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\ X^4 

History of Washington 

The Rise and Progress of an 
American State 


Advisory Editors 
Cornelius H. Hanford, Miles C. Moore, William D. Tyler 

Stephen J. Chadwick 

Volume Four 







3RK I 

:.<, -•; iOX AMD 
Printe'd Ijv''"- 

John C. Rankin Company 


The Century History Company 

Copyright 1909 

By The Century History Company 

all rights reserved 

Publication Office 
54 Dey Street, New York, N. Y. 
U. S. A. 




Leschi and Quiemuth in Hiding 3 

Qniemuth Sxirrenders 3 

Is Killed in Governor Stevens' Office 4 

Leschi Betrayed 4 

His Indictment and Trial 5 

The Jury Disagrees 6 

His Second Trial 7 

His Case Appealed 8 

His Pardon Asked For 8 

His Execution Defeated 9 

Public Indignation 10 

Sentenced a Third Time and Executed 11 

His Last Speech 12 

Reservations Rearranged 13 

Acts of the Legislature 14 

Cost of the War 15 

Stevens Elected to Congress 18 

General Clarke in Command 19 

Failure of Wool's Policy 20 

Steptoe Advances Northward 21 

His Defeat 22 

The Terrors of the Retreat 23 

Colonel Wright Takes the Field 24 

Battle of Four Lakes 25 

Battle of Spokane Plains 28 

Garry a Messenger of Peace 29 

A Slaughter of Indian Horses 30 

The Indians Come to Terms 31 

The Murderer of Bolon Hanged 32 

Death of Owhi and Results of Wool's PoUcy 32 



The Discovery oi Gold 37 

Newspapers at $5 per Copy 3^ 

The Rush to the Mines 39 

Real Estate Speculations 40 

Governor Douglass Taxes the Miners 41 


His Rules and Regulations 42 

His Plans Disapproved 34 

Governor of British Columbia 44 

End of the Gold Excitement 45 

An Indefinite Boundary 46 

Colonel Ebey Visits San Juan 47 

The Sheep Tax 47 

George Bancroft's Precautions 48 

Boundary' Commissioners Appointed 49 

The Pig Killed 50 

Harney Visits the Island 51 

Pickett's Instructions 52 

He Takes Possession 53 

A Delicate Situation 54 

Harney's Letter to Douglass 55 

Casey Reinforces Pickett 56 

He Confers with the British Officers 57 

Visits Admiral Baynes 58 

Colonel Haller Arrives 59 

Harney Suspected 60 

General Scott Sent to the Coast 61 

His Instructions 62 

George Bancroft's Usefulness 63 

The Controversy Reviewed 64 

Douglass Manages Badly 66 

Difficulty of His Position 67 

Public Interest in the Controversy 68 

A Murderer's Plea 69 



The Advance Guard 73 

Gold Discovered in Idaho 74 

A Nez Perce Indian's Vision 75 

The First Gold Hunters 76 

Walla Walla Founded 77 

The Severe Winter of 1861-62 78 

New Mines Discovered 79 

Stage Lines 79 

Wheat Growing on the Hills 80 

The Montana Mines 81 

First Wheat Down the River 82 

The Lawless Element 83 


One Ruffian Meets His Fate 84 

Another Follows 85 

The Farmers Assemble 86 

The Trouble Ended 86 

Idaho Organized 87 

Gold Found on the Boundary 88 

New Counties Organized 89 

First Settlers in Adams County 90 

Early Settlers in Whitman County 91 

First Settlers in Lincoln County 92 

Yakima and Douglas Counties 93 

Old Yakima City 94 

Spokane County 95 

First Settlers at Spokane Falls 96 

Oregon Claims Walla Walla 97 

A Second Claim 98 



Lack of Interest Among the Settlers 103 

Reasons for It 104 

First Efforts at Recruiting 105 

Indian Troubles 106 

The First Washington Infantry 107 

The Revenue Cutter Shubrick no 

Alarming Rumors 112 

Patriotic Washington Women 113 

Sanitary Commission Work 114 

Harney's Unfortunate Course 115 

Lieut. Col. Silas Casey 116 

Lieut. A. V. Kautz 117 

Lieut. Robt. N. Scott 118 

Col. George Wright 118 

Capt. E. D. Keyes 118 

Capt. J. A. Hardie 119 

Lieut. D. McM. Gregg 119 

Maj. W. N. Grier 119 

Capt. F. L. Dent 119 

Capt. R. W. Kirkham 120 

Capt. E. O. C. Ord 120 

Lieut. M. R. Morgan 120 

Lieut. R. O. Tyler 121 

Capt. Rufus Ingalls 121 


Col. Justus Steinberger 121 

Lieut. Chas. P. Eagan 122 

Gen. John M. Wilson 122 

Lieut. W. D. Pender 122 

Maj. R. S. Garnett 123 

Capt. Chas. S. Winder 123 

Lieut. J. S. Phelps 123 

Capt. Guert Gansevoort 124 

Lieut Geo. Upham Morris 124 

Lieut. E. P. Alexander 124 

Maj. Gabriel J. Rains 125 

Capt. Geo. E. Pickett 126 

Capt. C. C. Aitgur 126 

Capt. D. A. Russell 127 

Maj. G. O. Haller 128 

Gen. Isaac I. Stevens 129 



Gholson Succeeds McMuUen 137 

His Peculiarities 139 

William Pickering, Governor 140 

Home Rulers Asked For 141 

Political Parties 142 

Cole Appointed Governor 144 

Succeeded by Alvan Flanders 145 

The Steilacoom Insane Asylum 147 

Divorces Granted by the Legislature 148 

Vetoes 149 

The Early Legislatures 150 

Societies Incorporated 151 

Governor Marshall F. Moore 152 

The Alaska Purchase 153 

H. G. Struve's Part in It 154 

Apportionment of Representatives 155 

The Capital Location Question 157 

University and Penitentiary 158 

Acting Governor McGill 162 

The Capital Fight in Court 164 

The Custom House 165 

Victor Smith, Collector 166 

His Troubles Begin 168 

Threatens Port Townsend 1 70 


Governor Pickering Alarmed 171 

The Custom House Removed to Port Angeles 172 

Smith Removed from Office 1 74 

Flood at Port Angeles 175 

Death of Smith 176 

Importation of Marriageable Women 177 

A Second Party 178 

Chief Justice Hewitt 180 

Changes in the Court 182 

Trouble in the Legislature 183 

Wholesale Vetoes 1 84 

' Garfielde Elected Delegate 185 

Attempt to Tax the Hudson's Bay Company 186 

A Long Battle 188 

Murder of B. F. Kendall i8q 

End of the Tax Case 191 

Purchase of Hudson's Bay Interests 192 

Progress of Settlement 194 

Early Newspapers 195 

Death of Earliest Settlers 195 



Hoping for Railroads 201 

Fathers of the Northern Pacific 202 

A Territorial Charter 203 

The Union Pacific 205 

The Northern Pacific Begun 206 

Jay Cooke & Co. Interested 207 

Advertising the Country 208 

Building Started 209 

Local Companies Chartered 210 

The Oregon Steam Navigation Company 211 

The Rainbow End of a Railroad 214 

Hopeful Towns 215 

The Olympia Branch Company 217 

Olympia's Christmas Present 219 

Seattle's Hopes 222 

A Committee Visits the Sound 225 

Tacoma the Terminus 226 

How Tacoma was Founded 227 

Its Name 229 

Failure of Jay Cooke & Co 230 


The Fight for Existence 231 

The Seattle and Walla Walla»Road 232 

First Days' Work on the Grade 234 

Waning Interest 235 

Hard Times 236 

James M. Colman 237 

Olympia Starts a Road 238 

Dr. Baker's " Rawhide Road" 239 

Its Value to Eastern Washington 244 

The Plat of Tacoma 246 

The Wilkeson Branch 247 

War on the Northern Pacific 248 

Mount Rainier or Mount Tacoma 249 



Elisha P. Ferry, Governor 257 

An Echo of San Juan 258 

Financial Affairs 260 

Equalizing Assessments 261 

First Board of Immigration 262 

First Railroad Law 263 

Revision of the Revenue Laws 264 

The Railroad Question 265 

First Penitentiary 266 

Employments of the Prisoners 267 

Aspirations for Statehood 268 

The Walla Walla Constitution 269 

Loss of the Steamer Pacific 270 

Cause of the Disaster 272 

Loss of the Great Republic 273 

The Indian Reservations 274 

Women Allowed to Vote 275 

The Law Declared Invalid 276 

A Second Trial 277 

A Reign of Terror in Seattle 277 

A Vigilance Committee Organized 278 

The Murderers Hanged 279 

A Third Added 280 

Governor Squires Reports 281 

A Prosperous Period 281 

Great Fire in Seattle 282 

Governor Miles C. Moore's Short Term 283 



Troubles of the Early Builders 287 

Billings Again to the Rescue 288 

Henry Villard Appears 289 

Grading Begun at Wallula 289 

Settlers Encouraged 290 

Shipping Grain by Chute 291 

Mushroom Towns 292 

Cheney and Spokane 294 

Their Welcome to the Railroad 295 

Spokane's Great Fire 296 

The Inland Empire 297 

The Cascade Division 298 

Villard Captures the X. P 299 

Visits the Sound Cities 300 

Buys Coal Mines 301 

The Northern Pacific Completed 302 

Hop Culture 303 

Villard in Trouble 304 

Tacoma and Seattle 305 

Fight Against the Land Grant 306 

Voorhees Sent to Congress 307 

Prosperous Cities 308 

The "Orphan Railroad" 309 

A Parent Fotmd for It 310 

The Stampede Tunnel 311 

Villard Regains Control 312 

Increase of Population 313 

Growth of Cities and Towns 314 

Railroad Extension 315 

The Old Age Passed Away 316 



Early Hatred of the Chinamen 319 

Agitators Begin Work 320 

Hop Pickers Attacked 320 

Raids on the Coal Mines 321 

An "Anti-Chinese Congress" 322 

Appeals to the Governor 323 

President Cleveland Advised 324 


The Situation at Tacoma 325 

"Peaceable Expulsion" 327 

The Situation in Seattle 329 

The " Opera House Party " 330 

Judge Burke's Bold Course 331 

John Leary's Report 332 

A Home Guard Organized 333 

Federal Troops Arrive 333 

The Agitators Resume Work 334 

The Chinese Quarter Raided 335 

Habeas Corpus 336 

The Chinamen in Court 337 

The Return to the Ship 338 

A Battle in Main Street 339 

The Killing of Stewart 340 

A Charge of Buckshot 341 

The Rioter's Invoke the Law 342 

Martial Law Declared 343 

Federal Troops Return 344 

The Agitators Disappear 345 



Early Settlers as Lumbermen 349 

The First Saw Mills 349 

The First Cargo of Piles 350 

The Early Shingle Market 351 

Felt's Mill at Appletree Cove 352 

The Port Madison Mill 352 

The Puget Mill Company 353 

Captain Renton's First Mill 354 

J. M. Colman, Mill Builder 355 

The Port Blakel}^ Company 356 

The Port Ludlow Mill 357 

Grennan & Cranney's Flagstaff 358 

The Freeport Mill 359 

Roeder and Peabody's Mill 360 

Hansen and Ackerson's Mill at Tacoma 360 

Logging in Early Days 361 

The High Stumps Explained 362 

Forest Fires 363 



The Log School Houses 367 

School Books 367 

The Early Superintendents 368 

The Territorial University 369 

Fight for its Location 369 

First University Buildings 370 

Sale of University Lands 371 

Whitman College Founded 373 

Its Early Struggles 375 

Devotion of Gushing Eells 376 

More Prosperous Days 377 

Other Schools of Territorial Times 378 



Further Delay Impossible 383 

Statehood Demanded 384 

Enabling Act Passed 385 

The Constitutional Convention 385 

Its More Prominent Members 385 

No Report of its Proceedings 388 

Petitions and Communications 388 

• The Constitution Completed 389 

The State Officers Installed 390 


Governor Elisha P. Ferry Frontispiece 

Judge O. B. McFadden Facing page 8 

Indian Battlegrounds Facing page 26 

Edward Eldridge Facing page 40 

General George E. Pickett Facing page 52 

Steamer Indianapolis Facing page 72 

Steamer Minnesota Facing page 92 

Fort Boise Facing page no 

Elwood Evans Facing page 149 

Henry G. Struve •" Facing page 154 

Port Townsend Facing page 1 73 

Selucius Garfielde Facing page 185 

First Post Office in Tacoma Facing page 194 

Rev. George F. Whitworth, D. D Facing page 223 

General Morton M. McCarver Facing page 227 

Judge John J. McGilvra Facing page 23 2 

James M. Colman Facing page 237 

Dr. Dorsey S. Baker Facing page 243 

Tacoma in 1878 Facing page 250 

A. M. Cannon Facing page 295 

John Leary Facing page 332 

General William McMicken Facing page 344 

Captain William Renton Facing page 354 

Reverend Daniel Bagley Facing page 369 

John B. Allen Facing page 389 

Chapter XLIX. 

COLONEL WRIGHT did not deliver Leschi, 
Quiemuth, Nelson and Kitsap to the governor 
for trial, although he directed Major Garnett 
at Fort Simcoe to assure the Indians that it 
was for their interest that these chiefs should be given up. 
After the battle at Connell's Prairie, in which they had 
finally been defeated by the volunteers, under Major Hays, 
and after finding the country everywhere so thoroughly 
guarded that their guerilla bands could commit no depreda- 
tion upon the settlers, these chiefs, with about twenty of 
their warriors, had fled across the Cascades and taken refuge 
among their kinsmen, the Yakimas. Here they remained 
until late in the fall when, finding that the other hostiles 
were not being molested, they found their way back to the 
Sound, intending to remain in concealment until they could 
ascertain whether their lives would be sacrificed by giving 
themselves up. But living in this way, like wild beasts 
who did not dare to show themselves by day, soon became 
tedious and disagreeable, and Quiemuth gave himself up 
to James Longmire, with the understanding that he would 
intercede for him with the governor. He was taken at once 
to Olympia, and arrived at the governor's office some two 
or three hours after midnight. The governor was awakened 
and received the party, and left them to spend the remainder 
of the night in his office. Longmire and Quiemuth lay 
down on the floor by the fire and, as both were tired, were 
soon sleeping so soundly that, when Longmire was awakened 
not very long after, he could not for the moment remem- 
ber where he was, or realize what had disturbed him. Quie- 
muth was standing near the door, and a crowd had gathered 
outside. A shot had been fired, but who^had fired it was 
not then or ever afterward known. Quiemuth soon fell 


to the floor, but it was not the shot that had killed him. He 
had been hit by it, and wounded in the arm, but while stand- 
ing at the door was stabbed to the heart by some person 
standing just outside, unseen from within, but believed to 
be James Bunton, son-in-law of the murdered McAllister. 

The governor was aroused by the disturbance, and began 
at once to take steps to have the murderer discovered and 
apprehended. An inquest was held, but no proof sufficiently 
definite to justify the arrest of Bunton was secured. 

The governor was much disturbed by this incident. Three 
or four other Indians had been killed at Olympia during the 
year, and other murders, like that of the Indian at Fort 
Nisqually, had given General Wool and his adherents occa- 
sion to arraign the governor for failing to protect the lives 
of the innocent and of prisoners. In April, an Indian, 
who is said to have been the one who threw Mrs. Brannan 
and her babe into the well, at the White River massacre, 
was surrendered at Seattle and sent to Olympia in irons, 
on the John Hancock. There he was shot dead in the street 
by a brother-in-law of the murdered woman. Another 
Indian named Mowitch had also been shot near the town, 
while getting into his canoe. These murders were a natural 
consequence of the disturbed condition of things, and no 
police power that the governor could have been justified in 
attempting to maintain, would have prevented them. 

A reward of fifty blankets was offered for the apprehension 
of Leschi and it proved effective. He was surrendered by 
one of his own relatives on November 13th. A special term 
of court was at once convened at Steilacoom by Judge Cheno- 
weth, with a grand and petit jury, and Leschi was indicted 
and almost immediately brought to trial. Public interest 
in the trial was very great, and the excitement of the settlers 


was increased by the knowledge that Colonel Wright had 
refused to give him up for trial, and that Colonel Casey and 
the regulars at Fort Steilacoom felt kindly toward the pris- 
oner, and would protect him from violence, and perhaps 
assist him in his defense. He had earlier offered to surrender 
to Casey; "but that officer had considered it more prudent 
that Leschi should, for a time, remain in the woods, as prej- 
udice ran high against him," says Dr. Tolmie. It was of 
course assumed that the Hudson's Bay people would befriend 
him, so far as they could, and this helped to intensify the 
public feeling. 

The indictment charged the prisoner with murder, in 
having killed, or been accessory to the death, of A. Benton 
Moses, who, with Joseph Miles, was shot only a few days 
more than a year before, near the spot where McAllister 
and Connell had been ambushed only two days earlier. 
He pleaded not guilty, and a jury was impaneled. Among 
the jurymen were: Sherwood Bonney, Albert Balch, J. H. 
Wright, Ezra Meeker and William M. Kincaid. Frank 
Clark appeared for the defense. Various witnesses were 
sworn and gave their testimony, among them being Captain 
A. B. Rabbeson, who had been with the express party 
returning from Captain Maloney's camp east of the moun- 
tains, of which Moses and Miles had been members. It was 
shown that this party saw Leschi near his camp as they 
passed it, and that only a few minutes later they were fired 
upon, and Miles was instantly killed and Moses mortally 
wounded. No one had seen the Indians who actually fired 
these two deadly shots, but they were fired from an 
ambush near Leschi's camp, and probably from the 
same ambush from which McAllister and Connell had 
been killed. 


This evidence was not shaken by the defense, which 
relied upon its claims that a state of war between the whites 
and Indians had existed at the time all these men had met 
their deaths, and that the prisoner could not be held for 
Hves sacrificed in war. 

The court charged the jury that if a state of war really 
existed at the time, and the deceased and the defendant 
were engaged on opposing sides, then the killing was not 
murder, and the defendant could not be held guilty. It was 
also pointed out that in Indian wars no formal declaration 
was usually made, but some act of war on one part or the 
other marked its beginning. It was for the jury, therefore, 
to determine whether an act of war, sufficient to be regarded 
as notice that war had actually begun, had been committed, 
and whether the prisoner, and the man killed, had been 
engaged in it, before the killing. 

The jury retired for deliberation, and it was soon found 
that they stood eight for conviction and four for acquittal. 
Many ballots were taken with this result. Finally, after 
several hours spent in arguing and balloting, the jurors 
returned into court, and asked to be discharged. But the 
judge would not discharge them, and sent them back for 
further deliberation. Several other ballots were taken. At 
length ten voted for conviction, but Meeker and Kincaid 
still held out, and declared they would never vote to con- 
vict. They again returned into court. It was then near 
midnight, and the small courtroom, but dimly lighted 
with candles, was crowded with the expectant settlers who 
had remained to learn the result of the trial. There was 
almost breathless silence when the foreman announced that 
there was no hope of agreement, and the jury were dis- 


The excitement, which had been intense while the trial 
was proceeding, was now at fever heat. The jurors who 
had refused to convict, anticipated that perhaps some vio- 
lence, or indignity, might be offered them, but nothing of 
the kind happened. The settlers were disappointed, but 
they dispersed peaceably and went to their homes. 

The judicial districts of the territory had now been rear- 
ranged, and Congress, in its wisdom, had provided that court 
should be held in only one place in each district. The next 
trial was accordingly held at Olympia, and began on March 
1 8, 1857, Judge Lander presiding. About the same evidence 
was presented as at the former trial, and similar defense 
made. Public excitement was general and as keen as before, 
and the interest of the regular army officers, and Hudson's 
Bay people in the defendant even more apparent. The 
jury found the defendant "guilty as charged in the indict- 
ment, and that he suffer death." 

Application for a new trial was made March 20th, but it 
was overruled. Lieutenant Kautz had by this time made a 
map of the ground on which the murder occurred, which 
showed, if it could be depended upon, that the defendant 
would have had to travel nearly twice as far as his victims 
had done after they had seen him, to reach the place where 
the tragedy occurred, and the defense asked for opportunity 
to present this to a jury, and show by it that it would not 
have been possible for Leschi to be present when the shooting 
occurred, but the motion was overruled. Leschi was then 
sentenced to be hanged on June loth, following. 

The case was now carried to the supreme court by writ 
of error, and the execution was accordingly stayed for the 
time being. The case was argued at the December term, 
before Justices McFadden and Chenoweth, the chief justice 


being at the time out of the territory. The decision of the 
court was unanimous. The opinion, written by Justice 
McFadden, reviewed the errors assigned, at length, and 
overruled them, and Leschi was ordered to be again sentenced. 
This time the date of execution was fixed for January 22d, 
between the hours of lo and 2 o'clock. 

Soon after the sentence was pronounced a second time 
Leschi was sent to Fort Steilacoom for safe-keeping, and the 
army officers. Dr. Tolmie, and others of the Hudson's Bay 
people at Fort Nisqually, together with the prisoner's attor- 
ney, began to take active steps to secure a pardon. Governor 
Stevens, who had now been elected delegate to Congress, 
had resigned a month later, and Fayette McMullen of 
Virginia had been appointed, and installed as his successor. 
He gave a patient hearing to all the arguments made in the 
prisoner's behalf, by his attorney, and by Dr. Tolmie, who 
told at length the story of his acquaintance with him cover- 
ing a period of more than twenty years. Affidavits had been 
prepared by some of the army officers, in which it was 
represented that from an examination of the ground where 
the murder was committed it did not appear to be possible 
that the prisoner could have been present, if the party, with 
whom the murdered men were, had seen Leschi at the time 
and place it was claimed they had, by the witnesses for the 
prosecution. The pardon asked for was refused, and then 
other efforts were made for a respite. Among others, Colonel 
Casey himself wrote to the governor urging that it be granted, 
but it also was refused, and the death-warrant was finally 
issued, being addressed to the sheriff of Pierce County, 
within the jurisdiction of which the prisoner was, he being 
at the time in the custody of Colonel Casey at Fort Steila- 

,^7jI ^""^^ 


admitted that he knew that the sheriff was under arrest, by 
civil process. Mason then sought to get the death-warrant 
from the sheriff, but he refused to give it up "without an 
order," as he said. The deputy sheriff also demanded, or 
pretended to demand, the warrant, so that he might proceed 
with the execution, but the sheriff again refused to surrender 

Leschi had escaped the gallows for the time being, but 
by means which aroused public indignation to such a point 
as to make his doom, if possible, more certain. On the night 
of the day of which he was to have been executed, a public 
meeting was held at Steilacoom, at which the citizens voiced 
their indignation at the way in which the law had been 
trampled upon, in several speeches, and a series of resolu- 
tions, in which the officers at the fort who had taken part in 
the affair, those at Fort Nisqually, and the prisoner's attorney 
were denounced by name, A few evenings later another 
public meeting was held at Olympia, which was addressed 
by the governor and Secretary Mason, and similar resolu- 
tions adopted. One of these resolutions declared that "the 
conduct, on the part of officers of the United States army, 
exhibits a most unnatural, and unreasonable sympathy for 
the Indian, who was known to have been engaged in the 
fiendish massacre of helpless women and children on White 
River, in the fall of 1855, and that it is considered by this 
community good and sufficient cause for their immediate 
removal from the territory, and dismissal from the army." 

The legislature was in session, and on the day following 
that on which the execution should have taken place, passed 
an act — "requiring the judges of the supreme court now in 
the territory, to hold a special session on the first Thursday in 
February," to pronounce upon the case of Leschi as it then 


stood. The special session was held and the prisoner 
ordered to be resentenced, and in accordance with this 
order he was sentenced for a third time, and William Mit- 
chell, then acting sheriff of Thurston County, Captain Isaac 
Hays having left the territory, was appointed to carry the 
sentence into execution. The date fixed was February 

On that day the prisoner was delivered to Mitchell by 
Colonel Casey, and taken under guard to a point about a 
mile east of the fort, and near the north end of Lake Steila- 
coom, where, in a considerable depression in the prairie, 
forming a natural amphitheater, a gallows had been erected. 
Here, in the presence of a considerable number of settlers 
and Indians, he was hanged by the neck until he was dead. 

His several trials, the sensational circumstances under 
which his execution was once postponed, and the public 
excitement attending his final sentence and execution, have 
caused him to be remembered as he otherwise would not 
have been. Some have supposed, from all that has been 
said and written about him, that he was a great chief — the 
real organizer and leader of the uprising. But he did not 
hold even a second place among the leaders of that enter- 
prise. He was not a great Indian in any sense. He was not 
a warrior of consequence. He was not an organizer or a 
manager. He was simply a glib-tongued agitator, and like 
most other agitators, very competent to get those who listened 
to him into trouble, but wholly incompetent to get them ou'' 
of it. 

Sometime after his execution Colonel Shaw, who was the 
interpreter at his trial, reproduced the following speech, 
from memory, as that made by Leschi on one of the occasions 
when sentence was passed upon him. Its accuracy was not 


vouched for, and yet it is probably as nearly accurate as the 
reports of other Indian speeches have been, that have long 
been famous. When asked if he had anything to say why 
sentence should not be passed upon him, and being told 
by the interpreter that he might speak if he wished, he arose 
and said: 

"I do not see that there is any use of saying anything. 
My attorney has said all he could for me. I do not know 
anything about your laws. I have supposed that the killing 
of armed men in wartime was not murder; if it was, the 
soldiers who killed Indians were guilty of murder, too. The 
Indians did not keep in order like the soldiers and, therefore, 
could not fight in bodies like them, but had to resort to am- 
bush, and seek the cover of trees, logs and everything that 
would hide them from the bullets. This was their mode of 
fighting, and they knew no other way. Dr. Tolmie and 
Quatlith, the red-headed chief, warned me against allowing 
my anger to get the best of my good sense, as I could not 
gain anything by going to war with the United States, but 
would be beaten and humbled, and would have to hide like a 
wild beast in the end. I did not take this good advice but 
nursed my anger until it became a furious passion, which 
led me like a false Tamanous. I went to war because I 
believed that the Indians had been wronged by the white 
men, and did everything in my power to beat the 'Boston' 
soldiers, but for lack of numbers, supplies and ammunition, 
I have failed. I deny that I had any part in killing Miles 
and Moses. I heard that a company of soldiers were com- 
ing out of Steilacoom, and determined to lay in ambush for 
it; but did not expect to catch anyone coming from the 
other way. I did not see Miles or Moses before or after 
they were dead, but was told by the Indians that they had 
been killed. As God sees me, this is the truth." 

Leschi then made the sign of the cross, and said in his 
own Nisqually tongue 


" * Ta-te-mono, Ta-te lem-mas, Ta-te ha-le-hach, tu-ul-li- 
as-sist-ah,' which, being interpreted, means, This is the 
Father, this is the Son, this is the Holy Ghost; these are 
all one and the same. Amen." 

The Indian war was now over, so far as the territorial 
government and the settlers were concerned. Quiemuth, 
Leschi and Stehi, who had been active in the uprising, were 
dead, and Nelson and Kitsap had been apprehended, tried 
and acquitted. The hostiles west of the mountains were 
dispersed, and there was no longer any danger that they 
would make trouble among those who had so long been kept 
together in the reserve camps. During the summer of 1856, 
Governor Stevens had visited the camps in the upper 
Sound, and conferred with the Indians in regard to the 
changes they wished to have made in their reservations. 
He had himself learned, by this time, that those assigned to 
the Puyallups and the Nisquallies were not suited to their 
use, and, as the treaty with them had been ratified, he 
undertook to secure for them what they required, by executive 
proclamation, and this he did while a delegate in Congress, 
securing for the Puyallups 18,060 acres adjoining the present 
city of Tacoma, which has since that time made that tribe 
one of the richest in the United States. The Nisqually 
reservation was also considerably enlarged. A small reser- 
vation was also secured for the Muckleshoot tribe, consisting 
of several fractional sections fronting on White River. It 
was a curiously shaped reservation, but Stevens afterwards 
explained that he had arranged it as the Indians wanted 
it, and it evidently was not arranged as it was for any other 

During the sessions of the legislature, of which four had 
now been held, the governor's recommendations had generally 


been followed, and most of them carried out. The most 
important business at each session had been the adoption 
of memorials, informing Congress as to the needs of the 
territory, and asking appropriations for the improvements 
most urgently required. Actual legislation had been con- 
fined to the enactment of laws of local interest, as the work 
of the first legislature, aided as it had been by Judges Lander, 
Strong and Monroe, had been so complete as to leave but 
little in the way of general laws to be desired. The second 
legislature passed a crude militia law, and amended the 
school, road and fence laws, and changed the time of holding 
the general election from June to July. It also set ofFCheha- 
lis County from the second judicial district, and attached 
it to the first. Representation in the House was increased 
from eighteen to thirty members. Marriage between white 
persons and those who were of more than one-fourth Indian 
or negro blood was forbidden, and clergymen might be 
fined not less than $50, nor more than ^500, for marrying 
such persons, unless they had been or were living together 
at the time the act was passed. The territorial penitentiary 
was voted to Clarke County, the capitol to Olympia, to be 
located on the land claim of Edmund Sylvester, and the 
State university to Seattle, though a branch of it was to be 
established at Boisfort. An act prohibiting the manufacture 
and sale of ardent spirits, and providing for the appointment 
of an agent to sell spirits and wine for medicinal, mechanical 
and sacramental purposes was also passed, to become law 
when approved by the people, but it was defeated by a 
majority of 70 votes, in a total of 1,150 cast. 

The third legislature met in the winter of 1855-56, when 
the settlers had been compelled to abandon their homes, 
and most of them were serving with the volunteers, while 


their families were living in blockhouses or stockades. 
Business everywhere in the territory was prostrated. The 
regular soldiers had been withdrawn from the country east 
of the mountains, and the Oregon volunteers were fighting 
the battles for both territories on the Walla Walla, while 
Governor Stevens was forcing his way through the hostile 
mountain country, as best he could, toward home. This 
legislature asked Congress to investigate the conduct of 
Rains in abandoning the Yakima country, and in disbanding 
the volunteer company raised to go to Stevens' relief. It 
also protested against the separation of the offices of governor 
and superintendent of Indian affairs, as the Indian office 
had recommended. 

When the next legislature assembled, on December ist, 
Governor Stevens announced that the message sent to it 
would be his last, as he had determined to resign. The 
war was practically ended; the accounts of the quarter- 
master closed, and his report and that of the adjutant-general 
completed. These reports, together with the orders, reports 
and correspondence from and with the various officers in 
command, and with General Wool and other officers of the 
regular army, were submitted with the message, and make 
up a most complete and interesting history of the war, as well 
as a valuable contribution to the history of the nation. The 
quartermaster-general's report showed that the total amount 
of scrip issued was ^1,481,475.45, of which ^961,882.39 was 
for equipment supplies, etc., and $519,593.06, for pay of 
the volunteers. "As an evidence of the fidelity with which 
the public interest has been protected," says the quarter- 
master-general, in closing his report, "it is sufficient to state 
that, whilst 571 horses were purchased for the service, 600 
have been turned in and sold. When it is remembered that 


many of the animals have died in service, and that many 
have been captured by the enemy, it will be seen how faith- 
fully the animals purchased, and those captured at Grand 
Ronde have been accounted for. " 

The companies raised under the calls of acting-Governor 
Mason, for three months' service, were denominated the 
ist regiment, and those under the calls of Governor Stevens, 
the 2d regiment. Of the former there were, rank and file, 
518 mounted men and 345 unmounted; in the latter there 
were 584 mounted, and 485 unmounted, or a total of 1,069 
men serving at one time; of these three companies, consisting 
of a total of 185 men, were raised in Oregon and 123 were 
Indians. As the population of the territory was then but 
little more than 4,000, it appears that nearly one-fifth of the 
whole were actually under arms, while a large number of 
others were employed by the quartermaster to keep them 
supplied with food and ammunition. 

The declaration of martial law, and arrest and detention 
of Judge Lander produced intense feeling throughout the 
territory, and as time passed the governor's action was more 
and more severely criticized. People felt that a dangerous 
precedent had possibly been established, and that unless 
vigorous protest were made against this autocratic inter- 
ference with the authority of their courts, great dangers might 
result. The party names. Whig and Democrat, which had 
long been familiar, were for the time being disused, and the 
only parties known were the Stevens and Anti-Stevens. 
When the legislature organized, William H. Wallace was 
chosen president, and Elwood Evans, clerk of the Council. 
Both were Whigs, and opponents of the governor. The 
House chose Joseph S. Smith, speaker, and Reuben L. Doyle, 
clerk, and both were Anti-Stevens Democrats. Martial law 


had alienated some of the governor's oldest friends, among 
them, Evans, and B. F. Kendall, who had come out to the 
territory as members of his surveying party, and many others. 

The message was an able one, as all of Stevens' state 
papers were. It stated the grounds for his actions fairly, 
defended his course with his accustomed courage, and 
closed with a manly request for a full investigation. This 
the legislature at once proceeded to make. Those opposed 
to his course were led by Joseph S. Smith, W. H. Wallace, 
A. A. Denny, Alexander S. Abernethy, Alonzo M. Poe and 
William Cock, once one of his most ardent friends and sup- 
porters, and he was defended and championed by Judge 
William Strong, the able lawyer and sterling citizen, who 
had been so helpful in forming the code adopted by the first 
legislature, and who had also been captain of the first volun- 
teer company raised in Clarke County. Although a Whig 
in politics heretofore, and the candidate of his party for 
delegate in Congress at the last election, he now staunchly 
and eloquently championed the cause of Stevens, a Democrat, 
although the issue was one in which, as a sound lawyer, he 
would naturally be expected to be on the other side. 

The debate was long and earnest, and the public interest 
in it was keen and wide spread. It ended in the adoption 
of a resolution of censure. 

This legislature also spent much time and effort in an 
attempt to adapt matters to the new arrangement by which 
Congress had provided that court should be held at only one 
place in each judicial district. This was certain to be oppres- 
sive to the great majority of settlers, who would be com- 
pelled to make long journeys with their witnesses, in case 
they had business in court. To relieve them, so far as pos- 
sible, from this burden, a series of amendatory laws were 


required, and these were passed. An attempt was also 
made to confer authority upon the probate courts to try 
criminal cases, but this was abandoned, and for years after- 
wards, the courts, now known simply as district courts of 
the territory, held sessions at only one place in each of these 

A new county was also created at this session, out of 
territory hitherto a part of King and Jefferson counties. It 
was to be named Slaughter County, if its people approved, 
but they did not, and subsequently chose the name of Kitsap, 
that of one of the hostile Indian chiefs, who had been tried 
for murders committed during the war, and acquitted, but 
who was subsequently shot by one of his own people. 

In the spring of 1857, Governor Stevens became a candi- 
date for delegate in Congress, where he was ambitious to 
serve, in order that he might secure the ratification of the 
treaties he had made, procure the payment of the volunteers, 
and appropriations for the debts incurred during the war. 
The Whigs, or rather the Anti-Stevens party, nominated 
Alexander S. Abernethy, and the governor challenged him 
to make the campaign in his company, and discuss its issues 
before the same audiences. But this Abernethy declined 
to do, and William H. Wallace traveled with the governor's 
party, and spoke for the opposing candidate. Among the 
governor's party during this campaign, was Selucius Gar- 
fielde, a young man of fine abilities and appearance, who 
had only recently arrived in the territory, under appointment 
as receiver of the land office. He was an eloquent speaker, 
assisted the governor greatly in his campaign, and subse- 
quently became very popular in the territory. 

The governor courageously defended his course in pro- 
claiming martial law% recognizing the fact that he himself 


was the real issue of the campaign. The contest was very 
spirited, and the debaters visited nearly every important 
settlement in the territory, before the day for voting arrived. 
In some places, particularly at Steilacoom, where the various 
trials and sentences of Leschi had kept public feeling at 
fever heat, some feeling, amounting almost to bitterness, 
was shown, but no disturbance of the peace occurred. When 
the ballots were counted the governor was found to have 
received 986 votes to 549 for his opponent. Thus by nearly 
two-thirds of the voters his course was approved. 

Early in 1857 General Wool was relieved of his command 
on the coast by Colonel N. S. Clarke of the 6th infantry, 
but his policy of preserving peace by keeping settlers out of 
eastern Washington was continued by Colonel Wright, who 
remained in command on the ground. His forces had been 
disposed about as Stevens had recommended in his letter 
to Wool from the Walla Walla council grounds, two years 
earlier, and were in the best position possible for holding the 
hostiles in check. But they did not hold them in complete 
subjection. Wright's treatment of them, under Wool's 
direction, only encouraged their hostility. Kam-i-ah-kan, 
Owhi and other chiefs, although not actively in arms, were 
quietly at work among the Spokanes, the Okanogans, the 
Palouses and even the Nez Perces, and encouraging them to 
hostility. The effect of this agitation in time began to show 
itself. There were no Americans in the country who could 
be attacked, except a few miners at Colvile, and the Indians 
were not bold enough to attack the soldiers. Nevertheless, 
Wright was made to understand, during the summer of 1857, 
that the peace he pretended to have made was but a sham. 
In the fall the Catholic missionaries among theCoeur d'Alenes 
and other northern tribes, wrote to their brethren at and 


near Vancouver, that they were laboring incessantly to keep 
the Indians about them at peace, but feared they would 
not much longer be able to restrain them. Prominent chiefs 
of the Spokanes declared "that if the soldiers showed them- 
selves in their country, their people would become furious." 
The miners at Colvile were becoming alarmed. That 
industrious and intrepid soldier. Lieutenant John Mullan, 
whom Stevens had left in the Rocky Mountains in 1853, to 
complete his railroad survey, was now surveying a wagon 
road through their country. Tilcoax, chief of the Palouses, 
said to be the owner of 800 horses, now boasted of his alliance 
with Kam-i-ah-kan, and had become bold enough even to 
shoot cattle belonging to the garrison at Walla Walla. The 
Cayuses and Walla Wallas were boasting that all the Indians 
were now united, and could make war for five years if they 
had to. They had even adopted Wool's phrase, and declared 
that the war they would make would be "a war of exter- 


The time had come, therefore, when Wright must make 
war in earnest, or permit his soldiers to be insulted in their 
camps. Early in August thirteen head of cattle belonging 
to the garrison at Walla Walla, where Lieutenant-Colonel 
Steptoe was in command, were stolen. Two white men on 
their way to Colvile were murdered, near the Palouse River, 
about the same time, and the names of the murderers were 
reported to Steptoe by a friendly Indian. 

Early in May Steptoe prepared to advance into the country 
of the hostiles, north of the Snake River, and make a demon- 
stration that would perhaps compel the Palouses, Spokanes 
and Coeur d'Alenes, inhabiting that region, to have more 
respect for United States troops and the authority of the 
government. On the 8th, he left Fort Walla Walla with 159 


men belonging to the ist dragoons, including a detachment 
from the 9th infantry, and two howitzers. One hundred 
pack mules had been provided to transport the supplies, 
which, strange to say, included little more ammunition than 
the men carried in their cartridge boxes. The route taken 
lay through the present counties of Walla Walla, Garfield 
and Columbia, to the mouth of Alpowa Creek, where the 
command was assisted in crossing the Snake by a party of 
friendly Nez Perces, from the camp of the native preacher 
Timothy. From that point Timothy and three of his people 
accompanied the expedition, Steptoe intending to use them 
as intermediaries and interpreters. On the i6th, as the 
command was approaching Four Lakes, the hostiles were 
found to be assembling about it in formidable numbers. 
They sent word to Steptoe that he must advance no further 
or they would attack him. He replied that he had not 
entered their country with any hostile intent; that he must 
remain where he was during the night on account of water, 
but that he would turn back next morning. 

True to his promise he started to retreat at 3 o'clock a. m. 
and by daylight found himself surrounded by from 1,000 to 
1,500 warriors, all painted and armed for battle. Before 
he had gone three miles the attack began, and the battle 
soon became general. Some of the soldiers were armed only 
with old musketoons that were of very little value, and 
some were recruits who had never seen a battle, and scarcely 
knew how to keep their places in the ranks. These could 
not be kept from wasting their ammunition, of which their 
supply was short at best. The Indians, emboldened by their 
vastly superior numbers, pressed close upon the troops, in 
flank and rear, who were greatly embarrassed by having to 
defend their pack train while in motion. The rolling 


character of the ground was also advantageous to the 
Indians, because of their numbers. The defense of the flanks 
of the desperately fighting column was assigned to Captain 
Taylor of Company C and Lieutenant Gaston of Company 
E, and they sustained their desperate positions with credit 
to themselves, and the army, until the former was mortally 
wounded. Steptoe then took position on a hill which offered 
some advantages for defense, hoping in this way to make a 
more effective battle. But his men were rapidly disabled 
by the well-directed fire of the savages, who sometimes 
pressed so close upon them that they could be driven back 
only by charges with the bayonet. In one of these, in which 
Lieutenant Gaston and Gregg, with a few men each, united, 
twelve Indians were reported to have been killed, and many 
more wounded. About noon Gaston, a brave oflficer, was 
killed, and his men fell back in confusion, and were rallied 
only with great difl&culty. Twice during the day the savages 
seemed about to make a charge in which they would doubtless 
have overwhelmed the entire command, could they have 
mustered courage to make it. The soldiers were becoming 
dispirited by the loss of their oflRcers and comrades, and by 
the seeming certainty that, if wounded, they could not be 
carried away, and would be left to the mercy of their savage 
assailants. Night alone saved them from utter and final 

Indians rarely continue a battle after nightfall. When 
the firing began to slacken and then finally ceased, Steptoe 
consulted with his officers, and determined to make a forced 
march during the night, and if possible escape. His men 
had been fighting most of the day without food or water. 
There was no water to be had where they were. It was 85 
miles to the Snake River, beyond which, if he could reach it, 


he might hope to be no further pursued. He was greatly 
encumbered by his wounded, but as many of his men had 
now only three or four rounds of ammunition left, they could 
not hope to maintain the battle through another day where 
they were. They accordingly buried their howitzers, left 
their dead unburied, and, gathering up as many of the 
wounded as could be reached, started for the river. The 
horses were forced to a gallop. Some of the wounded, 
who could not walk, were bound upon horses or mules, and 
one of them suffered so much that he begged to be shot, or 
to be given a pistol with which to shoot himself. Two 
wounded men fell behind the column during the night; one 
of them afterwards reached the river alive, but the other 
fell into the hands of the savages and was killed and 

According to Steptoe's report, two officers and two men 
were killed in this battle, two were mortally, six severely 
and seven slightly wounded, w^hile one, Sergeant Edward 
Ball, was missing. The Indian losses were believed to 
be much larger. 

It was now so evident that Wool's policy was a failure, 
and that there would be no peace until the Indians were 
made to feel the power of the government, that reinforce- 
ments were hurried up from California as soon as possible, 
and Colonel Wright himself took the field. Wright was a 
capable soldier when fighting was to be done, and now that 
fighting could no longer be postponed or avoided, he inau- 
gurated a campaign that even Stevens himself would not 
have pushed with more vigor; it is even probable, if not 
absolutely certain, that he would have used the rope less 
frequently, upon those who fell into his hands after the actual 
fighting was over. 


General Clarke visited the Columbia in June, when it 
was arranged that Wright's force, now increased by a large 
reinforcement from the 3d artillery, should be divided, about 
300 men being sent to Fort Simcoe, and the remainder to 
Walla Walla, whence they would move into the Indian 
country. By August 7th, the main body, composed of 
about 700 men, was ready to take the field, and the advance 
guard, consisting of one company of dragoons and six com- 
panies of artillery, with two twelve-pounder howitzers, and 
two six-pounder guns, under Major Keyes, started out in 
much the same direction that Steptoe had taken in May, 
though aiming to cross the Snake at the confluence of the 
Tucannon. At that point Fort Taylor, so named in honor 
of Captain Taylor, who was killed in Steptoe's battle, was 
built as a supply station. Here a Catholic priest, who had 
long lived among these Indians, was sent to inform them of 
the terms on which peace would be made with them, but 
they sent back the insulting reply that the soldiers were 
always talking of war, but never making it, and they warned 
Keyes that if his men ever crossed Snake River none of them 
would return. The old chiefs said they were now going 
to fight till they died; they had plenty of arms, ammunition 
and provisions; when their ammunition gave out they would 
poison their arrows and fight with them. 

On the 1 8th Wright came up with the remainder of his 
command, the pack train, and about thirty friendly Nez 
Perce warriors, who were placed under command of Lieu- 
tenant Mullan. On the 25th the Snake River was crossed 
and the whole force marched northward. Near the close 
of the fifth day's march small bands of Indians were seen, 
but none attempted to molest the column. They were 
evidently scouting parties, and their movements indicated 


that the main body of the hostiles was not very far away. 
The advance was continued on the day following, and more 
scouting parties were seen, with which shots were exchanged 
by the advance guard. 

The command was now only about twenty miles south of 
the Spokane River, in a gently rolling country, with plenty 
of grass and but little timber. On the morning of September 
1st, Indians were found to be watching the camp from the 
tops of the surrounding hills, in such numbers that the 
dragoons and four companies were ordered out to disperse 
them, while a strong guard was left to defend the 400 mules 
of the pack train, and the baggage. After advancing about 
a mile, and dislodging the Indians from a high ridge which 
they ascended, the soldiers found themselves overlooking 
four lakes, a large one just below them at the foot of the 
hill, and three smaller ones beyond, all bordered with rocky 
shores, which were fringed with stunted pines. Between 
these lakes, and beyond them to the northeast, was a wide 
plain, and beyond were grassy hills, one succeeding another 
for many miles, while in the distance a range of mountains 
could be dimly seen. 

"On the plain below us," says Lieutenant Kip, "we saw 
the enemy. Every spot seemed alive with the wild warriors 
we had come so far to meet. They were in the pines, on 
the edge of the lakes, in the ravines and gullies, on the 
opposite hillsides, and swarming on the plains. They 
seemed to cover the country for some two miles. Mounted 
on their fleet, hardy horses, the crowd swayed back and 
forth, brandishing their weapons, shouting their cries, and 
keeping up a strong defiance. Most of them were armed 
with Hudson's Bay muskets, while others had bows and 
arrows, and long lances." All were in their war paint, and 


gaily bedecked with feathers, and other articles of Indian 
finery. Many of their horses were painted also, and these 
they rode furiously over the prairie, sometimes as if intend- 
ing to make a charge on the troops, and again wheeling 
away over the plain as if they had no other object in view 
than to exhaust the poor animals, before the battle should 

The artillery and infantry companies were deployed and 
advanced down the hill, driving the Indians before them into 
the plains, where the dragoons could act against them. At 
the same time the howitzer battery, supported by an infantry 
company, was sent to the right to drive them out from their 
hiding places among the pines. A few shots from the howit- 
zers soon sent them skurrying toward the rear. 

The soldiers of the main column moved down the hill in 
perfect order, and, when within about six hundred yards of 
the savages, began to make them acquainted, for the first 
time, with minnie bullets and long-range rifles. The rein- 
forcements sent up from California were armed with these 
weapons, something so superior to the guns heretofore used 
by our soldiers, as to make a marked improvement in their 
efficiency. The hostiles were astounded at their great 
range. As they would come charging forward, in full con- 
fidence, to what had formerly been a safe distance, first one 
and then another, and then half a dozen or more would 
fall from their horses. Then some of the riderless horses 
would dash wildly about the field, or fall dead or disabled, 
showing that the new bullets were taking; effect on them as 
well as upon their riders. The soldiers advanced steadily, 
firing regularly as they advanced, and the whole frantic 
mass of savages soon turned and ran for the hills. This was 
the time for the dragoons to begin their work. They had 


This map of western Washington is c6p'ied, tTyper- 

VANCouvE Mission, from the hfe of General Isaac I. Stevens, by 

his son, Hazard Stevens. 

I S L A N 

a jiitfuf * 





mi.ti fit 


Of II 

and these 


'Ct in view 

Y tKLl 11114 

't from their 

■" m 




them as 
d steadily, 
ole frantic 

work. had 


advanced with the rest of the column, using their guns as 
the other soldiers had used theirs, their horses being led 
closely behind them. At the order of Major Grier each 
dragoon mounted his horse, and charged at a gallop. "Tay- 
lor's and Gaston's companies were there, burning for 
revenge," says Kip, "and soon they were upon them. We 
saw the flash of their sabers as they cut them down. Lieu- 
tenant Davidson shot one warrior from his saddle as they 
charged up, and Lieutenant Gregg clove the skull of another." 

The Indians were soon driven from the plain, and took 
refuge in the clumps of timber on the hills. Here they were 
for a moment safe from the dragoons, whose horses had 
suffered too much on the march to be able to stand much 
hard riding. The infantry and the howitzers completed the 
matter, and the savages were soon in full retreat. From 
the crest of the hill, which in the beginning had formed the 
background of the battlefield, the soldiers saw only a few 
small parties, which had apparently been left behind to see 
how rapidly and by how many they would be followed, 
but a few well-timed shells soon dispersed these. At the 
xend of four hours after the troops left their camp, not an 
Indian could be seen. 

The plain was strewn with their guns, bows, arrows, lances 
and blankets, and many of their horses, too, had been left 
behind, which the soldiers lost no time in securing. But 
none of the Indians dead or wounded were left behind. 
The soldiers were confident, however, that seventeen had 
been killed, and that many more had been wounded. Later 
it was learned that a brother-in-law of Garry, the educated 
chief of the Spokanes, had been killed. Strange to say, not 
a soldier had been hurt, and not an animal had been lost, 
although one horse had been slightly wounded. 


The Indians made but one other stand after this battle of 
the Four Lakes. After resting three days, during which the 
friendly Nez Perces scouted the country in all directions, 
finding no hostiles, but having learned the direction they 
had taken, Wright again set his column in motion. On 
September 5th, when some fifteen or twenty miles below 
the falls of the Spokane River, Indians were seen hovering 
about the flanks of the little army, and their numbers rapidly 
increased. As the troops emerged upon a considerable 
stretch of prairie they found that the enemy had set the grass 
on fire, and, as the wind was blowing strongly in their faces, 
they were nearly blinded by the smoke as well as threatened 
by the flames. While struggling with this difficulty, the 
Indians opened fire on them. The pack train was now 
hurried up, and the soldiers, forming a line about it, prepared 
to defend it from both fire and the enemy. As at Four Lakes 
the Indians conducted themselves as if frantic. They are 
always hard riders, and show little mercy for their horses, 
but now they seemed determined to destroy them. Massing 
on a hill four or five hundred feet high, and sloping toward 
the troops at an angle of forty-five degrees, they forced their 
horses down it at a gallop, and then wheeled and raced up 
it again, yelling the while like so many furies, until their 
poor animals were exhausted. In all this they of course 
accomplished nothing except to maim and destroy the poor 
brutes which might have been of some service to them in the 
battle. But exhibitions of this kind seem always to have 
been an unfailing part of Indian warfare. 

By a well-ordered charge, through the blazing grass, the 
soldiers easily drove the savages in their front to take refuge 
in the timber, from which a few shells from the howitzers 
in turn dislodged them. Then another charge was made. 


By this process they were driven from cover to cover, from 
behind trees and rocks, from ravines and depressions in the 
prairie, for a distance of three or four miles, until they finally 
emerged upon Spokane plain, where Major Grier and Lieu- 
tenant Pender, with the dragoons, swept them in masses 
before them. In this part of the battle a chief was killed, 
upon the saddle of whose horse was found a pistol used by 
Lieutenant Gaston when he was killed in Steptoe's fight. 

So the battle continued, the Indians occasionally attempt- 
ing a rally, but always being put to flight, either by a charge 
of the infantry or the dragoons. A running fight was 
kept up for a distance of about fourteen miles. Finally 
the Indians were utterly routed, and the tired soldiers made 
their camp on the bank of the Spokane River, about six 
miles below the falls. They had marched twenty-five miles 
during the day, and had been fighting most of the time with- 
out water, save what they carried in their canteens. They 
now refreshed themselves at the river with a day's rest, during 
which they gathered some spoil from the enemy, which had 
been abandoned during the battle. But they found none 
of his killed or wounded. They knew however, that some 
had been killed, for some had been sabered by the dragoons, 
and others had been seen to fall before the well-aimed bullets 
of the foot-soldiers, and the shells from the howitzers. 

On the 7th camp was moved up the river, over the site 
of the present city of Spokane, to a point a short distance 
above the falls. Here Garry came to see Colonel Wright, 
to say that he had always been opposed to fighting, but 
had been unable to control his people, as many of the other 
chiefs were against him. Wright told him he had not come 
to ask for peace, but to fight. He had now fought two 
battles, without losing a man, or an animal, and was prepared 


to fight still longer if the Indians wished. "When you are 
tired of war, you must come with your arms, and your women 
and children, and lay them at my feet. I will then tell you 
the terms upon which peace will be made. If you do not 
do this, war will be made on you this year, and next year, 
until your nations shall be exterminated."* 

If Wright had talked to the Indians in this way at the 
crossing of the Nachess two years earlier, and acted then as 
he had been acting for a week past, the war would have 
been ended with very little trouble, Steptoe's gallant men 
and officers would not have been slaughtered, as they were, 
and the lives of many Indians, who had since died on the 
battlefield, or been shot, or were still to be shot or hanged for 
the crime they had committed, would have been spared. 
Garnett had recently shot ten of the Yakimas, whom he 
had taken prisoners in the country, above Fort Simcoe, and 
two others had been shot while attempting to escape from 
the soldiers. Wright himself was about to begin a series of 
executions which was not to end until fifteen victims had 
ascended the gallows. One of these came into his camp 
on the evening of September yth, with Chief Polotkin of the 
Spokanes, and several other Indians, to talk of peace. He 
was suspected of having recently been present at the murder 
of two miners on their way to Colvile. He was detained, and 
on the following evening was summarily tried and hanged. 

On the 8th Wright moved a few miles further up the river, 
and during the day captured about 800 horses belonging 
to Chief Tilkoax of the Palouses. All these, together with 
about 100 others subsequently captured, except a few used 
to replace some disabled animals belonging to the command, 
were shot. Nothing disables the Indians in a hostile country 

♦Colonel Wright's report, dated September 9, 1858. 


so much as to deprive them of their horses, and these were 
killed because it was impossible to care for them. The 
soldiers were nearly two whole days in completing their 
destruction. Sometimes shooting them singly, and some- 
times firing volleys into the corrals by which they were 
slaughtered by dozens. 

On the 17th Wright held a council with the Coeur d'Alenes, 
in which he told them he would make peace only if they 
would deliver up to him those who had begun the attack on 
Steptoe, contrary to the orders of their chiefs; also all the 
property in their possession which they had captured from 
Steptoe's command, or from other white people; allow all 
white people to travel through their country unmolested in 
future, and give him one chief and four warriors, with 
their families, to be held as hostages for their good be- 
havior. To these terms the Indians consented. In re- 
porting this council to headquarters Wright wrote : "They 
know us; they have felt our power, and I have full faith 
that the Coeur d'Alenes will henceforth be our staunch 
friends. " 

On the 23d a council with the Spokanes was held, and in 
the evening Owhi presented himself at Wright's camp, 
and was immediately seized and put in irons. Wright had 
not seen him since that day in May, two years before, when 
he visited his camp on the Nachess, and promised to bring 
in all the Yakimas within a few days, and make a lasting 
peace. He now made sure that the old rascal would not 
again deceive him, and besides he was particularly anxious 
to get possession of his son, Kwalchen, the murderer of Bolon, 
and thought the surest way to do this was to detain the father, 
and send word to the son that he would be hanged if he did 
not forthwith appear. 


The next day, about 9 o'clock, two gaily dressed warriors 
and a squaw, followed by an Indian hunchback, rode boldly 
into the camp and directly to Colonel Wright's tent. All 
wore a great deal of scarlet, and the squaw was bedecked 
with two highly ornamental scarfs, passing over the left 
shoulder and under the right arm, while on the saddle in 
front she carried a long lance, the handle of which was wound 
with strings of many colored beads. The two braves carried 
rifles, and one had a highly ornamented tomahawk. This 
was Kwalchen the much-wanted, and he and those with 
him were immediately seized. "He came to me at 9 o'clock 
this morning," says Colonel Wright in his report, "and at 
9:15 he was hung." So perished the murderer of Bolon. 

The command was now in the nei^xbhorhood of the Palouse 


River, and on the 24th the remainsV^pf those killed in Step- 
toe's fight were recovered; those of the soldiers were buried 
in the field, while the bones of Captain Taylor and Lieu- 
tenant Gaston were conveyed to Fort Walla Walla, where 
they were buried with military honors. On the evening of 
that day fifteen members of the Palouse tribe, found in the 
neighborhood of the camp, were seized, and six of them were 
promptly hanged. 

A few days later, while the command, with its prisoners 
and hostages, was crossing a small stream south of Snake 
River, Owhi and Lieutenant Morgan, who were riding to- 
gether, became separated by a short distance from the com- 
mand, and the old warrior made a dash for liberty. Three 
shots from the officer's revolver brought him to the ground, 
and the rifle of a soldier ended his life. 

On September 30th, Colonel Wright could report that the 
war was closed, as it now really was. After three years of 
fruitless maneuvering and proclaiming of peace, peace when 


there was no peace, the regulars had made a vigorous cam- 
paign of little more than thirty days' duration, which had 
made the hostiles feel the power of the government, and 
compelled them to deliver up the murderers they were keep- 
ing in hiding, for the punishment they had deserved. All this 
Stevens had insisted upon from the first as necessary, before 
a lasting peace would ensue. It was now done, and at 
much greater cost to the government, to the settlers, to the 
army and to the Indians, than would have been necessary 
but for Wool's mistaken policy. Owhi and Kwalchen, 
Peo-peo-mox-rnox, Kanasket, Leschi and Quiemuth, and 
many of their bravest warriors were dead; Kam-i-ah-kan 
and his brother Skloom had fled across the border into 
British Columbia never to return. The treaties which 
Stevens had made, which the Indians had broken, and the 
ratification of which Wool, and subsequently Clarke, had 
opposed, were now confirmed, and time has demonstrated 
that their faults, where they were at fault, were generally 
in favor of the Indians. 

Chapter L. 

Two events turned the attention of the people of 
Washington Territory, and finally of the whole 
country, sharply toward the northwestern bound- 
ary, in 1858 and 1859 — the discovery of gold in 
the Fraser River, and the killing of a pig on San Juan Island. 
Ordinarily the killing of a pig is not a matter of much 
consequence, but the killing of this one led to military 
and naval demonstrations on a considerable scale, and for a 
few weeks threatened to involve two great countries in 

The first announcement that gold had been found on 
Fraser River appears to have been made in a proclamation 
by Governor Douglass, of Vancouver Island, warning all 
miners and prospectors to keep out of the district, or pay 
a fee of 21 shilling a month to the British crown. This 
proclamation was dated December 28, 1857, and it was 
published in the "Pioneer and Democrat" at Olympia, 
by order of Dr. Tolmie. For several weeks it attracted no 
attention. It was not until the issue of March 5th that the 
editor of that paper made any reference to it. 

Then he informed his readers that it was reported that 
miners on the Fraser were making from $25 to $^0 per day, 
and that Indian women were panning out j^io to ^12. The 
next week he announced that two parties had started for 
the mines from Bellingham Bay, and the week following that 
many of the men employed in Colonel Fitzhugh's coal-mines 
had gone to hunt for gold. By the middle of April most of 
the lumber mills in the lower Sound were beginning to be 
crippled by the desertion of their men. The crews of several 
ships and fifteen soldiers from Fort Steilacoom had also 
left for the mines, and desertions from Forts Townsend and 
Bellingham were becoming frequent. 


None of these articles contained much information of 
value. There was indeed but Httle information to be had. 
The season was early; the rivers everywhere along the coast 
were at flood depth from the winter rains, and but little 
mining or prospecting was possible. Few if any Americans 
had yet gone to the new diggings, and all the information 
received from the new district had been brought out by the 
Hudson's Bay employees who had made the discovery. 

But reports of a new gold discovery anywhere on the coast, 
in those days, was sure to be investigated very soon by some 
enterprising American prospector. News of his success, 
if he succeeded, was equally sure to find its way to the public 
promptly. Some of the earliest information of this kind 
from Eraser River found its way to the office of the Puget 
Sound "Herald," published at Steilacoom. Affleck and 
Gunn had established the Puget Sound "Courier" in that 
place in 1855, but it had suspended in 1857, and subsequently 
Lafayette Balch, while in San Francisco, had met Charles 
Prosch, and arranged with him to go to his town and try 
a new venture in the newspaper way. Prosch established 
the "Herald," and had scarcely got w^ell started, when he was 
fortunate enough to get some news from the goldfields 
that put his paper in great demand. Copies sent to San 
Francisco sold on the wharf at ^i each. Those of succeed- 
ing weeks sold at ^5 each, and when these were exhausted 
galley-proofs of the mining news, which had been sent because 
no more copies of the paper could be got off^ the press, sold 
as readily at the same price. The San Francisco "Herald" 
of April 25th said the excitement in California fully equaled 
that in the Atlantic States over the early news of gold dis- 
coveries in California. By the middle of May, steamers 
were bringing hundreds of goldhunters from California 


and other coast points to Victoria and Whatcom. On May 
20th, the steamer Panama landed 500 men at Whatcom. A 
month later 1,800 were landed within three days at the same 
place, besides 1,000 at Victoria. By the ist of July four 
additional steamers had landed 3,000 more, and sailing 
ships were discharging whole cargoes of groceries, provisions, 
clothing and miners' tools, brought up from San Francisco 
by merchants who had now established themselves in tents 
on the shores of Bellingham Bay, where a city of ten thou- 
sand people, according to the estimates of the time, had 
sprung up as if by magic. On May 23d, there were eleven 
general stores, two butcher shops, three bakeries and two 
restaurants in the place, where three weeks earlier there 
had been nothing more than a saw mill, a coalmine and a 
few settlers' cabins. During the six wrecks between May 
19th and July 1st, as the records in the customhouse at 
Victoria show, 19 steamships, 9 sailing ships, and 14 other 
vessels entered at that port, with 6,133 passengers. Ships 
from various points also brought passengers to Port Town- 
send, Seattle and Olympia, who subsequently found their 
way by various routes to or toward the new El Dorado. 
Some crossed the mountains by the Nachess and Snoqual- 
mie passes. Some went up the Columbia from Portland, 
and then crossed the country northward. Many of these 
had trouble with the Indians, and the remainder encountered 
almost numberless difficulties in their attempts to penetrate 
through the unexplored passes of the mountains. 

By the middle of July a trail had been cut by the gold- 
hunters themselves, for a distance of nearly a hundred 
miles, so the report was, from Bellingham Bay toward the 
mines. Many supposed it was completed, and started out 
with their camp and mining outfits, while others duly 


celebrated the occasion as if it had been completed, and 
so encouraged others to set forth. 

Whatcom and Sehome were now so prosperous, and their 
future seemed so thoroughly assured, that speculation in 
real estate became active. The holders of donation claims 
had as yet secured no title which they could convey. Their 
claims were not even surveyed, but many were willing to 
buy under such promise of title as they could offer, and so the 
claim-owners began to sell, measuring off for each purchaser 
as much as he wished to buy, describing it with reference to 
the stumps, stones and trees, which still covered the town- 
site. Edward Eldridge sold to Ezra Meeker a lot described 
as follows : " Beginning at a stump in the bank of the 
Squalecum Creek, about 20 feet above the bridge, near the 
mouth of said creek; thence running due west 240 feet, 
thence due south 60 feet; thence due east 240 feet, thence 
due north 60 feet to place of beginning." The tide flats 
in front of the town, which nobody owned or claimed, or 
could claim at that time, were staked, down to the very 
edge of the water at low tide, and some sent to Olympia and 
Steilacoom for piledrivers, in the hope of making the mark- 
ing of their boundaries more permanent, and possibly also 
of making their title more secure by its aid. 

During these exciting days a newspaper was started at 
Whatcom, and named the "Northern Light." Could its 
proprietors have guessed how appropriately they had named 
it, they would never have started it, for, 

"Like the Borealis Race 
That flit ere you can point their place," 

it shone with varying brilliancy for a few issues, and then 
flickered out forever. 


This early pioneer of Whatcom County was born at 
St. Andrews, Scotland, in 1828. He came to San 
Francisco in 1849 as a common sailor. After working 
for a time in the mines in California, and subsequently 
on the Pacific Mail Steamer Tennessee, he came to the 

Sound in 18^3 with Captain Roeder, and located a 
claim on BelHngham Bay. At that time the only resi- 
dents on the harbor were the twelve men who were 
building Captain Roeder's mill. During the Indian 
war he served in Captain Peabody's company. He 
was frequently a member of the territorial legislature, 
and in 1866-67 was speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives. He was a member of the constitutional con- 
vention which met at Walla Walla in 1878, as well as 
of that which met at Olympia in 1889, and made the 
Constitution under which the State was admitted to 
the Union. 




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as much" 

the s 

d.ihe town- 

tm^^4fti?g* of the 
near the 

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of ma 



V om, 


proprietors have 


Ir. thiv \vnu](\ r 


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flit ere 


west 240 feet, 

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lid Its 



' ^ne with varying bi 
, ivwed out forever. 

It their place," 
.1 few issues, and then 


Victoria had one decided advantage over Whatcom, from 
the first, in this excitement; it was the seat of the colonial 
government, and the gold hunters soon found themselves 
obliged to go there to get their licenses. 

Even those who were induced to go there first, by the rep- 
resentations of the agents for various ships and steamboats, 
that they could walk from there to Whatcom in six hours, over 
a well-beaten trail, were not so very greatly wronged thereby. 
Governor Douglass had long anticipated that gold would be 
found along or beyond the boundary. Traces of it had been 
noticed on the upper waters of the Columbia, long before 
the prospectors were attracted to the Colvile region in 1858. 
It had been talked of in Whitman's time, and Governor 
Stevens's surveying parties had found "indications" along 
their route at various points west of the mountains in 1853. 

As early as 1856, Governor Douglass had reported these 
discoveries to the British foreign office, and had suggested 
a tax on miners, with a military force to collect it, but the 
foreign office had not thought well of it, and had done nothing. 
In the year following, he had written again, and again had 
received no encouragement. But he did not for that reason 
cease to keep the government advised of what was going on. 
In December 1857 he wrote that "The auriferous character 
of the country is becoming more extensively developed, 
through the exertions of the native Indian tribes, who have 
tasted thesweetsof goldfinding, and are devoting much of their 
time and attention to that pursuit. The reported wealth 
of the mines is causing much excitement among the popula- 
tion of the United States territories of Washington and 
Oregon, and I have no doubt that a great number of people 
from those territories will be attracted thither, with the return 
of fine weather in the spring. " 


There was not at that time any excitement among the 
people of Washington or Oregon, about the mines to which 
the governor referred. Probably not one of them had 
heard of them, for it was not until the day after this dispatch 
was written, that the governor issued the proclamation 
which he caused to be published in the " Pioneer and Demo- 
crat, " as a paid advertisement, for several successive weeks. 
But the advertisement, and the finding of gold, after its 
publication or before, caused the stampede for which the 
governor had been so long preparing. But he had not 
gained the authority to tax the miners and control the trade 
which their coming was bringing with them, as he had 
expected, and he accordingly acted without it. 

On May 8th, when the rush of goldhunters was just 
beginning, he issued a second proclamation, forbidding all 
boats and vessels, except those of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany, to trade into Eraser River, without permission first 
obtained at the customhouse in Victoria. Such permission 
could only be obtained by agreeing to procure goods only 
from the Hudson's Bay Company, and that no arms, ammu- 
nition or utensils of war should be carried up the river 
except from the United Kingdom. No passengers were to 
be carried, except those who had licenses from the govern- 
ment of Vancouver Island, and everybody was forbidden 
to trench on the right of the Hudson's Bay Company to 
the exclusive trade with the Indians, Duties on American 
goods, carried in by the miners themselves, by way of What- 
com, were made prohibitory. After fourteen days from 
the date of the proclamation, any boats violating or disre- 
garding it were to be confiscated, and the warship Satellite 
was sent to cruise near the mouth of the Eraser to enforce 
it. "I am striving to legalize the entrance of goldminers 


into the Eraser River country," the governor wrote to his 
superiors in London, "on certain conditions, v^hich at once 
assert the rights of the crown, protect the interests of the 
Hudson's Bay Company, and are intended to draw the whole 
trade of the gold district through Eraser River to this colony, 
which will procure its supplies directly from the mother 
country." To carry out these purposes he proposed to 
the Pacific Mail Steamship Company that it place the neces- 
sary steamers on the river, to run from its mouth to the 
falls: that these should carry the Hudson's Bay Company's 
freight, and such other freight as it permitted to be shipped 
into the country, and no other, and that it pay the Hudson's 
Bay Company $2 for each passenger carried. 

But the British government was not disposed to look 
with favor on the governor's plans for enriching the ancient 
monopoly he had so long and so well served. His proclama- 
tion was disapproved, and he was quietly reminded that his 
authority as governor was strictly confined to Vancouver 
Island, although the steps he had taken to prevent the land- 
ing at Eraser River, of goods prohibited by the English 
custom's laws, was approved. He was instructed as to the 
terms on which foreigners would be permitted to navigate 
the river and land passengers and goods, and was also 
emphatically warned against using his power as governor, 
to enlarge the pretentions of the Hudson's Bay Company, 
to rights upon which it had no claim. That company was 
doing business in the country under a license, "under which 
it is entitled to the exclusive trade with the Indians, and 
possesses no other rights or privileges whatever." 

The license of the Company referred to was about to 
terminate, but the government, under its authority, revoked 
it at once. It had been willing enough to protect and 


encourage its pretensions while operating under license in 
the disputed territory along the Columbia River, where the 
rights of American settlers only were interfered with, but, 
now that they interfered with the rights of people who were 
going into territory in which its own sovereignty was supreme 
and undisputed, it was quite another matter. It had stood 
also for its claim to compensation for loss of trade, and for 
improvements made, and even for lands claimed in what 
became American territory under the treaty of 1846, but 
it recognized no claim of this sort in territory north of the 
forty-ninth parallel. "The Company's private property," 
said the minister, "will be protected, in common with that 
of her Majesty's other subjects, but they have no claim 
whatever for the loss of their exclusive trade, which they 
only possessed subject to the right of revocation." 

A new province known as British Columbia was now 
created, and the governorship was tendered to Douglass, 
on condition that he sever his connection with the Company, 
and this he accepted. 

But before the governor learned that his plans for securing 
so great a share of the advantages from this rush of gold 
hunters in British territory, had been disapproved by his 
superior, the excitement began to wane. By the last of 
July miners began to return along the trails, with most 
discouraging news. The gold-bearing bars of the Eraser 
were not of large extent. The beds of tributary and neigh- 
boring streams yielded no cheering signs for the prospector. 
The claims that were worth working were soon taken 
up. There was nothing, therefore, for many of the gold- 
seekers to do but to return whence they came, or turn their 
attention to some other employment, and this many of them 


But the tide had set so strongly toward the Eraser that it 
was not possible to stop it at once. People had started for 
it, not alone from Washington, California and Oregon, but 
from the Eastern States, from Europe, from Australia, 
from China, in fact from all parts of the world. It was 
estimated that from seventy-five thousand to one hundred 
thousand people came into Washington and British Colum- 
bia during the summer of 1858 alone. Many of these 
returned home again, but some remained. Some found, to 
their surprise perhaps, that even Mr. Benton, so well informed 
and so accurate as he usually was in regard to all matters 
pertaining to the West, was mistaken in regard to the value 
of the Eraser River Valley and Vancouver's Island. Instead 
of being barren and worthless regions, they were among the 
most fertile portions of the globe, and accepting what Nature 
everywhere so generously offered, they gave up the search 
for gold in the shifting sands of the river bottoms, and sought 
it in the fertile soil that lay everywhere around them, on 
both sides of the boundary. And so it was that both British 
Columbia and Washington received large accessions to 
their permanent population from this brief gold-hunting 

It was in the year following this mining excitement, that 
the killing of a pig on San Juan Island came so near involving 
two great countries in war. This island, and all the others 
which now compose San Juan County, had always been 
claimed by the United States, under the treaty of 1846, in 
which the boundary had been defined as the forty-ninth 
parallel "to the middle of the channel which separates the 
continent from Vancouver's Island; thence southerly through 
the middle of said channel, and of Fuca's Strait to the 
Pacific Ocean." But as Great Britain had found means 


to set up a claim to all of Oregon at one time, and had finally 
yielded until it claimed only that part of it lying north of 
the Columbia, it had now retreated to this archipelago in 
the Gulf of Georgia, and here made another stand. To 
such small compass had its pretentions shrunken. 

The claim was not boldly put forth at first. It was 
scarcely more than hinted at. The Hudson's Bay Company, 
of which James Douglass was still chief factor and supreme 
head on the coast, as well as governor of Vancouver, had 
sent some flocks of sheep over to the island in 1853, under 
the care of herders, and so assumed possession without 
asserting it. In the following May, Colonel Ebey, then 
collector of customs for the district of Puget Sound, was 
making a tour through the islands, in pursuance of his 
official duties, and incidently making some inquiry into the 
cause of Indian troubles which were threatening from that 
direction, and found these sheep. As their arrival on the 
island had not been reported to his office, and no duty had 
been paid on them, they seemed to require his official atten- 
tion, if he was right in supposing that they were on American 

At this point he was met by Charles James Griffin, who 
informed him that he was a justice of the peace, and had 
come in the name of Governor Douglass to ask the nature 
of his visit. The colonel declined to answer questions, and 
on the following day the Hudson's Bay Company's steamer 
Otter arrived, bringing Captain Sangster, the old-time com- 
mander of the Cadborough, but now the British collector 
of customs at Victoria, who, on coming ashore, demanded, 
rather more authoritatively than GriflSn had done, to know 
the reason for Ebey's visit. Ebey replied that he was on 
ofllicial business, as collector of the district of Puget Sound, 


To this Sangster responded that he should seize all vessels, 
and arrest all persons found navigating the v^aters west of 
Rosario Strait, and north of the middle line of the Strait of 
Fuca, without proper authority from his government, and 
Ebey retorted that a revenue officer would be established on 
the island to enforce the laws of the United States, and 
expressed the hope that in the performance of his duties, 
the officer so left would not meet with any persons so rash 
as to interfere with him, under the pretense that he was an 
officer of the British, or colonial, government. He accord- 
ingly appointed Captain Henry Webber as inspector on the 
island, and gave him his instructions in the presence of 
Sangster, who threatened to arrest him, in case he made any 
effort to exercise the functions of his office, but he never did so. 

Here the incident, so far as any contention among the 
revenue officers was concerned, appears to have ended, buf 
in the following year, 1855, the assessor of Whatcom County 
found the sheep, and assessed them, and as payment of 
taxes was refused, on the ground that the sheep were in 
British and not American territory, some of them were 
seized and sold, and so an international issue was raised, 
though it did not immediately assume an aspect of import- 

Soon after the boundary treaty was signed in 1846, George 
Bancroft, the historian, who was secretary of the navy in 
President Polk's cabinet, appears to have suspected that 
trouble might arise out of the indefinite description of that 
part of the boundary line lying along "the middle of the 
channel which separates the continent from Vancouver 
Island," and accordingly he had a copy of Wilkes' chart 
of the Haro Channel made for the use of the navy depart- 
ment. Shortly afterwards he became minister to England, 


which position he held from 1846 to 1849. In order that 
he might be prepared to meet any question that might arise, 
he asked the secretary of state to give him such instructions 
as he would require, in case this boundary should call for 
his attention, and also to provide him with a copy of the map 
he had had made while secretary of the navy. These were 
furnished, but, no opportunity arising to make use of them, 
he took occasion to speak to Lord Palmerston about the 
matter, and to leave him a copy of the map, with others, 
and a note in which he was careful to say, "by combining 
two of the maps, your Lordship will readily trace the whole 
course of the Channel of Haro, through the waters of which 
the boundary line passes." This was the first formal asser- 
tion, on our part, of the Haro Channel as the boundary, 
and it was fortunate for us that it was asserted thus early, 
and before any attempt had been made on either side to 
claim actual possession. 

In 1848, Mr. Crompton, the British minister in Washington 
under instructions from his government, made a proposition 
to our state department, to appoint commissioners to deter- 
mine the boundary line through the archipelago, but the 
instructions he proposed to give them were such as to leave 
them nothing to do but run the line through a channel which 
would give the islands to Great Britain. His proposition, 
therefore, was not accepted. 

Four years later, and before the territory of Washington 
was organized, the Oregon legislature included San Juan 
Island in one of its northern counties, and it was subsequent 
to this that the Hudson's Bay Company began to establish 
itself on San Juan. 

The seizure and sale of the Hudson's Bay Company's 
sheep led to a correspondence between Governor Douglass 


and Governor Stevens, in w^hich the former declared that 
he had instructions from her Majesty's government, to claim 
the islands as British territory, and in time this correspon- 
dence was referred to London and Washington, and the 
British minister presented a claim of the Hudson's Bay 
Company for damages on account of the seizure of its prop- 
erty. At the same time he renew^ed his suggestions that a 
commission be created to determine definitely the location 
of the boundary line. The commission was authorized, by 
act of Congress approved August ii, 1856, and in due time 
two commissioners were appointed, one representing each 
nation, for this duty. But the instructions to the British 
commissioner, like those given to Lord Ashburton in 1842, 
made it impossible for him to consent to fix the line in the 
Haro Channel, even if investigation should show that it 
really belonged there. He was to insist that it lay in Rosario 
Strait, and if he could not induce the American commissioner 
to consent to this, he might propose an intermediate channel, 
but that was the limit of his discretion in the matter. The 
commission, therefore, accomplished nothing so far as this 
part of the boundary was concerned. 

The inhabitants of the island, both British and American, 
and the two sets of revenue and other officials appear to 
have got along together peaceably enough, after the seizure 
and sale of the sheep in 1855, until June 1859. Mr. Marcy, 
secretary of state in President Pierce's cabinet, had written 
Governor Stevens, in regard to the sheep incident, that "the 
officers of the territory should abstain from all acts on the 
disputed grounds which are calculated to provoke any con- 
flicts, so far as it can be done without implying the concession 
to the authority of Great Britain of any exclusive right over 
the premises. The title ought to be settled before either 


party should exclude the other by force, or exercise complete 
and sovereign rights within the fairly disputed limits. " This 
advice appears to have been accepted by the settlers, as well 
as the officials, until the 15th of June, 1859, when the pig 
was killed. It was a worthless creature, apparently belong- 
ing to Justice Griffin himself, and it sometimes invaded the 
garden of one Lyman A. Cutler, who had recently taken a 
claim on the island, under the preemption law. He shot it, 
and immediately reported what he had done to the owner, 
offering to pay twice its value at the same time. This was 
refused by Griffin, who showed a good deal of temper, and 
demanded ^100. This Cutler declared was ten times the 
value of the hog, and would not pay it. That afternoon 
he was called upon by Mr. Dallas, who was Governor 
Douglass's son-in-law, and a high official of the Hudson's 
Bay Company, who had just arrived on the island in her 
Majesty's ship Satellite, and Dr. Tolmie and Mr. Eraser, 
who happened to be on the island at the time, when Mr. 
Dallas lectured him severely for destroying the property of 
a British subject, on British ground, and threatened to 
arrest him and take him to Victoria to be tried for his offense. 
Cutler, doubtless thinking himself menaced by a functionary 
who had the British navy at his back, told him if he attempted 
this he would shoot him, and would have other Americans 
to help defend him, and at the same time he reached for 
his rifle as if he meant to carry his threat into effect imme- 
diately. Mr. Dallas and his party then left and Cutler was 
not further molested. 

The matter, however, was soon after reported to General 
Harney, who had now taken command of the new military 
district of Oregon, with headquarters at Vancouver. About 
the same time he also received a petition, signed by twenty- 


two Americans residing on the island, informing him that 
the house of the inspector of customs on the island had 
recently been fired into by a party of Indians; that the 
bodies of two white men, apparently Americans, who had 
been murdered by Indians, had recently been found on the 
beach; that another settler had been shot in broad daylight, 
and still more recently the body of a white man was found 
on the beach, who had evidently been the victim of foul 
play. These crimes had been committed by the Clallams, 
living on the islands, or by the warlike northern Indians, 
from whose incursions the settlers were in constant danger, 
and they therefore asked that a military force, sufficient for 
their protection, might be stationed on the island. 

While there is no doubt that these inhabitants were con- 
stantly exposed to the depredations of Indians, particularly 
those from the north, there is not much doubt that they 
were now far more anxious to have troops sent to assert 
American authority on the island, than to protect them 
against savages. 

Before receiving this petition, General Harney had made 
a visit to Governor Douglass at Victoria, and had also stopped 
at the island, where he had doubtless conferred with the 
settlers, and learned from them directly of the annoyances 
and embarrassments to which they were subjected. On 
his way back to Vancouver, he had dined with Governor 
Stevens, who had only recently returned to the territory to 
seek reelection as delegate in Congress. What conference 
they had together about this matter, which was now so fully 
occupying the attention of the general, there is no record 
to show, but as both were military men by education, and 
one had now for more than six years been intimately con- 
nected with civil affairs, was now a delegate in Congress, 


and had long held clearly defined and rather radical views 
in regard to the Hudson's Bay Company, and its relations 
to American settlers and their interests, it may well be 
believed that the policy which ought to be pursued in the 
matter now occupying General Harney's attention, was fully 
and earnestly considered, and that Stevens advised a bold and 
aggressive one. At any rate, soon after reaching his head- 
quarters, Harney ordered Captain George E. Pickett, then 
stationed with Company D, 9th infantry, in the blockhouse 
which had been built during the Indian war at Bellingham 
Bay, to remove to and establish his company on San Juan 
Island, "in some suitable position near its southern extrem- 
ity," which would be near Friday Harbor. The object 
of this removal was " to protect the inhabitants of the island 
from the incursions of the northern Indians. " But he was 
also to have a "more serious and important duty," and that 
was "to afford adequate protection to the American citizens 
in their rights as such, and to resist all attempts at inter- 
ference by the British authorities residing on Vancouver 
Island, by intimidation or force," in the controversies arising 
out of the conflict of the settlers ' interests with those of the 
Hudson's Bay Company. In case a second threat were 
made, to seize an American citizen and carry him to Victoria 
for trial, on any pretense, he was "to meet the authorities 
from Victoria at once, and inform them they cannot be per- 
mitted to interfere with our citizens in any way. Any 
grievance they may allege as requiring redress can only be 
examined under our own laws, to which they must submit 
their claims in proper form." 

On the same date, July i8th. Colonel Casey was informed 
that Major Haller's company had been ordered from Port 
Townsend, and that he might send it or another company 

The confederate general who led the grand charge 
at Gettysburg. As a captain in the 9th U. S. Infantry 
he served several years in the territory and in 1859 
took and held possession of San Juan Island. 







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d that Stevens )old and 

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arry him to Victoria 

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date, July 1 8th, Colonel Casey was informed 

ompany had been ordered from Port 

i that he might send it or another company 


[ I iLPErv FQuivs^rinfvj'; j 


to San Juan, by the steamer Massachusetts, which was 
placed at his disposal for that purpose, after which she was 
to cruise among the islands, "for the better protection of 
the settlers." 

Captain Pickett acted promptly, and arrived on the island 
July 29th. On the 30th Justice Griffin, who was also an 
agent of the Hudson's Bay Company, served him with formal 
notice that he was on Hudson's Bay Company's property, 
and requested that he and his party would immediately 
vacate the same, or he would feel bound to apply to the 
civil authorities. He was next summoned before a civil 
magistrate, but did not go, and then, on the morning of 
August 3d, three warships from Victoria — the Tribune, 
Plumper and Satellite — ^were anchored in the harbor, and 
he was invited to a conference with their officers. This he 
declined, but replied that he would be glad to receive the 
officers of the ships, or any of them, in his camp. The three 
captains accepted his invitation, and a conference followed 
in which Pickett was asked why he had taken up his position 
on the island, which was claimed by both governments, and 
he replied that he had come by order of his commanding 
general, and as he supposed in pursuance of instructions 
from the president, to protect it as part of the United States 
territory. The officers then presented him with a copy of 
the proclamation of Governor Douglass, issued the day pre- 
ceding, protesting against the presence of his soldiers on 
the island, and suggested that it would necessitate similar 
occupancy by British soldiers, which would involve imminent 
risk of a collision, unless an arrangement for joint military 
occupation were first made. But Pickett replied that he 
had no authority to arrange for joint occupation, and sug- 
gested a reference of the matter to General Harney and 


Governor Douglass. Captain Hornby, who spoke for the 
British officers, then suggested that his proposition was in 
accord, as he thought, with the tenor of Secretary Marcy's 
letter to Governor Stevens in 1855, which he had previously 
referred to, while Pickett's position offered no security 
against the occurrence of some event that would further 
embarrass matters. He also claimed that in landing an 
armed force in disputed territory, pending the settlement of the 
question of title in the usual way, without warning, and 
without giving the person in command discretionary power 
to make such arrangements as he had proposed, the United 
States and its officers alone must be held responsible for any 
consequence that might result, either immediate or future. 

At Pickett's request. Captain Hornby put the substance 
of their interview in writing, and closed the letter by saying, 
" I reserve to myself, in the event of your non-acceptance, 
entire liberty of action, either for the protection of British 
subjects and property, or of our claims to the sovereignty 
of the island, until they are settled by the Northwest Boundary 
Commission now existing, or by the respective government. " 

To this Pickett replied that, being under orders from his 
government, he could not allow any joint occupation until 
directed to do so by his superior officer, and "that any attempt 
to make such occupation as you propose, before I can com- 
municate with General Harney, will be bringing on a colli- 
sion, which can be avoided by awaiting this issue," and he 
thought no discredit would be reflected upon either party, or 
their flags, by remaining in their then positions until those 
higher in authority could be heard from. 

Pickett's course thus far was bold, but tactful. "They 
have a force so much superior to mine," he wrote Harney, 
that evening, "that I shall be merely a mouthful for them; 


still I have informed them that I am here by order of my com- 
manding general, and will maintain my position, if possible." 
He also added: "The excitement in Victoria and here is 
tremendous. I suppose some five hundred people have visited 
us. I have had to use a great deal of my peace-making 
disposition, in order to restrain some of the sovereigns." 

Under the circumstances, his diplomacy is certainly to 
be commended, for if he had Harney's temper — if we may 
judge by the letter sent to Governor Douglass three days 
later, in reply to his protest — he would doubtless have 
precipitated a conflict. In that letter General Harney said: 
"I placed a military command upon the island of San Juan 
to protect the American citizens residing on that island, 
from the insults and indignities which the British authorities 
of Vancouver Island, and the establishment of the Hudson's 
Bay Company, recently offered them by sending a British 
ship-of-war from Vancouver's Island, to convey the chief 
factor of the Hudson's Bay Company to San Juan, for the 
purpose of seizing an American citizen, and forcibly trans- 
porting him to Vancouver's Island, to be tried by British 
laws. ... I have the honor to inform your excellency, that 
I shall not permit a repetition of that insult, and shall retain 
a command on San Juan to protect its citizens, in the name 
of the United States, until I receive further orders from my 
government. " 

On August 8th, Harney authorized Colonel Casey, who 
was still in command at Fort Steilacoom, and who was Pick- 
ett's immediate superior, "to strengthen his position on 
San Juan Island, by four companies of the 3d artillery, 
should he think this necessary, and to remove thither so 
much of the supplies then at Bellingham and Port Townsend, 
as might seem to be required." 


Casey left Steilacoom by the steamer Julia, on the 9th, 
and shortly afterwards met the Active, whose captain advised 
him not to attempt to land any reinforcement on the island, 
as that would almost certainly precipitate a conflict. The 
Tribune, he said, was lying in the harbor with her fires up, 
and her broadside to Pickett's camp, and he believed her 
intention was to begin an attack at the least sign of a hostile 
demonstration on our part. But notwithstanding this warn- 
ing, Casey proceeded to carry out his orders. He left Port 
Townsend about 12 o'clock that night, intending, as he says, 
to reach the island early on the morning of the loth, but a 
thick fog came up and so delayed his progress that the island 
was not reached until about 7 o'clock. Then finding himself 
near Pickett's camp, at a favorable place for landing his 
men and cannon, and the captain of the steamer complaining 
of the fog, and of the fact that the tide was so low that he 
would probably not be able to make the landing in the 
harbor, he determined to land where he was, and this he 
did. Then taking his adjutant, and a small guard for the 
ammunition and stores he had on board, he proceeded to the 
harbor. There he found the Tribune lying as had been 
described, with "several hundred" sailors, marines, members 
of the royal artillery and sappers and miners on board, but 
no opposition was offered to the landing of his freight. 
"Whether they would have interfered with the landing of 
the troops, I cannot say," says Casey in his report. "It 
is Captain Pickett's opinion that they would." 

Before Casey landed, he received a hurried message from 
Pickett, asking him to come immediately to his camp. On 
arriving there, Pickett pointed out to him a British war- 
steamer, which he had not before seen, and which appeared to 
be taking position to shell the camp. This was the Satellite, 


which had apparently just arrived. The Tribune was 
in position, with broadside to the camp, and could open 
fire at any moment. Pickett, having long been looking for 
an attack from this direction, was prepared to "fire on the 
ship with his howitzers, then spike them, deliver a volley 
with his musketry, and retreat to the woods," but now that 
both sides had received reinforcements, it was not clear 
what ought to be done, and Casey, having just arrived on 
the ground, had no plan formed. But seeing the imminent 
danger of a collision, that would surely lead to war, which- 
ever way it might terminate, he resolved to make an effort to 
avert it, and sent an officer on board the Tribune to request 
Captain Hornby to meet him in his camp. The captain 
replied that "he was much engaged at the time, but would 
come if he could conveniently," and in a few hours he came, 
accompanied by Captain Prevost and Mr. Archibald Camp- 
bell, the British and American boundary commissioners. 

"I informed Captain Hornby," says Colonel Casey, "that 
I had landed that morning, with a force of United States 
troops, and explained to him the reason why I had not landed 
them at the wharf, under the guns of the frigate. I also 
said that I regretted that Captain Pickett had been so much 
harassed and threatened in the position he had occupied." 

He then asked the captain who the officer highest in com- 
mand was, and where he could be found, and was informed 
that Admiral Baynes was in command, and that he was at 
Esquimault, on board his flagship the Ganges. Casey 
expressed a wish to have a conference with him, and indi- 
cated that he would go to Esquimault for that purpose on the 
following day, if circumstances permitted, and at this, "both 
the captain and the British commissioner seemed pleased," 
he says. Next morning, accompanied by Captain Pickett, 


both in full uniform, he left the island for Esquimault, on 
the revenue cutter Shubrick, and arriving there, sent a note 
to Admiral Baynes, requesting an interview on board the 
Shubrick. The admiral replied that he would be glad to 
receive Colonel Casey on board the Ganges. To this Colonel 
Casey replied, expressing his regret that circumstances pre- 
vented Rear Admiral Baynes from accepting his invitation 
to meet him on the Shubrick, and sent Captain Pickett to 
deliver the note in person. Governor Douglass happened 
to be on board the Ganges at the time, and after reading the 
note, the admiral passed it to him. As a colonial governor, 
he was the admiral's superior officer, while his ship was in 
a harbor of his colony, and he inquired if Colonel Casey 
knew that he was on board. To this Pickett replied that 
he had no reason to suppose he did, but that the colonel had 
not sought an interview with him, but with the admiral. 
He also informed the admiral that the Shubrick was then 
firing up and making ready to sail, but that Colonel Casey 
would be happy to see him if he should consent to a con- 
ference. The admiral would not go to the Shubrick, but 
expressed his willingness to receive the colonel on board 
his own ship, but Casey, thinking he had carried official 
courtesy far enough, "by going twenty-five miles to see a 
gentleman who was disinclined to come one hundred yards 
to see me," declined to go, and sailed away. 

In his report he says he intended in case the admiral 
would give his pledge that no threats should be made, or 
molestation given by the force under his command, for the 
purpose of preventing Captain Pickett from carrying out 
his orders and instructions, to propose to him that he would 
recommend the withdrawal of the reinforcements recently 
landed on the island, and that affairs should remain as they 


were until the sovereign authorities should announce their 

On the morning after his return from this interview, Major 
Haller arrived with his company at San Juan. This was a 
further cause of irritation to the British officers, but in view 
of what had already taken place no resistance was made to 
their landing. 

For many years afterwards Colonel Haller was of the 
opinion that this was the crucial moment in the controversy, 
and that a conflict would certainly have been precipitated, 
but for the fact that he happened to have received some copies 
of newspapers, of later date than any of the British officers 
had seen, just before he started for the island. These con- 
tained reports of the battle of Solferino, of which they had 
not heard. He mentioned the matter to some of the officers 
who had accompanied Hornby on shore, while he and Casey 
were conferring together, and gave them the papers, and 
immediately a marked change in their conduct and bearing 
was noticeable. Nobody in their situation could foresee 
what effect the issue of such a battle might have on the peace 
of Europe. It might be that Great Britain was at the 
moment in a position where a controversy over such a matter 
as the title to so small an island as San Juan would be very 
embarrassing to her, and for that reason, in Haller's opinion, 
Hornby and those about him chose, for the moment, the 
conservative course. 

Haller also strongly suspected that Harney was aware of 
the plans of the conspirators who were already preparing 
for secession, and that his aggressive policy, and the selection 
of Pickett in preference to other officers of equal or higher 
rank, to command on San Juan, was prompted by a hope of 
bringing on a war with England that would embarrass our 


national government, and so aid the conspirators. But there 
is no sufficient ground for such a belief. Harney, although 
Southern born, was not a traitor at heart. It is true that 
his conduct at the beginning of the war, was not such as to 
inspire confidence in his loyalty, and he thereby lost a great 
opportunity. He was the only brigadier-general in the 
regular service at that time, except Wool, who did not go 
over to the enemy. With such an advantage at the start, 
it would seem that he should have won more distinction, 
when majors like George H. Thomas, Robert Anderson 
and E. R. S. Canby, who like himself were from Southern 
States, won immortal fame by their aggressive loyalty. 
His conduct in 1861 was not as uncompromisingly loyal as 
theirs was, but there was and is no reason to suspect it in 
1859. If there were no other reason, his intimacy with 
Stevens, and the fact that he sought and undoubtedly 
enjoyed his confidence and counsel during the time when 
his responsibility was greatest, would be sufficient proof 
that he was not then plotting to overthrow his government. 
There is still another reason for believing that he was not 
in the confidence of the conspirators, or working to further 
the undertaking for which they were preparing, and that is 
that the war department, of which Floyd, one of the most 
unscrupulous of their number, was then the head, did not 
encourage or very cordially support him in the step he had 
taken. Mr. Floyd himself took no part in the correspon- 
dence, as he would almost certainly have done if the plotters 
of secession had been at all concerned about the matter. 
Mr. Drinkard, his assistant, wrote General Harney on 
September 3d that "the president was not prepared to learn 
that you had ordered military possession to be taken of 
San Juan Island. . . . In cases respecting territory in dispute 


between friendly nations, it is usual to suffer the status 
of the parties to remain until the dispute is terminated, one 
way or the other, and this more especially, whilst the question 
is pending for decision before a joint commission of the two 
governments. If you had good reason to believe that the 
colonial authorities of Great Britain were about to disturb 
the status, by taking possession of the island, and assuming 
jurisdiction over it, you were in the right to anticipate their 
action. . . . The president will not, for the present, form 
any decided opinion upon your course, on the statement of 
facts presented in your dispatch." 

This certainly was not the sort of approval General Harney 
would have been entitled to expect, and would most certainly 
have received from Floyd, if he had been endeavoring to 
bring on a war with Great Britain, to aid the secessionists. 

The Buchanan administration, notably the weakest in 
our history, made haste to relieve Harney of responsibility, 
and by means which Buchanan, himself an experienced 
diplomat, would have been least expected to resort to. 
Instead of taking the matter up with the British minister 
in Washington, where negotiation could be conducted by 
the secretary of state under his own immediate direction, or 
of directing the American minister to take it up with the 
authorities in London, which would have been the usual 
method, General Scott, who was then at the head of the 
army, was dispatched to the coast, with instructions from 
the war department to propose almost the exact terms the 
British officers had offered from the first. "The president 
perceives no objection to the plan proposed by Captain 
Hornby, of her Majesty's ship Tribune, to Captain Pickett," 
says Mr. Drinkard, in his letter of instruction to the general, 
"it being understood that Captain Pickett's company shall 


remain on the island, to resist, if need be, the incursions 
of the northern Indians on our frontier settlements, and to 
afford protection to American citizens resident thereon. In 
any arrangement which may be made for joint occupation, 
American citizens must be placed on a footing equally 
favorable with that of British subjects. " 

If an actual collision should have occurred before the 
general arrived on the ground, the assistant secretary 
realized that the situation would be greatly complicated, 
particularly if blood had been shed. It was difficult to 
give such instructions as ought to govern in such an event, 
but the assistant secretary thought "it would still be your 
duty, if this can, in your opinion, be honorably done, under 
the circumstance, to 'establish a temporary joint occupation 
of the island, giving to neither party temporary advantage 
over the other. " 

It has been customary to criticize or mildly censure General 
Scott for arranging the joint military occupation of the 
island, which continued for something more than a dozen 
years, or until the question of title was finally settled, and 
the boundary fixed in the De Haro Channel, by an arbitra- 
tor, the Emperor William of Germany, in 1871; but it 
is clear, from the instructions given him, that this is what he 
was sent to do, and that he could hardly be expected to do 
anything else. 

Upon arriving on the Sound, General Scott addressed a 
letter to Governor Douglass, under date of October 25th, 
proposing that each government should occupy a separate 
portion of the island, with a detachment of infantry, riflemen 
or marines, not exceeding one hundred men, "for the equal 
protection of their respective countrymen in their persons 
and property, and to repel any descent on the part of hostile 


Indians," and that such occupation should be without prej- 
udice to the claims of either party. Governor Douglass 
did not feel authorized to accept this proposition, without 
referring it to his government, but in time it was accepted, 
and the joint occupation so arranged continued until the 
dispute was finally settled. 

By the treaty of Washington, concluded on the 8th of 
May 1 87 1, all matters of difference between the United 
States and Great Britain were adjusted, except this, and by 
the 34th article of that treaty, this boundary question was 
referred "to the arbitration and award of his Majesty the 
Emperor of Germany," whose decision was to be final and 
without appeal. At that time the United States was again 
fortunate in having Mr. George Bancroft, the statesman and 
historian who had been so familiar with this boundary matter 
from President Polk's time, and who was now more than 
seventy-one years old, as its minister at the imperial court. 
He addressed a letter to the emperor, in which he pointed 
out that all the sixteen members of the British cabinet who 
had helped to form the treaty, the British minister who signed 
it, and all the American statesman concerned in it, except 
one, and that one himself, were dead. "I alone remain," 
he said, "and after finishing the three score years and ten 
that are the days of our years, am selected by my country 
to uphold its rights." Six times arbitration had been 
offered, as a means of settling the dispute about our northern 
boundary, and six times we had refused it. In closing this 
most diplomatic letter, Mr. Bancroft made this most wise 
and useful suggestion: "The case involves questions of 
geography, of history and of international law; and we are 
glad that the discussion should be held in the midst of a 
nation whose sons have been trained in those sciences by 


a Carl Ritter, a Ranke and a HefFter. " The suggestion 
thus cleverly made, the old emperor evidently followed, for 
he consulted and obtained opinions upon the question from 
three eminent specialists on international law, in history 
and geography, and these were Dr. Grimm, vice-president 
of the supreme court at Berlin, Dr. Kiepert, a pupil of Carl 
Ritter, and Dr. Goldschmidt, a member of the Superior 
Commercial Court at Leipsic. He is also said to have caused 
a survey to be made, or at least to have had the depth of 
the several channels taken into account, by which means it 
was clearly shown that the Haro Channel, being the deepest, 
the greatest volume of water flowed through it, and therefore 
there could be no doubt that it was the main channel. 

Reviewing the controversy at the present time it seems 
almost remarkable that a conflict was avoided, particularly 
at two or three critical moments. When Pickett landed on 
the island his whole company amounted to only 66 men, 
and it is not entirely clear that all these were with him. 
Within a few hours after landing he was confronted by three 
British ships-of-war with a total of 775 men and 62 guns. 
These ships anchored within easy range, with their broad- 
sides to his camp, and so remained while their officers and 
he were in conference, and long after. Probably their very 
strength made their officers more conservative than they 
otherwise would have been, though Pickett's firmness and 
tact are to be credited in a large degree, with the happy 
outcome of the interview. With his vastly superior force 
and armament, Hornby would naturally be reluctant to 
attack a brave man in so desperate a situation, who was 
simply carrying out the orders of his superior. He would 
be certain to be so, unless certain that he was in the right, 
and this he could not have been at that time. 


Another critical moment was when Casey landed his 
reinforcements. It is to be doubted whether the fog 
and the low tide, which compelled him to land before 
reaching the harbor, and without announcing his arrival, 
were really favorable circumstances, since it would have 
been easy to construe his action, had it been discovered 
while the troops were landing, into a clandestine attack, 
or a movement preparatory for something of that kind, 
which would have gone far to excuse forcible resistance, 
if it had been offered. The landing, thus made, was 
evidently made at a most opportune time, since the 
Satellite, another ship with 326 men and 21 guns, arrived 
almost immediately after. Had she appeared while Casey's 
men were debarking, or had Casey encountered her before 
reaching the island, serious consequences might have 
followed. It seems probable also that a collision was only 
averted after Casey had reached the harbor, by his prompt 
explanation of the reasons which had compelled him to land 
as he had done. 

The reinforcements brought at this time, and those which 
arrived subsequently, increased the force on the island to 
461 men, with eight 32-pound guns taken from the Massa- 
chusetts, one 6-pound and three mountain howitzers. Sup- 
plies for three months, and a sufficient quantity of ammuni- 
tion for all arms, were also landed. Fortifications were 
thrown up, and by the last of August Harney was able to 
inform the adjutant-general that "the English have no force 
that they could land, which would be able to dislodge Colonel 
Casey's command as now posted." 

The British ships then in or near the straits were the 
Ganges, Tribune, Pylades, Satellite and Plumper, carrying 
1,940 men and 167 guns. 


The people of the territory took a lively interest in the 
controversy, so long as it was doubtful what the result would 
be, and not a few of them were ready to take a part in it 
should it become necessary. On August yth. General 
Harney wrote Governor Gholson, who by that time had 
succeeded McMullin, enclosing a copy of his order to Colonel 
Casey, the proclamation of Governor Douglass, and his 
reply to the same, and informing him that he had authorized 
Casey to call for volunteers in case he should think it neces- 
sary. To this the governor replied that "your just expecta- 
tions of the course to be pursued by myself shall not be 
disappointed, and that in such an event, I have an abiding 
faith that the citizens of this territory will, with enthusiastic 
alacrity, respond to any call necessary for the defense of 
individual rights; the rights of their country, or their coun- 
try's honor." 

The position of Governor Douglass, a weak one to begin 
with, was much weakened and embarrassed by the action 
of those who represented him at the beginning of the con- 
troversy. Captain Prevost, the British boundary commis- 
sioner, could find no stronger ground on which to base the 
British claim to the island, than that the language of the 
treaty was that the boundary line should run through the 
channel separating "the continent from Vancouver Island," 
instead of the usual form of language, by which the smaller 
body would have been separated from the larger. It was 
also shown in support of this claim that the British negotiator, 
in preparing a form of treaty, had at first used language 
which expressly fixed the line in the Haro Channel, but had 
subsequently substituted the language quoted, a fact which, 
as Judge Hanford has well said, proves, if it proves anything, 
that the negotiator had the Canal De Haro in mind as the 


proper boundary, if the British were to be permitted to hold 
all of Vancouver Island.* It was fortunate for Douglass, 
too, that he had for a long time exercised the functions of 
Chief Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company, as well as those 
of governor, and he had been rather sharply reminded during 
the preceding year, in the Eraser River matter, that he had 
not always clearly distinguished the one from the other. 
He did not readily lay aside his sense of responsibility for 
the interests of the Company, but the long exercise of auto- 
cratic authority, as its chief executive officer, had not unfitted 
him to govern under the limitations of law and the usages 
of liberal governments. But there were some about him 
who did not so accurately discriminate, and, unfortunately 
for him, they had, at the outset, transformed a petty contro- 
versy over the killing of a worthless pig into one involving the 
right of a citizen to the protection of his government. The 
controversy had been aggravated by the fact that one of these 
people was closely related to him, and by the further fact 
that he had gone to the island on board of a British ship-of- 
war, and returned by the same conveyance. While nothing 
more than the agents of the Company, they had seemingly 
spoken in the name of the colonial government, backed by the 
presence of a British ship-of-war, to make good their threats. 
Douglass might disavow their connection with his government 
or his own responsibility for their acts, but he could not 
expect Harney to know, or the Americans on the island to be- 
lieve, that the presence of the warship and the agents of the 
Hudson's Bay Company at the island, at the time of the occur- 
rence complained of, was a purely accidental circumstance. 

Nor did the residents on Vancouver Island understand it 
more readily, or more clearly than those on this side of the 

* Address before the Washington Pioneers, June 7, 1899. 


line. When the provincial parliament met, a spirited debate 
occurred over the address in reply to the governor's message, 
in which some of the speakers expressed a wish to know 
why the troops were not landed; why were troops and ships 
sent; and why all this expense and show, if only for parade ? 
"We must defend ourselves," one said, "for the position 
we occupy today would make the iron monument of Welling- 
ton weep, and the stony statue of Nelson bend his brow." 

"The house would most earnestly impress upon your 
excellency," the address said as it was finally adopted, "to 
enforce upon her Majesty's government the necessity of 
demanding from the government of the United States, not 
only the immediate withdrawal of those troops, but also 
strenuously, and at all risks, to maintain her right to the 
island in question, and also to all other islands in the same 
archipelago, now so clandestinely, dishonorably and dis- 
honestly invaded." 

But these rhetorical demonstrations on the part of the 
provincial statesmen ended in nothing serious. They do 
not appear even to have disturbed the equanimity of the 
governor, who calmly pursued the course he had marked out 
for himself from the beginning. The friendly, though not 
intimate, relations between the people of the territory and 
those of the colony were not seriously interrupted. Both 
would, no doubt, have responded promptly to a call to take 
up arms, but happily there was no occasion for that, and 
peace soon reigned again, where for a few weeks war had 
so seriously threatened. 

Note. — A murder was committed on the island in 1869, while it was still 
jointly occupied by troops of the United States and Great Britam, and 
Charles Watts was arrested, indicted and tried at Port Townsend, where he 
was found guilty and sentenced to death. The indictment chaiged that the 


crime had been committed "at a place within the sole and exclusive 
jurisdiction of the United States. " Upon review of the case, by the 
supreme court, a majority of the justices — Greene and Kennedy — sus- 
tained the contention of defendant's counsel, and held that the prosecution 
should have been at the suit of the territory, and not at the suit of the 
United States, and the accused was remanded for another trial. From 
this ruling Chief Justice Jacobs dissented. Watts was again tried in 
February 1872, under an indictment charging him with murder committed 
in the county of Whatcom. He was again convicted and sentenced to 
death, and his counsel again appealed, claiming that at the time the 
murder was committed, San Juan Island was not within the civil juris- 
diction of the courts of Washington Territory. This time the court 
unanimously affirmed the finding of the court below and Watts was exe- 

Chapter LI. 

One of the modern steamboats plying on the Sound. 


.3IJ0*IA;iAia'/II M3MAaT8 
■ bnuoS sdi no gnr^Iq a^tfiodmBsJ^ mabom sriJ Jo snO 


SHORTLY after the dose of Colonel Wright's suc- 
cessful campaign against the Indians, in Septem- 
ber, 1858, General Clarke rescinded Wool's order 
excluding settlers from the country east of the 
Cascades, and eastern Washington began at once to regain 
what it had lost. The first American settlers in the territory 
had gone there in 1836, but they had all been driven out by 
the Cayuse war, following the Whitman massacre, and had 
never been able to return. Ransom Clarke, and possibly 
one or two other Americans, had taken claims there before the 
war broke out in 1855, but they, too, had been forced to leave. 
The small colony of Hudson's Bay people, who had settled 
along the Walla Walla, and on the Touchet, and Brooke, 
Bumford & Noble, the cattle-ranchers, had struggled almost 
heroically to retain their homes, and some part of the little 
property they had accumulated, but they had been despoiled 
both by the Indians and the soldiers, during the years of 
Wool's command, and most of them had been forced to 
leave the country. Those who had remained were so far 
impoverished that they were compelled to begin again, with 
almost as little as when they had first arrived on the ground. 
But now that both the Indians and Uncle Sam's army 
were agreed that the country might be settled, the adventur- 
ous pioneers began again to find their way to it. The first 
who came chose claims along the Walla Walla and its 
branches, and on the Touchet. Not one of them then, or 
for a considerable time thereafter, suspected that the hill 
lands were of any value except for pasture. By the end of 
1858 Thomas P. Page, James Foster, Charles Russell, J. C. 
Smith (better known as Sergeant Smith), Christopher Maier, 
John Singleton, John A. Simms and Joseph McEvoy had 
taken claims, and by the end of 1859 there were settlers here 


and there along the Touchet, as far as the present city of 
Dayton in Columbia County.* 

In January, 1859, the legislature appointed a new set of 
county commissioners, and two of them, John Mahan and 
Walter R. Davis, met in March of that year, on or near the 
land claim of Lloyd Brooke, which had been designated in 
the act creating the county in 1854, as the county seat, and 
completed the organization of the county government. By 
that time Simms, with the aid of some capital furnished by 
A. H. Reynolds and Captain F. T. Dent had built a flour 
mill, and a few merchants and a blacksmith had established 
themselves in the vicinity. The place had heretofore been 
variously called Steptoeville and Wailatpu, but in July, 1859, 
the commissioners formally named it Walla Walla. 

Settlement would have gone on as it had been going on — 
as it has gone on in all new regions, had this one depended 
only on agriculture and stock-growing for its chief attrac- 
tions. But it was not to depend on these alone for a very 
long time, for a gold discovery was soon after made in the 
Nez Perce country, lying to the eastward, and an army of 
gold hunters, similar to that which had flocked through 
Whatcom and Victoria to the Eraser River in 1858, began 
its march through the village, leaving behind it, as such an 
army invariably does, its most practical and thrifty members 
to become its supply agents. As the discovery of gold had 
hastened the settlement of California, so it was now to hurry 
the settlement of Idaho and British Columbia, and Washing- 
ton was also to be a considerable gainer by it. 

* Among the settlers who came in 1859, or earlier, were; R. H. Reigh- 
art, S. D. Smith, James Galbreath, Lycurgus Jackson, I. T. Reese, E. 
H. Brown, Wm. B. Kelly, Z. Bonner, J. M. Craigie, Wm. Finch, W. W. 
Wiseman, W. J. Terry, Wm. McWhirk, J. A. Simons, Thomas Hughes 
and Augustus Vonhinkle. 


A Nez Perce Indian had strayed down into California, a 
year or two earlier, and had met with Captain E. D. Pierce, 
an old prospector, to whom he had told a wonderful story. 
He, and some members of his tribe, had once wandered into 
a deep canyon in his own country, whose rocky walls rose 
so high about them on every side as almost to shut out the 
light of the sun, except at midday. They wandered so far 
in it that they were obliged to make their camp, and remain 
during the night. But they did not sleep, for when it had 
become quite dark they suddenly saw a bright light, like 
a gleaming beacon, burst out of the rocky wall, and they 
could not take their eyes off it. They thought it the eye of 
the Great Spirit, and were very much afraid. When morning 
came they found that the light had been caused by a very 
brilliant white stone, like crystal, but it was so firmly fixed 
in the rock that they could not remove it with their hands, 
and thinking it some very great medicine, they did not dare 
to disengage it by force, and so they left it there, and he had 
never since gone back to look at it. 

Believing this wonderfully brilliant stone to be nothing 
less than a diamond of untold value, the captain resolved 
to make search for it, and the Indian promised to guide him 
to the spot where he had seen it. He accordingly started 
for Walla Walla, which he reached in the fall of 1859, and 
remained there all winter. In the spring of i860, with 
a party of five others, he started for the Nez Perce country, 
but the Indians wanted no gold hunters or diamond hunters 
wandering about their reservation, and they ordered the 
party to leave. As they were compelled to go. Pierce secured 
a Nez Perce woman for a guide, and passed over the Lo Lo 
trail, to the north bank of the Clearwater River, where they 
went into camp, intending to remain a few days to recruit their 


animals. Here one of the party, named Bassett, made a 
test of a panful of gravel, and found three cents' worth of 
fine gold as the result. This was quite satisfactory, and 
after making further tests, as satisfying to themselves that gold 
existed there in paying quantity, they returned to Walla 
Walla, bringing with them about $80 in dust. 

Sergeant Smith took a deep interest in this discovery. He 
tried to induce some of the merchants, and other settlers 
already on the ground, to help him outfit a party to make 
further explorations, but succeeded only in inducing Simms 
and his partners to contribute 1,000 pounds of flour. With 
this slight assistance, and by putting his own credit to a 
severe test, he managed to outfit fifteen men, with whom 
he reached the mines in November, i860. The Indians 
threatened to make them some trouble at first, but were 
quieted without much difficulty, and the party spent the 
early part of the winter in building log cabins for shelter, 
and in prospecting under the snow. They were successful, 
and before spring Smith and two other members of the party 
made their way back to Walla Walla, on snowshoes, bringing 
with them ^800 in gold dust. This was soon sent down the 
river to Portland, and thus the Oro Fino gold boom was 

As soon as the spring of 1861 opened, the rush began. 
The river steamers and all other means of transportation 
were taxed to their utmost. Many of the gold seekers brought 
their outfits from California, or other places where they had 
been mining; some bought in Portland, but many waited 
to make their purchases in Walla Walla, where the merchants 
early made preparations to supply them. All needed some- 
thing, when they reached this, the last place where supplies 
could be obtained, and the merchants were soon doing a 


thriving trade. New merchants and new stocks of goods 
appeared to help supply the demand, and within a few 
months the little village became a thriving town, with all 
the advantages, accessories and vices of a frontier mining 

Among the new enterprises in the town was a printing- 
office and a weekly newspaper, "The Washington States- 
man," whose earlier numbers were eagerly bought by those 
who were hungering for news from the mines, and they 
contained information of the most attractive kind. The 
Salmon River bars were prospected during the summer of 
1 86 1, and found to be very rich. One of the earlier reports 
published by the "Statesman" said that men were realizing 
;^ioo each per day. From one mine owned by Mr. Wiser 
of Oregon, ^2,680 had been taken out in one day with two 
rockers, and on the day following, $3,360 had been rocked 
out by the same machines. 

Although the winter of 1861-62 was the most severe ever 
known on the coast, of which there is any record, it did not, 
for a considerable time, put a stop to the onward march of 
the "gold hunters" as the "Statesman" called them. In its 
issue of December 13th, it said : "The tide of emigration to 
Salmon River flows steadily onward. During the week 
past, not less than 225 pack animals, heavily laden with 
provisions, have left this city for the mines. If the mines 
are half as rich as they are said to be, we may safely calcu- 
late that many of these trains will return as heavily laden 
with gold dust as they now are with provisions." The 
same issue says that Mr. Bridges of Oregon City had taken 
out 57 ounces of gold from his claim on Babboon Gulch, 
the first day he had worked it, 157 ounces the second day, 
214 ounces the third, and 200 ounces in two hour's time on 


the fourth. Single pans were yielding from 25 cents to 
^2.50, and in some places ounces would not describe the 
results obtained. 

The ranchers and stock-growers in the Walla Walla 
country would have secured a liberal share of this wealth, 
but for the severity of the winter, which turned their bright 
prospects of profit into an actual and almost ruinous loss. 
Most of their cattle perished. Many lost their horses also. 
Hay went up to ^125 per ton, and flour to $25 per barrel. 
The loss of animals alone was estimated at ^1,000,000, and 
many of the farmers were compelled to buy seed for the 
next year's planting, at ruinously high prices. 

But in spite of the severe weather, the gold seekers began 
to assemble early at Portland, in 1862, and other points as 
near the mines as the frozen river would permit them to 
get. By March 22d, the "Statesman" had learned, by 
those who had arrived from the Dalles, that 4,000 miners 
had been assembled fifteen days earlier in Portland, where 
they were waiting for navigation to open. Hundreds were 
arriving there by every steamer. During April, most of 
these people were on their way up the river, and by the last 
of May, it was estimated that from 20,000 to 25,000 gold- 
seekers had passed up on their way to the mines. 

During 1862, eighty new buildings were erected in Walla 
Walla, including a planing mill and a sash and door factory. 
Though the farmers produced but little to sell that year, 
on account of the diflSculty of getting seed, enough was 
grown to warrant the building of a new flour mill on Yellow 
Hawk Creek. The number of settlers steadily increased, in 
spite of the tempting news from the mines, where new and 
rich discoveries were frequently reported, some of the richest 
being in the Boise Valley. Captain Medorem Crawford 


estimated that i,6oo wagons and fully 10,000 people crossed 
the plains that year, and, although the Grande Ronde Valley 
tempted many of these, Walla Walla got a goodly share of 
them. In March 1862, Lewiston, at the confluence of the 
Clearwater and Snake rivers, was platted, and in April 
Wallula, on the Columbia, was started. 

The discovery of gold in the Boise region turned the tide 
of gold seekers southward, from the mouth of the Umatilla, 
and this drew away a good deal of the trade that had been 
going to Walla Walla. A line of stages was established, to 
run over the emigrant trail from that point to the new mines, 
thus oflPering an advantage which Walla Walla did not possess. 
Many of the immigrants who had started for Oregon and 
Washington, from the older States, now turned aside to the 
mines, or found homes in the valleys of what is now Idaho, 
and the settlement of eastern Washington was considerably 
retarded from this cause. But notwithstanding all this, 
some progress was made. The merchants of Walla Walla 
met the competition of the new town, with its stage line, as 
best they could. They established, or procured the estab- 
lishment, of a stage line from Wallula to their town, by which 
the fare was ^5 for each passenger, and freight transportation 
was ^20 per ton. A triweekly mail from the Dalles was 
also established. 

In the spring of 1864, George F. Thomas & Co. 
started a stage-line from Walla Walla to Boise; Wells, Fargo 
& Co. had established its express business over the same 
route during the preceding year, and these diverted a part 
of the business with the Boise district from Umatilla to Walla 
Walla. New gold discoveries on the Kootenai, made during 
this year, brought a fresh influx of miners through the valley, 
and so restored to Walla Walla all its earlier prosperity, for 


the time being. The first overland mail direct from the 
Missouri River, by way of Boise and Salt Lake, by Ben 
Holliday's stage-line, v^as received and sent out during this 
season, and passengers w^ere carried betw^een Atchison, Kan., 
and Portland, for ;^26o each, with 25 pounds of baggage free. 
Their meals en route cost about %o in addition. The enroll- 
ment of all citizens subject to military duty, made that year, 
showed 1,133 persons, of the required age and physical 
qualifications, in Walla Walla County, although the anti-war 
party, which was particularly strong, claimed that at least 300 
of these were mere transients. The assessment rolls showed 
the total property valuation in the county, which then com- 
prised all of Columbia, Garfield and Asotin, as well as what 
is now Walla Walla County, to be ;^i, 545,056, an increase 
of ^432,145 over the valuation for the preceding year. 

It was in this year that a discovery was made in this 
country of far greater value to it, and to all of eastern Wash- 
ington, than all the gold mines that had been or were to be 
found, and this was that wheat could be grown on the hills 
as well as in the valleys. A farmer wishing to build his house 
on a hill, overlooking his farm in the river bottom country, 
dug a well, and observed in doing so that the ground pene- 
trated was practically the same from the surface to a depth 
of fifty feet, and that so far as appearance went, it was the 
same as that in the valley lands. He planted some wheat 
there, and the result was so satisfactory that settlers soon 
began to choose their claims among the hills, as readily as 
in the valleys. Ten years later Dr. N. G. Blalock had 
1,000 acres, in one body, surveyed out of his wheat fields on 
these hills, the yield from which, when threshed and ready 
for market, was found to average above fifty bushels per 


The Montana gold mines began to attract attention in 
1865, and the Walla Walla country saw another rush of 
miners, similar to those of preceding years. "From every 
point of the compass," says the "Statesman" in its issue of 
March 13th, "they drift by hundreds and thousands, and 
the cry is, 'still they come.' The excitement promises to 
depopulate California, and from our own territory, as well 
as Oregon, the rush is unprecedented. The stages that 
leave here go out loaded down with passengers, all bound 
for Blackfoot." 

Chicago, as well as San Francisco, now began to take an 
interest in the mining regions of the Northwest, and to bid 
sharply for their trade. San Francisco merchants figured 
that it cost them from ^270 to $345 per ton to ship their 
goods by any of four known routes to Helena, and they were 
much concerned for fear that Chicago could send theirs at 
less cost. It was also estimated that 100 pack trains of not 
less than 50 animals, carrying 300 pounds each, were engaged 
in the carrying trade between the head of navigation, on 
the Columbia River, and Montana. The total value of 
goods carried by these pack trains, for the year, was placed 
at ;^i, 200,000. These goods were packed a total distance of 
450 miles from Walla Walla, at a cost varying from 13 to 
18 cents per pound. 

So far everything had been shipped into the eastern Wash- 
ington country, and nothing shipped out, except to the mines. 
But in 1866, the mills in and near Walla Walla, and at Waits- 
burg — which had been started during the preceding year — 
found they were producing more flour than the miners re- 
quired, and the first shipment was made down the river. 
The Oregon Steam Navigation Company, which now con- 
trolled the transportation business by river, advanced the 


rate from $7.50 to ;^I7.50 per barrel, after the first experi- 
mental shipment was made, but soon reduced it again, and, 
in 1867, no less than 4,735 barrels were shipped in this 
direction, in consequence. Soon aferwards, an experiment 
in shipping wheat was made, with results so satisfactory 
that 15,000 bushels went down the river that year. There 
was a short crop in 1869 and all the grain and flour produced 
by the farmers and the mills sold readily at home. 

The lumber business also got started during these exciting 
years. In a country where McKinlay and Peter Skeen 
Ogden had been compelled to collect driftwood forty-four 
years earlier, with which to build Fort Walla Walla, lumber 
was certain to be early in demand and, if it could be produced, 
would sell readily at good figures. Robie & Co. built the 
first sawmill in eastern Washington, near Walla Walla, 
in 1859, and Noble & Co. built one across the Oregon line 
the same year. Samuel Linkton appears to have got a small 
mill started in the foothills of the Blue Mountains, near the 
crossing of the emigrant road, as early as 1862 — possibly 
earlier. It was a small affair and the timber in its neighbor- 
hood was also small in comparison with that west of the 
mountains. It was soon so nearly all cut away, that in the 
summer of 1864, the mill was removed to Mill Creek, about 
twenty miles above Walla Walla, where, a year or two 
later, Linkton sold it to one of his employees, George H. 
Reed, afterwards well known in Tacoma, and two other 
men named Stevens and Snider. They ran it until there 
were no more logs that could be floated to it, when it was 
again moved, this time into the Blue Mountains, south of 
the Oregon line. Migratory sawmills like this one, in that 
day, left their monuments in the nomenclature of the country. 
The site on which this mill was first located is still known as 


Linkton's Mountain, and one of its later sites as Reed and 
Harney Mountain. 

Like many other towns and cities to which rich mining 
districts have been tributary, Walla Walla had its bitter 
experience with the lawless element. Following the troops 
of miners which poured through it in the early sixties, came 
the gamblers, thieves and outlaws of every sort, and many 
of these thought new and thriving towns near enough to 
the mines to serve their purposes admirably. The machinery 
for making and executing wholesome laws, and police regu- 
lations, had not yet been established. Honest men were too 
busy, or thought they were, to give attention to their organi- 
zation, and so these disreputable characters took the business 
in hand, and they took good care that no peace-officers were 
elected or appointed who would make them any trouble. 
By the summer of 1862, the ranchers were beginning to be 
annoyed by horse-thieves and cattle-thieves, and were com- 
pelled to watch their animals both day and night, whether 
they were on the range or housed in their barns and stables, 
to avoid loss. At length even this did not furnish full pro- 
tection, and a vigilance committee and Judge Lynch began 
to be talked of. But the cut-throats only laughed at this 
and grew bolder. 

Finally the inevitable followed. The property-owners 
began to act singly, when occasion demanded, and then 
in unison. In April, a man was shot in open day not far 
from Rev. Gushing Eells' house. He was suspected to be 
a horse-thief, and when his body was found it was assumed 
that he had been shot when stealing, or attempting to steal. 
Everybody knew him, and nobody complained seriously 
about the manner of his taking off, although he left a wife 
and family for whom all had compassion. But the widow 


had two brothers, who were staunch supporters of the law, 
and she was well cared for. One day a considerable band 
of cattle were stolen. Soon the owners and their neighbors 
were riding in hot haste after the thieves. They were pur- 
sued for some miles, and at times a battle seemed imminent. 
Toward evening some shooting was heard by those who had 
remained at their homes, and later the owners returned with 
their cattle. Not much was said about the means by which 
they were recovered. Those who knew did not care to tell, 
and those who did not know did not question too closely. 
Next morning, which was Sunday, when people were going 
to church, the dead body of a man was found bound to a 
tree, with a rope tightly knotted about his neck, while on the 
ground nearby was found his saddle and his pistol. It was 
clear that one cattle-thief had been strangled to death; the 
particulars of the tragedy were not necessary. 

"Six-Toed Pete," a notorious ruffian, was arrested, but 
broke jail, and was found hiding in the schoolhouse. He 
was recaptured and taken away. He returned to trouble 
the community no more. One day a man rode a particularly 
fine horse through the town at a gallop, and was followed 
by two younger men. It was evident to everybody that the 
first rider was a horse-thief, and that the horse he was 
pressing so mercilessly had been stolen. Next day both 
horse and rider were found dead, a few miles beyond town. 
It had been necessary to bring down the horse in order to 
get the rider, but the sacrifice had been made. 

Things went on in this way for a year or more. The 
lawless element was bold and defiant; the law-abiding part 
of the community were calm but determined. Every now 
and again some outlaw's body would be found suspended 
from a tree, or shot through with bullets, by the roadside, 


or in some convenient stream or thicket. Some fifteen or 
sixteen of them ceased to be troublesome in this way. One 
of the worst of the banditti, a French half-breed woman, 
disappeared and was never again heard from. Then there 
was an exodus of this criminal class, who temporarily trans- 
ferred the scene of their activities to Boise. They remained 
there while that camp was at the height of its prosperity, but 
in time they began to return to Walla Walla. One of the 
advance guard was a noted ruffian named Patterson. He 
always went armed in a conspicuous way, and was known 
as a dead shot. During the winter of 1864-65, he was the 
terror of the town, and none cared to dispute the way with 
him. Things soon became as bad as they had ever been. 
Respectable people did not appear on the streets after dark, 
if they could help it, nor did they open the doors of their 
homes or places of business in the evening without arms in 
their hands. It was clear that the rough element had 
returned, and would remain until driven out again. 

Patterson's turn came early. He had bullied a watchman, 
one of the most inoffensive men in town, so far as appearances 
went, but one who was peculiarly unforgiving. He watched 
for his opportunity and soon found it. The burly ruffian 
entered a barbershop one morning, and laid aside the revolver 
he so conspicuously carried, while being shaved. The 
watchman went to the back door of the shop, waited until 
his enemy's face was turned toward the window during the 
shaving operation, and then shot him through the head. 
The first shot was not fatal, but enough more were added to 
complete the work. The watchman gave himself up to the 
sheriff, who happened to be near, and was taken to jail, 
which was the safest place in town for him until the excite- 
ment among the rough element should blow over, but a 


few nights afterward some friend aided him to escape and 
he never returned. 

Much excitement followed this shooting. The rough ele- 
ment now declared that the law should be enforced, and as 
usual threatened to enforce it themselves. But they were 
soon compelled to change their arrogant tone for one of 
supplication. Swift riders were sent through the country 
in all directions to summon those who could be relied upon, 
and they answered promptly. It was noticed a few mornings 
later that there were an unusual number of people in town. 
The streets were full of farmers' wagons. The owners of 
these wagons seemed to be going about their business as 
usual, and showed no signs of an intention to do anything 
else. But it was noted that few of them had their wives with 
them. It soon began to be rumored that there was a loaded 
rifle under the straw in the bottom of every wagon, which 
was true, and in some there were more than one. The 
rough element quickly took the alarm. "Give us a few 
hours," they said, "and we will trouble you no more." 
The terms offered were accepted. There was a general 
packing up of gambling implements and other property 
belonging to the undesirable element, and within the succeed- 
ing twenty-four hours most of them departed and never 
returned. Walla Walla took its place among the peaceable 
and law-abiding towns of the territory and so remained.* 

The successive discoveries of gold in the region east of 
Walla Walla had drawn into that part of the territory a popu- 
lation sufficiently large to justify the organization of a separate 
government by 1862, and an act creating the territory of 

* For most of the details in this account of the purification of Walla 
Walla, the mining town, I am indebted to an interesting paper by Mr. 
Edwin Eells, and to the life of "Father Eells," by Rev. Myron Eells. 


Idaho passed both houses of Congress, and was approved 
by the president March 2, 1863. The territory included in 
it was all that part of old Oregon lying east of the one hundred 
and seventieth degree of west longitude. All that portion 
of this vast region which lay south of the forty-sixth parallel, 
the northern boundary of Oregon, had become a part of 
Washington w^hen Oregon was admitted as a State in 1859. 
The counties of Missoula, Shoshone, Idaho, Nez Perce and 
Boise had been organized in it by the territorial legislature 
of Washington, but had apparently never been represented 
in that body, if indeed the local governments provided for 
it had ever been organized. 

William H. Wallace, of Steilacoom, who had succeeded 
Governor Stevens as delegate in Congress in 1861, was made 
the first governor of the new territory. It is believed that 
Mrs. Wallace had first suggested its name, which is an 
Indian word meaning Gem of the Mountains. Mr. Wallace's 
term was just expiring and he went almost immediately to 
his new post of duty and the territorial government was soon 
organized, making the separation from Washington com- 

Walla Walla County, which, as originally organized in 
1854, included all of Washington east of the Cascades, and 
all of Idaho and that part of Montana lying west of the Rocky 
Mountains and north of the forty-sixth parallel, thus lost a large 
and fruitful part of its area. But it had been previously 
reduced in 1858 by the organization of Spokane County, 
which nominally took from it everything north and east of 
the Columbia and Snake rivers. But no government was 
ever organized for the county thus described. Enough 
settlers, however, had gone into the region lying between the 
Columbia and the divide between its valley and that of the 


Yakima, to justify the organization of a new county, and, 
in December, 1859, the legislature created Klikitat County — 
spelled Clicatat in the act — with practically the same boun- 
daries that the county had before Benton County was 
created. In January, i860, an act recreating Spokane County 
was passed, but again no county government was organ- 

During the summer of 1859, the soldiers of Captain J. J. 
Archer's company, 9th infantry, who were on guard at the 
camp of the boundary commissioners at Lake Osogoos, 
found gold in the Similkameen River, and soon it was 
reported that they were taking out $20 per day per man, 
with pans, after walking five miles each way to and from the 
mines. This news had led to a considerable rush toward the 
boundary. The little steamer George Wright, which had 
just been built to run from the Dalles to points on the upper 
Columbia and Snake River, was soon doingathriving business. 
On her first trip in the spring of i860, she took twenty pros- 
pectors and their outfits as far as Priest Rapids, and on her 
second she took fifty. Prospectors who had been disap- 
pointed in the Eraser River country now turned toward the 
Similkameen. Several parties left the Willamette in small 
boats, intending to make the entire journey in them, as the 
Hudson's Bay Company people had done thirty-five years 
earlier, and parties from the Puget Sound country started, 
as early as March, to cross the range, although it was known 
that the snow would probably obstruct their passage until 
May, and possibly till June. 

But the gold-bearing bars of the Similkameen were soon 
found to be in British territory, and a tax of ^^loo per man 
was demanded by the alert agents of Governor Douglass, 
before any American was permitted to begin work there. 


This proved very discouraging, and, although the first bars 
yielded richly in coarse gold, they were soon exhausted. 
Two reasons, therefore, impelled the gold hunters to make 
search elsewhere. Some of them made fresh discoveries 
in the neighborhood of Fort Colvile, now a United States 
military post, where Major Lugenbeel was in command, and 
some pressed on into the Kootenai country, while still others 
returned to the Dalles, and Walla Walla. Few, if any, 
remained in the country as settlers. Spokane County, as 
recreated, got no real benefit from this rush of gold hunters, 
and, in January, 1864, it was annexed to Stevens County, 
which had been created by act of January 20, 1863. 

It need hardly be mentioned that this latter county was 
named in honor of the first governor of the territory, whose 
death, on the battlefield at Chantilly, had occurred only a 
few months earlier. The limits of this county, as defined 
in this act, included all the territory lying west of the Colum- 
bia and north of the Wenatchee. The territory south of 
the Wenatchee, and now included in the counties of Kittitas 
and Yakima and part of Benton County, had been assigned 
to a new county, to be named Ferguson, by act of January 
23, 1863, but it was never organized. When Spokane and 
Stevens counties were consolidated in 1864, the new county 
of Stevens included all of eastern Washington lying north 
of the Wenatchee and Snake rivers. It was not until October 
30, 1879, that an act was passed finally separating Spokane 
from Stevens, and the county was established. 

All the territory lying south of a line running due west from 
a point two miles above the lower steamboat landing at 
Priest Rapids, that had once been assigned to Ferguson 
County, was erected into a new county called Yakima, 
by act of January 18, 1865. For the rest, it will be sufficient 


to say that Whitman County, including a large part of Frank- 
lin, was organized in 1871; Columbia in 1875; Lincoln — 
which it was at first proposed to call Sprague, in honor of 
General John W. Sprague, for many years manager of the 
Northern Pacific Railroad, in Washington and Oregon — 
Kittitas, Franklin, Adams and Douglas were created in 
1883; Okanogan in 1888; Ferry in 1899, and Chelan in 
the same year. 

Settlement in some of these counties had begun early, 
but had advanced very slowly. For a long time their possi- 
bilities were not understood, or even suspected. Their 
barren appearance, particularly in the central part of the 
territory, where sagebrush, cactus and greasewood seemed 
to the casual observer to be the only natural products, gave 
them a forbidding look to the settlers coming from the smiling 
prairies, or fertile openings of the old Northwest. Even 
the "bunchgrass country" of the eastern counties, where 
the immense herds of sleek horses owned by the Indians 
showed how well fed they were, tempted only the cattle, 
horse and sheep growers for many years. Henry Wind and 
A. B. Berneke, who were probably the first settlers in what 
is now Adams County, thought the country good only for 
stock-raising. They went there in 1864, and during the 
four succeeding years built a stone house near Cow Creek, 
using mortar made of mud and sand, and it is still standing. 
In 1868 they sold out their "squatter rights," for they had 
little else save their house and some stock to sell, and one 
of their successors, George Lucas, known as "Uncle George," 
and his brother lived on the place for thirty years without 
suspecting that it was worth their while to secure title to it 
from the government. Even A. L. Coffee, a man of some 
scientific acquirements, who was one of the early surveyors 


in this county, saw no value in its soil until many years after- 
wards. He told W. R. Cunningham Sr., in 1894, that he 
had recently been reading of the productiveness of the soil 
in the neighborhood of Mount Vesuvius, which under proper 
tillage improves rather than deteriorates year by year, and 
was convinced that the soil of Adams and other counties 
of central Washington was of the same character. J. F. 
Cross and his wife were the sixth and seventh white persons 
to make their home in this country, and they arrived in 1872. 
It was not until 1879 that the first hundred acres in the county 
were plowed and sown to wheat, by James G. Bennett, who 
also dug the first farm well in the county. Wheat is now 
the principal product of the county, which has produced 
between seven and eio-ht million bushels in a single 

The first real settlement in Whitman County was made 
in 1868, by people from the Walla Walla Valley. In the 
year following a number of newcomers made locations on 
Union Flat, and in 1870, James A. Perkins and T. J. Smith 
located their claims where the thriving city of Colfax now 
stands. As in all the other counties, the first arrivals were 

Writing of the year 1888, Judge Chadwick, now of the 
State supreme court, says: "The Cayuse was our standby 
in those days. In that year I saw a band of three thousand 
of these beautiful creatures on the banks of the river at 
Penewawa — Old Hus Hus Poween's band, the last hereditary 
chief of the Peloose tribe of Indians. For $^, I might have 
picked the band." This old chief was the last regular 
successor of that Palouse chief, whose 800 horses Colonel 
Wright's soldiers had shot in 1858, after the battle of Spokane 


As in Walla Walla County, the first active development, 
in an agricultural way, began in Whitman County when the 
discovery was made that cereals would grow on the hills 
as well as in the valleys. At about the same time it was 
demonstrated, by actual experiment, that apples, peaches, 
plums and cherries would grow on the hills, and fruit- 
raising, as in Walla Walla, Spokane and other neighboring 
counties, has since become a leading industry, particularly 
along the Snake River. 

Samuel Wilbur Condit, known in early days as "Wild- 
Goose Bill," and Captain John McGourin were the first 
white settlers in Lincoln County. Condit located his claim, 
in 1875, where the town of Wilbur now stands, and it was 
apparently named in his honor. O. B. Parks, J. G. Kathroe 
and Barney Fitzpatrick arrived in the neighborhood of 
Davenport, and A. D. Strout, C. C. May, L. A. Kennedy, 
T. M. Cooper, James Hulbert, John Oakly and Major J. K. 
Worts came a year later. 

Douglass County was setded still later. As in Adams, 
Lincoln and Whitman Counties its earliest settlers were 
stockmen. Among the first of these to arrive were Daniel 
Paul and Philip McEntee, who located near the present 
site of Coulee City, in 1882, while A. T. Greene, Judge Snow, 
Isaac Newhouse and E. F. Stowell arrived in the vicinity 
of "Jumper's Flats," now Waterville, between that time 
and i887. This was for several years supposed to be the 
only part of this large central country, having any agricul- 
tural possibilities, except such as were found in the bottoms 
of the Moses and Grand coulees, the two vast rents in the 
earth which traverse the country from west to east through 
its middle part. It soon came to be known as the Big Bend 
country, being located in the great bend of the Columbia, 

Built at New London, Conn^ f<>r the Great Xorthern 
Railroad in 1904. Length 630 feet, breadtl 73 feet 
6 inches, depth 54 feet; gross tonnage, as per Lloyd's 
rules, 20,718 tons; net 13,325' tons; measurement 
capacity 28,317 tons; sea speed "15 knots; twi screws; 
f 1,500 horse power. As compared with Gr;v's ship, 
the Columbia 210 tons, or Vancouver's, the Discovery, 
400 tons, she would seem like a floating island. 


■ ATOaHryTT/ ^TVTf-.I^A.rir. 




c was 

rimm&f ihasicft; iches, 

•^^oW^-^fie '§im fruit- 

raising, as in Waila 

Spokane and loring 

counties, has since I 

ding industi ;>ly 

along the Snake 1 

Samuel ^^ 

)wn in early days as "Wild- 

Goose B 

McGourin were the first 


located his claim, 


now stands, and it was 

n Pai G. Kathroe 

he neighborhood of 

L. A. Kennedy, 


Stockn ' nna fhp - 

.1 jre 
ij „ v'ere Daniel 

Paul „ 

ated i^f "' f^^ present 

site of Coult > . 

■" ^'^ - Snow, 

Isaac Newhou 


of "Jumper's * .. 

... time 

and 1887. This 

) be the 

only part of this 1 

J J agricul- 

tural possibilities, 

ii the bottoms 

^^ the Moses and u 

St rents in the 

ch which traverse 

I CO east through 

middle part. It s 

:)e Known as the Big Bend 

V, being locatea m \ 

i at bend of the Columbia, 


and has since become famous for its wheat and fruit, and 
particularly its red apples. 

The first white settler to make a home in what is now 
Yakima County was Fielding Mortimer Thorp, who arrived 
in the Moxee Valley with his family, consisting of four sons 
and five daughters, early in February, 1861. Thorp had 
crossed the plains to Oregon in 1844, the same year the 
Simmons party came. He first made a home in the Willam- 
ette Valley, but, in October, i860, he drove a band of cattle 
to the Yakima to winter on the abundant forage of that 
region. During the severe winter of 1861-62, the settlers 
both in Oregon and Washington lost most of their stock. 
Eighteen inches of snow fell in the Yakima Valley. Rain 
followed, and then several days of severe cold weather ensued, 
forming a sheet of ice and snow over the whole valley, 
through which neither cattle, sheep nor horses could force 
their way to the grass that lay buried beneath it. But 
Thorp and his four sons, together with Charles A. Splawn, 
who by this time had married his eldest daughter, set reso- 
lutely to work with heavy wooden flails and shovels to break 
down this icy barrier, and clear away the snow from ground 
enough to allow their stock to get food. In this way most 
of their animals were saved. 

For several years this family lived almost alone in the 
valley. In 1862, the Indians became very threatening. 
The agent stationed at Fort Simcoe thought it prudent to 
retire to the Dalles, but Thorp remained on his ranch. On 
one or two occasions, they appeared at his place in con- 
siderable numbers, but he and his family met them so boldly 
that they did not venture an attack. 

But it was not until a considerable time later that other 
settlers began to seek homes in that region. When Ferguson 


County was formed by the legislature in January, 1863, 
with practically the same limits as the Yakima County of 
1865, James A. Wilson, Alfred Hall and a man named 
Place were made the first board of commissioners, with Willis 
Thorp as sheriff, and W. Shaugh, justice of the peace. But 
the government of the county under this name was never 
organized, and in 1865 the name was changed to Yakima. 
William Parker, J. H. Wilbur and Charles Splawn were 
named as commissioners, William Wright, auditor, Willis 
Thorp, treasurer, and Gilbert Pell, sheriff. 

A town called Yakima City gradually grew up near 
Union Gap, on the other side of which Rains had camped 
in 1855, and permitted the Indians to jeer at him until his 
soldiers could stand it no longer, and so attacked and drove 
them over the hills without his order or authority. This 
town claimed to be "the Giant of the West," for a time, and 
its inhabitants hoped it would sometime be the metropolis 
of the interior. It had a Catholic, a Christian and a Con- 
gregationalist church, a Methodist society which held ser- 
vices more or less regularly, several shops and mercantile 
establishments, and presented a thriving appearance to 
the immigrants as they passed through it on their way to 
the Sound. But few of them were tempted to stop in the 
vicinity, and the settlement of the valley proceeded but 
slowly for twenty years. 

When the Northern Pacific Railroad reached the valley 
in 1885, most of the settlers in the county were living at or 
near Yakima City, or scattered along the river from the 
Columbia to the Wenass. The railroad refused to establish 
a station at the town, claiming that it was unfavorably 
located and would become a swamp when the valley came 
to be irrigated, as it must be. It located a new town four 


miles further west, which it called North Yakima, and the 
inhabitants of the earlier town gradually removed to it, 
leaving "the Giant of the West" practically deserted. 

Although the Spokane country had been explored by 
members of the Astor party, and was almost as well known 
to the early fur hunters as any part of Oregon, actual settle- 
ment in it did not begin until a much later date. David 
Thompson, first of all the Northwesters to arrive in Oregon, 
had camped for a time near the falls before he went to 
Astoria, and years later Peter Skeen Ogden, Archibald 
McKinlay and John Work had traveled up and down 
through it to the country of the Kalispels, the Flatheads and 
the Cceur d'Alenes. Gushing Eells and Elkanah Walker 
from Tshimakain had preached to the Indians there many 
times, and had hoped much from their ministrations. But 
from the time they were forced to leave the country, after 
the Whitman massacre, no white man seems to have thought 
of making a home there until James Monaghan chose a 
claim on the river, about twenty miles below the falls, in 
i860. Here he planted an orchard, for a time kept a ferry, 
and later built a bridge. Guy Haines, who had been a 
quartermaster with the McClellan party in 1853, settled at 
Walker's Prairie, near the site of the old mission, in 1862, 
and William Newman, who had served with the escort for 
the boundary commissioners in i860, and perhaps earlier, 
began to make himself a home near Newman Lake in 1865. 
Stephen Liberty, who came from Canada in 1866, took a 
claim near Liberty Lake in 1869, and Joseph Moran settled 
near the present city of Spokane in the same year. Two 
Frenchmen named La Fevre and Labie were then living 
near Medical Lake, and Major Whimpey, then or soon 
after, had a ranch near Latah. 


These seem to have been the only white settlers in the 
county previous to 1870, though when Spokane County 
was first organized by act of the legislature in 1858, Robert 
Douglass, John Owen and William McCreary were named 
as commissioners, Patrick McKenzie, sheriff, Lafayette 
Alexander, auditor, and the county seat was fixed on the 
land claim of Angus McLeod. But at that time the county 
included the whole country north of the Snake and east of 
the Columbia rivers, to the top of the Rocky Mountains. 

J. J. Downing and L. R. Scranton were the first American 
settlers on the site of the present city of Spokane. They 
arrived in 1872. There were not at that time more than a 
dozen white settlers in the county. M. M. Cowley arrived 
that year, and started a store about seventeen miles east of 
the falls. Downing and Scranton built a mill on the south 
side of the river, but sold it in 1873 to James N. Glover, 
who had lived for a time at Salem, Ore., but on account of 
failing health had gone to eastern Washington, intending 
to start a sheep-ranch. He had gone up the river by boat 
to Lewiston, then the head of navigation, and then, in com- 
pany with J. N. Matheney, rode across to the Spokane on 
horseback, looking carefully for grazing lands as they went. 
But the outlook for milling, and possibly for city-building, 
at the falls seemed so favorable to Glover, that he was 
easily persuaded to try a new venture. Downing and 
Scranton had by this time been joined by a man named 
Benjamin, to whom they had sold an interest in their enter- 
prise, but he had made only a small payment in cash, and 
there was so little prospect that he would be able to complete 
the transaction that his partners were much dissatisfied. 
Glover accordingly purchased his interest, and leaving 
Matheney in charge, returned to Portland for machinery 


to enlarge the mill, and a stock of goods with which he and 
Matheney intended to open a store. By the time he had 
reached the falls with these, C. F. Yeaton had arrived, and 
a new partnership was formed which soon owned the mill, 
a store and also engaged in farming and stock-raising. 

The town of Spokane Falls, as it was known during the 
twenty years following, was now started. These first per- 
manent residents on its site were hopeful, and even confident, 
that the first railroad to cross the continent by the northern 
route would pass through or near it, because of the vast 
power for manufacturing purposes which the falls would 
furnish, and they were easily able to convince many of the 
early homehunters and prospectors who passed that way, 
of the reasonableness of these expectations. In 1873, a 
postoffice was established, the mail being sent on horseback, 
overland from Lewiston by way of Colfax. Scranton was 
the first postmaster and Yeaton the second. In 1874, Rev. 
H. T. Cowley and family, and Mr. Pool and family arrived, 
and Cowley soon after opened a school with four pupils. 
In 1875, S. G. Havermale located a claim on the river, which 
included the island still known by his name, and Fred Post 
and family came a year later. Post built the first flourmill 
at the falls, receiving forty acres of the townsite as a bonus 
for building it. 

When the people of Oregon formed their State Constitu- 
tion in September 1857, they made an attempt to extend the 
limits of their State, by proposing to make the Snake River 
its boundary on the northeast, and so include within it all 
of what is now Walla Walla, Columbia, Garfield and Asotin 
Counties. They perhaps felt that they had some claim on 
this fertile region, as they had made two campaigns in it 
against hostile Indians — one in 1847-48, after the Whitman 


massacre, and one in the winter of 1855-56, after Wool had 
withdrawn the regular troops into winter quarters. More- 
over the Snake River made a better boundary than an 
imaginary line, and it was apparent that when the region 
should come to be settled, its people, as things were then, 
and were likely to remain for a considerable time thereafter, 
would find a more natural outlet for their surplus products, 
by sending them down the river, than over the mountains to 
the Sound. 

This attempt drew forth an emphatic protest from the 
people of the territory, although at the time there were none 
in the region sought to be annexed, either to favor or oppose 
it. When the legislature met in December, Governor Mc- 
Mullin, who had very recently arrived, and as yet knew very 
little about the territory, made a strong general protest 
against it in his message. It was a section of country, he 
said, which, "if I am correctly informed, is of excellent 
quality, admirably adapted to agriculture, and capable of 
sustaining a population of seventy-five or one hundred 
thousand souls." He looked upon this "attempt to rob us 
of so valuable a portion of our territory, as a political, moral 
and social outrage," and suggested that the legislature send 
a strong protest to Congress against this "attempt to change 
the boundary between the two territories without even ask- 
ing our consent." 

The legislature did protest, though it seems not to have 
been necessary, as Congress fixed the northern boundary of 
the State on the same line that had been the boundary of 
the territory. 

Another attempt to attach this part of Washington to 
Oregon was made in 1866, and this time it seems to have been 
prompted by a resident of Washington. In the fall of 1865, 


Anderson Cox was elected from Walla Walla to fill a sup- 
posed vacancy in the legislature. But on arriving at Olym- 
pia he found that no vacancy existed, and was seemingly 
grievously disappointed, for instead of retiring quietly to 
private life, he went to the capital of Oregon, and helped to 
set on foot a new project to annex the Walla Walla country 
to that State. The Oregon legislature sent a memorial 
to Congress urging annexation, and the Bar Association of 
Walla Walla addressed a letter of thanks to the speaker of 
the legislature for what had been done. All this provoked 
a great deal of comment, favorable and unfavorable, and 
was the cause of some anxiety for a time, but again Congress 
failed to do as requested. 

Statesmen from south of the Snake River have not been 
permitted entirely to forget this attempt at secession, in the 
early days of their political history, for in times when they 
have found themselves out of harmony, for the moment, with 
the other representatives of their parties, they have been not 
too gently reminded, sometimes, that there was a time when 
they were sorry their country was not a part of Oregon, and 
it is more or less pointedly hinted that possibly some shadow 
of regret still remains. All of which goes to show, possibly, 
that there is less of the milk of human kindness in the breast 
of the average politician than there might be and, no doubt, 
ought to be. 

O ti li' l.^^f'O 

Chapter LII. 

WHEN the war between the States began in 1861, 
the people of Washington were but poorly 
prepared to take an interest in it. They had 
been exhausted by a war at their own doors, 
in which nearly every man, and many of the women, had at 
some time taken up arms to defend themselves. Those 
who had not actually enlisted, or gone to the field, or served 
in the quartermaster's department, or in some other capacity 
connected with the volunteers, had acted as guards in the 
stockades and blockhouses, or carried arms with them to 
their fields, when they went about the work of planting the 
crops which were to support both the volunteers and their 
own families. 

War had impoverished them, though they had been poor 
enough before it came. They had not been paid for the 
fighting they had done, or for the property they had sacri- 
ficed to support those who had done the fighting, nor did 
they know when they would be, if ever. War, therefore, had 
little if any inspiration for them; they had seen too much 
of its grim reality, with none of its pride, pomp and circum- 
stance. They were loyal to the flag, and to all it represented 
— that was one reason at least why they were here, as they 
were, on this remote frontier, and why they made the sacri- 
fices they had made to be here. But they did not regard the 
flag or the government as in any special danger. They 
had long heard of the threats made by the secessionists to 
break up the Union, but did not regard them as serious. 
They were so far away that only the last and feeblest rever- 
berations of the guns from Fort Sumpter reached them. The 
blare of trumpet, and soul-stirring throb of drum, that 
sounded so continually in the ears of people in the Eastern 
States, hardly penetrated to their quiet homes, and when 


they did it hardly seemed probable that any patriotic response 
on their part, if made, could be of any benefit. 

The Democrats had always been in the majority in the 
territory. All the governors so far had been Democrats, 
appointed by Democratic presidents, and all the delegates 
in Congress had been Democrats, and had been elected by 
considerable majorities. The majority had, therefore, long 
been opposed to any interference with slavery, and inclined 
to sympathize with the slaveholders, as against the aboli- 
tionists, and few perhaps understood clearly that the new 
president and his party were not proposing to interfere with 
slavery in the States where it existed — in fact had declared 
repeatedly that they believed they had no right to do 
so. The majority accordingly were but little inclined 
to march across the continent to engage in the war on 
either side, and the minority probably did not, for some 
time, comprehend that the attack on Sumpter had changed 
the issue from one about slavery, to one about union or 

When therefore Henry M. McGill, the acting governor 
of the territory, on May lO, 1861, issued his proclamation 
in response to President Lincoln's first call for volunteers, 
calling upon the citizens of the territory capable of bearing 
arms to enroll themselves, and report to the adjutant-general, 
to aid the president in "maintaining the laws and the integ- 
rity of the Union," it met no very hearty response. It was 
not until October 12th, apparently, that any step was taken 
to raise volunteers in the territory, that resulted in any 
actual enlistments. On that day Colonel Thomas A. Scott, 
then assistant secretary of war, wrote to Justus Steinberger, 
who appears to have been in Washington at the time, notify- 
ing him that, by request of "Colonel W. H. Wallace, the 


governor of Washington Territory,"* he was authorized to 
organize a regiment of infantry, "in that territory, and the 
country adjacent thereto," of which regiment he was ap- 
pointed colonel. The other officers were to be appointed by 
the governor. In case the regular troops had left the terri- 
tory when he should arrive there, he was to be mustered in 
by any officer of the army at San Francisco, and he was to 
stop there on his way home and report to the officer in com- 
mand for the purpose of securing information. 

Arriving on the coast, he came to the Sound in January 
1862, and after consulting with members of the legislature 
then in session, and visiting the principal towns and settle- 
ments west of the mountains, he found that he could not 
hope to raise more than three companies, at most, in the 
territory. He appears to have received very little encourage- 
ment at Olympia. The territory was without a governor. 
Gholson had left it more than a year before, and had now 
gone over to the enemy. His successor had not yet been 
appointed. A new secretary, L. Jay. S. Turney, of Illinois, 
who had arrived only a few months earlier, was acting 
governor, and had opened the session with a message that 
was little more than a stump speech. Few of its recom- 
mendations were followed, or in any way regarded. One 
of them was that resolutions should be passed "calling upon 
Union-loving men to stand by Union-loving men in all things, 
and at all times, and resolving not to trade with, or in any 
manner countenance, those who are base enough to oppose 
the Administration in its laudable and patriotic efforts to 
sustain the government." This suggestion of a patriotic 
boycott appears to have been resented by the legislature, 
for although resolutions pledging the support of the territory 

* Wallace had been appointed governor, but never qualified. 


to the Union cause were offered in both houses, they were 
not adopted. But while thus refusing to declare their 
devotion to the Union, the members of the legislature did 
not fail to provide for raising the territory's proportion of 
the direct tax levied by the special session of Congress, 
which amounted to $7,755-33- They took the same course 
with regard to this war that Mr. Lincoln himself had taken, 
while a member of Congress, with regard to the war with 
Mexico; they were not willing to approve it, but they would 
not withhold the supplies necessary to sustain the soldiers 
in the field. 

While the indifference of the legislature probably had some 
effect, there were other reasons why the people did not hasten 
to enlist. The winter was unusually cold, and the settlers 
were very uneasy about the Indians, who were manifesting 
many evidences of discontent. During the preceding sum- 
mer one settler had been murdered by them at Gray's Harbor, 
and another at the mouth of the Snohomish, and there were 
indications of an uprising at the Cascades. The tribes in 
eastern Washington were showing much opposition to the 
miners, who were passing through their country in great 
numbers, to the newly discovered mines in Idaho. Eagle 
from the Light, one of the Nez Perce chiefs who had been 
present at the Walla Walla council in 1855, had stopped a 
supply train passing through his country, and compelled 
it to return to Walla Walla. The payments promised the 
tribes in the treaties had not been made, in some instances, 
and General W. W. Miller, who was then superintendent 
of Indian affairs in the territory, was having much trouble 
on that account. It had been necessary to send a small 
detachment from Fort Vancouver to the Chehalis, to quell 
a threatened uprising in that neighborhood. The northern 


Indians, always troublesome, were now more threatening 
than ever, and there were supposed to be some two thousand 
of them at and near Victoria, and along the shore of Van- 
couver Island. The military company at Fort Bellingham 
had already been withdrawn, and it was feared that the 
garrison on San Juan Island would be so far weakened as 
to be of little service. In such a condition of things few 
cared to enlist for a service that might require them to leave 
the State, where they were likely to be so much needed, 
although it seemed probable enough that they would only 
be required to replace the regulars already stationed here. 

After authorizing R. V. Peabody to raise a company in 
the Sound country, and I. W. Cannady and F. Moore to 
raise two east of the mountains. Colonel Steinberger returned 
to San Francisco and opened a recruiting office there March 
I St, under his authority to secure recruits in "adjacent 
territory. " Two months later he had secured four com- 
panies, and had two more started, with very good prospects 
that they would soon be raised to the full complement of 
eighty men each. Early in May, with the four companies 
then completed and mustered, he left San Francisco for 
Fort Vancouver. Two other companies from California 
soon followed, and later two more were raised, making eight 
in all from California, in the regiment which was notwith- 
standing known as the 1st Washington Territory infantry. 

Two companies of it only were raised in the territory, 
and one of these was recruited largely from residents of 
Oregon. This was Company F, which was mustered in 
at Vancouver. Its officers were W. D. Spencer, captain; 
Peter Fox, first lieutenant, and James Halloran, second 
lieutenant. It remained at Vancouver until late in Decem- 
ber i862,^when it was moved up the river to the Dalles, 


where it remained until March 1865, when it was returned 
to Vancouver and consolidated with Company E. Captain 
Spencer was then detailed for service in the adjutant- 
general's office, and the command fell to Lieutenant Fox, 
and afterwards to Second Lieutenant Halloran, who later 
became a lieutenant in the regular army. 

The members of Company K were enrolled at Vancouver, 
Walla Walla, Port Townsend, Steilacoom and Olympia. 
Its captain was Egbert H. Tucker, while E. D. Jester was 
first, and James E. D. Tothilleits second, lieutenant. Its 
organization was not completed until late in 1862. Writing 
from Fort Vancouver, under date of October 2, 1862, 
General Alvord says that only twenty-seven men had so 
far been enrolled at Olympia, while no report had been 
received from Walla Walla.* This company was stationed 
at Fort Steilacoom during nearly its whole period of service. 

The regiment served in Washington, Idaho and Oregon 
throughout the war. Companies B and C, under command 
of Major Calvin H. Rumrill, were stationed most of the time 
at Fort Colvile; Companies A and H at Walla Walla, where 
Colonel Steinberger commanded; Company G was with 
Company K at Fort Steilacoom, under Lieutenant-Colonel 
Thomas C. English; Company E at Lapwai in Idaho, 
Company F at the Dalles, and Company D under Captain 
Seidenstriker at Fort Hoskins in Oregon. In 1863 Com- 
panies I, B and G, and sometime later Company D, were 
sent to Fort Boise, under command of Major Lugenbeel of 
the regular army, and, during that and the following year, did 
good service in protecting the immigrants against the Snake 
Indians, who during those years were very troublesome. 

* Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Vol. L, Part 
II, p. 146. 


The Indians also made incursions northward to the 
neighborhood of Walla Walla and Lapwai, where the 
troops stationed at those points were called upon to drive 
them back to their own country. 

During the winter of 1864-65, which was very severe, 
many immigrants were overtaken on the trail by the early 
snowstorms, and would have starved but for the aid furnished 
from Fort Boise and other military posts. On December 
20th, Captain Seidenstriker wrote to General Alvord from 
Fort Boise that "A large number of emigrants are living 
around this vicinity, and a great many of them have families 
— in fact nearly all of them. They are in a state of actual 
destitution and want, which is the more aggravated by the 
extreme severity of the winter, rendering it impossible to 
work, even if it could be obtained, which, even in any case, 
is scarce in a mining region at this season of the year. Under 
these circumstances, I have deemed it my duty, as a govern- 
ment officer, to assist them in the way of provisions to some 
small extent, and the citizens generally have done the same. 
As I feel convinced that the general, if he saw them daily 
as I do, would do the same, I respectfully ask his approval 
of what I have done, and his advice and orders what to do 
in the future." He also found it necessary to furnish some 
food to the Indians near the fort, although all those 'm its 
neighborhood had shown more or less hostility to the im- 
migrants during the preceding season, and would show 
more to those in the season following. 

But these Indians made less trouble for the immigrants, 
the army and the stage and express companies, which had 
now established their lines from points on the Columbia 
to Boise and Salt Lake, than white outlaws were mak- 
ing. Stages were frequently held up, and their passengers 


murdered. Sometimes the stage horses were stolen from the 
stables at the stations, and shipments of gold dust were 
sent away only under strong guard. The military did 
what could be done to rid the country of these outlaws, 
but was not able to put an end to their depredations, which 
continued until long after the war ended. 

Those who sympathized more or less openly with the 
rebels in arms were not wanting in the territory, and they 
gave the loyal citizens no little cause for anxiety at times. 
There were also some outspoken sympathizers with the 
Confederate cause in Victoria, with whom those on this side 
the straits were believed to be in correspondence. Early 
in 1863, Allen Francis, the United States consul at Victoria, 
received information that led him to believe a plot was 
forming, or had been formed, to seize the revenue cutter 
Shubrick, and convert her into a Confederate privateer. 
In March a fast-sailing schooner, called the J. M. Chapman, 
had been seized in the harbor of San Francisco, just as she 
was preparing to put to sea, with only four sailors on board, 
but with seventeen other men, and a considerable quantity 
of arms and ammunition concealed in her hold. This 
seizure made the Union men everywhere along the coast 
more alert, as they suspected that other attempts would be 
made by the disloyal to get a vessel for their purpose. 

The Shubrick made occasional visits to Victoria. Captain 
Pease, her commander, was Southern born, and it was this 
fact, no doubt, which caused Consul Francis to observe 
his movements very closely, and he soon learned enough, 
as he thought, to justify the conclusion that she was to be 
seized, with the captain's consent, while on the British side 
of the straits, and provided with a new crew which would 
willingly go on a privateering enterprise. The Pacific 


This station was built by the Hudson's Bay Company 
on Boise River in Idaho, a short distance above its 
junction with the Snake River, a short time after 
Wyeth built Fort Hall. It was the third resting 
place of the emigrants on their long journey. Whit- 
man brought two v.heels of his wagon to it in 1836, and 
they were the first wheels that had passed Fort Hall. 

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Mail steamers at that time were carrying considerable quanti- 
ties of gold dust from San Francisco to Panama, and each 
one of them was a tempting prize for a privateer. While 
the Shubrick was much smaller than any of these ships, 
she carried four or five brass cannon, and a considerable 
supply of small arms, and with the right kind of a crew and 
commander would probably capture some rich prizes if 
allowed to get away. 

The consul communicated such facts as he had learned 
to Lieutenant Selden, who was second in command on the 
Shubrick, and whose loyalty was undoubted, on the occasion 
of her next visit to Victoria, and while the captain and a 
large part of the crew were on shore, he threw off her moor- 
ings, and with only six men on board, sailed away for Port 

Captain Pease made no effort to rejoin his ship, but sailed 
from Victoria direct for San Francisco and Panama, and 
so far at least confirmed the information that Consul Francis 
had received. Writing of this incident to Captain Hopkins 
of the United States war steamer Saginaw, on May 13, 1863, 
Consul Francis said: "There is still in this city a rebel 
organization, which has had several meetings within the 
last few weeks. They are awaiting, it seems from rumors, 
the receipt of letters of marque from the president of the 
so-called Confederate States. At this moment an English 
steamer, called the Fusi Yama, is expected in this port 
from England, and it is rumored that she is to be purchased 
for a privateer."* 

Later there were occasional rumors that certain persons 
in California had been commissioned by Jeff. Davis to 

* Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies, Series i , Vol. 
II, p. 260. 


raise companies of Volunteers for the Confederate army, 
and that they were laying plans to start an uprising at this 
or that place. One of these rumors was to the effect that 
a steamer was to be seized at one of the southern California 
ports, and, when manned and armed, was to prey upon the 
coast cities, as well as upon the commerce of the Pacific. 
This report appears to have caused some anxiety for the 
safety of Astoria and points on the Columbia, and a new 
defense at Cape Disappointment named Fort Baker, in 
honor of Senator E. D. Baker of Oregon, was built in 

The enrolling officers appointed under the conscription 
act in 1863, to make up the lists of able-bodied men sub- 
ject to military duty, met with some trouble, as they did 
everywhere else. The provost marshal established his head- 
quarters at Vancouver, and special deputies were appointed 
in all the counties. Edwin Eells, who served in Walla 
Walla County, probably met with as much resistance in 
the discharge of his duty as any of them. The lawless 
element, which had been attracted to that part of the terri- 
tory by the successive gold discoveries, was still strong in 
the community, and it was not patriotic in any sense. It 
became openly defiant when it began to be known that it 
would be compelled to furnish its share of recruits for the 
army in case of need. In one saloon a bucket of water was 
thrown over the enrolling officer; in another a bunch of fire- 
crackers was set off under his chair, as soon as he began to 
write, and in another all his books and papers were taken 
away and destroyed. Seven of those who had thus inter- 
fered with the enrollment were subsequently arrested for 
resisting the draft and, on trial before the United States 
commissioners, received various sentences. 


But as time passed the loyal element in the community, 
which was so passive at first, gradually became aroused. 
Union clubs were organized in the towns, and the disloyal 
element, which was so bold and outspoken at first, soon 
found itself in the minority, and the expression of its senti- 
ments more and more unpopular. The legislature which 
assembled in December 1862 had a strong majority of out- 
spoken Union men, who promptly adopted a series of reso- 
lutions denouncing secession, approving the policy of the 
national administration, and promising their unwavering 
support to the Union cause. Women as well as men began 
to take an active interest in the war, and to organize clubs 
and societies to aid in the work of mercy which it was 
arranged that women should do. One of the first of these 
clubs was organized at Vancouver, and at the close of the 
war, Dr. Bellows, the president of the Sanitary Commission, 
reported that it had raised and forwarded more money, in 
proportion to the population and wealth of the town in which it 
was located, than any other society in the country, save one. 
This club had its beginning in a Httle church which Rev. 
John McCarthy, chaplain at the fort, had started, and the 
pulpit of which he regularly filled. It had sixteen members,* 
scarcely one of whom was able to keep a servant. They 

* These were Mrs. Gay Hayden, Mrs. M. E. Nicholson, Mrs. Amanda 
Loomis, Mrs. C. N. Whitney, Mrs. Mary Tumbull, Mrs. Susan TumbuU, 
Mrs. S. A. Fletcher, Mrs. S. J. Hakes,' Mrs. E. S. McConnell, Mrs. E. 
Durgin, Mrs. Middleton, Mrs. L. Slocum, Mrs. R. Brown, Mrs. E. J. Troup, 
Mrs. Freeman and Mrs. M. S. Stablet. When their work was completed 
at the close of the war, these ladies resolved to meet and dine together 
once a year, so long as any of them should live, and this they did until 
1904, when the last meeting was held in Portland. Since then the few 
surviving members have been too widely scattered and too old and feeble 
to be able to attend. Mrs. Hayden now (1909) lives in Seattle, Mrs. Troup 
in the Philippines and Mrs. Freeman in Scappoose, Oregon. 


held fairs, dances at the fort, and collected money by all 
the means usually devised by charitable organizations. 

The work was taken up by ladies in other towns and even 
in the country neighborhoods, and contributions soon became 
so numerous and so large that a central organization was 
formed at Olympia, with General W. W. Miller as treasurer, 
to receive and forward the money offered for this purpose. 
One of the earliest contributions received was $700, from 
Port Madison. In a single issue of the ^'Overland Press," 
published at Olympia, the following contributions were 
acknowledged : Monticello Precinct, ^210.50; Boisfort Prai- 
rie, $101.55; Claquato, $102; Port Angeles, $30; Grand 
Prairie, $iy, Chehalis Point, $14; Clallam, $41.50; Whidby 
Island, $223.37; Yelm Precinct, $51.67. "The Northwest," 
published at Port Townsend, reported the total contributed 
by the mill company at Port Gamble, and its employees, 
down to October 30, 1862, at $2,204.35. 

As a part of the history of the territory in the civil war, 
it will be interesting to trace the careers of those officers of 
the regular army who earlier saw service in it, and with whom 
its people became more or less acquainted before and during 
the Indian war. Two among these. Grant and Sheridan, 
attained first places in command, and won undying fame. 
Grant had spent only one year at Fort Vancouver, and 
Sheridan had arrived at that fort in October 1855, and 
remained in Washington and Oregon until the war began 
in 1 861. Meantime he had been in the skirmishes on the 
Yakima in which the Rains expedition engaged, and in the 
fighting at the relief of the Cascades. 

The careers of these distinguished officers are too well 
known to need recital here. Of the others General W. G. 
Harney was relieved from his command in Oregon shortly 


after the San Juan incident, and called to Washington. In 
April 1861 he was assigned to command in the West, with 
headquarters in St. Louis. While on his way to his new 
post he was arrested by the Confederates at Harper's Ferry, 
and taken to Richmond, where he met a number of his old 
associates, including Lee and Joseph E. Johnston, who had 
already joined the secession movement. His loyalty does 
not, however, appear to have been shaken by the interviews 
he had with them. He was soon released and permitted to 
go on his way to his new post of duty. He arrived in St. 
Louis at a time when the war feeling was at fever heat, and 
his conservative policy was not at all relished by the Union 
element, led by Frank Blair and Captain Nathaniel Lyon. 
His Southern birth* made it natural for the loyal element 
to distrust him, and his unwillingness to take aggressive 
measures led to his being relieved from his command. He 
was soon after reinstated, and published a proclamation 
declaring that "Missouri must share the destiny of the 
Union," which for the time being won him the confidence of 
a large part of the Unionists. But shortly afterwards he 
entered into an agreement with Governor Jackson and 
General Price, for the purpose "of restoring peace and good 
order to the people of the state, in subordination to the laws 
of the general and state governments," which was deemed 
so liberal to the insurrectionists, and so compromising to 
the Federal authority, that he was again relieved from com- 
mand, and the great opportunity of his life was gone forever. 
At the outbreak of the war the officers highest in command 
of the army were one major-general, who was a lieutenant- 
general by brevet, and four brigadiers. Of these four, one, 

* Harney was born in Tennessee, and appointed to the army from 


Twiggs, had been dismissed for surrendering his department 
to the Confederates, and another, Joseph E. Johnston, had 
early resigned and been appointed one of the four officers 
highest in command in the Confederate army. Wool and 
Harney were the remaining two, and Wool was 75 years old, 
while Harney was but 61 . The new administration urgently 
needed a commander for its armies, and although Scott, 
who fully realized that he was too old for active command, 
had selected Lee, who was then only a lieutenant-colonel in 
the Second Cavalry, as his successor, his resignation had 
left the way open for another, and Harney would naturally 
have been chosen, had he been as prompt and aggressive 
in asserting the authority of the government as he had been 
two years earlier at San Juan Island. How difficult the 
situation was for those who were required to choose a com- 
mander, is shown by the fact that, of the three greatest who 
were finally found, two— Grant and Sherman— were dis- 
covered among officers who had served on the Pacific Coast, 
but had resigned from the army before the war began, and 
one, Sheridan, was an obscure lieutenant at one of the most 
remote posts on the Oregon frontier. At the moment there 
was no officer then in service, whose abilities and experience 
were so well calculated to command confidence, as those of 
Harney, had there been no cause to suspect his loyalty. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Silas Casey, who was for so long a 
time in command at Fort Steilacoom, was made a brigadier- 
general in 1 86 1, and assigned to organize the volunteers in 
Washington, D. C. He afterwards commanded a division 
in General E. D. Keyes' corps, on the peninsula, and was 
in the front at the battle of Fair Oaks, before Richmond, 
and was brevetted a brigadier in the regular army, and 
major-general of volunteers for distinguished gallantry. He 


subsequently served as president of the board for the exami- 
nation of officers to command colored troops, and was finally 
brevetted major-general in the regular army and retired in 
1868 with that rank. 

Lieutenant Augustus V. Kautz traveled in Europe for 
a year after the close of the Indian war, and on the breaking 
out of the rebellion, he was commissioned captain in the 
6th cavalry. He was in the Seven Days' battles before 
Richmond, after which he became colonel of the 2d Ohio 
cavalry, with which he took part in the battle of South 
Mountain in 1862. His regiment was then sent to Camp 
Chase at Columbus, to refit, and he commanded that post 
until April 1863, when he was assigned to command a 
brigade of cavalry in the Army of the Ohio. He took part 
in the capture of Monticello, Ky., and subsequently in the 
pursuit and capture of John Morgan's raiders. For a time 
he was chief of cavalry in the 23d corps, and, in May 
1864, was made a brigadier-general of volunteers, and 
assigned to command a division in the Army of the James. 
He entered Petersburg with a small command in June 1864, 
and was rewarded with the brevet of lieutenant-colonel in 
the regular army. He next led the advance in Wilson's 
raid, which cut the railroads south of Petersburg and Rich- 
mond, and in March 1865 he was given command of a 
division of colored troops, with which he entered Richmond 
April 3d. Later he was breveted brigadier-general in the 
regular army, for gallant and meritorious service. In 1866 
he was made lieutenant-colonel of the 34th infantry, and in 
1874 colonel of the 8th infantry. His last promotion was 
to the full rank of brigadier-general, after which he was 
assigned to command the department of the Columbia. 
After his retirement from the service, he spent a large part 


of his time on the Sound, which was his home, and where 
he acquired a considerable fortune. He died at Seattle, 
September 4, 1895. 

Lieutenant Robert N. Scott, son of Rev. Dr. Scott, was 
with Haller at Port Townsend. He married a daughter of 
Gen. Silas Casey. During the civil war he served as an 
officer of Gen. Halleck's staff. 

Colonel George Wright was a native of Vermont. At 
the beginning of the civil war he was commander of the 
department of Oregon, and was promoted to the command 
of the whole coast, with headquarters at San Francisco, in 
September 1861, with the rank of brigadier-general of volun- 
teers. He remained in this position during the war, and 
in 1864 was brevetted brigadier-general in the regular army. 
In 1865, he was again assigned to the department of the 
Columbia, and while on the way to Vancouver, accompanied 
by his wife, was drowned by the sinking of the steamer 
Brother Jonathan, off Crescent City, Oregon, July 30, 

Captain E. D. Keyes was promoted major, after the Indian 
war closed, in 1858. He had served in Charleston Harbor 
during the Nullification excitement in 1832, and afterwards 
as an aid on General Scott's staff. He was the latter's 
secretary in i860, and in May 1861, after so many of the 
officers from the South had resigned, was appointed colonel 
of the nth infantry. Soon after he was advanced to be 
brigadier-general. In the Peninsular campaign he com- 
manded the 4th corps, and in 1862 he was made major- 
general of volunteers. He was engaged in operations along 
the James River under John A. Dix, during the Gettys- 
burg campaign, though he accomplished but little. He 
resigned in May 1864 and removed to California. 


Captain James A. Hardie, of the 9th infantry, who took 
part with Wright in the final campaign in eastern Washing- 
ton, served on McClellan's staff during the Peninsular cam- 
paign, and on that of Burnside in the battles around Fred- 
ericksburg. He was made a brigadier in 1862, and after 
1863 was assistant secretary of war under Stanton, when 
he was appointed inspector-general, and brevetted a major- 

Lieutenant David McM. Gregg, of the ist dragoons, 
who was also in Wright's campaign, was made a captain in 
1861, and soon after became colonel of the 8th Pennsylvania 
cavalry. He was in the Seven Days' battles before Rich- 
mond, and won the rank of brigadier. He commanded a 
cavalry division, under Stoneman and Pleasanton, and took 
part in the battles at Beverly Ford, Aldie, Gettysburg, Rapi- 
dan Station and New Hope Church. He commanded the 
2d cavalry division, under Sheridan, in 1864, and was one of 
his principal lieutenants in the great raid in the rear of Lee's 
army, toward Richmond, while the fighting in the Wilderness 
was in progress. He finally commanded all the cavalry of 
the Army of the Potomac, from August i, 1864, until Febru- 
ary 1865, when he resigned. 

Major W. N. Grier, of the ist dragoons, was made inspec- 
tor-general of the Army of the Potomac, in 1861, and com- 
manded the 1st regiment of cavalry in the Peninsular cam- 
paign. He was at the siege of Yorktown, the battle at 
Williamsburg, and at Gaines' Mill, and took part in the 
Seven Days' battles. He was afterwards on court martial 
and recruiting duty, and was finally brevetted a brigadier- 
general in the regular army. 

Captain F. L. Dent, of the 9th infantry, was promoted to 
the rank of major in 1863, and commanded a regiment of 


infantry in the Army of the Potomac. He was sent with his 
regiment to suppress the riots in New York, in that year, and 
for a time served on a mihtary commission to try state 
prisoners, after which he became a member of the staff of 
Lieutenant-General Grant. He was retired at his own 
request in 1883, after forty years of service. 

Captain R. W. Kirkham, who was Wright's quartermaster 
and commissary, served with him in the same capacity, in 
the department of the Pacific, and that of CaHfornia. In 
1870-71 he visited the Far East, in company with William 
H. Seward. 

Captain E. O. C. Ord of the 3d artillery, who was with 
Rains in one of the first campaigns of the Indian war, and 
with Wright at the battles of Four Lakes and Spokane Plains, 
subsequently became one of the most distinguished officers 
in the Union army. He was at the Presidio in California 
when the war began, but was called East, and almost imme- 
diately made a brigadier-general in the Army of the Potomac. 
He was in the combats at Dranesville and Ball's Bluff, 
and later was sent to the Western army, where he partici- 
pated in the battles before Corinth, and was severely wounded. 
He afterwards commanded the 13th corps, and the right 
wing of Sherman's army in the movement against Jackson. 
His corps was for a time in the department of the Gulf, but 
in July 1864, he was transferred to Baltimore, and given 
command of the 8th corps. Later he commanded the i8th 
corps, and took part in many of the battles about Petersburg. 
Sherman says that "his skilful, hard march the night before 
was one of the chief causes of Lee's surrender. " 

Lieutenant M. R. Morgan of the 3d artillery, who was 
with Wright in his final campaign, subsequently became 
a distinguished officer in the commissary department of 


the army operating against Richmond. After the war he 
was commissary-general in several departments, and was 
finally retired in 1894 with the rank of brigadier-general. 

Lieutenant R. O. Tyler of the 3d artillery was sent to 
relieve Fort Sumpter in 1861, and witnessed its bombard- 
ment. He also helped to reopen communication with Balti- 
more, after the attack on the 6th Massachusetts regiment in 
that city. He took part in the Peninsular campaign, where 
he won the rank of brigadier-general, and at Fredericksburg 
he had charge of the artillery of the Central Grand Division. 
He won distinction both at Chancellorsville and at Gettys- 
burg, and was subsequently a division commander in the 
22d corps. He took part in the battles of Spottsylvania and 
Cold Harbor in 1864, and at the latter was so severely 
wounded that he was forever after unfitted for active service. 

Captain Rufus Ingalls, of the quartermaster's department, 
who was on General Harney's staff at the the time of the 
San Juan affair, subsequently became one of the most dis- 
tinguished officers in the quartermaster's service in the Union 
armies. He was chief quartermaster in the Army of the 
Potomac, under all its commanders, from McClellan to 
Grant, and was present at the battles of South Mountain, 
Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and 
nearly all the great battles from the time Grant took com- 
mand until Lee surrendered. He achieved the rank of 
major-general, and finally became quartermaster-general 
of the army. 

Colonel Steinberger, of the ist Washington, was em- 
ployed as agent for the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, 
and the Adams Express Company in Portland, before his 
appointment as colonel, with authority to raise the regiment 
in Washington and California. After the war he was given 


a commission in the pay department of the regular army, 
in which he rose to the rank of major. He was killed by 
being thrown from his horse at Helena, Montana, October 
13, 1870, and was buried at Fort Shaw. 

Charles P. Eagan, who was appointed first lieutenant in 
the 1st Washington regiment, July 21, 1862, became second 
lieutenant of the 9th infantry in 1866, and rose through the 
successive grades to be brigadier-general, and served as 
commissary general of the army from May 3, 1898 to his 
retirement in 1900. 

General John M. Wilson of the regular army was ap- 
pointed a cadet at West Point from Washington Territory 
in 1855. He graduated in i860, and served as a lieutenant 
in the artillery at Washington and Fortress Monroe until 
1 861. He was at the first battle of Bull Run, and in the 
Peninsular campaign, winning a brevet as captain at Gaines' 
Mill. He was transferred to the engineer corps in 1862, 
with which he served till the close of the war. He was then 
employed in various engineering duties until 1889, when he 
became superintendent of West Point. Afterwards he 
became colonel, and finally brigadier-general and chief of 

Lieutenant W. D. Pender, of the ist dragoons, was a 
North Carolinian, and was educated at West Point. He 
resigned from Wright's command in March 1861, and 
returning East became colonel of the 6th North Carolina 
regiment. He was made a brigadier in 1862, and a major- 
general in May 1863. He commanded a brigade at Chancel- 
lorsville, and a division in the Gettysburg campaign, where 
he was mortally wounded in the second day's fighting. In 
reporting his death General Lee said of him: "This lament- 
ed officer has borne a distinguished part in every engagement 


of this army, and was wounded on several occasions, while 
leading his command with conspicuous gallantry and 

Major Robert Selden Garnett, who commanded at Fort 
Simcoe while Wright was making the more active part of 
his first campaign against the Indians, in eastern Washington, 
was in Europe when the war broke out, but returned almost 
immediately, resigned his commission, and tendered his 
services to Virginia, his native State. He was appointed 
adjutant-general of State troops, with the rank of colonel, 
and in June 1861 was made brigadier-general in the Con- 
federate services. He was killed in an engagement in the 
mountains of West Virginia, during McClellan's campaign 
in that region in June 1861. 

Captain Charles S. Winder was a native of Maryland. 
He resigned at the beginning of the war, and became a 
major of artillery in the Confederate army. Later he was 
made colonel of the 6th South Carolina infantry, and sub- 
sequently a brigadier-general. He was killed at the battle 
of Cedar Mountain. 

Of the naval officers, Lieutenant Thomas Stowell Phelps, 
who was attached to the Decatur, and did good service during 
the attack on Seattle, was with the relief expedition sent to 
Fort Sumpter in 1861, and was afterwards engaged in the 
secret service on the coast of North Carolina. He was in 
the battle with the gunboat Curlew in Hatteras Inlet, and 
subsequently in the attack on the batteries at Yorktown 
and Gloucester Point. At the battle of West Point he did 
good service in preventing the junction of a large force of 
Confederates with their main army. He was made lieu- 
tenant-commander in 1862, and commanded the Juniata 
in the attack on Fort Fisher. He was commissioned 


commander in 1865, captain in 1871, commodore in 1879, 
and rear-admiral in 1885. 

Captain Guert Gansevoort, who commanded the Decatur 
in the battle at Seattle, had been executive officer on board 
the brig Somers in 1842, which was at the time manned 
chiefly by naval apprentices, and on board which a mutiny 
occurred, while on the return trip from the coast of Africa. 
One of the leaders of the mutiny was a son of the secretary 
of war, but in spite of this fact Captain Mackenzie ordered 
the leaders arrested. They were tried on board ship, found 
guilty, and young Spencer, the secretary's son and some of 
the others were executed at sea. For some time after the 
beginning of the civil war, Gansevoort was chief of ordnance 
at the Brooklyn navy yard, and later commanded the iron- 
clad Roanoke. He was forty years in the service and retired 
with the rank of commodore. 

Lieutenant George Upham Morris greatly distinguished 
himself by his defense of the Cumberland in Hampton 
Roads, when she was attacked by the Merrimac, the day before 
the battle with the Monitor. When called upon to surrender, 
after his ship had been struck and was a hopeless wreck, he 
replied that he would sink first. Inspired by his heroic 
conduct, his crew stood to their guns until the last moment 
and fired a parting broadside at their assailant when the 
muzzles of their guns were almost touching the water. This 
broadside has been referred to as "the final salute of the 
wooden navy. " 

Lieutenant E. P. Alexander, of the engineer corps, was 
stationed at Fort Steilacoom when the war broke out in 1861, 
although he had been there only a few months. He was a 
native of Georgia and, as soon as he learned that his State 
had seceded, resolved to go with it. He sailed from Port 


Townsend on April 9th for San Francisco, and "just four 
years later to an hour," he says in his Military Memoirs of 
a Confederate, "I saw General Lee ride back to his lines 
from Appomattox Court House, where he had just surren- 
dered his army." Meantime Alexander had become a dis- 
tinguished officer in the Confederate service; had participated 
in the Seven Days' battles in 1862, was at Fredericksburg 
and Chancellorsville, and had commanded the artillery of 
Longstreet's corps at Gettysburg. In the latter battle he 
had been in charge of the Confederate guns during the great 
artillery duel of the third day, the purpose of which was to 
demoralize the Federal lines on Cemetery Hill, and so prepare 
the way for Pickett's charge. Longstreet had directed him 
to give the word to Pickett, when he should think a favorable 
moment had arrived to begin the charge, but he had shrunk 
from that responsibility, and notified Longstreet that he 
would expect him to decide that important matter himself. 
In his book he has given the best account of this, as well as 
several other great battles of the war in which he took part, 
that has so far been written by any who saw them from the 
Confederate side. 

Major Gabriel J. Rains was promoted to be a lieu- 
tenant-colonel, just before he resigned from the army 
in July 1 861. He was soon after made a brigadier- 
general in the Confederate army. He led a division at 
Wilson's Creek, and was at Shiloh and Perryville. He 
was then transferred to the Eastern army, where he was 
wounded, and was then placed in charge of the conscrip- 
tion and torpedo bureaus in Richmond, and afterwards 
at Charleston, and superintended the placing of torpedoes 
for the defense of Richmond, Charleston, Savannah and 


But of all the officers who had seen service in Washington' 
and left it to join the army of the Confederacy, George E* 
Pickett won the most brilliant reputation. Even if he had 
not been chosen to lead that famous charge up Cemetery 
Ridge, he would be remembered as one of the best fighters 
in that army. "We tried very hard," says General Lee, in 
reporting one of the battles with Grant's army in front of 
Petersburg, "to stop Pickett's men from capturing the breast- 
works of the enemy, but could not do it." His famous bri- 
gade, composed wholly of Virginia regiments, was known 
as "the Gamecock Brigade," and it was as firm and heroic 
everywhere as in the charge at Gettysburg. Its efficiency 
was due largely, if not entirely, to the soldierly conduct and 
ability of its commander. The American soldier is every- 
where and always the same; but he requires a leader, for 
masses of men cannot move themselves. They require to 
be placed in position, and assured that their energies will 
be well directed, and they do all that is required of them, and 
have done so from Lexington to San Juan Hill. If they 
have failed, it has been the fault of their commanders. It 
was the soul of Napoleon that inspired the old guard; the 
soul of Washington that inspired the ragged and ill-fed 
soldiers of the revolution; the souls of Grant, and Sherman, 
and Sheridan, and Lee, and "Stonewall" Jackson, that 
inspired those of the civil war, to do the heroic deeds they 
did on many fields. It was the soul of Pickett that inspired 
Pickett's brigade, and it was the same soul that first found 
itself at San Juan Island. 

Pickett resigned June 25, 1861, and went to Portland to 
take the steamer to San Francisco. Edward Huggins, who 
knew him well, saw him as he passed Fort Nisqually, and 
says "he rode straight forward, looking neither to the right 


or left, and I did not speak to him." He was given a 
colonel's commission when he reached Virginia, his native 
State, and in 1862 was made a brigadier, and a few months 
later, after the close of the first Maryland campaign, a major- 
general. He was in most of the great battles fought by the 
Army of Northern Virginia, except Chancellorsville. General 
Grant took a special interest in him after the war closed, 
and early relieved him from the limitation of his parole 
requiring him to remain at his home, by a special letter 
written with his own hand. 

Captain C. C. Augur, of the 4th infantry, whose company 
with that of Haller's charged the Indians at the battle of 
Two Buttes, in the futile Rains' campaign, won distinction 
in the Army of the Potomac, and in Louisiana. He was 
severely wounded at Cedar Mountain, and was a member of 
the commission that investigated the surrender of Harper's 
Ferry. He was made major-general of volunteers in 1862 
and commanded the right wing of the army at the siege of 
Port Hudson. From October 1863 to 1866 he was in com- 
mand in the city of Washington. 

Captain D. A. Russell was engaged in the defenses of 
Washington during the winter of 1861-62, and afterwards 
appointed colonel of the 7th Massachusetts regiment. He 
was in most of the great battles in the Peninsular campaign, 
and later at Antietam, after which he was promoted brigadier- 
general. Later he was at Fredericksburg, Salem and 
Beverly Ford, and commanded a division in the 6th corps 
in the battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania and North 
Anna. He was sent with Sheridan to the Shenandoah 
Valley, and was killed at the head of his column, at Opequan. 

There were other officers of the 4th and 9th infantry, and 
the 3d artillery who w^on distinction after serving in the 


Indian wars in Washington. Among these were Lieutenant 
J. W. Forsythe, who was for many years General Sheridan's 
chief of staff, Lieutenants Robert McFeely and D. B. McKib- 
ben, who were prominent in the quartermaster and com- 
missary departments, and Captains John H. Winder and 
James J. Archer, who rose to the rank of general in the Con- 
federate army. The latter was taken prisoner in the first 
day's fighting at Gettysburg. 

Major Granville O. Haller's intimate connection with many 
of the leading events of the Indian war has already been 
frequently mentioned. After that war he was stationed at 
Port Townsend and Bellingham, and at the latter place 
suppressed an incipient Indian uprising, which broke out 
just as he was leaving for San Juan Island, in 1859. In i860 
he was sent to Fort Mojave in Arizona, where he remained 
until 1 86 1, when he was ordered East. On arriving in New 
York he found that he had been already made major of 
the 7th New York regiment, but as it had been captured and 
paroled, and could not enter active service again until ex- 
changed, he reported to General McClellan, and soon became 
a member of his staff. Later the 93d New York regiment 
was assigned to him, as general headquarter's guard. After 
serving through the Virginia and Maryland campaigns, on 
the Rappahannock, under Burnside, and for a short time 
under Hooker, he was made provost-marshal-general for 
the State of Maryland, and during the Gettysburg cam- 
paign was a member of General Couch's staff, at Har- 
risburg. When Early was approaching the Susquehanna, 
he was sent to warn the farmers to remove their horses 
and cattle across the river and to take such measures 
as he could by aid of the citizens, to prevent the rebels 
from crossing by the Columbia bridge, and he was near 


at hand when the bridge was burned, and Early forced to 
turn back. 

Shortly afterwards he was relieved from command and 
dismissed from the service by order from the war department, 
"for disloyal conduct, and the utterance of disloyal senti- 
ments," and although he made persistent demand for trial, 
and to be confronted with his accusers, this was steadily 
refused and he was never able to learn who his accusers were, 
or the specific charge they made against him, until 1879, 
when his case was heard by order of Congress and he was 
triumphantly vindicated. 

Meantime he had returned to Washington, where he had 
engaged in farming and milling on Whidby Island, and in 
merchandising at various points, with varying success. After 
his restoration to the army, with the full rank of colonel, he 
was assigned to command the 23d regiment, and remained 
with it until 1882, when he was retired. 

But Washington's great soldier and greatest contribution 
to the Union cause was Major-General Isaac I. Stevens. He 
had served the territory well as a delegate in Congress, through 
one term; had been reelected, and was working earnestly 
and with untiring industry to promote her interests, when the 
war broke out. He had secured the ratification of his 
Indian treaties, completed the report of his railroad recon- 
noissance, which he had pushed through in spite of all opposi- 
tion, and secured many appropriations for building roads, 
and making other improvements that were urgently needed, 
as well as for paying the war debt. He had also made many 
speeches in Congress, and public addresses in various places, 
of which the far-away territory was the unvarying topic. 
No man then living knew so much about its actual wealth 
in natural resources, and few who are now alive appreciated 


more fully its possibilities for future development. No 
one who has ever lived has done more to bring it into general 
notice, and prepare the v^ay for its advancement. His 
railroad survey was the means on which he chiefly relied 
to bring it into connection with the older portions of the 
country, and so hasten its development. At that time it was 
opposed by the South, which then dominated both branches 
of Congress, while it aroused but little interest in the North. 
But his interest in it never wavered, and opposition only 
stimulated his effbrts. As a means of advancing it, as well 
as of affording a new road for settlers through the mountains, 
he secured a liberal appropriation to open a wagon road 
from Fort Benton to Walla Walla, and sturdy John Mullan, 
who had been his most efficient lieutenant in the survey, 
built it, and it bears his name to this day. Other roads were 
opened, notably one from Olympia to Vancouver; new postal 
routes were established; aids to commerce of various sorts 
in the Sound and Straits of Fuca, and along the Columbia 
were provided for, and much else was done that to most 
other men would have seemed, and possibly have been, 

While engaged in this important work for the benefit of 
his constituents. Governor Stevens did not fail to take an 
active and zealous interest in general politics. He was 
active and prominent in the councils of his party, and was 
accustomed to hear the threats of disunion then so frequently 
made, though he did not believe those who made them seri- 
ously intended to carry them into execution. He attended 
the Democratic National Convention at Charleston in i860, 
as a delegate for Oregon — as Washington being a territory 
was not then represented in such assemblies — and earnestly 
advocated the nomination of his friend, Ex-Governor Lane, 


for president. The convention was disrupted, as is now 
well remembered, and the factional convention which sub- 
sequently assembled at Richmond, nominated Breckenridge 
for president, and Lane for vice-president. Stevens was 
made chairman of the executive committee, and conducted 
an active campaign in all the States, though the party, being 
now divided, had no hope of success. 

During the anxious months which intervened between the 
election and inauguration of Mr. Lincoln, Stevens did what 
he could to stem the tide of disunion, and when war became 
inevitable, he was among the first to begin active measures 
to save the government. During the winter he helped to 
organize the militia of the District of Columbia, and fre- 
quently called upon President Buchanan, to urge him to 
resist the demands of the secessionists. In March he 
returned to the coast, confidently expecting a renomina- 
tion at the convention of his party which was to be held 
in May. The convention met at Vancouver, but although 
his friends seemed to be in the majority, he was not 
successful, and Selucius Garfielde won the empty honor, 
and was defeated at the election by William H. Wal- 

In a letter dated at Portland May 22d, Governor Stevens 
tendered his services in the field to the secretary of war, and 
on his arrival in New York, he was appointed colonel of 
the 79th Highlanders, a regiment which had been badly cut 
up at Bull Run, and was now much demoralized. It was 
in fact in a condition of mutiny, but its new colonel soon 
established discipline, and although its members were for 
a time resolved to disband and go home, they soon submitted 
to discipline, and became one of the best regiments in the 


Colonel Stevens was appointed brigadier-general in Sep- 
tember, and sent south with the expedition to Port Royal, 
the Highlanders being part of his brigade. He was present 
at the attack on the Confederate batteries on the Coosaw, 
and Stone River, and commanded the main column in the 
attack on Secessionville. After the retreat of McClellan 
from the James River, he was recalled to the defense of 
Washington, was made a major-general and assigned to the 
command of a division in Pope's army. He distinguished 
himself in the battle of Mannassas, the second Bull Run, and 
was killed two days later at the battle of Chantilly, late in 
the afternoon of September i, 1862. He fell at a time when 
a thunderstorm, so terrific that the roar of battle could 
scarcely be heard above it, was just breaking over the field. 
The dense clouds had almost obscured the light of day, 
although it was scarcely later than 5 o'clock. The Con- 
federate forces, flushed with the advantages they had 
gained during the preceding days, were advancing to 
the charge, and the Union troops were beginning to give 
way, when Stevens, seizing the colors of his old regiment, 
the 79th, was riding along the line to rally them, when 
a bullet struck him in the temple and killed him in- 

Within the same hour another major-general, equally 
beloved, and an equally aggressive fighter, the gallant Phil. 
Kearney, fell shot to death on the same field. The stirring 
lines of Edmund Clarence Stedman, entitled "Kearney at 
Seven Pines," might have been as appropriately written 
of one as the other: 

O, evil the black shroud of night at Chantilly, 

That hid him from sight of his brave men and tried! 


Foul, foul sped the bullet that clipped the white lily, 

The flower of our knighthood, the whole army's pride ! 
Yet we dream that he still — in that shadowy region 

Where the dead form their ranks at the wan drummer's 
Rides on, as of old, down the length of his legion, 

And the word still is " Forward ! " along the whole line. 

Chapter LIII. 

FEW of Governor Stevens' immediate successors 
were able to direct events as he had done. Happily 
they were rarely called upon to do so. J. Patton 
Anderson, ex-marshal and ex-delegate in Congress, 
who was appointed governor, when Stevens resigned im- 
mediately after his election as delegate, did not qualify, 
and Fayette McMullen of Virginia, his successor, spent a 
considerable part of his term of office outside the territory. 
He sent but one message to the legislature, and that was 
delivered soon after his arrival, and contains little that is 
or was of value. It bears no evidence that he was a man of 
ability or special fitness for the office, and its most important 
suggestion was that the legislature should protest against 
the attempt of Oregon to annex the Walla Walla region. 
After securing a divorce from his wife, by act of the legis- 
lature, he married a Miss Mary Wood of Thurston County, 
and returned to Virginia in July 1858, He subsequently 
became a member of the Confederate Congress. Secretary 
Mason again served as governor until the close of McMullen's 
term, when Richard A. Gholson of Kentucky was appointed. 
The most serious matter that McMullen was called upon 
to deal with while in the territory, was the attempt of the 
military officers at Fort Steilacoom, and the Hudson's Bay 
people at Nisqually, to save Leschi from the gallows. He 
dealt with this with firmness, and was supported in the 
course he followed by a strong preponderance of public 

Gholson arrived in the territory early in July 1859, and 
within three weeks thereafter, on July i8th. Secretary Mason 
died, after an illness of only three days. Mason was almost 
universally beloved by the people of the territory, whom 
he had now served for nearly six years, half of which time 


approximately he had been acting governor. Although but 
twenty-nine years old when he died, he had met all the 
grave responsibilities of that high office with ability and 
promptness, and discharged all its duties with such fidelity 
and success, as to meet the approval of those for whom he 
acted, as well as of the people generally. His funeral was 
held in the capitol, and Governor Stevens, who was then in 
the territory, pronounced his funeral oration. He was 
buried at Bush's Prairie, beside his friend George W. Stevens, 
the governor's nephew, who had been drowned at the crossing 
of the Skookum Chuck in February 1856. In January 
1864, the legislature changed the name of Sawamish to 
Mason County in his honor. 

Gholson served both as governor and secretary until 
Henry M. McGill was appointed to the latter office. McGill 
arrived at Olympia in November, and in the following May 
Gholson returned to Kentucky, where he made an ineffectual 
attempt to take that State out of the Union. He did not 
return to the territory, and McGill served out his term as 
acting governor. 

While Gholson was in the territory, the San Juan episode 
engaged public attention to a large extent. The northern 
Indians were still troublesome, and their incursions gave 
both the settlers and the authorities much cause for alarm. 
But the governor found no means to make effective defense 
against their raids, and the settlers were left to defend them- 
selves as best they could. Although the territory now had 
"about 1,000 muskets," as he informed General Harney,* 
"150 of which were rifled," and although he had "an abiding 
faith that the citizens of the territory will, with enthusiastic 
alacrity, respond to any call necessary for the defense of 

*Letter of August 21, 1859. 


individual rights, the rights of their country, or their coun- 
try's honor," he made no arrangements for them to defend 
themselves. It was during his administration that the little 
ships Blue Wing and Ellen Maria v^ere attacked and all 
on board murdered near Vashon Island. D. Hunt, a 
deputy-marshal, w^as also murdered on Whidby Island, and 
seven miners on their way to Fort Langley, on the Eraser, 
were massacred. A white woman was captured about the 
same time and carried away into captivity. It was not safe 
for any but armed parties to go anywhere upon the waters 
of Admiralty Inlet, among the islands of the San Juan 
Archipelago, or along the shore of Bellingham Bay. 

It would seem that such a condition of things would have 
prompted a governor who "had large ideas of the impor- 
tance of an executive position," as Gholson is said to have 
had, and with so many resources at his command, to organize 
a defense that would be effective. A moderate force, under 
the command of an energetic and experienced Indian fighter 
like Maxon, or indeed almost any of the captains or lieu- 
tenants of the 2d regiment, would have kept these marauders 
in check, and given the inhabitants of the islands complete 
protection. But Gholson apparently had no thought of 
preparing any means for defense so reasonable and so 
effective. Instead, he is said to have contemplated issuing 
a proclamation authorizing the citizens to fit out vessels 
to make reprisals on the inhabitants of British Columbia, 
because their government did not prevent the Indians from 
crossing the boundary to commit these depredations.* 

*Bancroft quotes Strong as saying that Gholson " finally hit upon the 
happy project of getting out a proclamation, authorizing the citizens of 
the territory to arm and fit out vessels for the purpose of making reprisals 
against the English for permitting the northern Indians to leave British 
Columbia and commit depredations in Washington Territory — regular 


After Mr. Lincoln became president, W. H. Wallace was 
named as governor. He was in Washington when the 
appointment was tendered him, having gone there as a repre- 
sentative citizen and an old acquaintance of the president, 
to recommend the removal of some territorial officials 
whose loyalty was distrusted and secure the appointment 
of others whose patriotism there was no occasion to doubt. 
During his absence he was nominated by the republicans 
as their candidate for delegate, and upon his return he 
accepted the nomination, and never qualified as governor. 
The election was then drawing near and if he assumed the 
office he would be required to resign it in a few weeks if 
elected delegate. Moreover the capital fight was then getting 
very warm, and as governor he would be drawn into it in 
a way that might prejudice his chance of election as delegate, 
while as a private citizen he might practically leave the 
question aside. He accordingly allowed Mr. Turney, the 
new secretary to act as governor until William Pickering of 
Illinois, an old acquaintance of the president, was appointed. 
Pickering was past sixty years of age, and not a man of 
great experience in managing public affairs, yet he proved to 
be a very acceptable governor during the four ensuing years. 
Pending his arrival in the territory, L. J. S. Turney, who 
had succeeded McGill as secretary, acted as governor 
for some months. Elwood Evans succeeded Turney 
as secretary in 1862, and held the office until 1867, dur- 
ing which period he was also acting governor at various 

letters of marque and reprisal ! Strong, to whom he showed the proclama- 
tion, assured him it would make him the most famous man upon the 
Pacific Coast. But Tilton, who was also informed of it, put a stop to it. " 
Bancroft's "Washington," p. 212. 


Up to this time all the governors except Stevens had been 
absent so much of the time that the legislature, in January 
1866, adopted a memorial praying Congress to permit the 
citizens of the territory to elect their ow^n officers. "During 
the past year," this memorial said, "two of our three judges 
have been absent from the territory for many months, and 
both at the same time, so that in consequence of their absence, 
the people of the territory have suffered serious inconvenience 
and embarrassment." It further recited that the territory 
v^as so far from the seat of government, and its special and 
business relations of such a peculiar character, as "to require 
that they be put in charge of the best of men acquainted 
with them, and we are satisfied, from our past experience 
as a territory, that men cannot be found, as a general rule, 
to be sent to us from abroad, who will have or can have 
that identification with our interests which is required for 
the intelligent and faithful discharge of the duties of office 
among us." 

But this earnest cry and prayer did not prevail, and the 
general government continued to appoint governors, secre- 
taries, marshals, attorneys and judges for the territory, 
as for others, for more than twenty years longer. 

The people of the territory had shown an active interest 
in their public affairs, even when it was a part of Oregon. 
At the first election after their arrival, their votes had 
determined the choice of governor for that territory, but no 
party organizations seem to have been formed or attempted 
until after the separation. Then steps were soon taken to 
organize the Democratic Party, and a Whig organization, 
which put W. H. Wallace in the field as candidate for dele- 
gate against Columbia Lancaster, was formed a little later. 
In 1855, J. Patton Anderson, Democrat, defeated Judge 


Strong, the Whig candidate, and Joseph Cushman, who was 
at that time manager for the Kendall Company, a trading 
concern which owned ships and maintained a general store 
in Olympia, received forty-one votes as the candidate 
of the Free-Soil Party. All the conventions were held that 
year at Olympia. There were forty-seven delegates in that 
of the Democrats, and the candidates were: Columbia 
Lancaster, Governor Stevens, Isaac N. Ebey, J. Patton 
Anderson, Harry R. Crosbie, Charles H. Mason and Henry 
C. Mosely. Governor Stevens' name was withdrawn after 
the tenth ballot, but no nomination was made until the 
twenty-ninth, when Anderson won. The Whig convention 
was composed of forty delegates, and Elwood Evans pre- 
sided. The candidates were: W. H. Wallace, Judge Gil- 
more Hays, George Gibbs, W'illiam Strong, Alexander S. 
Abernethy and Hugh A. Goldsborough. Twenty-one ballots 
were taken before a choice was made. 

The legislature met annually and was always Demo- 
cratic until the winter of 1862-63. The members of the 
lower house were chosen annually, as were the county 
officers; members of the Council were elected for three 
years. The campaigns were usually spirited, particularly 
in the alternate years, when a delegate to Congress was to 
be chosen. In 1858 the name Whig began to disappear and 
Republican to be substituted. While this probably did 
not affect the organization, as the Whigs, with the addition 
of the Free-Soilers, really became the Republican Party, 
the Democrats regularly elected the delegate until 186 1, 
when W. H. Wallace defeated Garfielde. 

The Democratic territorial convention was held that 
year at Vancouver, and w^hile Governor Stevens had returned 
to the territory from Washington, in the hope and expectation 


of securing a renomination as delegate, he was defeated. 
He had been too actively and openly opposed to secession 
to please some of the delegates who had come to the territory 
from the Southern States, and since his return had so frankly 
avowed his determination to sustain the new administration 
in enforcing the laws and maintaining the Union, as to dis- 
please others. He had been chosen captain of a military 
company, the organization of which had been begun at 
Olympia after his arrival, and had accepted, and this seems 
to have displeased others who were not disposed at that 
time to go so far as to take up arms to sustain a Republican 
president. News of the attack on Fort Sumpter had only 
recently been received, and riiany of the delegates felt that 
they must soon decide for themselves, whether they would 
support the Lincoln administration in defending the Union, 
or encourao-e the secessionists in their determination to 
destroy it. They were not quite prepared to make the 
decision, and therefore, although friendly to Stevens, were 
reluctant to approve the course he had chosen by giving 
him a renomination. But he was able to secure the adop- 
tion of resolutions favoring the Union, and then gracefully 
accepted the nomination of his principal competitor. 

This halting policy had the same effect on the party in the 
territory as in the states. The more ardent Unionists in 
it went over, temporarily at least, to the opposition; the 
remainder, though loyal to the Union for the most part, 
when they saw how the issue was made up, and rendering 
it loyal support, nevertheless became the minority party, 
and, although strong enough to elect some of their candidates 
now and again, generally remained in the minority for a 
number of years. In 1863, George E. Cole, a Democrat, 
was elected delegate. This was the year in which great 


Democratic gains were made in most of the older States, 
outside of New England, and the Republican majority in 
Congress was greatly reduced. Cole had been a resident of 
Oregon until two years previously, but had gone to eastern 
Washington during the gold excitement, and engaged in 
steamboating and general business. He had two competi- 
tors, the regular Republican nominee being Joseph Raynor, 
a Methodist preacher, who, like himself, had been a resident 
of Oregon until two years earlier, and L. J. S. Turney, the 
ex-secretary of the territory, who received only 98 votes. 
Cole's majority over Raynor was 185, and the total vote 
cast was 3,057. 

Two years later A. A. Denny was elected over James 
Tilton, who had been adjutant-general during the Indian 
war, and had removed Denny from the command of 
Company A. Tilton had come to the territory as its first 
surveyor-general, and was a Democrat appointed by a Demo- 
cratic president. He was, however, a loyal supporter of 
the Union cause, although he did not escape being classed 
as a "Copperhead," as sympathizers with secession were 
called, during the campaign. He was opposed by some 
of his old-time party associates, who had gone over to the 
Republicans, most notable among these being Selucius 
Garfielde, who only four years earlier had been the Demo- 
cratic nominee. Denny had been a member of every legis- 
lature from that first elected after Governor Stevens* arrival, 
down to 1 86 1, when he was appointed register of the land 
office at Olympia, which position he held until elected 
delegate. He served but one term as delegate and was 
succeeded by Alvan Flanders, who defeated Frank Clark, 
the lawyer who had defended Leschi, by a majority of 
only 153 in a total of about 5,000 votes. Flanders was a 


Republican who had left the Democratic Party before the 
war began. He had come to the coast in 1851, and had 
lived in San Francisco for several years. He had served 
two terms in the California legislature, had held a posi- 
tion in the mint, and afterwards in the land office at 
Humboldt. He had come to Washington in 1863 and en- 
gaged in business at Wallula. 

So far in the history of the territory, party attachments 
had been regulated, for the most part, by party issues. 
Democrats, Whigs and Republicans had loyally supported 
the candidates of their parties, and local or personal influences 
had rarely been strong enough to make changes that were 
perceptible in the returns. In Stevens' time, it is true, 
personal feeling ran high, especially in his first campaign, 
when his course in proclaiming martial law was still the 
subject of excited discussion, and some Democrats opposed, 
and some Whigs supported him. But this disturbing influ- 
ence gradually wore away, and those who had temporarily 
abandoned the standards they were accustomed to follow, 
returned to their allegiance. But now President Johnson's 
quarrel with his party, which began soon after he took office, 
had caused some changes of party alignment, as it had in 
most other states and territories. The "Washington Stand- 
ard," which had been established as a Republican paper at 
Olympia in i860, followed Johnson over to the Democratic 
Party, and some Democrats who had voted for Mr. Lincoln 
in 1864, and for other Republican candidates during the 
war, as the surest and best means of sustaining the Union 
cause, now went back to their earlier allegiance. This 
to some extent, no doubt, accounted for the small major- 
ity Flanders received over Clark in the election for dele- 


In November 1866, Johnson removed Pickering, who 
had then served a Httle more than four years as governor, 
and appointed Cole, v^^ho had served one term as delegate. 
Pickering, although a man of but little education, and past 
sixty years of age at the time of his appointment, had made 
a very acceptable governor, and the legislature adopted and 
forv^arded a memorial protesting against his removal. He 
was a voluble talker and writer. Like Mr. Lincoln, whose 
acquaintance and friendship he had enjoyed for thirty 
years, he was fond of stories and story-telling, and it is said 
of him that he could never begin a story and tell it straight 
through to the end without being reminded of another and 
still others, all of which he would weave into the general 
narrative, so that when he finally concluded the tale he had 
first started to tell — which he invariably did, if his auditors 
had patience to listen — it would be found that he had told 
a whole series of anecdotes. But his messages to the 
legislature, of which there were five, show no evidence of 
this volubility. They are for the most part succinct and 
straightforward statements of the affairs of the territory for 
the time being, and the few recommendations made were 
creditable, though of more importance at the time, than 
interesting at present. He early urged that provision be 
made for codifying and publishing the statutes of the terri- 
tory, which up to that time had been printed only in pamph- 
let form at the close of each session. He twice recommended 
that the Nachess Pass road, which, after the Indian war, had 
become practically impassable, be so improved that immi- 
grants might use it, and that a better road be opened through the 
Snoqualmie Pass, which he believed to be entirely practicable. 
No home for insane persons had yet been provided, nor 
any place for the safekeeping of criminals under sentence 


to the penitentiary. Insane persons, and the feeble-minded 
or intellectually defective, were cared for by the Sisters of 
Charity at Vancouver, at a contract price for each individual. 
While there w^as no complaint about the treatment given 
them, the governor thought a time had come when the 
territory should begin to do what it must do eventually, by 
providing an institution of its own for them. But this was 
not done during his time. When the contract with the 
Sisters expired in 1866, another contract was made with 
James Huntington and W. W. Hays at Monticello, and the 
eleven patients were transferred to their keeping. There 
they remained until 1871, when a new contract was made 
with Hill Harmon, to care for them for a term of five years, 
and they were removed, in August of that year, to the old 
site of Fort Steilacoom, where the present asylum for the 
western part of the State in now located. 

While the patients were still to be cared for by private 
contract, the territory had begun to provide for taking them 
under its own care. The troops had been finally withdrawn 
from Steilacoom in 1868, and the post abandoned. In 
December 1869, the legislature had passed an act, making 
the governor and territorial auditor a board of commissioners 
to purchase the buildings which had been occupied by the 
officers and soldiers, from the national government, and 
turn them over to the commissioners who had been pre- 
viously appointed to look after the care of the insane, to be 
fitted up at the cost of the new contractor, for their reception. 
The purchase was made in January of that year, for ^850. 
The buildings were then so changed and remodeled that the 
governor was able to report to the legislature, that while 
there had been no cause of complaint with the old contrac- 
tors, "it cannot be denied that the change to the present 


institution, it being better adapted for that purpose, has 
already had a beneficial influence on the inmates." 

These first asylum buildings were two in number, one 
152 by 54 feet in size, which was divided into two wards, 
one of twenty rooms for male patients, and one of ten rooms 
for the females. Each ward was heated by a large box 
stove, with a sheet-iron drum, and each stove was enclosed 
with iron railings to keep the patients from being burned. 
A second building, 60 by 32 feet in size, contained a kitchen, 
and separate dining-rooms for the male and female patients. 
Twenty-three patients were removed to these buildings 
when they were ready for their reception. 

Up to the time Pickering arrived in the territory, unhappy 
married people had usually applied to the legislature for 
divorces. At nearly every session, one or more acts had 
been passed, separating wives from husbands, or husbands 
from wives, and the divorce business had been particularly 
active during the two preceding sessions, at one of which 
fifteen and the other seventeen such acts had been passed. 
Secretary Turney, as acting governor, had declaimed against 
this practice in the flamboyant message he sent to the legis- 
lature in December 1861, but no attention was paid to his 
recommendation that it be discontinued. Pickering renewed 
the recommendation in his first message, pointing out that 
the law declared marriage to be a civil contract, all breaches 
or violations of which were proper subjects for the judiciary 
alone. The courts alone could hear the testimony of the 
parties, and they alone could render final judgment and 
decree for alimony, and determine which of the parties 
should have the care and custody of minor children. Al- 
though sixteen divorces were granted at this session, an act 
was passed at the succeeding session which practically 



This pioneer lawyer was intimately associated with 
Governor Stevens for a time, and afterwards practised 
law in Olympia and Tacoma. He wrote and published 
a History of the Pacific Northwest, which contains a 
va s t ani Qunt.x>£^ccui:ate . inf onnatiall. 





9J01W sH .BmooBi 

R ^iii^ioo:>^*{p1i«wn,jfevwl^iy>g%ft»j|q[^,fW--fe yTOj;^?H!B->^ r, one 

^ in si«ej^^^i^^ ^■^^fv^ji^QfB*)^^^© wards, 

} rooms for male patients. rooms 

ii^r the iemales. Each ward was heated by a large box 

stove, with a sheet-iron drum, and each stove was enclosed 

with iron railings to keep the patients from being burned. 

A second b^ 



the recomn 
rhe law dec 
or violatioii 
alone. The 
parties, and t 
decree for al: 
should have tlK 
' ' "ch sixteen d) 
passed a^ 

in size, contained a kitchen, 
rhe male and female patients, 
removed to these buildings 

in the territory, unhappy 

d to the legislature for 

or more acts had 

; husbands, or husbands 

had been particularly 

. at one of which 

Seen passed. 


the legis- 

y paid to his 

kering renewed 

pointing out that 

atract, all breaches 

jts for the judiciary 

the testimony of the 

final judgment and 

which of the parties 

minor children. Al- 

It this session, an act 

'^ which practical!) 


committed the granting of divorces to the courts, and the 
practice of applying to the legislature was discontinued. 

The organic act, which was in effect the constitution of 
the territory, provided that all acts of the legislature should 
be submitted to Congress for its approval, before they 
should become effective, but in 1864 a change was made, 
by which approval by the governor was required. Most 
of the acts passed by the succeeding legislature in the winter 
of 1864-65 were approved or vetoed by Elwood Evans, who 
had succeeded Turney as secretary in 1862, and was acting 
governor much of the time. Some were approved by the 
governor himself, and at least one was vetoed by him. This 
was "an Act to Incorporate the Skaget [sic] River Log-Driv- 
ing Company, for the Purpose of Removing Obstructions 
to Driving or Floating Logs Down the Skagit River." The 
governor's exceptions to it were that it gave the incorpora- 
tors authority to build booms, impound logs and charge 
75 cents per thousand feet therefor, while it did not require 
them to make the improvements described in the title of 
the act at any specified time or ever. The price they were 
authorized to charge, the governor regarded as exorbitant, 
and he entered into a computation to show that, according 
to the estimates of those who were supposed to know most 
about the standing timber along the banks of the Skagit, 
within two miles on either side of it, all of which would 
ultimately be floated down to these booms, there were ap- 
proximately eight billions of feet. The act, therefore, gave 
the incorporators power to tax the lumber industry of the 
Skagit region six million dollars, if the timber should all 
be cut away within twenty years.* 

♦House Journal, Session of 1864-65, p. 232. 


In the winter of 1859-60, the legislature amended and 
elaborated the general, civil, criminal and probate practice 
acts, and also the act regulating the practice in justice 
courts. As Judge Chenoweth, who had now retired from 
the bench, was a member of the lower house, and chairman 
of its judiciary committee during this session, these acts 
were doubtless largely the result of his efforts. They were 
again revised and amended at the session of 1862-63, w^hen 
Thomas M. Reed was speaker of the House, and the judi- 
ciary committee was composed of Messrs, Frost, Potter, 
Hubbs, Eagan and Andrews. 

These early legislatures were composed for the most part, 
of men unlearned in the law, and in some degree at least, 
unfamiliar with books. They were men accustomed to 
work with their hands rather than their heads, though they 
were by no means lacking in intelligence. Most of them, 
if not all, belonged to that class which Mr. Lincoln so 
firmly relied upon, and so often described as "the plain 
people." There were always lawyers among them, like 
John M. Chapman, D. F. Brownfield, D. R. Bigelow, 
Gilmore Hays, F. A. Chenoweth, H. G. Struve, John J. 
McGilvra and later O. B. McFadden, but the majority were 
men who were but little familiar with legal forms or parlia- 
mentary methods. And yet their work compares favorably 
with that done by earlier legislatures in any of the older 
states and territories. They chartered some railroads that 
were never built, passed many acts to legalize the acts of 
their neighbors in office, whose inexperience had led them 
to make many blunders, also many private laws, authorizing 
individuals to build bridges or establish ferries, and incor- 
porated several companies for various purposes, to which 
far more liberal powers were granted than would have been 


given had the legislators more fully comprehended the scope 
and meaning of what they did. But there appears to have 
been no suspicion at that time that any vote for these measures 
was cast from an improper or sordid motive. No member 
was charged with corruption, nor were the sessions much 
disturbed by lobbyists. Some curious laws were passed, 
and some that now seem entirely frivolous. One of these 
was passed January 6, 1863, and was entitled "an Act to 
Prevent the Depreciation of United States' Legal Tender 

No general incorporation law was passed until 1866. 
Previous to that time all sorts of societies and companies 
had been chartered by special enactment. During the 
session of 1858-59, lodges of the Sons of Temperance were 
incorporated at Olympia, Steilacoom, Monticello, Van- 
couver, Tumwater and Grand Mound. At the preceding 
session, the Steilacoom Literary Association of Washington 
Territory, and the Olympia Musical Association were 
incorporated. Some of the Masonic and Odd Fellows 
lodges and some churches also applied for and were 
given corporate authority. The Seattle Library Association 
was incorporated in 1859-60, and the Washington Fire 
Engine Company No. i of Walla Walla, in 1865, A com- 
pany to supply gas to the city of Lewiston was chartered 
in 1863, and one to lay water-pipes in Seattle, in 1865. 

When Ex-Delegate Cole received notice of his appoint- 
ment as governor, he went immediately to Olympia, and 
assumed his office, without waiting for the approval of the 
Senate. This was never given, as the Senate in the winter 
of 1866-67 was not approving President Johnson's nomina- 
tions, until a majority of its members were fully convinced 
that they were in every way unobjectionable. They never 


became convinced of Cole's fitness, though he held the office 
until several other appointees v^^ere, like himself, rejected. 
Finally General Marshall F. Moore of Ohio was appointed 
and confirmed, Moore had entered the army early, and 
had w^on distinction, first w^ith McClellan in West Virginia, 
and afterv^ards in the Army of the Cumberland. He had 
been in the battles of Rich Mountain, Shiloh and Chicka- 
mauga, and had been severely wounded at Missionary Ridge. 
He was with Sherman until Atlanta fell, and had been made 
a brigadier for gallantry shown in the fight at Jonesboro. 
His wounds had finally compelled his retirement from the 
service, when he was given the brevet rank of major-general. 
He was a man of much ability, and his message sent to the 
legislature in December 1867, only a few months after his 
arrival in the territory, showed that he had made a pains- 
taking study of its resources and the requirements necessary 
for their development. In it he noted the progress of settle- 
ment, as shown by the reports from the land offices at Olym- 
pia and Vancouver, and the profitable employment of the 
people evidenced by the increase in the variety of their 
occupations, and the development of new transportation 
facilities, as well as by the enlarged volume of product. 
The lumber manufactured on the Sound alone now amounted 
to more than four hundred million feet annually. The 
people of Walla Walla County, although numbering only 
forty-five hundred, had produced during the year nearly 
one and a quarter million bushels of grain, besides other 
products, and a large amount of stock. New steamboat 
lines had begun operations on the Chehalis and Cowlitz 
rivers, thus opening up their rich valleys to settlement, and 
furnishing an outlet for their surplus produce. The grand 
project of connecting the Great Lakes with the Sound had 


"assumed tangible shape," and the speedy completion of 
a railroad over the route which Stevens had surveyed had 
become "almost a certainty." 

He also pointed out that tw^o treaties had been made by 
the general government since the last meeting of the Terri- 
torial Assembly, that w^ere likely to be of advantage to all 
the people of the coast. One of these was a treaty of reci- 
procity with the Sandwich Islands, which had not yet been 
ratified, but, if ratified, would permit the sugar and other 
products of the islands to be delivered to us at greatly reduced 
prices, while the demand for our lumber would be increased. 
The other was with the Russian government, and by it 
we had secured Alaska. This acquisition had given Wash- 
ington "a comparatively central position with respect to 
our entire possessions on the slope," and added materially 
to her geographical importance. "This extension of the 
national boundaries," the governor said, "will give a new 
impetus to the commerce of the northern Pacific, and open 
a new market to our productions. The change in the 
nationality of that part of the Pacific Coast will have the 
effect, also, of stimulating the whale and cod fisheries in 
that region. In these fisheries our people have a direct 
interest, since, in the nature of things, the fleets engaged in 
them must draw their supplies largely from our territory, 
and establish depots in our waters." 

The governor did not apparently know, and most people 
do not yet know, that the interest of our national government 
in Alaska was awakened by a memorial adopted by the 
legislature of Washington Territory, in January 1866. But 
that this is the fact we have the testimony of Senator Sumner, 
who was then chairman of the committee on foreign relations 
of the Senate. In his speech in support of the ratification 


of the treaty, he quotes this memorial, saying that previous 
to its reception the subject of the fisheries along the northern 
coast, their probable importance, and the prospect of their 
cession by the Russian government to a fishing monopoly, 
had been the subject of casual remark in Washington, and 
that this memorial arrived at an opportune time. It was 
addressed to the president, and so called his attention and 
that of Secretary Seward, and other members of the cabinet, 
to the wealth and importance of the fisheries on the Alaskan 
coast, and really first suggested the desirability of acquiring 
that country from Russia. 

This memorial was drawn by H. G. Struve, who was then 
a member of the House of Representatives, and chairman 
of its judiciary committee. His attention was turned to 
the matter by a man named McDonald, who was engaged 
in the fishing business at Seattle, and who, a year or two 
previously, had made a trip northward as far as the Russian 
possessions, where he had encountered great hardships, 
and had returned barely alive. So jealous was the fishing 
monopoly, which then ruled in that region, under its arrange- 
ment with the Russian government, that he had not been 
allowed to land, even for the purpose of getting water. The 
information he brought back in regard to the fish in those 
waters, and the value of the fishing industry, if arrangement 
could be made to admit American fishermen to its develop- 
ment, fixed Struve's attention, and the result was this memo- 
rial,* which led ultimately to the treaty of cession, and the 
acquisition of a country which many wise statesmen of the 
time believed to be valueless, but which for a score of years 
past has annually poured into our ports a trade of more 

^Address by Judge Hanford at the memorial meeting of the bar of 
Seattle, after Judge Struve's death. 

Author of tb^e memorial of the Washington legislature 
which led to Jthe purchase of Alaska. He was born in 
the Grand Dtchy of Oldenburg, November 17, 1836; 
came to California in 1853, and was admitted to the 
hflr of TJT^^frf^-^qt" in 1859; removed to Washington in 
1 860, where he engaged in newspaper work at Van- 
couver, and soon became district attorney, a position 
which he held ior nearly four terms. He was several 
times a member of the legislature,, and was secretary 
of the territory from 1873 ^o 1876, when he was appoint- 
ed commissioner to codify the laws of the territory. 
He then returned to the practice of law, as the head 
of the firm of Struve, Haines & McMicken, afterwards 
Struve, Hughes, Allen & McMicken, and continued in 
it until his death. 

■^dv ©l-Gtb- -rie 

d t 

"o a fishing monopoly, 
nfrfon, -'nd 

h"m h wa 

HB^ (^ the r 
. ' fijf^l^jty^of at 

^vivho was then 

-pntn rives, and chairman 

>n was turned to 

was engaged 

- year or two 


iau not been 


nsn in those 
:i to Its aeveiop- 
was this memo- 
iul,'' ^^ cession, and th 

nc(]uisit e statesmen of th 

time beheved ch for a score of year 

r ports a trade of moi 

naJ meeting of the h. 


value than its entire original cost; which now sends out 
annually gold dust of greater value than that cost, and 
both the output of gold, and the value and profits of its 
commerce, are steadily and rapidly increasing. 

It is interesting to note, now, how the members of the 
lower house at those several sessions of the legislature were 
apportioned. Under the organic act, the council always 
consisted of nine members, who were elected for three years, 
but the members of the lower house were elected annually, 
and their number for the first year was eighteen, which was 
to be increased from year to year as the population increased, 
but should never exceed thirty. During the earlier years, 
of course, and until after the close of the Indian war, there 
were no representatives from east of the mountains. After 
that time the apportionment was changed frequently, and 
sometimes at every session, and the changes made indicate, 
sometimes in a striking way, how settlement was progressing. 
For example, the apportionment made in 1857-58 gave 
Clarke County five members, Thurston six. Pierce three, 
Lewis two, Cowlitz and Wahkiakum two, while King, Island, 
Whatcom, Jefferson, Snohomish, Clallam (still officially 
spelled Claim), Pacific, Walla Walla and Skamania had one 
each; in 1860-61, the representation of Clarke was reduced 
to four, that of Thurston to four, and Pierce to two, although 
it also had a member jointly with Sawamish County, while 
Jefferson was increased to two, and King and Kitsap gained 
a member between them; in 1861-62 Walla Walla was 
allowed three members, Thurston three, Pierce two, Kitsap 
two, Clarke three, while the counties of Idaho, Missoula, 
and Nez Perce were allowed one each, and Shoshone three; 
in 1863-64 Walla Walla was given five members, Thurston 
three. Pierce two, Kitsap two, Jefferson two, and a member 


jointly with Clallam, while King had one, and one jointly 
with Snohomish; the apportionment of 1865-66 gave Walla 
Walla five, Clarke three. Pierce two, King two, Kitsap two, 
Jefferson two, and Stevens, Pacific, Chehalis, Mason, 
Lewis, Snohomish, Clallam, Island and Whatcom, one each, 
Klikitat and Yakima one jointly, and Cowlitz and Wahkia- 
kum one. 

Sessions of the legislature were held every winter until 
1867, after which, by an amendment of the organic act, 
adopted in response to a memorial setting forth that annual 
sessions were not necessary, they were held biennially. 
Under the law as amended, members of the Council were 
elected for four years, instead of three, and the representatives 
were chosen for a single session as before. 

As is the case in all newly settled regions, the competition 
between aspiring towns to secure the location of the institu- 
tions and public buildings provided for by the general govern- 
ment, or sure to become necessary, was keen and interesting 
from the beginning. This competition is usually carried 
on by the several contestants solely with a view to their 
own advantage, and with little regard to the considerations 
that should govern in such matters. The result is that the 
locations are made by combinations of votes from the places 
seeking to be benefited, or worse still by trading votes for 
measures more or less vicious, or that never should become 
laws, and schools and colleges, capitols, asylums and penal 
institutions are located anywhere but where they should be. 
Sometimes, where such a thing is possible, they are divided 
and partitioned among two or more places, and the bene- 
fits obtained are disappointing to everybody. Weak and 
relatively worthless institutions, and buildings that are 
neither creditable to the locality or the State result, where 


monuments to the intelligence, liberality and civic pride 
of the people were not only intended but amply provided 

The people of Washington had some narrow escapes from 
grave mistakes of this kind, and in some instances did not 
escape at all. The contest for the capital began earliest, 
and was soon complicated with that for other institutions, 
particularly the university and the penitentiary. Steilacoom 
and Vancouver, as well as Olympia, had aspired to be selected 
by the governor as the place for holding the first session of 
the legislature, but when Olympia was chosen they did not 
abandon hope. The organic act provided that the legislature 
might, at its first session or thereafter, locate the seat of 
government at such place as they might deem eligible, but 
the place should still be subject to change by the Assembly, 
and $5,000 was appropriated for public buildings at the 
place so chosen. 

The people of Olympia and Steilacoom do not appear to 
have anticipated that an effort would be made to locate the 
capital, much less to locate it at some place other than 
Olympia, at the session of 1855. The Indian war had begun, 
and McAllister and Connell and Miles and Moses had 
recently been killed, when the legislature assembled. News 
of Lieutenant Slaughter's death was received about the time 
the legislators began to arrive at the capital. Most of the 
voters of Olympia were with Captains Hays and Eaton 
on White River, and most of those of Steilacoom with Captain 
Wallace. Those who had not enlisted were busily engaged, 
in both towns, with building stockades and preparing to 
defend the women and children who had flocked to them for 
protection. It is not surprising, therefore, that they showed 
so little interest in the capital question, that Mr. Denny 


should be able to say, in explaining his vote, that he had not 
been offered even so much as an oyster supper for his influ- 
ence. The contesting towns at this time were Olympia 
and Vancouver, and Olympia easily won. 

The university was located at Seattle at this same session, 
but with a branch at Boisfort in Lewis County, to which 
one-half of the two townships of land appropriated by Con- 
gress for the establishment of the institution was assigned, 
the purpose being apparently to make the branch in all 
respects equal to the main institution. But it soon became 
apparent that this was not a good arrangement, and, in 
January 1858, the act dividing the institution was repealed, 
and it was located at Cowlitz Farms. But if Boisfort had 
been badly chosen as a seat for a great institution of learning, 
the farms were not much better. It is true that they comprised 
the land which had been earliest cultivated in the territory. 
But they were still occupied only by the Hudson's Bay 
people, and American settlers were not more numerous in 
their vicinity than in many other portions of the territory. 
Most of the settlers knew where the farms were, which 
was more than could be said for Boisfort. A majority of 
them had passed them on their way from the Columbia to 
the Sound, but this in no way recommended them to favor 
for university purposes. No effort was ever made to begin 
building there, and it soon became apparent that none ever 
would be made. 

The legislature which had fixed the seat of government of 
the territory at Olympia, in 1855, also located the peniten- 
tiary at Vancouver, the county seat of Clarke County, pro- 
vided ten acres of ground should be donated as a site for 
it, by the citizens of that place. A similar donation had 
been required from the citizens of Olympia, as a site for the 


capitol. In course of time the commissioners required by 
the several acts to procure the grounds, have them cleared, 
and proceed with the erection of the buildings, were appointed 
and duly qualified. Edmund Sylvester, proprietor of the 
townsite of Olympia, donated the ten acres required for 
the capitol, and a similar tract for the penitentiary was 
offered at Vancouver. But questions of title arose which 
were not easily settled, and as the evidences of title were 
required to be sent to Washington for approval, and as many 
explanations were asked for, many months were consumed 
in the correspondence, and it was not until late in Governor 
Stevens' term that the expenditure of the ^5,000 appropriated 
by the organic act for a capitol building was begun. Even 
then only a small part of the capitol tract had been cleared, 
and the clearing afterwards proceeded so slowly that in 
Governor Gholson's time the building was seriously threat- 
ened by a fire in the surrounding woods. 

In the winter of 1856-57, Congress had made another 
appropriation of $30,000 for new capitol buildings, but it 
had not been possible to make use of it. The prospect of 
buildings to the value of $30,000, in the condition of things 
at that time, made the capitol more than ever desirable, and 
as the session of 1859 approached, a plan was very quietly 
laid by the representatives from Clarke County to capture 
it for Vancouver. Earlv in the session — on the 6th of 
December, in fact — Mr. Short introduced a bill for the pur- 
pose, but it attracted very little attention from the people 
of Olympia. They had come to regard the seat of govern- 
ment as already fixed in their town, although they knew that, 
under the law, the legislature had power at any time to 
change it. But since ten acres of ground had been given 
by one of their citizens as a site, and as the gift had been 


accepted by the territory, the ground partially cleared, and 
a building supposed to have cost ;^5,ooo erected thereon, 
there did not seem to them to be danger that the gift would 
now be repudiated and the building abandoned. 

But eight days later the bill passed the House by a vote 
of 19 to 9, and then they became alarmed, as they had reason 
to be. They set themselves actively to work to defeat the 
bill in the Council, and, to their surprise, found the nine 
members of that body as equally divided as they could be, 
and Mr. Denny, who had been their friend in the former 
contest, and had cast the vote which settled the matter in 
their favor, was now against them. He had explained, a 
year earlier, that he believed Olympia to be as accessible 
to a majority of the people, and nearer the center of popu- 
lation than either Vancouver or Steilacoom. But now the 
situation had materially changed, in his view. The gold 
discoveries in the eastern part of the territory were taking 
a large number of people into that region, and it seemed 
likely that there might soon be more there than were now 
west of the mountains. The great river would for many 
years afford a more convenient means of travel than could 
be otherwise provided, until railroads should be built, and 
therefore Vancouver promised to be a most central and con- 
venient location. 

As things then were, the argument appeared to have merit, 
and the friends of Vancouver seemed to have the battle won. 
The friends of Olympia and Steilacoom charged that the 
people of Portland were really directing the campaign for 
removal. They hoped, it was said, by transferring the 
capital to Vancouver, to give that town an impetus that 
would sometime make it part of their own, or failing that, 
that everybody who came to do business at the capital of 


Washington would bring business to the metro pohs of Oregon. 
The newspapers at Olympia and Steilacoom made as much 
as possible of this argument, during the short time that the 
matter was pending in the Council, and finally, when the 
vote was taken, Olympia won again by a single vote. 

But the fight for the capital was not ended by this vote, 
though most of the people seemed to think it was, and those 
in Olympia rested easy for the time being. The peniten- 
tiary commissioners proceeded to clear the ground they had 
secured at Vancouver, and to have stone hauled to it for 
the foundations of the proposed buildings. Plans for these 
buildings, and for the capitol at Olympia were prepared and 
sent to Washington for approval. During the year ^4,143 
was spent on the site for the penitentiary, and ;^ 1,720 on the 
capitol grounds. 

Under the law the governor was made the custodian of 
the funds appropriated for both buildings, and was required 
to give bond as such, but Governor Gholson had never 
attended to this formality, as he feared that it might put him 
in an embarrassing situation. After the removal bill was 
defeated, the legislature had appointed three commissioners 
to direct the erection of the capitol building, with a provision 
that one of them be "acting commissioner," and the capitol 
fund was to be disbursed under their direction. Gholson was 
not willing to give bond for the proper disbursement of money 
that was to be disbursed at the order of somebody else, 
although it was reasonably apparent that nothing would be 
done until after the next meeting of the legislature, about 
disbursing any of it. Of the three commissioners appointed, 
one, E. S. Fowler, was from Port Townsend, and another, 
George Gallagher, was from Steilacoom, and Gallagher had 
been made acting commissioner. Steilacoom still hoped to 


be made the seat of government, and Gallagher very frankly 
told the governor that nothing would be done during the 
year to get the building started at Olympia. When Gholson 
returned to Kentucky a few weeks later, McGill* became 
acting governor, and being a man of more force and decision 
of character than Gholson, he set to work to expedite matters. 
He first filed the required bond, and on July 3d notified the 
commissioners that he had received part of the money which 
Congress had appropriated for the building. But the com- 
missioners showed no inclination to proceed wMth the work. 
Indeed Gallagher informed him that they were elected "not 
to go on with it, " and McGill accordingly removed him and 
appointed R. M. Walker in his place. 

But the new commissioner was able to do nothing. Ghol- 
son's letter had alarmed the authorities in Washington, and 
on August 22d the controller wrote McGill to make no ex- 
penditures for either the capitol or penitentiary, except for 
clearing the ground, until further instructed. He was also 
notified that the bureau of construction of the treasury 
department would prepare plans for both buildings. 

So matters stood when the legislature assembled in Decem- 
ber i860. By that time the capital location question had been 
so generally discussed that public interest in it was fully 
awakened. The partisans of the several tow^ns seeking to 
secure not only the capital but the other public institutions 
were well organized, and had their plans perfected. Early 
in the session a bill "to permanently locate the seat of 
government," and declaring that it "shall be and remain 
at Vancouver in Clarke County," was introduced and easily 
passed. Other acts relocating the university at Seattle, 

♦Letter of Gholson to the controller of the treasixry, February 23, i860. 
Sec. House Journal, i860, p. 115. 


and "permanently" locating the penitentiary at Port Town- 
send, soon followed. The dates of the passage of the capital 
and university acts are not given, but they are first and 
second in the volume of session laws for that year, and the 
penitentiary act is third, and its date is December nth. As 
the House was not fully organized and its committees ap- 
pointed until the 6th, this must certainly be regarded as 
fairly expeditious legislation. 

On January 30th an act instructing the librarian to remove 
the territorial library to Vancouver, the new seat of govern- 
ment, was passed, and one day later, which was the last 
day of the session, "an act requesting the vote of the people 
of the territory of Washington relative to the seat of govern- 
ment, " was also passed. 

As matters now stood the legislature had enacted that 
the capital of the territory should henceforth "be and remain" 
at Vancouver, and then asked the qualified voters to express 
their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with what it had done. 
Whether it was the expectation of the members that 
their successors would rescind their action by repealing 
the act, in case the vote should be unfavorable, cannot now 
be determined. It seems probable rather that they, or a 
majority of them at least, realized that they had exceeded 
their authority, and they hoped to get the approval of the 
people to confirm or strengthen their action, if not to excuse 
it. The organic act provided that they might locate the seat 
of government, but that the location should still "be subject 
to be changed by said legislative assembly." It was clear, 
therefore, that their attempt to make the location at Van- 
couver final would fail unless approved by the popular will. 

A vote was taken at the ensuing election and the removal 
was not sustained. Of the 2,316 votes cast, 1,239 favored 


Olympia, 639 Vancouver, and 253 Steilacoom; the remain- 
der were divided between Seattle, Walla Walla and Port 

When the time for the next legislature to assemble arrived, 
in December following, the members were in doubt as to 
where they ought to assemble, just as some of those in Oregon 
had been in doubt when the capital of that territory was 
removed from Oregon City to Salem. Most of them went 
to Olympia, and met and adjourned from day to day until 
a quorum should arrive. Some went to Vancouver, but 
they did not, as Columbia Lancaster and his associates had 
done on that earlier occasion, attempt to organize a hopeless 
minority, or prepare any futile memorials. The question 
of the validity of the removal act had been made up for 
submission to the supreme court, and the court had assembled 
at the earlier seat of government. Thither the minority 
of the members soon betook themselves. 

Soon after the legislature which had passed the acts remov- 
ing the capital, and submitting the question of removal to 
a vote of the people, had adjourned, it was found that the 
former act, as enrolled and signed by the president of the 
Council and speaker of the House, was without date, and 
had no enacting clause. These omissions, it was contended, 
made it null and void. It lacked identity and authority, 
and was in fact, in the language of the court, "without 
paternity. " So far as any evidence it bore upon its face was 
concerned, it might be the act of a town council or any other 
unauthorized body. 

When the case came on to be heard, a question of juris- 
diction was interposed. It was contended by those seeking 
to establish the validity of the act that the court had no 
authority to hear and determine the matter at Olympia. 


It was required by law to meet at the seat of government, 
and that had been removed to Vancouver. The question 
then raised affected all other cases on the docket, and it 
was agreed by counsel, and the court consented, that the 
decision made in this case should be decisive of all others. 

The argument consumed three full days, and several of 
the most prominent lawyers of that day took part in it. The 
public interest in it was very great. The court was then 
composed of Christopher C. Hewitt, chief justice, and 
Ethelbert P. Oliphant and James E. Wyche, associate 
justices. Justice Oliphant delivered the opinion of the 
court, which was concurred in by the chief justice. Justice 
Wyche dissenting. The majority's opinion held that the 
legislature had exceeded its powers in declaring that the 
seat of government should "be and remain" at Vancouver; 
that the act had been made contingent upon the decision of 
the people, by the subsequent act requesting a vote at the 
next general election, and that an act without an enacting 
clause and without date is void. Justice Wyche, in his 
dissenting opinion, held that an enacting clause was not 
essential, where the act was published by authority, and 
where such a clause was not specifically required by the 
rules of the legislative body, or the organic law. He also 
held that the court had no authority to try cases at Olympia, 
and should adjourn to Vancouver. 

So the capital question was settled for the time being, and 
it was not raised again until the territory was about to pass 
to statehood. Seattle got the university and kept it, but 
Port Townsend did not get the penitentiary, then or after- 
wards, nor was the penitentiary located or built until more 
than a dozen years later, when the government built one on 
McNeill's Island. Meantime the convicts were kept in 


the jails of such counties as had jails. Pierce County for 
several years had a majority of them in its jail at Steilacoom, 
and Sheriff Egbert H. Tucker was authorized to employ 
them in any reasonable way to help pay for "their board 
and keep." 

The custom house had been removed from Olympia to 
Port Tow^nsend in Colonel Ebey's time, and now the town 
was to lose it for a time, in a most unexpected way, and its 
people were to have no end of worry, anxiety and excitement 
before they should recover it again. 

After the murder of Colonel Ebey, Morris H. Frost of 
Steilacoom became collector, and at the end of his term of 
four years, C. C. Phillips of Whidby Island held the place 
for something less than one year, when, in August 1861, 
Victor Smith of Ohio was appointed. Smith had been a 
neighbor of Secretary Chase, and appears to have enjoyed 
his confidence to a considerable degree. Before leaving 
Washington, Smith had received some general instructions, 
or suggestions, from Chase, who always felt that an unduly 
large share of responsibility for running the government rested 
on his shoulders, in regard to observing the general manage- 
ment of affairs in the territory, particularly as to the expendi- 
tures of public funds, that impressed him with the idea that 
he was to be a confidential agent of the government in the 
territory, as well as collector of customs for the Puget Sound 
district, and that as such he was an official of unusual 
authority and importance. Mr. Schuckers, who was Mr. 
Chase's private secretary, and also his biographer, says 
of Smith that he was a man of perfectly good character, but 
"not very likely to become popular on the Pacific Coast — 
or anywhere else. He believed in spirit rappings, and was 
an avowed abolitionist; he whined a great deal about 


progress; was somewhat arrogant in manner and intoler- 
ant in speech; and speedily made himself unpopular in 

His conduct aroused opposition from the very beginning. 
His outspoken views on the slavery question made him 
objectionable to some; his arrogant manner was disagreeable 
to all who came in contact with him. He so evidently 
regarded himself as the sole representative of the national 
authority in the territory, and interfered so frequently in 
matters with which he had no concern, that he was soon 
in disfavor with other officials, and people generally began 
to complain. The mail service on the Sound had never 
been satisfactory, but it had recently been somewhat im- 
proved by a contract with the steamer Eliza Anderson. 
This famous pioneer vessel had been built on the Columbia 
in 1857-58, and first made her appearance on the Sound in 
the spring of 1859, where for a dozen years she was not 
only a carrier of persons, merchandise, produce and live 
stock, but a floating bank, and general agent for the people 
of the entire Sound country as well. She was paid well 
for every service rendered. The rate per passenger from 
Olympia to Seattle was ^6.50; to Port Townsend ^12.50; 
to Victoria $20. Horses and cattle were carried at ^15 
per head, sheep and hogs at ^2.50, and merchandise and 
general freight at $5 to $10 per ton, measurement. An 
empty barrel, had one been shipped, would have paid the 
same rate as a full one, and a box of feathers as much as 
one of the same size filled with dry goods or hardware. The 
owners made money so rapidly and so regularly that a mail 
contract was probably not a matter of much importance to 
them, but as she visited most of the towns and settle- 
ments on the Sound regularly about once a week, it was 


a great satisfaction to the settlers to have her carry the 

But Mr. Smith, acting on what he assumed to be his 
general authority to supervise all matters pertaining to the 
expenditure of government money in the neighborhood, 
decided that the revenue cutter Shubrick could carry the 
mails and deliver them as frequently as people had need 
for them, and although he had no authority from the post 
office department v^hatever, discontinued the arrangement 
with the Anderson and had the mails carried by the cutter. 
But the cutter made no regular trips in any direction. She 
was frequently, if not constantly, employed in the service 
of the customs department, and sometimes did not visit 
some of the points to be served for weeks together. The 
new arrangement, therefore, speedily gave rise to most 
vigorous complaints. 

Sometime later the new collector applied to the military 
authorities for leave to use the buildings at Port Townsend, 
which had not been occupied since Major Haller's company 
had been sent to San Juan Island, for a marine hospital. 
The commandant at Fort Steilacoom granted the authority 
temporarily, reporting his action to his superiors with a 
recommendation that it be approved. The arrangement 
thus made was continued for some time, but finally, as the 
collector's unpopularity increased, it was charged that he 
was renting the buildings to a private hospital, which charged 
the government ^1.50 per day for each poor mariner who 
found his way there, while Smith was putting the ;^2i8 per 
month rent in his own pocket.* In the letter making this 
charge, the writer says: "I have reported Victor Smith to 

♦Letter of Lieutenant J. H. Merryman to General Alvord, May 26, 
1862 — War of the Rebellion, Official Record, Vol. L, Part II, p. 1099. 


the Secretary of the Treasury for embezzlement of the sum 
of ;^4,354.98, and for official misconduct of the most dis- 
graceful character." 

But all causes of dissatisfaction with, and opposition to, 
the new collector became matters of only minor considera- 
tion with the people of the lower Sound region, when it 
was discovered that he was planning to have the custom 
house removed from Port Townsend to Port Angeles. This 
plan he evidently began to prepare soon after his arrival. 
The reason he gave for urging removal was that the harbor 
at Townsend was not as favorable in all weathers as that of 
Port Angeles, and he urged this so forcibly upon the notice 
of the secretary, and upon Congress, that the removal was 
authorized in June 1862, less than a year after he had arrived 
in the territory. 

But before this authority was obtained. Smith was com- 
pelled to go to Washington to defend himself against a charge 
of being a defaulter in the sum of 1^15,000. This charge he 
was able to disprove. It was also charged that he was 
seeking to profit by the increase in value of Port Angeles 
town lots, that would naturally follow the location there of 
the port of entry for Puget Sound. A company had been 
formed which had claimed and surveyed the townsite, or 
a part of it, for a city to be called Cherburg, and Smith was 
shown to have a fifth interest in the enterprise, the owners 
of the other four-fifths being H. A. Goldsborough and P. M. 
O'Brien. But this charge he was able to explain to the satis- 
faction of the secretary, and late in July he returned tri- 
umphantly to his office. 

But he was not able to obtain possession of it without 
difficulty. On leaving for the capital he had appointed 
Major J. J. H. Van Bokkelen inspector and deputy-collector, 


and installed him in charge. But not long afterwards 
Captain J. S. S. Chaddock, of the revenue cutter Joe Lane, 
assuming no doubt that the collector would be removed, took 
possession of the custom house, and put Lieutenant J. H. 
Merryman in Van Bokkelen's place. So matters remained 
until Smith returned late in July, when he appeared in the 
harbor after nightfall on board the Shubrick, and forthwith 
made demand upon Merryman for his office. For reply the 
lieutenant refused to deliver unless Smith first presented 
some written authority, showing that he had a right to 
possession of it. Smith refused to make any such exhibit 
and, returning to the Shubrick, sent her commander, Lieu- 
tenant Wilson, to present his demand, and to say that if 
it were again refused, he would take possession by force. 
Fifteen minutes only were allowed Merryman for reflection, 
and he w^as told that the guns of the cutter had already 
been shotted, and the custom house w^ould be fired upon as 
soon as he returned to the vessel, unless his demand were 
complied with. 

To a demand so peremptorily made, Merryman could 
make but one reply. It was then so dark that he could not 
see whether the guns of the cutter were already trained on 
the building as Wilson said they were. He could not 
presume that this threat made by one officer to another wear- 
ing the same uniform was an idle one, and he was well aware 
of Smith's arrogant and importunate character. If the 
custom house were fired upon, the lives of the inhabitants 
of the town would be endangered, for their homes were all 
closely huddled about it. Believing therefore, as he claimed, 
that he could prevent the town from being fired upon only 
by giving up the office, he yielded to the demand, and all 
the books and papers were at once taken on board the cutter. 


News of what was going on soon spread through the town 
and much indignation and excitement followed. Governor 
Pickering was appealed to. The appeal reached him by the 
Eliza Anderson, on the afternoon of August 2d, and he at 
once wrote one of his most voluble letters to Major Patten, 
in command at Fort Steilacoom, in which, after narrating 
what had transpired as he had been informed of it, he closed 
by saying: "And now, sir, I beg leave to respectfully request 
you will go with me to Port Townsend, for I shall indeed be 
glad to enjoy the favor of your company, and I shall also 
feel thankful for the favor and benefit of your experience 
and advice upon the complicated and delicate questions of 
law and conventional usage, or professional etiquette, always 
to be rightfully observed between officers representing coor- 
dinate branches of the same government." 

On the next trip of the Anderson the governor, accom- 
panied by his private secretary, the United States marshal, 
Ex-Secretary and Acting-Governor McGill, who was now a 
United States commissioner, and several citizens of Olympia, 
left for the scene of these recent hostile actions. At Steilacoom 
they were joined by Major Patten and several prominent res- 
idents of that town. They arrived at Port Townsend on 
the evening of August nth, where, learning that Merryman 
had gone to Victoria, the governor continued on to that 
place in order to learn the particulars of what had occurred 
from him, before interviewing the collector. The remainder 
of the party stopped at Port Townsend to await the arrival 
of the Shubrick, which they found was hourly expected. 

The commissioner immediately began an investigation as 
to what had occurred, and, on the affidavits of several citizens 
that the guns of the Shubrick had actually been shotted and 
turned on the town, with intent to kill, issued warrants for 


the arrest of both the collector and her commander. Both 
were then known to be on board the cutter, and when her 
signal lights appeared outside the harbor soon after dark, 
the marshal was sent to serve them, and place both officers 
under arrest. But this was not easily done. The cutter 
did not enter the harbor, but sent the mail on shore in one 
of her boats, the return of which she awaited at a distance 
of a mile or more from shore. Seeing what the intention 
was, the marshal summoned a posse, and put off in a boat 
procured for the purpose, to secure his prisoners. But he 
was not successful. He was not allowed to see the collector 
at all, and on reading the warrant to Lieutenant Wilson, that 
officer refused to recognize or obey it in any way. He was 
obliged to leave the ship empty-handed. 

On reporting this to the commissioner, he was directed 
to return again to the cutter, and remain on board unless 
forcibly ejected. His second trip, made in pursuance of 
this order, was by one of the boats belonging to the cutter 
Joe Lane, then lying in the harbor, but this time he was not 
allowed to board the Shubrick, or even to come near her, 
as her paddle wheels were kept sufficiently in motion to 
make any near approach impossible. 

Soon afterward the Shubrick steamed away to Victoria, 
and two days later returned, very early in the morning, when 
she took the Joe Lane in tow and bore her away to the new 
port of entry at Cherburg. The next the governor and his 
party heard of her, she was passing out to the Pacific, as 
they supposed to San Francisco. 

The collector and his confederate, the commander of the 
Shubrick, were now declared to be fugitives from justice. 
Major Patten reported to Adjutant-General Drum, at San 
Francisco, that the district was now without naval protection, 

From a print in Harper's Magazine. 



both the ctor and her co 

known to be on board the c 

: outside the harbor so 
ishai was sent to serve them, and place b 
er an iis was not easily done. The cutter 

not ei '>or, but sent the mail on shore in one 

>f her n of she awaited at a distance 

of a n trom shore. Seeing what the intention 

was )ned ii , and put oJfF i! 

pro S to secure his prisoners. But he 

was not alir^wed to see the collector 
rrant atenant Wilson, that 

•r obey !t m any way. He was 

mmissioner, he was directed 

tnd remain on board unless 

\ made in pursuance of 

mo-inpr to til- -: 

■■■r- he was not 

aftervv., :.. » co Victoria, 

) days lat- ' .norning, when 

k the Jo< away to tjie new 

entry at L c governor and his 

leard of I- -t to the Pacific, as 

tiiC) :A ' ~d to ^ 

"^he couector an^ commander of the 

brick, were fugitives from justice. 

Patten r- " leral Drum, at San 

xo, that r ,ut naval protection, 




the Joe Lane having been put out of commission, her officers 
placed on leave and most of her crew discharged. The 
district also seemed to be without a collector, for it seems to 
have been expected at the time that Smith would never 
return, but in this the people were mistaken. 

During all these proceedings the people of Port Townsend 
had behaved with decorum. They were deeply interested, 
and much excited, but they made no unseemly demonstra- 
tions. But it now began to be intimated that if Smith and 
Wilson ever returned, they would be arrested by an armed 
posse, and Major Patten regarded the prospect of this so 
probable that he asked for instructions from headquarters 
as to what he should do if asked to send troops to enforce 
the requirements of the law. He was told that if any diffi- 
culty arose the civil authorities must settle it. A month 
later, September 12th, Patten reported that Smith and Wilson 
had arrived at Olympia, where they had submitted themselves 
to a legal investigation. Smith was afterwards indicted 
on four counts — for resisting a duly authorized officer; for 
embezzlement of public funds; for procuring false vouchers; 
and for assault on the people of Port Townsend. 

From this time forward the people whom the collector 
had offended by his arrogant manner and arbitrary conduct 
made war upon him without ceasing. Among the officials 
of the territory who had been appointed by President Lin- 
coln were several who had known him personally. Among 
these were John J. McGilvra, the United States attorney, 
A. A. Denny, register of the land office, Governor Pickering 
and Secretary Turney, as well as Anson G. Henry, who 
would later be made surveyor-general. These did not fail 
to keep the president advised of what was going on. The 
mails were burdened with letters to the president, to 


Secretary Chase and other members of the cabinet, to 
members of Congress, and other people of influence, and 
delegations were sent to Washington to protest against Smith's 
continuance in office. That these letters produced some dis- 
turbance in the president's official family, we know, though the 
details of the controversy are not all recorded. But it is not 
difficult to guess how a peppery postmaster-general like Blair 
received notice of the interference of an appointee of another 
department with his mail-carrying contracts, or how a 
somewhat arbitrary person like Secretary Stanton would 
regard such a report as Lieutenant Merryman had for- 

The secretary of the treasury stood stoutly by his man, 
as his custom was, but finally the controversy became so 
annoying that President Lincoln could stand it no longer, 
and on May 8, 1863, ^^ wrote Chase a personal letter in 
which he said: "My mind is made up to remove Victor 
Smith as collector of the customs at the Puget Sound district. 
Yet in doing this, I do not decide that the charges against 
him are true. I only decide that the degree of dissatisfac- 
tion with him there is too great for him to be retained. But 
I believe he is your personal acquaintance and friend, and 
if you desire it, I will try to find some other place for him." 

Chase resented this removal of one of his appointees, and 
made it the excuse for tendering one of the several resigna- 
tions which he presented before he finally withdrew from 
office. Mr. Lincoln easily prevailed upon him to withdraw 
it, and on May 13th concluded a letter to him on another 
subject, with a request that he would send him " a commission 
for Lewis C. Gunn, as you recommended, for collector of 
customs at Puget Sound. " Gunn was appointed, and Smith 
was subsequently returned to the Sound as a special agent of 


the treasury department, an office of really higher authority 
than that of collector. 

Smith built a commodious building at Port Angeles which 
he leased to the government for the use of the customs service. 
It v^as situated on the bank of one of the streams which rise 
in the Olympics, and flow down through the foothills and 
townsite to the straits. This stream failed mysteriously in 
the summer of 1863, and later it was found that a landslide 
some distance back of the town had dammed it up, forming 
a great reservoir in the foothills, which, when the winter 
rains began, became a lake. On the night of December 
16, 1863, the dam which the landslide had formed gave way, 
and the liberated waters rushed down through the town, 
in a flood as irresistable as that which years later destroyed 
the city of Johnstown in Pennsylvania. All the buildings 
in its path were swept away, including that used for the 
custom house. Smith's residence, which was close to it, 
was saved from instant destruction by a jam formed by 
floating trees and other debris, just above it, though it was 
flooded, and Mrs. Smith and her four children, together 
with another woman, saved themselves with the utmost 
difficulty. Smith was in Washington at the time, and 
Deputy-Collector J. M. Anderson, and Inspector William 
B.Goodelljwho were standing near the custom house entrance 
when the wall of water struck it, had been swept away and 
drowned. While groping about in the darkness, and stand- 
ing waist deep in the water, in her efix»rts to find and save 
her children, Mrs. Smith found the body of a woman, under 
the water, and held down by a mass of dirt and logs which 
the flood had brought with it. This woman she managed to 
rescue, as well as to save her children, and no lives were 
lost save those of the custom house officers. Their bodies 


were found some distance below the wrecked custom house, 
and buried under four or five feet of dirt and driftwood. 

The furniture, books, papers and other records of the 
custom house were swept away, and a considerable sum of 
money with them, but these were mostly recovered and 
after the flood had spent itself, as it did in a few hours, a 
new office was secured in another part of the town, and the 
custom house reestablished. There it remained until 1865, 
when it was returned to Port Townsend, much to the joy of 
its people. 

Smith was one of the passengers lost on the ill-fated steamer 
Brother Jonathan in July 1865, Among the other passen- 
gers who were also lost were: Captain Chaddock formerly 
of the Joe Lane, and Anson G. Henry, then surveyor-general 
of the territory, both of whom had been among the collector's 
most active opponents in the numerous controversies which 
had characterized his career in the customs service. 

There was a superabundance of single men among the 
early settlers, as has been the case in most new territories. 
So many young men, who had hoped to make homes for their 
wives before they married or sought them, had come west, 
that there were vastly more men than women of marriage- 
able a^ge in Washington for a score of years or more in its 
early history. The discrepancy was a matter of frequent 
remark, and every family arriving, that numbered among 
its members a grown-up daughter or two, was given a special 

Among the young men who came in the early '60s was 
Asa S. Mercer, who had only recently graduated from 
college. He was a brother of Judge Mercer, who was then 
living in Seattle, through whom he soon became acquainted 
with the managers of the new territorial university, and was 


employed by them as its first president. He taught its 
classes but one winter, and during that time it occurred to 
him that the inequahty of the sexes on the western shore of 
the continent might be corrected if the situation could be 
fully explained to people on the eastern shore, where there 
were more women than men, and where the war was then 
making many widows and orphans. He consulted with 
some of his acquaintances about the advisability of making 
a trip east to try and organize a party of women to come 
to the Sound country, and received some encouragement. 
He went to Olympia to talk with members of the legislature 
and Governor Pickering, who like himself was from Illinois, 
about it, and the governor seemed interested, but explained 
that the territory had no funds that could be used for such 
a purpose. Mercer then set to work to raise funds by 
private subscription, and was so successful that during the 
following winter he went to Boston, New York and other 
eastern cities, where he found many people who received 
what he had to say with favor. Many women expressed 
a willingness to go west with his proposed party, but when 
the time to start arrived the hearts of many failed them, and 
he sailed from New York for Panama in March 1864, with 
a much smaller party than he had hoped for, but there were 
eleven marriageable women in it. Some of these were 
accompanied by their fathers and other members of their 
families, and nearly all paid their own way. 

They arrived on the Sound in May, and were given a 
generous welcome.- Every community in the western part 
of the territory had learned of their coming, and was anxious 
to secure some members of the party among its permanent 
residents. Mercer and his enterprise had been so much 
talked about during his absence, that he had come to be 


regarded as available political material, and on his arrival 
found that he had been nominated by King and Kitsap 
counties as their joint member of the Council. In due 
time he was elected and served through the session, ending 
in the last days of January 1865. 

He was still resolved to try another venture at inducing 
women to come to the coast. He could carry back with him 
assurances from the members of his first party that they 
had been well treated on the voyage out, and agreeably 
received on their arrival. Many, perhaps most, of them 
could have testified, also, that they were already well and 
happily married, for all but two of their number did marry, 
and some of them found husbands who were well-to-do if 
not wealthy for that day. His plan was to call on President 
Lincoln, whom he personally knew, explain to him what he 
hoped to accomplish, and ask him to provide "a ship coaled 
and manned for the voyage to Seattle." As his purpose was 
to bring women who had been made w^idows or orphans by 
the war, to a new country, where they were sure to be wel- 
come, and almost equally sure to find happy homes, he felt 
confident of enlisting the president's sympathies. " Know- 
ing the goodness of his heart," Mr. Mercer says in a letter 
written a little later, "not a shadow of doubt existed in my 
mind as to the outcome. " 

But he arrived in New York too late to find Mr. Lincoln 
alive. On the very evening of the day of his arrival, he was 
assassinated. His main dependence was therefore gone, 
but he did not yet despair of success. He went to Massa- 
chusetts and had a talk with Governor Andrew, and was by 
him introduced to Edward Everett Hale and others who 
entered more or less heartily into his plans and gave him 
much assistance. Then he went to Washington, where he 


saw the president and many other officials, but did not suc- 
ceed in securing a ship. Then the newspapers denounced 
his undertaking, declaring that all men in the Puget Sound 
country were a debauched and profligate lot, and advised 
all self-respecting women not to go there — at least not with 
Mercer. These attacks discouraged many who had already 
made preparations for the journey, and Mercer found that 
at most he could not hope to start with a party of more than 
two hundred persons, and these must pay regular rates for 
their transportation to San Francisco. Finally, after many 
discouragements, his party took passage by the steamer 
Continental, which Ben. Holliday had recently purchased 
from the government. 

The party as finally made up consisted largely of families, 
but of families in which the female members predominated. 
There were some women who were not accompanied by 
male relatives. Some had been schoolteachers, some had 
worked in mills, factories or families, and some had been 
employed in the government offices in Washington. All 
were of good character, and were a welcome addition to 
the population of the territory, as their predecessors had been. 

They made the trip by way of the Strait of Magellan, very 
pleasantly, to San Francisco, where some of them were 
surprised to find people who had been requested by their 
friends in the East to meet them, waiting to rescue them in 
case they should by this time have found that they were 
not to be taken among respectable people. These and others 
urged them to remain in California, and told them most 
discouraging stories about the country northward, as a 
means of inducing them to do so. But few if any of them 
were led to change their destination, although their means 
of reaching it for a time seemed doubtful. Mercer's means 


were exhausted. He had but ^3 left, and he spent ^2.50 
of that for a telegram to Governor Pickering, asking for 
money, and did not get it. He managed, however, to send 
his party northward by tens, twenties and forties, in 
lumber ships, and in due time they reached the Sound in 

Previous to their arrival an appeal had been made to the 
several towns to make arrangements for their reception, 
and it was answered as generously as those who made it 
could have hoped. The travelers were received into the 
homes of the settlers, and given as many attentions as they 
would have received among their own friends or acquaint- 
ances. Few if any of them ever had cause to regret the 
long journey they had made, or that they had undertaken 
it under such peculiar circumstances. 

At the expiration of Flander's term as delegate, he was 
appointed governor of the territory, succeeding Marshal F. 
Moore, and he entered upon the discharge of his new duties 
in 1869. By this time the removals and appointments made 
by President Johnson, and the differences of opinion among 
Republicans in regard to the reconstruction acts, had com- 
pletely demoralized political parties in the territory, and 
given rise to much bitterness of feeling. Although General 
Grant had now become president, nothing had yet been 
done to improve the political situation in the territory. On 
the contrary, local and personal issues had begun to cause 
new dissensions, and the situation promised to be most 
embarrassing for the new governor, as indeed it proved to 

Captain Christopher C. Hewitt, who had commanded the 
first company of volunteers raised in Seattle during the 
Indian war, had been appointed chief justice of the territory 


in 1861, succeeding Justice McFadden, who had been Lan- 
der's successor, for a term of two years. Although a fair 
lawyer, Hewitt was not popular among members of the bar. 
Possibly they did not like the means by which his advance- 
ment had come to him. 

During the earlier years of his residence in the territory, 
when clients were few and fees small, he had not hesitated 
to accept any honorable employment, however humble, to 
gain a livelihood and avoid getting into debt, and had 
arranged with Meigs, who was then manager of the Port 
Madison Mill Company, to make ox yokes for his logging 
camps. The yokes were made with his own hands, and were 
so well and honestly made, that Meigs employed him as 
attorney for his company in a suit which was famous in its 
time, and was finally taken to the supreme court of the 
United States. With the aid of Hon. Joseph S. Smith, who 
was also employed in the case, Hewitt prepared a brief which 
commended itself so strongly to the attention of Chief Justice 
Taney, that he recommended Hewitt to Mr. Lincoln for 
appointment as chief justice of the territory.* He was 
appointed, but efforts to secure his removal began almost as 
soon as he had taken his seat on the bench. He successfully 
resisted these, and at the end of four years was able to secure 
a reappointment, and to retain his position till the close of 
his second term. 

His opponents were not all lawyers. Members of the 
legislature, and other people more or less interested in politi- 
cal matters, took up the fight against him, and not being 
able to secure his removal, the legislature, in January 1868, 

♦Address by Judge C. H. Hanford at the celebration of the fiftieth 
anniversary of the separation of Washington Territory from Oregon, held 
at Olympia, March 2, 1903. 


rearranged the judicial districts of the territory and assigned 
Hewitt to Stevens County, requiring him to live at Fort 
Colvile. Judge Wyche was given all the river counties 
from Walla Walla to Pacific, with Lewis, Thurston, Mason 
and Chehalis in addition, while C. B. Darwin, the newest 
appointee on the bench, was assigned all the counties in 
the Sound country. The absurdity of this arrangement 
was so easily apparent, that Congress refused to confirm it, 
and Hewitt was again triumphant. 

Although Darwin, the new judge, had not been long in the 
territory, having been appointed to succeed Oliphant in 
1867, he was already unpopular. He was fairly well learned 
in the law, and a linguist of some celebrity. It is said that 
when a prisoner of foreign birth, who had been convicted 
in his court, was asked if he had anything to say why sentence 
should not be passed upon him, his attorney answered that 
his client did not speak English well and would require an 
interpreter, and the judge replied: ''Let him use his own 
language; the court will understand him." 

But in spite of his learning, Darwin was not popular. His 
moral character was not above reproach — at least not above 
suspicion, and as Hewitt's second term had now expired 
most of the opposition seemed to have been transferred to 
him. Early in President Grant's term, an entire new bench 
was appointed. B. F. Dennison became chief justice, and 
Orange Jacobs and James K. Kennedy associates, and two 
years later Judge Jacobs became chief justice, with Kennedy 
and Roger S. Greene as associates. 

But there were other troubles than those which caused 
this opposition to members of the supreme court, to make 
dissension among members of the legislature of 1869. When 
they assembled in October, as they did under a new law 


changing the date of meeting, they found that the appropria- 
tion made by Congress for their salaries and expenses would 
not be available until December. Naturally, this was a 
most vexatious discovery. Several seats in the House were 
contested, and the determination of these contests led to new 
vexations. But the troubles in the House were as nothing 
compared to those of the Council. This body was still 
composed of only nine members, and two of the Republicans 
in it refused to act with their party, or with the Democrats, 
so that no party in it could be sure of passing any measure. 
The printing contract for the session was the cause of much 
bitterness. The amount of work to be done was unusually 
large, and the printer's profits would be increased in propor- 
tion. There was a triangular fight over this and other 
matters during the whole session. In addition to the intensely 
partisan spirit existing, there were long-standing personal 
feuds between some of the members, and altercations in 
the lobby and on the floor were frequent. One day the 
sergeant-at-arms had to interfere to prevent a rough-and- 
tumble fight, during the session, between one of the leading 
Democrats and an equally prominent Republican. Reso- 
lutions of censure were passed upon these combatants next 
day, but the matter was far from ending there. 

For a long time preceding, the need for a codification of 
the laws of the territory had been urgent. Several governors 
had called attention to it in their messages, but one legisla- 
ture after another had neglected to do anything about it. 
The printed acts of the legislature, adopted at the fourteen 
sessions already held, existed only in pamphlet copies of 
the session laws. These the lawyers used when they had 
or could obtain them, but those for some years were now 
rare and very difficult to obtain. A few copies were offered 


at from ^3 to ^5 each. Some lawyers had only incomplete 
sets, and these they guarded with most jealous care. Even 
the territorial officers and members of the legislature had 
difficulty about getting and keeping them. But the preceding 
legislature had provided for a codification commission, and 
J. H. Lassater, Elwood Evans and B. F. Dennison had been 
appointed to do the work. Their report, chiefly the work of 
Mr. Evans, was presented to the legislature, and referred 
to a select committee, composed of the lawyers in both houses, 
for review, and for such amendments as should seem desirable. 
The committee reported from time to time. The changes 
it suggested were, for the most part, merely verbal, but to 
make them in legal form the acts in which they occurred were 
reenacted. This made it necessary, or at least permissible, 
to have them reprinted for the use of the legislature, and 
thus greatly to increase the work and profits of the public 
printer. To this the governor objected, and vetoed the 
amended measures in batches. His messages announcing 
these vetoes were very much alike, differing only in the 
enumeration of titles of the measures vetoed. The reasons 
given were always the same. The bills were simply reenact- 
ments of laws as they already stood on the statute books; the 
object of reenactment was simply to have them printed, as 
laws of the present session; their publication would cost the 
government a large sum without any corresponding benefit; 
possibly the territory would have the bill to pay. But 
whether the cost should be paid by the national or territorial 
government, the expenditure was unwarranted, especially in 
view of the hasty and imperfect manner in which the code, 
of which the bills were to be a part, had been acted upon, for 
the governor thought it doubtful whether one of them had 
been read in either house during the session. 


One of the early lawyers of the territory. He 
defeated General Stevens for the nomination for 
delegate in Congress in 1861, but was himself defeated 
at the election. Was again nominated and elected 
in 1869, and reelected in 1870. Was surveyor-general 
of the territory from 1866 to 1869. He also served as 
collector of customs for one term. 



on, and 
iv^ehnisQn'had been 


report, chiefly the work of 

ilature, and d 

lawyers in both houses, 

ts should seem desirable. 

to time. The changes 

, merelv verbal, but to 

occurred were 

at least permissible, 

the legislature, and 

fits of the public 

id vetoed the 


in the 


, reenact- 

Lute books; the 

them printed, as 

on would cost the 

x.csponding benefit; 

bill to pay. But 

iational or territorial 

'Hted, especially in 

lii which the code, 

been acted upon, for 

-"• one of them had 


It was at this session that the community property law, 
which still stands on the statute books, was enacted. 

Selucius Garfielde was elected delegate to Congress in 

1869, defeating Ex-Governor Marshal F. Moore. Though 
Garfielde had defeated Stevens for the Democratic nomina- 
tion in 1 861, he had since acted with the Republicans. He 
had been surveyor-general from 1866 to 1869, having been 
appointed to that office sometime after the death of A. G. 
Henry. He was a brilliant public speaker, and had ranked 
as a leading lawyer almost from the day of his arrival in 
the territory. His intellectual acquirements were always 
something of a mystery to those who knew him best. He was 
generally well informed on all current topics, and yet he 
seemed to give but little time to the reading of books or 
newspapers. He was apparently equally inattentive as a 
lawyer to the preparation of his cases, and yet he always 
came into court well prepared, and few other lawyers of 
his time were more frequently successful in their practice. 

Until after he was elected the first time, delegates from 
this territory had been chosen in the odd-numbered years, 
and a change in the law, made in 1869, shortened his first 
term to one year. He was renominated and reelected in 

1870, and again renominated in 1872, but defeated by Judge 
O. B. McFadden. He afterwards served a term as collector 
of customs for the Puget Sound district. 

It was charged during his campaigns for delegate, that 
he was to be, peculiarly, the representative of the interests 
opposed to the Hudson's Bay and Puget Sound Agricultural 
companies. At any rate, the representatives of these two 
concerns bitterly opposed him. He had been the attorney 
for Pierce County in a suit brought in 1859 to compel the 
latter company to pay taxes on all the land it claimed in the 


county. The trial of this suit had been long and expensive. 
It had been three times appealed to the supreme court of 
the territory, and once to the supreme court of the United 
States. The latter court had dismissed it for informality 
in the record, and after ten years of litigation, matters still 
stood apparently about as they were at the beginning. But 
Garfielde had led the fighting aggressively, and confidently 
claimed that he w^ould ultimately win. 

The settlers had taken the keenest interest in this litiga- 
tion. Many of them had selected and sought to take claims 
within the area which the Company claimed under the treaty 
of 1846. This comprised all the land lying between the 
Puyallup and the Nisqually rivers, from the Sound to the 
summit of the Cascades, amounting to something more than 
167,000 acres, and 3,562 acres at the Cowlitz Farms in Lewis 
County. But little of this land, comparatively, was under 
cultivation, or ever had been — about 1,500 acres on the 
Cowlitz, and two or three hundred at Nisqually. The 
remainder had been used, so far as it had been used at all, 
simply as a range for cattle, sheep and horses, and these had 
roamed over only a small part of it, for most of it was so 
heavily timbered that even the Indians had never set foot 
on it. To assert ownership in this vast area, under that 
provision of a treaty, which provided that "the farms, lands 
and other property of every description, belonging to the 
Puget Sound Agricultural Company, on the north side of 
the Columbia, shall be confirmed to said company," seemed 
preposterous to the settlers, who knew that it never had 
owned, or could own it, and that the greater part of it had 
never even been seen by its agents or animals. They knew 
that this grasping monopoly was an alien concern. They 
believed that it had been more friendly than need be to 


the Indians during the Indian war. They knew that some 
of its old-time employees had given them aid and comfort. 
The correspondence submitted to, and the testimony taken 
by the legislature, during the winter following the proclama- 
tion of martial law, showed that they had left food in places 
where the Indian marauders could easily find it, and that 
the murderers of White and Northcraft had visited some of 
them, while their hands were still red with these crimes. 
While it was not believed, or perhaps suspected that the 
Company encouraged these criminal acts, it was not for- 
gotten that it had at one time helped these people to take 
claims on the land where it had always arrogandy forbidden 
Americans to make their homes, and that it was friendly to 
these aliens, while it continued to harass and annoy all 
the native-born citizens with threats of eviction. 

None of the settlers who had made locations on the lands 
claimed by the Company, in either Pierce or Lewis counties, 
could get title of any sort. They could not even get their 
claims surveyed, for the surveyors were instructed by the 
government to stop their work at the borders of the lands 
claimed by the Company. They could file no notice or 
claim at the land office. As native-born citizens in their 
own country, which they had helped to win from a foreign 
claimant and the savages, they seemed to have no rights 
except such as they could enforce by their own presence. 

In his first message to the legislature. Governor Stevens 
had pointed out the desirability of getting rid of these alien 
concerns. Under the treaty, the government might purchase 
their property if it should be considered "of public and politi- 
cal importance" to do so, "at a proper valuation, to be 
agreed upon between the parties." As a means of inducing 
Congress to take early action in the matter, he recommended 


that a careful official estimate of the value of the property 
should be made, so that an idea might be formed as to what 
the purchase would probably cost. But no action of this 
kind was taken by that or any succeeding legislature, and 
as a consequence the purchase was not made until nearly 
seventeen years later. 

Meantime the grievances of the settlers against the com- 
panies became a factor in every political campaign. They 
did not become an issue, because all the people except the 
few representatives of the companies were of one mind in 
regard to them, but every candidate for office had some more 
or less futile suggestions to make in regard to them. Some 
contended that the treaty ought to be abrogated, and some 
that it ought to be disregarded altogether and set at defiance. 
Of course these vehement orators, or some of them at least, 
had no very clear comprehension of the binding character 
of treaties, or of the results that would certainly follow, if 
their views should be accepted, and the settlers, looking only 
for some means of escape from the embarrassments which 
so persistently beset them, would have been glad to see 
anything tried that could give a promise of any sort of 

Finally the commissioners of Pierce County, in May 1859, 
ordered the lands claimed to be assessed, and in this they 
appear to have been joined by those of Lewis County. The 
Company refused to pay, as it was doubtless expected it 
would do, since no taxes were levied on the claims of the 
settlers until they received their patents from the government, 
and the Company not only had no patent, but no certain 
prospect that it would ever receive any. There was there- 
fore no very encouraging prospect that it could ever be com- 
pelled to pay. 


Several prominent lawyers in the territory were employed 
in arguing the several appeals, but Garfielde appears to 
have been the leading counsel for the county, while B. F. 
Kendall was the principal attorney for the defendant com- 
pany. The case led to or was the cause of a tragedy which 
at the time caused more excitement and aroused more feeling 
than any event since Governor Stevens had declared martial 
law and caused the arrest of Judge Lander. 

In addition to his law practice Kendall had become 
interested in the "Overland Press," a weekly paper which 
had been started at Olympia, in July 1861, and because of 
its enterprise shown in getting and publishing war news, had 
soon become one of the most widely read and influential 
publications in the territory. Sometime in 1862, one of the 
buildings at the Cowlitz Farms owned by the Puget Sound 
Agricultural Company, had been burned, and it was strongly 
suspected that the fire was of incendiary origin. In its 
report of this fire, the "Press" intimated that Horace Howe 
was more or less directly responsible for the conflagration. 
On December 20th, Howe met Kendall on the street in 
Olympia, and an exciting controversy followed, during which 
Howe struck Kendall with a switch he happened to have 
in his hand. Kendall turned and ran, or walked hurriedly 
away, with Howe pursuing, but after running a short dis- 
tance Kendall drew a revolver, turned and fired four shots 
at his pursuer, one of which inflicted what was at the time 
supposed to be a severe wound. 

The shooting caused a great deal of excitement and much 
angry comment. Kendall published his version of the 
encounter in the next issue of the "Press," and this still 
further excited and enbittered Howe's friends. A day or 
two later, on January 8, 1863, Howe's son entered the "Press" 


office, and asked to see Kendall alone. The two entered 
Kendall's room together. A few minutes later a shot was 
heard by those in the outer office, and Howe emerged from 
the room, saying: "I shot him in self-defense." The shot 
had been well aimed. Kendall had been instantly killed 
by it, and Howe was accordingly arrested. 

The inquest was most exciting. It was found that the 
pistol Howe had used strikingly resembled one of a pair 
owned by Frank Clark, with whom Howe was known to 
be acquainted. Clark did not deny the acquaintance, nor 
that the pistol was his, nor would he answer any question 
that could in any way connect him with the tragedy. Being 
a lawyer, and knowing the law, he would say nothing that 
could be used to incriminate him, and yet reading the reports 
of the inquest at this distance of time, some of his answers 
seem to have been framed to indicate that he knew as much 
about the tragedy as people thought, or perhaps to deepen 
the mystery surrounding it. 

Howe's plea that he had shot in self-defense was so far 
accepted by the coroner's jury, that he was admitted to bail, 
and he immediately disappeared. From that moment no- 
body who had previously known him, so far as the public 
learned, ever saw him again. It was reported that he com- 
mitted suicide, or was accidently drowned, but no proof of 
it was ever produced. 

The tax case was dismissed by the supreme court on 
December 23, 1867. As it had been dismissed solely because 
of an irregularity in the service of some of the papers per- 
taining to it, the contest stood now practically where it had 
stood in the beginning. None of the questions raised had 
been determined. Nevertheless when the news reached 
Steilacoom, then the county seat of Pierce County, Garfielde 


and his associates applied for an order authorizing seizure 
of enough of the Company's property to satisfy the demands 
of the counties, with interests and costs, which now amounted 
to more than ^60,000, but while argument on this application 
was being made, an order arrived from Washington, for- 
bidding seizure for the time being. 

The full meaning of this order was not understood at the 
time, but it was ultimately learned that the government was 
at last, after the lapse of nearly a quarter of a century, taking 
the steps necessary to remove these foreign corporations 
out of the country. Governor Simpson had early begun 
to press to have the matter taken up at Washington, but the 
civil war and the embarrassments of the Johnson administra- 
tion had prevented. But now negotiations had been resumed 
and it was arranged that a commission should be appointed 
to ascertain the amount to be paid the companies for the 
property they claimed. Governor Simpson had estimated 
this property to be worth $5,000,000, but the settlers and 
others, who were more or less familiar with it, knew it to be 
worth only a mere fraction of that amount. The companies 
really owned no land, and could acquire none. They had 
cleared and improved several thousand acres at Vancouver, 
about 1,500 acres at Cowlitz Farms, and two or three hundred 
at Nisqually, previous to June 15, 1846, the date of the 
boundary treaty. They had been using this land, and as 
much pasture land as their vast herds required in addition, 
for a quarter of a century since that date, and had paid no 
rent for it. More than that, the government itself had 
leased from them, and paid an annual rental for the ground 
and buildings at Fort Steilacoom, for nearly twenty years. 
The claim which Peter Skeen Ogden had m.ade at Cape 
Disappointment in 1848, under instruction from the British 


government, to be used, as is supposed, for a British fort, 
was estimated to be worth ^14,600. It was probably worth 
about one-hundredth part of that sum. 

Caleb Gushing, who had been attorney-general in Pierce's 
cabinet, was employed to represent the companies before 
the commission, and Frank Clark and several other lawyers 
looked after their interest in the territory. A vast amount 
of testimony was taken. Witnesses were examined at Van- 
couver, the Cowlitz Farms, Nisqually and Victoria, and 
several, including W. H. Gray, who had come to the terri- 
tory with Whitman, were called to Washington for examina- 
tion. The whole history of the Hudson's Bay Company, 
from the time it succeeded the Northwest Company on the 
coast, including its treatment of the early missionaries and 
the settlers, was inquired into. 

The commissioners concluded their labors on September 
10, 1869, by finding that ^^325,000 should be paid to each of 
the companies, a total of ^$650,000 to both, and they were 
not required to pay the ;^6i,305.22 claimed by Pierce and 
Lewis counties for taxes, although Congress had provided, 
in consenting to the creation of the commission, that "all 
taxes legally assessed" upon any of the property of the 
Puget Sound Agricultural Company, and still unpaid, should 
be withheld from the amount awarded it. 

As soon as possible after the award was made, the two 
companies removed their live stock and other moveable 
property to British Columbia. Edward Huggins, their last 
chief factor in the territory, was directed to remove to Kam- 
loops, but he chose rather to give up his connection with 
the Company and became an American citizen. He took 
a claim which included the old fort and the Company's 
buildings at Nisqually, where he had resided for more than 


twenty years, and continued to reside there during the 
remainder of his long and honorable life. Many of the 
other employees of the Company followed his example. 

And so the long history of the Hudson's Bay Company 
in Oregon and Washington ended. 

During the dozen years preceding their exit from the 
territory, it had advanced but slowly. Its people were 
hardly well recovered from the effects of the Indian war, 
when the civil war began, and for several years but few 
settlers found their way to western Washington. The gold 
discoveries hastened the settlement of the southeastern part 
of the territory during these years, but so little of the gold 
brought from the mines found its way west of the moun- 
tains, that money was always scarce in that region, so scarce 
that the periodical disbursement made by the army pay- 
masters at Fort Steilacoom would perceptably relieve the 
financial situation in the whole Sound country. 

The progress of settlement was slow. The population 
of the territory, which had been 11,594 in i860, had increased 
to only 23,955 in 1870, and a large proportion of the new 
arrivals had settled east of the mountains, so that the west- 
ern part seemed hardly to progress at all. The governors 
usually gave a summary of the reports of land sales made 
by the land offices at Olympia and Vancouver, in their 
messages to the legislature, and these show, as well perhaps 
as any other record of the time, how settlement was advan- 
cing. In his last message as acting governor, in December 
1859, Secretary Mason reported that 24 claims had been 
taken under the donation, and 49 under the preemption 
laws, during the preceding year, a total of 11,277 acres. 
McGill, in i860, reported that 14,964 acres had been taken. 
Turney, and Pickering in his first message, said nothing 


of what the sales were in 1861 and 1862, but in 1863 they 
were 142,581 acres; in 1864, 79,337; 1865, 91,306; 1866, 
59,289; and 1867, 62,267. For the twenty months, from 
January 1868 to September i, 1869, they were 253, 723 acres, 
and for the two full years 1870-71, they were 552,914 

But progress while still unsatisfactory was perceptible 
and proportionately gratifying. When the courts were first 
established after Governor Stevens came in 1853, the sheriflFs 
had not been able to find enough voters in some of the 
counties to fill the panels of grand and petit jurors, without 
summoning some of the "good and lawful men" to serve on 
both, but where this was necessary they took care to rearrange 
the lists of names, so that the court and public need not be 
too much impressed with their resemblance. But this, at 
least, was no longer necessary. Those who had made 
occasional trips about the Sound on the Eliza Anderson, 
soon after her arrival, or along the Columbia on the boats 
of the Oregon Steam Navigation Company, which had now 
been established, and was doing a thriving business, were 
sure they would know every person they would see at each 
landing, and equally confident that every resident of each 
place, except possibly the women, would be waiting to greet 
them. But this was no longer so. New faces were seen on 
every trip, and new towns were springing up as well. Among 
these Commencement City, on the west shore of Commence- 
ment Bay, had now become Tacoma, and would shortly be 
the envy of all its competitors, for a time, because of its 
railroad advantages. 

Several newspapers had now been established in the 
territory, most of which were still thriving. The " Colum- 
bian," which later became the "Pioneer and Democrat," 

This was in Job Carr's house at Old Town, the first 
house built on the Townsite. 


- T> r- t> \ . 

the t 

0-71, th 

actory was perceptible 
and ]■ 'Sn the courts were first 


in 1853, the sheriff's 

voters in some of the 

ad petit jurors, without 

men " to serve on 

re to rearrange 

!c need not be 

But this, at 

had made 



.. each 

; to greet 

. ^e seen on 

.,cll. Among 

of Commence- 

vvuuld shortly be 

le, because of its 

'~^-^hed in the 

te: g. ihe '^^ ^-m- 

buM, loiittr and Demucrat, " 


by consolidation with a rival, had been first in the field. 
There were now published at Olympia the " Pacific Tribune," 
which had succeeded the "Overland Press," the "Washing- 
ton Standard," established early in i860, the Olympia 
"Transcript" and the "Echo." Vancouver already had 
the "Register" and Kalama would soon have the "Beacon." 
At Walla Walla the "Statesman" was publishing news from 
the mines from week to week, that was eagerly read beyond 
the limits of the territory, and it now had a competitor in 
the "Union." At Port Townsend, the "Register" and the 
"Northwest" had given place to the" Message, " and Seattle 
had the "Gazette," which had been established in 1863, and 
on October 26, 1864, had printed the first telegraphic news 
received by the line which was completed to Seattle that 
day. It gave war news of interest as late as October 24th, 
which had come by way of Kansas City, the most interesting 
part of which pertained to the operations of Sherman's 
army in the Atlanta campaign. A weekly paper called the 
"Intelligencer" had also been established there in 1867 
and would in time prosper greatly. 

The reaper whose name is Death had begun to deplete 
the ranks of the earliest pioneers. David Kindred, whose 
house had been the first built by the Simmons party, was 
among the first to go. George W. Bush had died in 1863, 
and H. Martin, whose home was on the Columbia, and who 
had planted eight orchards and eaten fruit from all of them, 
had died in 1862. Sidney S. Ford, whose hospitable home, 
near the present city of Centralia, had ever been open to 
the immigrants, and whose son, Sidney S., Jr., had rendered 
distinguished services to the territory during the Indian war, 
died at Olympia, October 26, 1866, while serving as a mem- 
ber of the Council. 


Michael T. Simmons, who had led the first exploring party 
of American settlers up the Cowlitz, and subsequently 
selected the site of the first settlement on the Sound, died at 
his home in Lewis County, on November 15, 1867, univer- 
sally regretted. He had been unfortunate in business during 
the later years of his Hfe, and died comparatively poor. He 
had been a leader in all the arduous activities of pioneer 
life. He had not only explored the way for his associates, but 
he had been foremost in all their earlier enterprises. He had 
built the first sawmill and the first flourmill, had been one 
of the earliest merchants, and one of the first shipowners, 
and at one time had been considered rich. After Gov- 
ernor Stevens arrived, he became one of his most active 
lieutenants, and as Indian agent, during the treaty- 
making period and the Indian war, as well as in other 
capacities, had rendered the territory services of great 

John R. Jackson, who arrived in the territory about the 
same time, and perhaps selected his claim a few days earlier 
than Simmons did, survived him nearly six years, dying May 
15, 1873. He, too, was widely known for his integrity and 
his hospitality. Hundreds of the earlier settlers had been 
made welcome on their arrival at his home, "The High- 
lands, " not far from Cowlitz Landing, and he had served 
the territory also in various capacities and always with 

Seth Catlin of Monticello, who was Jackson's neighbor, 
as things went in early days, who had been a member of 
the convention which adopted the Monticello memorial, 
and secured the separation of the territory from Oregon, 
was drowned in crossing the Arkansas River, while on his 
way to Texas in 1871. 


While the progress of the territory had been slow up to 
the present time, it was now about to enter upon a period 
of great prosperity. The coming of the first railroad, for 
which the settlers had long looked so hopefully and anxiously, 
was at hand. 

Chapter LIV. 

WHILE the members of the Simmons party, and 
many who came after them, had probably 
never seen a locomotive or a foot of railroad 
track,* they knew in a general way that rail- 
roads were hastening the development of other new states 
and territories, and they hoped to live until they should reach 
their own. They knew better than any other people did, or 
could, how far they were from the end of any track that was 
already stretching in their direction, for great as the dis- 
tance was, they had covered it with their ox teams, and almost 
without money. In the progressive age in which they were 
living, they felt sure that a transcontinental railroad was 
practicable and would come. 

It had been talked of long before they started west. In 
the year 1833, only two years after the first locomotive had 
made its appearance in the United States, it had been sug- 
gested in a Michigan newspaper called the Emigrant. One 
year later Dr. Samuel Barlow, a village physician in western 
Massachusetts, began to write articles in which he pointed 
out the feasability and importance of such an undertaking. 
About the same time Dr. Parker, with whom Whitman had 
made his first western trip, asserted that there were no greater 
difficulties in the way of building such a road than lay in 
the way between Boston and Albany. In 1845 Asa Whitney, 
a New York merchant who had been in China, began to 
urge upon Congress, state legislatures and private capitalists, 
the desirability of connecting Lake Michigan with the mouth 
of the Columbia by a line that should cross Wisconsin and 
Minnesota to the Missouri River, and thence follow the route 
of Lewis and Clark to the ocean. So persistently did he 
advocate this enterprise during the following years that he 
♦There were in 1844 only 4,311 miles of railroad in the United States. 


came to be known in his time as, "the father of the Pacific 

The rate of extension of railroad lines was increasing 
encouragingly year by year. During the first twenty years 
after building began the average rate of increase had been 
but 268 miles per year, but during the eight years succeeding, 
this average increased to 2,350 miles per year.* A single 
year's work, if all done on a continuous line, would connect 
the Sound with the Great Lakes at Chicago. Surely the 
coming of the rails to meet the sails did not, even in that time, 
seem to be such a long way off. 

When in 1853 Congress provided for the exploration of 
four routes across the continent, the settlers all along the 
coast took new hope, and when Governor Stevens arrived 
at Olympia, first of all the explorers to complete his reconois- 
sance, and assured those who assembled to welcome him 
that the Northern route was not only practicable, but that it 
would be the shortest for the commerce of the world across 
the Pacific, and pointed out to them the grand advantages 
which their magnificent harbor would afford for the exchange 
between land and water-carriers, it began to seem probable 
that their great hope would be realized almost at once. 

But there were other considerations than natural advan- 
tages that would have influence in determining which of 
the four routes would first be used. Political considerations, 
for the time being seemed to control, as in fact they did for 
the next half dozen years and nothing was done. Then the 
war came and military considerations for a time were upper- 
most. Then commercial considerations began to have 
influence, and these joined with those of a miHtary character 
carried the day. Engineering advantages temporarily gave 

*A Cyclopedia of Commerce Harper & Brothers, New York, in 1858. 


way before them, and the first railroad from the Missouri 
to the Pacific was built, as its chief engineer subsequently 
said, on the commercial rather than the natural line. 

During the years following Stevens arrival with his mes- 
sage of hope, the settlers did what they could to hasten the 
coming of a road by the Northern route. This was but 
little, and most of it was futile, but even so it was better 
than absolute inaction and indifference. In January 1857, 
while the feeling against Governor Stevens because of his 
martial law proclamation was still bitter, the legislature, 
at his suggestion, passed an act incorporating the Northern 
Pacific Railroad Company and naming the governor. Sena- 
tor Ramsay of Minnesota and General James Shields, then 
of the same state. Judge William A. Strong, Colonel William 
Cock, Elwood Evans, A. A. Denny and W. S. Ladd of Port- 
land among its incorporators. The company was capitalized 
at ;^ 1 5,000,000, which might be increased to ^30,000,000 
and was to build from one of the passes in the Rocky Moun- 
tains (on the border of Nebraska in that day) west across 
Washington by the Bitter Root Valley, and across the Coeur 
d'Alene Mountains to the Columbia, with a branch down 
the Columbia and one across the Cascades to the Sound, 
these two branches to be connected by a line from the Sound 
to the river. This act was amended in i860 by extending 
the time for beginning actual construction to July 4, 1863, 
and that for its completion to July 4, 1870.* But no capital 

♦By this amended act the following named persons were constituted 
commissioners: Geo. A. Barnes, G. K. Willard, U. G. Warbass, Henry 
Winsor. A. Frankel, D. R. Bigelow, Wm. N. Ayers, Wm. Mitchell, Wm. G. 
Dunlap, Milas Galliher, Isaac Lightner, Andrew J. Chambers, John N. 
Low, Isaac Wood, David J. Chambers, Thornton F. McElroy, John L. 
Clark. A. W. Stewart, Joseph White, B. F. Ruth, Nelson Barnes, Clanrick 
Crosby, Gabriel Jones and B. L. Henness. 


was raised and no railroad was ever built, either under the 
original or the amended act. 

In February 1858 the legislature adopted a joint resolu- 
tion in which the advantages of the northern route were fully 
set forth. It would be a chain of Union between the Atlantic 
and Pacific states; it would insure the defense of the country, 
as armies, seamen, munitions of war, and stores for both the 
army and navy could be transported by it from ocean to 
ocean in less time, and with less expense than they were 
sent from New York to the great lakes in 18 12; it would give 
direct and quick transit to mails; military, political and 
commercial considerations demanded it; the trade of the 
Pacific Ocean and eastern Asia would take its track; that 
with India, whose channels had been shifting for a hundred 
years, would shift once more and cross our continent; the 
American road to India would become the European track 
to that region, and the rich commerce of Asia would flow 
through our centre. The local advantages of the line, con- 
necting as it did with the great lakes and the river lines on 
both the Missouri and the Mississippi, affording cheap trans- 
portation for heavy merchandise, were also summarized, and 
Congress was reminded that this line could not only be built 
during the century, but it could be made the great achieve- 
ment of that particular administration. 

The provisions of these early acts, and the declarations of 
this joint resolution, are summarized thus fully here to show 
how well advised our early legislators were, and how fully 
awake the people of the time were to the advantages of rail- 
roads. Both the acts of incorporation and the resolutions 
were no doubt prompted by Governor Stevens, who had 
since become a delegate in Congress, and who never ceased 
while he lived to display the greatest interest in the railroad 


whose route he had explored. In the first Congress of which 
he was a member, he made one speech of an hour's length, 
the grand purpose of which was to emphasize the fact which 
his survey had demonstrated, that this was the short route 
across the continent, and across the Pacific, and by its nearer 
connection with both Asia and Europe, it must become the 
great route of freight and passengers from Asia to Europe, 
and of freight from Asia to the whole valley of the Mis- 

In i860 a railroad convention, composed of delegates 
from both Washington and Oregon, was held at Vancouver 
to which Stevens sent a letter, in which he reviewed the 
advantages of this route as fully and as accurately as they 
have ever been set forth to the present day, in a paper of 
similar length. 

Although another line was built before the Northern was 
begun, the people of Washington did not despair. The new 
line brought them some advantages in the way of an improved 
mail service, and in shortening the time by which they could 
go east and return, though it did not widen the market for 
the products of their farms, mines or forests. It had grown 
out of the exigencies of the Civil war, and a more rapidly 
developed region than their own had offered greater attrac- 
tions to railroad builders. But while it had been building, 
Congress had not been allowed to forget that the Northern 
route was still the shortest and the best for many reasons, 
and that a road must sooner or later be built there. Friends 
of this route had been active ever since Stevens' time. They 
had first sought to secure national aid for a corporation 
chartered by the state of Maine, but this had failed, and in 
1864 Thad Stevens, the great leader of the House of Repre- 
sentatives during the war, had introduced a bill which finally 


passed both house and senate, and was approved by Presi- 
dent Lincoln, giving a grant of lands to aid in building a 
railroad and telegraph line from Lake Superior to Puget 
Sound by the Northern route. But a grant of lands was not 
sufficient to secure the capital required. The Northern 
Pacific Railroad Company was organized under this act, 
and about ^200,000 raised and expended, but no other pro- 
gress was made. The two years within which, under its 
charter, actual building must be begun, in order to hold its 
land grant, were about to expire, when a meeting of stock- 
holders and directors was held in Boston, at which the interest 
of the presidents of several New England railroads, and other 
capitalists were enlisted and a new board of directors elected. 

This new board applied to Congress for further time, 
which was granted in 1867, and for a guaranty of its divi- 
dends, or other financial aid, which was refused. Some 
new arrangement was therefore necessary, not only to save 
the enterprise from failure, but to save for those interested, 
the money they had already advanced, and it was made by 
taking in some more railroad presidents, including those of 
the Pennsylvania, the Erie, and the Northwestern, and some 
other capitalists and contractors, who agreed to advance 
$250,000, to carry on the preliminary work. Surveyors were 
now sent out to examine the proposed line, and make an 
estimate of the cost of building it. This occupied another 
two years, during which Congress again extended the time 
for commencing actual construction to 1870, and that for 
completing the road to 1877. 

When the engineers had completed their work, they esti- 
mated the total cost of the road, as roads were built in that 
day, at $157,000,000. To raise this sum seemed next to 
impossible to those interested, and at the suggestion of J. 


Edgar Thompson, then president of the Pennsylvania and 
a member of the new company, Jay Cooke & Co., were 
appHed to to finance the undertaking. 

Jay Cooke was then the foremost banker in the United 
States. His principal banking office. Jay Cooke & Co., 
was in Philadelphia, with a branch in New York, while it 
controlled a National Bank in Washington and a bank in 
London. It had sold hundreds of millions of dollars worth 
of bonds for the government during the war, when other 
agencies had failed to dispose of them, and had acquired a 
world wide reputation among investors. When asked to 
become the fiscal agent for a new transcontinental railroad, 
no part of which had yet been built, the house took the matter 
under advisement until it could have the line examined on 
its own account. This examination was made by two parties, 
one working from the eastern end of the line westward, and 
one from the western end eastward, and in time those made 
a favorable report, estimating the total cost at $85,000,000. 

Cooke & Co. now undertook to procure money to build 
the road, and entered into contracts with the company 
for that purpose. Some new financial plans were necessary, 
and they were soon made. Congress was asked to so amend 
the charter of the company as to permit the issue of mort- 
gage bonds, and to authorize the construction of a branch 
from Portland, Oregon, to some point on Puget Sound, to 
be selected as the terminus of the main line. Twenty-five 
miles of this branch were to be constructed by July 2, 1871, 
and thereafter forty miles were to be built each year, until 
it was completed. 

The entire issue of bonds was to be $100,000,000, and 
they were to bear interest at the rate of seven and three- 
tenths per cent., payable in gold. They were to be issued 


in sums as low as ^50, on which the interest on each bond 
would be one cent per day. The hope of all concerned was 
that bonds for such small amounts, bearing such a high rate 
of interest payable in gold, would at that time attract small 
investors, who would buy them with United States or national 
bank notes, then worth about 80 cents on the dollar. Cooke 
& Co. were to sell them at par, and were to retain $12 out 
of every ^100 received, and were in addition to receive $200 
in stock for every $1000 worth of bonds sold.* The stock 
of the company already issued amounting to $600,000, was 
to be exchangeable for stock at 50 cents on the dollar, and 
the bank was to raise $5,000,000 within thirty days, for the 
purpose of beginning construction. A land company to 
handle the town sites at stations along the line, was to be 
organized, and Cooke & Co. were to be the sole financial 
agents and depositary of the railroad. 

Cooke & Co. pushed the bond sale as they had pushed 
that for the government, and with similar success for a time. 
Advertisements were published in most of the newspapers 
of the country, both daily and weekly, in magazines, in 
religious papers, — in fact everywhere where it seemed pos- 
sible that they would reach the attention of people who 
had ;^50 or more to invest. The desirability of the bonds as 
an investment were not alone exploited. The character of 
the country through which the road was to be built, its cli- 
mate, the richness of its soil and the wealth of its natural 

*In these days when state railroad commissions are spending so much 
money, worth 100 cents on the dollar, to estimate the cost of building, 
or reproducing these early railroads, no account appears to be taken of 
the sacrifices made by these early railroad builders to raise money. The 
facts given above show that the builders of the Northern Pacific had to 
pay twelve per cent, in money, and twenty per cent, in stock to get money 
worth less than 80 cents on the dollar, and then pay seven and three- 
tenths per cent, interest in gold for it. 


products were described. Settlers were encouraged to go 
to it, — indeed this bond selling campaign did more to make 
the people of the whole country acquainted with the region 
which now comprises the state of Minnesota, Dakota, Mon- 
tana, Idaho, Washington and Oregon than all that had been 
done before. Homeseekers began to pour into Minnesota 
and the Dakotas, miners and stockraisers to seek the hills 
and plains of Montana and Idaho, and even the settlers in 
far away Washington and Oregon for a time saw their num- 
bers increasing with gratifying rapidity as a result of it. 

This advertising also produced the results it was intended 
to produce in a satisfactory way. Although the bonds of 
the Union and central Pacific roads, some of which were 
guaranteed by the government, were more attractive to large 
investors, and their stocks sold more readily, as they were 
now in operation, other investors in large numbers, bought 
the bonds of the new line, and within two years the company 
had received from its financial agents, ^30,000,000 from the 
securities it had sold. 

Building was begun at both ends of the line, according to 
the terms of the amended acts of Congress. Some lines 
already built or building in Minnesota were bought, or 
arrangements were made for their use, and from the end of 
their tracks the main line was started westward. Ground 
was formally broken on February 15, 1870, at Thompson 
Junction, which later became Northern Pacific Junction, 
24 miles west of Duluth, and the work was pushed rapidly 
westward from that point to the crossing of the Mississippi 
at Brainerd. Ground was also broken at Kalama, on the 
Columbia, in May of the same year, and within the twelve 
months following, the first 25 miles of the line extending 
northward from that point, along the trail over which 


Simmons and Jackson, and many who followed them, had 
first made their way into territory were completed. The 
whistle of the locomotive was heard for the first time in 
Washington, reverberating among the hills and along the 
valleys which twenty-five years earlier had never known 
the pressure of a wheel. 

The settlers had watched every step in this tedious pre- 
paration for the actual building of a railroad, with the keenest 
interest. They had tried at various times to build local 
railroads themselves, but so far all their plans had failed. 
In January 1862 the legislature chartered the Puget Sound 
and Columbia River Railroad Company* to build from 
Steilacoom to Vancouver. The authorized capital was 
;^i 5,000,000, which might be increased to ^50,000,000, and 
the road might be operated by "force and power of steam, 
or animals, or any combination of them." Building opera- 
tions were to be begun within three years and the road was 
to be completed within ten. 

At the same session the Walla Walla Railroad Company 
was incorporated, which was to build a line from Walla Walla 
Landing on the Columbia River, to the city of Walla Walla. f 

*The incorporators named were: Peter J. Moorey, J. B. Webber, P. 
Keach, Lafayette Balch, S. McCaw, Thompson Chambers, J. W. Nye, 
Lewis Lord, Richard Covington, John Aird, Lewis Sohns, Geo. W. Hart, 
C. Lancaster, F. J. Demarco, Geo. Woods, Enoch S. Fowler, Paul K. 
Hubbs, H. Z. Wheeler, J. P. Keller, A. A. Denny, H. L. Yesler, Chas. 
Plummer, W. W. Miller, A. J. Chambers, John Biles, H. D. Huntington, 
Chas. Holman, Cyrus Walker, Frank Clark and Wm. W. Morrow, 

fThe incorporators named in this act were : A. J. Cain, B. F. Whitman, 
L. A. Miller, W. J. Terry, C. H. Armstrong, I. T. Abbott, L T. Reese, 
S. M. Baldwin, E. L. Bonner, D. Graig, Wm. A. Mix, Chas. Russell. J. A. 
Simms, Jesse Drumheller, Jas. Reynolds, D. S. Baker, Geo. E. Cole, S. D. 
Smith, J. J. Goodwin, Wm. Way, Neil McSlinckey, J. G. Sparks, W. A. 
George, J. Van Syckle, W. W. DeLacy, A. Seitel, Wm. Ball, B. F. Stone, 
J. Schwabacker, B. P. Standifer, T. Brown — Tatem and W. W. Johnson. 


The capital stock of this company was to be ^300,000, and 
it was to build the road within five years from the first day 
of November 1863. This act was amended in January 1864, 
so as to extend the time for beginning work to January i, 
1865, and that for completing it to January i, 1870. At 
the same session the charter of the Columbia and Puget 
Sound Company was amended by naming several new incor- 
porators* and empowering it to build from Vancouver, when 
that point should be reached, to a point opposite Celilo, or 
the mouth of the Des Chutes River. The time for beginning 
construction was extended to five years, and for completion 
of the line to fifteen years from the date of the amended act. 
But while the people and the legislature were thus planning 
and authorizing undertakings which they were utterly unable 
to provide or procure the capital to accomplish, they had 
chartered a company which was already doing a thriving 
transportation business on the Columbia and Snake rivers 
and would in time play an important part in building the 
railroad, the coming of which was so anxiously looked for. 
On December 19, i860, the legislature had chartered the 
Oregon Steam Navigation Company, with a capital of 
;$i, 000,000, and the charter was amended in the following 
year so as to allow this to be increased to ^2,000,000. The 
incorporators were, J. C. Ainsworth, Daniel F. Bradford, 
R. R. Thompson, J. S. Ruckle* and their associates. By 

*The new incorporators named were: John Salter, Geo. Gallagher, 
W. R. Downey, Daniel DolUns, Charles Prosch, Chas. Wren, E. E. Rogers, 
C. C. Terry, J. H. Frost, G. A. Meigs, Captain Renton, M. S. Drew, F. A. 
Wilson, C. M, Bradshaw, O. B. McFadden, Seth Catlin, Hiram Cochran, 
S. W. Brown, E. C. Hardy, L. Fredenrich, John F. Smith, C. Crosby and 
C. Jacobs. 

*These incorporators were at the time the individual owners of boats 
plying on the Columbia, Snake or Willamette Rivers. 


other acts passed about the same time and later, these 
incorporators and others were authorized to construct 
portage railroads, along the Columbia, to convey freight and 
passengers around the Cascades and the Dalles as far up 
the river as Celilo, The rush of gold hunters to eastern 
Washington and Idaho, during the preceding year, had 
overtaxed all the small steamers of that day plying on the 
rivers, and made demand for several new ones, which had 
been built or bought as profitable employment for them 
increased. The portage tramways around the Cascades, 
which Chenoweth and the Bradfords had built years earlier 
and over whose wooden rails the goods and families of many 
immigrants both to Washington and Oregon, had been 
transported by animal power, were now relaid with iron rails 
and operated by steam. Another road was also built to 
connect the Dalles with Celilo, and these were the first real 
railroads in either Washington or Oregon. 

As business increased, the Oregon Steam Navigation 
Company grew and prospered. In time it not only controlled 
the transportation business on the Columbia, Willamette 
and Snake Rivers, but extended its operations to Puget Sound 
and along the coast to San Francisco, 

As soon as possible after bond selling was fairly started, 
by Cooke & Co., a committee of the directors was sent to 
the coast to secure control of this navigation company, as 
by this means the railroad would secure control of all the 
transportation facilities of importance then in existence in 
both territories, and by connecting the river with the Sound 
by rail, steam transportation facilities would at once be 
established between all their principal settlements. The 
next step was to locate a point on the north bank of the 
Columbia, from which a railroad could most cheaply and 


quickly be built to the Sound, and where freight and passen- 
gers could readily be transferred between boats and trains, 
and to begin construction. All this was successfully arranged 
and the committee returned to New York. 

The settlers in both territories, and particularly those in 
the various towns on the Sound had taken the liveliest interest 
in all that was so far done, but now that the building of the 
railroad they had so long hoped for was actually begun, 
another matter of far more absorbing interest for them began 
to command their attention. 

"It was an ancient tradition," says Mr. Gibbon, "that 
when the capital was founded by one of the Roman kings, 
the God Terminus, (who presided over boundaries, and was 
represented according to the fashion of that time by a large 
stone) alone, among all the inferior deities, refused to yield 
his place to Jupiter himself. A favorable inference was 
drawn from his obstinacy, which was interpreted by the augurs 
as a sure presage that the boundaries of the Roman power 
would never recede." But the settlers saw in the location 
of the western terminus of the new transcontinental line, 
something more than an assurance that the town to be chosen 
and the country would not go backward. They knew that 
the town chosen would immediately feel a quickening influ- 
ence of tremendous power. The commerce of two continents 
would be transferred there. Immense docks and warehouses 
and vast webs of terminal tracks, would be required for this 
buisness; the shops and dry docks and other requirements 
for maintaining both the railroad and the ships would follow; 
factories in which would be manufactured the goods required 
by two continents, which would employ armies of men and 
consume the materials which their forests, mines and farms 
would furnish in greater profusion and abundance than any 


other portion of earth suppHed, would spring up; the fires 
in a thousand furnaces would be lighted, and a myriad of 
wheels would be turning to supply the ever-varying and 
increasing wants of man. 

As the end of a rainbow sometimes seems near at hand 
to children who have been told that a pot of gold waits there 
for that child who can get to it before the bow disappears, 
so the rich results that were to follow the location of the 
Northern Pacific terminus seemed now almost within the 
grasp of the settlers in several towns. The founders of 
some of these towns had chosen their sites with this end in 
view. But in the beginning it had been hard to guess which 
of several attractive points in the several hundred miles of 
shore line bordering the grand inland sea now known 
generally as Puget Sound, would be regarded with most 
favor by those who should finally determine where the first 
great railroad should end. The roads had not yet demon- 
strated as fully as they have since done, nor did those who 
then managed them realize as fully as they do now, that the 
first great requirement for a terminal city is easy access to 
deep water, with as much level land leading to and lying 
near it as can possibly be secured. As the managers them- 
selves did not fully understand this, it is not surprising that 
the settlers should not do so, and therefore that those not 
only at many points along the Sound, but on some of its 
islands as well should hope that their town, or town site, 
might be chosen, and the pot of gold secured for them. 

The principal contestants for the prize were, Olympia, 
Steilacoom, Seattle, Tacoma and Mukilteo, although What- 
com, Port Townsend, Anacortes — then and for many years 
after nothing more than a land claim on Fidalgo Island — 
Holmes Harbor on Camano, and Penn's Cove on Whidby 


Island, had aspirations, and the people interested in them, 
although in some of them few indeed, thought for a time that 
one or the other of them might finally be selected. 

Of all these towns, Olympia was the largest. The census 
of 1870 shows that it had a population of 1203, while its 
suburb, Tumwater, had 206, and there were 2,246 people 
in Thurston County. Seattle's population was 1,142, and 
that of King County 2,164. Steilacoom was much smaller 
than either, and had already reached and passed its zenith. 
In 1858 when the Eraser River excitement was at its height, 
Balch, the principal proprietor of its townsite, had unwit- 
tingly given it its death blow. At the time he owned a lum- 
ber yard in San Erancisco, a sawmill near the mouth of the 
Nisqually, a store at Steilacoom, and several ships that were 
doing a thriving trade along the coast. He spent much of 
his time in San Erancisco, and was there when copies of 
Charles Prosch's Puget Sound Herald, arrived with news of 
the Eraser River gold discoveries, and sold so readily at 
five dollars apiece. Realizing that the new mines, if they 
should prove as rich as these early reports indicated, would 
be of immense value to the Puget Sound Country, he wrote 
his partner, J. B. Webber, to sell no more lots until further 
orders. When this order arrived in Steilacoom, buyers were 
numerous. Lots that had for a long time been offered at 
^50 each, could have been sold readily for ^500 to ;^i,ooo. 
Buyers with cash in hand stood ready to take them, but under 
his instructions Webber could not sell, and before Balch 
could be notified of the situation they went elsewhere. Erom 
that time, the fortunes of the town began to wane. Balch 
died in San Erancisco, in 1862, and five or six years later 
Prosch removed his paper to Olympia, where it became the 
Pacific Tribune, and when the contest for the terminus began 


in 1870, the population of the town was less than 700, and 
its people were without a leader or a newspaper. 

The population of Tacoma was less than 200. Mukilteo 
located on Point Eliott, and now a part of Everett, was still 
smaller. The people of Olympia and Seattle believed, and 
with reason, that the contest lay between those two towns 
and both now put forth their best efforts to win the prize. 
Their efforts were greatly stimulated by the evidences of 
prosperity that they saw were following the work already 
begun. The owner of a claim on the Columbia, where the 
railroad managers wished to locate their river terminus 
and begin building their line northward, had been offered 
;^io,ooo, and ten lots in the new town for his claim, but 
refused it; he wanted ^50,000. The river terminus was 
then located at another point four miles away, after which 
the grasping ranch owner offered to take the ten lots for his 
ranch and was refused. As soon as road-building actually 
begun, speculation in town lots, both at the river terminus, 
and at prospective stations along the line began to be active. 
Prices advanced with every sale, and the most surprising 
expectations were entertained. Kalama was soon to out- 
strip Portland, it was said; it was sure to be the chief city of 
the Columbia; it might even excel New York or Chicago, 
and be the chief city of the coast and perhaps of the country. 
All this stimulated the hopes and expectations of the settlers 
in the hopeful towns on the Sound, particularly those of 
Olympia and Seattle. Surveying parties had already begun 
to appear in their neighborhoods, but after working for a 
time they disappeared, leaving people no wiser than when 
they came. The hopes which they aroused when they 
came, would be dashed when they retired, or when it would 
be learned later that they were at work in some other 


neighborhood. Finally in December 1870, the citizens of 
Olympia appointed a committee, with Hon. Elisha P. Ferry 
who was then the surveyor general, at its head, to confer with 
Director Rice and Thomas H. Canfield, who were then in 
charge of the railroad company's interests on the coast. By 
these gentlemen they were told that they were not authorized 
to select the terminus, and that it would not be selected before 
the following June. They were also assured that the com- 
pany had no interest in land speculations; that the intention 
was to connect the river with the nearest practicable point 
on the Sound, and that they as the representatives of the 
company, were impressed with the desirability of making 
the point of contact at the most desirable place, as they were 
apprehensive that after the road had once touched deep water 
its land grant would follow it no further. 

The members of this committee were cheered with the 
assurance that the company's desire was to reach the Sound 
at the nearest practicable point, as that seemed to be Olympia 
without doubt, though they were also disturbed by the sug- 
gestion in regard to the land grant. That intimated that 
the "nearest practicable point" might be some distance 
farther down the Sound. 

Evidently some effort was necessary, or at least desirable 
to make sure of securing what was desired, and during the 
succeeding weeks the Olympia Branch Railroad Company 
was organized, with a capital fixed at ^400,000, to build a 
branch road from Olympia to connect with the Northern 
Pacific track at the nearest point southward. It was expected 
that this company would take charge of future negotiations 
in the city's interest, and prepare itself to offer inducements 
that could not well be refused. But it was not easy to raise 
$400,000 in Olympia at that time, and subscriptions to the 


stock of the branch company came in but slowly. The people 
talked of the project with enthusiasm, but they were not 
altogether united in support of it. Finally it was proposed 
to petition congress for the 1,337 acres of mud flats at the 
head of the inlet, to be offered to the company for terminal 
grounds, and a petition was accordingly prepared. The 
Branch Company then communicated with General John 
W. Sprague, and J. W. Goodwin, who by this time had been 
placed in charge of the Northern Pacific interests, in place 
of Rice and Canfield, who had returned to the East, and 
were by them encouraged to persevere in their efforts. But 
congress did not look with favor upon the proposition to 
further endow the new railroad to which it had already 
made a liberal grant of lands, with a kind of land that it 
was supposed to hold in trust for the state when it should 
cease to be a territory, and the petition was refused. 

The citizens were then again appealed to. It was pro- 
posed that each property owner should contribute half of 
all the land he owned, whether in lots or acres, to be given 
outright to the railroad company, provided it would locate 
its road to Olympia before May i, 1872, and build and oper- 
ate it before January i, 1875. This proposition, hard as 
it was, was received with favor by many. They realized that 
the opportunity was one not likely to be offered soon again. 
Indeed it would never be offered again, since this was the 
first railroad to come to the territory; another was not likely 
to come for many years, and to bring it to the town, at that 
time, would secure many advantages that no future road 
could give. But others professed to believe that the road 
must come to them anyway, and they would do nothing, 
and so he proposition was, for the time being, aban- 


Meantime, the railroad was steadily extended northward, 
and people watched its progress with increasing interest. 
Settlers along the line found their property increasing in 
value in a most satisfactory way. Speculation in town 
property at Kalama continued, and lots were bought and 
sold at city prices. But there was little demand for property 
in any of the towns on the Sound. The people of Olympia 
began to be despondent. The offer they had made the com- 
pany remained unnoticed for many weeks. They could get 
no information save such as could be obtained from observa- 
tions along the line, where four or five hundred white men 
and seven or eight hundred Chinamen were shoveling dirt 
and laying rails. It was not until Christmas day, 1871, that 
a letter was received from Messrs. Sprague and Goodwin 
saying that "the company would comply with the first con- 
dition they had made, by causing a railroad to be located, 
before May ist, next, connecting the Columbia River 
with a point on the navigable waters of Budd's Inlet," 
and asking for a right of way from Bush's Prairie to deep 

While this was not a specific promise that Olympia would 
be the terminus, it was received with satisfaction. People 
easily assured themselves that if the road came to Olympia, 
as promised, it would end there; it would be the first point 
touched on the Sound and therefore must be the terminus. 
With this assurance, which rapidly grew into conviction, the 
people took confidence. The price of town property ad- 
vanced at once, and kept advancing until wholly unlooked 
for prices were asked and paid. New buyers arrived daily. 
The hotels were filled to overflowing. Rents advanced in 
proportion to the advance in real estate prices, and every 
property owner felt that his fortune was made. The town 


immediately took on an aspect of prosperity. Street improve- 
ments, which had heretofore advanced but slowly, were now 
pushed with vigor. The marshy part of Main street between 
Third and Sixth, which for several winters had been little 
better than a quagmire, was corduroyed, and the portion 
above it was planked from Sixth to Ninth. 

But May came and went and no surveyors appeared to 
locate the promised terminus. The hopes of the people and 
the prices of their property began to decline. Late in June, 
Chairman Blinn wrote to the headquarters which were then 
at Kalama, asking if the promise made was to be kept, if 
so, when and where the promised line would be located. 
He was informed in reply, under date of July 3, that "The 
line of railroad runs to the east side of Budd's Inlet to the 
Billings or Wylie donation claims, and a point will be selected 
on one of said claims for a freight and passenger depot, where 
said line will terminate." 

This assurance was accepted as satisfactory, and the hopes 
and activities of the people at once revived. The good 
feeling thus established continued until the forty-mile sec- 
tion, which was to be completed during the second year, 
was finished, and the road builders began to prepare the way 
for the second section which would reach the terminus. 
Then people saw to their sorrow, that these operations led 
toward the northeast, through Yelm toward Commencement 

It was now evident that Olympia was not to be on the 
main line at all, and in March 1873 a meeting of citizens 
was called to take such measures as could be devised to 
protect, or if possible to advance the interests of the town. 
For twenty years at least, it had been not only the political 
capital of the territory, but the commercial capital as well. 


Steilacoom had disputed its supremacy, in a commercial 
way while Balch lived, but since his death there had been 
but little competition. Olympia merchants had supplied 
all the towns, the mills and the logging camps on both sides 
of the Sound, and along the rivers to the south and west. 
The miners also had bought their outfits there. Most of 
the ships that came to the Sound, except those owned by the 
mill companies and employed exclusively in their service, 
came to her harbor. The local transportation lines had 
their headquarters there. But all this was likely to be 
changed now unless something could be done to secure a 
connection of some sort with the railroad. 

No practicable plan for securing what was needed was 
suggested at the meeting. Nothing but a branch railroad 
to connect the town with Tenino, fifteen miles away, seemed 
to promise the results desired, and it hardly seemed possible 
that the money necessary for such an undertaking could be 
provided. The citizens were despondent. Their property 
was no longer salable. Rents decreased. Many buildings 
were without occupants. Owing to some improvidence of 
management the public schools closed for lack of funds, 
and to complete the misfortunes of the place, one of the princi- 
pal merchants ran away with a large sum of money belong- 
ing to the firm, leaving his partner in embarrassed circum- 

While the people of Olympia were thus awaiting the loca- 
tion of the terminus with anxiety, though not without hope, 
those of Seattle were looking for it with confidence. Though 
their town was as yet little more than a lumber camp, it was 
beginning to have a foremost place among the mill towns 
of the territory. The big mills of that day were at Port 
Gamble, with a capacity of 100,000 feet per day. Those of 


Port Madison could cut 60,000; those at Seabeck 50,000; 
those at Port Blakely 40,000. In Jefferson County, the mills 
at Port Discovery had a capacity of over 50,000, and those 
at Port Ludlow 40,000. There were two mills at Knappton, 
in Pacific County, rated at a capacity of 37,000 feet per day 
each. The capacity of Yesler's mill was 40,000, while that 
of Williamson & Co. at Freeport, on the opposite side of the 
harbor, could cut 35,000 feet per day.* 

According to the census of 1870, Walla Walla was the most 
populous county in the state and the richest. Its population 
was 5,302 and the valuation of its property ^3,187,808. The 
population of Clarke County was 3,081; and its property 
valuation ^803,029. The population of Thurston County 
was 2,246; property valuation $1,185,473. King County's 
population was 2,164, and its property valuation $1,002,389. 

But Seattle was on the east side of the Sound, while most 
of the other lumbering towns were on the west side, and 
therefore at a disadvantage, from a railroad point of view. 
Moreover, the coal mines in King County had by this time 
been prospected with some care, and some of them had been 
so far opened that samples of their product had been tested 
with fairly favorable results. Tobin, Fanjoy, Mattice and 
Eaton had found coal on Black River as early as 1853, and 
had some hope of wealth from it, before the three last named 
started for the gold mines at Fort Colvile in 1855, and were 
murdered by the Indians. After the war other prospectors 
had found coal on the Issaqua, Coal Creek and at various 
points on the Cedar and Green rivers. Samples from these 

*Puget Sound Business Directory and Guide to Washington Territory. 
Murphy & Harned, compilers and pubUshers. Olympia 1872. The 
capacity of Hanson, Ackerson & Co.'s mill at Tacoma, is not given in this 


Born in England in 1816; came to the United States 
in 1828; graduated from Hanover College in Indiana 
in 1838; crossed the plains to Oregon in 1853, and to 
Puget Sound in 1854. He organized the first Presby- 
terian church at Olympia in 1854, and in 1855 another 
one In the neighbofTiooH'7>TGrand"M?SurilJaffd'flTetiaHs; 
PThe established a school at Olj'mpia and was superin- 
tendent of schools in Thurston County for -everal 
terms. He was twice president of the te^i' tonal 

\S ' >- ? 

a fi ,ifT?rn-7/riH7/ .q So.qoao ' 

i'jii ,' ',000 ; 

jofitt ni<n mills 



to lit;/ .*tvv*>l- 

i>er day.* -yjist^vinu 
, Walla V 

richest. It^^ 
'perty 153,187,8c 

>i; and its property 
of Thurston County 
King County's 
on $1,002,389. 
e Sound, while most 
, and 

rtice and 

.... „. .353, and 

e thrf-e last named 

. i,, . 35, and were 

sar other prospectors 

ii Creek and at various 

•<■ ^ -^"ples from these 

^^ -^--Tton Temtor> 
, .a 18:2. T: 
.a, is not gi 



several measures had been brought to Rev. Dr. Whitworth 
and Rev. Daniel Bagley, who, while not specialists by any 
means, were convinced that most of the measures from which 
thev came were valuable, and the discoverers were much 
assisted by their learning, imperfect as it was. In later 
years, men of practical experience had examined the pros- 
pects, and purchased interests in them, and the Coal Creek 
and Newcastle veins had been so far developed that con- 
siderable quantities of coal were brought to the harbor, part 
of the way by tramway and part by boat.* The Ren ton 
mine had also been so far opened that considerable quanti- 
ties of coal for that day, w^ere sent out in a similar way. 
While but little of the product of these mines was made avail- 
able for use at the time, the people realized the value of coal 
for the purpose of transportation and manufacturing, and 
confidently believed that these mines would have a consider- 
able influence in fixing the terminus of a railroad when the 
time should come. 

But there were still other reasons which gave people con- 
fidence at that time. The Snoqualmie Pass, by which the 
Klikitats had crossed the mountains to attack Seattle in 
1855, was believed in that day to furnish the most favorable 
route across the range. Governor Stevens had adopted it 

*Means of transportation are comprehensive enough for the present 
demand. It consists of a narrow gauge railroad from the mine to the 
lake (Washington); arriving there the cars are run on board of scows, 
on which tramways are laid; these scows are towed to the head of the 
lake; thence the cars are run over another railroad, and drawn by horse 
power a quarter of a mile to Lake Union, where they are again placed 
in scows and towed across the lake, a distance of one mile; thence they 
are again placed on a track and taken to Seattle, a mile distant, by a 
donkey engine. The mine yields from 50 to 100 tons per day as required, 
but the average quantity taken out is probably the former figure. 
Murphy & Harned's Puget Sound Business Directory 1872. 


as the most available, and had recommended it as the route 
by which the main line of the railroad to the Sound, would 
ultimately cross the mountains to end at Seattle. His map 
shows this location of the line, and in all his speeches and 
addresses, and in many of the letters he had written after 
making his survey in 1853, he had spoken of Seattle as the 
terminus. In a very able letter to the Vancouver Railroad 
Convention in i860, he had embodied tables, showing the 
length of the various sections of the road, and giving esti- 
mates of the cost of building them, and in these he had men- 
tioned Seattle only as the western terminus. The various 
surveyors sent out by the company after it was formed, and 
by Jay Cooke & Co. had seemingly approved the governor's 
recommendations, and even after building had been begun 
from Kalama northward, General Tilton had been em- 
ployed to make some surveys from Seattle eastward, and 
southward all of which seemed to indicate that the builders 
of the road had no other terminus than Seattle in contempla- 

So far the railroad company had experienced no difficulty 
in getting money since Cooke & Co. had undertaken the sale 
of its bonds. The admirable advertising which the bank 
was doing was producing satisfactory, and more than satis- 
factory results. The line of the Northern Pacific began to 
be talked about as running through "the banana belt," 
because of the glowing descriptions of its climate, as well 
as of the productiveness of its soil, which the bank's adver- 
tisements contained. While many were incredulous, and 
read these advertisements with a sneer, professing to believe, 
and some no doubt believing that the country was what they 
had long supposed it to be, a wilderness of ice and snow, 
and almost as barren as the Arctic region itself, the bonds 


continued to sell. The directors of the road seemed to fancy 
they had found a genuine Fortunatus purse, and that Cooke 
& Co. would succeed to the end, as they had succeeded with 
the bonds of the government, which they had disposed of 
in a similar manner. They pushed their line rapidly west- 
ward to the Red River, and also built branch lines, for which 
there was at the time no pressing need, but which would in 
time prove profitable. They also pushed work on the 
Western end, as they had agreed to do, and during the sum- 
mer of 1872 sent out a second committee, composed of five 
members of the board of directors, to settle some questions 
of location along the line, and select the Western terminus. 
These gentlemen, accompanied by their chief engineer 
cruised about the Sound for a week or more on the steamer 
North Pacific, visited all the points which aspired to become 
the terminus, talked with their citizens, and received such 
offers as they were prepared to make to secure the coveted 
prize.* This committee did not determine which of the 
towns on the Sound should be the terminus, but narrowed 
the choice to three, Tacoma, Seattle and Mukilteo, leaving 
the full board to make the final decision. They however, 
decided against Olympia, Mr. Smalley says,t "because the 
receding tide left its port a wide expanse of mud and mussel 
shells for half of every 24 hours. Steilacoom seemed to be 
upon a strait rather than on a good roadstead. Seattle, 
then a petty lumbering place, of perhaps two score houses,t 

-The people of Seattle tendered them 7,500 town lots, 3,000 acres of 
land, $50,000 in cash, $200,000 in bonds, and the use of a considerable 
part of the shore lands in front of the town for terminal tracks and depot 

tHistory of the Northern Pacific Railroad, by Eugene V. Smalley, 
New York, G. P. Putnam & Sons, 1883. 

|It was a town of 1,142 people as shown above. 


was objectionable because of its steep hill and lack of level 
ground for depot yards and sidings. The other places lower 
down the Sound were too far distant from the Columbia 
River." "They wanted to start building," continued Mr. 
Smalley, "at the nearest point on the Sound where they could 
find a good harbor, good shore facilities for wharves, and 
plenty of cheap land to acquire for the future city. So they 
pitched upon Tacoma on Commencement Bay, as the place 
best fulfilling all these conditions," 

Nearness to the Columbia became a far more important 
consideration after this committee reached New York than 
it had seemed while they were on the Sound. The sale of 
bonds had fallen off during their absence, and the company 
was beginning to be pressed for money. The liabilities 
already incurred had become pressing, and it was difficult 
to meet them. The president of the company had resigned 
during their absence, and General Cass, one of their number, 
had been elected in his stead. He found the task before him 
a most discouraging one. Not only had the resources of 
the company failed for the time being, but it was beginning 
to be apparent that the country was in a very unsatisfactory 
condition financially. The large volume of paper notes 
issued during the war had been reduced only moderately. 
They still circulated at a discount. Business was distrust- 
ful, or beginning to be so, of the ability of the government to 
pay on demand, and a crisis was impending that was not to 
be much longer delayed. 

The committee of directors had been careful to give no 
indication of what their conclusions or impressions were 
while on the Sound, and when they left for New York, the 
people on the coast were as ignorant at to what their inten- 
tions were as when they came. Sometime later Director 


This famous pioneer and city-builder crossed the 
plains to Oregon in 1843; was speaker of the House 
of Representatives under the provisional government; 
went to California soon after gold was discovered, and 
finally, in i86>7, founded and named the city of Tacoma. 


g^vaA-).M M VIOTHOM .7. 

odi baaaoTO iabiitf^{^i^e^MlS^W9tS^'.- of level 

.3,,,,. .,..., j^§mfti^W»gfc es lower 

bJTte ,b9 -J «tt«i^<JSe^^«<30o^si«^l^ftpr^^ ?P 'mbia 

' the nearest point on the So 

good shore facilities 
CO acquire for the future city. So they 
on Commencement Bay, as the place 
onditions. " 

Tibia became a far more important 
!' nmittee reached New York than 

vere on the Sound. The sale of 

their absence, and the company 

' ^OT money. The liabilities 

'?'^ing, and it was difficult 

ompany had resigned 

'le of their ' 

... ».,,!- t . . 

JUL iL wa.i ucgiinimg 
a very unsatisfactory 
^.uiiui omme of paper notes 

issued uuniig tiic v, reduced only moderately. 

They still circulated it. Business was distrust- 

ful, or beginnir = :c ability of the government to 

as impending that was not to 

had been careful to give no 

lusions or impressions were 

while 1 they left for New York, the 

lorant at to what their inten- 
tions ame. Sometime later Director 




R. D. Rice was elected vice-president of the company and 
John C. Ainsworth of Portland, was made managing director 
for the western division, and these two officials were charged 
with the responsibility of finally fixing the terminus. But 
they gave no intimation for several months of what they 
intended to do, and meantime they bought all the land on 
the west shore of Commencement Bay that the company 
would not acquire through its grant, and which the holders 
could be induced to part with. They visited the Sound in 
July and on their return to Kalama on the 14th, telegraphed 
the directors in New York and General McCarver in Tacoma 
that they had made choice of Tacoma as the terminus. This 
report was ratified on September loth, and a land company 
was formed to own, improve and manage the sale of the town- 

Up to this time, Tacoma seems hardly to have been taken 
into account in the contest by any of the other towns. It 
was as yet scarcely a village. In 1864 Job Carr and his 
two sons had chosen claims on the west shore of Commence- 
ment Bay, in the expectation, as it has since been claimed, 
that a railroad terminus might some time be fixed there. 
For three years or more they were the only settlers on the 
harbor. Governor Marshall F. Moore had purchased part 
of one of their claims but did not live on it, and other people 
had afterwards taken claims in the neighborhood and ac- 
quired title to them or taken such steps as they could to 
acquire it. 

In 1867 General Morton M. McCarver, who had come to 
Oregon with the Burnett-Applegate party in 1843, and 
afterwards served for a time as speaker of the house of repre- 
sentatives under the provisional government, and as com- 
missary-general in the Indian wars, came across the country 


on horseback from Portland to the Sound, for the purpose as 
it appears, of finding a place on its shores that would 
ultimately be the terminus of the first railroad to cross the 
continent. He had had a curious experience as a founder of 
cities, or thriving towns. He had lived in Chicago when 
it was little more than a village, and subsequently moved 
to Iowa, where he had founded the town, now the city of 
Burlington. After coming to Oregon, he had located a 
town on the bank of the Willamette below Portland, which 
he called Linnton, and which for a time promised to become 
a city of consequence. Later he had gone to California 
among the earlier gold hunters, and had joined with Captain 
Sutter in building up Sacramento, in opposition to Benicia, 
which in that day aspired to become the capital of the state. 

McCarver was a relative, by marriage, of Captain J. C. 
Ainsworth, who was then prominent in the management of 
the Oregon Steam Navigation Company, and afterwards 
managing director for the coast, of the Northern Pacific 
Railroad, and it may have been as a result of confering with 
him that he came to the Sound in search of the future termi- 
nus. At any rate after examining the Sound and the country 
about it to his satisfaction, he finally fixed upon the west 
shore of Commencement Bay as the location most to his 
liking. Here he bought all of Carr's claim but five acres, 
built a cabin and removed his family to it within a short 
time thereafter. 

From time to time he bought more land for himself, L. M. 
Starr and James Steel, two wealthy men of Portland, whom 
he had interested in his undertaking, and began to procure 
agreements for a right of way for a railroad through the claims 
of other settlers. He also sought for men of means to build 
a sawmill, and start mercantile and other establishments on 


the harbor, and in 1868 sold 38 acres to William Hanson and 
John W. Ackerson of California, who with their partners 
soon began the construction of their mill. He had not yet 
platted or named his town, but during the year he had a 
plat of thirty-one blocks surveyed, and this plat was for the 
time being called Commencement City. 

But this name was not satisfactory, and he began to corre- 
spond with his partners in regard to another which would 
be shorter and more attractive. It is claimed that Philip 
Ritz, for whom Ritzville was named some years later, and 
who was even at that day well known both in eastern and 
western Washington, suggested Tacoma, and that McCarver 
was pleased with it. Anyway some of his letters, which are 
still in existence, show that he proposed it to his partners, 
during this year, as a name for their new town, and in due 
time it was accepted. 

The name had begun to be popular in the territory before 
McCarver came to it. Theodore Winthrop, in his sprightly 
story "Canoe and Saddle," published half a dozen years 
earlier, had applied it to the noble mountain which he had 
first seen reflected in the placid waters of Commencement 
Bay. This mountain, Vancouver had named Rainier sixty- 
one years earlier — "stupid nomenclature," as Winthrop 
thought "perpetuating the name of somebody or nobody. 
More melodiously" he says, "the Siwashes call it Tacoma — a 
generic term also applied to all snow peaks." Nobody at 
the time disputed this statement or questioned it. The 
novelty of the name, as well as the rythm of it commended it, 
and everybody received it with favor and without question 
as to its origin. In January 1866, a correspondent of the 
Washington Standard who signed himself " Philopatris," 
and who is believed to have been Thaddeus Hanford, Judge 


Hanford's elder brother, had suggested that it be adopted as 
the name of the territory when it should become a state, and 
the suggestion had met with some favor. He had also said 
in the same letter, which was a very long one urging a 
general revision of the nomenclature of the territory, that 
"a better name for one of our grand mountains than 
Tacoma cannot be found." A lodge of Good Templars at 
Olympia, an order that was then very popular in the ter- 
ritory was named Tacoma, at the suggestion of Edward 
Giddings, one of Winthrop's ardent admirers, and later a 
hotel in the same place had taken the name.* 

For some time after the announcement was made that 
Tacoma was to be the terminus, it appeared that the railroad 
company did not intend to stop building at that point, but 
would extend its tracks, if possible, still further down the 
Sound. In its interest the government lands had been with- 
drawn from settlement on both sides of its right of way, 
from the Columbia River to a point six miles north of Seattle, 
and before the rails reached Tacoma, a right of way was 
cleared through the Indian Reservation to the brow of the 
hill overlooking the Puyallup Valley, all of which indicated 
that the line was to be continued northward. 

But by this time Jay Cooke & Co. had failed, and the 
railroad company was in the deepest of financial difficulties. 

*McCarver did not file his plat for record until December 3, 1869, and 
meantime Anthony P. Carr had platted a ten acre tract near it and filed 
it as a plat of Tacoma on November 30th. McCarver was thus compelled 
to file his plat as an addition to Tacoma, or give it some other name, so 
he called his plat Tacoma City. The plat he filed was the one he had been 
using for some months in selling lots, and on which the name " Commence- 
ment City" had been first written. The word, "Commencement" had 
been erased and Tacoma, in the handwriting of Colonel C. P. Ferry, sub- 
stituted when McCarver's partners had signed it and acknowledged their 
signatures, in October 1868 


It was only by the most heroic efforts that track building was 
continued to the point fixed upon as the official terminus, 
on the shore of Commencement Bay. Here the last spike 
was driven by General McGarver about 3 o'clock on the 
afternoon of December 16, 1873, and a little later the first 
through train from the Columbia River to the Sound arrived 
at tide water. But the graders and track layers who had 
built the road thus far, had not been paid, and they were 
urgently demanding their money. The company could not 
or did not forward it, and the contractors for the time being, 
disappeared. The men then took possession of the track, 
built a barricade across it and threatened to tear up the rails 
and destroy the bridges, and they were only prevented from 
doing so by the promise of Captain Ainsworth that he would 
himself provide the money to satisfy their claims, if he could, 
in the then condition of things, procure it on his own personal 
credit. This in time he managed to do, and so saved the 
track from destruction. 

The people in the other tow^ns along the Sound, particularly 
those in Seattle and Olympia, now realized that they must 
make a fight for their existence. They had not only failed 
to secure the terminus, but a new town had been established 
which would have the advantage of railroad connection 
between the Sound and the river; that all the business of 
the Sound transportation lines, as well as of the railroad, 
would naturally center there; that all the people who had 
been waiting for the terminus to be fixed before selecting 
their abiding places and making their investments, would go 
to the new town, as they immediately did, and that it would 
also have a very great advantage in attracting to it those who 
should come later. But they were by no means disposed to 
consider their own case hopeless, or to give up the battle. 


A public meeting was held on the sawdust in front of Yes- 
ler's cookhouse, which was then the one center of resort in 
Seattle, and nearly all of the 1,142 people in the town were 
present. Selucius Garfielde, who had been defeated for 
re-election to Congress a year earlier, and was now prac- 
ticing law in Seattle, was the principal speaker. He pointed 
out that while the charter of the Northern Pacific Company 
as originally granted, had provided for a main line from a 
point on the Columbia near Wallula across the mountains 
to the Sound, with a branch down the Columbia, it had 
recently been permitted to make a change by which the 
Columbia River branch was to be the main line. This he 
argued, would make the real terminus on the Columbia 
River, and that little if any business would be sent across to 
the Sound at Tacoma. The branch from Wallula to the 
Sound would probably never be built. The salvation of 
Seattle, therefore, would be found in building a line of its 
own through the Snoqualmie Pass, over the route which 
Stevens had selected to the rich and prosperous Walla Walla 
country, whose products would thus be given an outlet to 
the Sound. The figures he quoted showing the cost of trans- 
portation down the river, with its frequent portages, thence 
by rail from Kalama to Tacoma, compared so unfavorably 
with the cost by narrow gauge railroad direct to Seattle, that 
the people received his suggestion with enthusiasm, and 
steps were at once taken to organize a company, pro- 
cure capital and begin to build a road. A. A. Denny 
and John J. McGilvra were appointed to go to Walla 
Walla and interest the people there in the undertaking. 
Within a few days, books were opened and the stock 
of the company was rapidly subscribed, some of which 
was paid for in money, and some in land, which was 


Born in Livingston County, New York, July ii, 
1827; studied law in Chicago, where he made the 
acquaintance of Abraham Lincoln, who, in 186 1, 
appointed him United States attorney for Washington 
Territory. He arrived in Olympia in June 1861, and 
thenceforth took an active part in many enterprises, 
both of a public and private nature, having for their 
purpose the development and advancement of the 

S='cnC^ ^(^^r; 


.A^VJIOoM J 7ii.^, 


jxriO ni v/. 

out tl 
as on 

,11 vTrrT •Jyr.T v/<.V 

'^ t of Yes- 

ypo£esort in 




th. .... 

Steps were 

CUFP rrinif:, 


Walla . .^ 
Within a ' 
of the con" 
was paid Km 

f the Northern P ' 
'ed for a main 
Hula across the n 

1 the Columbia, it hail 

I change by which the 

main line. This he 

is on the Columbia 

i be sent across to 

n Wallula to the 

«;alvation of 

1 be t Jne of its 

lalmie Pa^s, c 

rich and prosperous Walla 

!d thus be given an outlet to 

howing the cost of trans- 

> its frequent portages, thence 

, compared so unfavorably 

railroad direct to Seattle, that 

rion v-irh enthusiasm, and 

o.^ company, pro- 

uild a 1..... A. A. Denny 

e appointed to go to Walla 

■!e there in the undertaking. 

were opened and the stock 

subscribed, some of which 

' some in land, which " -^ 


accepted at a certain valuation as an equivalent for 

For the time being, the enterprise was favorably received, 
not only by people along the proposed line, but everywhere 
in the territory, except along the line of the railroad already 
in operation. Most of the newspapers favored it. The 
legislature was appealed to, and during the winter passed an 
act authorizing the counties of King, Yakima, and Walla 
Walla, or any other county through which the proposed line 
might pass, to issue bonds in support of it with the consent 
of three-fifths of their qualified voters to be expressed at a 
general election, called for the purpose. It also passed an 
act relinquishing all right, title and interest of the territory 
to all the tide lands in Elliott Bay south of King Street, and 
granting them to the proposed railroad, provided that fifteen 
miles of it should be completed within three years after the 
passage of the act. 

But the enthusiasm with which the proposition was at 
first received outside of Seattle, soon began to wear away. 
The people of Walla Walla began to make conditions. Dr. 
Dorsey S. Baker was already building his famous "rawhide" 
road from Wallula to their town, and had some twelve or 
fifteen miles of it in operation. He was not disposed to favor 
the new enterprise, as the success of his own was already 
assured, and he had done and was doing more than all the 
other people in his portion of the state had been able to do 
since the charter of the Walla Walla Railroad had been 
granted in 1862, and more than they could do for any other 

At this early stage, therefore, it began to appear that 
Seattle alone must do all that was to be done. The first 
concern was to secure capital, and the times were far from 


propitious for an undertaking of that kind. Even the North- 
ern Pacific, with its vast land grant, and backed as it was 
by the approval of Congress, was now bankrupt and without 
credit. It was not easy therefore, for the people of a little 
lumbering village to raise money for a road 300 miles long 
that was as yet unsurveyed and did not own even a right of 

But the survey for the line was begun by General Tilton 
and T. B. Morris, and early in 1874 their report with esti- 
mates of cost, was made. They thought it could be built 
for an average of ^14,000 per mile, making the total cost, by 
the lower Yakima route, ;$4,i79,9io, or $3,677,962 if built 
by way of Priest Rapids. They figured that it might count 
upon a revenue, when completed, of $1,600,000 per year, 
from wheat and live stock, coal and lumber, and other pro- 
ducts, and even if it should not exceed half that amount, it 
would cover all fixed charges and leave a handsome surplus. 

But even this favorable showing failed to interest capital, 
and the people soon saw that they must do what was to be 
done themselves. It was accordingly arranged that they 
would begin the work with their own hands, and continue 
it until the road was built. The first of May was fixed upon 
as the day to begin operations by breaking ground and 
putting in a full day's work, in which every individual in 
town should have an active part. The day dawned bright 
and clear, and all the steam whistles in town and harbor 
hailed it with long blasts. A few pieces of cannon and 
several anvils were fired, the church bells and school bells 
were rung, business was wholly suspended and at an early 
hour, every man, woman and child in Seattle went on board 
steamboats, barges, and every other conveyance which could 
be brought into use to take them up the river to the place 


where work was to be begun. This had been chosen at a 
point nearly three miles from the proposed terminus, where 
work would be easiest, and where the best showing would be 
made as the result of the day's operations. Here the men 
and able-bodied boys began work. Some with axes and 
saws cleared the right of way; others with pick and shovel 
threw up the dirt for the grade. There were no laggards or 
shirkers. Bankers, merchants, school teachers, preachers, 
laboring men — those who were not accustomed to rough 
work of this kind, as well as those who were, went at it with 
a hearty good will, and by noon a very satisfactory beginning 
had been made. By this time the ladies who had accompa- 
nied the party had an ample mid-day meal prepared, for which 
all had hearty appetites, and when it was disposed of, some 
speeches were made, in which the orators not only exulted 
over the favorable beginning they had made, but predicted 
unbounded success as the ultimate result of the enterprise. 
A full afternoon's work was then added to that of the fore- 
noon, and at its completion the entire party returned to town 
thoroughly tired, but resolved to continue the work, each 
giving one day in the week of his time and effort to it, until 
success should crown the undertaking. 

But public enterprises thus begun with enthusiasm, usually 
lag somewhere; it was so with this one. The expectation 
that fully fifteen miles of the road would be in operation 
before the winter rains began was not realized, although 
nearly twelve miles had been graded by October. Some 
attention had also been given to the collateral enterprises 
which had been planned from the first. Something had 
been done in the way of getting new coal mines opened, that 
would furnish business for the road when it was ready to 
receive it, and some San Francisco capitalists had promised 


to start a ship yard and iron works in town for a certain 
subsidy in land. Others had also undertaken to negotiate 
a loan of ^200,000 to help build the road. 

But times were still unfavorable for raising money, and 
plans were made to make a new appeal to Congress for assis- 
tance. Judge McFadden, who was then the delegate from 
the territory, had been doing what he could, although he was 
then in failing health and died soon after, and Mr. Denny 
had been sent to the capital at his request to assist him. But 
railroad legislation was at the time unpopular. As is always 
the case in times of financial depression and distress, people 
were complaining of the immense grants already made to 
railroads, and besides a number of new enterprises were 
appealing for recognition and assistance. The people of 
Portland were pressing for a line to connect their city with 
the Union Pacific. The Northern Pacific was also seeking 
additional favors, and both these enterprises were antagon- 
istic to Seattle's undertaking. As election time approached, 
all effort was made to secure the election of a new delegate, 
who would have the interest of this road particularly at heart, 
and Judge Orange Jacobs was nominated and elected. He 
was not able to do more than McFadden had done, and a 
year or more went by in which but little was accomplished. 
Voluntary work by the citizens was continued, but it was 
beginning to be apparent that this could not be relied upon 
to complete the road. Capital from some source must be 
secured. But more than all, a man must be found who could 
and would take charge of the work and push it through to 

Luckily for Seattle there was such a man already interested 
in the enterprise, and he was quite competent and willing 
to do all that was required of him. James M. Colman had 


Born in Dumfermline, Scotland, June 17, 1832; 
came to Puget Sound in 186 1 ; was the master machinist 
in building several of the great sawmills of the Sound, 
and invented some of the most valuable parts of their 
machinery. He was the leading spirit in building the 
railroad out of Seattle to the coal mines in 1875. 

^. /" 

;2t8; \jk--<l3ai}}d,imRoi^oi;k&iime\tttna )acertain 

: }>^t^S^hmo?. beinsvni has 

o was then i 
had : : he could, a! 

d soon after, and 

^uest to assist 
rime unpopular. As : 

a and distress, people 

ise grants already made to 

r of new enterprises were 

The people of 

)nnect their city with 

• was also seekinp- 

were nrr 



>.ii.iVI >_l.V^V>l,\^Vt. 

\ had done, and a 

»- was accomplished. 

mtinued, but it was 

'^ " - be relied upon 

ource must be 

. d. jl )und who could 

Id tax ana push it through to 

1 already interestea 

,3etent and wilii' -^ 

s M. Colman h«<: 

cf cM &^< 



come to the Sound in 1861. He was a millwright by trade, 
and soon after his arrival became manager of the Meigs mill 
at Fort Madison. He afterwards purchased the Renton & 
Howard mill at Port Orchard, in company with some other 
people, but after rebuilding and greatly improving it, it was 
destroyed by fire and was a complete loss. He then superin- 
tended the building of the Hanson & Ackerson mill at 
Tacoma, and when this was completed he went to Seattle, 
where in company with others he leased Yesler's mill. His 
management here was so successful that in time he bought 
out his partners, and in 1875 was in sole control of its busi- 
ness. When asked to take charge of the railroad and graple 
with the difficulties that then so thickly beset it, his time was 
already fully occupied. But he resolved to undertake the 
task. There was at the time a gap of two and a half miles 
across the tide flats over which an expensive trestle must 
be built, and beyond that fully half a mile of heavy grading 
to connect with the nine or ten miles of grade which had been 
built, though imperfectly, by the labor of the citizens and was 
now more or less washed down and otherwise damaged by 
the rains of two winters. But if these twelve or fifteen miles 
could be completed, and some extensions made to the coal 
mines beyond, the road would have sufficient business to 
make it profitable. 

Mr. Colman, at the outset, proposed that he would himself 
furnish $10,000, if five other men would each advance an 
equal amount, and if the citizens of the town would loan the 
company $30,000 on security of $60,000 worth of stock. 
But this proposition was not accepted, and Mr. Colman 
offered to advance $20,000, if all the others would advance 
$40,000. This was accepted, and the work of construction 
proceeded. The long trestle was built; the grade beyond it 


repaired and completed, and in March 1877 the road was 
delivering coal at the bunkers which had been built at deep 
water. It then had one 21-ton locomotive, with ten 8-ton 
coal cars, and ten more nearly finished, with ten flat cars and 
one combination passenger, baggage and mail car. It also 
had one 8-ton locomotive in use on the upper part of the 
road. Mr. Philip Ritz was able to say, as he did about that 
time, "if James M. Colman lives, he will build this road 
over the mountains, unless some capitalist comes forward 
and takes it off his hands in order to build it faster. " 

The people of Olympia had not been idle during these 
years. In October 1873, Thurston County had voted bonds 
to help complete the branch from the harbor to Tenino, but 
it had not been possible to place them, and like the people 
of Seattle, those of Olympia found that they must rely upon 
themselves, if they would have a railroad connection with 
the outside world. Since no bonds could be sold, or, money 
obtained from any other source, they resolved to build it 
by main force. It had been surveyed, grade stakes set, and 
everything was ready for work to begin. Accordingly, on 
April 7th, the people turned out, as those of Seattle were 
about to do, and began work on the grade. At an early 
hour in the morning, headed by the Olympia Light Guard 
Band, the first organization of the kind in the territory, the 
procession was formed in the public square and marched to 
Tumwater. At the bridge they were joined by a crowd from 
that suburb, and the whole party was conveyed in boats to 
Warren's Point, where the men were assigned to work by 
the engineer. An advanced guard felled trees, sawed logs 
and uprooted stumps, while another party with picks and 
shovels threw up the dirt for the grade. At noon, the ladies 
had lunch ready, and as at Seattle, some speeches were made, 


after which a full afternoon's work was added to what had 
been done during the morning. Three hundred men and 
seventy-five ladies were on the ground during this first day, 
and fully a mile of the right of way was cleared, a consider- 
able part of which was also graded. 

As in Seattle, this work was continued one day in the week 
for a considerable time, but finally began to languish. How- 
ever, a considerable stretch of grade was thrown up during 
that year and the two years following, and in 1878, the iron 
and a locomotive were purchased in San Francisco, with 
the bonds which the county had voted, and cars were built 
at Tumwater. The road was completed during July, and 
on August 1st, a free excursion to Tenino was given, in which 
nearly everybody in the town took a ride over the line which 
now gave them railroad connection with the outside world, 
and in which everyone of them had a personal interest, hav- 
ing contributed something, either in labor or money, or both, 
to its construction. 

There was one other part of the territory where railroad 
building had begun earlier and was going on at this time. 
When the mines in Idaho no longer furnished a market for 
the surplus products of the Walla Walla country, the farmers 
and stockgrowers of that thriving region were forced to seek 
an outlet by way of the river, to Portland. But it was thirty 
miles or more from Walla Walla to the old Hudson's Bay 
fort, the nearest steamboat landing, now called Wallula, 
and the road lay all the way through volcanic ash, into which 
the wheels of wagons sank deeply, while in places the alkali 
dust was suffocating for both horses and drivers. It cost 
;^5, ^10, $12 and sometimes $13 per ton to have wheat and 
other products hauled over this road to the river, depending 
on the quantity awaiting shipment, and sometimes the team 


owners charged extra for waiting to unload at the landing. 
Then the charge was ^6 per ton for the trip down the river. 
From Wallula to Portland the freight had to be transferred 
from the steamboat to a portage railway at Celilo, by which 
it went fourteen miles around Celilo Rapids to the Dalles; 
there it was again transferred to boat by which it went to 
the upper Cascades, where it was again transferred to a 
tramway, over which it went six miles to the lower landing, 
where it was taken on board another boat by which it went 
forty miles down the Columbia and ten up the Willamette 
to its destination. 

To save some part of this excessive cost of transportation, 
particularly between Walla Walla and Wallula, the people 
had long hoped for a railroad. They had procured a charter 
for one in 1862, but the charter had not built the road, neither 
had any capitalist or road builder appeared, who would do 
so. While collectively they might have built a road that 
would have served their purpose, if they could have agreed 
upon a plan, and set to work with proper resolutions, they 
were without a leader, and did nothing. 

But finally the required leader appeared, and he was found 
among their own number. Dr. Dorsey S. Baker had been 
one among the earliest to reach the town and remain in it 
when the gold hunters were hurrying through it to Idaho. 
He had come to Oregon in 1848 from Illinois, where he was 
born, and where he had practised medicine for a time, and 
had reached the Willamette only a short time before the gold 
discoveries in California. In 1861, in company with his 
brother-in-law, John F. Boyer, he had taken a small stock of 
merchandise and some cattle to Walla Walla, the outfitting 
point, for the newly discovered mines at Orofino and Florence, 
and from that time forth devoted himself to general business. 


The firm prospered, and by the time the demand for a rail- 
road began to be felt, the doctor had become a leading man 
in the community, and one of the richest. He had been 
named with thirty-two others among the incorporators of the 
Walla Walla Railroad, in its charter, but like the others did 
nothing about the actual building of the road until 1871. 

Then he went at the work in earnest. A company was 
organized, but its stockholders and officers seem to have 
realized that all that was to be done the doctor must do, 
and they would interfere with him as little as possible. This 
was probably quite to his liking, for he was one of those 
self-reliant men who rarely require advice from others. As 
Napoleon refused to take the sword of Frederick the Great, 
when he might have done so because he had his own, Dr. 
Baker cared little for the opinions of others once his own had 
been formed. He accordingly went at the work in his own 
way, and so completely did he'have it from first to last, that 
the road was spoken of at the time, and has always been 
known since as Dr. Baker's railroad. He was its fiscal agent, 
and furnished or procured most of the capital required; he 
was its general manager, superintendent and board of direc- 
tors — in everything at least but in name. During his owner- 
ship the road was never mortgaged. 

He did not undertake to build a finished railroad at the 
beginning. He knew, or thought he knew, that such a task 
was beyond his ability or that of the community. A tram- 
way would be sufficient if it could be constructed and 
operated, and the country was developing so rapidly that 
it seemed probable that a tramway might, under proper 
management, grow into such a road as everybody hoped for. 
He accordingly set out to build a road with wooden rails, 
beginning at Wallula and extending gradually up the valley, 


as means could be provided. He selected a landing place 
on the Columbia about a mile above the town, built a steam 
sawmill there, and sent men into the forest on the Grande 
Ronde to cut logs and raft them down the Snake River. 
He also had timber cut on the headwaters of the Yakima, 
and sent down to the Columbia in a similar way. 

He went personally into the field and assisted the engineers 
in locating the line. He superintended the grading, and, 
in time, directed the preparation of the fir stringers which 
were to be used as rails, and noted with care and doubtless 
with anxiety the results of this primitive method of railroad 
building, as they appeared. 

As the line gradually stretched away up the river toward 
Walla Walla, his wooden rails were subjected to a severe 
test in transporting nothing but materials for construction, 
and he observed with some disappointment, as it may well 
be presumed, that they were not enduring the wear as he 
had hoped they would. He then began to protect them with 
strap iron, particularly at the curves where the grinding of 
the wheels damaged them most rapidly, and found, as earlier 
railroad builders than he had found, that the experiment 
was only fairly successful. The straps turned up at the ends 
under the pressure of the wheels, and occasionally a rail 
gave way, or a bridge that was not too substantially built, 
failed under the pressure of his train, so that interrup- 
tions of traffic after it was begun, were frequent and 

The people watched the doctor's experiments with interest 
though they did not always give him the encouragement he 
was entitled to expect, and had reason to hope for. They 
even laughed at his embarrassments, and predicted disaster 
for the future, and when the road was so far completed that 


One of the early merchants of Walla Walla; founded 
the first bank in that place, which is now the Baker- 
Boyer National, and finally built the railroad to 

THE RISL .. .., ...OGRESS 

ould bfl^cK!fld@clY3lfe)QelsR|eii -» N-it^ing place 
iTit'-i;i'r:^l?.;jsaEWiBiiei^Q^-fhc ^-vv. t a steam 

.. ... — . ■..,..■ ...... ...em do..,. 

He also had tim t on the headwaters 

and sent down t Columbia in a simihi 

lie went persoii..; ^o the field and assisted li--. '"eers 
in - -^-'-rr the line, i ic superintended the gra( ■' 

in ^ed the preparation of the fir stringtx- 

w - 'Uf and noted with care and doubcn.»i 

w !• is primitive method of railroad 


d away up the nvcr toward 
V. rtiia v\aiu. were subjected to a severe 

te^t in trar aterials for construction, 

he observcu ent, as it may well 

o. imed, that they v ' • wear 

had iioped they would. He 
st rticularly at the i 

the \ most rapidly, and lound, as ei-. 

railroad b ^d found, that the * ent 

was succ The straps tu t the ends 

under the pressure of the wheels, and onally a rail 

gave a bridge that was not too .substantially built, 

faile pressure of his tr. that interrup- 

tions of t after it was begun, vsere frequent and 


The ; ed the doctor's ments with interest 

though ways give him the encouragement he 

was entitled - .d had reason to hope for. The\ 

even laughed at barrassments, and predicted 

n the road was so far completed that 


it had begun to be serviceable, they would sometimes say, 
if an accident occurred and the train failed to reach its des- 
tination on time, that the coyotes had eaten out a section of 
the doctor's track. This slur gave the enterprise its designa- 
tion as the "raw^hide" road, the explanation of the joke being 
that the doctor was coating his rails with rawhide to protect 
them, and that the coyotes were eating it off, when the track 
was not carefully watched. 

But the doctor paid but little attention to these pleasant- 
ries, and continued to push his work with vigor and courage. 
The first ten miles of track was constructed entirely with 
fir rails, cut at his own mill. Over this a little 8-ton engine 
hauled all the material for the construction as it was needed, 
and such other freight as was offered. The next year a few 
other miles were added, and all the wooden stringers were 
provided with strap iron. During the third year the rails 
reached Whitman's old mission near Waiilatpu. By this 
time the doctor had been convinced that wooden rails would 
not serve, and he accordingly arranged in Portland for a 
shipment from Wales, of enough rails, weighing 26 pounds 
to the yard, for the whole line so far as finished. The freight 
on these rails from Portland to Wallula was i^i5 a ton. 

Furnished with iron rails, the road began to have the 
appearance and to render the service of a real railroad. 
The people of Walla Walla were more than ever anxious to 
have it extended to the city. But the doctor now thought 
it was time for them to do something themselves, if they 
wished a thing of so much advantage to them, and he informed 
them that he would complete the line to their town and his 
own for 1^25,000. This they furnished, and Walla Walla 
was for the first time supplied with direct rail connection 
with the river. 


The city is about 600 feet higher than the bank of the 
river at Wallula, For the first twelve miles, the grade was 
so heavy that a train going west would make the entire dis- 
tance by gravity. In the other 18 or 19 miles, there were one 
or two rather heavy grades, requiring a good deal of power 
to get the trains over them. 

For a long time after the road was built, freight was car- 
ried only on flat cars. Passengers were carried in something 
but little better. A sort of low house with a curved roof and 
small windows was built on a flat car, and furnished with a 
plain board seat that ran all the way round it except across 
the doorways, and this was the only passenger coach. People 
irreverently called it the "hearse." But many eminent people 
rode in it in its time. General Sherman, when he was at 
the head of the army was one of these. He came up the 
Yellowstone and over the mountains to Walla Walla, accom- 
panied by his staff", on a tour of inspection of the various 
army posts, and thought he would have a special train to 
take him over this very unpretentious road to Wallula, but 
Dr. Baker thought differently. Tradition says he told the 
general that if he went at all he would go on a freight car, 
and sit astride a wheat sack at that, but tradition is sometimes 
at fault in matters of this kind. The truth is he went in the 
"hearse" as other people did, and was quite satisfied to do so. 

The immediate effect of the completion of this primitive 
railroad was to reduce the cost of transporting the produce 
of the Walla Walla farms from the town to the river landing 
to j^5 per ton. Five dollars per ton was the rate for wheat, 
for merchandise, for lumber or for cordwood. There were 
no classifications as at the present day. A ton was a ton 
whether of feathers or hardware, and whether going west or 
east. Five dollars was also the rate for each passenger, 


so the books of the company were easily kept. The road 
became very profitable, was eventually sold at a good price, 
and became a part of the Oregon Railway & Navigation 
Company system. 

It was the first railroad built in Washington, if the portage 
road, from the upper to the lower Cascade, built by the Ore- 
gon Steam Navigation Company, is left out of consideration. 

Dr. Baker also established the first bank in Washington 
— first as a private bank in 1869, now the Baker-Boyer 
National. He was a strong character with a marked genius 
for finance. 

During the years of depression following the panic of 1873, 
the Northern Pacific Railroad made but little progress, par- 
ticularly in Washington. For a part of the time at least 
the roads the people were themselves building with such 
slender means, advanced as rapidly and seemed perhaps to 
have as much prospect of becoming great lines, as that 
backed by the favor of the national government. But in 
1 875, coal was discovered on the upper branches of the Puyal- 
lup River, less than thirty miles east of Tacoma, which upon 
investigation proved to be of such quality as to make develop- 
ment of the mines desirable. The road needed coal for its 
engines, and people along the line and in Oregon needed it. 
There was every reason why the road should make a supreme 
effort to get the mines developed, and their product made 
available for use. They were within the limits of its land 
grant; if its rails could be extended to them it would do much 
to dispel the impression, so diligently cultivated by its op- 
ponents, that its northern branch from the Columbia across 
the range to the Sound would never be built. It might per- 
haps be the means of saving the whole of the land grant that 
would be acquired by building that line. 


But the road had neither the money nor credit with which 
to build it. It had been saved from absolute bankruptcy, 
during the panic years only by the most heroic efforts, and 
by great personal sacrifices on the part of its bondholders, who 
had surrendered their bonds and accepted preferred stock 
in place of them, in order that the property might be remort- 
gaged for new bonds. But the new bonds had no market 
and the fragments of road already completed in Minnesota, 
Dakota and Washington were but little more than paying 
the cost of operation under the most economic management 

By this time Charles B. Wright of Philadelphia had become 
president of the company. He was also president of the 
Tacoma Land Company, and its largest stockholder. The 
town had not prospered as he and others interested had 
hoped. The panic years had had the same depressing effect 
on it as on everything else. While most of the people who 
had been waiting for the terminus to be fixed, before choosing 
the town in which they would make their homes and their 
investments, had gone to it about the time the railroad reached 
it, some of those had already left it. There had been con- 
siderable delay in getting it platted and ready for market. 
A large part of the townsite had been cleared promptly, 
surveyors had been put to work, and Frederick Law Olm- 
stead, the famous landscape architect of New York, had 
been employed to make a plat, that it was expected would 
make it a most attractive city. In due time the plat was 
furnished, but it was so unlike the plats which people are 
accustomed to, that it was not accepted and Tacoma thus 
narrowly escaped being a far more beautiful city than it 
is. No attempt had been made to have the streets follow 
any general direction, or to make lots of any particular size. 


The contour of the ground had determined everything. 
The streets curved along the sides of the hills, which they 
ascended at easy grades. Lots and blocks were all irregular 
in size and shape, and in the residence section particularly, 
they were so arranged as to command the utmost variety of 
views. Those in authority at the time seemed to think this 
too much of an innovation on the generally accepted ideas 
of city platting and city planning, and this plat was put 
aside. Another plat was then necessary, and much time 
was required to make it, during which some of those who 
came to the new town, intending to remain in it, went else- 
where. However, the company pursued a liberal policy 
toward those who remained, permitting them to select 
locations which it subsequently allowed them to acquire, 
and by giving lots outright to schools, churches and 
charitable institutions, in some degree counteracted the evil 
effects of the long delay in getting its property ready for 

During 1875 and 1876, the eastern part of the Northern 
Pacific so far as constructed, earned a little more than its 
operating expenses and a small surplus was accumulated. 
This and the money received from sales of stock in the 
Tacoma Land Company it was determined to use to build 
the line from the terminus to the coal mines, and it was 
so used. President Wright also bought a cargo of rails 
with his own individual funds or credit, and sent them to 
the coast by way of Cape Horn. When they arrived the 
grade was so far completed, that track laying began and the 
road was finished and in operation to Wilkeson in 1877. 
Other mines were soon after opened at Carbonado, and 
in time at other nearby points, and the new road did 
much to relieve the whole western part of the territory 


from the incubus of the depression which had so long 
afflicted it. 

During these tedious years the road from Tacoma to 
Kalama had done but Httle business. One train a day 
each way had served for both freight and passengers. The 
people who had hoped so much from it when its building 
began, were much disappointed. Many who were not 
actually on the line, particularly those at Olympia and 
Seattle complained loudly that it discriminated against them, 
and with some reason. Those in Olympia were dissatisfied 
with the share of the joint freight rates awarded to the 
branch line they had built. Those in Seattle and other 
Sound towns, who wished to go to Portland were compelled 
to remain over night in Tacoma both going and coming. 
As the railroad still controlled the boats of the Oregon 
Steam Navigation Company on the Sound, and regulated 
their running time, it was clear to everybody that they were 
thus inconvenienced solely that their towns might be placed 
at as great a disadvantage as possible. They made such 
protest against this treatment as they could, and they did 
some things that were effective. They had elected Orange 
Jacobs to Congress in 1874, as one means of helping the 
Seattle and Walla Walla railroad, and he was urging upon 
the attention of Congress a series of memorials which the 
legislature had adopted, praying that a large part of the 
lands which had been withdrawn from sale or entry, in the 
interest of the Company, should be reopened to settlement, 
and that better means should be provided to enable settlers 
on the even numbered sections within the grant, to perfect 
their titles. John J. McGilvra had been sent to Washington 
by the settlers to assist him, and together they were making 
an aggressive fight in the departments, before committees 


and wherever effective work could be done, in support of 
the memorials. They made it appear, as was the case, that 
the various acts and orders in the interest of the company, 
were delaying the settlement of the whole western part of 
the territory, and so injuring the settlers whom Congress 
and the administration ought for every reason to protect and 
defend. Senator Mitchell of Oregon was also urging Con- 
gress to aid a road that would give Portland connection 
with the Union Pacific, and this was antagonistic to the 
Northern's interest. 

Beset by these and other difficulties, as well as by its finan- 
cial troubles and embarrassments, the road could make but 
little progress. Partaking of its disadvantages, as well as 
of those of the times, its terminal town on the Sound grew but 
slowly. At the end of its first ten years of existence, it was 
still hardly a thriving village. But a brighter day for it, 
for the railroad, and for the territory was about to dawn. 

Mount Tacoma or Mount Rainier. 

For a dozen years or more after Tacoma was named 
and took its place on the map, nobody disputed the origin 
or meaning of the name — perhaps for the reason that 
nobody asserted it very positively, or upon any other 
authority than Winthrop's, or inquired further about it. 
In announcing that the town on Commencement Bay had 
been named, the Seattle Intelligencer, on November 23, 
1868, said the name was "Tacoma after the Indian name 
of Mount Rainier." But nobody in those days, or for 
years later, spoke of the mountain by that name. The 
settlers always called it Rainier. It was so called in 
all official reports and documents. Wilkes several times 


mentions it by that name. Stevens had described the 
Yakima Indian Reservation as "commencing at Mount 
Rainier; running thence northerly along the ridge of the 
Cascade Mountains," etc. Even the Tacoma Land Com- 
pany, in its printed matter, advertising the town, had as 
late as 1878, put forth a picture of it inscribed, "New 
Tacoma, with a view of Mount Rainier,"* and the Tacoma 
newspapers, as late as February 1883, were calling the moun- 
tain by the name that everbody else used. 

It was not until 1883 that any division of sentiment about 
the matter began to appear. In March of that year the 
Northwest Magazine, then published in New York under 
the patronage of the Northern Pacific Railroad, announced 
that "The Indian name Tacoma will hereafter be used in 
the guide books and other publications of the Northern 
Pacific Railroad, and the Oregon Railway and Navigation 
Company, instead of Rainier, which the English Captain 
Vancouver gave to this magnificent peak, when he explored 
the waters of Puget Sound in the last century. " Then the 
people of the territory began to be really interested in the 
matter. The Tacoma Ledger quoted the above announce- 
ment in a brief editorial, when the magazine reached the 
coast some weeks later, and added that "The name Rainier 
never had any appropriateness, for it was adopted as a com- 
pliment to an English admiral, who never saw the mountain. 
If the newspapers in Oregon and Washington will join in 
the effort to restore the musical and significent Indian title, 
the change can be fully accomplished in a few years." 

However this suggestion might have been regarded under 
other circumstances, it was not approved by the newspapers 
referred to. Those of Seattle received it with derision, and 

♦See opposite page 

TACOMA IN 1878. 

Reproduced from an engraving published by the 
Tacoma Land Compan}-, in the year named. 








If the ne 
the effort 
the change 

other ^ 
referred t 

'"^e of the 
d Com- 

'- ' ns 


\ - ' ■ V"' '4v-?nia4y|h^ n^tesf-ft* * 'rhciiqik scribed the 
....... Kt .en'StfdH -'^^"^t.: . -exnoo^T^t Mount 

running thence northerly ale 
1' Mountains," etc. Even the i a 
in its printed matter, advertising r 
T878, p - ' rth a picture of it 

'Mount Rainier,"* ui 
bruary 1883, were calling t 
orbody else used. 

hat any division of sentiment about 

ir. In^ March of that year the 

published in New York under 

em Pacific Railroad, announced 

ma will hereafter be used in 

publications of the Northern 

1 Railway and ^n 

hich the English Captam 

It peak, when he 

last cent 

territoi .t in the 

"acorn a i oted the announce- 

^ editc the n e reached the 

ks later, ided that " 1 he name Rainier 

ropris , for it was adopted as a com- 

ral, who never saw the mountain. 

A\ and \\ ashington will join in 

musical and significent Indian title, 

)mplished in a few years. " 
-n might have been regarded under 
IS not approved by the newspapers 
de received it with derision, and 

^^•pe' Opf' 


most of the others in the territory outside of Tacoma, with 
more or less vigorous disapproval. One paper in Olympia, 
the Courier, in a single brief editorial, spoke of it conde- 
scendingly, but speedily changed its opinion and ever after- 
wards denounced the attempted change as vigorously as any 
of its contemporaries. Evidently its subscribers had pro- 
tested. The policy of the Northern Pacific in everything 
since its western terminus had been fixed upon, had made 
it as unpopular as it well could be. The suggestion had 
come from one of its publications; those in the town it had 
started and helped to build up to be a rival of all other towns 
on the Sound approved it. Under these circumstances it 
is hardly surprising that both the newspapers and the people 
in other towns should regard it with disfavor, and as time 
went by and towns were ruined, as in the case of Old Yakima, 
by the refusal of the company to stop its trains in their neigh- 
borhood, or by building up new towns in their vicinity, and 
questions of rates arose as at Spokane, it became more and 
more unpopular. 

The newspapers and people of Oregon joined this opposi- 
tion. The attempt to change the ancient name of the majes- 
tic mountain was declared to be nothing less than sacrilege. 
It was simply a scheme of a lot of real estate boomers and 
speculators to turn a great world land mark into an adver- 
tisement — to reduce sublimity itself to the level of a sign- 
board. The name Tacoma was nothing but the invention 
of a dreamer — a brilliant dreamer doubtless, but a dreamer 
nevertheless. It had never been the Indian name of the 
mountain. The Indians had no names for mountains, or 
rivers or other land marks distinguishing one from another. 
To them a mountain was a mountain, and a river a river, 
and that was all there was of it. A primrose by a river's 


brim, a yellow primrose was to them, and nothing 

The newspapers of Tacoma, — of which there were two — 
and the people of the town, stood sturdily for the change, 
and made such a fight for it as they were able. The two 
papers were issued only weekly as yet, but in time as the 
town grew and prospered, and daily editions appeared, the 
battle raged hotly. The Indians were appealed to for evi- 
dence by both sides, and, after their custom, generally 
furnished something that was satisfactory to both. Edward 
Huggins, last of the Hudson's Bay factors, who had lived for 
thirty years among them, declared he had never heard them 
speak of the mountain by any other name than "le monte," 
which was the Chinook name for it. But Mrs. Huggins, 
who was a daughter of John Work, and had been born on 
the coast, had been told by Old Schlousin, or Schlouskin, 
that the mountain's Indian name was Tachkomah, "but he 
couldn't give any further information as to why it was so 
named, other than that anything, or everything in the shape 
of a mountain, or large mound covered with snow, was 
named Tach-komah, or Tacobah. "* They also pronounced 
it Tahoma or Tacobet according to their several peculiarities 
of dialect. 

The advocates of the Indian name also attacked the name 
Rainier in their turn. They insisted that it was not the 
name Vancouver had given the mountain, because he spelled 
it Regnier; that Regnier or Rainier was a person of no conse- 
quence anyway; that he never had seen the mountain, and 
that he was a foreigner whose name ought not to be per- 
petuated by one of the grandest monuments on the American 
continent. The battle thus waged in time attracted the 
♦Edward Huggins, Mss. 


attention of the whole country. The board on geographic 
names at Washington was appealed to in due course, and its 
decision was thought to be of so much importance that 
committees were sent from the coast to argue the matter. 
It decided in favor of Rainier, but the contention did not end 
there, and it still continues more or less fitfully, but none the 
less interestingly. 

In all this controversy, the best evidence in existence to 
support Winthrop's representation as to the name, has 
never been cited. George Gibbs, who was associated with 
General Stevens in his railroad survey, and during the time 
he was treating with the Indians, and afterwards served with 
the boundary commission, during all of which time he gave 
much attention to the study of the Indian languages, prepared 
for the Smithsonian Institution vocabularies of twenty-one 
of these laguages, which were published by that institution 
in 1877* four years after Gibbs' death. Among the vocabu- 
laries is one of the "Nisquali" language in which the word 
Ta-kob appears, with the definition "the name of Mount 
Rainier. " In the vocabulary of the Winatsha (Wenatchee) 
language, the word T'koma is given, which is defined as 
" Snow peak. " From this it appears that the word, or some- 
thing like it, appears in the Indian languages on both sides 
of the mountains, but nearest in the form in which it is now 
used in that of the eastern side. We may infer from this 
that Winthrop got the word from his Indian guide, "Loo- 
low-can the frowsy, son of Owhi the horse thief," who es- 
corted him from Fort Nisqually across the range. He does 
not say he learned the Indian name when he first saw the 
mountain, although we naturally infer that he did, or soon 

* Contributions to North American Ethnology, Vol. I. Government 
Printing Office, 1877. 

254 Rise and Progress of an American State 

after. But the Clallams, to which tribe the Duke of York 
and others who paddled him up the Sound from Port Town- 
send, belonged, do not have the word in their language, and 
he could not therefore, get it from them. Neither was he 
likely to get it at Fort Nisqually, where, as Huggins says, 
it was never heard. It seems certain therefore, that he got 
it from his guide, and probably at the time he stopped on 
the trail to get the grand view of the mountain which he 
describes so rapturously at this point on his journey. The 
guide was doubtless the son of a Wenatchee mother, as a 
chief of Owhi's importance would have wives from several 
neighboring tribes, and it was from her he obtained it. 

It is frequently asserted that the word means nourishing 
breast, in allusion to the numerous rivers that have their 
beginnings in the glaciers of the mountain, and flow from it 
through the fertile valleys of the western part of the state, 
but this is purely the fancy of white people. The Indians 
of the coast have no such poetic ideas. To them Tacoma, 
T'koma, Tahoma, Tacoba or Tacobet, or however they 
may pronounce it in their several dialects, is simply a snow 
or ice covered peak; it means that and that only. 

The word ko as Gibbs spells it, in the Nisqually language, 
means water. T'Kope in the Chinook jargon is snow, or 
anything white. Sir George Simpson, in his report to the 
directors of the Hudson's Bay Company of his trip to the 
coast in 1841, only recently published,* mentions a river 
Tacom in Alaska near Fort Simpson. It probably has some 
allusion to snow or ice. Ko is the root of the word and it is 
more or less common to all the languages of the Salish tribes. 

♦American Historical Review, October 1908. 

Chapter LV. 

ELISHA P. FERRY became governor of the terri- 
tory in April 1872. He was the greatest of all the 
territorial governors, Stevens alone excepted, and 
held office longest, serving through two full terms 
of four years each. 

He was a native of Michigan, and studied law there and 
in Fort Wayne, Ind., being admitted to the bar in 1845, at 
the age of twenty. Then he went to Waukegan, 111., a small 
city on the shore of Lake Michigan, a short distance north 
of Chicago, where he resided until 1869. He was the first 
mayor of the town, twice presidential elector, a member 
of the constitutional convention of 1861, and afterwards 
bank commissioner. When the civil war began he served 
for a time as assistant adjutant general, and helped materially 
in organizing and equipping many of the earlier Illinois 
regiments, and getting them ready for the field. While 
engaged in this service he made the acquaintance of Captain 
Ulysses S. Grant, who was appointed colonel of the 21st 
Regiment while assisting in the work of the adjutant general's 
office, and when the colonel afterwards became general and 
finally president, he gave Ferry all his appointments. He 
was first made surveyor general, and with that appointment 
he came to the territory in 1869, serving in that office until 
appointed governor. 

Governor Ferry possessed all the acquirements, as well as 
the natural qualities that go to make a good executive. He 
was a good lawyer, and a good business man, prudent, tact- 
ful, painstaking in thinking as well as in action, and possessed 
rare good judgment and great firmness of character. But 
two events occurred during his eight years in the executive 
office that called for the exercise of these qualities in any 
conspicuous or unusual way. When his first term began 


the country was generally prosperous. Development was 
progressing slowly, but it seemed probable that it would soon 
advance more rapidly, and the settlers were hopeful. Rail- 
road building, long hoped for had begun, and the line from 
the Columbia to the Sound was nearing completion. There 
was no apparent reason why it should not continue until 
the Sound was connected with the older settled regions of 
the East. But in 1873 work was suspended and the whole 
country suffered a period of financial depression, the effects 
of which were wide spread and more or less disastrous. The 
people in Washington suffered less than those in most other 
parts of the country, but the advancement they had looked 
for and hoped for was postponed. New settlers arrived but 
slowly, and it was not until Governor Ferry had entered upon 
his second term that business returned to something like 
normal conditions, and prosperity began to smile once more 
upon the territory. 

He had been scarcely more than half a year in the executive 
office when news was received that the San Juan boundary 
question had been settled by the arbitrator to whom it had 
been referred, and within a month after the news arrived, and 
as soon as possible after it had been officially communicated 
to the authorities at Victoria, the British marines who had 
been stationed on the island since the time of General Scott's 
visit, were withdrawn. On leaving they cut down the flag 
pole from which their colors had been displayed for more 
than a dozen years, and each member of the company, or 
most of them carried away a piece of it as a souvenir. 
This led to some unfavorable comment among the American 
settlers, who fancied that the pole had been destroyed solely 
in order that the stars and stripes might never be floated from 
it. In time the newspapers of the territory encouraged the 


ill feeling thus started, and added to it by remarks that were 
none too well founded. 

Soon after receiving official notice that the boundary 
question had been decided, Governor Ferry, on December 
23d, visited the island, for the purpose of reestablishing the 
civil authority, in place of the divided military authority 
which had so long controlled there. He learned from the 
deputy inspector of customs stationed on the island, that 
some of the British residents were alarmed, fearing that 
their claims on which most of them had made valuable 
improvements, would be taken from them. The governor 
did what he could to reassure these people, informing them 
that all who had taken their claims previous to 1846, if there 
were any such, were fully protected by the treaty, and that 
the others would, under the law, be required to become 
American citizens, or their claims might be contested by 
those who were citizens. This most of them already under- 
stood, and had sent a request to the clerk of the district court 
that he would visit the island and receive their declarations. 
But some of them taking counsel from their fears, or perhaps 
becoming alarmed at the comments made by individuals 
and the newspapers on the flag pole incident, appealed to 
the authorities at Victoria, reporting that "Governor Ferry 
had decided the British subjects must take the oath of alle- 
giance or loose their claims." These complaints were referred 
to the British minister in Washington, and by him laid before 
our secretary of state, who called upon the governor by 
telegraph, to explain. This he did in a letter of January 
25, 1873, stating exactly what he had communicated unoffi- 
cially to these anxious claim holders, and added that he had 
subsequently remembered that a question might arise between 
the Northern Pacific Railroad Company and some of them — 


as a portion of the island was within the limits which had been 
withdrawn from settlement by order of the secretary of the 
Interior — until the boundary of the land grant had been 
determined. As this order had been made in October, 
while the rights of the claimants could only attach at the 
time their declarations were made, he had written to the 
inspector of customs on the island, suggesting that he give 
this information to all who might be interested, in order 
that they might take such steps as seemed advisable, to pro- 
tect themselves. 

This action of the governor resulted in a revocation of 
the order withdrawing the lands, in which some of these 
claimants were interested, from entry or sale, and the adjust- 
ment of all just claims on the part of those who were willing 
to comply with the law, to their satisfaction. 

Governor Ferry found the financial affairs of the territory 
in some confusion on taking charge, and he immediately 
applied himself to their correction. The laws for the assess- 
ment and collection of taxes were still crude and imperfect. 
Several of the counties were negligent in the matter of paying 
over the share of taxes due the territory. Some had been 
delinquent for several years, and the aggregate amount due 
from these was nearly ^^13,000. By this delinquency the 
counties not in default were compelled to pay some part of 
the interest accruing on warrants issued in anticipation of 
this delinquent balance, which was wrong and unjust, and 
the governor urged the legislature to give the matter atten- 
tion at once, so that the injustice might be corrected, and all 
the counties compelled to contribute equitably to the support 
of the territorial government. 

But the legislature did not immediately give it the atten- 
tion it deserved, and the governor was compelled to refer to 


it in several subsequent messages. In 1879 these delinquent 
taxes amounted to ^69,509.79, and the governor in his last 
message insisted that legislation that w^ould enforce payment 
was imperatively necessary, and it was as a result of this 
insistence that the trouble was finally removed. Four years 
later Governor Newell reported that the amount due from 
delinquent counties was less than ^7,000. 

Up to this time there had been no arrangement for equaliz- 
ing assessments as between the several counties, and the 
governor called attention to this matter, but it was not until 
he had reminded the legislature a second time that a board 
of equalization was finally provided for. The law provided 
that property should be assessed at its full value, but while 
some counties obeyed it in a reasonable way, others made 
their assessments much lower, and so avoided payment of 
their just proportion of the territorial revenue. The assess- 
ments themselves showed how these last mentioned counties 
were evading their just share of the territorial burdens. That 
for 1875 showed a decrease of ^896,335 in the value of pro- 
perty in fourteen counties, as compared with the assessment 
of 1873. In eight counties the assessment for 1875 showed 
an increase of ^1,283,739. It was apparent that property 
was not decreasing in value in the proportion represented 
in some counties, or else that it was not increasing at the 
rate shown by the assessment in others. Grave injustice was 
therefore being done somewhere, and the only means of 
correcting it was through a board of equalizers. 

The governor also pressed upon the attention of the legis- 
lature, the desirability of creating a board of immigration. 
The manifest want of the territory was population, and one 
of the best instrumentalities for securing it would be found 
in such a board, which should be especially charged to make 


known throughout the eastern states and Europe, the exhaust- 
less resources of the territory, and to procure, so far as pos- 
sible, cheap transportation for all who would come to it. 
Such a board, if provided only with very moderate means, 
would do much to make known to the world at large the 
abundant resources of our soil, the wealth of our forests, our 
limitless deposits of coal, the advantages of our commerce, 
and the attractiveness of our climate. 

At that time the belief prevailed very generally throughout 
the eastern states, that the territory, particularly its western 
part, was not adapted to agriculture, and that it was far 
behind the other territories in argicultural development and 
production. This belief, a board of immigration could do 
very much to remove, as facts to prove the contrary were 
abundant. There were in 1873 more than 192,000 acres 
of improved farm land in the territory, as shown by the 
census of 1870. This was more than any other of the nine 
territories had shown, and when it was remembered that 
New Mexico had almost four times the number of inhabitants 
of Washington, that Utah had more than three times, and 
Colorado nearly twice as many, while Washington was the 
smallest in area of them all, its advanced position from an 
agricultural point of view, became strikingly apparent. 

The importance of this recommendation, like others, did 
not immediately impress itself upon the legislature, and it 
was not until 1877 that a board was provided for. Even then 
only $150 was appropriated to carry on its work, and with 
this small sum of course very little could be done. The work 
however, was started, and in time was conducted in a fairly 
efficient way. 

Owing to the depressed conditions which everywhere 
prevailed, settlement of the territory proceeded very slowly. 


During 1 87 1-2 a total of only 3,385 entries were made at 
the three land offices, in Olympia, Vancouver, and Walla 
Walla. The entries for the two succeeding years at the Van- 
couver offices were not reported, but at the other two there 
were only 548. But as the prevailing depression passed 
away, and business gradually returned to a normal condition, 
immigration revived, and from 1875 to 1879 the number of 
new settlers arriving each year was considerably increased, 
and in his last message. Governor Ferry was able to con- 
gratulate the legislature upon the fairly prosperous condition 
of the territory. 

The legislature which convened in 1873, the first under 
Governor Ferry's administration, passed the first railroad law 
enacted in the territory. It provided generally that rates 
should be reasonable, and that one patron should not be 
charged more than another for a similar service rendered. 
An act to encourage the construction of railroads was also 
passed, which provided that only so much of any line under 
construction should be taxed as was operated, and that no 
road should be taxed until at least fifteen miles was com- 
pleted and in operation. This act was evidently intended to 
be helpful to the enterprises in which the people of Olympia, 
Seattle and Walla Walla were then preparing to engage. 

This legislature also passed a law to encourage irrigation 
in Yakima County. It provided a method by which rights 
of way for irrigating ditches should be acquired, and rights 
to water secured, as well as for the settlement of all contro- 
versies that might arise in regard to either matter. By the 
time the next legislature met the farmers had become very 
much interested in the organization of granges, and it passed 
an act providing for their incorporation. It authorized the 
corporate bodies to engage in almost every business as well 


as farming, and indicated that the farmers of that day were 
entertaining the hope that they might in time control every- 
thing that was not then conducted to their satisfaction. By 
this legislature the city of Tacoma was incorporated, on 
November 12, 1875. It also passed a general dyking law, 
and a curious act providing that any person who wished to 
do so, might sell his property by lot, provided he would pay 
ten per cent, of the sum received into the road fund, to be 
used to aid in building a road through the Snoqualmie Pass. 

In his message to the legislature in October 1877, Gover- 
nor Ferry urged a revision of the revenue law. Under the 
system then in use no money reached the treasury for any 
year until after it had expired. Sometimes it did not come 
in for eighteen months or more after the assessment was 
made. This made it necessary for the state to pay out a 
considerable sum for interest, sometimes at the rate of ten per 
cent., all of which might be saved by a change in the law 
which would bring the territory to a cash basis. He also 
advised that a memorial should be prepared, urging Congress 
to make an appropriation to remove obstructions from the 
navigable rivers of the territory. In many places these 
seriously interfered with navigation. They were to some 
extent being removed by private enterprise. But this was a 
burden that individuals should not bear, and as the general 
government would sometime aid the work, as it was aiding 
it elsewhere, it should be urged to begin it at the earliest 
moment possible. 

The railroad question was now commanding universal 
attention, and there was great diversity of opinion, particu- 
larly in regard to extending the time within which the North- 
ern Pacific should complete its main line to the Sound, or 
loose its land grant. Opposition to extension at this time 


had been strengthened by the course the company was 
pursuing, in regard to the sale of lands which it had already 
acquired. By the conditions of its grant the minimum price 
of these lands had been fixed at ^2.50 per acre, and many 
held that it should not charge more than this, as otherwise 
settlement would be retarded. But the company was 
demanding much higher prices in many cases, and it was 
therefore held to be delaying settlement rather than encourag- 
ing it. The governor urged that the time limit should be rea- 
sonably extended, but not without conditions. The company 
should be required to make a beginning on its construction 
work, and to complete a minimum portion of its tracks each 
year. This he thought would be a fair requirement, and by 
adopting it the company would be encouraged to begin and 
complete the construction of its Cascade Division, a matter 
which he considered of the utmost importance, since it would 
in a measure help to defeat the effort then making to make 
Portland the general western terminus of the road. 

The legislature of 1875 passed an act to aid the construc- 
tion of the Seattle and Walla Walla, now called the Seattle 
and Colfax Railroad. It provided that King County might 
assist the undertaking to the extent of $100,000, Walla Walla 
County $100,000, Yakima $50,000, Columbia $75,000, 
Whitman $80,000, Kitsap $10,000, Stevens, which then 
included Spokane and all the north eastern part of the 
territory of the present day, $20,000, Klikitat $10,000. It 
also passed an act to prevent and punish gambling, another 
to encourage the cultivation of oysters, and still another to 
regulate fishing. 

In his last message in 1879, the governor complained that 
the enactment of important laws was so generally deferred 
till the closing hours of the legislative session that it was 


difficult, if not impossible, for the governor to fairly consider 
them before determining whether or not to give them his 
approval. The preceding legislature had enacted ninety-six 
laws during the last twelve hours of its session. The law 
allowed the governor five days after the adjournment, within 
which he must determine whether or not he should give or 
withhold his approval of all these acts. It was not possible 
to have these bills properly engrossed, and many of them 
came to him full of erasures and interlineations, the exact 
effect and meaning of which it was sometimes very difficult to 
determine. One of two courses was open to him under such 
circumstances — one was to withhold his approval, and the 
other to approve without a proper understanding, neither of 
which was very desirable. He had generally followed the 
latter course in regard to most of the measures, but expressed 
the hope that the legislature would so far as possible, make 
it unnecessary for him to continue to do this. 

He was now able to congratulate the legislature and the 
people of the territory, on the fact that its finances were in 
a sound condition, although the revenue law still needed some 
slight revision, the nature of which he carefully pointed out. 

So far in the history of the territory the counties had paid 
the cost of prosecuting criminals. This he thought was 
unfair, and he recommended the enactment of a law provid- 
ing that the cost of prosecution henceforth should be borne 
by the territory. 

The territorial convicts were still held in county jails, 
and were cared for under contracts with the sheriffs, until 
1877, when the legislature provided that the governor should 
enter into contract with some responsible person to erect a 
penitentiary, somewhere within the limits of Thurston 
County, in which he should keep and maintain all the 


prisoners for a term of six years. He was to employ them 
meantime at any suitable work that could be found for them, 
and be responsible for the proper care of any who might be 
sick, and recapture any who might escape. The more 
desperate criminals might be compelled to wear shackles, 
permanently fastened to their limbs with rivets, to be removed 
neither by night nor day. Under the act making these pro- 
visions. Governor Ferry entered into contract with William 
Billings of Olympia, who had long been sheriff of Thurston 
County, to build such a building as was required. It was 
located at Seatco. It was two stories high, and was con- 
structed of planks firmly spiked together. The lower story 
was without openings of any sort, and was furnished with 
rude cells, in which the prisoners were kept at night; the 
upper story was occupied by the guards. Entrance to it 
was obtained only by a stairway outside the building, which 
led to the second story. By another on the inside the pris- 
oners descended to their cells. The building was surrounded 
by a stout stockade. 

The prisoners were employed in a sash and door factory, 
in a stone quarry in the immediate neighborhood, and in 
such other work as the sheriff found for them. Only a few 
of them worked without shackles. This prison was used 
until 1886, when the legislature provided that a new and per- 
manent penitentiary should be constructed at Walla Walla. 

The people had begun to be hopeful before Governor 
Ferry's time, that the territory might soon become a state. 
It had been talked of in Governor Cole's time, although the 
census of i860 had shown that the population of the territory 
was only 11,594. In the winter of 1867-8 the legislature 
passed an act, providing that the question of calling a con- 
vention to form a constitution should be submitted to the 


people at the next general election. But so few votes were 
cast in favor of it, that it was evident that a very large ma- 
jority preferred a territorial government for the time being. 
As a territory the national government paid a large part of 
the governmental expenses, and most of the settlers were 
willing it should continue to do so. However, the question 
was again submitted in 1870 and again in 1871, when it 
was provided that the governor should give notice by proc- 
lamation that each voter must declare his preference for 
or against a convention. But the result was practically 
the same as it had been in the three preceding elections, and 
yet the question was again submitted in 1873 with the hope, 
apparently, that the voters would in time become sufficiently 
interested to have a convention called. But the hope was 
futile; the proposition was again defeated. Nevertheless 
it was submitted again, by act of 1875, and at the election 
held in the following year something over 7,000 votes were 
cast, with a large majority in favor of a convention. The 
legislature accordingly provided that one should be held at 
Walla Walla in June, 1878, and that the delegates fifteen 
in number, should be elected in April of that year. 

No enabling act had been passed by Congress, to authorize 
the formation of a state government. Delegate Jacobs had 
introduced a bill in the house of representatives, after the 
favorable vote of 1876, but it had not yet received favorable 
attention, when the delegates to the constitutional conven- 
tion assembled at Walla Walla. They were sixteen in num- 
ber, including one from the northern counties of Idaho who 
was admitted to a part in the deliberations, though without 
a vote, and the convention sat for twenty-four days.* 

*The delegates were: W. A. George, Elwood Evans, S. M. Gilmore, 
S. M. Wait, B. F. Dennison, Chas. H. Larrabee, C. M. Bradshaw, H. B. 


The constitution made by this convention would doubtless 
have served for a considerable time, if the people had been 
permitted to form a government under it. It fixed a new 
boundary for the state, including the northern counties of 
Idaho, whose people found it more difficult to communicate 
with the capital of that territory than with the capital of 
Washington. Their representatives, and all others having 
business at Boise, usually went thither through the counties 
of eastern Washington, when they went at all. As the lines 
of communication then were, and seemed likely to remain 
for a considerable time, it would be far more convenient for 
them to be a part of Washington than of Idaho. It was 
for that reason that they desired, as they have desired at 
other times since then, to be annexed to this state. 

An effort was made to have the convention provide for 
female suffrage, but it was not done. The distasteful word 
"male" was retained in describing the qualifications of 
voters. It was provided however, that "no person on 
account of sex, shall be disqualified to enter upon and pursue 
any lawful business, avocation or profession." Biennial 
sessions of the legislature were provided for, and they were 
limited to forty days. Special legislation was forbidden, 
and no lotteries could be authorized or divorces granted. 
The courts were reorganized; taxes were made uniform 
under general laws; and the power to tax corporate property 
could never be suspended; the public school fund could 
never be reduced; educational and penal institutions were 
to be provided, and the legislature was given power to change 

Emory, D. B. Hannah, Francis Henry, A. S. Abernethy, J. V. Odell, 
George H. Stuart, O. P. Lacey, and L. B. Andrews. The Idaho delegate 
was Alonzo Leland. A. S. Abernethy was elected president, W. Byron 
Daniels was secretary, assisted by William S. Clark, and Henry D, Cook 
was seT^eant-at-arms. 


the location of the seat of government, though not without 
submitting the matter to a vote of the people at the next 
general election follovi^ing the adoption of the constitution. 
Three articles were submitted for separate vote. The first 
provided for local option; the second for female suffrage, 
and the third for the annexation of the discontented counties 
of Idaho. These separate articles were all defeated, but the 
constitution was adopted when submitted to the people for 
their approval. 

But it never became effective. Congress could not be 
prevailed upon to accept Delegate Jacob's enabling law, 
nor was Delegate Brents, who succeeded Jacobs in 1879, 
able to procure legislation approving the constitution, or 
authorizing the people of the territory to form a new one. 
It was not until eleven years later that an enabling act 
was finally adopted. 

It was during Governor Ferry's administration that the 
greatest marine disaster that has ever shocked the people 
on this part of the coast occurred, bringing sorrow to many 
homes. The steamer Pacific was, in 1875, one of the finest 
vessel plying between San Francisco, Victoria and the Sound 
ports. She left Victoria on the forenoon of November 4th, 
of that year, with a full cargo, and a large number of passen- 
gers, though just how many was never known. It was 
supposed however, that passengers and crew numbered 275, 
among the former being representatives from nearly every 
considerable town in the territory and British Columbia, 
some of whom were widely known and their loss was univer- 
sally regretted. 

The steamer passed Tatoosh light about 4 o'clock in the 
afternoon. As the ocean was reached a strong wind from 
the west was encountered, against which she made but 


little headway. The night came on very dark and stormy, 
but no serious difficulty was encountered until about lo 
o'clock, when those who were awake felt a shock. They 
seem not to have been greatly alarmed by it, so far as known, 
although the ship's hull had been shattered, and she soon 
afterwards sank. There was time only to lower One of the 
boats, into which as many of the women and children as 
could be aroused and collected from their staterooms, were 
hurried, and then the wrecked vessel went down. The life- 
boat was swamped, and all in it perished. Only two of all 
on board escaped alive. One of these was a passenger named 
Henry F. Jelly, who with four others, seized hold of the over- 
turned boat, after its occupants had all been drowned. One 
after another of the four were washed away, but Jelly main- 
tained his hold for nearly 48 hours, until rescued by a tug 
from Port Townsend. The other was one of the ship's 
quartermasters, named Henley, who had got upon one of 
the life-rafts, and was rescued five days later in the Straits 
of Fuca. Seventeen persons in all are known to have got 
places on the life rafts, after the ship went down, but all 
perished from exposure, or became insane and drowned 
themselves, before the end of the third day, except Henley. 
Jelly died from the effects of exposure not long after he was 
rescued, but Henley is still living.* His home is at Steila- 

*May 1909. The fact that Henley was rescued in the straits, and that 
the bodies of several of the passengers who were drowned, were found 
a long time afterwards, on San Juan Island, indicates that the current 
inward through the strait when the tide comes in, is much stronger than 
that outward when it is receding. This is probably due to the fact that 
a large part of the water which comes in through the straits passes out 
through the Gulf of Georgia and the channel east of Vancouver 


The wreck was caused by a collision of the steamer with 
the ship Orpheus, whose captain was supposed for a time, 
to have been at fault, but investigation cleared him and his 
crew of blame. He had been approaching the straits, and 
the lookouts had discovered the steamer's lights only a few 
minutes before she was upon them. In the darkness they 
could not make out her course. When quite near her whistle 
was blown, probably as soon as the ship was observed from 
her decks, and almost immediately her prow struck the ship's 
side a glancing blow, staving in her planking almost to the 
water line, and carrying away a good part of her rigging. 
The Orpheus was so badly disabled that she could hardly 
be kept afloat, and neither the captain nor any of the sailors 
observed the sinking of the steamer. They expected she 
would be put about, and some inquiry made as to the damage 
done, but as nothing of the kind happened they felt that they 
had been heartlessly abandoned by the ship which had so 
nearly run them down. All that night and all the following 
day, were spent in making such repairs to the ship as were 
possible, and then an attempt was made to reach land. The 
first light sighted was supposed to be that at Cape Flattery, 
but proved to be at Cape Beale and the ship went hard on 
the rocks at the entrance to Barclay Sound. All on board 
were saved, but the ship was a total loss. 

Among the passengers on the steamer who were lost was 
G. L. Vining, a merchant and farmer of the Puyallup Valley, 
Mrs. Mohan, a daughter of Job Carr, the first settler on the 
site of Tacoma; Mr. Hellmuth, a prominent resident of 
Walla Walla, and his wife; Colin Chisholm, one of the owners 
of the mill at Utsalady; S. P. Moody, a prominent mill man 
from Burrard's Inlet, B. C; Mr. Victor, husband of Mrs. 
Frances Fuller Victor, the well known historical writer of 


Oregon; Fred D. Hard, postal agent on the Sound; F. 
Garesche, Wells, Fargo & Co.'s agent at Victoria; Capt, 
Parsons, an old steamboat man from Eraser River; John 
Tarbell, a brother of Capt. Frank Tarbell of Olympia, and 
uncle of George Tarbell now of Tacoma. The captain of 
the steamer was Jeff. D. Howell, a brother-in-law of Jefferson 
Davis. He had been educated at Annapolis, but at the 
breaking out of the war, joined the Confederacy. After 
the war he served for some time as a common sailor, then as 
quartermaster on a ship sailing to China. From there he 
went to San Francisco and entered the service of the Pacific 
Mail Steamship Company as mate and master for a time, 
after which he served with the Oregon Steamship Company, 
and lastly with the North Pacific Transportation Company 
as master of several steamships. 

A similar catastrophe, though not accompanied by the 
loss of so many lives, occurred April i6, 1879, when the 
steamer Great Republic went aground at the mouth of the 
Columbia and became a total wreck. It was at the time the 
largest sidewheel steamer on the coast, having a capacity 
of 3,882 tons. She had on board 896 passengers, and a 
large crew, all of whom were saved except eleven, who were 
drowned by the swamping of the last boat to leave the ship. 

Governor William A. Newell of New Jersey succeeded 
Ferry as governor in 1880, and served for one full term of 
four years. His administration was generally uneventful. 
During his term the first permanent buildings for the insane 
asylum at Steilacoom were constructed, and the penitentiary 
at Seatco was considerably improved, and the treatment of 
prisoners ameloriated. A new kind of shackle had been 
invented which could be conveniently removed while the 
prisoners were in their cells, and a considerable supply of 


them was ordered to be bought, so that the prisoners might 
be relieved from them while they slept. 

The population of the territory was now becoming so 
dense that complaint began to be made of the unnecessary 
amount of land assigned to the Indians for their use, by the 
treaties which Governor Stevens had made. There were 
fifteen reservations in the territory which comprised some- 
thing more than 7,000,000 acres in the aggregate. There 
were not more than 13,000 Indians all told. It was evident 
that they had no need for so much land, and could neither 
profitably use nor occupy it. It was untaxed, and generally 
unimproved. There were no roads through the reservations, 
and through some of them roads were beginning to be urgently 
necessary. But they could not be opened without the con- 
sent of the Indian office in Washington, which it took a long 
time to obtain, and they could only be improved at the 
expense of the settlers themselves. Governor Newell im- 
pressed upon the legislature the desirability of memorializing 
Congress to reduce these reservations by new treaties, and 
the matter was a subject of legislative consideration during 
several succeeding sessions. The deepening of the Colum- 
bia River from the Willamette to its mouth, and the improve- 
ment of its upper part so as to provide convenient transporta- 
tion by water, from the rapidly developing counties in the 
eastern part of the territory, also began to be matters of more 
interest than formerly, and Congress was urgently appealed 
to, to begin this great work. 

It was during Governor Newell's administration that the 
first practical test was made in the territory, of a law authoriz- 
ing women to vote, to serve as jurors, to hold office, and 
generally to exercise all the rights and privileges of full citi- 
zenship. This matter had been long agitated in the territory. 


as well as in other parts of the country, and had at times 
seemed to be regarded with considerable favor. An attempt 
had been made to pass a woman's suffrage law in Ferry's 
time, and a certain number of members of the legislature had 
been quite in favor of it. There were other members, as 
there always are, of the kind once aptly characterized by 
the late Emery A. Storrs of Chicago, as "band wagon 
statesmen," — men who are willing to vote for any measure 
that seems to be popular at the moment, or likely to become 
so, without giving much thought to its desirability or prac- 
ticability. Some of these, knowing that Ferry was opposed 
to woman's suffrage, were willing to vote for the bill if the 
governor would veto it, and they accordingly approached 
him to know whether he would do so. But he told them 
frankly that while he was opposed to it, if the legislature 
passed the bill he would approve it, and these "band wagon 
statesmen " were forced to determine for themselves whether 
or not they would support it. The courage of the majority 
of them was apparently not sufficient to enable them to justify 
so great an innovation on the established order of things, 
and the bill was for that session defeated. But in the session 
of 1883-4 it came up again and was adopted. 

It remained the law for nearly four years, during which 
women voted and served on both grand and petit juries. 
Sometimes the service they rendered was so satisfactory as 
to convert even the more vigorous opponents of the experi- 
ment, and among these was Governor Ferry himself, who 
after retiring from office as governor, returned to the practice 
of law at Seattle. He subsequently declared that he had 
found that women who had sat on the juries to hear and 
determine the cases in which he had been engaged, had given 
as careful attention to the evidence and the arguments, and 


had generally weighed them as accurately, and decided the 
issues involved, with as much good judgment as was ordin- 
arily shown by male jurors. 

Curiously enough the law was declared to be invalid in a 
gambling case, which raised the suffrage question only inci- 
dentally. One, Harland a gambler, v\fas arrested on a charge 
of having unfairly beaten another player out of something 
over ;^6oo at cards. Five members of the grand jury which 
indicted him were women, and it was pleaded in his defense 
that they were not householders, with the meaning of the 
act, as they were all married and living with their husbands. 
Objection was also raised to the title of the act, which was 
"an act to amend section 3050 of the statutes." The case 
was argued in the Supreme Court by Elwood Evans, for the 
defendant, and by Fremont Campbell then prosecuting 
attorney of Pierce County, for the people. Although it 
was known that it involved the validity of the suffrage act, 
the women of the territory took little interest in and made 
no efforts at all to be represented at the hearing. The 
Anti-Chinese disturbances had taken place only a short 
time before it came on to be heard, and in these some 
women had so conducted themselves as to very greatly 
lessen the good opinion which the test of the law so far 
as made had gained for it, and even to shake the confi- 
dence, to some degree, of the women who had been most 
deeply interested in securing its enactment. So the whole 
question was submitted upon the arguments made by 
the counsel for and against the defendant in the gambling 

The court was divided. The opinion of the majority 
was written by Justice Turner and concurred in by Justice 
Langford; Chief Justice Greene dissented. The majority 


opinion held the act invalid, because its character was not 
sufficiently described in its title. 

The law was reenacted with a new title in 1888, and in 
April following, at the city election in Spokane, Mrs. Nevada 
S. Bloomer offered to vote, and her ballot was rejected by 
the judges. She brought an action for damages on account 
of having been denied her rights under the law, and the 
question again went to the Supreme Court, which again 
declared the law invalid as not being authorized by the 
organic act. 

During the winter of 1 881-2 a condition of affairs prevailed 
in Seattle that caused a great deal of excitement and anxiety, 
though it did not call for the intervention of the territorial 
authority. The city had become infested with thieves and 
rough characters, who set the law at defiance, and robbed 
and murdered people as frequently and as openly as similar 
characters had robbed and murdered people in Walla Walla 
twenty years earlier. The authorities seemed to be entirely 
inadequate to cope with them. Only on comparatively rare 
occasions were arrests made, and few criminals were punished. 
Things finally became so bad that there was but one sure 
remedy, and this was effectively applied. 

On the evening of January 17, 1882, George B. Reynolds 
was passing along the street near his place of business 
when he was accosted by two men, one of whom thrust a 
pistol in his face and ordered him to throw up his hands. 
This he refused to do, and attempted to draw his own 
pistol, when he was shot through the breast. As he sank 
to the pavement he uttered a cry for help, and a crowd 
soon gathered, but his assailants for the time being escaped. 
Reynolds was carried to his home where he soon after expired 
in great agony. 


News of the murder spread rapidly through the town, 
and law-abiding citizens were aroused as they had not been 
aroused by any previous outrage, for Reynolds was widely 
known and popular. The opinion was universal that the 
time had arrived when effective measures should be taken to 
clear the town of the rough element, and restore peace and 
safety to the community. The fire bell was rung, and about 
two hundred citizens assembled at the engine house. A 
vigilance committee was organized, and its members imme- 
diately began a search for the murderers. 

Some of those who had been in the vicinity when the 
shooting occurred were able to give a partial description 
of them. It was observed that they had fled through an 
alley, and it was found that their tracks in it were still visible. 
Four hours later two men were found in hiding under some 
hay on Harrington & Smith's wharf, one of whom, a one- 
armed man, had a revolver with one empty and four loaded 
chambers. The other had about a hundred cartridges that 
fitted this weapon. 

The two were arrested and taken to the jail, where the 
members of the vigilance committee, just formed, soon after 
appeared and demanded them. The sheriff, L. V. Wyckoff, 
Van. Wyckoff, his son; John H. McGraw, then chief of 
police, and James H. Wollery were at the jail and refused 
to give them up. The crowd then broke down the door, 
when the sheriff drew his pistol and declared his determina- 
tion to defend the prisoners with his life. One resolute man, 
with the law in his favor is usually more than a match for 
a hundred who think they are willing to violate it, and it 
was so in this case. The crowd hesitated and finally came 
to a parley, in which it was concluded to await the preliminary 
examination of the prisoners on the following morning. But 


on retiring from the jail they took with them the shoes 
of the prisoners, which were found to fit exactly in the 
tracks left in the alley through which the murderers had 

The court room was crowded to the doors next morning 
when the prisoners, who gave their names as James Sullivan 
and William Howard, were brought up for examination. 
As they had no lawyer one was appointed by the court to 
defend them, and W. H. White and Orange Jacobs appeared 
for the territory. The death of Reynolds was proven, and 
it was shown that he had been killed by a bullet of the same 
size as the calibre of the revolver found on one of the prisoners. 
Several persons testified to having seen them near the place, 
and at about the time when the shooting had occurred. 
It was also shown that their shoes fitted the tracks made by 
some persons who had run through the alley, through which 
the murderers were known to have gone. This evidence 
was regarded as so conclusive of guilt that the prisoners 
were held for the grand jury, and remanded to the custody 
of the officers. 

But Justice Coombs had scarcely announced this order 
when the crowd made a rush for them, and before the officers 
who had them in charge could make any effective resistance, 
they had been taken away from them and were hurried into 
the street. The crowd knew exactly what it intended to 
do, and when and where it was to be done. The prisoners 
were hurried through an alley behind the court room to 
Occidental Square, where two scantlings had already been 
placed in the forks of two maple trees in front of Mr. Yesler's 
residence. Only one of them made any resistance, but he 
was easily overpowered, and it took but a moment to place 
ropes about their necks and hang them. 


Chief Justice Greene, who had hurried to the scene as 
soon as he learned what was taking place, attempted to 
address the crowd, and made as much effort as one man could 
make against several hundred to save the lives of the wretches, 
but it was ineffectual. They were hanged, and the crowd 
would not permit them to be touched or taken down until 
both were dead. While they were still writhing in the last 
throes of their death agony, someone remembered that there 
was another murderer in the jail, one Benjamin Payne, who 
was charged with having murdered David Sires, a police 
officer, and a cry was raised that he also ought to be hanged. 
The suggestion was instantly approved. The crowd hurried 
to the jail, tore down the fence surrounding it, battered in 
the doors, seized the prisoner and hurried him to execution. 
He protested his innocence, but no one listened, and within 
a few minutes his lifeless body was hanging with the other 

These hangings put an end to the reign of terror in Seattle. 
The rough element soon moved out, and from that time for- 
ward life and property were as safe there as in any other city 
on the coast. 

Watson C. Squire was appointed governor at the close of 
Newell's term. It was during his administration that the 
Anti-Chinese agitation occured, an account of which is given 
in a succeeding chapter. Previous to his time the reports 
made by the governors to the secretary of the interior, when 
they had been made at all, were merely formal reviews of 
the acts of the territorial administration for each year. But 
Governor Squire did much more than this. His first report 
was a document of 77 pages, in which the resources of the 
territory, and the progress made in their development were 
fully described. A vast amount of statistical and other 


interesting information, which had been collected with great 
pains, was embodied in this report, which was printed by 
the department and subsequently reprinted by the Northern 
Pacific Railroad Company, and by the legislature, and widely 
distributed. It was one of the most effective advertisements 
of the territory that had been prepared since the time of Jay 
Cooke and Governor Stevens, and proved to be of great 
benefit in promoting the settlement of the territory. His 
subsequent reports were equally valuable, as were those of 
Governor Semple who was his successor. 

When Governor Squire's term of office began the financial 
condition of the territory was excellent. It was entirely out 
of debt and had ^47,901.81 in its treasury on July i, 1884. 
The counties were no longer negligent about paying their 
territorial taxes. The assessed valuation had risen to 
^^50,508,484. In 1885 ^^^s fotal was slightly reduced, partly 
by the depressed business conditions which then prevailed, 
but largely by the fact that railroad property was not assessed, 
the legislature of 1883 having passed a law providing that 
railroad companies should pay taxes on their gross earnings. 
This law soon became unpopular and was repealed in 1887. 

Population was increasing rapidly. The national census 
of 1880 had shown only 66,979 People in the territory, but 
the territorial census taken in 1885 showed a total of 129,438. 
The counties of Asotin, Lincoln, Kittitas, Franklin, Adams 
and Douglass, east of the mountains, and Skagit County 
in the Sound country, had been organized in 1883, and all 
were prospering. This prosperous growth continued until 
the territory became a state in 1889. 

The annual reports of Governor Semple were prepared 
with quite as much care as those of Governor Squire, and 
show that the territory was quite as prosperous during his 


term as in that which preceded it. The coal mines and 
lumber mills were steadily increasing their output. Manu- 
factures in various lines, including ship building, was increas- 
ing. The fisheries along the Columbia and in the Sound, as 
well as deep sea fishing, was attracting more and more atten- 
tion each succeeding year. The labor supply was scarcely 
equal to the demand. Irrigation, particularly in the Yakima 
and Kittitas valleys, was beginning to give evidence of the 
wondrous change it was to produce in the middle portion 
of the territory, and companies with capital sufficient to 
build ditches that would water large areas were beginning 
to be formed. 

During the last months of the territorial period a large part 
of the business portion of Seattle was destroyed by fire, and 
the cities of Spokane, Vancouver and EUensburg suffered 
from similar conflagrations. The fire in Seattle began 
about half past 2 o'clock on the afternoon of June 6th, and 
before midnight about one hundred and twenty acres in the 
very heart of it had been burned over. Many people were 
made homeless temporarily, but the relief promptly furnished 
by neighboring cities saved all from actual suflFering. The 
fire, which for the time being seemed a calamity, soon proved 
to be a blessing in disguise to the city. Rebuilding was 
promptly begun; some faults in the city's plat were removed 
or corrected, and within a year few people felt occasion to 
regret that the fire had taken place. 

The last of the reports made by the territorial governors, 
was that of Miles C. Moore, at the close of his short term 
of only nine months in the executive office. It showed that 
the population of the territory was at that time 239,544; 
at the election for state officers just held, 58,543 votes had 
been cast. The assessed value of taxable property was 


^i 24,795,449, having more than doubled in the two preceding 
years. Of the 44,798,160 acres in the territory, 21,715,258 
had been surveyed. During the year, 487,410 acres had 
been taken up by homestead entries and 527,505 by preemp- 
tion. The total entries, including timber and coal lands, and 
timber culture claims, amounted to 1,425,968 acres, and 
the total disposed of during the year, including sales by 
the Northern Pacific Railroad Company, w^as 1,841,989 
acres. The farmers in the eastern counties were sending a 
large part of their products to St. Paul, Minneapolis and 
Chicago, while the flour mills at Walla Walla and Spokane 
were finding an abundant market in the mining regions of 
Montana and Northern Idaho. Trade in all lines was active. 
The total tonnage entered at the Port Townsend Custom 
house for the year was 955,036 tons; the clearances were 
962,751 tons. The value of exports for the year was 
$2,937,477. During the year the Oregon Railway and Navi- 
gation Company had taken out of the wheat-growing counties 
104,464 tons of wheat, 13,670 tons of flour, 9,458 tons of 
barley and 1,226 tons of wool. The hop crop had amounted 
to 8,202,287 pounds. The total output of the coal mines 
was 917,603 tons, a falling off from the previous year, when 
it had amounted to 1,133,800 tons. The total lumber cut 
for export amounted to 755,00,000 feet. The salmon pack 
for the year was 205,000 cases. A new hospital for the insane 
had been established at Medical Lake, and the new peniten- 
tiary at Walla Walla, which had been completed in 1887 had 
been considerably improved. The territory turned over 
to the state an efl&cient national guard composed of two regi- 
ments of infantry, of six companies each, and one troop of 
cavalry, a total of 845 officers and men. 

Chapter LVI. 

WHEN Jay Cooke & Co. could no longer sell 
bonds, and procure money to extend the rails 
of the Northern Pacific across the continent, 
the promoters of the enterprise began to realize 
more fully than they had ever done before, the vastness of 
the undertaking in which they had engaged. Most of them 
were railroad managers and railroad builders, and they knew 
well that railroads require a local patronage to sustain them, 
while they had undertaken to build nearly 2,000 miles of track 
through an almost uninhabited country. There were sparse 
settlements at either end of the line; between them there 
were long stretches of arid plains, and two mountain ranges. 
There was an abundance of fertile land also, which they had 
confidently expected to get settled as their road building pro- 
ceeded, but in this they had only begun to be successful. 
So persistently had people believed that Minnesota and the 
Dakotas were ice bound regions during eight or nine months 
in the year, that settlers had not been induced to go there as 
rapidly as had been hoped. Had not President Cass and 
Director Cheney purchased large tracts of the company's 
lands in Dakota, and by the help of Farmer Dalrymple, 
began to demonstrate, on a grand scale, that the boundless 
prairies of that region would readily grow the best bread- 
making wheat in the world, the road already built between 
the Mississippi and the Missouri might still have been with- 
out patronage. They had thus far counted, too hopefully 
perhaps, on the transcontinental business — the trade with the 
Orient that Stevens had foreseen would come in time — but 
none of this would be available until the whole line was com- 
pleted, and even then it would require to be developed and 
built up, which was to be a slow process. Less experienced 
men than they were in railroad building and management. 


would have been wholly incompetent, in the position they 
were in; less courageous men would have abandoned.. the 
undertaking in despair. 

But these had ventured too much to lose all; they knew 
too well the worth of what was to be won to abandon hop^ 
or effort. Plans were made by which a part should be sacri- 
ficed in order that a part might be saved, and the road already 
built maintained until better days should arrive, when work 
could be continued. Accordingly the bond holders gave 
up their places as bondholders to become stockholders, in 
order that the property might be again pledged for a new 

But no money could be raised even in this way, for a con- 
siderable time. During 1873 and 1874 the road scarcely 
earned operating expenses. Then a small surplus was earned 
for the three or four succeeding years, which was expended 
in building a few short branches, and in securing a connection 
with St. Paul. Meantime appeals were made to Congress 
for help in various ways, all of which were refused, and at 
times it even seemed possible that the forfeiture of certain 
portions of the land grant, on which the company depended 
to complete its line, would be declared. 

But in 1878 conditions began to improve. The govern- 
ment was about to resume payment in gold and public con- 
fidence was returning. In 1879 Mr. Billings, who had by 
that time become president, was able to negotiate loans for 
resuming work both on the eastern and western divisions. 
Track laying extended slowly westward from the Missouri 
River for the first few months, and it was not until 1880 
that work was begun in Washington. 

During the early panic years the German holders of bonds 
and stocks in the Oregon and California Railroad, and the 


various steamship enterprises of which Ben. Holliday had 
been the promoter, had sent Henry Villard to the coast to 
take care of their interests, and he had managed so success- 
fully, in these and other matters which they had entrusted 
CO him, as to secure their almost unlimited confidence. 
They had furnished him money with which to build a rail- 
road along the south bank of the Columbia, from Portland 
to the broad wheat fields and rich stock-growing country 
in eastern Washington and Oregon. Its tracks had already 
reached and passed Wallula; it had changed Dr. Baker's 
road to a standard gauge, and was extending its branches 
to Waitsburg, Riparia, Dayton and Pendleton. Villard had 
also secured control of the Oregon Steam Navigation Com- 
pany, which the Northern Pacific had lost soon after its 
financial difficulties began. 

As it was neither advisable to antagonize Villard and his 
railroad and river lines, by building a competing line along 
the north bank of the river for the purpose of securing only 
a share of the existing business, an agreement was made with 
him to haul construction material from Portland to Wallula 
upon favorable terms, and for an option to use his line from 
Wallula westward, when the Northern's tracks should be 
completed to that point. By this means building could be 
begun from Wallula eastward, the construction of a difficult 
section of track would be avoided for the time being, and 
direct connection would be easily and more quickly gained 
with the lower river and deep water when the line should be 
nearing completion. 

The graders began work at Wallula in October 1879, but 
made very slow progress during the remainder of that year. 
In 1 88 1, the grade was completed to and beyond the state 
line. The work was prosecuted under many difficulties 


and embarrassments. The line ran, during the greater part 
of the way, through an uninhabited and untimbered country, 
and the graders were sometimes nearly loo miles in advance 
of the track layers. Ties, and timber for bridges and trestles, 
were obtained with the utmost difficulty. While a sufficient 
supply had been cut in the timbered regions along the upper 
Columbia and its branches, a long time in advance, as it was 
supposed at the time when it was to be used, the streams 
were so low at first that it could not be got out. Then an 
unusual flood came and much of it was washed away, and a 
new supply had to be provided. 

The resumption of work on the Northern line, and the 
building of the new line along the Columbia from Portland 
to Wallula gave an immense impetus, for that day, to the 
settlement of all the eastern counties. The rate on grain 
from Walla Walla and neighboring points to Portland was 
reduced to ^8 per ton, and on stock and all other farm prod- 
ucts proportionately. The farmers everywhere took new 
courage. The Oregon Improvement Company, with a 
capital of ^5,000,000, which was one of the Villard enterprises, 
organized for the purpose of developing the mines and other 
resources of the country, bought 150,000 acres of farm 
lands from the Northern Pacific land grant, and by liberal 
advertising, offering farms to settlers on easy terms, did 
much to hasten settlement. The towns everywhere grew as 
rapidly as the farming regions were settled. Columbia 
County had been set off from Walla Walla in 1875, and in 
1878 contained a population of 5,771 people, which in 1880 
had increased to 7,103. Garfield County was set off from 
Columbia in November 1881, with Pomeroy as its county 
seat. Six years earlier, there were probably less than 200 
settlers within its limits. Yet at its first election, held in 


1882, 1,014 votes were cast. A year later, in October 1883, 
Asotin County was organized. 

The Walla Walla country had developed rapidly, even 
before the completion of the railroad line which gave its 
products a direct outlet to Portland. By the census of 1870, 
when the country included all of what afterwards became 
Columbia, Garfield and Asotin Counties, the wheat grown 
had amounted to only 190,256 bushels. By the census of 
1880 this product had increased to 779,907 bushels, not 
including what was grown in the part of it out of which three 
new counties were made. Other crops had increased in 
proportion, although during all this time the surplus had 
been sent to market from some parts of the county at great 
cost. In the northern part, along Snake River, it had been 
necessary to build chutes more than half a mile in length, 
through which wheat, oats and barley were poured down 
from the high bluff along the river to the steamboat landings. 
The first experiment with these chutes was very discouraging. 
The first one constructed was a wood box four inches square, 
and 3,200 feet long. The grain poured into it made a de- 
scent of 1,700 feet in its passage, and with such velocity as to 
convert much of it into unbolted flour, by the time it reached 
the bottom, as well as rapidly to wear away the chute itself. 
But by repeated experiments a way was found, not only to 
check the golden grain in its descent, at intervals 100 feet 
apart, but to materially lessen the wear of the chute, and also 
to make the grain clean itself in transit. By the coming of 
the railroads, this novel method of transporting grain was 
largely done away with. 

Not only did the area sown to wheat increase rapidly from 
year to year during this period, but that planted to kindred 
crops increased in proportion. The farmers also found their 


land admirably suited to fruit growing and the raising of 
vegetables, and with the completion of the railroad giving 
the farmers access to market, the growing of these products, 
particularly of small fruits and vegetables, increased phenom- 
enally. The towns grew in proportion as the country devel- 
oped. Manufacturing, particularly of flour and lumber 
and lumber products, also increased and the manufacture 
of farm machinery was begun and throve in proportion as 
population increased. 

Railroad building in an uninhabited country brings with 

it a people who build railroads; few of them do anything 

else to benefit the country. A few others follow to despoil 

them of their earnings, and waste them in riotous living. 

They too, do nothing of value to the country, except finally 

to leave it. People of both kinds came into the country 

east of the Columbia River, when work was resumed on the 

main line of the Northern Pacific, at Wallula. Towns 

sprang up at various points along the line that did not long 

remain after the track laying had been finished. One of 

these was at the crossing of the Snake River. Here a 

bridge, costing ^750,000 was to be built, and it was certain 

that a considerable number of men would be employed there 

for several months. The graders and track layers, the quarry 

men and wood choppers working on both sides of the river 

would resort thither to spend their earnings if suitable 

attractions were provided. Within a short time sixteen 

saloons, most of which had dance halls and gambling rooms 

attached, were established there. There were no stores; 

the company's store supplied all the articles of rough wearing 

apparel that were required. A few restaurants provided 

food for those who had money to buy; hotels were not needed 

as every traveler carried his blanket with him and found 


convenient lodgings, with nothing to pay therefor, under the 
spreading sage brush. The money thus saved by these 
thrifty lodgers, together with all the rest they brought with 
them was soon spent in riotous living. The town contained 
all the vicious elements that are found in the vilest parts of 
great cities, and they were wholly unrestrained by police 
regulations. The only law known or recognized was the 
law of the strongest. But the reckless bravado of the mining 
camp, where differences of opinion are often settled by 
resort to the ever ready revolver, was rarely seen there. One 
day a man was stabbed to death in a street quarrel. His 
slayer claimed he had not meant to kill him, but a committee 
of the bystanders thought differently and promptly hung 
him to a telegraph pole. After that most quarrels were 
adjusted in quieter ways, after dark, and with the aid of the 
sandbag or bludgeon, and the swift-flowing waters of the 
river carried with them to the sea all evidence that a tragedy 
had taken place, except that which the wielder of the bludgeon 
carried with him until he, too perhaps found his way down the 

The town was incorporated, and had its mayor and other 
officials in its day. It continued its career until the bridge 
was finished, and then it became evident that there was no 
further occasion for its existence. Its inhabitants, or most 
of them, followed the bridge builders to the next favorable 
stopping place. Some took with them the buildings in 
which they had lived, as lumber was valuable. Those 
who did not do so abandoned them, and they were soon 
appropriated for firewood. The town was disincorpo- 
rated, but left no debt, and today some fifteen or twenty 
acres of empty and broken bottles alone mark its former 


There were other towns where things were active enough 
for a time, simply because the contractors made their head- 
quarters there, and when they moved, disappeared because 
they were in the midst of a desolate waste that at the time 
seemed to be utterly valueless. Still others began a per- 
manent existence, growing slowly at first, and then more 
rapidly until they became centers of thriving industry. 
Among these were Cheney and Sprague, Ritzville, and later 
Connell, Lind and Eltopia. As settlement progressed the 
arid region gradually narrowed. Broad acres where once 
the rainfall was sufficient only to produce cactus and the 
bunch grass, began to have moisture enough to raise cereals 
in abundance, and in time, as water was brought into even 
the dryest wastes by artificial means, they were proved to 
be the most productive in the world. 

One of the first towns to get a promising start on the new 
line was Cheney, named for Director Benjamin F. Cheney 
of the railroad company. It was laid out in 1880 and became 
the county seat of Spokane County by a close vote, the thriv- 
ing settlement at Medical Lake, in the western part of the 
county, having turned the balance in its favor. 

Spokane had been its competitor in the race, but was at 
a disadvantage because the railroad was approaching from 
the west and would reach Cheney first. It had grown 
steadily but slowly since 1875. Its people had been badly 
frightened in 1877, as all others in eastern Washington had 
been, by the Nez Perce uprising in that year, and as one 
result of this two companies of United States troops had been 
stationed there, which not only gave the inhabitants a sense 
of security that they had not previously enjoyed, but added 
materially to the prospects and importance of the town. 
The discovery and exploration of promising mining districts 


One of the first members of the Chicago Board of 
Trade; crossed the plains to Pike's Peak in 1859; went 
to San Francisco in 1870 and came to Washington in 
1878, settling at Spokane Falls. 


ve enough 

ir head- 


Uki ft (tie time 

' er- 


' ^other . towns where thin 

tliey were in the midst of ia aesolate ^vasic 
seemed to be utterly valueless. Still othe 
manent existence, growing slowly at first, ai) ore 

rapidly until they became centers of thriving jmutstry. 
Among these were Cheney and Sprague, Ritzville, and later 
Connell, Lind and Eltopia. As settlement progressed the 
arid region gradually narrowed. Broad acres where once 
the rainfall was sufficient only to produce cactus and the 
bunch e moisture enough to raise cereals 

in abui '% as water was brought into even 

the dry means, they were proved to 

be the mo \. 

One of the <? start on the new 

line was Cheney, named m F. Chene\ 

of the railroad company. It was laid out 
the county seat < ^ne Connty by a close vote, the thriv- 

, in the western part of the 
^♦=> in its favor. 

r in the race, but was at 

road was approaching from 

I'eney first. It had grown 

^ts people had been badly 

, in eastern Washington had 

;ig in that year, and as one 

. .--nited States troops had been 

\\y gave the inhabitants a sense 

r previously enjoyed, but added 

and importance of the town. 

:.>n of promising mining districts 


ing settlement at 
county, having turned 
Spokane had been 
a disadvantage bee; 
the west and would 
steadily but slowly sir 
frightened in 1877, as 
been, by the Nez Per 
result of this two comp 
stationed there, which 
of security that they 1 
materially to the pro 
The discovery and exp 


toward the east and north, had brought to it and through it 
an encouraging number of prospectors. With them had 
come a few men of affairs who were to be substantial factors 
in building up the city. In 1878 Captain J. M. Nosier, 
W. C. Gray, Dr. L. P. Waterhouse, A. E. Ellis, A. M. Can- 
non and J. J. Browne arrived, and Cannon and Browne 
bought an interest in the townsite from Glover and his part- 
ners, and began to push its development. Cannon, Warner 
& Co. opened a general store, as successors of Glover, and 
Gray opened a hotel. 

In 1879, Browne went to Olympia to persuade the legis- 
lature to organize Spokane County once more. A bill was 
introduced for the purpose by D. E. Percival of Cheney, 
which soon became law, although some opposition was 
made to the final e in the name. In the same year 
the Spokane Times was started, with a special mission, 
as it appeared for a time, to get rid of the obnoxious 
e in the town name, and the first bank in the town began 

As the railroad long looked for and hoped for, advanced 
eastward in 1880, and the confidence which had long pre- 
vailed that it would pass through the town gradually grew 
to certainty, prosperity increased. The Times was issued 
as a daily, and the Chronicle was started. By 1881 the town 
claimed to have one thousand inhabitants, and was incor- 
porated as a city, Robert W. Forrest being its first mayor, 
with S. G. Havermale, A. M. Cannon, L. H. Whitehouse, 
L. W. Rima, F. R. Moore, George A. Davis and W. C. 
Gray as members of its council. The railroad reached the 
city June 4th of that year, and the arrival of the first train 
was duly celebrated by the firing of giant powder, and a 
grand excursion to Cheney. 


From that hour the prosperous growth of the city began, 
which has almost uninterruptedly distinguished it. In 1884 
its third newspaper, the Review, was founded, a Holly water 
system was established, and a United States land office 
was opened. In 1886 the Big Bend country began to attract 
settlers as the result of advertising done by the railroad. 
The Spokane and Palouse branch of the Northern Pacific 
was built, and D. C. Corbin constructed a short line called 
the Spokane and Idaho. In the same year the first street 
railway tracks were laid, the first four story brick building 
was built, and a county fair was established. The city now 
had 4,000 inhabitants. The years 1887 and 1888 were years 
of great prosperity for Spokane. During the former, the 
county seat was removed to it from Cheney after a sharp 

In 1889 the fairest and most substantial part of the city 
was destroyed by fire, an event that would have proved 
disastrous to many towns of its size, but its recovery from 
the effects of it was rapid. The tracks of the Oregon Rail- 
way and Navigation Company's railroad reached the city 
from the south in 1890, and the Spokane and Northern, 
which was to extend northward into British Columbia, was 
begun in the same year. The Eastern division of the Seattle 
Lakeshore and Eastern had been constructed westward from 
the city into the Big Bend wheat fields, so that Spokane was 
now beginning to be connected by rail, not only with the 
rich mining regions lying toward the east and north, but with 
the equally rich or richer farming and fruit growling regions 
on the West and South. 

The settlement of these fertile regions had progressed 
favorably from the time that railroad building had begun. 
Many thousands of acres that had been used only as cattle 


ranges in 1880, and some portion of which had even been 
still in the possession of the aboriginal inhabitants, were 
now changed to productive farms. Farming was carried 
on only in a primitive way for the most part, but it was never- 
theless profitable, and the cultivated area was increasing 
rapidly year by year. Wheat was the principal, if not the 
only crop. The rich volcanic soil and dry atmosphere during 
the growing season, produced a plant with a stiff, hard straw 
that safely bore its burden of golden grain for many weeks 
after it had ripened, thus prolonging the period of harvest 
from July to November, during which the uncut grain suf- 
fered but little. The yield was always above the average 
for every other portion of the country. The weather during 
the long harvest season was almost always favorable, and the 
farmers rarely brought their grain from the fields until the 
threshing season. Much of it was cut by headers, and piled 
in heaps with no protection against rain until the threshers 
arrived. When threshed it was sacked and hauled to the 
nearest station, where it was left wholly unprotected from the 
weather, except by the sacks which contained it, until the 
railroad could haul it to market. 

Wheat growing, under these secure and convenient condi- 
tions, was so profitable that diversified farming was not 
encouraged. The farmers gave but little attention to their 
orchards and gardens. Many of them even bought their 
butter, eggs, poultry and bacon from their grocers, as well 
as many other articles that they could easily have produced 

But one rainy harvest season in the early nineties changed 
all this. The farmers lost one crop, but they gained an 
experience that was worth far more than its value. There- 
after, while still continuing to grow wheat in ever increasing 


quantity, they gave more attention to their orchards and 
gardens, their flocks and their herds, and all the other forms 
of industry that tend to make farming profitable. The result 
is that the Walla Walla Valley is rapidly becoming a vast 
garden, w^hile Spokane has established an annual fruit exhibit 
that is already a thing of international interest. Both tow^ns 
have become notable as milling centers, while the whole 
surrounding country, comprising all of the eastern counties 
of the state, are thickly studded with thriving towns, that 
mark it to the eye of the traveler, as one of the richest argicul- 
tural regions of the world. 

While track laying on the Northern Pacific was thus pro- 
gressing eastward toward Pen d'Oreille, and westward from 
the Missouri, those then in authority in the company's affairs 
were laying plans to build the Cascade Division as originally 
intended, westward from the Columbia across the mountains 
to the Sound the main terminus. This, President Villard 
of the Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company, desired 
to prevent if possible, as it was to the interest of this company 
to have its tracks used as the western extension of the trans- 
continental line. 

As the surest means of accomplishing what he desired, he 
laid plans to get control of the Northern Pacific itself. In 
order to do this, he organized a syndicate of capitalists, which 
was at the time and has been since known as the " blind pool." 
There were then ^31,000,000 of stock in the company out- 
standing and ;^i 8,000,000 in the treasury of the company. 
In order to gain control, about ^20,000,000 in ready cash 
were required. This he procured from a comparatively 
small number of people, who knew that they were joining 
in the organization of a new company to be called the Oregon 
and Transcontinental, and that its object was to acquire 


control of the Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company, and 
do something more, the nature of which was not then imparted 
to them. But so confident were they at the time, of the 
ability of Villard, to carry through any undertaking in which 
he engaged, that they were willing to contribute several times 
the amount asked if he would receive it, and some of them 
complained rather of the small amount they were permitted 
to subscribe, than if the sum had been much greater. 

With the money thus provided, Villard purchased a 
majority of the stock, and was elected president of the 
Northern Pacific Railroad in 1881. The Oregon and Trans- 
continental Company was then organized, as an Oregon 
corporation, with a capital stock of ^^50, 000,000, and there- 
after its function was to furnish capital to the Northern 
Pacific, the Oregon Improvement Company and other col- 
lateral corporations organized by Villard, as they should 
require it. 

During 1882 and 1883 the main tracks of the Northern 
Pacific were pushed rapidly, both from the east and west, 
toward the point where they were to unite, and about five 
hundred miles of branch lines in Minnesota, Dakota, Mon- 
tana and Washington, as well as a steel bridge 1,426 feet long, 
with an approach of two miles on the west, and more than 
one mile on its eastern side, across the Missouri River, were 
built. The tunnels through the mountains at Bozeman and 
Mullan were begun, but as they could not be completed by 
the time the rails reached them, the track was carried over 
the mountain at both places by a system of switchbacks. 

While the road building was thus going forward, more 
rapidly than it had ever been prosecuted on any other line, 
and at a cost of from two to three million dollars a month on 
either extension, Mr. Villard made two trips to the coast' 


both of which were of special interest to the residents of 
Portland and the Sound towns. His power in the financial 
world now seemed to be greater than that of any other figure 
that had ever appeared in it. No other magnate had ever 
produced money in such abundance, or built railroads so 
rapidly. It was a matter of immense importance therefore, 
to the residents everywhere along the lines which he control- 
led, and particularly in the cities in Washington and Oregon, 
to discover what his intentions were and persuade him, as 
far as possible, to center as much of the business which he 
controlled in their several towns, as they could. 

During the second of these visits, which was made in April 
1883, public meetings were held, both in Tacoma and Seattle, 
which were largely attended by their citizens, and at which 
committees presented him with addresses, in which they 
expressed their hopes, and invited his attention to the advan- 
tages which their towns possessed, both for developing busi- 
ness for the road when completed, and for easily and cheaply 
attending to the transfer of freight between land and water 
carriers. In both places, the citizens were particularly 
anxious to know when the Cascade branch would be begun 
and finished, and by which of the several passes it would 
cross the mountains, for with this information they would be 
able to judge with more certainty which of the two towns 
would be most conveniently reached, and which would com- 
mand the larger share of the advantages which the road would 
bring when completed. In both places questions of im- 
portance were publicly asked, and as fully answered as cir- 
cumstances would permit. Tacoma people wanted to know 
whether Mr. Villard really intended to remove the terminus 
to Seattle as had been hinted, and they also wished him to 
build a depot, a hotel and a grain elevator. Seattle people 


wanted to know whether, if they should contribute $150,000 
for the purpose of building a standard gauge railroad up the 
Cedar River Valley, to connect the Green River coal deposits 
with Seattle, and also to connect with the Cascade Division 
when complete, if Mr. Villard would agree to build the road 
at once. All these inquiries were so favorably answered as 
to give general satisfaction to both towns. 

By this time Mr. Villard, through his Oregon Improve- 
ment Company, had acquired the Seattle and Walla Walla 
Railroad and all its allied interests, paying $350,000 for the 
road and the Company's land holdings, and $750,000 for the 
coal mines reached by it, and for the ships and vessels of 
various sorts which were at the time engaged in carrying the 
product of the mines to San Francisco and other Cailfornia 
ports. The purchase of these interests had given the people 
of Seattle great cause to hope, and those of Tacoma a corre- 
sponding cause to fear, that his own and his companies' 
interests in the neighborhood of Seattle, would in the near 
future lead him to transfer at least a part of the terminal 
business of the railroad, if not the whole of it, from Tacoma 
to Seattle. There was in fact, much ground for expectation 
that this would be done. The Oregon and Transcontinental 
Company, through the Oregon Improvement Company, 
was not only extending the lines of the narrow gauge coal 
road, now known as the Columbia and Puget Sound, to the 
several coal mines nearest its present terminus, but it was 
beginning, or soon would begin to build the Puget Sound 
Shore line south from Black River Junction to Stuck, to 
connect there with a spur seven miles in length which the 
Northern was building, and this would give Seattle direct 
connection with the main line. This seemed to promise to 
put it on an equal footing with Tacoma, so far as facilities 


were concerned, and made the situation, as between the two 
towns extremely interesting. 

The eastern and western divisions of the main line were 
brought together at a point on the north bank of Deer 
Lodge River in Montana, on the 8th of September 1883. 
Mr. Villard had invited a distinguished company to witness 
the driving of the last spike, and the final ceremony of com- 
pleting the line. Among his guests were many members of 
the cabinet and of the House and Senate, the whole diplo- 
matic corps, many well known financiers from both sides of 
the Atlantic, and several members of the nobility from 
various countries in Europe, particularly Germany and 
England, together with the governors of all the states through 
which the railroad lay. These were brought to the point of 
union in five special trains, two from the Atlantic Coast, one 
from Chicago, one from Minneapolis and St. Paul, and one 
from the western terminus. Fully two thousand people 
were present. Mr. William M. Evarts of New York was 
the orator of the occasion, and speeches were also made by 
Ex-president Grant, Henry M. Teller, Secretary of the In- 
terior in President Arthur's cabinet, Carl Schurz, one of his 
predecessors in that office, Ex-president Billings of the rail- 
road company — who had twice saved it from financial disaster 
— and several others, and then at half past five o'clock in the 
afternoon, Mr. Villard himself drove the last spike — ^which 
was represented to be also the first spike driven when the 
building of the road had been begun nearly fourteen years 
earlier — and the rails were thus united to make one continu- 
ous line from Lake Superior to Puget Sound, for before the 
ceremony was completed, Mr. Villard had received a dispatch 
from the contractor, saying that the section of track between 
Portland and Kalama had been completed that very day. 


Mr. Villard and his guests now continued their journey 
westward, and were received everywhere with a most gener- 
ous welcome. Buildings were decorated in all the cities; 
the streets were spanned by arches; cannon were fired, and 
the arrival of the excursion trains was greeted by large 
delegations of citizens. Only a hurried visit was made to 
the Sound cities, to which most of the guests were brought 
by steamer from Portland, as the great transfer boat Tacoma, 
by which trains were to be ferried across the Columbia at 
Kalama, was not yet completed. 

Both cities were found to be in a thoroughly prosperous 
condition. The certainty that the railroad would soon be 
completed had not only given their people new courage, but 
it had brought large additions to their numbers. Every- 
where about them the visitors saw evidences of a thrifty and 
permanent growth. Building was active, and many of the 
new buildings were of a substantial and creditable character. 
Streets were being graded, wharves built, and fleets of small 
steamers were beginning to connect both towns with the 
villages and settlements on both shores of the Sound. 

Both towns had received considerable impulses during 
the preceeding year from the proceeds of an unusually large 
hop crop, which had been sold at a price unexpectedly large. 
Hop growing had by this time become a very considerable 
and profitable industry in many of the valleys of western 
Washington, particularly in those of Pierce and King 
Counties. In the spring of 1866, Charles Wood, owner of a 
small brewery in Olympia, had given Jacob R. Meeker about 
half a bushel of hop roots, which he had carried on foot to 
the Puyallup Valley where he had planted them. They 
throve encouragingly, and the first harvest, gathered in the 
fall of that year, yielded 185 pounds, for which Mr. Wood 


paid 85 cents a pound. This encouraging return led to a 
rapid extension of the industry, and by 1883 no less than 2,355 
acres had been planted in the two counties. The average 
yield from these was over 1,600 pounds per acre, and some 
growers claimed to have raised more than 3,000 pounds per 
acre. The crop of 1882 had been sold for ^i.oo per pound, 
and some growers had received even a higher figure. Most 
hop-growers had more money that year than they had ever 
had before in all their lives, and they had invested it liberally 
in Tacoma and Seattle. As a result, prices of real estate 
in both cities had advanced sharply, and money was every- 
where abundant. 

But the situation was entirely different in the east. There 
business conditions were again unsatisfactory, and the stock 
market was very unsettled. While Mr. Villard and his 
guests were still on the coast his enterprises were attacked, 
and the price of stocks in all the companies in which he was 
interested, were so far depressed as to thoroughly imperil 
the confidence which he had formerly enjoyed. It had been 
discovered that some parts of the road he had just built, 
particularly the section between Pen d'Oreille and Missoula, 
had cost far more than had been expected, and that new 
bonds must be issued to cover this increased expenditure. 
It was already doubtful whether these could be sold. Mr. 
Villard's resignation therefore, became inevitable, and he 
retired from the presidency on January 4, 1884. 

During the whole time in which he had been in control, 
there had been two parties in the Northern Pacific directory. 
One of these had supported him in all his undertakings, and 
the other had opposed. One was interested in the Oregon 
Improvement Company which now owned the King County 
coal mines, or many of them, and was therefore favorable 


to Seattle; the other was interested in the Tacoma Land 
Company, and was favorable to Tacoma. Seattle people 
had realized when they sold their railroad and coal mines to 
Mr. Villard, that they were staking all on his success, as 
well as on his fidelity. They now felt that their situation was 
extremely perilous, as it indeed was. The people of Tacoma 
were correspondingly encouraged by the return of their friends 
to power, and now felt confident that the Cascade Division 
would not only soon be built, but that it would cross the 
mountains in such a way as to be of the greatest advantage 
to their city. In this expectation they were not disappointed. 

The building of this Division was begun in 1884, but as 
the money necessary for it was raised only with difficulty, 
owing to the prevailing financial conditions, it advanced but 
slowly. It early became known that it would cross the 
mountains by the Stampede Pass, and not by the Snoqual- 
mie, the Nachess or the Cowlitz, each of which had been 
favored for a time by the engineers, and then abandoned. 
This crossing was more favorable to Tacoma than to Seattle, 
and yet much depended on which of the river courses the 
road should follow after it crossed the divide. If one of the 
northern streams was chosen, it would lead as directly to 
Seattle as Tacoma. If a more southerly route were taken, 
and particularly if connection should be made with the road 
already built to the coal mines at Wilkeson, Tacoma would 
alone be benefitted, for Seattle would get only a branch line 
if any. 

So probable did it seem at first, and so certain did it soon 
appear that this was to be done, that the people of Seattle 
took up arms again, and renewed the battle where they 
had left it off soon after Villard had come into power, only 
in a far more vigorous and determined manner. Formerly 


they had contended only to have so much of the lands with- 
drawn from sale or entry, for the company's benefit, restored 
to settlement as would not be acquired by building the 
Cascade branch. Now they demanded that so much of 
the grant as would have been acquired by building that 
branch, should be declared to have become forfeited, because 
the branch had not been built within the time specified. 
And they did not stop with mere declarations. They sent 
Judge William H. White to Washington to assist Delegate 
Brents in urging forfeiture, and the grant was attacked both 
in the Interior department and in Congress. Judge Thomas 
H. Brents of Walla Walla had represented the territory in 
Washington for nearly three terms — having succeeded Judge 
Jacobs in 1878 — during which time he had done what could 
be done by a delegate, to hasten the building of the Cascade 
branch. His home people had been particularly interested 
in it, and had pressed it upon Mr. Villard's attention when 
he had visited them on different occasions after he came into 
power, but while he had assured them of his favorable inten- 
tions with regard to it, he had found too many other matters 
pressing for attention, and for money, to permit him to under- 
take it. But it soon became apparent that something must 
be done. Congress was not less unfriendly than the people. 
Judge Brents had prepared a bill confirming to the com- 
pany all the lands covered by its original grant, except those 
to be earned by building the proposed line along the north 
bank of the Columbia, provided the construction of the Cas- 
cade Division should be begun at once, and at least one 
hundred miles of track laid each year until completed, but 
the bill was rejected by the committee, and never reached 
the house at all. While there was no question perhaps, 
that the lands along the lines already built were secured to 


the company, the house was manifestly unwilling to extend 
the powers by w^hich it might increase its holdings. 

Forfeiture early became the one topic of absorbing interest 
among the people of the territory. It was the slogan of both 
parties in the contest for delegate in the campaign of 1884. 
The newspapers, both in Washington and Oregon, discussed 
it daily, and with increasing vigor and vehemence as time 
progressed. It was the principal, if not the only subject of 
interest at political meetings, and although both parties and 
all the candidates favored it, and were equally earnest in 
discussing it, Mr. Voorhees, the democratic candidate for 
delegate was elected over Armstrong the republican, by a 
majority of 148 votes in a total of 41,824. The vote was 
more than double that cast at the election two years earlier, 
when Judge Brents had defeated Judge Burke by a majority 
of 3,008 in a total of 19,496 votes.* 

Admonished by the opposition thus manifested by the 
people and in Congress, the railroad company put forth its 
most vigorous efforts to extend its tracks to the Sound. But 
the depression in business circles continued, and money 
was still raised with difficulty. During 1884 grading was 
pushed from Pasco westward, but did not reach Yakima 
that year. In the year following work was begun on the 
western end, and was for a time pushed from both directions 
toward the pass, but so difficult did the directors find it to 
provide means, that at one time, the contractor. Nelson 
Bennett, was ordered to suspend work, and was left to raise 
money on his own credit to pay his men. By the end of the 
year Governor Squire reported that there was still a gap of 
eighty miles between the ends of the track, and by the 

* Women voted for the first time in the territory this year, under the 
act of 1883. 


close of 1886 the eastern extension had only reached 

While the people in the Yakima and Kittitas Valleys were 
glad to have the road built, they gave it no very hearty wel- 
come. Some of them had settled there v^hen they w^ould 
have gone elsewhere had they not seen, or thought they saw, 
that the road would be built much earlier. There had been 
a notable increase in their number in 1884, when work on the 
division had begun at the Columbia, but it had progressed 
so slowly that they were getting discouraged and impatient. 
Many of them had constructed small irrigating ditches, 
which were already showing the wonderful results that were 
to follow the application of water to that fruitful soil. It 
seemed to them that the railroad was now coming to claim 
the lion's share of the wealth they had discovered or were 
creating, and was not disposed to help them very much with 
their work. 

The Sound country and its cities were prosperous, al- 
though the prevailing depression in financial circles had in 
some degree lessened speculation and retarded building. 
The farmers in the valleys were rejoicing in bountiful crops, 
particularly of hops, although prices had not been as high as 
in 1882. Tacoma and Seattle had both grown prosperously. 
In the former a large hotel had been built, and the people 
were boasting that they had already shipped a cargo of 
wheat, the first from the Sound direct to Europe. Sub- 
stantial buildings were going up along its principal 
streets, and its population was increasing steadily. Seattle 
had built its first street car line, and its people started 
another new railroad, the Seattle, Lake Shore and 
Eastern, in 1885, in which they had already interested 
enough eastern capital, with which, added to their 



own, they were making promising progress in railroad 

But Seattle was still without a railroad connection. The 
Puget Sound Shore line, although finished, was not operated. 
The rails extended in a continuous line from Seattle to their 
union with the short line built by the Northern Pacific to 
Stuck Junction, but the road had only been operated for 
one month after it was completed, and then trains had ceased 
to be run for some mysterious reason. People called it "the 
Orphan Road." The Northern Pacific officials gave various 
reasons for not using it, the principal one being that their 
charter gave no authority to operate a road they did not 
own. Farmers along the line began to be exasperated, 
because it furnished them no accommodation, and threatened 
to build their fences across the right of way, and even to 
tear up the tracks. To appease them a train was put on, 
but at the end of thirty days it was discontinued, and the 
tracks were again left to rust in idleness. But in 1885 the 
Canadian Pacific was nearing completion, and it was evident 
that the Northern must begin to look out for Seattle and the 
country north of it, or in the near future contend for business 
in that region with a strong competitor, and perhaps lose it. 
It was apparent too, that it must soon begin to operate the 
road in good faith or else lose it. People living along the 
line and beyond it were not disposed to be trifled with much 
longer. A public meeting was called at Kent, at which it 
was announced, some definite plan of action would be 
agreed upon. So serious did the situation seem that James 
McNaught, then general counsel of the Company, and 
some other of its prominent local officials were present. 
Several residents of Seattle who had taken an active part in 
the fight to get railroad connection for that city also attended. 


McNaught made a conciliatory address, explaining in some 
detail, the difficulties the company had been contending with, 
but giving no definite assurance that anything better would 
be done than had been done. The other railroad officials 
said something, but nothing more definite or satisfactory, 
and then Judge Hanford took the floor and pointed out 
that the builders of the road whoever they were, had acquired 
the right of way for a certain purpose which they were not 
fulfiling. They had condemned part of it under the law 
which gave them a right to take property for a quasi public 
use. They had built a road on this right of way and now 
refused to use it. If they persisted in this refusal the law 
authorizing condemation still remained on the statute book, 
and in his opinion, the original owners could again condemn 
it, and the rails and ties with it, for tteir own use, or the use 
of some other company, corporation or individual who 
would operate it according to the original intention. 

This suggestion was received with so much favor by 
most of those present as to greatly alarm the railroad party 
apparently, and before the meeting adjourned a messenger 
appeared with a telegram, promising that the road would be 
put in operation as soon as arrangements could possibly be 
made for that purpose. This promise was kept, the opera- 
tions of the road was soon resumed and never again discon- 

But Seattle merchants still had reason to complain bitterly 
of the treatment they received. Goods could be shipped to 
them over the line only in carload lots. Vexatious delays 
were frequent, and still more vexatious extra charges were 
made upon various pretexts. The trains never made con- 
nections with those on the main line. It was always neces- 
sary for passengers to wait an hour or two in Tacoma, 


whichever way they were going, and this was very irksome to 
Seattle people. As the railroad still controlled the boats on 
the Sound, they were equally dissatisfied with the way they 
were served by water, and at one time the merchants and 
other patrons of the line talked seriously of making an iron- 
bound agreement with the Canadian Pacific to turn all their 
business to it, as soon as it could be received. 

Times were now improving. The East was prosperous 
again, and the company found it possible to sell bonds for 
building purposes as rapidly as money was required. Work 
was accordingly resumed on both ends of the line. In Jan- 
uary 1886 the contract was let for driving the Cascade tunnel, 
the longest on the line. The one near Bozeman was 3,850 
feet in length, that at Mullan 3,610 feet, but this was to be 
9,850 feet, or nearly :wo miles long. Nelson Bennett, the 
contractor, undertook to push it through in eighteen months, 
but in order to begin work, he was forced to make a road from 
the end of the track at Ellensburg, to a point on the eastern 
side of the mountain where work was to begin, and send over 
it all the heavy machinery which the undertaking would 
require. This was done with no small difficulty. Among 
the materials to be transported were two locomotives and a 
number of flat cars, besides the heavy drills and other tools 
that would be required. There was scarcely a trail through 
the dense forest that covered the foot hills, and sides of the 
mountains, through and along which all this material must 
somehow be dragged to a point 2,845 feet above sea level, 
where the tunnel was to begin. In many places swamps 
were to be crossed, and in some there were deep gullies and 
ravines, and finally when the east portal was reached one 
engine, together with the cars, drills and other apparatus 
was to be hoisted over the mountain nearly 2,000 feet higher, 


to the western side, so that work might begin at both ends 
at the same time. But all this was accomphshed. In due 
time the drilling through the mountain wall was begun, and 
proceeded night and day until it was completed, as it was, 
eight days in advance of the time fixed in the contract. 

While this work was progressing, grading and track laying 
was pushed from both directions, and when the tracks reached 
the pass they were carried over the ridge temporarily, by 
switchbacks, as at the Mullan and Bozeman tunnels, and the 
first train carried over in this manner reached the Sound, 
at Tacoma, July 3, 1887. Its arrival was made the occasion 
of much rejoicing, particularly in Tacoma, whose people 
felt that their city was now in fact what they had so long 
claimed it to be, the real terminus of a transcontinental 
railway. They celebrated the arrival of this first train, and 
the national anniversary, for three consecutive days. People 
from all parts of the territory, including not a few from 
Seattle, joined with them in commemorating an event which 
had so long been wanted and hoped for, and which was of so 
much importance to them all. 

The relations of Seattle people, and all those in the lower 
Sound country, with the railroad were still far from satis- 
factory, and were to remain so for a considerable time, 
although within a few months after its completion an event 
occurred that gave them cause to hope for better things. 
In September 1887, Mr. Villard regained control, and al- 
though he did not again become president, he occupied a 
position of equal or even greater authority, as chairman of 
the board of directors. Seattle had always regarded him as 
her friend. Her people still believed that his other interest 
in their neighborhood, outside of the railroad, would impel 
him to place them on an even footing with Tacoma and 


Portland, and in this they were not mistaken, although it was 
not until October lo, 1889 that the long hoped for order 
was issued, equalizing all rates save those on grain. 

The territory now entered upon a period of phenomenal 
development. The influx of settlers had been steady for 
several years preceding, notwithstanding the unfavorable 
business conditions that prevailed from 1884 to 1886. The 
census taken every alternate year by the assessors, had shown 
a total population of 129,292 in 1885, and 143,699 in 1887; 
that of 1 889 showed a total of 239,544 a gain of 85,875. The 
vote for state officers, cast at the election in October of the 
last named year, seemed to indicate that the increase had 
been even larger than the figures given. An unusually large 
proportion of these new arrivals settled in the towns, which 
led Governor Miles C. Moore, the last of the territorial gover- 
nors, to remark in his final report, that *'the growth of some 
of them, notably Spokane Falls, Seattle and Tacoma, is simply 
phenomenal, the population of each having apparently 
doubled within a single year. The most remarkable increase 
is in the county of King, which in 1887 had a population of 
15,972, and in 1889, 40,788, an increase in two years of 
24,816. During the same period, Pierce County shows an 
increase of 15,611, having now a total of 27,795; while Spo- 
kane County shows an increase of 13,885, having now a 
total of 25,200." 

During these prosperous years the competition between 
the rapidly growing towns, particularly Seattle and Tacoma, 
grew more and more intense and interesting. Tacoma 
boasted of its new hotel, the best on the coast north of San 
Francisco in that day; the headquarters' building of the 
railroad company; its wheat warehouses, from which 
steadily and rapidly increasing shipments were made year 


by year to the markets of the old world; and of its tea ships, 
which in their season brought cargoes of tea direct to its 
wharves from China and Japan. Seattle was equally proud 
of its lines of steamers to San Francisco and coast points; 
the new railroad lines that were extending eastward toward 
the mountains, and northward to a connection with the 
Canadian Pacific, and of its splendid lakes that were some 
day to be connected with the ocean by canal, giving the ships 
of the world a safe harbor in fresh water. Both towns had 
large lumber mills, and coal shipments from both were al- 
ready large and rapidly growing. Both were lighted by- 
electricity. Seattle had two lines of cable railroad, while 
Tacoma as yet had none. Both were, or soon would be 
experimenting with electric cars. Tacoma had one flour 
mill, that was shipping its product to the Orient, while Seattle 
seemed about to have extensive iron works established 
near it, and its people confidently expected that the deposits 
of iron ores, which had long been known to exist in the 
neighborhood of the Snoqualmie Pass and on the Skagit 
River, not to mention the deposits of bog ore found in many 
places, would soon be developed, and made the basis of ex- 
tensive manufactures of iron and steel. Smelting w^orks 
had already been started by San Francisco capitalists at 
Irondale near Port Townsend, where bog ores, mixed with 
other ores from Texada Island in the Gulf of Georgia, had 
been experimented with successfully so far as the quality 
of product was concerned. 

Port Townsend and the cities on Bellingham Bay — not 
yet united into one under the name of Bellingham — were 
partaking of the general prosperity. People in the former 
were living in confident anticipation that it would yet be 
made the terminus of a railroad. From the latter P. B. 


Cornwall and his associates were building one railroad 
toward the Northeast, while another would at no very 
distant day connect them with Vancouver, and still another, 
known as the Fairhaven and Southern, was supposed to be 
what it ultimately became, a part of the Great Northern, 
whose world conquering builder was rapidly extending it 
toward the coast. 

The prospect of competition with this new line at no very 
distant day, together with the efforts of the Union Pacific — 
which now controlled and had made connection with the 
Oregon Railway and Navigation Company's lines — to extend 
to the Sound, and so command a share in its vast lumber and 
coal trade, stirred the Northern Pacific authorities to renewed 
activity. Branches were built from Tacoma through Olym- 
pia, and from Centralia to Gray's Harbor, and from Chehalis, 
on the original line from the Columbia to the Sound, to 
Shoalwater Bay, and new life was infused into the settle- 
ments in those regions. The Seattle, Lake Shore and 
Eastern had built twenty-four miles eastwardly from Seattle, 
on its Snoqualmie division, and twenty miles toward the 
north, while forty-five miles of track on its eastern division 
had been laid from Spokane westwardly. Everett and Ana- 
cortes had not yet been established, but soon would be. 

According to the report of Governor Moore, in 1889 the 
Northern Pacific was operating 807 miles of road in the 
territory, and the Oregon Railway and Navigation Com- 
pany 389 miles. A network of short lines known as the 
Hunt System was growing up in Walla Walla County, and 
already comprised eighty-four miles of track. The extension 
of the Northern Pacific to Gray's Harbor and Seattle, to- 
gether with the Columbia and Puget Sound tracks, and a 
short line known as the Vancouver, Klikitat and Yakima 

316 Rise and Progress of an American State 

road, on the Columbia, and the narrow gauge lines, made a 
total of 1,475 iTiil^s of tracks in the territory, when it became 
a state. 

Vancouver, the ancient seat of Dr. John McLoughlin 
when he ruled there in medieval state, and with baronial 
authority, was still without direct railroad connection, and 
yet it was partaking in some degree in the general prosperity. 
It was still military headquarters, as it had been in Harney's 
time, and from the river bank where McLoughlin and 
Douglass, in their time, had been wont to watch the Indian 
flotillas sweeping up and down the lordly stream, its people 
could now see the stately ships or mighty steamers come 
and go to and from all parts of the civilized world. The old 
order of things had passed away; a new age, a new people 
and a new order of things, much better than the old, though 
as yet only imperfectly appreciated, had come, that was 
to make all the past seem fruitless by comparison. 

Chapter LVII. 

OPPOSITION to the Chinese began early in the 
territory. The legislature on January 23, 1864 
passed an act imposing a per capita tax of $24. 
a year on each Chinaman, to be paid in quarterly 
payments of $6 each. This tax was reduced to ;^i6 per year 
in 1866. The sheriffs were charged with the duty of collect- 
ing it, and they were authorized to exact payment by seizing 
and selling the goods of delinquents when necessary. 

But rigorous as this tax was it did not prevent Chinese 
laborers from coming to the territory in considerable numbers 
and the census of 1885 showed that there were 3,276 of them 
engaged in various occupations within its borders. There 
was at that time no very serious opposition to them. Work 
was abundant and everybody was employed who cared for 
employment. A few agitators and mischief-makers were 
protesting, but they secured little attention and few followers, 
until the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railroad, 
threw many men out of employment, a considerable por- 
tion of whom drifted across the line to Seattle, Tacoma 
and other towns along the Sound. 

From that time forward the agitators and mischief-makers 
found it easier to get the attention of the multitude than they 
had done. The idle always have time to listen, and are 
easily persuaded that somebody other than themselves is 
responsible for their idleness. Their passions are easily 
inflamed; it is particularly easy to arouse in them a hatred 
for, and encourage an opposition to an alien race. The 
opposition to the Chinese in California was well known all 
along the coast. Every sand-lot orator in San Francisco was 
as notorious in the cities of Washington and Oregon as in 
those of California, and some of their associates and co- 
workers had drifted to the Sound cities, and were aspiring 


to imitate their example. Strangely enough there were 
persons of responsibility and respectability who readily 
joined with these in stirring up a needless trouble. There 
were few residents of the territory, if any, who were anxious 
to have the Chinese remain. Some of the coal ;jiining com- 
panies, a few of the mills, and a few private individuals had 
employed them, when it had been difficult to secure white 
labor, but now that that difficulty was past, most of them 
were glad to secure white laborers again. A few had Chinese 
house servants who had proved so satisfactory that they 
wished to retain them, but these were not many. The China- 
men therefore were left with few to defend them, except 
those who were not willing to see them driven out by 

The agitation which began in Seattle and Tacoma in the 
summer of 1885, had gradually spread to other towns and 
villages in the western part of the territory, and to the coal 
mines in King County, in a few of which Chinamen were 
working, when on September 4th, the people at Rock Springs, 
Wyoming, drove the Chinamen out of the coal mines at that 
place, killing eleven of them. News of this outrage was 
applauded by the agitators, and those who were accustomed 
to listen to them. It spread quickly to the smaller towns, 
and was received with peculiar interest at the coal mines and 
the hop fields where some growers, who had been unable to 
procure the usual number of Indians to gather their crop, 
were bringing in Chinamen for the purpose. Among the 
latter were the Wold Brothers, who had large yards in the 
Squak Valley. On the afternoon of September 5th a party 
of thirty-five Chinamen, arrived at their yards, and two 
nights later their camp was attacked by five white men and 
two Indians, who fired into the tents where the Chinamen 


were sleeping, and killed three of them and wounded three 
others. The rest fled to the woods and escaped. 

The perpetrators of this cowardly attack were easily traced, 
and within a few days were arrested and taken to the jail at 
Seattle. In due time they were indicted for murder, but such 
was the state of public feeling at the time that they were not 
convicted. They were also indicted for riot, and on this 
charge one of the number was convicted and a trifling 
penalty imposed, but an appeal was taken and the case was 
not decided until long afterwards. 

On the night of September nth, only four days after the 
attack on the hop-pickers in the Squak Valley, the quarters 
occupied by the Chinese coal miners at Coal Creek were 
raided by ten or fifteen masked men, and burned. Some 
of the inmates were roughly used. Guns and pistols were 
fired to frighten the Chinamen, but none of them were killed. 
They were however, told that they must forthwith leave the 

These outrages were openly applauded by the lawless ele- 
ment, as that at Rock Springs had been. The perpetrators 
of them were praised as men of spirit, by the street orators 
in both Tacoma and Seattle, who were every day finding it 
easier to get attention. Street meetings were held more 
frequently than ever. Parades were organized in which 
tableaux, showing women in chains, and children supposed 
to be starving as a result of competition with cheap labor 
were exhibited, while numbers of banners or transparencies 
with denunciatory inscriptions were displayed, all of which 
amused or excited the idle, and alarmed the timid, disturbed 
and unsettled business and made conditions, which were 
bad enough at the beginning, even worse than they otherwise 
would have been. 


The agitation was accomplishing the purpose for which 
it had declaredly been started, in what should have been a 
satisfactory way, if those who were directing and stimulating 
it had had no other purpose in view. Many of the Chinamen 
were voluntarily leaving their employment and the country, as 
fast as they could get the money they had earned, and 
secure passage to British Columbia or California. The 
coal mine owners and mill owners were discharging some, 
and arranging to discharge others, as rapidly as they 
could fill their places. The employers of Chinese ser- 
vants in some cases were oretting rid of them. The 
Chinese merchants, contractors and owners of laundries 
alone, or almost alone, seemed to be making no preparation 
to leave. 

But the agitation was kept going just as vigorously as if 
nothing had yet been accomplished. "An anti-Chinese 
Congress" as it was designated by those who arranged it, 
was summoned to meet in Seattle September 28th, and self- 
appointed members came from all directions to attend its 
deliberations. All the labor organizations were represented. 
The mayor of Tacoma presided. Most of the more active 
agitators attended and made speeches. A long series of 
high-sounding resolutions was adopted, their final declara- 
tion being that all Chinese must leave Western Washington 
by or before November 1 5th. Following this so-called " Con- 
gress," a mass meeting was held at Tacoma, in which the 
resolutions it had adopted and the edict it had proclaimed 
were approved, and a committee of fifteen was appointed to 
see that the edict w^as enforced. This committee promptly 
served notice on all the Chinese residents of the place that 
they must leave within thirty days. A similar committee 
was appointed in Seattle only a few days later. 


By this time the Chinese consul at San Francisco had be- 
come alarmed for the safety of his countrymen in the Sound 
country, and had written Governor Squire to ask whether 
the local authorities could and would give them protection 
under the law and the treaty, in case the agitators should 
attempt to put their threats into execution. The governor 
had applied to the sheriffs for information as to the exact 
condition of affairs, and asked whether they were confident 
of their ability to preserve order. Nearly all replied confi- 
dently. John H. McGraw, afterwards governor of the state, 
but who was at that time sheriff of King County, was "firmly 
convinced" that he would be able "to protect the lives and 
property of all persons in the county, without the interven- 
tion of the military arm of the government." Nineteen- 
twentieths of the able bodied men could be depended upon, 
as he thought, as a posse comitatus, in case the lawless and 
viciously inclined should make any open attack. Sheriff 
Byrd thought there had been no disposition shown to harm 
the Chinamen in Tacoma, but he was not satisfied that the 
town would escape trouble should they refuse to go by the 
1st of November. A large number of men were taking an 
active part in the expulsion movement, and should they meet 
with resistance from the Chinese, trouble would be sure to 

But he was sure that a sufficient number of "good substan- 
tial citizens among the business men of Tacoma " would stand 
willing and ready to assist him in preserving peace, and he 
would immediately make a thorough canvass of the city to 
ascertain how many reliable men he could command in case 
of emergency. At Whatcom there were but few Chinese, and 
Sheriff DeLorimer replied that they would soon be gone, and 
they would go in peace. 


Having received these assurances the governor w^rote the 
consul that in his opinion the sheriffs in the principal centers 
would be so strongly supported by the law^-abiding citizens, 
that they would be able to repress all disorders. "Of course 
it is possible," he said, "that an outrage might be committed 
before the authorities could prevent it, and in the excited 
state of public feeling, I have privately advised Chinese resi- 
dents who have waited upon me, that I thought the best 
policy for them to pursue is to quietly withdraw, if they 
can do so, until the present period of excitement has passed 

The governor had also communicated with the authorities 
at Washington, and for some days following he kept them 
thoroughly advised. The consul at San Francisco had also 
written to the Chinese minister in Washington, and he in 
turn had applied to the national administration to guarantee 
the protection of his countrymen. Warned by what had 
happened at Rock Springs, President Cleveland and his 
cabinet were anxious to prevent, if possible, a similar out- 
break on the Sound, and yet were unwilling to assert the 
national authority, so long as the territorial and county 
officials felt confident that they would be able to control 
the situation. They however, stood ready to send troops 
from Fort Vancouver to any one of the Sound cities, as 
soon as advised that it would be necessary, or even 
urgently desirable. 

In reply to inquiries from the secretary of the interior, 
which were prompted no doubt by the solicitation of the 
Chinese minister, the governor again communicated with the 
sheriffs and the municipal authorities, particularly in Pierce 
and King Counties, notifying them of the anxiety felt in 
Washington and San Francisco about the situation in their 


neighborhoods, and asking for more definite information that 
would enable him to keep the president, and others in 
authority, thoroughly advised as to the progress of events. 
To this the sheriff of Pierce County replied that the Knights 
of Labor in the city of Tacoma, had offered themselves and 
their services as deputy sheriffs, and he was swearing them 
in as rapidly as they could be called to his office. He had 
also sworn in fifty deputies in the Puyallup Valley, and "two 
hundred good substantial citizens of Tacoma had already 
offered their services, " and he would swear them in at once. 
He had no doubt he would be able to procure all the assis- 
tance necessary, and he assured the governor "that peace 
will and can be preserved by the civil authorities of our 
county." On the same day General Sprague, chairman of 
the Chamber of Commerce in Tacoma, wrote that while many 
were willing to utter incendiary language to frighten the 
Chinese away, they would not countenance unlawful acts. 
"The sheriff," he said, "is both efficient and vigilant, and 
before the ist of November, he will have a force of about 
three hundred reliable deputies sworn in, and be ready for 
any emergency. " This letter was accompanied by another, 
signed by a large number of the most prominent business 
men of the town, in which they " beg respectfully to say, that 
in our opinion there will be no occasion whatever for the 
presence of troops, or the employment of an organized force 
under the sheriff, and that the sheriff will be able to pre- 
serve the peace and enforce the laws." In this he would 
be supported by the citizens generally. "We hold ourselves 
responsible for these assurances," this letter concluded. 

On October 27th, the governor visited Tacoma and ad- 
dressed a mass meeting of its people, and on the following 
day received a letter from a prominent resident of that city. 


assuring him that "there is not a man in Tacoma who does 
not fully recognize the difficulty of the position in which you 
are placed by the prevailing agitation, and the patient good 
sense with which you have up to the present, met and sur- 
mounted that difficulty. The reaction of sentiment in your 
favor is quite marked. . . . Your visit has set matters 
right, and there will be no further misunderstanding. Our 
Chinese are still going, and there will probably be very few 
left here at the end of this week." On the 29th, the gov- 
ernor was invited to attend an anti-Chinese meeting in 
Tacoma, but being unable to be present he sent a letter 
saying, that while he sympathized with the American 
workingmen in their efforts to have the Chinese peace- 
fully go, "the condition distinctly is peace; maintain law 
and order, and the victory will be yours." 

It was evident enough from all this and from other infor- 
mation received by the governor, that the people of Tacoma 
were determined that the Chinese should go. Many of 
them seem to have hoped that they would be allowed to go 
peaceably, but the disturbing element was thoroughly re- 
solved that they should go, and resolved to accelerate their 
going, in case there was the slighest indication that all would 
not leave before the time fixed by the declaration of the 
"anti-Chinese Congress." It soon became apparent that 
the sheriff and his deputies were quite in accord with this 

The plans of the disturbing element had been carefully 
laid, and while the sheriff was assuring the governor of his 
ability to preserve the peace, and the law-abiding portion of 
the community was hopeful, if not confident, that he would 
do so, the agitators and their followers were prepared for 
action. On the morning of November 3d, they asembled to 


the number of several hundred, and marched to the Chinese 
quarter, which was located on the waterfront near the North- 
ern Pacific freight yards. They had a number of wagons 
with them, and as soon as the houses of the Chinamen were 
reached, their goods were thrown into them, while their 
owners were assembled in their neighborhood to be marched 
out of town. The day was cold and rainy. The Chinamen 
were greatly excited, but none of them offered any resistance. 
An equal number of children could hardly have been managed 
more easily. Several of them were old and decrepit; a few 
were sick, but these were forced out of such shelter as they 
had, and placed on the wagons with their goods. The stores 
and places of business of such as were engaged in trade, were 
not disturbed at the time, but as soon as all the houses had 
been vacated, the evicted celestials, escorted by their tormen- 
tors, took up their line of march through the town, and out 
along Centre Street to Lake View, where the wagons were 
unceremoniously unloaded, and the owners of such goods 
as they contained were left on the bleak prairie, to make 
themselves as comfortable as they might until the following 
day, and it was reported that two of the sick died meantime 
from exposure. 

On the day following this "peaceable expulsion," as those 
who had planned and perpetrated it chose to call it, one of 
the most active promoters of the trouble wrote the governor 
as follows: "The Chinamen are no more in Tacoma, and 
the trouble over them is virtually at an end. Yesterday 
they were peaceably escorted out of town, and put upon the 
freight and passenger trains this morning, the price asked 
for a special train being too exorbitant. 

"The twenty-five or thirty Chinamen who were permitted 
to remain a day for the purposes of packing and shipping 


store goods will leave tomorrow morning. ... It affords me 
genuine delight to recall my assurances to you at Olympia 
and here, that the Chinese would be got out of Tacoma 
without any trouble, and point to the denouement in con- 
firmation. Those who predicted differently were partly 
swayed by their \s'ishes, and greatly underrated the intelli- 
gence, character and resolution of the men who worked up 
the movement, and who were flippantly called 'rabble' by 
their moral and intellectual inferiors." 

While this letter was being written, or soon thereafter, 
the superior moral and intellectual people referred to were 
burning the buildings lately occupied by the Chinamen on 
the water front, and two days later they burned the Chinese 
stores and residences built on ground leased from the North- 
ern Pacific Railroad Company, some of which appear to 
have still contained goods of considerable value. 

No steps were taken to punish the men who had partici- 
pated in this riotous proceeding, and they would have been 
ineffectual had the attempt been made. This encouraged 
and emboldened the lawless, and turbulent element else- 
where, and forcible, heretofore called "peaceful" expulsions 
continued in the smaller towns of Pierce, King, Kitsap, 
Snohomish, Skagit and Whatcom Counties, until most of 
the Chinese were driven away. 

While these proceedings were taking place in Tacoma, 
the governor was advised of what was going on by numerous 
telegrams from Chinese merchants and others, who appealed 
to him for assistance. But without the sheriff's support he 
could do nothing at the time, and it was now apparent, 
if it had not been so before, that the sheriff was in sympathy 
with the expulsionists. So far as Tacoma was concerned, 
all had been done that could be done, except to burn the 


buildings and goods that remained. But it was desirable, 
if possible, to prevent similar proceedings in other places, 
and the governor accordingly issued a proclamation warning 
all persons against participating in any riot or breach of the 
peace, and particularly against inciting others to riot, and 
calling upon all sheriffs and law-abiding citizens generally, 
to secure the Chinese against assault. The proclamation 
also contained an appeal to all good citizens to, "array your- 
selves on the side of the law. This is a time in the history of 
the territory for an intelligent, law-abiding and prosperous 
community, who love their country and their homes, who are 
blessed with the boundless resources of forest, field and mine, 
and who aspire to become a great and self-governing state, 
to assert their power of self-control and self-preservation, 
as against a spirit of lawlessness which is destructive alike 
to immigration, to labor and to capital. If you do not pro- 
tect yourselves you have only to look to the step beyond; 
which is, simply, the fate of Wyoming and the speedy inter- 
ference of the United States troops." 

In Seattle the agitation had been carried on during Septem- 
ber and October as noisily as in Tacoma, but it did not have 
the secret or open encouragement of the sheriff as it had m 
Pierce County, and the law-abiding part of the community 
took a bolder stand in opposition to it. In order to show 
the lawless element that it would not be permitted to resort 
to violence without opposition, a public meeting was called, 
which was addressed by several speakers, all of whom 
favored the maintenance of the law, and the preservation of 
public order. C. H. Hanford, then assistant prosecuting 
attorney, after outlining the dangers of the situation, as he 
saw it, suggested that the most effective service law-abiding 
citizens could render at the time, would be by declaring their 


purpose to sustain the law, and by pledging themselves to 
sustain the sheriff in maintaining order. The response to 
this was prompt and most encouraging, as a large majority 
of those present rose to their feet and offered to be sworn in 
as deputies at once. Sheriff McGraw was present and 
accepted the service tendered. The oath was administered 
to several hundred resolute men, and the sheriff was then 
provided with a posse that he could rely upon as subject to 
his call when needed. 

This meeting was held at the Opera house, and the law 
and order party was from that time forth known as "the 
Opera House Party." Its moral effect was good, but it 
did not put a stop to the work of the turbulent element. A 
grand jury was in session at the time, and in his charge to 
it Chief Justice Greene had carefully pointed out its duty 
with regard to persons who might be conspiring to violate 
the laws. The Chinese who were in this country were entitled 
to the protection of the laws, and all privileges and immuni- 
ties under them, equally with all white persons. This pro- 
tection was pledged to them by solemn treaty stipulations, 
and any combination whatever, for the purpose of depriving 
them of this protection, was conspiracy and punishable under 
the statute. 

This charge was published, and was notice to the noisy 
element that its proceedings were likely to be inquired 
into if any violence was permitted. It also knew that 
the sheriff would not be unsupported in case he was 
required to act, and that he would act if there was 
need to do so, and this knowledge doubtless helped 
largely to restrain Seattle's committee of fifteen from 
immediately following the example set by the Tacoma 


Another public meeting was held by the citizens' party 
on the evening of the day following the publication of the 
governor's proclamation, and although the call for it had been 
hastily issued, a large number of the most prominent resi- 
dents and business men of the city were present. Some of 
the principal agitators were also there and were listened to 
patiently. All were willing to have the Chinese go. A com- 
mittee had hastily drawn up a plan for getting rid of them, 
in a peaceful and lawful way, which it was hoped would be 
acceptable to everybody, but a majority of those present 
were resolved to prevent their expulsion by force if there 
should be need to do so. Several short but very forcible 
speeches were made by J. C. Haines, Judge Lewis, and by 
two speakers representing the turbulent element, who were 
loudly cheered by their sympathizers who were present. 
Judge Thomas Burke made the most impassioned speech 
of the evening. He had long been known as the friend of 
the oppressed against the oppressor, and up to this time he 
had been a general favorite among laboring people, whose 
cause he had invariably championed, when there had been 
occasion. But on this occasion they were not in sympathy 
with him, or fancied they were not. He declared himself 
as unalterably opposed to riot, at all times, and particularly 
at the present time w^hen there was no need or cause for it. 
He would stand for the rule of law, and no other, at all 
times and in all places. He denounced the proceeding of 
the mob at Tacoma, and declared that he would rather live 
under the rule of the Autocrat of all the Russias, than under 
that of a dozen or twenty lawless men, who were the worst 
kind of tyrants. 

This declaration was received with hisses and jeers by the 
noisy element present, and one of their leaders appealed to 


them to listen respectfully to what the judge had to say. 
This offer of assistance the judge resented, coming as it did 
from one who had scarcely been known to a dozen people in 
the city before the trouble began. "I need no one to inter- 
cede with a Seattle audience for me," he said. "I know these 
people, and they will hear me if they hate me. They have 
no reason to hate me, for I have always been their friend. . . . 
I am a free man and will preserve my liberty. The question 
is on the road to a solution, but in order to hasten it you 
cannot afford to violate the eternal laws of justice. The 
Chinese want to go, but don't like to be robbed or murdered. 
Let the working men of Seattle show to the world that the 
great principle of justice prevails here. Do not be unjust 
to a dog or a horse. The Chinamen are here under solemn 
treaty stipulations, but they are going. It is to our interest 
to see them go, but not to our interest, but just the opposite, 
to see one drop of innocent blood spilled, or a single breach 
of the law. " 

Before the meeting closed John Leary reported for the 
committee of which he was chairman, that the Chinese had 
agreed to go, and were preparing to do so, but that some of 
them had a large amount of property which they wished to 
dispose of, that of one firm being valued at ^135,000, while 
the city owed another ^^30,000. These wanted to have 
time to dispose of what they had, and make their collections, 
and it ought to be granted. As he understood matters the 
opposition were willing that a reasonable time should be 
granted for this purpose. 

It was hoped that this report, and the evidence given by 
the meeting that no one was opposing the removal of the 
Chinese by any lawful means, would pacify the excited ele- 
ment, and that quiet would soon be restored, but the hope 

70HN L^ARY. 

Born at St. Johns, New Brunswick, in 1836, and 
during his earlier years he was extensively engaged 
in the manufacture of lumber, and also a dealer in 
general merchandise at St. Johns. He came to the 
coast in 1869 and settled in Seattle. In 1871 he was 
admitted to the bar and was engaged in active practice 
until 1883, when he retired. In 18 §4 he was mayor 
of the city. In 1872 he took a leading part in the 
explorations of the coal measures in King County, 
and in opening and developing some of its principal 
mines. During the remainder.of his life he was actively 
connected with many of the most important enter- 
prises having for their object the de\-elopment of Seattle 
and the State. 





''^^^ '^^^^ ' " - 3 ffidge^had to say. 

bnfi- .ti^Srrjyr . .ftSmiTf 9fi?lftg ^S It did 

9rij ot amBo sH .enridy fe^ett tew^wriocena iijBweg people in 

■ ^'^"^ ' ' ^"^ ^l|H^.6^!8?e to inter- 

, - ^^ .viJaB n_ - ,- - icd 9rff o}T)9Wirnb£ 

loVBm afiw 9tf^88i .M!U;^^-f^feil«l'ni^^Si^i "ilnknOW these 

orij ni^cTTfiq, §nibe9! j i^^js^.^If^^^ij^^j ^hey have 

.vJnxjoO gniS ni ?. ' - ■ ' - :i£ioIqz9 , 

[sqforrhq gti id 9mc , , ^'^^l^'Hifi^'^"- ' ' 

/lavijofi 8BW erf airl airi io.iybsejrpeiHrtf irihtlQv. .z'^\^ question 

J^^"""^' '^"""^M^y^^ tf it you 

eternal Uir^98(^jJMfj|ice. The 

ke to be robbed or murdered. 

iiow to the world that the 

here. Do not be unjust 

>en are here under solemn 

g. It is to our interest 

^ but just the opposite, 

J. or a sinr-le breach 

reported for the 

the Chinese had 

.., but that some of 

which they wished to 

iiued at $135,000, while 

These wanted to have 

1 make their collections, 

understood matters the 

)nable time should be 

.uu tnt cviQcnce given by 

ing the removal of the 

aid pacify the excited ele- 

be restored, but the hope 




was not realized. Judge Burke's speech, as it was reported 
from mouth to mouth, increased the excitement. The esti- 
mation in which he had been held by those whom he had 
so uniformly befriended was, for the time being, completely 
changed. He was no longer popular with the crowd; in- 
stead of praises, and expressions of confidence and esteem, 
the bitterest denunciations were heard. The peaceable part 
of the community felt alarmed for his safety, but he continued 
to go about his business as usual, and made no effort to 
answer his detractors. 

During the next two days a home guard was organized 
under command of Captain George Kinnear, and Governor 
Squire was urgently advised by telegraph, to have a detach- 
ment of Federal troops sent to the city at the earliest moment. 
"Delay is criminal," said Sheriff McGraw; "Quickest 
action possible is necessary" was Judge Greene's dispatch, 
while Ex-Governor Ferry telegraphed, " In my opinion troops 
should be sent here instanter." Thus urged the governor 
sent equally urgent appeals to Washington, and on the 8th, 
five days after the Chinese had been driven out of Tacoma, 
General Gibbon arrived from Vancouver with three hundred 
and fifty soldiers, and took charge of the city. In the pre- 
sence of this force the riotous element quickly dispersed. 
The troops remained only nine days and then returned to 
their barracks on the Columbia. 

For the time being the agitation seemed to be at an end. 
The city was as orderly as it had ever been. Excited crowds 
were nowhere seen on the streets, and the agitators had 
apparently given up the contest. It could hardly be claimed, 
in fact, that there was further need for a contest. China- 
men were no longer employed in the mills, mines, factories 
or by the railroad, and the number of house servants and 


common laborers had been greatly reduced. All this had 
been accomplished without violation of law, and all classes 
were seemingly satisfied. 

During November fifteen of the most violent among the 
agitators were indicted, under the so-called Ku-Klux act, 
upon a charge of conspiracy to deprive the Chinamen of the 
equal protection of the laws. Their trial consumed eleven 
days. All the accused testified in their own defense, and 
avowed that no act of violence, breach of the peace or unlaw- 
ful act had been contemplated by them, and that none would 
have been committed or coutenanced. The contrary could 
not be proved and their acquittal follow^ed. 

But the excitement was not yet over. The committee of 
fifteen were envious of the work done by the Tacoma commit- 
tee apparently, and resolved if possible to emulate it. But 
the experience of some of their number with the law, and the 
certainty that Federal troops would be sent to suppress dis- 
order if any occurred, made them cautious. They accord- 
ingly worked more secretly and bided their time. 

The opportunity they waited for seemed to have arrived 
on Saturday, February 6th, when the Steamer Queen of the 
Pacific was lying at her dock on the waterfront, preparing 
to sail for San Francisco on the following day. That evening 
a meeting was quietly held in a part of the city where the anti- 
Chinese sentiment was strongest, at which much was said 
about the unsanitary condition of the Chinese quarter, and 
the city ordinance requiring a certain fixed amount of air 
space in sleeping rooms, in proportion to the number of 
occupants. It was suggested that the committee of fifteen 
should inspect the Chinese houses on the following morning, 
and ascertain whether this ordinance was properly regarded. 
Of course none of those present cared how much or how 


little air space a sleeping Chinaman would be content with, 
nor did they care specially about the enforcement of the 
ordinance in Chinatown. If they had they would have ap- 
pealed to the constituted authorities to enforce it. What 
was wanted was a legal pretext for what they were about to 
do, and this was fixed upon. 

Accordingly on the following morning early the committee, 
followed by a large number of their supporters, went to the 
Chinese quarter with wagons, and while some of them made 
inquiries at each house about the number of cubic feet of 
air per occupant they furnished, others invaded the premises 
and carried the goods they contained to the wagons. The 
Chinamen made no attempt at resistance — they knew it 
would be useless to do so. The police did nothing to stop 
what was going on, but rather gave it countenance by making 
no protest v/hen demands were made upon the Chinamen to 
open their doors. 

As soon as Sheriff McGraw was apprised of what was going 
on he hurried to the scene of action and commanded the 
crowd to disperse, but it only laughed and jeered at him 
and continued its work. He summoned a few of the by- 
standers, whom he knew and thought he could rely upon, 
to his assistance, and with their help attempted to put a stop 
to the work of eviction, but the crowd was too numerous and 
too determined for his small posse, and as soon as he stopped 
work at one place it was begun at another. Finally the fire 
bells were rung as a signal to the home guards to assemble, 
and they soon appeared, followed a little later by the two 
companies of local militia. 

But before this force could be assembled and effectively 
used about three hundred and fifty Chinamen, and their 
effects, had been driven or carried to the ocean dock, where 


an immense crowd had assembled, some of whom opposed 
and some encouraged the eviction. Here proceedings were 
checked for a time by the refusal of the captain to receive 
any Chinamen on board unless their fares were paid. This 
was seemingly an unlooked for difficulty, but hats were passed 
and a collection taken up by which nearly a hundred were 
provided with tickets, and they were allowed to go on board. 

While this was going on inquiry had been made among 
the frightened Chinamen by a few men who were determined 
that the law should not be violated, if it were possible to 
prevent it, and it was ascertained that while many of them 
were willing to leave, some did not wish to do so, and on their 
application a writ of habeas corpus was issued by Judge 
Greene, and served on the captain, commanding him to bring 
the Chinamen on his ship into court next morning at 8 o'clock, 
for a hearing. 

All proceedings were thus checked temporarily. The 
difficulty now was to protect the Chinamen from violence 
and prevent a riot, and this promised to be no easy matter. 
The streets were filled with excited people, large numbers of 
whom had hurried to town from all parts of the surrounding 
country, as the news had spread that the war on the Chinese 
had begun again. Among these were many turbulent 
characters who had no interest in the welfare of the city, and 
would have been glad to see it at the mercy of a mob. These 
were all opposed to the Chinese, and joined loudly in denounc- 
ing the officers of the law and all others who were not 
encouraging riotous proceedings. 

Toward evening matters quieted down considerably. The 
streets were patrolled by the militia, and the soldiers not on 
duty were held at their several quarters ready for service. 
The authorities spent the night in preparing to resist any 


violence on the morrow. Governor Squire telegraphed to 
General Gibbon that a serious conflict between the civil 
authorities and the mob was probable, and requested that 
troops be sent at once from Port Townsend. But the general 
could not act without authority from Washington and so 
replied. A message was then sent to the president, fully 
advising him as to the troubled condition of affairs and urging 
prompt intervention. Judge Greene also telegraphed the 
president that in his opinion the occasion was one requiring 
the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus, and a declara- 
tion of martial law. If the governor could enforce martial 
law, which he doubted, the situation might be controlled by 
the courts and the militia without bloodshed, and without 
the aid of the regular army. The case was one that required 
"the sudden supervention of a strong governmental power." 

About midnight an attempt was made to put some Chinese 
on a train, which was to leave at 4 a. m, and run them off 
to Portland, but the train was guarded by the military, and 
was sent out ahead of time. About the same time a com- 
pany of Home Guards was sent to the dock, where an anti- 
Chinese committee was watching the Chinamen, and drove 
them away. Members of the guard were stationed at all 
the approaches to the dock to prevent a return of the agita- 
tors, and after that all was peaceable till morning. 

During the night warrants had been prepared for some of 
the ringleaders and eight of them were arrested next morning 
and taken to jail. A prompt hearing was given them, bail 
was furnished and they were released. 

Then at 8 o'clock Sheriff McGraw, with an escort of the 
Home Guards and the two militia companies, brought the 
Chinamen, eight-five in number, into court, which was then 
held in the old city hall, at Third Avenue and Yesler Way. 


The agitators were taken by surprise, and the crowd in the 
streets and about the courthouse, at first was not very large, 
but it steadily increased, and the streets about the building 
were soon thronged w^ith an angry mob, but no attempts at 
interference were made, as the crowd was held back from 
the courthouse by armed guards. 

Arrived in the court room Judge Greene explained to the 
Chinamen that while the people wished them to go, they 
were, under the law, entitled to remain if they wished to do 
so, and they would be protected in doing so. Each Chinaman 
was then asked by name, whether he wished to go or remain, 
and all but sixteen of the eighty-five declared that they wished 
to go. This closed the inquiry and the party was escorted 
back to the ship by the sheriff^'s guard. The trip was made 
w^ithout serious incident, and when the dock was reached all 
that wished to do so went on board, their fare having been 
paid by the subscription, but when 196 had been received 
Capt. Alexander announced that he could not legally take 
any more. This left about 100 on the dock, whose fares 
had been collected and who wished to go. After consider- 
able discussion it was agreed that they should be taken by 
the next steamer, but as this would not sail for several days, 
and as the Chinamen could not be held on the dock mean- 
time, it was resolved to escort them back to the quarters 
from which they had been driven the day previous. 

This was certain to be both a difficult and dangerous 
undertaking. The sheriff had only the Home Guards, a 
small company numbering not more than forty men, and a 
smaller company of cadets from the university to assist him, 
but putting the guards in advance and the cadets in rear, 
with the trembling celestials between them, the return march 
was begun up Main Street toward First Avenue. The 


street was thronged but not crowded, but it soon became 
apparent that the crowd was assembling from all directions. 
It was not generally known, nor was it possible to make it 
known, that an arrangement had been made to send the 
people under guard, out of the city by the next steamer, and 
that they were only being returned to their quarters tempora- 
rily, because there was no other place where they could stay. 
The crowd seemed to think they were being returned to the 
place from which it had driven them, to remain there. Con- 
sequently as the march proceeded the crowd rapidly became 
larger and uglier. When First Avenue was reached it was 
found to be packed with an excited multitude for several 
squares in either direction. Main Street beyond it was 
equally crowded. All were shouting and many were in a 
state bordering on frenzy. 

By the time the advance of the guards had reached the 
middle of First Avenue, it was necessary to push this howling 
mass from their front, in order to advance, and at the East 
line of the street some of the crowd pressed through the line 
and turned the Chinamen back, but the cadets were behind 
them, preventing their retreat, and so they could only march 
around in a circle like so many frightened sheep. It was 
impossible to move them forward, and so a halt was called 
and a line of guards formed across the streets, making a sort 
of square within which w^ere the Chinese who were now so 
thoroughly frightened as to be helpless. There were several 
old soldiers among the guards, who had seen danger before, 
and all acted with great coolness. At the order given their 
guns were loaded with ball cartridges, but no demonstration 
was made about using them. Sheriff McGraw marched up 
and down in front of the line, commanding the crowd to dis- 
perse, and warning everybody not to interfere with the officers 


of the law in the discharge of their sworn duty, but the crowd 
only jeered at and defied him. Some of the noisier members 
now urged the other to make a rush on the guards and 
disarm them, but a mob is not easily moved to united action 
until success is certain. Then it becomes furiously bold. 
It was so in this case. It was not until the guards had held 
their position for some seconds — perhaps minutes, that a 
few of the bolder members of the mob gained courage to 
make something like a rush. Even then it was not a united 
effort, made all along the line, but furtive attacks made in 
only one or two places. One of the first of these was directed 
at E. M. Carr, afterwards brigadier general of militia, but 
then only a private in the Home Guard. It was a most 
unfortunate selection for those who made it, for Carr was 
stoutly built and as courageous as strong. He disposed of 
one or two of the first who approached him, with his fist, 
but when others joined in the attack he clubbed his rifle and 
laid the nearest rioter at full length along the street. This 
discouraged others in the neighborhood and for a time Carr 
was left alone. 

While he was thus engaged the attack became more 
general along the line, and some of the guards, no one knows 
how many, began firing. No order to fire w^as given, but the 
rioters were rapidly becoming so aggressive, that the guards 
or some of them, apparently believed they must use their 
guns or be overpowered. At the first fire one of the noisiest 
and most aggressive rioters, a man named Stewart, fell mor- 
tally wounded, and several others were hurt. Stewart was 
a large powerfully built man and, although mortally wounded 
tried again and again to rise, at the same time cursing the 
guards and calling upon the mob to attack them. But they 
could not be encouraged to do so, and while they delayed the 


two militia companies arrived, and thus reenforced the guards 
were able to hold their ground until the mob gradually dis- 
persed and permitted them to escort the Chinamen to their 
quarters. But this was not done until nearly an hour later, 
during most of which time the soldiers stood with their rifles 
cocked and ready to fire at the first indication of an attack. 

During the shooting a charge of buckshot was fired from 
the west end of the line into the side of the New England 
Hotel, at the northwest corner of First Avenue and Main 
Street, tearing a hole nearly as large as the crown of a man's 
hat in the clapboards. Judge Burke held a place with a 
double-barrelled shotgun in this part of the line, and it was 
for a long time charged that he fired the shot that made 
the hole, though it was afterwards proved that his gun was 
not discharged during the fighting. But somebody drew 
a mark around the hole, and labeled it "Burke's mark, "and 
it remained there for a long time afterwards. 

The man Stewart seems to have had no part in the agita- 
tion, and no relations with the agitators, until he appeared 
in the mob on First Avenue on the day he was wounded. He 
was not a resident of Seattle, but had come to town that morn- 
ing to see the excitement, and like one who " passeth by and 
meddleth with strife not his own," he had fallen into trouble 
from which there was no escape. He and the others who had 
been wounded were carried to express wagons, by which they 
were taken to a hospital. Stewart died on the following day, 
but all the others recovered. 

Finding that the guards would shoot, and shoot to kill, 
the rioters could not again get up courage to make a second 
attack, but they remained for a long time to hurl impotent 
abuse at the militia, the guards and the Chinese. Then 
some of them bethought themselves to invoke the law in their 


own behalf, and warrants were sworn out for Judge Burke, 
Rev. L. A. Banks, E. M. Carr, Frank Hanford and David 
H. Webster, on a charge of shooting with intent to kill. The 
intention was to accuse C. H. Hanford, who was then assist- 
ant United States attorney, and had been among the fore- 
most in upholding the law from the beginning of the agita- 
tion. He had been detained at the wharf in arranging some 
matter with Captain Alexander in regard to the Chinamen 
he had already taken on board, and did not reach First 
Avenue until the shooting was over. He then, at the sheriff's 
solicitation, did what he could with others, to keep the crowd 
from pressing too closely upon the guards, and so provoking 
another volley. He describes the scene as one of intense 
excitement. Several of the rioters were doing their best 
to encourage others to make an attack, but not one of 
them offered to lead it. They were particularly ugly toward 
Judge Burke. "Look at him," they cried, "with that 
double-barrelled shotgun and both barrels cocked. He'll 
hurt somebody yet." It was in fact extremely probable that 
he might hurt somebody, though it happened happily that 
there was no occasion to do so. 

The five warrants which the mob had procured from a 
justice of the peace, were not served until the guards had 
reached the courthouse. A single constable came to make 
the arrests, and he had considerable difficulty in finding the 
Hanford he was after. He met Judge Hanford, who had 
been stationed with a gun to guard the courthouse door, 
but did not recognize him, and finally selected a third brother, 
A. Elwood. This mistake was soon discovered and Frank 
Hanford, for whom the warrant called was arrested. 

When the constable was about to start with his five pris- 
oners for the justice court, it began to be apparent that he 


could never take them there alive, and a general protest 
was made against the attempt. The streets were still filled 
with the rioters. It was almost certain that one officer could 
not defend five prisoners, who were now marked by being 
under arrest, as the persons charged with shooting Stewart, 
and the others who had been wounded. Burke, Banks and 
Carr were particularly hated for the time being. Once in 
the street under arrest and without sufficient protection, 
they were likely to be torn limb from limb. But the con- 
stable was a broad-shouldered and very resolute man, and 
quite confident of his ability to escort them in safety. The 
prisoners, particularly Burke, were quite as willing to go. 
"I have been preaching submission to the law," said he. 
"The time has come to submit, and I shall do so." 

But before a start was made news came down from an 
upper room in the courthouse, where Governor Squire had 
been in consulattion for some hours, with Judge Greene, 
W. H. White the United States Attorney, Colonel Granville 
O. Haller, and other prominent citizens, that martial law 
had been declared, and the functions of all civil officers 
throughout the city suspended. He had also been in tele- 
graphic communication with the president, and General 
Gibbon, and had been encouraged to believe that his pro- 
clamation would be sustained by the national authorities, 
as it was. A staff was promptly organized, the necessary 
orders issued, and within an hour or two the city was com- 
pletely under the control of the militia. On the evening of 
the loth General Gibbon arrived with ten companies of 
United States troops, and they remained for several months, 
until the excitement had entirely passed. 

While the excitement was at its height in Seattle, the 
Chinese were driven out of several towns in King, Pierce and 


Snohomish Counties. An agitation was started in Olympia, 
to expel them from that place, but the prompt action of N. H. 
Owings, who had then been secretary of the territory for 
several years, and of Sheriff Billings, prevented any riotous 
disturbance. A company of about 150 of the law-abiding 
citizens was organized, the command of which was given to 
Captain William McMicken, whose long service during the 
civil war peculiarly fitted him to use such force to good pur- 
pose. Some of the riotously inclined knew that he was not 
a man to be trifled with, and the agitation was soon dropped. 

The five men for whom warrants were sworn out on the 
day of the rioting in Seattle, were subsequently arrested on 
a charge of murder in the first degree, but they were never 
tried. The agitators fought stubbornly to have them sent 
to jail, but even this was not done. They were admitted to 
bail, which all readily furnished, and they were not afterwards 
called upon to answer further. The bitter feeling against 
them, or some of them, continued for a long time, although 
their sole offense was that they had done what they could to 
preserve the peace, uphold the law, and save the multitude 
from injuring themselves. This hatred and bitterness was 
shown in various ways. A shot was fired through one of the 
windows of Judge Hanford's house one evening, but for- 
tunately no one was injured by it. Judge Burke's landlord 
was notified that he must no longer rent his building to him, 
or it would be blown up with dynamite. All were more or 
less annoyed by vicious remarks as they passed through the 
streets, but they did not permit themselves to notice these 
stupid insults, and in time they were heard no longer. 

Most of the leaders of this vicious agitation, particularly 
in Tacoma and Seattle, had no permanent interest in these 
cities. They were mere transients, or if they had hoped to 


ai.t-iftJi^JSSS'JjE.'SXii.', .ji:?^;.!?^.:- - :■-;•!>> 

For nearly sixteen years surveyor-general of Wash- 
ington territory and state. He was born at Youngs- 
town, N. Y., January i, 1827. In 1854 removed to 
Dodge County, Minnesota, and at the commencement 
of the Civil war raised a company for the Tenth Minne- 
sota Regiment, of which he was elected first lieutenant, 
and finally became its captain. He served in the west- 
ern army under Schofield, Rosencrans and Thomas, 
and in the Department of the Gulf under Canby. He 
came to Washington in the employ of the Northern 
Pacific, and helped to build the line from Kalama to 
the Sound. Was appointed surveyor-general in 1873. 
and was reappointed by Presidents Hayes and Arthur 
He was territorial treasurer from r886 to 1887, wh. 
he was again appointed surveyor-general by President 
McKinley, and held the office until his death in 1899. 
He was long prominently identified with the Masonic 
order, the G. A. R. and Loyal Legion. 




- ! a . 


iioiy for 



/en to 

ig the 

tbceertciDgood pur- 

as not 

•.^%S gg>9n,/5ropped. 

iv^ift on the 

ted on 

. hx;^ fehcyrdwere never 

iy to have them sent 

/ were admitted to 

not afterwards 

pi dde 

from s was 

i^hnw of the 

but for- 


..ig to him, 

? were more or 

V J through the 

V. :, to notice these 

d no longer. 

ration, particularly 

It interest in these 

they had hoped to 

^i^t^ k^<-t 


make permanent homes in either city, the hope was soon 
abandoned, and they moved on to new fields where less was' 
known about them. The names of the committees of fifteen 
are now scarcely remembered. One member of the Tacoma 
committee when last heard from, was reported to be working 
for a Chinaman in Honolulu. 

Chapter LVIII. 

LUMBER was the first of the many natural resources 
of Washington to engage the attention of the 
J settlers. It offered them the readiest and most 
obvious means of supplying their temporary wants, 
and besides it was necessary to clear the ground before 
anything could be done with it in an agricultural way. 
Simmons and those who came with him employed their 
first winter at Washougal, as already noted, in making 
shingles for the Hudson's Bay Company, and this employ- 
ment engaged a large share of their time and energy during 
the first years after their arrival on the Sound. 

Long before they came, William Cannon, the old mill- 
wright, who had come to the coast as one of the Astor party, 
had made lumber by more or less crude and unsatisfactory 
methods, for the Hudson's Bay Company, after the head- 
quarters were removed to Vancouver. Doubtless the first 
boards made were whipsawed, as they were long afterwards 
at Fort Nisqually, but, in course of time, some mill machinery 
was brought out from London, and a sawmill was established 
on the north shore of the Columbia, a few miles above the 

The next sawmill was that built by the so-called Puget 
Sound Lumber Company, in which M. T. Simmons, George 
Bush, Jesse Ferguson, A. B. Carnifex, John Kindred, Colonel 
B. F. Shaw, Edmund Sylvester and E. B. Rabbeson were 
interested, and which was, in fact, nothing more than a 
partnership. The mill was built at the lower Tumwater 
Falls, in the winter of 1847, ^"^ '^^ machinery seems to have 
been that first used by the Hudson's Bay Company in its 
mill on the Columbia, and which doubtless had been replaced 
by something better, imported from England. In the follow- 
ing year, 1848, Alexander D. Abernethy and his partner, 


a man named Clark, got a mill started and perhaps com- 
pleted, on the north bank of the Columbia, opposite Oak 
Point. It began operations just about the time the demand 
for lumber from San Francisco began to be pressing, and 
it did a prosperous business for many years. 

Many of the mills in the Sound country, which afterwards 
became most prosperous, were established between 1850 
and 1853. Many smaller concerns like those of DeLin 
and his partners at the head of Commencement Bay, A. T. 
Simmons on Henderson Bay, and Yesler's famous steam 
mill at Seattle, were begun during these years, and several 
of the larger ones were also established. 

Most, and perhaps all, of these mills were supplied with 
logs furnished by the settlers w^ho were clearing their claims. 
Yesler's mill was supplied for a long time by Dr. Maynard, 
A. A. Denny and others, who felled the tall firs and cedars 
that were nearest the mill with their axes, cut them up and 
rolled them with their own hands to the mill, or into the 
bay, so that they could easily be floated to it. In course 
of time it became necessary to employ oxen, and build skid 
roads, when the logs were dragged for a greater distance. 
But millions of feet of lumber, and pile timber, were cut 
and dragged to the mills or to the water by the early settlers, 
with their own hands. In this work, Indians were employed 
to a certain extent, and were made very useful. 

The demand for piles and ship timbers, as well as for 
shingles, began early. The first cargo of piles from the 
Sound was taken in 1846 by the English brig Rosalind. 
They were cut on Anderson Island, and were probably 
taken to Victoria. The first spars of which any mention 
is made were thus cut for the British ship Albion, whose 
seizure before her cargo w^as completed has been described 


in a preceding chapter. The demand for spars, ship knees 
and other special material for shipbuilding, furnished occu- 
pation for many of the settlers for nearly a generation. The 
ship knees were supposed to be cut from fir and spruce 
stumps, both of which made excellent material for that 
purpose, but in time the settlers found that they could be 
much more easily made from the upper part of the tree, 
where the first strong branches left the trunk, and as these 
were frequently accepted as readily as those made from the 
stumps, and were much more easily cut, they were most 
frequently furnished. 

The Hudson's Bay Company appears to have sold the 
earliest shingles made, at the Hawaiian Islands and in Cali- 
fornia, but in time they began to compose a part of the cargo 
of each ship sent annually to England. For the first few- 
years after the settlement north of the Columbia was made, 
more shingles were offered by the settlers than the Company 
could readily find market for, and a considerable stock of 
them was accumulated at Fort Nisqually, where all that the 
settlers ofi^ered were bought, and if they could not be readily 
sold at the time, were carried until the demand for them 
increased. Fortunately for the Company, the rapid growth 
of San Francisco soon furnished a market for all that could 
be supplied, and at a very handsome profit. Nearly all 
of the settlers who arrived on the Sound before 1853 did 
something at one time or another in the way of shaving 
shingles, among them being many of those who afterwards 
became the wealthiest men in the territory, like Dexter 
Horton, A. A. Denny, W. N. Bell, and many others. 

The mill started by J. J. Felt at Appletree Cove, in the 
Avinter of 1852-53, began to cut lumber April 4, 1853. A 
few cargoes were shipped during that and the following 


year, in vessels which Felt himself owned. The mill was 
then sold to George A. Meigs, who moved it to Port Madison, 
where it was burned soon after it was erected, but was im- 
mediately rebuilt. From 1854 to 1861, it did a most pros- 
perous business, and Port Madison came to be one of the 
most thriving towns on the Sound, rivaling and promising 
soon to distance Steilacoom and Olympia. It maintained 
a general store, and also a blacksmith and carpenter shop, 
a brass and iron foundry, and a well-appointed machine 
shop where all kinds of mill and ship work were done. On 
the north side of the bay, nearly opposite the mill, a shipyard 
was established. In succeeding years, vessels carried lumber 
from Port Madison to almost every port in the known world, 
although a very large part of the cut of the mill was sent to 
San Francisco, in the Company's own vessels. The profits 
on this business were enormous at times, lumber selling at 
;i^200, ^300 and ^500 per thousand feet. 

On May 21, 1864, the mill was burned, and it was only 
by the greatest exertions that the vessels at its docks, the 
store and machine shop, and many of the residences of the 
employees were saved. But as had been the case ten years 
earlier, the mill was promptly rebuilt, and was running again 
before the end of the season. 

In 1872, William H. Gawley, who had been engaged in 
the lumber business in San Francisco for a number of years, 
bought an interest in the mill, and the firm became Meigs 
& Gawley, but the new member of the firm soon became 
involved in speculation in mining stocks, and during the 
panic of 1873 the firm became financially embarrassed, and 
was practically wrecked. But Meigs courageously set to 
work as he had done before when disaster overtook him, and 
by 1877 ^^^ reestablished himself, by associating others in 



his undertaking and had organized the Meig's Lumber & 
Shipbuilding Company. This company did a thriving busi- 
ness for several years, but as the demand for lumber varied 
and the mill companies combined to limit the supply, this 
was one of the mills that w^as closed down. As the town 
depended wholly or largely on the mill for the support of 
its inhabitants, it gradually declined and has now practically 

The Puget Mill Company was, at the start, composed of 
W. C. Talbot and A. J. Pope, of San Francisco, and J. P. 
Keller and Charles Foster, of East Machias, Maine. These 
gentlemen had fitted out the schooner Julius Pringle, in 
June, 1853, at San Francisco for a cruise to Puget Sound. 
She was commanded by Captain W. C. Talbot, and among 
her passengers were: Cyrus Walker, Nathaniel and Hill 
Harmon, E. S. White and James White, all of Maine. The 
two last named were millwrights and machinists. They 
arrived at Port Discovery July 14th, where the vessel lay 
for some considerable time, and an exploring party was sent 
out to examine both shores of Admiralty Inlet and select 
a site for the mill. The choice was finally made of the bay 
on the east side of Hood's Canal, near its entrance, which 
Indians called Tekaleet, but to which the mill company 
gave the name of Port Gamble. 

On the 4th of September, 1853, the schooner L. P. Foster, 
Captain Keller, arrived at Port Gamble, 158 days from 
Boston, bringing a cargo of general merchandise and the 
machinery for two steam sawmills, for the company. Cap- 
tain Keller brought his family with him, consisting of his 
wife, a daughter and a son, and was accompanied by Edward 
A. Foster and Edwin Emerson. He immediately began 
the erection of his mill, and by the end of January, 1854, had 


a gang of thirteen saws in operation. By the middle of 
March, a shingle machine had been started, and a few days 
later, the L. P. Foster carried away the first cargo of lumber 
from the new mill. 

It was from this mill that the first cargo of lumber was 
shipped from Puget Sound to Australia. It went on the 
bark Ella Frances, which sailed September i, 1854. 

The Puget Mill Company soon became, and still continues 
to be, one of the most prosperous lumber concerns on the 
Sound. Early in its career, it began to buy timber land, of 
which it could then choose where it wished, and which it 
procured at the government price of ^1.25 to ^2.50 per acre. 
It is now supposed to own more than 100,000 acres, a large 
part of which is the most heavily timbered in the State. 
One-quarter section alone is assessed at $100,000. In 1880 
its annual output of sawed lumber was 36,000,000 feet. 

Captain Keller early retired from the management of the 
company, and Cyrus Walker succeeded him, and still remains 
in control. The mill was for many years one of the largest 
on the Sound, having an average daily output of 220,000 feet. 
In 1876 the company bought the mill at Utsalady, and in 
1878 that at Port Ludlow. The latter then had an average 
daily output of about 150,000 feet. 

In 1853 Captain William Renton and Charles C. Terry 
built a small steam mill at Alki Point, but it was soon moved 
to Port Orchard, and located not far from the present site 
of Bremerton. It began operations some time in 1854, and, 
in July of that year, sent a cargo of lumber to San Francisco 
by the brig Leonesa. Captain Renton continued to operate 
this mill until 1862, w^hen he sold out to Colman & Falk, 
who ran it with success for a considerable time. James M. 
Colman was a practical mill man and in early days was 

One of the most successful pioneer mill men of the 
Sound. Born at Pictou, Nova Scotia, November 2, 
1818. His father Adam Harvey Renton, was a ship- 
master, and died while his son was only a mere child, 
and he obtained most ofliis education from his mother. 
He went to sea wlien only eleven years old, and at 
twenty-three was himself master of a ship. He came 
to California in 1850, and to the Soufi.d in 18 53, where 
he engaged for the lirst time in the business in which 
he afterwards became so successful. ,: From a small 
jDeginning::his business incfeaf^ed until his mill was the 
largest on tlie Sound. nton took a great 

interest in public enterprises ot e rt and did 

much otttside of hir; -milb^r" i"^^'"" t' . .op the terri- 









-/QTyT.-^H MAUJIY/ -^lATqA-J 

V^MfeiH ft*i/t»*t«ftj^tai«ed^fiaid a few days 
"' '^r5?*^[fgo of lumber 

9V9l9 vino narfv/ £92 oJ :tn9w 9H 

ifrtMifea^i BaiJWithi*?rthfe?;fiTst9-pferi^^ lumber was 

a. It .went on the 

i^Bgnei 9/1 

.j.'S^gii c^yed j^5«p«eB*aeiiBi ^ri 854-. 

ii^&^/u)^ -tHf's^' I'continues 

toj^ _ \|y|^oi^,iMin^ef,3^pperns on the 

SoiHii4> 9rii' #«^i^/it» ckaaeareet/titi be^iftY^I><?^b<a)*'5tt«iber land, of 
which it could then choose where it w^isheif,^ and which it 
procured at the government price of $1.25 to j^2.50 per acre. 
It is now supposed to own more than 100,000 acres, a large 
part of which is the most heavily timbered in the State. 
One-quarter section alone is assessed at ^100,000. In 1880 
its annual output of sawed lumber was 36,000,000 feet. 

Captain Keller early retired from the management of the 
company, and Cyrus Walker succeeded him, and still remains 
in control. The mill was for many years one of the largest 
on the Sound, having an average daily output of 220,000 feet. 
In 1876 the company bought the mill at Utsalady, and in 
1878 that at Port Ludlow. The latter then had an average 
daily output of about 150,000 feet. 

In 1853 Captain William Renton and Charles C. Terry 
built a small steam mill at Alki Point, but it was soon moved 
to Port Orchard, and located not far from the present site 
of Bremerton. It began operations some time in 1854, and, 
in July of that year, sent a cargo of lumber to San Francisco 
by the brig Leonesa. Captain Renton continued to operate 
this mill until 1862, when he sold out to Colman & Falk, 
who ran it with success for a considerable time. James M. 
Colman was a practical mill man and in early days was 

-^/^ C_-^-z-?''^^Z/-j- — [J> 


employed to superintend the construction of some of the 
principal mills in the territory. While thus employed he 
introduced many improvements both in the arrangement 
of the mills and in their machinery. Some of the latter were 
very valuable and v^^ould have made a great deal of money 
for him if he had taken pains to apply for patents for them. 
But this, he for a long time neglected to do. It was not until 
a person who had patented one of these devices which he 
had invented, sued him and the company for which he was 
working, for using his own inventions, that he took pains 
thus to protect himself. 

In spite of Colman's skill as a mill builder and manager, 
his firm became involved in difficulties. Falk retired and 
A. K. P. Glidden acquired his interest. The mill was rebuilt 
and considerably improved about 1868 or 1869, but the 
lumber business was not then prosperous and the company 
was overtaken by disaster. Vexatious suits were begun, the 
vessels and other property of the company were seized and 
sold at great sacrifice. Early in 1870, the mill was burned 
and thus one of the pioneer industries of the Sound came 
to an inglorious end. 

Meantime, Captain Renton, who had gone to San Fran- 
cisco after selling out his interest in this mill, returned to 
the Sound, bringing with him boilers, engines and machinery 
for a new mill, which he located at Port Blakely, and not 
far from the point where Vancouver had anchored his ves- 
sels, and from which he sent out the two exploring parties 
which discovered Commencement Bay and Puget Sound. 
Here, after taking soundings with a piece of iron attached 
to a clothesline he set to work to build a mill with a daily 
capacity of about 50,000 feet, and at a cost of ^80,000. It 
began cutting lumber in April 1864, and its first cargo was 


sent to San Francisco in the bark Nahumkeag, in that year. 
Its capacity was gradually enlarged from year to year, until 
in 1878 or 1879, its average capacity was 20,000,000 feet 
per annum. In 1868, the firm became Renton, Smith & 
Company, and in 1874, Renton, Holmes & Company, C. S. 
Holmes, who had been bookkeeper for the captain since 
1858, being admitted to the partnership in that year. In 
1 88 1, the business was incorporated as the Port Blakely 
Mill Company. 

The old plant was burned in 1888, but the work of rebuild- 
mg was begun while the ashes of the old mill were still hot, 
and in just five months, to a day, from the time the old mill 
took fire, a new one was cutting lumber on the same site. 

This company, like the Puget Mill Company, began to 
buy timber lands in considerable quantity soon after it 
began business, and in time became one of the largest land- 
owning concerns in the territory, or state. In the early '80s 
it built a logging railroad in Mason County, from salt water 
westward into the Chehalis Valley. The company also 
early bought lands near the town of Seattle, which have long 
since been included within the corporate limits of that city, 
and are now immensely valuable. 

A mill of considerable capacity, for its time, began opera- 
tions at Seabeck, on the east side of Hood's Canal, nearly 
opposite the entrance to Dahop Bay, in 1857. It was built 
by J. R. Williamson, W. J. Adams, W. B. Sinclair and Hill 
Harmon. The boilers and machinery for this mill were 
bought at second-hand in San Francisco. It had a daily 
capacity of 50,000 feet, and its output was nearly all shipped 
abroad. It did a prosperous business for several years. 
These large milling concerns, the Puget Mill Company, the 
Renton Company, both at Port Blakely and at Port Orchard, 



the Port Madison Company, and the mill at Seabeck were 
all in Kitsap County, one of the smallest in area in the 
territory, but they made it one of the most populous of all 
the counties at that time. From 1857 to 1864 it was repre- 
sented by two members in the lower house of the legislature, 
while King County had but one. Pierce only two, and Thurs- 
ton, Clark and Walla Walla, then the most populous coun- 
ties, three each. 

W. P. Sayward and J. R. Thorndike selected Port Lud- 
low on the west shore of Admiralty Inlet, near the entrance 
of Hood's Canal, as an advantageous site for a sawmill in 
1853. They arrived there with their mill machinery and 
a considerable stock of goods of various sorts on July 30th 
of that year. Within two months after their arrival they had 
their first mill in operation. It had a capacity of from 
3,000 to 4,000 feet per day. It was gradually enlarged, and 
in 1858, was leased to Amos Phinney & Company, at a 
monthly rental of 1^500. In 1866 this firm failed, but 
Phinney reestablished himself, and in 1874 bought the mill 
and organized the Port Ludlow Mill Company. He died 
in 1874 and the property was sold to the Puget Mill Com- 
pany for ^64,000. The new owners enlarged and improved 
the mill, and in 1885 it had become a very important factor 
in the lumber industry of the Sound. It was accessible from 
the ocean, and there was a large amount of very excellent 
timber tributary to it. Some time after the Puget Mill 
Company took possession, Cyrus Walker, its manager, 
removed to, and made his home at Port Ludlow, where he 
gradually increased the capacity of the mill to 150,000 feet 
per day. 

In the winter of 1857-8, the frame for a sawmill was 
erected at Utsalady at the north end of Camano Island. As 


in other new mills, its frame was composed of hewn logs. 
The mill began sawing in February 1858, a few months 
before the rush of gold hunters to the Eraser River began. 
In 1869, Thomas Cranney, who had been interested in the 
enterprise from the beginning, became its sole owner. Later 
Cranney took in a partner named Chisholm, and in 1873, 
the firm became Cranney & Chisholm. The latter was lost 
at sea in November, 1875, by the sinking of the steamer 

Cranney had begun getting out spars on Camano Island, 
for shipment abroad, in 1855, and for a time a man named 
Thompson was associated with him. The work required 
a considerable skill and much patience, for it is not an easy 
thing to fell a tree 250 feet high in such a way that 100 feet 
or more of its trunk shall not be broken or shattered. Then 
it is a difficult matter to get so long a timber to the w^ater, 
and put it on board ship. The tree must be carefully felled 
and transported with equal care, and this requires that a 
road shall be cleared and leveled, and possibly at some points 
along the line bridges must be built before the timber is 
moved. A spar 100 or 125 feet in length, and from 35 to 
50 inches in diameter at the stump end, weighs from 15 to 
20 tons, and in early days, when no logging machinery was 
used or invented, was moved with no little difficulty. But 
Cranney did a considerable business for several years in 
getting out spars of this kind, during which time he loaded 
several ships with cargoes that went to nearly every ship- 
building country in the world. In 1856 the Dutch ship 
Williamsberg took away more than 100 spars from 80 to 
120 feet long. The French bark Anadyr took away a similar 
cargo in 1855 for a shipyard at Brest. In August, 1866, 
Grennan & Cranney cut a flagstaff 150 feet long, 24 inches 


in diameter at the stump end, and ii inches at the top, 
and sent it by the ship Belmont to Paris, for the exposition 
held there in 1867. The stick was 200 feet long and without 
a blemish, when it was felled, but the ship could not carry 
a timber of that length, and fifty feet of it had to be sacrificed. 
Governor Pickering took a lively interest in this undertaking, 
and, in his message to the legislature in the following Decem- 
ber, gave Mr. Cranney sole credit for originating and carrying 
out this plan "of sending our native-grown national flagstaff 
from the territory of Washington to the world's greatest 
fair ever held on earth," and thus feelingly and floridly 
expressed his regret at the necessity for sacrificing its top- 
most fifty feet. "Thus it will be impossible to convey to 
the hundreds and thousands and millions who will congre- 
gate in Paris between March ist to December, 1867, a fine 
idea of the magnitude of our timber trees, but shorn of its 
fair proportions as it is, by its being shortened full fifty feet, 
the glorious flag of our beloved country will float from its 
top, to the admiration of all visitors, far above the emblem 
and banners of any other nation." 

In 1876 the mill at Utsalady was sold to the Puget Mill 
Company, by which it was operated until 1890, or later, 
when it was closed down. 

J. R. Williamson sold out his interest in the mill at Seabeck 
to his partners Adams and Blinn, and together with Captain 
Plummer, of San Francisco, and Charles Phillips, of Whidby 
Island, built a mill on the west shore of Elliott Bay, near where 
the ferryhouse now stands, with a capacity of about 50,000 
per day. It began operations in the summer of 1864. As 
usual, a little village grew up about it, which was called 
Freeport. The mill was destroyed by fire in April, 1867, but 
was rebuilt and began operations during the following year. 


A mill was built at Port Discovery in 1858-9 by S. L. 
Mastick & Company, of San Francisco, It had an annual 
capacity of about 6,000,000 feet, which was afterwards 
doubled and trebled. In 1874 its cut amounted to 18,000,000 
feet. It has long since gone out of business. 

In 1863 David Livingston built a small mill, with a capacity 
of 10,000 to 12,000 feet per day, on Snohomish River, about 
three miles above its mouth. Livingston also had a little 
steamer with which he used to tow logs, and also to deliver 
lumber to the settlers on and near the river, which for 
several years consumed the entire output of the mill, in 
building and improving their early homes. 

A mill was also built at the mouth of Whatcom Creek on 
Bellingham Bay, in the winter of 1852-3, by the firm of 
Roeder & Peabody. It made a good deal of money for 
its owners during the twenty years of its existence. It was 
burned in 1873, and later a much larger mill, using steam- 
power, was erected on its site. 

In the winter of 1853-4 Tobin, Fanjoy and Eaton built 
a small water-power mill on Black River just below the 
mouth of Cedar River. It had two circular saws and began 
operations in February, 1854, but it was not advantageously 
located and never did a profitable business. In 1855 Fanjoy 
and Eaton were attracted by the reports of the discovery of 
gold at Fort Colvile, and were among the first to start across 
the mountains for that point, and were both killed by the 

In October, 1 868, Charles Hansen and John W. Ackerson, 
of San Francisco, selected a site for and built a sawmill on 
the west shore of Commencement Bay, near a little town 
known at that time as Commencement City. The mill 
prospered from its start and in time became one of the largest 


on the Sound. For many years there was a sharp competition 
between this mill and that at Port Blakely, as to which had 
the greater capacity. When orders favorable for the purpose 
were received at either mill, it would be pushed to its fullest 
capacity for a working day, all its employees taking the 
keenest possible interest in the result, and if a few thousand, 
or even a few hundred feet more were cut than the previous 
high record, the fact would soon be known in every mill 
town and logging camp along the Sound, as well as in all 
the lumber markets on the coast. When one mill thus beat 
the best record formerly made by the other, there was no 
rest until it was again excelled, and so these two mills were 
upon occasion pressed to their fullest capacity until the 
record finally stood at or near 250,000 feet per day. 

During all these early years of the lumber industry in the 
Sound country, all the logs were cut with axes and hauled 
to the mills, or to the water, where they were made into rafts, 
by oxen. It was not until sometime in the '70s, or perhaps 
in the '80s that saws began to be used for felling trees. In 
all the mills in these days circular saws were used, except 
in the gangs. Some of these saws were the largest made, 
and the larger ones, which were nearly six feet in diameter, 
cut a kerf one-half inch in width through the log. An 
immense portion, particularly of the larger logs, thus went 
into sawdust. It was not until late in the '80s that band 
saws began to be used, and greater economy was practised. 

The first loggers cut the timber that was nearest the 
water, without regard to who its owners were, unless they 
were on the ground. So it happened that much land was 
denuded of its marketable timber, while it was still owned 
by the government. But as no mill would then accept 
logs that were not sixteen inches or more in diameter at the 


small end, much was left standing that in most lumbering 
countries would be regarded as very valuable. Even after 
all the pile timber had been cut out of this, there was still 
left a growth that soon became merchantable, and gave the 
ground an appearance, to those unacquainted with our 
forests, of still being covered v/ith its original growth. 

The loggers early found that they could save themselves 
much labor by cutting the trees ten or twelve feet above the 
ground. The bolls, particularly of the larger fir trees, are 
covered with a tough bark, from eight to twelve inches thick 
at the bottom, and the wood of the stump is also so thoroughly 
impregnated with gum as to be very heavy, and very hard 
to cut. The choppers found that by standing on short 
springboards, prepared for the purpose, and inserted in 
notches cut in the stump, they could get above this gummy 
wood and tough bark. By standing on these boards their 
breasts and shoulders were also saved from much of the 
shock caused by striking their axes into the wood, and so, 
while axes were used, much good timber was left in the 
stumps. These tall stumps gave newcomers the impression, 
for many years, that the timber had been cut in the winter, 
when the ground was covered with deep snow. Some were 
so confident that this was the case, that they refused to accept 
the true explanation when it was given them, preferring to 
believe until convinced by the actual experience of a winter 
or two in the territory, that the story was told them to con- 
ceal the fact that its winters were of the true hyperborean 

Our forests not only suffered from the lavish wastefulness 
of those who first began to reap the rich harvest which they 
offered, but fire also did much damage in them, during these 
and many succeeding years. But it is customary to blame 


these early loggers and the settlers for more damage than they 
really did. Doubtless the loggers were careless enough, 
and many of the settlers would have been glad to find more 
expeditious ways, if they could, to destroy millions of feet 
of the tallest and straightest fir, cedar and hemlock trees in 
the world, because they simply encumbered the ground and 
prevented them from cultivating it. They felled as many 
of them together as they could, and set fire to them by as 
many difierent means as they could invent, and in as many 
different places as possible, and still they made progress 
very slowly. Even when the brush heaps left by the loggers 
and pile-cutters caught fire during the dry summer months, 
and the flames were communicated to the standing timber 
in their vicinity, a great amount of damage was rarely done. 

Neither the settlers nor the lumbermen were responsible 
for all the fires in our forests, the evidence of which is still 
visible. There were fires that did much damage, measured 
by present-day values, long before either came to the country. 
"The Journal of Occurrences" kept at Fort Nisqually 
shows that there were great fires in the timber in August, 
1835, and in October, 1836, or ten years before the first 
Americans arrived.* 

It was not possible to take any effective measures to make 
defense against these fires until the State was admitted, and 
even then it took a good deal of time to organize the means 
that were to be used. As the mill companies increased their 

*"The country around us is all on fire, and the smoke is so great 
that we are in a measure protected from the excessive heat, " is the entry 
for August 14, 1835. That for October i, 1836, says: "The weather 
is gloomy from the smoke around us," and on the i8th the entry is: 
"The country around us is all on fire." During both these years the 
fires continued for nearly a month, during a large part of which time the 
smoke was so thick as to nearly hide the sun during days together. 

364 Rise and Progress of an American State 

holdings of standing timber, they did what could be done to 
lessen the danger. The loggers were required to burn the 
tree tops and other wreckage they left behind them, when 
they could do so with least danger, and to see to it that the 
fires thus kindled were not allowed to spread beyond control. 
The counties established certain police regulations, which 
were enforced with more or less vigor, and by these and 
other means the amount of damage is gradually lessened 
year by year. But the actual annual loss is still greater 
than it should be. 

Chapter LIX. 

THE children of the early settlers in Washington, 
like those of the early settlers elsewhere, had but 
scant opportunity to attend school. The first 
school houses were log cabins, furnished with 
rude desks built against the walls on tw^o or sometimes three 
sides, and rude benches made of puncheons, or sometimes 
of sawed lumber. In these rude school houses a teacher 
was generally employed for three or four months during the 
winter; usually there was no summer term. Frequently 
the teachers could do little more than furnish instruction in 
reading, spelling, writing and arithmetic. Sometimes the 
preacher, if there was one in the neighborhood, was em- 
ployed, and people then thought themselves fortunate in 
having a man of so much learning to instruct their children. 
In the towns private schools often furnished the larger part of 
the educational advantages. The Catholic priests frequently 
started schools in which they were themselves the teachers 
for a time, until they could procure lay brethren, or the 
sisters of some order to take charge of them. Such was the 
beginning of some of the institutions, which are now the 
pride of that church in the state. The other denominations 
also started schools in a modest way, and one of these, Whit- 
man College at Walla Walla, founded by Rev. Cushing 
Eells, one of Whitman's associates, is now one of the fore- 
most institutions in Washington, if not of the coast. 

The books used in these early schools were of many kinds, 
and prepared by almost as many authors as there were chil- 
dren to use them. Often they had served for their parents, 
when they went to school, for school books in those days 
rarely went out of date. Fathers and mothers had found 
them good enough in their time; why should'nt they be good 
enough for another generation f 


The famous legislature of 1853-4 framed a school law — or 
rather Judges Lander, Monroe and Strong framed it, and 
the legislature accepted and enacted it, and like most of the 
acts so framed at that session, it proved quite sufficient for 
several years. 

School superintendents were elected in most of the coun- 
ties, but they generally rendered but little service. They 
were required by law to visit the schools in their counties, 
at least once each year, and to make reports to be filed in 
the office of the governor, and, if convenient, to publish 
them in some newspaper for the information of the public, 
but Acting Governor McGill, in his message to the legisla- 
ture in i860, had complained that this requirement seemed 
to be wholly disregarded. Rev. Gushing Eells was one of 
the early superintendents in Whitman County, but he at- 
tended to the duties of the office most punctiliously, as was 
his custom in everything. There were forty or fifty school 
districts in the county, and he thought it his duty to visit 
every one of them. He traveled from school to school on 
horseback, carried with him some food, and a little grain 
for his horse, and they often lunched together and sometimes 
slept together, while on these official trips, for it often hap- 
pened that people were not prepared to furnish him a bed, 
and in such cases he either slept out of doors, or on some hay 
in the barn or shed which sheltered his horse. It was not 
until 1872 that a territorial superintendent was provided 
for, and Rev. Nelson Rounds was appointed. 

By the organic act creating the territory, Congress had set 
apart two townships of land for a university, and this was 
regarded as a fairly munificent endowment in that day. So 
important did an institution thus provided for seem likely 
to become, that like the capital and the penitentiary, several 


Bom in Crawford County, Pennsylvania, September 
4, 1818. He married Susannah P. Whipple in August 
1840, and removed to Illinois. In 1842 he became a 
minister in the Methodist church. In 1852 he crossed 
the plains to Oregon, and in i860 he removed to Seattle, 
where he immediately took an active interest in the 
founding and upbuilding of the territorial, now the 
state, university. 



'''''' ^,i ., r- ' V'-- 3ftan«edia4School law— or 

;!P S^foiS^^ framed it, and 

iliiiviiiaitk .cixi8aj®djk«i3fl|4x#ke most of the 

u 'jit^^geis?;' ^^ ^'^Mi^iffrfke sufficient for 

i To §ntB, bns §mhni;oi 

ttendents were elected in most of the coun- 

t rally rendered but little service. They 

1 by law to visit the schools in their counties, 

;: !ce each year, and v»ke reports to be filed in 

of the governor, and, if convenient, to publish 

me newspaper for the information of the public, 

; Governor McGill, in his message to the legisla- 

had complained that this requirement seemed 

arded. Rev. Cushing Eells was one of 

nts in Whitman County, but he at- 

of the office most p )usly, as was 

There were fort school 

nd he thought it his db t 

He traveled from school to school on 

rried -me food, and a little grain 

rher and sometimes 

/ s, for it often hap- 

to furnish him a bed. 

i^oors, or on some hay 

: which ^ 

horse. It was not 


dent was provided 

" Round 



. . y, Congress had set 

■ ^ i-v^ 

" diversity, and this was 

d as a . 

ment in that day. So 

^*^ did 3- 

...... jiovided for seem likely 

that >i». 

^' and the penitentiary, several 



of the towns were anxious to have it located in their neigh- 
borhood. In the winter of 1854-5 the legislature located it 
at Seattle, but provided for a branch at Boisfort, to which 
one of the townships of land was assigned for its support. 
But this was manifestly such a bad arrangement, that it was 
set aside by the legislature of 1857-8, and the university and 
its branch were reunited and located at Cowlitz Farms. 

But nothing was done to construct buildings, or get the 
institution started under either of these acts. At the next 
session the fight to remove the capital to Vancouver was 
begun, and the university became an important element 
in it. Mr. A. A. Denny was a member of all the legisla- 
tures in which this war was waged, and as he was leaving 
Seattle for Olympia in i860, Rev. Daniel Bagley said 
to him that if he could get the university located at Seattle, 
and have him appointed commissioner, with power to sell 
the lands given it, he would get the buildings so well started 
before the legislature met again, that it would be difficult 
to remove it. This Denny succeeded in doing. But by this 
time it had been made a condition that the town securing 
the capital or the penitentiary should give the territory ten 
acres of land as a site for it, and the same condition was 
now made with regard to the university. Denny met this 
demand by promising that the ten acres should be provided, 
and he subsequently gave something more than eight acres 
of it himself, while Charles C. Terry and Judge Lander 
gave the remainder. Daniel Bagley, John Webster and 
Edmund Carr were named as commissioners, and Bagley 
became chairman of the board with full powers. 

The ground devoted for the institution is now near the 
busiest part of Seattle and seems likely to become, at no 
distant day, its business centre. At that time it was covered 


by a forest so dense that the surveyors could hardly get 
through it. The town was a straggling hamlet. Its site 
had only been cleared as far north as Columbia Street, and 
as far east as Third Avenue. The first step therefore in 
building the university was to get its site cleared, and this 
was done by contracting with Hillory Butler, L. B. Andrews, 
Lemuel J. Holgate, C. B. Bagley, James J. Crow, Ira Wooden 
and others to clear from half an acre to an acre each, and 
take land when money could not be provided, in payment. 
The work was begun early in March 1861, and was com- 
pleted in about two months. The clearing cost from $275 
to ^317 per acre, the contractors counting their time at from 
;$2.50 to ^4 per day. 

There was much grumbling at the time because the site 
was so far from town, and so hidden by the woods, and in 
order to remedy this difficulty somewhat, the ground lying 
beAveen it and the bay was cleared as rapidly as it could 
be done, so that people approaching from the bay — and all 
people came to Seattle from that direction in those days — 
could see that the university was really located there. 

The price of government land at that time was ;^i.25 per 
acre and there was no lack of it, but the law provided that 
the university lands must not be sold for less than $1.50 per 
acre. This might seem to have been difficult to do, but 
Bagley managed by making judicious selection, to make 
sales at the higher price. He could furnish title more 
promptly than the government did, and this was a strong 
point in his favor. He could also select lands that were 
desired by the mill companies, and watching carefully for 
opportunities of that kind, he procured money enough, by 
the time the site was cleared, to begin building. During 
1 86 1 and the early part of 1862 a general school building. 


a boarding house, and a house for the president were finished, 
and the university of Washington Territory was formally 
opened, with Asa Mercer as principal, in the fall of the last 
named year. It was little more than a fair public school 
at first, but year by year it advanced until it became an 
institution of recognized standing. Its first class was grad- 
uated in 1876, and since then there have been graduates 
every year, 

Mr. Bagley was for many years much criticised for selling 
the university lands, and using the money received from 
them to build temporary buildings, and to pay the current 
expenses of the institution. Committees from the legislature 
were sent to make investigations. Wise people said that 
the lands should have been reserved until the territory or 
state became more thickly settled, when they would be more 
valuable. Similarly it might have been contended that they 
should have been held until all the timber in the state had 
been sawed and sent to market, when they would bring 
almost any price that could be asked. Had such a policy 
been pursued the timber might have burned before it was 
sold, and the university left with nothing. The fact is there 
was most urgent need to get the institution started at the 
earliest moment. Had it not been started when it was a 
generation might have grown up with very slender advan- 
tages for education, and the territory would have lost more 
than the lands would ever be worth. Our common school 
system in i860 was very far from being what it is today. A 
generous government did not then assign two sections of 
land in every township to the support of schools, nor would 
such a thmg as the appropriation of 100,000 acres each for 
a scientific school, and a normal school, 90,000 acres for an 
agricultural college, and seventy-two sections for a university, 


as was done by the enabling act, have been thought of. 
Ten years earlier members of Congress were doubting 
whether they had not been too generous in giving to every 
settler who would go with his family 2,000 miles through a 
wilderness to get it, 640 acres if he would reside upon it for 
four years. The public lands were supposed to be the 
nations most valuable heritage, and the economists of that 
day feared that it would never be possible to pay a national 
debt of $65,000,000 and protect the national honor, unless 
all government land was sold to the highest bidder. 

By the time the university lands were selected and ready 
for sale a new difficulty had appeared, and it caused Mr. 
Bagley a great deal of trouble. The money principally used 
on the coast was gold and silver, but the legal tender notes 
issued by the government during the war were obtainable, 
and some purchasers were shrewd enough to offer them m 
payment. As they were legal tender Mr. Bagley was com- 
pelled to receive them at their face value, although they were 
constantly depreciating. His accounts easily got into con- 
fusion in this way. Money received at 100 cents on the dollar 
often did not pass current at 75 or even 50. 

Mr. Bagley's accounts rendered in 1862 were made the 
subject of considerable controversy during several years, 
and finally the legislature in 1876 appointed a committee 
to give them a thorough examination. This committee 
went carefully over the books, and made a report vindicating 
Mr. Bagley's management of affairs, and recommendmg 
that he be paid out of the territorial treasury for two years' 
service, for which he had received no compensation, in addi- 
tion to a balance of $814.76 found to be his due. 

If there was ever any occasion for regret because the uni- 
versity lands were sold so early, and at such a low price, it 


has long since passed away. The ten acres originally donated 
as a site for it have vastly increased in value during recent 
years, and will some day make the institution one of the most 
richly endowed in the country. It already enjoys a consider- 
able income from ground rents, derived from this property. 
Buildings of modern construction, ten and twelve stories 
in height, have been built on it, and others are building. 
The ground on which they stand has been leased to the 
builders, at a varying rental to be fixed by appraisement at 
stated periods, and at the expiration of the leases the buildings 
become the property of the university. If the city and coun- 
try continue to prosper, as they have prospered during recent 
years, as it seems probable they will, any estimate of the value 
of this property that might seem ridiculously high at the 
present time, is likely to be ridiculously low in fifty years 

Whitman College at Walla Walla has had a curious and 
interesting history. It was founded by Rev. Cushing Eells 
in 1859, in the hope that it would become a fitting monument 
to the name and fame of his friend and associate, and his 
heroic wife. The hope has already been fully realized, for 
the institution is one of the most notable in the Pacific 

After Eells and Walker were forced to leave Eastern Wash- 
ington, both went to the Willamette Valley, where they 
engaged in teaching as well as church work for several 
years. But Eells nourished a longing to return to the scene 
of his early labors, to renew his missionary work there and 
to establish a school. Soon after the country was declared 
open to settlement, following Wright's successful campaign, 
he made the journey up the Columbia to Waiilatpu on horse- 
back. A. B. Roberts, who had been in Kelly's fight with 


the Indians on the Walla Walla, accompanied him, or fell 
in with him on the way, and to him as they followed the 
dusty way along the river bank, or sat together about their 
camp fire in the evening, Eells imparted his hopes and plans. 
He aspired to found a school that would sometime grow to 
be a great institution of learning. It would bear the name 
of his murdered friends, and perpetuate the memory of their 
virtues, their labors, and their heroic devotion to the work 
they had undertaken. 

The enterprise seemed at that time to have but little pros- 
pect of success. There were no white people in that region, 
or within several hundred miles of it in every direction, except 
a few of the Hudson's Bay people. The Indians, he well 
knew, would furnish but little hopeful material for educa- 
tional purposes. It did not seem probable that the country 
would soon be settled. He had tried and failed to get help 
for the enterprise from the missionary board and friends in 
the east. Nevertheless this optimistic old man was resolved 
to do what he could do alone to found a school, and trust in 
God to provide it with pupils. 

Arrived in the valley he paid a visit to the unmarked grave 
in which the victims of the massacre rested, and there, as 
he afterward said, he believed that the power of the Highest 
came upon him, and he was more resolved than he ever had 
been, to go on with the work. During the winter of 1859-60, 
with the help of Hon. J. C. Smith, he secured a charter for 
Whitman Seminary, from the territorial legislature. In the 
spring he borrowed a yoke of oxen, and with his own horses 
and wagon, removed with his family to Walla Walla, where 
they arrived March 26th. Meantime he had offered the 
American Board of Commissioners for foreign missions, a 
thousand dollars for the section of land which it had required 


under the Donation Act because Whitman had once lived 
on it. 

During that year the gold mines in Idaho were discovered, 
and the rush of gold hunters through the valley began. Walla 
Walla was founded and soon became a thriving tov^n, making 
the prospect for his school quite hopeful. In December of 
that year the first meeting of the trustees of Whitman Semi- 
nary was held, and Mr. Eells was chosen president of the 
board, a position he held until the close of his long and useful 

Originally the plan had been to build the seminary on the 
site of Whitman's Station, but this in time was abandoned, 
as it was evidently more desirable to establish it at Walla 
Walla. It was not until November 1864, five years after 
the charter was granted, that some actual progress was made 
toward establishing and opening the school. Dr. Dorsey 
S. Baker donated a site consisting of four acres, which he 
afterwards increased to something more than six acres, in 
the immediate vicinity of the town, and a building forty-six 
feet long by twenty feet wide, and two stories high was 
erected during the following summer. It was dedicated 
and opened to students on Saturday, October 13, 1865. 
School was opened on October 15th, with Rev. P. B. Cham- 
berlain as principal and Misses M. A. Hodgdon and E. W. 
Sylvester as assistants. In March Chamberlain resigned, 
and there being no one else to carry on the work, Mr. Eells 
assumed it himself and conducted it until June 1869. 

In the meantime, in June 1867, he had been elected superin- 
tendent of schools for Walla Walla County, which then em- 
braced an area nearly as large as Massachusetts. With his 
accustomed devotion to duty he visited every school in this 
wide area, though he did not altogether neglect his duties 


as principal of the seminary. " It was a severe and strength- 
taxing toil for him," says his son and biographer, "to board 
at home six miles distant, or to board himself at the seminary, 
teach school five days in the week, spend his Saturdays 
largely in attending to the county school business, and his 
vacations in visiting schools." Yet he did the latter so 
faithfully that the county commissioners willingly raised his 
salary from ^25 a year, the pay of his predecessor, to $500 per 
year, which was the highest legal limit. " 

It was difficult from the first to obtain money to support 
the school even in a most economical way. It was burdened 
with debt at the beginning. The cost of the buildings had 
exceeded expectations, and some of the subscriptions had 
not been paid. To discharge this debt Mr. Eells gave the 
seminary one half of the Whitman Mission claim, and the 
trustees tried to sell it for $2,000 but did not succeed. As 
money could be borrowed only at the rate of from one to 
two per cent, a month, it was evident that it must be secured 
from some other source, or the institution would be ruined. 
Accordingly Mr. Eells went to work to pay the debt himself. 
He had his farm, some stock and his salary as school superin- 
tendent, and by selling what he could spare he applied the 
proceeds to pay interest and gradually lessen the principal. 
Mrs. Eells, although then more than fifty-seven years of age, 
had made four hundred pounds of butter during the summer, 
which was sold and the proceeds applied to the same 


When Mr. Eells had obtained all the outstanding notes, 
which, with accumulated interest amounted to $2,900 he 
offered to surrender them to the trustees in exchange for the 
half section of land which he had given the seminary, and 
which they had been unable to sell for $2,000. This offer 


was accepted, and as some slighting remarks were made 
about this transaction, he resolved to answer them, if the 
opportunity should ever occur, by giving a fair share of the 
profit, if any thould ever be made out of it, to the seminary, 
and this resolution he carried out in 1872, when he sold the 
land for ^8,000 of which he gave ;^i,ooo to the seminary and 
another thousand to the American Education Society. 

For a number of years the institution had a very precarious 
existence. Sometimes there was no school held in the build- 
ding, because the trustees could not raise money to pay 
teachers. Sometimes teachers of standing were allowed to 
use the building for a school conducted at their own risk. 

From 1882 to 1891 Dr. A. J. Anderson was president, and 
during his administration some money was raised in the east, 
but not enough to entirely relieve the seminary from its em- 
barrassment. It was not until Mr. Eells himself went to 
the aid of those who were soliciting for it, that it finally began 
to be established on a firm financial basis. 

Largely through the efforts of Mr. Eells the American 
College and Education Society of Boston was induced to 
place Whitman College on its list of institutions to be helped, 
and it has already made several contributions to its support. 
Dr. D. K. Pearson of Chicago, has also given it $150,000 upon 
conditions which have secured for it considerable assistance 
from other sources. Mrs. Frederick Billings, widow of one 
of the former presidents of the Northern Pacific Railroad, has 
built a boys' dormitory, known as Billings' Hall, and a girls' 
dormitory has been built by Dr. Pearson. Residents in 
Walla Walla are proud of the institution and have contributed 
liberally to its endowments. 

The college confers four degrees: Bachelor of Arts, Bach- 
elor of Science, Bachelor of Letters, and Bachelor of Music. 


Its graduates are accepted as candidates for the masters 
degree in one year by several American universities. 

At the close of the territorial period there were a number 
of thrivino^ schools and colleges in Washington, some of which 
were beginning to be well known all along the Coast. In 
his final report Governor Moore mentioned the following: 
The Annie Wright Seminary at Tacoma, which had been 
liberally endowed by Mr. C. B. Wright, who was for many 
years president of the Tacoma Land Company. It was 
under the supervision and control of the Protestant Episcopal 

Puget Sound Academy, at Coupville, in Island County, 
was a Congregational school, and growing into popularity 
in the lower part of the Sound district. 

The Northwest Normal School at Lynden was particu- 
. larly designed for the education of teachers. 

The Olympia Collegiate Institute was in a prosperous 
condition, at the capital. It was under the charge of the 
Methodist Episcopal Conference of Puget Sound. 

The Chehalis Valley Academy was a Presbyterian school, 
at Montesano, in Chehalis County. 

Holy Angels College, at Vancouver, was a Catholic school 
for boys, and one of the oldest institutions in the North- 

Waitsburgh Academy was a thriving school at Waits- 

Washington Academy, at Huntsville, was under the aus- 
pices of the United Brethren. 

Spokane College, at Spokane Falls, was a Methodist 
Episcopal school. 


There was at Walla Walla a thriving; business school. 
The Sisters of the Catholic orders, had prosperous schools 

at Olympia, Vancouver, Seattle, Walla Walla, Yakima, and 


The convent of the Sisters of Providence, at Vancouver, 
was in 1889 probably the largest school building in Wash- 
ington. It was a boarding and day school for girls. 

Chapter LX. 

A TIME came at last when Congress could 
no longer postpone the demand of the far away 
territory for full membership in the family of 
States. It's call for recognition, so feeble at 
first that it was scarcely heard across the broad continent 
until Mr. Madison's time, had grown steadily louder and 
more persistent. It had been easy to neglect, and even ignore 
it in the time of Floyd and Bayles, when it only asked to be 
recognized as a part of the sole property of the United States, 
and not a thing jointly owned with Great Britain; it had 
been more difficult in Lynn and Benton's time, and when 
the missionaries with their brides, and the hardy settlers from 
Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Kentucky and other border states, 
had taken their wives and their little ones across two thousand 
miles of treeless waste and pathless wilderness, to assert the 
nation's rights in the very presence of a foreign autocrat, 
who had so easily kept Wyeth and Bonneville and their 
armed supporters at bay, our senators and representatives 
in the cushioned luxury of the National Capital, gathered 
courage to give them their approval. 

When the stout-hearted settlers had organized a govern- 
ment of their own, so wisely planned as to command the 
approval of the authorities in Washington, and at the same 
time to supplant and include the other government which 
had long controlled under authority from an adverse foreign 
power, and a new and even bolder company of pioneers had 
pushed their way northward from the Columbia, and fixed 
their residence firmly on the shores of Puget Sound, it was 
easier than it had been before for the National Administra- 
tion to assert, and Congress to approve, what both had here- 
tofore only claimed in language scrupulously diplomatic or 
parliamentary in form, that the 49th parallel was, and of 


right ought to be the permanent boundary. With this long 
disputed matter finally and forever settled, the organization of 
a territorial government naturally follov^ed, and a few years 
later the creation of a second, and then a third territory, 
out of w^hat was once the Columbia River and later the 
Oregon country, was easily arranged. 

But there matters rested again. The Civil War recon- 
struction, the resumption of specie payments, and trans- 
continental railroad building absorbed public attention. 
The west advanced steadily and even rapidly. Washington, 
its richest and remotest part, earliest began to claim, and then 
to urgently demand recognition of its right to statehood. 
Its legislators planned and worked according to the light that 
was in them. Its governors — Ferry among the first — urged 
the matter in their annual reports to the Interior Department, 
in their correspondence and in their messages. But the 
East was conservative and even incredulous. As in the time 
of Bates and Mitchell and McDuffie it seemed scarcely 
practicable to extend the borders of the Union so far. It 
seemed scarcely possible, no doubt, that the new region, so 
long known yet so little known to many, could deserve what 
it so persistently asked. Could it be that a sufficient number 
of people to form a state, had gone two thousand miles to 
find new homes, when Kansas, Iowa and Minnesota were 
scarcely more than safely in the Union .? How could it be 
that this new territory had grown so rapidly, when Ohio and 
Indiana and Illinois had been so much more deliberate and 
dignified in their progress ? 

But Washington was, at length, no longer alone in demand- 
ing statehood. Idaho formed wholly, and Montana formed 
partly out of the Oregon country, and partly out of the 
Louisiana purchase, and Dakota, large enough for two 


states, were likewise demanding admission, and Congress 
could defer their claims no longer. An enabling act authoriz- 
ing five new states to be formed along the Northern border, 
between Minnesota and the Pacific, was passed by the house 
and Senate, and became law in February 1889. It was a 
liberal act, and showed that a mighty change had taken 
place since Linn's time, in the opinion both of the people 
and their representatives, in regard to what the government 
might do for its people. In 1850 the donation law had 
been looked upon as an experiment of such extreme liberality, 
that its operations had been limited to three years, and then 
almost grudgingly extended to five. But now a settler who 
was American born, or who had become a naturalized citizen, 
might take a homestead wherever he could find an unoccu- 
pied or unreserved part of the public domain. In 1853 Con- 
gress felt that it had done a generous thing in giving two 
whole townships of wild land to found a territorial University 
in Washington, but this enabling act gave the new state 
two sections, in place of one in every township for public 
school purposes; 50 sections for public buildings; 90,000 
acres for an Agricultural College and 100,000 acres for a 
Scientific School; besides liberal endowments in lands for 
Manual Schools and other institutions. 

The act provided that the Constitution should be formed 
by a convention composed of delegates to be chosen by the 
people, and these were elected in June, and assembled at 
Olympia on July 4, 1889. They were a thoroughly repre- 
sentative body of men. There was not a developed industry 
in the territory, or an interest of any sort, without some one 
to speak for it, in case there should be need, or see to it that 
its requirements were not overlooked. There were men 
who had come early to the territory, like R. S. Moore of 


Steilacoom, who had helped to cut the road through the 
Nachess Pass in 1853, and had afterwards been a Heutenant 
during the Indian war. There also was Edward Eldridge, 
one of the earliest settlers in Whatcom County, who had been 
speaker in the territorial House of Representatives in 1866, 
and afterwards had helped to make the Walla Walla Consti- 
tution in 1878. Among others who had seen service in the 
territorial legislatures of Washington or Oregon were John 
M. Reed of Whitman, Dr. S. H. Manly and Dr. J. C. Kellogg 
of Whidby Island, George H. Stevenson of Skamania, who 
had served in the legislature of the territory, and would also 
be a member of the first legislature of the State. Among 
the farmer members were J. P. T. McCroskey of Colfax, 
ambitious to be the best farmer in the state, and who was 
to serve several terms in the legislature; Dr. N. G. 
Blalock of Walla Walla, who had done and was doing 
more than any other one man to exploit the wheat and 
fruit growing possibilities of Eastern Washington; D. 
Buchanan, sturdy old Scotchman and good farmer and 
business man from Ritzville; O. H. Joy of Boisfort, 
farmer and mill owner; R. Jeffs, hop grower from King, 
and Louis Neace of Walla Walla. Frank M. Dallam, 
who had established the Review in Spokane, and James 
Powers of La Conner, represented the printing industry, 
while S. A. Dickey of Kitsap and H. M. Lillis of Pierce were 
school teachers. Lewis Sohns of Vancouver, widely known 
and universally respected in the territory, was a manufac- 
turer and banker at Vancouver, and A. J. West of Chehalis, 
and C. H. Miller of Walla Walla were also engaged in 

Of all the professions and occupations the doctors and 
lawyers were most numerously represented. Among the 


former not already mentioned was Dr. T. T. Minor of King, 
who was one of the most active workers in the Convention. 
He had long been a leading spirit in all public undertakings 
in Seattle, and was equally interested in the advancement 
of the state. No member of the Convention excelled him, 
in patient attention to the business in hand, and few showed 
a keener or clearer comprehension of what a Constitution 
should contain. His untimely death, which occurred only 
a few weeks after the Convention had completed its work, 
was universally regretted. 

Among the lawyers were many who held, and deserved 
to hold, first places at the bar. Of these George Turner of 
Spokane had been a justice of the Supreme Court of the 
territory, and later would be Senator; later still he would, 
with others, be charged with the important duty of fixing 
the Alaska boundary, a thing of international interest and 
consequence. R. O. Dunbar of Klikitat, would be a mem- 
ber of the first Supreme Court of the new state, and would 
long hold a place on that bench. Theodore L. Stiles, of 
Pierce, and John P. Hoyt, of King, were also to serve as 
members of the Court for a single term. S. G. Cosgrove, 
of Garfield, already ambitious to be governor, would win 
that honor in time but not live to enjoy it. D. J. Crowley, 
gentlest, wisest and best of men, and a most useful member 
of the Convention, venerable in appearance though still young, 
would also die before his time, and be generally regretted. J.J. 
Browne of Spokane, lawyer and business man, M. M. 
Godman of Columbia, John R. Kinnear of King, Hiram E. 
Allen of Spokane, J. J. Weisenberger of Whatcom, E. H. 
Sullivan of Colfax and P. C. Sullivan of Pierce, the youngest 
member of this Convention, Colonel W. F. Prosser of Yakima, 
would all take an active part in the debates and deliberations. 


The members of the Convention were sworn in by C. H. 
Hanford, the last Chief Justice of the territory, who would 
soon be elevated to the federal bench, on the day appointed 
for their assembly, and immediately organized by selecting 
Judge John P. Hoyt as Chairman. Committees were selected 
in due course, the work of the Convention distributed among 
them, and the Convention proceeded to the work in hand. 

Although a full stenographic report of the Convention's 
proceedings was made from day to day, it has never been 
printed. Even its journal has not been published. Liberal 
appropriations for printing have been made by every legis- 
lature, but this record, which is a thing of ever increasing 
value and interest, has not been put in enduring form. The 
reporters' notes have not been transcribed, and it is reported 
that some part of them no longer exist. If this be true it 
is to be regretted, and it is to be hoped that the next legisla- 
ture will take measures not only to preserve what remains of 
them, but to put them where the people, or those who may 
have use for them, may have easy access to them. 

Before the delegates were ready to begin their work a 
large number of petitions, memorials and communications 
of various sorts, containing suggestions as to what the Con- 
stitution should and should not provide for, had reached the 
Capital and were awaiting attention. Some of these proposed 
universal suffrage; some that the manufacture, sale and 
use of ardent spirits in every form should be prohibited, or 
regulated by stringent local option laws; some insisted that 
corporations should be so limited in their powers and opera- 
tions that they never could be dangerous, or even useful. 
Some advanced theories for a more or less automatic govern- 
ment of cities, by which the rights of taxpayers would be 
invariably safeguarded and protected, without much effort 


Born at CrawfordsviUe, Ind., in 1843; educated at 
Wabash College; came to Washington in 1870; was 
United States district attorney during the administra- 
tion of Grant, Hayes and Garfield; was the last delegate 
to Congress from the territory, and one of the first 
senators elected from the state. 


-J, ,v 




.KavMAejati{?i5(y{ere sworn in by C. H. 

f£ bjar-vrh-fv^, '. sr V.;' Mic^iQ(s^.^§f3i^Ty^^^ho would 

'^ ^^> ^f«^ , . ea?'^ i&ijfBjffjpointed 

fi ]y ai-io bftp, vimm-r^r. 9!tioimMiils^w3ei<^ selected 
"% v3^li^Bi^i6!f ^fel^M^ among 
and t proceeded to the work in hand. 

^- -"ic report of the Convention's 

uay to day, it has never been 

not been published. Liberal 

ve been made by every legis- 

Is a thing of ever increasing 

Hit in enduring form. The 

ribed, and it is reported 

If this be true it 

r the next legisla- 

hat remains of 



begin their work a 

s and communications 

ns as to what the Con- 

ovide for, had reached the 

a. Some of these proposed 

e manufacture, sale and 

n shoifld be prohibited, or 

n law e insisted that 

ed in their powers and opera- 

e dangerous, or even useful. 

nore or less automatic govern- 

lits of taxpayers would be 

i protected, :t much effort 



on their part on election days. It was plain from these that 
some portion of the community at least had but a very in- 
definite idea as to what a Constitution was or should be. As 
the wig makers of Nantes had applied in force to the States 
General, a hundred years earlier, to limit the number of 
apprentices who might engage in their useful occupation, 
so the representatives of many interests, both large and small, 
appealed to these delegates to make sure, once and for all, 
that all were provided at first hand with as much law of the 
fundamental kind as they could possibly have use for. 

The Convention had not proceeded far when it became 
apparent that some of its members also had some very trouble- 
some views as to what a Constitution should be. Could 
they have had their way it would have comprised a full code 
of statutes, many of them impracticable, inoperative, and 
unrepealable or amendable except by vote of the people. 
It took time, patience and hard work, principally in the Com- 
mittees, to eliminate all these crude and impracticable 
theories. The work was also hindered and embarrassed to 
some extent by a _numerous lobby representing various inter- 
ests, but it was in time finally and satisfactorily accomplished. 

The Convention sat fifty-two days, Sundays included, — 
though no sessions were held on Sundays, — and concluded 
its work. The Constitution was published in full in most 
of the newspapers of the territory, and on October ist, 1889, 
the people, by a satisfactory majority, ratified and approved it. 

Two articles were submitted separately, one providing 
for female suffrage, and the other for prohibition, but both 
were defeated. The location of the Capital was also voted 
upon as a separate issue, the cities competing being Olympia, 
Ellensburg, North Yakima and Vancouver, and Olympia 
won by a practically decisive vote. 


In due course the Constitution, as adopted by the people, 
was approved by Congress, and President Harrison issued 
his proclamation announcing that fact. November nth, 
1889 w^as fixed upon as the day when the territorial should 
give place to the new state government, and on that day the 
state officers and members of the legislature who had been 
chosen on the day that the Constitution was voted upon, and 
a large number of citizens, including many of the oldest 
living settlers, assembled at the Capital. A procession was 
formed and marched to the building which had been erected 
in Stevens' time, and which had so narrowly escaped destruc- 
tion by fire in that of Gholson, and there the old order of 
things passed away and the new began. Governor Miles 
C. Moore, last of the territorial executives, in a graceful 
valedictory address, which was much complimented by the 
newspapers at the time, turned the government over to Gover- 
nor Ferry, who had been one of his predecessors as governor 
of the territory, and was now to be the first governor of the 
state. The other state officers took their oaths of office, the 
first legislature organized and began its session. 

It was just a hundred and one years, and about a hundred 
days, since Gray and Kendrick had first displayed the flag 
of the Union, which was not yet a Union, off the Coast of 
Oregon, and forty-four years since Simmons, Kindred, Mc- 
Allister and their party had fixed their homes at Tumwater, 
almost within sight of the scene of these ceremonies. The 
wilderness of those days had disappeared, and now a new 
state was launched, to take its place as number 42 in the 
fleet of the Union, and hold it proudly forever. 


ABBOTT, I. T.. iv, 2IO. 
berdeen, Lord, and the Ore- 
gon question, ii, 376, 378. 

Abernethy, Alexander D., settler, 

ii, 445. iv, 349. 
Abernethy, Alexander S., member 

of the legislature, iv, 17; 18, 142, 


Abernethy, George, of Oregon, set- 
tler, ii, 107; member of McLough- 
lin's debating club, 265-266; 
part in organizing civil govern- 
ment, 269, 270; first governor 
(provisional), 202, 281, 282, 334, 

339. 346, 349. 355-356. Re- 
elected, iii, 64-65; 177, 518. 

Abernethy, Thomas, settler, iii, 130. 

Abernethy Island (Willamette Ri- 
ver), iii, 177, 518. 

Abiqua River, The, ii, 356. 

Achilles, Captain, in the Indian 
war, iii, 440, 448. 

Ackerson, John W., iv, 229, 360. 
"Active", The, survey steamer, iii, 

409, 435. 507- 
Adair, John, customs collector, iii, 

66, 78, 79, 83, 87. 

Adams County, iv, 90, 281. 

Adams Islands (South Pacific), i, 

Adams, John Quincy, attitude and 
services, as minister, secretary 
of state, and president, i, 4, 32, 

330- ii. 33, 40, 45. 52. 54. 70. 

76, 79, 217, 382. 
Adams, Mount. See Mount Adams. 
Adams, W. J., iv, 356, 359. 
Addington, English negotiator, ii, 

Admiralty Bay (Yakutat Bay), i, 

130. 137- 

Admiralty Inlet, i, 77; Vancouver's 
exploration, 212, 213, 214. 
Wilkes's survey, ii, 1 80-181, 199, 
504. iv, 357. 

Advance, The (Chicago), ii, loi. 

"Adventure", The, schooner built 
by Gray, i, 155, 157. 

Affleck, of Steilacoom, iv, 38. 

Agriculture, Early, conditions in 
general, i, 15, 17; Dr. McLough- 
lin's promotion of, 467-476. 
By the early missionaries, ii, 
106,127; Wilkes's observations, 
204,503; at Fort Nisqually, 393- 
394; first grain cradles, 441. 
Early statistics, iii, 61; 159. 
Development, iv, 80-82, 262, 
283, 291-292, 296-298, 303-304. 

Aguilar, Martin de, navigator, i, 63- 
64. 67. 

Ahtanum River, The, iii, 316, 331. 

Ainsworth, J. C, iv, an, 228, 231. 

Aird, John, iv, 210. 

Airs, James, fur trader, i, 319. 

Alaska, southern boundary, 54* 
40', i, 3; Russian exploration 
and settlement, 75, 130, 136, 
138; Astor's projects, and early 
trade, 375, 378. ii, 405. Acqui- 
sition of, iv, 153-154. 

"Albatross", The, vessel, i, 24, 317- 
319: 370. 372. 

"Albion", The, English ship, ii, 
447-448. Seizure of, iii, 83-87. 
iv, 350- 

Alderman, Isaac W., attempted 
settlement of, ii, 424. 

Aleutian Islands, The, i, 102, 131, 
136, 138. 14a, 423. 

Alexander, Captain, iv. 338. 

Alexander, E. P. (General), Civil 
War record, iv, 124-125. 

Alexander, John, settler, iii, 97, 112. 



Alexander, John, of Olympia, iii, 

Alexander, Lafayette, iv, 96. 

Alexander VI (Pope), i, 85. 

Alfonso V (Portugal), i, 59. 

Alki Point, iii, 46; settlement at, 
110-112, 118, 124, 126; 229, 420. 
iv, 354. See New York. 

Allen, Edward Jay, settler, iii, 12, 
20-22, 140, 161; constructs Cas- 
cade road, 162-164; member of 
Monticello convention, 206-209, 

Allen, Hiram E., iv, 387. 

"Alliance", The, vessel, i, 146. 

Allyn, Ephraim, settler, iii, 162. 

AUyn, James H., settler, iii, 162. 

Almota Creek, i, 282. 

Alphin, Marion, tragical death, iii, 

Alphin, M. L., settler, iii, 53. 

Alpowa Creek, i, 282, 301. iv, 21. 

Alverson, James, settler, iii, 162. 

Alvord, Major, iii, 288, 317. iv, 
108, 109, 168. 

"Amelia", The, vessel, iii, 102. 

" America", The, English naval ves- 
sel, ii, 287. 

American Board of Commissioners 
of Foreign Missions, The, ii, loi ; 
exploring party and mission- 
aries sent to the Columbia River 
country, 1 17-155; letter to con- 
cerning the massacre, 327. iv, 

American College and Education 
Society, The, iv, 377. 

American discovery and explora- 
tion on the Pacific Coast, i, 145- 

American Fur Company, The, i, 
328. ii, 7, 24, 478. 

American Historical Magazine, The, 
iii. 173- 

American Historical Review, The, 

iv, 254. 
American Lake, ii, 388, 389. 
American Philosophical Society, 

The, i, 239. 
American Plain, iii, 182. 
Anacortes, iv, 315. 
"Anadyr", The, vessel, iv, 358. 
Anawiscum, Indian, ii, 382. 
Anderson, A. C, Hudson's Bay 

man, ii, 183, 198, 199, 401. 
Anderson, D. J., iv, 377. 
Anderson Island, ii, 414. iv, 350. 
Anderson, J. M., tragical death, iv, 


Anderson, J. Patton, U. S. mar- 
shal, iii, 49, 167, 211, 219, 220, 
274, 328. Appointed governor, 
iv, 137; delegate to Congress, 
141, 142. 

Andrew, Governor, of Massachu- 
setts, and Asa S. Mercer, iv, 

Andrews, L. B., iv, 269, 370. 

Andrews, member of the legisla- 
ture, iv, 150. 

Anian, Mythical strait of, i, 39, 41, 
44. 53. 54. 61, 62, 64, 69, 75, 
89, loi, 106, 125, 185, 225, 226, 
228, 386, 387. 

Anne, Empress (Russia), i, 128. 

Anne, Queen (England), i, 92. 

Annie Wright Seminary, The, iv, 

Antiquities of the Indians, i, 423. 

Apostolos Valerianus (Juan de 
Fuca), i, 53, 161. 

Applegate, Jesse, pioneer, ii, 26, 
192, 244, 245; on character of 
Marcus Whitman, 250; oflfices 
held by, 282, 348, 349. 

Apple Tree Cove (Puget Sound), ii, 
180. iii, 158. iv, 351. 



Apportionments, Early, for mem- 
bers of legislature, iv, 155. 

Appropriations, Early, by congress, 
iii, 236, 250, 251. iv, 159. 

Archer, J. J., iv, 88. 

"Argonaut", The, English ship, i, 
76, 117. 

Aricaree Indians, The, ii, 8. 

Armstrong, A. N., officer in the 
Indian War, iii, 345, 360. 

Armstrong, B. C, signer of Monti- 
cello memorial, iii, 516. 

Armstrong, candidate for congress, 

iv, 307- 
Armstrong, C. H., iv, 210. 
Armstrong, Lieutenant (U. S. A.), 

iii, 245, 253. 
Armstrong, P. M., of Oregon, ii, 

Armstrong's mill on the Chehalis, 

iii, 154. 

Arteaga, Ignacio, navigator, i, 74. 

Arts and industries of the Indians, 
i, 417. 

Ashburton, Lord, English negotia- 
tor, ii, 51, 221-225, 365, 501. 

Ashburton treaty. The, ii, 58, 148, 
203, 221, 222-225, 246, 365, 367, 

372, 379- 
Ash Hollow, ii, 112. 
Ashley, William H., explorer, ii, 

8-10, II, 63, 81. 

Asotin County, i, 282. iv, 80, 97, 
281, 291. 

Assiniboine River, The, i, 223. 

Assumption Bay, i, 72. 

Assumption Inlet, i, 71. 

Astor, John Jacob, wealth of, i, 
20-21; various references, 24, 
25, 27, 28, 142, 155, 312; ex- 
peditions to Columbia River, — 
by sea, 325-354, overland, 357- 
379; various references, 394,396, 
450,470- ii, 7. 15. 34. 187, 214, 

Astoria, settlement of, i, 342; arrival 
of the overland expedition, 366; 
name changed to Fort George, 
372-374; arrival of Dr. John 
McLoughlin, 450-451. Restora- 
tion to the United States, ii, 
35-38. Early post-office, iii, 145. 

"Atahualpa", The, attack by the 
Indians, i, 316. 

Athabasca River, The, i, 228. ii, 

Atkins, Silas, i, 494. 

Attoo, Sandwich Islander, i, 153, 

Auburn, iii, 385. 

Augur, C. C. (U. S. A.), Civil war 
record, iv, 127. 

Ayers, W. N., iv, 203. 

BABCOCK, Ira L. (Dr.), of 
Oregon, ii, 107, 191; first 
supreme judge, 263; 267, 
269, 274, 276. 
Babcock, killed by the Indians, iii, 

Baboon Gulch, iv, 77. 
Bagley, Clarence B., ii, 413. iii, 

184, 223, 333. iv, 370. 
Bagley, Daniel (Rev.), iv, 223, 369- 

Bagley, of Vancouver Island, mur- 
dered by Indians, iii, 504. 

Bailey, R. S., settler, iii, 97. 

Bailey, William, of Oregon, ii, 275, 

Bailey, escape, iii, 455. 

Baker, Dorsey S., iv, 210, 233, 240- 
245, 289, 375. 

Baker, E. D. (Senator), of Oregon, 
iv, 112. 



Baker, Lieutenant, with Vancou- 
ver, i, 208, 209, 218. 

Baker, Fort, see Fort Baker. 

Baker, Mount, see Mount Baker. 

Baker's Bay, i, 389. ii, 203, 412. 

Balboa, i, 38, 43, 48, 74. 

Balch, Albert, iv, 5. 

Balch, F. S., delegate to Cowlitz 
convention, iii, 204. 

Balch, Lafayette, settler at Steila- 
coom, ii, 447, 454-455. iii, 97, 
98, 100, 133, 137; rescue of 
gold hunters from Haidah In- 
dians, i39-i4o;nieniber of coun- 
cil, 141, 230; 154, 156, 183, 242, 
507. iv, 38, 210, 215. 

Baldwin, S. M., iv, 210. 

Ball, Edward, in Indian war, iv, 23. 

Ball, John, pioneer, i, 473. School- 
teacher, ii, 16, 104, 193. 

Ball, William, iv, 310. 

Balland, settler, iii, 105. 

Baltimore convention of 1844, and 
the Oregon question, ii, 369. 

Bancroft, George, i, 49, 123, 238. 
Settlement of San Juan ques- 
tion, iv, 47, 63. 

Bancroft, H. H., ii, 421. iii, 204, 
223, 240. iv, 139-140. 
I Banks, L. A. (Rev.), iv, 342. 

Banks, scientist, with Father Blan- 
chet, ii, 143. 

Baranoff, Governor, i, 138, 140-142, 

Baranoff Island, i, 102. 

Barbour, James, and the Oregon 
question, ii, 66. 

Barclay Sound, i, 107. 

Barlow Road, The, ii, 351. iii, 109, 
149, 151. 

Barlow, S. K., pioneer leader, ii, 
26-27; 346-347- 

Barlow, Samuel, iv, 201. 

Barnes, Ellis, settler, iii, 130. 

Barnes, George A., iv, 203. 
Barnes, Jane, first white woman in 

the Oregon country, i, 388. 
Barnes, Nelson, iv, 203. 
Barrel, Joseph, Boston merchant, i, 

146, 147, 493, 494. 
Barrow, John, settler, iii, 163. 
Barrows, J. J., settler, iii, 130. 
Barry, killed in Indian war, iii, 407, 
Barstow, Captain, iii, 229. 
Bartlow, Dr., pioneer, iii, 18. 
Bassett, gold prospector, iv, 76. 
Batchelder, Charles C, settler, ii, 

448. iii, 98, 99, loi. 
Batchelder, J. M., federal official, 

iv, 9. 
Bates, Edward, and the Oregon 

question, ii, 74, 77. 
Bathurst, Lord, on the restoration 

of Astoria, ii, 38. 
Bay of Avatscha (Kamtchatka) , 

The, i, 128, 133. 
Bay of Bodega, The, ii, 82, 89. 
Bay of Monterey, The, i, 63, 67. 
Bay of San Francisco, The, i, 29, 

50, 63, 67, 75, 89, 141. ii, 83, 

Baylies, Francis, and the Oregon 

question, ii, 64, 209, 217. iii, 

Baynes, Admiral, iv, 57-58. 
Beacon, The (Kalama), iv, 195. 
Bean, Ruben, settler, iii, 108. 
Bear Lake, i, 454. 
Bear River, The, ii, 9, 48a. 
"Beaver", The, American ship, i, 

367, 368, 370, 371. 
"Beaver", The, Hudson's Bay 

steamer, ii, 180, 199, 310, 387, 

399. iii, 84, 86, 139, 153; 

seizure of, 188-191; 398, 409, 

Becerra, Diego, Spanish explorer, 
i, 46. 



Beers, Alanson, missionary, ii, io6; 
part in organizing civil govern- 
ment, 274, 275, 276. 

" Beeswax Ship", The, i, 432. 

Bell, William N., settler, iii, 109, 
III, 112, 114, 116, 118; estab- 
lishes Belltown, iii, 127, 128; 
signer of Monticello memorial, 
516. iv, 351. 

"Belle", The, Columbia River 
steamer, iii, 459. 

Bellingham, iv, 314. 

Bellingham Bay, i, 217. Coal dis- 
coveries and early settlers, iii, 
129, 130; 224, 504. Fraser Ri- 
ver gold rush, iv, 39; 314, 360. 

Bellingham, Sir William, English 
naval officer, i, 217. 

Belltown, iii, 127. 

"Belmont", The, vessel, iv, 239. 

Bennett, Captain, iii, 360, 364; 
death, 366. 

Bennett, James G., settler, iv, 91. 

Bennett, Nelson, iv, 307, 311. 

Benton, Thomas H., and the Ore- 
gon question, i, 4, 33. ii, 3, 62, 
63, 68, 72, 79, 211, 214, 219, 
222, 224, 225, 226, 378. iii, 30, 

31. 32, 35- 
Benton County, ii, 356. iv, 88. 
Bercier, Isadore, son of Marcel, ii, 

Bercier, Julian, son of Marcel, ii, 

Bercier, Marcel, son of Peter, "first 
white child born in the terri- 
tory," ii, 432. 

Bercier, Peter, Hudson's Bay man, 
ii, 426, 433, 444. 

Bercier, Pierre, son of Marcel, ii, 

Bering, Vitus, Russian navigator, 

i, 123, 126-133, 306. 
Bering Sea, i, 66, 369. 

Bering's Bay, i, 130. 

Bering's Island, i, 136. 

Berkeley, English navigator, i, 70, 

107-108, 112, 187. 
Berlin arbitration. The, of the San 

Juan question, ii, 225. iv, 63- 

Berneke, A. B., settler, iv, 90. 
Bernier, Marcel, settler, ii, 420, 428. 

iii, 204. 
Berrien, J. McPherson, and the 

Oregon question, ii, 225. 
Betscharef, Russian navigator, i, 


Bewley, Lorinda, at Whitman mas- 
sacre, ii, 3 1 1 ; captivity and ran- 
som, 331, 339. Testifies, iii, 75. 

Bewley, killed in Whitman mas- 
sacre, ii, 316. 

Bianlieu, Mile., wife of James Bir- 
nie, i, 395. 

Biddle, Captain (U. S. N.), ii. 35- 

Biddle, Nicholas, i, 262, 311. 

Big Bend country, The, iv, 92, 296- 

Bigelow, D. R., pioneer, ii, 481. 
Settler of Olympia, iii, 1 1 1 ; law- 
yer, 156, 157; 167, 202; mem- 
ber of council, 230; auditor, 
244. Member of legislature, iv, 
150; 203. 

Bigelow, Dr. iii, 108. 

Big Horn Mountains, The, i, 361. 

"Big Ignace", ii, 95, iii. 

Big Springs, ii, 248. 

Biles, John D., member of legisla- 
ture, iii, 232. iv, 210. 

Billings, English mariner in the 
Russian service, i, 137. 

Billings, Frederick, iv, 288, 302. 

Billings, Mrs. Frederick, iv, 375. 

Billings, William, iv, 220, 267, 344. 

Bills, L., early ship builder, iii, 159. 

Birch Bay, i, 217. 



Bimie, Northwester and Hudson's 
Bay man, i, 389, 395-396. ii, 
202; settler at Cathlamet, 420, 
445. County official, iii, 62. 

Bishop, B. B., settler, ii, 446. 

Bitter Root Mountains, The, i, 301. 

Black, Samuel, trader, i, 445. 

Black, survivor of an Indian mas- 
sacre, i, 463. 

Blackfeet Indians, The, Lewis and 
Clark's encounter, i, 301; 320, 
392,456. ii, 8-9, 242, 503. iii, 
251; Stevens's treaty, 308-309, 

" Blackgowns", The, ii, 95, 112, 

Black Hills, The, i, 361. ii, 237. 

Black River, The, iii, 108, 400. iv, 
222, 360. 

Black River Junction, iv, 301. 

Blalock, N. G., settler, iv, 80, 386. 

Blanchet, A. M. A. (Rev., bishop 
of Walla Walla), missionary, ii, 
167, 308. 

Blanchet, Francis Norbert (Rev., 
archbishop), missionary, i, 226. 
ii, 159-167; alleged influence on 
Wilkes, 190, 205; connection 
with civil affairs, 263, 271, 274, 
334. iii, 280. 

Blewitt, on the Oregon question, 
ii, 366. 

Blinn, mill owner, iv, 359. 

Blockhouses in the Indian war, iii, 
396-397. 400, 411, 420-421, 429, 
443. 450- 

Bloomer, Nevada S. (Mrs.), iv, 277. 

"Blossom", The, English naval 
vessel, ii, 36. 

Blue Mountains, The, i, 284, 366, 
421. ii, 251, 469, 490. 

"Blue Wing", The, captured by 
Indians, iii, 511. iv, 139. 

Blunt, Simon F. (U. S. N.), iii, 77. 

Boatman, Willis, settler, iii, 131. 
Boca de Flon (Deception Pass), i, 

Bodega y Quadra, Juan Francisco 

de la, navigator, i, 70-71, 74- 

75, 102, 105, 107, 142, 187. 

Bodega, Bay of, see Bay of Bodega. 

Boise, James, settler, iii, 162. 

Boise County (Ida.), iv, 87. 

Boise valley. The, gold discoveries, 
iv, 78-79. 

Boisfort, iv, 14, 158, 369, 386. 

Boisfort Prairie, iii, 131. iv, 114. 

Bolduc, John B. (Rev.), mission- 
ary, ii, 165. 

Bolon, A. J., Indian agent, iii, 224, 
231, 287, 294, 319; killed by 
Indians, 331-333. Execution of 
murderer, iv, 32. 

Bolton, William, settler, ii, 447. 
iii, 85. 

Bolton's shipyard, Steilacoom, iii, 

Bonilla Point, i, 58. 

Bonner, E. L., iv, 210. 

Bonner, Z., settler, iv, 74. 

Bonneville, Benjamin L. E., army 
officer and pioneer leader, i, 31, 
491. ii, 4; expeditions, 11-14; 
21, 22, 42, 82; on the religious 
practices of the Indians, 93-94; 
247, 387. iii, 30; in command 
at Fort Vancouver, 318. 

Bonneville (Ore.), i, 294. 

Bonney, Sherwood, pioneer,, iii, 16, 

17- iv, 5- 
Bonney, Timothy, pioneer, iii, 17. 
Boren, Carson D., settler, iii, 109, 

III, 112, 114, 116, 118, 121, 122, 

123, 128. 
Borst, Joseph, settler, ii, 435. iii, 

132, 204. 
Bostian, settler, ii, 448. 



"Boston", The, American ship, 
crew massacred, i, 315-316; 349. 

"Boston men," name given to 
Americans by the Indians, ii, 
256-257. iv, 12. 

Boston merchants. The, sending 
out of the "Columbia" and 
"Washington", 146-147, 154, 
493-497; subsequent ships to 
the Columbia River from Bos- 
ton, 314, 316-318. 

Bouchard, O., settler, ii, 446. 

Boundary controversies, see Oregon 
question and San Juan dispute. 

Boyer, John F., iv, 240. 

Bozarth, Squire, settler, ii, 444. 

Bradford, Daniel, settler, member 
of council, iii, 229. iv, 211. 

Bradford, David F., settler, ii, 446. 

Bradford, Putnam, settler, ii, 446. 

Bradford's Island (Columbia River) 
iii, 459. 

Bradford's store (Cascades), Indian 
fight at, iii, 453-457. 

Bradley, John, delegate to Cowlitz 
convention, iii, 204, 392. 

Bradshaw, C. M., iv, 211, 268. 

Bradshaw, E. M., settler, iii, 131. 

Brady, Charles, settler, iii, 132. 

Brail, David, settler, ii, 437. 

Brannan family, The, attack and 
murders by Indians, iii, 385, 

Bremerton, iv, 354. 

Brents, Thomas H., delegate to 
congress, iv, 270, 306, 307. 

Brewer, H. B., settler, ii, 107. 

Bridger, James, fur trader, ii, 10. 

Bridger, Mary Ann, ii, 295, 313; 
captive, 339. 

Bridges, J. C, of Oregon, ii, 274. 

Bridges, of Oregon, gold miner, iv, 

Briggs, Albert, settler, ii, 449. iii, 

loi, 102. 
British Columbia, creation of, iv, 

Brock, R., settler, iii, 62, 109. 
Brock, Ruth, marriage, ii, 439. iii, 

Bromley, Isaac W. R., district 

attorney, iii, 67. 
" Brontes", The, vessel, iii, 153, 417. 
Brooke, settler, iii, 134, 241, 289, 

333, 349. iv, 74. 
Brooke, Bumford, and Noble, iii, 

333' 357- iv, 73- 

Brookfield, i, 295. 

Brooks, Quincy A., lawyer, iii, 156, 
159; clerk of court, 190, 208, 
212; member of Monticello com- 
mittee, 206, 516. 

Broshers, Joseph, delegate to Cow- 
litz convention, iii, 204. 

Brotchie, William, i, 456. iii, 84. 

Brotchie's Ledge, iii, 84, 85. 

"Brother Jonathan", The, loss of, 
iv, 118, 176. 

Broughton, William Robert, with 
Vancouver, i, 177, 183, 199, 205, 
208, 212, 213, 214, 218, 219, 295, 

Brouillet, J. A. B. (Rev.), mission- 
ary, ii, 167, 308, 309, 320-321, 
322, 330, 333, 341. 

Broulier, J. B., settler, ii, 446. 

Brown, interpreter, ii, 396. 

Brown, E. H., settler, iv, 74. 

Brown, George, murder of, iii, 504, 

Brown, Isaac M., settler, iii, 162. 

Brown, J. C, settler, iii, 130, 131. 

Brown, J. L., settler, iii, 132, 233. 

Brown, Mrs. R., iv, 113. 

Brown, S. W., iv, 211. 

Brown,' Samuel, Boston merchant, 
i, 146, 493, 494. 



Brown, William, iii, 129, 130. 

Brown & Torrence, early postal 
agents, iii, 146. 

Browne, J. J., iv, 295, 387. 

Browne, J. Ross, federal agent, iii, 
319, 320, 341. 

Brownell, Charles E., iii, 108. 

Brownfield, Daniel F., settler, iii, 
130; member of Oregon legis- 
lature, 200; 204; member of 
Washington legislature, 232. 
iv, 150. 

"Bruce, Robert", The, trading ves- 
sel, ii, 446. 

Bruceport, ii, 446. 

Brule, John B., settler, ii, 446. 

Brumm, Raphael, settler, iii, 97. 

Brunt, G. J. (U. S. N.), iii, 77- 

Bryan, William, sheriff, iii, 62. 

Bryant, William P., first chief jus- 
tice of Oregon Territory, iii, 66, 
70, 72, 73, 74, 179. 

Bryce, historian, i, 467, 478. 

Buchanan, D., iv, 386. 

Buchanan, James, and the Oregon 
question, member of congress, 
ii, 70, 74; senator, 214, 222; 
secretary of state, 373-379- 
President, and the San Juan 
dispute, iv, 61-62. 

Buchanan, S. W., settler, iii, 131. 

Buckley, John, settler, iii, 108. 

Bucoda, ii, 436. 

Budd, Lieutenant (U. S. N.), ii, 

Budd's Inlet, i, 211. ii, 199; first 
permanent settlement north of 
tlie Columbia, 433, 436, 439, 

447- 451- 
Buffaloes, The, their vast numbers, 

ii, 498-499. 
Bulfinch, Charles, Boston merchant, 

i, 146-147; affidavit, 493-497. 

Bulfinch, Thomas, son of Charles, 

i, 497- 
Bulfinch Harbor (Gray's Harbor), 
i, 171, 176, 179, 217, 494, 495, 


BuUard, J., settler, iii, 132. 

Bullard, Mark W., settler, iii, 132. 

Bumford, George C, settler, iii, 
134, 241. 

Bunton, James, ii, 431. iv, 4. 

Burge, A. C, settler, iii, 162. 

Burge, Andrew, iii, 395. 

Burke, Thomas, iv, 307, 331-332, 

Burnett, Peter H., pioneer and set- 
tler, Oregon, ii, 26, 192, 244, 
245-248; part in organizing civil 
government, 280. iii, 34; ap- 
pointed justice of the territory, 
removal to California, 66; legal 
adviser to Dr. McLoughlin, 178. 

Bums, Hugh, of Oregon, pioneer, 
ii, 240; 274. 

Burns, John E., settler, iii, 131. 

Burns, M. P. (Dr.) iii, 392. 

Burnt River, The, iii, 469. 

Burnt River Canyon, iii, 18. 

Burpee, Jonathan, settler, ii, 444. 
Delegate, iii, 204. 

Burr, Mrs. Martha E., ii, 453. 

Burrows, Lieutenant, iii, 366. 

Burston, B. P., settler, iii, 97. 

Burt, murder of an Indian by, iii, 

Busbie, J., settler, ii, 444. 

Bush, George, associate of Sim- 
mons, ii, 422, 430, 432, 433. 
Generosity, iii, 37-38; 183; act 
of congress in his favor, 242. 
Death, iv, 195; 349. 

Bush, Isabel, James (Mrs.), wife of 
George, ii, 432. 

Bush Point, i, 206. 



Bush's Prairie, ii, 433. iii, 43. 

iv, 38, 219. 
Bushelier cabin, The, iii, 38. 
Butler, J. B., settler, ii. 444. 

Butler, John L., iii, 159, 504. 
Butler's Cove, iii, 504. 
Buttler, Hillory, iv, 370. 
Byrd, sheriff, iv, 323. 

CABOTS, The, English naviga- 
tors, i, 38. 
Cabrillo, Juan Rodriguez, 
Spanish navigator, i, 50. 
"Cadborough", The, Hudson's Bay 
ship, i, 456, 457, 466, 477. ii, 
290, 387, 400. Seizure of, iii, 

80-83, 513-515; 103. 153. 186. 

Cain, A. J., Indian agent, iii, 288, 
490. iv, 210. 

Caines, R. M., settler, iii, loi. 

Calapooia Indians, The, ii, 356. 

Caldwells, The, circus of, iii, 152. 

Calhoun, John C, and the Oregon 
question, ii, 217, 225, 228, 370. 

California, northern boundary fixed, 
i, 28; early Spanish explora- 
tions and missions, i, 47, 50, 65, 
67-68, 70. Survey of coast by 
Wilkes, ii, 202; effects of gold 
discoveries on development of 
Washington, 442-443. 

"California", The, vessel, iii, 79. 

Camano Island, iv, 357, 358. 

Cambreling, C. C, and the Oregon 
question, ii, 74, 79. 

Cammeahwait, brother of Sacaja- 
wea, i, 276. 

Camp Montgomery, iii, 450, 467, 

492. 493- 

Campbell, Archibald, English boun- 
dary commissioner, iv, 57. 

Campbell, Fremont, iv, 276. 

Campbell, H., settler of Oregon, ii, 

Campbell, John, of Oregon City, ii, 

Campo, Charles, of Oregon, ii, 275. 

Canadian Pacific Railroad, The, i, 
232. iv, 311,314. 

Canadian River, The, i, 49. 

Canadian settlers in Oregon and 
Washington, see French Cana- 

Canal de Caamano, Spanish name 
for Puget Sound, i, 77. 

Canal de Haro, The, i, 58, 77. ii, 
380. iii, 239. Diplomatic dis- 
pute concerning, iv, 47, 48, 49; 
adjudication, 62, 64. 

Candish, Captain, see Cavendish, 

Canfield, escape, ii, 312, 334. 

Canfield, Alvery, captive, ii, 339. 

Canfield, Thomas H., iv, 217. 

Cannibalism, never practised by 
Washington Indians, i, 4.18. 

Canning, English negotiator, ii, 47. 

Cannon, A. M., iv, 295. 

Cannon, William, Astorian, i, 333; 
early settler and miller, Oregon, 
477, 486. Part in organizing 
civil government, ii, 275. iv, 

Canoe Creek (White Salmon River), 

i. 293- 
Canoes of the Indians, i, 409. 
Canton (China), as an early trade 

market, i, 136, 316, 367, 369, 

370, 375. 388, 493- 
Cantrell, Empson, immigrant, iii, 4. 
Cape Blanco, i, 64. 
Cape California, i, 53. 
Cape Disappointment, i, 29, 114, 

115, 186, 193, 218, 219, 297, 340. 

ii, 16, 289. iii, 142. iv, 112, 191. 
Cape Falcon, i, 73, 74, 115. 



Cape Flattery, i, 29, 75, 78, 96, 106, 
107, 189, 191, 238, 424. ii, 395, 

396,401,449.451- i". 77. 137; 
early settlement at, 154; 278. 

Cape Foulweather, i, 96. 

Cape Frondoso, i, 71, 73. 

Cape Grenville, i, 187. 

Cape Hancock, i, 174, 175, 179, 494, 


Cape Horn (Columbia River), i, 

Cape Horn (South America), i, 123. 
Cape Lookout, i, 115. 
Cape Mendocino, i, 50, 52, 62, 64, 

70, 75, loi, 102, 149, 176, 185, 

Cape Orford, i, 186. 

Cape Perpetua, i, 96. 

Cape San Lucas, i, 47, 62, 91, 116. 

Cape San Roque, i, 71, 73, 114, 115. 

Cape Scott, ii, 451. 

Cape Shoalwater, i, 113, 164, 186. 

Capital of Washington, The, located 

at Olympia, iii, 214. iv, 14; 

contest of rival cities, 156-165; 

"Capitana", The, Spanish ship, i, 

Caples, Jane, settler, ii, 444. 
Carbonado, iv, 247. 
Carcowan, Indian, iii, 286. 

Carnefix, A. B., settler, ii, 436, 438, 
439-440. iv, 349. 

"Carolina", The, Pacific Mail 
steamer, iii, 79. 

Carpenter, William, settler, iii, 162. 

Carr, Anthony P., iv, 230. 

Carr, E. M., iv, 340, 342. 

Carr, Edmund, of Seattle, iii, 128. 
iv, 369. 

Carr, Job, iv, 228, 272. 
Carroll's Bluff (Columbia River), i, 

Carson, Alexander, of Oregon, 
settler, i, 486. 

Carson, John, settler, iii, 131. 

Carson, "Kit", scout, ii, 5. 

Carteret, George (Sir), i, 384. 

Carteret, Philip (Sir), of the Hud- 
son's Bay Company, i, 385, 

Carver, Jonathan, American travel- 
ler, i, 224, 226-227. 

Cascade road. The (Cascade Moun- 
tains), iii, 161-163. 

Cascade tunnel. The, iv, 311. 

Cascades, The (Columbia River), 
Lewis and Clark at, i, 293-294, 
300; 321, 350; Astor party at, 
366; 390, 396, 414; tradition of 
the old Spanish settler, 435-436; 
458. ii, 351; early settlers at, 
446. iii, 109; early mail route 
to, 146; 149, 239, 452; Indian 
fight at, 453-461. Railways, 
iv, 212, 245. 

Case, Lieutenant (U. S. N.), ii, 181, 

Casey, Silas C. (U. S. A.), in the 
Indian war, iii, 436, 443, 449, 
465,476,484,485,507. Connec- 
tion with the Leschi affair, iv, 
5, 8, 9; part in the Sanjuan diffi- 
culty, 52, 55-59, 65; Civil war 
record, 116. 

Cass, of the Northern Pacific, iv, 
226, 287. 

Castlereagh, Lord, and the Oregon 

question, ii, 38. 
Cateract River (Klikitat River), 

i. 293. 
Catherine I (Russia), i, 126. 

Catherine II (Russia), i, 134, 137, 

Cathlamet, i, 295, 396. ii, 420. 
iii, 244. 

Cathlapootle River, The, iii, 325. 



Catholic Church, The, early mis- 
sions in California, i, 67. Visit 
of the Flathead and Nez Perce 
Indians to St. Louis, ii, 91-99; 
missions and missionaries in 
Oregon and Washington, iii- 
"3. 152, 159-172, 183, 263-264, 
308,341-342,397,440. iii, 241, 
254, 265, 291, 316, 354-355. 428. 
iv, 19; institutions, 378, 379. 

"Catholic Ladder", The, ii, 171. 

Catlin, George, on visit of the In- 
dians to St. Louis, ii, 92-97. 

Catlin, Seth, early settler, ii, 444. 
Member of council, ii, 202, 230; 
delegate, 204; member of Monti- 
cello committee, 206, 517. 
Death, iv, 196; 211. 

Cattle, sheep, and horses. Intro- 
duction of domestic animals in 
California by the missionaries, 
i, 68. Early stock raising of 
the Hudson's Bay Company, i, 
453. 473-474- Herds brought 
to Oregon from California, ii, 
175-177; 186,392-393,401,404- 
405. Wright's slaughter of the 
Indian horses, iv, 30-31. 

Cauldron Linn (Snake River), i, 

Cavallo, Juan, Portuguese mer- 
chant, i, 108. 

Cavendish, Thomas, English navi- 
gator, i, 54, 62, 91, 93. 

Cayuse Indians, The, i, 421, 422, 
423. ii, 122, 146, 243; the 
Whitman massacre, 293-320; 
328-336; the Cayuse war, 351- 
361. Part in treaty at Walla 
Walla, iii, 293-306; in Indian 
war, 349, 372. iv, 20. 

Cedar River, The, iv, 222, 301, 360. 

Celilo, i, 289, 292, 293. iv, 211, 212. 

Census at various times, ii, 442, 443, 
467. iii, 211,220. iv, 215-216, 
222, 281, 282, 290, 313. 

Centralia, first settlement near, ii, 

435- iii. 49- iv, 195. 3iS- 
Chaboneau, Toussaint, with Lewis 
and Clark, i, 271. 

Chaddock, J. J. S. (Captain), iv, 
170, 176. 

Chadwick, Judge, iv, 91. 

Challicum, Indian chief, ii, 394. 

Chamberlain, P. B. (Rev.), iv, 375. 

Chambers, A. H., of Olympia, ii, 

Chambers, Andrew, ii, 436. 
Chambers, Andrew J., iv, 203, 210. 
Chambers, David J., iv. 203. 
Chambers, Thomas M., settler, ii, 

436; of Steilacoom, 447, 448, 

455- iii. 46, 154, 183, 184; 

delegate to Cowlitz convention, 


Chambers, Thompson, iv, 210. 
Chambers' Prairie, ii, 435, 452, 454. 
Champoeg (Ore.), early public 

meetings at, ii, 262, 270, 271, 

273. iii, 300. 

Chapman, John B., settler and 
lawyer, ii, 446. iii, 133, 154, 
156, 157; first to publicly sug- 
gest division of the territory, 
167,197; 202; delegate to Cow- 
litz convention, 204. 

Chapman, John M., iii, 133, 143, 
156; member of legislature, 232. 
iv, 150. 

Charles 1 1 (England), i, 92, 100, 212, 

372, 384- 
Charles V (Emperor), i, 44, 52, 68. 
Charles, P., settler, iii, 131. 
Charlevaux, M., of Oregon, ii, 263. 



Chase, Salmon P., appointment of 
Smith as customs collector, iv, 
i66, 174. 

Chatham, Lord, i, 185. 

" Chatham ' ' , The, Vancouver's ship, 
i, 177, 183, 189, 190, 194, 198, 
199, 205, 208, 209, 212, 217, 218, 
219, 306. 

Chehalis, iv, 315. 

Chehalis County, iii, 240, 243. iv, 
156. 378, 386. 

Chehalis Indians, The, i, 421, 422, 
423. iii, 267, 449. 

Chehalis Point, iv, 114. 

Chehalis River, The, early settlers 
on or near, ii, 427, 428, 446. iii, 
no, 131, 154, 156, 158; Ste- 
vens's council with the Indians, 
285. Indian disturbance, iv, 
106; steam navigation, 152. 

Chehalis Valley Academy, The, iv, 

Chelan County, iv, 90. 

Chemakum Indians, The, Stevens's 
treaty with, iii, 278. 

"Chenamus, " The, vessel, ii, 412. 

Cheney, iv, 294-296. 

Cheney, Benjamin F., iv, 287, 294. 

Chenoweth, Francis A., early settler 
at the Cascades, ii, 446. Tram- 
way built by, iii, 109, 452, 453; 
speaker of legislature, 231; 239; 
associate- justice, 243, 379, 484, 
487, 492, 493. Trial of Leschi, 
iv, 4-7; member of legislature, 
150; 212. 

Cherburg, iv, 169, 172. 

Chichagoff Island, i, 102. 

Chickalees River, name for the 
Chehalis River, iii, 154. 

China, early trade, i, 145, 146, 316, 
327,330. ii,33. 

Chinese question. The, iv, 319-345. 

Chinn, N. A. (Major), in the Indian 
war, iii, 345, 356-357, 361, 363, 

365. 373- 
Chinook, i, 174, 297, 456, 496. ii, 

Chinook Indians, The, i, 388, 413, 

422, 434, 436, 462. iii, 267. 

Chinook jargon. The, i, 421. iii, 

Chirouse, Father, missionary, iii, 
241, 291. 

Chisholm, Colin, iv, 272, 358. 

Choate, Rufus,and the Oregon ques- 
tion, ii, 224-225. 

Choteau, Auguste and Pierre, fur 
traders, i, 319. ii, 62, 227. 

Chouart, Medard, explorer, i, 382. 

Chow-it-hoot, Indian chief, iii, 277. 

Christian Advocate, The (New 
York), ii, 88. 

Christy, John, despicable act of, iii, 

Chronicle, The (Spokane), iv, 295. 

Churchill, John, duke of Marl- 
borough, i, 442. 

Chute River, see Des Chutes River. 

Cibola, mythical American city, i, 

Cipango, i, 37, 59. 

Civil war, The, iv, 103-133. 

Clackamas Bottom (Ore.), ii, 427. 

Clackamas County (Ore.), iii, 74. 

Clairborne, Captain, iii, 75. 

Clallam County, iii, 239, 243. iv, 
155. 156, 422. 

Clallam Indians, The, i, 466. ii, 
395. 398. iii. 85, 98, 103, 124, 
267; Stevens's treaty, 278. iv, 

. 51. 254- 

Clarendon, killed in the Indian war, 

iii, 407. 
Clarendon, Lord, on the Oregon 

question, ii, 372. 
Clark, E. A. settler, iii, 107, 108. 



Clark, Eleanor Glasgow, daughter- 
in-law of General William, ii, 99. 

Clark family, immigrants, attacked 
by Indians, iii, 5. 

Clark, Frank, iii, 484, 488. De- 
fends Lesclii, iv, 5; 144, 145, 
190; 210. 

Clark, George Rogers Hancock, son 
of General William, ii, 99. 

Clark, George Rogers (General), 
brother of General William, i, 
239, 262. 

Clark, Harvey (Rev.), pioneer and 
early clergyman, ii, 23, 24, 108, 
no; at Fort Vancouver, 185; 
part in organizing civil govern- 
ment, 275. Preaches the first 
sermon in King County, iii, 122. 

Clark, Jefferson K., grandson of 
General William, ii, 99. 

Clark, John L., iv, 203. 

Clark, Miss, teacher, ii, 107; 
marriage, 412. 

Clark, Ransom, settler, iii, 134. 

iv, 73- 

Clark, William (Lieutenant, after- 
ward Captain and General), of 
Lewis and Clark, birth, early 
life, and selection by Lewis as 
his associate, i, 262-263; ^X" 
plores the Salmon River, 278, 
Willamette River, 300, Jeffer- 
son River, 301; donation of 
land to by the government, 
305; connection with the Mis- 
souri Fur Company, 320. ii, 7; 
visit of the Indians at St. Louis 
for religious advice, 87-102; de- 
scendants, 99. 

Clark, William S., iv, 269. 

Clark's Fork, i, 310, 457. 

Clarke, F. A., signer of Monticello 
memorial, iii, 517. 

Clarke, John, partner in the Astor 

enterprises, i, 367, 371. 
Clarke, N. S. (General), successor 

to General Wool, iv, 19, 24, 73. 
Clarke County, ii, 443. iii, 69, 70, 

75, 86, 142, 203, 220, 231, 232, 

239,243,244. iv, 14, 15s, 156, 

Clarkston, i, 281. 
Classet (Cape Flattery), i, 189, 191, 

Clatsop, ii, 107. 

Clatsop Indians,The, 1,413,421,431, 
434> 436, 437. 43S, 462, 465, 486. 

Claquato, iv, 114. 

Clay, Henry, and the restoration of 
Astoria, ii, 35; and the Oregon 
question, 52-56, 79, 148, 214, 

215. 217. 373- 
Clay's ultimatum, ii, 54, 215, 373. 
Clayoquot Sound, i, 116, 119, 150, 

154. 157. 343. 349- ii. 501- 
Clayton, of Bellingham Bay, iii, 

Clearwater, ii, 332. 
Clearwater River, The (Ida.), Lewis 

and Clark on, i, 281, 282, 286; 

313, 368, 371, 392. Spalding's 

mission, ii, 122; Smith's, 125. 

Gold discoveries, iv, 75. 
Clendenin, J. S., district attorney, 

iii, 211. 
Cleveland, Grover (President), iv, 


Climate, The, early misrepresenta- 
tions, i, II. Wilkes on, ii, 503, 
505. 111,51-52. Winter of 1861- 
62. iv, 78-79. 

Cline, pioneer, ii, 487, 489. 

dinger, J. G., settler, iii, 99, 102. 

Clokamos, Indian, trial and execu- 
tion, iii, 74-76. 

Close, Benjamin (Rev.), iii, 155, 
161, 167. 



Clothing of the Indians, i, 420. 

Clover Creek, iii, 183. 

Clyne, settler, iii, 162. 

Coal, iii, 129-130, 153, 225. iv, 
222-223, 245, 301, 304. 

Coal Creek, iv, 222, 321. 

Cochran, Hiram, iv, 211. 

Cochran, James, iii, 204. 

Cock, Alonzo, iv, 17. 

Cock, Henry D., concerned in 
Stevens's treaties, iii, 272, 274, 

Cock, William, iv, 203. 

Cockstock, Indian, ii, 279, 345- 

Codification of the laws of Wash- 
ington Territory, iv, 184. 

Coe, Lawrence W., settler, ii, 446. 

Coeur d'Alene Indians, The, ii, 112. 
iii, 251; Stevens's council with, 
428-429; 437. 474- iv, 20, 31. 

Coffee, E. L., iv, 90. 

Colder, John, settler, ii, 444- 

Cole, George E., delegate to con- 
gress, iv, 143-144; governor, 
146, 151-152; 210. 

Colfax, iv, 91, 97, 386, 387. 

Colleges, iv, 367-379. 

Collins, Luther M., settler, iii, 104, 
105, 113, 159; signer of Monti- 
cello memorial, 516. 

Colman, James M., iv, 236-238; 


Collnet, Captain, English naviga- 
tor, i, 29, 76, 106, 107, 151, 178. 

Colorado River, The, i, 49. ii, 9. 

Colter, of Bucoda, ii, 436. 

Columbia, name first proposed for 
the present Washington, iii, 203, 
206, 210, 515-517. 

"Columbia", The, American ship, 
from Boston, with which Gray 
discovered the Columbia River, 
i, 76, 117; first voyage, circum- 
navigating the globe, 147-153; 

second voyage, 154-180; 189; 
493; extracts from log-book, 

"Columbia", The, Hudson's Bay 
ship, i, 475- 

"Columbia", The, Pacific mail 
steamer, iii, 79. 

Columbia and Puget Sound Rail- 
road, The, iv, 301. 

Columbia City, early name for Van- 
couver, iii, 144. 146, 244. 

Columbia County, iii, 134- iv, 21, 
So, 90, 97, 265, 290, 291, 

Columbia River, The, Americans 
the discoverers and first ex- 
plorers, i, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 
30, 31; Heceta's search, 71-74; 
Meares's, 113-115; the Russians, 
129, 141; discovery by Gray, 
149, 161-180, 493-497; Vancou- 
ver's search and visit, 187, 192- 
194, 218-219; Mackenzie's mis- 
take, 230; exploration by Lewis 
and Clark, 285-300; Winship ex- 
pedition, 316-319; Astor expedi- 
tions, 329, 330, 331, 339, 366; 
Northwest Company's head- 
quarters, 388, 390, 397; tradi- 
tions of the early white men, 
431-436; Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany headquarters, 441; wreck 
of the "William and Ann", 465; 
proposed as the boundary, 
484. ii, 39-40, 51, 151, 162, 
220, 224, 227; wreck of the 
"Peacock", 200; Wilkes's sur- 
vey, 202; warships sent to, 287- 
289; arrival of the first steam 
vessel, 399; early ferry, 444; 
early settlers on the north of, 
444, 445. 446. iii, 132; early 
steam navigation, 451-452. iv. 
88, 211, 239-240. 



Columbia River Country The, 
name applied to Gray's dis- 
covery, i, 4. 

Columbian, The (Olympia), first 
newspaper in Washington, iii, 
96, 126, 142, 147-155. 156, 158, 
159, 160, 161, 164, 166, 167, 
201-202, 204, 205, 212, 214, 
218, 219, 257. iv, 194. 

Columbus, Christopher, i, 37-38. 

Col vile, i, 474. iv, 20. See Fort 
Col vile. 

Colvile, Andrew, of the Hudson's 
Bay Company, i, 442, 454. ii, 

Colvile Indians, The, iii, 474. 

Colvocoresis, Midshipman, ii, 181. 

Commencement Bay, iii, 105, 276. 
iv, 227, 350, 360. 

Commencement City, early name 
for Tacoma, iv, 194, 229, 360. 

Conasset, mythical American city, 
i, 42. 

Concomly, Indian chief, i, 388. 

Condamine, of the Catholic Church, 
ii, 92. 

Condit, Samuel Wilbur, settler, 
iv, 92. 

Confederate piivateers, suspected 
vessels, iv, iio-iii. 

Congregational church. The, ii, 108, 
117, 125, 185. iv, 378. 

Congress. The Oregon question, 
the Linn bill, etc., ii, 46, 61-83, 
148, 178, 203, 209-231, 368, 374- 
379. iii, 31-33, 209-231; re- 
sponsibility for the Indian wars, 
314-315; Monticello memorial 
and creation of Washington 
Territory, 515-517. Railways, 
iv, 202, 205-206, 248-249, 288, 
306; admission of Washington 
State, 268, 270, 383-385, 390. 

Congressional Globe,The, ii, 224, 228. 
Connell, iv, 294. 

Connell, William, settler, iii, 50, 
131; killed by the Indians, 384, 

Connell's Prairie, 131, 392, 445. 

Conner, Mr., ii, 131. 

Connoly, Nellie, wife of James 

Douglas, i, 454. 
Conrad, Charles M., and the Oregon 

question, ii, 222. 
Conscription act. The, iv, 112. 
Constitution of Oregon, ii, 262, 263, 

Constitution of Washington, iv, 268- 

270. 385-390- 

"Continental", The, vessel, iv, 179. 

"Convoy", The, vessel, i, 465. 

Cook, Alfred, member of the Monti- 
cello committee, iii, 206, 516. 

Cook, Amos, of Farnham's party, 
ii, 238, 274. 

Cook, Henry D., iv, 269. 

Cook, James, English navigator, i, 
29. 75. 93-99. 102, 105, 112, 115, 
125, 129, 130, 137, 147. 183, 229, 
238, 242, 247, 251, 306, 338, 429, 

437- ii. 39- 
Cook, M. Nelson, iii, 182. 

Cook, S. I., iii, 513. 

Cook, William, territorial treasurer, 

iii, 244. 
Cooke, Jay & Company, iv, 207- 

209, 212, 224-225, 230, 287. 
Cook's Inlet, i, 98, 136, 139, 230. 
Cook's River, i, 102, 104, no, 137. 
Cool, Samuel, settler, ii, 436. 
Coombs, Justice, iv, 279. 
Cooper, Enoch, iii, 386; killed by 

the Indians, 387. 
Cooper, T. M., settler, iv, 92. 
Coppei Creek, iii, 372. 
Copper, early possession by the 

Indians, i, 429. 



Coppermine River, The so-called, 

i> 387- 
Corbin, D. C, iv, 296. 
Corliss, George W., marshal, iii, 

490, 510. 
"Cormorant", The, English naval 

vessel, ii, 287, 414. iii, 129. 
Cornelius, Colonel, of Oregon, iii, 

Corney, Peter, Northwester, i, 349, 

350. 389- 
Cornoyer, Captain, in the Indian 

War, iii, 358, 360, 361, 371, 372. 

Cornwall, P. B., pioneer, ii, 494-495. 

iv, 315- 

Coronado, Francisco Vasquez, Span- 
ish explorer, i, 49, 60. 

Corporations, in early part of the 
nineteenth century, i, 20. 

Cortereal, Gaspar, Portuguese navi- 
gator, i, 39, 40, 161, 162. 

Cortez, David M., ii, 295. 

Cortez, Hernando, explorations on 
the Pacific Coast, i, 43-48, 50. 

Corwin, Thomas, and the seizure 
of the "Albion", 87; the Ore- 
gon territorial bill, iii, 197. 

Cosgrove, S. G., iv, 387. 

Cottineau, William, settler, ii, 446. 

Cottowaine, William, settler, ii, 446. 

Coues, Elliott (Prof.), i, 263, 320. 
ii, 99. 

Coulee City, iv, 92. 

Council, The, of Washington Terri- 
tory, iii, 229-230. iv, 16, 142, 

Coupe, Thomas, settler, iii, 96, 97. 

Coupeville, iii, 96. iv, 378. 

Courier, Puget Sound, The, iii, 329. 
iv, 251. 

Courts, The, earliest organizations, 
ii, 263, 277, 280. iii, 211. See 

Coveland, iii, 143. 

Covington, Richard, settler, ii, 444. 

Judge and county clerk, iii, 61, 

62. iv, 210. 
Cow Creek (Mont.), i, 272. 
Cowley, H. T., settler, iv, 97. 
"Cowlitz," The, Hudson's Bay 

ship, i, 475- 
Cowlitz County, iii, 239, 243. iv, 

155. 156- 
Cowlitz Farms, The, ii, 170, 183, 

194, 195, 388, 420, 428. iv, 

158, 186, 191, 369. 
Cowlitz Indians, The, i, 393. 
Cowlitz Landing, ii, 428, 446. iii, 

160; early conventions held at 

203-204, 222. iv, 196. 
Cowlitz mission. The, ii, 160-164. 
Cowlitz Pass, The, iv, 305. 
Cowlitz Prairie, ii, 164, 183, 426, 


Cowlitz River, The, i, 295, 309, 474, 
484; colonists from the Red 
River, 486. ii, 160-164, 184, 
187, 393, 404-405- 409. 412; 
Simmons's trips, 423, 426; Jack- 
son's settlement, 427, 433; 439, 
443; other early American set- 
tlers, 444, 445, 446. iii, 60, 61, 
95, 96, 112, 130, 132; Early 
roads, 148, 149; 159. iv, 152. 

Cowlitz Steamboat Company, The, 
iii, 244. 

Cox, Anderson, annexation pro- 
ject, iv, 99. 

Cox, Ross, Northwester, i, 350, 389. 

Coxie, James, iii, 291. 

Craig, William, pioneer, ii, 23. In- 
terpreter and agent for Stevens, 
iii, 291, 428, 465, 468. 

Craigie, J. M., settler, iv, 74. 

Cranney, Thomas, iv, 358, 359. 

Crawford, A., signer of Monticello 
memorial, iii, 517. 

Crawford, David, ii, 426. 



Crawford, Medorem (Captain), pio- 
neer, ii, 240; reminiscences, 243, 
244; part in organizing civil 
government, 275. iv, 78-79. 

Crawford, Peter W., settler, ii, 444. 
Signer of Monticello memorial, 

iii, 517- 
Crescent City (Ore.), iv, 118. 
Crescent Harbor, iii, 95, 507. 
Crocker, Nathaniel, pioneer, ii, 242. 
Crockett, Hugh, pioneer, ii, 492. 

iii, 5> 13- 

Crockett, J. B., settler, iii, 97. 

Crockett, John, settler, iii, 96, 97. 

Crockett, Samuel B., settler, ii, 430, 
432,507.509- Judge, iii, 61:96. 

Crockett, Walter (Colonel), settler, 
iii, 96, 97. 

Crofts, R., settler, iii, 162. 

Crompton, English minister, iv, 48. 

Crooks, Ramsey, Astorian, i, 358, 
359. 364, 365- 366. Manager of 
the American Fur Company, ii, 
7; influence on Dr. Floyd, 63. 

Crosby, Alfred, settler and master 
pilot, ii, 454. 

Crosby, Clanrick (Captain), early 
business man, Tumwater, ii, 
453. Delegate to Cowlitz con- 
vention, iii, 204. iv, 203, 211. 

Crosby, Frank L., of Tacoma, son 
of Nathaniel Crosby, 3d, ii, 454. 

Crosby, Henry R., member of 
legislature, iii, 232. Candidate 
for delegate, iv, 142. 

Crosby, Nathaniel, Jr. (Captain), 
mariner, ii, 453-454. iii, 78. 

Crosby, Nathaniel, Sr. (Captain), 
mariner, ii, 454. 

Crosby, R. H. Indian agent, iii, 288, 

Crosby & Gray, Tumwater, ii, 452, 

Croser, Captain, ii, 450. 

Cross, J. F., settler, iv, 91. 

Crow, James J., iv, 370. 

Crow Indians, The, i, 361, 413, 456. 

ii, 9, 495. 
Crowley, D. J., iv, 387. 
Cruzatte, with Lewis and Clark, i, 

266, 294. 
Culliby, Indian chief, i, 433. 
Cummings, killed by Indians, iii, 


Cummins, Alfred, of Nebraska, iii, 

Cunningham, W. R., Sr., iv, 91. 

Curley, Indian chief, iii, 413. 

Curry, G. L., of Oregon, loan com- 
missioner, ii, 348. Governor, 
iii. 344. 346, 350, 462. 

Curtis, Lieutenant, in Indian war, 
ii, 492. 

Cushing, Caleb, and the Oregon 
question, i, 118. ii, 148, 178, 
215, 216, 223, 245. On the 
habeas corpus, iii, 495. And 
the Hudson's Bay Company's 
claims, iv, 192. 

Cushing, W. H., settler, iii, 132. 

Cushman, F. W., ii, 412. iii, 146. 

Cushman, Joseph, iii, 154, 167. iv, 

Cushman, Orrington, iii, 224, 253, 
272, 274, 276, 286. 

Cussas, Indian, trial and execution, 

iii. 72-73- 

Custom house controversy, The, iv, 

Customs laws. The, early enforce- 
ment, iii, 79-87, 103, 188-191. 

Cutler, Lyman A., iv, 50. 

"Cynosure," The, vessel, iii, 153. 

Cypress Island, i. 214. 




^.^DALUS", The, one of 
Vancouver's ships, i, 217. 
Dallain, Frank, iv, 386. 
Dallas, Hudson's Bay man, iv, 50. 
Dalles, The (Ore.), Lewis and Clark 

at, i, 293, 300, 413; 414, 421, 

422, 458. ii, 26, 27, 106, 121, 

189, 237, 247, 257, 301, 346; 

erection of Fort Lee, 351; 359, 

487, 490. iii, 7, 53, 68, 74, 109; 

early mail route to, 146; 149, 

151, 284, 289, 317, 333, 342, 356, 

450; steam navigation to, 452. 

iv, 108; railway, 212. 
Dalrymple of Dakota, iv, 287. 
Dalrymple, quoted by Vancouver, 

i, 188. 
Dampher, Matthew, of Oregon, iii, 

Dana, Richard Henry, ii, 455. 
"Daniel", The, vessel, iii, 153. 
Daniel, W. Byron, iv, 269. 
Darby, John, Boston shipmaster, i, 

Darwin, Charles, i, 425. 
Darwin, C. B., associate-justice, iv, 

Dash Point, i, 209. 
Davenport, iv, 92. 
David, of Bucoda, ii, 436. 
Davis brothers, settlers, ii, 436. 
Davis, George A., iv, 295. 
Davis, Hester E. (Mrs.), immigrant, 

reminiscences, ii, 482. iii, 15, 

Davis, Jefferson, and Governor 

Stevens, iii, 216, 246-249. 
Davis, John (Judge), affidavit made 

to, i, 497. 
Davis, L. L., signer of Monticello 

memorial, iii, 517. 
Davis, Thomas S., settler, iii, 97. 
Davis, Walter R., iv, 74. 
Davison, settler, ii, 445. 

Dawney, Lewis, settler, iii, 134. 
Dawson, George, settler, ii, 445. 
Day, John, Astorian, i, 368. 
Day, Lieutenant, at the Dalles, iii, 

Dayton, iv, 74, 289. 

Deady, M. P., of Oregon, iii, 211. 

Debating Club, Dr. McLoughlin's, 

ii, 264, 266, 267. 
Debt, Imprisonment for, i, 19. 
"Decatur", The, naval vessel, iii, 

381, 389, 392, 397, 407, 409; 

defense of Seattle, 411-420; 507. 

iv, 123, 124. 
Deception Bay, i, 114, 115, 186. 
Deception Pass, i, 77, 215. ii, 428. 
Deer Lodge River (Mont.), iv, 302. 
de Fuca, Juan, see Fuca, Juan de. 
De Lacy, Captain, in the Indian 

war, iii, 500. 
DeLacy, W. W., iv, 210. 
Delaware Tom, Indian, iii, 265. 
De Lin, Nicholas, settler, iii, 158. 

iv, 350- 
De Lisle, geographer, i, 66, 132. 
De Lorimer, sheriff, iv, 323. 
Demarco, F. J., iv, 210. 
" Demaris Cove", The, vessel, iii, 

133, 137, 140, 153. 
Dement, Lieutenant, seizes the 

" Cadborough " , iii, 81, 513. 
Demers, Modeste (Rev., afterward 

Bishop), missionary, ii, 159, 161, 

163, 164, 165, 167, 170, 410, 411 

iii, 280. 
Democratic party, The, Baltimore 

convention, 1844, ii, 150, 288, 

369. Of Washington, iii, 214, 

219, 222. iv, 104, 141, 142, 

143, 144, 145. 
Dennison, B. F., chief-justice, iv, 

182; code commissioner, 184; 




Denny, Arthur A., original settler 
of Seattle, iii, 109, iii, 112, 114, 
115, 116, 118, 119-120, 122-123, 
124, 125, 128, 156, 202, 213, 214; 
member of legislature, 231; 
lieutenant in the Indian war, 
498-499, 502; signer of Monti- 
cello memorial, 516. iv, 17; 
delegate to Congress, 144; 157- 
158, 160; register of land office, 
173; 203, 210, 232, 236, 350, 

351. 369- 
Denny, David T., settler, iii, 109, 

1 10, 116, 127, 128. 
Denny, John, father of Arthur A. 

and David T., iii, 109. 
Dent, D. T., iv, 74. 
Dent, F. L. (Captain), Civil war 

record, iv, 11 9-1 20. 
Derby, John, Boston merchant, i, 

Des Chutes Indians, The, ii, 352. 

iii, 372- 

Des Chutes River, The, i, 289. ii, 
199,316,427,433. iii, 240, 360. 
iv, 211. 

Deshon, Captain, mariner, i, 245, 

De Smet, P. J. (Rev.), missionary, 
ii, 112, 159, 165, 166. 

De Soto, Hernando, i, 60. 

Destruction Island, i, 70,75,107, 187. 

De Vore, John F. (Rev.), early 
preacher at Steilacoom, iii, 156. 

De Vos, Father, missionary, ii, 166. 

Dickerson, Mahlon, and the Oregon 
question, ii, 66, 67. 

Dickey, 8. A., iv, 386. 

Dillenbaugh, A. S., signer of Monti- 
cello memorial, iii, 204, 517. 

Dillon, William, settler, ii, 444. 

Diplomatic controversies with Eng- 
land, see Oregon question and 
San Juan dispute. 

Disappointment, Cape, see Cape 

"Discovery", The, Vancouver's 

ship, i, 94, 183, 194, 199, 206, 

209, 212, 216, 217, 218, 306. 
Disoway, G. P., letter, ii, 88, 90. 
Divorce, early regulations, iv, 148. 
Dixon, Captain, English navigator, 

i, 29, 103-107, 151, 429. 
Dixon, mate of the " Cadborough", 

iii, 81, 513, 514. 
Dixon, Thomas, settler, iii, 162. 
Dixon's Entrance, i, 105. 
DoUins, Daniel, iv, 211. 
"Dolly", The, ship launched by 

the Astoria colony, i, 352, 367. 
Donation land law. The, ii, 217-231. 

iii, 92, 250, 257. Claims taken 

under, iv, 193-194. 
Donelsen, A. J. (U. S. A.), iii, 216, 

Donifa, O., settler, ii, 446. 

Donnell, J. W., settler, iii, 130. 

Donner party. The, immigrants, ii, 

Donpierre, D., of Oregon, ii, 263. 

Dorion, Pierre, Astorian, i, 360, 365. 

Dorr, Eben May, revenue inspec- 
tor, iii, 81, 82, 83, 85, 513, 514, 


Doty, James, part of in Stevens's 
treaties, iii, 271, 274, 287, 290, 
291, 293, 297, 308, 427. 

Doty, William, see Doughty, Will- 

Dougherty, William, iii, 183. 

Dougherty, W. P., with John R. 
Jackson, ii, 427. 

Doughty, William, pioneer, ii, 23, 

Doughty, W. P., of Oregon, ii, 274, 

Douglas, C. F., iii, 515. 
Douglas, David, botanist, i, 445. 
Douglas Fir, The, i, 445. 



Douglas, James, of the Hudson's 
Bay Company, early life and 
marriage, i, 454. Chief factor 
Fort Vancouver, ii, 164, 185- 
186; attitude toward the pro- 
visional government, 283-287; 
succeeds Dr. McLoughlin, 327; 
action after the Whitman mas- 
sacre, 327-328, 338, 339; 346, 
348, 380, 398, 410; founds Vic- 
toria on Vancouver Island, 414; 
424, 425, 430, 438, 439. Judge 
and commissioner of the Van- 
couver district, iii, 60; letter on 
political affairs, 62; 83, 149, 
177, 181, 184; establishes head- 
quarters at Victoria, 186; con- 
ference with Governor Stevens, 
225; 239; gives assistance in 
the Indian war, 398, 399-400; 
505. Proclamation and action 
regarding the Fraser River gold 
discoveries, iv, 37, 41-44; gover- 
nor of British Columbia, 44; 
the San Juan dispute, 46-67; 88. 

Douglas, John, English mariner, 

i. 53- 

Douglas, Stephen A., iii, 32 

Douglas, William, English naviga- 
tor, I, 108, 109, 150. 

Douglas County, iv, 90, 92, 281. 

Douglass, Robert, iv, 96. 

Downey, Willam, pioneer, ii, 471. 
iv, 211. 

Downing, J. J., settler, iv, 96. 

Downing, Miss, missionary, ii, ic6. 

Doyle, Pat, settler, iii, 97. 

Doyle, Reuben L., iv, 16. 

Drake, Francis (Sir), English navi- 
gator, i, 29, 87, 88, 90, 91, 93, 
94,95,125,225,306. ii, 39, 48. 

Drasa, Catholic bishop of, ii, 167. 

Drayton, Dr., scientist, with Wilkes, 
ii, 183, 198. 

Drayton, William, and the Oregon 

question, ii, 74, 79, 80. 
Drew, George, settler, ii, 446. 

Signer of Monticello memorial, 

iii, 517. 
. Drew, M. S., iv, 211. 
Drewyer, with Lewis and Clark, i, 

266, 273, 274, 287. 
Drewyer's River, i, 283. 
Dripps, fur trader, ii, 63. 
Drumheller, Jesse, ii, 210. 
" Dryad", The, Hudson's Bay ship, 

ii, 400. 
Dryden, Captain, mariner, iii, 96. 
Du Barry, Beekman (U. S. A.), iii, 

Dubois River, The, camp of Lewis 

and Clark, i, 267. 
Duffin, English sailor, i, 113. 
Dunbar, R. O., iv, 387. 
Duncan, Captain, English naviga- 
tor, i, 106, 151, 189. 
Duncan, J. K. (Lieutenant), iii, 245. 
Duncan Rock, i, 189. 
Dunham, Captain, mariner, ii, 451, 


Dunlap, William G., iv, 203. 

Duntze, Captain, English naval 
officer, ii, 414, 415. 

Durgin, L. D., member of legisla- 
ture, iii, 231. 

Durgin, Mrs. E., iv, 113. 

Dutch, The, in the Pacific, i, 123, 124. 

Dutch Harbor, i, 98. 

Dutch Reformed Church, The, ii, 
117. 125. 

Dutton, pioneer, ii, 237. 

Duwamish Indians, The, i, 422. 
Stevens's treaty with, iii, 277. 

Duwamish Valley, The, early set- 
tlers, iii, 50, 103-108. 

Dwellings of the Indians, i, 412. 
Of the pioneer settlers, iii, 38-48. 

Dye, Eva Emery (Mrs.), i, 424. 




EAGAN, Charles P. (General), 
in the Civil war, iv, 122. 
Eagan, member of legisla- 
ture, iv, 150. 
Eagle from the Light, The, Indian 

chief, iii, 301. iv, 106. 
Eagle, The, Indian, ii, 131. 
"Eagle", The, vessel, iii, 153. 
East India Company, The (British), 

i, 100, 105, 107, no, 332, 372. 
Eaton, Charles H., settler, ii, 435. 

Captain in the Indian war, iii, 

Eaton, killed by the Indians, iii, 

329. iv, 222, 360. 
Eaton, Nathan, brother of Charles 

H., settler, ii, 435, 448. 
Ebberts, George W., pioneer, of 

Oregon, ii, 5, 6, 23, 274. 
Ebey, Eason, son of Isaac N., iii, 95. 
Ebey, Ellison, son of Isaac N., iii, 95. 
Ebey, Isaac N., settler, ii, 447, 449, 

452, 454. 456, 507- iii. 49. 94. 
95, 96; member of Oregon legis- 
lature and lawyer, 143, 156, 160, 
202, 210; revenue officer, 165, 
188; militia officer, 506; mur- 
dered by the Indians, 510. 
Connection with the San Juan 
aflFair, iv, 46-47; 142. 

Ebey's Landing (Whidby Island), 
iii, 94. 

Echo, The (Olympia), iv, 195. 

Economic conditions in the early 
part of the nineteenth century, 

i, 9- 

Edgar, John, settler, ii, 448. iii, 
161, 162, 204. 

Edmunds, John, settler, ii, 445. 

Education, Governor Stevens's rec- 
ommendations, ii, 236-237. See 

Edwards, P. L., missionary, ii, 22, 
103, 107. 

Edwards, W. P., settler, ii, 445. 

Eells, Cushing (Rev.), missionary, 
ii, loi, 108, 124, 125, 126, 131, 
134. 136, 137. 293, 309, 433. 
iii, 52. iv, 83, 95; founds Whit- 
man College, 367-368, 373-377- 

Eells, Edwin, son of Rev. Cushing, 
ii, 433. iv, 86, 112. 

Eells, Myra (Mrs.), wife of Rev. 
Cushing, ii, 130, 433. iv, 376. 

Eells, Myron (Rev.), iii, 125, 241. 
iv, 86. 

Eld, midshipman, with Wilkes, ii, 

Elders, William, settler, ii, 447. 

Eldridge, Edward, iii, 120, 330. 
iv, 40, 386. 

Elisa, Francisco, Spanish naviga- 
tor, i, 77. 

"Eliza Anderson", The, iv, 167, 
171, 194. 

Elizabeth, Empress (Russia), i, 

Elizabeth, Queen (England), i, 56, 
87, 88, 90, 100. 

Elk River, The, i, 228. 

" Ella Frances", The, vessel, iv, 

"Ellen Maria", The, vessel cap- 
tured by the Indians, iv, 139, 

EUensburg, iv, 282, 389. 

Ellice, Edward, Hudson's Bay man, 

i, 398, 477. 
Ellicott, Andrew, and Meriwether 

Lewis, i, 261. 
Elliott Bay, ii, 449. iii, 105, no, 

127. iv, 359. 
Ellis, A. E., iv, 295. 
Ellis, Indian chief appointed by 

Dr. White, ii, 255. 
Ellis, Martha H. (Mrs.), settler, iii, 

Eltopia, iv, 294. 



Emerson, Edwin, iv, 353. 

Emmons, Lieutenant (U. S. N.), ii, 

Emory, H. B., iv, 269. 

"Empress of China", The, Ameri- 
can ship, i, 145. 

"Endeavor", The, Cook's ship, i, 

England, Diplomatic controversies 
with. See Oregon question and 
San Juan dispute. 

Engle, W. B., settler, iii, 97. 

English, Thomas C, captain in 
Cayuse war, ii, 357. Lieu- 
tenant-colonel in Civil war, iv, 

Entra de Ceta, Spanish name for 
the Columbia River, i, 218. 

Episcopalian Church, The, ii, 93, 
396, 398. iv, 378. 

Ermatinger, Edward, i, 491. 

Ermatinger, Francis, i, 466, 467. 
In command at Fort Hall, ii, 
23-24, 108, 237, 251; first treas- 
urer of Oregon, 281. iii, 103. 

"Essex", The, U. S. naval vessel, 

i. 372. 

Evans, Elwood, ii, 24. Early law- 
yer, iii, 156, 157; customs offi- 
cer, 188; clerk of council, 229; 
and the suspension of the habeas 
corpus, 488, 490, 491. iv, 16, 
17; secretary of the territory, 
140; 142; acting governor, 149; 
code commissioner, 184; 203, 
268, 276. Quoted, ii, 278, 289, 
341. iii, 66, 158, 159, 162, 223, 
224, 238. 

Evans, Lieutenant (U.S.A.), iii, 253. 

Evarts, William M., iv, 302. 

Everett, iv, 216, 315. 

Everett, Edward, and the Oregon 
question, ii, 66, 74, 75, 79, 209. 

Everman, Ninian, with Michael T. 
Simmons, ii, 426. 

"Exact", The, vessel, iii, m, 116, 

153. i.S^- 
Executive Committee, The, first 
administrative government of 
Oregon, ii, 280, 424, 425. 

FAIRHAVEN and Southern 
Railroad, The, iv, 315. 
Fairweather, Mount, see 

Mount Fairweather. 
Falcon, Cape, see Cape Falcon. 
Falkland Islands, The, the Astor 

expedition at, i, 337. 
"Fame", The, English ship, i, 183. 
Fanjoy, killed by the Indians, iii, 

329. iv, 222, 360. 
Farnham, Russell, Astorian, i, 333. 

ii, 63. 
Farnham, T. J. (Captain), of the 

"Oregon Dragoons", ii, 192, 

238, 243, 264, 275. 
Farquarson, Major, territorial sec- 
retary, iii, 211. 
Fay, Captain, mariner, iii, 86. 

Fay, Robert C, settler, iii, 109, no. 

Feister, Henry, member of legisla- 
ture, iii, 233. 

"Felice", The, English ship, i, 108, 
no, 112, 116. 

Felstad, Captain, mariner, ii, 446. 

Felt, J. J., iii, 158. iv, 351-352. 

Fenelon, Duncan, Hudson's Bay 
official, ii, 408. 

Fenton, at Fort Nisqually, iii, 513. 

Ferello, Spanish navigator, i, 50. 

Ferguson, Jesse, settler, ii, 430, 432, 
438, 441- iv, 349- 

Ferguson County, iv, 89, 93-94- 

Ferrick, E. L., signer of Monticello 
memorial, iii, 516. 

Ferries, Early, ii, 444- i". 20, 148. 



Ferry County, iv, 90. 

Ferry, Elisha P., surveyor-general, 
iv, 217; territorial governor, 
257-273. 275, 333, 384; first 
state governor, 390. 

Fidalgo, Salvador, Spanish naviga- 
tor, i, 60, 77, 78. ii, 200. 

Fidalgo Island, iii, 277. iv, 214. 

"Fifty- four Forty", southern 
boundary of Alaska, i, 3. ii, 
44, 75, 203, 226, 288, 372-374, 

377. 378- 

Fillmore, Millard (President), signs 
the Donation Land Law, iii, 92; 
bill creating Washington Terri- 
tory, 210. 

Finch, E. L., member of Monticello 
committee, iii, 206. 

Finch, William, settler, iv, 74. 

Finlay, escape of, iii, 455. 

"Fisgard", The, English naval 
vessel, ii, 287, 414, 415. 

Fisgardita Cove, ii, 415. 

Fish Hook Rapids (Snake River), 
i, 284. 

Fishing by the Indians, i, 413. 

Fisk, pioneer, iii, 17. 

Fisk, Wilbur (Rev.), ii, 90, 102. 

Fiske, John, i, 37, 123. 

Fitzgerald, member of parliament, 
ii, 398. 

Fitzhugh, E. C, settler, iii, 130, 
502. iv, 37. 

Fitzhugh's Mills, ii, 244. 

Fitzpatrick, Barney, settler, iv, 92. 

Fitzpatrick, fur trader, ii, 10, 16,63. 

Five Crows, Indian chief, ii, 256, 
331, 354. Part in the Walla 
Walla treaty, iii, 296-306. 

Five Mile Rapid (Snake River), i, 

Flanders, Alvan, delegate to con- 
gress, iv, 144-145; governor, 

Flathead Indians, The, i, 368, 423. 

Visits to St. Louis for religious 

advice, ii, 87-102; 112, 113, 

122, 125, 165, 293. iii, 254; 

Stevens's treaty, 308. 
Flathead Lake, ii, 10. 
Flattery, Cape, see Cape Flattery. 
Fletcher, Francis, of Farnham's 

party, ii, 238; settler, 274. 
Fletcher, Mrs. S. A., iv, 113. 
Flett, John, colonist from the Red 

River, ii, 409. iii, 291. 
Flores, Antonio, Spanish mariner, 

i, 64. 
Florida treaty. The, i, 28. ii, 43, 

369. 381. 

Floyd, John, and the Oregon ques- 
tion, ii, 63, 64, 66, 69, 73, 74, 
75, 79, 209, 217. iii, 91. 

Floyd, with Lewis and Clark, i, 266, 
269, 302. 

"Flying Fish", The, of the Wilkes 
expedition, ii, 178, 183. 

Foisy, M. G., of Oregon, ii, 281. 

Folger, Captain, iii, iii. 

Fonte, Pedro Bartolme de, Spanish 
navigator, i, 42, loi, 106, 154. 

Force, John, pioneer, ii, 240. 

Ford, Marcus, U. S. attorney, Ore- 
gon, ii, 281. 

Ford, Sidney S., settler, ii, 435. 
iii, 49, no, 132, 198; delegate 
to Cowlitz convention, 204; 244, 
252; signer of Monticello me- 
morial, 516. Death, 195. 

Ford, Sidney S., Jr., of Stevens's 
treaty-making party, iii, 272, 
274, 276, 308; oflicer in the 
Indian war, 449. 

Foreman, R., settler, iii, 162. 

Forest fires, iv, 363-364. 

Forest, Robert W., iv, 295. 

Forrest, Charles, Hudson's Bay 
man, ii, 439. iii, 60, 63. 



Forsyth, John, and the Oregon 
question, ii, 214. 

Forsythe, J. W. (Lieutenant), Civil 
war, iv, 128. 

Fort Baker, iv, 112. 

Fort Bellingham, iv, 37, 107. 

Fort Bennet, iii, 373. 

Fort Benton, iii, 251, 307. iv, 130. 

Fort Boise, ii, 23, 24, 121, 138, 251, 
420, 469, 485. iii, 7, 20, 21. 
iv, 108, 109. 

Fort Bridger, ii, 297. 

Fort Chinook, ii, 289. 

Fort Chipewyan, i, 227, 228, 229. 

Fort Clatsop, camp of Lewis and 
Clark, i, 282, 299. 

Fort Colvile, i, 454, 455- 474- ". 
10, 123, 125, 126, 164, 165, 182, 
385, 388, 401, 420. Gold dis- 
coveries, iii, 52, 327-329, 330, 
428; 217, 225. U. S. Military 
post, iv, 89, 108. 

Fort Connoly, i, 454. 

Fort Crockett, ii, 237, 238. 

Fort Dalles, iii, 450. See Dalles, 

Fort Defiance, built by Robert 
Gray, i, 155. 

Fort George, name given by the 
British to Astoria, i, 27, 374, 
388, 397, 450, 451. ii, 36, 118, 
201, 202, 289, 386, 420. 

Fort Gilliam, ii, 351. 

Fort Hall, ii, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 
108, 112, 121, 138, 141, 237, 
238, 243, 246, 250, 251, 295, 
420, 469, 484, 505. iii, 68. 

Fort Hays, iii, 498. 

Fort Henrietta, iii, 357, 360, 370, 

Fort Henry, i, 320. 

Fort Hicks, iii, 401. 

Fort Hoskins, iv, 108. 

Fort Kamloops, i, 390, 445. 

Fort Lander, iii, 499. 

Fort Lane, iii, 342. 

Fort Langley, i, 455, 457, 476. ii, 
387. 395- iii. 80, 117. 

Fort Laramie, ii, 141, 143, 244, 273, 
296, 478. iii, 68. 

Fort Lee (the Dalles), ii, 351. 

Fort McLoughlin, i, 455. ii, 387. 
iii, 80. 

Fort Macumpagra (Uncompagre) , 
ii, 141. 

Fort Nisqually, i, 424, 474. ii, 93, 
107, 171, 179, 194, 195, 197, 199, 
273. 287, 380; its history, 385- 
415; 419, 420, 429, 432, 433, 
441, 443, 444, 447, 448-451, 
456; Indian attack, 458-460; 

463, 507-509- iii. 39. 50. 51. 
61, 63, 68-70, 72, 79-81, 105, 
112, 129, 131, 132, 139, 143, 
14S, 162, 186, 382, 408, 409, 
503.513-515- iv, 192,351,363. 

Fort Okanogan, i, 25. ii, 164, 165, 
182, 388, 420. iii, 225. 

Fort Osage, ii, 12. 

Fort Otoe, ii, 121. 

Fort Rains, iii, 452. 

Fort Simcoe, iii, 475. iv, 24, 122. 

Fort Simpson, i. 395, 455. ii, 385, 
387. iii, 138, 139, 140, 141- 

Fort Spokane, i, 25. 

Fort Steilacoom, iii, 70, 72, 73, 81, 
83, 85, 139, 146, 164, 253, 325, 
334. 342, 379. 392. 396, 403, 484- 
iv, 5, 8, 37, 108, 124, 147. 191- 

Fort Sutter, ii, 302, 304. 

Fort Taylor, iv, 24. 

Fort Uncompagre, ii, 141. 

Fort Vancouver, i, 394, 395, 456, 
463, 470, 473, 475, 486. ii, 16, 
23, 26, 103, 104, 105, 107, ^17, 
121,135,159,164,165,17 184, 
185, 186, 198, 199, 238, 247, 253, 
254, 256, 261, 271, 278, 284, 286, 



287, 300, 327, 338, 340, 386, 387, 

393' 398, 399. 401, 405, 409, 411. 
412, 419, 420, 423, 424, 428, 

43o> 438. 443. 444> 456. 460; 
military post established by the 
U. S. government, 461. iii, 18, 
69. 70. 71. 79. 80, 171, 318, 325, 
342, 430- 

Fort Walla Walla, i, 397, 458. ii, 
i3> 23, 25, 26, 93, 103, 120, 121, 
122, 126, 138, 164, 165, 199, 237, 
238, 243, 254, 300, 304, 316, 321, 
327. 331.336.340.359.397.401, 
409, 420, 469. In the Indian 
war, iii, 330, 331, 347, 348, 452. 
iv, 20, 24, 32, 49, 149, 160, 167. 

Fort Wascopam, ii, 359. 

Fort Waters, ii, 356, 357, 359. 

Fort William (Columbia River), ii, 
19, 20. 

Fort WiUiam (Lake Superior), i, 
448, 450. 

Fort Wintee, ii, 141. 

Forty-ninth parallel, The, bound- 
ary between Washington and 
British Columbia, i, 3, 26-27, 3^- 
ii. 31-32, 39. 50. 54, 66, 148, 
214-215; Ashburton treaty, 221- 
225; 226-227; final negotiations 
and adoption, 365-382; opposed 
by Wilkes, 501-505; text of the 
treaty, 518-519. 

Forty-second parallel, The, north- 
em boundary of California, i, 
28. ii, 43-44. 

Foster, Edward A., iv, 353. 

Foster, James, settler, iv, 73. 

Foster, John, settler, iii, 108. 

Foster, Stephen, settler, iii, 108. 

Foulweather Bluflf, i, 203, 205, 206. 

Four Lakes, The, iv, 21; battle of, 
25 27. 

Fouts, J. W., settler, iii, 162. 

Fowler, Enoch S., iii, 271. iv, 161, 

Fowler, Jesse, settler, ii, 444. 
Signer of Monticello memorial, 
iii. 517- 

Fox, Dr., with Wilkes, ii, 197. 

Fox, mate of the "Tonquin", i, 

Fox Island, iii, 409. 

Fox, Peter (Lieutenant), Civil war, 
iv, 107, 108. 

France. Meagre part in Pacific dis- 
covery, i, 124-125. See Louisi- 
ana Purchase. 

Franchere, Gabriel, Astorian, i, 

333' 435- 
Francis, Allen, federal official, iv, 

I lO-I II. 

Franciscan missions in California, 

i, 66, 438. 
Frankel, A., iv, 203. 
"Franklin", The, vessel, iii, 153. 
Franklin, John (Sir), i, 38. 
" Franklin Adams", The, vessel, iii, 

119, 122. 
Franklin County, iv, 90, 281. 
FrankUn Islands (South Pacific), 

i, 154- 
Frapp, fur trader, ii, ic. 
Eraser, Simon, English explorer, i, 

30, 31, 232-234, 331, 388, 450, 

454. ii, 163, 379. 
Eraser Lake, i, 30, 454. 
Eraser River, The, i, 232-234, 455. 

Gold discoveries, iv, 37-45. 
Frazer, W. L., iii, 204. 
Eredenrich, L., iv, 211. 
Freeman, Mrs., iv, 113. 
Ereeport, iv, 222, 359. 
Free-Soil party. The, iv, 142. 
Free trappers. The, ii, 4-7. 
Free Will Baptists, ii, 350. 
Fremont, John C, ii, 247-248, 367. 

iii, 249. 



French Canadians, The, as settlers 
in Washington and Oregon, ii, 
4, 176, 270, 274, 281, 282. 

French Prairie, ii, 104, 164, 239, 

Friday Harbor (San Juan Island), 

iv, 52. 
Friend, Ulric, settler, iii, 95. 
Friendly Cove (Nootka Sound), i, 

96, 98, no, 116. 
Frobishers, The, Hudson's Bay 

men, i, 387. 
Frost, Andrew J., immigrant, ii, 

Frost, J. H. (Rev.), missionary, ii, 

Frost, J. H., member of legislature, 

iv, 150; 211. 

Frost, Morris H., customs collector, 

iv, 166. 
Frost, Mrs., daughter of Walter G. 

Perry, iii, 4, 38, 39. 
Frost, Osmyn, settler, iii, 129. 
Fuca, Juan de, Spanish navigator, 

i. 52-59. 305- 
Fuca's Strait, See Strait of Juan de 

Fuller, Indian agent, iii, 441. 
Fur trade. The, i, 98, 100, 103, 136, 

142, 153, 227, 231, 247-249, 

313-315; Astor and, 325-333. 
389, 471, 475-476. ii, 4-7, 387- 
" Fusi Ayama", The, English ship, 
iv, III. 

GAINES, John P., governor of 
Oregon, iii, 77, 200, 201, 

Galbreath, James, settler, iv, 74. 

Gale, Joseph, settler of Oregon, ii, 
176; captain of the "Star of 
Oregon", 194; part in organiz- 
ing civil government, 275, 276. 

Gale, William A., of the "Alba- 
tross", i, 317. 

Galiano, Spanish navigator, i, 78, 
192, 216, 306. 

Galiano Island, i, 58. 

Gallagher, George, capitol commis- 
sioner, iv, 161, 162; 211. 

Gallatin, Albert, and Mr. Astor, i, 
377. ii, 34; and the Oregon 
question, 38-40, 52, 54-56, 76, 
79, 148, 217, 370. 

Gallatin River, The, i, 112, 272,313. 

Galleons, The, of the Pacific, i, 51. 

Galliher, Milas, iv, 203. 

Game, Early abundance of, ii, 19. 

"Ganges", The, English naval ves- 
sel, iv, 57-58, 64. 

Gansevoort, Guert (U. S. N.), of 
the "Decatur", iii, 412-420. 
Career, iv, 124. 

Gant, John, guide, ii, 248. 

Gardner, Alan (Sir), English naval 
officer, i, 213. 

Gardner, W. H. (U. S. A.), iii, 216. 

Gardoqui, Spanish minister, i, 148. 

Garesche, F., iv, 273. 

Garfield County, iv, 21, So, 87, 290, 


Garfielde, Selucius, iv, 18, 131, 142, 
144; delegate to congress, 185; 
186, 189, 190, 232. 

Garnett, Robert Selden (U. S. A.), 
in the Indian war, iii, 475. iv, 
3, 30; Civil war record, 123. 

Garrison, J. M., member of legis- 
lature, ii, 281. 

Garry, Indian chief, iii, 297. iv, 
27, 29. 

Gary, George (Rev.), missionary, 
and McLoughlin, iii, 177-178. 

Gass, Patrick, with Lewis and 
Clark, i, 10, 62. 



Gaston (Lieutenant), killed in the 

Indian war, iv, 22, 32. 
Gawley, William H., iv, 352. 
Gay, George, of Oregon, ii, 269, 274. 
Gazette, The (Seattle), iv, 195. 
Geer, Elizabeth Dixon, pioneer, iii, 

14, 29. 
"General Paterson," The, vessel, ii, 

George III, i, 213. 
George, Fort, see Fort George. 
"George Emery", The, vessel, ii, 

454- iii, 98, 133- 137. iS3> i59- 
George, W. A., iv, 210, 268. 
"George Wright", The, vessel, iv, 

Georgetown, ii, 449, iii, 50, 104- 

"George W. Kendall ", The, vessel, 

iii. 153- 
" Georgiana", The, wreck of, iii, 137. 
Gerish, G. H., settler, iii, 131. 
Germain, George, settler, ii, 446. 
Germain, James, settler, ii, 446. 
Gervais, Joseph, Astorian, i, 360; 

settler of Oregon, 486. Historic 

meeting held in his house, ii, 

Ghent, The treaty of, see Treaty 

of Ghent. 
Gholson, Richard A., governor, iv, 

65, 105, 137-139, 161, 162. 
Giaashetucteas, Indian, trial and 

execution, iii, 74-76. 
Gibbon, General (U. S. A.), iv, 333, 

337. 343- 
Gibbon, Joseph, settler, ii, 444. 

Gibbs, George, scientist and sur- 
veyor, iii, 225, 246, 253, 267, 
270, 271, 274, 276, 280, 282, 
319, 320, 325, 326, 488. iv, 
142, 253-254. 

Giddings, E., Jr., witness to the 
Medicine Creek treaty, iii, 274. 

Giddings, Edward, iv, 230. 

Gilbert, Humphrey (Sir), i, 40. 

Gilliam, Cornelius (Colonel), pio- 
neer leader, ii, 257, 296; cam- 
paign in the Cayuse war, 347- 
359. Postal agent iii, 145. 

Gilliam, W. H., settler, iii, 108. 

Gilmore, M., of Oregon, ii, 280. 

Gilmore, S. M., iv, 268. 

Gilpin, William, iii, 177. 

Githers, George, settler, iii, 162. 

Glasgow, Thomas W., settler, ii, 
436, 439-440, 448, 449, 458- 
iii, 49, 81-83, 94. 184, 514, 515. 

Glidden, A. K. P., iv, 355. 

Glover, James N., settler, iv, 96-97, 


Gobar, Antonie, settler, ii, 420. 

Godman, J. J., iv, 387. 

Goff, F. N. P., of Oregon, in the 
Indian war, iii, 440, 449, 467- 

Gold discoveries, California, ii, 442- 
443, 464. iii, 91; Queen Char- 
lotte's Island, 137; Fort Col- 
vile, 327-329, 428. Eraser 
River, iv, 37-45; Idaho, 74-79- 

"Golden Hind", The, Drake's ship, 
i, 89, 306. 

Goldsborough, Hugh A., iii, 86, 253, 
271, 488; signer of Monticeilo 
memorial, iii, 517. iv, 142, 169. 

Goldsborough, Louis M. (U. S. N.), 
iii, 77. 

Goldschmidt, Dr., and the San 
Juan dispute, iv, 64. 

Goletas Channel, i, 58. 

Goliah, Indian chief, iii, 277. 

Gollikof, Ivan, Russian merchant, 
i, 136, 137. 

Goodell, William B., tragical death, 

iv, 175- 
Goodwin, J. J., iv, 210. 
Goodwin, J. W., iv, 218-219. 



Goodwin, William, early settler, ii, 


Gordon, Benjamin, settler, ii, 436, 

Gordon, Captain, English naval 
officer, ii, 287. 

Gore, English navigator, i, 99. 

Gorham, Benjamin, and the Oregon 
question, ii, 74. 

Gosnell, Wesley, officer in the 
Indian war, iii, 449. 

Govain, settler, ii, 444. 

Gove, A. B., mariner, iii, 154. 

Gracie, Lieutenant (U. S. A.)> iii, 
289, 291. 

Graig, D., iv, 210. 

Grand Coulee, The, iv, 92. 

Grand Portage, i, 232. 

Grand Prairie, iv, 114. 

Grand River, The, ii, 141, 142. 

Grande Ronde country. The, i, 397. 
ii, 251, 360, 469, 490. iii, 17; 
Shaw's campaign, 468-469. 

Grant, Ulysees S., at Fort Vancou- 
ver, iv, 114; and Elisha P. 
Ferry, 257; 302. 

Grattan, Lieutenant, iii, 306. 

Gravail, F., settler, ii, 448. 

Gravely Lake, ii, 388. 

Gray, " History of Oregon, " ii, 205, 

Gray, Robert (Captain), discoverer 
of the Columbia River. Com- 
mander of the "Washington", 
i, 147; sails from Boston to the 
North Pacific, 148-152; ex- 
changes ships with Kendrick, 
and with the "Columbia" cir- 
cumnavigates the globe, 152- 
153; second voyage, discover- 
ing the Columbia River, 154- 
180; Bulfinch's affidavit, 493- 

Gray, W. C, iv, 295. 

Gray, W. H., missionary, ii, 22, 
loi, 112, 118, 120; visit to the 
east, 123-124; 125, 131-135; 
withdraw^al, 135-137; part in 
organizing civil government in 
Oregon, 268-269, 275, 281; 341. 
iv, 192. 

Gray's Bay, i, 177, 219, 295, 296. 

Gray's Harbor, i, 30, 169, 171, 422, 
455- ii. 55> 181, 370, 428; 
early settlers, 446. iii, 50, 131, 
133. 156. 244, 285, 287. iv, 
166, 315. 

Great Falls (Columbia River), i, 289. 

Great Northern Railroad, The, iv, 

"Great Reinforcement", The, ii, 

108, 235, 261. 
"Great Republic", The, loss of, iv, 


Great River of the W^est, The, i, 
224, 225, 226, 227. 

Great Slave Lake, i, 228. 

"Grecian", The, vessel, ii, 453, 454. 

Green, with General Ashley, ii, 8. 

Green, Dr., of the American Board 
of Commissioners of Foreign 
Missions, ii, 303, 304, 342. 

Green River, The (tributary of the 
Colorado), halting place for 
immigrants, ii, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 
16, 23, loi, 112, 117, 121, 138, 
237, 243, 295, 296, 481, 492. 

Green River, The (Wash.), Indian 
fight on, iii, 394-396. iv, 222, 

Greene, A. T., settler, iv, 92. 

Greene, Roger S., associate- justice, 
iv, 182; chief-justice, 276, 280, 

330. 333. 337-338. 343- 
Greenhow, " Historj'' of Oregon," 

i. 30. 55. 63, 76-77. 90. 94. 118, 
123, 140, 149, 165-166, 176,485. 
ii. 40. 41. 53. 148, 218, 245. 



Gregg, David McM. (U. S. A.), in 
the Indian war, iv, 22; Civil 
war record, 119. 

Grier, W. N. (U. S. A.), in the In- 
dian war, iv, 27, 29; Civil war 
record, 119. 

Griffin, Charles James, of San Juan 
Island, iv, 46, 50, 53. 

Griffin, J. S. (Rev.), missionary, ii, 
108, 185; part in organizing 
civil government, 273, 274. 

Griffith, R., pioneer, iii, 16. 

Grijalva, Hernando, Spanish ex- 
plorer, i, 46, 60. 

Grimm, Dr., and the San Juan 
dispute, iv, 64. 

Griswold, George, killed by the 
Indians, iii, 457-458. 

Grover, Cuvier (U. S. A.), iii, 216. 

Grow, Timothy, settler, iii, 108. 
Guemes Canal, The, i, 77. 
Guise, Captain, English navigator, 

i, loi. 
Guizot, advocacy of a balance of 

power in America, ii, 369, 374. 
Gulf of California, The, i,47, 62, 124. 
Gulf of Cortez, The, i, 47. 
Gulf of Georgia, The, i, 58, 192, 213, 

216, 217, 306, 430. ii, 388. 

iv, 314. 
Gunn, Lewis C, iv, 38; customs 

collector, 174. 
Gurley, Henry, and the Oregon 

question, ii, 74, 79. 
Guthrie, Captain (U. S. A.), in the 

Indian war, iii, 433. 

HABEAS corpus. The, Stev- 
ens's suspension of, iii, 

484-485. 495- 

Hager, Mary, ii, 435. iii, 8. 

Haidah Indians, The, i, 404. iii, 
94, III, 112; capture of the 
gold hunters, 138-140; hostile 
visits and murders, 504-511. 

Haines, Guy, settler, iv, 95. 

Haines, J. C, iv, 331. 

Hakes, Mrs. S. J., iv, 113. 

Hakluyt, i, 40, 86. 

Haldray, Jacob, with Joseph R. 
Jackson, ii, 427. 

Hale, Calvin E., member of legis- 
lature, iii, 231; signer of Monti- 
cello memorial, 516. 

Hale, Edward Everett, and Asa S. 
Mercer, iv, 178. 

Hale, Horatio, with Wilkes, i, 421, 
422. iii, 280, 281. 

Haley's Bay, i, 297. 

Hal-hal-tlos-sots, Indian chief, iii, 

Hall, Alfred, iv, 94. 

Hall, Ann E., captive, ii, 339. 

Hall, Edwin O., printer, ii, 293. 

Hall, Eliza (Mrs.), captive, ii, 339. 
Testifies, iii, 75. 

Hall, fugitive from the Whitman 
massacre, ii, 316, 320. 

Hall, Jane, captive, ii, 339. 

Hall, Mary, captive, ii, 339. 

Hall, Rachel M., captive, ii, 339. 

Hall, Rebecca, captive, ii, 339 

Hall, Washington, settler, ii, 445. 

Haller, Granville O. (U. S. A.), 
expedition against the murder- 
ers of the Ward party, iii, 7-8; 
in the Indian war, 289, 333, 
334-338, 346. And the San 
Juan affair, iv, 52, 59; Civil 
war record, 128-129; 343. 

Haller, Mrs. Granville O., iii, 357. 

Halloran, James (Lieutenant), Civil 
war, iv, 107, 108. 

Hamilton, S. M., settler, ii, 446. 
iii, 318. 



Hammond, Thomas W., settler, iii, 


Hancock, Cape, see Cape Hancock. 
Hancock, John, and Robert Gray, 

i. 153. 174- 

Hancock, Samuel, quoted, i, 349- 
350, 418-420. Settler, ii, 436, 
439, 440, 449. iii, 94, 150. 

"Hancock", The, American ship, 

i, 154- 

Hanford, A. Elwood, iv, 342. 

Hanford, Abbie J. (Mrs.), iii, 412. 

Hanford, C. H. (Judge), son of 
Edward, ii, 449, 496-497. iii, 
48, 417. iv, 65, 154, 181, 230, 
310, 329-330, 342, 344, 388. 

Hanford, Edward, pioneer, ii, 496- 
497. iii, 11-12; 105; settler, 
108, 127, 128. 

Hanford, Frank, iv, 342. 

Hanford, Mrs. Edward, iii. 419. 

Hanford, Seymour, iii, 108; settler, 

Hanford, Thaddeus, iv, 229. 

Hanna, James, English navigator, 
i, 100, 429. 

Hannah, D. B., iv, 269. 

Hansen, Charles, iv, 360. 

Hanson, Lieutenant, with Vancou- 
ver, i, 212. 

Hanson, William, iv, 229. 

Hard, Fred D., iv, 273. 

Hardie, James A. (U. S. A.), Civil 
war record, iv, 119. 

Harland, gambler, iv, 276. 

Harmon, Hill, settler, iii, 104, 147. 
iv, 353. 356. 

Harmon, Nathaniel, iv, 353. 

Harney, W. G. (U. S. A.), iii, 53, 
426. And the San Juan affair, 
iv, 50-55- 59. 60-61, 64; Civil 
war record, 1 14-1 16; 138. 

Haro, Gonzalo, Spanish navigator, 
i. 75. 136-137- 

Haro Channel, The, see Canal de 

"Harpooner", The, vessel, iii, 70, 

Harrington, W. T., settler, ii, 445. 
Harris, D. J., settler, iii, 130. 
Harris, John, settler, iii, loi. 
Harrison, Benjamin H. (President), 

iv, 390. 
Harrison, Lieutenant (U. S. A.), iii, 

Hart, George, W., iv, 210. 
Hartley, Richard, immigrant, ii, 


Hartman, Mrs., ii, 432. iii, 43,50. 

Harvey, E. C, iv, 211. 

Harvey, John, settler, iii, 107, 108. 

Hastie, Thomas, settler, iii, 97. 

Hastings, Loren B., settler, ii, 449. 
iii, 98-102, 117; signer of Monti- 
cello memorial, 517. 

Hastings, L. W., of Oregon, ii, 240, 
241, 242, 265. 

Haswell, mate of the "Columbia", 

i. 147. 157- 

Hatch, Crowell, associated with 
Barrel, i, 146, 493. 

Hathaway, C. S., signer of Monti- 
cello memorial, iii, 206, 516. 

Hathaway, Felix, of Oregon, ii, 176. 
iii, 175. 

Hathaway, Major (U. S. A.), ii, 448, 
461. iii, 70, 71. 

Haugh, F. O., iii, 274. 

Havermale, S. G., settler, iv, 97, 

Havermale Island, iv, 97. 
Hawaiian Islands, The, i, 3, 95, 98, 

103, 319, 338, 370, 372, 425. 

iv. 153. 351- 
Hawk, A. R., pioneer, ii, 471; 
reminiscences, 485, 486-489. iii, 

Hawk, Lizzie (Mrs.), ii, 432. 



Hawkhurst, Webly, of Oregon, ii, 

176, 275. 
Hawkins, John, English navigator, 

i, 87. 
Hawkins, Lieutenant, of Oregon, 

ii, 461. 
Hayden, Mrs. Guy, iv, 113. 
Hayes, Smith, settler, iii, 99. 
Haygart, George (Dr.), i, 226. 
Hays, Gilmore (Captain), in the 

Indian war, iii, 344, 379, 382, 

393-396, 404, 440, 445-448. 

Connection with civil affairs, 

iv, 142, 150. 
Hays, Henry C, captive, ii, 339. 
Hays, Isaac (Captain), iv, 11. 
Hays, Rebecca (Mrs.), captive, ii, 

Hays, Smith, settler, iii, 158. 

Hays, W. W., iv, 147. 

Haywood, George, settler, iii, 131. 

Hazel Point, i, 203. 

Hearne, Samuel, Hudson's Bay 

man, i, 386, 387. 
Heath, iii, 63, 182. 
Heceta, Bruno, Spanish navigator, 

i, 28, 29, 70-71. 74, 102, 113, 

115, 162-164, 171, 175, 186. 
Heceta's Inlet, i, 71. 
Hedding, Elijah, Indian, ii, 302, 335. 
Hedge, J. B., settler, iii, 130. 
Heebner, William, settler, iii, 108. 
Hellgate Rapid (Columbia River), 

i, 289. 
Hellmuth, Mr., iv, 272. 
Hembree, Captain, of Oregon, iii, 

Henderson's Bay, iii, 350, 508. 

Hendrick, A., of Oregon, ii, 282. 
Hendricks, Charles, iii, 104, 105. 
Henley, Mr., iv, 271. 
Henness, B. L., iv, 203. 
Henness, Captain, in the Indian 
war, iii, 440, 446, 447, 467-469. 

Henry, Alexander, fur trader, i, 

320, 359, 362, 456. 
Henry, Anson G., surveyer-general, 

iv, 173, 176, 185. 
Henry, Francis, iv, 269. 
Henry VIII, i, 88. 
"Henry", The, vessel, iii, no. 
Henry's River, i, 456. 
Herald, Puget Sound, The, iv, 215. 
Heron, Hudson's Bay official, ii, 

172, 395. 396, 398- 
Hewitt, Christopher C, captain in 

the Indian war, iii, 389, 390, 

406, 413, 488. Chief-justice, 

iv, 165, 180-182. 
Hewitt, Henry, iii, 129, 130. 
Hezekiah, Indian, ii, 332. 
Hickey, Captain, English naval 

officer, ii, 36. 
Hicks, Urban E., pioneer, ii, 494. 

iii, 15; lieutenant in the Indian 

war, 445-446. 
Higgins Beach, ii, 448. 
Higgins, C. P., iii, 290, 308. 
"Highlands, The", home of John 

R. Jackson, ii, 428. iv, 196. 
Hill, Bennett H. (U. S. A.), ii, 448, 

454, 462. iii, 70, 71, 72, 81, 83, 

139. 513-514- 
Hill, Captain, mariner, i, 299. 
Hill, David, of Oregon, ii, 247, 275, 

276, 280, 282. 
Hill, N. D., settler, iii, 97. 
Hill, R. C, settler, iii, 97. 
Himes, George H., ii, 274, 329, 430, 

433. iii, 148. 
Hinderwell, Richard O., English 

naval officer, iii, 84. 
Hines, Augustus (Rev.), of Oregon, 

missionary, ii, 107, 263, 274, 276. 
Hinman, Alanson, missionary, ii, 

Hoback, with the Astor party, i, 

361, 362, 456. 



Hockens, Father, missionary, ii, 

Hodgdon, M. A. (Miss), iv, 375. 
Hoffman, killed in the Whitman 

massacre, ii, 312. 
Hograve, August, settler, iii, 108. 
Hogue, John, settler, iii, 131. 
Holbrook, Amory, of Oregon, U. S. 

attorney, iii, 67, 74> 86. 
Holgate, John C, settler, ii, 449- 

455. iii, 93, 105, 108, 128. 
Holgate, Lemuel J., settler, iii, 108, 

127, 128, 419. iv, 370. 
Holgate, Milton G., killed in the 

attack on Seattle, iii, 419- 
Holidays, early observance, ii, 195- 

197, 406, 415. iii, 166, 203. 
Holliday, Ben, stage line, iv, 80. 
Holman, Charles, iv, 210. 
Holman, James D., settler, ii, 445. 
Holman, John, of Oregon, ii, 275. 
Holman, Joseph, pioneer, ii, 238. 
Holmes, C. S., iv, 356. 
Holmes Harbor, iii, 507. iv, 214. 
Holmes, Mrs., ii, 454- 
Holt, George, settler, iii, 107, 108. 
Holy Angels' College, iv, 378. 
Homestead Act, The, iii, 33. 
Homly Rapids (Columbia River), 

i, 286. 
Hood, Lord, i, 185, 205. 
Hood, Mount, see Mount Hood. 
Hood's Canal, i, 205, 414, ii, 55, 
181, 199, 370. iii, 267, 278. 
iv, 356, 357- 
Hood's River, i, 293. 
Hooker, Joseph (U. S. A.), ii, 448. 
Hop industry, The, iv, 303-304. 
" Hope ", The, vessel, i, 1 54, 1 56, 176- 
Hopkins, English official, i, 185. 
Hopkins, Captain (U. S. N.),iv, iii. 
Hoquiam, iii, 131. 
Hornby, Captain, English naval 
officer, iv, 54, 57, 61,64. 

Horton, Dexter, early settler, Seat- 
tle, iii, 127; first banker, 128. 

iv, 351- 
Hoskins, John, with Captain Gray, 

i, 155. i74> 493. 495- 

Howard, John, of Oregon, ii, 274. 

Howard, William, iv, 279. 

Howe, Captain, in the Indian war, 
iii, 440. 

Howe, Horace, iv, 189. 

Howe, Samuel D., settler, iii, 97; 
captivity, 139; member of legis- 
lature, 141, 231. 

Howell, J., with Kendrick, i, 493. 

Howell, Jefferson D., captain of 
the "Pacific", iv, 273. 

Howison, Lieutenant (U. S. N.), 
ii, 290. 

Hoyt, John P., iv, 387, 388. 

Hubbard, T. J., pioneer, of Oregon, 
ii, 22, 176, 269, 274, 275. 

Hubbs, member of legislature, iv, 

Hubbs, Paul K., iv, 210. 

Hudson, Captain (U. S. N.), ii, 200. 

Hudson's Bay Company, The, early 
history, i, 382-388; rivalry with 
and absorption of the North- 
west Company, 389-398; policy, 
attitude, and various events, 
485. ii, 3, 13, 36-37. 41-43. 
49-50. 53. 152-153. 160-162, 172, 
184-185, 186-189, 203, 205, 226- 
227, 257, 278, 283-287, 289, 340- 
341, 348,419,424,455-458. 504- 

505. 507-509- iii. 59-65- 79-87. 
171-191, 225, 236, 483-484, 519. 
Controversy concerning taxes, 
and final adjudication of claims, 
iv, 185-193; 341, 351- See also 
Fort Nisqually, Fort Vancou- 
ver, Douglas, McLoughlin, and 



Huffman, killed by the Indians, iii, 


Huggins, Edward, Hudson's Bay 
official, at Fort Nisqually, ii, 
385, 401, 411. iii, 51, 80, 82, 
85, 112, 149, 503, 513, 514. iv, 
126, 192, 252, 254. 

Hughes, James M., settler, iii, iii. 

Hughes, Thomas, settler, iv, 74. 

Hulbert, James, settler, iv, 92. 

Humboldt Desert, The, ii, 484. 

Hunt, D., murder of, iv, 139. 

Hunt, John, with Michael T. Sim- 
mons, ii, 426. 

Hunt system. The, iv, 315. 

Hunt, Wilson Price, leader of the 
Astor overland expedition, i, 
139. 319. 333-334, 335. 350- 
357-379. 396, 456, 479- 

Hunting by the Indians, i, 418. 

Huntington, Henry D., settler, ii, 
444. Member of legislature, iii, 
232; signer of Monticello memo- 
rial, 517. iv, 210. 

Huntington, Jabez W., and the 
Oregon question, ii, 225. 

Huntington, James, iv, 147. 

Huntress, Robert, iii, 204. 

Huntsville, iv, 378. 

Hurd, Elizabeth (Mrs.), ii, 453- 

Hurd, Ella M., ii, 453. 

Hurd, James, iii, 61. 

Hurd, Jared S., officer in the Indian 
war, iii, 379. 

Hurd, Washington, mariner, ii, 453. 

Hus Hus Poween, Indian chief, iv, 

Huskisson, English diplomatic ne- 
gotiator, ii, 47, 55, 57. 

Hutchins, Thomas, settler, iii, 97. 

Hylebos, P. F. (Rev.), ii, 152, 184. 

IDAHO, gold discoveries, iv, 79; 
creation of the territory, 87. 
Illinois Patriot, The, ii, 90, 236. 
"Imperial Eagle", The, English 

ship, i, 107. 
Implements of the Indians, i, 416, 

Independence (Mo.), starting point 
of emigrant trains, ii, 472. 
Early mail route from, iii, 144- 


Independence Rock, ii, 242. iii, 3. 

Indians, The, and the early navi- 
gators, i, 69, 70, 79-80, 89, 96- 
99, 102-103, 116, 129-130; and 
Captain Gray, 149-150, 154-156, 
169-170, 173; and Vancouver, 
189-190, 195-196; 224, 234; and 
Lewis and Clark, 271-301; mas- 
sacre of the crew of the " Bos- 
ton", 315; attack on the " Ata- 
hulpa", 316; interference with 

the Winship settlement, 318; 
the "Tonquin" massacre, 343- 
349; 352-353; the Astor over- 
land party, 360-366; 391; na- 
tive inhabitants of Washington, 
401-406, 429-438; Dr. McLough- 
lin and, 457-467. Indian wo- 
men as wives of the early ad- 
venturers, ii, 6, 16, 172, 193, 
329; visit of the Flatheads and 
Nez Perces to St. Louis for 
religious advice, 87-102; atti- 
tude toward Christianity and 
education, 108-110, 126-127, 
130-133' 169, 255, 397-398; lack 
of significance of place names, 
124; affray at Oregon City, 279; 
custom of reprisal, 302-303; the 
Whitman massacre, 304-335; 
the Cayuse war, 345-361; at- 
tack at Fort Nisqually, 458- 
460; villianous conduct toward 



the immigrants, 493-496. iii, 
3-9; salutary effects of execu- 
tions of murderers, 73-76; ex- 
pectations of compensation for 
their lands, 257-260; Stevens's 
treaties, 271-309; the Indian 
war, 313-5"- iv, 3-33. 

Industries and arts of the Indians, 
i, 290, 417. 

"Inez", The, vessel, ii, 450. 

Ingalls, Rufus (U. S. A.), Civil war 
record, iv, 121. 

IngersoU, Ralph L., and the Oregon 
question, ii, 74, 79, 80. 

Ingraham, Joseph, mate of the 
"Columbia", i, 147; captain of 
the "Hope", 154-156. 176- 

Insane, The, early provisions, iv, 
146-148, 273, 283. 

Inside Passage, The (Puget Sound), 
ii, 388. 

Intelligencer, The (Seattle), iv, 195, 

Inventions at the beginning of the 
nineteenth century, i, 14. 

Iowa, The laws of, adopted for 

Oregon, ii, 277. 
"Iphegenia", The, English ship, i, 

108, 110, 116, 117. 
Iron, early possession by the In- 
dians, i, 429, 437. Discoveries, 

iv, 313- 
Irondale, iv, 314. 
Iroquois Indians, The, i, 393. ii. 

95, 112, 300. 
Irrigation by the early missionaries, 

ii, 127. 
Irving, Washington, i, 314, 330-331. 

379, 396. ii, 4. U- i". 30- 
"Isaac Todd", The, ship of the 

Northwest Company, i, 370, 

371, 388, 389. 
Islade Dolores (Destruction Island), 

i, 107. 
Island County, iii, 143. 220, 231, 

239, 243- iv, 15s, 156, 378. 
Ismylof, Russian navigator, i, 137. 
Isticcas, Indian, ii, 309, 357. iii, 


dent), and the Oregon ques- 
tion, i, 4, 32. ii, 81, 82, 209. 

Jackson, David E., fur trader, ii, 10. 

Jackson, John R., settler, ii, 427, 
428, 433. Sheriff and judge, 
iii, 60, 61, 62, 63, 132, 142; 198, 
203, 204, 206, 252; signer of Mon- 
ticello memorial, 5x6. Death, 
iv, 196; 210. 

Jackson, Lycurgus, settler, iv, 74. 

Jackson, trader, ii, 63, 81, 247. 

Jacobs, Orange, chief-justice, iv, 
182; 211; delegate to congress, 
236, 248, 268, 270, 279, 306. 

"James Marshall", The, vessel, iii, 

Jameson, killed by the Indians, iii, 

"Jane", The, vessel, iii, 153. 
Japan. Exclusion of trade in early 

times, iii, 36. 
Japanese sailors wrecked on the 

Washington coast, i, 424-425. 

ii. 395-396- 
Jay's treaty, i, 13, 327. 
Jefferson County, iii, 143. 220, 232, 

239. 243. iv, 18, 155, 156, 222. 
"Jefferson Davis", The, U. S. 

revenue vessel, iii, 381, 397, 

406, 409. 
Jefferson River, The, i, 272, 273, 

278, 301, 313. 
"Jefferson", The, vessel, i, 154- 


Jeflferson, Thomas (President), "John Hancock", The, vessel, iii, 

views of on the Columbia River 507. iv, 4. 

country, i, 4; the Louisiana Johnson, George L., settler, ii, 446. 

purchase, 11, 23, 237-242; in- Johnson, James, settler, ii, 445. 

fluence of John Ledyard on, 95, iii, 214. 

242-254; on the character of Johnson, J. R., settler, iii, 132. 

Meriwether Lewis, 261 ; instruc- Johnson, Lieutenant (U. S. N.), 

tions for the Lewis and Clark with Wilkes, ii, 182, 198. 

expedition, 262; on its results, Johnson, Miss, missionary, ii, 106. 

3 1 1 ; correspondence with Astor, Johnson, William, of Oregon, ii, 

312, 330. ii, 34. 263, 275. 

Jeffs, R., iv, 236. Johnson, W. W., iv, 210. 

Jelly, Henry F., iv, 271. Johnson's Ranch, iii, 126. 

"Jennie", The, English ship, i, 218, Johnstone, with Vancouver, i, 199- 

219. 202, 204, 209. 

Jervais, fur trader, ii, 210. Johnstone's Strait, i, 58, 78, 430. 

Jessup, General (U. S. A.), on the ii, 502. 

Columbia River question, ii, 46, Joint occupation by the United 

69. States and England of the 

Jester, E. D. (Lieutenant), Civil Columbia River country, i, 487- 

war, iv, 108. 488. ii, 40, 48-49. 57-58, 72, 

Jesuits, The, missionaries, i, 65. 219-229,374,379. Of San Juan 

ii. III, 112, 166, 167. Island, iv, 62-64. 

Jewett, John R., of the "Boston", Jolly Prairie, ii, 427. 

i, 315, 316, 349. Jones, Ben, Astorian, i, 368. 

Jim, friendly Indian, iii, 413, 414, Jones, Elizabeth (Mrs. Joseph Bro- 

415. shears), daughter of Gabriel, ii, 

Jim, Indian arrested for murder, 431. 

iii, 511. Jones, Gabriel, settler, ii, 430, 431, 

Jim Crow Point (Columbia River), 438. iv, 203. 

i, 296. Jones, Harvey H., settler, iii, 108; 

"J. M. Chapman", The, seizure of, killed by the Indians, 385-386. 

iv, no. Jones, John Paul, and Ledyard, i. 

Jocko Reservation, The, ii, 113. 124, 249. 

"Joe Lane", The, vessel, iv, 172, Jones, Keziah Brice (Mrs.), wife 

173, 176. of Gabriel, ii, 431. 

John, B. L., settler. White River Jones, Lewis, son of Gabriel, ii, 431. 

Valley, iii, 108. Jones, Morris, son of Gabriel, ii, 

"John Davis", The, vessel, iii, 119, 431- 

153. Jones, Mrs. Harvey H., killed by 

"John D. Caton", The, vessel, ii, the Indians, iii, 387. 

450. Joseph, Indian chief, iii, 349. 

John Day's River, i, 289. ii, 13. Joslyn, A. J. (Rev.), pioneer, iii, 18, 

iii, 53, 360. 19. 



"Journal of Occurrences", The, 
kept at Fort Nisqually, i, 424. 
ii, 391, 411, 441, 447, 448, 45°. 
451. 454-455- iii. 52, 7°. 81, 
142, 182, 513-515- iv, 363. 

Joy, O. H., iv. 386. 

"J. T. Cabot", The, vessel, iii, 

Judicial organization, Early, in 

Washington, iii, 60-61, 70, 211, 

221, 243. iv, 17-18. 
Judson, L. H. (Rev.), of Oregon, 

missionary, ii, 107, 274. 
"Julius Pringle", The, vessel, iv, 

Jumper's Flats (Waterville), iv, 92. 
"Juno", The, vessel, i, 141. 
Jurwin, Samuel L., settler, iii, 131. 

KADIAK, Russian settlement, 
i. 138- 
Kaiser, T. D. (Captain), of 

Oregon, pioneer, ii, 244, 279, 
Kalama, i, 295. ii, 444. iii, 49. 

iv, 195, 209, 216, 219, 220, 224, 

227, 232, 302, 303. 
Kalispel Indians, The, i, 455. ii, 

Kamehameha, Hawaiian chief, i, 

103, 338, 339. 
Kamiah, mission station, ii, 125, 

135, 144- 
Kam-i-ah-kan, Indian chief, iii, 
291-306; in the Indian war, 
321-324, 331-332, 347, 355, 372, 

437.453.464-465.471-472- iv, 
19, 20; flight to British Colum- 
bia, 33. 

Kamtchatka, i, 126-129, 132-133, 
135, 140-141. 

Kanasket, Indian, iii, 405, 406, 

Kane, Paul, Canadian artist, ii, 304- 

Kathlamet Indians, The, i, 421. 
Kathroe, J. G., settler, iv, 92. 
Kautz, Augustus V.(U. S. A.), iii, 

167; in the Indian war, 444- 

445. iv, 7; Civil war record, 

Keach, P., iv, 210. 
Kearny, Mrs. Phil, ii, 99. 

Keith, James, Northwester, i, 390, 

393, 450- ii, 36- iii, 281. 
Keith, Thomas, commander at Fort 

George, i, 389, 397. ii, 385. 
Keller, Captain, iv, 353, 354. 
Keller, J. P., iv, 210. 
Kellogg, J. C, settler, iii, 97. iv, 

Kellogg, Moses H., postmaster, iii, 

Kelly, Hall J., writer and Oregon 

enthusiast, i, 31, 491. 11,15,62, 

74, 223. iii, 30. 
Kelly, J. K., of the Oregon Volun- 
teers, iii, 345- 360-375, 457- 
Kelly, William B., settler, iv, 74. 
Kelso, killed in the Indian war, iii, 

Kendall & Company, Olympia, iii, 

154, 218. iv, 142. 
Kendall, Benjamin F., iii, 231, 379, 

488, 491. iv, 17; tragical death, 

Kendall, Lieutenant (U. S. A.)., iii, 


Kendrick, John, navigator, com- 
mander of the "Columbia" on 
its first voyage, i, 148-152; ex- 
changed ships with Gray, 152; 
subsequent career, 156, 166; 
167, 179, 493, 494. 

Kennedy, James K., associate-jus- 
tice, iv, 182. 

Kennedy, L. A., settler, iv, 92. 



Kenny, at Fort Nisqually, iii, 513. 

Kent, iii, 385. iv, 309. 

Ketron Island, i, 211. ii, 414. 

Kettle Falls, i, 454- 

Keyes, E. D. (U. S. A.), in the 
Indian war, iii, 401, 403-404, 
408-410, 436, 443-445. iv, 24; 
Civil war record, 118. 

Kiel, Captain, pioneer, iii, 9. 

Kiel, Margaretta, killed by the 
Indians, iii, 8. 

Kiepert, Dr., and the San Juan dis- 
pute, iv, 64. 

Killourne, Ralph, L., pioneer, ii, 

Kimasumkin, Indian, trial and 
execution, iii, 74-76. 

Kimball, Byron M., captive, ii, 339. 

Kimball, Harriet (Mrs.), captive, 

ii. 339- 
Kimball, Mince A., captive, ii, 339. 

Kimball, Nathan, captive, ii, 339. 

Kimball, Sarah, S. captive, ii, 339. 

Kimball, Susan, captive, ii, 339. 

Kimball, Whitman massacre vic- 
tim, ii, 312-320. 

Kincaid, William M., settler, iii, 
131, 404. iv, 5-6. 

Kindred, David, settler, ii, 430-431, 
433, 436, 438. iv, 195. 

Kindred, John, settler, iv, 349. 

Kindred, John Karri ck, ii, 431. 

Kindred, Tabitha (Mrs.), wife of 
David, ii, 431. 

King County, iii, 119, 122, 127, 220, 
231, 243, 290. iv, 18, 155, 156, 
215, 222, 233, 265, 304, 313, 320, 

King, George E., family of, victims 
in the White River massacre, 

iii. 385. 389- 
King George's Sound, i, 102, 106, 

King, John I., escape, iii, 387-388. 

King, William R., and the Oregon 
question, ii, 219. Vice-president, 
King County named for, iii, 143. 

Kinnear, George, iv, 333. 

Kinnear, John R., iv, 387. 

Kinsey, Daniel F., settler, ii, 435, 
439. iii, 59, 61. 

Kip, Lawrence, iii, 291,303. iv,25. 

Kirkham, R. W. (U. S. A.), in the 
Indian war; Civil war record, 
iv, 120. 

Kirkland, M., settler iii, 108. 

Kirkland, Miss, immigrant, iii, 4. 

Kirtley, Whitefield, settler, iii, 161, 

Kitsap County, iv, 18, 155, 156, 
265, 281, 328, 357, 386. 

Kitsap, Indian chief, iii, 405, 406, 
466, 475. iv, 3; trial and ac- 
quittal, 13; death, 13. 

Kitson, William, Hudson's Bay 
man, i, 455. ii, 172, 392, 395, 
398, 4:1. 

Kittitas County, iv, 89, 90. 

Klady, Samuel, iii, 274. 

Klamath Indians, The, i, 423. ii, 

356. 503- 

Klamath River, The, ii, 503. 

Klikitat County, i, 288. iii, 53. 
iv, 88, 155, 265, 387. 

Klikitat Indians, The, i, 422, 423. 
ii, 388. iii, 162, 320, 325; in 
the Indian war, 403, 406, 408, 
410-420, 441, 452. 

Klikitat River, The, i, 293. 

Knapp, J. B., pioneer, ii, 483. iii, 

Knappton, iv, 222. 

Knox Islands, The (South Pacific), 
i. 154- 

Kobaiway, Indian chief, i, 431. 437- 

Kobetsibis, Indian chief, iii, 124. 

Konapee, white slave of the In- 
dians, i, 435-438. 



Kone, W. W. (Rev.), missionary, 
ii, 107. 

Kooskooskie, i, 415. 

Kooskooskie River, The (Clear- 
water River), i, 281. iii, 299. 

Kootenay Indians, The, ii, 113. 

Kootenay River, The, gold dis- 
coveries, iv, 79. 

Krenitzin, Captain, Russian navi- 
gator, i, 135. 

Krupischef, Russian navigator, i, 

Krusenstern, Captain, Russian na- 
vigator, i, 140. 

Kurrah, John, settler, iii, 97. 

Kwalchin, Indian, iii, 332. iv, 31. 

LABIE, settler, iv, 95. 
Labiche, with Lewis and 
-^ Clark, i, 266. 
Labische River (Hood's River), i, 

Labonte, Louis, Astorian, i, 360, 

366, 479-480; settler of Oregon, 

La Camas, i, 477. 
La Conner, iv, 386. 
Lacy, ii, 430. 
Lacy, O. P., iv, 269. 
Ladd, W. S., of Oregon, iv, 203. 
Laderillo, of Colima, navigator, i, 

Lafayette, Marquis, and Ledyard, 

i, 249. 
La Fevre, settler, iv, 95. 
La Framboise, Michael, Hudson's 

Bay man, i, 446. 
Lake, arrested for murder, iii, 503. 
Lake Athabasca, i, 227. 
Lake Belle, i, 42. 
Lake Disappointment, ii, 503. 
Lake Duwamish, iii, 411. 
Lake, George, immigrant, iii, 4. 
Lake, J. A., settler, iii, 108. 
Lake of the Woods, The, i, 26. ii, 

32. iii, 251. 
Lake Osogoos, iv, 88. 
Lake Steilacoom, iv, 12. 
Lake Stuart, i, 454. 
Lake Union, iii, 128. iv, 223. 
Lake Washington, iii, 411, 414, 420. 
Lake Winnipeg, ii, 163. 

Lamazee, Indian, i, 343. 

La Mousse, Ignace, Indian, ii, 95; 
son of. III, 112. 

Lancaster, Columbia, pioneer, ii, 
240-242; settles in Washington, 
444. Member of council, Ore- 
gon, iii, 200, 201; 214; delegate 
to congress, Washington, 222, 

223, 250; 328. iv, 141, 142, 

Lander, Edward, chief justice, iii, 
122, 211, 219; commissioner to 
draft laws, 237-238; 243, 379; 
captain, Indian war, 421; resist- 
ance to the proclamation of 
martial law, and arrest, 487- 
488, 489, 492-493, 496-497, 499. 
Trial of Leschi, iv, 7; 16, 368, 

Lander, F. W. (U. S. A.), iii, 216, 

224, 245-246, 250. 

Land laws. Federal, see Donation 
Land Law, and Linn (Lewis F.)- 

Lane, Joseph, governor of Oregon, 
ii, 460, 461, 463. iii, 65-77, 
179; delegate to congress, 210, 
212, 250. Nominee for vice- 
president, iv, 131. 

Lane, Richard, Hudson's Bay man, 
iii, 61. 

Lang, " History of the Willamette 
Valley", iii, 364. 

Langford, Justice, iv, 276. 

Langlois, Anthony (Rev.), mission- 
ary, ii, 165, 166. 



Lankton, Miss, teacher, ii, 107. 
Lansdale, R. H., settler, iii, 95, 97, 

143, 144, 150, 157; Indian agent, 

287, 291, 308. 
La Perouse, French navigator, i, 

124, 125, 249. 
Lahalet, Indian chief, ii, 459. 
"Laplete", The, vessel, iii, 126. 
Lapwai, mission station, ii, 123, 

129-130, 135, 144, i82,-238, 256, 

293. 308, 312, 316, 332, 334, 338, 

428, 433. 
Laramie (Ida.), ii, 138, 237. 
"Lark", The, vessel i, 370, 372, 375. 
Larrabee, Charles H., iv, 268. 
Lassater, J. H., code commissioner, 

iv, 184. 
Latour, Hudson's Bay man, iii, 

Latta, Hudson's Bay man, iii, 70, 


"Lausanne", The, vessel, ii, 107, 
197, 200, 235, 410. 

Law, Thomas S., pioneer, iii, 15. 

Laws, Early territorial. Oregon, 
ii, 263, 275-278, 280. Washing- 
ton, iii, 237-238. iv, 183-184. 

Lawyer, The, Indian chief, iii, 293- 
306, 322. 

Lawyers, Early, iii, 156-158. 

Layton, Captain, in the Indian 
war, iii, 371, 468. 

Leadbetter, Danville (Lieutenant), 
iii, 77. 

Leadbetter Point, iii, 77. 

Leavitt, A. S., settler, iii, 132. 

Le Breton, G. W., of Oregon, ii, 
263, 269, 270, 271, 274, 275, 

279. 345- 
Leclaire, Father, missionary, ii, 

Ledger, The (Tacoma), ii, 470, 471, 

477, 482, 483. iii, 9-11, 43, 54. 

iv, 250. 

Ledyard, John, traveller and en- 
thusiast, i, 95, 124, 238, 242- 
254, 306. 

Lee, Burton, of Oregon, ii, 281. 

Lee, Daniel (Rev.), missionary, ii, 
17, 22, 102. 

Lee, Henry A. G. (Major), of Ore- 
gon, ii, 281; in the Cayuse war, 
346-348, 351, 360; with John 
R. Jackson, 427-428. 

Lee, Jason (Rev.), missionary, i, 
32. ii, 17, 22, 97, 102-111, 121, 
177, 236-237, 261, 263-264, 396, 
410, 419. iii, 174-175. 

Lee, with Dr. White, ii, 304. 

Legislatures, early organization and 
transactions. Oregon, ii, 277, 
280. iii, 59-65, 68, 141, 200-201. 
Washington, iii, 229-246, 270- 
271. iv, 13-18, 141, 142, 150- 
151. 155-156, 183, 203-204, 210- 
212, 233, 260-268. 

Leland, Alonzo, of Idaho, iv, 269. 

Lemon, Isaac, settler, iii, 131. 

Lemon's Prairie, iii, 443. 

"Leonasa", The, vessel, iii, 113, 

115- iv, 354- 

Lepage, Baptiste, with Lewis and 
Clark, i, 289. 

Leschi, Indian chief, at the Medicine 
Creek treaty, iii, 274, 275; in 
the Indian war, 324-326, 382, 
384, 390, 392, 405, 408-410, 
413, 420, 439, 441-442, 450, 466, 
475- iv, 3; arrest, trial, and 
execution, 4-12. 

Leslie, David, missionary, ii, 106, 
108, 274, 410, 411, 413. 

Leslie, Miss, marriage, ii, 413. 

Levaschef, Russian navigator, i, 

Leverre, James, Astorian, i, 333. 

Lewis, Adolphus Lee, settler, iii, 
62; member of legislature, 232. 



Lewis, August, pioneer, iii, 17. 
Lewis, C. C. settler, iii, 108. 
Lewis, escape at Fort Nisqually, 

ii, 460. 
Lewis, Joe, half-breed, and the 

Whitman massacre, ii, 307, 309, 

313. 315. 334. 342. 

Lewis, Meriwether, early career, i, 
239-240, 260-262; leader of the 
Lewis and Clark expedition 
(q. v.); explores the Jeflferson 
River, 273; donation of land 
to, 305. 

Lewis, of the "Tonquin", i, 347, 

Lewis, Reuben, of Oregon, ii, 274. 

Lewis and Clark expedition. The, 
first to explore the Columbia, 
i, 24; appropriation for, 241; 
organization, journey, and re- 
turn, 259-302; results and gen- 
eral remarks, 306-3 14. Journals, 
ii, 62, 71, 99. 

Lewis County, ii, 436, 443, 507. 
iii, 60, 61, 62, 64, 68, 70, 95, 
130, 137, 142, 144, 203, 220, 
230, 232, 239, 243. iv, 155, 
156, 187. 

Lewis River, The, i, 294, 310, 413. 

Lewiston (Ida.), i. 281. iv, 79, 

Liberty, Stephen, settler, iv, 95. 

Liberty Lake, iv, 95. 

Library, The Territorial, iii, 236. 

iv, 163. 
Light, E. A., pioneer, ii, 477, 486, 

Lightner, Isaac, iv, 203. 
Lillis, H. M., iv, 386. 
Lilly, Converse, immigrant, ii, 454. 
Linawah, Indian, iii, 274. 
Lincoln, Abraham, legal argument 

on a railway question, iii, 29; 

and the habeas corpus, 485. 

Removal of Collector Smith, 
173-174; approves the railway 
bill, iv, 206. 

Lincoln, Foster, immigrant, ii, 453. 

Lincoln, Nathaniel, immigrant, ii, 


Lincoln County, iv, 90, 92, 281. 

Lincoln Islands, The (South Paci- 
fic), i, 154. 

Lind, iv, 294. 

Linkton, Samuel, settler, iv, 82. 

Linkton's Mountain, iv, 83. 

Linn, Lewis F., author of the Dona- 
tion Land Law, ii, 148, 151, 
178, 209-231, 239, 245-246, 277; 
English criticism of his bill, 
365-366; 408. Consequences of 
its passage, iii, 30-32, 34-35- 

Lisa, Manuel, fur trader, i, 319-320, 
359. ii, 7, 63. 

Lisiansky, Russian navigator, i, 

Littlejohn, missionary, ii, 23, 108. 

Livingston, David, iv, 360. 

" Llama", The, Hudson's Bay ship, 
i, 424. ii, 395, 396, 400. 

Logan, David, of Oregon, iii, 190. 

Logan, J. B., settler, ii, 436. 

Lok, Michael, i, 31, 53-57, 91, 96, 
106, 164, 306. 

Long, explorer, iii, 71-72. 

Long, J. E., of Oregon, ii, 281. 

Longmire, James, pioneer, ii, 471, 
482, .485. iv, 3-4. 

Looking Glass, Indian chief, iii, 
304-306, 427. 

Loo-low-can, Indian, iv, 253. 

Loomis, Amanda (Mrs.), iv, 113. 

Loomis, L. A., settler, ii, 423, 445. 

Lord, Lewis, iv, 210. 

Loring's Cantonment, ii, 478. iii, 68. 

"Loriot", The, vessel, ii, 82. 

"Lot Whitcomb," The, vessel, iii, 



Louis XIV, i, 124. 

Louisiana purchase, The, i, lo-ii, 

21, 23; northern boundary, 49° ; 

237-242. ii, 31-32, 38, 43. 
Lovejoy, A. Lawrence, of Oregon, 

pioneer, ii, 140-144, 240-242, 

280, 281, 348, 349, 398. iii, 

Low, J. N., settler, iii, 109-113, 517. 

iv, 203. 
Lowrie, Hoseah, settler, iii, 31. 
Lowrie, English navigator, i, loi. 
"L. P. Foster", The, vessel, iv, 353, 

Lucas, George, iv, 90. 
Lucier, Etienne, of Oregon, Astor- 

ian and settler, i, 360, 472, 480, 

486. ii, 263, 267, 269, 273-275. 

iii, 182. 
Ludlam, Anthony, ii, 446. 
Lugenbeel (U. S. A.), iv, 89, 108. 
Lumber trade. Early, ii, 186, 390, 

438, 443- i"> 36, 39. 46, 102, 

153-155. 158- iv, 82, 149, 152, 

221-222, 349-364. 
Lummi Indians, The, iii, 504. 
Lummi River, The, iii, 277. 
Lunie, Jesse, pioneer, ii, 244. 
"Lydia", The, vessel, i, 299. 
Lyle, J. W., settler, iii, 130. 
Lyman, H. S., "History of Oregon", 

i, 149, 431. ii, 251. 
Lynden, iv, 378. 

MACAULAY, Thomas Bab- 
ington, i, 91, 92. ii, 168, 

MacKenzie, Alexander, English ex- 
plorer, i, 30, 148, 227-231, 314, 
388, 430, 448. 

Mackinaw Fur Company, The, i, 

McAllister, James, settler, ii, 430- 
431; removes to Medicine Creek, 
437. iii, 43, 149; Stevens's Med- 
icine Creek treaty, 270, 274; 
officer in the Indian war, 380; 
death, 384, 393. iv, 4. 

McAllister, John W., iii, 274. 

McAllister's Creek, ii, 437. iii, 159, 

McAuliffe, officer in the Indian 
war, iii, 371. 

McBean, William, Hudson's Bay 
man, ii, 304, 305, 316, 327, 340, 

McCarthy, John (Rev.), iv, 113. 
McCarthy, settler, iii, 404. 
McCarthy, William, settler, ii, 445. 
McCarty, J. W., pioneer, iii, 10. 

McCarty, William, of Oregon, ii, 

McCarver, Morton M., pioneer, ii, 
26; settler of Oregon, 192, 244, 
280, 281. Founder of Tacoma, 
iv, 227-231. 

McCaw, S., officer in the Indian war, 
iii, 440. iv, 210. 

McClellan, George B. (U. S. A.), 
surveys by, iii, 161-163, 213, 
216-217, 224, 246, 248. 

McClure, John, of Oregon, ii, 

McConaha, George N., iii, 156; pres- 
ident of Monticello convention, 
206, 516; 222; president of coun- 
cil, 229. 

McConnell, Mrs. E. S., iv, 113. 

McCreary, William, iv, 96. 

McCroskey, J. P. T., iv, 386. 

McDonald, Angus, Hudson's Bay 
man, iii, 330, 428. 

McDonald, Archibald, Hudson's 
Bay man, i, 398, 469, 476. ii, 
126; founds Fort Nisqually, 
385-386, 392. 



McDonald, August, Hudson's Bay- 
man, iii, 182. 

McDonald, Helen, marriage, ii, 411. 

McDonald, John, of Oregon, i, 388. 

McDonald, of Seattle, and the ac- 
quisition of Alaska, iv, 154. 

McDougal, Duncan, Astorian, i, 
333. 335-336, 343, 351-354; sur- 
renders to the British, 372-374; 
Northwester, 374, 388-389, 393, 


McDuffie, George, and the Oregon 
question, ii, 225, 229. 

McElroy, Thornton F., editor, iii, 
147, 148, 379. iv, 203. 

McEntee, Philip, settler, iv, 92. 

McEvoy, Joseph, settler, iv, 73. 

McEwen, gold prospector, iii, 159. 

McFadden, O. B., associate-justice, 
iii, 21 1, 243, 379. iv, 7-8; mem- 
ber of legislature, 150; chief - 
justice, 181; delegate to con- 
gress, 185; 211, 236. 

McFeely, Robert (U. S. A.), iii, 7, 

McField, John, arrest of, iii, 484. 

McGill, Henry M., territorial sec- 
retary and acting-governor, iv, 
104, 138, 140, 162, 171, 193, 368. 

McGillis, Donal, Astorian, i, 333. 

McGillivray's River, ii, 49, 370. 

McGillivray's Pass, ii, 505. 

McGilvra, John J., member of legis- 
lature, iv, 150; U. S. attorney, 
173; 232, 248. 

McGourin, John, settler, iv. 92. 

McGraw, John H., iv, 278, 323, 

330, 333' 335. 337. 339- 
McGumningill, William, settler, ii, 

McKay, Alexander, Astorian, i, 

333. 335. 340-341, 343-347. 352, 
McKay, Charles, of Oregon, ii, 274. 

McKay, Indian, ii, 132. 

McKay, Thomas, son of Alexander, 
Astorian, i, 333; Northwester 
and Hudson's Bay man, 389, 
447, 450, 456, 459. ii, 22, 23, 
254; captain in the Cayuse war, 

347. 353- 
McKay, William C, of Oregon, i, 

459. iii, 291. 
McKean, Samuel F., of Oregon, iii, 

McKeever, Lieutenant (U. S. A.), 

iii, 406. 
McKensie, Patrick, iii, 291. iv, 96. 
McKenzie, Donald, Astorian, i, 333, 

335. 357-359. 363, 366, 367, 371; 

Northwester and Hudson's Bay 

man, 390-392, 396-397. 
McKibben, D. B. (U. S. A.), iv, 9, 

McKinlay, Archibald, Hudson's 

Bay man, i, 392. ii, 253, 254, 

300, 304. iv, 95. 
McLane, diplomatist, and the Ore- 
gon question, ii, 376, 378. 
McLean, Andrew, settler, ii, 436. 
McLean, David, settler, ii, 436. 
McLean, Thomas J, settler, ii, 436. 
McLellan, Donald, Astorian, i, 333, 

358-359. 366, 368. 
McLeod, Alexander, Hudson's Bay 

man, i, 466. 
McLeod, Angus, iv, 96. 
McLeod, John, Hudson's Bay man, 

i, 469. ii, 22, 23. iii, 86, 182, 

183; arrest of, 484. 
McLeod's Lake, i, 232, 454. 
McLoud, Hudson's Bay man, iii, 

McLoughlin, David, i, 447. 
McLoughlin, John (Dr.), Hudson's 

Bay official, chief factor of the 

western department, i, 442-492 

ii, 3, 17, 49, 104-105, 121, 165 



193, 198, 202, 238, 255-257; 

attitude toward civil govern- 
ment for Oregon, 265, 270, 278, 
283-287, 300, 311, 327, 329, 361, 
367.405,421,424,429. iii, 75; 
resignation and last years, 171- 
181; 517-518. 
McMaster, John Bach, i, n, 19, 

McMillen, William, iv, 344. 
McMullen, Fayette, governor, iv, 

8. 65, 137. 
McNatt, Francis, iii, 108. 
McNaught, James, iv, 309-310. 
McNeill, captain of the "Beaver", 
i, 424- ii. 198-199, 396. iii, 
McNeill's Island, iii, 49. iv, 165. 
McPhail, Hudson's Bay man, iii, 

McRoy, of Oregon, ii, 269. 
McSlickney, Neil, iv, 210. 
McTavish, Donald, Northwester, 
i. 371. 372, 375. 387. 388, 389. 
McTavish, Dugald, Hudson's Bay 

man, iii, 61. 
McTavish, George, Northwester, i, 

370, 389- 
McWhirk, William, settler, iv, 74. 
Maddox, R., settler, iii, 97. 
Madison, B. J., settler, iii, 99, 130. 
Madison, James, and Astor, i, 325, 
328, 377. And the Oregon 
question, ii, 33, 61, 79. 
Madison River, The, i, 272, 313, 

Magellan, navigator, i, 38. 
Mahan, John, iv, 74. 
Maier, Christopher, settler, iv, 73. 
Makah Indians, The, iii, 124, 267; 

Stevens's treaty, 278. 
Maldonado, i, 41, 42. 
Malick, A. J., settler ii, 444. 
Maloney, Captain (U. S. A.), in the 

Indian war, iii, 334, 338, 354- 
355. 379. 382-383, 391-393, 396, 
401, 409. 
Mandan Indians, The, i, 266, 270, 

Manly, S. H., iv, 386. 
Manypenny, G. W., instructions to 
Governor Stevens, iii, 259-263. 
Maple, Eli B., iii, 108. 
Maple, Jacob, settler, iii, 53, 104, 

Maple, Samuel, settler, iii, 104, 105, 

Maquinna, Indian chief, i, 103, 108, 

iio-ii I, 156, 315. 
Marco Polo, i, 38, 59. 
Marcus, with Robert Gray, i, 150. 
Marcy, William L., and the San 

Juan question, iv, 49. 
"Margaret", The, vessel, 1, 154. 
Mark George, Indian, ii, 131. 
Marlborough, The duke of, i, 442. 
Marriage laws, Early, iv, 14. 
Marrowstone Point, i, 201, 203. 
Marsh, Edwin, iii, 162. 
Marsh, Nancy E., captive, ii, 339. 
Marshall, James, pioneer, ii, 350, 

Marshall, John (Chief- Justice), iii, 

Marshall, William I., ii, 98-99, loi, 

303-304. 309. 342. 
Martial law. Governor Stevens's 
proclamation, iii, 483-511. iv, 

" Martin", The, English ship, i, 183. 

Martin, William, pioneer, ii, 244- 
245. Officer in the Indian war, 
iii, 379, 446. 

Martinez, Estevan, Spanish mari- 
ner, i, 69, 75-77, 117, 136-137, 
151. 174. 217. 

"Mary", The, Columbia River 
steamer, iii, 453, 454, 460. 



"Mary Dare", The, seizure of, iii, 

IS3, 188-191. 
"Mary Taylor", The, iii, 99, 148. 


Mason, Charles H., territorial sec- 
retary and acting-governor, iii, 
211, 219, 240, 253, 273-274, 277, 
334, 344, 346, 350. 379-380, 
392-393. 396-398. 408, 410. 425- 
426, 483, t;o6. iv, 9, 16, 137, 
142, 193. 

Mason County, iii, 99, 240, 270. 
iv, 138, 156, 356. 

" Massachusetts", The, U. S. vessel, 
ii, 461. iii, 69, 70, 77, 436, 
507-510. iv, 53, 64. 

Mastick, S. L., iv, 360. 

Matheny, J. N., settler, iv, 96-97. 

Matlock, of Oregon, iii, 201. 

Matthews, William, Astorian, i, 333. 

Matthieu, F. X., pioneer, of Oregon, 
ii, 240, 273-276. 

Mattice, killed by the Indians, iii, 
329. iv, 222. 

Maurelle, navigator, i, 112, 115, 

Maxon, H. A. G., officer in the 
Cayuse war, ii, 358. In the 
Indian war, iii, 440, 441, 448, 
467-469, 484. 

Maxon, S. D., settler, ii, 444. 

May, C. C, settler, iv, 92. 

"May Dacre", The, vessel, ii, 17, 
103, 105. 

Maylord, Samuel, settler, iii, 97. 

Maylord, Thomas, settler, iii, 97. 

Maynard, D. S. (Dr.), settler, iii, 
117, 118, 121, 123, 125-128, 143, 
157, 204, 206, 350, 517. 

Mayre, Simon B., of Oregon, iii, 

Meader, H. settler, iii, 108. 

Meany, W. S., i, 213, 217. 

Meares, John, English navigator, 
i. 29, 75-77. loi. 104, 107-119, 
150, 151, 162, 165, 167, 174, 
178, 186-187, 188, 217, 306, 
429. ii, 56, 381. 

Medical Lake, iv, 95, 283, 294. 

Medicine Creek, ii, 437. Treaty at, 
iii, 270-276. 

Meek, Helen Mar, ii, 295, 310, 314, 


Meek, James, iii, 163. 

Meek, Joseph L., of Oregon, pio- 
neer, ii, 5-6, 23-25, 108, 176, 
237, 251, 273, 274, 275; sheriff, 
281; 295; special commissioner 
to Washington, D.C., 349. Mar- 
shal, iii, 66, 76, 86; 195, 461. 

Meek's Cut Off, ii, 352. 

Meeker, Ezra, pioneer, ii, 471, 485, 
489, 490, 497. iii, 15, 20, 40, 
49.93.389- iv, 5-6, 40. 

Meeker, Jacob R., iv, 304. 

Meeker, Oliver, pioneer, iii, 20. 

Meigs, G. A., iv, 181, 211, 352-353- 

Meldrum, John, settler, ii, 445. 

Melville, David, ii, 486. Murder 
of, iii, 504, 506. 

Memaloose Island(Columbia River) , 

i. 293- 
Mendoza, Diego Hurtado de, ex- 
plorer, i, 45- 
Menetrey, Father, missionary, iii, 

Menzies, with Vancouver, i, 166, 

169, 178, 179, 189, 192, 199. 
Mercer, Asa S., iv, 176-180, 371. 
Mercer, Thomas, settler, iii, 127- 

128. iv, 176. 
Meredith, iii, 385. 
Meriwether Bay, i, 298. 
Merryman, J. H., iv, 168, 170-171, 

Mesplie, Father, missionary, iii, 




Message, The (Port Townsend), iv, 


Metcalf, Thomas, and the Oregon 
question, ii, 63. 

Meters, H., settler, iii, 108. 

Methodist Episcopal Church, The, 
ii, 88, 135, 185, 190, 197, 237, 
239, 243, 301, 302. Contro- 
versy with Dr. McLoughlin, 
iii, 174-177- 517-518. iv, 378. 

"Mexican", The, vessel, iii, 153. 

Mexican war. The, ii, 346, 441. 

Michaux, Andr6, i, 239. 

Michel River, The, iii, 400. 

Middleton, Henry, diplomatist, ii, 


Middleton, Mrs., iv, 113. 

Milbank Sound, i, 316. 

Miles, Henry, member of council, 
iii, 230; 516. 

Miles, Joseph, killed by the Indians, 
iii, 392-395. iv, 5. 

Mill Creek, iii, 290, 372, 468. iv, 

Millen, Alfred, settler, iii, 112. 

Miller, Bluford, of Oregon, cap- 
tain in the Indian war, iii, 440, 
448, 467-469, 490. 

Miller, C. H., iv, 386. 

Miller, Edward, settler, iii, 162. 

Miller, Isaac, officer in the Indian 
war, iii, 366. 

Miller, John R. , appointed associate- 
justice, iii, 211. 

Miller, L. A., iv, 210. 

Miller, William W., customs sur- 
veyor, iii, 137, 379; quarter- 
master-general, Indian war, 
383,398-400. Superintendent of 
Indian affairs, iv, 106; 114, 210. 

Mills, Early saw- and other, i, 477. 
ii, 186, 437-438. iii, 129, 130, 
154, 158, 159, 172-173, 411, 517, 
518. iv, 78, 8i, 82, 96, 349-364. 

Mills, John H., settler, iii, 162. 
Minataree Indians, The, i, 271, 274, 

Minor, D. T. iv, 387. 
Missionary Herald, The, ii, 144, 

309. 474- 

Missions and missionaries, i, 65-68. 
ii, 17, 87-113, 117-155, 159-172, 
293-323.396,410,412,440. iii, 
174-178, 241, 254, 265, 354-355. 
428, 517-518. 

Missoula County (Ida.), iv, 87, 155. 

Missoula River, The, i, 301. 

Missouri Fur Company, The, i, 24, 
320, 359. ii, 7, 10. 

Missouri River, The, exploration 
urged by Jefferson, i, 240; a 
prime object of the Lewis and 
Clark expedition, 263; explored 
to its source, 267-273; route for 
the fur trade, 313, 319-320. 

Mitchell, James, C, and the Ore- 
gon question, ii, 74, 78. 

Mitchell, William, sheriff, iv, 11; 

Mix, William A., iv, 210. 

"Modeste", The, English naval 
vessel, ii, 287-288, 414, 428. 

Mohan, Mrs., iv, 272. 

Molalla Indians, The, i, 421. ii, 

Monaghan, James, settler, iv, 95. 

Monroe Doctrine, The, relations to 
the Columbia River question, 
i, 4. ii, 45-46, 374- 

Monroe, James, attitude and policy 
as secretary of state and presi- 
dent, i, 25, 32. ii, 34, 44-45, 61, 

69-70. 75, 217. 369- 
Monroe, Victor, associate-justice, 

iii, 211, 219, 237, 243, 279, 368. 
Montcachtabe, Indian, i, 224. 
Monterey, viceroy, expeditions sent 

by, i, 60-64. 



Montesano, iii, 131. iv, 378. 

Montgomery, John, settler, iii, 401, 

Monticello, ii, 427. iii, 146, 154; 
204; convention advocating sep- 
aration, 205-206; 244; Monti- 
cello memorial, 515-517- iv, 
114, 147- 

Montigny, Ovide de, Astorian, i, 


Moody, S. P., iv, 272. 

Moon, Andrew W., postmaster, iii, 

Moore, A. J., settler, ii, 436. 

Moore, A. W., settler, iii, 161. 

Moore, F., Civil war, iv, 107. 

Moore, F. R., iv, 295. 

Moore, Marshall F., governor, iv, 
152, 180; 185, 227. 

Moore, Michael, settler, ii, 426. 

Moore, Miles C, governor, iv, 282- 
283, 313. 315, 378, 390. 

Moore, R. S., iv, 385. 

Moore, Robert, of Oregon, ii, 263, 
274. 275. 

Moorey, Peter J., iv, 210. 

More, R. S., settler, iii, 162. 

Morgan, M. R. (U. S. A.), iv, 32; 
Civil war record, 120-121. 

Morris, George Upham (U. S. N.), 
Civil war record, iv, 124. 

Morris, T. B., iv, 234. 

Morrison, Abiel, settler, iii, 131. 

Morrison, John L., of Oregon, pio- 
neer, ii, 240, 275. 

Morrison, William, settler, iii, 129, 

Morrow, William W., iv, 210. 

Morse , Henry C. , postmaster, iii ,144. 

Mosely, Henry C, member of legis- 
lature, iii, 232. iv, 142. 

Moses, A. Benton, settler, iii, 99; 
killed by the Indians, 392-393. 
iv, 5. 

Moses, Simpson C, customs col- 
lector,iii, 137, 139-141, 156, 165, 
167, 188, 242, 517. 

Moses Coulee, The, iv, 92. 

Mosher, mariner, ii, 450. 

Moss, John J., settler, iii, 108, 

Moss, S. W., pioneer, ii, 240. 

Motley, John Lothrop, i, 59, 86, 


Mound Prairie, ii, 199. iii, 440. 
Mount Adams, i, 287. ii, 389. 
Mount Baker, i, 191, 197, 200, 202. 

ii, 389. iii, 124. 
Mount Coffin, i, 295. 
Mount Edgecomb, i, 74, 98, 105. 
Mount Fairweather, i, 98, 125. 
Mount Hood, iii, 150, 286, 287, 421, 

451. ii, 26. 
Mount Olympus, i, 57, 69, 74, 167. 
Mount Rainier, i, 202, 207, 209, 

210. ii, 182. iii, 124. iv, 229; 

proposal to change to Mount 

Tacoma, 249-254. 
Mount St. Elias, i, 98, loi, 102, 130. 
Mount St. Helen's, i, 207, 287, 295. 

ii, 389. 
Mounts, J. H., settler, iii, 97. 
Mounts, M. L., settler, iii, 97. 
Mowitch, Indian, murder of, iv, 4. 
Moxee Valley, The, iv, 93. 
Muck Creek, ii, 444. iii, 52, 86, 

183, 484. 
Muck House, iii, 51. 
Muckleshoot Indians, The, iv, 13. 
Muckleshoot Prairie, iii, 400, 443, 

Mukilteo, iv, 216. 
Mullen, John (U. S. A.), surveys, 

iii, 216, 246. iv, 20. 
MviUen, John, settler, iv, 130. 
Multnomah Falls (Columbia River) , 

i, 294. 
Multnomah Indians, The, i, 459. 



Munger, Ashael, missionary, ii, io8. Murphy, William, settler, iii, 131. 

Munson, Captain, in the Indian war, Murray, Henry, settler, ii, 447, 455. 

iii, 358, 371. Muscleshell Rapids (Columbia 
Murden, E. O., iii, 488. River), i, 288. 

NACHESS PASS, The, ii, 490. 
iii, 49, 131, 150, 224, 246, 
328, 334. 338, 354. 450. 
467. iv, 146, 305, 386. 
Nachess River, The, ii, 469, 490. 

iii, 382. 
Nahle, John H., settler, iii, 128. 
"Nahumkeag", The, vessel, iv, 


Napoleon and the Louisiana pur- 
chase, i, 23. ii, 31. 

Narcisso, Indian, ii, 93. 

Narrows, The (Puget Sound), ii, 
180, 181. iii, 395, 504. 

Narvaez, Spanish explorer, i, 48. 

Nash, Mrs., i, 497. 

Natinat Harbor, ii, 501. 

Neace, Louis, iv, 386. 

Neah Bay, i, 78, 79, 349, 418. ii, 
200, 451. iii, 124, 278. 

Necahnie Mountain, i, 431, 432. 

Neely, D. A., settler, iii, 108; officer 
in the Indian war, 499. 

Negroes, early legislation concern- 
ing, ii, 281, 422. iii, 242-243. 

Nehalem Indians, The, i, 433. 

Nehalem River, The, i, 432. 

Nelson, Indian chief, iii, 385, 387- 
388,390,441,466,475. iv,3,i3. 

" Nereid", The, Hudson's Bay ship, 
ii, 400, 401. 

Nesmith, J. W., of Oregon, pioneer, 
ii, 26, 109, 192, 244, 247; on the 
character of Marcus Whitman, 
249; supreme judge, 281; 346, 
492. On Governor Lane, iii, 
67; colonel in the Indian war, 
345-360; Indian superintendent, 


Netart's Bay, i, 149. 

Netul River, The, i, 298. 

New Albion, Drake's name for the 

Pacific coast, i, 29, 90, 94, 185, 

New Archangel (Sitka), i, 138, 369, 

Newaukum, iii, 204. 

Newaukum Prairie, ii, 432. 

Newaukum River, The, ii, 427. 

New Caledonia, i, 30, 232, 390, 394, 
454. ii, 164. 

New Dungeness, i, 191, 196. ii, 
447. iii, 83, 154. 

Newell, Robert, of Oregon, pioneer, 
ii, 5, 23-25, 108, 176, 237, 251; 
part in organizing government, 
269, 274, 275, 280, 281, 295; 
commissioner to treat with the 
Indians, 355; 462, 463. Cap- 
tain in the Indian war, iii, 380. 

Newell, William A., governor, iv, 
261, 273-280. 

Neweetee (Clayoquot), i, 343. 

New Georgia, i, 213. 

Newhouse, Isaac, settler, iv, 92. 

Newland, Thompson W., settler, iii, 

Newman, William, settler, iv, 95. 

Newman Lake, iv, 95. 

New Market, Simmons's settlement, 
now Tumwater, ii, 433-439, 451- 
452, 454. iii, 46, 62, 69. 

Newspapers, in the early part of 
the nineteenth century, i, 9. 
First in Oregon, ii, 347. Early 
in Washington, iii, 147, 219, 

329. iv, 37,38,40, 77. 145. 194- 
195, 215, 229, 249-252, 295-296. 



New York (Alki Point), iii, no, 

126, 158. 
Nez Perce County (Ida.), iv, 87, 


Nez Perce Indians, The, i, 280, 368, 
392, 423, 456. ii, 6; visit to 
St. Louis for religious advice, 
87-102; 117, 122, 125, 243, 293, 
300,334,352-359-360,503- iii. 
74; at the Walla Walla treaty, 
291-306, 307, 349; in the Indian 
war, 427, 429, 437, 465, 468-469, 
473-474. iv, 19, 21, 24, 28, 294. 

Nicholson, Mrs. M. E., iv, 113. 

Nisqually, port of dehvery, iii, 78; 
early settlers, 106, 113; 126, 
137; post-office, 144. 

Nisqually, Fort, see Fort Nisqually. 

Nisqually House, ii, 385. 

Nisqually Indians, The, i, 422. ii, 
459. iii, 267, 270; Stevens's 
treaty, 272-277; 406. iv, 13. 

Nisqually River, The, i, 211. ii, 
385; early settlers, 436, 437. 
iii, 43, 104, 106, 113, 270. 

Nittinat (Port Effingham), i, 116. 

Noble, settler, iii, 134. iv, 82. 

Nookamis, Indian chief, i, 344. 

Nooksack River, The, iii, 277. 

Nootka, i, 29, 70, 75-78, 80, 98, loi- 
102, 104, 108-112, 115-119, 137, 
146, 151-152, 166, 170, 176, 178, 
184, 216-217, 246, 248, 250, 315, 
414, 429. ii, 501. 

"Nootka", The, Meares's ship, i, 

Nootka Sound, i, 69, 75, 96, 102, 
106, no, 125, 265. ii, 381. 

Nordenskjold, explorer, i, 127. 

Norfolk Sound, i, 102, 105. 
"Norman Morrison", The, vessel, 

iii, 513- 

North American Review, The, ii, 

North Bay ii, 439. iii, 276. 
North Yakima, iv, 95, 389. 
Northcraft, killed by the Indians, 

iii, 442. 
Northern Light, The (Whatcom), iv, 

Northern Pacific Railroad, The, 

follows the line of Stevens's 

survey, iii, 221. iv, 90, 94; 

projects and construction, 203- 

249, 287-316. 
Northwest, The, (Port Townsend), 

iv, 114, 195. 
" Northwest America", The, vessel, 

i, 152- 

Northwest Company, The, i, 24, 25, 
27, 30, 227, 327; and Mr. Astor, 
331-332.357-358; 350,352.360, 
370; acquires Astoria, 372-374; 
its activities, and rivalry and 
consolidation with the Hudson's 
Bay Company, 387-392, 398, 443, 
454, 488. ii, 36, 38, 41- 

Northwest Magazine, The, iv, 250. 

Northwest Normal School, The, iv, 

Northwest Passage, The supposed, 

search for, i, 37-39, 93-94, 185. 

See Anian. 
Norway House (Lake Winnipeg), 

ii, 163. 
Nosier, J. W., iv, 295. 
Notre Dame de Namur, Catholic 

order of, ii, 166, 167. 
Nugen, John, officer in the Indian 

war, iii, 392-393, 396, 403. 
Nutall, Thomas, with Wyeth, ii, 

Nutting, J., with Robert Gray, i 

Nye, J. W., iv, 210. 



OAK COVE, i, 202. 
Oak Harbor (Whidby Is- 
land), iii, 95. 
Oak Point, i, 24. ii, 18. iii, 46. 

iv, 350. 
Oak Tree Point, ii, 445. 
Oakly, John, settler, iv, 92. 
O'Brien, P. M., iv, 169. 
"O'Cain", The, vessel, i, 316. 
O'Connor, M., settler, iii, 130. 
"O. C. Raymond", The, vessel, ii, 

Odell, J. V.,iv, 269. 

Ogalalla Indians, The, ii, 495. 

Ogden, Cornelius A. (U. S. A.), iii, 

77. 513- 
Ogden, Isaac, i, 394. 

Ogden, Peter Skeen, Northwester 
and Hudson's Bay man, i, 393- 
395. ii, 187-189, 194-195, 289; 
rescue of the Whitman massa- 
cre captives, 327-339; 380,398, 
430, 438. iii, 62. iv, 95, 191. 

Ogden, U. S., iii, 513. 

Okanogan County, iv, 90. 

Okanogan, Fort, see Fort Okano- 

Okanogan Indians, The, iii, 474. 
iv, 17. 

Old Fort Lake, ii, 385, 414. 

"Old Ignace", ii, 95, iii. 

Old Kesano, Indian chief, i, 459. 

Olid, Cristoval de, Spanish explorer, 
i, 44. 

Oliphant, Ethelbert P., associate- 
justice, iv, 165. 

OUey, James, settler, ii, 107. 

Olmstead, Frederick Law, iv, 246. 

Olney, Captain (U. S. A.), iiii 7- 

Olney, Nathan, interpreter and 
Indian agent, iii, 291, 331,347- 
348, 362, 363, 371, 372. 

Olympia, earliest settlers, ii, 433, 
435. 439. 452; various early 

events and details, ii, 461. iii, 
47, 95, no, 117, 132, 133, 140; 
county seat, 140; post-oflfice, 144. 
146 ; first newspaper in Washing- 
ton, 147; 1 56-1 61 ; Fourth of July 
celebrations, 166-167; first court 
session, 190, 201-204; territorial 
capital, 214; arrival of Gover- 
nor Stevens, 217-218; first legis- 
lative session, 229; 244; Mrs. 
Stevens's reminiscences, 252- 
253; 287; Indian war, 344, 379, 
380,397,401,430,489-491. iv, 
4; Leschi trial, 7; 14, 114, 130, 
142; capital controversy, 157- 
165; 166, 195; railways, 215, 
217-221, 225, 238-239, 315; 344, 
379. 385-386, 389. 

Olympia Branch Railroad Com- 
pany, The, iv, 217-218. 

Olympia Collegiate Institute, The, 
iv, 378- 

Olympus Mount, see Mount Olym- 

O'Neal, James A., of Oregon, pio- 
neer, ii, 22; part in organizing 
civil government, 268, 269, 274, 

" Ontario", The, U. S. naval vessel, 

ii. 35- 
"Orbit", The, vessel, ii, 451, 452, 


Ord, E. O. C. (U. S. A.), iv, 120. 

Ordway, with Lewis and Clark, i, 

Oregon, originally embraced Wash- 
ington, i, 3, 5, 6; not part of 
the Louisiana purchase, 23; 
the early navigators, 50, 63-64, 
74, 80, 95, 113, 186; the name, 
226-227; Indians, 422; tradi- 
tions of early white men, 431- 
439; first American overland 
party, 463. First wagon party, 



ii, 12; "Oregon or the Grave", 
235; provisional government, 
261-361. iii, 59-65; territorial 
government, 65-87; separation 
of Washington, 199-225; the 
Indian war, 344-375- 4Si. 462- 
463, 468. Attempts to annex 
part of Washington, iv, 97-99. 

"Oregon", The, vessel, iii, 79. 

Oregon and Transcontinental Rail- 
way Company, The, iv, 299, 301. 

Oregon City, (Ore.), i, 414. ii, 25, 
141, 167, 243, 279, 284, 327, 340, 
342, 345-347. 349. 360, 427. 428, 
461. iii, 69, 74, 75, 100, 129, 
145, 172, 180, 200, 517. 

"Oregon Dragoons", The, ii, 235- 

Oregon Historical Society, The, ii, 
274. iii, 1 18, 148. 

Oregon Improvement Company, 
The, iv, 290, 299, 301, 304. 

Oregon Missionary Society, The, 
ii, 106. 

Oregon Pioneer Association, The, 
ii, no, 133, iii, 14. 

Oregon question, The, various 
aspects of the boundary dispute, 
i, 5-9, 26-33. Diplomatic nego- 
tiations, debates in congress, 
and treaty, ii, 31-58, 61-83, 204- 
231. 365-382; Wilkes's report, 
501-505. Text of the treaty, iii, 

Oregon Railway and Steam Navi- 
gation Company, The, iii, 230, 
232. iv, 81, 194, 211, 212, 228, 
245, 283, 289, 296, 298-299, 315. 

Oregon Spectator, The, ii, 347, 380. 

Oregon Trail, The, ii, 8. 

Oregonian, The (Portland), iii, 148, 

Oro Fino gold boom. The, iv, 76. 

"Orphan Road, The", iv, 309. 

"Orpheus", The, vessel, iv, 272. 

Orriber, Margaret Riedout, ii, 411. 

Osborn, Russell, of Oregon, ii, 275. 

Osborne family. The, escape, ii, 316. 

Osborne, Josiah, ii, 320. iii, 75. 

Ostrander, N., settler, iii, 516. 

"Otter", The, vessel, iii, 398, 460. 
iv, 46. 

Otter Indians, The, i, 224. 

Ouvrie, William, ii, 385, 395. 

Overland Press, The, iii, 231. 
114, 189-190, 195. 

Owens, Henry, settler, ii, 423. 

Owens, James, settler ii, 423. 

Owens, John, settlers, ii, 423. 

Ow-hi, Indian chief, iii, 294, 

303, 324, 332, 413, 464. Arrest 
and death, iv, 31-32; 253, 254. 

Owings, N. H., iv, 344. 

"Owyhee", The, vessel, i, 462. ii, 
1 10. 

Oxenham, John, English naviga- 
tor, i, 85, 88, 430. 




««Tp\ACIFIC", The, loss of, iv, 

y^ 270-273, 358. 

■*- Pacific City, ii, 445. 
Pacific County, ii, 435. iii, 141, 

142, 203, 220, 232, 243. iv, 

15s, 156, 222. 
Pacific Fur Company, The, i, 24, 

26, 27, 333, 351, 357, 368, 372- 


Pacific Mail Steamship Company, 

The, iii, 79. iv, 43. 
Pacific Tribune, The (Olympia), iv, 

195- 215- 
Packwood, Elisha, settler, ii, 436. 
Packwood, William, settler, ii, 436, 

456, 471, 507-509. iii, 49, 148; 

officer in the Indian war, 230. 
Page, H. C, settler, iii, 129, 130. 



Page, Thomas P., settler, iv, 73. 
Pakenham, English diplomatist, ii, 

Palladino, L. B. (Rev), missionary, 

ii, 92, 95, 112. 
Palmer, Joel, of Oregon, militia 

officer and Indian agent, ii, 348, 

355. And the Indian treaties, 

iii, 284, 287-288, 289-308; 320. 
Palmerston, Lord, and the Oregon 

question, ii, 365, 372. 
Palouse Indians, The, ii, 356-359. 

iii, 297, 299, 347. iv, 19, 20, 

Palouse River, The, i, 283. 
Pambrum, A. D., iii, 291. 
Pambrum, Joe, ii, 398. 
Pambrum, Pierre C, Hudson's 

Bay trader, ii, 13, 25, 93-95, 

300. 397- 
Pambury, Domenic, settler, iii, 241. 
"Panama", The, vessel, iii, 79. 
Pandozy, Father, missionary, iii, 

265, 284, 288, 291, 316-318, 350, 

3 54- 

Panic of 1873, iv, 288. 

Papineau rebellion. The, ii, 264. 

Paquet, Hudson's Bay man, iii, 

Parker, Daniel, navigator, i, 145. 

Parker, David, settler, ii, 426. 

Parker, D. C, settler, ii, 444. 

Parker, Samuel (Rev.), sent out 
with Whitman, ii, loi, 11 7-1 18, 
299. iv, 201. 

Parker, William, iv, 94. 

Parkman, Francis, ii, 472, 476, 484. 
iii, 9. 

Parks, O. B., settler, iv, 92. 

Parrish, Josiah L. (Rev.), of Ore- 
gon, missionary, ii, 107, 263, 

Parsons, Captain iv, 273. 

Pasco, iv, 307. 

Patkanim, Indian chief, ii, 440, 
458-460, 462. iii, 72, 277, 325, 

439- 441-442. 
Patten, Major (U. S. A.), iv, 171- 

Patterson, lawless character, iv, 85. 

Patterson, Robert, settler, iii, 162. 

Pattle, William, settler, iii, 129, 130, 

Paul, Daniel, settler, iv, 92. 
Paul, Emperor (Russia), i, 137. 
Paul, Indian, ii, 93. 
Paulding, Hiram, settler, iii, 132. 
Payne, William, iv, 280. 
Peabody, Russel V., settler, iii, 129, 

130, 144; captain in the Indian 

war, 440. Civil war record, iv, 

107; 360. 
Peace River, The, i, 30, 228, 229. 
"Peacock", The, U. S. naval ves- 
sel, i, 395. ii, 178, 183, 184- 

194, 199-202. 
Peacock Bar, ii, 201. 
Pearce, Lieutenant, English officer, 

i, 118. 
Pearson, D. K., iv, 377. 
Pease, Captain (U. S. N.), iii, 381. 

iv, iio-i II. 
Pease, William C, iii, 488. 
"Pedler", The, vessel, i, 372, 374. 
Peel, Lieutenant, English naval 

officer, ii, 287. 
Peel, Sir Robert, and the Oregon 

question, ii, 365-366, 372, 376. 
Peers, Henry N., iii, 64. 
Pelican Rapid (Columbia River), 

i, 288. 
Pell, Gilbert, sheriff, iv, 94. 
Pelly, Sir J. H., Hudson's Bay 

official, ii, 402, 404, 407. 
Pender, W. D. (U. S. A.), in the 

Indian war, iv, 29; Civil war 

record, 122-123. 
Pendleton, iv, 289. 



Pendleton, George H., i, ii8, 223. 
Pendleton, X. E., and the Oregon 

question, i, 118. ii, 203, 223, 

Pend d'Oreille Indians, The, ii, 113. 
Pend d'Oreille River, The, iii, 327. 
Penitentiary, The, iv, 14, 158, 159, 

163, 165. 
Penn's Cove (Whidby Island), i, 

212. ii, 171. iii, 96. iv, 214. 
Peo-peo-mox-mox, Indian chief, ii, 

302,304,352,356,357. At the 

Walla Walla treaty, iii, 293-306; 

307, 318, 322-323, 347-349, 350, 

357. 361-369- 

Peoria (111.), starting point for emi- 
grants, ii, 235, 236. 

Pepper, Tom, iii, 415. 

Perceval, D. E., iv, 295. 

Perez, Juan, Spanish navigator, i, 
31, 68, 70, 73, 74, 126. 

Perham, A. S., settler, iii, 131. 

Perkins, H. K. W. (Rev.), mis- 
sionary, ii, 106, 237. 

Perkins, James A., settler, iv, 91. 

Perkins, John L., settler, iii, 162. 

Perry, Walter G. pioneer, iii, 3-5. 

Perry's Island, iii, 239, 277. 

Peter the Great, i, 123, 126, 128. 

Pettygrove, F. W. settler, iii, 74, 
98-102, 117, 144. 

Phelps, Miss, teacher, ii, 107. 

Phelps, Samuel S., and the Oregon 
question, ii, 225. 

Phelps, Thomas Stowell (U. S. N.), 
on de Fuca's discovery, i, 57. 
Of the "Decatur", iii, 419. 
Civil war record, iv, 123-124. 

Philip II (Spain), i, 52, 59-62, 65, 
68, 123, 161-162. 

Philippine Islands, The, i, 48, 50, 

51. 53- 
Phillips, C. C, customs collector, 
iv, 166. 

Phillips, Charles, iv, 309. 
Phinney, Amos, iv, 357. 
Pichilingues, The, i, 124, 430. 
Pickering, William, governor, iv, 
140, 146, 171, 173, 177, 180, 

193. 359- 

Pickernel, John, of Oregon, ii, 275. 

Pickernell, J. G., settler, ii, 445. 

Pickett, George E. (U. S. A.), in 
the Indian war, iii, 443. The 
San Juan affair, iv, 52-57, 61, 
64. Confederate general, 126- 

Picknell, John E., settler, ii, 444. 

Pierce County, i, 68. ii, 409, 427. 
iii, 80, 99, 220, 232, 243, 270, 
449, 484. iv, 8, 155, 156, 166, 
185, 188, 313, 324, 325, 328, 343, 
357. 359. 386, 387. 

Pierce, E. D., gold prospector, iv, 

Pierce, Franklin, and the Oregon 

question, ii, 217, 218. Pierce 

County named for, iii, 143. 
Pierce, T., iii, 318. 
Pierce, T. B., settler, ii, 446. 
Pilcher, Joshua, fur trader, ii, 10, 

II, 81, 247. 
Pilkingon, settler, iii, 285. 
Pillar Rock (Columbia River), i, 

Pillet, Francis B., Astorian, i, 333. 
Pilot's Cove, ii, 180. iii, 143. 
Pin, Joseph, ii, 411. 
Pine Tree Rapids (Snake River), 

i, 283. 
Pintard, John Marden, Boston 

merchant, i, 146, 493. 
Pinto, H. H., settler, iii, 112. 
Pioneer life, general account of its 

conditions, iii, 29-56. 
Pioneer and Democrat, The (Olym- 

pia), iii, 219, 229. iv, 37, 194. 
Pittock, H. L., of Oregon, iii, 491. 



Platte River, The, i, 378. ii, 8, 10, 
296, 371, 469, 474-475. 

"Pleiades", The, vessel, ii, 450. 

Plomondon, Simon, Hudson's Bay 
man and early settler, ii, 164, 
183-184, 19s, 393, 401, 420, 427, 
439; settlement on the Cowlitz, 
444. Member of provisional 
legislature, iii, 64; delegate at 
Monticello and signer of me- 
morial, 204, 517. 

Plumb, William W., settler, iii, 206, 

Plummer, Alfred A., settler, ii, 448. 

iii, 143, 98-102. 
Plummer, Charles, settler, iii, 129. 

iv, 210. 
"Plumper", The, EngHsh naval 

vessel, iv, 53, 64. 
Pocatello (Ida.), ii, 18, 469. 
Poe, Alonzo Marion, settler, ii, 435. 

iii, 62, 99, 130; marshal, 190; 

204; officer in the Indian war, 

380, 383, 506. iv, 17. 
Poe's Point, iii, 126. 
Point Adams, i, 174, 465, 494, 496. 
Point Elliott, iii, 277. iv, 216. 
Point George, i, 342. 
Point no Point, iii, 278. 
Point Partridge, i, 214. 
Point Roberts, i, 216. 
Point Vancouver, i, 219. 
Point Wilson, i, 214. ii, 179. 
Polish explorers, i, 135. 
Polk, James K., and the Oregon 

question, ii, 74, 150, 288-289, 

Polk County (Ore.), ii, 356. 

Polotkin, Indian chief, iv, 30. 

Pomeroy, iv, 290. 

Pond, Hudson's Bay man, i, 387. 

Pool, Mr., settler, iv, 97. 

Pope, A. J., iv, 353. 

Population, see Census. 

"Porpoise", The, U. S. naval 

vessel, ii, 178, 181, 202. 
Port Angeles, iv, 114, 169-176. 
Port Blakely, iv, 222, 355-356. 361. 
Port Cox, i, 116. 
Port des Francais, i, 125. 
Port Discovery, i, 77, 192, 201, 203, 

205, 208, 216, 414, 415- "' 

179. 395- iii- 84, 85, 131. iv, 

353- 360. 
Port Effingham, i, 116. 
Port Gamble, iii, 508. iv, 114,221, 

Port Gardner, i, 213, 214. 
Port Guadelupe (Norfolk Sound), 

i, 102. 
Port Lawrence, ii, 180. 
Port Lorenzo, i, 69. 
Port Ludlow, iii, 158, 230. iv, 222, 

354. 357- 
Port Madison, ii, 180. iii, 277. 

iv, 181, 222, 237, 352. 
Port Nunez Gaona (Cape Flattery), 

i, 78. 
Port Orchard, i, 208, 237. iv, 354. 
Port Orford, i, 63, 342. 
Port Quadra (Port Discovery), i, 77. 
Port Quimper (Poverty Cove), i, 

Port Remedios, i, 105. 
Port Steilacoom, ii, 455. iii, 133, 

Port Susan, i, 213. 
Port Townsend, i, 201, 404, 422. 

ii, 179. Earliest settlers, iii, 

94-95, 97-103, 105; 126, 128, 

129, 137; county seat, 143; 

post-office, 144, 146; 157, 158; 

440. iv, 52, io8, 114, 163, 165; 

the custom house, 166, 169-176; 

195; railway, 314-315. 
Porter, A. S., settler, iii, 50, 131. 
Porter, Corydon F., settler, iii, 131, 




Porter's Prairie, iii, 131. 

Portland (Ore.), "i, 78; 79- 96, 100, 
109, no, 117, 133, 149. 156- 
iv, 203, 227, 228, 289, 290, 302. 

Portlock, Captain, English naviga- 
tor, i, 29, 103-107, 385. 

Portman, John, Hudson's Bay 
Company founder, i, 385. 

Portugal, early explorations, i, 76, 
100, 108-112. 

Possession Sound, i, 214. 

Post, Fred, settler, iv, 97. 

Postal facilities and arrangements, 
Early, i, 9-10. iii, 79, 144-147, 
251. iv, 80, 97, 167-168. 

"Potomac", The, vessel, iii, 154. 

Potter, member of legislature, iv, 

Poverty Cove, i, 78/ 

Powder River, ii, 469. 

Powell, Lieutenant, Indian war, iii, 

Power, J. B., settler, iii, 97. 

Powers, James, iv, 386. 

Pratt, Orville C, associate-justice, 
iii, 66, 70, 74. 

Prentiss, Narcissa (Mrs. Marcus 
Whitman), ii, 118. 

Presbyterian Church, The, ii, 93, 
117,125,236,396,398. iv, 378. 

Prescott, William H., 1,426. ii, 168. 

Preston, William C, and the Ore- 
gon question, ii, 218, 219. 

Prevost, Captain, San Juan bound- 
ary commissioner, iv, 57, 65. 

Prevost, J. B., reestablishes U. S. 
authority at Astoria, ii, 35-36. 

PribyloflE Islands, The, i, 369. 

Price, E. G. in the Indian war, iii, 

Priest Rapids (Columbia River), 
iii, 463. iv, 88, 234. 

Prince of Wales Archipelago, i, 132. 

Prince of Wales Island, i, 105, 106. 

Prince William's Sound, i, 75, 102, 
104, 105, 136, 137. 

"Princess Royal", The, English 
ship, i, 76, 151. 

Princess Royal Archipelago, i, 106. 

Pringle, Mrs., see Sager, Catherine. 

Printing presses. The earliest, ii, 
293. iii, 147- 

Pritchett, Kintzing, territorial sec- 
retary, iii, 66, 75. 

Prohibitory laws, ii, 281. iv, 14. 

Prosch, Charles, iv, 38, 211, 215. 

Prosch, W. F., iv, 387. 

Protection Island, i, 19S, 205. 

Provisional government. The, or- 
ganization, ii, 261-290; Cayuse 
war, 345-361- iii, 59-6s; Judge 
Evans on, 66. 

Pryor, with Lewis and Clark, i, 266. 

Puget, Lieutenant, with Vancou- 
ver, i, 166, 169, 175, 179, 189, 
192, 199, 200; explores Puget 
Sound, 207-215. 

Puget Island, i, 295. 

Puget Mill Company, The, iv, 353- 

354, 357- 359- 

Puget Sound, i, 29; Quimper's dis- 
covery, i, 77; the Vancouver 
expedition, 184, 207-215. Sla- 
cum's visit, ii, 82 ; Wilkes's sur- 
vey, 178-183, 198-199, 204; Fort 
Nisqually, 385-415 ; early Ameri- 
can settlers, 428-434, 440, 447, 
449; beginning of shipping in- 
terests, 452 ; 455; Wilkes on the 
defense of, 504. Development 
of early settlement and trade, 
iii, 97-128, 137, 153-155. 158- 

Puget SoundAcademy,The,iv,378. 

Puget Sound Agricultural Com- 
pany, The, subsidiary to the 
Hudson's Bay Company, i, 68. 
ii, 394, 404, 411, 420, 447, 456- 
458, 507-509- iii. 37. SI. 61, 



62, 79, 104, 156, 171, 236, 399, 

503, 519. iv, 185-193. 
Puget Sound and Columbia River 

Railroad Company, The, iv, 210, 

Puget Sound Courier, The (Steila- 

coom), iii, 329. iv, 38. 
Puget Sound Herald, The (Steila- 

coom), iv, 38, 215. 

OUADRA, Spanish governor 
at Nootka, i, 78, 118, 176, 
178, 216, 217, 381. 
Quallawowt, Indian, trial and exe- 
cution, iii, 72, 73. 
Quebec, The archbishop of, mis- 
sionaries sent by, ii, 160-161. 
Queen Ann Hill (Seattle), iii, 128. 
Queen Charlotte's Islands, The, i, 
29, 69, 105-106, 125, 151, 157, 
776,404,457. ii, 400. iii, 116, 
137. 165. 
Queen Charlotte's Sound, i, 58, 217, 
430. iii, 94, III. 

Pullen, W. H., iii, 274. 

Purchas, i, 39. 

Puyallup Indians, The, i, 422. iii, 
125, 274, 275. iv, 13. 

Puyallup River, The, ii, 410, 492. 
iii, 106; early settlers, 131; 149, 
150, 158, 383. iv, 245. 

" Pylades", The, English naval ves- 
sel, iv, 64. 

"Queen of the Pacific", The, ves- 
sel, iv, 334. 

Quenaiult Indians, The, iii, 287. 

Quenaiult River, The, iii, 287. 

Quesnel, with Fraser, i, 232. 

QuiacuUiby, Indian chief, i, 433. 

Quicksand River, The (Sandy 
River), i, 294. 

Quieltomee, Indian chief, iii, 475. 

Quiemuth, Indian chief, iii, 274, 
382, 384, 406, 466, 475. Mur- 
der of, iv, 3-4. 

Quillehute Indians, The, iii, 287. 

Quimper, Manuel, Spanish naviga- 
tor, i, 28, 77-78, 249. 

RABBESON, Antonio B., set- 
tler, ii, 435, 438-441, 456, 
458, 507. iii, 49; sheriff, 
64, 94; postal agent, 146, 392; 
captain in the Indian war, 440, 
446-447. Testifies, iv, 5, 349. 

Rabjohn, Frederick, settler, ii, 447. 

Raboin, Lewis, settler, iii, 134. 

"Raccoon", The, English naval 
vessel, i, 25, 374. ii, 34, 37. 

Radisson, Pierre Esprit, explorer, 
i, 382. 

Railways. Early reconnoisance by 
J. W. Trutch, iii, 154; hopes for 
a transcontinental line, 164-165; 
Stevens's survey, 213, 215-217, 
221, 245-250, 308. Construc- 
tion of the Northern Pacific and 

other early roads, iv, 201-249; 
264-265, 287-316. 

Rainier, iii, 146. 

Rainier, Mount, see Mount Rainier. 

Rainier, Rear-admiral, i, 202. 

Rains, Gabriel J. (U. S. A.), com- 
mander at the Dalles, iii, 7, 284, 
289. 318. 333-334; controversy 
with Nesmith and Indian cam- 
paign. 343-356; 358, 382, 391- 
392, 402; commander at Van- 
couver, 430. iv, 15, 95; Civil 
war record, 125. 

Raleigh, Sir Walter, i, 56. 

Ramsey, Alexander, iv, 203. 

Raymond, Narcisse, settler, iii, 134, 
241, 291, 349. 372- 

Raymond, W. W., settler, ii, 107. 



Raynor, James O., settler, ii, 444. 

Raynor, Joseph (Rev.), iv, 144- 

Red River, The, i, 223, 397, 486. 
ii, 10, 43; colonists from, 140, 
273, 407-409; Catholic mission- 
aries from, 160-161. 

Red Wolf, Indian chief, ii, 131, 357, 
360. iii, 349- 

Redding, Lucretia, iii, 18. 

Reed, Captain, American naviga- 
tor, i, 146. 

Reed, George H., iv, 82. 

Reed, John, Astorian, i, 363, 366. 

Reed, John M., iv, 386. 

Reed, Thomas M., speaker of the 
house, iv, 150. 

Reed and Harney Mountain, iv, 83. 

Reese, L. T., settler, iv, 74, 210. 

Register, The (Port Townsend), iv, 

Register, The (Vancouver), iv, 195. 

Reighart, R. H.. settler, iv, 74. 

" Relief", The, U. S. naval vessel, 

ii, 178. 

Renton, William, iii, 46, 211, 223. 

iv, 354-356- 
Republican party. The, iv, 142, 144, 

Reservations, Indian, iii, 262, 269, 

275-278, 282-283, 288, 298-299, 

302, 307. iv, 13, 250, 274. 

"Resolution", The, Cook's ship, i, 
94. 306. 

Restoration Point, i, 212. 

Review, The (Spokane), iv, 296, 386. 

Revilla, Christopher, Spanish navi- 
gator, i, 73. 

Reynolds, A. H., iv, 74. 

Reynolds, George B., murder of, 
iv, 277. 

Reynolds, James, iv, 210. 

Reynolds, R. B. (U. S. A.), iii, 75. 

Ricard, Pascal (Rev.), missionary, 
ii, 440. iii, 254, 288. 319. 

Rice, pioneers, iii, 18. 

Rice, R. D., iv, 217, 227. 

Richardson, Joseph, and the Ore- 
gon question, ii, 74, 80. 

Richmond, Francis, ii, 412, 432. 

Richmond, John P. (Rev.), mission- 
ary, ii, 107, 197, 412-413, 432. 

Riddell, V., settler, iii, 132. 

Riley, Captain, in the Indian war, 
iii, 440. 

Riley, James, pioneer, ii, 487, 489. 

Rima, L. W., iv, 295. 

Ringgold (U. S. N.), with Wilkes, 
ii, 18I; 199. 

Rio de San Roque, i, 113, 115. 

Rio Nevada, i, 39. 

Riparia, i, 283. iv, 289. 

Ritz, Philip, iv, 229, 238. 

Ritzville, iv, 229, 294, 386. 

River of the Kings, i, 42, 154. 

Rives, William C, and the Oregon 
question, ii, 225. 

Rizner, with Hunt, i, 361, 362, 

Roads, Early, i, 16. iii, 148-152, 

160-164,244,251,283,401. iv, 

20, 130, 146. 
Robb, J. R., of Oregon, ii, 275. 
Roberts, A. B., in the Indian war, 

iii, 364, 368. iv, 373. 
Roberts, C. E., settler, iii, 130. 
Roberts, George B., settler, ii, 420, 

Robie, Abram, settler, ii, 444. iii, 

308; captain in the Indian war, 

468, 469. 
Robinson, with Hunt, i, 361, 362, 

Rock Springs (Wyo.), iv, 320. 
Rocky Mountain Fur Company, 

The, ii, 8, 10. 
Rodney, Lord, i, 183. 
Roeder, Henry, settler, iii, 129, 130. 

iv, 360. 



Rogers, Cornelius, missionary 
teacher, ii, 124-125, 254, 316; 
marriage, 413. 

Rogers, E. E., iv, 211. 

Rogers, of Oregon, killed by the 
Indians, ii, 279. 

Rogers, teacher, assistant to Whit- 
man, killed by the Indians, ii, 
310, 313-316, 319-320, 325. 

Rogue River, The, ii, 422, 503. 

Rooster Rock, iii, 239. 

"Rosalind", The, EngUsh ship, ii, 
414. iv, 350. 

Rosario Strait, i, 78. ii, 380. iv, 

Rosati, Joseph, bishop of St. Louis, 
ii, 91, 111-112. 

Ross, Alexander, Astorian, i, 333, 

Ross, Benjamin, settler, iii, 97, 99, 


Ross, C, at Fort Nisqually, iii, 72, 

73, 82, 514- 
Ross, John, settler, iii, 128. 
Ross, Ruel W., settler, iii, 97, loi. 
Rounds, Nelson (Rev.), iv, 368. 
Roundtree, Dr., settler, iii, 50. 
Rousseau, Father, ii, 167. 
Roux, Benedict (Rev.), ii, 93. 
Royce, Prof., iii, 14. 
Royce (inaccurately printed 

Bryce), "History of California", 

iii, 102. 
Ruble, sawmill, iv, 32. 

Ruckle, J. S., iv, 211. 
Ruddell, Paul, settler, iii, 162. 
Ruddell, Stephen D., settler, iii, 14, 

Ruddock, Samuel Adams, pioneer, 

i. 463. 

Rumrill, Calvin H., Civil war, iv, 

Rupert, Prince, Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany founder, i, 384-385, 442. 

Rupert's Land, i, 387. 

Rush, Richard, and the Oregon 
question, ii, 38-39, 45, 47-48, 55, 
79. 217- 

Russel, Osborn, of Oregon, ii, 280, 

Russel, S. W., settler, iii, 108. 

Russell, Charles, settler, iv, 73, 210. 

Russell, D. A. (U. S. A.), in the 
Indian war, ii, 336, 338. Civil 
war record, iv, 127. 

Russell, John (Lord), and the Ore- 
gon question, ii, 372, 379. 

Russell, J. W., ii, 445. 

Russia. Explorations and Ameri- 
can possessions, i, 23, 66, 75, 
102, 125-142, 368, 375, 424. 
ii, 2,2,, 44; convention of 1824, 
52; 405. Sale of Alaska, iv, 

Russian American Company, The, 

i, 138, 140-141, 330. ii, 33, 44. 
Ruth, B. F., iv, 203. 
Ryan, mariner, i, 456. 

SABINE River, The, ii, 44. 
Sacajawea, with Lewis and 
Clark, i, 271, 273, 276, 360. 
"Sacramento", The, vessel, ii, 451. 
Sager, Catherine (Mrs. Pringle), 
adopted by Whitman, ii, 298, 

310, 311, 314-315. 317-319. 321; 
captive, 330, 333, 339. 
Sager, Elizabeth, captive, ii, 339. 

Sager family, The, ii, 296-299. 

Sager, Francis, ii, 310; killed in the 
Whitman massacre, 315, 320. 

Sager, Henrietta N., captive, ii, 339. 

Sager, John, ii, 299, killed in the 
massacre, 310, 312, 320. 

Sager, Matilda J., captive, ii, 339. 

"Saginaw", The, U. S. naval ves- 
sel, iv. III. 



Sahaptin Indians, i, 423. 
Saint Ignatius Mission, ii, 113. 
Saint Joseph's Mission, ii, 440. 
Saint Lazarus Archipellago, The, 

i, 42, loi, 106. 
Saint Mary's Mission (Mont.), ii. 

112, 159. 
Saint Paul on the Willamette, ii, 

165, 167, 271. 
Saint Peter's River, i, 226. 
Saint Vrain's Fort (Platte River), 

ii. 237- 

Sales, killed in the Whitman mas- 
sacre, ii, 316. 

Salish Indians, The, i, 421. 

Salmon Falls, (Snake River), ii, 

Salmon River, The, i, 276, 278. iii, 
279. Gold discoveries, iv, 77. 

Salter, John, iv, 211. 

Salvitierra, i, 40. 

Sanders, Alfred W., captive, ii, 339. 

Sanders, Helen M., captive, ii, 339. 

Sanders, Mary (Mrs.), captive, ii, 

Sanders, Mary A., captive, ii, 339. 
Sanders, Nancy I., captive, ii, 339. 
Sanders, Phoebe L., captive, ii, 


Sandwich Islands, The, see Hawai- 
ian Islands. 

Sandy Plain, iii, 182. 

Sandy River, The, i, 294. 

San Francisco, early demand for 
lumber, iii, 102, 153, 158. iv, 

Sangster, Captain, of the " Cad- 
borough", ii, 414. iii, 81-83, 
513-514. iv, 46-47- 

"San Jose", The, Spanish ship, i, 

4. 33- 
San Juan Archipelago, The, i, 78. 

ii, 199. 
San Juan County, iii, 143. iv, 45. 

San Juan dispute, The, iii, 269. 

iv, 45-69. 258-259. 
"Santa Anna", Spanish ship, i, 62, 

" Sarah Stone", The, vessel, iii, 225. 
Saratoga Passage, i, 213. 
Sargent, Nelson, settler, iii, 162. 
Saskatchewan River, The, i, 223, 

227, 230. 
"Satellite", The, English naval 

vessel, iv, 42, 50, 53, 55, 64. 
Saulnier, Edmond (Rev.), ii, 93. 
Saunders, S. S., settler, ii, 446. iii, 

Sauvies Island, i, 294. ii, 19. 
Sawamish County, ii, 240, 243, 440, 

490. iv, 138, 155. 
Sayward, William P., settler, iii, 

158; member of council, 230. 

iv, 357- 

Scammon, J. L., settler, iii, 131. 

Scarborough, James, mariner, Hud- 
son's Bay man, i, 456. ii, 420; 
settler, 445. 

Scarborough Hill, ii, 420. 

Schelikof, Gregory, i, 136-138. 

Schlouskin, Indian, iv, 252. 

Schools, Early, ii, 103, no, 186, 

443- ii. 283. iv, 367-379. 385- 
Schroter, Ernest, killed by the 

Indians, iii, 511. 
Schumagin Islands, The, i, 130. 
Schurz, Carl, iv, 302. 
Schwabacker, J., iv, 210. 
Scott, A. F., settler, iii, 206, 516. 
Scott, Harvey W., ii, 278, 280. iii, 

Scott, John, ii, 64. 
Scott, Robert N., Civil war officer, 

iv, 118. 
Scott, Thomas A., iv, 104. 
Scott, Winfield (U. S. A.), iv, 62. 
Scranton, iv, 97. 



Scranton, L. R., settler, iv, 96. 

Scudder, Jehu, iii, 233. 

Sea Back, iv, 356. 

"Sea Gull", The, vessels, ii, 178. 

iii, 79- 

Seal, The territorial, iii, 245. 

Seal River, The (Washougal River), 
i, 294. 

Seatco, iv, 267. 

Seattle, ii, 449. iii, 46, 47. 5°; 
early settlers in the vicinity, 
103-108; founding and early 
history, 109-128; 146, 149, 157, 
158, 244, 381; Indian attack, 
410-420; 442. iv, 14, 158, 165; 
newspapers, 195; railways, 215, 
221-224, 232-238; lawlessness, 
277-280; fire, 282; railways and 
growth, 300-301, 304-305, 308- 
314; Chinese disturbances, 320- 
345; university, 369-373; 379. 


Seattle, Indian chief, iii, 117, 125, 
277, 412. 

Seattle and Colfax Railroad, The, 
iv, 265. 

Seattle and Walla Walla Railroad, 
The, iv, 301. 

Seattle, Lake Shore and Eastern 
Railroad, The, iv, 296, 308, 315. 

Sebers, Charles, settler, iii, 97. 

Sehome, iv, 40. 

Seidenstriker, Captain, Civil war, 
iv, 108, 109. 

Seitel, A., iv, 210. 

Selah Fishery, The, iii, 451. 

Selden (U. S. N.), of the "Shu- 
brick", iv, m. 

Selkirk, Lord, Hudson's Bay offi- 
cial, i, 442, 446. ii, 43. 

Semmes (U. S. N.), of the "Massa- 
chusetts", iii, 508-509. 

Semple, Governor, iv, 281. 

Semple, Judge, of Illinois, ii, 149. 

Sequalachew Creek, ii, 389. iii, 82, 

Sevier, Ambrose H., and the Ore- 
gon question, ii, 218, 219, 225. 
iii, 30. 

Seward, William H., iii, 32. 

Seymour, George (Sir), English 
naval officer, ii, 287, 380. 

Shadden, T. J., pioneer, ii, 240. 

Shannon, George, ii, 437. 

" Shark", The, U. S. naval vessel, i, 
395. ii, 289, 290. iii, 80. 

Shaugh, W., iv, 94. 

Shaw, Benjamin F., settler, ii, 452. 
iii, 224; of Stevens's treaty- 
making party, 271, 274, 276- 
277, 285; officer in the Indian 
war, 344, 359, 380, 400, 402, 
429-430, 440, 464-470, 473; 
and Judge Lander, 487-488; 
492; 498, 500, 503. Version 
of Leschi's speech, iv, 111-112; 


Shaw, Dan, settler, iii, 97. 

Shaw, Frank, settler, ii, 438. iii, 
167, 253. 

Shaw, William, pioneer, with Gil- 
liam, ii 296-298. With Sim- 
mons, ii, 422. 426. 

Shazer, George, settler, ii, 437. iii, 
i6i, 274. 

Shead, Captain, Indian war, iii, 

Shelton, David, settler, ii, 449. iii, 
99, 231, 240. 

Shelton, L. D. W., iii, 240. 

Shelton, Lewis F. D., i, 79. 

Shelton's Point, iii, 231. 

She-nah-nam (Medicine Creek), iii, 

Shepherd, Cyrus, missionary, ii, 22, 
103, 105, no. 



Sheridan, Philip H. (U. S. A.), in 
the Indian war, iii, 342, 343, 
346, 350-356, 459-460, 462. iv, 

Sherlock, ii, 436. 

Sherman, William Tecumseh, visit 
to Washington, iv, 244. 

Shields, James, iv, 203. 

Shoalwater Bay, i, 187, 298, 455. 
ii, 181; early settlers, 445. iii, 
50, 77, 124, 131, 141, 244. iv, 


Short, Merrill, settler, iii, 53. Mem- 
ber of legislature, iv, 159. 

Shortess, Robert, of Oregon, pio- 
neer, ii, 237, 243; part in organ- 
izing civil government, 269, 274, 


Shoshone County (Ida.), ii, 87, 155. 

Shoshone Indians, The, i, 271, 274, 
278, 301, 361, 365, 392, 436, 
456. ii, 9, 169. 

"Shubrick", The, U. S. naval ves- 
sel, iv, 58, iio-iii, 170, 172. 

Siberian theory of Indian origin, 
i, 424. 

Silverton, ii, 356. 

Similkameen River, The, iv, 88. 

Simmons, A. T., iv, 350. 

Simmons, A. J., customs collector, 
iii, 159, 188, 204, 517. 

Simmons, Christopher C, ii, 431, 

Simmons, Michael T., pioneer, with 
Gilliam, ii, 257, 296, 350; estab- 
lishes first permanent American 
settlement in Washington, 421- 
423, 426, 428, 429-434, 437-439; 
450, 452-454, 464, 507- i", 37, 
39,49; commissioner and judge, 
60-61; 63; member of legisla- 
ture, 68; 93, 143, 144, 158, 171, 
183, 204, 214; unjust accusa- 
tion, 223; Indian agent, 224; 

253; party to Stevens's treaties, 
272, 274, 276-277; 426, 439, 
441, 517. Death, iv, 196; 210, 

Simms, John A., settler, eastern 

Washington, iv, 73, 74, 210. 

Simpson, Emilius, mariner, i, 456. 

Simpson, George (Sir), Hudson's 
Bay official, i, 398, 442-444, 
457,474,486. ii, 160, 165, 402, 
404, 409. iii, 61, 173. iv, 191, 

Sinawah, Indian, iii, 274. 
Sinclair James, Hudson's Bay 

trader, i, 456. iii, 348; killed 

by the Indians, 453. 
Sinclair, W. B., iv, 356. 
Singleton, John, settler, iv, 73. 
Sioux Indians, The, i, 223, 359-361, 

413, 415. ii, 9, 112, 124, 242, 

303, 495- iii. 426. 
Sires, David, murder of, iv, 280. 
Sisters of Providence, The, iv, 379. 
Sitka (Alaska), i, 74, 138, 140-141- 
Siwash Indians, iv, 229. 
"Six-toed Pete", iv, 84. 
Skagit Ba}', ii, 428. 
Skagit County, iv, 2S1, 328. 
Skagit Indians, The, ii, 171. iii, 

71, 94- 
Skagit River, The, iv, 149, 314- 
Skamania County, i, 294. iii, 239, 

240, 243. iv, 155. 
Skamokawa, i, 295. iv, 386. 
Skewamish Indians, iii, 72. 
Skinner, Alonzo, iii, 73-74- 
Skloom, Indian chief, iii, 297, 331- 

332. iv, 33. 
Skokomish, Indians, The, iii, 267. 
Skokomish River, The, iii, 278. 
Skookum Chuck, The, iii, 132, 153- 

154. iv, 138. 
Slacum, William A. (Lieutenant), 

agent sent by Jackson to the 



Columbia River country, i, 32, 
497. Investigations and report, 
ii, 82, 175-177; 209, 223, 367. 

Slater, John, mariner, i, 315. 

Slaughter, W. A. (U. S. A.), iii, 273, 
274; in the Indian war, 334, 
338, 379. 382, 393-396, 404-406; 
death, 406; career, 407-408. 

Slaughter County (proposed), iv, 18. 

Slave River, The, i, 2 28. 

Slavery, among the Indians, i, 421. 
Negro, prohibited by Oregon 
laws, ii, 277. Slavery question 
as related to organization of 
Oregon and Washington terri- 
tories, iii, 195-197, 210. 

Sloat, John D. (U. S. N.), ii, 289. 

Slocum, Mrs. L., iv, 113. 

Smalley, Captain, in the Indian 
war, iii, 440. 

Smalley, Eugene V., iv, 225. 

Smith, Almaran, settler, iii, 132. 

Smith, A. B. (Rev.), missionary, ii, 
loi, 124-125, 127, 133, 139, 185. 

Smith, Alvan T., pioneer and mis- 
sionary, ii, 23, 108, 269, 274. 

Smith, Captain, commander of the 
" Isaac Todd", i, 371. 

Smith, Charles, captive, ii, 339. 

Smith, Charles H., associated with 
Simmons, ii, 450, 454. 

Smith, Colonel, friend of Ledyard, 
i, 250. 

Smith, Cordelia J., ii, 454. 

Smith, Edwin, captive, ii, 339. 

Smith, G. W., in the Indian war, 
iii, 366. 

Smith, H. A^ (Dr.), settler, iii, 127, 

Smith, Hannah (Mrs.), captive, ii, 

Smith, Henry, iii, 484. 
Smith, Isaac W., acting territorial 

secretary, iii, 483. 

Smith, Jacob, settler, iii, 97. 

Smith, J. C. (Sergeant), settler, 
i"^', 73; gol^i prospector, 76. 

Smith, J. C, member of legislature, 
iv, 374- 

Smith, J. L. (U. S. A.), iii, 77. 

Smith, J. W., of Oregon, ii, 282. 

Smith, James R., settler, iii, 163. 

Smith, Jedediah S., pioneer leader, 
i, 463-465, 473, 490. ii, 10-12, 
63, 81, 247. 

Smith, John F., iv, 211. 

Smith, Joseph, captive, ii, 339. 

Smith, Joseph S., settler, iii, 97. 
Speaker of the house, iv, 16; 
ig, 181. 

Smith, L. A., settler, ii, 448. 
Arrest of, iii, 484. 

Smith, L. P., settler, ii, 444. 

Smith, Levi Lathrop, settler (part- 
ner of Sylvester), ii, 435-436, 
452. Member of legislature, iii, 

Smith, M. J. (Miss), missionary, ii, 

Smith, Mary, captive, ii, 331, 339. 

Smith, Mortimer, captive, ii, 339. 

Smith, Nelson, captive, ii, 339. 

Smith, Persifor F. (U. S. A.), ii, 448. 

Smith, Royal C, settler, ii, 444. 

Smith, S. D., settler, iv, 74, 210. 

Smith, Sidney W., of Oregon, ii, 

Smith, Silas B., of Oregon, i, 431. 

Smith, Solomon Howard, of Ore- 
gon, i, 431. Pioneer, ii, 16, 22; 
part in organizing civil govern- 
ment, 275. 

Smith, T. J., iv, 91. 

Smith, Victor, customs collector, 
iv, 166-176. 

Smith, William, of the "Albatross" 
i, 317- 

Smith, William P., settler, iii, 129. 




Smith's Cove, iii, 115. 127. 

Smith's Express, iii, 126. 

Smithers, E. M., settler, iii, 128. 

Smithfield and Smithter, early 
names of Olympia, ii, 439- 452- 

Smyth, Alexander, and the Oregon 
question, ii, 70. 

Snake Indians, The, i, 392- ii. 25, 
503. iv, 108. 

Snake River, The, Lewis and Clark's 
journey, i, 281-285; 313; Astor 
party, 362, 365; visits of the 
early traders, 320, 394. 397. 
456-457- "' 9. 50; 122, 225, 
296; 359-360, 469; sufferings 
and dangers of the pioneers, 
481, 484-489- iii' 14, 19-20; 
298. 333. 373. 463- iv, 21, 23, 
24, 92; desired as the boundary 
by Oregon. 97-98; early navi- 
gation, 211; 291, 292. 
Snohomish County, iv, 155, 156, 

328, 344- 
Snohomish Indians, The, ii, 411- 
Snohomish River, The, ii, 45°- iii. 

277. iv, 106, 360. 
Snoqualmie Indians, The, i, 421- 

ii, 440, 458, 462. iii, 72, 94; 

Stevens's treaty, 277; 325, 441- 

Snoqualmie Pass, The, ii, 401. iii. 

217, 224, 328, 440. iv, 223- 

224, 232, 305, 314- 
Snow, Judge, settler, iv, 92. 
Sohns, Lewis, iv, 210, 386. 
Sohon, Gustave, soldier, iii, 308. 
Soil, The, early misrepresentations. 

i, II. Wilkes on, ii, 509. JefTfer- 

son Davis on, iii, 248-249; the 

Indians' use of, 257-258. The 

hill lands, iv, 80, 92. 
Soto, half-breed, i, 435. 436- 
South Channel, The, ii, 503. 

South Pass of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, The, i, 378. ii, 8, 10, 11, 

South Tacoma, iii, 183. 
Southwest Fur Company, The, i, 

Sowle, Captain, of the " Beaver", i, 

367. 369- 

Spain. Discoveries and possessions 
on the Pacific coast, i, 23, 28. 31, 
37-81,109,111-112,119. ii,32. 
39; Florida treaty, ceding terri- 
tory north of 42°, 43. 47-48, 373' 
374. 380-381- 

Spalding, Captain, of the "Laus- 
anne", ii, 107, 200. 

Spalding, Eliza, captive, ii, 339; 

Spalding, H. H. (Rev.), missionary, 

i, 473- ii. 22, 77, loi, 108, 120- 
121, 122, 124-125, 131, 133-137. 
238; sets up the first printing 
press, 293; 303, 308-309, 321, 
332-335. 338. 341. 396, 433- 

iii. 75- 
Spalding, Mrs. H. H., i, 473- "• 

120, 123, 129, 131, 338. 
Spanaway Lake, ii, 389. iii, 38, 

Spangberg, M., Russian navigator, 

i, 126-127. 
Sparks, Jared, biographer, i, 246. 
Sparks, J. G., iv, 210. 
Spencer, Indian, murder of, iii, 

Spencer, W. D. (Captain), Civil 

war, iv, 107, 108. 
Spinning, Dr., pioneer, iii, 18. 
Splawn, Charles A., settler, iv, 93, 

Spokane, iv, 29; settlement, 96-97; 

fire, 282; growth, 294-296; fruit 

exhibits, 298; 315, 379. 386, 



Spokane and Idaho Railroad, The, 

iv, 296. 
Spokane and Northern Railroad, 

The, iv, 296. 
Spokane College, iv, 378. 
Spokane County, iv, 87, 88, 89, 95, 

Spokane Falls, ii, 432. iv, 96-97, 

3^3. 378. 
Spokane Indians, The, i, 423. ii, 

293. iii, Stevens's council, 429- 

430.437.465,474- iv,i9-2o,3i. 
Spokane River, The, i, 25, 350, 368, 

371. Wright's fight with the 

Indians, iv, 28-29. 
Spotted Eagle, Indian chief, iii, 297. 
Sprague, iv, 294. 
Sprague, John W., iv, 90, 218, 219, 

Sprague County (proposed), iv, 90. 
Squak Valley, The, iv, 320-321. 
Squally Hook, i, 289. 
Squaxon Indians, The, iii, 449. 
Squaxon Island, iii, 276, 408. 
Squire, Watson C, governor, iv, 

280-281, 307, 323-324, 327-329, 

333. 337. 343- 
Stablet, Mrs. M. S., iv, 113. 

Stampede Pass, The, iv, 305. 
Standifer, B. P., iv, 210. 
Stanley, David, settler, iii, 128. 
Stanley, of Olympia, iii, 218. 
Stansfield, Joe, half-breed, ii, 307, 

Stanton, Richard, H., proposes the 

name of Washington for the 

territory, iii, 210. 
"Star of Oregon", The, vessel, ii, 

Starling, Edmund A., Indian agent, 

iii, 199. 
Starr, L. M., of Oregon, iv, 228. 
Statesman, The (Walla Walla), iv, 

loi, 195. 

Steachus, Indian chief, iii, 301, 302. 

Steel, James, of Oregon, iv, 228. 

Stehi, Indian, iv, 13. 

Steilacoom, i, 211. ii, 170; early 
settlers, 447-448. iii, 50, 85, 
86, 97, 98, III, 112, 126, 131; 
rival town sites, 133; county 
seat, 143; 146, 147, 149, 154; 
first church in Washington, 156; 
157, 160, 204, 214, 244, 329, 
410, 440; arrest of Judge Lan- 
der, 487-488. Trial of Leschi, 
iv, 4-7; 38, 108, 151, 164, 166, 
210; Balch's over-reaching act, 


Steilacoom Creek, iii, 46. 

Steilacoom, Fort, see Fort Steila- 

Steilacoom, Indian, ii, 447. 

Steilacoom Lake, ii, 388. 

Steinberger, Justus, officer in the 
Civil war, iv, 104, 107, 108, 121- 

Steller, with Bering, i, 128-131. 

Steptoe, Lieutenant-Colonel (U. S. 
A.), in the Indian war, iii, 452, 
460, 471-474. iv, 20-23. 

Steptoeville, iii, 241. iv, 74. 

Sterrett, Captain (U. S. N.), iii, 
392, 412. 

Stevens, George W., iii, 253. iv, 

Stevens, Hazard, iii, 253, 271, 274, 
275, 288, 308. 

Stevens, Isaac I., first governor of 
Washington, iii, 161, 211; trans- 
continental railway survey, 215- 
217; arrival at Olympia, 218; 
221; early acts, 224-247; visit 
to Washington, 247-252; treaties 
with the Indians, 257-309; tri- 
bute to General Miller, 400; at 
Seattle, 414; councils with the 
Blackfeet and other tribes, 425- 



429; return, correspondence 
with General Wool, and prose- 
cution of the war, 429-479; 
proclamation of martial law, 
483-511. Last message, iv, 15- 
17; 49, 187-188; delegate to 
congress, 8, 18-19, 51; 142; Civil 
war record and death, 129-132; 
his railway work, 203-205, 223- 

Stevens, Mrs. Issac I., iii, 252-254. 

Stevens, Thaddeus, iv, 205. 

Stevens County, iv, 89, 156, 265. 

Stevenson, George H., iv, 386. 

Stevensville (Mont.), ii, 112. 

Stewart, A. W. iv, 203. 

Stewart, Millie, iii, 18. 

Stewart, Nathaniel, settler, iii, 162. 

Stewart, Peter G., of Oregon, ii, 

Stewart, Peter S., settler, ii, 445. 

Stewart, Mrs. William, iii, 442. 

Stewart, riot victim, iv, 340, 341. 

Stewart, with Joseph R. Jackson, 
ii, 427. 

Sticcas, Indian, ii, 309, 310. ii, 

357- iii. 75- 

Stiles, Theodore L., iv, 387. 

Stillman, H. R., settler, iii, 131. 

Stone, B. F., iv, 210. 

Stone, David, settler, ii, 444. iii, 

Stone, Nathaniel, settler, ii, 444. 
iii, 206, 516. 

Stowell, E. F., settler, iv, 92. 

Straight, H., of Oregon, ii, 281. 

Strait of Georgia, The, i, 217. 

Strait of Juan de Fuca, The, i, 28, 
29, 31, 52-62, 69, 72, 77, 78, 
90, 96, 98, loi, 106-107, 112- 
116, 148, 152, 164, 166, 167, 
170, 176-178, 188-192, 205, 208, 
213. 305. 308, 402, 429, 461, 466, 

497. ii, 54, 62, 72, 179, 200, 

380, 451, 501, 504. iii, 94, 130- 

131. 278, 519. 
Strait of Mackinaw, The, i, 224, 
Strait of Ronquailo, i, 43. 
Strathcona and Mount Royal, Lord, 

i, 442. 
Strawberry Bay, i, 214. 
Strickler, William, settler, iii, 128. 
Stringer, D., settler, ii, 444. 
Stringer, John, settler, ii, 444. 
Strong, James, and the Oregon 

question, ii, 74. 
Strong, Solomon, settler, ii, 444. 
Strong, William, settler, ii, 445. 

Associate-justice, iii, 67, 156, 

190; commissioner to draft laws 

for Washington, 237-238; 379; 

officer in the Indian war, 344, 

380. iv, 17, 140, 142, 203, 368. 
Strout, A. D., settler, iv, 92. 
Struve, H. G., iii, 157. Member 

of legislature, iv, 150; member 

of congress, 154. 
Struve, W. H., iii, 229-232. 
Stuart, C. W., settler, iii, 131. 
Stuart, Charles E., Hudson's Bay 

man, captain of the "Beaver", 

iii, 190, 191. 
Stuart, David, Astorian, i, 333, 

335, 340-341; establishes post 

on the Okanogan, 350-351, 366. 
Stuart, George H., iv, 269. 
Stuart, Robert, Astorian, i, 338; 

commands return expedition, 

368; discovers the South Pass, 

378. ii, 7, 8. 
Stuart, with Eraser, i, 232-233. 
Stuart Lake, i, 232. 
Stuart River, The, i, 30, 454. 
Stuck Junction, iv, 309. 
Stuck River, The, iii, 106, 149, 404- 

iv, 301. 



Sturges, D., settler, ii, 444. 
Sublette, Milton, fur trader, ii, 10. 
Sublette, William, fur trader, ii, 

8-12, 16, 18, 63, 81, 236, 247. 
Suckle, Dr., iii, 7. 
Sullivan, E. H., iv, 387. 
Sullivan, James, iv, 279. 
Sullivan, P. C, iv, 387. 
"Sultana", The, vessel, ii, 15. 
Sumner, iii, 404. 
Sumner, Charles, on the acquisition 

of Alaska, iv, 153-154. 
Sumner, Clement W., settler, iii, 95. 
Sunday Island, i, 294. 
Superstitions of the Indians, i, 

404. ii, 294. iii, 324. 
Supreme Court, first organization, 

ii, 263. 
"Susan Sturges", The, vessel, iii, 

Sutter, Captain, ii, 303. 

Sutter's Fort, ii, 302, 304. 

Swan, Dr., first physician in Ore- 
gon, i, 388. 

Swan, James G., i, 58, 79. iii, 124; 
settler, 131; 285, 287. 

Swan, John (Fox Island), iii, 408. 

Swan, John M. (Swantown), ii, 446. 

Swan, John P., captain of the " Cad- 
borough", i, 456. 

Swantown, ii, 447. 

Swartwout, Captain (U. S. N.), iii. 

Sweetwater River, The, ii, 8, 10,469. 

Swindall, Captain, in the Indian 
war, iii, 440, 447, 45°. 49°- 

Swinomish Flats, The, iii, 507. 

Swuckhulst, Indian game, i, 406. 

Sydney, Sir Henry, i, 40. 

Sylvester, Edmund, settler, ii, 435, 
438,440,452. iii, 64, 154,161, 
218. iv, 14, 349. 

Sylvester, E. W. (Miss), iv, 375. 

Synd, Russian navigator, i, 135. 

TABLE Mountain, i, 74. 
Table Rock, i, 294. 
Tacoma, iii, 276. iv, 13; 
earliest settlement. Commence- 
ment City, 194, 216; railway 
terminus and name, 226-230, 
249-254; laying out of , 246-247; 
incorporated, 264; 300, 301, 
304-305, 308; first train, 312; 
growth, 313-315; Chinese dis- 
turbances, iv, 320-328; 378. 

"Tacoma", The, vessel, iv, 303. 

Taftson, Martin, settler, iii, 95. 

Tahawai, Indian, iii, 72. 

Talbot, C. B., pioneer, iii, 10, 15. 

Talbot, W. C, iv, 353. 

Tallapu Indians, The, i, 434. 

Tallentire, Thomas, settler, iii. 99, 

Tamahas, Indian, trial and execu- 
tion, iii, 74-76. 

Tammanous of the Indiaas, i, 405. 

Tamsuky, Indian chief, ii, 357. 
Tappan, Benjamin, and the Oregon 
question, i, 33. ii, 43, 225, 230. 

iii. 30-31- 
Tappan, WilHam H., settler, ii, 

444. Indian agent, iii, 224; 

member of council, 230. 
Tapteal River, The (Yakima River), 

i, 286. 
Tarbell, Frank, iv, 273. 
Tarbell, George, iv, 273. 
Tarbell, John, iv, 273. 
Tatam, Indian, iii, 72. 
Tatem, T. Brown, iv, 210. 
Tatooche, Indian chief, i, 116. 
Tatooche Island, i, 189, 190. 
Tatoutche Tesse River, The (Fraser 

River), i, 229, 230, 232. 
Taylor, Captain (U. S. A.), iv, 22, 




Taylor, John W., and the Oregon 
question, ii, 70, 74. 

Taylor, Joseph, immigrant, ii, 454. 

Tchirikoff, Alexis, Russian naviga- 
tor, i, 126, 128-129, 132. 

Te-i-as, Indian chief, iii, 464. 

Tekaleet, iv, 353. 

Telau-ka-ikt, Indian chief, ii, 317, 
357, 359. Trial and execution, 
iii, 74-76- 

Teller, Henry M., iv, 302. 

Tenalquot Prairie, iii, 401. 

Tenino, iv, 221. 

Tepees of the Indians, i, 413. 

Terry, C. S., iii, 517. 

Terry, Charles C, settler, iii, iii, 
126, 127, 128. iv, 211, 354, 

Terry, Lee, settler, iii, 109, no, 113, 

124, 127. 
Terry, W. J., settler, iv, 74, 210. 
Texada Island, iv, 314. 
Texas, annexation of, ii, 368, 369. 
Thacher, A. C, iii, 154. 
Thibault, settler, ii, 444. 
"Thirty thousand settlers and 

rifles", i, 33. ii, 230. iii, 31, 35, 

"Thomas. H. Perkins", The, vessel, 

ii, 202. 
Thomas, Jesse B., and the Oregon 

question, ii, 149. 
Thomas, J. M., settler, iii, 108, 387- 

Thomas, Nancy (Mrs.), iii, 10. 
Thomas, with Captain Pattle, iii, 

Thompson, C. C, settler, iii, 108. 
Thompson, David, Northwester, i, 

350-352. 388, 390. ii, 236. iv, 

Thompson, George F., stage line, iv, 

Thompson, J. Edgar, iv, 207. 

Thompson, L. F., member of legis- 
lature, iii, 232. 

Thompson, R. R., settler, iii, 61, 
291. iv, 211. 

Thorn, Captain, of the "Tonquin", 

i. 336-347. 369. 389- 
Thorndike, J. R., mill, iv, 357. 

Thorndyke, J. K., settler, iii, 97. 
Thornton, J. Quinn, Indian agent, 

ii, 462, 463. iii, 71, 72, 74. 
Thornton, James, settler, iii, 104- 

Thornton, Leybum, with Simmons, 

ii, 426. 
Thorp, Fielding Mortimer, settler, 

iv, 93- 

Thorp, Willis, iv, 94. 

Three Tree Point, i, 296. 

Thurston, Samuel R., delegate to 
congress, iii, 77, 79, 143; and 
the McLoughlin claim, 179, 

Thurston County, iii, 5, 14, 99, 142, 

143, 203, 220, 230, 231, 240, 243, 

244, 270, 440, 449, 489. iv, II, 

155, 215, 222, 238, 266, 357. 
Thwaites, ReubenGold, ii, 99. 
Tibbetts, Calvin, of Oregon, ii, 22, 

176, 275. 
Til-au-ka-ikt, see Telau-ka-ikt. 
Tilcoax, Indian chief, iv, 20, 30. 
Tillamook Bay, i, 149. 
Tillamook Indians, The, i, 421. ii, 

Tillamook Rock, i, 298. 
Tilton, James, surveyor-general, 

iii, 250, 379; adjutant-general, 

398,426,490,498,500,501. iv, 

140, 144, 224, 234. 
Times, The (Spokane), iv, 295. 
Timothy, Indian, ii, 131. iii, 294. 

iv, 2t. 
Tinkham, A. W., surveys, iii, 224, 

246, 248. 



Tip-pee-il-lan-oh-cow-pook, Indian 
chief, iii, 301. 

Tipping, Captain, English naviga- 
tor, i, loi. 

Tleyuk, Indian chief, iii, 285, 286. 

Tlo-hon-nipts, Indian name for 
white men, i, 434. 

Tobin, H. H., iii, 108. iv, 222, 360. 

Todd, William, i, 490-491. iii, 72. 

Tolmie, William Fraser, Hudson's 
Bay official, ii, 93, 172, 380, 386, 
396, 398, 405, 407, 413. 415. 429. 
430, 438, 447. 448, 450, 454; pro- 
test of the settlers, 456-458, 507- 
509; 461. iii, 51, 62, 63; mem- 
ber of provisional legislature, 
64; 71, 72, 79; and the U. S. 
revenue laws, 80-87, 513-515; 
112, 142, 183, 184; character 
and personality, 186-188; 190- 
191, 330, 403, 409, 503. iv, 5, 
8, 37. 50- 

"Tonquin", The, ship of the Astor 
expedition, i, 155, 335-350, 352, 
357. 367. 389. 462, 477. 

Torquemada, i, 62, 63. 

Torrence, postal agent, iii, 196. 

Toscanelli, i, 37, 38, 59, 60. 

Tothilliets, James E. D., Civil war, 
iv, 108. 

Totonteac, mythical city, i, 49. 

Touchet River, The, i, 301. 11,358, 
359. 361, 365- iv, 73. 74- 

"Toulon", The, vessel, ii, 380. 

Townsend, John K., with Wyeth, 
ii, 17. 

Townsend, merchant, iii, 159. 

Trade winds of the Pacific, i, 51. 

Transcript, The (Olympia), iv, 195. 

Transportation, early conditions, 
i, 12, 13, 16. iii, 451-452. iv, 

"Traveler", The, vessel, iii, 508. 

Treaties with the Indians by Gover- 
nor Stevens, iii, 257-305. 

Treaty of Aranjuez, The, i, 119. 

Treaty of Ghent, i, 4, 25, 397. ii, 
35, 36, 38, 48, 56. 

Treaty of Tordesilas, The, i, 85. 

Treaty of Utrecht, The, ii, 31. 

Treaty of 1846, The (Oregon bound- 
ary), i, 3, 5- iii. 518-519. 

"Tribune", The, English naval 
vessel, iv, 53, 56-57, 61, 64. 

Trimble, David, and the Oregon 
question, ii, 70. 

Troup, Mrs. E .J., iv, 113. 

Trumbull, Lyman, and the Oregon 
question, ii, 149. 

Trumbull, Susan (Mrs.), iv, 113. 

Trutch, J. W., iii, 154. 

Tshimakain (Walker's Prairie), mis- 
sion station, ii, 126, 131, 135, 
182, 293, 433. 

Tsla-la-cum, Indian chief, ii, 170. 

Tualatin Plains, ii, 273. 

Tucannon River, The, ii, 356, 357, 
359. iii, 134. iv, 24. 

Tucker, Egbert H., captain in the 
Civil war, iv, 108; sheriff, 166. 

Tucker, George, and the Oregon 
question, ii, 64, 65. 

Tulalip Indians, The, i, 422. 

TuUis, James, officer in the Indian 
war, iii, 380, 383. 

Tumwater, ii, 199, 427, 433, 453, 
454. iii. III, 158, 204. iv, 

Tumwater Falls, iv, 349. 

TurnbuU, Mary (Mrs.), iv, 113. 

Turner, George, associate-justice, 
iv, 276, 387. 

Turney, James, appointed associate 
justice, iii, 66. 

Turney, L. Jay S., territorial secre- 
tary and acting governor, iv, 
105, 140, 144, 148, 149, 193. 



T'Vault, William G., editor, ii, 347- Tyler, John (President), and the 

Tyee Dick, Indian, iii, 274. Oregon question, ii, 58, 143, 

Tyerall, E. R., iii, 274- ^45. 148-150- 203, 220-225, 366, 

Tyler, Dr., of the "Decatur", iii, 368-371. 

407. Tyler, R. O. (U. S. A.), iv, 121. 


LLOA, Francisco de, Spanish 
navigator, i, 47. 
Ultimatum, Clay's, ii, 215, 
Umatilla Indians, The, i, 421. ii, 

307. 33^' 347. 349. 372- 
Umatilla mission, ii, 297, 308, 309, 

321.333- i". 357- 
Umatilla Rapids (Columbia River), 

286, 295. 
Umatilla River, The, i, 366. ii, 

352, 353. 355. 357- 
Umpqua Indians, The, i, 393. ii, 


Umpqua River, The, i, 456, 463, 

464, 490. 
Umtrets, Indian chief, iii, 325. 
Unalaska, i, 136, 137, 246, 306. 
Union, The (Walla Walla), iv, 195. 
Union Flat, iv, 91. 
United Brethren, The, iv, 378. 
University, The, iii, 250. iv, 14, 

158, 368-373- 
Upshur, A. P., ii, 369. 
Urdanata, Spanish navigator, i, 

40, 51, 52, 458. 
Utsalady, iv, 354, 357-359- 
Utter, Ira W., settler, iii, 128. 
Utter, William, settler, iii, 129, 130. 

VACA, Alvar Nunez Cabeza, 
Spanish adventurer, i, 48- 


Vail, C. C, settler iii, 130. 

Vail, John, settler, iii, 131, 132. 

Valdez, Spanish navigator, i, 28, 
78, 192, 216, 306. 

"Valdora", The, vessel, iii, 78. 

Van Alman, Henry, settler, ii, 444. 

Van Asselt, Luther M., settler, iii, 
50, 104, 105, 107, 113. 

Van Bokkelin, J. J. H., officer in the 
Indian war, iii, 400, 440. Cus- 
toms inspector, iv, 169-170. 

Van Buren, James (President), and 
the Oregon question, ii, 213- 

Vancouver (City), i, 219, 294, 300. 
Post-office, iii, 144; 146, 160, 
166, 344, 440. iv, 107-108, 112- 
113. 130. 131. 147. 158; the 

capital contest, 159-165; news- 
paper, 195; railways, 205, 210; 
fire, 282; 315, 316, 378, 379, 386. 

"Vancouver", The, Hudson's Bay 
ship, i, 475, 477- ". 386, 387, 
400, 457. 

Vancouver, George, i, 8, 29, 56, 
76-77, 78, 96, 118-119, 130, 139, 
149, 152, 154, 163, 164, 166-168, 
171, 176-179; discoveries and 
explorations, 183-219; 238,306, 
308-309, 412, 414, 429- ii. 51. 
62, 381. 

Vancouver County, iii, 61, 62, 64, 
68, 69, 144. 

Vancouver district. The, iii, 60. 

Vancouver, Fort, see Fort Vancou- 

Vancouver Island, first circumnavi- 
gated by Kendrick, i, 31, 156; 
first called Island of Quadra and 



Vancouver, 78; 96, 102, 115, 
178, 343. 349- ii. 54. 215, 287, 
370; the question of title, 380- 
382; 501, 502. iii, 84; Hudson's 
Bay headquarters removed to, 
186; 508, 509, 519. iv, 67. 

Vancouver, Klikitat and Yakima 
Railroad, The, iv, 315. 

Vancouver's Cascade Canal, i, 229. 

Van Ogle, Lieutenant, in the Indian 
war, iii, 446. 

Van Syckle, J., iv, 210. 

Varennes, Pierre Gauthier de, i, 

Vashon, Captain, of the English 
navy, i, 211. 

Vashon Island, i, 211. ii, 280. 
iii, 106, 511. 

Vavasour, Lieutenant, of the Eng- 
lish army, iii, 171. 

Vendovi, Fiji Islander, ii, 196. 

Verendrye, i, 223. 

Vespuccius, i, 38. 

Victor, Frances Fuller (Mrs.), iv, 

Victoria (Vancouver Island), i, 394. 

ii, 399, 414. 450. 451- iii. 79. 

80, S3, 137, 186. iv, 41, no, 

Villabos, Ruy Lopez de, Spanish 

navigator, i, 50. 
Villard, Henry, iv, 289-290, 298- 

306, 313. 
"Vincennes", The, U. S. naval 

vessel, ii, 178, 181, 198, 202. 
Vincil, Dr., ii, 98. 
Vining, G. L., iv, 272. 
Vinton, Major (U. S. A.), ii, 448. 
Viscaino, Sebastian, Spanish navi- 
gator, i, 62, 63, 67, 125. 
Volunteers, The, in the Indian war, 

iii. 477-479- 
Vonhinkle, Augustus, settler, iv, 


Von Hoorn, Schouten, Dutch navi- 
gator, i, 123. 

Von Resanofif, Russian official, i, 
140, 141. 

Voorhees, delegate to congress, iv, 

WAHKIAKUM County, iii, 
239, 243. iv, 155, 156. 
Wahkiakum Indians, The, 
i, 421. iii, 267. 

Waiilatpu (now Walla Walla), 
Whitman's mission station, ii, 
122, 126, 129-131, 135, 140-141, 
144, 146, 182, 247, 253-255, 
293-297. 301. 307. 316, 321, 
327-329, 333-334. 33^^ 340. 348, 
354. 356, 461, 490- iii. 74. i34. 
241, 373- 

Wait, S. M., iv, 268. 

Waitsburg, iv, 81, 289, 378. 

Waitsburg Academy, The, iv, 378. 

Waldo, Daniel, of Oregon, pioneer, 
ii, 244, 280. 

Waldron, with Wilkes, ii, 183. 

Walker, Charles, iv, 210. 

Walker, Courtney, N., missionary, 
ii, loi, 103. 

Walker, Cyrus, son of Rev. Elkanah, 
ii, 433. iv, 353, 354, 357. 

Walker, Elkanah (Rev.), mission- 
ary, with Whitman and Eells, 
ii, 124-126, 131, 134-138, 293, 
309, 342, 433. iv, 373. 

Walker, John, settler, iii, 162. 

Walker, killed by the Indians, iii, 


Walker, R. M., capitol commis- 
sioner, iv, 162. 

Walker, Robert J., and the Oregon 
question, ii, 218. 

Walker, William, letter to Mr. 
Disoway, ii, 88-89, 9^^. ^^7' 236. 



Walker's Prairie, iv, 95. 

Walla Walla, derivation, iii, 241. 

Walla Walla. Stevens's treaty 
with the Indians, iii, 287-307; 
events of the Indian war, 400, 
452, 470-474. Founding of the 
city and early history, iv, 74- 
88; 108, 109, 130, 151, 195; 
railway, 210, 239-245; constitu- 
tional convention, 268-270; 283, 

290. 367. 374-375. 379. 386. 
Walla Walla County, iii, 240, 241, 
243. iv, 21, 74, 80, 87, 97, 112, 
155, 156, 222, 233, 265, 290, 315, 

357' 375- 

Walla Walla, Fort, see Fort Walla 

Walla Walla Indians, The, i, 300, 
392,421,423. ii, 243, 300, 302, 
333. 352, 356, 359- Stevens's 
treaty, iii, 294-307; in the Indian 
war, 361-375. iv, 20. 

Walla Walla Railroad Company, 
The, iv, 210, 233. 

Walla Walla River, The, i, 301, 391. 
ii, 25, 249, 298, 355, 356, 358, 
359. iii, 134, 161; Kelly's fight 
with the Indians, 360-375. iv, 

73. 74- 
Wallace, Bob, pioneer, ii, 487, 489. 
Wallace, Edward, settler, iii, 162. 
Wallace, H. H., iii, 219. 
Wallace, Leander C, settler, ii, 

436; killed by the Indians, 459; 

462, 463. iii, 68, 70-73. 
Wallace, Lewis, settler, iii, 162. 
Wallace, V. M., settler, ii, 444. 
Wallace, William, Astorian, i, 333. 
Wallace, William, of Whidby Island 

iii, 95- 
Wallace, William H., iii, 379; cap- 
tain in the Indian war, 393-396, 
404, 407; 484, 488. President 
of council, iv, 16; 17, 18; ap- 

pointed governor, 104-105, 140; 

delegate to congress, 131, 140; 

141,142; governor of Idaho, 87. 
Wallace, with Father Blanchet, ii, 
Waller, A. F. (Rev.), missionary, ii, 

107, 185. Controversy with 

McLoughlin, iii, 174-178. 

Wallula (formerly Fort Walla Wal- 
la), i, 391. ii, 490. iv, 79, 232, 

239-240, 289-290, 292. 
Walton, William, with Bering, i, 

Wanch, George, settler, ii, 426, 429, 

435. iii, 49, 132. 
Wanch, Mrs. George, iii, 8, 9. 
Wapato Island (Sauvies Island), 

i, 294. ii, 19, 186. 
War of 181 2, The, and the Astoria 

enterprise, i, 370-379. 
Warbass, E. D., settler, ii, 446. iii, 

159, 204. 
Warbass, U. G., iv, 203. 
Warbassport, iii, 148, 154, 158, 160, 

167, 208. 
Ward, Ira, member of legislature, 

iii, 231. 
Ward, Robert, and family, killed 

by the Indians, iii, 5-6; 289, 333. 
Ware, Miss, teacher, ii, 107. 
Warner, of Spokane, iv, 295. 
Warre, Lieutenant, of the English 

army, iii, 171. 
"Wasco", The, Columbia River 

steamer, iii, 453, 454. 
Wascoe Indians, The, i, 421. ii, 

Wascopam, mission station, ii, 106. 
"Washington", The, ship com- 
manded by Gray, afterward by 

Kendrick, i, 31, 58, 76, 117, 

147-152, 165, 166, 175, 305, 

493, 494- 



Washington, The State of, original- 
ly included in Oregon (q. v.). 
i, 3; first known landing of 
white men, 70; first name given 
to any part of, i, 187; com- 
pletion of coast discovery, 223; 
entrance of Lewis and Clark, 
281; native inhabitants, 401- 
426. The missionaries, ii, 117- 
172; Whitman massacre and 
Cayuse war, 293-361; Fort Nis- 
qually, 385-415; earliest settlers, 
419-499. Oregon territorial 
government, iii, 59-87; progress 
of settlement, 91-134; creation 
of counties, early post-offices, 
development of trade, enforce- 
ment of laws, etc., 139-191; 
separation from Oregon and 
organization of Washington Ter- 
ritory, 195-225; the name, 210; 
beginning of territorial govern- 
ment, 229-254; treaties with the 
Indians, 257-309; Indian war, 
3 13-5 1 1. End of the war, iv, 
3-33; the gold rush, 37-45; San 
Juan dispute, 45-69; settlement 
of eastern Washington, 73-99; 
Civil war, 1 01-133; Stevens's 
successors, political events, and 
general development, 137-195; 
coming of the railways, 201- 
254; Governors Ferry, Newell, 
and Squire, 257-283; comple- 
tion of the transcontinental rail- 
way, 287-316; Chinese distur- 
bances, 319-345; lumber indits- 
try, 349-364; schools and col- 
leges, 367-379; admission of 
Washington State, 383-390. 

Washington, George, discovery of 
the Columbia River during his 
presidency, i, 8; Meriwether 
Lewis related to his family, 261. 

Washington, George, settler, iii, 

Washington Academy, The (Hunts- 

ville), iv, 378. 
Washington Historian, The, iii, 412. 
Washington Historical Quarterly, 

The, i, 470, 491. ii, 99. 
Washington Historical Society, The 

iii, 56. 
Washington Islands, The (South 

Pacific), i, 154. 
Washington Islands, The, Gray's 

name for Queen Charlotte Is- 
lands, i, 152. 
Washington Pioneer Association, 

The, ii, 149. iii, 158, 229. 
Washington Standard, The (Olym- 

pia), iv, 145, 195, 229. 
Washington Statesman, The (Walla 

Walla, iv, 77, 78, 81.) 
Washougal, iii, 132. 
Washougal River, The, i, 294, 300. 

ii, 423, 425, 431. 
Waterhouse, L. P., iv, 295. 
Waters, James, officer in the Cayuse 

war, ii, 347-360. 
Waterville, iv, 92. 
Watkins, killed by the Indians, iii, 

Watt, pioneer, ii, 427; with Joseph 

R. Jackson, 486. 
Watts, Charles, trial and execution, 

iv, 68-69. 
Way, William, iv, 210. 
Weapons of the Indians, i, 414-416. 
Webber, Henry, customs inspector, 

iv, 47. 
Webber, J. B., iv, 210, 215. 
Webster, Daniel, and the Oregon 

question, ii, 58, 74, 143, 145, 

148-150, 203, 221-225, 501. 
Webster, David H., iv, 342. 
Webster, John, iv, 369. 



Weeks, Stephen, Astorian, i, 333, 

341. 349- 
Weisenberger, J. J., iv, 387. 

Weir, Allen, i, 320. 

Weir, William, fur trader, i, 320. 

Welcher, B., settler, iii, 97. 

Welcher, D., settler, iii, 97. 

" Wellingsly", The, vessel, iii, 102. 

Wells, merchant, iii, 159. 

Wenass River, The, iii, 467. 

Wenatchee Indians, The, iv, 353. 

West, A. J., iv, 386. 

West, settler, ii, 444. 

West Passage, The, i, 211. 

Weston, David, of Oregon, ii, 275. 

Whales, Indian methods of cap- 
ture, i, 419. 

Whatcom, iii, 130, 144, 440. iv, 
39-40, 323. 

Whatcom County, iii, 239, 243. iv, 
47, 69, 155, 156, 328, 386, 387. 

Whatcom Creek, iv, 360. 

Wheeler, H. Z., iv, 210. 

Wheeler, settler, ii, 289. 

Whidbey, with Vancouver, i, 194, 
199, 207-217. 

Whidby Island, i, 206, 215, 404, 
421. ii, 170, 387, 428; first 
settlers, 439-440, 449. iii, 49, 
93-97, 112, 126, 146, 154, 225, 
440, 506; murder of Colonel 
Ebey, 506, 510. iv, 114, 386. 

Whig party. The, iii, 214, 223. iv, 

Whimpey, Major, settler, iv, 95. 

Whipping laws, ii, 281. 

Whitcom, J. H., settler, iii, 132. 

Whitcomb, J. L., of Oregon, ii, 178. 

White Captain, Indian war, iii, 440. 

White, Charles P., settler, iii, 131. 

White, Elijah (Dr.), ii, 106; leader 
of emigration of 1842, 146, 191; 
U. S. agent, 239-244, 254-256; 
part in organizing civil govern- 

ment, 269; 279, 293, 299, 303- 
304; lays out Pacific City, 445. 
Arbitrator of McLoughlin's 
claim, iii, 177. 

White, E. S., iv, 353. 

White, James, iv, 353. 

White, John, iii, 61. 

White, Joseph, iv, 203. 

White, R. v., secretary of Monti- 
cello convention, iii, 206, 516. 

White Richard, iii, 142. 

White, William, settler, killed by 
the Indians, ii, 470. iii, 442. 
Mrs. William, ii, 470, 476, 492. 
iii, 17, 442. 

White, William H., iv, 279, 306, 

White River, The, ii, 492. iii, 105- 

106; early settlers, 108, 149; 

White River massacre, 313, 385- 

391; military operations, 338, 

379, 382-383, 444. 

White River Indians, The, iii, 385, 

White Salmon River, The, i, 293. 

iii, 452. 

Whitehorn, with Wilkes, ii, 197. 

White Horse Creek (Ida.), iii, 3. 

Whitehouse, L. H., iv, 295. 

Whitford, John, iii, 291. 

Whitley, Stock, iii, 372. 

Whitman, Alice Clarissa, ii, 298, 

Whitman, B. F., iv, 210. 

Whitman, Marcus (Dr.), i, 32, 353- 
354. Missionary, iii, 22-23, 26; 
on the visit of the Indians to 
St. Louis, 98; 1 01, 108; mission 
work and visit to the East, 117- 
155; personality and character, 
248-252; 256, 280; the Whit- 
man massacre, 293-323; death, 
312-313; motives of the Indians, 
328, 334-336; 357, 432, 492. iii, 



52 ; trial and execution of mur- 
derers, 74-76; 241. iv, 375. 
Whitman, Narcissa (Mrs. Marcus 
Whitman), i, 473. ii, 118-119, 
121, 129, 133, 146. 254, 295, 
297-299, 307-315, 318, 319, 322, 

334, 432- 
Whitman, Perrin, ii, 355. 
Whitman College, iv, 367, 373-376. 
Whitman County, i, 282. iv, 90- 

92, 265, 368, 386. 
Whitman Mission and Whitman's 

Station, ii, 25, loi, 237, 243, 252. 

iii, 134, 333, 373- See Waiilatpu. 
Whitney, Asa, iv, 201-202. 
Whitney, Mrs. C. N., iv, 113. 
Whitworth, Rev. Dr., iv, 223. 
Whyeek, Indian, iii, 72. 
Wicanish, Indian chief, i, 156, 344, 

Wilbur, iv, 92. 
Wilbur, J. H., iv, 94. 
Wile5^ James W., editor, iii, 147, 

148, 218, 379, 384. 
Wilkes, Charles (U. S. N.), i, 57. 

ii, 82, no, 128-129, 15°' 171; 

expedition of, 175-206; 264, 

293, 397. 400, 413; extracts 
from report, 501-503. iv, 249. 

Wilkeson, iv, 247, 305. 

Wilkins, Amos, of Oregon, ii, 274. 

Wilkins, Caleb, pioneer, ii, 5, 6, 23, 
108, 176, 295. 

Willamette Falls, (Oregon City), 
ii, 25, 243, 264, 266-267, 271, 
278-279. Dr. McLoughlin's claim, 
iii, 172-179. 

Willamette mission. The (Catholic), 
ii, 164. 

Willamette River and Valley, The, 

i, 68, 294; explored by William 

Clark, 300; 309, 321; the As- 

torians, 352, 367, 368; 393, 403, 

12, 418, 446, 451, 457, 463, 

468-469; McLoughlin's colon- 
ists, 483-486. American pio- 
neers and early settlers, ii, 6, 14, 
19, 24, 27-25, 108, 117; Catholic 
missionaries, 159-165; 175, 178, 
184, 187, 189, 193, 205, 237-239, 
253,280,356,409. See Oregon. 
Willapa River, The, ii, 435. iii, 9, 

Willard, G. K., iv, 203. 
William I. (Germany), arbitration 

of San Juan question, ii, 380. 

iv, 62, 64. 
"WiUiam Allen", The vessel, iii, 

"William and Ann", The, Hud- 
son's Bay ship, i, 465, 466. 
Williams, Captain, Indian war, iii, 

" Williamsberg", The, vessel, iv, 

Williamson, Dr., of Seattle, iii, 413. 
Williamson, Henry, attempted set- 
tlement, ii, 424. 
Williamson, James, settler, iii, 131. 
Williamson, J. R., iv, 356, 359. 
Williamson, R. S. (U. S. A.), iii, 

Williamson, with Simmons, ii, 423. 
Willson, W. H. (Dr.), missionary, ii, 

106, 108, 274-275, 410-412. 
Wilson, A. E., of Oregon, ii, 275. 
Wilson, Captain, Indian war, iii, 

358, 366-368, 371. 
Wilson, F. A., iv, 211. 
Wilson, G. W., settler, iii, 132. 
Wilson, George, English officer, i, 

Wilson, Henry C, settler, iii, 97, 

99,101; customs inspector, 103; 

justice, 137; 157, 204, 517. 
Wilson, James A., iv, 94. 
Wilson, John M. (U. S. A.), iv, 122. 
Wilson, Lieutenant (U. S. N.), of 



the "Shubrick", iv, 170, 172- 

Wilson, Robert, killed in the attack 

on Seattle, iii, 419. 

Wilton, William B., settler, ii, 448. 

Wind, Henry, settler, iv, 90. 

Wind River, The, i, 294. ii, 10, 12. 

Winder, Charles S., Confederate 
officer, iv, 123. 

Winship brothers. The, i, 24, 316- 
317, 320, 370. ii, 18. 

Winslow, E. H., Monticello con- 
vention, iii, 206, 516. 

Winsor, Henry, iv, 203. 

Winthrop, Theodore, i, 402. ii, 
490. iii, 44-45, 98, 296. And 
the name "Tacoma", iv, 229- 
230, 249-254. 

Wiseman, W. W., settler, iv, 74. 

Wiser, of Oregon, iv, 77. 

Wold brothers, The, iv, 320. 

"Wolf Meeting", The, ii, 267. 

Wollery, James H., iv, 278. 

Woman suffrage, iv, 269, 274-277, 

Women's organizations in the Civil 

war, iv, 113-114. 
Wood, Charles, iv, 303. 
Wood Creek, i, 288. 
Wood, Isaac, iv, 203. 
Wood, Mary (Mrs. McMuUen), iv, 


Woodbury, Levi, and the Oregon 
question, ii, 225, 228. 

Wooden, Ira, iv, 370. 

Woodruff, Simon, in the first ex- 
pedition from Boston, i, 147. 

Woods, George, iv, 210. 

Wool, John E. (U. S. A.), iii, 314, 
343. 358-359. 374. 401-402, 425, 
430, 432-439, 443, 450-451, 462, 
464,466-467,471,476,495. iv. 

4, 15, 19-20, 116. 

Woolery, A. H., settler, iii, 131, 404. 
Wooley, Jacob, settler, iii, 61. 
Work, John, Hudson's Bay man, 

i. 398. 455- ". 385. 398. iii, 

139- iv, 95, 252. 
Worts, J. K., settler, iv, 92. 
Wren, Charles, iii, 484. iv, 211. 
Wren, Hudson's Bay man, ii, 459. 

iii, 183. 
Wright, Ben, pioneer, ii, 237. 
Wright, Charles B., iv, 246, 247, 

Wright, George (U. S. A.), in the 
Indian war, iii, 443, 450-452, 
460-468, 470, 475-477- iv, 3. 

5, 19; victorious campaign, 23- 
33; Civil war record, 118. 

Wright, J. H., iv, 5. 

Wright, Robert, and the Oregon 
question, ii, 64, 65. 

Wright, William, iv, 94. 

Wyche, James E., associate- jus- 
tice of Washington Territory, 
iv, 165, 182. 

Wyckoff, L. v., iv, 278. 

Wyeth, Nathaniel J., explorer, i, 
31, 431, 473, 491. Leads early 
expedition across the Rocky 
Mountains, ii, 14-22, 42, 103, 
176,223,275,387,419,505. iii, 

Wylie, A., iii, 516. iv, 220. 


AKIMA, iii, 354. iv, 94-95, Yakima Indians, The, i, 422, 423. 

251. 307, 379. ii. 388. iii, 162, 231, 265, 298- 

Yakima County, iv, 89, 93-95, 306, 307, 442, 475. iv, 30, 250. 

156, 233, 263, 265, 387. Yakima mission, The, iii, 288. 



Yakima River, The, i, 286. ii, 198, 

401,469,490. iii, 131, 150,451, 

Yakutat Bay, i, 130, 137. 
Yamhill County (Ore.), iii. 29, 134. 
Yantis, Alexander, settler, iii, 5-7. 
Yantis, B. F., member of council, 

iii, 230. 
Yeaton, C. F., settler, iv, 97. 
Yellow Hawk Creek, iv, 78. 
Yellow Serpent, Indian chief, ii, 

Yellowstone River and country, i, 

301,320,394. ii, 8, 97. 
Yelm, iii, 149. iv, 114, 220. 
Yelm Prairie, iii, 401. 
Yesler, Henry, L., settler and mill 

owner, iii, 46, 120-122, 128, 

158, 411. iv, 210, 222, 350. 

Yoh-ho-tow-it, Indian chief, iii, 

York, with William Clark, i, 266, 

York Factory (Hudson's Bay), i, 

397. 452, 47°- ii. 189. 
Young, Daniel, captive, ii, 339. 
Young, Elam, captive, ii, 339. 
Young, Ewing, settler, i, 491. ii, 

176-177; death, 262-263, 267. 
Young, Irene (Mrs.), captive, ii, 

Young, John, captive, ii, 339. 
Young, Lieutenant (U. S. A.), iii, 

Young, Lieutenant (U. S. N.), iii, 


Young Chief, iii, 293-306. 

Young, Richard M., and the Ore- 
gon question, ii, 225. 


. \ 


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