Beatj, who emigrated 
from Ireland, in the year 1767, October, with his wife and five chil- 
dren, David, Jean, Thomas, Samuel, and William, leaving one son, 
John, who was married, in Ireland. The family settled first in Salem, 
and hence were among the earliest pioneers of this part of Washing- 
ton county. The ancestry were of Scotch descent, and emigrated to 
Ireland on account of religious persecution in Scotland. The great- 
grandfather erected his log-cabin in the wilderness on the lot he had 
taken up, the greater part of which, with the assistance of his boys, he 
cleared. lie lived to be eighty-three years of age, and died where he 
had settled. John, the grandfather, with his wife and daughter, Jane, 
emigrated from Ireland the same year as his father, and, after a voy- 
age of seventeen weeks, first settled in Pennsylvania, where he re- 
mained tor about two years, where he earned money enough, as a 
common laborer, to get to Washington county, town of Salem, where 
he arrived and erected his log shanty in the woods in the year 1769, 
taking up one lot of land. He erected his second log-cabin in the 
year 1772, which, at the time of writing this sketch, 1S7S, is still 
standing, and the property owned by one of the grandchildren, 
Wm. J. The early history of this family in meeting the obstacles of 
settlement in a new country; the slow but sure development from 
scanty means to pecuniary competence and comfortable surroundings ; 
the raising of a large family ; the consequent dread and fear by the 
presence of the Indians and the march of Burgoyne, with incidents 
connected with the embarrassments under which settlers were placed 
at that time, would fill a volume, and can only be briefly referred to 
in this narrative. The result of the labor of the grandfather, in 
buildings and surroundings, are to-day as he left them, except their 
natural decay. John Beaty lived on the spot where he first settled 
during the balance of his life; after his settlement, was a farmer by 
occupation. He received a very limited education from books in his 
youth, but gained by observation and business experience what he 
was wanting in early education. He was a man of unquestioned 
integrity in all his business transactions ; was warmly attached to the 
best interests, building up churches and schools in the town ; was a 
member of the Associate Reformed Presbyterian church at Salem, 
established by Dr. Clark in 1765. He died in his seventy-seventh 
year, May 20, 1S17, leaving a wife and nine children (Jane having 
died while young). His wife, whose maiden name was Grizzy MeRa- 
bert, died in the year 1S28, at the age of eighty-two. 

John, father of the subject of this memoir, and eighth child of this 
family, was born in January, 1784. Married for his first wife Mary 
Beaty, by whom he had five children, — Samuel, John, Jane, Mary G., 
and Ebcnczer. The mother of these children was a woman of great 
courage and resolution to-do what she conceived to be right, possess- 
ing great decision of character. She died in 1S35. 

For his second wife he married Agnes McCoy, of Argyle, by 
whom he had one son, William J., who now resides on the old home- 

The father spent his life after the year 1818, for the next thirty 
years, as a merchant in Salem village; previous to which, and sub- 
sequently, he was a farmer. Was never solicitous of any notoriety by 
way of political preferment, but was prominent in the councils of the 
church of his choice, the Associate Reformed Presbyterian church 
at Salem, in which he was an elder for about thirty years. He died 
at the age of (nearly) seventy, in the year 1853. .The second wife died 
in the year 1867. 

Samuel Beaty spent his minority as a clerk in the store of his 
father at Salem. Was married, in the year 1830, to Hannah D., 
daughter of Judge Rising, of West Rupert, Vt. By this union he has 
two surviving children, — Mary L. and Ebenezer. His wife died May 
II, 1839. For his second wife Mr. Beaty married Lemira S. Har- 
wood, daughter of Perez Harwood, of Bennington, Vt., by whom he 
had one daughter, — Lemira M. The second wife died October 14, 
1844. For his last wife he married Fanny J., daughter of Henry 
Harwood, of Bennington, Vt., by whom he has three surviving 
children, — Abby A., Henry H., and Jenny Bell. The mother of these 
children died November 19, 1873. 

Mr. Beaty has followed the occupation of a farmer, and is ranked 
among the successful agriculturists of the county. 

Mr. Beaty cast his first vote for president of the United States for 
John Quincy Adams. Was a member of the old Whig party, and 
since the organization of the Rejuiblican party has been an ardent 
supporter of its principles until the year 1S72, wlu'ii he became a lib- 
eral and independent voter. It is a fact worlby oC note here that the 
political principles held by the ancestry are still firmly adhered to by 
the great-grandchildren. 

Characteristic of Mr. Beaty are his strong temperance proclivities ; 
his firmness and decision in all matters in which hois interested: his 
indefatigable resolution to carry forward to a successful issue any 
measure receiving his attention; his kindness in his family, and 
sociality with his friends. 

Ebenezer Beaty was born December S, 1819. During his early life 
was a clerk in his father's store at Salem, and subsequently became a 
partner. The latter part of his life was spent as a farmer on the old 
homestead. He was never married. He died January 1, 1S78. His 
portrait, with his brother William J.'s. will be found above a view of 
the old homestead first settled by the grandfather. 

William J. Beaty was born October 26, 1838; occupies and owns 
the old homestead ; married Mrs. Mary Jane, widow of the late Robert 
Hunter (who was a soldier of the war, and deceased), and a daughter of 
John Denison, of Salem. They have three children, — Agnes McCoy, 
Frank, and Fanny J, 

IrrM BY in Cviir. 

Residence or W^ J. BEATY. Salem Washington County New roRK 



Cambridge between a committee representing the State of 
Vermont and the convention. The convention is there 
stated to be composed of "representatives from the dis- 
tricts of Hoosick, Schaghticoke, Cambridge, Saratoga, Upper 
White Creek, Bhick Creek, Granville, Skeensborough, Kings- 
bury, Fort Edward, and Little Hoosick." The word rep- 
resentatives implies delegates formally chosen. If this was 
the case iu White Creek, it is evident that only a portion 
of the citizens shared in the movement; for when the con- 
test ended by act of Congress, August, 1782, the district 
of White Creek was under no necessity of executing any 
act of submission to New York, because it had not changed 
its allegiance. In the " Documentary History" alluded to 
above (vol. iv. page 1010) is a paper strangely headed by 
the editor " Submission of the People of White Creek to 
New York." We copy it to show that it is not anything 
of the kind : 

" To His Excdlennj George Ctininn, Esquire, and the Hvnnrahle ihe 
Senate and Assembly of the Stale of New York, the petition nf the 
snhacrihp-s most humbly sheweth, — 
"That your petitioners have been, ever since their settling in this 
county, faithful subjects to the State of New York, and notwithstand- 
ing numbers of this county having gone over to Vermont, yet such 
as have shown themselves friends to the common cause, and appear 
to be truly penitent for their misconduct, we would recommend to 
your excellency and the honorable Legislature for pity ; that although 
they have swerved from their allegiance to this State yet they have 
shown themselves to be always in readiness to oppose our enemy. 
We would therefore i-equcst that your excellency and the honorable 
Legislature will take their case into consideration, and restore them 
to their former privileges, and, as in duty bound, shall ever pray. 
"JoHS Armstrong, Joshua Coxkey, 

"Jonx Uesry, Thomas Armstrong, 

"Edward Savage, Robert Boyd, 

"John Gray, Alexander Kennedy, 

"■ Matthew McWhorter, Samuel McWhortek, 
" Robert Pennell, Thomas Lyon, 

"Alexander Turner, Saxford Smith. 

" Pelatiah Fitch, Jr., 
"White Creek, March 5, 17S2." 

A glance will show that the paper is not an act of sub- 
mission, but a petition from those " who had ever since 
their settling in the county been faithful subjects of the 
State of New York," asking lenient treatment for those 
who had swerved from their allegiance. The petitioners 
ask mercy for others, not for themselves. 

It may nevertheless be true that a minority were favor- 
able to the pretensions of Vermont, and that had Ethan 
Allen and his associates been less violent in their proceed- 
ings the minority might have become the majority. But 
the settlers upon the patent of twenty-five thousand acres 
were all holding their farms by a grant from the crown 
through the colonial government of New York ; this title 
was not contested even by the Vermont authorities. Nat- 
urally, the settlers were willing to render allegiance to New 
York, — preferred to do so. Besides, many of the fii-st 
settlers of Salem were men of distinguished public char- 
acter, men of education, statesmen, able to thoroughly 
understand the merits of the pending questions, — and they 
clearly saw, what the documents yet fully prove, that the 
claim of New York to the ichole of Vermont was beyond all 
legal doubt ; that the government of New Hampshire had 
no royal authority to grant to any one an acre of land west 

of the Connecticut river ; that even the shadow of a shadow 
upon which Bonning Wentworth rested his claim extended 
no farther west than the west line of Massachusetts. 

With the close of the Revolutionary period came the 
appropriate time for more thorough civil organization. The 
loose, informal district government on the one hand, often 
no doubt with indefinite boundaries, and the absolute 
powers of colonial or provincial war committees on the 
other, both passed away. Laws were enacted creating 
towns, strictly defining their boundaries, providing the 
necessary officers, their jurisdiction, and duties. 

From the year 1787 the records are preserved, and the 
succession of town-meetings fully recorded, except that of 

In the tables of town officers we have given the name 
of Nathan Wilson as the probable collector for 1802, while 
the supervisor and town clerk are no doubt correct, as they 
are easily determined by other evidence than the minutes of 
the town-meeting. 

The name of the town was the result of a compromise. 
The Seotch-Irish colony desired the place to be called New 
Perth ; the New England men were in favor of White 
Creek. The first mention of the name Salem we find re- 
corded was when the stockade erected in 1777 was called 
" Fort Salem," as mentioned in the general history. From 
the road-reeord before mentioned the name seems to have 
been applied to the village as early as 1782, and when the 
people became tired, after the close of the Revolution, of 
quarreling over " New Perth," they agreed on the same 
name they had adopted for their fort. 

We take the following notes from the town records : 

The first book was bought by James Tomb in New York, 
in the year 1788 ; price, one pound twelve shillings. 

The following is a copy of the minutes of the first town- 
meeting : 

"Salem District. — Town-meeting held at the house of Thomas 
Turner, upon the first Tuesday of April, 17S7, agreeable to a law of 
our Legislature, for the more orderly holding of town-meetings, 
passed the 14th of February, 1787. Before John McCollistcr and 
John Rowan, justices of the peace for the said district. The act 
read. Moderator appointed, John Armstrong; Town Clerk, James 
Tomb J Supervisor, John Rowan j Assistant Supervisor, Adam Mar- 
tin ; Assessors, Nathan Morgan, Abner Carswcll, John Harsba 
Commissioners of Highways, Alexander Gault, Ale.vander McNish 
Alexander McNitt; Pathmasters, Robert Stewart, Hamilton McCol 
lister, Hugh Moncrief, Elisha Fitch, John Morey, William Thompson 
Sr., John Hanna, Uri Brooks, John Beatty, Benjamin Cleveland 
David McCracken, Moses Cleveland, James Gamhill, Timothy Ilcth 
Jcdcdiah Gilbord, .lohn Steel, Noah Barnes, Alexander Turner, Sr. 
David Thomas, Joel Lake, David Webb, Isaac Michael, Abel Cleve 
land, Robert Iluggins, Allen Hunsdon, Jacob Patterson, James 
Henderson, Samuel Safford; Poormasters, Reuben Cluiincy, Nathan 
Morgan; Constable, and probably Collector, Elisha Fitch; Fcnco- 
Viewcrs, James Hopkins, Robert Pennell, Sr., Andrew McNitt. 

" Further voted, that a pound be built, and Major McCracken supcr- 
intcnil the business. That Hamilton McCollislcr, Nathan Morgan 
Robert Pennell, Joseph McCracken, John Lytic, Benjamin Cleveland' 
Moses Martin be a committee to appoint the place where said pound 
is to be built. 

" The committee report the aforesaid pound to he built upon a corner 
of the ministerial lot, belonging to the New England congregation, 
near .lohn Lytlc's. 

" Voted, that lUchard Hoy and John Harsha inspect into the excise 
and fines, and call the justices, supervisors, and poormasters to an 
account respecting the same. 

"Voted, that hogs be shut up or confined so as not to do damage. 



"Voted, that three men, namely, Hamilton McCoIIistcr, James Ste- 
venson, and James Tomb, write a petition to our Legislature respect- 
ing immorality. 

" Voted, that none of the inhabitants of Salem be found in the 
tavern after nine o'clock at night, except upon necessary business. 

** Voted, that any man who takes a family upon his farm shall return 
the number and names of such family, within forty dayc after their 
arrival, to the poormasters of the district. 

"Voted, that the poormasters settle with David Tomb respecting 
the expenses of Patrick Sloan. Wardens, William McCoy, Robert 
Stewart, Andrew Lytle, Uamilton McCollister, John McCarter, John 
Gray, John McSealon, Aaron Stone, Thomas Collamer." 

It would probably be difficult to pass some of tbese votes 
of 1787 at the town-meeting of the present year (1878). 

1788. — Benjamin Cleveland, John Armstrong, and Hugh 
Moor were appointed assessors ; Alexander Gault, collector; 
Alexander McNish, constable; Aaron Stone, William Mon- 
crief, Sr., and James McFarland, highway commissioners ; 
William McCoy, a poormaster ; Matthew Wborter a fence- 
viewer. The other officers were mostly the same as those 
of the previous year. 

1790. — George Schamp was elected a hog constable. 

At the town-meeting of 1791 it was voted that a com- 
mittee be chosen out of the first and second congregations 
of Salem to superintend the fencing of the grave-yard; 
that Colonel Joseph McCracken and James Tomb carry 
on the above business ; that the expense be a town-charge. 
It was also voted " that every inhabitant of thi^ town shall 
stop travelers that travel unnecessarily upon the Sabbath," 
— a comprehensive warrant surely. 

1792. — Wardens were still chosen by the people. This 
year they were Daniel Mattison, David Carswell, Daniel 
McCleary, Thomas Collins, Walter Martin, William Ilark- 
ness, Moses Martin, Hugh Moor, Stephen Clapp, James 
Tomb, Hamilton McCollister, John Honeywood. 

1793. — Voted a pound to be built, and that twenty-four 
pounds be raised for that purpose ; that one-third of that 
sum belong to Camden. Committee : Alexander Turner, 
Jr., Stephen Clapp, John Gray, Jr., and David Gray. 
That the pound be built between the court-house and the 
white bridge ; if the ground cannot be obtained there, then 
where it can be obtained most conveniently. The Camden 
pound to be built near James Wier's house. Pouudmas- 
ter's fees, fourpence per head for all cattle; one penny a 
head for sheep. 

Here is an estray notice, with a critical description, that 
ought to have left no doubt of identity when found : 

"Broke into the inclosure of the subscriber two sheep some time 
in June, 1794 : one of a (jray culler, the other white, with a croop off 
the top of each car, and short tails. 

"James Cbearv." 

1797. — Voted, " that the pound be moved unto the road 
at the expen,se of the town, and that the assessors purchase 
a place to set it upon." Voted, " that a lane be made to 
the grave-yard at the expense of the town." Voted, " that 
the supervisors and justices give no license to Sabbath- 

1798. — Voted " the sum of ten dollars for the purpose 
of killing crows and blackbirds ;" one shilling for each 
crow, and threepence for each blackbird killed between 
May 12 and July 1. Voted, "that all cattle found on the 
highway within one mile of the court-house, between the 

1st day of December and the 1st day of April, be liable 
to be pounded, and pay the same fees as the law directs in 
other cases, and to pay the same for keeping such cattle as 
the tavern-keepers have." " Cattle" seems to be the nomi- 
native of the verb " pay." 

1801. — The town invested tivcnty dollars in crows and 

1804. — Thirty dollars for the same purposes. 

1808. — Joshua Streeter was appointed a leather-sealer, 
to be governed by the laws of the State on that subject. 

The geese had evidently taken some advantage of technical 
defects in previous by-laws, for this year the vote on that 
subject was, " Every goose or gander running at large, 
the owner to forfeit twenty-five cents." 

It is probable the crow-hunters in previous years had 
not observed town-lines as they ought to have done, for 
they are now recjuired to furnish " .satisfactory proof that 
the birds were killed in the town of Salem." 

This was evidently a time of " civil service reform" gen- 
erally, when new and improved laws were brought to bear 
on geese, crows, and tanners. Besides, another vote per- 
emptorily orders " every man to keep his sheep and hogs 
in his own inclosure." 

1809. — The assessors were appointed a committee " to 
call upon the former town clerks for an account of the 
moneys appropriated for the purpose of killing crows and 
blackbirds;" and while the present town clerk was intrusted 
with twenty-five dollars for similar purposes, he was re- 
quired to render " an account to a justice of the peace, the 
same as poormasters." The town fathers evidently sus- 
pected there might be a full-grown African somewhere in 
the brush-fences that the crow-hunters had to climb, or in 
the town clerk's office. 

1810. — One hundred and thirty-nine dollars and eighty- 
six cents was voted for a fence around the burying-ground. 
Families having other burying-grounds were exempted from 
the tax. Building Committee : Thomas Baker, Abner 
Stone, Aaron Martin. Voted, " that five dollars be raised 
by tax of the town, and be appropriated, together with the 
money in Alexander Simson's hands belonging to the town, 
for the purpose of building a stocks for said town, and that 
the supervisor and town clerk superintend the building of 
the same." Voted, " that all fines be collected in the name 
of the supervisor, and the fines go to the use of the poor." 
Voted, that if the supervisor fail of recovering the fines 
the person complaining pay the cost. A sure plan to luake 
complainants careful. 

1811. — A committee was appointed to audit the accounts 
of the committee upon the fence of the burial-ground. The 
sum of four hundred dollars was voted towards finishing 
the academy. 

1813. — It was " Resolred, That the poormasters of this 
town meet on Tuesday next at ten o'clock iu the forenoon 
at the hotel in the village, for the purpose of seeing who 
will take the town paupers the cheapest." 
- 1815. — Having refused to electa pound-keeper in 1814, 
they now voted to repair the pounds once more. It was 
also " Itesolved, That one hundred dollars be raised by tax 
for the purpose of searching for stolen property and the 
thief or thieves, and that the money be paid over to the 




(2y'im^'l ^^OyU^^^ 


F?ESiD£NCL or JOHN CLtVELAND.5ALrM //^^hington Co N Y 

f?TS *C0 PNlUUJttPHIA.f 



inspectors of election, and they be appointed a standing 
committee to carry the above resolution into effect." 

1818. — The following certificate of manumission appears 
in the records : 

" Know all men by these presents that I, EJward Savage, master 
and owner of a female slave named Lott, have manumitted and dis- 
charged her the said Lott from her servitude, and do hereby manu- 
mit, discharge, and set free the said Lott. 

" Witness my hand and seal this 27th day of August, 181S. 

"EnwARD Savage." [l.s.] 

This was in pursuance of the act of the Legislature upon 
the subject of .slavery in this State. The birth of slave 
children is occasionally recorded in the town-book, as in 
1809 : " Peter, born of my negro woman named Beck," 
signed Anthony T. Blanchard. Also, in the same family, 
1814 : " Kate, born of my negro slave woman Amy." Also, 
in 1817 : " Cato, born of Amy, a negro woman, his slave." 
Amy seems to have afterwards been manumitted, Nov. 29, 
1820. Sept. 21, 1818, John Savage certifies to the birth, 
on or about the 6th of October, 1817, of "Nan, child of 
Chris, a female slave belonging to this deponent." 

1819. — At a special town-meeting, held November 5, the 
decision of the judges of the court of common pleas in 
the matter of a certain road was taken up for consideration, 
a strong resolution opposing said decision passed, and the 
highway commissioners directed to take steps for a legal ad- 
judication of the matter, the town to defray the expense of 
costs, not to exceed fifty dollars. (See pages 154 and 155, 
first book of town records.) The judges whose decision 
■was thus appealed from were Asa Fitch, Jonathan Wood, 
and Nathaniel Hall. Fifty dollars would be a small .sum 
to attempt a modern lawsuit with in the upper courts. 

1821.- — -AH town officers receiving pay for their services 
were required to report in writing, the report to be read on 
the morning of the town-meeting. Asa Fitch, Aaron Cleve- 
land, John Law, Joshua Steel, and David Russell were ap- 
pointed a committee to consider the expediency of building 
a poor-house. 

1822. — The committee reported in favor of a county 
poor-house, and their action was approved by a majority of 

1825. — There was manumitted, under date of March 8, 
" a certain negro slave called Jock Becker or John Dean, the 
property of Elijah C. Pearl." 

1826. — "Charles, a colored man, now the property of 
Nathan Wilson, Esq.," was manumitted January 11. 

At the town-meeting it was 

" Hesolved, That the town clerk call on William McColIistcr for the 
original field-book and chart of the town of Salem, and that the same 
be deposited in the town clerk's office." 

1832. — Twenty-five dollars were voted to pay for standard 
weights and measures for the use of the town sealer. 

At a special town-meeting, Jan. 28, 1869, C. M. Huff, 
. chairman, five thousand dollars was voted on the part of 
the town towards the erection of a new court-house at Salem. 
A committee of three was appointed to present the said 
action to the board of supervisors, and to apply to the Leg- 
islature for authorizing the same, viz., John H. McFarland, 
S. H. Ru.ssell, and John M. Williams. 

At the annual town-meeting of 1872, James Gibson and 

Robert M. Stephenson were appointed a committee to col- 
lect and remove to the room in the court-house assigned for 
the use of this town, by resolution of the board of super- 
visors of the county of Washington, all the books and 
papers and documents in the town clerk's office, or belonging 
thereto, or to the town, suitably arrange an inventory, and 
classify the same, index and bind any or such parts thereof 
as they shall think proper, and provide suitable cases for 
their safe-keeping and ready examination ; the expenses 
thereof to be a town charge, to be audited by the board of 
auditors, provided the said committee give their services 
free of charjre. 





John llowan. 

Adam Martin. f 

John Rowan. 

James Tomb. 

Hamilfn McAllister. 

John Williams. 

Town Ck-rks. 
James Tomb. 

Elisha Fitch.* 

Alexander Gault. 
Alex. Turner, Sr. 
John lieattio. 
Benjamin Cleveland. 
John Beattic. 

Alexander McNish. 

Alexander T. Turner. 
David Thomas. 

1798. " " 

" " 

« « 

1799. " " 

" " 

" " 


" " 


1801. Edward Savage. 

" " 

Nathan Willson. 


" " 



" " 

Moses Rice. 

1804. Abner Stone. 

« « 

" " 

180.'). John Savage. 

« « 

Joseph Boyd. 

1806. " 

James Hawlcy. 

" " 

1807. Andrew Lytle. 

James Tomb. 

Jonas Sloan. 

1808. John Gray. 

Alex. Simpson. Jr. 

Paul AVheeler. 

1809. " . " 

D. Matthews, Jr. 


1810. David Woods. 

" " 

Jonas Sloan. 

1811. " 

" " 

" " 

1812. Alexander McNish. 

Henry Matthews. 

James Dobbin. 

1813. John Savage. 


Joshua Streeter. 

1814. John Williams. 

James McXish. 

James Y. Watson. 

181,5. " " 


James I. Sherwood. 

181G. Philo Curtis. 

Henry Mathews. 

" " 

1817. " 

James McNish. 

" " 

1818. John Crary. 

Joseph Hawley. 

" " 

1819. " " 

« /( 

Joshua Streeter. 

1820. " " 

James McNish. 

Adams Lytle. 

1821. James Harvey. 

" , " 

" '■ 

1822. " " 

" " 

" " 

1823. John McMurray. 

" " 

" " 

1824. " 

" " 

« « 

1825. " " 

" " 

" " 

1826. " " 

Henry Matthews. 

li *i 

1827. " " 

" " 

" " 

1828. " 

" " 

" " 

1829. " " 

" " 

Ebenczcr Martin. 

1830. " " 

" " 

" " 

1831. " 

" " 

« " 

1832. " " 

" " 

« <( 

1833. " " 

John AV. I'roudfit. 

" " 

1834. Bernard Blair. 

Alonzo Gray. 

Alvan Robertson. 

1835. " " 


" " 

1836. James B. Stevenson 

" " 

" " 

1837. Aaron Martin, Jr. 

" " 

" " 


" " 

" " 

1839. James B. Stevenson 

" " 

Henry Nichols. 

1840. Stephen Ransom. 

Jas. A. McFarland 

Cyrus Atwood. 

« Constable. 

■f Assistant. 




John McMurray. 
Alex. Robertson. 
Marvin Preeman. 
William iMcKie. 
John McNaughton. 

JarvJs Martin. 
Josephus Fitch. 

John R. Lytle. 
Jas. M. Thompson. 
Josephus Fitch. 
Alexander B. Law. 

Town Clerks. Collectors. 

Jas. A. McFarland. Henry Nichols. 
John M. Mai'tin. John C. Beattie. 


B. Harkn 

Wm. R. Austin. 
.Jas. A. McFarland. 
Wm. R. Austin. 

Orrin Austin. 

Dirck C. Russell. 
W. McFarland (2d), 

Jas. M. Crawford. 

Orrin Austin. 
James Blashfield. 
John Liddlc. 
Wm. McFarland. 

Jas. M. Thompson. 
James Gibson. 
Robt. M. Stevenson. 

Edward G. Johnson. 
Wm. McFarland. 

Jas. M. Thompson. 
Robert McFarland. 
Smith II. Brownell. 
Daniel B. Cole. 
John Edwards. 

Slockwcll Liddlc. 
Edw'n McNaughton 
Wm. B. Bool. 
E. McNaughton. 

John W. Dobbin. 

Andrew R. Fenton. 

Charles Robinson. 
Alva Wrisht. 

John F. Beers. 
Clark K. Valentine. 
Robt. McFarland. 
John R. Dobbin. 
James L. Martin. 
Clark K. Valentine. 
Edwin M. Pratt. 
Peter Cruikshank. 
Sylvanus Dickinson. 
Lewis Austin. 
Gideon A. Safford. 
Wm. C. Gillis. 
Robert Stewart. 
J. C. McXaughton. 
William R. Boyd. 
McCrca Hedges. 
Wm. I. Cruikshank. 
.Wm. T. Fleming. 
Robt. Cruikshank. 
Robert McFarland. 
Eli Wilson. 
Melvin W. Orcutt. 
David N. Brownell. 
Michael Tierney. 
Edward G. Hcming. 
Gideon A. Safford. 
Wm. J. McCoUum. 



Henry Mathews. 


Alexander B. Law. 

John W. Proudlit. 


Aaron Martin. 

Aaron Martin, Jr. 


James A. McFarland. 

AVarren Norton. 


Charles A. AVhite. 


John W. Proudfit. 


Alexander B. Law. 


Warren Norton. 


James H. Fitch. 

William K. Adams. 


James A. McFarland. 


Warren Norton. 


John R. Lytle. 


Aaron Martin, Jr. 

Aaron Martin. 


Cyrus Stevens. 


Alexander B. Law. 

Andrew Martin. 


William B. Bool. 


Jesse L. Billings. 

William Robertson. 


Andrew Martin. 


« <( 

James A. McFarland. 


Ebcnezcr McMurray. 


Aaron Martin, Jr. 


Alexander B. Law. 

Philo Curtis. 


William B. Bool. 


James A. McFarland. 


William Robertson. 


Philo Curtis. 


Christopher M. Wolff. 


Anthony C. Saunders. 


Alexander B. Law. 


Aaron Martin, Jr. 


John R. Lytle. 


James A. McFarland. 


Chester Adams. 


William A. Russell. 


Daniel T. Steele. 


Alexander B. Law. 


David Dobbin. 


Aaron Martin. 


C. L. Allen. 


James A. McFarland. 

Robert L. Foster. 


William A. Russell. 


Robert M. Stevenson. 


Alexander B. Law. 


Leonard C. Piser. 


Aaron Martin. 


James Gibson, Jr. 


James A. McFarland. 


C. L. Allen, Jr. 


Charles Crary. 


John King. 


The act incorporating this village was passed by the 
Legislature, April 4, 1803. This described the boundaries 
as " beginning at a stone marked corporation number one, 
standing north two degrees west thirteen rods and fourteen 
links from the northwest corner of George Williams' 
dwelling-house ; thence running west eighty two rods to 
east Beaver brook ; thence southerly along the same to a 
stone marked corporation number two, standing on the west 
bank of said brook, two rods north of the bridge over the 
said brook, on the road leading to the dwelling-house of 
John Gray; thence south eighty-one degrees west twenty- 
eight rods to a stone marked corporation number three ; 
thence south fifty-three degrees oast one hundred and sev- 
enty-one rods and twelve links to the centre of the turn- 
pike-road, in front of the dwelling-house of the late Rev. 
James Proudfit ; thence north fifty-one degrees east two 
hundred and thirty-six rods to a stone marked corporation 
number four ; thence north twenty-two degrees west one 
hundred and eighty rods to the place of beginning." 

The first meeting was held at the court-house, on the 
first Monday in May, 1803, and the following officers duly 
elected : James Harvey, Anthony I. Blanchard, John Rus- 
sell, Robert Pennell, and Moses S. Curtis, trustees; Ebene- 
zer Proudfit, James Hawley, David Carswell, assessors ; 
John Gray, treasurer ; John Streeter, collector ; Thaddeus 
Smith, Nathaniel Carswell, Jr., Seth Brown, firewardens. 

August 12, 1803. — At a meeting of the freeholders and 
inhabitants of the village of Salem, agreeable to previous 
notice duly given, 

Resolved, That the sum of two hundred dollars be raised 
for the purpose of procuring fire implements for the secu- 
rity of the said village. 

1804. — Trustees, John Williams, James Harvey, An- 
thony I. Blanchard, James Rowan, David Carswell ; asses- 
sors, Ebenezer Proudfit, John Savage, Seth Brown ; John 
Gray, treasurer ; John Streeter, collector ; Thaddeus Smith, 
Nathaniel Carswell, and Jo.shua Streeter, firewardens. 

The treasurer was voted fifty cents for compensation, and 
the assessors were voted twelve and a half cents each. 

180.5. — One hundred dollars voted for fire implements. 

1806. — Eighty dollars voted for lighting the streets; 
fifty dollars for hay-seales. 

1810. — One hundred dollars for engine purposes. 

1811. — Three dollars compensation to the late collector; 
two hundred dollars for an engine-house. 

1812.— Three dollars to the collector. 

1814. — One hundred and twenty-five dollars for a public 
market ; one hundred and twenty-five dollars added at a 
special meeting in October, for the same purpose. 

1815. — One hundred dollars for two wells, pumps, and 
miscellaneous expenses. 

1822. — The public market rented for ten dollars and 
fifty cents to William McFenton. 

182G. — Seventy dollars for hay-seales, — rescinded next 

1814. — One item in the record shows the vigilance of 
the tas-payers. The late assessors, Seth Brown and Henry 




Bernard Blair was bom in Williamstown, Berkshire Co., 
Mass., May 24, 1801. Of a family of ten children, — seven 
sons and three daughters, — Mr. Blair was third son, and at 
the time of the writing of this sketch, 1878, only his two 
younger brothers, Edwin H. and Henry James, and one 
sister, Sarah Maria, survive. His father, William Blair, 
was also a native of Williamstown, bom Oct. 2, 1765 ; was 
a farmer, and lived on the farm that the grandfather pur- 
chased when he first settled in Massachusetts. This farm 
has been in the family over a century, and was only recently 
sold by the subject of this memoir to his brother, the late 
George T. Blair, of Troy, N. Y. His grandfather, Absolom 
Blair, enlisted in the war for independence, and was a cap- 
tain at the battle of Bennington, and died April 20, 1811. 
His father died May 4, 1842. His mother, Sarah Train, 
was a native of Williamstown, Mass., bom Oct. 15, 1772, 
and died June 26, 1864. 

Mr. Blair spent his boyhood days in the routine of farm 
labor and district schools, and after he attained proper age 
prepared for college under the instrection of a private 
teacher. Entering Williams College at the age of twenty, 
and graduating from that institution in the year 1825, 
having for his classmates men who have taken high rank 
in the nation, such as David Dudley Field, LL.D., the late 
Robert McClellan, and the late David Addison Noble, ex- 
members of Congress. 

During the same year he came to Salem, Washington 
Co., N. Y., and entered the law office of Hon. David Russell 
& Judge Allen, where he remained until the year 1828, 
when he was admitted to practice as arf attorney in the 
Supreme Court of the State. He was subsequently ad- 
mitted as counselor and soUcitor in chancery. In the year 

1828 he formed a partnership with Judge Allen, which 
continued for some twelve years. During this time this 
firm enjoyed, it is said, a large and lucrative practice not 
only in their county, but in the various courts of the State. 

Mr. Blair was an ardent supporter of the old Whig 
party, and from its ranks, in the year 1839, was elected to 
the Twenty-seventh Congress of the United States. 

Since his return he has gradually withdrawn from the 
active duties of his profession, giving his attention more 
particularly to other matters. Upon the organization of the 
Troy and Rutland railroad he was elected president, which 
office he retained until the road was leased to another com- 
pany. He assisted in the organization of the old State 
Bank of Salem, and was a director and its president during 
its existence, and since the organization of the National 
Bank of Salem he has been a director. 

Mr. Blair, in the year 1833, May 23, married Miss 
Charlotte, daughter of Abraham C. Lansing and Sophia 
Gorham, of Lansingburg, N. Y. They have no children. 
Mr. Blair is now seventy-seven years of age, able to review 
the past history of the legal fraternity of Salem for half a 
century, and remembers when it was said, " that the bar of 
Salem had no superior for talent and legal learning in the 
State ;" and as a member of that bar he ranked among the 

He was one of the board of tmstees of the Washington 
Academy for several years, and has been a trustee of the 
First Incorporated Presbyterian church of Salem since 1846, 
and one of its most liberal supporters. In 1846, Mr. Blair 
received from Middlebury College the honorary degree of 
Master of Arts, the same being conferred upon him by 
Williams College in 1855. 



Whitney, having brought in a bill of one dollar each, for 
services, the action is entered as follows : " On which a 
motion was made that the above persons have the compen- 
sation mentioned," which was accordingly carried almost 
unanimously — in the negative. 

1826. — Trustees authorized to dispose of the public 
market, or remove the same to a suitable place in the 

1820. — One of the ordinances forbade any person to fire, 
for amtisement or sjwrt, any sort of gun or fire-arms, or 
throw any squib or exhibit any fire-works, in the village 
within the distance of one hundred yards from any church, 
meeting-house, dwelling-house, store-house, or barn. 

In 1803 it was resolved by the board that the seal of 
the corporation be a device of a sheaf of wheat, with the 
words " Common Seal of the Corporation of the Village of 
Salem," and the figures of 1803. 

In 1837 it was resolved that the seal of the corporation 
be " A plain ground with a ring margin, and the letters 
C. S. in the centre, with a star between them, meaning 
' Corporation Seal.' " 

The present seal displays an open safe, with the words 
" Seal of the Corporation of the Village of Salem," bearing 
the date 1803. 

Early in the War of 1861-65, when change was scarce, 
the village corporation issued scrip in certificates of five 
cents, ten cents, and fifteen cents each, which circulated 
freely, and became a matter of great convenience. 

The following is a complete list of presidents, clerks, 
treasurers, and collectors from 1803 to 1878, three-quar- 
ters of a century : 

Presidents. Clerks. 

180.3 James llarvcy. J. Bostwick. 

1804 JiihQ Williams. " " 

1805 " 

1806 .\nth'y J. Blanchaid. " " 

1807 " " " " 

1808 James Harvey. Philo Curtis. 

1809 " 

1810 John Gray. " " 

1811 David D. Gray. " " 

1812 John Gray. " " 

1813 " " " " 

1814 David Wood. " " 

1815 James Nichols. ** ** 

1816 " " " " 

1817 Joseph Hawley. " " 

1818 " •• " " 

1819 " " " " 

1820 " " " " 

1821 James Harvey. " " 

1822 " " " " 

1823 Anth'y J. Blanchard. " " 

1824 John Williams. " " 

1825 John McLean, Jr. " " 

1826 Anth'v J. Blanchard. " " 

1827 JohnWillard. " " 

1828 Cornelius L.Allen. " " 

1829 " " " " 

1830 " " Philo Curtis.* 

1831 " " Henry W. Dodd. 

1832 Maj. Jas. Harvey. " " 

1833 " " C.Stevens. 

1834 Joseph Hawley. •' " 

1835 " " " " 

1836 " " 

1837 John Williams, Jr. James Gihson. 

1838 John Crcary. " " 

1839 " " " 

1840 " " " " 

1841 Henry Mathews. " " 

1842 Alex. Robertson. " " 

1843 Cornelius L. Allen. " " 

1844 Joseph Hawley. " " 

* Probably. 

Presidents. Clerks. 

1S45 Abncr Austin. James Gibson. 

1846 Josenhus Fitch. 


1848 Oliver Whitcomb. S. B. Shipley. 

1S49 James W. Peters. James Gibson. 

1850 Cornelius L. Allen. " 

1851 " " S. B. Shipley. 

1S52 Josephus Fitch. " " 

1854 David T. Archibald. " " 

1855 " " Charles A. White. 

1856 " " " 

1857 Marinus Fairchild. " 

1858 Timothy Cronin. B. F. Robinson. 


1860 " 

1861 " " " " 

1862 Ale.\. McDougall. John W. McFarland. 

1863 John Howe. 

1864 " " " 

1865 Matthias Bartlctt. " " 

1866 .lames McNaughton. " " 

1867 " " " " 

1868 " " " " 

1869 Col. .Sol.AV. Russell. George H. Arnott. 

1870 " " " "f 

1871 " " Joseph Oliver. 

1872 " " " ■' 

1873 " " " " 

1874 " " " '•■ 

1875 " " " " 

187li " " " " 

1S77 " " " " 


Treasurers. Collectora. 

1803 John Gray. John Streeler. 

1S04 " " " " 

1805 " " Joshua Strecter. 

1806 Henry Dodd. James Y. Watson. 

1807 " " " 

1808 " " Abner Austin. 

180!) " " " " 

1810 " " " " 

ISII John Kennedy. Joseph Nichols. 

1812 *' '' Joshua Streeter. 

1S13 Henry Dodd. " " 

1814 " " James Y. Watson. 

1815 Henry Matthews. Joseph Nichols. 

1816 Joseph Warlord. James I. Sherwood. 

1817 Henry Matlhews. " " 

1818 " " " " 

1S19 " " Martin. 

1S20 " " " 

1821 Philo Curtiss. David Stewart. 

1822 Abner Austin. Wm. K. Ad.'iras. 

1823 " " AVm. McFarland. 

1824 James McNish. Ebeneacr Martin. 

1825 Cornelius L. Allen. " " 

1826 Ebenczer Martin. Henry Dodd. 

1827 James Harvey. F.benezer Martin. 

1828 " " " 

1829 Joseph Hawley. James 0. Proudfit. 

1830 James Harvey. Hbenezer Martin. 

1831 " " " " 

1832 Joseph Hawley. " " 

1833 " " Abner Austiu. 

1834 John Adams. 

1835 " 

183(i " " Wm. S. Barnard. 

1837 Tames Harvey. " " 

1838 John Adams. Ebencjier Hanks. 

1839 " " Henry Nichols. 

1840 " " Cyrus Atwood. 

1841...!!.." " 

1S42 " " Loraness Clark. 

1S43 " " Cyrus Atwood. 

1S44 " " " " 

1845 " " " 

1840 George Allen. Alva Wright. 

1847 " 

1848 " " " ' 

1849 Archib'd McDougall. John R. Lytle. 

1850 Murray McFarland. Orrin Austin. 

1851 Cyrus Atwood. Wm. W. Hill. 

1852 " " Orrin Austin. 

1853.!!!!! " " " " 

1854 " << « . 

1855 " " W. H. LakiD. 

1856 " " " " 

f Resigned; Joseph Oliver appointed. 



Treasurers. Collectors. 

1857 Orrin Austin. Rufus Fox. 

1858 •' " " 

1859 " " " " 

1860 " " Lewis Herrington. 

1861 " " John S. Crarv. 

1862 " " S. S. Crandafl. 

186.S " " Jno C. McNaughton. 

1864 " " John W. McFarland. 

1865 " 

1866 '• " " " 

1867 Leonard M. Liddle. Christopher M.AVolff. 

1868 " " Edwin McNaughton. 

1869 ** " Sylvanus Dickinson. 

1870 fieorge H. Arnott. A"ndrew J. Hickey. 

1871 Edwin McNaughton. •\«m. J. Cruikshank. 

1872 George H. Arnott. Eli Wilson. 

1873 " " John Howe. 

1874 James W. Tollman. " " 

1875 John J. Ceattie. " " 

1876 " " " 

1877 John W. Dobbin. Jno. C. McNaughton. 


We are indebted to the courtesy of the author, James 
Gibson, Jr., for permission to use a series of articles upon 
this subject, prepared for the press during the year 1877- 
Connected with the department himself for many years, he 
industriously gathered material so interesting and valuable 
that we regret our limited space prevents giving it entire : 

" Among the powers vested in the village trustees, by 
section three of that charter, was that of making and pub- 
lishing ordinances ' relative to the establishing, regulating, 
and ordering their fire-company, and ordering and procur- 
ing their fire-buckets, fire-utensils, and guarding against 
fire generally.' 

" The first meeting of freeholders and inhabitants under 
the charter wa.s held at the court-house, on the first Mon- 
day of May, 1803. At this time the inhabitants were fully 
awake to the necessity of protection against conflagrations, 
as will be seen by their early action. At the first election 
they chose firewardens. Two months later (Aug. 2, 1803j, 
a special meeting passed the following resolution : 

" ^Resolved, That the sum of two hundred dollars be raised for the 
purpose of procuring fire implements for the security of the said 

" It does not appear from the records that anything was 
done by the trustees under the foregoing resolution. It is 
certain that no fire-engine was purchased at that time. On 
May 12, 180-t, the trustees adopted the following resolu- 
tions, and it is fair to presume, as will be seen hereafter, 
that they were making their first expenditure under the 
resolution passed by the inhabitants in 1803 : 

"'Resolved, That six sufficient ladders be procured for the use of the 
trustees of said village, under the direction of Messrs. Ilawley and 

" 'Resolved, That twenty-four leather fire-buckets be procured for 
the use of said trustees, under the direction of Messrs. Ilawley and 

" The fire-ladders were soon thereafter purchased, as ap- 
pears from the following resolution adopted May 26, 1804: 

" 'Resolved, That twelve dollars be paid by the treasurer to Thad- 
deus Smith, for four fire-ladders purchased by him for the use of the 
trustees of the village of Salem.' 

"At a meeting held July 31, 1804, the following was 
adopted : 

" 'Resolved, That the fire-buckets be deposited at the stores of James 
Harvey, J. Hawley, and Ebcnezer Proudfit.' 

" It thus appears that the first fire-ladders were ready for 
use on or before May 26, 1804, and the fire-buckets and 
hooks by July 31 of the same year. It will be observed 
that the original fire-apparatus was not very extensive or 
expensive. The ladders cost only twelve dollars, and the 
buckets perhaps but little more. Probably the whole ex- 
pense did not exceed the sum of fifty dollars. 

" It is presumed that the then ' fathers' of the village 
did not consider a fire-engine necessary. They probably 
thought that their facilities for extinguishing fires were 
ample. They had four ladders, a number of buckets, and 
a few hooks. In case of fire, water could be carried in 
buckets from the nearest well, ladders could be hoisted on 
the burning building, and the water thrown on ; and in 
case the building could not be saved, which is quite reason- 
able to believe, it could be torn to pieces by the hooks. It 
may be, however, that Major James Harvey (who, previous 
to coming to this place, was a member of a New York city 
fire-company) owned an engine at this time, which the 
trustees relied on. The writer is informed by the descend- 
ants of Major Harvey that he owned a small fire-engine 
about this time, but they cannot give the year of its deliv- 
ery to him in Salem. 

" On the Gth of October, 1806, the trustees appointed the 
first fire-company. It consisted of only seven members, 
and they were the leading citizens of the village. Its mem- 
bers were Abner Austin, Amasa Allen, William Faulkner, 
Jeremiah Griswold, Sutherland Doty, James B. Gibson, 
Esq., and Colonel John Williams. Was there not a fire- 
engine here in 1806? If there was no engine, why then 
should the trustees appoint a company ? It is inferred that 
there must have been an engine here as early as 1806, 
owned by one or more citizens (probably Major Harvey), 
and that the company in question was appointed for the 
purpose of using it in of need. The records are silent 
as to who was the first foreman, but it is likely that Colonel 
John Williams was chosen to fill that position. 

"At a meeting of the trustees held Jan. 10, 1810, a 
resolution was adopted to the eifect that the foreman of the 
company present a list of the members. • In pursuance 
thereof the foreman immediately presented the list, which 
was ent€red in the records, and is as follows : James Har- 
vey, Philo Curtis, John Williams, Henry Dodd, David 
Rumsey, William Faulkner, John P. Reynolds, Ebenezer 
Martin, James J. Sherwood, James Nichols, Joseph Nichols, 
William Carson, Samuel Prince, Jr., Jeremiah Griswold, 
Henry D. Beeman, Abner Austin, Amasa Allen, Joseph 
D. Benjamin, Isaac Powers, Jr., and John Kennedy. 

" At this time (January, 1810) Major James Harvey, a 
prominent merchant here, was foreman, but when he joined 
the company, or became foreman, the records fail to disclose. 
He continued to act in that position till March 20, 1810, 
when, as appears by an entry in his journal, he removed to 
Pelham, Westchester Co., N. Y., where he resided till March, 
1819, when he returned to this village. Colonel Williams 
probably succeeded as foreman. An old resident informs 
the writer that in 1814 the company was out on parade and 
inspection, and that Colonel Williams commanded it. 

"On Blay 7, 1811, a meeting of the inhabitants was 
hold, at which the following resolution was adopted : 

Ow.G£Of?GC Allen. 

This gentleman was descended paternally from James 
Allen, who emigrated from or near Wrentham, in county 
Suffolk, England, and in 1639 settled in Dedham, Mass., 
and t>y Anna, his wife, had for his ninth and youngest son, 
Joseph (2), of Rehoboth, who was born June 24, 1652; 
and who had by his wife, Hannah Sabine, of Seekonk, 
Nehemiah, who was their twelfth and youngest child, born 
May 21, 1699 ; and whose fourth son was Jacob (4), born 
February 4, 1734; and whose third son, Ephraim (5), born 
March 10, 1766, graduated in medicine, and married, May 
26, 1793, Miriam, a daughter of General Timothy Newell, 
of Sturbridge, Mass., and whose fifth child by her was 
George (6), the subject of this sketch. He was born in 
Salem, N. Y., January 12, 1806 ; educated at Washington 
Academy while it was under the charge of the Rev. Sidney 
Wilber ; pursued the study of medicine and surgery in the 
office of his uncle, Abram Allen, M.D., and his brother-in- 
law, Archibald McAllister, M.D., who were copartners in 
the practice of medicine, at Salem. 

He attended two courses of lectures at the Medical 
University, Castleton,Vt., but could not graduate, as he was 
not then twenty-one years of age. He returned to Salem, 
and entered at once into the active practice of his profession 
until he attained his majority, and then returned to Castle- 
ton and graduated, December 19, 1827, and became a 
member of the Medical Society of the county of Washing- 
ton. He renewed the practice of medicine at Salem, and 
continued in practice until his death, which occurred 
August 16, 1866, aged sixty years. His wife had died 
previously, — August 4, 1856. 

He was of a family of physicians, for his father and uncle 
were, as we have seen, of that profession ; and his cousin, 
Amasa Allen, M.D., who settled in Granville, was also 
a physician ; and his son, Charles H. Allen, M.D., died in 
the practice of medicine, at Salem, March 1, 1875. 

Dr. George Allen was of more than ordinary ability as a 
surgeon, and as a physician he had no superior in the 
county. His life was devoted to his profession, and no one 
could be more attentive than he was in the performance of 
its duties. As long as life remained in the body he never 
lost all hope, and it was his belief that his patient had 
a right to the services of his physician till his last breath , 
for, while life remained, nature might struggle, and, with 
the aid of the physician, might save; and this possible 
chance, he insisted, ought never to be lost for want of care 
and attention. Another noble quality he had in an eminent 
degree was his cheerful countenance in the presence of his 
patient ; nothing could surprise him out of this, for with 
him it was a duty, and practiced on the same principle as the 
quality before mentioned. For it was his opinion that a 
cloudy, dubious, solemn, or melancholy face should never be 
carried by a physician into the sick-room. He felt bound 
to give the patient every chance for recovery, and he gave 
them not only medicine, but hope ; and whatever he might 
do as to stopping the prescription, he never lost the cheerful 
face, nor the hope of a good result, in the presence of the 
patient. His mode of practice w;»s a revolution from that 
previously had, for bleeding in nearly all cases had been the 
rule previous to his commencing, but in his practice rarely, 
if ever, employed. The doctor's social (pialities were such as 
to endear him to every one with whom he came in contact. 

He married, soon after graduating, Caroline S., daughter 
of Major James Harvey, of Salem, and his wife, Mary 
(Barrows), and had the following children : Charles H., 
who subsequently became a distinguished physician and 
surgeon at Salem ; George, who is a resident of Washington, 
D. C. ; James H., a resident of Cameron, Mo. ; and Caro- 
line, who married Geo. B. McCartie, Esq., for many years 
chief of the bureau of engraving and printing in the 
treasury department at Washington. 



'" Reuolved, That the trustees of the village of Salem be directed 
forthwith to cause to be raised the sum of two hundred dollars, for 
the purpose of building an engine-house, ftnd the re/tidue to be (tpjtlicd 
hy said trustees to refund the money advanced last year by individuaUj 
towards purehnsing euijine iVo. 1.' 

" At the same meeting it was furtlior 

" * Jiesnlved, Tliat the trustees he authorized to rent a suitable lot 
of ground on which to place an engine-house, which rent shall not 
exceed the sum of ten dollars per aunuru.* 

" The inference to be drawn from tlie foregoing resolu- 
tions, and particularly from the italicised portion of the 
former one, is that the first engine was purchased by private 
subscription, during the year 1810. A brief description 
of it may be of interest. It has iron wheels, eighteen 
inches in diameter ; length of box, five and a half feet ; 
width, twenty-two inches ; depth, fourteen inches. There 
were originally two brakes, — one at each end of the engine, 
— each brake only long enough for five men to work on. 
It had a brass air-chamber which extended some five or six 
inches above its top. The fire-buckets were used in feeding 
it with water. Having no suction-pipe, it could not be fed 
from wells or reservoirs like modern engines. 

" Persons unacquainted with the power of such an engine 
would naturally say that it could throw water but a very 
short distance. Such was not the case, as will be seen by 
the following facts: In July, 1871, when the engine was 
over .sixty years old, some of the village boys organized a 
company, and bought the " old tub," as they called it, for 
a few dollars, and shortly after, these boys took the " tub" 
out and threw a distance of one hundred and twelve feet. 
Under the old .system here, in case of fire, the inhabitants 
would form in two lines extending from the engine to the 
nearest well. Those forming one line would pass from 
hand to hand the buckets filled with water to supply the 
engine, and the other line would return the empty buckets 
to the well. 

"The trustees, on May 17, 1820, adopted an ordinance, 
the interest of which consists in the fact that, so far as is 
known, it shows the style of the first uniform ever worn 
by Salem firemen : 

" ' Be it ordained by the trustees of the village of Salem, that here- 
after every person appointed, or to be appointed, in the company of 
firemen of the said village, shall, within fifteen days after notice of 
such appointment, equip himself with a short coat of blue woolen 
cloth anil a leather hat such as is usually worn by a fireman : and in 
default of such an equipment within the time aforesaid suoh person 
shall be deemed to have refused acceptance of such appointment, and 
be no longer a member of said fire-company.' 

" In March, 1833, a tax of two hundred and fifty dol- 
lars was voted, for the purpose of improving the depart- 
ment and for contingent expenses. In July, 1833, Alonzo 
Gray was appointed to procure an axe for the use of the 
engine-company. This was the first axe ever purchased by 
authority of the trustees, at least for fire purposes. From 
1803, for thirty years firewardens were elected annually; 
and by an ordinance adopted in July, 1833, it was made 
their duty ' to attend strictly at every alarm of fire in 
the village, and to form the lines to carry water to the 
engine with all possible dispatch.' In July of that year 
(1833) a committee was appointed to procure four ladders, 
two twenty-four feet long, and the other two sixteen feet 
in length. At the next meeting the committee reported 

that they had procured the axe and ladders, at an expense 
of nine dollars and forty cents. It appears that the old 
hook-and-ladder department cost about ten dollars. 

" From 1803 to 1835 the enterprise of the residents of 
the village kept pace with its growth, and in the latter year 
many of the citizens were in favor of selling engine No. 1, 
and purchasing one with modern improvements. There 
was, as is apt to be the, one party who wanted a new 
engine and another party who were satisfied with the old 
one. But finally, pursuant to the request of those who 
wanted to exchange engines, the trustees called a special 
village-meeting, for the purpose of taking the subject into 
consideration, which was held Aug. 15, 1835, and it was 
resolved that it was ' inexpedient' to raise money for that 
purpose at that time. The meeting, however, went so far 
as to appoint John Williams, Jr., John W. Proudfit, and 
John Willard as a committee ' to inquire into the expense 
of a new engine.' But the committee made haste slowly, 
and the subject was dropped for a while. At an adjourned 
special village-meeting, held Jan. 7, 1837, it was resolved 
' that the sum of two hundred and fifty dollars be raised 
by tax, for the purpose of paying for a fire-engine and a 
suitable quantity of hose for the use of said village.' Jan. 
28, 1838, the resolution adopted a year earlier was re- 
scinded, and the following resolution adopted in lieu thereof: 

"' Resolved, That two htindred and fifty dollars be raised . . . for 
the purpose of paying John Williams, Jr., for a fire-engine, /ifieJo- 
fore furnished said I,,, him.' 

"At a meeting hold June 25, 1838, the sum of two 
hundred and thirty-one dollars and fifty cents was paid Mr. 
Williams for the engine in question. It seems, therefore, 
that the second engine was purchased of Mr. Williams, or 
loaned by him to the village, in 1837. It was built in his 
manufactory by the Lord brothers, who were considered to 
be the leading mechanics of the day in this section. 


" At the time of the purchase of the fire-engine, in 
1810, a building, located on the lot next north of the old 
court-house lot, was secured for its shelter. The engine 
was kept there till 1842, when a new engine-house was 
erected. The subject was brought before the inhabitants 
at a special meeting held in August, 1835, at which Messrs. 
John Williams, Jr., John W. Proudfit, and John Willard 
were appointed a committee to report as to the advisability 
of a change. Nearly two years later (April, 1837) a res- 
olution was adopted to the effect that the engine-house be 
removed to the Salem Hotel lot, provided such removal 
coidd he made without expense to the village. It is inferred 
that the ardor of the advocates for the removal was con- 
siderably dampened by the proviso of the foregoing reso- 
lution, as the subject was dropped and not revived until 
1838. In January, 1838, Major Harvey, Dr. Robert M. 
Stevenson, and Hon. Marinus Faircbild were appointed as 
a committee to fix upon a permanent location ; but the 
change was not made, and in 1840 the old engine-house 
was repaired. This subject received further ventilation in 
May, 1842, when the trustees recommended the erection 
of a new, and the inhabitants at the annual 



meeting in that year voted to expend two hundred and fifty 
dollars, less collector's fees, for that purpose. 

" A committee, consisting of John Williams, Jr., Cor- 
nelius L. Allen, and Dr. George Allen, was appointed to 
select a site. The new building was erected by the then 
owners of what is now known as the Salem Hotel, in rear 
of the hotel and fronting on West Broadway, and was leased 
to the village for a term of years. The room was fitted up 
by a committee from the trustees early in 1843, at the ex- 
pense of the village. 

" The company of 18.37 consisted of twenty-three mem- 
bers, as appears by a list presented to the trustees on Sep- 
tember 9 of that year, as follows : John Williams, John 
Adams, James H. Seymour, John Williams, Jr., John Mc- 
Lelland, Jonathan F. Danforth, Taylor Manville, A. M. 
Proudfit, Loraness Clark, Marvin Freeman, William H. 
Reab, Cyrus Stevens, Alonzo Gray, Abner Austin, Thomas 
G. Wait, David Bowen, Harrison Libbey, Abner Austin, 
Jr., William Gunnison, Loughton Lane, Moses Whitney, 
David Rider, Adam W. Freeman. 

" On Aug. 20, 1840, a contract was awarded to George 
R. Lakin to build two fire-wells for seventeen dollars and 
fifty cents each. One of these wells was located in front of 
the old lot, and the other at the junction of 
Main street and Broadway. 

" The second engine was used from 1837 to 1849, and in 
the later year a tax was voted for the purpose of paying for 
a new engine and hose. It was furnished by Samuel Lord 
the same year, and in 1850 he was paid two hundred and 
thirty-seven dollars and fifty cents, leaving due him sixty- 
two dollars and fifty cents, which was soon thereafter paid. 
It is probable that the old engine was turned in towards the 
purchase price of the new one, the old engine and the three 
hundred dollars making the cost of the third machine. 
That engine, like the second, was manufjictured here. 

" In the early days of the department, and down to a very 
recent period, for that matter, there were no fire-bells or 
alarms, and the writer has often wondered how meetings 
were announced, and the company ' warned out' to attend 
fires, etc. The earliest by-laws now in existence are those 
of 1840, and one of the sections gives the method of notify- 
ing members of meetings and alarms of fire. The company 
had, among other officers, one called the ' horn-blower,' 
and his duties are defined as follows : 

" ' It shall be the duty of the horn-blower to blow the horn at least 
ten uiiuutes before the time for each regular meeting, under a penalty 
of fifty cents for each omission ; and immediately on the alarm of 
fire, under the penalty of three dollars for each and every neglect.' 

" There is an ancient expression about ' blowing one's own 
horn,' which has been commonly applied to men who mag- 
nify their own exploits, but the writer was never satisfied 
as to the origin of the expression, until he discovered the 
by-laws to which he has referred. The names of the ' horn- 
blowers' of the Salem fire department ought to be handed 
down to future generations ; but, alas ! the records are lost 
and the golden opportunity has passed, and their names will 
never be disclosed. 

" The two ' great fires,' as they are called, occurred, the 
first in September, and the latter in October, 1840, just one 
month apart. The fire-company at that period was com- 

posed of the following-named persons: John Williams, Jr., 
James H. Seymour, Marvin Freeman, A. M. Proudfit, Wm. 
H. Reab, Loraness Clark, Warren Tanner, W. W. Freeman, 
Alonzo Gray, Wm. McLelland, Cyrus Atwood, David 
Rider, David Bowen, B. F. Robinson, Ebenezer Beaty, 
Rufus Fox, Thomas M. Hopkins, Abner C. Barnard, 
Robert McMurray. 

"The fire-company organized in 1806 continued in un- 
broken existence until 1847, when a petition for a new fire- 
company was presented to the trustees May 1. The peti- 
tion was received and placed on file, but no action was 
taken thereon for several months. On May 7, 1847, a 
petition signed by a number of members of the existing 
company was presented to the trustees, and is as follows : 

" ' To the Tninltea o/ the viUar/e o/ Salem : 

" ' Respectfully showeth that they are members of the present fire- 
company in said village, and are desirous that the same should be 
dissolved, and they fully discharged therefrom. All which they re- 
spectfully submit. 

"'CvRus W. Hall, 
"'Cvnrs Atwood, 
"'A. Grav, 
" ' W. W. Freeman, 
"'OnniN Austin. 
"'Sai.em, May 1, 1847.' 

'■ The petition was ordered on file, and subsequently (June 
2, 1847) the trustees dissolved the existing company and 
constituted those named in the foregoing petition for a new 
fire-company as the fire-company of this village. During 
the years 1848-49, Henry S. Osborn, C. "V. B. Martin, 
John L. Woodin, John J. Steele, John King, David Lid- 
die, David Youlin, Geo. Quackenbush, S. G. Patterson, 
Joseph H. Guild, Murray McFarland, Lewis Herrington, 
and possibly others, were appointed firemen. 

" This company was disbanded in 1856. Its foremen 
were as follows : Josephus Fitch, 1847-49 ; Robert C. Cun- 
ningham, 1850; Abram C. Lansing, 1851-54; Alvin Rus- 
sell) 1855-56. 

'•The company turned out on parade for the last time on 
July 4, 1856, and practically disbanded on that day, but 
was not formally dissolved till Nov. 28 of that year. 

" Old Uinon No. 1.— From July, 1856, to 18G1, to all 
intents and purposes, this village was not protected against 
fire. On Dec. 9, 1861, Messrs. T. C. Cronin, John M. 
Williams, and Geo. Hastings were appointed as a com- 
mittee from the board of trustees, with full power to pur- 
chase a fire-engine and the necessary hose. The committee 
subsequently reported their proceedings, and at a meeting 
held Dec. 18, 1861, the board resolved to purchase Cataract 
Engine, No. 8, of Troy, for eight hundred dollars, and four 
hundred feet of hose for two hundred dollars. The engine 
and hose were purchased and reached here soon thereafter. 

" It appears that Union Engine and Hose-Company No. 1 
was organized previous to Dec. 18, 1861, because at the 
meeting held on that day, it was resolved ' that the ofiicers 
and members of the company lately organized, ai]d called 
Union Company No. 1, be approved.' In September of 
the following year the trustees instructed the village treas- 
urer to borrow six hundred dollars ' for the special purpose 
of purchasing hose for the fire-engine, and digging wells 
and reservoirs.' Under the charter of 1851 the fire-com- 
pany could only have thirty-four members. This being too 

y ^ 


David Hawley was bom in the village of Salem, 
Washington Co., N. Y., March 9, 1809. He was only son 
(having one sister, Mrs. Alonzo Gray, of Salem) of Joseph 
Hawley and Sally Gray, the former a native of Bridge- 
port, Conn., and came to this county while a young man, 
spent his life as a merchant in Salem, and died in the year 
1858, aged eighty-three years. The latter was a native of 
Camden, town of Salem, and died in the year 1856. His 
grandfather's name was Woolcot Hawley. 

David Hawley's early life, until he was sixteen, was spent 
at home and as a student in Washington Academy, at 
Salem, where he received such cultivation of intellect as 
gave him ready ability to enter upon a clerkship in his 
father's store, which he continued until he was nineteen, 
when his father gave up business, and the son entered a 
partnership with his brother-in-law, Mr. Alonzo Gray, which 
continued for a time ; he then caiTied on the business aloue 
successfully until the year 1838, when his health became 
somewhat impaired, and he spent the following ten years 
traveling in different parts of the United States. 

In the year 1830, May 25, he married Miss Katharine 
Matilda, daughter of the late Major James Harvey, of 
Salem. She was born July 11, 1813, and died at the age 
of twenty-three, leaving an only daughter, Mrs. Rev. J. K. 
McLean, of Oakland, California. After the death of his wife 
Mr. Hawley retu-ed from business, and resided elsewhere 
for several years, first in Greenwich and then in Schaghticoke. 

In the year 1848, February 16, he married Miss L. 
J., youngest daughter of the late Col. Bethel Mather, of 
Schaghticoke, who was a native of Torringford, liitchfield 
Co., Conn., and had for his pastor the Rev. Samuel J. 
Mills, father of the first missionary of this country. Her 
mother was Haldah Smith, nf Aiueuia, Dutchess Co., N. Y., 
daughter of Elijah Smith, cousm of John Cotton Smith, 
ex-Governor of New Yurk State. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Hawley have been born two sons: 
Joseph Mather Hawley, graduated from Amherst College, 
June, 1875, and entered thf same year the banking-house 
of C. A. Mather & Co., of Beriin, Wis. ; and Charles D. 
Hawley, spending his minority at school. 

After Mr. Hawley's second marriage he returned to 
Salem, and soon after entered into the grain and commission 
business in partnership with Mr. Cyrus Atwood, which con- 
tinued until his partner's demise; after which time he carried 
on the business aloue until nearly the time of bis death, 
Feb. 5, 1871. 

In January, 1859, he was elected a trustee of the First 
Presbyterian church, filling the vacancy occasioned by the 
death of his father. Ten years later lie became one c^f the 
directors of the National Bank of Salem, both of which 
positions he continufd to hold by successive re-elections until 
his death. Mr. Hawley was a man of activity in business, 
a warm friend to the deserving needy, and many whom he 
befriended will cherish his name in grateful remembrance. 
He possessed fixed integrity of purpose in all his business 
transactions, and was honored and esteemed by all who 
knew him. 

He was never solicitous of any public notoriety by way 
of political preferment ; neither did he shrink from bearing 
his duties as a citizen, and was an unswerving member of 
the Republican parly. Soci^ "y, ho wr« the attractive centre 
not only of his family, but of the business community, and 
his pleasant words cheered the mind of many a despondent 
and sufiering one. While a young man Mr. Hawley was 
interested in military matters, and was paymaster on the 
staff of General McNaughton, in the Sixteenth Brigade, 
Tenth Division N. Y. S. Militia. 

A view of the residence of the late David Hawley will be 
seen on another page of this -,7ork, 7<;)ere his widuw still 
resides, having come there immediately aflcr her marriage. 



small a number for the proper management of the engine 
and hose, the trustees applied to the Legislature, and the 
charter was amended so as to allow sixty members. 

" This company is the lineal descendant of the original 
fire-company, and can fairly inscribe on its engine ' Estab- 
lished in ISOG.' It has at all times since its organization 
(and at no time more than the present) been a credit to 
the village. It would be difficult to find a better managed 
fire-company than this in any village. Its members are 
and always have been thoroughly drilled in their important 
duties, and never since the company was created has it 
failed to do its whole duty. John M. Williams was fore- 
man from its organization to and including 1870, and would 
have been re-elected until now, in all probability, had he 
not positively declined to accept the office. The foremen 
since 1870 have been as follows : Sylvanus Dickinson, 
1871 ; W. J. Toleman and James C. Shaw, 1872; John 
M. Clapp, 1873 ; James Gibson, Jr., 1874 ; John H. 
Thomas, 1875 ; Patrick Congdon, 1S7G. The latter was 
re-elected at the annual meeting for the present calendar 
year. The uniform of the fire-company consists of black 
trowscrs, red shirts, blue caps, and black belts. The hose- 
company connected with this engine was formed at the 
same time as the engine-company. Since its formation the 
following-named have served as foremen : Jos. Kelly, John 
W. McFarland, James A. Brown, S. Watson, Wm. A. 
Connor, and James H. Cooney. At the last annual meet- 
ing Dennis Leary was chosen for the present year. 

" As stated above, the new engine was purchased in ISGl. 
It was placed in a building near the White creek bridge, in 
rear of the present Union engine-house, where it was kept 
till 186G, when the new building was erected. At the 
annual village-meeting held in April, 1865, it was voted 
that the trustees be authorized to purchase or lease a suita- 
ble site for an engine-house, and erect thereon a suitable 
building, the total expense not to exceed three thousand 
dollars. The site selected was on the south side of White 
creek bridge, on Main street. John M. Williams gave the 
use of the necessary land. The building was erected by D. 
B. Parks, and was completed early in 18GG, and accepted 
by the trustees May 19, 1866. It is a fine brick structure, 
containing throe rooms on the upper floor, and one room, 
the size of the building, on the lower floor. 

" Enlargement of the Department. 

" From the time of the incorporation of this village to 
and including the year 1874, the corporation, as has been 
shown, owned but one serviceable fire-engine at any one 
time. Its facilities for extinguishing fires were hardly 
what would naturally be expected for a village situated as 
this is. It is quite probable that no important changes 
would have been made in the department had it not been 
for the unusual number of fires during the year 1874. 
These fires, occurring at short intervals during that year, 
and culminating with the fire at which the Salem Hotel 
barn and other out-buildings were destroyed, and a number 
of dwellings threatened with destruction, attracted public 
attention to the insufficiency of the existing fire depart- 

" A special meeting was held at Academy Hall Dec. 2, 

1874. At that meeting Messrs. John H. Thomas, F. 
Kegler, B. F. Bancroft, C. H. Allen, S. W. Russell, and 
Ira Broughton were appointed a committee to report as to 
the cost of a steam fire-engine, additional hose, and other 
necessary apparatus. 

" The meeting adjourned to Dec. 9, 1874, at which the 
above-named committee presented a report. The questions 
involved were debated, and the following resolution was 
almost unanimously adopted : 

" ■ Ucmheil, That the trustees of the villugo of Salem be and they 
are hereby authorized and instructed tu purchase on the credit of 
said village a steam fire-engine, ladders, truck, hose, reel, and other 
apparatus, including one thousand feet of hose, suitable for the fire 
department, not to exceed the sum of four thousand five hundred 

" Jlessrs. Fred. Kegler, B. F. Bancroft, John M. Williams, 
and John W. Thomas were appointed as purchasing com- 
mittee. The trustees were further authorized to raise and 
expend five hundred dollars for fire-wells, so that the total 
amount voted to be raised was five thousand dollars. The 
meeting was largely attended, and was quite harmonious. 
In pursuance of the terms of a resolution adopted thereat, 
the trustees subsequently applied to the Legislature for 
authority to raise five thousand dollars in one annual pay- 
ment, and an enabling act was passed April 24, 1875, for 
that purpose, and the tax was collected the same year ; so 
that this village does not now owe a cent on account of its 
fire department. 

" The committee purchased a steamer of IMessrs. Clapp 
& Jones, of Hudson, N. Y., which reached this villaire 
Feb. 3, 1875. It weighs three thousand seven hundred 
pounds, is strongly and handsomely built, and highly 
finished. John M. Williams, Esq., who has been spoken 
of as the long-time foreman of Union Engine-Company, 
provided extras for the steamer at his own expense. The 
first trial of the steamer here occurred Feb. 9, 1875. The 
engine was placed in position at the fire-well in front of the 
Press office, one thousand feet of hose were attached, and 
in ten and one-half minutes from the time it was located 
water left the pipe a thousand feet away. The distance 
thrown was two hundred and ten feet, with one hundred 
and forty pounds pressure. The committee purchased one 
thousand feet of hose of Clapp & Jones, and paid four 
thousand dollars for the steamer and hose. On Jan. 16, 
1875, the trustees selected Os-o-mu as its name, that being 
the Indian name of White Creek, and signifying the creek 
of white pebbles. The committee also purchased, for the 
sum of five hundred dollars, a four-wheel hose-cart of 
Button & Co., of Waterford, N. Y. Mr. Williams con- 
tributed a very handsome sum for the purpose of beautify- 
ing it, and it is beyond doubt the handsomest hosc-eart in 
this vicinity. 

" The Os-o-ma Steamer Cumpany was organized by the 
trustees on Jan. 23, 1875, the board accepting the follow- 
ing named as members thereof: George Tcfi"t, E. Ilerrick, 
Dennis Leary, Timothy Quinn, M. Sweeney, George Law- 
rence, James Sweeney, Frederick Linsenbarth, W. W. 
Hill, Wallace Barnes, Anderson Brown, Charles Depaw, 
John Watt, Martin Malthaner, John Toohey, Jr., Daniel 
Garey, Cornelius Shipley, Oliver Copeland, Romanzo 
Spaulding, C. P. Copeland. 



" On February 5 following, the company elected the 
following officers : George Tefft, foreman ; L. P. Copeland, 
first-assistant foreman ; W. W. Hill, second-assistant foreman ; 
E. Herrick, engineer ; George Lawrence, assistant engineer ; 
0. J. Copeland, fireman ; Charles J. Fox (who joined after 
its organization), secretary ; Frederick Linsenbarth, treas- 

" About the time of its organization, the D. and H. R. 
R. Co. fitted up a room in the roundhouse connected with 
the railroad works, wherein the steamer and the new hose- 
cart have ever since been kept. At the annual election in 
187G, James Sweeney was chosen captain. This company, 
at its organization, was composed mainly of per.sons who 
worked in the railroad shops, and when the shops were 
closed, early in 1876, most of the members left town, and, 
as a result, the company was reduced to such an extent 
that the trustees, in the fall of that year, disbanded it. 
The company formed in its stead consists of all the original 
members who remained in town, and the honorary mem- 
bers ISf Union Engine-Company. Charles Whitcomb was 
elected captain of the new company, and was re-elected. 

"A. M. ^Y<^lles Houk-and- Ladder Company. — The A. M. 
Welles Hook-and-Ladder Company was organized by the 
board of trustees, Jan. 23, 1875, with the following members : 
A.M.Welles, John D. Faxon, George Andrews, E. M. Smith, 
Jerry Costigan, T. C. Gregory, M. L. Roberts, E. R. Smith, 
Addison Getty, John Kelly, Hobert Kelly, John Beattie, 
Charles Linsenbarth, A. Linsenbarth, David Jones. 

'• Its first officers were as follows : A. M. Welles, foreman ; 
E. R. Mandigo, assistant foreman ; David Jones, recording 
secretary ; J. R. Lytic, Jr., financial secretary ; George 
Andrews and E. R. Smith representatives to fire depart- 
ment ; A. C. Lansing, president ; Thomas C. Gregory, vice- 

" The truck, ladders, etc., were purchased of Trojan Hook- 
and-Ladder Company, No. 3, of Troy, and originally cost 
$1500. It is not known who purchased the same, but it is 
the general impression that A. M. Welles, after whom the 
company is named, paid for this valuable apparatus. The 
truck, etc., arrived here Feb. 23, 1875. Its entire length 
is fifty-five feet, the seven ladders thereon ranging from 
fifteen to forty-five feet in length. There being no suitable 
building in the vilhige which could be obtained for the pui- of stowing away the truck, a number of gentlemen, in 
March, 1875, formed an association, with Judge Gibson as 
president, and advanced five hundred dollars to build a suit- 
able building. The contract therefor was awarded to L. P. 
Copeland & Bro. The building was erected on Railroad 
street, and the company took possession thereof April 6, 
1875. The trustees, soon after its completion, leased it for 
a term of fifteen years from the association, at the annual 
rental of thirty-five dollars. The rooms of the hook-and- 
ladder company are fitted up in very handsome style, the 
furniture costing about four hundred dollars. Their uniform 
consists of white trousers, gray shirts, white leather belts, and 
black caps, and cost them over three hundred dollare. The 
members take great interest in their company affairs, and 
have rendered excellent service. It is hoped and believed 
that this company will long maintain its present standard of 
excelleuce. A. M. Welles, who was re-elected fureniau in 

1876, resigned his position soon thereafter, and Edwin S. 
McFarland was chosen to fill vacancy. The latter was re- 
elected for the present year. 

" Mdrion Iluse-Compatij/, iN'b. 2. — This companj'was or- 
ganized by the trustees. May 1, 1875, with the following 
members: A. J. Haggart, John K. Larmon, H. V. Brown, 
Andrew Morri.son, John McCleary, John Murphy, J. Taber, 
C. V. Magee, John Ryan, W. D. Watt, A. G.'Oatley, W. 
II. Ladd, Henry Fox, F. E. Linsenbarth, Owen Farley, L. 
Cooncy, Jr., Paul Pincus, C. M. Keefer, M. Ryan, George 
Lyons, J. N. Kelly, Charles Kelly, John Johnson, John 

" At the election held after their organization, the follow- 
ing named were chosen as officers : A. J. Haggart, foreman ; 
John Jlurphy, foreman ; A. G. Oatley, see- 
ond-as.sistant foreman; J. K. Larmon, secretary; H. V. 
Brown, treasurer. 

" They adopted as a company name ' The Marion 
Company,' in honor of the only daughter of John M. Wil- 
liams, Esq. IMiss Williams soon thereafter acknowledged 
the compliment by presenting the company with a beautiful 
silk flag. Their uniform consists of black trousers, gray 
shirts, white belts, and black leather caps. At their annual 
election in 1876, John Murphy was chosen foreman, and 
at the last election A. J. Haggart was then chosen for the 
present year. They have done good service in the past, 
and no doubt will do equally well in the future. Seventy 
years ago the department had a membership of only seven, 
while, at the present time, it has over one hundred and 

" C/ii(if (tnd Assistant Engineers. — Although the village 
charter of 1851 provided for the election of chief engineer 
and assistant engineer, no persons were elected to these posi- 
tions till January, 1871, when John M. Williams was 
elected to the former office, and John S. Clary to the latter. 
In January, 1872, Mr. Williams was re-elected chief, and 
Sylvanus DickinsoTi was chosen assistant engineer. The 
elections since 1872 have resulted as follows: John A. Mc- 
Farland, chief engineer, 1873 and 1874 ; James McNaugh- 
ton, a.ssistant engineer, 1873 and 1874 ; Frederick Kegler, 
chief engineer, 1875 and 1876 ; Solomon W. Russell, as- 
sistant engineer, 1875 and 1876. 

" The charter of 1830 contains a provision to the effect 
that the freeholders and inhabitants shall, at the animal 
meeting, elect three freeholders as firewardens. Fire- 
wardens were elected under that act till the adoption of the 
charter of 1851. The latter provided that they should be 
appointed by the board of trustees. The following is be- 
lieved to be a correct list of firewardens from 18(»3 to the 
present time: 1803, Thaddcus Smith, Nathaniel Carswcll, 
Jr., Seth Brown ; 1804, Thaddcus Smith, Nathaniel Cars- 
well, Jr., Joshua Streetcr ; 1805, Thaddcus Smith, Nathan- 
iel Carswell, Jr., Soth Brown; 1806, Thaddcus Smith, Na- 
thaniel Carswell, Jr., Robert JMcMurray, Jr.; 1807, Thad- 
dtus Smith, Nathaniel Carswell, Jr., Robert McMurray, Jr. ; 
1808, Thaddcus Smith, David Hall. Robert McMurray, Jr. ; 
1801;l, Thaddcus Smith, Joseph Nichols, Ebenczor iVJarlin ; 

1810, Thaddcus Smith, Joseph Niehols, Ebenczer Marliii ; 

1811, Thaddcus Smith, Jas. J. Sherwood, Wm. Faulkner; 

1812, William Williams, David Woods, Robert Archibald; 



1813, William Williams, David D. Gray, Seth Brown; 

1814, no firewardens elected; 1815, William Williams, 
Jason Burgess, Seth Brown; 1816, Henry ^lattliews, Da- 
vid D. Gray, Thaddeus Stevens; 1817, Joseph Smith, Jos- 
eph Warlord, Justin Fariiani ; 1818, James H. Seymour, 
Joseph Nichols, Seth Brown ; 1819, William Williams, 
Alexander Robertson, Andrew Freeman ; 1820, William Wil- 
liams, John McNaughton, Thaddeus Stevens; 1821, Wil- 
liam Williams, John McNaughton, James A. McFarlaiid ; 
1822, William Williams, Joseph Ilawley, William JIcFar- 
land (2d) ; 1823, William Williams, Joseph Hawley, 
James A. McFarland ; 1824, William Williams, William 
McFarland (2), Andrew Freeman; 1825, William Wil- 
liams, John McNaughton, James A. McFarland ; 182(5, 
William Williams, John McNavighton, James A. McFar- 
land ; 1827, Henry Matthews, John McNaughton, Andrew 
Freeman; 1829, John W. Proudfit, John McNaughton, 
James A. McFarland; 1830, Henry Matthews, John BIc- 
Naughton, James A. McFarland; 1831, Joseph Smith, 
John McNaughton; 1832, Joseph Smith, Alonzo Gray; 
1833, Joseph Smith, John Williams, Jr.; 1834, William 
S. Barnard, Lorenzo B. Olmsted; 1835, James A. McFar- 
land, Josephus Fitch; 1836, James A. McFarland, Jose- 
phus Fitch; 1837, James A. McFarland, John Adams; 
1838, James A. McFarland, Benjamin Cleveland; 1839, 
James A. McFarland. Benjamin Cleveland ; 1840, William 
McFarland, Loraness Clark; 1841, Alonzo Gray, Loraness 
Clark; 1842, Alonzo Gray, Rufus Fox; 1843, Alonzo 
Gray, Rufus Fox ; 1844, Josophus Fitch, Cyrus Atwood ; 
1845, Chester Safford, Jr., Cyrus Atwood ; 1846, Hugh 
Smart, Nelson Watson; 1847, Hugh Smart, Nelson Wat- 
son ; 1848, John Liddle, James A. McFarland ; 1849, 
John Liddle, James A. McFarland ; 1850, Cyrus Atwood, 
Alonzo Gray. 

" The following were appointed : 1851 , James A. McFar- 
land, David Hawley ; 1852, Benjamin Cleveland, David 
Lytle; 1853, no appointments ; 1854, Alonzo Gray, Cyrus 
Atwood; 1855, Rufus Fox, Cyrus Atwood; 1856, Rufus 
Fox, Cyrus Atwood ; 1857, Alonzo Gray, William B. Bool ; 
1858, Alonzo Gray, Rufus Fox ; 1859, no appointments, 
Gray and Fox held over; 1860, A. M. Stockwell, L. P. 
Copcland; 1861, A. M. Stockwell, L. P. Copeland ; 1862, 
A. M. Stockwell, L. P. Copeland ; 1863, Alonzo Gray, 
Rufus Fox ; 1864, no appointments, above named held 
over; 1865, Rufus Fox, A. M. Stockwell. 

" There were no appointments from and including 1866 to 
and including 1871, at least the village records show none. 

" 1872, E. G. Atwood, William J. Whitlock. Mr. At- 
wood served for a year or two, and after he resigned 
Mr. Whitlock was the sole warden to and including 1875. 
1876, William Whitlock and John Murphy. Mr. Whit- 
lock's removal from town leaves Mr. Murphy the only 
warden at this time. 

" The first bell ever used for fire purposes in this village 
was placed on the Union engine-house, about the time of its 
completion in 1866. At the present time there are lour 
bells here with a fire-alarm attachment, viz., on the Union 
engine-house, Hook-and-Ladder building, St. Paul's (Epis- 
copal church), and the courl -house. 

I'reaeid Officers of the Firc-Cotiqmnics, 1878. — Union 

Engine and Hose Company No. 1 : John Larnion, foreman ; 
Patrick Congdon, 1st a.ssistant; James W. Toleman, 2d 
assistant ; C. M. Wolff, secretary ; Wm. McFarland, treas- 
urer ; Dennis Leary, foreman hose-company ; Mark Brom- 
ley, assistant; Samuel Baker, 1st pipeman ; Horace P. 
Matthews, 2d pipeman; John Fox, foreman suction-hose; 
Thomas Dolan, assistant; John Ryan, pilot. 

O.snma Steamer-Company: Charles Whitconib, captain; 
L. P. Copeland, 1st a.ssistant ; S. S. Sherman, recording 
secretary; Fred. Linsenbarth, Sr., treasurer ; P]. Herrick, 
engineer ; Wm. D. Watt, assistant ; Mr. Haner, fireman. 

Marion Hose-Company: H. V. Brown, foreman ; Wra. 
Ward, 1st assistant ; John Austin, 2d a.ssistant; John Mc- 
Cleary, secretary ; Daniel Ward, treasurer ; Oliver Cope- 
land, 1st pipeman ; John Toohey, 2d pipeman. 

A. M. Wells Hook-and-Ladder Company: A. C. Lan- 
sing, president ; E S. McFarland, foreman ; George Shan- 
non, assistant; Charles Kellogg, recording secretary; Geo. 
Dickinson, financial secretary; John T. Ryan, treasurer. 

is situated upon the Batten Kill, six miles south of Salem 
village. It has a post-office and a station on the Rutland 
and Washington railroad. It contains two churches, and 
there is another one near, the history of which are' given else- 
where. There is one woolen-factory, a grist-mill, harness- 
shop, five stores, two blacksmith-shops, saw-mill, planing 
and turning works, and three wagon-shops. Shushan is 
the centre of a large and important trade from the towns of 
Jackson and Salem. 

The village is picturesquely situated on the banks of the 
kill ; .some portions very rocky. The water-power and the 
convenience of trade developed the growth of a village at 
this point. The name is not; the result of local choice nor 
of any associations connected with the place. The tradi- 
tion is that the petitioners, having proposed the name of 
South Salem, the post-oflice department objected because 
Salem was already so frequent upon the list of United 
States post-offices, and the august officials at Washitigton 
proceeded to christen the place Shushan, a good Bible 
name and suggestive of royal magnificence. The people 
accepted the situation, and have gracefully borne the name 
ever since. 

The lumbering business here was extensive in early 
times. The heavy pine forests from the plains of Cam- 
bridge, and from the surrounding country in general, were 
manufactured into lumber here, rafted down the kill to 
Centre falls, and then taken overland to the Hudson, and 
floated to Troy. The oldest house in Shushan now stand- 
ing was built by Bethuel Church about the time of the 
Revolution, and it was probably about the earliest dwelling 
at this point. It is now a tenant-house, near the railroad, 
in the extreme north part of the village. Mr. Church 
was one of the original proprietors of the water-power. The 
grist-mill is thought to have been erected by the brothers 
Iluflf before or about the time of the Revolutionary war, 
but passed immediately into the hands of Mr. Church. 
There w;is a mill for cloth-dressing very early, no doubt 
before 1800; about 1830 it developed into a woolen-fac- 
tory. Lot Woodworth was connected with it, and Johnson. 



It is understood there was a store at Shushan about the 
same time or soon after the building of the mills. Wjman 
was a very early merchant, and the old store stood very nearly 
on the site of the present Ilurd & Pratt store. At or near 
this same site were successive merchants, for a long series 
of years, Robert R. Law, Isaac Bininger, David Simpson, 
Mr. Oviatt, Voluntine, Lawrence & Higgins, Henry Cleve- 
land, Congdou & Robinson, and Law & Congdon. The 
Church family held the water-power for fifty or sixty years. 
The grist-mill and woolen-mill arc now owned by Charles 
Lyons, the planing-mill by George AV. llobinson, of Cam- 
bridge, also the saw-mill and wagon shops. Well-known 
physicians of the vill.ige in past years have been Dr. Dun- 
lap, Dr. Gilman, and Dr. Bock. 


is located upon the Batten Kill, two miles of Shu.shan. 
It is a thriving business place, the centre of considerable 
bu.siness (though not extensive mercantile trade) from the 
south part of Salem, and from the southern Anaquassacook 
portion of Jackson. The name of the post-ofSce at this 
point is East Salem. The latter name is also given to the 
school district at the southeast corner of the town. The 
post-office was first located at Werriam's store, three miles 
flirther up the kill, where at one time was a place of con- 
siderable trade, but in later years declined. The post-office 
was established there about 1831, and Isaac Merriam was 
the first postmaster, followed by Seth C. Billings, Daniel 
Ilobart, and Edward Law. It was removed to Eagleville 
in 1848, and Isaac Bininger was appointed postmaster. 
In 1850 he was succeeded by George Russell. 

The water-power of the kill is here very valuable, and 
has been considerably improved. A grist-mill was built 
about the time of the Revolution, by the brothers Ruif, 
probably. It was run by Armitage & Stevenson, and the 
property passed through the hands of John and George 
Eussell to the present owners, William C. Cleveland and 
John Keeper. 

A saw-mill was also erected nearly or quite as early, now 
owned by the same parties. 

A woolen-factory was established as early as 1820, and 
that, too, is now owned by Cleveland & Co. A sieve- 
factory existed here for a few years, established by Uriah 

The woolen-mill has at some periods of its history done 
a very large and prosperous business, averaging from fifteen 
thousand to twenty-five thousand yards of cloth annually. 

There was a select school of some note near Eagleville, 
on the road to Shushan, about twenty -five years ago, estab- 
lished by Henry Barnes. 


were situated on the Batten Kill, three miles south of Salem 
village. The works there in early times consisted of grist- 
mill and saw-mill, and somewhat later, clotliing-works. 

In later years the water-power has been utilized by the 
Baxter IMarble Blanufacturing works, and from that fact 
has become known as Baxterville. There was a store near 
there on the old turnpike. 


is a place of very early settlement. The name arises fiom 
the confluence of the Black creek and Batten Kill, and 
also marks the location, for many years, of the Fitch family, 
and the present residence of Dr. Asa Fitch, known through- 
out the State as a distinguished naturalist and entomologist, 
the author of many valuable papers, scientific, historical, 
and agricultural. 


These were very early established. It will be noticed 
that the delegation of Dr. Clark's congregation that came 
to Salem in the summer of 17(36, to make preparation for 
the removal of the colony from Stillwater, built not only a 
meeting-house and a parsonage, but also a' school-house. 
This pioneer log building stood near the meeting-house on 
the historical ground still marked to this generation by the 
o]d frame meeting-house, the second of Dr. Clark's congi'e- 
gation, — the venerable, weather-painted building, the pic- 
ture of which is given in another place. That was, no 
doubt, the first school-house; for, though the New England 
men had been coming in thickly for a j'ear or two previous, 
and their usual custom was to open a school immediately 
after settlement, yet there is no record of any before 17GG. 
Ten years later, in the midst of the turmoil of war, schools 
were established at several points, though little or no records 
remain. There was a school of some note in the south part 
of the town, in the John T. Law neighborhood, and Master 
Conner was a well-known teacher. A large number of the 
children of the first settlers were taught by him. blaster 
Conner was a conveyancer and writer. 

The town was in no hurry to accept the offers of the 
State under the laws of 1812 and 1813. At the annual 
town-meeting, April 6, 1813, the following resolution was 
passed : 

" lusolrcrl, tliat we reject the raising of money for the school 

April 5, 1814, it was also 

" Remhed, that wc will not accept the school money." 

Under the amended act of April 15, 1814, a special 
town-meeting was held Dec. 3, 1814, and there were then 
chosen three school commissioners, Isaac Getty, John Law, 
and Thomas Baker ; three in.spectors, Alexander Proudfit, 
Samuel Tomb, and David Woods. 

At the annual meeting the next spring two inspectors 
were added, James Stevenson, Jr., and David Ilusscll, and 
Isaac Steel chosen commissioner in the place of Thomas 
Baker. During the thirty years of this system the follow- 
ing persons were inspectors for one or more years each : 
John Willard, Jesse L. Billings, John Savage, Seth Brown, 
John JIcLean, Jr., Archibald McAllister, Samuel Stevens, 
William Williams, James B. Gibson, Abram Allen, John 
W. Proudfit, Anthony Blanchard, Ezra S. Sweet, Alexan- 
der Robertson, Cornelius L. Allen, John McNaughton, Ber- 
nard Blair, Cyrus Stevens, Henry W. Dodd, Aaron Martin, 
Jr., Jlarinus Fairchild, George W. Beers, Wm. A. Wells, 
Henry Nichols, James Gibson, George Allen, Thomas G. 
Wait, Henry Barnes, John W. Martin, Thomas M. Hop- 
kins, Wm. B. Lytic, Robert McMurray. 

During the same period the following persons were com- 



The ancestry of the MoFarland family ia traced to the Scottish High- 
land clan Macfarlane, or Pharlan, the only one, with one exception, 
whose descent is from the charters given the ancient Earls of Lennox, 
from whom the clan sprang, and who held possession of their original 
lands for over six hundred years. From the most reliable informa- 
tion at hand, Aluin was the first Earl of Lennox, and died in the year 
1225. The eighth Earl of Lennox died without male issue, and his 
eldest daughter, having married the Duke of Murdook, held the pro- 
prietorship. Upon her death (1395) three families claimed the earl- 
dom, — the Macfarlanes claiming the earldom as heirs male. They 
resisted all other clans, and in the struggle became scattered to 
difl'erent parts of the kingdom. The timely support by the Darnley 
family (some of whose members had married into the clan) restored 
their ancient family estate, and upon the establishment of the Stuarts 
as Earl of Lennox, the clans nnder their patronage became, in 14S8, 
separate and independent. The principal of these was the Macfar- 
lane. From the subject of this sketch the descent is traced back six 
generations to Duncan, the father of .lames, the father of Malcom, 
the father of Daniel, the father of .lohn, the father of Daniel, the 
father of John A. At the time the ohm was separated the ancestors 
settled in the lowlands of Scotland, at Thorn Hill, whence the great- 
grandfather, Daniel, emigrated to America in the year 1785, with his 
wife and one son, John, bom 1764, and are supposed to have settled, 
upon first coming to this country, in the town of Salem. The great- 
grandfather lived for many years in the town of Salem, and was 
there in 1805, but subsequently moved to the town of Argyle, where 
he died at an advanced age. The grandfather was a resident of the 
old town of Cambridge in the earlier part of his life, and followed prin- 
oipally-the occupation of a farmer; but during the latter part of his 
life lived in the town of Jackson, where he died in the year 1847, 
leaving six children, who reached advanced ages of over sixty years, 
all dying between the years 1867 and 1869. Daniel, the eldest of 
these children, and father of the subject of this sketch, was born in 
the year 1793, in the town of Cambridge ; married Miss Jane Shiland, 
of the same town, daughter of Deacon John Shiland, great-grandson 
of John Shiland, who emigrated from Scotland prior to the French 
war: was taken prisoner, with his family, by the Indians in Pennsyl- 
vania, carried to Canada, where they were kept in continement for 
some time ; they were finally released and settled there, but at the close 
of the Revolutionary war returned to Cambridge, N. Y. 

Daniel McFarland spent his life as a farmer mostly in the town of 
Jackson : was a soldier in the war of 1812. He was closely allied to 
the promotion of the best interests of society in his day ; was an 

elder in the Scotch Presbyterian church at Coila, town of Cambridge, 
for many years ; raised a family of five children, viz. : John A., Mar- 
garet, William, Robert, and James, of whom Margaret died in the 
year 1850, at the .age of twenty-four, and Robert died in the year 
1854, at the same age. The father of these children was a man of 
strong decision of character, inheriting from his Scotch ancestry that 
firmness and resolution to do whatever he conceived to be right char- 
acteristic of the people of the mother-land, and instructed and reared 
his children to respect and honor all that makes true manhood and 
secures happiness and longevity. He died at the age of seventy-six, 
in the year 1869. The wife and mother still survives, and in the year 
1878 is in her seventy-ninth year, retaining that vigor of both body 
and mind uncommon to people of that advanced age. 

John A. McFarland was the eldest son ; spent his minority on the 
farm of his father, availing himself only of the advantages of the 
district school ; but so improved these opportunities that he was able 
at the age of eighteen to begin teaching, by which means he secured 
a sufficient competence to prepare for college, which he did in Cam- 
bridge Washington Academy, under Rev. E. H. Newton, D.D., enter- 
ing in the advance course of third term sophomore of Union College, 
graduating from that institution of learning in the year 1848. 

During his college course his health had become considerably im- 
paired, and be went to South Carolina, where he spent some time ; 
but, regaining his health, engaged as a teacher at Parrotsvillc, Tenn., 
where he remained aijout one year. In the fall of 1849 he returned 
north, and was married to Miss Amanda H., daughter of Ransom 
Hawley and Margaret Tice, of Cambridge. 

After his marriage he returned south, and was principal of Wythe- 
viJle Academy for two years, ard from 1856 to 1859 had charge of 
the Rural Seminary at Pembroke, N. Y. His health again failing, 
ho returned to hi.-;" native county, but soon after took charge of 
Washington Academy, at Salcm, Washington Co., N. Y., where he 
has remained, and still remains (1878), with the exception of two 
years, for nineteen successive years. Prof. McFarland, in recounting 
his past history in connection with the last-named institution, is 
enabled to see who have graduated under his instruction filling 
important positions in the various professions, and ranking among 
the first as attorneys, physicians, clergymen, and business men. His 
natural ability as an instructor has given him rank nraong the most 
successful teachers of the State, and secured for him a reputation 
worthy the emulation of the young men of to-day, who, unassisted, 
must meet the obstacles coincident with self-made men. He has one 
son, Edwin Stanley McFarland, of Salem, N. Y. 



niissioners for one or more years' each : Abner Austin, 
D;ivid Matthews, Jr., James McNisli, John Adams, John 
Beatty, John Law, Stephen Ransom, George Stewart, John 
McNaughton, Ebenczer Martin, John McLean, Jr., John 
Wiliard, James A. INIcFarland, James H. Seymour, Seth 
C. Brown, John W. Proudfit, David B. Thompson, Chaun- 
cey S. Ransom, Hugh B. Thompson, Clark K. Estee, Mar- 
vin Freeman, James Steel, Joscphus Fitch, Aaron Martin, 
Jr., David Gray, Wm. A. Ru.s.sell, Wm. T. Foster, James 
Clark, Marvin Freeman, Jolin Burnet, John W. Martin, 
Asa Fitch, Jr. 

The supervision of the scliools by commissioners and 
inspectors was abolished in 1843. Supervision by town 
superintendents followed, and Asa Fitch was elected the 
first superintendent at the town-meeting of 1844. He was 
re-elected in 1845. In 184G, John R. Lytle succeeded to 
the office, and served for six years. Chester S. Murdock 
followed for four years, and in the spring of 1856, David 
V. T. Qua was chosen. He was legislated out by the act 
abolishing the office of town superintendent, and in June 
of that year the schools passed from the control and super- 
vision of the town. Under the wise management of the 
noble men of old, followed by the vigorous work of their 
children, the schools of Salem had made a long and honor- 
able record. The first log school-houses had given place to 
the better buildings of later years. From these liills and 
valleys had gone forth men of education and of culture, to 
wield a powerful influence in every sphere of human 

To eijual the grand results from ninety years of town 
management, will require wise action by the administrators 
of the modern system of supervision by assembly districts. 

The firet annual report of Dr. Asa Fitch, town super- 
intendent, is a finely-engrossed document, giving a clear 
view of the condition of the schools for the school years 
184.3 and 1844. From that it appears there were then in 
town 618 children between the ages of five and sixteen, 
that the districts received public money for teachers' wages 
to the amount of $536.60, and there was raised by the 
districts the sum of §680.11. Total paid for salaries of 
teachers, $1216.71. There were 1714 volumes in the dis- 
trict libraries. 

We add that Dr. Fitch, as the first town superintendent, 
carefully defined the boundaries of the districts, re-num- 
bered them, and, in addition, officially recognized the spe- 
cial names by which they are no doubt better known than 
by their numbers. This feature is seldom found in any 
town so complete. 

The special names are derived in several cases from their 
connection with the natural features of the country, as 
Upper Black Creek and Lower Black Creek, Upper White 
Creek and Lower White Creek, Upper Camden and Lower 
Camden, along the valley of the Camden creek. 

West Hebron district is so named because the school- 
house is in the west part of Hebron ; the " Bushes" from 
the woods in that section. 

Upper Turnpike and Lower Turnpike, named from their 
situation north of Salem village along the old Northern 
turnpike, an important route for travel in the early times. 

Perkins Hollow, for many years forming a district with 

a portion of Vermont, but now having a school-house of its 
own, is named from an early family residing there. 

Fitch's Point is named from Fitch's family ; Red Bridge, 
from the bridge of early times by which the old turnpike 
crossed the Batten Kill. 

Juniper Swamp district has an appropriate name, as its 
school-house is near the swamp. 

Blind Buck Hollow perpetuates by its name the old tra- 
dition of the pioneers that a sightless deer had its pasture- 
grounds in that valley, — a tradition that is said to have 
been Avorthy of being embalmed in story and song. 

Stewart's district and Law's retain the names of two 
of the pioneer families. 

Salem, Shushan, and Eagleville districts, are named from 
the villages, and East Salem from its remote eastern location. 

The early condition of the schools is somewhat shown 
by the following incomplete report of the commissioners of 
common schools to the county clerk, Juno 5, 1815 : 

Chiliiren bp- 





The present condition of the schools is to some extent 
shown by the commissioners' aj)portionmeut for March, 


„. , . , Cliil.lrc-n lw>- Library For Teachers' 

'^"*""-''- tween JaiiJlO. Moriuy. Wages. 

No. 1 (H $1.9.3 $120.74 

" 2 3t 1.117 95.30 

" 3 62 1.95 129.29 

" 4 34 1.07 92.99 

" 5 19 .fiO 73.11 

" 6 25 .80 84.35 

" 7 51 l.f.l 118.91 

" 8 38 1.20 101.37 

" 9 43 1.35 105.27 

" 10 44 1.39 110.71! 

" 11 99 3.12 IS4.13 

" 12 635 16.85 1194.74 

" 13 52 l.fi4 104.94 

" 14 50 1.56 115.90 

" 15 63 1.99 127.10 

" 16 47 1.48 111.66 

" 17 23 73 85.52 

" 18 36 1.13 97.77 

" 19 32 1.01 95.83 

Total for 1877... $1348 $42.48 $3149.14 

" 1843... S61S $536.60 

About two and one-third times as many children as in 1843, and 
about six tinics as much money received. 


This venerable institution was commenced as a classical 
school in the year 1780, or perhaps a little earlier, as in 

' By lion. James G'bso 



that year four persons were prepared for college at this 
school, and subsequently each became distinguished in 
public life. It was organized and taught a number of years 
by the Rev. Thomas Watson, and was continued by the dis- 
tinguished St. John Honeywood, and in the year 1791 
had obtained such standing that it was incorporated by the 
regents of the University of the State as an institution of 
learning by the name of Washington Academy, and was 
the fourth incorporated academy in the State. 

Its first board of trustees was named in its charter, and 
consisted of the following-named persons : Rev. James 
Proudfit, Rev. John Warford, Rev. Cornelius Jones, Rev. 
Samuel Smith, General John Williams, Colonel George 
Wray, Colonel John Thurman, Major Peter B. Tearce, 
Hon. Edmund Wells, John Younglove, John Rowan, Ed- 
ward Savage, Alexander Webster, Daniel Hopkins, Zina 
Hitchcock, John Bradstreet Schuyler, Hamilton McCol- 
listcr, James Stevenson, Hugh Morr, Charles llane, 
Timothy Leonard, Peter P. French, and Joseph Jcnks, 

The first principal of the institution after its incorpora- 
tion was Charles Ingalls, who had graduated at Dartmouth 
College, and who remained its principal for nearly ten years. 

Among the distinguished principals of the institution 
since may be placed first in usefulness James Stevenson, 
who took charge of it in 1811, and remained such about 
six years, having among his pupils Professor Taylor Lewis, 
Hon. Hiram Gray, Lamon G. Harkness, M.D., Rev. George 
W. Bethunc, D.D., Rev. William R. De Witt, D.D., and 
Hon. John McLean, with numerous others. 

The Rev. Sidney Weller became the first principal after 
the construction of the brick academy edifice in 1819 ; was 
succeeded by William Williams, Esq., in 1824, remaining 
six years, and was followed by the Rev. James W. Stewart, 
who remained two years. His successor was Henry Borus, 
in 1833, under whom a success was attained as great as 
under Mr. Stevenson. After him came a number of dif- 
ferent principals, none of whom remained long, till the ap- 
pointment of the present principal, John A. McFarland, in 
1859, and who has remained ever since, except for a time 
while ill from over-labor he relinquished the work, and it 
was placed in charge of William Gorrie, followed by James 
S. Dobbin, who continued until January, 1867, when Pro- 
fessor McFarland, with renewed strength and vigor, resumed 
the charge of the institution, and still remains at its head. 
The of this institution has been very great, and the 
pupils from it are numbered by many thousands. 

The academy edifice has lately been very much enlarged 
and fitted up and furnished, under the direction of M. F. 
Cummings, of Troy, as architect, and now readily accom- 
modates the increased number of its pupils. 

It was made a free academy in 1852 to the children of 
all residents of the village of Salem, and has remained such 
ever since. 

It was the first free academy In the State outside of the 
city of New York. But the example it gave has been 
adopted in all parts of the State; and the blessings of a 
free academical education are now within the reach of 
many, who in the olden time would have sought long with- 
out finding any such beneficent result. 



The sketch of this venerable body is taken very largely 
from the historical sermon delivered by Rev. W. A. Mac- 
kenzie, Oct. 29, 1S7G. 

About the middle of the last century, perhaps in the 
year 1747, about two hundred families of Presbyterians in 
and about Monaghan and Ballibay, Ireland, not finding 
themselves edified by those who had been placed over them 
as religious teachers, withdrew from them, refusing to longer 
wait upon their ministrations. These religious teachers 
were trained mostly at Glasgow College, under the influ- 
ence of Professor Simpson, the Arian. The " fathers" 
were afraid to trust them with the pastoral care of their 
families. Accordingly a petition was prepared and for- 
warded to the " Associate Burgher Presbytery of Glas- 
gow," asking that there should be sent to them some one 
to break unto them the bread of eternal life whom they 
would be willing to trust. 

The presbytery then had under its care a young man 
whom it licensed and sent to officiate among this people, 
and on July 3, 1748, he preached among them his first 
sermon, taking as his text Acts xvii. lG-18. That young 
man was the Rev. Thomas Clark, M.D. 

Having completed his studies he was in April, 1748, 
licensed to preach the gospel, and sent to Ireland, to labor 
among the people at Ballibay, Clannanees, and other com- 
munities. Here the young missionary found a wide field 
opened up before him, and wherever he went he preached 
with groat acceptance. 

A subsequent call from Ballibay Dr. Clark accepted, and 
was accordingly, by a committee of the Glasgow presby- 
tery, installed pastor of Ballibay congregation on July 23, 
1751. Here, therefore, we have the date of the organiza- 
tion of this congregation, it being at that time and place 
recognized by synod as a regularly established church. 
This church, as an organized body, is therefore more than 
a century and a quarter old, having now entered its one 
hundred and twenty-eighth year ; its beginning, however, 
dating three years earlier. Dr. Clark being its founder and 
first pastor. 

At Ballibay, Dr. Clark, after his ordination, labored 
most faithfully for thirteen years. 

The path of the congregation thus organized was by no 
means a smooth one. These thirteen years were years of 
trial and persecution. 

It had become known to his persecutors that Dr. Clark 
entertained scruples with regard to the " Oath of Abjura- 
tion," as it Wiis called, as also in regard to the manner of 
taking it, — by " kissing the Bible," — and that he refused 
to tiike it in the manner and form prescribed by law. 
Learning this, his enemies procured a waiTant lor his arrest 
as being disloyal to the king. Jau. 23, 1754, nine months 
after the warrant had been procured, men entered the 
church and arrested Dr. Clark, just as he concluded his 
sermon at New Bliss, — a neighboring station. 

When the congregation understood what the interrup- 
tion meant, he would have been at once rescued from the 
hands of his persecutors; hut this servant of Uod mildly 



bade them be calm and do no violence or harm to any 

That night he was kept under guard in a t(tvern, and 
the next day, under a strong guard, taken to Munaghan 
and thrown into the county jail to await his trial. 

Although now within prison walls, yet this man of God 
was not silenced. Week by week he wrote a letter of in- 
struction, of comfort, and of encouragement to the people 
of his charge, which was read to them on the Lord's day 
as they assembled for worship. 

On the 3d of April, about three months after, the judge, 
upon examining the warrant, found it to be defective, and 
ordered hi.s immediate release. 

lie had only a few days of freedom, however. On the 
24th day of this .same month of April a new writ was ob- 
tained against him, upon which he was a second time cast 
into prison. It was now the summer season, and the mem- 
bers of this church came to the prison for divine service 
regularly. So many as the space could accommodate 
gathered about the honored pastor, listened to the words of 
life from his lips, and joined in prayer and praise to God. 
When or how he was relea.sed is not stated. 

The imprisonments to which the arbitary laws of the 
country had subjected him led the people to seek for a new 
home in the wilds of America, — a home where they could 
enjoy their religious sentiments undisturbed. 

Some time previously. Dr. Clark had received from one 
congregation in America a letter, and from another a call, 
each wishing him to come and become its pa.stor. These 
papers were laid before his presbytery, which appointed 
liim to labor one year in America. lie and those who had 
decided to accompany him thereupon made their final ar- 
rangements, and the time was fixed to start for the new 
world beyond the sea. Of the departure and voyage across 
the Atlantic of " Pilgrim Fathers" of Salem, we have 
a brief account in the following devout terms of Dr. 
Clark himself: "May 10, a.d. 17G4, we sailed from 
Nowry. The all-gracious God carried three hundred of 
us safe over the devouring deep in the arms of His mercy ; 
praised be His name, we arrived safe in New York July 
the 28th." 

At New York the colony divided, several families going 
to Cedar Spring and Long Cane, South Carolina; the main 
body of the people, however, and the congregation proper 
coming to Stillwater, where they remained until their re- 
moval here. 

In the spring of 1765, in looking out fur a place fur the 
settlement of his people. Dr. Clark visited this vicinity, and 
in the cabin of James Turner, to a few people gathered 
from the neighborhood, preached the first sermon ever 
preached in the town of Salem. 

With the place he was pleased, at once fixed upon it as 
the future home of his people, and was successful in having 
conveyed to him twelve thousand acres of land wholly free 
of charge for five years, after which there was to be paid 
by him an annual rent of one shilling per acre. 

It was during this summer that the first death occurred 
in the colony or congregation, while hailing at Stillwater. 
It was that of one of the elders, Jainos Harshaw. 

After the return of Dr. Clark from New York, and 

probably late in the autumn of 1765, some of the people 
came here to look at the lands which had been secured, 
with an eye to situations for their future homes. Early 
the following spring. Dr. Clark, with a number of his col- 
ony, came with a view to improvements. Their first work 
was the erection of a log house in which to deposit their 
provisions and baggage, which house served them as a 
place of repose at night, and of protection against the wild 
beasts of the forest. It was also to be the future residence 
of their pastor. At this time, therefore, and in these cir- 
cumstances, the first parsonage was built. Some years 
afterwards it was taken down and a frame building erected 
on the same spot by the congregation, which building con- 
tinued to be the parsonage during the pastorate of Dr. 
Clark's successor, the Rev. James Proudfit. In 176() the 
first church building was erected, the first structure of the 
kind in the county, and in fact in all the region north of 
Albany to the Canada line. It was built of logs such as 
the men could bring together by hand, as they had no 
teams ; the crevices between the logs were filled with clay. 
The floor was the earth ; the roof was of black-ash bark, 
taken from the trees, cut into suitable lengths, and flattened 
by stones being placed upon it while drying ; the seats were 
rough benches made from logs split in halves and placed 
on blocks of wood. The building was some forty feet in 
length, and is said to have been the largest house of the 
kind then to be seen anywhere in the county. In the .same 
year the first school-house was built, after the same fashion 
and as the church had been built. 

Thus coming to their new homes, these fathers erected, 
at the same time with their own dwellings, the church and 
the school-house. There is no questioning the fact that 
they considered the influences going out from these two 
sources the grand essentials in making the wilderness to 
blossom as the rose. 

The next year, 1767, is the era of the general settlement 
of the town. In this year the diflFereut families of the con- 
gregation came from Stillwater and occupied the cabins 
which had been erected the year before. The first family 
that reached here was that of John Lytic, on the 7th day 
of May. Other families came in rapid succession, and near 
the close of the same month services were held in the log 
church. Our congregation, therefore, for the first time, per- 
haps on the last Sabbath of May, 1767, here came together 
to worship God, making this year memorable as that in 
which the regular preaching of the gospel on the Lord's 
day was commenced in this town. From this fact the con- 
gregation is called in its charter of incorporation " The First 
Presbyterian church in Salem," and this is its legal title. 

We would note two interesting facts. The congregation 
was born and nurtured to maturity on the other side of the 
Atlantic, and was transplanted from thence a fullj'-organ- 
ized church, with pastor, elders, and members; and from 
the time the congregation left Ballibay, Ireland, until it 
assembled here in the church referred to, a period of three 
years, there was little if any interruption of the regular 
services. The preaching on the Lord's day and the admin- 
istration of the sacraments were regularly observed on the 
sea and on the land. Like Israel of old, they had the 
clmrili with them, and the wcir.ship of Jehovah in the con- 



gregation and in the family was regularly kept up. In 
these respects this congregation stands altogether singular. 
The congregation, as we find it in thi.s country, wa.s com- 
posed of Dr. Clark, pastor ; George Oswald, David Tomb, 
William Thompson, William Moncrief, William Wilson, 
Richard Hoy, John Foster, and David Hanna, elders ; and 
some two hundred members, including baptized children, 
which were about one-fourth of the number. Of this 
mcmber.ship no complete list can now be found. 

The first child baptized after the congregation carae here, 
tlie first child baptized in the town, and the first female in- 
fant born here, was Mary Lytic, who afterwards became 
the wife of Dr. Andrew Proudfit, eldest son of Dr. Clark's 

Inasmuch as there was at that time no other " Burgher" 
minister in this country. Dr. Clark, believing it to be his 
duty to be in connection with some ecclesiastical body, 
united wilh the Anti-Burglier As.sociate presbytery of 
Pennsylvania, in connection with which this congregation 
continued down to the time of the union between the As- 
sociate and Reformed churches, 17S2, which gave rise to 
the " Associate Reformed ciiurch." 

The log church in which the congregation first wor- 
shiped was most inconvenient. Besides being too small to 
accominodate the worshipers, it was very uncomfortable. 
The house was without a floor or means of heating. It 
was occupied only during the winters and on stormy days 
in the summers. On pleasant days the meetings were held 
in the open air. This church was used as a place of wor- 
ship only about three years. In 1770 was erected beside 
this log church a more commodious and comfortable build- 
ing, which still stands, the most venerable structure, the 
most interesting antiquity, we have in the town. From a 
subscription paper still in existence it appeal's that each 
gave to this cause in proportion to the valuation of his 

When this church was completed and occupied as a 
house of worship, the old log church was occupied for a 
time by the school, afterwards as a barn, and finally, July 
27, 1777, it was taken down, the larger portion of its 
timbers cut into suitable lengths and used to fortify the 
church of our sister congregation, the New England church 
as it was called, as a place of safety, should a party of the 
savages following in the train of Burgoyne's invading 
arn)y attack the place. The rest of the logs were taken to 
the top of what is known as Mill hill, and laid up into a 
block-house as an outpost to the fort. 

During the time Dr. Clark remained in Salem the 
amount of labor he performed was simply marvelous. No 
other than an iron constitution could have borne it. Until 
the arrival of Dr. John Williams he was the only physi- 
cian in the place. In addition to his care of the church 
he was called to attend the sick ; in addition to this he reg- 
ularly visited Hebron, Argylc, and Cambiidge, preaching, 
and thus prepared the way for the organization of flourish- 
ing congregations. Like Paul, he was abundant in labor.s, 
and like his, his labors were crowned with success. In 
addition to all this, the secular business he had taken upon 
him would have been suflicient to burdtn any one. He 
looked not only after the spiritual interests of his people. 

but also their temporal interests. He seemed to have one 
desire which was controlling, viz., that his people might 
have prosperity. 

The secular business, and especially the collection of the 
rents, for which he had originally become responsible, after 
a time involved him in some trouble, and his pastoral rela- 
tion terminated in the summer of 1782. He made a visit 
south, and after visiting for some time among those of his 
people who had located in South Carolina, he returned to 
Albany, N. Y. Here he remained between two and thi'ee 
years, then went to Abbeville, South Carolina, to labor 
among the people of the colony who had parted from them 
in New York. There he organized the Cedar Spring and 
Long Cane congregations, over which he was installed 
pastor in the year 178G. 

In this charge he labored with great acceptance and re- 
markable success until the time of his death, which oc- 
curred December 2C, 1792. As a servant was pa.ssing his 
room she heard him breathe heavily. Entering, she found 
him in his chair just expiring; on the table before him an 
earnest, able, and most afl^ectionate epistle, addressed to the 
people of his charge whom he had left in Ballibay, Ireland, 
which he had evidently just completed and subscribed, the 
letter closing with these words: " What I do thou knowest 
not now, but thou shalt know hereafter." His dust lies in 
the grave-yard at Cedar Spring, South Carolina. 

We add one anecdote of this venerable patriarch : On 
one occasion he was visiting a family in this vicinity. Dur- 
ing his visit he was asking the different members of the 
family some questions on the subject of religion ; the gen- 
tleman of the house professed not to understand English 
well enough to answer the question asked him. He was 
pa.ssed over. A few days after this man was driving a 
team of oxen along the highway ; for some reason he be- 
gan to swear at the oxen. Dr. Clark was driving along the 
same way, but a little distance behind. Hearing the man 
use profane language, he at once drove alongside of him, 
and calling him by name, he said, " I see, sir, ye ha' learned 
to talk English since I last saw ye, an' it's na' the best o' 
English that ye use, either." 

After the removal of Dr. Clark the church had no 
shepherd for a little over a year, when Rev. James Proud- 
fit accepted the call of the congregation, and was installed 
in October, 1783. To secure his services Elder James 
Steven.son had made the long journey from Salem to Penn- 
sylvania on horseback, and most of the way through an 
unbroken wilderness. 

After Mr. Proudfit's settlement here the population be- 
gan to increase rapidly, from fifty to one hundred persons 
annually settling in the town for a number of years. From 
records we learn that the old meeting-house contained 
thirty pews, and that in the year 1792 the gallery was 
finished, adding five more pews and a number of seats to 
the previous accommodations of the building. The names 
of those owning pews were William McDougal, John 
Williams, Matthew McWhorter, James Tomb, Abner 
Carswell, William McFarland, John McCrea, James Stc- 
veiuson, John Rowan, John Hanna, Jcjhn Tomb, William 
and Peter Cruickshank, John Crozior, Walter Stewart, 
Alex. McNish, John Steele, Andrew Lytle, Samuel Boatty, 


Residence of the urt HIRAM WALKER Now ownldand occuriio syWILLIS H & JOHN D WALKER 




William and Samuel Graham, James Armstrong, Joshua 
Steele, Tiionias Boyd, Andrew MeMillan, Alex. Reid. 

Tlie house of worship was still too small for its large con- 
gregation, and it became necessary that a more commodious 
church edifice should be erected. The work was at once 
begun, and in the year 1797 the present church was com- 
pleted, at a cost of four thousand dollars. This sum was 
expended mostly in the purchase of material, a considerable 
portion of the work being done by the people themselves. 
On the ] st of November of the same year the new house 
was occupied for the first time by the congregation. 

For a time the site of the new church was a matter of 
contention among the people. One portion of the congre- 
gation was determined that it should be on the other side 
of the creek near the old church, and the other portion 
w;is just as determined that it should be on this side. This 
matter was, however, satisfactorily arranged and the present 
site chosen, through the influence and skillful management 
of General John Williams, who had been a member of the 
New England church, but who, after the marriage of his 
daughter with Mr. Proudfit's son, October 2, 179G, became 
an efficient member of this one. The wisdom of this choice 
of site for the church was afterwards acknowledged by those 
who at first opposed it, and is now apparent to all. 

To meet the cost of building the new church the pews 
were sold at auction, subject to an annual rent for the sup- 
port of a minister. Eighty-six persons purcliased pews or 
slips, taking nearly all those in the body of the church and 
a number in the gallery. The sales amounted to four thou- 
sand tliree hundred and sixty-seven dollars. Thus the cost 
of building was more than met. 

Two years before this (on May 13, 1795) the Rev. Alex- 
ander Proudfit had been installed as the colleague of his 

From this time it was the custom of the father and son 
to divide the labors of the Sabbath, one conducting the 
forenoon and the other the afternoon services, until, in the 
summer of 1797, the father was, by a paralytic stroke, 
disqualified for active service. He died Oct. 22, 1802. In 
this year there were on the roll of membership three hun- 
dred names. At that date only two congregations in the 
body had a larger membership, — the one of which Dr. 
Clark had been pastor in South Carolina, which numbered 
five hundred and twenty members, and the congregation of 
Dr. Mason in New York, which numbered four liundred 

Upon the death of the father the son became sole pastor 
of the congregation, in which relation he continued for over 
thirty-throe years, having previously sustained that relation 
with his father seven years, — making in all a pastorate of 
over forty years. Years before " tract societies" were known 
lie formed what was in reality a tract society in this congre- 
gation, called " The Female Society in Salem for Promoting 
Religious Knowledge." The word female was subsequently 
dropped. This society was for many years efficiently en- 
gaged in distributing religious tracts, not only in the neigh- 
borhood, but also in sending them to the distant settlements 
already referred to, whither many had gone from this commu- 
nity. This was, perhaps, the first tract society in America, 
being organized in the year 1800. Its first publication was 

an eight-page tract bearing the following heading: "No. 1. — 
A Word to Mothers on the Religious Instruction of their 
Children. Published by Dodd and Ramsey for the Female 
Society in Salem fjr the Promotion of Religious Knowl- 
edge." Many other publications followed. Some of them 
are still in existence, and are in the hands of Dr. Asa Fitch. 

In the year 1827 or 1828 the sounding-board (as it was 
called) was taken down and the inside of the church un- 
derwent some repairs. The pulpit, as originally con- 
structed, was very lofty, with about room enough in it for 
the preacher, — in shape very much like a tumbler. This 
was removed, and a platform built at the same altitude ; it 
was surrounded with a railing and a gate opening on either 
side, through which the occupant entered and by which he 
was shut in. It i