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HISTORY OF 



WATERBURY 



AND THE 



NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

CONNECTICUT, 



By WM. J._PAPE 

Editor of the WaterburyRepublican 



ILLUSTRATED 



VOLUME 1 






1 



CHICAGO — NEW YORK 

THE S. J. CLARKE PUBLISHING COMPANY 

1918 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I 
A BIRDSEYE VIEW 

IX TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WATERBURY HAS ABOUT GROWN OUT OF KNOWLEDGE OF 

ITS OLD SELF ITS INDUSTRIAL SUCCESS THE WORK OF MASTERFUL MINDS 

HER FAME IN METAL MAKING NOW WORLD-WIDE INTENSITY OF PRODUC- 
TION IN NAUGATUCK VALLEY HARDLY EQUALED IN ANY OTHER LIKE EXTENT 
OF TERRITORY IN THE COUNTRY I 

CHAPTER II 
THE OFFICIAL .CHRONICLES OF THE CITY OF WATERBURY 

THE FIGHT FOR CONSOLIDATION OF CITY, TOWN AND SCHOOL GOVERNMENT 

TAXATIOX CHANGES IN A QUARTER CENTURY THE TAX RATES AND THE 

GRAND LISTS THE BONDED DEBT STREET IMPROVEMENT CITY HALL, 

WATER, SCHOOL AND SEWAGE BOND ISSUES CITY OFFICIALS SINCE 1893 

ITS LEGISLATORS MUTUAL AID SOCIETY POLICE DEPARTMENT START OF 

THE DETECTIVE SERVICE THE CONSTABULARY FORCE HOW THE DEPART- 
MENT WORKS THE TROLLEY STRIKE OF I9O3 SKETCHES OF FORMER CHIEF 

EGAX AND SUPERINTENDENT GEORGE M. BEACH THE FIRE DEPARTMENT 

ITS GROWTH IN NUMBERS AND EQUIPMENT THE FIRE OF I9O2 RECORD OF 

BIG FIRES SINCE 1893 THE HEALTH DEPARTMENT 4 

CHAPTER III 
THE CITY'S PHYSICAL PROBLEMS AND CHANGES 

ITS SITE NOT IDEAL RECONSTRUCTION OF LEADING THOROUGHFARES ITS NEW 

BRIDGES THE WATER SYSTEM AND THE BUILDING OF ITS GREAT CHAIN OF 

RESERVOIRS THE SEWAGE DISPOSAL PLANT NOT YET COMPLETED LONG 

LITIGATION WITH FACTORY' OWNERS SEWER CONSTRUCTION OF A QUARTER 

CENTURY THE NAUGATUCK RIVER CONSERVATION PLAN THE WATERBURY- 

DERBY BARGE CANAL PROJECT 3O 

CHAPTER IV 
PUBLIC BUILDINGS 

OLD CITY HALL AND ITS AUDITORIUM MAYOR ELTON REMODELS BLTILDING ITS 

DESTRUCTION BY FIRE NEW BUILDING PROJECTED BONDS VOTED AND COM- 

iii 



iv CONTENTS 

PETITION ENDS IN SELECTION OF CASS GILBERT AS ARCHITECT DESCRIPTION 

COST THE DEDICATION EXERCISES IN "OLD HOME" WEEK SALE OF THE 

OLD CITY HALL PROPERTY THE WATERBURY COURTHOUSE DESCRIPTION 

THE AGITATION FOR A FEDERAL BUILDING HOW ITS SITE WAS SELECTED 

CONSTRUCTION — DESCRIPTION 42 

CHAPTER V 
PARKS AND CEMETERIES 

FIRST MAP OF HAMILTON PARK ENLARGING THE CITY'S HOLDINGS LAND- 
SCAPE WORK DRAINAGE FOR PONDS ANNUAL TAX PROVIDES FOR PARK 

IMPROVEMENTS CHASE PARK CREATED SWIMMING POOL A BIG SUCCESS 

ATHLETIC FIELD EQUIPPED PLAYGROUNDS BOUGHT FOR DIFFERENT SEC- 
TIONS OF CITY THE MUNICIPAL FIELD DAYS THE LATER HISTORY OF THE 

GREEN THE CLOCK AND THE FLAGSTAFF THE FRANKLIN STATUE THE 

CITY'S CEMETERIES 52 

CHAPTER VI 
SCHOOLS, LIBRARY AND HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



GROWTH IN SCHOOL POPULATION TWO IMPORTANT CHANGES IN SCHOOL GOV- 
ERNMENT ITS NEW MODEL HIGH AND GRAMMAR SCHOOL STRUCTURES 

OUTSIDE SCHOOL DISTRICTS INCLUDED EVENING SCHOOLS MEDICAL IN- 
SPECTION MANUAL TRAINING PLAYGROUNDS SALESMANSHIP SCHOOL 

CONTINUATION SCHOOL VOCATIONAL SCHOOL VALUE AND EXTENT OF 

SCHOOL PROPERTY PRIVATE AND PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS DAVID C. PORTER 

BEQUEST LIBRARY AND MATTATUCK HISTORICAL SOCIETY 6l 



CHAPTER VII 
TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATION 

THREE NOTABLE INDUSTRIAL TRIUMPHS ELIMINATION OF GRADE CROSSINGS 

ERECTION OF THE UNION DEPOT DOUBLE-TRACKING THE ROADS ENTERING 

WATERBURY COST OF IMPROVEMENTS MADE IN A DECADE IN WATERBURY'S 

TERMINALS RAMIFICATION OF THE TROLLEY SYSTEM— ITS GROWTH FROM 

HORSE CAR LINE TO THE NETWORK OF PRESENT EXTENSIONS THE GREEN 

LINE TELEGRAPH, TELEPHONE AND EXPRESS 92 

CHAPTER VIII 

THE PROTESTANT CHURCHES OF WATERBURY, 1892-1917 

the first church the second, third and bunker hill church, congre- 
gational italian congregational st. john's and trinity episcopal 

— st. paul's, waterville — first m. e., grace, st. paul's, south and 



WEST SIDE HILL M. E. FIRST, SECOND AND GRACE BAPTIST GERMAN AND 

SWEDISH LUTHERAN CHURCHES ADVENT CHRISTIAN BUCK'S HILL, UNION, 

WATERVILLE CHAPELS IO7 



CONTENTS v 

CHAPTER IX 
THE CATHOLIC CHURCHES OF WATERBURY 

CATHOLIC POPULATION BY PARISHES — IMMACULATE CONCEPTION — ST. PAT- 
KICK'S ITS DEDICATION SACRED HEART ST. ANN'S ST. CECILIA ST. 

FRANCIS XAVIER — ST. JOSEPH'S — ST. THOMAS — OUR LADY OF LOURDES — ST. 
MARGARET'S — BLESSED SACRAMENT — ST. MICHAEL'S — ST. STANISLAUS — CON- 
VENTS AND SCHOOLS HOLY NAME SOCIETY SKETCHES OF MONSIGNOR 

SLOCUM AND FATHER CURTIN — M'dVNEY DAY 122 

CHAPTER X 
CIVIC ARCHITECTURE OF A QUARTER CENTURY 

BUCKINGHAM BUILDING, UNION DEPOT, CITY HALL, CHASE OFFICE BUILDING 

AND WATERBURY CLUB LINCOLN BUILDING PLANNED BY FAMOUS NEW 

YORK ARCHITECTS COURTHOUSE PLANNED BY WILFRED E. GRIGGS, ONE OF 

MOST BEAUTIFUL STRUCTURES IN NEW ENGLAND — FINE BUSINESS BLOCKS 
AND RESIDENCES, SUPERB WORK OF LOCAL ARCHITECTS THE VARIOUS ARCHI- 
TECTURAL PERIODS AND BUILDINGS THAT ILLUSTRATE THEM WATERBURY'S 

HOUSING PROBLEM I36 

CHAPTER XI 
BANKING AND INSURANCE 

CAPITAL AND SURPLUS OF ALL WATERBURY BANKS DEPOSITS A FIVE YEAR 

RECORD OF CLEARINGS THE YEAR 1916 A BANNER PERIOD FOR DEPOSITORS 

IN SAVINGS INSTITUTIONS MONEY LARGELY INVESTED IN MORTGAGES ON 

WATERBURY REAL ESTATE HISTORY OF ALL THE BANKS AND TRUST COM- 
PANIES LIST OF OFFICIALS, PAST AND PRESENT RECENT INSURANCE 

HISTORY 146 

CHAPTER XII 
HISTORY OF WATERBURY'S HOTELS 

THE FIRE OF 1002 FOLLOWED BY AN ERA OF HOTEL CONSTRUCTION— THE CON- 
NECTICUT HOTEL EXCHANGE HOTEL ENLARGED RAISING THE FUND FOR 

THE ELTON THE SUBSCRIBERS ITS FIRST YEAR'S RECORD DESCRIPTION 

STARTING THE "IDEAL TOUR" THE KINGSBURY AND HODSON's MANY 

HOTELS SPRING UP DURING MUNITION-MAKING PERIOD 156 

CHAPTER XIII 
THE HOSPITALS OF WATERBURY 

WATERBURY HOSPITAL IN ITS OLD QUARTERS THE NEED OF A NEW BUILDING 

CONTRIBUTIONS POUR TX AND NEW HOSPITAL DEDICATED DONORS OF THE 



vi CONTENTS 

BUILDING FUND OFFICERS GROWTH IN RECENT YEARS THE MEDICAL 

BOARD ST. MARY'S hospital, the inspiration of monsignor slocum — 

ITS DEDICATION THE MEDICAL BOARD l6l 



CHAPTER XIV 
THE ORGANIZATION OF CHARITY 

ORGANIZATION OF THE ASSOCIATED CHARITIES CHANGE IN OFFICIALS SOCIAL 

SERVICE CLUB AND ITS WORK AIDING THE RED CROSS THE BUILDING OF 

LINCOLN HOUSE THE ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS LEAGUE STARTING THE OPEN- 
AIR SCHOOL RECORDS OF TWO YEARS ITS OFFICIALS FIRST "UNITED 

CHARITIES" — DAY NURSERY — THE SOUTH MAYD HOME — KING'S DAUGHTERS 

BABY WELFARE STATION THE QUEEN'S DAUGHTERS DAUGHTERS OF 

AMERICA SALVATION ARMY 167 

CHAPTER XV 
REVIEW OF WATERBURY'S MANUFACTURES 

THE CENTER OF THE BRASS INDUSTRY ITS PERCENTAGE OF OUTPUT BY DECADES 

— CENSUS FIGURES SHOW STRANGE CHANGES — PRODUCTION OF NEEDLES, 

PINS, HOOKS AND EYES NUMBER AND WAGES OF WORKERS IN WATERBURY 

FACTORIES SINCE 1 899 CENSUS FIGURES ON VALUE OF WATERBURY PROD- 
UCTS WHAT WATERBURY MANUFACTURES CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT 

SEX OF WAGE EARNERS THE WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION LAW FACTORY 

CONSTRUCTION SINCE I9OO l8o 

CHAPTER XVI 
THE LARGER BRASS COMPANIES 

THE CHARTER OF 1 893 NEW CONSOLIDATION PERFECTED ITS FIRST BOARD OF 

DIRECTORS CHANGES TO AN OPERATING COMPANY PURCHASES THE BUF- 
FALO PLANT ITS BUILDINGS IN WATERBURY, TORRINGTON, ANSONIA, 

KENOSHA AND BUFFALO NEW CONSTRUCTION EARNINGS OF THE COM- 
PANY ITS BALANCE SHEET FOR I916 THE EMPLOYMENT BUREAU ITS 

HOUSING PLANS TESTIMONIAL TO ITS PRESIDENT, CHARLES F. BROOKER 

SKETCH OF HIS CAREER THE SCOVILL COMPANY- — ITS PHYSICAL GROWTH 

ITS NEW BUILDINGS ENORMOUS EARNINGS OFFICERS OF THE PAST ' 

QUARTER CENTURY EMPLOYMENT BUREAU ITS HOSPITALS I99 

CHAPTER XVII 
OTHER BRASS AND BRASSWARE COMPANIES 

THE AMERICAN RING COMPANY RANDOLPH & CLOWES COMPANY THE WATER- 
BURY ROLLING MILLS A. H. WELLS & CO. — FRENCH MANUFACTURING COM- 
PANY THE PILLING BRASS COMPANY WATERBURY BRASS GOODS CORPORA- 



CONTENTS vii 

TION — STEELE & JOHNSON — THE NATIONAL COMPANY — THE SMITH & 
GRIGGS MANUFACTURING COMPANY — THE SHOE HARDWARE COMPANY — 

PLATT BROTHERS & COMPANY NOVELTY MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

BERBECKER & ROWLAND — MATTATUCK .MANUFACTURING COMPANY WATER- 
BURY BUCKLE COMPANY — L. C. WHITE COMPANY NOERA MANUFACTURING 

COMPANY THE GENERAL MANUFACTURING COMPANY THE AMERICAN 

FASTENER COMPANY THE SIMONSVILLE MANUFACTURING COMPANY — THE 

W VTERBURY METAL WARES COMPANY THE SOMERS COMPANY, INC. THE 

CONNECTICUT MANUFACTURING COMPANY 2I4 

CHAPTER XVIII 
CLOCKS, WATCHES, PINS, NEEDLES, HOOKS AND EYES 

THE WATERBURY CLOCK COMPANY THE BEGINNINGS OF THE "iNGERSOLL" 

WATCH FROM THE "jUMBo" TO THE SMALL "DOLLAR" WATCH MAKING 

ITS OWN CRYSTALS R. H. INGERSOLL & BROTHER BUY THE NEW ENGLAND 

WATCH COMPANY PLANT THE STORY OF THE "LONG WIND" WATERBURY 

WATCH THE LUX CLOCK MANUFACTURING COMPANY THE AMERICAN PIN 

COMPANY ITS PLANT ITS NEW BUILDINGS SINCE IO/XD THE OAKVILLE 

COMPANY AND ITS EXTENSIONS OFFICIALS OF THE BIG PIN COMPANIES. . . . 224 

CHAPTER XIX 
MACHINE SHOPS AND FOUNDRIES 

THE WATERBURY FARREL FOUNDRY & MACHINE COMPANY THE WATERBURY 

MACHINE COMPANY THE E. J. MANVILLE MACHINE COMPANY THE BLAKE 

& JOHNSON COMPANY THE WATERBURY TOOL COMPANY THE LUDINGTON 

CIGARETTE MACHINE COMPANY THE ROWBOTTOM MACHINE COMPANY 

ANDREW C. CAMPBELL, INC. HENDERSON BROTHERS SEYMOUR SMITH & 

SON THE MANUFACTURERS FOUNDRY COMPANY THE WATERBURY CAST- 
INGS COMPANY THE METAL SPECIALTIES COMPANY THE ATLAS MACHINE 

COMPANY WATERBURY STANDARD TOOL AND MACHINE COMPANY WATER- 
BURY PRESSED METAL AND TOOL COMPANY 23O 

CHAPTER XX 
OTHER MANUFACTURING CORPORATIONS 

THE INTERNATIONAL SILVER COMPANY — THE AMERICAN MILLS COMPANY — THE 

WATERBURY PAPER BOX COMPANY THE WHITE & WELLS COMPANY THE 

KALBFLEISCH CORPORATION THE WATERBURY BATTERY COMPANY THE 

WILLIAMS SEALING CORPORATION THE WATERBURY JEWEL COMPANY THE 

AUTOYRE COMPANY THE LANE MANUFACTURING COMPANY WATERVILLE 

CUTLERY COMPANY THE MORDEN MANUFACTURING COMPANY THE H. L. 

WELCH HOSIERY COMPANY THE WATERBURY INSTRUMENT COMPANY 

THE WATERBURY ICE CORPORATION — THE SPRING LAKE ICE COMPANY — THE 

HELLMAN BREWING COMPANY THE EAGLE BREWING COMPANY FEW 

MANUFACTURING LOSSES 237 



viii CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XXI 
THE MASONIC ORDER AND OTHER FRATERNITIES 

EARLY MASONIC HISTORY HARMONY AND CONTINENTAL LODGES MASONIC 

CLUB CLARK COMMANDERY EUREKA CHAPTER, R. A. M. WATERBURY 

COUNCIL, NO. 21 THE WATERBURY MASONIC TEMPLE THE ODD FELLOWS 

NOSAHOGAN LODGE — ENCAMPMENT AND CANTON— DAUGHTERS OF REBEKAH 

KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS B. P. O. ELKS KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS ANCIENT 

ORDER OF HIBERNIANS UNITED WORKMEN FORESTERS LOYAL ORDER OF 

MOOSE HEPTASOPHS EAGLES RED MEN UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 

WOODMEN AND OTHER FRATERNITIES FRENCH, ITALIAN, SWEDISH AND 

GERMAN SOCIETIES — LABOR ORGANIZATIONS 245 

CHAPTER XXII 

COMMUNITY EFFORTS, PHILANTHROPY AND REFORMS 

the y. m. c. a. and its growth fund for new building war-time work 

the waterbury boys' club mr. combellacit's great work the 

boy scouts of america the waterbeury industrial school and girls' 

club the temperance movement in waterbury rescue mission 

the community christmas tree the early closing movement 

elisha Leavenworth's benefactions 270 

CHAPTER XXIII 

CLUBS AND ASSOCIATIONS, BUSINESS, SOCIAL, PROFESSIONAL 

AND PATRIOTIC 

THE WATERBURY CHAMBER OF COMMERCE ITS BEGINNING AS THE MER- 
CHANTS' ASSOCIATION THE WATERBURY CLUB ITS NEW HOME THE 

COUNTRY CLUB WATERBURY DRIVING ASSOCIATION AUTOMOBILE CLUB 

NATURALIST CLUB THE ELKS CLUB OTHER SOCIAL CLUBS PROFESSIONAL 

ORGANIZATIONS WOMEN'S CLUBS AND SOCIETIES ATHLETIC AND SPORTING 

ORGANIZATIONS THE G. A. R. AND W. R. C. WATERBURY's REPRESENTATIO>' 

IN STATE PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES SARSFIELD CLUB 285 



CHAPTER XXIV 
MUSIC AND THE DRAMA 

WATERBURY SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA CHURCH CHOIRS REKINDLE INTEREST IN 

MUSIC THE BUCKINGHAM MUSIC HALL ORATORIO SOCIETY AND ITS CELE- 
BRATED MAY FESTIVAL WATERBURY CHORAL CLUB GERMAN SINGING 

SOCIETIES TFIEATRICAL HISTORY OF A QUARTER CENTURY THE ADVENT OF 

POLl'S — -THE MOVIE PERIOD THE WORK OF EUGENE JACQUES AMATEUR 

THEATRICALS 298 



CONTENTS ix 

CHAPTER XXV 
THE NEWSPAPERS 

Jill WATERBURY AMERICAN — ITS NEW BUILDING THE EVENING DEMOCRAT 

AND ITS SUCCESS DUE TO THE WORK OF ITS FOUNDER, CORNELIUS MALONEY, 

AND PRESENT EDITOR, VINCENT MALONEY IN ITS NEW BUILDING THE 

REPUBLICAN SOLD BY THE AMERICAN A SECOND SALE WITHIN A YEAR 

RAPID OROWTH OF Till'. PAPER IS MOVED INTO ITS OWN BUILDING MODERN 

EQUIPMENT POLICY APPROVED BY THE PUBLIC INCORPORATED PRESENT 

OFFICIALS — WEEKLIES AND MONTHLIES, PAST AND PRESENT 307 

CHAPTER XXYI 
WAR AND MILITARY ACTIVITIES 

WATERBURY's SHARE IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR CITY PAYS TRIBUTE TO 

LIEUTENANT FRANK W. KELLOGG, ONE OF HEROES OF BATTLE OF MANILA 

BAY, AND EIGHTY-TWO VETERANS OF WAR THE CALL TO ARMS IN I916 

WATERBURY BOYS MOVE TO MEXICAN BORDER— OVATION BY CITY ON RETURN 

DECLARATION OF WAR ON GERMANY FINDS WATERBURY IN MIDST OF 

RECRUITING CAMPAIGN THE NATIONAL GUARD GOES TO THE FRONT THE 

DRAFT THE LIBERTY LOANS THE RED CROSS WATERBURY's MANY PATRI- 
OTIC EFFORTS TRIBUTE TO ROCHAMBEAU 312 

CHAPTER XXVII 
WATERBURY IN STATE AFFAIRS 

WATERBURY HAS HAD FEW CITIZENS IN STATE OFFICES GEORGE L. LILLEY A 

NOTABLE EXCEPTION HIS CAREER IN CITY POLITICS FOLLOWED BY ELECTION 

TO THE LEGISLATURE AND THEN BY THREE ELECTIONS TO CONGRESS HIS 

CONTESTS ATTRACT NATIONAL ATTENTION ATTACK ON GENERAL PAPER 

COMPANY FIGHT ON SUBMARINE SCANDAL ADVERSE REPORT BY CONGRES- 
SIONAL COMMITTEE RETURNS FOR VINDICATION AND IS ELECTED GOVERNOR 

HIS SUDDEN DEATH 3IO, 

CHAPTER NNVIII 
WATERBURY CORPORATIONS, ACTIVE AND LAPSED 

COVERING THE PERIOD FROM 1894 TO 1917 AND INCLUDING ALL OLDER COR- 
PORATIONS THAT WERE LEGISLATED OUT OF EXISTENCE DURING THIS PERIOD 323 

CHAPTER XXIX 
\\ YTERTOWN AND ITS INDUSTRIES 

POPULATION — CENTENARY CELEBRATION — CHURCHES — SCHOOLS — LIBRARY — 

INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT SOLDIERS' MONUMENT FIRE DEPARTMENT 

VILLAGE IMPROVEMENT SOCIETY D. A. R. TOWN OFFICIALS CENSUS 339 



x CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XXX 
WATERBURY'S NEAREST NEIGHBOR 

COLONIAL AND LATER PERIOD EARLY INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT THE RUBBER 

INDUSTRY'S BEGINNING SCHOOLS CHURCHES HOWARD WHITTEMORE 

LIBRARY THE BOROUGH GOVERNMENT THE WHITTEMORE BRIDGE 

WHITTEMORE GIFTS BANKS PUBLIC UTILITIES FIRE AND POLICE DEPART- 
MENTS NEW POSTOFFICE THE GENERAL WASHINGTON HOUSE THE Y. M. 

C. A. AND SIMILAR INSTITUTIONS 346 

CHAPTER XXXI 
THE. TOWN OF SEYMOUR 

ITS THREE NAMES POPULATION CHURCHES SCHOOLS LIBRARY SEYMOUR'S 

BANK ITS MANUFACTURING INTERESTS TRANSPORTATION THE SEYMOUR 

RECORD FIRE PROTECTION AND DEPARTMENT PARK AND MONUMENT 

TOWN OFFICERS SOCIETIES AND CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 364 

CHAPTER XXXII 
THOMASTON, THE TOWN OF CLOCKMAKERS 

ITS EARLY HISTORY THE BEGINNING OF ITS CLOCK INDUSTRY THE INVENTION 

OF ELI TERRY AND SETH THOMAS THEIR MARVELOUS WORK THE GROWTH 

OF THE INDUSTRY ITS SCHOOLS, CHURCHES, SOCIETIES, GOVERNMENT 

ITS LATEST INDUSTRIES , 377 

CHAPTER XXXIII 
TORRINGTON'S RAPID GROWTH 

SUMMARY OF ITS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ITS EARLY HISTORY TORRING- 

FORD EARLY EXPANSION SCHOOLS CHURCHES BANKS CHAMBER OF 

COMMERCE LIBRARY Y. M. C. A. HOSPITAL NEWSPAPERS ELKS' CLUB 

HOUSE PARKS CEMETERIES BOROUGH HISTORY 385 

CHAPTER XXXIV 
WINSTED IN THE HILLS 

ITS HISTORY FROM COLONIAL DAYS WINSTED BOROUGH POLICE AND FIRE 

DEPARTMENTS LIGHTING SCHOOLS PUBLIC LIBRARY HOSPITAL 

CHURCHES NEWSPAPERS ITS INDUSTRIES BANKS CHAMBER OF COM- 
MERCE Y. M. C. A. WINSTED CLUB 405 



Waterbury and the Naugatuck 

Valley 



CHAPTER I 
A BIRDSEYE VIEW 

IN TWENTY-FIVE YEARS WATERBURY HAS ABOUT GROWN OUT OF KNOWLEDGE OF ITS 

OLD SELF — ITS INDUSTRIAL SUCCESS THE WORK OF MASTERFUL MINDS HER FAME 

IN METAL MAKING NOW WORLD-WIDE — INTENSITY OF PRODUCTION IN NAUGA- 
TUCK VALLEY HARDLY EQUALED IN ANY OTHER LIKE EXTENT OF TERRITORY IN 
THE COUNTRY. 

The difficulty which will confront future historians of Waterbury will always 
be to meet the standard set by the "History of the Town and City of Waterbury," 
which is found on the shelves of every well selected Waterbury library. In that 
work, covering the period from aboriginal days to the year 1895, Doctor Anderson, 
Miss Sara J. Prichard and Miss Anna L. Ward told the story of the beginnings 
of Waterbury and traced the progress of the town and city down to the date 
of compilation, and did it with encyclopaedic completeness and accuracy. They 
had access to all the important material which is in existence, the enthusiastic 
co-operation of scores of people whose local knowledge and facile pens assisted 
the compilers in preparing a local history probably never surpassed for the 
loving thoroughness and care which were expended upon it. 

Most of that work was compiled in the early '90s and in twenty-five years 
Waterbury has almost grown out of knowledge of itself. A new generation 
has lived new r chapters of the city's history and is already passing away, leaving 
its story unwritten. The Anderson history was so exhaustive, so accurate and 
so worthy that there will never be occasion for another similar work, but there 
is room for a volume that will be a complement and a continuation. 

It was this idea that led to the inception of a volume that is frankly a 
supplement to the previous history, to deal with the events in the history of 
Waterbury and the story of her progress during the last twenty-five years, and 
to summarize also the stories of her sister communities in the Naugatuck Valley 
whose interests and histories are so closely linked with hers. 

As far as possible the lines of the preceding history have been followed. The 
chapters which told the story of the city down to 1895 were taken up in turn 
and carried down to date. Several considerations have prevented the editor 
from doing this with the same completeness, however. The city is larger many 
times, and to devote the same relative amount of space to each individual or 
topic would be to expand the modest work originally contemplated into a small 

Vol. 1— 1 

1 



2 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

book-shelf. The community is many times busier and the year selected for the 
compilation of this work has been a period in which everybody in Waterbury 
has been overworked. Yet delay would have caused a heavy financial loss which 
would have been an injustice to the publishers. On this account, in several 
respects there are deficiencies of which the editor is conscious. The chapter of 
family records in the old history has not been carried down to date. It is 
genealogical, rather than historical; it would have involved so much research 
and correspondence extending over long periods and extending to so many 
remote quarters, and would have required so much time and effort in some cases 
to ascertain and verify records which would occupy only a few lines, that the 
editor despaired of accomplishing anything of value in the allowable time. 
Consequently, it has been left to some person or organization better fitted for 
the task and to less crowded times. Still, it is hoped this volume will be found 
of interest to readers and of value as a supplement, in spite of any deficiencies 
which may be found to exist. 

The Waterbury of the early '90s was a small city, which was just beginning 
to realize that it was destined to become an important manufacturing center. 
It had recently been a factory village, almost isolated from the main currents 
of modern life. Its history was rich in reminiscence, but its industrial and 
commercial future seemed more or less precarious. There seemed to be no 
reason why it should survive, let alone greatly outgrow any one of a number 
of other communities in Connecticut. Indeed, at that time the belief was preva- 
lent that it was doomed to be abondoned by the brass industry, which was the 
city's mainstay, that the great brass factories of the future would be built in 
the West, nearer to the sources of supply of the raw materials. 

One thing that the pessimistic prophets of that era failed to take into con- 
sideration was that while Waterbury was largely dependent for her growth and 
prosperity on one industry, and on the lines naturally growing out of it. she 
understood her own lines of business thoroughly. In the light of events, wise 
observers have been said that the industrial progress of Waterbury has after all 
depended upon a comparatively few men, masters of their business, most of 
whom have been born here and all of whom prefer to work here. Some of these 
observers are disposed to narrow this down and say that Waterbury would not 
have attained her present importance but for a few families, who had lived 
and worked here. This is largely true. In many cases the same families, and 
the same family names will be found for generation after generation, building 
up Waterbury from her small beginnings, toiling, inventing, planning, con- 
stantly improving;, expanding and enlarging, until at present the future of Water- 
bury seems forever assured. 

It has been remarked for years that wherever a man may travel, he will 
find metal goods that have come from Waterbury. The sun, literally, never 
sets upon the work of Waterbury's hands, and now, as in the past, her fame in 
metal-working is world-wide. This draws to her the inventor, the skilled 
mechanic and the merchant from all parts of the nation, and from distant lands. 
They come here to develop their ideas, to gain their industrial training, to 
supervise the manufacture of their wares. Sooner or later, everybody who has 
a small article which can be made out of the metals in which we are skilled in 
working, turns up in Waterbury to ask our price for making his goods, or our 
help in devising cunning machinery that will turn them out for him. There is 
a perpetual circulation between Waterbury and the markets of all the world, 
from which the community perhaps gains as much or more than it imparts, so 
that at the present time the city and her sister communities up and down the 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 3 

valley arc known as reservoirs of mechanics and machinists of the highest 
training, intelligence and inventive skill. The momentous years of 1915 and 
1916, when the United States was so suddenly called upon to supply Europe's 
desperate needs for war materials, were a wonderful illustration of this. Among 
the first industrial communities which was set to work for Europe was this city. 
Hence the giant industries of 1917 are the full fruition of years of her supremacy 
in her own special methods and of the reputation which she has gained of 
knowing her business thoroughly. 

This is characteristic of the sister towns and cities of the busy 50-mile strip 
which is down on the maps as the Naugutuck Valley. There is hardly in the 
known world such a narrow compass of territory in which there is such an 
intensity of production and such a genius for industrial leadership. It means 
something that for years before it became a part of the larger transportation 
system of New England, the valley's iron artery, the Naugatuck Railroad, was 
remarked as having the largest earnings per mile of any stretch of railroad in 
the country. 

This was because Winsted in clocks and knit goods, Torrington in brass, 
needles, and machinery, Thomaston in clocks, Naugatuck in rubber goods, Sey- 
mour in fountain pens, copper and brass goods, Ansonia and Derby in brass and 
machinery, rivaled or duplicated the success of Waterbury. Railroad operating 
officials, who are put to their utmost to move the immense volume of traffic 
developed in these communities, have come to regard the Naugatuck Valley as 
one great factory city with a continuous freight yard covering the fifty miles 
between Winsted and tide-water. 

But it must not be supposed that this wonderful territory and population are 
devoted exclusively to the material side of life in which they excel. The old 
New England traditions stand. The inner life of religion, education and culture, 
constantly renewing the faith and courage of the workers of the community, 
are manifesting themselves more strongly than ever in movements for social 
uplift and development, the cleaning and fit ordering of the community life in 
its outward and inward manifestations, the patriotic pride that shows itself in 
conscientious and unselfish devotion to the town, city and state, and in even 
wider service. The perhaps more important non-material side of the story of 
these communities, if fitly told, may nourish satisfaction with the past and hope 
for the future even more completely, for it has been written that men shall not 
live by bread alone. 



CHAPTER II 
THE OFFICIAL CHRONICLES OF THE CITY OF WATERBURY 

THE FIGHT FOR CONSOLIDATION OF CITY, TOWN AND SCHOOL GOVERNMENT — TAXA- 
TION CHANGES IN A QUARTER CENTURY — THE TAX RATES AND THE GRAND LISTS 

THE BONDED DEBT — STREET IMPROVEMENT — CITY HALL, WATER, SCHOOL AND 
SEWAGE BOND ISSUES — CITY OFFICIALS SINCE 1 893 — ITS LEGISLATORS — MUTUAL 

AID SOCIETY — POLICE DEPARTMENT START OF THE DETECTIVE SERVICE THE 

CONSTABULARY FORCE — HOW THE DEPARTMENT WORKS — THE TROLLEY STRIKE OF 

I903 SKETCHES OF FORMER CHIEF EGAN AND SUPERINTENDENT GEORGE M. 

BEACH — THE FIRE DEPARTMENT — ITS GROWTH IN NUMBERS AND EQUIPMENT — 
THE FIRE OF I9O2 — RECORD OF BIG FIRES SINCE 1893 — THE HEALTH DEPARTMENT. 

In 1893, the beginning- of the twenty-five year period of which this is a history, 
Waterbury was in the midst of a determined battle against its existing cumber- 
some and overlapping form of government. Under the old charter, there were in 
force what might be termed three distinct local governmental powers, each with- 
out authority over the other, and in many instances duplicating at great expense 
to the taxpayers the executive functions. 

This contest between a rapidly growing city and a town which embraced a 
large rural population without municipal needs, had now been in progress for 
some years. Recommendations had been made repeatedly by preceding mayors, 
but action was always blocked by the fear of added taxation in rural districts. 
In 1893, however, the population had grown to such an extent in some of the 
outlying sections of the Town of Waterbury that the need of city betterments 
in several directions was imperative. 

In 1894 the first definite step was taken to bring about a consolidation or rather 
a merging of the city, town and school governments which, however, was only 
partially successful. On May 7, 1894, a committee consisting of Hon. E. G. 
Kilduff, the mayor of the city, George E. Terry, then states' attorney, Judge 
Charles G. Root and Thomas D. Wells, was appointed by the two governing bodies 
of the municipality, the Board of Aldermen and the Court of Common Council, 
with power to frame an amended or new charter for the City and Town of Water- 
bury. This was to be submitted to a joint session of the council before or during 
the period of the next session of the General Assembly. 

The work was admirably conceived, and while many of its provisions were 
nullified either by the council and by the Legislature, acting under pressure of 
strong local opposition, these were adopted in later years, thus showing the fore- 
sight and wisdom of the members of this able committee. 

The report was submitted on February 25, 1895. An effort to have the pro- 
posed charter voted upon by the people, which was merely an effort to delay the 
proposed changes, was defeated. Many changes were, however, suggested. 

On May 13, 1895, just a few days before the final opportunity for presenta- 
tion to the Legislature, a committee consisting of Thomas D. Barlow and Daniel 
Kiefer, urged immediate action and on May 23, 1895, tne proposed charter was 

4 



WATERBURY AND THE NTAUGATUCK VALLEY 5 

officially presented at Hartford to the joint standing Committee on Cities and 
Boroughs of the General Assembly. 

The bill as passed, however, did not consolidate the city, town and school 
governments, but in its regulation of the municipal government was a tremendous 
step forward. 

The act of 1895 extended the city limits to include the actual town limits. 
This was a hrst great step toward the consolidation. It created five wards, abol- 
ished the Court of Common Council, giving local legislative powers exclusively to 
a Board of Aldermen. Tt provided for biennial elections, and in order to take the 
affairs of the city as far as possible out of purely political contests, and to 
concentrate the attention of voters on municipal needs, the date of these elections 
was made the first Monday of each alternate October. 

The charter provided for the election of a mayor, a city clerk, a treasurer, 
a comptroller, thus abolishing the office of auditor, a city sheriff, two agents of 
the Bronson Library Fund, and three aldermen from each ward. It provided that 
the collector of taxes annually chosen at the town meeting of the Town of Water- 
bury "shall be the collector of taxes of said city." It provided for a much- 
needed Board of Public Works, which was to consist of the mayor, who was 
ex-officio president, and five electors, named by the mayor and approved by the 
aldermen. At least two of these must be of the opposition political party. It 
created as subordinates to this Board of Public Works, the Bureaus of Water, 
Streets, Sewers, Engineering and Assessment, the last-named a board in charge 
of condemnations, benefits and damages arising out of improvements. 

The charter gave the aldermen the power to appoint the city attorney. This 
office was abolished in 1912, when a legal department with corporation counsel 
and assistant was created. 

The charter created a Board of Finance, consisting of the mayor, ex-officio, 
the comptroller, the president of the Board of Aldermen, and three citizens 
appointed by the mayor. 

The charter created Department of Public Safety, officially known as a Board 
of Commissioners of Public Safety. This consists of the mayor, ex-officio presi- 
dent, and five electors, appointed by the mayor and confirmed by the aldermen. 
It has charge of the fire and police departments. 

It created the Department of Public Health. 

This was at least a basis, and a very effective one, upon which to build a modern 
city government. 

In 1899, the act creating Waterbury's present Department of Education was 
passed, and this provided that ''it shall have the care and management of all 
the property and affairs of the Center School District of Waterbury. After 
this act shall take effect, no meeting of the Center School District shall be held 
for any purpose whatever." 

This was the second step leading to consolidation, and was brought about 
largely by a prior compromise in the matter of taxation. It was agreed that 
taxpayers living beyond the old city limits and within the town .limits should not 
pay over one-half the tax rate of taxpayers within the old city limits. But as they 
were compelled to support their own schools and had no right to the city's water, 
sewers, police or fire protection, this concession to the taxpayers of the outside 
district was less important than it might appear on the face of it. Tn 1899 the 
tax levy for the 'nside district was 28 mills, and for the outside 14 mills. The 
grand list for that year was $11,619,883 for the inside district and $689,321 for 
the outside district. 

The act reating the Department of Education had a far-reaching influence 



6 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

for school improvements. While it limited its control to the schools in the old 
city limits, it empowered all other districts in the old town limits to vote them- 
selves in. This has been done among others by Waterville, Town Plot, Mill Plain, 
Bunker Hill and Hopeville. It thus created uniformity where there was wide 
disparity, and in many sections it abolished the antiquated system of school 
visitors. 

The Department of Education is now in charge of a Board of Education, 
consisting of the mayor, chairman ex-officio, and nine members, three of whom 
are elected biennially for a term of six years. 

The great need for the many advantages which a city government provides, 
was now more deeply impressed upon the outside districts by the continuing 
increase in population. Opposition was breaking down. 

The agitation of ten years and longer between city and town was finally 
rewarded in igoi by the long-needed consolidation act, effective on the first 
Monday in January, 1902. The important change was the placing of nearly all 
the old duties of selectmen in the Board of Aldermen. In 1903 the authority 
of selectmen over the poor of the town was placed in the hands of the Board 
of Charities, which was then created. This leaves the work of making voters 
their only important duty. 

In 191 1 it was found necessary to pass a constitutional amendment so that 
Waterbury could vote for city and town officers at the same time. 

It was found necessary both in 1896 and in 1902 to change many existing 
ordinances to conform to charter revisions, and this has been ably done by 
committees appoined by the Board of Aldermen. 

THE FINANCES OF A QUARTER OF A CENTURY 

Taxation has always been the stumbling block to consolidation, and as usual, 
it was a compromise that brought about the change. In 1901, two taxation 
districts were created. The first district includes the entire town and the second 
includes the old city limits. Until 191 3, the taxation in the second district was 
segregated into what was known as the inside and the outside rate. The "out- 
side" rate was of course the compromise, but it was only a question of time 
when city improvements and city benefits would be town wide. The effort to 
stop this segregation in 1905 and 1906 met with failure. In 1914, and since 
then, the grand list and the tax levy were divided only into the first and second 
districts. 

While at each session of the State Legislature, many minor amendatory acts 
have been passed for the benefit of Waterbury, for the purposes of history the 
great changes took place respectively in 1895, 1899 and 1901. 

Two tabulations will tell in figures the story of the growth of Waterbury ; 
its grand list for twenty-five years from 1893 t0 l 9 I '7> ar >d its tax levy. It is 
important to remember that up to 1902, the valuation was on a one-third basis. 
After that date, under the state law, it was compulsory to assess on a 100 per 
cent basis. 



THE GRAND LIST SINCE 1893 



1893— $10,575,103. 
1894— $10,452,138. 
1895— $10,593,419. 
1896 $10,802,314. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

1897— $10,927,299. 

1898 — $1 1,161,962. 

1899 — $11,311,927; Inside Taxation District. 

625,180. Outside Taxation District. 

1900 — $11,619,883. Inside Taxation District. 

689,321. Outside Taxation District. 

M)Oi — $14,240,811. First Taxation District. 

11.948,146. Second Taxation District, Inside. 

852,141. Second Taxation District, Outside. 

[902 — $43,791,382. First Taxation District. 

37.332,117. Second Taxation District, Inside. 

2,184,184. Second Taxation District. Outside. 

1903 — $53,472,164. First Taxation District. 

48,556,700. Second Taxation District, Inside. 

2,369,254. Second Taxation District, Outside. 

1904 — $48,493,629. First Taxation District. 

41.357.537. Second Taxation District, Inside. 

2,563,690. Second Taxation District, Outside. 

1905 — $50,322,836. First Taxation District. 

42,789,038. Second Taxation District, Inside. 

2,777,847. Second Taxation District. Outside. 

1906 — $53,193,784. First Taxation District. 

44,965,922. Second Taxation District, Inside. 

3,143,583. Second Taxation District, Outside. 

1907 — $55,963,821. First Taxation District. 

46,895,738. Second Taxation District, Inside. 

3,495,368. Second Taxation District, Outside. 

1908 — $57,790,131. First Taxation District. 

48,131,658. Second Taxation District, Inside. 

3,829,330. Second Taxation District, Outside. 

1909 — $60,272,168. First Taxation District. 

50,074,352. Second Taxation District, Inside. 

4,011,869. Second Taxation District. Outside. 

[910 — $63,654,111. First Taxation District. 

52,247,869. Second Taxation District, Inside. 

4,551,989. Second Taxation District, Outside. 

191 1 — $66,385,300. First Taxation District. 

54,041,099. Second Taxation District, Inside. 

5,450,878. Second Taxation District, Outside. 

1912 — $71,535,842. First Taxation District. 

54,609,722. Second Taxation District, Inside. 

4,950,324. Second Taxation District, Outside. 

1913 — $74,526,824. First Taxation District. 

55,676,872. Second Taxation District, Inside. 

5.3^6,<;2i. Second Taxation District. Outside. 

[914 — $77,022,701. First Taxation District. 

67,491,635. Second Taxation District. 

[915 $79,235,630. First Taxation District. 

74,725,210. Second Taxation District. 

[916 — $90,191,184. First Taxation District. 

84,746,628. Second Taxation District. 
191 7 — $104,600,000. First Taxation District. 

102.000.000. Second Taxation District. 



8 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

THE TAX RATE FOR TWENTY-FIVE YEARS 

From 1893 to 1900, the town tax rate was in effect. For these years, it was 
as follows: 

1893 — 3 mills. 
1894 — 2 mills. 
1895 — 5 mills. 
1896 — 5 mills. 
1897 — 5 mills. 
1898 — 5 mills. 
1899 — 6 mills. 
1900 — 6 mills. 
The city tax rate for the period of twenty-five years has been as follows : 
1893 — 18 mills (one-third valuation). 
1894 — 18 mills (one-third valuation). 
1895 — 20 mills (one-third valuation). 
1896 — 18 mills (one-third valuation). 
1897 — 19 mills (one-third valuation). 
1898 — 19 mills (one-third valuation). 
1899 — 28 mills, Inside Taxation District (one-third valuation). 

14 mills, Outside Taxation District (one-third valuation). 
1900 — 32 mills, Inside Taxation District (one-third valuation). 

16 mills, Outside Taxation District (one-third valuation). 
1901 — 13 mills, First Taxation District (one-third valuation). 

27 mills, Second Taxation District, Inside (one-third valuation). 

22 mills, Second Taxation District, Outside (one-third valua- 
tion). 

1902 — 2>-7 mills, First Taxation District (full valuation). 

9.5 mills, Second Taxation District, Inside (full valuation). 

7.5 mills, Second Taxation District, Outside (full valuation). 

1903 — 3.4 mills, First Taxation District (full valuation). 

12. 1 mills, Second Taxation District, Inside (full valuation). 

9.3 mills, Second Taxation District, Outside (full valuation). 

1904 — 3 mills, First Taxation District (full valuation). 

12 mills, Second Taxation District, Inside (full valuation). 

8.6 mills, Second Taxation District, Outside (full valuation). 

1905 — 3 mills, First Taxation District (full valuation). 

1 1.8 mills, Second Taxation District, Inside (full valuation). 
8.9 mills, Second Taxation District, Outside (full valuation). 

1906 — 3.6 mills, First Taxation District (full valuation). 

1 1.1 mills, Second Taxation District, Inside (full valuation). 

8.7 mills, Second Taxation District, Outside (full valuation). 

1907 — 5 mills, First Taxation District (full valuation). 

9.8 mills, Second Taxation District, Inside (full valuation). 

7.4 mills, Second Taxation District, Outside (full valuation). 

1908 — 5 mills, First Taxation District (full valuation). 

9.8 mills, Second Taxation District, Inside (full valuation). 
y.y mills, Second Taxation District, Outside (full valuation). 

1909 — 5.7 mills, First Taxation District (full valuation). 

9.3 mills, Second Taxation District, Inside (full valuation). 
7.65 mills, Second Taxation District, Outside (full valuation). 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 



1910- 


- 6.00 


mills, 




10.00 


mills, 




8.22 


mills, 


1911— 


-6. 7 


mills, 




9-3 


mills. 




7-76 


mills. 


1912— 


- 6.33 


mills. 




9.66 


mills. 




8.075 


mills. 


1913- 


- 6.33 


mills, 




13-99 


mills. 




14.405 


mills, 


1914- 


-10.06 


mills, 




7.48 


mills, 


1915- 


-10.50 


mills, 




8.70 


mills, 


1916 — 10.18 


mills, 




8.82 


mills, 


1917- 


- 974 


mills, 




9.07 


mills, 



First Taxation District (full valuation). 
Second Taxation District, Inside (full valuation). 
Second Taxation District, Outside (full valuation). 
First Taxation District (full valuation). 
Second Taxation District, Inside (full valuation). 
Second Taxation District, Outside (full valuation). 
First Taxation District (full valuation). 
Second Taxation District, Inside (full valuation). 
Second Taxation District, Outside (full valuation). 
First Taxation District (full valuation). 
Second Taxation District, Inside (full valuation). 
Second Taxation District, Outside (full valuation), 
First Taxation District (full valuation). 
Second Taxation District (full valuation). 
First Taxation District (full valuation). 
Second Taxation District (full valuation). 
First Taxation District (full valuation). 
Second Taxation District (full valuation). 
First Taxation District (full valuation). 
Second Taxation District (full valuation). 



WATERBURY S BONDED DEBT 



In 1894, the net bonded debt of the City of Waterbury was $243,800.00. On 
January 1st, 1917, it was $5,078,000.00. In this vast difference lies a great story 
of achievement, for these totals represent a rapidly expanding municipally owned 
water supply, the entire system of parks, many of our schools, and street improve- 
ments, bridges, a sewage disposal plant, and the new city hall. 

In 1896, with the water bond issues of 1895 and 1895 included, the debt had 
grown to $904,000.00. 

In January, 1902, the total bonded debt of the city had grown to $1,560,- 
000.00, of which $830,000.00 were for water bonds. 

The story of this debt can best be told in the last figures of the city 
comptroller : 



10 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 



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WATERBl'RY AND THE XAUGATUCK VALLEY 11 

The curve of the rate of interest at which the city has offered its securities for 
sale shows some interesting fluctuations. In 1894 and 1897, the city marketed 
4 per cent bonds. In [901, [902, [904 and [905, it was able to place them at 3*/? 
per cent, hut in [906 and 1007 the rate was up to 4 per cent again. In January, 
1908, the rate was 4 per cent, but on July 1 . [908, 30-year bonds had to hear 4JA per 
cent, although a simultaneous issue, maturing in from one to fifty years, was placed 
at ^ l /2 per cent. In i<)oo and u>io, the rate was 4 per cent, in 19U it rose to 
4 1 4 per cent, in [913 it was 4 ' _. per cent on 10-year bonds and 4J/4 per cent on 
longer maturities, in 0)14 again 4 per cent and in 1915 and 1916 4'4 per cent. 

waterbury's city officials 
1893- 19 1 7 

Waterbury has been fortunate in its city officials to whose credit must go the 
record of vast improvements which have kept steady pace with the constantly 
increasing population. 

The mayoralty votes for this period are here recorded : 

mayor, 1893-1918 

Daniel F. Webster Jan. 4, 1892-Jan.. 1894 ;: 

Edward G. Kilduff Jan. 1, 1894-Jan., 1898 

Thomas D. Barlow Jan. 3, 1898-Jan., 1900 

Edward G. Kilduff Jan. 1, 1900-Jan., 1904 

John P. Elton Jan. 4, 1904-Jan., 1906 

Wm. E. Idioms Jan. 1, 1906-Jan., 1910 

Wm. B. Hotchkiss Jan. 3, 1910-Jan.. 1912 

Francis T. Reeves Jan. 1, 1912-Jan., 1914 

Martin Scully Jan. 1, 1914-Jan., 1918 

Wm. H. Sandland Mayor Elect 

VOTE ON MAYOR, 1893-I917 

1893— Edward G. Kilduff (D.) 2,590 

Daniel F. Webster (R.) 2,413 

1895— Edward G. Kilduff (D.) 2,683 

Daniel F. Webster (R.) 2,520 

1897— Thomas D. Barlow (R.) 2,983 

Edward G. Kilduff (D.) . 2,966 

1899— Edward G. Kilduff (D.) 3,740 

Thomas D. Barlow (R.) 2,232 

1901— Edward G. Kilduff (D.) 4,141 

George H. Cowell (R.) 3,699 

1903— John P. Elton (R.) 4,7 82 

James M. Lynch (D.) 3,805 

1905— Wm. E. Thorns (D.) 4,694 

Ralph X. Blakeslee (R.) 4.1 13 

1907— Wm. E. Thorns (D.) 5,189 

John E. Sewell (R.) 4.059 

1909— Wm. B. Hotchkiss (R.) 4-79° 

*Died November. 1896. 



12 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Francis T. Reeves (D.) 4,304 

Eben J. Lewis (Soc.) 172 

191 1 — Francis T. Reeves (D.) 4,373 

Wm. B. Hotchkiss (R.) 4,136 

Frank O. Pilgrim (Soc.) 1,048 

Wm. H. Noble (Proh.) 63 

■ 1913 — Martin Scully (D.) 4,757 

Albert F. Sherwood (R.) 4,189 

Geo. L. Roehrig (Soc.) 816 

1915 — Martin Scully (D.) 5,93i 

John F. McGrath (R.) 3,854 

Chas. Westendorff (Soc.) 248 

1917 — Wm. H. Sandland (R.) 4,933 

Martin Scully (D.) 4,296 

Charles T. Peach (Soc.) 605 

CITY CLERK, 1893-I918 

Wm. R. Mattison 1893 

Richard F. Grady 1894-1900 

Michael J. Ryan 1900-1904 

Geo. H. Nettleton 1904-1906 

Wm. H. Sandland 1906-1914 

Wm. F. Moher 1914-1918 

Charles B. Tomkinson City Clerk Elect 

COMPTROLLER, 1893-I918 

James J. Cassin 1893-1900 

Michael D. Russell 1900-1904 

Aug. I. Goodrich 1904-1906 

Michael D. Russell 1906-1910 

Henry O. Wood 1910-1912 

Michael D. Russell 1912-1918 

Elmer E. Parker Comptroller Elect 

TREASURER, 1 893- 19 1 8 

Bernard F. Reid 1893-1894 

Patrick F. Bannon 1894-1898 

Geo. A. Gibson 1898-1904 

Otis S. Northrop 1904-1906 

• Edward L. Tuttle 1906-1910 

Henry A. Hoadley 1910-1912 

Edward F. Moran 1912-1918 

Roberts G. Hannegran Treasurer Elect 



-& i 



TAX COLLECTOR, 1 893- 1 91 8 

Chas. J. Griggs 1893-1898 

Wm. E. Thorns 1898-1904 

Edwin S. Hunt 1904-1906 

Francis T. Reeves 1906-1910 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Arthur F. Ells 1910-1912 

James R. Lawlor 1912-1918 

Frederick C. Bauby Tax Collector Elect 

TOWN CLERK, 1893-I92O 

James J. Madden 1893-1895 

Edward H. Belden 1895-1900 

Frank P. Brett 1900-1904 

John Blair 1904-1906 

Frank P. Brett 1906-1910 

Robert Palmer 1910-1920 

JUDGE OF PROBATE, 1893-I918 

Robert A. Lowe 1893-1910 

Michael J. Byrne 1910-1912 

Dennis J. Slavin 1912-1914 

Arthur F. Ells 1914-1916 

Dennis J. Slavin 1916-1918 

CITY SHERIFF, 1893-I918 

John W. McDonald 1893-1904 

Wm. J. Rigney 1904-1906 

Matthew J. Smith 1906-1910 

David R. Walker 1910-1912 

Matthew J. Smith 1912-1918 

Robert C. Stone City Sheriff Elect 

SENATORS FROM WATERBURY TO THE STATE LEGISLATURE, 1893-I917 

1893 — Charles G. Root 1909 — Irving Hall Chase 
1895 — Daniel F. Webster John Hurley 

1897 — Edward D. Steele 191 1 — Lewis A. Piatt 
1899 — Warren L. Hall Peter Lawlor 

1901 — Wm. Kennedy 1913 — John F. McGrath 
1903— Cornelius Tracy John Hurley 

1905 — Henry H. Peck 191 5 — James A. Peasley 

Finton J. Phelan John Hurley 

1907 — Irving Hall Chase 191 7 — William J. Larkin 

John Hurley John Hurley 

REPRESENTATIVES FROM WATERBURY TO THE STATE LEGISLATURE, 1893-I917 

1893 — John L. Saxe 1903 — John Lines 

Linford Fenn Root Frederick E. Cross 

1895-97 — George H. Cowell 1905 — Ralph N. Blakeslee 

Warren L. Hall Samuel J. Marsh 

1899 — Harold R. Durant 1907 — Augustus I. Goodrich 

Frank P. Brett Abner P. Hayes 

1901 — Geo. L. Lilley 1909 — Abner P. Hayes 

Francis P. Guilfoile Augustus I. Goodrich 



13 



14 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 



[9] r — Wm. E. Thorns 

Walter E. Monagan 

[913 — Wm. E. Thorns 
James M. Lynch 



1915 — Nathaniel R. Bronson 

Jesse Devine 
191 7 — Peter Fitzhenry 

Patrick Healey 



ALDERMEN, 1893-I92O 

The following is a list of the aldermen in the order of their election, begin- 
ning with those in office in 1893 and ending with those elected in 1917. Where 
aldermen have been re-elected the name appears only once : 

Charles B. Vail, James P. Morris, Wm. P. Loeffler, 



George Barnes, 
Frederick E. Cross, 
Thomas D. Barlow, 
Michael Begnal, 
Daniel D. Gregory, 
Edward B. Reilly, 
John C. Allman, 
Daniel Kiefer, 
Patrick W. Halpen, 
H. F. Sanford, 
John H. Condon, 
Frank I. Ells, 
James H. Pilling, 
Warren L. Hall, 
Geo. A. Driggs, 
J. Merrick Gallond, 
Toseph N. Bernier, 
Wm. H. Wright, 
John H. Clohessey, 
Joseph Weis, 
John J. Scully, 
John McElligott, 
Edward Fagan, Jr., 
Eugene J. Sullivan, 
Michael D. Russell, 
Eric A. Thunberg, 
Henry D. Hotchkiss, 
Frank R. White, 
Edward O. Goss, 
Samuel W. Chapman, 
James Callan, 
Timothy L. Horigan, 
Wm. C. Moore, 
Patrick Holohan, 
John Hurley, 
John J. Brophy, 
Ralph N. Blakeslee, 
Arthur H. Tyrrell, 
Robert Walker, 
Frederick W. Chesson, 
Chas. Boylan, 
Daniel J. Mahaney, 



Daniel Foley, 
Thomas Kane, 
John T. Phelan, 
Frederick E. Stanley, 
Louis Gates, 
Geo. M. Beach, 
Walter D. Ford, 
James H. Murray, 
Stephen J. O'Brien, 
Edward Fagan, 
Martin Keefe, 
Chas. L. Holmes, 
Frank Buck, 
Thomas H. Hewitt, 
J. J. Macauley, 
Adam Callan, 
Patrick Dunn, 
Lawrence J. Tobin, 
Frank X. Bergen, 
Albert F. Sherwood, 
Joseph S. Niell, 
Wm. J. Larkin, 
John P. Elton, 
Louis E. Fitzsimons, 
Thomas B. Walker, 
Wm. J. Spain, 
John H. Malone, 
Peter Lawlor, 
Daniel P. Noonan. 
Edward H. Bowe, 
Martin Scully, 
John F. Gallagher, 
John F. Hayes, 
Robert Mackie, 
Chas. A. Fine, 
Charles A. Templeton. 
Geo. E. Sellew,, 
Herbert J. Phillips, 
Chas. C. Dreher, 
Leavenworth P. Sperry, 
Edson W. Hitchcock, 
Chas. H. Swenson, 



Edward L. Bronson, 
John M. Burrall, 
Thomas J. Magner, 
Patrick J. Reardon. 
Michael Malone, 
James A. Duggan, 
Peter Griffin, 
John F. Whalen, 
Peter Hock, 
John M. Gill, 
Raymond C. Hutchinson, 
Fred A. Jackie, 
Wm. R. Keavene}, 
Theodore F. Nuhn, 
Dennis J. Clancy, 
Wm. T. Walsh, 
Daniel T. Farrington, 
Daniel Regan, 
Alfred J. Wolff, 
Mortimer Doran, 
Ferdinand Wolf, 
Wm. E. Treat, 
George F. Lancaster, 
Patrick H. Robinson, 
Patrick G. Egan, 
Michael J. Bergin, 
John R. Logan, 
Howard S. White, 
Arthur B. Burton, 
Miller C. Haynor, 
Fred W. Nettleton, 
Geo. Hargraves, 
Philip J. Riley, 
Geo. F. Mulligan, 
Patrick McFadden, 
J. J. O'Sullivan, 
Edward W. Beach. 
Joseph L. Stanley, 
Charles Schmidt, 
Addison A. Ashborn, 
Archibald F. Mitchell, 
Ralph E. Day. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 15 

HISTORY OF THE POLICE DEPARTMENT 

It is a far cry from the present police department of Waterbury, with its 
seventy-nine members, its modern headquarters, its splendid alarm system, to 
that humble beginning in 1854, when the Court of Common Council named the 
eighteen constables for the newly incorporated city. 

In 1893, the beginning of the quarter century of this history, the department 
was still under a Board of Police Commissioners, acting under the charter 
amendment of 1872. George M. Egan was chief and under him was a small but 
exceedingly efficient force of men. It was on January 31st, of the year 1893, 
that the Mutual Aid Society was formed and this, an independent beneficiary 
organization, still thrives and pays out of its funds sick and death benefits. It 
has, however, no connection with the police pension fund, which was authorized 
by the Board of Public Safety on October 17, 1899. 

It was not until August 5, 1902, however, that the Board of Trustees of the 
Reserve Fund of the Police Department of Waterbury was formally organized 
at a meeting in the city clerk's office, with Commissioners Franklin A. Taylor, 
Dennis J. Lahey, Edward B. Hardie, Peter B. Reeves, and George B. Beach pres- 
ent, all ex-officio members of the Board of Trustees. At this meeting Mayor 
Edward G. Kilduff was elected president of the board. Commissioner Lahey, 
secretary, and City Treasurer G. A. Gibson, treasurer. 

For some time previous money derived from time lost by members of the de- 
partment, properly found and not claimed, and five per cent of all liquor license 
money, had been accumulating. On September 9, 1902, Treasurer Gibson re- 
ported that he had followed out the authorization given him to purchase city 
bonds, and that the financial condition of the fund was as follows : 

84,000 City of Waterbury y/ 2 per cent, January, 1926, at 102.42 $ 4,096.80 

$4,000 City of Waterbury 3^/2 per cent, January, 1925, at 102.35 4,094.00 

£2,000 City of Waterbury 3^ per cent, January, 1924, at 102.28 2,045.60 

Interest, 2.8 per cent 66.1 1 

$10,302.51 
Balance in savings bank 473°7 

The fund is now nearly $40,000, and the income from numerous sources is 
meeting all demands. 

The first pension to be awarded from the fund was given to the widow of 
Policeman Paul Mendelssohn, who, on March 8, 1903, was shot to death while 
in the performance of his duty. 

In 1896, under the revised charter, the department came under the super- 
vision of a Board of Public Safety, the first members of which were Mayor 
Edward G. Kilduff, Ellis Phelan, Wm. C. Moore, Eugene J. Sullivan, George A. 
Driggs, J. Merritt Gallond. 

In 190 1, the Gamewell police signal system, with twenty-two boxes, was 
installed, and this has since been greatly extended. 

On April 22, 1902, a detective bureau was formed, with Lieut. Thomas Dodds 
in command. 

In January, 1904, when Mayor John P. Elton took the presidency of the 
Board of Public Safety, its members were: Geo. M. Beach, George A. Driggs, 
M. J. Daly, Charles Y. Kent and Louis X. Van Keuren, and one of its first acts 
was the installation of the Bertillon system of identification. The first patrol 
wagon was put into service March 1. 1905. The first auto patrol wagon was 
bought in 1910. 



V 



16 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

On October 28, 1905, Chief George M. Egan, who had been at the head 
of the department since 1884, retired, and the present superintendent, George 
M. Beach, was chosen to fill the vacancy. He had been a member of the Board 
of Public Safety. 

The police department lost some of its valuable records by the incendiary 
fire of 1912, when the old City Hall was burned. Speedy repairs enabled the 
police to re-occupy their old quarters within a month after the fire. 

The three platoon system was put into effect on May 5, 191 3. 

On January 13, 1916, the quarters in the new City Hall were occupied. A 
description of these appears in the article on the new City Hall. 

The Board of Commissioners of Public Safety at present (1917) is as fol- 
lows: Mayor Martin Scully, chairman; John C. Downey, Alfred J. Wolff, John 
O'Brien, James Crompton, Arthur B. Burton. 

waterbury's constabulary force 

' Early in 1915, several of the large manufacturing companies of Waterbury 
co-operated with the city in the establishment of a special police or constabulary 
force. 

The Scovill Mfg. Co., with its extensive plant and equipment and large 
factory additions under construction, faced the need of special protection for its 
plant and employees. The problem was solved by the establishment, with consent 
and co-operation of the city officials, of a uniformed constabulary, paid by the 
Scovill Mfg. Co., but under the direct supervision of George M. Beach, super- 
intendent of the Waterbury Department of Police. This took place on May 
21, I915. 

Up to that time the "constabulary" consisted of ten men only, all members 
of the city supernumerary department, and was divided into two shifts, a day 
and night detail, each of twelve hours' duration. From that time on the con- 
stabulary gradually was increased in number until it reached its present size of 
forty-seven members. The shortage of regular policemen to patrol the city 
streets, however, resulted in the detailing of many supernumeraries to regular 
police beats, with the result that the supply of supernumeraries for appointment 
to the Scovill constabulary was finally exhausted. To offset this, the Board of 
Public Safety took advantage of an ordinance giving the Board of Aldermen the 
power to appoint special constables, by referring to them lists of names of ap- 
plicants for appointment as supernumeraries, with the recommendation that they 
be appointed special constables. 

This procedure has since been followed out, and at present the constabulary 
consists of about fifty per cent supernumeraries and fifty per cent special con- 
stables. In several instances of late, where vacancies have occurred in the regular 
police force, the appointees were supernumeraries who had been members of the 
constabulary and whose work in that capacity had earned their appointment as 
"regulars." The supernumerary's place was generally filled by the promotion of 
a deserving special constable. 

The constabulary is a department of police in itself, works on three eight-hour 
shifts daily, a roundsman being in charge of each shift. The members wear 
uniforms and are equipped like members of the regular force. The roundsmen 
wear chevrons denoting their rank. 

Aside from the daily compensation which they receive, members of the con- 
stabulary are well taken care of by their employers, the latter assuming all expense 
in fitting out the men with uniforms and equipment. In addition to this, the 



WATER lil'KY AND TIIENAUGATUCK VALLEY 17 

company has had rest stations erected, which are located on the various beats 
surrounding the huge plant. To these the members are privileged to retire for their 
lunch and for short rests. 

In doing police duty, the men patrol only those thoroughfares adjoining the 
property of the company, and are not required to do duty inside of the plant, 
unless in cases of emergency. The company's patrol watchmen serve within the 
gates and do not go outside except in cases of emergency. 

The company has had erected five police signal boxes which are connected 
with the Gamewell system at police headquarters, and from which the men send 
in their regular "rings.'' A telephone and call for the patrol have also been 
installed. 

The regular department now consists of the following officers and men: 
Superintendent, one police captain, one detective captain, two police lieutenants, 
one detective lieutenant, four police sergeants, three detective sergeants, 
three auto-patrol drivers, one court officer, two motorcycle policemen, one secre- 
tary, one police matron, and fifty-eight patrolmen. Three doormen also do duty 
at headquarters, but they are members of the supernumerary police force. 

A similar auxiliary constabulary system has been established at the Chase 
plant, where fifteen special policemen are employed, all patrolling the beats about 
the plants, uniformed, and in command of the superintendent of police. 

At the American Brass Works the constabulary, paid by the company, but 
working in conjunction with the police, numbers sixteen men. 

At several other plants the constabulary consists of from one to three men. 

The detective department, in charge of Capt. Thomas M. Dodds, has made 
a record for itself in the unearthing of crime. The most notable case was the 
capture of the four men concerned in the murder, March, 1905, of the aged 
recluse. Thomas Lockwood, who lived on the Park Road. The report that he 
was a miser and had a trunkful of gold in the place had aroused the cupidity of 
the men. Captain Dodds followed a number of clues, finally landing three of his 
men in Brooklyn, N. Y. Three of them were given life sentences, and one, who 
had helped to plan the murder, was given a five-year term. 

The Carpenilla triple murder. September 2, 1907, was followed by some 
of the quickest and best detective work ever done in the state. The murderer 
had escaped and was caught on a train at Stamford on telegraphic orders which 
had covered every possible avenue of escape from the city. 

On September 20, 1909, occurred the murder at Union City of Stanislaus 
Kulivinskis. In this case, one of the most harrowing on record, the detective 
department worked up the evidence to the minutest detail, showing how the 
woman in the case. Sophie Kritchman, had first shot the man. then allowed him 
to lie dying in the woods for twenty-four hours. She then went back and cut 
the man's throat with a razor. When she found later that he was still alive, she 
again shot him five times and left him dead, as she thought. He was still breath- 
ing when discovered and died in a Waterbury hospital. The case first ended in 
a mistrial. Later, on a change of venue, she was convicted, together with her lover, 
Joe Mitchell ; although the latter had no part in the actual murder he was given 
a life sentence and the woman was sent up for from twelve to fourteen years. 

THE TROLLEY STRIKE OF I9O3 

On Sunday morning. January n. 1903. approximately one hundred and 

fifty men in the employ of the Connecticut Railway & Lighting Company, then 

operating the trollev svstem. refused to go to work. The immediate grievance 
Vol. 1—2 



18 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

which precipitated the strike was the discharge of Wm. Barrett, an employee, who 
was president of the Amalgamated Association of Street Railway Employees, 
Local No. 193, and three others. 

On Saturday night, January 10th, the men met and formulated demands 
aside from that asking for the reinstatement of the discharged employees. They 
asked for recognition of the union, a ten-hour day at 22^2 cents per hour for 
all regular and extra work, and a company order that all employees join the 
union within thirty days after employment. 

Through its general manager, J. E. Sewell, the company rejected the demands 
and informed the men that their places would be declared vacant if they failed 
to report for duty within twenty-four hours. 

On Monday, January 12th, no cars were regularly operated. On Wednesday, 
Tanuary 14th, the attempt to operate two cars was met with obstructive tactics 
by the strikers and their sympathizers. 

On Thursday, a few cars ran on the Waterville line and later several were 
operated on the Oakville branch. At Waterville one of the cars was badly 
damaged by sympathizers, who had gathered outside one of the factories at the 
noon hour. 

On Friday, one hundred strike breakers were housed at the barns and the 
Oakville, Waterville, North Main and Bank Street lines were operated, but not 
on any regular schedule. 

On Saturday night crowds gathered near the barns and a riot was started, 
but no serious damage was done. 

In the meantime the efforts of the business men and of Mayor Kilduff and 
other city officials to effect a settlement failed completely, neither side expressing 
a willingness to make concessions. 

The strikers now began a systematic boycott of individuals and business 
firms who showed evidences of friendliness' to the company, and a period of terror- 
ism followed, in which the efforts of the company to run cars on schedule or at 
night only partially succeeded. The patronage was lacking, even on the lines 
which were operated with least opposition. 

The riots increased in intensity and finally on Saturday night, January 31st, 
approximately four thousand people gathered along the principal downtown 
thoroughfares, the mob getting beyond the control of the police. Cars were 
stoned, the mayor was hooted, and in one attack a dozen were injured. One 
arrest was made by Dr. A. A. Crane, who witnessed an assault and captured the 
boy assailant. 

The officials called on the governor for aid, and the following day about eight 
hundred men from the First and Second Regiment, C. N. G., arrived on the scene. 
They remained until February 10th. 

A period of comparative quiet followed, broken, however, for several suc- 
cessive Saturday nights by small rioting and wrecking of cars. 

Thus far in the strike many of the business houses sympathized with the 
strikers, but deprecated the continuous extension of the boycott. 

On Sunday night, March 8th, Officer Paul Mendelssohn, riding for the protec- 
tion of passengers on a North Main Street car, was killed by four masked men 
who had been lying in wait for their victim at Forest Park. 

The public attitude changed immediately from neutrality or sympathy to a 
determination to put a stop to outlawry. A Citizens' Alliance was formed and 
$6,000.00 reward was offered for the capture of the murderers. The movement 
was not confined to this action, however, but became a determined anti-boycott 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 19 

crusade. In a few days it numbered 1,600 members and boycott cards which had 
been posted throughout the city were torn down. 

It was plain that the strike was practically ended and tbat violence had been 
responsible for the defeat of the labor cause. It was not, however, until August 
1 ith, that an official announcement declared it off. At that time, by agreement, 
most of the old men were taken back, all, in fact, except the leaders of the strike. 

On Monday, March 30th, eighteen were arrested by the police, of whom eight 
were held for complicity in the Faber's switch affair of February 26th, which 
was an assault on George Morrisetta and Wm. P. Merne. Six were convicted 
of conspiracy and sentenced by Judge Wheeler to ten months in jail. These sen- 
tences were never carried out. as the boys confessed and testified in the trial of 
Willis Yandemark, for perjury, the following June. He was convicted and sen- 
tenced to from two to three years in the penitentiary. 

No one was ever arrested or convicted for the murder of Officer Mendelssohn. 

REPORT OF CHIEF OF POLICE EGAN 

The following is the report of the chief of police on the strike: 

"On Sunday morning, January 11, 1903, Waterbury's first trolley strike was 
inaugurated, and from that time until the following Thursday no attempt was 
made to run cars on any of the lines in the city. During that interval considerable 
excitement was caused by the arrival of non-union trolleymen, and the introduc- 
tion by the strikers of vehicles of all kinds and descriptions for the conveyance 
of passengers. 

"On Thursday, January 15th, the Waterville and Oakville lines were opened, 
the cars running from about 10 A. M. to 5 P. M., and upon the following day the 
Bank and North Main Street line was opened from the depot to Hill Street. 

"On Monday, January 19th, the South Main Street line was opened from 
Exchange Place to Mill Street, and upon January 22d the East Main Street line 
was opened to Wolcott Street. Thus far no attempt had been made to operate 
the cars later than 5 .30 P. M., but on January 26th they were kept running during 
the evening on the 'Waterville line, and on the following evening they were run- 
ning to Oakville. On January 28th they continued to run during the evening on 
the Rank and North Main Street line, and on the 30th they were running to 
Xaugatuck. 

"At that time the cars were running on schedule time on all the lines except 
Bank Street, from the depot to Porter Street, and East Main Street from Wolcott 
to Silver streets, and it was apparent that the trolley company could secure all the 
men it needed to run its cars, notwithstanding the abuse they were subject to. 

"On Saturday, January 31st, the cars were running on all lines the same as on 
the preceding day and there was no indication of unusual trouble until about 
9 P. M. Up to that time Exchange Place was filled with the usual Saturday 
night crowd, but, contrary to the usual custom, the crowd seemed to increase as 
it grew later, rather than diminish. About 9:30 I ordered the patrolmen from the 
outlying beats to come to Exchange Place, and requested the manager of the 
trolley company to withdraw the cars. 

"About 10 P. M. the cars arriving in Exchange Place had many broken 
windows, which sight seemed to add greatly to the joy of the crowd there as- 
sembled. I again requested Mr. Sewell to withdraw the cars and was informed 
that such orders had been issued. 

"About 10:30 the crowd in Exchange Place was reinforced by those who had 
attended the theaters, and from that time until about I A. M., when the last car 



20 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

was put in the barn, the police were unable to protect the cars or the men running 
them, from the mob. 

"Up to that night this department had received no outside assistance, not even 
from the local civil officers, nor had any been requested by the police authorities. 

"After the riot, when it was evident to all that the police were not adequate 
to preserve the peace, it was deemed advisable to call upon the county sheriff for 
assistance, and upon the following evening about 10 o'clock, in response to that 
call, the entire First Regiment, four companies of the Second Regiment, and 
two machine guns arrived in the city, and in addition to the out-of-town troops 
the two local companies were called into service. 

"On the day following the arrival of the troops deputy sheriffs commenced 
to arrive, so that on the Wednesday following fifty or more were in the city, a 
large number of whom were placed on duty on the cars. 

"On Thursday, February 5th, four days after their arrival the First Regiment 
was withdrawn, and upon the following day the out-of-town companies of the 
Second Regiment were relieved. 

"On February 10th, all except about a dozen of the sheriffs were relieved, thus 
leaving the situation again practically in the hands of the local authorities. 

"About the middle of February the situation was again greatly aggravated 
because of the strike of the linemen, lamp trimmers and inspectors of the lighting 
system of the city, which system was also owned by the trolley company. Wires 
were cut, lamps broken, the non-union linemen assaulted and abused, mostly in 
the outskirts of the city, and the few men still here under the sheriff, as well as the 
members of this department who could be spared from the trolley lines, were 
kept very busy in their endeavor to protect the city from darkness. 

"Thus far during the strike it was not deemed advisable to place policemen 
on duty on the cars for the purpose of protecting them or their crews, but after 
the assault on the conductor and motorman on the Waterville line on the evening 
of February 26th, one policeman was placed on each car during the evening, and it 
was not until after March 8th, when Officer Mendelssohn was killed, that two men 
were placed on each car. 

"The strike caused an expense for state troops of $15,000.00; for sheriffs, 
$7,000.00, and for extra police, $5,000.00, a total of $27,000.00, and had the law 
been the same then as at the present time, the city would have had to pay the 
entire amount. 

"It is not my purpose to enter into the full details of the trolley strike and 
the disorder arising therefrom, with which you are familiar, nor to offer excuses 
for the errors of judgment, if any there were, of those in authority, myself 
included. I simply desire to call your attention to certain features of the case, 
which, in my judgment, should the future develop like problems, can be more 
readily solved, and at much less expense. 

"In looking over the ground after the excitement is passed, it seems to me 
that it would have been wise to have placed enough extra policemen on duty when 
the strike was declared, not only to protect the cars and the men running them, 
but also to maintain good order in the streets. Had there been fifty extra police- 
men called into service when the strike was declared, and at least two of them 
placed upon each car when they commenced to run, the rioting of January 31st 
would have been unheard of, the so-called Waterville assault case, costing in 
court fees not less than $3,000.00, would not have occurred, and Officer Men- 
delssohn would not have been murdered. Had that course been adopted I firmly 
believe that the disturbance would have ceased much sooner than it did. that the 
presence of the county sheriff and State troops would have been unnecessary, and 





FIRE CHIEF HEITMAN 



SAMUEL C. SNAGG 

Former Chief Engineer, Waterbury Fire 

Department 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 21 

the expense to the city for extra police would not have greatly exceeded the 
amount actually expended for that purpose." 

SUPERINTENDENT GEORGE M. BEACH 

Superintendent of Police George M. Beach was appointed head of the 
\\ aterbury Police Department while serving as a member of the Board of Public 
Safety on May 9, 1905, but it was not until October 28, 1905, that he actually took 
charge, replacing George M. Egan, who went on the retired list with half pay 
for life. Before assuming charge of the department. Superintendent Beach was 
employed by the Waterbury Clock Company. 

Since taking office, Superintendent Beach has often displayed the executive 
ability that pronounces his qualifications for the place, and has made a number of 
changes in police methods both as to office systems and the detailing of men, 
which have resulted in improved police service. He is a strict disciplinarian and 
has always required his men rigidly to adhere to departmental rules and orders. 

Superintendent Beach is a member of the. executive committee of the Inter- 
national Association of Chiefs of Police, and it is due in part to this association 
that he has been able to establish his department on its present excellent basis, and 
keep in touch with police departments throughout the country. 

SKETCH OF FORMER CHIEF GEORGE M. EGAN 

Former Chief George M. Egan has an enviable record as head of the police 
department of Waterbury for twenty-one years, and a member of the department 
for twenty-nine years. Chief Egan was made a patrolman on April 8, 1876, and 
promoted to the position of Chief on February 17, 1884. He retired October 28, 
1905. 

During his term of office, the detective force was established, the Gamewell 
police signal system was installed August 17, 1901, and the Bertillon system 
of identification was introduced. 

HISTORY OF THE FIRE DEPARTMENT, 1893-I917 

In 1893. the Waterbury Fire Department consisted of seven companies: 
Phoenix Xo. i, Citizens No. 2, Monitor No. 3, Protector No. 4, Rose Hill No. 5, 
Brass City No. 6, and Mutual Hook and Ladder No. 1. Samuel C. Snagg was 
then chief engineer, and had under him 267 officers and men, mostly volunteers. 
The permanent force consisted of the chief, four drivers, one tillerman, two 
hosemen, and one ladderman, — a total of eight men. The remainder were volun- 
teers. The property of the department was valued at $102,830. A fire alarm 
telegraph had been installed with forty-six alarm boxes, at a cost of $9,800. It 
was an up-to-date equipment for that period. In 1894, the volunteers had increased 
to 290. In 1895, the paid force had increased to twelve, the volunteers remaining 
about the same. 

In 1897, the Burton Street building was put into service and housed Engine 
Company Xo. 1 and Hook and Ladder No. 2. The permanent force now con- 
sisted of eighteen men, the call force of nine men and the volunteers numbered 
243, all divided into nine companies. In that year also the first combination 
chemical and hose wagon was put into service with Phoenix Company No. 1. 

In 1898, the volunteers were greatly reduced, no men remaining in 
service and the permanent and call force was increased. In fact, the present 
efficient paid department may be said to date from this period. 



22 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

In 1899, the permanent force was again increased, the total number in service 
being 17 officers and 144 men. In that year there remained only three volunteer 
companies. 

In 1902, after the big fire, a first-class Metropolitan engine and hose wagon 
were added to the equipment. The total force remained about the same as in 1899. 

In 1903 the Brooklyn Engine House was added to the department, in 1905 
the Willow Street House was added, and in 1908 the Baldwin Street fire house 
was opened, the Rose Hill Volunteer Company going out of existence. 

In 1908, the equipment was enlarged by the addition of the first auto hose 
wagon and a car for the chief engineer. In 1909 a chemical auto engine was added. 
In 191 1, the first auto pump engine was placed with Engine House No. 5 on 
East Main Street. The permanent force was now seventy-seven, and there were 
no volunteers and no call men. 

In 1913, a Robinson combination pump and hose auto was bought and 
placed with Engine No. 5. This is the largest piece of equipment in the 
department. 

In 1914, the chief engineer, Samuel C. Snagg, retired after thirty-two years 
as chief engineer, and his place was filled by the appointment of the present chief 
engineer and fire marshal, Henry H. Heitman, who has just celebrated his twenty- 
fifth year of service as a fireman. During that year, an underground cable system 
for the alarms was put into operation. 

In 191 5. two American-LaFrance auto pump engines were placed in service 
with Engine Companies No. 3 and 4. 

In 1916, a new 75-foot aerial truck was bought and placed with Truck Com- 
pany No. 1. In that year, the headquarters of the department were moved to 
the City Hall, and in April the truck company from the Scovill Street House was 
transferred to headquarters. 

In 1916, another combination chemical and hose auto was bought and placed 
in headquarters. A triple combustion chemical hose and pump was bought and 
placed in Willow Street. 

The department in 191 7 consists of eighty-five paid officers and men. The 
valuation of the property of the department on January 1, 191 7, was $322,365.00. 

An interetsing fact in this history is the passing of the fire department horse. 
There are today only six horses used by the fire fighting forces of Waterbury. 

One of the most important additions to the department in recent years was 
the installation of the semi-automatic central fire alarm station at headquarters 
on Field Street. 

The main function of the station is to receive and transmit signals from the 
various boxes. The system, as constructed, may receive and record at the same 
time eighteen alarms, and in turn transmit to the houses the alarms so that in a 
space of three minutes there can be received at least two rounds of the eighteen 
calls for record. The equipment was installed at a cost to the city of $20,000. 

REPORT OF CHIEF SNAGG ON THE CONFLAGRATION OF FEBRUARY 2 AND 3, I902 

The largest fire in the history of Waterbury occurred February 2 and 3, 1902, 
and for the purposes of this history the most complete description of it is in the 
official report of Samuel C. Snagg, then chief engineer of the department, which 
follows : 

February 2d, at 6:20 P. M., an alarm was turned in from box 7 for a fire 
in the Camp Building, Nos. 108 to 120 Bank Street. The building was five stories 
high with a ground dimension of 61 by 94 feet. The Reid & Hughes Dry Goods 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 23 

Company occupied the three lower stories, the upper being occupied by a business 
college and societies. 

The first intimation of the fire was the blowing out of the windows on the 
third floor front of the building, which was followed by a dense smoke and flame, 
pieces of cloth on fire being blown to the sidewalk on the opposite side of the 
street. The companies were prompt in responding and quickly had streams of 
water playing on the fire. Hardly had they begun work ere the large windows 
in the first story were blown out, followed by a sheet of flame which enveloped 
the men, driving them from the immediate front of the building. The first-story 
windows in the rear of the building were blown out at this time. 

Upon my arrival on the fire ground I found the fire not only attacking the 
buildings on the east side of Bank Street, but crossing the narrow passway in 
the rear of the Camp Building and attacking the five-story Schlegel Building; a 
line of hose was at once ordered and quickly gotten to this point and an effort 
made to keep the flames from penetrating this building. 

At 6:35 P. M. I ordered a second alarm turned in, thus calling the entire 
department into service. The high wind prevailing at the time had increased in 
force to such an extent that the flames were being driven with fearful rapiditv 
across Bank Street, also attacking the buildings both north and south of the Camp 
Building. The network of electric light wires on the east side of Bank Street 
had begun to burn off and drop to the ground, or hang in mid-air, making it 
extremely dangerous for the men and also making their efforts ineffective at 
times. Realizing the perilous condition under which the men were working, I 
requested Mayor Kilduff to notify those in charge of the pow r er-house that the cur- 
rent must be cut off all wires running north from Meadow Street, and this was done 
after warning had been given as to the responsibility should any lives be lost by 
reason of the condition of these wires. 

The flames, fanned by the increasing high wind, made rapid strides through 
the buildings on the east side of Bank Street to the west side of South Main 
Street, although heroic efforts had been made by the men to prevent it. The fire 
had already invested the Schlegel Building and its destruction was but a question 
of minutes. Aid had been asked from New Haven, Hartford, Bridgeport, and 
Torrington. each of these places responding with an engine and hose wagon. 
Xaugatuck and Watertown, learning of our distress, sent men with apparatus, 
who were soon at work at the points assigned them. 

In the meantime, the fire had spread from the Schlegel Building to the Franklin 
House and the New England Engineering Company's building on Grand Street. 
Aid was rendered by several of our manufacturing establishments by sending hose, 
which was used until after the fire was under control. On Bank Street, hard 
work had been and was now being done to keep the flames from licking up all the 
buildings from Center Street to Grand Street, and the efforts of the men were 
finally rewarded. They had successfully cut out and saved a portion of the build- 
ings on this street near these two points. The willingness of the captains to carry 
out their orders to their men and the determination of the men "in an effective 
way - ' to assist in executing those orders was very gratifying to me. 

A hard fight was going on in South Main Street to keep the fire from crossing 
to the east side. Although not wholly successful, a very creditable stand was 
made, and both officers and men worked in a manner most commendable. 

Grand Street at this time was losing its row of handsome five-story buildings, 
the flames having gotten into them, spreading from the Franklin House to the 
Jacques Building and not being checked until it reached within one building of 
Leavenworth Street. The attempt to prevent the spread of the fire at this point 



24 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

was not carried on with any degree of success whatever. Owing to the lack of 
hose and the want of an additional hydrant on Grand Street, the chance of 
preventing the destruction of these buildings was very discouraging. At this time 
our own department had nineteen streams playing on the fire, water being taken 
from fourteen hydrants. There was an abundance of water and good pressure, 
but the streams most of the time were ineffective by reason of what was little 
short of a gale blowing. 

Upon the arrival of the firemen from other cities with their engines and 
hose, they were assigned by me to hydrants and positions at the fire. They were 
a most welcome addition to our fire-fighting force. These men, when on the 
road to render us aid, fully realized the task our department had on hand, and 
the willing and effective manner in which they carried out the work assigned them 
was highly commendable. 

Torrington men with their apparatus were first to go into action, their engine 
being stationed at the hydrant at the corner of Grand and Canal streets and hose 
laid in on Bank Street. New Haven was by some person without authority located 
on lower Bank Street. As soon as this was discovered, the men were changed 
to East Main Street, their engine stationed at the hydrant at the Piatt Building 
and hose lined in on Bank Street. Hartford was stationed at the northeast corner 
of Center Square, their engine attached to the same hydrant as our No. 2 engine, 
and their hose laid in on South Main Street. Bridgeport was assigned to the 
hydrant at the corner of Bank Street and Harrison Avenue, and their hose lined 
in on South Main Street. Naugatuck and Watertown were assigned to posi- 
tions on both Grand and South Main streets. 

Up to the time of the arrival of the out-of-town companies, the firemen in 
our department had passed through an ordeal such as has been the lot of but 
lew men in their vocation. On the street, in buildings, and on the tops of build- 
ings, they were constantly facing danger, and in one instance half the men of one 
company providentially escaped being killed. When the spread of the flames 
had been checked at all points and thoughts had been turned to relieving our 
out-of-town friends, I received word that the Scovill House was on fire. This 
was about 4 :2o A. M., February 3d, and at this time an alarm was being run in 
from Box 7. 

Chief Fancher of New Haven and I were engaged in conversation when this 
message was received ; his men were directing a stream on the ruins of the 
Tones & Morgan Building. Upon my giving him the information I had received, 
he at once ordered his line changed and soon had a stream on the first floor of the 
Scovill House. This fire originated in a basement room known as the stock-room. 
Prior to my receiving word of this fire, Assistant Chief O'Brien had gotten a line 
of hose, manned by Watertown firemen, into the basement and had a stream at 
work. Orders were at once given for all hose leading from the engines to be 
brought to different points about this building and in a very short time each 
engine had powerful streams at work; hose leading from some hydrants were 
changed, and additional streams directed on this fire. Fortunately, but one 
engine had to change its location to reach this fire. 

The building was situated very close to the buildings on the east side, being 
separated only by a four-foot passway on the south side, Harrison Avenue 
ran between it and the buildings there ; on the west, a driveway separated it from 
the City Hall. Twelve streams were brought to bear on the Scovill House and 
the buildings nearby. The fire made rapid strides through the burning building 
in spite of the efforts of the men to prevent it, and its total destruction was a 
quesion of a very short time. By hard work, the City Hall building was saved. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 25 

On the east side there was a hard fight to keep the fire from the Hodson Building, 
Exchange Hotel, and other buildings; on Harrison Avenue the boys were per- 
sistent and kept the buildings at that point from harm. 

This was certainly a grand fight, all things considered, and all who took part 
can but look with pride upon their work. Without our out-of-town friends and 
their engines and hose, this would have been a fire almost, if not fully, as dis- 
astrous as the fire that had already filled the hearts of our people with terror. One 
of the employees of the Scovill House lost his life in this fire. This was doubted 
by many, but proved only too true, as his remains were found by parties excavat- 
ing in the ruins some weeks afterward. 

The origin of both these fires will, in my opinion, always remain unsolved. A 
thorough investigation has been made, but nothing ascertained that would throw 
any light on the real cause. Many theories have been advanced, such as incen- 
diary, gas, hot air, combustion, electric light wires, and rubbish in cellar; these 
were given to the fire in the Camp Building. To the Scovill House, incendiarism 
or a lamp explosion in the stock-room were the most probable, especially the 
latter, all electric currents and gas having been turned off from the city at the time 
of the latter fire. 

This conflagration brought out the necessity of a larger and better equipped 
fire department ; the very forcible illustration that we should have none but a 
paid service and that composed of men of stature, muscle and brain, endowed 
with courage. The service rendered our city by the officers and men from other 
towns will always be held in grateful remembrance by all our townspeople, and 
I am pleased to say that the Honorable Board of Public Safety promptly took 
recognition and so notified the proper officials in the cities and towns whose fire- 
men were with us that eventful night and morning. 

The firemen of our own department who performed service this memorable 
night and morning are entitled to the highest praise which can be given them. 
Their work on that occasion speaks volumes for them, and brings out vividly 
the fact that Waterbury had firemen in her fire department who should be looked 
upon with especial pride and who are sure to give a creditable account of their 
services whenever called upon. 

On Bank Street, thirteen buildings were totally destroyed, one being a tem- 
porary two-story frame structure. Eight sustained a partial or slight loss. Of 
the buildings totally destroyed, two were five stories, five four stories, five three 
stories, and one one-story high. 

On Grand Street, seven buildings were totally destroyed and seven sustained 
a partial or slight loss. Of the buildings totally destroyed, six were five stories 
and one four stories high. 

On West Main Street, one building (Scovill House) was totally destroyed 
and three sustained a partial or slight loss. 

On Center Street, three buildings sustained a slight loss. 

With the exception of the two-story frame structure, all buildings totally 
destroyed were of brick and twenty-nine in number. 

The area burned over was about two and three-fourths acres. Six million 
gallons of water were used. 

Value of buildings and contents, fire of 2nd $1,803,172.57 

Value of buildings and contents, fire of 3rd 341,500.00 

Total valuation $2,144,672.57 



26 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Loss on buildings and contents, fire of 2nd $1,218,926.30 

Loss on buildings and contents, fire of 3rd I 53>795- I 9 



Total loss $1,372,721.49 

Insurance on buildings and contents, fire of 2nd $1,498,911.00 

Insurance on buildings and contents, fire of 3rd 172,600.00 

Total insurance $1,671,511.00 

Insurance paid on loss of buildings and contents, fire of 2nd $ 915,571.27 

Insurance paid on loss of buildings and contents, fire of 3rd 69,207.78 

Total insurance paid $ 984,779.05 

FIRES OF A QUARTER CENTURY 

The following is a record of notable fires of the past quarter century : 

1893 — January. Clothing store of F. B. Merriman was burned; loss, $12,000. 

April 19. Lilley Block (South Main Street) was seriously damaged; loss, 
$64,000. 

April 21. Casting shop of Holmes, Booth & Hay dens was burned; loss, 
$2,600. 

April 24. Office of Benedict & Burnham Mfg. Co. seriously damaged; loss, 
$16,932. 

Oct. 16. Factory of Waterbury Spoke and Handle Co. destroyed ; loss, $2,200. 

1894 — February. Arcade Building, owned by R. K. Brown, was destroyed, and 
the store of Miller & Peck, adjoining, was seriously damaged ; total loss, $80,000. 

Dec. 28. This was the date of what is known as the "Piatt Block Fire." It 
destroyed the second and third stories and their contents. The total loss was 
$68,944.73. Total insurance paid was $65,147.93. 

1895 — June. A fire started in the center of the Randolph & Clowes Mfg. Co.'s 
plant. By hard work the firemen got the fire under control before it had spread 
to any extent. So pleased was George H. Clowes, of the Randolph & Clowes 
Company, that he called ex-Chief Samuel C. Snagg to his office, before the last 
line of hose had been taken up, and presented him with a check for $100 for the 
department. The loss at this fire was $17,511.60. 

Nov. 20. On this date occurred what is known as the "North End Fire 
Epidemic," five barns in the district being burned, causing damage to the sum of 
$7,471.00. 

1896 — January. The lamp department of the Holmes, Booth & Haydens Com- 
pany was burned. Loss, $17,000. 

March 28. This is the date of the Waterbury City Lumber & Coal Co. fire. 
The loss was $59,855.34. Insurance paid was $55,825.34. Fifteen horses per- 
ished in the fire. Lilley, Swift & Co., and Valentine Bohl & Co. also sustained 
considerable loss from this fire. 

Nov. 28. Jacques' Auditorium was burned. Loss was $13,459. 

1897 — September. The Waterbury American Building was seriously damaged 
Loss, $12,000. 

1899 — November 1. South Waterbury (Simonsville) fire. Simon's Block, 
corner Middle and Simon streets, and nine dwellings destroyed. Loss, $50,000. 

1902 — Feb. 1-2-3. O n these dates occurred the big Waterbury fire. 

1912 — April 22. The City Hall was totally destroyed. On the day of this 



WATERBURY AND THE XAUGATUCK VALLEY 27 

fire, several other dangerous fires occurred, some happening when the City Hall 
was burning, thus causing great confusion and excitement. 

April 3. Baptist Church on Grand Street destroyed ; loss, $50,000. 

1915 — December. Buckingham Street fire. Four fine residences destroyed. 
Total loss was $35,000. 

1916 — Jan. 3. The Connecticut Hotel on Center Street was gutted by a 
mysterious fire, which resulted in the loss of one life and the destruction of the 
hotel. Six other guests were seriously injured in escaping. 

FORMER CHIEF ENGINEER SAMUEL C. SNAGG 

» 

Samuel Craft Snagg was born in Westport, November 18, 1846. He came 
to Waterbury in 1856, and was educated at the high school. On March 5, 1862, he 
enlisted at New Haven, in Company C. First Regiment, Connecticut Heavy Artil- 
lery, the enlistment being credited to Waterbury. At Arlington Heights, in 
March, 1864, he re-enlisted to serve until the end of the war. 

Among the engagements in which he participated were those of Yorktown, 
Fair Oaks, and Malvern Hill. He was mustered out of the Army of the James 
at Alexandria, Va., and, returning to Waterbury, followed his trade of machinist 
until his election to the head of the fire department, on February 3, 1882. 

For nearly half a century he was connected with the fire department, having 
joined it in February, 1868. He was a charter member of Monitor Hose Com- 
pany, No. 3, and was foreman of the company for three terms. Previous to 
his appointment as chief engineer, he had filled the offices of third and second 
assistant engineer. 

In 1914, he retired from the department. His loyal and faithful service was 
acknowledged by an appropriate pension. 

Chief Engineer Snagg succeeded Andrew W. Goldsmith. Following is a 
list of those who have served as chief engineers from the date of the reorgan- 
ization of the department until the city charter of 1853 to the present time: 
Edward S. Clark, Henry Merriman, James P. Goodwin, Willis Merrill, B. P. 
Chatfield, William Laird, Homer D. Bronson, Andrew W. Goldsmith, Samuel C. 
Snagg and Henry W. Heitman, the present chief engineer. 

CHIEF ENGINEER HENRY H. HEITMAN 

Chief Henry H. Heitman, born in Brooklyn, N. Y., on August 14, 1864, was 
appointed to the permanent force of the fire department on October 13, 1892. 
He received his education in New York and later moved to this city. 

Manifesting a keen interest in the work of the department, he served in the 
volunteer ranks for a few years previous to his appointment to the permanent 
force. He was assigned to duty at the Scovill Street house. His executive 
ability was soon recognized, and on October 12, 1898, he was appointed captain of 
the Scovill Street house. On October 14. 1909, he was appointed drillmaster. 
He was promoted again on November 1, 191 1, to the position of deputy chief. 
Upon the retirement of ex-Chief Samuel C. Snagg, Deputy-Chief Heitman was 
honored by the appointment as head of the department, in which capacity he now 
serves. On October 13, 1917, he celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary of his 
connection with the department. 



28 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

THE HEALTH DEPARTMENT 

The health department has kept, pace in its development, not only with the 
growth of the city, but more important still, with development along protective 
lines in all the larger communities of the country. Today in the matter of milk 
inspection, of food inspection, of medical work in the schools, the city's health 
program ranks with the best in the country. 

Dr. C. W. S. Frost, who was the Waterbury health officer in 1899, 1900 and 
1901, agitated strongly in that period for the registration of all cases of tuber- 
culosis, although these years were exceptionally good from the standpoint of 
health. It, was in 1902 that this suggestion took practical shape, a regulation 
which is now an important feature of health work everywhere. 

In 1902 Dr. Thomas J. Kilmartin was made health officer and had at once a 
smallpox epidemic to contend with. In all ninety-seven cases were reported, 
with a mortality of less than 3 per cent. 

During 1904 the health department made two important advances. The first 
was the establishment of a restricted bacteriological service for the confirmatory 
diagnosis of disease and the other was the inauguration of medical inspection 
of pupils in the schools. Two physicians were named to devote one hour of every 
school morning to the examination of the children. A stricter enforcement for 
the registration of tuberculosis cases was also instituted. 

In 1905, after the legislature had granted the board of health power to make 
its own regulations for the preservation of the public health, a sanitary code 
was adopted for Waterbury by the Board of Aldermen at the suggestion of the 
health board. This governed the handling of contagious diseases, the care and 
sale of milk, and provided for the prevention of spitting in public places. 

In 1906 the bacteriological work was greatly extended, and the code was 
enlarged by the addition of regulations governing the condemnation of unsuitable 
foods. Thus gradually the city was becoming thoroughly metropolitan in its 
advanced health work. The death rate in that year was 15.6, which compares 
favorably with other cities the size of Waterbury. The birth rate for 1901 was 
28.6 per thousand, better than most cities. 

During 1907 a movement for cleaning up the yards of the city was begun 
and with the help of the clergy and other public-spirited citizens, proved a decided 
success. This has been kept up ever since and has given Waterbury a decidedly 
brushed-up appearance in its residential section. 

In 1908 the mortality rate for Waterbury was 14.7 per thousand, the lowest 
it had been in some years. 

The Board of Public Health, acting under the new state law, organized in 
January, 1910, with Dr. A. D. Variell, president; Dr. Charles Engelke, health 
officer ; Dr. E. W. Goodenough, medical inspector of schools ; J. A. Lundin, sani- 
tary inspector; Dr. D. B. Deming, bacteriologist; and Dr. P. S. Keeley, milk 
and food inspector. 

In this year the appearance of typhoid in the outlying watershed districts 
caused an immediate inspection of the city's reservoirs, and a careful guarding 
of its supply. These timely precautions saved the city from what might have 
become an epidemic. The water, tested daily, was found to be in unusually good 
condition throughout this period. 

In 191 1 the appropriation was enlarged to admit of experimenting in the 
analyzing of milk for the presence of bacteria, a great advance in the health 
work of the city. 

In 1912 Dr. T. J. Kilmartin was reappointed health inspector, which position 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 29 

he still occupies. _T. F. Carmody was appointed president of the Board of 
Commissioners of Public Health. This year was marked by the appointment of 
a tenement house inspector, another great advance in health work. 

In 1902 a crematory for the disposal of the city's garbage was installed at 
Waterville and was in use until 1911, when a contract was awarded for removal 
of garbage and its feeding to swine. 

The garbage collecting and disposal is now in charge of a supervisor, John P. 
Caffery. The city has sixteen wagons collecting. The garbage is used for feeding 
swine, and is turned over free to those who collect. It is costing the city 
approximately $27,000 a year to collect and dispose of its garbage. A decade 
ago the cost, with a population much less, was over $24,000. The collection now 
includes Waterville, East Farms, and Town Plot. 

In 1916 the epidemic of infantile paralysis was met by a stringently enforced 
quarantine. The result was that there were but seventeen cases in Waterbury. 
In October of that year, however, there was a smallpox epidemic to contend with. 
So drastic were the precautions that there has in 191 7 been no sign of a 
recurrence. 

In 1917 the Commissioners of the Board of Health officials are as follows: 
Board members, Dr. J. D. Freney, T. F. Carmody, Charles A. Babin, Dr. W. L. 
Barber, Sr., George Hargraves; health officer, Dr. T. J. Kilmartin; sanitary 
inspector, Edward F. Callahan; milk and food inspector, Dr. Peter F. Keeley; 
bacteriologist, Dr. T. F. Healey; tenement house inspector, Thomas B. Moran; 
superintendent of garbage collection, John P. Caffery; medical inspectors of 
schools, Dr. J. W. Fruin, Dr. C. A. Monagan ; school nurses, Miss Mary Monagan, 
Mrs. Annie Grady; clerk and secretary to health department, Lucy J. Reid. 

The latter was appointed the first clerk of the health department in 191 1 and 
has since held that position. 

THE BOARD OF CHARITIES 

The work of the Board of Charities is devoted largely to the care of the city's 
poor. The city almshouse, which, in 1902, was given the name of Brookside, now 
houses about one hundred and fifty inmates, and this has been its average for 
nearly two decades. It was built in 1892, and in the past twenty-five years many 
improvements have been made, the exterior of the building remaining about as it 
was at the beginning of this quarter century, 1893. 

The average of tubercular patients sent by the board to the Meriden State 
Sanitarium in the past five years has been about fifty; to the Shelton State 
Sanitarium, about five : to the Hartford State Sanitarium, eight, and to the Nor- 
wich State Sanitarium, two. 



CHAPTER III 
THE CITY'S PHYSICAL PROBLEMS AND CHANGES 

ITS SITE NOT IDEAL RECONSTRUCTION OF LEADING THOROUGHFARES ITS NEW 

BRIDGES — THE WATER SYSTEM AND THE BUILDING OF ITS GREAT CHAIN OF RESER- 
VOIRS — THE SEWAGE DISPOSAL PLANT NOT YET COMPLETED LONG LITIGATION 

WITH FACTORY OWNERS SEWER CONSTRUCTION OF A QUARTER CENTURY THE 

NAUGATUCK RIVER CONSERVATION PLAN THE WATERBURY-DERBY BARGE CANAL 

PROJECT. 

Rapid growth in population and a site remarkable for its natural perversities 
have combined to make the ordering of Waterbury's physical growth a cluster of 
complex and difficult problems. The growth in population has been far greater 
than the average for New England cities, and has been equalled by few commu- 
nities in the older states. 

With all due respect to the forefathers who founded and developed Waterbury, 
it must be conceded that they did not select an eligible site for a large industrial 
city. When the reasonably level land which formed the river valley was occupied, 
and the city began to expand in all directions, it was found that all future growth 
must be uphill. The hills were many, steep and rocky, the ground was obdurate. 
Builders have discovered that it may cost nearly as much to blast out a cellar as 
to build a small house, while on the other hand a pocket of fine building sand, a 
commodity which is as good as gold in Waterbury, may be unearthed and sold 
for enough to pay for excavation. Most streets and many building sites call for 
expensive grading and sometimes there is filling to be given away and at other 
points it brings a premium. 

On account of the hilly contours and gravelly soil, highways are expensive 
to build and maintain and much permanent paving is needed, more in fact than 
the city has been able to provide. Water and gas mains and sewer lines must 
frequently be laid for considerable distances through rock. 

The approaches to the city running through narrow valleys or over consid- 
erable hills are difficult. When the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad 
double-tracked the Naugatuck division through Waterbury in 1905-7. it was 
necessary to move or divert the Naugatuck River in places to find room for a 
reasonably straight double track. 

The supply of water, of which large quantities are necessary in brass manu- 
facture for the washing of brass, is none too large for the future development of 
the typical industry, and most important of all, the need for potable water to 
maintain the constantly growing population in health and comfort, renders it 
necessary to go farther afield. The central portion of Connecticut is so largely 
urban that towns and cities are competing for available water supplies and 
choice is no longer free. Pure water must be had and it is difficult to secure it 
and expensive to deliver it. 

The newest and most perplexing problem, because still only partially settled, 
is the disposal of waste matter, in which the rights of the down-stream commu- 
nities and property holders are involved, and the question of sewage disposal, 

30 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 31 

which has been vexing us for twenty years, still lacks its permanent solution. 
This added anxiety, peculiar to an inland city with many neighbors, seems an 
unjust addition to the physical difficulties with which Waterbury has so bravely 
and successfully contended. The need of constant planning ahead with careful 
foresight has been imperative because the growth of the city would not wait for 
time to solve its problems. A community which grows from 28,000 people in 
1890, to 45,000 in 1900, and 73,000 in 1910, and in 1917 knows it has 100,000 and 
sees every prospect of doubling in size in the next twenty years, must needs take 
time by the forelock and especially when it has more than ordinary natural diffi- 
culties to master. 

For these reasons the physical development of Waterbury has been largely 
an engineering problem and it has been engineering of a most interesting kind. 
It has been grappled with boldly and we have been fortunate in having at our 
command men who with clear eyes and a faith in the city's future have done 
enduring work wisely and economically so that the community and its industries 
are not weighted down with hopelessly large obligations as a permanent mortgage 
upon the future. 

THE RECONSTRUCTION OF LEADING THOROUGHFARES 

£^2_ Waterbury is principally indebted for the present satisfactory condition of 
its physical equipment, and its consequent opportunities for further progress, to 
the life work of one man, Robert A. Cairns, its city engineer, and to the co-opera- 
tion and loyal backing which he has had from a long line of mayors and boards 
of aldermen. It is due to the official co-operation which he has enjoyed that there 
is no city department in which the evidences of growth for the^ past quarter 
century are so clear as in that of the city engineer. 

During this period the changes have been not alone in the mere housing of 
its continually growing population and in the increase of its business buildings, but 
far more notably in giving to Waterbury the physical aspect of a great municipality. 

It is especially in the reconstruction of its leading thoroughfares that history 
has been made in this quarter century. 

The widening of Grand Street in 1909 and the widening of Meadow Street 
during the same year, eliminating South Willow and Cedar streets, was a particu- 
larly important betterment. This means that Meadow Street now runs continu- 
ously from West Main to South Main streets, and that there is a fine approach 
to the City Hall, Library and Union Station. The Liberty Street opening shortly 
afterwards gave a 60-foot street between Bank and Benedict streets. The Jeffer- 
son Street extension to South Elm Street in 191 1 was a splendid improvement for 
that section. 

The opening of Robbins Street in 1907 was another valuable improvement in 
the highway system of the city. 

In 1914 Thomaston Avenue was laid out with a uniform width of fifty feet 
to Waterville. In that work the railroad agreed to re-locate the track of the 
Naugatuck division and the city lowered by six feet for a length of 1,000 feet a 
36-inch water main. 

In 1914 also Watertown Avenue from Steele's Brook bridge to the Driving 
Park was built by the state, the first piece of concrete highway in Waterbury. 

During 1918. or as soon as the courts have settled on damages, Leavenworth 
Street is to be widened to fifty feet between Grand and West Main streets. 

The most important improvement of this character now begun is that on 
Huntington Avenue. A street fifty feet wide from Thomaston Avenue to 



32 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Watertown Avenue has been laid out. This, when completed, will eliminate a 
detour of three miles to a section that has been growing phenomenally along 
manufacturing and residential lines. There will be three bridges in this new 
street. An expensive and much-needed grade crossing is to be provided for. It 
is also the purpose of the city to locate the West Main Street steel bridge over 
the Naugatuck River. Steele's Brook bridge will necessarily be raised. 

There are today approximately twenty miles of permanently paved streets in 
Waterbury. This reckoning includes all of those constructed of granite, vitrified 
brick, bitulithic asphalt and asphalt, but not macadamized streets. 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF NEW BRIDGES 

Side by side with highway construction goes the providing of bridges and 
Waterbury is necessarily a city of many bridges. ' The winding Naugatuck River 
with its numerous tributaries would set us apart from our neighbors if it were 
not for the building of bridges, large and small. This work has been particularly 
active during the last ten years. 

In 1905 the city constructed Steele's Brook bridge. This is a reinforced con- 
crete girder bridge, sixty feet wide, with two 20-foot spans, the axis of the bridge 
being at an angle of fifty-five degrees. This gave a 60-foot street where it had 
been only eighteen. 

The Grandview Avenue bridge over Robbins Street, built in 1907, is a rein- 
forced concrete girder bridge with a 40-foot span. It carries across an important 
highwav what will eventually become a noble residential boulevard. 

In 1907 the Liberty Street bridge was built. This is a concrete arch bridge, 
50-foot span, with a width of forty feet. It was necessary to go thirty-one feet 
below the street surface to secure a foundation. 

On September 9, 1916, the Bank Street bridge was opened, the people of 
Brooklyn celebrating the event. This, the finest bridge in the city and erected at 
a cost of $100,000, is a three-span masonry arch bridge, 49^ feet between para- 
pets. The old steel bridge over Bank Street was repaired, painted, fitted out with 
many new parts, and was re-erected over the Naugatuck River at Freight Street 
in 191 5, giving the Brooklyn district another much needed outlet. 

The four-track viaduct built by the N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. Co. through the 
central part of the city with its- abolition of grade crossings is a permanent guar- 
antee against accidents. 

During the past few years there have also been built the Hancock Brook 
bridge at Waterville, fifty feet wide, with two spans of twenty-two feet each, and 
a 10-foot rustic bridge, fifty feet long, built over Riverside. 

A 50-foot girder bridge over the Mad River at Hamilton Avenue is now 
under way. Plans are also complete for a new West Main Street bridge, which 
is to be a three-span masonry arch bridge. 

THE GROWTH OF THE WATER SYSTEM 

Probably the most important element of the municipal plant is the water 
supply system, the magnitude of which is not generally realized because while 
its product is daily before the public eye, its parts are concealed or scattered in 
remote districts. Yet its development during the last twenty-five years has been 
so remarkable as to bespeak public attention. 

It is a far cry from the spring at Willow and Grove Streets that 117 years 
ago supplied W r aterbury's leading families with water, to the magnificent system 




THE WIGWAM DAM AND RESERVOIR OF WATERBURY'S MUNICIPAL 

WATER SYSTEM 




THE BROOKLYN BRIDGE, CARRYING BANK STREET OVER THE NAUGATUCK RIVER 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 33 

which now fills the needs of a city of 100,000 population. Up to the year 1893 
the city's water supply was drawn from the reservoirs which collected the drainage 
of about one square mile and had a storage capacity of 180,000,000 gallons. 

Today, after the extensions and growth of a quarter century, the supply is 
as follows : 

Gallons 

East Mountain Reservoirs 137,000,000 

Wigwam Reservoirs 730,000,000 

Morris Reservoirs 2,000,000,000 

2,867,000,000 
Prospective Pitch Brook Reservoir 1,440,220,000 

Total available in 1919 4,307,220,000 

It was in 1893 tnat City Engineer Robert A. Cairns, far-seeing and almost 
prophetic as to the growth of Waterbury, urged the adoption of new plans on a 
far larger scale than had ever before been contemplated. It was with some trepi- 
dation that the authority was finally granted and the work of giving Waterbury 
an adequate water supply was begun, all plans and supervision being in charge 
of Mr. Cairns. 

The territory selected for the first gathering ground, — the Wigwam dam 
and reservoir, — lies to the northwest of the city among the Litchfield Hills, at a 
distance of about ten miles. It has an area of eighteen square miles, drained by 
the West Branch of the Naugatuck River. 

A careful investigation showed a population of less than twenty-five persons 
per square mile of watershed. Probably two-thirds of the region is wooded, 
farming being carried on to a less extent than was the case fifty years ago. The 
main stream has an average inclination of about sixty feet per mile, and flows 
through a valley having a narrow floor and very steep side hills. Tributaries to 
the main stream have such inclinations as to make it out of the question to place 
storage reservoirs on them. Owing to these unfavorable conditions it was found 
advisable to limit the provision of storage to such an amount as would insure a 
safe uniform yield in dry seasons of 600,000 gallons a day per square mile of net 
land surface, or a total average daily yield of 10,500,000 gallons. 

Construction was begun in the spring of 1893. It included excavation for and 
construction of that part of the masonry dam below the bed of the brook, as well 
as much stripping of the basin and grading portions of the pipe line. In the winter 
of 1893-4 contracts were let for all work necessary to complete the reservoir to a 
flow line of 410 feet, city datum, including dams, road diversion and stripping of 
the basin, and for the completion of a 36-inch pipe line to the city. During 1894 
and 1895 these contracts were executed, and a regular supply was furnished in 
January. 1896. It was decided to postpone further work at the reservoir until 
more storage should be found necessary, but the rapid increase in consumption, 
due to the growth of the city and the very dry season of 1899, forbade longer 
delay and in the years 1901 and 1902 the dams were built up to their full height 
as planned. At the same time the additional flowage was thoroughly stripped of 
top soil and all stumps and roots taken out. 

The reservoir was first filled to its maximum level in December, 1901, the 
water rising rapidly as a result of a severe storm. Observations since that time 
indicate that the work is of excellent character, leakage through the dams being 

Vol. 1—3 



34 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

very small. On the down-stream face of the masonry dam, the sweating is so 
inconsiderable that on a clear, bright day it practically all evaporates. 

The reservoir has an area of 105 acres, and a total capacity of 730,000,000 
gallons. 

In 1904 under the direction of Mr. Cairns, a high service water supply was 
planned and partially completed, giving the thousands who lived on high ground 
an adequate supply of excellent drinking water for the first time. An inlet gate 
house was constructed in East Mountain Reservoir and connection was made 
by means of a pipe line with the high ground in the northeastern and northern 
sections of the city. In 1907 the pipe line was extended clear across the city to 
the Town Plot section, — a difficult piece of construction. Since then the Silver 
Street pumping station and that known as the Willow Street pumping station have 
been constructed with a view to filling the East Mountain Reservoir from the 
Wigwam system and keeping up the water pressure. Both pumping stations can 
be utilized to send water supply from the Wigwam reservoir to the East Mountain 
reservoir when necessary. 

The water tower on Hill Street, which has a capacity of 50,000 gallons, was 
finished last year to supply a small population on the higher levels of that particu- 
lar district. A smaller one is now being built in the Bunker Hill district to supply 
Elmhurst. 

In 1909 when Waterbury was estimated to have a population of 75,000, work 
was begun on the second of the city's larger reservoir systems. 

The Morris dam is located on the same stream as the Wigwam dam, a little 
more than a mile farther up stream. In distinction from the latter, however, it 
is an earth dam with concrete core-wall, a study of the conditions and available 
material having proved an earth dam to be most economical. Its greatest height 
above the surface of the valley is about one hundred feet and its length 1,100 
feet, including the waste weir. It adds a storage of 2,000,000,000 gallons to that 
afforded by the Wigwam reservoir. 

The foundations of the core-wall rest on a ledge of solid rock extending 
across the entire width of the valley. On the side slopes, rock is at a depth of 
but a few feet from the original surface, while in the center of the valley the 
foundation pit had to be carried down to a depth of forty-five feet by the use of 
steel sheet piling. 

The foundations of the head-walls, gate-house and spillway, located at the 
west end of the dam, also rest on solid rock. A reinforced concrete drain tunnel, 
about thirty-four square feet in section, is located on the ledge at the foot of the 
western slope. This took all the normal flow of the creek during construction. 
It leads into the down stream gate-house, where 24-inch pipe connections are 
made with a pipe leading into the present city main from the Wigwam reservoir, 
and with a blow-off into the lower reservoir. These gates, however, are not 
intended for regular use, but only for exceptional occasions when the water 
should become very low or when it may become necessary to draw off the reservoir. 

The service gate-house is on the western end of the dam on the head-wall 
between the embankment and spillway. It has six 30-inch intakes leading into 
two intake walls. They are provided with separately operated gate valves. 

A 24-inch pipe line is constructed around the Wigwam reservoir connecting 
directly with the city service main below the Wigwam dam, so that if the city 
wishes to discontinue the Wigwam service for any purpose, such as cleaning the 
reservoir basin, it can get its supply direct from the Morris reservoir. 

The third reservoir, known as the Pitch Brook reservoir, is to be built just 
above the Morris dam and will add 1,440,200,000 gallons to the city's supply. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 35 

The cost of tiiis will be very heavy, owing to present building conditions. The 
construction of this reservoir necessitated the re-location of two highways, and 

plans and profiles were made for this and the work has heen completed. The 
Wigwam Brook diversion, which means a tunnel r,6oo feet long and a small 
diversion dam, part of the third reservoir system, are well under way. 

In a letter to the mayor, published August 15, 1917, Mr. Cairns commented 
on the latest phases of the situation. 

In his communication, Mr. Cairns said that considerable progress had heen 
made in the making of surveys for the new pipe line from the Wigwam reservoir 
and enough of the work had heen done to determine the availability of the pro- 
posed line by way of Steele's Brook Valley. He added that some question had 
arisen as to the possibility of using Steele's Brook Valley route or parallelling the 
present line. The former would require two miles of tunneling. Mr. Cairns 
continued : 

"I have made some approximate estimates with results in which you are 
interested. It appears that if we should decide to parallel the present 36-inch 
main from the Wigwam reservoir to West Main Street, with a 36-inch main, 
tin.' cost of the iron pipe f. o. b. Waterbury at present prices will be about $1,250,- 
000. This is about hve times as much as we paid for 36-inch pipe in 1894. The 
difference in weight between the 36-inch and the 42-inch is 30 per cent. So 
far as 1 can jndge, the cost of such a pipe line will be approximately the same by 
either route and at present prices will be about $2,000,000. 

"The extraordinary and unprecedented costs with which we are confronted 
are calculated to cause hesitation in committing the city to any definite plan in 
regard to the proposed new reservoir and also it is evident that the work if 
undertaken now will cost approximately twice what it was estimated at three 
years ago. At that time I thought it could be constructed for $800,000, but it is 
doubtful now if it can be built for less than $1,500,000." 

Till-: UN COMPLETED SEWAGE DISPOSAL PLANT 

Waterbury had expended up to September 1, 1917, $440,345.10 on its sewage 
disposal plant. This is approximately $11,000.00 more than the amount of the 
authorized bond issue. It includes, moreover, the full amount of damages 
obtained to date by the Piatt Brothers Company for sewage pollution of the 
Xaugatuck during the legally prohibited months, — June 1st to December 1st. 
This averages $2,800.00 a year, and the last amount paid the concern was 
SjS.ooo.oo on April 13, 191 5, covering a damage period of ten years. 

The sewage disposal plant, on which work was stopped in 1908, while giving 
satisfactory service, is still far from complete. According to the original plan 
about $300,000.00 would have built the pumping plant and the purification tanks 
and beds. Today City Engineer Cairns figures that the cost would be two or 
three times the figures as estimated in 1907 and 1908. 

The history of the city's sew r age disposal plant dates back officially to 1890, 
although its need had been apparent many years prior to that date. 

In 1890 Mr. Cairns, heeding the many complaints from residents along the 
banks of the Xaugatuck River, suggested the purchase of land so that sewage 
could be conveyed to it and rendered pure for discharge into the river. In this 
historical report the suggestion was first made for a survey and for plans for a 
sewage disposal plant. 

It was in a way also the first expression of the discontent that ended in the 
long litigation with the Piatt Brothers Company. In [892 suit was brought and 



36 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

the city began preparation for an elaborate defense. This litigation extended 
over a period of over ten years. In 1898 came the first adverse decision in the 
Superior Court, and the city appealed to the Supreme Court, which in 1903 
awarded nominal damages to the Piatt Brothers Company, but by enjoining the 
city from emptying its sewage into the Naugatuck River from June 1st to 
December 1st of each year, made the damages continuing. Thus, by agreement, 
the city is using its old sewage disposal system, but is paying $2,800.00 damages 
yearly for the privilege. 

In 1895, however, the city had concluded to begin active work on a sewage 
disposal plant and engaged one of the best specialists available, Rudolph Hering, 
of New York, to study its problem. In 1895 an d 1896, under the direction of 
Mr. Hering and Mr. Cairns, extensive surveys were made by the engineering 
department. In 1896, Mr. Hering recommended two methods. One was to use 
a combined precipitation and filtration plant, to be established at a point on the 
west bank of the Naugatuck River, about opposite Piatt's Mills. The other was 
to dispose of the sewage by filtration, also, on a field west of Beacon Falls. 

In discussing these recommendations, Mr. Cairns commented at length on 
the unfortunate location of Waterbury, making necessary a very long and very 
expensive outfall sewer. It was the construction of this outfall sewer for ten 
miles through a very rugged valley that made the Beacon Falls plan hopeless. 
In Mr. Cairns' opinion, construction would prove sufficiently expensive to Piatt's 
Mills, only about a mile and a half below the main outfall at that time. 

In 1903 with the litigation decided against the city, orders were issued for the 
construction of works for the treatment of city sewage, the location to be at 
Piatt's Mills. The city secured by condemnation the Bancroft and Upson Farms 
between South Leonard Street and Piatt's Mills. There was little trouble in 
inducing the railroad to change its tracks which crossed this land. Then began 
the survey and mapping out of the whole territory south of Washington Avenue, 
preparatory to gathering the different outfall sewers into one channel and to the 
construction of a main carrier to the disposal fields. 

The work of construction was necessarily slow. In 1907, a year of great 
national depression, the sale of bonds was almost impossible. But all obstacles 
were eventually overcome. Early in 1908, section one of the main carrier which 
had been under construction for two years was officially put into use, together 
with section two, which had been completed in 1907. These sections extend from 
a point a little north of Washington Bridge, southerly along the west bank of the 
river, through Railroad Hill Street to South Leonard Street, and again along the 
west bank of the river to a point just above Nichols Falls, taking all the sewage 
from the old Benedict Street trunk sewer, the Mad River interceptor, and the 
Brooklyn main sewer, and conveying it to a temporary outlet into the Naugatuck 
about opposite the old Smith & Griggs factory, a distance of 7,100 feet. 

In his annual report for 1907, Engineer Cairns says: "The effect on the 
Naugatuck River of keeping out the city sewage has been marked. Since high 
water came and the old deposits were flushed out, the river as far as the temporary 
outlet presents an appearance not perceptibly different from that at points above 
the city." 

Finally in [908 the engineer reported that the city now had a "continuous con- 
crete conduit from Washington Avenue to Piatt's Dam, a distance of over two 
miles, but also a good beginning of the purification works themselves, with main 
carriers, the grit and screen chambers, and the controller house substructure. The 
next steps will be the provision of a pumping plant and the construction of tanks 
and beds." 





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WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 37 

But there the story of the city's sewage disposal plant ends. No steps have 
ever been taken to complete it. 

In the year 1908 Engineer Cairns suggested that "it is possible to escape vio- 
lation of the court injunction by closing the temporary outlet through which 
sewage has been discharged into the Xaugatuck River, conducting the stream 
through section 3 and allowing it to escape into the river below the dam." 

But this suggestion, which required an appropriation to make it effective, was 
also ignored. While the sewage disposal plant is effective as far as its carriers 
are concerned, it is a disposal plant only in name. 

A QUARTER CENTURY OF SEWER CONSTRUCTION 

The problem of taking away and diverting its sewage has been one of the 
great problems which is now in a fair way to completion. Most of the city is 
sewered and construction is being pushed annually into new outlying districts. 
I lere is the record of sewer construction for twenty-five years: 

Linear Feet Linear Feet 

1892 10,280 1905 8,667 

1893 5-79 1 T 9o6 7.658 

1894 4P74 T 9°7 5. 2 66 

1895 6,456 1908 6,890 

1896 2,068 1909 3,365 

1897 3.7°3 x 9io 10,213 

1898 10,389 191 1 7.083 

1900 7,052 1912 14,205 

1901 9. l6 9 l 9 l 3> IM53 

1902 4,4 12 1914 6,036 

1903 3.455 r 9*5 7,2i6 

1904 7,822 1916 6,680 

This, on January 1, 191 7, represented a total of 58.553 miles of trunk and 
lateral sewers. The history of the sewage disposal plant which provided for a 
main carrier to Washington Avenue will be found narrated elsewhere in this 
chapter. The cost of that was $440,000.00. The city has authorized another 
bond issue for the extension of the present main carrier from Washington 
Avenue to Waterville. This will take the sewage out of the Naugatuck River 
from Waterville to Piatt's Mills and give the northwestern portion of the city 
effective sanitation. 

THE NAUGATUCK RIVER CONSERVATION PLANS 

For some years the manufacturing interests of the Xaugatuck Valley have 
felt the need of materially increasing the summer stream flow of the Naugatuck 
River. This need took its first practical shape fifteen years ago, when the Gen- 
eral Assembly was petitioned by Charles F. Brooker, the late John H. Whittemore 
of Naugatuck, the late Alton Farrell of Ansonia, and others, for the right to 
generate power along the Naugatuck Valley. This, of course, was a purely 
private project, but it served to call attention to the possibilities of conservation 
throughout the valley. 

The next step in this great project was a preliminary investigation covering 
the feasibility of a large water conservation plan in the valley. 

At the request of the Naugatuck Valley manufacturing interests, this was 



38 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

undertaken by Charles H. Preston, consulting engineer. For four years he made 
his investigations concerning possible locations of dams, approximate quantities 
of water available for storage, and the extent to which the Naugatuck River 
would be improved by such development. The men back of the project acted 
with extreme care and wisdom in the matter, preferring to make no move until 
Mr. Preston had made the most elaborate and thorough tests possible. 

The four years' investigation took the shape of a great mass of figures and 
engineering data. The recommendations made by Mr. Preston were entirely 
favorable to the project. He advised the construction of a series of impounding 
reservoirs on three of the large tributary streams of the Naugatuck River. 

The first official meeting was held in Waterbury on April 13, 1914. At this 
gathering, the following corporations interested were represented : 

Charles F. Brooker, president, the American Brass Co., Waterbury; Lewis 
A. Piatt, president, Piatt Bros. & Co., Waterbury; W. H. Wooster, secretary, the 
Seymour Mfg. Co., Seymour; John A. Coe, Jr., vice president, The American 
Brass Co., Waterbury ; Charles Miller, president, The Randolph & Clowes Co., 
Waterbury ; John P. Elton, treasurer, The American Brass Co., Waterbury ; 
Thomas D. Bradstreet. general manager, Seth Thomas Clock Co., Thomaston ; 
George A. Driggs, president, The American Pin Co., Waterville ; Edward L. 
Frisbie, vice president, The American Brass Co.. Waterbury ; William E. Fulton, 
president, Waterbury Parrel Foundry & Machine Co., Waterbury. 

There was a general discussion on conserving water in the upper Naugatuck 
Valley, in which possible developments on four different streams were con- 
sidered, these streams having ample watersheds and resultant volume with the 
following names and locations : 

Hall Meadow Brook and Hart Brook, with sources in the southeasterly part 
of the Town of Norfolk, Litchfield County, running southerly through the Town 
of Goshen, into the Town of Torrington, and entering the Naugatuck River near 
Brandy PI ill, so-called. 

The East Branch of the Naugatuck River, with source in the southwesterly 
part of the Town of Colebrook, Litchfield County, running southerly through the 
Town of Winchester, entering the Naugatuck River at Torrington. 

Lead Mine Brook, with source in the southeasterly part of the Town of Tor- 
rington, Litchfield County, passing through the Towns of Harwinton and Plym- 
outh, entering the Naugatuck River at ''Two Mile Bridge," so-called, in the Town 
of Thomaston. 

Of the four brooks considered. Lead Mine Brook appeared the most favorable 
for developing into impounding or compensating reservoirs by reason of its many 
natural features, such as large holding basins, highway locations, real estate 
values, its twenty-four square miles of watershed, constant stream flow and solid 
ledge rock across the entire valley, assuring excellent conditions for foundations 
of masonry dams. 

At the meeting, the following committee was appointed "to investigate the 
feasibility of the scheme of developing impounding or compensating reservoirs 
on Lead Mine Brook, Harwinton: Lewis A. Piatt, chairman, president Piatt 
Bros. (S: Co.. Waterbury ; W. H. Wooster, secretary Seymour Mfg. Co.. Seymour; 
( has. H. Preston, Jr., civil engineer, Waterbury. 

Several meetings followed, at which committee's and secretary's reports were 
made and finally the actual survey was begun September t. T914. This has been 
throughout in charge of Mr. Preston and has been in progress for three years. 

In this period the most careful rainfall and stream flow records have been 
taken and tables of averages have been computed. This work is to be continued 



WATERBURV AND THE XAIGATUCK VALLEY 39 

for another two-year period, as it is considered essential that rive years of records 
be obtained as the basis for the design of the contemplated work. 

The engineers are fairly well agreed on the site of the proposed dams in the 
light of the data now available. 

The location of Xo. 1 dam would be approximately at the lower end of the 
valley, opposite, in an easterly direction, from "Two Mile Bridge," on land of 
the Plume and Atwood Mfg. Co. 

The location of Xo. 2 dam would be across the properties of T. E. Negus, 
The Plume and Atwood Mfg. Co., and the McBeth property, about two miles 
north of Xo. i dam. 

The location of Xo. 3 dam would be about three-quarters of a mile south 
of llarwinton Center on land of William McConway and others. 

The average annual precipitation for twenty-eight years, 1887 to 1915. in- 
clusive, recorded by the late X. J. Welton, taken at Waterbury. has been 48.64 
inches. 

Some other precipitation records which are most interesting to this Xaugatuck 
Valley project are those taken at Orford, X. H., on the Connecticut River, 
Gaylordsville, Conn., on the Housatonic River, Framingham, Mass., on the Sud- 
bury River, and Lake Cochituate, at Cochituate, Mass. 

The straight line distance from these different points where records have been 
taken to proposed Reservoir Xo. 2, Lead Mine Brook, are Orford, N. H., 175 
miles : Gaylordsville, Conn., 25 miles : Framingham, Mass.. 100 miles, and Cochitu- 
ate. Mass.. no miles. Xo records are quoted for a shorter period than five years. 
At Orford. X. H., in a period of five years, 1901 to 1905, inclusive, the pre- 
cipitation averaged 36.76 inches, with a run-off amounting to 59 per cent of such 
precipitation. 

At Gaylordsville, Conn., in a period of five years, 1901 to 1905, inclusive, the 
precipitation averaged 47.86 inches, with a run-off amounting to 62 per cent of 
such precipitation. 

At Framingham. Mass., in a period of thirty-six years, 1875 to I 9 II < tne P re " 
cipitation averaged 45.13 inches, with a run-off amounting to 47.2 per cent of 
such precipitation. 

At Cochituate, Mass., in a period of forty-six years, 1865 to 191 1, inclusive, 
the precipitation averaged 45.83 inches, with a run-off amounting to 42.6 per cent 
of such precipitation. 

The average precipitation and percentage of same in run-off of the four above 
described points is as follows : 
Precipitation, 43.89 inches. 
Percentage of precipitation in run-off, 52.7. 

The only actual construction work done on the project so far has been a 
series of core borings taken on the center line of proposed Dam Xo. 2. These 
show a favorable formation of rock and were entirely satisfactory from an engi- 
neering point of view. 

The engineers expect that work on Dam No. 2 will begin at the end of the 
live-year period of taking precipitation and stream flow records. This, of course. 
depends largely on the amount of water it will be found is available. 

The project, when completed, will cost several million dollars, but it will have 
an enormous influence on the industrial development of the valley, giving con- 
tinuous and greatly increased water power, and incidentally flushing the Xauga- 
tuck River to a sanitary condition throughout the year. 

By the development of Dam Xo. 2. with its drainage area of 14.060 acres, or 



40 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

twenty-two square miles, it will be possible, with a spillway at elevation 610, to 
impound 3,413,917,000 gallons. 

This huge reservoir would cover 316 acres, contain 10,477 acre ieet > would 
cost with a cyclopean masonry dam $914,600, on the basis of $87.29 per acre foot. 

The length of the dam across its crest from east to west side of valley would 
be 1,300 feet, with a maximum height of 142 feet above bed of stream. 

This will set back a pond of nearly 2.y 2 miles in length, from 500 to 1,800 feet 
in width and varying in depth from 35 to 142 feet. 

While this may appear rather a bold undertaking in the matter of dam con- 
struction, there is apparently no feature against such a structure, it has numerous 
natural facilities to favor its development, such as ledge foundation across the 
entire valley, plenty of good quality stone for use in the cyclopean construction, 
sufficient water to fill four times during each year, and a small amount of new 
highway construction. 

THE WATEREURY-DERBY BARGE CANAL PROJECT 

The appropriation by Congress of $25,000 for surveys and investigations into 
the cost of a proposed barge canal from Waterbury to tidewater at Derby is the 
first step toward Federal aid in a great project for the further industrial develop- 
ment of this city. 

The agitation for this canal has been quietly growing for years, but its recog- 
nition by Congress, as worthy of preliminary survey work marks the first great 
step toward realization. In 1894, the men behind the project were satisfied 
with a proposed fifty-foot canal. Today the Government is considering a seventy- 
foot canal. 

Engineers have in a general way estimated its cost at from $25,000,000 to 
$30,000,000. 

As outlined by Engineer Charles H. Preston, the several heights above tide- 
water at Derby Junction and the different towns and cities along the route to 
Waterbury are approximately as follows : 

Ansonia is twenty-five feet above tidewater. Seymour is ninety feet above 
tidewater. Beacon Falls is 120 feet above tidewater. High Rock Grove is 140 
feet above tidewater. Naugatuck is 180 feet above tidewater. Union City is 200 
feet above tidewater. Flats, rear of Waterbury freight yard, 262 feet above tide- 
water. Brown's Meadows, Waterbury, are 271 feet above tidewater. Ansonia is 
twenty-five feet higher than Derby Junction, Seymour is sixty-five feet higher 
than Ansonia, Beacon Falls is thirty feet higher than Seymour, Naugatuck is 
sixty feet higher than Beacon Falls, Union City is twenty feet higher than Nauga- 
tuck, and Waterbury is sixty-two feet higher than Union City. 

The distances along the proposed line of barge canal between Derby Junction 
and Waterbury are as follows : Derby Junction to Waterbury is 18.50 miles, 
Derby Junction to Ansonia is 2.13 miles, Ansonia to Seymour, 3.84 miles; Sey- 
mour to Beacon Falls, 8.48 miles ; Beacon Falls to Naugatuck, 4 miles ; Naugatuck 
to Union City, .072 mile ; Union City to Waterbury, 4.33 miles. Other distances 
would be as follows : Derby Junction to Seymour, 5.97 miles ; Derby Junction to 
Beacon Falls, 9.45 miles; Derby Junction to Naugatuck, 13.45 miles; Derby 
Junction to Union City, 14.17 miles. Distances toward the south would be: 
Waterbury to Union City, 4.33 miles; Waterbury to Naugatuck, 5.05 miles; 
Waterbury to Beacon Falls, 9.05 miles ; Waterbury to Seymour, 12.53 rniles ; 
Waterbury to Ansonia, 16.37 miles; Waterbury to Derby Junction, 18.50 miles. 

By the installation of eleven locks, varying in height from twenty-one to 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 41 

thirty feet, which are considered feasible in canal construction and operation at 
present, barges containing freight could be delivered through to Waterbury from 
tidewater or to any other town along the line of canal. 

Mr. Preston ably summarizes the advantages to be obtained from the con- 
struction of a canal, and the following is a quotation from one of his articles on 
i he subject : 

"That a barge canal between Waterbury and tidewater would be a decided 
asset to the state can be appreciated, when it is shown that about three-quarers of 
the entire area of the state is within twenty-five miles of some part of the canal 
and may, therefore, be reached by motor truck over trunk line highways, con- 
structed and maintained on a par with any in New England. The areas covered 
by New Haven, Hartford, Bridgeport, Waterbury and intermediate sections, the 
four largest cities of Connecticut, and representing about 70 per cent of state 
industries, 75 per cent of state population, are within thirty miles of our proposed 
project. 

"Many admirable factory sites would be created by the construction of a canal 
and hundreds of acres of land now lying dormant would be open for full develop- 
ment. 

"Critics of our proposed canal project have brought forth the claim that to 
operate a canal of 18.5 miles length, with a difference in elevation of 262 feet or 
14.16 feet to the mile, is not practical. In rebuttal of this statement, I will say 
that in the New York State barge canal, a model of the very latest design in canal 
construction, with a developing cost upwards of one hundred and fifty million 
dollars, is operating between Waterford and Crescent what is termed "The 
Waterford Flight," an assembled group of three locks, all within a mile's dis- 
tance, with a total lift of 103.5 Ieet - 

"This is as much grade in a mile as our proposed project would average in 
seven miles. 

"I claim the proposed barge canal between Waterbury and tidewater at 
Derby worthy a thorough investigation, from the following points of view : 

"1. Industrial conditions in our Naugatuck Valley demand this canal in addi- 
tion to the New Haven Railroad. 

"2. With a possibility of the sewage problem of the valley being solved, 
from this viewpoint alone, I claim the project worthy an investigation. 

"3. With operating expenses about one-seventh the amount of those of steam 
railroads, it is conclusive that this barge canal would be the popular carrier. 

"4. Prosperity's growth has been such that the railroads have been unable to 
keep astride and transportation facilities at present are 100 per cent deficient. 

"5. Naugatuck River has a drainage area of 326 square miles and the annual 
precipitation for a long term of years is 48.8 inches, which virtually means there 
are annually passing down through our valley 107,000,000,000 gallons at Water- 
bury, 129,000,000,000 gallons at Naugatuck, 157,000,000,000 gallons at Seymour, 
164,000,000,000 gallons at Ansonia, and 166,000,000,000 gallons at Derby, an 
overabundant amount, in my opinion, if properly conserved, to place the practi- 
cability of our proposed barge canal beyond the question of doubt. 

"6. Waterbury has grown nearly double during the past decade, will continue 
to do so in the future, and in order to cope with transportation facilities we must 
provide an outlet by water such as are now had by New Haven. Hartford and 
Bridgeport." 



CHAPTER IV 
PUBLIC BUILDINGS 

OLD CITY HALL AND ITS AUDITORIUM MAYOR ELTON REMODELS BUILDING ITS DE- 
STRUCTION BY FIRE NEW BUILDING PROJECTED BONDS VOTED AND COMPETI- 
TION ENDS IN SELECTION OF CASS GILBERT AS ARCHITECT DESCRIPTION COST 

THE DEDICATION EXERCISES IN "OLD HOME" WEEK SALE OF THE OLD CITY HALL 

PROPERTY THE WATERBURY COURTHOUSE DESCRIPTION THE AGITATION FOR A 

FEDERAL BUILDING HOW ITS SITE WAS SELECTED CONSTRUCTION DESCRIP- 
TION. 

For fourteen years after its incorporation as a city, Waterbury's municipal 
meetings were held in Gothic Hall, on what is now Phoenix Avenue. The town 
and the city voted in 1867 to issue bonds for erecting a city hall on West Main 
Street, and this building served for thirty-five years when it was destroyed by an 
incendiary fire. 

When it was planned, the city lacked not only proper accommodations for city 
offices and courts, but with the increasing population there was no hall large 
enough for the public gatherings and entertainments. Consequently the second 
floor was made a large auditorium with stage, in which "Uncle Tom's Cabin" 
alternated dates with "Hamlet." Political rallies, caucuses and fairs were held 
there in season, the chairs were cleared away for dances, and its use as a public 
hall even lasted long enough for moving pictures to be shown there. This was not 
primarily an amusement enterprise. Admission was by invitation for the purpose 
of demonstrating to possible purchasers of stock a device by which the moving 
picture machine and the phonograph could be synchronized. Those who attended 
heard grand opera stars sing the sextette from Lucia while they witnessed the 
actions of the singers as shown in moving pictures, while Harry Lauder marched 
grandly across the screen in exact time to the accompaniment of one of his songs 
reproduced on the phonograph. It was apparently convincing, and on the strength 
of it, some of the stock was sold here, but the enterprise never succeeded com- 
mercially. This was one of the last occasions on which the hall was used for 
entertainment purposes and was in the autumn of 1910. 

The opening of theaters and newer halls easier of access had led to a falling off 
of the demand for the use of the City Hall Auditorium. As early as 1904 the 
receipts from rentals had fallen so low that the auditorium was regarded by those 
in charge of it as waste space. In addition the city departments on the main floor 
were badly cramped for room. The aldermen met in a chamber which had room 
for desks for members of the board and for a dozen spectators to sit or a score 
to stand. The town clerk's records were kept in a vault barely large enough for 
storing the books and with no accommodations for searchers. 

Mayor Elton secured from the General Assembly in 1905 authority to issue 
bonds for $75,000 to enlarge and remodel the city hall, but it was found that the 
building which was planned could not be secured within the appropriation and the 
project was dropped. Some interior changes were made in the police station and 
the city hall. Towards the end of Mayor Hotchkiss' administration the project 

42 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 4:j 

was agitated again. After some evidence of division of opinion among the public, 
it was decided to spend $40,000 in making changes. The auditorium was converted 
into an aldermanic chamber and police drill hall, larger quarters were provided 
for the city clerk and city comptroller, expensive modern vaults and tiling devices 
were installed for the town clerk's records and a portion of the basement was set 
apart for a public comfort station. Contracts were let late in 191 1 and the com- 
pletion of the work lapped over into .Mayor Reeves' administration. 

The remodeling was just about completed, although some portions of it had 
not yet been utilized, when a tire, originating among some paint pots and builders' 
rubbish, not vet removed from the cellar, destroyed the building on the night 
of April _'_'. M)i_'. 

That was a wild night for Waterbury. Half a dozen small tires broke out and 
there were thirteen alarms in all, the horses that drew the apparatus were exhausted 
with the task of dashing from one part of the city to the other, and the militia was 
called out to help the police watch the business district. Investigation next day 
showed that a number of fires had been started by an incendiary. Mayor Reeves 
called a special meeting of the aldermen next morning to pass resolutions offering 
a reward for the arrest and conviction of the firebug, providing for new automobile 
fire apparatus and the appointment of a commission to build a new City Hall. 

Eventuallv, the origin of the fire was traced. Bernard C. Murray, son of a 
former fire official of Hartford, was arrested in Massachusetts for a trivial larceny 
in connection with a mysterious fire. Suspicion had been aroused in several quar- 
ters by his movements. He was charged with starting the fires which burned the 
Wilson House in Xorth Adams and a sanitarium and several other buildings in 
Berkshire County, Massachusetts. He finally confessed having started the fires in 
Waterburv, giving an account of his movements here, after being positively identi- 
fied by Mrs. Minnie R. Russell, who had met him face to face in a hallway in the 
Chelsea rooming house on West Main Street, near the city hall, just after he had 
started a blaze in a closet. She claimed the promised reward but the aldermen 
decided not to pay it on the ground that Murray had not been arrested and con- 
victed of the crime. This, however, was because the Massachusetts authorities had 
equally good evidence against him, but declaring him insane, had committed him 
to an asylum, from which he was released rather mysteriously within a year, as 
cured. The Waterbury American, indignant at the refusal to pay the city's reward 
to Mrs. Russell, raised a fund of several hundred dollars by public subscription 
and paid it over to her. Mrs. Russell's husband is in the employ of Price & Lee 
of New Haven, publishers of the Waterbury City Directory. 

The city hall fire left untouched the three adjoining buildings, the old police 
-tation, the three-story brick building at Leavenworth Street and Harrison Avenue, 
used as a fire headquarters and first occupied on December 24, 1807, and the City 
Hall Annex, having the old Bronson Library Building as its nucleus and accommo- 
dating numerous city offices. The city hall proper, however, was non-tenable, 
excepting that the town clerk's office in the northeast corner was only slightly 
damaged. Town Clerk Robert Palmer, refusing to be separated from his newly 
acquired vaults, hired carpenters, made repairs and retained the use of the office 
until transferred to the present quarters in the city hall. The offices of the mayor, 
city clerk and city comptroller were removed to quarters in the Lillev Building 
on West Main Street, where most of the city's meetings were held. \ store on 
Center Street was rented for the use of the city court. 



44 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

ERECTION OF THE NEW CITY HALL 

The destruction of the old city hall necessitated immediate action for the 
proper housing of the city departments and for the safety of future public records. 
Judge Francis T. Reeves, who was mayor at the time, appointed a committee of 
ten to handle the situation. 

This committee effected little. The sentiment was divided between rebuilding 
on the old site and selecting a new site for a new city hall. Several were sug- 
gested — the Green, the Merriman property, which was then found to be not for 
sale, and the present site among the others. The old site had its champions, and 
those favoring a new site were divided between several locations. For some time 
the local papers were flooded with communications from interested citizens in 
which the question was discussed at length. The aldermen refused to come to a 
decision and ordered a referendum election, but this was inconclusive. Another 
referendum found a bare majority voting in favor of the present site. Meanwhile, 
the board of aldermen sanctioned the appointment of a city hall commission, 
which body was to transact all business in connection with the construction of the 
new municipal building. The original membership of the commission was as 
follows: Mayor Francis T. Reeves, chairman; Patrick F. Bannon, George A. 
Driggs, John P. Elton, Daniel T. Farrington, alderman ; John F. Garron, Edward 
O. Goss, Raymond G. Hutchinson, alderman ; John Hurley, alderman ; Fred A. 
Jackie, alderman ; William J. Walsh, alderman. 

The resignation of Mr. Hutchinson in March, 1914, left a vacancy to which 
Charles A. Colley, president of the chamber of commerce, was subsequently 
appointed, and when death claimed John F. Garron, Alderman Mortimer Doran 
was chosen to fill the vacancy. The first meeting of the commission was held 
August 1, 1912. In January, 1914, Mayor Martin Scully succeeded Francis T. 
Reeves as city executive, and automatically became head of the commission. 

One of the first acts of the commission, following negotiations for the transfer 
of title to the city government of the property on which the present building 
stands, was to hold a competition conducted by Prof. Warren Powers Laird, of 
the University of Pennsylvania, to select an architect to design and supervise the 
construction of the new city hall. The plans of Cass Gilbert, of New York, were 
selected. On July 8, 1914, the Geo. A. Fuller Construction Company of New 
York signed the contract to construct the building, and in the early part of August, 
1914, ground was broken. The appointment of two supervisors, Charles M. Gasson 
for the construction company, and Frederick C. Peckwell, for the city's interests, 
occurred shortly after. 

The building was officially opened during "Old Home Week," November 25, 
26 and 27, 1915, although many of the departments did not occupy it until 
January, 19 16. 

The city hall is situated on Grand Street, adjoining Library Park, and com- 
manding an approach to the center of the city through Leavenworth Street. 

The entourage which fronts the length of the building on Grand Street is its 
show feature. Standing within a low rounded marble coping, which surrounds it 
on all sides and separates it from the broad encircling sidewalk, it is laid out in a 
formal Colonial style which harmonizes with the delicate red and white ornamenta- 
tion of the fagade. At the edge of the sidewalk at regular intervals are placed five 
decorative, 18-foot, bronze lamp standards. The approach to the entourage is by 
white marble steps, flanked on either side by smaller auxiliary stairways, also of 
white marble, which lead to the main section, containing the decorative features. 

The fountain is centered in a small court, the pavement of which is of red brick 




THE XEW CITY HALL. WATERBURY 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 45 

inset with white marble bands enclosing a large circular slab. At the main entrance 
are two decorative vases or urns of white marble, several feet in height, from the 
base of each of which, through the mouth of a carved satyr, jets a stream of water 
flanking the central fountain. 

The building, which is of Colonial design, is built around a rectangular court, 
laid out as a sunken Italian garden. It is not only the office building of the city 
and town officers, and the home of the probate and city courts, but also the head- 
quarters of the lire department and the police department. The east wing is 
devoted to the tire department and the west wing is devoted to the police depart- 
ment. The main portion is three stories high, with a roof and a cupola tower, with 
a 4-dia] clock, gilded dome and weather vane. The other three sections are but 
two stories high. 

Its exterior is of Vermont marble and North Haven brick, marble blocks com- 
prising most of the walls of the first story and marble pillars running to the roof 
between the windows of the main portion of the building. At the east and west 
ends, on marble slabs set into the walls, are appropriate inscriptions and on ten 
circular marble slabs set into the walls of the third story are ten different designs, 
in bas relief, significant of the city's industries and character. A marble fence 
surrounds the roof of the main building. 

The collector, assessors, probate court, board of charities, town clerk, and city 
clerk, have offices and vaults on the main floor. The basement provides janitors' 
rooms and storage rooms, heating plant, a store for the board of charities, labora- 
tory and nurses' rooms for the board of health, testing rooms and storage rooms 
for the engineering department, and rooms for the sealer of weights and measures. 
( >n the second floor are the offices of the mayor, the personal tax collector, the 
board of public works, city court judge, a jury room, lawyers' room, juvenile court 
room, city court clerk's and prosecuting attorney's offices. At the Field Street end 
of the building, on the second floor, is the aldermanic chamber, which occupies 
both the second and third floors, and at the west end of the building is the city 
court room, also extending through to the third floor. 

On the top floor are the drafting rooms and offices of the city engineer's depart- 
ment, probation officer's room and offices for the corporation counsel, health officer 
and inspectors and board of health, registrars of voters, city sheriff, park superin- 
tendent, building inspector, and telephone exchange. 

In this portion of the building, the corridors are built with marble floors and 
the trimming is white wood, enameled to an ivory finish. Throughout the rest of 
the building, the floors are terrazzo and the woodwork oak. 

On the Field Street side is the fire headquarters with the apparatus room, 
repair shop, firemen's waiting room and toilet rooms on the main floor. On the 
second floor are the offices of the board of public safety with offices and rooms also 
for the officers of the fire department and bed rooms for twenty-one firemen. 
There is a fine shower bath room and toilets for officers and men, linen closets, 
and a recreation room, some of these occupying the rear portion of the building. 

In the police wing of the building there is a large drill hall in the basement, 
locker rooms, sergeants' room, smoking room, storage rooms, toilets and shower 
bath. There is also a large room in which the homeless are provided with sleep- 
ing accommodations. 

On the first floor are the offices of the police department officials, a men's cell 
room with thirty cells and room for ten more, detention rooms and a police garage, 
the entrance to which is from the rear of the building. The second floor accom- 
modates the detective bureau with offices, a Iiertillon room, dark room, detention 



46 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

room for women, a cell room with ten cells for women, matron's office, bed room, 
living room and kitchen. 

Directly facing the main street entrance is the 10-foot main inner staircase of 
white marble, which, ascending some twenty-six steps to a first landing, branches 
to either side, and winds up and back to the second floor. Leading to the right 
and left of the first floor central hall are two corridors all in white marble, and 
both with lofty ceilings in the same design as the main hall. On either side of 
these corridors are the first set of city offices. At the end of either corridor are 
the side entrances of the building, reached by sets of marble steps. The corridors 
are fourteen feet in width, with all of the office doors inset in arched alcoves 
which are duplicated at regular intervals along the wall of the corridors. The 
lighting for the main hall and corridors is furnished by ten large decorative bronze 
hanging fixtures, strung through the center of the corridors and grouped in the 
main hall. At the left of the staircase on entering is located the elevator. 

The corridors and ceilings are decorated in grayish ivory relieved by soft buff 
and violet in the coffers. All this decorating, as well as the special rooms, was done 
by Arthur Willetts, of New York. 

Featured in the artistic decoration of the building are the ten circular bas-relief 
inset medallions. Six are set in the front and two each in the Field Street anc 1 
Library side of the structure. They symbolize Truth, Prudence, Industry, the 
City Seal, Commerce, Force, Law, Justice, Wisdom and Order. 

The aldermanic chamber is of noble proportions, with a lofty, elaborately deco- 
rated ceiling. The walls are of greenish gray plaster and rise from a white base. 
All carry inset Muted white columns. For illumination there is a massive hanging 
cluster of lights set in two concentric circles, the larger outer circle carrying twenty- 
seven lights in the form of imitation candles, and the inner circle carrying thirteen 
of the same variety. 

Over the president's seal are inscribed the words : "Let not mercy and truth 
forsake thee. Bind them about thy neck ; write them upon the tablet of thy heart, 
so thou shalt find favor and good understanding in the sight of God and man."-- 
Proverbs, III. 

The city court room, at the west end of the corridor, is finished in much the 
same style as the aldermanic chamber and is of the same generous proportions. 
It has the same massive pendant light cluster. The walls are treated in a grayish 
motif, relieved by decorated motifs in the frieze and panels. Over the judge's 
bench is inscribed: "The foundations of justice are that none shall be harmed 
and the commonweal be served." The interior decorations are beautiful. This 
work was done by Arthur Willetts, of New York. 

A large bell which was purchased by the City Hall Commission was intended 
to be installed on the roof of the city hall. The light and graceful clock tower 
on the building not being designed to carry the added weight, the architect was 
asked to furnish an estimate of cost for a bell tower. This would have been 
expensive and would probably have destroyed the harmony of the sky lines. It 
was offered to the board of education for use on a school and to the board of 
public safety for a fire bell, but was refused because there was no money available 
to add a bell tower to any existing building. There was a highly eligible location 
for it in the tower of the Union Station, although this was open to the seeming 
objection that the station was the property, not of the city, but of the New York, 
New Haven and Hartford Railroad. However, this was overlooked, the company 
was induced to consent to the installation of the bell there and it was raised in the 
summer of 1916. It remained in the control of the city to be rung on special 
occasions. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 47 

The municipal flag which floats from the staff was officially adopted on October 
it, 1915. This is the approved design: "The City Seal in the center of the flag, 
and the motto, 'Quid Aere Perennius.' underneath the seal. The words, 'City of 
Waterbury' overhead the seal, and the figures '1853-1915' underneath the seal; 
the seal and lettering to be gold on a blue ground; size of flag, 18 feet." 

The following is the summary of the receipts and expenditures in connection 
with the purchase of the site, and the erection and equipment of the building. 

REALIZED 

From insurance on old building $ 62,476.47 

From bond issue : 

Authorized sale of 10-year bonds issued December, 1913 100,000.00 

Authorized sale of 40-year bonds issued June, 1914 400,000.00 

Authorized sale of 40-year bonds issued June, 1915 400,000.00 

Total $962,476.47 

EXPENDED 

For purchase of original site $ 92,000.00 

For purchase of addition from United Electric Light & Water Company 33,000.00 

For purchase of addition from Piatt Brothers & Co 19,740.00 

To Geo. A. Fuller Co. for construction 604.300.73 

Expenses and fees, Cass Gilbert, architect 49,240.71 

Expense of competition on plans 11,050.55 

Bell 1 3-137-94 

Gamewell Fire Alarm 19,712.43 

Furniture, equipment, supplies, etc 85,303.30 

$917,485.60 

THE DEDICATION EXERCISES "OLD HOME WEEK'' 

At the suggestion of the Waterbury Chamber of Commerce, the board of alder- 
men in the summer of 1915 endorsed the idea of holding an "Old Home Week" 
as a means of properly dedicating the new city hall, but neither the aldermen nor 
the city hall commission could find any legal authority for voting the necessary 
funds. The city found it could spend $500 which went to pay expenses of the 
actual dedicatory exercises and the chamber of commerce undertook to provide for 
all other expenses and to manage the celebration. A general meeting of representa- 
tives of lodges and societies from all sections of the city was held at the Elks' 
Club and it was found that there was a real desire for an extensive celebration. 
It was so long since there had been any occasion for celebration that it was at first 
proposed to make the celebration last a week and bring the entire brigade of the 
Connecticut National Guard here for a military parade. This, however, proved to 
be impractical, but a very lively program was arranged for Thursday, Friday and 
Saturday, November 25th, 26th and 27th. 

On Friday morning the school children paraded, with an escort of Boy Scouts, 
from Croft School to Grand Street, where exercises were held in front of the city 
hall. Children from the South Main Street playground gave folk dances. The 
school children sang the "Old Home Week" song, "An Invitation," the words of 
which were written by Rev. John G. Davenport, D. 1). Afterwards the children 
paraded to Chase Park Bridge, where the Sled Haul Brook Tablet was dedicated. 
This was erected by the Mattatuck Historical Society and unveiled on this occasion 



48 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

by Edwin S. Hunt, assisted by Miss Carolyn White Griggs and Master Roger 
Sherman Makepeace, the latter a direct descendant of Rev. John Southmayd and 
Rev. Mark Leavenworth. 

The historical interest of the occasion, which was further amplified by Rev. 
Joseph Anderson, D. D., in a characteristically thorough historical address, is 
sufficiently told for our purpose here by the inscription which reads as follows : 

"On the opposite side of the river and probably in the small hill about forty 
rods easterly, tradition says that the first settlers of Waterbury spent their first 
winter in a dugout or cave. Wood was obtained from this side and hauled on a 
sled across the frozen still water; hence, Sled-Haul and Sled Hall Brook, 1677-8." 

"Erected by the Mattatuck Historical Society, 1915." 

On Thursday evening came the dedication of the "Clock on The Green," the 
acceptance of the big flag pole on The Green by the city and a fireworks display 
on Grand Street opposite the city hall. The Elks arranged a special ritual for the 
clock dedication and the ceremony was in charge of Dr. J. W. Fruin. The pre- 
sentation address was by Charles A. Colley, speaking for the chamber of commerce, 
and the unveiling was by little Miss Jackson, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Charles 
A. Jackson, Mr. Jackson being the contractor for the monument. Mayor Scully 
and the late Rev. F. D. Buckley also spoke. 

The annual parade of the police and fire departments followed at 1 P. M. and 
at 2 P. M. came the dedication exercises at the city hall. Capt. Alfred F. Wolff 
presided, the opening prayer was by Reverend Doctor Anderson and the bene- 
diction by Rev. Luke Fitzsimons. The new municipal flag and the national emblem 
were raised on the Venetian flag poles in front of the building for the first time 
under the auspices of Wadhams Post, Sons of Veterans, Berlin. 

On Friday evening Governor Marcus A. Holcomb and his staff were the 
guests of honor at a ball given at Buckingham Hall. Prior to this a banquet had 
been given the visitors at The Elton by the chamber of commerce. 

It is estimated that 125,000 people saw the civic and military parade held 
Saturday afternoon, November 2"], 191 5. On the reviewing stand with the gov- 
ernor were the members of his staff, Mayor Scully of Waterbury, Mayor Rice of 
New Ffaven, Mayor Dutton of Bristol, and many local men of note. This was 
also the day for the formal opening of the new city hall for public inspection. 

In the parade were the Second Regiment, Connecticut National Guard, the 
First and Second Companies, Governor's Foot Guard, the Putnam Phalanx, the 
Connecticut Brigade, Uniformed Rank, Knights of Pythias, many civic societies 
and a score of floats. The line of march led over the new Freight Street Bridge, 
which was used on this day for the first time. Col. James Geddes was grand 
marshal. 

The total expenses of the celebration were approximately $7,500. This amount 
had been raised by public subscription and as there were revenues from sale of 
programs, grand stand seats and privileges amounting to over two thousand dol- 
lars, the celebration produced a surplus which was turned over to the chamber of 
commerce. 

SALE OF THE OLD CITY HALL PROPERTV 

In January, 191 7, the city sold the site of the old city hall building, including 
the ruins remaining from the disastrous fire of 1912, together with the building 
occupied by the police department, the three-story fire headquarters, and the old 
building, with its additions, which had housed the Bronson Library until it was re- 
moved to its present Grand Street site. The amount paid was $225,000, and the 
purchasers were James E. Russell, of Waterbury, and Edwin S. Dreyfus, of Boston. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 49 

In March, the entire property was sold by Russell and Dreyfus to the George 
L. Lilley Company. This corporation, during the summer of 1917, sold the brick 
fire house to P. M. Devenis of Waterbury, who had the building moved to its 
present site on Kendrick Avenue, opposite the court house. 

The old city hall site has now been cleared of all debris, and the foundation of 
a new building, being erected by the George L. Lilley Company, is completed. 
The plans for this are by Wilfred E. Griggs, and provide for a business building 
to occupy a space of 145 feet on West Main and 175 feet on Leavenworth streets, 
the latter frontage along the lines of the widened street. The building is to be 
two stories high for 100 feet back of West Main Street, and one story high on 
the remaining lot. It is to be a plain brick structure, with eleven stores and 
fifty-five offices. 

THE WATERBURY COURT HOUSE 

From 1867 to [896 the city of Waterbury furnished a court room in the city 
hall to the superior court for New Haven County for its sessions in Water- 
bury. This was at the southeast corner of the building. The building of the 
police station in 1890 at the southeast corner of the city hall property shut out 
light and air to a great extent from the court, which was the principal room on the 
main floor of the building. Anderson's History records that there was severe 
criticism of the location of the police building which gave superior court judges 
an excuse for frequently adjourning the terms of the W'aterbury Superior Court 
to New Haven. Doctor Anderson also records that "there are now both civil and 
criminal terms of the superior court by law established and nominally held in 
Waterbury, though frequently adjourned to New Haven." 

This proving inconvenient, the County of New Haven erected a court house 
at Leavenworth Street and Kendrick Avenue, fronting on the former street. It 
was opened in December, 1896, and cost the county $91,000. On February 24, 
1905, the county commissioners celebrated the burning up of sixty-one of the 
4 per cent, gold coin, $1,000 bonds issued by the county to pay for the new building. 
This extinguished the county debt for the time being. 

The county soon got into debt again, for the need of a new and a larger court 
house had become evident in 1906, and it was in that year that an effort was made 
to secure an appropriation for a new building, or for the reconstruction of the old 
building. Simultaneously a new court house project started in New Haven result- 
ing in the monumental marble structure erected there at a cost of one million 
dollars. The two buildings were authorized at the same county caucus. 

In 1908, the tentative plans for the complete reconstruction of the Waterbury 
building were submitted to the county commissioners, and the first appropriation 
had been secured. On March 7, 1910, the courts were moved to one of the floors 
in the Odd Fellows Building and were compelled to make these cramped quarters 
serve until August 1, 191 1, when the new building was occupied. 

The first session of the superior court was held in the new building by Judge 
Lucien F. Burpee on September 12, 1911. Rev. John N. Lewis, rector of St. 
John's Church, delivered the opening prayer. 

When the building was completed, the cost was found to be $164,412.05. This 
did not include the interior furnishings for which another heavy appropriation 
was made. 

The building was constructed about the old court house, the entire exterior 
being new. The old court house was two stories in height. The new one has 
three stories. Two wings were added, thus giving ample room for the court work. 
The Leavenworth Street facade was torn down and the building enlarged, a new 
entrance being made on Kendrick Avenue. 

Vol. 1—4 



50 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

The exterior is built in the Italian Renaissance, the four massive Ionic columns 
giving- it a decidedly classic appearance. The outside is terra cotta for the orna- 
mental work, granite for underpinning, and red tapestry brick. 

There are three high and commodious court rooms, each with judges' chambers 
and comfortable jury rooms attached. The interior is furnished in ash. The 
offices for the clerks of the court are especially adapted for the easy filing and 
safekeeping of records. The probate court occupied a smaller court room until 
1916, but was then removed to the city hall and that room is being fitted up as an 
office for the county commissioners. 

Some of the rooms have been used recently for meetings of the draft exemption 
boards. 

waterbury's federal building 

Doctor Anderson's History left the United States Postoffice in the E. R. Lamp- 
son Building on the present site of the Manufacturers National Bank Building, 
but on October 15, 1895, the Odd Fellows Building was dedicated and quarters 
were prepared in it which were to house the postoffice for a few years. The 
change from Bank Street, where the mails had been handled since 1870, was made 
as soon as the old lease expired on July 11, 1900. 

Waterbury had agitated long and contentiously for a postoffice In 1900 it 
had again outgrown its quarters and Congressman Nehemiah D. Sperry was 
working to have the city placed on the list for an appropriation, which was how- 
ever by no means adequate. The site was to cost no more than $40,000, and the 
building with all appurtenances was to be kept within the $150,000 appropriation. 
No action was taken, however, until 1902, when on the strength of sympathy for 
Waterbury's loss by the big fire, Mr. Sperry had the matter rushed through. 

In the summer of 1902 an inspector of the United States Treasury Department 
came to Waterbury to look over the available sites. Within a week he had been 
tendered eight different properties, but made it clear to the business men that his 
choice lay between the property at West Main Street and Holmes Avenue, on 
which the Waterbury Club is now building and the present site. 

The men interested in the development of Grand Street got together and 
found that the properties really wanted by the Government would mean a 158-foot 
front on Grand Street, and were known as the Blake, Dykman and Peck proper- 
ties, for which approximately $58,000 was asked. This was divided as follows: 
$25,000 for the Blake property, $15,000 for the Dykman holdings, and $18,000 
for the Peck property. 

The sum of $18,000 was raised within a few hours through the efforts of 
Thomas D. Barlow, George E. Boyd and George L. White. The net amount 
contributed was $14,000, as the Boys' Club site was set off and netted the con- 
tributors a return of $4,000. The following contributed : 

The Waterbury National Bank, The A. S. Chase Co., The American Printing 
Co., D. T. Hart, D. E. Fitzpatrick, Charles O'Connor, Margaret D. Atkins, George 
E. Judd, W. H. Camp, The Reid & Hughes Dry Goods Co., E. B. Bowditch, H. S. 
Chase, J. H. Whittemore, George L. White, Harriet W. Harrison, John W. Gaff- 
ney, Elisha Leavenworth, Lewis Beardsley, D. H. Tierney, New England Engineer- 
ing Co., and The Barlow Brothers Co. 

On January 14, 1903, land was officially deeded to the Government by George 
E. Boyd for $40,000. 

Work was begun in the spring from plans of Supervising Architect Taylor 
of the Treasury Department, which provided for a building much on the style 
of other public structures in the country. The front is of limestone and red brick. 




I'( )STOFFICK. WATERRURY 




THE C01 RTHOUSE, \\ ATERBURY 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 51 

with ornamental half pillars on each side of the entrance. The interior finish is 
of stucco and wood. On February i_\ [905, the postoffice was moved into its new 
quarters without ceremony of any kind. 

In 1884 there were four carriers of whom two are still in the service, John J. 
Kunkel, Carrier No. 3. and Charles Hotchkiss, Carrier No. 1. John W. Hill will 
on January 1. (918, celebrate his fiftieth year in the service. He has heen post- 
master, general clerk, money order clerk, and is now employed in the money order 
division. In 1893 the force consisted of eight clerks, ten carriers and one substitute 
carrier. 

In 191 7 there are forty-seven regular carriers, and three extras, making fifty 
in all. There are forty-three clerks in all departments. 

There are four star routes connected with the local postoffice. One of these 
is a night Xew Haven service ; another gives four daily deliveries and returns from 
North Woodhury ; another four daily deliveries and returns from Watertown, 
and a fourth gives one daily delivery and return from Torrington. 

There are four rural routes out of the Waterhury postoffice. 

The Waterville postoffice is an independent station, with George H. Ford as 
superintendent. There are in addition to this nine sub-stations. 

The parcels post started in 1914 with one team used for part of a day. In 1917 
the service consists of one auto truck and three teams. 

The screen wagon service for registered mail consists of two first-class auto 
trucks. 

In 191 7 the demands for more room resulted in an appropriation of approxi- 
mately $6,000, to cover changes upstairs and on the main floor. The upper floor 
now houses the money order ana registry divisions, with new offices for the post- 
master. About 800 square feet of space has heen added to the working quarters. 

The growth of the postoffice has kept pace with the growth of the city. Post- 
office receipts for 1893 were $56,047; for 1901, were $80,180.64; for 1910, $162,- 
287.60; for 1916, $232,120.90; for nine months of 1917, $175,077.90. 

The postmasters since 1893 have been: 1894, Col. John B. Doherty ; 1894 to 
1898, Daniel E. Fitzpatrick; 1898 to 1906, T. H. Guernsey; 1906 to 1915, James 
IT. Pilling: 1915, E. M. O'Brien. 

John T. Boylan was assistant postmaster for all of these appointees from 1894, 
succeeding Daniel E. Fitzpatrick in that year, until the date of his death, January 
1, 1916. James T. Kelley is now assistant postmaster. 

The postal savings department started here as elsewhere in 191 1 and has 
been very successful. There are at present, November 1, 1917, 1,460 operating 
accounts with total deposits of $388,221. 

This shows almost a record percentage of growth for the United States. The 
figures for the six years are as follows : 

October 31, 1911 $ 1,117 

October 31, 1912 9> 6l 7 

October 31, 1913 l 4A7 2 

October 31, 1914 i9>93 8 

October 31, 1915 4 6 ,599 

October 31, 1916 199-740 

October 31, 1917 388,221 

In May, 189T, the letter carriers working out of the Waterhury office formed 
an organization, which is still active. Its officers in 191 7 are: President, William 
McLean: recording secretary. A. W. Nichols; financial secretary. J. J. Scadden ; 
treasurer, George A. Stevens. 



CHAPTER V 
PARKS AND CEMETERIES 

FIRST MAP OF HAMILTON PARK — ENLARGING THE CITY'S HOLDINGS — LANDSCAPE 
WORK — DRAINAGE FOR PONDS — ANNUAL TAX PROVIDES FOR PARK IMPROVEMENTS 

CHASE PARK CREATED SWIMMING POOL A BIG SUCCESS ATHLETIC FIELD 

EQUIPPED PLAYGROUNDS BOUGHT FOR DIFFERENT SECTIONS OF CITY THE MU- 
NICIPAL FIELD DAYS — THE LATER HISTORY OF THE GREEN THE CLOCK AND THE 

FLAGSTAFF THE FRANKLIN STATUE THE CITY'S CEMETERIES. 

The park system of Waterbury is the growth of the past twenty years. Aside 
from The Green, there were no public breathing spots or playgrounds two decades 
ago. Hamilton Park had just been given to the city by Mrs. David B. Hamilton 
in memory of her husband, and its improvement was a slow matter. The city 
officials could not see the importance of getting the full benefit of this beautiful 
spot at once. It was due largely to the constant urging and to the planning and 
work of City Engineer Robert Cairns that the first real steps toward park devel- 
opment were taken. 

The first map of Hamilton Park was made by City Engineer Cairns in 1900. 
He then announced that the completion of a contour map in 1901 would make 
possible the systematic improvement of the park. The first work along this gen- 
eral line in kjoi was the laying out of the old Plank Road and the "Brass Mill" 
Road, which bounded Hamilton Park on two sides. 

In 1902 the first notable improvement was made in Hamilton Park, the two 
parcels of land forming the triangle at the juncture of East Main Street and the 
I 'lank Road having been purchased to give the park a better entrance on East Main 
Street. In 1902, also, the survey of South or Windermere Park was made, so that 
the way was now clear for the actual work of transforming the park area into a 
garden spot. In 1903, at the suggestion of City Engineer Cairns, Landscape Archi- 
tect George Pentecost, of New York, prepared the first formal plan for the future 
development of the park. Mr. Cairns in this year took the first step to create the 
present lake ponds, which were then little better than mud holes. He began with 
the help of the street department to clear both of mud, arranged to fill the bottoms 
with gravel, and to construct a long and deep drain from Silver Street through the 
park to the ponds, thus enabling him in 1904 to regulate the water level. The grad- 
ing of two-thirds of a mile along the main drive gave the people an opportunity 
for the first time to get a view of the interior of this beautiful stretch of ground. 

In 1904 the expenditure of the $5,000 appropriation under the direction of the 
city engineer was devoted to the rougher work, leaving the finer work for a later 
period. Especial attention was given to the widening of the main drive and getting 
its surface smooth and hard. The slopes along the driveway were covered with 
loam and seeded. A number of foot paths were laid out and roughly graded, care 
being taken to avoid too heavy cutting or running into valuable trees or shrubbery. 
These considerations compelled some variations from the exact locations shown 
on the plans of the park, but in general this was strictly followed. The total 

52 




GREEN, WITH ST. JOHNS CHURCH AND SOLDIERS' MONUMENT. WATERBURY 




VIEW OF WEST MAIN STREET, LOOKING NORTH, WATERBURY 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 53 

length of driveway in the park at the end of K)04 was 3,254 lineal feet, and the 
length of paths was 6,830 feet. 

On the path along the top of the ridge parallel to the Plank Road a small 
rustic summer house was built with rustic seats. The old mill dam on Carrington 
Brook was repaired and made tight, and the small pond cleaned out and refilled 
with gravel. This made a shady little wading pond. The most expensive piece of 
work done in 1904 was the completion of the work of digging out the sink south of 
the Plank Road and north of the Tompkins property, and the completion of the 
connection with city water. There had always been a pond here, with a consider- 
able depth of soft, peaty mud at the bottom, and several children had in times past 
lost their lives there. It was now easy to arrange for an ornamental fountain in 
the center of the pond. 

The fountain in Stanley Park, done entirely by the city engineer's department, 
was completed in 1904. 

( ieorge C. Walker took active charge as superintendent in 1905, having been 
appointed in the previous year. Some new paths were laid out and graded and 
the main drive was extended across Carrington Brook and given a new outlet at 
the Plank Road. A concrete steel arch bridge was built at the brook crossing 
and much pains was taken in the de'sign of the structure and in the arrangement of 
the various accessories to produce a pleasing effect. 

The small pond used for a skating rink during the winter was drawn down in 
the spring and the gravel refilling to a uniform depth of 30 inches was completed. 
A fountain was placed in the center and it was decided to try the experiment of 
using the pond as a swimming and wading pool. Only children under twelve years 
were admitted. A shelter was built for the boys and a room in a barn nearby was 
used by the girls for dressing. A man was always on duty at the pond to guard 
against accidents and to prevent boisterous conduct. During July and August the 
pool is used daily by several hundred children. 

The playground idea was made prominent in 1905. Besides the swimming and 
skating, swings were put up in the grove, and a ball field roughly laid out. By 
actual count on one Sunday this summer, nearly 3,000 people entered Hamilton 
Park. 

A special appropriation of $15,000 was made in 191 5 for the purchase of all 
of the land not already owned by the city in the block bounded by East Main 
Street, Plank Road, and the Brass Mill Road. The owners held out for $17,500, 
and the matter being brought to the attention of Miss Caroline A. Piatt, she 
generously offered to make up the difference. Her offer w r as accepted, and the 
land purchased and named Proprietors' Common, in memory of the original 
settlers of Waterbury. 

The city now held in one compact tract at this point about sixty-five acres of 
land, and the next step was the improvement of the Plank Road. 

In 1905 Mrs. A. S. Chase purchased the land adjoining the Naugatuck River 
and Riverside Street, between the hospital grounds and Riverside Cemetery, a 
tract beautifully situated and well-wooded, and presented it to the city to be 
used for park purposes as a memorial to her husband. Taken in connection with 
the hospital and cemetery grounds, it makes a continuous line of park for nearlv 
a mile. 

A charter amendment providing for an annual tax for park purposes of one 
quarter of a mill passed the General Assembly and became a law operative for 
1906. Consequently there was available for 1907 about $10,750. Additions 
were made to the number of grass plots at street intersections, of which hereto- 
fore there were only Stanley Park, at East Main and Elm streets, one at North 



54 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Main and Hill streets, and one at West Main Street and Highland Avenue. In 
1906 a small one around the elm tree at Bank and Grand streets, and another at 
North Main and Cooke streets were created. These green oases in the midst of 
paved streets added greatly to the attractiveness of the city. 

The appropriation under the new tax brought about rapid improvements 
particularly at Hamilton Park. Boats were placed on the lake for the first time. 
Flower beds were laid out, trees were set out, and work was begun on the swim- 
ming pool and on the athletic field. 

At Chase Park the first permanent improvements were made in 1907. 

In 1907 the swimming pool at Hamilton Park was thrown open to the public 
and met with instant approval ; as did the playground opened in the spring of 
the year. The north end was this year given the playground at Locust and Wal- 
nut streets. 

It was found necessary in 1907 to add several thousand yards of loam to the 
soil of The Green before seeding. This made it a beautiful park for the summer. 

In 1908 the "Indian Basin" to the left as one enters Hamilton Park was 
changed from a marsh into a fine lake, many aquatic plants adorning its surface. 

Ladies' day was instituted at the swimming pool, and benches were generously 
placed about the park during this year. 

During 1908 the work of grading and turfing Library Park was begun, and 
1909 saw the removal of the Hotchkiss Paper Company plant, the packing houses 
and residences, the result in every way justifying the improvements. 

In 1909 the appropriation from the special park tax amounted to $12,750. 
In Hamilton Park new paths were laid out, all buildings were painted and the 
children's playground was enlarged. 

In 1909 also new paths were constructed in Chase Park, seats were placed 
in all available spaces, and four band concerts were given during the summer 
months. 

The city in 1909 established its third playground, leasing a large plot of ground 
on Sylvan Avenue. 

The year 1909 is known as the elm-beetle year. The park department found 
it necessary to cut down forty trees, many of them the fine old trees planted 
on The Green from 1842 to 1845. Constant spraying, however, put an end to the 
trouble, and there was little of this nature to contend with in the following year. 

In 1910 the small zoo at Hamilton Park had grown in a year and contained 
two monkeys, four coons, one possum, one red-tail hawk, one large owl, one fox, 
ten grey squirrels, and twenty guinea pigs, almost all donations. 

During this year, the pool was used for hockey and polo and in the summer 
as many as 500 children patronized it in a day. The baseball diamond and the 
lawn tennis grounds were laid out this year. 

Elisha Leavenworth's gift of $3,500, on condition that the city appropriate 
a like sum for a bridge over Sled Haul Brook in Chase Park, hastened the work 
of improving this beauty spot. A new rustic dam, a new foot bridge and many 
new paths were laid. In this year the old Town Cemetery, which has not yet 
been improved, was added to Chase Park. 

In 191 1 the appropriation for parks had grown to $13,025. This year there 
were four playgrounds, one-half acre in Washington Avenue having been added 
to the list. In this year Miss Helen E. Chase gave the old Waterbury hospital 
buildings and grounds as an addition to Chase Park, in memory of her mother, 
Martha Starkweather Chase. 

One of the largest and most expensive improvements in the city's park system 
was the grading and loaming of the sand bank on Riverside Drive. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 55 

1 luring 191 1 Euclid Avenue Park was graded, loamed and seeded. 

In 1912 a new rustic bridge was built over Carrington Brook in the main 
driveway in Hamilton Park. The zoo was also greatly enlarged, two swans being 
among the gifts. The athletic field was enlarged, one new double lawn tennis 
court and one basketball field were laid out. 

In 1913 Hamilton Park had become the great breathing place of the city. It 
was in this year that the entire population seemed to regard it as a playground. 
Thousands attended a very successful skating carnival, as well as two municipal 
athletic meets. Memorial Day exercises by the children proved an attractive 
feature. The lawn tennis tournaments, the baseball games, basketball games, all 
drew large crowds. These events have become permanent and have in the past 
year been more extensive than ever. 

In 19 1 3 a movement was begun to replace the elms destroyed on The Green in 
1910. In all sixteen elms were planted, of which nine were donated to the city 
by George Tracy. Eight additional elms were planted in 1914. 

The Chase Park Recreation House was renovated throughout, furniture in- 
stalled, and a supervisor placed in charge. The opportunities for recreation 
include gymnastics, basketball, dancing, reading, sewing, etc. 

In 1916 the Goss family presented the city with eighteen acres at the east end of 
Hamilton Park, and this addition is now being improved. In 1917 the American 
Brass Company gave the city five acres adjoining Hamilton Park on the south. 
These gifts will in the near future, when the many improvements are completed, 
round out Hamilton Park. 

In November, 1917, through the agency of Lewis S. Reed, of the Manu- 
facturers National Bank, approximately a dozen small tracts, involving property 
on the east and west sides of Cooke Street, East Reid Street and adjoining thor- 
oughfares, was purchased and the announcement was made that these lands will 
probably be the gift to Waterbury of a public-spirited citizen. It is the purpose 
of the donor to create a new city park. 

The official valuation of the park property at the beginning of 1916 was 
S( 155,000. With the recent additions it is now well over the million mark. In 
this valuation The Green is placed at $510,000. 

THE LATER HISTORY OF THE GREEN 

The Green is a civic treasure which is so clear to our citizens that they are 
never able to agree what shall be done to it or with it. Nothing in Waterbury 
impresses the observant visitor as much as this beautiful central park and it is 
justly the pride of our citizens to maintain its fresh sightliness. When it was 
graded, fenced and planted with elm trees in 1842 the work was paid for by 
public subscription, J. M. L. and W. H. Scovill providing about half of the money. 
Seventy years afterwards when some of these trees died some of our citizens 
hastened to provide young trees to succeed them. From 1890 to 1910, when 
.the elm-leaf beetle committed its ravages hereabouts, the trees on The Green 
were at their finest, and the long rows of great elms presented vistas of great 
charm. It is no wonder that our people love The Green. 

This affection takes two forms, part of the population desiring to add orna- 
ments or encumbrances to The Green and the remainder being anxious to keep 
it free of everything but grass and trees. Mayor Kilduff must be placed in the 
latter class for in 1902 he summarily removed and banished to Hamilton Park 
the wooden band-stand which had stood for ten years, and which had had several 
predecessors. Mr. Kilduff pronounced it to be "the last relic of a jay town" 



56 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

and forthwith the proper authorities saw that it went. While it stood there band 
concerts were held on The Green regularly during the summer in most years and 
as the population of the city grew, the attendance ran up into the thousands so 
that it was impossible for everybody to keep on the walks and the grass plots 
suffered. This is what led to the removal of the band-stand. 

The original suggestion for the Soldiers' Monument was made in an editorial 
in the Waterbury American on November 26, 1870, and was occasioned by the 
overthrow by the wind of a ship's mast which did duty as a liberty pole. It stood 
almost in the same location as the present steel flagstaff. The editor of the 
American expressed satisfaction at the removal of "the unsightly mast that had 
swayed in the wind so long" and expressed a hope that "some work of art — a 
monument or a fountain — which shall be a real ornament to The Green" would 
be erected in its stead. A series of articles followed, which eventually resulted 
in the erection, fourteen years later, of the monument. However, when its site 
was selected, the feeling that The Green should not be encumbered helped to 
determine its location at the west end of The Green instead of upon it and at 
the center. 

The only adornment (or encumbrance) placed upon The Green in the last 
twenty-five years is the handsome granite clock tower erected through the efforts 
of the Chamber of Commerce and the Waterbury Republican. This was dedicated 
on November 25, 191 5, in "Old Home Week." 

The clock was wholly the idea of Charles A. Colley, then president of the 
Chamber of Commerce, who had been talking up the project for more than a 
year. To arouse public interest he wrote a playlet produced at a benefit perform- 
ance at Fox's Theater, now The Strand, which netted $150, as a nucleus for the 
fund. The plan met with some opposition on the ground that no further monu- 
ments should be placed on The Green. To prove that his idea was popular, Mr. 
Colley went around asking likely prospects to subscribe a little, usually five 
dollars. When he got five $5.00 subscriptions in a day, he called it a day's work 
and quit. Thus the fund grew slowly but persistently until it approached $2,000. 
Then Mr. Colley electrified the community by announcing a gift of $2,500 from 
Truman S. Lewis to complete the clock fund. Violent thunderstorms ensued with 
efforts to prevent the erection of the clock, but Mr. Colley had already secured 
authorization from the city and having a good part of the public behind him 
defied opposition so that the work proceeded. On its completion its opponents 
found that the result was much more satisfactory than they anticipated though 
they still regret the loss of the flower bed which it had abolished. 

The 135-foot steel flag pole which was presented to the city during "Old Home 
Week," by George Tracy who collected the $600.00 necessary for this, met with 
no such opposition as Mr. Colley had encountered, some of the opponents of the 
clock subscribing to the fund to show that they did not object to a flag-staff on The 
Green. An American flag of the largest size regularly made, twenty by thirty feet, 
is hoisted on special occasions ; a smaller flag is for ordinary use. 

On. Christmas Day, 1916, the large flag was hoisted. A very high wind was 
blowing that afternoon and it was found later that the strain had sprung the 
top mast of the pole. Mr. Tracy had this section taken down and shipped back 
to the makers, John Simmons & Sons of New York, who generously replaced 
it with a much stronger top mast which was hoisted into place in the spring of 191 7. 
It is guaranteed to withstand the strongest wind. 

The late Elisha Leavenworth in his will left $15,000 for a monument of Benja- 
min Franklin which will be unveiled in 1918. 

The last article in his will was as follows : 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 57 

"] further direct that said Executors (Edwin S. Hunt and John R. Clayton), 
immediately make to the City of Waterbury a formal offer to erect on the westerly 
end of the Public Square or 'Green' in said City, a statue to Benjamin Franklin, 
with such necessary surroundings, railings and pavement as to them, my Executors, 
shall seem wise and proper, and to expend for the purpose a sum not to exceed 
$15,000; I further direct that in the event that the authorized officers of the 
City of Waterbury shall not give such consent within one year after the receipt 
of such proposition, said Executors are directed to turn said amount into the 
residuary fund, and immediately and forthwith close up this estate." 

Mr. Leavenworth in his lifetime discussed this bequest with Edwin S. Hunt, 
one of his executors, and suggested that a committee of citizens have the selection 
of the statue in charge. 

With this in mind the following committee was appointed to select the sculptor 
and to arrange for the site and all details connected with the erection and unveil- 
ing : J. Hobart Bronson, chairman ; C. P. Goss ; Rev. Charles A. Dinsmore, D. D. ; 
J. Richard Smith; H. S. Chase; Otis Northrop; Mark L. Sperry; Miss Alice E. 
Kingsbury ; and Miss Florentine H. Hayden. 

This committee in 191 3 selected Paul Wayland Bartlett as the sculptor, a 
choice that was not alone governed by the fame that Mr. Bartlett's many noted 
works had brought him, but by the fact that he was a native of Waterbury, while 
his father, Truman Howe Bartlett, was himself a distinguished sculptor and did 
some 'prentice work here before he was able to study abroad. He himself had been 
named after a noted citizen of Waterbury. 

Paul Wayland Bartlett was born in 1865. He essayed sculpture as a boy, 
exhibiting at the age of fourteen in the Salon at Paris a bust of his grand- 
mother. In 1887 he won a medal at Paris with his famous "Bear Tamer," now in 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. In 1900 at the Paris exposition, 
he represented the United States on the International Jury of Awards for Sculp- 
ture. In 1908 he was made an officer of the Legion of Honor, having been named 
a Chevalier in 1895. His principal works are: statue of General Joseph Warren, 
Boston; equestrian statue of Lafayette, in the square of the Louvre, Paris, the 
gift to France from the school children of the United States ; statues of Columbus 
and Michel Angelo, in Congressional Library, Washington ; a door for the tomb 
of Senator Clark in Woodlawn Cemetery; six statues on the front of the New 
York Public Library ; pediment over house wing of the Capitol, Washington. 
He is represented in all the leading museums and academies of design by either 
original work or replicas. 

Mr. Bartlett, whose studio was in Paris, as soon as terms had been agreed 
upon, prepared a small model, showing Benjamin Franklin as philosopher and 
diplomat, and this was exhibited in the rooms of the Mattatuck Historical Society. 

The local comment was favorable, although there were many who believed 
that Franklin should have been shown as a young man, but this was a matter 
which the committee left entirely to the artist, feeling that the statue was to an 
extent an inspiration, and it was not long until the consensus of opinion here 
favored the work the sculptor had shown. 

In the meantime, the war had broken out and the shipment to America of 
the large clay model from which the cast was to be made was prohibited, coming 
under the list of articles barred by the government from use of shipping. 

Mr. Bartlett then removed his studio to Washington and began work at once 
on an entirely new model, clinging, however, to the conception of the aged sage, 
but greatly changing and improving the plan of the work. It is now nearly ready 
for casting and he announces that it will be unveiled in 1918. 



58 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

The question of a site has been under consideration for over a year. By the 
will of Mr. Leavenworth the "westerly end of The Green" was specifically des- 
ignated. This was in view of the old Leavenworth homestead being on West 
Main Street, and thus there were considerations of a tender nature that inclined 
the members to carry out the bequest literally. 

But there has always been a feeling in Waterbury among those who have an 
eye for landscape work that The Green was not a suitable site for either clocks 
or statuary, but that it was designed to be a' beautiful grass plot with walks and 
flower beds, and old trees. It is quite certain that in time The Green will be 
practically surrounded by mercantile establishments. Furthermore, it is impossible 
to give a beautiful statue the proper setting in so small a park. 

The committee has therefore decided to place the statue in Library Park, 
where it will be part of what is even now considered the civic center of Waterbury. 

Another proposed addition to The Green which has aroused very mixed senti- 
ments is the erection of a public comfort station at the east end of The Green. 
This project took shape after the destruction of the old City Hall, which as re- 
modeled contained such an institution, though the fire forestalled its opening, 
and it was never used. After successive administrations had been under siege 
by both the opponents and advocates of the station for several years, an appropria- 
tion of $25,000 for the purpose was made in 19 17 but the high construction costs 
that prevailed in the succeeding year made it impossible to build it within the 
appropriation much to the delight of those who were threatening injunction pro- 
ceedings. The money remains in the city treasury awaiting further decision. 

The Welton Fountain, erected at the east end of The Green in 1888, by the 
Caroline J. Welton estate, was a kindly thought born of Miss Welton's life-long 
love of horses. But this, alas, is an age of gasoline! For many years there was 
a hackstand on North Main Street, south of the fountain, while humble transfer 
wagons, drawn by even humbler steeds, rested at the curb to the north while 
waiting for custom. Automobiles and auto-trucks have almost completely dis- 
placed the horse-drawn vehicles except for certain heavy freight duty and it is 
rarely now that a horse gets a drink from the Welton Fountain. Sentiment would 
prevent converting it into a gasoline filling station which would be more useful 
in these degenerate days. On this account, there was a movement in 19 17 to re- 
move the fountain to the west end of Library Park on the plaza of the Union 
Station where it would serve many hard-working beasts which are still traveling 
to and from the freight yards. At the end of the year the change seemed a prob- 
ability of the near future. 

waterbury's cemeteries 

Riverside Cemetery, which is the oldest of Waterbury's burial places, was 
founded in the year of the organization of the city and while its acreage was 
considerably enlarged before 1893, there have been no additions made since that 
time. Now, however, more room is needed and land is to be acquired at an 
early date. 

By the death of S. W. Hall, March 5, 1877, the association became the recipient 
of a bequest of $20,000, to be expended in the erection of a memorial chapel 
"for the use of funerals and for funeral services." This fund was allowed to 
accumulate until it amounted to $25,000, and the chapel was built in 1884 an d 
1885 from designs prepared by R. W. Hill. The chapel was dedicated June n, 
1885. Addresses were made by the Revs. Drs. Rowland and Anderson, and the 
dedicatory prayer was offered by the Rev. J. L. Peck. The other services were 




CLOCK OX THE (iKKEX. WATERBURY 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 59 

conducted by other Protestant clergymen of the city and the hymns and anthems 
were sung by a chorus selected from the several church choirs. In 1893 the 
chapel was repaired and thoroughly renovated, and the spire entirely rebuilt at 
a cost of $5,000. The expense was assumed by J. S. Elton and Airs. C. X. Way- 
land, in accordance with the wishes of their mother, Mrs. Olive M. Elton. 

It was agreed, when the by-laws were adopted, that "all moneys accruing 
from sales of lots should be expended in the purchase and improvement of the 
ground." A price was affixed to the lots "so moderate as to be within reach of 
the humblest means," and it was hoped that this would ''afford a sufficient sum 
to secure adequate protection and attention for the grounds." But this expecta- 
tion has not been realized, and from the beginning the trustees have been dependent 
on the gifts of persons specially interested in the cemetery to carry on necessary 
work. For several years after it was opened, fairs were held in its behalf, and 
specific subscriptions of considerable sums have been received from time to time 
for special purposes. The association has received individual gifts for permanent 
investments amounting to over $20,000. A special charter was obtained in 1886. 

The total number of interments from the opening of the cemetery to the date 
of the annual meeting, in 1895. was 4,278. To November 1, 1917 there have 
been 7,799 interments in Riverside Cemetery since it was first opened. In 1895 
James S. Elton was elected president and X. J. Welton secretary and treasurer. 
The trustees were as follows : J. R. Smith, N. D. Granniss, Elisha Leavenworth, 
E. L. Frisbie, J. S. Elton, F. J. Kingsbury, N. J. Welton. 

The present trustees are James S. Elton, Otis S. Northrop, F. W. Judson, 
G. C. Hill. J. Richard Smith, A. J. Smith, F. S. Chase. Its president is James 
S. Elton ; secretary, Fletcher W. Judson. The latter succeeded to the position 
of secretary, treasurer and superintendent on the death of Mr. Welton in 191 7. 

The custodian of the grounds is Henry M. Begnal, who succeeded his father 
on the death of the latter. 

st. Joseph's cemeteries, old and new. and calvary cemetery 

St. Joseph's cemeteries, both old and new, on Hamilton Avenue, have not 
been enlarged in the past twenty-five years. The old cemetery which contains 
about twenty acres was bought in 1837 by Father Hendricken and the new cemetery 
was bought in 1893 by Monsignor Slocum and consists of twenty-four acres, 
located at Hamilton Avenue and Pearl Lake Road. 

Calvary Cemetery on East Main Street on the Cheshire Road, comprises about 
sixty-seven acres. In 1885, the Rev. Wm. A. Harty purchased fifty-three acres, 
and the Rev. John A. Mulcahy, the remainder in August of 1891. It was con- 
secrated by the Rev. Michael Tierney on May 24th, 1894, the sermon on the 
occasion being preached by the Rev. James F. O'Donnell, of Watertown. 

The three cemeteries belong to the Immaculate Conception Parish, and the 
superintendent is the head of the parish, Rev. Father Fitzsimons, but they are 
for the use of the entire Catholic community. 

PINE GROVE CEMETERY 

Pine Grove Cemetery, which was established in the Mill Plain District in 1854 
was greatly extended in April, 1898, by the purchase of ground extending through 
to the Southmayd Road making in all twenty acres of burial ground. It was 
incorporated in January. 1887. Its founders were : Milo Sacket, Leonard Warner. 
James Porter, Mark Warner, Edward Scott, Jesse J. Dooliltle, Levinus Warner, 
Leonard Hall, Charles Frost, Gaylord Alcott, Merrit Scott. 



60 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

The trustees of the association for the year 1917 are : Warren B. Hitchcock, 
Edson A. Hitchcock, Mark L. Warner, Theodore Munson, George C. Walker, 
Arthur E. Blewitt, Miss Fannie H. Porter. 

WATERVILLE CEMETERY 

The land embraced in the original Waterville Cemetery, which lies on the hill 
just east of the main road, has twice been extended in the past quarter century 
and now comprises several acres. It was originally laid out for sixty-four lots, 
on ground deeded by Daniel E. Sprague and Anson Downes. In 19 16, the ceme- 
tery, which had been enlarged by an additional acreage a decade before, made 
an arrangement with the Chase Metal Works by which its main street front 
was traded to that company for an adequate strip of land on the other side of 
the cemetery on Fort Hill Avenue. 

The present officers are : Fred Jackson, president ; Thomas Burton, secretary, 
and Horace Garrigus, director and in charge of the cemetery. 

FOUR JEWISH CEMETERIES 

There are now four Jewish cemeteries in Waterbury. The oldest of these 
belongs to what is known as the "Reform" Congregation, and is known as Melchi- 
zedek Cemetery on the Cheshire Road. This was bought in 1875. In the last 
decade the two O. B. O. lodges, Brass City and Gladstone, opened a joint burial 
place on the Wolcott Road. Later cemeteries were opened in the same district 
by the Waterbury Hebrew Benefit Association Xo. 1, and Waterbury Star Lodge, 
I. O. B. A. 

THE TOWN'S CEMETERY 

What was known as the Town's Cemetery, comprising three acres near River- 
side, which had been used for the burial of the poor for two decades, was closed 
in 191 1. The fence around it was removed and the acreage was added to Chase 
Park. It remains as it was in that year. Burials of the poor are now made in 
the various cemeteries of the city. 



CHAPTER VI 
SCHOOLS, LIBRARY AND HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

GROWTH IN SCHOOL POPULATION — TWO IMPORTANT CHANGES IN SCHOOL GOVERN- 
MENT — ITS NEW MODEL HIGH AND GRAMMAR SCHOOL STRUCTURES — OUTSIDE 
SCHOOL DISTRICTS INCLUDED EVENING SCHOOLS — MEDICAL INSPECTION — MAN- 
UAL TRAINING — PLAYGROUNDS — SALESMANSHIP SCHOOL CONTINUATION 

SCHOOL — VOCATIONAL SCHOOL— VALUE AND EXTENT OF SCHOOL PROPERTY — PRI- 
VATE AND PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS DAVID G. PORTER BEQUEST LIBRARY AND MA'l- 

TATUCK HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

On September i, I QI7, the beginning of the present school year, there were 
enrolled in the public and private schools of Waterbury 22^053 pupils. Of these 
16,833 attended the public schools and 6,120 the parochial and other private 
schools. The school census enumeration of children between the ages of four 
and sixteen was 26,419. This was a gain of 2,418 over the enumeration of the 
previous year, while the enrollment shows a gain of 1,890. 

The total number of children in the district in 1893, the beginning of the 
quarter century, was 8,475. 

The superintendent of schools, in his report for 1893, m ade the following 
general statement in regard to the schoolhouses of the Center District: "AH 
the buildings now in use, fourteen in number, have been erected within the last 
twenty-two years. They contain eighty-four school rooms, and some have recita- 
tion rooms in addition. They are substantially built, are in good repair, and afford 
ready egress in case of fire. Two of them, the Bank Street and the Clay Street 
buildings, are excellent in design and will compare favorably with any other school 
buildings in the state in the same grade." 

The annual report for the year ending Octqbej^i ^i894, s howe d that there were 
fifteen school buildings in use in the district. \The number ^LsHTool-rooms^TnTlSe-- 
was ninety-three, and the number of teachers, including assistants, was 120. 
The total number of boys registered during 1893 was 3,145, and of girls, 2,902, 
making a total of 6,047, — an increase of 375 over the previous year. This was 
exclusive of pupils in the evening schools. The total number registered in the 
evening schools, was 814. The average attendance at the evening schools declined 
from 495 in November, 1893, to 2 54 m February. 1894, and 114 in March. The 
number of pupils in attendance at the day schools during the spring term of 1895 
was 5,289. The following table will serve to show not only how they were dis- 
posed of, but the number and the location, approximately, of the schools of the 
district in 1895. (Under "high school"' are included temporary accommodations 
in the Moriarty block.) k 

High School T ,I34 Last Main Street 197 

Elm Street 490 Ridge Street 356 

Clay Street 389 Hillside Avenue 118 

Bank Street 651 Sperry Street 324 

Bishop Street 432 Locust Street 383 

Porter Street 315 Dublin Street 117 

Washington 262 Westside 11 ill 141 

61 



62 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

During the winter term, 1893-94, the number of pupils in the high school 
proper was 191. Of this number, thirty-eight graduated and a few left the school 
to enter employment. The number of grammar school scholars who passed 
examination for admission was no, making the number at the summer term 252. 
These were packed into quarters originally designed for only 114. In several 
other rooms the condition reported was almost as bad, but in some of them at 
least temporary relief was obtained by additions to the buildings or the securing 
of rooms elsewhere to take care of the overflow. At the district meeting held 
May 9, 1895, it was voted to erect a new high school building at a cost of $100,000, 
and to enlarge the Bishop Street and Bank Street schools at an expense of $30,000 
additional. The expenses of the district during the year 1894 were nearly 
$150,000, of which the largest items were, for Salaries $80,000 and new buildings, 
repairs, etc., about $16,000. 

Until 1899 the charter as amended in 1880 and 1895 governed in school 
matters, and the following excerpts from two sections of that document describe 
succinctly the methods by which the controlling power was elected and by which 
taxation for school purposes was levied. 

"Said Center School District shall annually, on the first Monday of October, 
choose by ballot a district committee consisting of five persons, a board of educa- 
tion consisting of seven persons, a treasurer, two auditors and a clerk ; no person 
shall hold more than one of said offices, and all of said officers shall be residents 
and legal voters of said Center School District. 

"Said district committee shall have the general care and management of the 
concerns of said district; enumerate and make return of the scholars at the time 
and in the manner provided by law for other school districts ; employ teachers 
approved by the board of education ; make a list of the polls and ratable estate of 
all the inhabitants in said district whenever it becomes necessary, for the purpose 
of taxation ; shall exercise control over the expenditures of all moneys belonging 
to said district ; make all contracts for furnishing of supplies, building and 
repairing of schoolhouses, and, with the concurrence of the board of education, 
abate such taxes as, in their judgment, ought to be abated." 

On June 20, 1899, the first notable change in the government of the schools 
was effected by act of the Legislature. By it, the boundaries of the city were 
fixed as those of the Center School District. The name Center School District 
was abolished. The law then ordains that "said new department of education 
shall be under the control of the board of education, consisting of the mayor, 
who shall be ex officio chairman, and seven members, who shall be elected bienni- 
ally at the meetings of said city for the election of officers ; and for this purpose 
separate ballots shall be provided in the several voting places in said city. The 
terms of office of said members shall begin on the first Monday of January 
next following their election, and the provisions of the charter of said city in 
relation to the powers and duties of city officers shall apply to said members." 

It further provided that the board of education "shall have the entire charge 
and direction of all the public schools of said district, and of the expenditure of 
all moneys appropriated for the support of the same." 

On the matter of taxation, it provided that "the treasurer of the city shall 
receive the amount of school money to which the district is entitled from the 
school moneys of the state, from the Town of Waterbury, from state appropria- 
tions for school purposes, from gifts, and from the tax laid within the district 
for school purposes, which moneys shall be subject to the order of the board of 
education under such rules and regulations as the board of finance may from 
time to time establish. The board of education shall submit to the board of 




THE DRIGGS SCHOOL, WATERBURY 




THK WEBSTER SCHOOL. WATKRBURY 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 63 

finance of the city, at the time fixed by law for the submission of the estimates 
of other departments of said city, a detailed estimate of its expenses for the 
next year for which the appropriations for city purposes are by law required 
to be made, specifying separately the sums needed for current and for special 
expenses, but no tax shall be laid upon any property lying outside of the present 
limits of the City of Waterbury and within the limits of said city as hereby 
established at a rate exceeding one-half of the rate of taxation upon property 
lying within the present limits of said city." 

This was at least a partial consolidation of school and city governments, but 
the amended charter of 1901 made complete consolidation depend upon the wishes 
of voters in the districts. For the purpose of giving a clear idea of what seems 
a complicated method of taxation, the two clauses of the amended charter are 
quoted quite fully : 

"Said City of Waterbury, on and after said date, shall be divided into two 
districts. The first district shall comprise all the territory of said city, and the 
second district shall comprise all the territory that lay within the limits of said 
city as the same existed on the first day of January, 1901, excepting that all that 
territory lying east of the City Mills Pond, so called, and Great Brook, and which, 
with other territory of the Bucks Hill School District, was annexed to the Center 
School District of Waterbury, by the General Assembly at its January session, 
1899, is hereby restored to the said Bucks Hill School District and is made a por- 
tion of said first district. 

"All the inhabitants and property within the limits of the first district shall 
be liable to taxation to defray the burdens and expenses imposed upon said city 
by this act, to the same extent as they would have been liable if said burdens, ex- 
penses, duties and powers had not been transferred from said town to said city ; and 
in addition thereto for the expenses for the support of schools within that part of 
said first district lying outside the limits of said second district, to the same extent 
that the said town may now be liable, and for the expenditures by the Board of 
Health of said city (exclusive of the expenditures for the collection and removal 
of garbage), and police protection outside of said second district, and the expense 
of, less receipts from, criminal prosecutions, which expense shall be ascertained 
and determined by the comptroller; and all other burdens and expenses of said 
city, including the support and maintenance of schools within the limits of said 
second district, shall be met by taxation levied upon the inhabitants and property 
within the limits of the second district; and it shall be the duty of the assessors 
and Board of Relief of said city to indicate in the compilation of the grand list 
what is taxable by said city in each of the said districts ; and the public money 
derived from the taxation of the inhabitants and property of the second district 
exclusively shall not be expended for any purpose for which the money of said 
city could not lawfully be expended at the time of the passage of this act; pro- 
vided, however, that the property lying outside of the limits of the City of Water- 
bury, as established by the General Assembly of 1895, an ^ within the limits of 
the second district as established by this act, shall be taxed to meet its propor- 
tionate share for the support and maintenance of schools within said second dis- 
trict, but for all other burdens and expenses of the said second district it shall be 
taxed at a rate not exceeding one-half of that necessary to be levied upon the 
remaining property within said district in meeting snch burdens and expenses." 

It also provided that "the several school districts of the Town of Waterbury, 
outside of said second district, shall continue to remain as school districts with 
the same territorial limits, rights, powers, and obligations as now existing with 
the exception as set forth in section seven of this act (before quoted) and the 



64 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

obligations now imposed upon the Town of Waterbury, with respect to the sup- 
port of schools outside of said second district, are hereby imposed upon said City 
of Waterbury and shall be an expense incurred by and chargeable to the first 
district hereinbefore described." 

It also provided that "Whenever twenty-five electors, residing in any one of 
said school districts, shall petition the Board of Aldermen of said city that the 
school district within which they reside may be brought under the full jurisdiction 
of the second district heretofore described, said Board of Aldermen, after due 
hearing, shall fix a day on which all legal voters residing within the limits of said 
school district may vote upon the question whether they are in favor of or 
opposed to said petition." 

It was fourteen years before the first outside school district availed itself of 
its privileges under this law. In January, 191 5, Town Plot was the first district 
to vote itself under the jurisdiction of the Waterbury Board of Education. The 
Sprague (Waterville) district and the Mill Plain district voted themselves in in 
January, 1916. The Bunker Hill district came in on November 1, 191 7. 

Those still operating as distinct school districts are Reidville and East Farms, 
which had formerly been one district, East Mountain, Bucks Hill, Hopeville, Park 
Road, and Oronoke, the latter two also a division of one former district. 

The last school board under the old law was as follows : 

Board of Education : A. A. Crane, chairman ; George H. Cowell, John D. 
Freney, Thomas J. Kilmartin, Charles S. Rodman. George W. Russell, Eugene 
A. Pendleton. 

District Committee: A. I. Goodrich, chairman; Michael J. Byrne, Timothy J. 
Carmody, Otis S. Northrop, Edward T. Root. 

Treasurer, John Meyer ; treasurer sinking fund, John W. Burns ; auditors, 
John J. Dawson, Daniel M. Davis; clerk, T. J. Moran ; superintendent of 
schools, Berlin W. Tinker. 

The first Board of Education under the amended charter was as follows: 

Hon. E. G. Kilduff, mayor, chairman ; Charles S. Chapman, George H. Cowell, 
Edward W. Goodenough, John F. Hayes, Thomas J. Kilmartin, John J. McDon- 
ald, George W. Russell. The superintendent was B. W. Tinker. 

From this period on the school growth was rapid. In 1899 the new Barnard 
and Webster schools, with ten and twelve rooms respectively, were opened. The 
remodeled Merriman and Hendricken schools were also in use practically as new 
buildings, and the Driggs school was nearly ready for occupancy. 

The system of furnishing text books free had been introduced into the schools 
in September, 1895, and has accomplished all that its supporters claimed for it. 

A system of physical training was inaugurated in the public schools of Water- 
bury in September, 1896, and was further extended. 

In 1896 the new high school on East Main Street was opened. The site cost 
the city $25,000 and the building complete cost approximately seventy-five thou- 
sand dollars. It was planned by Joseph A. Jackson. It was three stories in 
height, with offices and four class rooms on the first floor. 

Across the entire front on the building on the second floor were the physical 
laboratory, the lecture room, and the chemical laboratory. All these could be 
thrown into one large room by means of immense rolling partitions,' making a 
room ninety-three feet long. The lecture room had raised platforms. Adjoining 
the chemical laboratory was a dark room with sink for photographic work. On 
this floor were, also a teachers' room, with lockers, and three large recitation 
rooms, also four class rooms, all well lighted, and each with separate wardrobes 
for boys and girls. 




CLARK SCHOOL. WATERBURY 




BUNKER HILL SCHOOL WATKIMUK Y 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 65 

The third tloor contained a fine large assembly hall, 64 feet by 72 feet, with 
ceiling 20 feet in height. This room was entirely clear of any posts or obstructions. 
In the basement was located the gymnasium. 

The exterior was designed somewhat in the colonial type of architecture, and 
was built of buff pressed brick with Indiana limestone and terra cotta trimmings. 
All the rooms had fresh air supply ducts, and likewise ducts for the removal 
of the vitiated air. These all connected with a central main duct in the basement 
,and run to the foul air gathering room at the rear, which discharged outside of 
the building by the exhaust fan. The building was completely remodeled later. 

In June, kjoo, the board re-established the training school for teachers, with 
Adelaide V. Finch as principal. 

At this period, 1900, it was evident that the city had already outgrown its 
high school capacity. The record of increase in attendance shows that the school 
had more than doubled its attendance. 

No. of Pupils 

1896-1897 237 

1897-1898 321.5 

1898-1899 351.2 

1899-1900 436.9 

September, 1900 494 

For the year 1901 the physical plant of the Waterbury schools consisted of 
eighteen buildings with a seating capacity of 7,532. During this year the Walsh 
and Russell schools were opened, the Walsh School from designs by Joseph A. 
Jackson and the Russell School from plans by Thomas M. Freney. 

The Walsh School building was described in the report of this year as "located 
between Ashley and Dikeman streets, and fronts south looking towards Ashley 
Street. The building is three stories in height, with basement, having a frontage 
of 126 feet and a depth of 67 feet. The principal entrance to the main floor is in 
the center of the front through a high arched entrance porch. Other entrances to 
the basement and main floor are provided at each end. The first floor contains 
six class rooms and principal's room and teachers' room, with toilets, etc. The 
main corridor on each floor is twelve feet wide and runs the whole length of 
the building. The second floor contains six class rooms, teachers' room, recita- 
tion room and storage room. The th ; rd floor contains six class rooms and one 
large recitation room, which can also be used as a class room if needed. There is 
also a teachers' room with toilets and store room. In the basement are two large 
play rooms, one for the boys and one for the girls, also the boys' and girls' rooms, 
containing the sanitaries. The remaining space in the basement is used for the 
heating and ventilating apparatus, coal and fuel." 

"The Russell School," the report continues, "is two stones in height, with 
basement and attic, having a frontage on West Main Street of eighty-nine feet, 
and extending back on Wilson Street a distance of eighty-four feet. The main 
entrance is on West Main Street, opening from a porch with tiled floor, connect- 
ing with corridor. There is also an entrance to first floor on the west side of the 
building from the school yard. There are marble stairs at each end of the build- 
ing, leading from the first floor to the basement and from the first to the second 
floor. There are two entrances to the basement." In the building there were at 
the outset six school rooms. This capacity has been greatly increased. 

In 1903 the Mulcahy school, og-Bakhvirr-Street, was opened. The building 
was three stories in height, not including basement; it had a frontage of 72 
feet and a depth of 91 feet. The building had four entrances, one on the 

Vol. 1—5 



66 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

front, one in rear, and one on each side. The basement contained play rooms for 
both boys and girls, sanitaries, engine room, fuel room and janitor's room. The 
first floor contained four class rooms, principal's office with toilet and supply 
room. The second floor contained six class rooms, one recitation room and 
teachers' room with toilet. The third floor contained six class rooms, recitation 
room and teachers' room with toilet. 

This year, 1903, the old Elm Street building was condemned and abandoned, 
and plans made for the new Margaret Croft School. 

The Sprague School at Waterville was remodeled and a large wing added. 

In the report of the superintendent for 1904, the crowded condition of the 
schools is again emphasized. He says : 

"Five new rooms have been opened and filled, and as soon as we have the 
funds, at least one more room must be opened. In September, 1905, there will 
be but three unoccupied rooms in the entire city and it is quite possible that these 
may be occupied. The attendance for September, 1904, has been a record 
breaker, the increase, 533, being larger than that in any city in the state, and 
probably larger than in any city of similar size in New England. 

"There has been no increase like this within recent years, and as far as I can 
see, there is not likely to be any immediate relief. The first grades throughout 
the city are greatly overcrowded, the room that has less than sixty in attend- 
ance being the exception, and many have over sixty-five pupils. These figures 
mean that if we would properly house these children, we must still continue to 
open about eight new rooms each year. It is surprising how evenly this increase 
is spread over the entire city. Of the thirty-one schools, twenty-four show an 
increase and seven remain practically stationary. Provision for additional rooms 
to be opened in September, 1905, should be made at the Webster School. Three 
rooms could have been occupied in this district this fall if we had had them. I 
would recommend that an eight-room addition to this school be built during the 
coming year and a portion be ready for occupancy in September, 1905." 

In the enumeration for 1904, the following schools showed large gains: 
Bishop and Driggs, 186; Lincoln, 56; Merriman, 102; Croft, 218; Bunker Hill, 
25 ; Park Road, 25 ; Hopeville, 40 ; Town Plot, 38. 

The growth of the city was again apparent in the records of 1905. The regis- 
tration was 9,413, an increase of 697. The new Mill Plain School was occupied 
and was a model district school. Bunker Hill purchased the site for a new 
eight-room building. Bucks Hill started on its new structure ; Park Road opened 
its new four- room building. During 1904 and 1905 the districts voted over 
ninety-four thousand dollars for sites and school buildings. 

In Waterville, the Sprague School, later destroyed by fire, assumed some- 
thing of its present shape. The original building, which was erected over fifty 
years ago, served the needs of the district until 1892, at which time a two-room 
addition was built to supply the want of a growing district. In 1897 it was neces- 
sary to add two more rooms to meet the increase, and six years later, in 1903, a 
four-room wing was added to the group. In 1905 it was deemed wise to give up 
the use of the first building for classroom needs and part of it was arranged for 
other uses, such as principal's office and supply rooms. A new brick addi- 
tion, erected in 1905, contained on the first floor a kindergarten, and on the sec- 
ond floor a classroom and a principal's office. Each floor had roomy corridors. 

With the addition completed and occupied, the district in 1905 had nine class- 
rooms and one kindergarten for the accommodation of the school population. 

In 1910 the Sprague School accommodations were again increased by the 
addition of a building containing three classrooms, a recitation room and a 
library. 




T<y\YX PLOT SCHOOL— A DISTRICT TYPE OF BUILDING— WATERBURY 




THE WALSH SCHOOL, WATERBURY 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 67 

The new Margaret Croft School, which took the place of the abandoned Elm 
Street School, was opened in 190 5. This is three stories high and the stairways 
and landings were built of reinforced concrete. 

On the first floor are five classrooms, each 25 by 28 feet; a kindergarten, 

25 by 40, and a principal's room 1 1 by 25 feet, complete with toilet and lavatory. 

The second floor contains six classrooms, a teacher's room with toilet, and a 

library. The third floor is a duplicate of the second, with a supply room and 

hospital. 

The building is covered with a flat roof, sloping to the center, from which the 
rain water is drained by means of pipes extending down in the interior of the 
building, thus doing away with dripping cornices and frozen conductor pipes. 
The entrances for the scholars are on opposite sides of the building, that for the 
girls being on the south, near the front, and that for the boys on the north, near 
the rear. From these entrances the scholars pass directly either into the base- 
ment or up to the first floor. 

All classrooms and corridors on the first, second and third floors have a 
wainscot of glazed brick six feet high, the junction between it and the plaster 
above being covered by a wood moulding in the corridors, and by a picture shelf 
and moulding in the classrooms. The exterior is faced with red pallet brick. 

In 1906 an addition containing seven classrooms, a kindergarten, and an 
assembly hall were added to the Webster School. 

In 1907 the superintendent records the increase in school population as fol- 
lows : 

"The complete and corrected returns from the census enumerators show that 
the number of children of school age in this city is 17,781, which is a gain of 
931 over the census of 1906. This gain is far in excess of that of previous years 
and means that in the near future, if we are to properly accommodate our grow- 1 
ing school population, it will be necessary to build, every school year, one 
18 to 20-room school building. The central district, Croft, Welton and Clay 
Street schools, shows an increase of 580 ; the northwestern district, Driggs, 
I'.idiop Street and Lincoln schools, an increase of 333; the Washington Hill dis- 
trict, Washington, Mulcahy and Merriman schools, an increase of 102 ; West Side 
Hill, Russell School, an increase of 66 ; the Brooklyn district, Duggan, Porter 
Street and Barnard schools, and the northern district, Webster and Walsh, show 
smaller increases ; and the eastern section, Hendricken and Hamilton, remains 
practically stationary. The enormous increase of 580 in the heart of the city 
certainly means that within a few years it will be necessary to carry out the 
original plans of the Croft School by removing the old building and erecting an 
addition of 20 to 24 rooms to the present new structure. One only needs to walk 
a comparatively short distance on the streets near the center to note the number 
of large tenement blocks that are being erected on every side, and this is likely 
to continue for several years, producing in the center of the city a school popula- 
tion very much greater than at present. The city is very fortunate in having 
sufficient land in the rear of the new Margaret Croft School on which to erect an 
addition which will accommodate this increased number of children. Among the 
district schools. Bunker Hill, Sprague and Town Plot show the largest increases." 
During this year a ten-room addition to the Driggs School was opened, as well 
as six- and eight-room additions at the Duggan and Webster schools, respectively. 
In 1909 the conditions at the Crosby High School were such that half sessions 
became necessary. In 1908 the assembly room had been given over to classes, but 
this failed to help out as the attendance for 1909 reached 760, a further gain of 
forty over the previous year. 



68 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

It was still necessary to shift about and provide for overflows in various sec- 
tions. The total attendance for this year, 11,119, showed a gain of over five 
hundred. 

For 1910, the attendance was 11,503, a further gain over the previous year, 
the High School gaining fifty-two. In this year the High School classes were 
divided, 305 pupils attending the afternoon sessions and 507 the morning sessions. 

However, the board had acted and plans for a new school were drawn. Unfor- 
tunately the financial conditions were such as to prevent an immediate sale of 
the bonds. 

In this year the evening schools led the entire state in attendance, the registra- 
tion reaching nearly a thousand. 

This year saw the opening of its first community playground. The first report 
of Joseph A. Colloty, supervisor of physical training in the public schools, con- 
tains the following: 

"If public opinion that has been gathered from all sources may be used as a 
judge, the eight weeks' session of playgrounds, just completed at Hamilton Park, 
has been one of the most successful movements undertaken. It was instituted by 
the Board of Education and plans carried out by the Board of Public Works. 

"A boys' baseball league was organized for boys under fifteen years of age. 
Forty league games were played, with an average of two hundred and fifty root- 
ers each day, and they were rooters, giving that number of boys something to do 
beside playing in the streets or up to some mischief or other. 

"Swearing, smoking and fighting were absolutely prohibited ; the rules were 
kept in good shape ; not a fight occurred during the series, and the absence of 
swearing was commented on by every adult who witnessed the games. 

"The tennis courts proved a big success, being engaged from as early as 9 
A. M. until dark. We had two double courts and six would not have been too 
many. Over seventy-five boys, one hundred adults and twenty-two young ladies 
and girls were instructed in the game and had the use of the courts. The spec- 
tators numbered as high as one hundred a day ; an average was not kept." 

In 1908 the school census showed the beginning of a notable shifting of popu- 
lation. In the number of children at school, there was an increase of 275 and in 
enumeration a decrease of 536. Washington Hill, comprising the Washington, 
Mulcahy and Merriman schools, showed a decrease of 113. In the Brooklyn dis- 
trict, the Duggan and Barnard schools showed a decrease of 342, while the Porter 
showed an increase of 192, making the net decrease in Brooklyn 150. In the 
northern section of the city the Webster and Walsh schools gave an increase of 
in and in the northwestern section the Driggs and Bishop Street schools an 
increase of 417. 

The total number of children in attendance this year was 10,093. 

In 1910 large additions to both the Russell and Merriman schools were begun. 
The Merriman school work covered by the contract consisted of a new wing con- 
taining five class rooms, a kindergarten, wood-working room, and cooking room; 
this new wing being a duplicate of the front part of the present building. The 
new and old buildings are connected by a wide corridor ; the space between build- 
ings forming a court in which is placed the new main entrance. 

The addition to the Russell School contains on the first floor two class rooms, 
a kindergarten room and a large teacher's room or office. The basement has a 
cooking school room and a manual training room, all well lighted, heated and ven- 
tilated. 

In his report for 191 1, the superintendent thus briefly describes conditions: 



WATERBURY AXD THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 69 

'The corrected school census returns show that the number of school children 
in the city is 20,347, a gain of 1,341, which is considerably larger than any during 
the past fifteen years. The number of children actually in attendance in the public 
schools is 13,683, a gain of 1,010; in the private and parochial schools, 4.500. The 
returns show that the Brooklyn district remains about stationary; the district 
which includes the center of the city gives a gain of 628; the north end section, a 
gain of 408 : Washington Hill, a gain of 57. Of the district schools, East Farms 
and East Mountain show the largest relative gain, 40 in all; Hopeville, Mill Plain, 
Park Road and Waterville, about the same, 15 each; and Town Plot, 43. In this 
connection it is interesting to recall that the city will receive from the state this 
year, and from the Leavenworth fund for the expenses of our schools, an amount 
in excess of $55,000, a rather tidy sum. The total number of children attending 
the public schools is 12,129, a gain of 635 as compared with the attendance last 
year. The gain this year is abnormal to the extent of at least two hundred pupils." 

The total registration at evening schools for 191 1 was 1,284. 

In commenting on the new playground movement, the superintendent says: 

T think it is generally conceded that playgrounds have come to stay in Water- 
bury. During the past year the Board of Education co-operated with the Board of 
Public Works, as in 1910, and paid part of the expenses of the playground at 
Hamilton Park. In this connection it is pleasant to note that the Board of Public 
Works opened several other playgrounds in different sections of the city where 
they seemed to be specially needed, and also, that the Associated Charities had a 
large playground in the center of the city, on South Main Street. Every move 
made in this direction is praiseworthy and should receive the hearty co-operation 
of the public." 

In 191 1 the crowded condition at the Crosby High School was to some extent 
relieved by an addition to the rear of the building. This was three stories high, 
30 feet by 96 feet, and gave six additional school rooms, a girls' toilet room and 
storage and stock rooms in the basement, a superintendent's office and a principal's 
office, with waiting room, and secretary's room and toilet room for each, a physical 
lecture room and a physical laboratory, a chemical laboratory, and two botanical 
laboratories having been provided in the old part. 

In 191 1 the expenditures for new buildings and furniture amounted to $138,845. 
Of this sum $81,000 was expended on the Crosby High School, $28,700 on the 
Merriman School, and $18,945 on Driggs School. 

In 1912 the enumeration was 20,933, a gain of 586; the number of children in 
the public schools was 14,117, in the parochial schools, 3,886. In the High School 
the attendance was 935, a further gain of 82 or 255 more pupils than could be 
accommodated at single sessions. The evening school attendance for 1912 was 
1.426. 

Superintendent Tinker thus summarizes the school accommodation problem in 
his report for 19 12: 

"The growth in the number of school children has been much greater between 
the years 1908 and 1912 than between 1902 and 1908; yet the total amount appro- 
priated for new grammar schools during the period of rapid growth was only 
$171,900, an average of $28,700 per year, while in the period of slower growth 
the amount of money appropriated for the same purpose was $261,814, or an 
average of $43,635 per year. This shows most conclusively that in new construc- 
tion we have been falling behind during the past six years from $15,000 to $25,000 
each year, and there is little likelihood of our catching up unless future appropria- 
tions for new construction are largely increased. To state it in another way, dur- 
ing the last eight years the increase in school attendance has been 2,650 ; the nuni- 



70 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

ber of rooms opened 35, which, with an average accommodation of 45, would seat 
1,575 pupils, leaving over one thousand pupils for whom no new accommodations 
have been provided." 

In 1912 the first report was made on the ages of grammar school graduates, and 
the number of years required by them to complete the grammar school course. 
For nine years a card system had been kept. These cards, which are still kept, 
contain a complete school record of each pupil, giving his name, date of birth, 
birthplace, parents' name, address, and for each year, the school attended, his 
grade and rank ; in addition, the card also contains a great many facts about the 
general health of the student, his eyesight, hearing, contagious diseases, etc. 

In his report for 1912, the superintendent says: 

"There were 400 graduates, of whom 2 completed the course in six years ; 7, 
or 1^4 per cent, in seven years; 66, or i6 l / 2 per cent, in eight years; 234, or 58^2 
per cent, came through on schedule time, nine years ; 74, or 18^ per cent, in ten 
years; 15, or tfA per cent, in eleven years, and 2 pupils in twelve years. Eight, 
or 2 per cent, were twelve years of age; 43, or 1034 per cent, were thirteen years ; 
109, or 27% per cent, were fourteen years; 139, or 3434 per cent, were fifteen 
years; 76, or 19 per cent, were sixteen years, and 25, or 6)4 per cent, were seven- 
teen years of age." 

In 1912 the four-room Hill Street School was built, at a cost of $23,000. 

In 1913 the school enumeration was 23,171, a gain of 2,238. Of this number, 
15,527 were in the public schools and 4,362 in private schools. The Washington 
Hill gain was 665, the Center gain 497, the North End gain 345, Brooklyn 274, 
the western section 103, and a small gain in all the districts. The number of 
pupils attending half sessions in 1913 was 1,327. The evening school attendance 
was 1,385. 

The city was now thoroughly awake to the need of new schools. The Slocum 
School, twelve rooms, was promised to the North End for 1914. This did away 
with half sessions in both the Webster and Walsh schools. An eight-room addi- 
tion to the Clay School and a similar addition to the Washington School were well 
under way. 

The Slocum School plans called for a twenty-four-room building, of which 
twelve were to be completed in the future. The architects of this fine semi-fire- 
proof structure were Freney & Jackson. It is considered one of the best of the 
city's schools. 

On December 25, 1912, the Sprague School was visited by a destructive fire 
which left practically nothing standing but the brick walls. Plans were at once 
prepared to rebuild on the same lines as the old except that the committee decided 
to place the heating plant in a separate building at the rear of the school. Con- 
tracts were let in February and the work was pushed with such speed that the 
building was completed and available for school use in 191 3. No changes were 
made in the exterior design of the school. The old assembly hall was divided 
up which gave two more class rooms, so that the building contains one kinder- 
garten, fifteen class rooms, two offices, two toilet rooms, recitation and supply 
rooms and a library. Each floor also has roomy corridors in which are placed 
the wardrobes for the use of the pupils. The wardrobes are of iron. The entire 
basement was given up to boys' and girls' play rooms. Several fire protective 
features were installed, chief of which were the fire walls. These extend from 
basement to roof and serve to confine a possible fire within the wing in which it 
may start. These walls are of heavy brick, and the openings in the walls in the 
different stories are protected by fire doors which are automatically closed by 
the melting of a fuse at a certain temperature. 



WATER MLKY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 71 

Extra promotions had been begun in 1912, and in [913 it was decided to give 
461 pupils an opportunity to do two years' work in one. Only those who stood 
highest and were physically strong were selected. This was a new device to over- 
come the school congestion, and resulted in shortening the grammar course by 
one year for these advanced pupils. In 19 14 the double promotions numbered 
401. 

The school en umera tion for m> 1 4 again reflected local economic conditions. 
The figure was 21,681, a loss of 1,490. The public school attendance for the year 
was [4,880; private school attendance, 4.255. The losses were as follows: Merri- 
man, 5; Mulcahy, 90; Croft, 281 ; Webster, 129; Bishop, 624; Porter, 116; Driggs 
and Lincoln, 304; Hamilton, 159; Hendricken, 230; Waterville, 54. All others 
showed small gains. The attendance at the evening schools was 1,529. 

Of the conditions at the Crosby High School, the superintendent says : 

"The situation in the high school is such that it is very doubtful if it will be 
possible to house the pupils next year, even in two sessions and a third session 
is absolutely out of the question. Twelve hundred and twenty pupils are now in 
attendance, which is nearly twice the full capacity of the school. Fortunately up 
to the present year the two divisions have been somewhat equally divided and 
the selection of courses of study by the pupils has been such that it was possible 
to accommodate everyone, but during the present year there has been a sort of a 
realignment on the part of the pupils with the result that a large number of pupils 
can not take the studies that are called for in their courses for the reason that it 
is absolutely impossible to organize additional classes. The laboratory facilities 
are proving to be inadequate and the commercial practice rooms entirely too 
small." 

In 1914 the Slocum School was opened and filled to capacity. Additions to 
the Maloney and Washington schools were begun. The Mulcahy, which was par- 
tially destroyed by fire in 1914, and the old Croft School building, which was 
also heavily damaged by flames, were both thoroughly repaired, and ready for 
occupancy in 1915. After these fires sprinkler systems were placed in all new 
schools and in the old ones as rapidly as funds would permit. 

In January, 1914, the Board of Education decided to make the superintendent 
of schools the executive head of the entire school department and to hold him 
wholly responsible for all of its activities. The superintendent up to that time had 
charge of the purely educational work ; the physical plant being in charge of the 
Committee on Schoolhouses and the inspector of school buildings. Under the new 
arrangement, the superintendent was also made responsible for the condition of 
the physical plant. 

In 1 914 plans were adopted for the new Clark School on Scovill Street, adjoin- 
ing the Croft School. It is a fourteen-room building, complete with wood- 
working and cooking departments, gymnasium, swimming pool, boys' and girls' 
lockers, shower and dressing room. This building is a model in every respect 
as to its construction and finish, and the entire range of modern schoolhouse work 
in this country was searched to produce a building which would be of most thor- 
ough and at the same time most economical fireproof construction. The walls 
of the building are of brick, the exterior facing being of selected brick trimmed 
with a small amount of Indiana limestone in keeping with the Croft School. 

The Sprague School gymnasium, which was begun in October, 1914, was 
ready for occupancy February, 191 5. The auditorium in this seats 500. 

In 191 5 the enumeration was 22,390, a gain of 709 over 1914. The largest 
gains were as. follows : Washington District, 180; Duggan, 109; Mulcahy, 103; 
Hendricken, 101 ; Barnard and Maloney, 81 each; Croft, 50; Porter, 48; Lincoln, 



72 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

43 ; Walsh, 38 ; Driggs, 30 ; Merriman showed a loss of 76 ; Russell, of 69 ; and 
Webster, of 198. Town Plot showed a gain of 162; Bucks Hill, 27; Hopeville, 
20; East Mountain, 15; Mill Plain, 13; East Farms, 7. The losses in Waterville 
were 34, and in Bunker Hill, 17. The reports of the attendance for September, 
1915, show a total number of 13,959 pupils, a gain of 611. There was a loss in 
attendance of 98 at the Driggs and Lincoln schools, due to the opening of the 
new St. Margaret's Parochial School. The attendance at the evening schools 
was 1,679, tne largest in the history of the city up to that time. 

In 191 5 a decided advance was made in the planning and construction of new 
schools. Of these the most important enterprises were the planning of the 
new Wilby High School and the opening of the Clark School on which in 
1915 $100,667.94 was expended. The total expenditures in 1915 for buildings, 
additions and furniture was $128,214.93, in 1914 it was $129,133, of which 
$42,930 was spent in the new high school addition and $58,974 on the Maloney 
School. 

The work on additions and alterations of the Hendricken School was com- 
menced in October, 1915, and finished in March, 1916. In the basement the 
following new rooms were added : Cooking room, boiler room, woodworking 
room, girls' and boys' sanitaries, store room and new exit. On the first floor 
were added a kindergarten, teachers' room, kindergarten and teachers' toilets, 
store room and exit. On the second floor were added a class room, principal's 
room and library and toilet. 

The school department in 191 5 had four new gymnasiums and one up-to-date 
swimming pool. The pool and one new gymnasium are located at the Clark 
School, one at Washington, one at Maloney and one at the Sprague School. 
They are all well lighted, heated, and ventilated. 

Plans were also approved for the eight-room Mattatuck School at the corner 
of Seymour and Russell streets and for the long-contemplated nine-room Lincoln 
School, to replace the old Lincoln School on Sperry Street. 

The returns of the school enumeration for 1916 showed 24,001 children of 
school age, a gain of 1,611 as compared with 191 5. The total number at school 
was 21,063, a g ani °f 1,000; total number in private schools, 4,996, a gain of 
521 ; a total number employed between fourteen and sixteen years of age was 
548, a gain of 98. The attendance at evening schools for 1916 was 2,177, a § am 
of practically 500. 

The Begnal School, corner Seymour and Russell streets, containing eight 
class rooms and a kindergarten, was opened in 19 17. 

THE NEW VOCATIONAL AND GRAMMAR SCHOOL 

The new vocational and grammar school building which is now being con- 
structed on the lot adjoining the Crosby High School will have a frontage of 
133 feet on East Main Street, 153 feet on North Elm Street, and 133 feet on 
Water Street. 

The exterior will be built of buff pressed brick trimmed with granite and 
limestone to match up the present building and it will conform to the present 
building in design. 

The pitched slate-covered roof of the present building will be entirely 
removed and the new roof of the present building and the roof of the new 
building will have a practically flat surface finished in vitrified tile for play- 
ground use. 

There will be one entrance to the new building from East Main and two 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 73 

from North Elm streets. The entrance from Water Street to the basement of 
the present building may be also used for exit and entrance to the new. 

The floors and roofs are to he of reinforced concrete construction ; the 
staircases, of which there will be two, will extend- from the sub-basement to the 
roof. These are to be of structural iron construction with selected blue stone 
treads and platforms, and they will be enclosed within brick walls. The stair- 
case halls will be closed off from the corridors at each floor with metal fireproof 
doors, transoms and partitions glazed with wired glass. 

A direct-connected electric combination passenger and freight elevator will 
be installed to travel from the boiler room floor to the third floor. 

The boiler room and the heating apparatus room will be below the Water 
Street level. The boiler room will contain the filter and pump rooms, coal 
bunker and ash bin. There will be five floors above the boiler room, the sub- 
basement, basement and first, second and third floors. The sub-basement will 
contain a gymnasium 42 feet 8 inches by 63 feet, with two galleries above on the 
basement floor level, the boys' and girls' locker and shower rooms, drying rooms, 
lounging spaces, director's room, a swimming pool 25 feet wide by 60 feet long 
with a spectators' gallery 12 feet by 70 feet at one side of the pool. The sub- 
basement will also furnish room for the foundry and plumbing shop, a stock 
and saw room and four store rooms. 

The gymnasium and locker rooms will be lined full height with glazed brick ; 
the shower and drying rooms and all walls enclosing the pool will be faced with 
white enameled brick. The pool, all floor spaces around the pool and the floors 
of the shower rooms will be laid with tile. 

The basement will contain three machine shops and a forge shop. The first, 
second and third floors will contain twenty-nine class rooms and on each floor 
there will be toilet rooms. 

All class rooms will have glazed brick wainscot, maple floors, ash trim and 
blackboards. The corridors will have composition floors on concrete and glazed 
brick wainscot. 

Ail class rooms on the inside of the building open to a light court 55 feet by 
69 feet. 

Fire standpipes will be carried up through the building to the roof at 
several places and these will be equipped with hose and hose racks. Suitable 
pipes and fixtures will be carried to the outside walls of the building, which will 
permit the fire department to connect their apparatus and increase the water 
pressure on the interior of the building. Sprinklers will be installed in the 
sub-basement, basement and elsewhere in the building where combustibles may 
be stored. 

The new building will be connected with the Crosby High School at the 
basement, first, second and third floors by means of ample corridors. To obtain 
the room for these corridors several changes are to be made on the several floors 
of the Crosby School. Among these will be the shortening of the boys' lunch 
room in the basement, the closing up of the west entrance to the basement, the 
closing up of the side entrance to offices on the first floor, adding a new vault 
for the use of the school clerk, a new waiting room, new offices for the girl 
clerks, the secretary and the superintendent, and using part of the women 
teachers' room on the first floor. On the second floor part of the recitation rooms 
and the spaces used for physical and chemical stores are to be used for cor- 
ridors and the necessary additions and alterations are made to provide for store 
rooms. On the third floor minor alterations only will be necessary to accommo- 
date the connecting corridors. 



74 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

In the near future it is the intention to use both the present and new build- 
ings for a vocational school and the new building has been planned so that it 
may be adapted to that use at a minimum cost. When used for a vocational 
school the following rooms will be contained in the first, second and third floors : 
cabinet work, pattern shop, wood turning, electric wiring and testing, printing 
and bookbinding, painting and decorating, mechanical drawing, design and draw- 
ing, elementary mechanical drawing, sewing, dressmaking, millinery, nursing, 
elementary cooking, advanced cooking, laundry, sheet metal, general science, 
women teachers, principal's office, waiting room, department office and a small 
apartment containing a dining room, a living room, bath and bed room. 

VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY I916 

This is the record from the annual report for 1916. The additional value in 
schools opened and under construction in 191 7 will bring the total valuation to 
nearly four million dollars. This allows approximately a million for the new 
Wilby High School on Pine Street which is to be opened in 19 17 and the voca- 
tional school adjoining the Crosby which when completed will have cost approxi- 
mately eight hundred thousand dollars. 

Important changes in the schools in 191 7 were the appointment of M. C. 
Donovan as principal of the Crosby High School, succeeding Stephen W. Wilby, 
who died March 30, 1917. Joseph P. Kennedy was made principal of the Wilby 
High School, which opened its doors September 1, 19 17. 

For 1.9 1 7 the board is expending $60,000 for gymnasium and pool in Brook- 
lyn. This is to be ready in 19 18. The new thirteen-room school in the Hopeville 
District, which is to contain a pool and gymnasium, will also be ready for 
occupancy in 1918. The total cost of this is now placed at $100,000. 

The expenditures for new buildings and additions, including furnishings, in 
Waterbury schools since 1895 have been as follows: 

1895 $ 32.963.68 1906 49,000.00 

1896 76,441.32 1907 52,100.00 

1897 2 7>793- 2 6 1908 2,900.00 

1898 3 2 »445-79 1909 38,768.03 

1899 108,390.04 1910 44,000.00 

1900 20.444.29 1911 138,845.00 

1 90 1 40,998.75 191 2 23,647.67 

1902 49,884.00 1913 64,362.00 

1903 36,500.00 1914 129,133.09 

1904 34.523-5I 1915 126,214,93 

1905 39,806.70 1916 104,051.52 

Total including lots, 
building, books, 
School No. of rooms furniture, etc. 

Crosby High 35 $266,240 

Barnard 12 43,6io 

Bishop 12 43,o68 

Clark 14 101,787 

Croft 12-20 120,526 

Driggs 24 1 14,342 

Duggan 20 9 6 ,356 





ST. MARGARET'S SCHOOL. WATERBURY 




CONVENT OF NOTRE DAME. WATERBURY 



WATERIU'RY AND THE \Al( ;ATUCK VALLEY 



75 



School 

I tamilton 

Hendricken . . . 

I -incoln 

Maloney 

Mary Abbott . . 
Merrim;in .... 
Mill Plain 

Mulcahy 

Porter 

Russell 

Slocum 

Sprague 

Town Plot .... 

Walsh 

Washington .. . 

Webster 

Welton 

Stock Room . . . 
Mattatuck Site 
Pine Street Site 
Begnal Site ... 
Columbia Site . 



No. 



of rooms 

4 
10 

8 
16 

4 
16 

4 

12 

8 

12 

12 

16 

8 

18 

20 

6 



Totals 348 

Bucks Hill 2 

Bunker Hill 8 

Chapel 6 

East Farms 1 

East Mountain 2 

Hopeville 4 

Newton Heights 1 

Oronoke 1 

Park Road 4 

Reidville 4 



Total including lots, 
building, books, 
furniture, etc. 
$12,695 

65,348 
28,822 
91,781 
28,822 
88,694 

24,983 
50,184 
31,666 
78,730 

83,737 
69,422 

33,822 

165,794 
59,660 

88,336 
21,868 
2,882 
10,000 
108,000 
17,000 
20,000 



$1,968,196 



$ 



Totals 33 



7400 
44,858 
20,500 

3,o75 
6,300 

13,504 

4,575 

3,5i5 

n,i75 
7,56o 



$122,462 



PRESENT SCHOOL ACTIVITIES 

To give a clear idea of the extension of educational work in Waterbury, the 
following extracts from the 1916 report are given: 

"In addition to the regular school work the teachers and pupils have engaged 
in a large number of special activities much wider in scope than the exhibits of 
regular school work. Nearly every building had, this year, a special exhibition 
of gymnastic work of unusual merit. Two schools presented entertainments 
of an unusual nature, both of which had large educational values. The Duggan 
School gave an exhibition of living pictures which was greatly enjoyed and 
favorably commented on by more than a thousand parents and friends, and the 



76 WATERBURY AXD THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Walsh School presented a pageant illustrating the history of Waterbury, many 
scenes of which were acted out in a truly marvelous manner. 

OVER-AGE CLASSES 

"A new over-age class has been opened in the Duggan building for tbe 
accommodation of such pupils in the Porter, Duggan, Barnard and Town Plot 
schools. Reports from all three special classes continue to show the great use- 
fulness of this work, and it is planned to open other similar classes in another 
year. 

DOMESTIC SCIENCE 

"During the last year the Hendricken and Russell schools have been equipped 
with kitchens, making a total of ten, which necessitated the appointment of a new 
teacher. Classes from St. Thomas' Parochial School are being accommodated 
at Webster School, and special classes of backward children have been arranged 
for in nearly every school. Laundry equipment is being installed in most of 
the kitchens and lessons in this work have already been given to some extent. 
New meat charts have been procured for four kitchens. We are revising the 
course of study, giving special attention to practical and economical methods on 
account of the present unnatural increase in the cost of food supplies." 

WOODWORKING CLASSES 

In the woodworking departments the report shows 15 classes in the Margaret 
Croft School, averaging 17 each; in the Driggs School there are 12 classes; in 
the Lincoln School, 3 ; in the Duggan, 2 ; in the Walsh, 2 ; in the Sprague, 5 ; 
Webster, 7 ; Mary Abbott and St. Thomas Parochial, 6 ; Washington and Mul- 
cahy, 5 ; Russell, 4 ; Merriman, 4 ; Hendricken, Mill Plain and Hamilton Avenue, 7. 

THE CONTINUATION SCHOOL 

One of the most important advances made in Waterbury was unquestionably 
the establishment in November, 1912, of the Continuation School. 

There were seven manufacturing concerns who desired to send a total of 
210 apprentices. As the capacity of the school had been set at 180 students and 
more factories made application to enter apprentices, the school board was com- 
pelled to increase the accommodations. The school opened for its second year 
September, 1913, with 20 manufacturers sending a total of 250 apprentices. 
Tn 191 7 the classes number 200. 

The following is the curriculum: 

First Year 

Shop Arithmetic. — The four fundamental operations. Fractions, decimals, 
percentage, ratio and proportion. English and metric units of length, area, 
volume and weight. Square root. Mensuration. Practical examples. 

Reports and discussions, from articles in trade papers. Oral reports and 
discussions to encourage public speaking and debating. Written reports to give 
training in spelling, writing and composition. 

Shop Talks. — The opportunities in the machine industry. The requirements 
of a first-class machinist. A brief description of machines used by the machinist. 




WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Chisels and chiseling operations; hies and filing; hand tools; small tools, 
study of the materials of construction. 

History and Civics. -Study of the history, growth and government of Water- 
bury. The development of the various industries of Waterhury. 

Personal Hygiene. — Good habits for the worker, hygiene of the workroom; 
fatigue; occupational dangers; first aid to the injured; tuherculosis, etc. 

Drawing. — Free-hand sketching. Free-hand drawing on cross-section paper 
of tools and machine parts. Simple projection. 

Second Year 

Shop Mathematics. — Solution of an equation. Formulas in power, speeds, and 
feeds of simple machines. Theory of exponents. Logarithms, powers and roots. 
The slide rule. Solution of the right angle triangle. 

Reports and discussions on topics assigned from the geographical relation of 
iron and brass; their founding and manufacture. Written and oral descriptions 
of tools, parts of machines and machine operations. 

Shop Talks. — A study of the following: Drilling machines, lathe planer, 
shaper, milling machine, boring mills and grinding machines. Selection of grind- 
ing wheels. Gears and methods of cutting. The art of cutting metals. 

Civics.— Government of Connecticut. Connecticut's position in the manufac- 
turing world. 

Character Study. — A study of the lives and contributions of the nation's noted 
inventors and the influence of their inventions upon the progress of manufactures 
of the country. 

Mechanical Drawing. — Simple and oblique projections. Free-hand isometric 
drawing. 

Third and Fourth Years 

Practical Mathematics. — Solution of diagrams. Practical problems. 

Reports and discussions, from trade journals. 

Shop Talks. — Layout and assembly operations. Care of belting. Lubricating 
oils and cutting solutions. Manufacturing talks. Heat treatment of steel. Tool 
making. Cam cutting. 

Civics. — The national government. Duties of citizenship. 

Mechanical Drawing. — Sketches of machine parts and drawing from same. 
Isometric drawing. 

Applied Mathematics. — Applied problems and review. 

Reports and discussions, from trade journals. 

Shop Talks. — A study of turret lathes, automatic machines and their tools. 
Forge, foundry and pattern work. Power transmission. A brief talk on the pur- 
pose and development of scientific methods as applied to shop work. 

Mechanics. — Laws of gases, liquids and solids. A study of heat and its prac- 
tical application. Elementary electricity and the principles of electric machines, etc. 

Strength of Materials. — Strength of machine parts, tools, etc. 

Drawing, link motions, cam layouts. Solution of problems by graphics. 

The fifth year of Continuation School work started September, 1916, with 215 
apprentices enrolled, twenty-three factories sending apprentices. 

The first graduating class of seven apprentices received diplomas in June, 1916, 
and at the same time certificates were awarded to ninety-six apprentices for satis- 



78 WATERBURY AXD THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

factorily completing their studies while attending the Continuation School. Dur- 
ing this year a course for automatic screw machine operators was introduced. 

The work of the Continuation School has attracted attention throughout the 
country. 

THE SALESMANSHIP SCHOOL 

The Salesmanship School, which was conducted in 191 5 and 1916, has been 
temporarily suspended for 191 7. Conditions in the city this year and last year are 
and have been very unfavorable to the work in that a shortage of help in the stores 
makes it difficult to spare any to attend the school. In spite of this, the merchants 
have shown a much greater interest and desire to avail themselves of the oppor- 
tunity of increasing the efficiency of their store forces, as is shown by the fact 
that the enrollment in 1916 was more than fifty. Because of this need for more 
help in the stores, an entirely new plan had been worked out with much success. 
Classes were held in two of the stores, instead of at the school, taking the time of 
the teacher rather than that of the saleswomen in going back and forth. Thus in 
the Grant and Hutchinson 25-Cent Stores all the saleswomen attended the classes, 
half coming at one time, half at another. There was less individual work, but 
much greater enthusiasm and more ground covered. A class from the Reid & 
Hughes Dry Goods Co., and from Grieve, Bisset and Holland, attended the school. 
The work will be resumed as economic conditions permit. 

THE OPEN AIR SCHOOL 

During the spring of 191 2 several prominent ladies of Waterbury established 
an Open Air School for Tuberculous Children which was at first conducted at no 
expense whatever to the Department of Education. It was first located in a re- 
constructed building in the rear of the Industrial School, on Central Avenue. The 
method of operation was unique. The children were given three meals a day, 
which at the outset were served in a dining room in the basement of the Industrial 
School Building. They were served with good nourishing food, plenty of milk, 
bread and butter, vegetables, good soups, cooked fruits and such. The meals cost 
from 17 to 18 cents a day per child. 

After dinner the children lie down for an hour before the afternoon session, 
on cots which are in the school room. They are weighed once a week. "Sitting 
out" bags are provided for the use of the children in the cold weather, also warm 
caps and gloves. 

In October of 191 5 the Open Air School was transferred to the Clark School 
and placed under the entire control of the Board of Education. In this building 
two large rooms are used for class room and rest purposes, both equipped with 
the very latest devices. In the basement a large room has been fitted up as a 
kitchen and dining room with neat, serviceable and modern equipment. The pupils 
in this school also have the opportunity of using the roof playground and, taken 
altogether, the arrangements for the Open Air School are as complete as will be 
found in any similar school in this country. 

The Board of Health, through the school physicians and nurses, is actively 
co-operating in its management, and the Waterbury Dental Association is taking 
care of the children's teeth. As soon as funds are available and there is need, it 
is planned to open a similar school or schools in other sections of the city. 







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WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 79 

EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN 

In 1914 an important investigation was begun on employment of children. In 
his report for that year, the superintendent has this to say by way of comparing 
Waterbury with other Connecticut cities : 

"Some interesting figures have just been published by the State Board of Edu- 
cation relative to the employment of children between the ages of fourteen and 
sixteen years that I think will prove to be of interest to you. The charge is some- 
times brought against the schools that we are unable to hold any appreciable per 
cent of children between fourteen and sixteen; that large numbers of them go to 
work. Now this may be and may not be true. Whatever the facts of the case 
may be, the figures from the State Department show that, as compared with New 
Haven and Bridgeport, the per cent of fourteen and sixteen-year-olds that we hold 
in the schools is twice as great as theirs, and, as compared with all the cities of 
the state, we are head and shoulders above any. For example, in New Haven 
there is one certificated child to every twenty-two between fourteen and sixteen 
years of age; in Bridgeport twenty-four and Hartford thirty-one, and in New 
Britain, our nearest competitor, thirty-seven, while Waterbury has only one 
certificated child of school age out of every fifty pupils between fourteen and 
sixteen years of age." 

FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION 

"In the entire city, nearly one-half, or 50 per cent, of the pupils in school, have 
parents who were born in non-English speaking countries. In Bishop Street, Clay 
Street, Croft, Duggan and Barnard schools about three-fourths of the children 
have parents who were born in non-English speaking countries. The per cents 
vary all the way from yy per cent at Bishop to 6 per cent at Washington. It goes 
without saying that those schools which have the higher per cents of pupils whose 
parents were born in non-English speaking countries have peculiar problems to 
solve that the other schools do not have." 

The average enrollment of children born in foreign countries is about 12 per 
cent. 

PRIVATE SCHOOLS 

Among the private schools running in 1893, the most important was "St. Mar- 
garet's School for Girls," which was long conducted under the auspices of the 
Waterbury School Association, a private organization of citizens, and in 1875 was 
presented to the Episcopal Diocese of Connecticut for a Diocesan School. In 
1895, Miss Mary R. Hillard was placed in charge and remained until 1908. The 
school is still running successfully, with a vastly extended curriculum. It is now 
in charge of Rev. John N. Lewis, Jr.. rector; Emily Gardne r Munro, principal. 

In 1908, Miss Hillard decided to establish a school Tor girls at Middlebury, 
Conn., and interested many of the leading men and women in Waterbury in this 
enterprise. A company was formed with John H. Whittemore at its head and a 
magnificent school building was erected in Middlebury. Of this the architect was 
Miss Theodate Pope, now Mrs. John Riddle, and it is one of the model school 
buildings of the state, its cost running up to $100,000. The name of the school 
is "The Westover." 

The school was opened in the spring of 1909, with 125 in attendance, some- 
thing over actual capacity. It has been run successfully ever since. Dr. Mary R. 



80 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Hillard is still in charge. Its attendance this year, with its increased capacity, is 
150. The new studio, constructed recently, is also in use. Harris Whittemore 
succeeded his father as president of the Westover School Corporation. 

The Academy of the Convent of Notre Dame celebrated its quarter centennial 
in 1894. At that time it was under the direction of Madam St. Stanislaus. Today 
it is in charge of Sister Superior St. Faustina. It has 14 teachers and 220 pupils. 

St. Mary's Parochial School was established August 29, 1886, by Father Mul- 
cahy, and was in its own building at the beginning of this quarter century, 1893. 
This had been solemnly blessed on September 3, 1888. It is interesting to note 
that during his entire Waterbury pastorate, Father Mulcahy was a member of the 
Board of Education of the Center district, and was for some years chairman of 
the board. 

Father Mulcahy also built the convent, in 1889. In its first year the school had 
700 children, in charge of 12 Sisters. Sister Superior Rosita was then superin- 
tendent of the school. Monsignor Slocum, in 1902, built the Mulcahy Memorial, 
which is now used as a club house for the school alumni and alumnae. In 1905 
the eight-room grammar school was built. This gives the school at present twenty 
rooms. The attendance in 191 7 is 950. In 1916 it was 1,050. There are now 
twenty Sisters teaching, in charge of Sister Superior Claudine. 

Sister Superior Claudine came to Waterbury from Convent Station, N. J., in 
1897, and has been in continuous charge since then. 

The record of parochial schools for 1917 is as follows: 

St Mary's Parochial School for the Parish of the Immaculate Conception — 
Sisters in charge, 20; pupils, 1,100. 

School of the Sacred Heart Convent — Sisters in charge, 9 ; pupils 414. 

Parochial School of St. Ann's Church — Sisters in charge, 17; pupils, 600. 

Parochial School of St. Joseph's Church (Lithuanian) — Sisters in charge, 12; 
pupils, 578. 

Parochial School of St. Thomas Church — Sisters in charge, 1 1 ; pupils, 490. 

Academy of the Convent of Notre Dame — Sisters in charge, 14; pupils, 220. 

Parochial School of St. Margaret's Parish — Sisters in charge, 9 ; pupils, 350. 
This school was opened in 1914. 

BERLIN WRIGHT TINKER 

Berlin Wright Tinker, superintendent of schools since 1897, succeeded to the 
position on the death of Superintendent Crosby. Thus during the past quarter 
century there have been but two men in active charge of the educational work of 
Waterbury. 

Mr. Tinker was born in Jerusalem, N. Y., February 7, 1867, and was educated 
in the public schools of Norwich, where his father was the minister of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. He graduated from Bates College, then took a year's 
special course at Boston University. His educational work began as principal of 
the High School at Chelmsford, Mass. He was later in charge of the high schools 
at Southborough, Marblehead and Marlboro, coming to Waterbury in 1897. He 
is a member of the First Church. On August 25, 1889, he was married to Eliza- 
beth French Wyer. 

The long record of progress, of wise adjustment to conditions, is the best 
tribute that can be paid him. He has not alone kept the schools of Waterbury in 
the forefront of America's city educational institutions, but he has, by original 
work, contributed materially to the advance of educational methods everywhere. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 81 

STEPHEN WILLIAM WILBY 

Stephen William Wilby was principal of the Crosby High School from 1896 
to the time of his death, March 30, 1917, a period of twenty-one years of able 
service to the city. 

He was born at Spencer, Mass., November 27, 1865, graduated from Montreal 
College and later attended Holy Cross College, in Worcester. From this he grad- 
uated, in [888. 1 fe began teaching in Epiphany College, one of the principal acad- 
emies in Baltimore, and later at St. Andrews' Seminary, Rochester. In 1895 he 
came to the Waterbury schools and was appointed principal of the High School 
in [896. 

His work here has been of exceptional value. The constant yearly increase in 
attendance necessitated make-shifts without detracting from the value of the 
school work, and in this labor he demonstrated a rare power of organization and 
of executive ability. 

Many additions to the courses were recommended by him when the work of 
double sessions was in itself enough to keep his mind and time occupied, showing 
that nothing could deter him from keeping the Crosby High School up to standard. 

MINOT SHERMAN CROSBY 

Minot Sherman Crosby was connected with the Waterbury schools from 1870 
to 1897, the year of his death. From 1870 to 1891 he was both principal of the 
Waterbury High School and Superintendent of Schools. In 1891 he was relieved 
of the high school work and confined his labors to superintending the schools of 
the Center district. He was born in Conway, Mass., prepared for college at 
Phillips Academy, and graduated from Amherst. For ten years he was a teacher in 
the public schools of this state and in private schools in Virginia and New York. 
In 1861 he became principal of the Hartford Female Seminary. In September, 
1870, he came to Waterbury. His work here was of exceptional value in estab- 
lishing a sound foundation for the great growth that came in later years. 

The new high school, completed the year before his death, was named Crosby, 
in honor of his long years of useful work in Waterbury. 

Till-: NEW WILBY HIGH SCHOOL 

At present the sessions in the Crosby High School Building are divided, as fol- 
lows : Crosby High pupils. 8 A. M. to 12:45 P - M. ; Wilby High pupils, 1 P. M. 
to 5 P. M. The Crosby is what might be termed the Classical High, and the Wilby 
the English, Commercial and Household Economics school. The new Wilby High, 
which will cost when completed, with its site on Pine and Grove streets, approxi- 
mately Si, 000,000. will be ready for occupancy in T919. The building will accom- 
modate from 1,200 to 1,500 pupils. The architect, L. A. Walsh, 'has provided for 
approximately thirty-four rooms. It will be a fireproof structure, 190 by 196 feet, 
on the so-called hollow-square plan, the rooms being arranged about the .outside 
of the square, with the assembly hall in the center. The exterior provides a build- 
ing on the Tudor-Gothic style, built of red rough tapestry brick with the orna- 
mentation concentrated about the main front entrance and the two Pine Street 
entrances. The floors of corridors, toilet rooms, lunch room, pool room and lecker 
rooms are to be terrazo. The floors of all other rooms are to be maple. The 
building has been set close to Pine Street, so thai the approaches for pupils from 
Grove Street may be made on an easy slope. 

Vol. 1—6 



82 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

SCHOOL REGISTRATION FOR 1917 

The following is the school registration for 1917: 

Crosby High School 897 Slocum 581 

Wilby High School 553 Sprague 473 

Abbott 171 Town Plot 303 

Barnard 332 Walsh 1,092 

Begnal 415 Washington : . . . 585 

Bishop 530 Webster 829 

Bunker Hill 315 Welton 223 

Columbia 266 Maloney 622 

Croft 1,396 Bucks Hill 40 

Driggs 800 Chapel 179 

Duggan 715 East Farms 33 

Hamilton 90 East Mountain 87 

Hendricken 384 Hopeville 127 

Merriman 583 Oronoke 16 

Mill Plain 227 Park Road 47 

Mulcahy 446 Reidville 107 

Newton Heights 52 

Porter 230 Total 14,172 

Russell 426 

MEDICAL INSPECTION 

The medical inspection in the schools of Waterbury dates back to 1898, when 
the first eyesight tests were made. The discovery of defective vision in about 11 
per cent of the children and the immediate efforts made to remedy this evil led 
in the following year to the passage of a state act, making these tests compulsory 
in all schools every three years. 

Medical inspection was introduced about 1907, and it was due largely to the 
efforts of the school doctors that children with weak lungs were segregated, as 
far as possible, and that the Open Air School was started in 191 2. 

Today the Dental Association of Waterbury devotes some time to inspection of 
teeth. The school physicians for 19 17 are Drs. Charles A. Monagan and John W. 
Fruin, who make the rounds of all the schools of the city. Two nurses are also in 
the service of the schools and work either in the homes or schools, as the doctors 
advise. 

MARGARET CROFT 

The Board of Education struck a tender and popular chord when it named one 
of its latest and best school buildings the Margaret Croft School. For Margaret 
Croft was first of all a native of Waterbury, and, what is more important, one of 
the great factors in the advancement of its schools. 

She was born here, January 25, 1835, the daughter of James and Polly W. 
Croft. Her father was the first person jn Waterbury who had been trained in the 
art of making gilt buttons. He was identified with this industry until his death, 
in 1S37. 

Margaret Croft graduated at Mount Holyoke Seminary in 1855, was a teacher 
in Mississippi in 1855 and 1856, and in Georgia from 1858 to 1861. In 1863 she 
became a Waterbury teacher, and her work was of such exceptional worth that 




THK MARGARET CROFT SCHOOL, WATERBl'RY 




CROSB1 lllcil SCHOOL, WATERBURY 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 83 

she was later appointed assistant principal of the High School, which position she 
retained until 1909, when she retired. She died August 20, 191 1. 

She was thus connected actively with the schools of Waterhury for forty-six 
years, and had during that long period been one of the greatest of Waterbury's 
educational and moral influences. 

JOSEPH P. KENNEDY 

Joseph P. Kennedy, the principal of the Wilby High School, is a Waterbury 
boy. He was born here March 28, 1877, was educated in the Waterbury public 
schools and later graduated from St. Mary's College, Emmitsburg, Md. He came 
to the Waterbury schools as a substitute teacher in 1898, and in February, 1900, 
was made teacher of mathematics at the Crosby High School. In 1914 he was 
made sub-master, In September, 1917, he was appointed principal of the Wilby 
High School. 

He is devoting much of his time to planning improvements for the Wilby High 
School Building, which is to be ready for occupancy in 1919. 

MICHAEL C. DONOVAN 

Michael C. Donovan, principal of the Crosby High School, was born in 
Belvidere, N. Y., October 12, 1868, and was educated in the public and parochial 
schools there and in Wellsville, N. Y. He graduated from Niagara University, 
Niagara Falls, N. Y., in 1892 and in June, 1917, his college gave him the honorary 
degree of Litt. D. 

He received his Normal training in the Teachers' College, Buffalo. For two 
years after taking this course he worked for the Standard Oil Company at 
Lima and Findlay, Ohio. 

In 1898 he came as teacher to the Crosby High School, W r aterbury, where 
he has been ever since. In September, 1904, when the Department of English 
was created at the Crosby High School, he was placed in charge of it. 

He was made temporary principal on March 15, 1917, and principal May 1, 
1917. 

Mr. Donovan has thus been connected with the Waterbury schools for nearly 
twenty years, and throughout that period has given valuable service to its pupils. 
He is a strict disciplinarian and has done much to advance the cause of education 
in Waterbury. 

THE DAVID G. PORTER COLLEGE BEQUEST 

David G. Porter, born in Waterbury March 8, 1833, who spent most of an 
active life in this city, died October 7, 1905, and left a large portion of his 
estate for the founding of a college. He knew that in itself it would not suffice 
for the purpose he had in mind and in his will he states that "when the accumu- 
lation, increased by possible contribution?, donations or bequests from other 
sources, shall be deemed sufficient for the purpose, the trustees shall establish a 
school or college on the portion of land west of the Meriden Road, to be operated 
according to the following plan : — 

"The courses of study in the institution may be literary and classical, or 
scientific and technical, or both, but shall in any case be made up of a six-month 
winter term for young men, extending from October 1st to April 1st, these dates 
being movable at the discretion of the trustees, but so as to comprise not less 



84 WATERBURY AND THE XAUGATUCK VALLEY 

than six months, inclusive of a holiday recess of not more than one week, and 
shall be arranged so as to rise in grade, each succeeding term or year above the 
preceding, and covering a period of not less than three, nor more than six years. 

"The courses of study for young women shall be made up of summer terms 
of not less than three months each, and shall extend over a period of not more 
than four years ; and as far as practicable, special prominence shall be given in 
these courses to the theory and practice of domestic science, literature and 
modern languages ; and a study of the constellations of the visible heavens, and 
of ornithology shall be included." 

The following explanatory paragraph is also signed by the testator and made 
a part and parcel of the will : 

''The purpose of the residuary legacy is to provide for the beginning of a 
school, or college, to be operated on a plan by which young men can earn during 
the six summer months what they will need to spend at college during the other 
six months of the year; in order that capable young men, who are so disposed, 
can secure a liberal education independently, and of their own resources, without 
incurring debt or the risk of injury to health by attempting double work ; and 
so that young women can receive such instruction in college courses as shall be 
fitted to their circumstances and needs under similar conditions, but without 
what is termed co-education." 

The following are named in the will to hold the property in trust for the 
above purposes : Cornelius Tracy, Albert D. Field, Charles L. Holmes, Edwy E. 
Benedict, Helen P. Camp and Margaret Torrance Holmes, wife of Walter W. 
Holmes. 

The Waterbury Trust Company was elected trustee of the fund on July 26, 
1907. It now approximates $45,000. 

David Porter devoted many years of his life to the study of theological and 
educational questions. Many of his contributions appeared in the New Christian 
Quarterly, some in the New En°lander and the Journal of Social Science. 

After the publication of ''The History of Waterbury," Mr. Porter published 
the following: "The Elder from Ephesus," 1897; "The Perversion of Funds 
in the Land Grant Colleges," 1897; "Religion Straight from the Bible," 1902; 
"The Kingdom of God." 1905. 

In 1904 Mr. Porter edited and contributed largely to the cost of publication 
of a volume of 200 pages entitled, "A Century in the History of the Baptist 
Church in Waterbury, Conn." Interesting among a quantity of miscellaneous 
manuscript is. "The English Language and Its Written Expression." 

THE SILAS BRONJSON LIBRARY 

Beginning in 1869, with an endowment by Silas Bronson, of Middlebury, of 
$200,000, the Silas Bronson Library was directed for some years according to 
the scholarly ideas then prevailing, and fulfilled its function as a storehouse for 
the preservation of rare and costly books. 

Later, the pressure of democratic tendencies forced it into line with a move- 
ment directed by the American Library Association and having for its aim "The 
best books for the largest number at the least cost." To this "library move- 
ment." so-called, is due the present system of free libraries supported by the 
people and appealing to them under the democratic title of "People's Universi- 
ties." The Bronson Library belongs to both periods and shows the influence 
of both. 

In its reference department are rare and beautiful works such as the early 




BROXSOX LIBRARY, WATERBURY 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 85 

editions of Ruskin valued at $200; the Versailles gallery of pictures in 13 
volumes, quoted at $610; Audubon's "Birds of North America," at $500; Tryon's 
"Manual of Conchology" in 35 volumes, valued at $700; and others of equal 
scarceness. The library has also 2.000 or more volumes relating to local history 
and genealogy, hooks wisely chosen for the model collection which now attract 
visitors from all parts of the state. 

The library museum contains tine mineral specimens exhibited at the World's 
Fair in Chicago and secured for the library by Cornelius Tracy, a herbarium 
collected by H. F. Bassett in several different states, 1,000 coins presented by 
Nathan Dikeman, and war relics from southern battlefields and the Philippines. 
In 1906, F. J. Kingsbury, with the co-operation of the Naturalist Club, presented 
a fine collection of New England birds valued at about twelve hundred dollars ; 
and in 1910, specimens of rare •butterflies beautifully mounted, were given by the 
Misses Merriman and Mrs. F. E. Castle. 

The aristocratic period of development ended in 1900, when the circulation of 
books fell to 69,600 volumes for the year, although in the first year of the 
library's establishment, the circulation was 76,769 volumes based on a collection 
of less than 12,000 books. 

In 1902, readers were for the first time admitted to the shelves of the book- 
room, the stringency of the rules for borrowers was relaxed, and the library 
became at once a popular institution. The record of succeeding years has been 
one of progress along democratic lines, and the issues of the library have increased 
from 69,600 volumes in 1900 to nearly 400,000 volumes in 19 17. 

An unexpected result has been the rapid growth in the reference use of the 
library by the masses of the people. A few years ago questions involving 
research of any sort were rarely asked; but during the past year 1,831 subjects 
were referred to the librarian for special material. The use of the library is 
developed through a special department cared for by a "readers' " information 
librarian, who aids people in the use of the case catalogue, provides material 
for essays and debates, and answers all questions requiring special knowledge, 
including those sent by telephone. 

From this department is issued the monthly bulletin of the library, with 
lists on subjects such as the war, new thought, books about Ireland, technical 
books, city government and social betterment, while the bulletin board in the 
hallway calls attention to books relating to holidays and anniversaries or to other 
topics of special interest. Postals are also sent out notifying persons of recent 
additions in certain classes of literature. 

The collection of pamphlets numbering some fifty-five thousand is an impor- 
tant aid in information work and includes in their season such popular features 
as tourists' guides and the latest catalogues of colleges and universities. 

Novel readers are accommodated by a collection of pay duplicates, and atten- 
tion is -called to the best stories in many lines by volumes grouped in the book- 
room under such designations as Stories of Country Life. New England Stories, 
Ghost Stories, Civil War Stories, and One Hundred of the Best Novels, all of 
which have their special patrons. 

Tiie school work of the library is directed by a trained children's librarian 
under whose care are the children's rooms in the main building, and the branches, 
and the deposit libraries sent each year to every grade beginning with the third in 
seventeen schoolhouses. 

In the Brooklyn branch, story-telling as a method of interesting children in the 
best books has been introduced with success, and boys' as well as girls' reading 
clubs are in the process of formation. 



86 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

During the weeks before Christmas, an exhibition of the books most loved 
by children is always arranged at the main library and invitations to visit it are 
sent to mothers interested in selecting books as gifts. The library has also a per- 
manent collection of books for story-telling reserved for the use of mothers and 
teachers, and there is now a model library of 500 of the volumes best adapted for 
supplementary reading in the schools. 

The library co-operates with teachers in many ways, lending books for class- 
room use and providing two study rooms for young essay writers and for those 
working on material for debates. There is also a lending collection of pictures 
patronized by teachers; by students of design; and, as to the portraits, by writers 
for the newspapers. 

From these examples, it will be seen that by following after and supplying the 
popular demand, the Silas Bronson Library has achieved a great increase in use- 
fulness and is committed to many new lines of activity. It has now, including 
school libraries and branches, nineteen outside agencies for the distribution of 
books and each of these is the nucleus for increasing usefulness. Twenty assistants 
are employed, though, a few years ago, seven sufficed. 

The new building in Library Park on Grand Street, was opened in 1894. The 
Children's Room was opened in 1898. Miss Helen Sperry was appointed librarian 
in 1906. The stack room was opened to the public in 1902. Books have been 
sent to the schools since 1903. 

The branches were established as follows : 

Waterville, 1907. 

South Waterbury, opened 1908; closed, 1912. 

Brooklyn, opened 1909. 

Rose Hill, opened 1913. 

There were in the library on January 1, 19 17, 100,345 books. 

The board of agents of the Bronson Library consists of twelve electors of 
the city, two of whom are elected at each biennial city election, to hold office 
for a period of twelve years from the fourth day of July next following their 
election. 

The board of agents of the Bronson Library are legally constituted agents 
of the City of Waterbury, with full power to collect, invest, expend, manage and 
control the Bronson Library Fund and the income therefrom, and to establish, 
regulate and manage the Bronson Library. 

Following are the officers : 

Martin Scully, president; Lewis A. Piatt, secretary; Otis S. Northrop, treas- 
urer; Helen Sperry, librarian. 

The board of agents at present is as follows : 

Charles H. Swenson, Mark L. Sperry, James E. Russell, Otis S. Northrop, 
John O'Neill, Terrence F. Carmody, John P. Kellogg, Francis P. Guilfoile, 
Lewis A. Piatt, Bernard A. Fitzpatrick, James S. Elton, Martin Scully. 

THE MATTATUCK HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

It appears from the brief record in the "History of Waterbury," by Dr. Joseph 
Anderson, that an historical society was projected by some of its citizens in 
1875, "but the scheme did not take definite shape until 1877, the bicentennial of 
the settlement of the town, when special interest in local history was aroused." 

The origin of the society as related in the first entry in its records was as 
follows : "Upon an invitation signed by F. J. Kingsbury, Joseph Anderson, and 
H. F. Bassett, the following named gentlemen met at the rooms of the Waterbury 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 87 

Scientific Society on the evening of December 22, 1877, for the organization of 
an historical society: F. J. Kingsbury, Rev. Joseph Anderson, Prof. Isaac |en- 
nings, E. L. Brown, S. W. Kellogg, George E. Terry, N. |. Welton, Anson G. 
Stocking, Rev. E. G. l'.eekwith. I). I)., Prof. M. S. Crosby, H. F. Bassett." 

The constitution adopted at that meeting gave as its purpose the collection and 
preservation "of whatever, in the opinion of its members, may serve to explain 
or illustrate the history, civil or ecclesiastical, the archaeology, or the natural 
history of the State of Connecticut, and especially the region originally included 
in the Town of Waterbury and formerly known as Mattatuck." There were 
twenty signers. In addition to those already mentioned, these were: Israel 
Holmes, D. L. Durand. David B. Hamilton, S. M. Terry, G. W. Tucker, S. B. 
Terry, Robert W. Hill, Fred A. Mason, Gideon L. Piatt, George W. Cook, 
C. M. Piatt, James O. Cook, Guernsey S. Parsons, George R. Welton, John O'Neill, 
Jr.. Israel Coe. Mr. Kingsbury was its first president and Geo. A. Tucker its 
first secretary. 

In May, 1896, a collection of stone implements, representing the American 
Indian, was shown at the Y. M. C. A. This was purchased by Elisha Leaven- 
worth and Cornelius Tracy, and placed on the upper floor of the Bronson Library. 
Mr. Leavenworth announced that he would provide for its proper housing in a 
new building, which was to be a museum in charge of the Historical Society. 

Later, for the purpose of officially receiving this and other like gifts, "The 
Mattatuck Historical Society" was incorporated, February 14, 1902, with the fol- 
lowing incorporators : Frederick J. Kingsbury, Joseph Anderson, Anna L. Ward, 
Katherine A. Prichard, David G. Porter, John G. Davenport and Charles L. 
Holmes. Its first officers after incorporation were : President, Frederick J. Kings- 
bury ; vice presidents, Joseph Anderson, Sarah J. Prichard ; treasurer, Charles L. 
Holmes ; secretary, Katherine A. Prichard ; directors, John G. Davenport, Anna L. 
Ward, David G. Porter. 

Beginning with the annual meeting of December 10, 1902, the organization met 
regularly on the second Monday of March, June, October and December. Before 
it had its own building, these meetings were held in the conference room of the 
First Church, and from October, 1907, to June, 1910, at the home of President 
Kingsbury. 

On June 8, 1904, the society received from Elisha Leavenworth a gift of 
x$to.ooo, and on October 10, 1007, he purchased and presented to the society the 
ethnological and archaeological library collected by Dr. Joseph Anderson. This 
consisted of several thousand books and pamphlets relating to the races of men, 
the stone age in Europe and America, and the American Indian. 

The death of President Kingsbury occurred September 30, 1910, and Dr. Joseph 
Anderson succeeded him at the following annual meeting in December, 19 10. 

By the will of Elisha Leavenworth, who died January 6, 191 1, the society was 
bequeathed ample funds with which to purchase its own home. On June 14. 191 1, 
therefore, the first meeting was held in what had been known as the Ludington 
Place on West Main Street, and which had been purchased for $co,ooo. Later in 
this year the society purchased the ground adjoining it, on Kendrick Street, 
26J/2 by TT2 feet, and in 1912 erected the present Museum Building, which is 
50 feet wide and 62 feet long. This building 1 , by Architects Gripes and Hunt, of 
Waterbury, is connected with the house fronting on West Main Street by a broad 
hall and marble steps. It is three stories in height, with an auditorium on the top 
floor, which has been regularly used since 1912 for the six successive picture 
exhibitions of the society. The main floor and a large part of the first floor are 
set apart for museum purposes. 



88 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

The basement at the present time is devoted to those articles which have not 
as yet been placed on exhibition, or which are too large to permit of their occu- 
pying space in the main museum. Among the articles to be found there are a 
carpet loom which was built into a house on Hunter Mountain, Naugatuck, and 
which had to be taken to pieces to be removed from its former home to its present 
position : also the first carriage ever seen in Waterbury. 

On the top floor is the lecture hall of the society. This is fitted with proper 
lighting apparatus for a picture gallery. The first painting received toward a 
permanent collection is "A Road Near the Sea," by William Langsen Lathrop. 

But the room in which much interest centers is the museum occupying the 
main floor of the building. In this there are twenty-one cases, sixteen arranged 
in rows on either side of the room, twelve being table cases, four table and wall 
cases combined, and the other five being centrally placed. The wall cases, which 
occupy the space at the further end of the hall, are memorial cases dedicated to 
Col. Jonathan Baldwin, Miss Sarah J. Prichard, Bennet Bronson and Deacon 
Aaron Benedict. These were presented by Miss Katherine L. Peck, Miss 
Katherine A. Prichard, J. Hobart Bronson and Mrs. Gilman C. Hill. 

Since 1914, three memorial cases have been added, the gifts of the Kingsbury 
family, the descendants of Wm. H. Scovill and the Henry W. Scovills. 

The late Doctor Anderson so skillfully arranged the exhibition that in passing 
down the east side of the room, the visitor sees first relics from ancient Babylonia 
and Assyria, then comes the neolithic collection, mostly from Denmark, followed 
by the American prehistoric collection arranged geographically. The modern 
American Indian collection presents a pleasing contrast to that of the prehistoric 
collection. The part played by the white man in American history is represented 
by a collection of wonderful laces, silk garments, lace collars, traveling bags, 
together with autographs and documents of various sorts, — the niceties of the 
white man's civilization which he early introduced into the rough country he had 
chosen for his new home. 

The cases along the west side of the room are devoted mostly to the collection 
of Revolutinary and Civil war relics, a miscellaneous collection of Waterbury and 
other relics, a miscellaneous collection of shells and the mineralogical collection 
which has been loaned by the Bronson Library. 

Several of the collections either have been donated or loaned by Waterbury 
people who have a deep interest in historical Waterbury. The prehistoric col- 
lection from Nova Scotia was given by W. W. Holmes, the Prince Edward Island 
collection by H. W. Hayden ; the ethnological collection of modern Indians by 
H. H. Peck, the modern Indian industry collection by Cornelius Tracy, the Hayden 
collection of modern Indian industry by Mrs. Shirley Fulton, the Bienstadt col- 
lection of modern Indian industry by Miss Caroline Piatt, the collection of old 
laces by the Misses Kingsbury, the lace and shawl collection by Miss Katherine 
A. Prichard, and several other collections, including the Cowles collection of 
pistols and the Peck collection of swords are to be found there. 

The Babylonian and Assyrian tablets are of various ages, from the most 
remote period down to the time of Darius. They contain records of prayers and 
hymns, astrological notes, omens, lists of sacrifices, wills, contracts, sales of lands, 
receipts for loans, legal proceedings, with many other commercial and religious 
matters. Some of them bear their exact date. 

The paleolithic collection, which is next in order, includes some of the oldest 
known implements. Most of these are from France, the collection of French 
polished stone and flint implements found near Amiens and the Chellean imple- 
ments taken from the gravel of the River Somme, the site where many remark- 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 89 

able chipped hand implements have been found, being examples of what this part 
of the collection has to offer. 

The neolithic collection is made up mostly of Danish implements of much 
superior quality to the paleolithic collection. Celts, polished and unpolished, 
stone axes and gouges, flint axes, chipped spears, and knives and perfected axes 
tell the story of human progress. 

The American prehistoric collection, that gathered largely by Doctor Ander- 
son, occupies five entire cases and in this all parts of the United States are rep- 
resented. 

The Nova Scotia collection, the gift of W. W. Holmes, and the Prince Edward 
Island collection, the gift of H. W. Hayden, are followed by the Maine collection, 
which was the result of the explorations of W. K. Moorehead. The New Hamp- 
shire and Vermont collection of arrow heads, stone and iron axes, celts, medals, 
pipes, etc. About the same things are to be found in the collections from Massa- 
chusetts and Rhode Island. 

The Connecticut collection, which is quite extensive, is arranged according to 
the various divisions of the state. The eastern division includes such towns and 
cities as Sterling, Stonington, Putnam, Mystic and Jewett City. In the central 
division are East Hartford, Torrington. Windsor Hill. Then comes a division 
which includes the vicinity about New Haven, and last is the division included in 
the vicinity about Waterbury. From the New Haven vicinity, especially from 
West Haven and Woodmont, the home of Doctor Anderson, are many arrow- 
heads broken in the making. More abundant than arrowheads are these so-called 
"rejects," the failures in arrow making. They are stones which proved too 
obdurate to work. Besides containing the usual Indian relics, the collection from 
the vicinity about Waterbury includes pieces of wood taken from a considerable 
depth and bearing the marks of having been cut with some blunt instrument. 
The depth at which they were found, and also the fact that they are petrified, 
shows that they were cut and buried centuries ago. 

The collection from the other states of the Union include numerous articles 
of interest. New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Virginia, West 
Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Florida, the gulf states, Tennessee, Ken- 
tucky, the Ohio River Valley states, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Arkansas, 
Iowa, Missouri, Oklahoma, the Rocky Mountain states, — in short, every part of 
the Union has contributed something toward the American prehistoric collection 
now in the museum of the Mattatuck Historical Society. The various sections of 
the country have contributed articles of various types. The South has furnished 
many articles in the pottery line, the western states have furnished large and 
heavy stone articles. From Oregon the collection of chipped implements and orna- 
ments of jasper, agate, carnelian, is one of the most beautiful Indian collections 
in existence. This is the gift of Irving IT. Chase. 

At the southern end of the museum are the combined table and wall cases. In 
the first part of the wall cases is exhibited the portrait of Col. Jacob Kingsbury, 
a member of the Society of Cincinnati. This portrait was painted by Waldo 
about 1810, and, together with the certificate of membership in that society, was 
loaned by the Misses Kingsbury. The lace collection, including specimens of old 
Spanish blonde of the seventeenth century. Point de Milan of the eighteenth 
century, Flemish pillow lace, also of the eighteenth century, and Point d'Alenqon 
of the seventeenth century, was also loaned by the Misses Kingsbury, and occupies 
one of the table cases. 

Of much interest is the case of old deeds, Indian deeds relating to the settle- 
ment of Mattatuck, proprietors' records, etc., a note book belonging to Rev. John 



90 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Southmayd when at Harvard College, in 1694, being of special value. Here also 
are the ear bones of Rev. John Southmayd, preserved in a tiny bottle. 

The Hayden collection, the gift of Mrs. Shirley Fulton in memory of her 
father, contains many fine specimens of modern Indian industry. This collection 
occupies two cases. Across the aisle from this is the Bienstadt collection, the 
gift of Miss Caroline Piatt. Miss Katherine A. Prichard has loaned various 
family heirlooms, including the wedding veil worn by her mother in 1827, and 
also a beautifully embroidered silk shawl. 

An idea of the dress of the early American women is given by two calashes, 
which were worn by elderly women over their caps, and traveling bags, one of 
which was embroidered in 1838 by Cornelia M. Johnson. These articles have 
been loaned by Mrs. G. C. Hill. Some valuable autographs, various old publica- 
tions, early bank bills and a few miscellaneous articles complete the exhibition 
contained in the memorial cases. These were all loaned by Mrs. Gilman C. Hill. 

The Revolutionary and Civil war relics, including bayonets, swords, revolvers, 
pistols, cannon balls, canteens, irons, shells and the like, fill several cases. The 
valuable collection of pistols, assembled by Pierre C. Cowles, and the collection 
of rare swords, presented by H. H. Peck, follow in the cases next to the war 
relics. There are examples of stone heads, idols and pottery from Mexico ,->nd 
Central America, and weapons, pipes and other modern Indian articles presented 
by H. H. Peck. The Cornelius Tracy collection of specimens pertaining to 
modem Indian industry offers many interesting examples. 

In the miscellaneous collection, there are several articles of close and deep 
association to Waterbury people. Among these are the latches from the doors 
of St. John's Church, built in 1797, wrought iron nails from th<= Hiram Upson 
house in Platts Mills, old tallow candle dips, a collection of historic and political 
medals, all of deep interest locally. 

In 19 1 6 James Terry of New Haven and Hartford loaned the society his valu- 
able Washington collection. This contains, among other articles, the banouet 
table used by Washington to entertain his officers after the Battle of Yorktown. 
It was bought in 1775 from the Fairfax family and taken to Mount Vernon. 
There are also in the collection the sideboard, breakfast table and a porch chair 
from Mount Vernon, many broadsides and a considerable quantity of valuable 
porcelain. The collection also contains a Thomas Jefferson chair, used by that 
statesman at Monticello. 

A tablet was erected in 1916 at Sled Haul Brook on the cemetery road in 
memory of the first Waterbury settlers. 

The tablet to Elisha Leavenworth was placed in the Historical Society Build 
ing in 1917. 

On November 7, 191 7, the society numbered 960 active members. The honor- 
ary membership list is as follows : 

Henry Bronson, M. D., New Haven, from June 3, 1878, until his death, 
November 26, 1803. 

Horace Hotchkiss, Plainfield, New Jersey, from June 3, 1878, until his death, 
March 9, 1879. 

Elisha Leavenworth, from December 10, 1902, until his death, January 6. 191 t. 

Franklin Carter, LL. D., Williamstown, Mass., elected December 14, 1910. 

Katherine A. Prichard, elected January 24, 191 2. 

Constance G. DuBois, elected October 8, 1913. 

The income of the Society, apart from fees paid on admission to membership 
and the annual dues, is derived almost entirely from the Leavenworth bequest. 
The gift of $to,ooo, conveyed to the society in 1904, had at the time of his death 
increased to $15,000. He left by his will $40,000 for the purchase of the land and 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 91 

the house which the Society now occupies, and $50,000 for income, and also 
made the Society one of the first residuary legatees. The total bequest is placed 
at about $175,000. 

The present officers of the Society are as follows: President, Arthur Reed 
Kimball ; vice presidents, John Prince Elton, Mark Leavenworth Sperry ; secre- 
tary, Henry Lincoln Rowland; treasurer, Charles Leland Holmes; curator, Walter 
Wetmore Holmes; assistant 'secretary, Lucy Peck Bush; assistant treasurer, 
C. Sanford Bull; assistant curator, Lucy Peck Bush; assistant, Catherine W. 
Pierce. 

Annual directors: Arthur Reed Kimball, John Prince Elton. Henry Lincoln 
Rowland, Carl Eugene Munger, Charles Leland Holmes. 

Permanent directors: To serve until January, 1919, Charles F. Chapin and 
Frederick G. Mason; to serve until January, 1920, Mark L. Sperry and Hugh 
L. Thompson; to serve until January, 1921, Harris Whittemore; to serve until 
January, 1922, Robert F. Griggs and Nathaniel R. Bronson ; to serve until Janu- 
ary, 1923, Wallace H. Camp and Frederick S. Chase. 

The membership committee consists of : Frederick G. Mason, chairman ; Wal- 
lace H. Camp, Katherine D. Hamilton, Merritt Heminway, Walter Makepeace, 
Almira C. Twining. 

House committee : Frederick S. Chase, chairman ; Martha R. Driggs, Alice 
E. Kingsbury, Hugh L. Thompson, Cornelius Tracy. 

Meetings committee : Arthur Reed Kimball, chairman ; Mrs. Frederick S. 
Chase, Charles A. Dinsmore, John P. Elton, Edith D. Kingsbury, Mary B. Bur- 
rail, Harris Whittemore. 

Museum committee : Walter W. Holmes, chairman ; George A. Goss, Cather- 
ine H. Grigsrs, Alice E. Kingsbury, Katherine L. Peck, Mrs. Walter D. Make- 
peace, Mrs. Nelson A. Pomeroy, Mrs. Augustin A. Crane. 

Memorial committee : Edwin S. Hunt, chairman ; Mrs. William F. Chatfield, 
Darragh DeLancey, Florentine H. Hayden, Katherine A. Prichard, Anna L. 
Ward.' 

Finance committee : Robert F. Griggs, Henry L. Rowland. 



CHAPTER VII 
TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATION 

THREE NOTABLE INDUSTRIAL TRIUMPHS ELIMINATION OF GRADE CROSSINGS EREC- 
TION OF THE UNION DEPOT — DOUBLE-TRACKING THE ROADS ENTERING WATERBURY 

COST OF IMPROVEMENTS MADE IN A DECADE IN WATERBURY's TERMINALS 

RAMIFICATION OF THE TROLLEY SYSTEM ITS GROWTH FROM HORSE CAR LINE TO 

THE NETWORK OF PRESENT EXTENSIONS THE GREEN LINE TELEGRAPH, TELE- 
PHONE AND EXPRESS. 

In the quarter century which is now ending, Waterbury has won by consistent 
agitation, by many cheerfully-made concessions, and in several instances by 
appeals to the State Railroad Commission, to the Public Utilities Board, and to 
the courts, three notable industrial triumphs. 

These are the complete elimination of all railroad grade crossings, the build- 
ing of a new Union Station with vastly increased yard facilities, and the double- 
tracking of the railroad lines entering the city. 

The agitation for a Union Station began in 1889. This was a demand not 
only for the station, but for the elimination of all grade crossings and separation 
of grades on the Naugatuck Division of the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
Road. In 1893 an agreement was reached by which the railroad consented to the 
construction of "a wooden depot to cost $25,000." 

Such was the beginning and such the first concession made to the persistent 
appeals of Waterbury's citizens. 

At that time, 1893, the act covering the abolition of grade crossings had been 
in effect four years, and Waterbury was on the alert to secure its share of these 
improvements, for the new law required a reduction of at least one grade cross- 
ing each year for every sixty miles of road owned or operated within the state. 
In 1909, twenty years after the passage of the act, there remained only six cross- 
ings at grade between Naugatuck Junction and Waterbury. Of these, three 
were in Milford, two in Derby and Ansonia, and one in Naugatuck. When this 
work was completed in 191 1, it was asserted by the state officers that the im- 
provements ordered by this law on elimination of grade crossings had cost the 
New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad $7,725,304. 

In 1898 the city won its first great victory in this contest. The State Rail- 
road Commission, in its report for that year, states that "Bank Street, which 
formerly crossed the railroad at grade, has been carried under it, in accordance 
with a decree of the Superior Court, dated November 14, 1888, made on an 
appeal from an order of the State Railroad Commission. This eliminates the 
most dangerous grade in the city." This refers to Bank Street at its entrance 
into the Brooklyn district. 

The victory, which took ten years to gain, had an immediate influence in 
effecting a further agreement between the city and the railroad. In that year, 
1898, the upper Waterville Road, leading from Waterbury to Waterville, was 
carried under the railroad. The City of Waterbury paid one-half the expense 

92 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 93 

of the change, the highway having heen built since the location and construction 
of the railroad. 

The trolley catastrophe of November 29, 1907, was a terrible demonstration 
of the necessity of the elimination of grade crossings. An Oakville bound trolley 
car was completely wrecked by a north-bound freight at the West Main Street 
car crossing over the tracks of the 1 [ighland and Naugatuck Division. Five were 
killed and twenty-four injured in this wreck. The responsibility for this disaster 
was placed on the employees of both the trolley company and the railroads. 

In October, 1899. the company and the city agreed on increased protection at 
the West Main and Porter Street crossings. Guarded gates were eventually 
placed, both at the point where West Main Street crosses the tracks of the Nauga- 
tuck Division and at the point where Porter Street crosses the Highland Division. 

In 1902, the work of double-tracking the road into Waterbury began. This 
task had been completed to a point south of Derby Junction and was now under- 
taken for the stretch of road from Derby to Waterbury. On September 16, 1904, 
the railroad, at the urgent solicitation of city officers, began the construction of 
the viaduct over the Upper Waterville Road at Waterville, thus removing a 
dangerous crossing. 

In 1906 began the work of double-tracking the stretch of road between 
Waterbury and Bristol. In 191 1 this work was completed. It involved the 
elimination of all grade crossings between Waterbury and Bristol, the straight- 
ening of the line, the construction of a tunnel 3,500 feet long, and the forming 
of a continuous double track line between Hartford and Waterbury. 

Now. too. came the period of heavier engines and heavier traffic, and a change 
in the construction of railroad bridges was imperative. By 1910, practically all 
the wooden bridges on the Naugatuck and Highland divisions had been replaced 
by steel or thoroughly strengthened. This was no small task, for there were 
thirty-two of these wooden bridges between Waterbury and Meriden alone. This 
is all steel construction now. 

In 1910, the steel bridge built over the Potatuck River, near Sandy Hook 
Station, replaced the last wooden bridge existing on the Highland Division west 
of Waterbury. 

In its report of 1909 on the Union Station improvements, the State Railroad 
Commission said : "The Union Passenger Station of Waterbury has been erected 
at a cost of $332,000. The expenditure for other improvements in the city of 
Waterbury, including the new freight houses, freight yards, additional tracks, 
elimination of crossings, purchase of property, etc., up to June 30, 1909, amounted 
to $1,623,000, and it is estimated that $150,000 more will be needed to complete 
the improvements. The total expense will go over $2,000,000." 

For the past three years the improvements made by the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford Railroad have been largely in the line of extending the yards, 
and in the building of industrial trackage. 

During the war period, — three years, — the road has built approximately seven 
miles of sidings in Waterbury. Fully two miles were constructed for Scovill's, 
a mile for the Chase W'orks, and fully half a mile for the American Brass Com- 
pany. The extensions to the yards have increased the facilities so that five hun- 
dred additional cars can be accommodated. 

But the tremendous freight business of the past three years has necessitated 
many improvements along the line- leading to Waterbury, in the way of running 
side tracks, of extending yards at outlying points, of further strengthening bridges 
to carry increased weight of engines. 

The merging of the various railroads entering Waterbury into the New York, 



94 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

New Haven & Hartford Railroad was nearly complete in 1893. In May, 1887, 
the Naugatuck Railroad was leased for ninety-nine years to the New Haven 
system at $200,000 a year. In 1875 it had bought the Watertown line from its 
trustees. 

The New York and New England Railroad was a union of many railroad 
companies, which were made a part of one corporation on April 17, 1873. It 
owned or leased the Boston, Hartford and Erie Road, the Norwich and Worcester 
Railroad, a line of steamers running from Norwich and New London to New 
York, and the Hartford, Providence and Fishkill Road. In 1881, it opened the 
line from Waterbury to Danbury, and in 1882 the line from Danbury to Fish- 
kill. It also acquired the railroad running from Hartford to Springfield with its 
branches. 

Early in 1887 construction of a railroad between Waterbury and the Con- 
necticut River, by way of Meriden, was begun. On July 4, 1888, this was 
opened. In January, 1889, the railroad had been completed across the city to the 
New York and New England line. In 1892 the road passed into the temporary 
control of the New York and New England Railroad Company, but merely on a 
lease. 

When the Meriden Road bonds became due, its operation was stopped and 
foreclosure followed. Judge A. Heaton Robertson, of New Haven, purchased 
it for $100,000 in 1896. In 1897 Judge Robertson pledged himself to the Legis- 
lature that he would resume operations before the next session of the Legislature. 
On November 3d, he incorporated it as the Middletown, Meriden & Waterbury 
Railroad. The officers were : President, A. Heaton Robertson ; secretary, John 
B. Robertson, of New Haven; treasurer, A. Heaton Robertson; directors, Fred- 
erick C. Wagner, Henry C. Ely, Wm. H. Clark, all of New York; John L. 
Billard, Charles L. Rockwell, H. L. B. Pond, all of Meriden ; Frederick J. Kings- 
bury, of Waterbury, and the officers above named. It was officially re-opened on 
December 6, 1898, the New Haven road operating it. This arrangement was 
later extended and the New Haven road secured control of the line. In 1904 
a connection was made with the Northampton Division, near Cheshire, resulting 
in the "Cheshire Loop" rail route between Waterbury and New Haven. The 
run was made in fifty minutes without change, as against an hour and a quarter 
with one change on the route via Derby, and there was a special round-trip rate 
of seventy cents, a considerable reduction. Consequently the "Cheshire Loop" 
became very popular, but with the opening of the Cheshire trolley to Mount 
Carmel, giving a through line to New Haven, business speedily fell off on the 
parallel rail route, which was soon abandoned. Thereafter the Meriden branch 
ran one mixed train of two cars daily each way between Waterbury and Meriden. 
In 1917, war conditions on railroads called for the discontinuance of this train as 
unnecessary. The service now is occasional and irregular. 

The Meriden branch was built primarily as a freight line to connect Water- 
bury and Meriden with tide water at the Connecticut River. While the hopes of 
its builders were never realized, the eastern end of the line has proved useful. 
It has been electrified between Meriden and Middletown and affords regular 
passenger and express service. 

On July 1, 1898, the New England Railroad passed into the hands of the 
New Haven Railroad, thus ending the only formidable competition the consoli- 
dated system ever had. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 95 

THE NEW UNION STATION 

On July ii, 1909, the new Union Station of the New York, New Haven & 
Hartford Railroad was opened to the public. This, with its many improvements 
in the way of street openings, elimination of grade crossings hy the new viaduct 
and subway track service, was a tremendous advance over old conditions. Water- 
hury for years grumbled about the old Bank Street Station of the Naugatuck 
Division. This was the successor of the town's first depot, which was erected in 
1857. The Bank Street building was opened on January 22, 1868, and was called 
'"palatial." It was closed to the public March 29, 1908, and has since been torn 
down and the site added to the property of the Waterbury Farrel Foundry and 
Machine Co., which has covered it with factory buildings. Temporarily the 
public was allowed to purchase tickets in a temporary wooden building near the 
West brass mill, off West Main Street, until the tracks were shifted and the 
junctions completed. 

The station is ample in its requirements for a city of more than 100,000 popu- 
lation. Large swinging doors, three in number, admit to the waiting-room from 
Meadow Street. This waiting-room is furnished with high-back mission style 
seats, the floor is of mosaic tiling, with arched ceilings of tapestry brick. 

The ticket office has three large windows with decorative brass scroll facings 
and marble counters. 

At the north end of the waiting-room are the women's reclining and toilet 
rooms, and the men's smoking room and toilets, and a large newsstand for the 
Connecticut News Co. 

The Western Union Telegraph Co. has the room at the south end of the 
waiting-room. Next comes a large restaurant, and beyond that a baggage-room. 
The Adams Express Co. is quartered at the north end of the building. 

The construction of the new depot and the street changes required to make 
effective the new approach had begun in 1906, and in this work the city co-oper- 
ated most heartily with the railway officials. Grand Street and Meadow Street 
were widened to make an impressive approach to the new station, and at their 
junction there was a fill of over fifteen feet, many hundreds of thousands of yards 
of material, being used. The city condemned a large number of buildings, some 
of the property acquired being used for street widening and station approaches 
and the remainder being added to the Bronson Library property, thus creating 
Library Park. Some of the structures torn down were the ramshackle buildings 
surrounding the Meadow Street Station of the old Highland Division, and these 
had long been a public eyesore. Others, however, were substantial and modern 
brick wholesale warehouses. The firms occupying these took advantage of the 
opportunity to construct new buildings in the West End, near the new elevated 
tracks. 

The passenger facilities thus provided have proved ample for the city's 
growth so far. The freight facilities were early outgrown. Track congestions, 
particularly in the winter season, caused great delays in the handling of freight, 
and the railroad company was repeatedly put on the defensive and made promise 
of further improvements. Its financial conditions caused these to be delayed until 
the greatly increased business due to war orders resulted in the autumn and 
winter of 1916 in a wholly intolerable freight blockade. As soon as spring came 
construction was started on the new freight yard and sidings which it is anticipated 
will serve the city for some years to come. 

When the Union Station was built, space was provided in the upper stories 
for railroad divisional headquarters and the staff of the Western division was 



96 WATERBURY AXD THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

moved here. This lasted for awhile, but in a subsequent reorganization of the 
divisions, the trackage handled from Waterbury was cut down and the city 
became headquarters of the Highland Division, consisting of the Old Highland 
Division, the Xaugatuck Division and the Meriden branch. 

THE RAMIFICATIONS OF THE TROLLEY 

In 1893, when the Waterbury Traction Company, which from its inception 
in 1882 to that time, had been known as "The Waterbury Horse Railroad," asked 
for permission to change its motive power to electricity, there was a storm of 
protest. 

At Hartford, the State Railroad Commission was seriously interfering with 
the beginnings of this new mode of street travel. In fact, in its early reports, 
dated during this formative period, it absolutely refused to grant any electric 
road the right to cross the tracks of a steam road. 

The Waterbury Traction Company, however, submitted to the mayor and 
the Court of Common Council of Waterbury its plan for changing the motive 
power, and a committee of the Court of Common Council submitted a report 
recommending the granting of the application upon certain terms and conditions, 
including the following conditions : 

"Section 6. That said company shall indemnify and save harmless the said 
city from all loss, cost, damage or expense of every kind, nature or description 
by reason of the operation of its cars in the streets of said city arising or growing 
out of the use of electricity as a motive power. 

"Section 8. That said Waterbury Traction Company shall pay to the City of 
Waterbury, for the use of said city, in the month of January in each year a sum 
not exceeding two per cent of its gross receipts, to be determined as follows : — 

"The gross receipts for the purpose aforesaid, consist of all fares not exceed- 
ing five cents (and five cents of each and every fare exceeding five cents) and 
the City of Waterbury at some time during the month of January in each year 
shall examine the books of said company and thus ascertain and determine such 
gross receipts. 

"When and after such time as the net earnings of said company shall exceed 
the sum of six per cent on the capital actually invested in said company, in stocks 
or bonds, or both, said company shall pay to said city such excess to the amount 
of two per cent in the same manner aforesaid. 

"If at any time hereafter the statute laws of this state shall make said 
company liable to local taxation, the provisions of this section shall be null and 
void during such time as said company shall be liable to local taxation and no 
part of said receipts shall be paid to said city during such time by reason of 
anything herein contained." 

This permit is quoted in some detail here, as it later became an important 
issue in the city's contest for the collection of its two per cent of earnings. 

The capital of the new company was placed at $1,000,000. This stock 
increase prepared the way for the absorption of the Connecticut Electric Company 
and for the control of the electric lighting of the city. 

The power house for the new company was built on Bank Street, as an 
extension of the old electric station. Work began March 1, 1894. The first five 
electric cars were run July 28, 1894, from the Center to Naugatuck. The West 
Main Street line was opened with electric power August 3, 1894, the East Main 
Street line on August 22d, and the North Main Street line on September 1st. 

The first report of the street railway companies in Connecticut to the State 





• ftfJiiiiii 




WATERBURY UNION STATION AND APPROACHES FROM LIBRARY PARK 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 97 

Railroad Commission was made in 1895. At that time there were in round 
numbers 300 miles of street railways within the state, with a stock and 
bonded debt of $17,700,000, gross earnings of $2,200,000, operating expenses 
of $1,500,000, paying taxes amounting to $76,500, carrying 38,000,000 passengers, 
with 250 accidents to persons, 12 of which were fatal. 

In 1910 there were 921 miles, with a reported capitalization and debt of 
$7< ),ooo,ooo, gross earnings over $8,000,000, operating expenses nearly $5,000,000, 
taxes $452,000, passengers carried 151,000,000, with 2,278 casualties to persons, 
397 of which were fatal. This gives some conception of the tremendous growth 
of the trolley transportation in its first active fifteen years. 

In 1 9 16 the total mileage of single track road in Connecticut was 1,543.8. 
The total assets of all the street car lines in the state had reached on June 30, 
1916, a total of $115,737,721.36. The passenger revenue for the year ending 
June 30, 1916, was $15,336,166.41, with a net operating revenue of $5,841,512.05; 
taxes to the state for the period, $971,753.53. 

The first officers of the Waterbury Traction Company were : D. S. Plume, 
president; J. E. Sewell, general manager; J. R. Smith, treasurer; A. M. Young, 
secretary. 

In the year ended September 30, 1895, the road earned $124,566.92, and 
expended $75,948.64, giving it net earnings of $48,618.28. It owned eighteen 
closed cars and twenty-six open cars, eight of the latter trailers. Its length was 
9.15 miles. 

On September 30, 1896, it reported earnings for the year $137,273.69, and 
expenses $64,994.91. The electric light department's income for that year was 
$105,661.38. The road had seventy-five employees. It was selling tickets at 
four cents and ticket fares to Naugatuck at eight cents ; school children were 
carried for three cents. 

In 1897 it added the Waterville division and owned 12.18 miles of single 
main track. 

By 1899, the trolley business had come under the closer observation of the 
larger interests of the country and one of their first purchases was the Waterbury 
and Xorwalk systems. In June, 1899, the transfer was officially made to what 
was then known as the Connecticut Lighting and Power Company. Its president 
was R. A. Smith of New York. Its directors were R. A. Smith and W. F. 
Sheehan of New York, H. G. Runkle of Bloomfield, N. J., A. M. Young of 
Branford, Conn., and P. H. Hampson of Brooklyn, N. Y. Thus the Waterbury 
traction system passed out of local control in 1899. The company which made 
the purchase had been first incorporated on July 2, 1895, as the Gas Supply 
Company. On November 2, 1899, it changed its name to the Connecticut Lighting 
and Power Company, and on January 10, 1901, the name was again changed to 
the Connecticut Railway and Lighting Company. 

In 1902 this company began its fight for control of the Connecticut field with 
the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Company, which under the 
name of the Consolidated Company, was starting on its long line of trolley 
purchases. In that year the Connecticut Railway and Lighting Company pur- 
chased in addition to the Waterbury Traction Company, the Bridgeport Traction 
Company, the Shelton Street Railway Company, the Milford Street Railway 
Company, the Westport and Saugatuck Street Railway Company, the Derby 
Street Railway Company, the Norwalk Tramway Company, the Norwalk Street 
Railway Company, the Central Rrailway & Electric Company, the Greenwich 
Gas & Electric Lighting Company, the Naugatuck Flectric Light Company, and 
the Southington & Plantsville Tramway Company. 

Vol. 1—7 



98 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Its first contest with the City of Waterbury came during this period when it 
applied to the selectmen for an approval of the extension from Oakville to 
VVatertown. The consent was given, but with it a proviso demanding the 
"removal of all embankments and abutments now situated on the highway under 
the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railway; the erection of electric arc 
lights at those points, and the construction of a new and substantial iron bridge." 

This became a famous contest, in which the city was defeated, first of all 
by the decision of the state railroad commissioners, and finally in an adverse 
decision by the Supreme Court on an appeal by the company from a favorable 
decision in the lower courts. 

In 1902, the directors of the company were as follows : A. M. Young, 
Branford, Conn.; R. A. Smith, New York City; George E. Terry, Waterbury; 
Randall Morgan and Walton Clark, both of Philadelphia ; H. G. Runkle, Plain- 
field, N. J.; David S. Plume, Waterbury; W. G. Bryan, Waterbury; A. W. 
Paige, Bridgeport, and M. J- Warner, Branford, Conn. 

Beginning with 1902 reports were consolidated for its entire single main 
track length of 151.720 miles. • 

In 1904 the road from Waterbury to Cheshire and Mount Carmel was com- 
pleted and the mileage in Waterbury was also slightly extended. The work on 
the Baldwin Street line began in this year. 

On August 1, 1906, the entire holdings of the Connecticut Railway & Lighting 
Company were leased to the Consolidated Company, thus passing into the pos- 
session of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railway. At this time the 
total length of main track in Connecticut was 625.307 miles. Of this the two 
companies now consolidated controlled 440.419 miles. 

The Connecticut Railway & Lighting Company owns 170.987 miles of single 
track in Connecticut which is leased to and operated by the Connecticut Company 
under a sub-lease dated February 28, 1910, from the Consolidated Railway 
Company, by the provisions of which the Connecticut Company assumes all the 
obligations and undertakings as to street railways assumed by the Consolidated 
Railway Company under its lease of December 19, 1906, from the Connecticut 
Railway & Lighting Company. Both the original and the sub-lease expire 
August 1, 2005, the rent paid by the Connecticut Company being $1,049,563.50 
for the year. The lessee received all the income and profits from the leased 
premises and in consideration thereof pays the rental and taxes and maintains 
the property in good order and repair. 

Two lines which were under construction in 1906, the Waterville and Thomas- 
ton line, and the Oakville and Watertown line, were completed in 1907 and became 
part of the new system. 

On December 19, 1910, the company started to extend the line to Town Plot 
from the junction of Bank and James streets, and in 1912 it opened the loop 
through Meadow Street passing the Union Station. 

In October, 1914, after the drastic action by the Government, the company 
and the Department of Justice agreed that the trolley properties among other 
holdings should be put into the hands of trustees for management and sale at 
the proper time. Under this and a previous order of court, the profits of the 
Connecticut Company are turned over to the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
in repayment for expenditures made out of its funds or as profits accruing from 
the trust holdings. 

In March, 1915, the dissolution had proceeded far enough so that the 
directors of the New York, New Haven & Hartford were able to inform the 
Public Service Commission of Connecticut, Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 99 

that in compliance with the decree of the Federal Court, control of the Boston 
& Maine, the Rhode Island and Connecticut trolley lines had already been placed 
in the hands of trustees. 

It was stated by 1 'resident Hadley of Yale, when first made a director of 
the Xew York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, that the company had expended 
approximately ninety million dollars in the purchase of trolleys during the decade 
ended in [913. "As for the trolleys about which so much has been said in 
criticism, there was except in the Rhode Island and Berkshire enterprises, little 
that could be called recklessness." 

One of the most notable trials in the history of the country grew out of the 
Government's charge that the directors of the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
had conspired to monopolize the common carrier transportation of New England 
by acquiring and combining steam railroad, trolley lines and steamship companies. 
The trial lasted three months, ending January 9, 1916, in an acquittal of most of 
the defendant directors, and in a few instances in a disagreement. The trial is said 
to have cost the Government $200,000, and the defendant $575,000. 

Howard Elliott, now chairman of the board of directors, in a recent address 
at Norwich said that "there is enough value in the great terminals to offset losses 
that may be sustained in selling certain of its properties under the decree of the 
Federal Court." 

In October, 19 14, the United States District Court for the Southern District 
of New York placed the trolley system of Connecticut in the hands of five 
trustees, with an order to dispose of these properties in two years. This time has 
now been further extended. 

The present trustees are as follows : 

Walter C. Noyes, New York, chairman ; Charles Cheney, South Manchester ; 
Leonard M. Daggett, New Haven; Morgan B. Brainard, Hartford; Charles T. 
Sanford, Bridgeport. 

For the year 1917, the trustees have deemed it wise to declare no dividend. 

Waterbury, in August, 1915, after defeat in the courts in its fight to collect 
the 2 per cent under the old written agreement with the Waterbury Traction 
Company, settled the case on the payment to the city of a lump sum of $75,000. 

In July, 1 91 7, the company announced that it would no longer sell trolley 
tickets at 4 cents on its Waterbury lines, and later that on October 1, 191 7, it 
would charge on all its lines 6 cents where cash fares of 5 cents had been collected 
previously. The effort to stop this by injunction failed, as there never had been 
a written agreement on rates, and the new fares are now in effect, although 
hearings are being held before the Public Utilities Board as to the right of the 
company to raise the rate. 

In 1899 a corporation known as the Woodbury & Southbury Electric Railway 
Company endeavored to secure the right to use the city streets for the operation 
of an electric line to suburban points, but this was never pressed to any practical 
end. It was, however, the occasion of a long contest with the existing trolley 
system. 

The trolley connection to Woodbury was not secured until 1908, when the 
line was run via Middlebury and past Lake Quassapaug, making this a great 
popular summer resort. For years the talk had been that the line to Woodbury 
would run through Watertown. 

Various plans to connect the terminus of the Watertown trolley line with 
Litchfield and Thomaston have been mooted, but never reached the practical stage. 

In 1916, the company completed and opened what is popularly known as 
the Chase trolley line, proceeding from North Main Street to Waterville via 



100 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Perkins Avenue and connecting the North Main Street plants of the Chase inter- 
ests with the railroad tracks at Waterville and the Chase Metal Works north of 
Waterville. 

THE "GREEN" LINE 

In 1913, a small group of Waterbury and Southington men started the Water- 
bury and Milldale Tramway Company, better known as the "Green" line. This 
project had been under way for more than seven years, having originated among 
the business men of the Town of Southington, who desired closer connections 
with Waterbury. C. H. Clark, the bolt manufacturer of Southington, was the 
mainspring behind the project. An appeal being made to the Waterbury Business 
Men's Association for co-operation, several of the officers and directors of the 
association joined in the petition for the charter. Among them were John R. 
Hughes and John H. Cassidy, who was at that time secretary and counsel of the 
business men's association. They are still directors of the company and Mr. 
Cassidy is its managing director. 

The work proceeded slowly owing to the difficulties of construction and of 
securing capital, but finally the line was operated first to Mill Plain, then extended 
to Hitchcock Lakes, thus making another agreeable summer resort for Waterbury 
people, and finally to Milldale, making connections there with the Connecticut 
Company's lines to Meriden and Southington. By a traffic agreement the "Green" 
line uses the Connecticut Company's tracks in this city from the corner of East 
Main Street and the Meriden Road to the Center. 

The line extends from Waterbury to Milldale, a distance of 8^2 miles, and now 
operates six cars. 

Its general manager is John H. Cassidy, and its directors are : Charles H. 
Clark, Roswell A. Clark, Richard Elliott, John R. Hughes, and John H. Cassidy. 

EXPRESS COMPANIES 

The two companies operating in Waterbury under traffic arrangements with 
the New York, New Haven & Hartford System are the Adams Express Company 
and the American Express Company, both with offices and warehousing arrange- 
ments in the Union Station. 

The business of these companies after the introduction of the parcel post 
was run at first at a heavy loss, amounting in 1913 for the Adams in the State 
of Connecticut to $204,598.88, and for the American for the same period in the 
state to $281,892.44. 

There has now been a complete rehabilitation and adjustment to new condi- 
tions, and both companies are doing a profitable business in Waterbury. 

The trolley express, established in 1899, ' s one °f tne activities of the 
Connecticut Company. 

TELEGRAPH COMPANIES 

The two telegraph companies, the Western Union and the Postal Telegraph, 
have confined themselves during the past twenty-five years to keeping up with 
the growth of Waterbury. In the past three years alone the telegraph business 
in this city has doubled. The Western Union now has 120 wires, including 
trunk lines, running out of its Waterbury offices, while in 1893 ^ na d but three. 
It now employs fourteen clerks and operators, where three men did all the work 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 101 

in 1893. J ts niost famous manager during this period was W. A. Sawyer, who 
is now district commercial superintendent with headquarters in New York. The 
present superintendent is A. C. Wardell. 

The Postal Telegraph Company has shown a similar growth. At the begin- 
ning of the twenty-five year period, it had but two wires; now it has twenty-five 
wires running out of the city. Its growth, too, has been continuous. Its present 
manager is Margaret M . Hunter. 

THE TELEPHONE IN CONNECTICUT 

It is now. at the end of 1917, forty years since the telephone was first com- 
mercially introduced into Connecticut on a then large scale. Since that time 
tremendous expansion of the service has placed the telephone in the forefront of 
the most serviceable public utilities. From the little exchange established in the 
City of New Haven in January, 1878, the business has grown with rapidity, until 
at the present time it is almost impossible to enter even the most remote 
farming communities, or sparsely settled districts in the state, without finding a 
telephone handy in the event it is needed. 

Pioneers in the telephone service in Connecticut agree that what were probable 
the first telephones brought into this state made their appearance in the City of 
Bridgeport in the latter part of June, 1877. These instruments were brought to 
that city for demonstration purposes, as the incident is remembered, and were 
presented to the directors of the Hartford Alarm Register Company, with which 
Thomas B. Doolittle of Pine Orchard, a pioneer telephone man and famous as the 
inventor of hard drawn copper wire, was identified. 

Mr. Doolittle was present at the meeting of the directors of the Register Com- 
pany when these telephones, four in number, were shown to the directors. He 
borrowed two of these old-time telephone sets and showed them to a number 
of his business friends in Bridgeport during the next few days. At that time the 
study of telegraphy was quite a fad among men of an inventive turn of mind 
and several of them, living in Bridgeport, were members of what was called the 
Bridgeport Social Telegraph Association. By means of this association, when 
one member wished to call another, he would sound that member's call and sign 
his own. The operator, hearing this, would so adjust the plugs in the switchboard 
that a connecting line was established between the calling and the called stations. 
In this way telegraphic communication could be established in much the same way 
as a telephone connection is made today. 

Brief experiments were carried on by members of the Social Telegraph Asso- 
ciation with the old telephone sets and it was proved that the telephone could be 
used on this system. The association, through its members, at once adopted the 
telephone in place of the telegraph. 

At this time tests were made from various stations in the association's service 
and conversations were sucessfully carried on as far out as Black Rock, about 
four miles from the operator's switchboard. All interest in the telegraph system 
was lost and Mr. Doolittle at once began soliciting subscribers for a telephone 
system. P. T. Barnum, of circus fame, was the first subscriber signed by Mr. 
Doolittle. 

A company had been formed in New England to lease instruments and plans 
were being made for using them at various points. W. H. Haywood, who was 
secretary of the Hartford Register Company, appplied for and secured the 
agency of the telephone in Fairfield and New Haven counties. Later Mr. Hay- 
wood secured the agency for Hartford and Litchfield counties. 



102 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

With the development of the association's service in Bridgeport promising 
well, Mr. Doolittle went to New Haven with the object of interesting capital 
in that city in the project of establishing a similar association there. It was 
through Mr. Doolittle's efforts that the New Haven District Telephone Company 
was formed and the preliminaries to the opening of the first commercially oper- 
ated telephone exchange were carried out. But, telephone history shows, Mr. 
Doolittle was left out of this business arrangement. 

David S. Plume of Waterbury played a prominent part in the advancement of 
telephony in this state. He was a close friend of Mr. Doolittle and had often 
tried to persuade the latter to devote his attention to manufacturing rather 
than to the development of the telephone, which was not then regarded as a safe 
and sound business enterprise. Finally Mr. Plume sensed the great possibilities 
of the telephone and provided financial backing for some of the work Mr. Doolittle 
then had in mind. 

In November, 1877, a telephone line was built connecting the mill and offices 
of the Ansonia Brass and Copper Company. These works adjoined those of 
Wallace & Sons, who were also manufacturers of copper wire. Mr. Doolittle 
was associated with this enterprise and it was in this work that he acquired 
his knowledge of wire drawing which led, some time later, to his invention of 
hard drawn copper wire which made possible the modern long distance telephone 
service. 

At this time Mr. Doolittle was getting along well in the plans for an exchange 
in Bridgeport. Then the Western Lmion Telegraph Company entered the tele- 
phone field and seemed to direct all its energies toward upsetting Mr. Doolittle's 
business plans in that city. It is reliably recorded that Mr. Doolittle was beset 
by many difficulties, financial and otherwise, in his efforts to put through his 
plans. One hard blow at Mr. Doolittle came through William D. Bishop of 
Bridgeport, then president of the New Haven Railroad. He ordered all of the 
telephones furnished by Mr. Doolittle taken out of the railroad, steamboat and 
express offices. Mr. Bishop, by the way, was a member of the board of directors 
of the Western Union Telegraph Company at that time. 

The first commercial telephone exchange in the world was opened in New 
Haven, January 28, 1878, and the switchboard was located in the Boardman 
Building, still standing at State and Chapel streets. A little later an exchange 
was opened in Meriden and the switchboard used there was supposed to be an 
exact duplicate of the one used in New Haven. By February 28, 1878, the ex- 
change in New Haven had grown so that there were fifty subscribers connected 
therewith and a list of these subscribers was prepared and printed, this being the 
first telephone directory in the world. 

The early exchanges were naturally far different from the marvelously 
equipped central offices of the present day. The apparatus was crude and the boy 
operators not only were untrained, but the quality of their work was lowered by 
their desire to experiment with the apparatus which was a great novelty to them. 

With the New Haven and the Meriden exchanges operating successfully, the 
Bridgeport exchange was soon opened by Mr. Doolittle. Ellis B. Baker, for 
many years with the Southern New England Telephone Company, was the man 
chiefly instrumental in establishing the exchange at Meriden. At that time Mr. 
Baker was but twenty- four years of age. 

With these three exchanges finally established and with telephony recognized 
as a modern aid to all business enterprises, it was not long before an exchange was 
established and in working order in the City of Waterbury. This was the period 
of telephone infancy, to be sure, but for an infant it displayed remarkable 



WATERBURY AND THE XAUGATUCK VALLEY 103 

facilities for proving its real service to the people, in consequence of which, 
exchanges were within a few years opened in practically all of the larger cities of 
the state. Today every city, town, village and hamlet and the obscure places in 
the backwoods of this and every other state are now accorded telephone service. 

The first Waterbury office was located in a building in Phoenix Avenue, the 
second home being in a building in North Main Street. From there the Waterbury 
office was moved to the old site of the Manufacturers' National Bank and then to 
the Masonic Building in Bank Street. Later the office was located at 282 Bank 
Street, this being the first central office building the Southern New England 
Company built in Waterbury. It moved into its new building on Leavenworth 
Street in 1914. 

From a short list of subscribers, 468 on September 1, 1894, the Waterbury 
office is now serving about 8,000 telephones in Waterbury, which is practically 
one telephone for every twelve persons in the city. In the past eighteen months 
the growth of business at the Waterbury exchange has been remarkably heavy. 
The number of local calls originating in Waterbury is shown by the peg count for 
October, 191 7, to be 41,000 a day. The outgoing toll calls average about 1,500 
each day. This shows an hourly rate of about t,8oo calls every hour each of the 
twenty-four hours. It must be borne in mind, however, that during the night this 
rate is far from being reached, while in the rush hours of a business day, when 
the traffic load is the heaviest, the hourly rate of calls is far in excess of 1,800. 

The number of telephones in Waterbury has increased more than 1,500 in the 
past eighteen months and the outlook is for a continuation of this heavy demand 
for service at this exchange. 

A model and modern central office, equipped with the very last word in 
switchboard apparatus and with nearly double the number of telephone operators 
employed there two years ago, has been built and occupied. It has taxed the 
facilities of the company to meet satisfactorily the service demands in Waterbury, 
and that this has been done is a forceful testimonial to the wise forethought of 
the directing heads of the telephone company. 

The process of placing telephone wires underground in iron conduits lined 
with cement and laid on cement began in Waterbury in 1894. 

The following is the record of total telephone installations September 1, 191 7, 
in what is known as the Waterbury district : 

Canaan 457 

Cornwall 166 

Lakeville 4 21 

Litchfield 737 

Xaugatuck 1,398 

Norfolk 349 

Thomaston 479 

Torrington 2,161 

Waterbury 8,163 

Watertown .- 5 r 7 

Winsted 1,597 

Total i6,445 

GEORGE WELLS BEACH 

George Wells Beach, late president of the Manufacturers' National Bank, ex- 
superintendent of the Naugatuck Railroad, president of the S. Y. Beach Paper 



104 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Company, of the Manufacturers' Foundry Company, and in many other capacities, 
one of the foremost citizens of Waterbury, was born in Humphreysville (now 
Seymour), New Haven County, Connecticut, August 18, 1833. 

At seventeen he became a railroad clerk in the Seymour office of the company 
and it was soon proved that he was to succeed in the railroad business. The fol- 
lowing year, 1851, he was promoted to the position of second clerk in the Water- 
bury office. From time to time he was sent to different posts, where there was 
special need of a responsible person, and in this way he gained wide experience 
with railroad work. In 1855 he was made agent in the Naugatuck Station, in 1857 
a conductor, and was also put in charge of the general ticket agency. In 1861 he 
became the agent at Waterbury and remained in this office for several years. At 
the death of Charles Waterbury, in 1868, Mr. Beach was made superintendent in 
his place. From 1868 to 1887 he was superintendent of the Naugatuck Railroad, 
and, on the lease of that road, in 1887, to the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
Road, was appointed division superintendent and filled this resposible position 
continuously until he retired in 1902. After 1880 he was successively director, vice 
president and president of the Manufacturers' National Bank of Waterbury, and 
from 1871 to 1885 he was a director in the Watertown and Waterbury Railroad. 
He was an incorporator of the Waterbury Hospital, and one of the executive 
committee for fourteen years, and president of the American Society of Railroad 
Superintendents for three years. 

On his retiring in 1902, after serving as superintendent of the Naugatuck 
Division, he made a round trip over the railroad, bidding good-bye to the hundreds 
of men who had served under him, all of whom were known to him personally. 

The High Rock Grove summer resort was his idea, and he was the first to use 
kerosene oil for lighting of passenger cars. This was in i860. The valuable 
Arctic rubber shoe was first manufactured upon his suggestion. 

In civil, political and ecclesiastical offices, Mr. Beach was as active as he was 
in his business capacities, often supplying pulpits in case of illness of pastors. He 
was justice, town clerk, a member of the board of education, member of the State 
Legislature (1870-71), postmaster of Waterbury in 1867, a deacon in the First 
Congregational Church of Waterbury (1873-1906), a promoter of the Christian 
Commission for the Civil war, and of the Waterbury Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation, of which he was president for four different terms. He was a member 
of the Waterbury Club. 

Mr. Beach was twice married, in 1855 to Sarah Upson of Seymour, who died 
in January. 1882, and by whom he had two sons. The senior, Henry D., was the 
signal engineer of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, the junior, 
Edward W., is a manager of the Manufacturers' Foundry Company of Waterbury. 
The second marriage was in 1883 to Mrs. Sarah A. Blackall. His home was at 29 
Cliff Street, Waterbury. He died March 2, 1906. 

When Mr. Beach retired from the New Haven Road in 1902, his position 
as superintendent was taken by J. P. Hopson. C. S. Lake and R. D. Fitzmaurice 
later succeeded to the position, the latter leaving in 1914, when the present super- 
intendent, Mahlon D. Miller, was appointed. 

MAHLON D. MILLER 

Mahlon D. Miller, at present superintendent of the Highland Division of the 
New York, New Haven & Hartford Road, with headquarters at Waterbury, was 
born in Pennsylvania and had his first railroading experience in the coal fields of 
that state. Later he went to the New York & New England Road, starting as 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 105 

telegraph operator, then becoming train dispatcher. With headquarters at Provi- 
dence and New London, he was later made train dispatcher-in-chief, and train- 
master for the New Haven Road. In June, 1914, he was appointed superintendent 
with headquarters at Waterbury. 

ALDEN M. YOUNG 

Alden M. Young, the first secretary and general manager of the Waterbury 
Traction Company, was closely identified with the history of the electric lighting 
and electric railway business of Waterbury. He was associated with D. S. Plume, 
E. T. Turner, and A. O. Shepardson in the electric companies which were first 
organized in 1888. He remained with the Connecticut Railway & Power Company, 
becoming its president in 1901 and removing to New York. He was also president 
of the New England Engineering Company of Waterbury. He was the first 
superintendent and manager of the telephone system in Waterbury, known in its 
beginnings as the Automatic Signal Telegraph Company, which was organized 
May 2, 1878. He was the inventor of an electric battery which did much to revolu- 
tionize the electric business. Mr. Young died at his New York home, December 

3. 1911- 

OTHER TROLLEY SYSTEM MANAGERS 

The first manager of the street car system of Waterbury was Arthur O. Shep- 
ardson, who was closely identified with Mr. Turner, Mr. Plume and Mr. Young in 
all their electric lighting and power enterprises. He remained as general manager 
until 1894, when J. E. Sewell succeeded him. Mr. Sewell was in charge of the 
practical end of the traction company's business until 1907, when the first steps 
for the sale to the Connecticut Railway & Lighting Company were taken. The 
management then was placed in the hands of J. K. Punderford, who is still vice 
president and general manager of the trolley system with headquarters at New 
Haven. Mr. Sewell later became manager of the Shore Line trolleys operating in 
Eastern Connecticut. 

The first superintendent of the Waterbury Horse Car Company was Edward 
A. Bradley. When the motive power was changed, M. E. Stark became superin- 
tendent and remained until 1899, when the present superintendent, Herbert L. 
Wales, was appointed. 

Herbert L. Wales, the present superintendent of the trolley system in Water- 
bury, first came to the company in 1894 as foreman of the repair shop. His first 
experience with the trolley was in Portland, Oregon, where he was employed in 
1889 on the first electric street car line established in that city. In 1891 he went 
to Denver and was in the employ of the Edison General Company. Later he was 
employed on electric lines in Boston, Bangor, Maine, and Windsor, Conn., coming 
to Waterbury in 1894. 

WATERBURY'S TELEPHONE MANAGERS 

W. X. Sperry became manager of the telephone company in 1891, when the 
work was still experimental, and it was his skill that brought it out of its many 
early troubles. He remained with the company until 1905. In that year he was 
succeeded by j. D. Yeitch, who remained until 1910. G. F. Kirkham, who suc- 
ceeded him, was in office but a few months. W. F. Harper was manager from 1910 
to 1913. when his career was suddenly terminated by death in the trolley wreck of 



106 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

that year. R. E. Gerth, who succeeded to the post, remained until July 2, 1917, 
when the present manager, H. G. Davis, took charge. 

Henry G. Davis, present manager of the Southern New England Telephone 
Company, was born in Hartford in 1885. His first connection with the telephone 
company was as contract agent at Hartford in 1910. He was later made district 
control agent for Hartford, and then became special commercial agent for the 
Hartford and Waterbury districts. On July 2, 1917, he became manager of the 
Waterbury office. 



CHAPTER VIII 
THE PROTESTANT CHURCHES OF WATERBURY, 1892-1917 

THE FIRST CHURCH THE SECOND, THIRD AND HUNKER HILL CHURCH, CONGREGA- 
TIONAL ITALIAN CONGREGATIONAL ST. JOHN'S AND TRINITY EPISCOPAL ST. 

PAUL'S, WATERVILLE FIRST M . K., GRACE, ST. PAUL'S, SOUTH AND WEST SIDE HILL 

M. E. FIRST, SECOND AND GRACE BAPTIST — -GERMAN AND SWEDISH LUTHERAN 

CHURCHES ADVENT CHRISTIAN BUCK'S HILL, UNION, WATERVILLE CHAPELS. 

The Protestant churches of Waterbury have kept pace with the growth of the 
community during the past quarter of a century, meeting its moral and spiritual 
needs with a strengthening of old organizations and an infusion of new religious 
bodies. This is true of practically every denomination, and it applies as well to 
the neighborhoods where the lack of numbers was met by union organizations, all 
of which are prospering and spreading the influence of the gospel in their limited 
circles. 

This short period of time has witnessed the dedication of several of the largest 
Protestant churches in the city, including the magnificent house of worship on 
West Mam Street occupied by the Second Congregational Church. This was dedi- 
cated in June, 1898. In January of the same year the Third Congregational 
Church, on Washington Avenue, was opened for worship. In October, 191 7, the 
First Baptist Church opened its fine house of worship on Grove Street. In the 
review which follows, it will be interesting to note the great number of smaller 
churches which have risen to meet local needs in Waterbury, and the territory 
immediately tributary. The immediate future promises the erection of several 
additional houses of worship, the funds in several instances being on hand and 
awaiting only more favorable building conditions. 

THE FIRST CHURCH, CONGREGATIONAL 

The First Church, Congregational, of W r aterbury, which was founded in 1691, 
225 years ago, and which is the mother church to practically all of the surround- 
ing Congregational churches, has had its notable history written by its late pastor, 
Rev. Joseph Anderson, D. D., covering the period up to 1896. Doctor Anderson 
remained interested in the work of the church until his death, August 18, 1916. 
He resigned the active pastorate in February, 1905, after forty years of service, 
but remained as pastor emeritus until his death. During this period his energies 
were largely given to literary work, although he supplied the pulpit in the absence 
of the pastor, and took a deep interest in the work of the church, attending services 
regularly until illness made this impossible. 

Among the many tributes paid the late Doctor Anderson, the following from 
the eulogy by his successor, Rev. Charles A. Dinsmore, D. D., gives fitting testi- 
mony to the extent of his learning and the scope of his activities: "His mind re- 
acted in the presence of nearly every subject of thought. Nothing in heaven or 
earth seemed uninteresting to him. His eager mind ranged easily over an incredible 
number of fields of knowledge, — Indian lore. New England history, the cutting 

107 



108 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

of gems, the structure of a sonnet, oriental antiquities, Greek philosophy, the Cal- 
vinistic theology, — upon them all he could converse with precise information and 
lively interest." As a writer, Doctor Anderson is perhaps most widely known 
through the "History of the Town and City of Waterbury," of which he wrote so 
great a part. 

In 1892 the First Church had a membership of 427. In September, 19 17, this 
membership was 570. Its pastor is Rev. Charles A. Dinsmore, D. D., who suc- 
ceeded Doctor Anderson January 25, 1895. He came from Phillips Church, of 
South Boston. 

Rev. Charles A. Dinsmore, D. D., pastor of the First Church, Congregational, 
of Waterbury, is a graduate of Dartmouth, which college honored him in June, 
1905, with the degree of Doctor of Divinity. After graduating at the Yale 
Divinity School, he accepted his first pastorate, at Whitneyville, and then he was 
called to Willimantic. 

It was in Willimantic that his success became remarkable. His predecessor as 
pastor of the Congregational Church there, the Rev. S. R. Free, had gradually 
been absorbing the Unitarian principles, which developed in his preaching and 
which caused more or less feeling against him on the part of a portion of the con- 
gregation. Two hostile factions immediately sprang up and the church was in a 
dubious condition until Mr. Free publicly embraced Unitarianism and resigned as 
pastor of the Congregational Church. Not content with this, he immediately 
started a new church, to be conducted in accordance with his new beliefs. With 
him went a considerable portion of those who had formerly been strong members 
of his other church. This blow was a very severe one to the Congregational 
Church, and the governing body was in a dilemma when it decided to extend a 
call to Mr. Dinsmore, who had been doing excellent work in Whitneyville. 

The choice proved to be the best that the church could have made. From the 
first there was an increment of interest. New members were quickly added and 
the majority of those who had followed the fortunes of Mr. Free came back into 
the old fold again. 

From Willimantic he was called to the Phillips Congregational Church, of 
South Boston, where he remained for ten years. Here he duplicated his success 
in Willimantic, although he was not confronted with the apparently hopeless con- 
dition encountered in the Connecticut town. 

He is a man of literary note and ability, having written several books, two on 
Dante having brought him into considerable prominence. One is an independent 
study of the man, the other a text book which is used in Amherst and other col- 
leges. His first book on Dante was published in "The Atlantic" in serial form, 
and attracted widespread attention, being criticised both here and in England. He 
is regarded as one of the most successful and popular interpreters of Dante at the 
present day. 

The most notable event in the history of the church during the past quarter of a 
century was the celebration of its 225th anniversary on August 25, 1916. On that 
date it was decided to raise a memorial fund of $10,000, which finally amounted 
to $12,000. This is being devoted to the placing of a memorial window to Dr. 
Joseph Anderson, to the erection of tablets in memory of the pastors of the church 
during the last century, and to the rebuilding of the church organ. 

Another notable anniversary was the centennial of the Sunday school, Mid- 
week Prayer Meeting, and Benevolent Society of the First Church, which was 
celebrated April 25, 191 7. It is interesting to note that four of the members 
present at that time were active in the society in 1875. These were Miss Kath- 
erine L. Peck, Miss Katherine A. Prichard, Miss Emily A. Shannon and Mrs. 
Harriet Riley. 




first ch>xi;ki-:gatioxal church and y. m. c. a. building, waterbury 




ST. FRANCIS XAVIER'S CHURCH AND RECTORY, WATERBURY 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 109 

On January 22, 1907, over one hundred members organized the Men's League 
of the First Church.- Mr. Carl 1\ Chapin was elected president of the organiza- 
tion in May, 191 7. 

Notable among recent gifts to the Church was the erection by J. Hobart Bron- 
son of a recreation house on the church grounds. This is for use by the Camp 
Fire Girls and the Boy Scouts of the church. 

On January 25, 191 7, for the first time in the history of the old First Church, 
women attended the annual meeting of the Ecclesiastical Society as members, join- 
ing with the men in passing votes having to do with the finances of the church 
and the election of its officers. The word "male" had by vote of the men been 
stricken from its by-laws. 

The following are the officers of the First Church, elected at the annual meet- 
ing in 1917: Frederick B. Hoadley, its treasurer, has held that office since 1868, 
with the exception of two years, during which time he was absent from the city. 

Clerk of the church, George H. Peck. 

Treasurer of the church and treasurer of the weekly offering, Frederick B. 
Hoadley. 

Deacons of the church : Frederick B. Hoadley, Alexander Dallas, Horace G. 
Hoadley, Edgar S. Lincoln, Edward W. Goodenough, George E. Camp, Arthur 
F. Ells, Albert F. Sherwood, Darragh DeLancey, W. Gamaliel Bailey, Albert N. 
Colegrove, Charles Allen Goddard. 

Advisory committee: Charles Allen Goddard, Miss Katherine Hamilton, Mrs. 
Dudley B. Deming, Mrs. Rowland Jenner, Mrs. Samuel R. Kelsey, Mrs. George 
Ells, Alden Merrill, Miss Elizabeth Hall, Mrs. Charles R. Vaill, Mrs. R. William 
Hampson, R. Lester Wilcox. 

Society's committee : Darragh DeLancey, chairman ; George E. Camp, Edwin 
C. Northrop, Hugh L. Thompson, Herbert S. Rowland, Henry A. Hoadley, Pier- 
son R. dimming. 

Abbie M. Allyn, assistant to the pastor. 

THE SECOND CHURCH, CONGREGATIONAL 

The Second Church, Congregational, of Waterbury, a daughter of the First 
Church, came into being as the result of action taken by the Ecclesiastical Society 
of the First Church on February 10, 1851. The pastors have been as follows: 
Rev. Seagrove W. Magill, D. D., 1852-1864; Rev. Elisha Whittlesey, 1864-1870; 
Rev. Edward G. Beckwith, D. D., 1871-1881 ; Rev. John Gaylord Davenport, D. D., 
the present pastor emeritus, 1881-1911; Rev. Robert Elliott Brown, 191 1. The 
assistant pastors have been Rev. Frank C. Baker, Rev. Frederick M. Hollister, 
Rev. Louis H. Holden, Ph. D., Rev. M. DeWitt Williams, Rev. W. Moreton Owen. 

The first house of worship was on North Main Street, where the Odd Fellows' 
Temple now stands. The present edifice, at the corner of West Main Street and 
Holmes Avenue, was dedicated June 26, 1895, its cost being $160,000. During 
Doctor Davenport's pastorate, the second service was removed from afternoon to 
evening, the communion service brought into the forenoon, responsive readings 
and other enrichments of the services introduced, individual communion cups 
adopted, and the Christian Endeavor Society and many other organizations were 
formed. From 1881 to 1 191 1, the membership of the church grew from 558 to 
T.147. 

During Mr. Brown's pastorate, the women's work has been re-organized, many 
new societies have been launched, the benevolences increased from $4,000 to $8,725 
in a year, and acousticons have been installed. In the summer of 191 7 the audi- 



110 WATERBURY AXD THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

torium was thoroughly re-decorated, and plans were also drawn for a parish house, 
and additions to the building. Over eighty thousand dollars have been subscribed 
towards its cost, the first pledge of $25,000 (conditional upon the securing of 
$75,000 additional) being given by Deacon Aaron A. Benedict. The membership 
January 1, 19 17, despite the growth of outlying churches, was 1,240. 

During all of the church's history, most efficient service has been rendered by 
the Ecclesiastical Society having in charge the current expenses. The Second 
Church, directly and indirectly, has exerted a deep influence for community better- 
ment as well as for world-wide Christianity. Within recent years it has brought 
to the city an extraordinarily strong array of speakers upon civic, economic and 
national issues. At present the church has flourishing organizations for men, 
women, young women, young people, boys and girls, and a progressive Sunday 
school. 

The officers of the church in 1917 are as follows: Pastor emeritus, Rev. John 
G. Davenport, D. D. ; pastor, Rev. Robert E. Brown ; assistant pastor, Rev. W. 
Moreton Owen ; clerk, Roys L. Spencer ; treasurer, J. A. Boyd ; society's clerk, 
G. E. Judd ; society's treasurer and collector, A. J. Blakesley ; organist and choir 
director, Harris S. Bartlett. 

Rev. Robert Elliott Brown, pastor of the Second Church, Congregational, of 
Waterbury, was born in Middleville, Ontario, Canada, on December 17, 1873. He 
was educated in the public schools of Washington, to which State his parents had 
removed. In 1901 he graduated from Oberlin College, Ohio, later going to the 
Yale Divinity School, where he took the degree of Bachelor of Divinity. On 
June 23, 1904, he married Miss Mabel A. Millikan, of Chicago, and in the same 
year was ordained a Congregational minister. 

From 1904 to 1910 he was pastor of the Pilgrim Congregational Church, Fair 
Haven. In December, 1910, he became associate pastor in the Second Church, 
Congregational, of Waterbury, and on April 1st, when Doctor Davenport was 
made pastor emeritus, he became pastor of the church. In 1917 his congregation 
granted him a six months' leave of absence for work in France, which task he is 
now fulfilling. 

THE THIRD CHURCH, CONGREGATIONAL 

On the evening of February 5, 1892, at the prayer meetings of the First and 
Second Congregational churches of Waterbury, a joint committee was appointed 
on the condition and needs of that section of Waterbury known as Brooklyn and 
Town Plot, to advise with Mr. Waters with reference thereto, and to take such 
action "as the committee shall judge expedient." This committee was composed 
of the following: First Church, S. W. Chapman, Gordon Clark, L. G. Day, R. R. 
Stannard, R. C. Partree, William C. Scott, Thomas B. Walker ; Second Church, 
B. G. Bryan, James Callan, Fred Chapman, F. J. Mix, John Henderson, Jr., Wil- 
liam Morgan, James Stewart. 

On March 28, 1892, at a meeting of the joint committee, "it was voted that a 
temporary chairman and clerk be appointed, who shall warn a meeting according 
to law, to be held in the basement of the Bank Street Schoolhouse, for the purpose 
of organizing a Third Congregational Church." Rev. F. P. Waters was appointed 
temporary chairman and S. W. Chapman temporary clerk of the proposed meeting. 

At a meeting, held April 26, 1892, in the Bank Street Schoolhouse, the follow- 
ing resolution was adopted : 

"That we, the members of the Third Congregational Church of Waterbury, do 
now organize as a corporation under the laws of the State ; that a certificate of our 




skcoxd (<>\<;i;k<;atioxal church, watkrbury 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 111 

action be duly made and signed by tbe officers of this church." At the same meet- 
ing the following building committee was appointed : Rev. F. P. Waters, John 
Henderson, Jr., James Callan, Mrs. Ida Chapman, Belle C. Walker. The Third 
Church was recognized by other churches at a council duly called. At the annual 
meeting, January 4, 1895, it was voted that the building committee be instructed 
to turn over the church building to the legal committee. 

During the history of the church, the following pastors have served it: Rev. 
F. P. Waters, November 1, 1891 -July 1, 1897; Rev. Charles E. Granger, May 1, 
1898-February 1, 1902; Rev. Benjamin F. Root, March 1, 1902-February 21, 1906; 
Rev. H. deHart Gulick, March 1, 1906-April 24, 1908, and Rev. Clay Dent Chunn, 
April 24, 1908-April 30, 1913. On August 17, 1913, Rev. Leslie H. Perdriau sup- 
plied the pulpit, and on September 14, 1913, was called to the pastorate. Mr. 
Perdriau is still pastor (191 7). 

The notable events of the present pastorate have been the organization of a 
successful Men's Brotherhood, which has provided a gathering place and service 
for the men of the community, both helpful and social. The annual banquets have 
been the great events of the church year. 

The Women's Get-Together Club is doing for the women of the community 
what the Men's Brotherhood has so well accomplished. 

The twenty-fifth anniversary of the church was celebrated on April 22-23, 
191 7. The anniversary address was made by Rev. Philip C. Walcott of Nauga- 
tuck, on Sunday, April 22d. The general social events followed on Monday, April 
23, 1917. The officers of the church for 1917 are as follows: 

Pastor, Rev. Leslie H. Perdriau ; clerk, Fred Jackson ; treasurer, Arthur L. 
Edmond ; superintendent of Sunday school, William Broughton. 

BUNKER HILL CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH 

The Bunker Hill Congregational Church has been in existence as a chapel and 
regularly organized church for twenty-five years. It was established by members 
of the older organizations, who felt the need of a church near their homes, in the 
Bunker Hill district. On June 24, 1905, it was established as a separate church 
and took its present name. Its first minister Avas Rev. Ira T. Hawk, who is now 
chaplain of the Iowa State Penitentiary. Rev. C. W. Fisher succeeded him and 
served his congregation for five years. Rev. Milton Wittier, the present pastor, 
succeeded him. 

The membership of the church is close to two hundred and the need of a new 
house of worship has long been apparent. The site for this has been selected, 
and as soon as building conditions warrant, a fund already in existence will be 
used for the new edifice. It is probable that the year 191 8 will see it erected and 
dedicated. 

The officers of the church are as follows : Clerk, Eugene Rogers ; deacons, 
Messrs. Young, Thomas and Clapp ; treasurer, William L. Piatt. 

ITALIAN CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH 

Largely through the efforts of its present pastor, Dr. Pasquale Codella, the 
Italian Congregational Church was organized December 6, 1904. Its services 
are held in the Second Congregational Church on Sunday afternoons. The mem- 
bership is now over two hundred, with over one hundred in attendance at the 
Sunday school. Dr. Codella, the pastor, came to America in 1901 and was ordained 
a Congregational minister in 1904. He was born in Calitri, Italy, July 1, 1868, and 



112 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

is a graduate of the Salerno Musical College of Italy. The officers of the church 
are as follows : 

Clerk, Pietro Dello Russo; treasurer, Rev. Robert E. Brown, D. D. ; superin- 
tendent of Sunday school, Mrs. Loretta Codella ; organist, Lucy Codella. 

st. john's episcopal church 

St. John's Episcopal Church of Waterbury, established in 1737, is the mother 
church of Trinity Church and of St. Paul's, Waterville, and more recently, Decem- 
ber 17, 1916, the organizer of All Souls' Church. 

Its influence throughout its long, eventful career has not been confined to its 
own membership, but has been felt in every effort of community uplift which has 
marked the nearly two centuries of its existence. Thus, for example, through its 
present rector, Rev. John N. Lewis, Jr., it established the Waterbury Visiting 
Nurses' Association, now a distinct organization, but in its earlier days sponsored 
entirely by St. John's. 

The present parish house on Leavenworth Street was erected in the early '90s 
of the last century. 

Rev. John N. Lewis, Jr., present rector, came to the church in September, 1900, 
as associate to the Rev. Edmund Rowland, becoming rector in August, 1901. 
Prior to that, he had been curate at St. George's, New York, rector of Grace 
Church, Honesdale, Pa., and dean of Christ Church Cathedral, Lexington, Ky. 
The vicar at All Souls' Chapel is Rev. Roscoe C. Hatch. The first assistant to 
Rev. John N. Lewis, Jr., was the Rev. Morton A. Barnes, who left in 1905. Later 
assistants were Rev. Jacob Albert Biddle, Rev. Royce R. Miller, and Rev. Charles 
Taber Hall. 

The Diocesan Convention was held in Waterbury under the auspices of the 
local Episcopal churches in 1897. In 1892, Rev. Dr. Rowland decided to introduce 
an entire male choir, the soprano and alto being carried by boys' voices, and all 
the choir uniformly dressed in cassock and collar. In January, 1893, the parish 
received from H. H. Peck the gift of a chancel organ. This organ, built by Far- 
rand & Votey, was placed in the north gallery with a console in front of the chan- 
cel, stalls being placed there for the choir. Joseph E. Bartlett, as organist, took 
charge of the music. He was succeeded by William H. Minor, who is still in 
charge. 

On April 19, 1897, the church property at Waterville was formally conveyed 
to St. Paul's Parish. 

On April 8, 1901, Doctor Rowland was formally elected Pastor Emeritus. 

Nelson Jones Welton, who had been senior warden for twenty-five years, died 
in June, 191 7. He was succeeded as senior warden by John P. Elton. 

The vestrymen of St. Tohn's are : H. B. Snow, R. G. Hannegan, W. E. Ful- 
ton, H. S. White, J. M. Burrall, E. O. Goss, H. H. Peck, H. L. Rowland, J. P. 
Kellogg, F. S. Chase, James Crompton, J. E. Kennaugh. 

The other officers for 191 7 are as follows: Rector, Rev. J. N. Lewis, Jr.; 
clerk, Charles F. Mitchell ; treasurer, Edwin S. Hunt ; secretary, Giles R. Ander- 
son ; senior warden, John P. Elton ; organist and choirmaster, W. H. Minor. 

The Rev. Edmund Rowland, D. D., former rector of St. John's Episcopal 
Church and Rector Emeritus from 1901 to the date of his death, March 22, 1908, 
was born in Springfield, Mass., March 24, 1835, and entered Harvard with the 
class of 1857. He later went to Trinity, from which college he graduated. In 
1882 his Alma Mater gave him the degree of Doctor of Divinity. He studied 
theology under Bishop Williams in the Berkeley Divinity School, and was or- 
dained to the priesthood in 1862 by Bishop Lloratio Potter. 




REV. F. D. BUCKLEY 
or twenty-five years rector of Trinity Church, Waterbury 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 113 

He married Miss Sarah Belknap of Hartford. He was minister in charge of 
the American Church in Rome for some time, later returning and becoming rector 
of Bethesda Church, Saratoga Springs, N. Y. He was rector in turn of St. James' 
Church, Goshen, N. Y., Grace Church, New Bedford, Mass., and from there went 
to Calvary Church. Cincinnati. He became rector of St. John's Parish, Water- 
bury, in 1884. 

Doctor Rowland was first to suggest the formation of the Waterbury Hospital 
Association. He was foremost in all the great moral movements that gave Water- 
bury its rank among the best cities in the country. 

TRINITY EPISCOPAL CHURCH 

Trinity Church, which was set off as a parish from St. John's Episcopal Church 
on Trinity Sunday, 1877, is therefore celebrating its fortieth anniversary this 
year. On October 1st this event was given added significance by the celebration 
of the twenty-fifth anniversary as rector of the incumbent, Rev. Frederick D. 
Buckle}-, who officiated for the first time in the pulpit of Trinity on October 1, 
1892. The Rev. Frederick Dashiels Buckley was born at Fishkill, N. Y., in 1855. 
He studied theology at the Berkeley Divinity School, was ordained dean June 1, 
1887, and priest March 23, 1888. He was rector of Grace Church, Stafford 
Springs, from 1887 to 1889, and of St. Andrew's Church, St. Johnsbury, Vt, 
from 1889 to 1892. 

During his pastorate the church has grown in membership and has greatly 
increased its beneficent activities. 

The parish house, which was built in 1900, was dedicated by the bishop of 
the diocese May 24, 1902. In that year also the present rectory, adjoining the 
church, was added to the church property. The old rector}- on North Willow 
Street was the probable site of the birthplace of Rev. James Scovill, the first 
resident rector of the Episcopal Church in Waterbury. 

On Trinity Sunday, 1907, the occasion of the church's thirtieth anniversary, 
an endowment fund of $10,000.00 was raised. This is now over $26,000.00. 

During the summer of 1914 extensive changes were made in the church. 
These consisted in the construction of an organ chamber on the north side of the 
church and the installing of a new organ. 

Sidney Webber, the present organist, assumed that position in May, 1914, 
and organized the first boy choir, which sang for the first time on June 7, 1914. 

At the Easter meeting in 1903, Rev. Dr. Francis T. Russell, who from the 
inception of the parish had been closely connected with it. resigned as assistant 
pastor. He died in February, 1910. Rev. Dr. Richard B. Micou, the first rector 
of the parish, passed away in June, 191 2. 

Trinity Church is rich in its beautiful memorial windows. The last of these to 
be placed is that in memory of Mr. and Mrs. Charles E. Lamb and their son, 
Richard. The subject of this is The Annunciation, after Hoffman's painting. 

A chancel window in memory of Samuel W. Hall was contributed by the 
ladies of the parish. 

In 1901 a beautiful memorial window was unveiled to the memory of Edward 
Daniel Steele. 

Societies for carrying on the institutional work of the parish are: Altar 
Guild, Babies' Branch of Junior Auxiliary, Junior Auxiliary, Young Women's 
Guild, Girls' Calisthenic Club, Boys' Club. Women's Missionary Society, St. 
Elizabeth's ( mild, Parish Sewing School. Elocution Class, and Sight Singing 
Class. 

Vol. 1—8 



114 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

The officers of the church elected in iQi/ are as follows: Senior warden, 
J. K. Smith; junior warden, H. M. Steele; clerk, C. F. Davis; treasurer, E. H. 
Perry; vestrymen, Geo. E. Boyd, Dr. F. E. Castle, F. S. Gorham, E. H. Horn, 
F. L. Nuhn, C. J. Pierpont, R. D. Pierpont, H. S. Root, E. K. Samson, C. 
A. Templeton, G. H. Wayne, F. B. Williams. 

st. paul's episcopal church, waterville 

About the time the Rev. John M. McCracken became assistant at St. John's 
Episcopal Church, there was a revival of business in Waterville and the mission 
which had been established in 185 1 gained in members and became quite active 
in its church work. It flourished under his care and a parish hall was built and 
opened. Mr. McCracken started a movement to have the mission organized 
into a parish, but resigned before this was accomplished. Flis successor at St. 
John's, the Rev. H. N. Tragitt, became the first rector of St. Paul's and the 
parish was organized and received into union with the Diocesan Convention, 
June, 1895. The first wardens were Louis Gates and E. E. Bacon, Harry O. 
Miller being the first elected delegate to convention. During Mr. Tragitt's 
rectorate the Parish Society and Young People's Association were organized, 
both of which societies have contributed in great measure to the development of 
the parish and are active in good works at the present time. 

In 1898 Mr. Tragitt resigned and was succeeded by the Rev. W. A. Rafter. 
Mr. Rafter stayed only two years. His successor was the Rev. C. W. Bentham. 
For a few years the parish languished, and in January, 1902, the bishop sent Mr. 
J. Attwood Stansfield, a student from the General Theological Seminary, to 
assume direction of its affairs. The following Easter the parish requested Mr. 
Stansfield to take charge, and when he was ordained he was elected minister-in- 
charge. In April, 1897, the mother parish, St. John's, gave a deed of the church 
and lot to St. Paul's. The manufacturing interests of the village have prospered 
and the parish has kept pace with the growth of the village. 

The present rectory was built about five years ago, during the incumbency of 
Rev. Wm. P. Waterbury. In February, 191 5, he was suceeded by Rev. Geo. W. 
Griffith, the present rector. The officials for 1917 are as follows: 

Rector, Rev. George W. Griffith, D. D. ; wardens, Williams A. Faber, Homer 
C. Senior; parish clerk, Charles H. Draper; treasurer, Homer C. Senior. 

FIRST METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH OF WATERBURY 

One of the most notable events in the recent church history of Waterbury was 
the Centennial celebration of the First Methodist Episcopal Church. This began 
Sunday, October 17, 191 5, and continued throughout the week. The anniversary 
address was delivered by Rev. Elmer A. Dent, D. D. A notable feature of the 
celebration was the presence of four of its former pastors. 

The history of the church for the past quarter century knits it closely into 
the great work of Methodism all over the country. It has been especially active 
in its work in missionary fields, its Woman's Home Mission Society, its Woman's 
Foreign Missionary Society, its Queen Esther Circle and its Ladies' Aid Society 
being classed as the most active among kindred organizations in New England 
The membership of the church April 1, 191 7, was 1,040. 

Since September 20, 1896, Ariel Chapter of the Epworth League No. 19,025, 
has been a constituent part of the church, with a membership approximating 300. 

The Sunday School has grown with the church. On March 26, 1893, this 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 115 

great branch of the local church celebrated its sixtieth anniversary, and a notable 
feature of that event was the presence of one teacher, Mrs. Julia A. Pritchard, 
and one scholar, Mrs. Jeanette Cow ell, the only survivors of the original organ- 
ization. 

During the existence of the Sunday School, now over a century, there have 
been but nine superintendents. Those of the past twenty-five years were Fred- 
erick Gillmore, Elmer J. Bassford, Whitman W. Bowers and John A. Coe, Jr. 

\t the time the congregation moved into the Easl .Main Street Church, the 
Sunday School numbered 208. Today it is rapidly nearing the 1,400 mark. This 
includes teachers, officers, scholars. The average attendance is over 500. 

The ministers during the past quarter of a century were Rev. Wm. H. Barton, 
[892-3; Rev. Gardner S. Eldridge, 1.894-1898; Rev. F. Watson Hannon, 1898- 
1901 ; Rev. F. P. Tower, 1901-02; Rev. F. B. Stockdale, 1902-1905; Rev. F. 
Dunwell Walter, 1905-1909; Rev. James E. Holmes, 1909-1911; Rev. Charles E. 
Barto, 1911-1914; Rev. Walter E. Thompson, 1914-1916; Rev. A. F. Campbell, 
1916. 

The officers of the church at present are : Pastor, Rev. A. F. Campbell ; secre- 
tary, William L. Woodruff; treasurer, John W. Potter; superintendent of Sunday 
School, John A. Coe, Jr. 

GRACE M. E. CHURCH, WATERVILLE 

Grace Methodist Episcopal Church of Waterville, though small, has been 
classed in recent years as one of the most active churches in the district. Since 
its separation from the First M. E. Church in 1882, it has organized activities 
along the splendid lines of the mother church and has contributed liberally to 
all Methodist activities. 

This year it mourns the death of Rev. J. J. Moffatt, who was its first pastor, 
and who later again served the congregation. 

In 1896 the Sunday School addition and the present parsonage were erected. 
In 1909, during the pastorate of the Rev. Otto Brand, now field secretary of 
the Methodist Hospital in Brooklyn, the entire church indebtedness was wiped 
out. In 191 2 the land at the rear of the present house of worship was donated 
and will be used later for additional church buildings. 

At present its membership is 115, with nearly an equal attendance at Sunday 
School. 

The pastors of Grace Church in the past quarter century have been Rev. A. H. 
White, Rev. X. W. Wilder. Rev. W. J. Judd, Rev. A. L. Hubbard. Rev. H. O. 
Trinkus, Rev. J. J. Moffatt, Rev. F. L. Buckwalter, Rev. X. F. Honald. Rev. 
Otto Brand, Rev. Samuel Johnson, Rev. E. S. Belden, and the present incumbent, 
Rev. Ceo. W. Servis, who began his pastorate in August. 1916. 

The present officers of the church are: Pastor, Rev. Geo. W. Servis; secre- 
tary. F. \V. Wightman; treasurer, James Gift: superintendent of Sunday School, 
Roy Ferris. 

st. paul's methodist episcopal church 

St. Paul's Methodist Episcopal Church, 101 Fast Farm Street, celebrated 
its twenty-fifth anniversary in [913. In 191 1 the Sunday School, which had been 
organized two years prior to the establishment of the church, celebrated its 
quarter centennial. 

On April 1, 1917. the membership was 372. It- present pastor, Rev. Charles 



116 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

E. Benedict, came to the church in April, 191 5, succeeding Rev. A. J. Smith, dur- 
ing whose pastorate the new pipe organ was installed. Other pastors of the last 
quarter century are Rev. Geo. A. Brunson, Rev. E. D. Bassett, who was with the 
church seven years, Rev. C. Lepley, and the Rev. J. P. Wagner, who died during 
the present year. 

The new parsonage next to the church on East Farm Street was erected during 
the last decade. 

The present officers of the church are as follows : Pastor, Rev. Charles E. . 
Benedict ; secretary, Elmer L. Hough ; treasurer, Albert J. Smith ; superintendent 
of Sunday School, Robert Buik. 

SOUTH M. E. AND WEST SIDE HILL CHURCHES 

The South M. E. Church, at 1338 Baldwin Street, had on April 1, 1917, a 
membership of 213, but this has been slightly reduced during the year by the 
establishment of a sister church, the West Side Hill, of which the need has long 
been apparent. For some time Rev. R. F. Shinn has been in charge of a mission 
at that point, which now has developed into a separate church, with Rev. R. F. 
Shinn as its first pastor. It has taken over the mission property. 

The Rev. W. J. Ashforth is the pastor of the South M. E. Church. Other 
officers of this church for the year 1917 are as follows: Recording secretary, 
William A. Houston ; financial secretary, Walter A. Rose ; treasurer and Sunday 
School superintendent, Myron Hutch. 

MOUNT OLIVE A. M. E. ZION CHURCH OF WATERBURY 

In 1904 Mount Olive A. M. E. Zion Church celebrated the quarter century 
of its establishment, with the building of its new church at 86 Pearl Street. Its 
membership has shown a steady growth, being close to 150 in 1917, with a Sunday 
School attendance of about 140. 

The church has taken a prominent part in the national work of the African 
Methodist Episcopal denomination. This has been particularly true during the 
present pastorate, that of the Rev. J. W. McDonald, now going on its fourth year, 
and of his predecessors, the Revs. J. S. Cole, H. M. Mickings, Calvin S. Whitted, 
Fisher and McCallum. 

The officers of the church in 1917 are: Pastor, J. W. McDonald; secretary, 
Willis W. Holland ; treasurer, R. L. Brinkley. 

FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH OF WATERBURY 

Two events of transcendent importance in the history of the First Baptist 
Church of Waterbury during the past twenty-five years are, first, its centennial 
celebration in 1904, and, second, the dedication in the fall of 1917 of its mag- 
nificent new church building, at the corner of Grove Street and Central Avenue, 
which has just been completed. 

The centennial celebration began November 1, 1904, on which day the 
sermons, both morning and evening, were delivered by the pastor. Rev. Oscar 
Haywood, D. D. On Monday, November 2d, the joint meeting of the Baptist 
Ministers' Conference of New Haven and Hartford, and the Protestant Ministers' 
Club of Waterbury were held. 

In the evening of that day a memorable address on "The Best Way of Van- 
quishing" was delivered by the Rev. Wayland Hoyt, D. D., LL. D., of Phila- 







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WATERBURY AXD THE NAUGATUCK \ ALLEY 117 

delphia, before the Society of Christian Endeavor. On Tuesday, Woman's Day, 
Doctor Hoyt spoke on "Soul Worship." 

Wednesday was Missionary Day, with the address by Rev. Albert Arnold 
Bennett, D. D., of Japan. 

On Thursday, Old Home Day, an address was delivered by Rev. P. G. 
Wightman and the First Church took part for the first time in the conference of 
the Centennial Churches of the New Haven Association. This conference com- 
prised, in addition to Waterbury, Meriden, 1786; Middletown, 1795; Southington, 
1738; Cromwell, 1802; Clinton, 1797; Winthrop, 1744, and Wallingford, 1790. 

Later in the day addresses were delivered by Prof. D. G. Porter and Rev. 
T. A. T. Hanna. 

It was in 1897 that the women of the church began the great work of co- 
ordinating their denominational labors. The women of the church thought they 
could do better work if all the lines, viz. : social, parish, and missionary, were 
brought under one organization. 

On April 20, 1898, they decided to make this change, and formed the Mission- 
ary and Social Union of the First Baptist Church of Waterbury. In this new 
departure, they were largely assisted by the wise counsel of the late Doctor Parry. 
The society embraces all of the women's distinctive work, and aims to include 
in its membership every woman of the church. It has three departments : Parish 
Work. Home Missions, and Foreign Missions. It has a chairman in charge of 
each line of its work. Thursday of each week is its "At Home" day, two hostesses 
being in charge of the parlor all day, while all women's meetings are scheduled 
to appear at some specified hour. k 

A. D. Field, a man of affairs and of large experience in the management and 
control of finances, devised, during the year 1901, a plan of endowment for the 
church known as "The Surplus Fund." It is incorporated under the laws of 
Connecticut, and no investment as a public benefaction could be more diligently 
safeguarded by legal enactment. In the year 1901 $1,000 was contributed by 
members of the church to this fund, — that amount being required by the articles 
of incorporation before the fund could be established. It is more especially 
designed to afford security for money and property which may be given to the 
church through wills and deeds of gift. 

It is a perpetual endowment, of which the trustees are custodians, under bond 
in the amount of the market value of the assets of the fund. 

Among the pastors of the past twenty-five years were many celebrated church- 
men. Rev. W. P. Elsdon, who, after a serious illness, went totally blind, had in 
1892 increased the membership by 200 during his four-year pastorate. He was 
succeeded by Rev. Francis J. Parry, D. D., who died during his pastorate. After 
him came Rev. Oscar Haywood, Rev. Albert G. Lawson, and in 1912 the present 
pastor, Rev. Horace B. Sloat. 

The membership of the church's Italian mission, which is showing a steady 
growth, is now sixty. Its present pastor is Rev. John Barone. The memberhip 
of the church in 191 7 is 802 — 605 resident and 150 non-resident members. 

Dedicatory and Old Home week, in which the new church edifice was first 
occupied, took place from September 23 to 30, 1917- 

The officers of the church, elected in 1917, are: Trustees, Loren R. Carter, 
Wm. H. Robbins, C. P. Haight; deacons, V. M. Shaw, Wm. R. Dixon, Geo. H. 
Carter, David Crandall, Wm. O'Neill, Loren Durner, A. J. Shipley, E. G. Terry ; 
deaconesses, Mrs. E. W. Smith, Miss Margaret McWhinnie ; treasurer, Warren S. 
Trott ; clerk. Burton J. Hine ; assistant clerk, C. A. Peck ; collector, Geo. W. Wat- 
son ; assistant collector, Lyman Rich. 



118 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

SECOND BAPTIST CHURCH OF WATERBURY 

The twenty-fifth anniversary of the founding- of the Second Baptist Church 
of Waterbury was celebrated in the fall of 1917, although the actual date of the 
organization of the church was May 17, 1892. The postponement for a few 
months was due to the desire to dedicate the new pipe organ, the intallation of 
which was a feature of the anniversary. 

Twenty-five years ago the congregation put up a small chapel for services, and 
this has since been moved back to make place for the fine auditorium built a few 
years later. The chapel is now used for the Sunday School. The membership of 
the church is no. The Sunday School has an enrollment of 150, with an average 
attendance of 100. 

The Rev. Harvey W. Funk came to the church in November, 1915, succeeding 
Rev. J. F. Vaught, who had been its pastor for eight years. 

The officers of the church elected in 1917 are as follows : Pastor, Rev. Harvey 
W. Funk ; clerk, Esther Mitchell ; treasurer, Edward J. Morgan. 

GRACE BAPTIST CHURCH 

The Grace Baptist Church was organized on April 15, 1900. to provide a place 
of worship for the colored population of that denomination. Rev. Isaac W. Reed, 
the present pastor, has been with the congregation during its entire existence, 
except the first eight months. The pastor at its organization was Rev. J. Moses 
Hopkins. 

The church building, which was erected immediately after the organization, 
was cleared of debt six years ago. 

At the outset, the membership was 17. This year it has enrolled 160, with no 
in the Sunday School. In fact, the growth has been so continuous that a new 
and larger house of worship is now in contemplation. 

The officers elected for 1917 are : Pastor, Rev. Isaac W. Reed ; clerk, Caroline 
Lee ; superintendent of Sunday School, Miss M. L. Benton, 

SWEDISH BAPTIST TABERNACLE 

On May 10 and 12, 1917, the Swedish Baptist Tabernacle celebrated its 
twenty-fifth anniversary as a church. During its struggling years it worshipped 
in a chapel near the site of the present church, 22 Bishop Street. Twelve years ago, 
during the pastorate of Rev. A. O. Lawrence, it began the erection of its present 
church home, worshipping in the basement for some time. During the pastorate 
of Rev. A. Linde, the church was completed and dedicated. For the past two 
years its pastor has been the Rev. O. W. Johnson, who succeeded Rev. Nils Berg, 
who had come to the church direct from Sweden. The membership of the church 
is 68, with a Sunday School attendance of 30. The services are well attended, 
those present on Sunday evening, including visitors, numbering from 75 to ICO 
regularly. 

The officers of the church, elected in 191 7, are as follows : Pastor, Rev. O. W. 
Johnson ; treasurer, Gustaf R. Erickson ; clerk and superintendent of Sunday 
School, Nils A. Hilding. 

GERMAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN CHURCH OF WATERBURY 

In October, 1916, the German Evangelical Lutheran Church of Waterbury cele- 
brated the quarter century of its existence. Its present pastor is Rev. Martin J. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 119 

Lorenz, who came to the church four years ago from Lindenhurst, L. I., succeed- 
ing the Rev. L. Brunke, who died last year. Its first pastor was Rev. \\'m. Jentsch, 
who served from 1891 to [898. He was succeeded by Doctor Minkus, Rev. 
Richard Pfeil and Rev. J. A. Lenke. 

In May, 1916, a site for a church was purchased on Grove Street, and during 
the coming year, if building conditions improve, a new house of worship will be 
erected. The church started with a membership of 30 and now has 275 contribut- 
ing members. 

The officers of the church, elected in 1917, are: Pastor, Rev. Martin ]\ 
Lorenz ; secretary, Edward Koslosky ; treasurer, Ernest Burtsch. 

THE EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN ST. JOHN'S CHURCH OF WATERBURY 

The Evangelical Lutheran St. John's Church was founded September 20, 1903, 
by the following German citizens of Waterbury: Reinhold Brenner, Gustav 
Nickel, Ernest Schnabel, Robert Molzon, Frederick Marlow, August Schmidt, 
Henrick Bojke, Ferd. Kranvitz, Daniel Kratzke, Ed Litwin. It was served as 
a mission during the first year by Rev. O. Duessel, of Bristol. In 1904, the 
Swedish Lutheran Church on Cherry Street was rented and its first pastor in 
this church was Rev. August Koerber, who remained until 1905. His successor 
was Rev. Julius Kretzmann. In 1906, during his pastorate, the church was incor- 
porated and the building at 48-50 Park Place was purchased. In this building 
the congregation worshipped until November, 1916, when it was sold and tem- 
porary arrangements were made to hold services in the parish house of St. John's 
Episcopal Church. Contract has been let for a new church building, and it is now 
in process of erection on Cooke Street, between Grove and North Main streets. 
It is expected to be occupied early in 1918. 

Rev. Julius Kretzmann left in 1909 for New Haven, and for a time continued 
to serve the Waterbury congregation. On July 18, 1909, Rev. Valentin Geist 
came to the church. He remained until January 5, 1914, and was succeeded by 
Rev. F. H. Lindemann. The present pastor, Rev. Edward Paul Merkel, came to 
the church in August, 1916. 

The church has 85 enrolled on its list, and a Sunday School of about 20, with 
three teachers in charge. The officers of the church at present are: Pastor, Rev. 
Edward P. Merkel ; secretary, F. H. A. Buf e ; treasurer, H. Abel. 

SWEDISH EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN ZION CHURCH OF WATERBURY 

The Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Zion Church of Waterbury was organized 
January I, 1891, and celebrated its twenty-fifth anniversary in 1916. It has its 
own house of worship at 210 Cherry Street, and its membership has shown steady 
growth during the past decade. 

Its officers, elected in 1917, are as follows: Pastor, Rev. J. Herman Olsson ; 
secretary, Carl E. Olander ; treasurer, Fred Person. 

SECOND ADVENT CHRISTIAN CHURCH OF WATERBURY 

The Second Advent Christian Church of Waterbury was organized May 12, 
1881, with about a dozen members. The late Thomas Fitzsimons and Kendrick 
1 1. Simons were largely instrumental in effecting the same, and both remained 
members until their death. The widow of the latter, Mrs. Maria A. Simons, of 
04 Cherry Street, Waterbury, is the only surviving charter member at the present 
lime. 



120 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

The pastors have been as follows, in the order named : Rev. Geo. L. Teeple, 
Rev. L. F. Baker, Rev. Cornelius Pike, Rev. Jas. A. Gardner, Rev. Chester F. L. 
Smith, Rev. A. Judson Bolster, and the present pastor, Rev. Thomas Feltman. 

For several years after organization, the services were held in a hall on Bank 
Street, but in 1886, during the pastorate of Rev. L. F. Baker, a church building 
was erected on the present Cherry Street site. This building was remodeled in 
1906 — the year of the church's twenty-fifth anniversary. A Sunday School room 
was arranged in the basement. 

The debt incurred on the original building and for remodeling was cleared off 
in 1914, during the term of the present pastor, and a special service was held in 
the fall of that year, at which the burning of the note took place. 

On July 3, 1913, the church was incorporated under the laws of Connecticut. 
The present membership is 147. The present officers are : Deacons, Theo. Patchen, 
Samuel J. Bonney; assistant deacon, Wm. Strong; elders, Charles H. Chatfield, 
Geo. Read ; treasurer, Eben J. Lewis ; collector, Harry S. Johnson ; steward, 
Wm. Moulthrop ; Sunday School superintendent, Charles B. Slater, and clerk, 
Henry D. Curtiss. 

THE FIRST CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST 

On January 19, 1898, the First Church of Christ, Scientist, was organized, 
with the following charter members : Leon I. Wood, Carrie W. Blakeslee, Mary 
T. Thompson, Winifred A. Wood, and George G. Blakeslee. The first readers 
appointed were Mrs. Geo. Blakeslee and Mr. Leon I. Wood. 

There has been a steady, healthy growth and during the past year a site for a 
building was purchased at the corner of Holmes and Mitchell Avenue. The new 
structure, it is stated, will probably be erected during the next year. 

At present, the Sunday and Wednesday evening meetings are held in the 
reading rooms in the Buckingham building. 

The present readers are Mrs. Belle Stone Booth, Mrs. Ada B. Soper. The 
president of the society is Mr. Harry A. Soper, and its treasurer is Mrs. Minnie 
T. Manville. Mr. Lyman D. Lewis is clerk. 

buck's hill union chapel 

Buck's Hill Union Chapel is non-denominational. It was founded twenty- 
two years ago, the ground for the house of worship having been donated by the 
late George Faber, Sr. Its membership is about fifty. It expects soon to have 
a Sunday School organized. At present its pastor is Rev. Roscoe E. Hatch, of 
All Souls' Parish. Its officers are Wm. Foster and W. A. Piatt. 

UNION CHAPEL, MILL PLAIN 

Union Chapel, Mill Plain, is non-denominational, its four trustees, M. E. 
Pierpont, F. W. Ineson, H. M. Judd, H. I. Abel, representing the four protestant 
denominations — Episcopal, Methodist, Congregational and Baptist. 

Its membership is about two hundred and its Sunday School has an attendance 
of about one hundred and fifty. It is served by a pastor of each of the above 
denominations once each month. 

The church, which is thirty years old, had much to overcome after its build- 
ing burned, but the new structure is in every way adequate, and the membership 
is showing a steady growth. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 121 

WATERVILLE CHAPEL 

Waterville Chapel is now celebrating the end of its first decade of non- 
denominational work. It has a membership of fifty, with forty-five in attendance 
at Sunday School. 

Its pastor is Miss M. A. Barrett. The superintendent of the Sunday School 
is Miss E. M. Weeks. Its executive board consists of S. Butcher. Jr., M. 
McAllister, and Robert Benninghoff. 



CHAPTER IX 

THE CATHOLIC CHURCHES OF WATERBURY 

catholic population by parishes immaculate' conception st. patrick's 

its dedication sacred heart st. ann's st. cecilia st. francis xavier 

— st. Joseph's — st. thomas — our lady of lourdes — st. Margaret's — blessed 

sacrament st. michael's st. stanislaus convents and schools 

holy name society sketches of monsignor slocum and father curtin 

m'givney day. 

Waterbury's Catholic population was estimated at one-half the census figures 
for the city in 1890. In 1917, with a population of approximately 100,000, it can 
conservatively be placed at 55 to 60 per cent of the total. Reliable parish 
figures bear this out and the table compiled here is as given by the church 
authorities in each instance. 

Immaculate Conception 6,700 

Sacred Heart 3,600 

St. Patrick's 3,000 

Our Lady of Lourdes (Italian ) 17,500 

St. Joseph's (Lithuanian) 6,000 

St. Ann's ( French) 4,000 

St. Francis Xavier 3,000 

St. Stanislaus (Polish) 1,300 

St. Cecilia (German) 3,000 

St. Michael's 1,000 

St. Margaret's 2,100 

Blessed Sacrament 850 

St. Thomas 2,200 

Total 54,250 

This growth from that beginning eighty years ago when Cornelius Donnelly 
was the only Catholic living here is a marvelous record. Where in 1847 there 
was a small one-story frame church dedicated by the small Catholic community, 
there are today thirteen distinct parishes, as many beautiful churches, six 
parochial schools, six convents, rectories in practically every parish, St. Mary's 
Hospital, one of the largest of its class in New England, and St. Mary's Day 
Nursery. 

This large Catholic population has always been foremost in all public move- 
ments. It has aided in every civic endeavor to beautify the city and to make 
it a better municipality, morally and physically. 

While it has its own parochial schools in a few parishes it has taken a deep 
interest in the building-up of the city's public school system. Father Hugh 
Treanor, among many of the Catholic faith, serves on its school board. In 
fact, it was during the chairmanship of Father Treanor that much of the work 
of thoroughly organizing the school system of the city was done. 

122 



WATERBURY AND THE NTAUGATUCK \ ALLEY 123 

In the following history of the parishes, the records are confined largely to 
those of the past twenty-five years, and supplement the excellent work done in 
the previous histories of Waterbury. 

MM CHURCH OF THE [MMACULATE CONCEPTION 

In the parish of the Immaculate Conception rests the beginning of the 

Catholic church work in Waterbury. The memory of the Right Rev. T. F. 
Hendricken, who built the present Church of the Immaculate Conception, dedi- 
cating it December [9, [855, is revered hy Catholics and non-Catholics alike, 
for his activities were community-wide and he laid not alone a wonderful corner- 
stone for the church, hut one upon which many of the city's noblest benefactions 
have been erected. Without going deeply into the earlier history of this parish, 
it is well to add that during the pastorate of Rev. William A. Harty part of the 
present Calvary Cemetery was purchased, part of the land for St. Joseph's 
Cemetery having been bought by Father Hendricken. 

During the pastorate of Father John A. Mulcahy, St. Mary's School was 
built and opened in 1896, and was then placed in charge of the Sisters of Charity 
from Convent Station, N. J. Its first superior was Sister Rosita, who was 
succeeded by Sister Marie Agnes, and she by the present superior, Sister 
Claudine. St. Mary's Convent was occupied on November 27, 1889. St. 
Patrick's Hall was built the same year. In 1891 Father Mulcahy greatly enlarged 
by purchase the property of the church now known as Calvary Cemetery. 
This was consecrated by the bishop of the diocese May 24, 1894. The splendid 
work of Monsignor Slocum followed, and St. Mary's Hospital, which he founded 
but the completion of which he did not live to see, will remain an enduring 
monument to his memory. A sketch of the life work of Monsignor Slocum, as 
well as the history of St. Mary's Hospital, will be found elsewhere. 

Rev. Luke Fitzsimons, the present pastor, delivered his first sermon in 
Waterbury August 6, 19 10. His work has been in line with all the beneficent 
deeds of his predecessors. Since coming to the parish, he has established St. 
Mary's Day Nursery, in which approximately seventy-five children are cared for 
daily. These are the children of mothers who are compelled to work during the 
day. Three sisters are in charge, and not alone are the children fed, but those 
old enough are given instruction. In 191 5 Father Fitzsimons bought the 
Grannis property on Franklin Street and turned the home on it into a recreation 
hall and infirmary for children. 

There are at present in St. Mary's School 1,100 pupils, with twenty-two 
sisters and one lay teacher in charge. St. Mary's Convent houses twenty-four 
sisters. St. Patrick's Hall at no Fast Main Street has been enlarged since its 
foundation. It contains two chapels, one for boys and one for girls. The 
Sunday School is also conducted there and has an attendance of about one 
hundred. This is for children who go to the public school-. 

Father Fitzsimons graduated from Holy Cross College at Worcester, Mass.. 
from which place in 1873 he went to Troy, N. Y., for his theological course. 
He was ordained a priest in June, 1876. His first assignment was as assistant 
at Sacred Heart Church, New Haven. He was four years at Collinsville, and 
then became parish priest at New Hartford in July, 1881, remaining there 
until 1900. 

The four assistants to Father Fitzsimons are: Father J. A. Doherty, 
Father E. P. Cryne. Father J. A. Dowd and Father F. M. O'Shea. 



124 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

st. Patrick's church 

On the first day of February, 1880, the Rev. John Duggan was appointed by 
the Rt. Rev. Lawrence McMahon, pastor of St. Patrick's Parish. About three 
weeks later was purchased the land upon which the church stands, besides three 
acres of adjoining property. The following year Father Duggan came to 
Waterbury and commenced the work of the organization of the parish. 

The cornerstone of St. Patrick's Church was laid by P>ishop McMahon 
October 16, 1881. 

Father Duggan died November 10, 1895, and his remains were buried in 
front of the church. The zeal of Father Duggan in behalf of his parishioners 
in the decade and a half which he was spared to them was productive of marvelous 
results. Father Duggan was immediately succeeded by the Rev. Joseph M. 
Gleeson. 

Father Gleeson attended St. Dunstan's Preparatory College, afterwards going 
to Mount Mellory, Ireland, which college was in charge of the Cistercian monks. 
He spent five years there, completing the classical course. His studies in 
philosophy and theology were made in the Grand Seminary, Montreal. He 
was ordained to the holy priesthood by the Most Rev. Archbishop Fabre, 
December 23, 1876. He was appointed assistant to the Rev. Michael Tierney, 
the present bishop, then pastor of St. John's Church, Stamford, where 
he remained until November 1, 1878, when he was transferred to Danielson. 
In March, 1879, he was sent as assistant to the Rev. Father Mulcahy. Father 
Gleeson was appointed by the Right Rev. Bishop McMahon, pastor of St. 
Anthony's Church, Litchfield, April 1, 1883. On the 28th day of November, 
1885, he was appointed pastor of Portland. During his pastorate he brought 
there the Sisters of Mercy. The first Catholic school was opened in Portland 
by him February 1, 1889. He was afterwards appointed pastor of St. Patrick's 
Church, Thompsonville. He came to Waterbury to succeed the Rev. Father 
Duggan December 2, 1895. 

He immediately took up the arduous work of finishing the church and 
rectory. The plastering work on both house and church was then being done. 
Besides carrying on the stupendous work of the completion of the massive 
structures, additions were made to the Lyceum Building, and a church building 
erected in the Waterville district. Meanwhile, the Sisters of St. Joseph were 
introduced into the parish. A free kindergarten school was opened in the 
Lyceum and several new societies were organized. 

But the great task of completing the church ended in 1903, and on Sunday, 
January 18th of that year, the magnificent edifice was solemnly dedicated by 
Right Rev. Bishop Tierney. 

After the dedicatory services, pontifical mass was celebrated, His Eminence, 
Cardinal Gibbons, being celebrant. The sermon at the morning service was 
preached by the Rev. D. J. Stafford, D. D., of Washington. In the evening 
solemn high vespers were sung by the famous Bishop Harkins of Providence, 
R. L, and the sermon was preached by the Rev. M. F. Fallon, O. M. I., of 
Buffalo. 

The several services were marked by that richness of ritual, splendor of 
ceremony and gorgeous magnificence which is characteristic of Catholic services. 
The magnificent singing, the splendor of the church, the beauty of the service 
and the presence of so many priests, all were inspiring. Greater dignity was 
added to the gathering by the presence of His Eminence, Cardinal Gibbons, 
Bishop Tierney of Hartford, Bishop Harkins of Providence,, and Monsignor 
Murphy of Dover, N. H. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 125 

St. Patrick's Church is situated in the heart of the Brooklyn district on 
high ground on a lot containing nearly three acres. The church fronts on 
Charles Street and overlooks the city. Its roof towers high above almost every 
other structure, and the building proper is of imposing appearance. The church 
is built of a light blue granite, with trimmings of cut stone of the same material, 
and is constructed in the most substantial and perfect manner. The basement 
is more than fifteen feet in height, and has a seating capacity of over one thousand 
persons. There are four spacious entrances to the basement, one at each corner 
of the building, and two flights of stairs connecting with the church above. 

Although the nave of the basement is seventy-six feet wide, there are but 
two rows of iron columns placed under the clerestory columns of the church 
above and supporting them. The church floors are supported upon heavy com- 
pound wrought iron girders, resting on these columns and on the walls, so that 
the basement is clear of all obstruction, excepting these, and preserves the 
comfort and convenience of a finished church. Tt is lighted by large windows 
of cathedral glass. The width between the main side walls is seventy-six feet. 
The style of the building is the early decorated Gothic, which prevailed at the 
commencement of the fourteenth century, when the expressive features of 
Christian architecture were developed. 

The tower is in the northeast corner, fronting on Charles Street. It does 
not grow out of the church, but is distinct itself, carrying out the monumental 
idea of a church tower. The main entrance comprises three large doorways, 
besides one in the tower communicating with the church and with the end 
•jalleries which extend across the nave. The auditorium will have a seating 



s 



capacity of 1,525 persons. At the sanctuary end are two other entrances con- 
necting with the church proper, with the basement by a staircase, and with the 
sacristies on each side of the sanctuary, which are connected by a passway 
between the altar. 

The parish of St. Patrick numbers about three thousand souls. As the parish of 
the Blessed Sacrament has been largely taken from St. Patrick's, there is no 
apparent growth shown, although this has in fact been considerable in its more 
limited territory. 

Including the children, the Sunday attendance approximates one thousand 
two hundred. 

When the church was dedicated in 1903 it had a debt of $85,000.00. Today 
the debt is about $33,000.00 and just as soon as this is liquidated, the church will 
begin the erection of a school and convent for the parish. 

The assistants to Father Gleeson are Father Thomas A. Grumbley and Father 
Daniel J. Manning. 

SACRED HEART CHURCH 

On Sunday, February 15, 1885, the Rev. William Harty, then rector of 
the parish of the Immaculate Conception, made the formal announcement that 
the Right Rev. Bishop McMahon had established a new parish in the city. The 
announcement was not entirely unexpected, as rumors of the intended division 
had been current for some time. The new parish was to comprise East Main 
Street east of Dublin Street, all of Dublin Street, the east side of Welton Street, 
Walnut Street and all of the streets east of these points, and would include 
between 1.500 and 2,000 souls. The Rev. Hugh Treanor, who for six years 
had been the efficient assistant pastor of St. Mary's Church, Xorwalk. was 
appointed pastor of the new parish by Bishop McMahon. A short time after 



126 WATERBURY AXD THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

the division the land on which the church now stands was purchased by Father 
Treanor. 

On Sunday, February 22, 1885, Father Treanor preached his initial sermon 
to his new flock in the Church of the Immaculate Conception. On March 1st 
of the same year the members of the Sacred Heart Parish held divine services 
for the first time as a distinct congregation in St. Patrick's Chapel. Services 
were held there until the date of the blessing of the basement of the new 
church March 14, 1886. 

On Sunday, August 16, 1885, the cornerstone of the new church was laid by 
Bishop McMahon. On Thanksgiving Day, November 28, 1889, the new church 
was solemnly dedicated. 

The cornerstone was laid by Bishop McMahon in the presence of an esti- 
mated attendance of 8,000 persons. The sermon was preached by the Rev. 
Francis Delargy of the Order of Redemptorists. The handsome silver trowel 
used by the Bishop during the ceremony was presented to the Rev. John Russell 
of New Haven, who was the largest contributor on the occasion. 

On March 14, 1886, the basement of the church was blessed and formally 
opened for divine worship. Bishop McMahon graced the occasion by his presence. 
The Rev. John Russell was the celebrant of the mass and the sermon was 
preached by the Rev. William J. Slocum, then of Norwalk. At the vesper 
service confirmation was administered for the first time in the new church to a 
class of over sixty children. 

Thanksgiving Day, November 28, 1889, witnessed the crowning of the good 
work. On that day the new church edifice was solemnly dedicated under the 
patronage of the Sacred Heart of Jesus by the Right Rev. Bishop McMahon. 
The celebrant of the mass was the Rev. Michael Tierney, later the bishop of 
the diocese. The sermon was preached by the Rev. Thomas Broderick of 
Hartford. In the evening vespers were sung, the Rev. James Fagan of Naugatuck 
officiating. 

In 1893 and 1894 the present beautiful rectory was built. 

Father Treanor remained as head of the parish for nearly thirteen years, 
leaving it to take charge of St. Patrick's Parish, Norwich. During this period 
of change, Rev. Thomas Shelley was in charge of the parish, and the school and 
convent were erected about ten years ago. 

In October, 1912, Father Treanor returned and has been active in the work 
of building up the church of which he was the founder. In this period he has 
added another story to the school building, giving the parish a fine hall for its 
own immediate purposes. 

The census of the parish is now about three thousand. The attendance at the 
four masses Sunday is about two thousand two hundred. 

The parochial school has an attendance of 450 and is in charge of ten sisters. 

st. ann's church 

St. Ann's Parish was founded in April, 1886, to provide services for the 
French Catholic population. Rev. Joseph Fones, who was at that time pastor 
of St. John's Parish, Watertown, was given this additional charge and services 
were held in the old Universalist Chapel on Grand Street. The first service was 
held on May 2, 1886. During the following year, Father Fones devoted his 
entire time to St. Ann's and purchased the lot on which the present edifice stands. 
Rev. J. E. Bourret succeeded him and planned the work of building the magnifi- 
cent church which it is hoped will soon be dedicated. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 127 

Rev. Joseph E. Senesac, his successor, who died April 16, 1906. undertook 
the actual erection of the magnificent new church at South Main and Dover 
streets. Trihutes were paid to his work when the cornerstone of the edifice 
was laid hy Right Rev. Michael Tiemey, Bishop of Hartford., on May 27, 1906, 
a little over a month after he had passed away. Father A. R. Grolleau, pastor of 
St. Aim's Church, Fall River, delivered the sermon in French. The clergy of 
the entire diocese participated. 

The exterior of the church is now complete, hut the interior work is still 
unfinished, the basement, which will eventually he the parish hall, heing used 
for church services. 

Rev. Ernest A. Lamontagne built the new convent six years ago. The school 
too has heen greatly enlarged and is conducted by eighteen Sisters of the Holy 
(■host, who in 1906 succeeded the Notre Dame Sisters. 

The property of the parish today comprises the magnificent church which 
is built of granite and Vermont blue marble, two schools, the assembly hall, the 
rectory and the convent. 

The census of the parish places the population at 4,000. The enrollment in 
the school is 650. 

Father Lamontagne has taken a deep interest in the organization of the social 
work of the church, all the societies having large and enthusiastic memberships. 
He has also organized the St. John the Baptist Guards, a semi-military organiza- 
tion, and a troop of Boy Scouts. 

st. Cecilia's parish 

The formation by the German Catholics of Waterbury of a Holy Family 
Society in April, 1892, was the auspicious beginning of St. Cecilia's Parish. 
Even before the organization of the parish the land on Scovill Street, on which 
the church now stands, was purchased. On November 10, 1892, Rev. Farrell 
Martin, D. D., who had been assistant at the Immaculate Conception, was made 
pastor of the new parish, and the first services were held in the chapel of the 
Sisters of Notre Dame. The cornerstone of the new church was laid July 29, 
1894, and the edifice was dedicated November 18, 1894. The master of cere- 
monies was the Rev. J. H. O'Donnell of Watertown. High mass was celebrated 
by Vicar-general Mulcahy, assisted by the Rev. J. H. Duggan as deacon and the 
Rev. William Lynch as sub-deacon. A sermon in German was preached by the 
Rev. John Roser, O. S. F., and one in English by the Rev. L. A. Delury, O. S. A. 

The building is 95 feet long by 56 feet wide on the front, and has a seat- 
ing capacity of about six hundred. The design is purely Gothic ; the material 
is pallet brick with brown stone trimmings. There are three large entrance 
doors at the front, with six lancet windows just above, and over these a large 
rose window, glazed with opalescent glass in beautiful tints. Three aisles lead 
to the chancel rail and through three separate gates into the sanctuary. Within 
are three altars, the main altar in the center and the altars of the Blessed Virgin 
and St. Joseph on either side. The main windows are of figured glass. Directly 
over the central altar is the figure of St. Cecilia with pandean pipes. Additional 
windows represent other saints, the Holy Family and the immaculate Conception. 

During the pastorate of Doctor Martin the rectory was also built. Father 
Martin was succeeded in the pastorate five years ago by the present pastor, 
Father Reinhard Bardeck. According to the last church census, there are in 
the parish about seven hundred Catholic families, approximately three thousand 
souls. Father Bardeck is a graduate of St. John'- Seminary, at Brighton, near 



128 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Boston, and was ordained in 1900 at Hartford. He was assistant in Rockville 
for three years, and before coming to Waterbury had been parish priest of a 
German congregation in Hartford. 

ST. FRANCIS XAVIER PARISH 

St. Francis Xavier Parish was formed November 30, 1895. On December 
3, 1895, Rev. Jeremiah J. Curtin took charge as pastor and began the building 
up of this great parish, a monument to his labors of nearly twenty-two years. 
On December 30, 1895, the temporary rectory at the corner of Washington and 
Baldwin streets was occupned by Father Curtin. On January 2, 1896, the first 
mass was held for the parish at the auditorium. 

On December 3, 1902, the present site for the new church was purchased 
and the cornerstone was laid with impressive services by Bishop Tierney of 
Hartford on November 1, 1903. 

The basement chapel was dedicated on November 12, 1905, and the entire 
church was opened with solemn services on March 4, 1907. While the church 
was building, the rectory was also under way and was ready for occupancy 
in 1905. 

The church is a beautiful edifice. It is 138 feet long, j6 feet wide. The 
auditorium is 85 feet long and 68 feet wide. The apex of the ceiling is 55 feet 
from the floor. The tower is 140 feet above the ground elevation. Its seating 
capacity is 1,150. 

Father Curtin also built in 1914 the parish hall for boys and opened a fine 
playground with tennis courts in the rear of the present church property. 

The census of the parish places its Catholic population at 3,000. At the 
five Sunday masses, the attendance is about two thousand. 

Rev. James J. Egan succeeded to the pastorate, coming from New Milford, 
Conn., July 11, 1917. He is a graduate of Laval University, Montreal. 

His assistants are Fathers John P. Kennedy and Edward Ouinn. 

st. Joseph's parish 

St. Joseph's Parish, consisting of the Lithuanian Catholics of Waterbury, was 
organized in 1894. The Rev. Joseph Zabris was appointed pastor on March 28th. 
The first mass was celebrated on April 1st, in Mitchell's Block on Bank Street. 

On September 28th the Dreher property was purchased and the erection of 
a church was begun on October 6th. On Thanksgiving Day, November 29, 1894, 
the cornerstone was laid with the usual services. Vicar-general John A. Mulcahy 
performed the ceremony with Dr. Farrell Martin as sub-deacon. The address 
of the occasion was delivered by the Rev. Joseph Jaksztys. first in the Lithuanian 
and then in the Polish language. 

The Lithuanian Catholics had, however, been organized for some years prior 
to the building of their church. In fact, the date of the actual founding of St. 
Joseph's Church is given as May 1, 1892. Father Zabris was succeeded twenty 
years ago by the Rev. Peter Saurusaitis, who had been ordained priest by 
Cardinal Gibbons. During his pastorate the parish has grown so that it now 
numbers 6,000 souls. The new church, which has since been erected, has a 
seating capacity of 800 and at the four Sunday masses it is estimated that the 
total attendance is about three thousand. The rectory has also been constructed 
within the decade, and a new school has been added to the small old school, the 
early church structure which the parish soon outgrew. The new school is directly 




SACRED HEART CHURCH AND RECTORY, WATERBURY 




CHURCH OF OCR LADY OF LorilDKS. WATKKIJU! Y 



WATKKl'.lkY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 129 

opposite the church. The school attendance is placed at 900, with sixteen sisters 
in charge. The convent is at the corner of Liberty and South Main streets. In this 
convent, which is strictly speaking St. Ann's Parish, other sisters are also housed. 
These look after the sick and do other beneficent parish work. A notable event, 
June 10, 1917. was the celebration of his first mass by Father Joseph A. 
Yankovsky, a young man who was born and raised in Waterbury. 
The assistant in the parish is Father Valantiejus. 

ST. THOMAS PARISH 

St. Thomas Parish was organized September 25, 1898, although the church 
which had been erected by Monsignor Slocum at Crown and Beacon streets was 
for some years a chapel of the Parish of the Immaculate Conception. Father 
Timothy Crowley, now in New London, was its first pastor. He built the school 
and convent and in the former there are now 350 to 400 children enrolled, with 
the sisters in charge. The convent was erected opposite the school. The church 
census places the Catholic population of the parish at 2,200. 

Rev. F. J. Lally, the present pastor, succeeded Father James Cunningham, 
who died a year after coming to the church. Father Lally has been in the 
pastorate six years, coming here from Poquonock Parish. He is a graduate of 
the seminary at St. Bonaventure, Allegany, N. Y. 

Father William Kennedy was the first curate, Rev. Timothy Sullivan suc- 
ceeding him. Fathers Joseph Ryan, John Brennan and Wm. O'Brien followed, 
and the curate today is Father D. T. Moran. 

OUR LADY OF LOURDES PARISH 

It is in the Italian parish of "Our Lady of Lourdes" that the phenomenal 
growth has taken place, estimates of the church census being placed at figures 
ranging from 15,000 to 20,000. This is easily an increase of 7,000 in five years, 
and perhaps 5,000 in two years. 

In the year 1899 the Italian Catholics of Waterbury were organized into 
Our Lady of Lourdes Parish by the Rev. Father Michael A. Karam, the first 
pastor, at the request of the Right Rev. Bishop Tierney. 

Before Father Karam's appointment, the Italians were under the pastoral 
charge of the Rev. Dr. Martin of St. Cecilia's German Parish. 

On June 11, 1899, Father Karam said the first mass for the Italian Catholics 
of Waterbury in a building on Canal Street. 

On Sunday, October 25, 1903, the cornerstone of Our Lady of Lourdes Church 
was laid by Right Rev. Bishop Tierney, in the presence of an assemblage of 
between 10,000 and 12,000 people. 

During the year 1905, the new rectory of gray brick, in the same style as the 
church, was erected, and in the following year Father Karam built in the rear 
of the rectory a small convent and school. 

One of the most notable celebrations the Italians have ever given in this 
city was held at the Church of Our Lady of Lourdes on May 19, 1908, on which 
day the pastor of the Church of Our Lady of Lourdes celebrated the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of his entrance into the priesthood. An interesting feature of the 
occasion was a gift to Father Karam from Pope Pius X of a large photograph 
on which the Holy Father had written a few words of blessing and his autograph. 

The new church on South Main Street was dedicated on Sunday, February 14, 
1909. with a solemn high mass, the Rev. Michael A. Karam being the celebrant, 

' Vol. 1—9 



130 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

the Right Rev. Monsignor John Synnott, administrator of the Diocese of Hart- 
ford, making the dedicatory ceremony. The exercises were simple and impressive. 

The church has a frontage of 70 feet on South Main Street and is 127 feet 
in depth. The height of the nave or body of the church is 55 feet, and the 
campanile or bell tower is 100 feet in height. The basement was first completed 
and roofed over, and used for a number of years for church services, and was 
occupied also while the super-structure was being built. 

The general plan consists of a high nave, lighted by clerestory windows, with 
two aisles. Each aisle terminates in a semi-circular apse in which the side 
altars are placed. The main altar is also placed in a large semi-circular apse, 
surrounded by an entablature and columns in which are arches and niches for the 
numerous statues with which the interior is adorned. 

The exterior of the church is built of gray pressed brick and trimmed with 
Indiana limestone and terra cotta. The main roofs are of slate. The campanile, 
which was afterwards destroyed, was built near the rear after the manner of 
Italian churches. 

The rectory is on the north side, adjoining the church, and in the rear of 
this is the school and convent, both incorporated in one building. 

On November 9, 1912, the present pastor, Rev. Joseph Valdambrini, took 
charge of the parish. On April 8, 1916, part of the roof, the interior of the 
tower and part of the ceiling were destroyed by fire. By Christmas, 1916, the 
church had not alone been completely repaired, save the restoration of the tower, 
but ten new windows had been placed in the edifice. 

The attendance at the Sunday masses is between 2,000 and 2,500. The 
Sunday School has an attendance of between 700 and 800. It has not been 
found, however, feasible to continue the parochial school. 

Father Felix Scoglini is the assistant. 

st. Margaret's parish 

St. Margaret's Parish was organized July 29, 1910, Rev. Edward J. Brennan, 
the present pastor, having been named to take charge. The church was built 
at once to meet the needs of the district. In the following year the rectory 
was built. Two years ago the school was opened, with eight large class rooms 
and on the top floor a fine hall, seating 400 people. Ten sisters were brought 
from the Mother House at Hartford, and are in charge of the school. At present 
the convent on Chestnut Avenue is rented. 

A large plot of ground has been purchased at Ludlow and Willow streets, 
on which Father Brennan hopes soon to be able to erect a new church and convent. 
The census of the parish places its Catholic population at 2,100. The attendance 
at the four masses is placed at t,6oo. The school enrollment is between 200 
and 300. 

Rev. Edward J. Brennan was chaplain in the United States Navy for eight 
years before coming to Waterbury. He had also been at St. John's, New Haven, 
and St. Francis in Torrington. The curate now is Father William Kilcoyne, who 
succeeded Father John Quinn. 

BLESSED SACRAMENT PARISH 

The Church of the Blessed Sacrament was organized May 7, 191 1, incorporat- 
ing the following month. Its first pastor, Rev. Terence D. Smith, who had been in 
charge of a parish at Watertown, began at once the erection of the church and 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK \ ALLEY 131 

the rectory and these were ready for dedication the following year. The census 
places the Catholic population of the parish at 850. The attendance at its two 
masses Sunday is 450. tts Sunday School attendance is 120. Rev. Edward A. 
Flannery succeeded to the pastorate May 3, 1917, Father Smith going to Bridge- 
port to found a new parish. Father Flannery came from I lazardville, where he 
had been in charge of the parish for fifteen years. Father John II. Landry 
is curate. 

Father Flannery and his assistant also look after the spiritual needs of the 
Catholics at Brookside and at the Waterbury Hospital. 

ST. STANISLAUS PARISH 

( »n July 7, 1012, St. Stanislaus Church was organized, its incorporation tak- 
ing place in February, 19 13. This is the Polish parish and the census gives it 
about one thousand three hundred souls. It is at present worshipping in the 
basement of what will be its church structure on East Farm Street. 

It has an attendance of 200 at masses, and 105 in its Sunday School. Rev. 
Theodore Zimmerman has been in charge of the parish for the past three years. 

st. Michael's parish 

For some years there had been a growing need for a church at Waterville, 
and in 1897 Father Gleeson, of St. Patrick's, Waterbury, erected a chapel on 
Thomaston Avenue, as a part of his parish. This later, in 1902, became 'St. 
Michael's parish, with Father Matthew J. Traynor in charge. He was at the 
head of the parish for fifteen vears, being succeeded on Mav 2, 1917, by Rev. 
David R. O'Donnell. 

The census places the Catholic population at 1,000. The attendance at the 
two Sunday masses is 600. 

Father Traynor built the rectory and enlarged the church during his pastor- 
ate. He also purchased the ground on Thomaston Avenue, just above the pres- 
ent site, and on this it is proposed to erect a new edifice at an early date. 

OTHER CATHOLIC ACTIVITIES 

The Academy of Xotre Dame, which is in charge of fourteen sisters, was 
established here forty-eight years ago, and supplies not alone a graded and high 
school curriculum, but has needlework, art and commercial courses as well. The 
main building was erected in 1889. The institute is affiliated with the Catholic 
University at Washington. 

Of the Catholic societies, the largest and most prominent is Sheridan Council, 
No. 24, Knights of Columbus, instituted May 2, 1885, which has a membership 
of 900. 

Sheridan Council meets in Knights of Columbus Hall at East Main Street and 
Phoenix Avenue, and also occupies the floor below the meeting hall as a club. This 
contains its beautiful library, has a lounging room and dining room, and is 
exclusively for the use of the members of Sheridan Council. 

The officers of this council are : Grand knight, John L. Gafifney ; deputy 
grand knight, Timothy F. P>arry ; chancellor. James F. Colwell ; financial secretary, 
Thomas D. Behan ; recorder, Wm. F. Guilfoile : acting treasurer, Carl J. Schultze ; 
warden. John D. Tierney. 



132 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Barcelona Council, No. 24, Knights of Columbus, has a membership of 100. 
It also meets in Knights of Columbus Hall. 

Its principal officers are : Grand knight, William F. Ryan ; recording secre- 
tary, Thomas Dodd ; financial secretary, Michael F. Conlan ; treasurer, Walter E. 
Monagan. 

The Catholic Benevolent Legion, of which John McElligott is president and 
Capt. P. F. Bannon is secretary, has a membership of about fifty. 

The Catholic Women's Benevolent Legion was founded ten years ago. Its 
first president was Miss A. J. Corden. Miss Katherine E. Conway is its presi- 
dent now, Miss Elizabeth Guilfoile is its secretary, and Miss Jennie Bergen is 
its treasurer. 

THE HOLY NAME SOCIETIES 

In each of the Catholic parishes of Waterbury there is organized a subordinate 
branch of the Holy Name Society. Several of these branches are in a very flour- 
ishing condition and are an important factor in the life and work of the parish. 
The membership is restricted to men, and the roster of the society in each parish 
contains the names of the most representative and loyal members of the parish. 
In many parishes junior Holy Name societies have been organized, for the pur- 
pose and with the result of bringing together maturing boys under noble influences 
and guiding them safely through the dangers that beset their paths during the 
interim between completed school days and early manhood. 

Within the past decade notable advancement has been made by the Holy 
Name societies of Waterbury. A Holy Name Athletic League has been formed 
to furnish healthful recreation to the younger men, social entertainments under 
Christian influences are held at the parish halls during the winter time, and 
frequent addresses made by the city's ablest men on topics of local and national 
interest provide educational entertainment at the society meetings. 

Perhaps the most notable celebration of a civic-religious nature, in which 
the citizens of Waterbury ever took part, was held in Waterbury, June 10, 1913, 
the occasion of the State Meeting of the Holy Name Societies of Connecticut. 
On that day the entire membership of the local branches of the society, together 
with delegations, in many instances comprising entire societies, from almost 
every city and town in Connecticut, marched in parade through the principal 
streets of the city, and then assembled in the spacious playgrounds of Saint 
Mary's Parochial School, on East Main Street. There they listened to patriotic 
and religious orations by Rev. Luke Fitzsimons, who acted as master of cere- 
monies, Bishop John Joseph Nilan of the Hartford diocese, and Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor Lyman T. Tingier of the State of Connecticut. There also Bishop Nilan 
officiated at the benediction of the Most Blessed Sacrament, with Father Fitz- 
simons acting as his assistant. 

To Rev. Martin Keating, then a young curate at the Immaculate Conception 
Church, now a chaplain in the United States Army, is due in a very lar^e meas- 
ure the magnificence of this tribute of loyalty to God and country. His inde- 
fatigable zeal and untiring perseverance planned and carried to fruition the 
preparations of that day. 

VERY REV. MONSIGNOR WILLIAM J. SLOCUM 

On October 22, 1908, there passed away one of Waterbury's greatest prelates, 
Very Rev. Monsignor Wm. J. Slocum, head of the parish of the Immaculate 
Conception. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 133 

Monsignor Slocum was born on February 6, 1851, in Winsted, the son of 
Michael and Jane McCormick Slocum, both of whom were natives of Ireland, 
and had adopted this as their country. He was the last to die of a family of six 
children — John, Thomas, Michael and Frank Slocum, and one sister, Mrs. James 
J, Fruin of Waterbury, having passed away. 

After completing his primary education in the public and parochial schools 
of Winsted, he was sent to St. Bonaventure's College and Seminary at Allegany, 
N. Y. There he was conspicuous among his fellow students and held a high 
rank in his class throughout his course. On June 22, 1876, he received the sacra- 
ment of Holy Orders at the hands of the Rt. Rev. Stephen V. Ryan, then bishop 
of Buffalo. 

St. Peter's, Hartford, was the first parish which saw the young priest's labors. 
The Rev. Lawrence Walsh, who later became rector of the Church of the Immacu- 
late Conception in this city, was then the pastor of St. Peter's. Father Slocum 
was not long in winning a firm place in the affections of the parishioners and his 
faithfulness at St. Peter's was rewarded by his appointment as curate at St. 
Patrick's parish in New Haven. This was then, even more than now, one of the 
most important parishes in the diocese, and in a section, which even in those days, 
had assumed a cosmopolitan character. Father Slocum proved a very useful and 
helpful influence. He was under the Very Rev. James Lynch, then vicar-general 
of the diocese, as well as pastor of St. Patrick's, and had a large part of the 
city to look after. During that period he was the only priest in New Haven, for 
some time, who heard the confessions of the Italian residents. They had no 
church of their own at that time and Father Slocum was their chaplain during 
the greater part of his time in New Haven. 

The Rev. Jeremiah Fitzpatrick succeeded Father Lynch in the pastorate 
while Father Slocum was still at St. Patrick's in New Haven, and, owing to the 
pastor's illness, the young curate was called upon to take up much of the 
executive work. From there he was assigned to St. Patrick's in Hartford, under 
the Rt. Rev. Bishop McMahon, then the head of the diocese of Hartford. His 
first appointment as pastor was made on May 1, 1883, when he took charge of 
the parish at Norwalk. There he displayed splendid executive ability and the 
parish made rapid strides spiritually and materially. He was made permanent 
rector there in 1886. 

Twelve years his life was given to his people and his parish in Norwalk, and 
with such splendid results that Catholics and non-Catholics were loath to have 
him relinquish his place there to come to Waterbury. It required the earnest 
solicitation of the new head of the diocese, the late Rt. Rev. Bishop Tierney, to 
win his consent to the change. He succeeded the Very Rev. John A. Mulcahy 
here as permanent rector of the Church of the Immaculate Conception on Septem- 
ber n, 1895. 

It was noticeable from the very first that under his administration the parish 
and Waterbury were to progress rapidly. Within a year he had reclaimed a 
large part of St. Joseph's cemetery, the old cemetery, and three years after he 
came here he purchased the present new St. Joseph's Cemetery. 

The year of 1898 was marked as one of the most complete in accomplish- 
ment in his entire career, for not only did he secure the new cemetery, but he 
purchased the site and building of the present St. Thomas's Church. He paid 
half of the entire debt on St. Thomas's parish at the time he turned the property 
over to the people in that district. 

Two years later, in 1900, the work of renovating the interior of the Church 
of the Immaculate Conception was undertaken at a cost of $12,000. 



134 WATERBURY AXD THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

In 1 90 1 the parish responded to another call and the Mulcahy Memorial Hall 
was erected, with a fine library and gymnasium. This gave the Catholic school 
children an institution which is enjoyed by comparatively few primary grammar 
schools in the country. Two years later the erection of St. Mary's Grammar 
School, on Cole Street, was undertaken, and at that time too the heating plant 
for all the parochial buildings on Cole street was erected. St. Mary's Day 
Nursery, supplying a long felt want, was purchased and opened in the year 1904, 
and, in 1906, Father Slocum purchased the land on which St. Mary's Hospital 
is now standing, at the corner of Franklin and Union streets. 

After this site had been secured, the crowning event in Father Slocum's 
career came when he announced that his his entire private fortune had been 
turned over to found the new hospital, the establishment of which had been one 
of his greatest desires 

From time to time during his career the success and the many evidences of 
remarkable zeal and ability of the priest reached the fathers of the church in the 
higher offices and it was no great surprise when the announcement came that 
Pope Pius X had elevated him to the rank of domestic prelate, "protonotaries ad 
instar," and given him the title of very reverend and monsignor. 

He was elevated to that office on January 3, 1907, at one of the most impres- 
sive and imposing ceremonies ever held in this state, the late Bishop Tierney 
performing the office in person. 

REV. JEREMIAH J. CURTIN 

The Rev. Jeremiah J. Curtin. who came to Waterbury in 1895 as pastor of 
St. Francis Xavier Church, and whose death occurred on June 18, 1917, was 
one of the great factors in the spiritual growth of the community. 

Within two years from the beginning of his pastorate, he undertook to clean 
out the evil influences in the bounds of his parish as far as that was possible. 
He found that within its limits the saloons were flagrantly violating the law by 
selling liquor to children. When the owners resented his interference, he filed 
remonstrances against fourteen of them, engaged an attorney to plead his cause, 
and had every license permanently revoked. 

This was but the beginning of his battle for civic righteousness. He then 
fought for the Sunday closing of saloons, and that too he took into the courts, 
winning his victory only after a long legal struggle, in which appeals were taken 
to the higher courts. 

Xot satisfied with the work he had accomplished in his own parish, he extended 
his battle from the limits of his parish on Baldwin Street to Scovill Bridge. 

Father Curtin was not an advocate of total abstinence, but he was against the 
abuse of any and all civic privileges. He was afraid of no man and held as an 
enemy all those who were lawless and backed every man who believed in law 
and order and good government. 

Father Curtin was forever fighting for civic betterments. There was hardly 
a single month in his Waterbury life in which he was not struggling for the open- 
ing of a street, the building of new sewers, the improvement of fire-fighting 
facilities, both within and without his parish. He was a lover of the beautiful 
and pleaded for sightly lawns and gardens. On this subject he wrote and even 
preached. He was constantly using the papers for the advocacy of some much- 
needed civic betterment, and was never afraid to express his opinions over his 
own name. 

In his own parish he started societies for young men. He encouraged his 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 135 

"lads"' to go to night school, to acquire a foundation for sound business methods. 
In a word, he became a great moral power in the community, — perhaps one of 
the greatest in its history. 

He died after thirty-seven years of labor as a Catholic clergyman on June 
[8, i Mi 7. at the rectory on Baldwin Street. 

Father Curtin was horn in New Britain, April 1, 1856. He was educated in 
St. Mary's Parochial School in that city, from which he was graduated in 1872. 
In the fall of the same year he entered Holy Cross College and was graduated 
in 1877. lie entered the Grand Seminary at Montreal in the same year, and 
was ordained by the Most Rev. MonsignOr Fabre, archbishop of Montreal, on 
I )ecember 18. 1880. 

His first appointment in this diocese was as assistant to Rev. J. T. McMahon, 
pastor of St. Mary's Church and missions at East Hartford. On November 25, 
[882, he was appointed assistant to Rev. J. J. Furlong of St. Bernard's Church 
and missions of Rockville. He was appointed pastor of St. Francis Xavier's 
Church and missions in Xew Milford. and on December 3, 1895, ne came to St. 
Francis Xavier's Church of Waterbury, where he remained until his death. 

Father Curtin was a man of superior mental ability and of a genial and 
friendly disposition. At Holy Cross College he was a brilliant student and went 
through the curriculum of seven years in six. He was the manager of the first 
baseball team that ever represented Holy Cross and took great pride in follow- 
ing up the success of the college in athletics. He received the degree of B. A. 
at Holy Cross College, and the degree of S. T. B. at the Grand Seminary in 
Montreal. 

He said his first mass in Waterbury in the Auditorium, in which place the 
members of bis congregation first gathered. He then built the church on Wash- 
ington Street, which is now known as Xaverien Hall. In 1905, he built the 
present church of St. Francis Xavier. Under his care the parish grew from a 
mere handful of people to the present size, which has a congregation of over 
three thousand people. 

m'givney day 

On Tune 8, 1901, the Knights of Columbus of Greater New York made a 
pilgrimage to Waterbury to celebrate high mass in honor of the late Father 
Michael J. McGivney, founder of the order. Father William J. Slocum delivered 
the sermon of the day. At its close the pilgrims conducted a service at the grave 
of Father McGivney in St. Joseph's Cemetery. 

The order was founded at New Haven in 1882, while Father McGivney. who 
wns a native of Waterbury. was stationed in that city. It was the solution of 
the problem of establishing a national beneficiary organization which would work 
in conformitv with the levels of the Roman Catholic Church. It was on April 27, 
[885, when the total membership of the order was still less than a thousand 
that Waterbury Catholics organized Sheridan Council largely as a tribute to the 
founder, who was one of the notable priests produced by the Immaculate Con- 
ception Parish. 

A feature of the pilgrimage was the presence of two members of the Mc- 
I rivney family. Rev. John J. and Rev. P. J. McGivney. both of whom spoke on 
the order of the Knights of Columbus. 



CHAPTER X 
CIVIC ARCHITECTURE OF A QUARTER CENTURY 

BUCKINGHAM BUILDING, UNION DEPOT, CITY HALL, CHASE OFFICE BUILDING AND 
WATERBURY CLUB LINCOLN BUILDING PLANNED BY FAMOUS NEW YORK ARCHI- 
TECTS COURTHOUSE PLANNED BY WILFRED E. GRIGGS, ONE OF MOST BEAUTIFUL 

STRUCTURES IN NEW ENGLAND FINE BUSINESS BLOCKS AND RESIDENCES, SUPERB 

WORK OF LOCAL ARCHITECTS — THE VARIOUS ARCHITECTURAL PERIODS AND BUILD- 
INGS THAT ILLUSTRATE THEM — WATERBURY's HOUSING PROBLEM. 

Waterbury is ideally located for architectural effects. Its wooded hills, rising 
gradually from a wide basin, have given its home builders and designers oppor- 
tunities of which they were not slow to take advantage. The effort in the last 
quarter century to make it a city beautiful has been thoroughly co-operative in 
the business section as well. There has never been any serious opposition to 
the widening of important thoroughfares, such as Bank and Grand streets, nor 
to the erection of city buildings of which its people may well be proud. No 
finer architectural effects can be found in New England than the present City 
Hall or the Waterbury Hospital, designed on classical lines by Robert Bacon 
of New York, which in its Parthenon-like facade brings out ideally the beauties 
of the strikingly effective location. 

Not alone have its own architects risen to the occasion, but they have been 
ably assisted by the best talent in America. 

McKim, Mead & White, the architects of some of the greatest buildings in 
America, planned the Union Station of the New Haven Railroad, a fine Italian 
Renaissance effect with a tower following the famous Campanile in Siena, Italy. 
The Buckingham Block, on Grand and Bank streets, was also designed by this 
famous firm. 

Of outside work, either finished or under way, the buildings designed by 
Cass Gilbert of New York will add most to the architectural beauty of Water- 
bury. The first of these is, of course, the new City Hall on Grand Street, a 
structure planned along Colonial lines. The others which are now under way are 
the Chase office building at Grand and Leavenworth streets, and the new 
Waterbury Club. In both of these structures, as with the City Hall, Mr. Gilbert 
is giving Waterbury buildings that will class with the finest in America. In the 
Chase office building, he has conformed to a great extent to the general lines of 
the City Hall Building on the opposite side of the street. Its effect is to be 
colonial. It will be four stories, with a 243-foot frontage on Grand Street and 
98 on Church and Leavenworth streets. The exterior will be of limestone and 
granite construction, with high fluted columns. The interior will be largely 
marble trim. The Waterbury Club Building is also Colonial in style. 

The Lincoln Building, on Field Street opposite the City Hall, constructed for 
the United Charities and recently occupied, was also planned by Cass Gilbert. 

The American Brass Company's massive office building, completed in 1913, 
was built from plans made by Trowbridge & Livingston of New York. It is of 

136 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 137 

brick and steel construction, fireproof throughout, and its long, high corridor with 
its domed center is an exceedingly artistic effect. The building is constructed on 
a partial crescent. 

But the list of outside architects who have had a hand in the planning of 
business blocks, churches, schools and houses in Waterbury is a long one, and 
will appear as the article progresses. To local architects the greatest credit is 
due, for most of its structures are home products in which its citizens take a 
commendable pride. 

The work of Wilfred E. Griggs and of Theodore B. Peck is especially notable. 
These may be termed the deans of the profession in Waterbury, and their work 
adorns not alone the business and residence sections of this city, but is in evidence 
in the suburban districts in the form of attractive country homes. 

Perhaps the most pretentious single building is the courthouse on Kendrick 
Street, from the plans of Wilfred E. Griggs,, and completed in 1905. Its 
general style is renaissance, and its pillars give it a majestic appearance. As a 
matter of fact, it needs a wider street to bring out its many architectural beauties. 
In the same year he planned the five-story Elton Hotel, which replaced the old 
Scovill home, one of the best illustrations of Colonial architecture in the city. 
It is to be regretted that the building was not moved to another location. 

The largest and finest equipped office structure in Waterbury is the Lilley 
Building, eight stories high. This was completed July 1, 191 2, and is of fireproof 
construction, with reinforced concrete floors and partitions of gypsum blocks. 
Its cost was approximately a quarter of a million. It contains 2 large stores 
and 150 offices, and with its double electric elevator service is the most modern 
of the buildings in its class in W T aterbury. This also is from the plans of Mr. 
Griggs. 

The Masonic Temple, completed in 191 1, the four-story Boys' Club on Cottage 
Place, built in 1901, the Odd Fellows' Hall, dedicated in 1895, and built on 
Venetian Gothic lines, the Young Men's Christian Association, opened in 1S92, 
which was a beautiful addition to the architecture of the Green, and the 
Mattatuck Historical Society Museum are among the public buildings of which 
plans were furnished by Mr. Griggs. 

To Theodore B. Peck also belongs the credit of much of the best architectural 
work in Waterbury. Apothecaries' Hall, which was opened in 1894, is still one 
of the finest of the city's business blocks. It is ideally located, with its frontage 
at the junction of South Main and Bank streets, the wide open space bringing 
out all the beauties of Mr. Peck's plans. Though built in the earlier period of 
this quarter century, it is as impressive as any of those of more recent construction. 

The Waterbury American Building on Grand Street, built in the same 
period, is from the plans of Mr. Peck. It was a matter of congratulation that it 
went through the conflagration of 1902 with but comparatively little damage. 
Perhaps the finest examples of the work of Mr. Peck in Waterbury are the 
Waterbury Industrial School Building on Central Avenue and the Citizens Na- 
tional Bank Building facing on the Green. 

Another of his effective designs is that made for the Schlegel home on Clowes 
Terrace, which has just been completed. This is one of the best illustrations of 
Romanesque architecture in New England. To this should also be added the 
beautiful Colonial home built by Mr. Peck for C. E. Spencer, Jr., on the Middle- 
bury Road, and recently occupied. 

Joseph A. Jackson, now of New York, but for years a Waterbury architect, 
has done much fine work here, particularly in the matter of church and school 
construction. From his plans are the convents of Notre Dame and St. Mary, 



138 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

St. Patrick's Hall, the Crosby High School and the Bank and Clay street schools. 
He drew the plans for some of the finest blocks built in the city since the fire, 
including the Jones-Morgan Building, opened in 1903, the Republican Block on 
Grand Street, built in 1907, the Carroll at Willow and Pine streets, one of Water- 
bury 's finest apartment houses, the Aldrich at 287-291 North Main Street, the 
judd Block, 158-160 Grand Street, built since the fire, the Manufacturers' National 
Bank Building, built in 1896, and the Moriarty Building, 161-167 East Main Street, 
built after the fire. 

The work of E. E. Benedict, of Freney & Jackson, of Lewis A. Walsh, of 
Joseph T. Smith, of C. Jerome Bailey, is everywhere in evidence, and has added 
much to the architectural beauty of the city. 

The last twenty-five years have witnessed what may be termed the trans- 
formation of the business section of the city. Growth had much to do with this, 
for with added population came the need of many extensions. But the fire of 1902 
was by no means an insignificant factor in the architectural regeneration of the city. 
To this calamity W r aterbury owes the uniformity which marks its blocks in the 
sections which were rebuilt. Aside from those already mentioned, there were 
built in 1903 such blocks as the Commercial Building, 110-112 Bank Street, built 
for W. LI. Camp, and planned by Griggs ; the Cowell-Guilfoile Building, 186-196 
( J rand Street, from plans by Joseph T. Smith ; the Holmes Building, 132-136 Grand 
Street, occupied in 1904; the Meigs Building, 105-109 Bank Street; the Mullings 
and Piatt buildings, 83-103 Bank Street, built from the plans of a Boston firm. 

One of the latest additions to the business blocks of Waterbury is the Democrat 
I'.uilding at Grand and Canal streets, planned by Joseph T. Smith, which was com- 
pleted in 1916. The Standard Building, 14-20 North Main Street, which was built 
from the plans by Griggs in 1912, is now to be completely remodeled for occupancy 
next year by the Mohican Company. 

The Telephone Building, at 18 Leavenworth Street, was occupied in 1914 and 
is from plans made by the company in its New York office. 

One of the most artistic of the business homes of Waterbury is the building 
at the corner of West Main and Leavenworth streets, "built for the Colonial Trust 
Company from plans by Davis & Brooks of Hartford. It is not a large structure, 
but thoroughly artistic and makes a valuable addition to the architecture at the 
Center. 

The Barlow, 59-67 Grand Street, built from plans by Griggs, was put up in 
1909. The Boston Furniture Company Block, at South Main and Scovill streets, is 
from plans by Theodore B. Peck and is one of the best of the newer business build- 
ings of Waterbury. The Capitol Building, 30-34 North Main Street, from plans 
by C. Jerome Bailey, is an effective piece of business architecture. The Hamp- 
son Building. 91-99 West Main Street, which is from plans by Griggs, and one 
of the largest business blocks in the city, was built in 19 10. The Truman S. Lewis 
block, 25-31 West Main Street, from the plans of Mr. Griggs, was erected in 1903. 
Russell's Block, 149-55 B ar >k Street, from the plans of Joseph T. Smith, is also 
(if comparatively recent construction. 

Aside from the Elton Hotel, Waterbury still lacks pretentious hotel structures. 
Both the Kingsbury and Hodson buildings are quite good looking edifices, but have 
been built upon older structures, a remodeling which can never bring out the best 
in architecture. 

Waterbury is fortunate in having some of the finest apartment buildings in New 
England. The Carroll and the Carrolton on Willow Street, from plans by Joseph 
T. Jackson, were put up in 1906 and 1907, and are model structures of this class. 
So is The Buckingham, 292 West Main Street, which is from plans by Griggs. 




THE DEMOCRAT AXI) THE BARLOW BUILDINGS, WATKRIU'RY 




PART OF "BANKERS' ROW," SHOWING THE BOLMES BUILDING, WATERBUR1 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 139 

Among" other apartment buildings that are worthy of notice and that have added 
to the architectural beauty of Waterbury may be mentioned the Aldrich, 287-291 
North Main Street, from plans by Joseph T. Jackson ; the Albemarle, from plans 
by Griggs; Bergin's Block, 246-256 East Main Street, and the l'.olan, 50-52 Mitchell 
Avenue, both from plans by Freney & Jackson; the Frederick, 70-80 Easl Main 
Street, from plans by Theodore B. Peck; the I lendrieken. 317 North Main Street, 
from plans by Joseph T. Smith; the Hitchcock, [64 West Main Street, and the 
Northrop. [82 West Main Street, from plans by Griggs; the Victoria, 278 East 
Main Street ; the Royal. 41 ( )ooke Street, and the Westerly, [33 West Main Street. 

It is quite certain now that the next year will see the completion of the new 
Y. M. C A. Building on the site of the old Baptist Church on Grand Street. This 
will make that thoroughfare a veritable civic center for Waterbury. 

There are two public buildings, — the Bronson Library and the Postoffice,-^- 
which come into this quarter century period. The Bronson Library was com- 
pleted, in August, [894, and is from plans by Cady, Berg & See, of New York. 
It is of brick, terra cotta and tile construction, and in style Italian Renaissance. 
Its most beautiful feature is unquestionably its great, overhanging main cornice 
The Postoffice is modeled on the artistic plan followed by the Government in the 
construction of these buildings everywhere. It was completed and occupied in 
1 1 .04. 

Roughly estimated, there have been added to Waterbury factories in the past 
twenty-five years buildings that are valued conservatively by the manufacturers 
themselves at about fifty million dollars. The strong tendency here in the past few 
years has been to reinforced concrete, although most of the building has been what 
may be termed of slow-burning construction, which means heavy plank floors, 
leaving few places where fire can catch. Some of the Chase, the American Brass, 
and the newer Scovill buildings are of reinforced concrete. 

A visit to the factory districts shows a vast change in the matter of construc- 
tion in a decade. The older buildings are largely brick ; the newer ones are mostly 
steel sash and glass. The Chase Metal Works, the Chase Rolling Mills and the 
Waterbury Manufacturing Co., which comprise the Chase interests, have expended 
several million dollars Jn improvements during the past few years. The American 
I'.rass Co. has erected practically all of its Waterbury buildings, remodeling only 
a few of the old ones, in the past twelve years. 

Perhaps the greatest amount of construction was done at the Scovill works, 
and the additions to buildings during the war period alone have amounted to sev- 
eral millions. This work has been in charge of Hugh L. Thompson, civil engineer. 

The Waterbury Farrel Foundry & Machine Co. has made big improvements 
and is building some model factories as additions to its equipment now. A list of 
those companies that have built or are building extensive additions will read almost 
like a list of the factories of Waterbury. Thus, the Bristol Co., at Platts Mills, 
has added one or more buildings every year for a decade. The Waterbury Bat- 
ten ( o., Blake & Johnson. Steele & Johnson, the American Mills Co.. the Amer- 
ican Pin Co., the Rowbottom Machine Co., the Waterbury Button Co.. the Water- 
bury Buckle Co.. Smith & Griggs, the Pilling Brass Co.. Berbecker & Rowland 
Mfg. Co., Waterville. the Manufacturers Foundry Co.. Plume & Atwood Mfg. 
1 n.. are among those who have built extensively along modern factory lines dur- 
ing the past few years. 

In church architecture. Waterbury has been exceptionally fortunate. Its most 
recent addition, the Baptist Church, which is from plans by Architect Cramer of 
Xew York, is classical in style, and entirely different from the Gothic effect which 
prevails so largely in the construction of church buildings. St. Anne's and St. 



140 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Patrick's are both pure Gothic. The Methodist Church, designed by George Kel- 
ler of Hartford, is severely Gothic. The Italian Church, on South Main Street, 
Our Lady of Lourdes, is a pure Italian Renaissance, and from the plans of Joseph 
A. Jackson of New York. St. John's and Trinity, of the Episcopal churches, are 
pure Gothic. The First Church Congregational is Victorian Gothic, and the Sec- 
ond Church Congregational is Romanesque. In practically all the other churches 
Gothic lines have been followed. 

Waterbury has many beautiful homes and they have followed, as in all Amer- 
ican cities, the trend of each particular architectural period. Thus, twenty-five 
years ago, the Queen Anne style prevailed. Later, came the Colonial ; from that 
the cities passed into a period of what is known as half-timbered construction; 
then followed stucco houses, and now home building is going back to Colonial 
style. There was never much bungalow construction in Waterbury, for this pre- 
supposes level land and large acreages. 

It is a difficult matter to pick out the beautiful homes that have gone up in 
the last twenty-five years as illustrations to typify periods, for while only one or 
two can be mentioned, many deserve really elaborate notices. This is true on 
practically all the good residence streets, such as the Boulevard, Central Avenue, 
Prospect Street, Holmes Avenue, Grove Street, Woodlawn Terrace, Hillside Ave- 
nue, Euclid Avenue, Clowes Terrace, upper Willow Street, Linden Street. There 
are also many beautiful homes in Bunker Hill, in Overlook and at Fairlawn Manor. 

Of the Queen Anne style cottages that were built in the first period of this 
quarter-century, the most typical is perhaps the Charles Benedict house, which 
afterwards became the Charles Miller House. Another is the home now occupied 
by R. F. Griggs, but erected originally for Mrs. Mary Mitchell. Another is the 
home of the late Nelson J. Welton. All of these are on Hillside Avenue, and in 
their day were among the most prominent houses in Waterbury. The old Doctor 
Rodman home, on North Main Street, should be included in this list. 

Of the half-timber construction, the best illustration is the Frisbie home at 
Grove and Prospect streets, planned by Davis & Brooks of Hartford. The home 
of Hugh L. Thompson on Pine Street, planned by the same architects, and the 
Charles Granniss home on Pine Street, are other good examples of this style of 
architecture. 

Of stucco houses there are many illustrations and some of very recent con- 
struction. The Sperry home, built by Davis & Brooks of Hartford, on Bucking- 
ham Street, and the Seeley home, on Buckingham and Pine, also from plans by 
Davis & Brooks, are good illustrations of this style of architecture. So is the 
Arthur R. Kimball home, on Grove Street, and that of Miss Florentine E. Hay- 
den, on Pine Street, and that built by the late Mrs. Edwin Hayden on the same 
street. 

The Colonial period dates forward and back. In fact, some of the best homes 
that are now going up are of this style of architecture. The residence being built 
for Miss Martha Driggs, on Prospect Street, from plans by Murphy & Dana, New 
York, is an excellent illustration of this style. The Alfred Hart Colonial Home, 
on Buckingham Street, just about completed, and which is from plans by Davis & 
Brooks, is a fine illustration of the modern application of this ancient American 
style of architecture. So is the H. L. Wade home, on Prospect Street, from plans 
by Griggs, and the Gilman C. Hill home, on the corner of Hillside Avenue and 
Pine Street, and that of John Kellogg, corner of Pine and Buckingham. The 
Paul D. Hamilton home, on Woodlawn Terrace, built a year ago, is an excellent 
example of the Colonial type of house architecture. It was planned by Wilfred 
E. Griggs. 




THE LEAVENWORTH SPERRY RESIDENCE, WATERBURY 




RESIDENCE OF JOHN II. loss, BILLSIDE AVENUE, WATERBURY 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 141 

One of the most beautiful residences now being added to the long list of 
Waterbury's charming homes is that which is being constructed from plans by 
Taylor & Levy of New York for Elton YVayland, on Woodlawn Terrace. 

This is a brick house, built in the English Gothic style. Two beautiful homes 
designed by Johannes of New York are being built on Buckingham Street for 
John H. Goss. These two homes are on the block which contains the beautiful 
Goss residence, built about ten years ago in the Elizabethan style. 

Another line home which is now going up on Woodlawn Terrace is that planned 
by Griggs for Truman S. Lewis. This is in Renaissance style and easily one of 
the most attractive homes in Waterbury. 

Rose Hill Cottage, on Prospect Street, the Irving H. Chase home, is still one 
of the show places of Waterbury. It was erected at a time when they built largely 
for comfort and paid little attention to names. It would therefore be difficult to 
designate it as illustrating any particular style of architecture, but it remains one 
of the beautiful homes of Waterbury. 

There are not many buildings in the city built with the old tile roof and 
shingles. The Frederick S. Chase home, on Grove Street, next to the Kimball 
home, is a good illustration of this, and shows how effectively this little-used style 
of architecture responds to practical use. 

The home of Miss Helen Chase, on Grove Street, designed by Cram, Goodyear 
and Ferguson of New York, is a typical English country house. The home of 
W. S. R. Wake, at the upper end of Willow Street, is also built largely on this 
English country home style, and with its large acreage is one of the real residence 
attractions of the city. 

The C. P. Goss home, designed by Theodore B. Peck, and located at the corner 
of Hillside Avenue and Pine, is another of these old country home structures 
which look as cosy from the outside as they are on the inside. 

waterbury's housing problem 

The housing problem has been perhaps the most important economic outcome 
of the war period. Soon after the beginning of hostilities, with the enormous 
munition orders and the vast increases in Waterbury's factory equipments, the 
tremendous growth and expansion of the city soon began to manifest itself in the 
lack of suitable and adequate housing facilities, especially for the inflowing foreign 
population. The supply of vacant houses and living quarters was quickly ex- 
hausted, thereby multiplying the difficulties and hardships already prevalent in the 
congested districts. 

These serious conditions immediately aroused several of the leading industrial 
organizations to activity, which resulted in the formulation of comprehensive plans 
and means for relieving the condition by construction of workmen's houses. 

The first meeting of those interested in providing a more adequate supply of 
suitable houses for workingmen in Waterbury was held on Thursday evening, 
February 10, 1916. It had already been made evident that the pressing need just 
at present was a greatly increased supply of low-priced houses or apartments for 
Waterbury workingmen. Therefore, it was decided that the main effort of the 
committee should be exerted towards this end. 

At that meeting, at the suggestion of the heads of some of the largest plants 
in the city. John Nolen, of Cambridge, Mass., submitted an outline as a proposed 
general method of procedure in the investigation. 

On February 14, 1916, Mayor Scully appointed the following members of the 
Waterbury housing committee : E. S. Hunt, Eugene Kerner, R. A. Cairns, F. S. 



142 VVATERBURY AXD THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Chase, J. P. Elton, John H. Goss. Mr. Hunt was made chairman and Mr. Kerner 
secretary. At Mr. Nolen's request, this committee sent out a questionaire, to which 
there was a general response. This gave a basis of existing conditions. 

In the Nolen report, the recommendation was made that the main effort be put 
upon providing single-family dwellings for Class A, that is, for the family whose 
weekly income exceeds its weekly expenses by an amount sufficient to enable it, 
within a reasonable period, to become the owner of its home. This family, in 
Mr. Nolen's opinion, was best provided for in the single family detached or the 
double semi-detached house, but the building operation was not to be confined to 
any one type of house. In fact, because of the difference in taste and personal 
preference, all the approved types submitted should be used. But some single- 
family houses completely detached, on lots not less than 50 by 100, should be 
included in the main. Class A should be provided for in outlying sections where 
the laying out of land and the building operation could be sufficiently large to 
secure the advantages of wholesale contracts, efficient management and careful 
planning of the area by a landscape architect along advanced garden suburb lines. 

He also recommended that the best methods of providing for Class B, that is, 
for the family that has acquired title to a building lot, but has not yet built upon 
it, is to do everything that the committee can do to remove the obstacles: 

(A) That suitable house plans be obtained through an architectural competition 
for which liberal prizes should be offered. 

(B) That money be made more readily available through the organization of 
co-operative banks or building and loan associations. 

(C) That the advantages of other buildings that will be undertaken for Class A 
should be shared with Class B. The extent of this building would in itself stimu- 
late interest and probably enable the committee to give the lot owner a building 
at a lower contract than would otherwise be possible. The houses in Class B will 
be almost entirely in partly built-up sections. 

He further recommended that provision for Class C, that is, for the family 
whose weekly expenses practically equal its weekly income, be made partly by 
renting the other house in the double house unit owned by a family in Class A, 
partly by building for rent groups of houses of the types common in Philadelphia 
and well-illustrated by the Octavia Hill Association, and by the Improved Hous- 
ing Co. of New Haven, and by the cottage flat of the Toronto Housing Co., Ltd., 
and partly by tenements that will be vacated when better houses become avail- 
able. 

The movement languished for some months, but later the heads of the fac- 
tories personally took up the question of proper housing, and important develop- 
ments followed. In the summer of 1916, two such developments were initiated 
and ordered under construction by the Scovill Mfg. Co. and the American Brass 
Company. These housing developments have already been completed and are 
now in successful operation and use, being occupied by families who are well satis- 
fied and greatly delighted in having secured, at moderate cost, dwellings which 
represent, and are so considered by experts, the best effort in the field of economic 
housing. 

Of the several developments carried out by the industries above referred to, 
the operation conducted by the Scovill Mfg. Co., which consists of one-family 
brick attached houses, represents both structurally and architecturally an ideal 
type of workmen's dwellings. 

In July, 1916, the W. G. Lynch Realty Co. was brought here for consultation 
with John H. Goss of the Scovill Manufacturing Co., resulting subsequently in 
the submission of plans for the erection of fifty dwellings of a type known as a 
six-room one-family house. 




THK SCHLKfiKL KKSIDKXCK. WATKKBl'KY 




RESIDENI E OF JOHN BOOTH BURRALL, CHURCH STREET, WATERBURY 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 143 

In August, 1916, ground was broken on an easily-accessible tract of land owned 
by the Scovill Manufacturing Co. At the outset a group of five houses was imme- 
diately constructed and sold to the employees of the company. At the same time 
efforts were directed toward the immediate completion of one 'of these buildings, 
so as to exhibit the structure as a sample house, with the result that applications 
for these houses became so numerous that the Scovill Manufacturing Co. ordered 
the erection of 137 dwellings in all. 

Although these dwellings were erected in rows covering several blocks, a most 
pleasing effect was created by breaking the monotony of the houses through vary- 
ing the architecture of the fronts in groups of from two to four dwellings. In 
exterior design and treatment, these groups include the Dutch, English, Italian 
and Colonial types, and are extremely pleasing in appearance. In many instances 
front elevations were also modified, as circumstances and economic practice per- 
mitted, by altering the lines of the masonry and porches, careful study being given 
likewise to creating effective color schemes in order to emphasize the various 
styles of architecture of the groups. In this manner the severity of the long, 
straight lines of the buildings was broken and made to harmonize with the natural 
contour of the land and grades of adjacent streets. 

The houses in the Scovill development are built on standard size street blocks, 
having a width of 200 feet from street to street. This space is sub-divided and 
utilized as follows : An area of 24 feet in depth is reserved in front of the dwell- 
ings adjacent to the street, the houses measuring 32 feet in depth with a 20-foot 
courtyard in the rear and a 10-foot service alley for commercial purposes, and a 
1 4- foot space reserved for park and playground purposes. 

The houses measure 16 feet between the centers of party walls and 32 feet in 
depth. The buildings are constructed of brick masonry, erected on substantial 
concrete foundations supported by massive concrete footings. 

The area in front of the dwellings was filled in for the purpose of creating a 
terraced space in front of each house. These terraces are, in every instance, neatly 
regulated and graded, and conform to the grade of the adjacent streets. 

At the rear of each house a door opens directly into the basement at the grade 
of the courtyard. The basements contain hot air furnaces, hot water boiler, gas 
hot water heater, coal bins, and stationary wash tubs, and also ample storage space. 
The basement floors are cemented and the concrete walls are whitewashed. In 
fact, these basements are so light, dry and airy that in many cases they are being 
used as summer kitchens. The cellar can also be entered from the kitchen. 

The kitchen contains many facilities, such as gas stove and pantry, sink and 
hot and cold water. 

The house contains six rooms and bath. Every room opens either to the front 
or to the rear and is provided with large windows. All rooms have direct ventila- 
tion, the bathroom being lighted and ventilated by large overhead ventilating sky- 
lights. 

The houses are electric lighted throughout, with indirect lighting fixtures in 
dining and living rooms. Electric light wires run in conduits for service for the 
entire development, running through the foundations along the rear of each row 
inside the foundation walls, each house having its own outlet. Telephone conduits 
run in the same manner along the front of each cellar, with separate outlets for 
each house. 

The first fifty houses were sold at $3,000 each. The next twenty were sold at 
$3,600. The material for the first fifty houses was bought when the contract was 
placed, but when the contract was increased, the prices of material had advanced. 

Waterbury is an expensive city to build in, however, because of its hilly con- 



144 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

tours and rocky soil with water pockets, frequently producing swampy conditions. 
Even with present prices of materials, this house, slightly modified, should be pro- 
duced for approximately two thousand five hundred dollars, wherever expensive 
blasting, filling, excavating and underdrainage can be avoided. 

The housing development undertaken by the American Brass Co. differs ma- 
terially from that of the Scovill development, the American Brass Co.'s being pat- 
terned after a high class residence park, and on a scale which in every respect 
meets with the requirements of their employees. 

Briefly described, their development encompasses a tract or land, about twelve 
acres, in the eastern section of the city, two miles from the main center. Improve- 
ments were undertaken in September, 1916, which consisted at first of regulating 
and grading the street system after a carefully designed plan which preserved the 
natural features of the property, at the same time creating a residence park effect. 

The main entrance to the property is at East Main Street, near Mad River, 
which flows through a part of the property. The entire property contains approx- 
imately eighty-five building sites, the average dimensions of which are 50 by 100 
feet. 

The engineering features throughout the entire property are carefully designed 
and substantially executed. The tract is provided with all improvements, such as 
gas, city water supply, sewerage, electric lighting for streets and houses, well 
regulated and graded streets, park and playground reservation, surface water 
drainage, and a private park along the Mad River, for the use of the residents. 
Sidewalks and well-kept lawns are also provided. 

The first group of buildings erected on the premises consisted of twenty frame 
dwellings, so spaced as to provide ample area in front of each dwelling to the 
street lines. 

The average dwelling is about 25 by 23 feet, and contains a living room, dining 
room and kitchen on the first floor, and three bedrooms on the second floor, with 
bathroom. 

The foundations of these structures are of first-class concrete masonry, on 
footings of the same material. The cellar floors are concreted and cemented, and 
the cellars may be entered from the inside and outside of the dwellings. 

Immediately prior to the completion of the first group of twenty dwellings, the 
American Brass Company decided to erect eight additional structures, but of a 
type superior in some respects to those in the first group. 

Of the thirty dwellings erected by the company under this housing project, 
practically all have been sold, and in some instances, selections were made by the 
employees before the structures were placed on sale. The families occupying 
these houses speak very highly of them, and are well satisfied and contented with 
their purchases. 

The Chase Metal Works have thus far constructed ten model houses, much on 
the plan of the Scovill buildings, and this is to be greatly increased in the near 
future. 

The Oakville Company has also now started with a group of ten model houses, 
which is to be greatly extended next spring. 

The Waterbury Tool Company, under the personal direction of its president, 
Horace G. Hoadley, has erected at one end of its large holdings nine model houses, 
which are rented to employees. A street has been made and five of these homes 
are on one side, four on the other. Two of them are five-room and the others 
six- room cottages. They are modern in every respect and make ideal homes at 
nominal rents. The company has also erected two double houses, in the Bunker 
Hill section. These are for four families. The twin houses have twelve and 



■ 




WEST MAIN STREET. FRONT OF HODSOX'K, WATERBURY 







WEST .MAIN STREET ARCHITECTURE, WATERBURY 

From left to right: Colonial Trust Company; Sampson and Lilley Buildings. 

Viewed from the green. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 145 

fourteen rooms, respectively, making two six-room dwellings and two seven-room 
dwellings. 

Aside from the splendid work done by the larger manufacturers in the way of 
improving housing conditions, there has been a decided growth in the way of home 
construction in all parts of the city, particularly in the eastern and northwestern 
sections. 

In 1914 the building record shows permits taken out totaling in value $1,800,- 
000. Of these 55 were for frame tenement houses, each for three or more fami- 
lies. These provided for over twelve hundred people. In addition there were 70 
frame and 8 brick buildings erected. 

In 191 5 the total permits numbered 748, and the value of buildings erected 
increased to $2,600,350. Sixty-four were buildings erected to house from two 
to six families each, and 105 separate dwellings made up the records of home 
building for that year. 

In 1916 the record shows 1,106 permits, value $4,270,000. Of these permits 
the bulk was for factory construction. The number of frame tenements built for 
three or more families was 91. The number of buildings for two or more families 
was 8, and the number of separate frame dwellings was 217. 

For 1917 the record shows the same proportionate gain and up to November 
1st the permits for dwellings and tenements issued equaled or very nearly equaled 
the total of 1916. 



Vol. I— 10 



CHAPTER XI 
BANKING AND INSURANCE 

CAPITAL AND SURPLUS OF ALL WATERBURY BANKS — DEPOSITS — A FIVE YEAR 

RECORD OF CLEARINGS THE YEAR I916 A BANNER PERIOD FOR DEPOSITORS IN 

SAVINGS INSTITUTIONS— MONEY LARGELY INVESTED IN MORTGAGES ON WATER- 
BURY REAL ESTATE HISTORY OF ALL THE BANKS AND TRUST COMPANIES LIST 

OF OFFICIALS, PAST AND PRESENT — RECENT INSURANCE HISTORY. 

In 1892 there were in Waterbury seven banks and these, including the savings 
institutions, had a banking capital of $1,350,000. For a town which by the census 
of 1890 had a population of less than thirty thousand, this was a splendid show- 
ing, and in the total deposits of between $6,000,000 and $7,000,000 reflected the 
growing industrial wealth of the community. 

From the reports issued by the national banks and trust companies of Water- 
bury in the summer of 1917 and by the savings banks on October 1, 1916 (the 
date of the last annual report to the State Banking Department), it is found that 
the total deposits in the banks of Waterbury are now $44,300,748.50. The capital 
stock and surplus of the national banks and trust companies, aside from the 
exclusive savings banks, is approximately three million dollars. Of this $1,168,- 
451.20 represents the surplus. 

In publishing these figures it is perhaps well to add that they do not represent 
the full amount of what may be termed Waterbury deposits. As a matter of 
fact, there are today in Waterbury several concerns whose business is so extensive 
as to compel the additional use of New York banks for purposes of deposit and 
for draft facilities. It is utterly impossible to ascertain even approximately the 
volume of this business, some bankers placing it at 10 per cent of the totals for 
Waterbury commercial banks, others as high as 25 per cent. 

The capital and surplus of national banks and trust companies are as follows : 

Capital and Surplus. 

Waterbury National Bank $ 900,000.00 

Colonial Trust Co 935,451.20 

Citizens National Bank 450.000-.00 

Manufacturers National Bank 300,000.00 

Merchants Trust Co 188,000.00 

Waterbury Trust Co -55»43 T -35 

Total $3,028,882.55 

Deposits of all banks of Waterbury at dates given above are as follows : 

DEPOSITS OF WATERBURY BANKS, I917 

(Savings Banks, October i, 1916) 

Waterbury Savings Bank $10,176,870.80 

Dime Savings Bank 7.107,324.24 

146 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 147 

Colonial Trust Co 7,033,538.09 

( itizens National Bank 5,000,000.00 

Manufacturers National Bank : 4,060,445.09 

Waterbury National Bank 3,883,983.10 

Waterbury Trust Co 3,102,329.44 

West Side Savings Bank 2,143,766.34 

Merchants Trust Co 1,792,491.40 

Total $44,300,748.50 

The savings bank deposits on October 1, 1917, were: Waterbury Savings Bank. 
$10,091,552.04; Dime Savings Bank, $7,636,444.20; West Side Savings Bank, 
$2,667,732.41. 

THE WATERBURV CLEARING HOUSE 

It is now five years since the Waterbury Clearing House was established by 
the commercial banks. Its work is done in each bank, alternately for two months. 
At present the manager of the Clearing House is Lew r is S. Reed, vice president of 
{he Manufacturers National Bank. 

The table of clearings which follows does not reflect the total business cleared 
monthly by the banks of Waterbury, for there is still much of the business done 
by each bank by the old self-clearing method. 

The Clearing House made its first report on March 31, 19 12, and the record 
by months, showing comparative figures, up to March 1, 1917, is as follows: 

1912-1913 1913-1914 1914-1915 1915-1916 [916-1917 

March $ 3,056,600 $ 3,921,700 $ 4,048,500 $ 4,529,400 $ 7,442,300 

April 3.976,500 4.487,400 4,781,300 5,065,900 8,305,200 

May 4.240,600 4,339,600 4,427,200 5,303,500 9,300,700 

June 4,103,500 4,387,300 4,907,400 6,145,700 9,148,800 

July 3.899,200 4.156,900 4,633,500 6,192,000 9,091,800 

August 34g<;,7oo 3,802,300 3,616,800 5,331,400 7,726,200 

September.... 3,295,500 3,923,100 3,566,600 5.005,300 8.333,100 

October 4,144,900 4,721,300 4,358,200 6,675,900 9,550,600 

November .... 4,156,800 3,986,700 3.953.300 <>. 099,700 9,950,100 

December .... 3,766,000 4,273,700 4,565,500 7,336,800 10,013,700 

January 4,391,800 4,588,300 4,995,700 8,424,900 11,174,700 

February 3,650,800 3,843,000 4,134,400 6,805,800 8,807,600 

$46,181,900 $50,431,300 S51.988.400 $74,116,300 $108,844,800 

The bankers of Waterbury, largely through the Clearing House Association, 
but with the close co-operation of the savings banks, organized the work of selling 
Waterbury 's quotas for both the first and second Liberty Loans with such success 
that in both instances the city exceeded its quota. 

THE SAVINGS BANKS 

It is in the records made by the savings banks of Waterbury that the prosperity 
of the city is most clearly reflected. The year [916 was the banner period m the 
history of the city, and the figures which follow are little short of phenomenal in 
the matter of growth. The year 1917 showed a continuing increase, both in the 
net increase of depositors and in the amount of deposits, hut the Liberty Loans 



148 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 



had their effect here, as well as elsewhere, in diverting a considerable amount of 
savings into that patriotic channel. 

The following table compiled from the state report of date October I, 1916, 
are illuminating on the savings bank records of this phenomenal year. To make 
an accurate total there should be added like records from the savings department 
of the Manufacturers National, from which, as it is under federal control, no 
statement of purely savings deposits is available. Its savings accounts number 
about seven thousand. 

Number of 

accounts opened Number of 
October, 1915 accounts closed Net 

to October, 1916 same period Gain 

Dime Savings Bank 5, 2 76 2,990 2,286 

Waterbury Savings Bank 4,815 1,882 2,933 

West Side Savings Bank 2,247 847 1,400 

Waterbury Trust Co. (Savings Dept.) 1,525 600 925 

Merchants Trust Co. (Savings Dept.) 745 296 449 

Amount 

deposited Amount 

October, 191 5, withdrawn Net increase 

to October, 191 6 same period in deposits 

Dime Savings Bank $2,711,781.78 $1,594,265.95 $1,117,515.83 

Waterbury Savings Bank 3,367,621.83 1,820,780.98 1,546,831.20 

West Side Savings Bank 1,185,974.98 590,894.58 595,080.40 

Waterbury Trust (Savings) 947,705.25 488,097.69 459,607.56 

Merchants Trust (Savings) 622,152.81 235,748.23 386,404.23 

$8,835,236.65 $4,729,787.43 $4,105,449.22 

The amounts deposited include interest credited for the year. 

Number of 

depositors 

having less 

than $1,000 Amount 

Dime Savings Bank 1 7,369 $2,838,494.43 

Waterbury Savings Bank. 12,983 3,148,146.15 

West Side Savings Bank 4,659 1,010,995.23 

Waterbury Trust (Savings) 2,383 462,468.34 

Merchants Trust (Savings) L937 298,550.90 

39,331 $7,758,655-05 

Number of 

depositors 

having $1,000 

to $2,000 Amount 

Dime Savings Bank T-383 $1,794,477.90 

Waterbury Savings Bank !<795 2,406,714.28 

West Side Savings Bank 412 544,233.12 

Waterbury Trust (Savings) 172 214,481.90 

Merchants Trust (Savings) in 145,361.15 

3,873 $5,105,268.35 



WATERBURY AXD THE NAUG ATl'CK VALLEY 



149 



Number of 
depositors 
having $2,000 
to $10,000 

Dime Savings Bank 686 

Waterbury Savings Bank 927 

West Side Savings Bank 180 

Waterbury Trust (Savings) 123 

Merchants Trust (Savings) 73 



1,989 

Number of 

depositors 

having over 

$10,000 

Dime Savings Bank 13 

Waterbury Savings Bank 28 

West Side Savings 4 

Waterbury Trust (Savings) 9 

Merchants Trust (Savings) 8 



Amount 
$2,291,686.31 
3,299,372.89 
543,101.52 
424,068.07 
297.227.56 

$6,955,448.35 



62 



Amount 
$ 182,665.60 

375,595-93 
45,436.23 

110,522.41 

161,887.00 

$ 876,107.17 



Including the savings department of the Manufacturers National, which has 
about seven thousand accounts and savings deposits of approximately one million 
six hundred thousand dollars, there were in Waterbury on October 1, 1916, close 
to fifty-two thousand two hundred and eighty distinct savings deposits, amounting 
to $22,295,478. Of these over twenty-two hundred, ranging from two thousand 
dollars to ten thousand dollars, and approximately forty-two hundred, ranging 
from one thousand dollars to two thousand dollars. 

One of the gratifying evidences of the helpfulness of the savings banks in the 
growth of the community lies in the nature of the investments made. All of them 
are heavy holders of mortgages on Waterbury real estate. In the case of the 
Waterbury Savings Bank, the amount loaned on Waterbury real estate amounts to 
nearly four million dollars, and in the other savings institutions, proportionately 
as much. The West Side has over seventy-five per cent of its deposits loaned on 
Waterbury real estate. 

The Morris Plan Bank of W'aterbury, with capital stock of $56,204 paid in, 
was organized in August, 1915, and opened for business September 30, 1916. 
According to its report filed with the state October 1, 191 6, it had loans outstand- 
ing amounting to $85,415. Its officers are as follows: President, Arthur R. 
Kimball ; vice presidents, John H. Goss, John P. Elton ; secretary and treasurer, 
Curt T. Illing; directors, Bennett Bronson, John B. Burrall, Terrence F. Car- 
mody, Irving H. Chase, George A. Driggs, Theodore I. Driggs, John R. Hughes, 
John P. Kellogg, Arthur R. Kimball, Theodore Lilley, Fred E. Linder, Frederick 
G. Mason, Charles T. McCarthy, George Rockwell, Archer J. Smith, Charles E. 
Spencer, Jr., Leavenworth P. Sperry, Arthur D. Variell, Harris Whittemore, 
B. P. Merriman. 

This is, of course, purely a loan bank, organized on a plan extending all over 
the country with a view to keeping those who are in need of immediate funds in 
small amounts from coming into the clutches of loan sharks. 



150 WATERBURY AXD THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

WATERBURY SAVINGS BANK 

The Waterbury Savings Bank is the oldest savings bank in Waterbury, hav- 
ing been founded by F. J. Kingsbury in 1850. It has now grown to be the largest 
bank in Western Connecticut. 

In 1892, the forty-second year of its existence, its deposits amounted to a 
little over three million dollars. Ten years later, in 1902, nearly two million more 
had been added to the deposits, and on October 1, 191 2, the amount on deposit 
in the bank was $6,901,087.13, making another $2,000,000 addition. During the 
period of four years and four months, from October 1, 1912, to February 1, 
1917, the bank has had a phenomenal growth, due to the corresponding growth 
of the city in size and wealth. The deposits on February 1, 1917, were $10,176,- 
870.80, belonging to 17,096 depositors. Nearly four million dollars of this amount 
was loaned on mortages on Waterbury real estate. Thus the bank, during the 
long period of its existence, has not only kept these many millions of deposits 
safely, but has greatly assisted the city and its people by providing large sums 
of money towards the building of homes and business buildings. 

F. J. Kingsbury, the founder of the bank, who during his long life, occupied 
a very prominent position in the life and affairs of the city, was secretary and 
treasurer, — the chief executive officer, — from 1850 to 1909, when he became 
assistant treasurer, which office he held at the time of his death on September 30, 
1910. To his wise management was due in large measure the strength of this 
large institution. 

On January 1, 1906, Edwin S. Hunt, the present secretary and treasurer, 
became connected with the bank as assistant treasurer. Mr. Hunt, at the time 
of his election, was a practicing lawyer in Waterbury and had been tax collector 
during the years 1904 and 1905. On Mr. Kingsbury's retirement, in 1909, he 
became secretary and treasurer, which position he still holds. 

In 1892, Edward L. Frisbie was president of the bank, which office he con- 
tinued to hold until 1909, the time of his death. His familiarity with the city, 
his knowledge of real estate values, and his shrewd common sense were of great 
value to the bank. On Mr. Frisbie's death, George E. Terry was elected presi- 
dent, and still holds that office. 

In 1892 the directors of the bank were Edward L. Frisbie, F. ]. Kingsbury, 
N. J. Welton, J. W. Smith, George E. Terry, F. L. Curtiss, A. S. Chase, E. D. 
Steele and J. M. Burrall. In 1917 all of these men are dead except Mr. Terry. 

During the period from 1892 to 1917, Edward T. Root became a director, and 
died in 1910. Charles E. Lamb, who was long associated with the bank as teller, 
was also a director, and died in 1906. Mention should also be made of Frederick 
B. Merriman, who faithfully served the bank as teller and bookkeeper for many 
years and died in 1913. 

The present officers and directors are : George E. Terry, president ; Robert 
F. Griggs, vice president; Edwin S. Hunt, secretary and treasurer; Almon B. 
Dayton, assistant treasurer; directors, George E. Terry, James S. Elton, Henry 
A. Hoadley, Henry L. Rowland, Robert F. Griggs, John P. Kellogg, John H. 
Goss, John A. Coe, and Edwin S. Hunt. 

The bank has done business in the same place, on the corner of North and 
West Main streets, during the sixty-seven years of existence. In 1896 it erected 
the present handsome Waterbury Savings Bank Building. The banking rooms 
were re-arranged and greatly improved in T915. During all of its existence the 
savings bank has had the Citizens National Bank as a tenant, the two banks hav- 
ing been founded by Mr. Kingsbury and somewhat closely associated during the 



\\ ATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 



151 



earlier part of the period. They still occupy quarters in the same building, though 
their management is now entirely distinct and separate. 



THE DIME SAVINGS BANK OF W ATERBURY 

The Dime Savings Bank of Waterbury received its charter from the General 
Assembly at the May session in 1870. 

The incorporators were : Guernsey S. Parsons, Henry Merriman, Henry C. 
Griggs, Robert Crane, Douglas F. Maltby, Robert K. Brown, Elisha Leaven- 
worth, Thomas C. Morton, Owen B. King, Charles A. Warren, Caleb T. Hickcox, 
Francis Spencer, Alonson J. Pickett, and John H. Whittemore. 

On July 6, 1870, Elisha Leavenworth was elected president; Robert Crane, 
Thomas C. Morton and Henry C. Griggs, vice presidents ; Guernsey S. Parsons, 
secretary and treasurer, with the following trustees, Guernsey S. Parsons, Henry 
C. Griggs, Douglas F. Maltby, Elisha Leavenworth, Owen B. King, Caleb T. 
Hickcox, Theodore I. Driggs, John W. Smith, Henry Merriman, Robert Crane, 
Robert K. Brown, Thomas C. Morton, Charles A. Warren, Francis Spencer, 
Isaac E. Newton, Charles W. Gillette, Samuel S. Robinson. 

The first location of the bank was at 1 Central Row, later moving to what is 
now known as 30-34 North Main Street. In 1894 the bank purchased the P. B. 
Norton property, at the corner of North Main Street and Abbott Avenue, which 
it has used as a banking house since then. 

The following is a complete list of the trustees to date : 



Elisha Leavenworth, 
Douglas F. Maltby. 
Henry C. Griggs, 
Thomas C. Morton, 
Charles W. Gillette. 
Isaac E. Newton, 
Frederick A. Spencer, 
Guernsey S. Parsons. 
Samuel S. Robinson. 
William Brown. 
Theodore I. Driggs, 
Robert K. Brown. 
John W. Smith. 
Francis Spencer, 
Henry Merriman. 
Robert Crane, 
Owen B. King, 
Charles A. Warren, 
Caleb T. Hickcox, 



Julius Bronson, 
John H. Nettleton, 
George F. Perry, 
George B. Pierpont, 
Meritt Heminway, 
Arthur O. Shepardson. 
George Prichard, 
Edwin U. Lathrop, 
Edward T. Turner, 
Norman D. Granniss, 
Buell Heminway, 
Henry H. Peck, 
Edward L. Frisbie, 
James Brown, 
Edward C. Lewis, 
Joseph H. Dudley, 
Edward M. Burrall, 
George R. Baldwin. 
Leman W. Cutler, 



Otis S. Northrop, 
Edward T. Root, 
Mark L. Sperry, 
William E. Fulton, 
John P. Elton, 
Oilman C. Hill, 
Ralph N. Blakeslee, 
Frank B. Buck, 
J. Hobart Bronson, 
George L. White, 
Edwin C. Northrop, 
John Booth Burrall, 
Arthur Reed Kimball, 
Archer J. Smith, 
Harris Whittemore, 
William B. Merriman, 
Darragh DeLancey. 



The present officers and trustees are as follows : President, Henry H. Peck ; 
vice presidents. John P. Elton, Arthur O. Shepardson, Mark L. Sperry; con- 
troller. Otis S. Northrop; secretary and treasurer, Edwin C. Northrop; assistant 
treasurer, Richard Preusser; trustees, J. Hobart Bronson, John Booth Burrall, 
Darragh DeLancey, lohn P. Elton, William E. Fulton, Oilman C. Hill, Arthur 
R. Kimball. Edwin C. Northrop, Otis S. Northrop, Henry H. Peck, Arthur O. 
Shepardson. Archer J. Smith. Mark L. Sperry. Harris Whittemore. 



152 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

On October i, 1880, the deposits were $671,557.48. 

On October 1, 1890, the deposits were $1,948,785.81, and the total number 
of depositors 8,234. 

On October 1, 1900, the deposits were $3,294,287.63, and the total number of 
depositors 11,678. 

On October 1, 1910, the deposits were $5,325,025.47, and the total number of 
depositors 17,236. 

On October 1, 1916, the deposits were $7,107,324.24, and the total number of 
depositors 19,451. 

In the year ending October 1, 1916, this bank showed its largest increase for 
any one year, the deposits increasing $1,117,515.83, and an increase of 2,286 
depositors. 

MANUFACTURERS NATIONAL BANK 

On the 5th of October, 1880, a meeting was held for the purpose of organiz- 
ing the Manufacturers National Bank of Waterbury, for which a certificate was 
issued on the 25th of the same month, and the institution opened its doors for 
business. 

The first president was David B. Hamilton of Waterbury, who served from 
1880 until his death on August 14, 1898. He was succeeded by George W. Beach, 
who had been vice president from the time that office was created on January 9, 
T894, but who upon the death of Mr. Hamilton was called to the presidency and 
so continued until February, 1906. He was succeeded by Edward L. Frisbie, who 
occupied the office from March 20, 1906, until he, too, passed away on April 13, 
1909. His successor is Charles F. Mitchell, who is still the presiding head of the 
institution, having been called to the position on May 4, 1909. Mr. Frisbie had 
succeeded Mr. Beach as vice president, and Mr. Mitchell was his successor in that 
office, continuing from 1906 until he was called to the presidency in 1909. R. W. 
Hill then became vice president and filled that office until July 16. 1909. William 
E. Fulton was elected vice president on January 11, 1910, and still continues. 

The first cashier was Charles R. Baldwin, who served from October 25, 1880, 
until May 31, 1892, when Charles F. Mitchell was elected and remained in the posi- 
tion until March 20, 1906, when he became vice president. A. E. Lord was then 
cashier from that date until January 12, 1909, and Lewis S. Reed was made assist- 
ant cashier, becoming cashier on May 4, 1909, and still remaining in this position. 

The bank was first located at 102 Bank Street, where the Jones-Morgan Build- 
ing now stands, and a removal was made to the present location in December, 1897, 
when quarters were secured in the Bohl Building, then owned by Truman S. 
Lewis. Soon afterward the bank purchased the building. Its policy has always 
been clearly defined and has ever been one which would bear the closest investi- 
gation and scrutiny. A general banking business is being conducted and the pro- 
gressive methods which were early instituted have developed it into one of the 
strong banks of the state. 

THE CITIZENS NATIONAL BANK 

The Citizens National Bank, which was founded by Mr. Kingsbury and which 
is co-tenant of the building with the Waterbury Savings Bank, has had a great 
growth in the last quarter of a century. Twenty-five years ago, 1892, its deposits 
amounted to $500,000.00. In 1917 these aggregate $5,000,000.00. Its capital 
and surplus has grown to $450,000.00. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 153 

Its officers in 1892 were: F. J. Kingsbury, president; F. L. Curtiss, cashier; 
Directors F. J. Kingsbury, D. E. Sprague, Edward Cowles, H. H. Peck and F. L. 
Curtiss. 

Its officers and directors in 1917 are: J. H. Bronson, president; E. O. Goss, 
vice president; H. A. Hoadley, cashier; E. R. Hudson, R. W. Hurlbut, assistant 
cashiers; Directors J. H. Bronson, Edward O. Goss, F. S. Chase, John A. Coe, 
Jr., E. S. 1 lunt, Darragh DeLancey, T. F. Jackson, H. A. Hoadley. 

THE WEST SIDE SAVINGS BANK 

The West Side Savings Bank was incorporated in 1889. Its first officers were: 
President Edward T. Turner, Vice President J. R. Smith, Treasurer Gordon ]. 
Lawrence. On October 1, 1890, its deposits were $34,664.62. On October 1, 
1916, these were $2,143,766.34. Of this amount the investment in loans on 
Waterbury real estate is $1,629,985.00. The bank was located on Bank Street in 
Brooklyn, rear Holmes booth, Hayden's office, then moving to the old Masonic 
Temple Building, being afterwards for eighteen years on the corner of Center 
and Bank streets and on January 1, 191 7, it moved into its present beautiful 
quarters in the Buckingham Building. 

The present officers are : President, J. Richard Smith ; vice president, Lewis 

A. Piatt; secretary, R. G. Hannegan; treasurer, George E. Judd. Its directors 
today are president, vice president and treasurer and Nathaniel R. Bronson, 

B. L. Coe, George A. Driggs, Howard M. Hickcox, T. F. Jackson, Herbert W. 
Lake and Michael Guilfoile. 

THE MERCHANTS TRUST COMPANY 

The Merchants Trust Company was organized November 28, 1910, with a 
capital of $100,000.00. Its deposits at the end of the first year of its existence 
were $150,000.00. Its deposits now. September, 1917, are over $2,000,000.00, 
and its surplus is $88,000.00. 

Its first officers and directors were : James E. Smith, president ; Henry 
Weyand, secretary and treasurer; directors, the officers and Michael E. Keeley, 
John S. Neagle, Thomas H. Hayes, Frank Pepe, Wm. Riether, Isidore Chase. 

The officers today are : President, Henry Weyand ; vice president, John S. 
Neagle ; secretary and treasurer, John E. Bulger ; E. F. Moran, assistant treas- 
urer : directors. Henry Weyand, John S. Neagle, M. E. Keeley, Isidore Chase, 
Frank Pepe, Wm. Riether, James E. Russell, Thomas Finnegan, Arthur A. 
Tanner, Frank Hayes, John E. Bulger. 

It has occupied its present quarters at 142 Grand Street since its organization. 

THE COLONIAL TRUST COMPANY 

The Colonial Trust Company was the first of the trust companies to begin 
business in W'aterbury. Its original capital when it opened its doors in 1899 
was $400,000.00 with a surplus of $100,000.00. In 191 1 the Fourth National 
Bank was consolidated with the Colonial. According to the statement issued 
March 5, 1917, its capital stock is $400,000.00, its surplus is $535,451.20 and its 
deposits are $7,033,538.09. This is an increase from $2,000,000.00, its deposits 
in 1900. In 1902, it moved into its own beautiful building on West Main Street. 
Prior to that year it had its quarters on Center Street. 

Its first president was D. S. Plume, who was succeeded by J. H. Whittemore, 



154 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

both of whom have passed away. Otis S. Northrop, its present executive, suc- 
ceeded the latter. Gen. Louis N. Van Keuren was the first treasurer. 

The first directors of the Colonial Trust Company were D. S. Plume, J. H. 
Whittemore, Geo. M. Woodruff, Carlos French, Franklin Farrel, C. F. Brooker, 
A. M. Young, George E. Terry, E. M. Burrall, C. P. Goss, E. L. Frisbie. 

Its present officers and directors are as follows : 

Otis S. Northrop, president; George M. Woodruff, vice president; John P. 
Elton, vice president; Charles E. Spencer, Jr., treasurer; W. P. Bryan, secre- 
tary; H. L. Rowland, trust officer; George E. Terry, counsel; directors, Charles 
F. Bliss, William H. Bristol, W. P. Bryan, John Booth Burrall, Wallace H. 
Camp, Edmund Day, George A. Driggs, John P. Elton, Alton Farrell, Edward 
L. Frisbie, W. Shirley Fulton, Robert F. Griggs, Arthur R. Kimball, Otis S. 
Northrop, Lewis A. Piatt, H. L. Rowland, C. E. Spencer, Jr., George E. Terry, 
Harris Whittemore, George M. Woodruff. 

The Fourth National Bank, now incorporated with the Colonial Trust Com- 
pany, as above stated, was organized in 1887 with a capital of $100,000.00. Its 
first president was D. S. Plume, and its first cashier was Burton G. Bryan. At 
the time of consolidation the officers and directors were : J. Richard Smith, 
president; Lewis A. Piatt and John Henderson, Jr., vice presidents; George E. 
Judd, treasurer; directors, these officers and Henry L. Wade, George A. Driggs, 
N. R. Bronson, Benj. L. Coe, Cornelius Tracy, Thomas F. Jackson, Howard M. 
Hickcox, Herbert W. Lake, Michael Guilfoile. 

THE WATERBURY NATIONAL BANK 

The Waterbury National Bank today occupies the same building, although 
large additions have been made, in which it began business as the Waterbury 
Bank in September, 1848. It became a national bank February 2, 1865. Its 
present officers are: H. S. Chase, president; A. J. Blakesley, cashier; F. W. 
Judson, assistant cashier. The capital of the bank today, $500,000 is what it 
was on July 23, 1850. Its surplus has shown a continuous increase, the last 
report of June, 191 7, placing it at $400,000. Its individual deposits on the same 
date were $3,883,983.10. The directors at present are: J. S. Elton, H. S. Chase, 
A. J. Smith, J. R. Smith, Irving S. Chase, A. W. Mitchell, M. Heminway, G. C. 
Hill, F. W. judson, Alfred Hart, A. J. Blakesley and Geo. E. Boyd. 

Augustus Milo Blakesley, father of A. J. Blakesley, present cashier of the 
bank, was its cashier from 1852 until his death, October 20, 1908. J. S. Elton 
resigned as president in 1916 and was succeeded by H. S. Chase. 

THE WATERBURY TRUST COMPANY 

The Waterbury Trust Company was granted its charter at the January ses- 
sion of the State Legislature in 1907. Its original officers were C. L. Holmes, 
president ; M. L. Sperry, vice president, and H. S. Seeley, secretary and treas- 
urer. It began business on June 24, 1907. 

The growth of the institution since that date has been phenomenal, the result 
of sound management and substantial patronage. It has been strong in both 
its general banking business and in the savings department, which on October 
1, 1916, showed 1,525 deposits, an increase for the year of 925. 

On August 1, 1917, it had a surplus of $55,431.35 and in 1917 deposits 
amounted to $3,030,338.33. Its present officers and directors are as follows : 
Charles L Holmes, president ; Mark L. Sperry, vice president ; Henry S. Seeley, 




IM^BM^^^^^^B 



COLONIAL TRUST BUILDING, WATERBURY 



VVATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 155 

secretary and treasurer; Walter M. Bassford, assistant treasurer; Frederick W. 
Chesson, assistant secretary. Directors: Edmund J. Daly, John Draher, Louis 
E. Fitzsimons (deceased), Harry H. Heminway, Thomas H. Hewitt, Charles 
L. Holmes, John K. Hughes, Herbert S. Rowland, Henry S. Seeley, Mark L. 
Sperry, Cornelius Tracy, \V. S. R. Wake, Edwin H. Williams, William T. 
WOodruff and Charles A. Templeton. Mr. Chesson entered the national army 
in 19 1 7. 

THE RECENT tNSURANCE HISTORY OF WATERBURY 

Waterbury has at present no distinctly local life, fire or accident insurance 
organization, although a recent incorporation leads to the hope of early organ- 
ization in both the fire and life insurance lines. 

The Waterbury Board of Underwriters, which comprises all the agents and 
authorized brokers now in business here, is kept alive by the earnest effort of 
the leading firms to see that the rules and regulations governing insurance here 
are strictly enforced. These rules and regulations come direct from the New 
England Insurance Exchange of Boston, which is the governing body in the state. 

The enactment of the anti-rebating law by the last Connecticut Legislature 
has greatly aided legitimate insurance business, giving it the stability which has 
long been lacking. 

There have been three notable efforts in the past quarter century to estab- 
lish distinctly local insurance organizations. The Connecticut Indemnity Asso- 
ciation, which had been organized on October 30, 1883, was perhaps the most 
pretentious of these efforts. It was organized to insure for life, health and 
accident. Its original promoters were Victor L. Sawyer, Dr. F. M. Cannon, 
John S. Purdy and John H. Guernsey. It remained in business until 1898, when 
conditions forced it to liquidate. 

The second notable effort along insurance lines was the organization and 
operation of the "Connecticut Mutual Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance 
Company in June, 1886. Of this David S. Plume was the first president. Later 
D. B. Hamilton was its executive, and when it was finally merged into the Hart- 
ford Steam Boiler and Inspection Company in 1906, its president was Henry 
L. Wade. 

The third effort was in the year 1902 in the organization of the Mutual 
Security Company, the purpose of which was to insure against strikes. This 
continued in business until 1910, but lack of interest on the part of local manu- 
facturers finally convinced its promoters that the project could not succeed. 
When it finally liquidated, its president was Gen. Louis N. Van Keuren and 
its secretary was F. J. Brown. 

The Connecticut Legislature, at its 191 7 session, granted charters, — one for 
life insurance company and the other for a fire insurance company. The incor- 
porators in both charters are Messrs. M. E. Keeley, Abner P. Hayes, Herman 
J. Weisman, and Frank Hayes. No steps have yet been taken to make these 
charters effective. 



CHAPTER XII 
HISTORY OF WATERBURY'S HOTELS 

THE FIRE OF ICJ02 FOLLOWED BY AN ERA OF HOTEL CONSTRUCTION — THE CONNECTI- 
CUT HOTEL EXCHANGE HOTEL ENLARGED RAISING THE FUND FOR THE ELTON 

THE SUBSCRIBERS ITS FIRST YEAR'S RECORD DESCRIPTION STARTING THE 

"IDEAL TOUR" — THE KINGSBURY AND HODSON'S — MANY HOTELS SPRING UP 
DURING MUNITION-MAKING PERIOD. 

The disastrous fire of 1902 and the beginning of munition-making in 1914- 
191 5 mark the two periods in which there was a distinct growth in the number 
and the capacity of Waterbury's hotels. In 1893, the beginning of the present 
quarter century, there were approximately fifteen hotels in Waterbury, most of 
them however merely large rooming houses. The Scovill House, of which T. R. 
Howe was manager, was still the leading hotel. The Franklin House, which 
was then operated by J. Frank Weedon, the Cooley House, run by A. J. Bunnell, 
and Brown's Hotel were all smaller but well-kept hostelries. On February 22, 
1894, Brown's Hotel was destroyed by fire. This was afterwards rebuilt as 
a business block known as The Arcade. Earle's Hotel was on the site of the 
original Naugatuck Railroad Station and Smith's Hotel, now known as The 
Stratton, on East Main Street, was then a comparatively new and rather preten- 
tious hotel. It had been built just after the blizzard of 1888. Changes in man- 
agement and the opening of smaller hotels marked nearly every year. 

On February 2 and 3, 1902, the Scovill House and Franklin House were 
destroyed in the conflagrations of those dates. Then followed a period of hotel 
construction which soon more than replaced in capacity the ruined buildings. 

Louis F. Haase, who had a new building on Center Street which he was 
using as a house furnishing store, remodeled it completely and opened it in 1904 
under the name of the Connecticut Hotel. It was at first leased by George Q. 
Pattee of New Britain, afterwards by F. W. Haase, brother of L. F. Haase. On 
January 3, 1916, this was totally destroyed by fire and when the new building 
was completed, it was leased to the Metropolitan Furniture Company. 

Shortly after the fire, what was known as Exchange Hotel was enlarged and 
opened in the building which is now the old part of Hodson's Hotel. The Bank 
Hotel was opened by Robert Molzon at 290-292 Bank Street. The building, 
which in 1902 was constructed for small family apartments, was changed over 
into a hotel and has retained its name to this time. It has been managed for 
fifteen years by Michael Molzon, the present owner, and is still one of the best 
of the smaller hotels of the city. It has forty-seven rooms. 

The Elton, one of the finest hotels in the East, is however the notable land- 
mark of this period of hotel construction, and the story of its inception, its 
building and its official opening is an illustration of the local pride and public 
spirit of that time. 

In 1903 the need of a fine hotel for Waterbury became so apparent to the 
leaders of its business that a local company was formed for the purpose of 
raising, if needed, half a million dollars for a site and building. 

156 



WATEKl'.l'RY AXD THE XAUGATUCK VALLEY 



157 



The secretary of this company was George E. Boyd, and it was due to his 
splendid work, as well as to the public spirit of the entire community, that the 
first $300,000.00 the amount of the capitalization, was quickly raised. 

The official list of these stockholders is an historical document and is incor- 
porated here as an evidence of the co-operative spirit of the community in time 
of great need. 



Shares 

300 J. S. Elton, Waterbury. 

300 H. II. Peck, Waterbury. 

250 Mrs. Ellen Scovill. Washington, 

D. C. 
100 Mrs. Alary E. Burrall, Water- 
bury. 
100 Mrs. Ida E. Fulton, -Waterbury. 

50 Benedict & Burnham Mfg. Co., 
Waterbury. 

50 Holmes, Booth & Haydens Co., 
Waterbury. 

50 Plume & Atwood Mfg. Co., 
Waterbury. 

50 Scovill Mfg. Co., Waterbury. 

50 Mrs. H. Sophia Hoyt, Waterbury. 

50 William E. Fulton, Waterbury. 

50 Irving H. Chase, Waterbury. 

50 Henry L. Wade, Waterbury. 

50 Henrv W. Scovill, Washington, 
D.C. 

50 Bowditch & Stratton, Boston, 
Mass. 

50 Truman S. Lewis, W'aterbury. 

50 Miss Caroline A. Piatt, Water- 
bury. 

50 Mrs. Lillian Clarke Farrel, 
Ansonia. 

36 George L. White, Waterbury. 

30 Waterbury Button Co., Water- 
bury. 

30 Oakville Co., Oakville. 

30 Waterbury Clock Co., Waterbury. 

30 Ralph H. Smith, W'aterbury. 

25 Waterbury Farrel Foundry & 
Mach. Co., Waterbury. 

25 New England Watch Co., Water- 
bury. 

25 Waterbury Buckle Co., Water- 
bury. 

25 F. J. Kingsbury, Jr., Fairfield. 

25 Miss Alice E. Kingsbury, Water- 
bury. 

25 Miss Edith D. Kingsbury. Water- 
bun'. 



Shares 

24 Mrs. Mary L. Mitchell, Water- 
bury. 
20 American Ring Co., Waterbury. 
20 Mrs. C. M. Benedict, Waterbury. 
20 Miss A. C. Benedict, Waterbury. 
20 American Pin Co., Waterville. 

5 Steele & Johnson Mfg. Co., Water- 
bury. 

5 Connecticut Railway & Lighting 
Co., New York. 

2 John C. Smith, New York. 

2 Charles F. Brooker, Ansonia. 

2 H. S. Chase, Waterbury. 

2 Otis S. Northrop, Waterbury. 

2 Lewis A. Piatt, Waterbury. 

2 J. Richard Smith, Waterbury. 

2 Frederick B. Rice, Waterbury. 

2 Berbecker & Rowland Co., Water- 
ville. 

o Blake & Johnson Co., Waterbury. 

o George B. Lamb, Waterbury. 

o Archer J. Smith, Waterbury. 

o Thomas Fitzsimons, Waterbury. 

o John Booth Burrall, Waterbury. 

o William D. Richardson, Water- 
bury. 

o B. C. Bryan, Waterbury. 

o Samuel Rosenstamm, New York. 

o E. L. Frisbie, Jr., Waterbury. 

o D. S. Plume, Waterbury. 

o Lucien F. Burpee, Waterbury. 

o John P. Elton, Waterbury. 

o Earl Smith, Waterbury. 

o F. L. Curtiss, Waterbury. 

o C. L. Holmes, Waterbury. 

o Walter W. Holmes, Waterbury. 

o Gilman C. Hill, Waterbury. 

o Mrs. Charlotte B. Hill, Water- 
bury. 

b Thomas Kelly, Waterbury. 

o Dr. Henry G. Anderson, Water- 
bury. 

o Thomas B. Kent, New York. 

o Cornelius Tracy, Waterbury. 



358 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 



Shares 

10 George Tracy, Waterbury. 

10 J. M. Burrall & Co., Waterbury. 

10 C. H. Tucker, New York. 

10 Gordon W. Burnham, New York. 

10 Miss Florentine H. Hayden, 

Waterbury. 

10 Miss Anna L. Ward, Waterbury. 

10 Adolph Lewisohn, New York. 

10 Herbert P. Camp, Waterbury. 

10 M. J. Daly, Waterbury. 

9 F. Kingsbury Bull, New York. 

9 Ludlow S. Bull, New York. 

8 Miss Dorothy Bull, New York. 

6 Dr. F. E. Castle, Waterbury. 

6 Robert W. Hill, Waterbury. 

6 Charles F. Mitchell, Waterbury. 

6 Fred S. Chase, Waterbury. 

5 New England Engineering Co., 
Waterbury. 

5 J. K. Smith, Waterbury. 

5 E. T. Root, Waterbury. 

5 I. A. Spencer, Waterbury. 

5 Henry Weyand, Waterbury. 

5 John Henderson, Jr., Waterbury. 

5 Roger S. Wotkyns, Waterbury. 

5 W. B. Merriman, trustee, Water- 
bury. 

5 Isidore Chase, Waterbury. 

5 Valentine Bohl, Waterbury. 

5 John A. Lilley, Waterbury. 

5 Jay H. Hart, Waterbury. 



Shares 

5 William E. Norris, Waterbury. 

5 Dr. C. S. Rodman, Waterbury. 

5 R. D. Pierpont, Waterbury. 

5 A. O. Jennings, Waterbury. 

5 R. R. Stannard, Waterbury. 

5 John W. Gaffney, Waterbury. 

5 A. M. Dickinson, Waterbury. 

5 William F. Chatfield, Waterbury. 

5 J. B. Mullings, Waterbury. 

5 F. W. Chesson, Waterbury. 

5 Jacob Kaiser, Waterbury. 

5 Edwin H. Williams, agent, Water- 
bury. 

5 Merritt Heminway, Watertown. 

4 T. D. Barlow, Waterbury. 

3 Reid & Hughes Dry Goods Co., 
Waterbury. 

2 Oliver R. Barlow, Waterbury. 

2 Mrs. Cynthia D. Barlow, Water- 
bury. 

2 Miss Mary A. Barlow, Waterbury. 

2 Charles F. Davis, Waterbury. 

2 Waterbury Paper Box Co., Inc., 
Waterbury. 

2 William H. Wilcox, Waterbury. 

2 Haring White Griggs, Waterbury. 

i George E. Boyd, Waterbury. 

i Jones & Morgan, Waterbury. 

i Nelson J. Welton, Waterbury. 

i Apothecaries Hall Co., Waterbury. 



It is a notable fact that every subscriber was told that there would probably 
never be a profit, and there might be deficits to cover. 

The management of the new hotel which opened its doors in 1904, was 
placed in the hands of Almon C. Judd, who knew Waterbury and who in the 
years of his absence from the city, had been employed in some of the largest hotels 
in the country. The report of the first year was exceedingly gratifying. With 
the exception of the three summer months, the hotel had earned from $300 to 
$2,000 during each of the other months of the year. 

The location of the hotel, opposite the Green, was a fortunate one, the only 
regret being that the old Colonial style Scovill homestead was torn down, instead 
of having been removed and saved as a landmark. 

The architecture of the house is French Renaissance, and is dignified and 
pleasing; the contraction is of steel and brick, fire-proofed in the most thorough 
manner. 

The foyer extends across the front of the house, and is 50x100 feet in size; 
it has a marble floor, and is wainscotted nine feet high with quartered oak. At 
both ends of the foyer are large fireplaces. This foyer is divided into four 
imaginary rooms by an arrangement of furniture, making sections for a writing 
room, reading room, and two lounging and smoking-rooms. Handsome oriental 




EXCHANGE PLACE, WATERBURY 




THE ELTON. WATERBURY 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 159 

rugs are on the floor of each section, which, taken in conjunction with the many 
palms and ferns scattered throughout, add much to the general attractiveness 
and homelike atmosphere of the room. 

The main dining-room is located on the northwest corner of the office floor; 
it is finished in French Renaissance style of Louis XV; the treatment is in light 
colors, the woodwork being white, the walls are of a rich maroon and the ceiling 
pale blue; die center of the ceiling is raised in cylindrical form, richly decorated 
with festoons and other ornaments bright with gilding. 

The restaurant is known as the Flemish Dining-room, and has been pronounced 
by competent judges to be one of the most attractive rooms of the kind in exist- 
ence. It is finished in cypress, stained in delicate green and brown tones ; the 
wainscotting and columns are decorated with fruit ornamentations ; and above 
the wainscotting, the wall is decorated with free-hand painting of the grapevine 
design. A handsome antique fire-place also adds beauty to the room. A small 
balcony on the left furnishes a place for the orchestra, and is so arranged that 
the music may be heard in both dining-rooms. 

The ladies' parlor is located on the second floor, and has a commanding view 
of the center of the city. It is finished in white enameled carved wood in French 
Renaissance style. Pink tapestries and a green Wilton carpet make a very dainty 
ensemble. The furniture is of Circassian walnut in Louis XVI style. 

The halls of the hotel are unusually wide and well lighted; the floors are 
terrazzo, and through the center is a handsome hall carpet, made for the hotel. 

The barber shop, billiard room, and bar are located on the basement floor; 
the barber shop is finished with a wainscotting of white marble, and the floor is 
paved with terrazzo. The entire fittings are most sanitary and modern. The 
bar and billiard room are practically combined ; the bar is of a special design, sug- 
gestive of an old Dutch Rathskeller; the billiard tables are specially made in a 
style to correspond with the furnishings of the bar. 

Mahogany and tapestry are the prevailing notes in furniture and upholstery 
outside of the public rooms. Of the 147 bedrooms and suites on the five upper 
floors of the hotel, all but three are furnished in a plain, rich mahogany, selected 
from the best factories in Grand Rapids. There is very little duplication of 
design in the bedroom furniture, almost every room having an individual touch; 
some rooms for variety have brass beds. Three of the finest suites are furnished 
in a still more costly wood, — Circassian walnut, richly carved. Each room has a 
telephone available for house service, as well as long-distance usage. There are 
fifty-nine private bathrooms connected with the bedrooms, and eleven public 
bathrooms. The house is lighted throughout with electricity generated on the 
premises. 

The working departments, kitchen, laundry, engine-room, etc.. are all fitted 
with the modern appliances of an up-to-date hotel. 

Mr. Judd, having a big hotel to fill and noting the dearth of hotel business 
during the summer months, started in 1905, the year after the opening of the 
Elton, what is known now as the "Ideal Tour" for automobiles. This is at 
present being advertised in connection with the Biltmore at New York, the 
Equinox at Manchester, Vt., the Granliden at Sunapee Lake, N. H., the New 
Profile House, at Profile House, X T . H., the Crawford House, at Crawford 
Notch, X. II., the Poland Spring House and the Mansion House at Poland 
Spring. Me., Hotel Wentworth at Portsmouth, N. TL, Hotel Yendome and the 
Copley-Plaza at Boston, and Briarcliffe Lodge at Briarcliffe Manor, N. Y. 

The Ideal Tour Route through New England has become an interstate high- 
way which motorists en route for all New England resorts, the White Moun- 



160 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

tains, Maine, The Berkshires, or other points almost invariably follow to the 
point nearest their destination, as the Ideal Tour combines the most beautiful 
scenic effects, the best roads, and conveniently situated hotels of the highest class, 
and it is sometimes more convenient for these motorists to reverse the tour, or 
join it at some point en route. 

The hotel is still owned by the old company, but is now leased to Almon C. 
Judd on a yearly rental basis. 

Next to the Elton, the leading hotels today are the Kingsbury and Hodson's. 
The Kingsbury, at 44 Center Street, was built by Cornelius H. Cables. The 
Center Street section was remodeled from existing buildings and the section run- 
ning back to Harrison Avenue is entirely new. It is now operated by the Cables 
Family, and was opened on October 25, 1908. It has 170 rooms. 

Hodson's Hotel, which is owned by J. W. and F. J. Hodson, is perhaps the 
newest of the larger hotels. The remodeled part of West Main Street was com- 
pleted in 191 6, and Hodson's, which for twelve years had merely been a large 
dining-room and since 1885 a cafe, was now opened as a thoroughly modern 
hotel. For three years the old part, formerly the Exchange Hotel, had, however, 
been called Hodson's. 

The old Hotel Broadway at 90 E. Main Street, which was also known for a 
time as the Savoy, and in 1910 as the Lamphier, became the Fuller Hotel in 
March, 191 1, a name it still retains. It has sixty rooms. 

The Windsor Hotel at 28 Center Street was the well-known Hotel Water- 
bury of two decades ago. Later it became the Hotel Plaza and then the Hotel 
Marlborough. Two years ago it was leased from the owner of the building, 
David Ducharme of New Haven, by W. J. Allen. Its name had been changed to 
the Windsor Hotel by Otis Fuller, a prior manager. 

The Delmar on Leavenworth Street was opened as a hotel on February 16, 
1916. Up to this time it had been two apartment houses, and before that a 
Turkish bathhouse. The structure is owned by Mrs. Margaret Ryder and the 
hotel is conducted by L. J. Webb. 

The Flanders, which is a remodeled combination of the Monroe Building and 
of Nos. 26 and 28 North Main Street, was opened as a hotel with 120 rooms 
on January 1, 1917, by William H. Wood. 

The Stag Hotel, which for three years has been run under that name by 
Thomas D. Bulger, is in the Griggs Building on Bank Street. This was formerly 
the Norton, and later the Heinie and the Arlington. 

The Stafford House on East Main Street, formerly Smith's, has been run 
for nineteen years by its present manager, Mrs. Charles A. Taylor. 

There are several smaller houses, such as the Colonial and the Union Square, 
but they come rather into the class of good rooming houses, with which the city 
is at present amply supplied. 

It is, however, interesting to note that for the past two years there have been 
few vacant rooms in either the hotels or rooming houses of the city, the prosperity 
of the day reflecting itself in these hotel housing conditions. 



CHAPTER XIII 

THE HOSPITALS OF WATERBURY 

waterbury hospital in its old quarters the need of a new building 

contributions pour in and new hospital dedicated donors of the build- 
ing fund officers growth in recent years the medical board st. 

mary's hospital, the inspiration of monsignor slocum— -its dedication — 
the medical board. 

The first published suggestion for the establishment of the Waterbury Hos- 
pital appeared in the Waterbury Republican September I, 1882. From that time 
on the interest in the project grew, the State Legislature appropriated $25,000 
on condition that $50,000 was raised by private subscription, and later gave 
it an additional $25,000 and $2,500 a year toward its maintenance. These 
early steps in the building up of the institution with tributes to all of those who 
gave so liberally have been beautifully recorded by Dr. Joseph Anderson in 
his "History of Waterbury." 

In January, 1892, a quarter of a century ago, the hospital had been in opera- 
tion for two years ; brick additions to the old Allen B. Wilson Home, which 
constituted the main building, had been erected. At the west of the main build- 
ing was the site for the nurses' home. This was begun in November, 1892, and 
completed in July, 1893. It was the gift of Henry H. Peck. The laundry had 
also been erected and formed part of what was the Waterbury Hospital. 

Its officers in 1892, at the beginning of our quarter century, were: Presi- 
dent, Frederick J. Kingsbury ; vice president, Augustus S. Chase ; executive com- 
mittee, Edward L. Frisbie, George W. Beach, Henry H. Peck; secretary, J. 
Hobart Bronson ; treasurer, Augustus M. Blakesley ; directors, James S. Elton, 
David S. Plume, Edward C. Lewis, John W. Smith and the officers named. 

In 1892, the medical staff consisted of Drs. Alfred North and Edward L. 
Griggs, consulting physicians and surgeons, and the following visiting physicians 
and surgeons : Drs. W. W. Holmes, Frank E. Castle, Walter L. Barber, E. W. 
McDonald, C. S. Rodman, T. L. Axtell, John M. Benedict, Caroline R. Conkey. 

The matron was Miss Mary Felter, and her staff comprised "one trained 
nurse, three who have served in the hospital one year or longer and four in 
training." A janitor, one orderly, a cook, a waitress, and a laundress completed 
the working force. 

In this year, the hospital obtained the Margaret Gorman bequest of $9,441.40. 
Tn the following year the Olive M. Elton fund of $5,000 and the Scott bequest of 
$5,000 were received. 

In 1898, the hospital had grown to such proportions that the medical staff 
was considerably increased. Wlrle in 1897 the total number of hospital days 
recorded was 11,120, in 1808 it had grown to 13,178. In 1897 the number of 
cases treated was 379; in 1898 cases treated were 406. 

In 1898 Miss Mary Felter resigned as matron, and was succeeded by 
Miss Mary A. Andrews. 
Vol. 1— 11 

161 



162 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

In 1901 the ground south leading to the roadway was presented to the hospital 
by James S. Elton. 

In 1903 the executive committee had been at its task for fourteen years, and 
requested the selection of younger men. Messrs. E. L. Frisbie, Geo. W. Beach 
and Henry H. Peck had performed these labors so well that it was only their 
insistance that finally made a change necessary, and Messrs. Henry L. Wade, 
William E. Fulton and Otis S. Northrop succeeded them. 

During this period a new roof was put on the wards. The equipment of a 
pathological department and purchase of apparatus and hospital instruments 
vastly enhanced the hospital's usefulness. 

A gift of $1,800 from Mr. Kingsbury, to which was added a gift from the 
Sunday school children of the city made it possible to construct a ward of seven 
beds for children. 

In 1904 the training school for nurses was established. 

In 1906 James S. Elton was elected to the presidency, to succeed Mr. Kings- 
bury, who felt that he had earned a respite from his task. 

The need of increased hospital facilities had now become so imperative that 
the officers determined upon raising an ample fund for the construction of a 
new hospital. The total number of hospital days for 1906 had gone to 14,636 
and in 1907 the record was 16,344. The year 1907 recorded 665 cases treated, — 
an increase of eighty-eight over the previous year. 

During 1906 the movement took on such proportions that at the end of 1907 
a fund for new hospital buildings had reached $250,000. It was at this time that 
the property known as Westwood, containing about 21 acres, was purchased from 
C. L. and W. W. Holmes as the site of the new hospital 

In 1908 Henry Bacon of New York was selected as architect, and it was 
decided to move the old Holmes Residence to a new location and to convert it 
into a nurses' dormitory. 

On May 16, 1910, the cornerstone of the new hospital buildings was laid 
in the presence of the directors and physicians of the staff. 

When the new Waterbury Hospital was finally opened in the fall of 191 1, 
it was found that more than $300,000 had been expended in the construction, 
furnishings and fixtures. 

The donors of the building fund were as follows : 

Estate of Susan Bronson, C. L. and W. W. Holmes, Mrs. Mary J. Schlegel, 

J. H. Bronson, Frederick J. Kingsbury, Archer J. Smith, 

Mrs. Mary E. Burrall, Elisha Leavenworth, M. L. Sperry, 

The A. S. Chase Family, George A. Lewis, Howard B. Turtle, 

Mrs. Mary A. Curtiss, Charles Miller, Mrs. Mary A. Tuttle, 

James S. Elton, Mrs. Mary L. Mitchell, Henry L. Wade, 

Franklin Farrel, Henry H. Peck, George L. White. 

Mrs. Ida E. Fulton, Estate of C. M. Piatt, 

Wm. E. Fulton, Heirs of Wm. S. Piatt, 

The Buckingham Building, erected in 1906, is the gift to the hospital of J. H. 
Whittemore. 

The nurses' dormitory in Westwood Hall was in memory of Israel Holmes. 

It was the generosity of Henry H. Peck which supplied the substantial iron 
fence, the walls and the artistic entrance shelter on Robbins Street, later still 
further beautified by him. 

The location of the hospital brings out all the classic lines of construction. 
It is a model institution within and without. 




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WATERBURV AXJ) THE XAUGATUCK VALLEY 163 

The death, in 191 2, of Henry L. Wade, who had been on the executive com- 
mittee and a director since 1903, necessitated the election of a new member. 
J. Richard Smith was chosen to fill the vacancy. Mr. Wade's last gift to the 
Hospital was a bequest of $5,000 for a free cot. This is known as the Henry 
L. Wade Free Bed Fund. 

Eight of the rooms in the new hospital were furnished at once in memory 
of L. Eliza Crosby, Mary B. F. Griggs, Robert W. Hull, Capt. Henry B. Peck, 
Emma L. Seelig. Edward O. Steele, Francis R. P. Welton and John Howard 
Whittemore. 

The family of the late Doctor North, the first surgeon on the staff, donated 
the instruments and cases in the operating room. 

In 1913 the facilities of the new hospital were tested almost to capacity. 
The total number of hospital days increased to 25,866, and the total number of 
cases treated was 1,335. In 1914, these figures were respectively 25,589 and 
1,456. But gifts were showered upon the new institution and its friends saw 
to it that nothing was lacking to make it thoroughly up-to-date in its work and 
in its facilities. 

In 191 5 the number of cases treated exceeded the estimated capacity of the 
hospital on several occasions. In fact, although but eighty beds were provided, 
there was often found room during the year for 100 patients. It was in 191 5 
that plans were approved for a 25-room dormitory with assembly hall and super- 
intendent's suite, as an addition to the nurses' home. Each year is now adding 
to the endowments. In 191 5 Miss Alice Eliza Kingsbury gave $5,000 for the 
Scovill-Kingsbury bed which is established for the poor of St. John's Parish, 
Waterbury. 

By the last annual report which covers the year 1916, the total number of 
cases treated was 1,759, with a total of 29,283 hospital days. During 1916 the 
improvements, above mentioned, were completed at a cost of approximately 
.^30,000. 

During the year the bequest of $25,000 from the estate of Julia V. Warner 
Spencer for the general fund and $5,000 for a free cot to be known as the Emeline 
D. Warner Fund, was announced. 

In this year, too, a gift of $10,000 was made by Mr. and Mrs. Henry W. 
Scovill for the endowment of a room to be known as Mother Scovill's Room. 

Up to August, 1917, the hospital cared for 300 more patients than had been 
treated in the same length of time in 1916. This constant increase in service has 
now necessitated the erection of a new wing on the south side of the hospital, 
plans for which are being approved. When this addition is completed, the hos- 
pital will have a capacity of 175 beds. 

From the training school for nurses connected with the hospital, fifty have 
been graduated from 1906 to January 1, 1917. The largest class, ten, was grad- 
uated in 191 5. and the smallest, one, in 1908. 

The Hospital Aid Society was organized as an efficient source of helpfulness 
to the Waterbury Hospital on September 15, 1890. It has been exceedingly 
active, seeing that gifts of clothing, bedding, papers, books, pictures and deli- 
cacies are never lacking. Its officers at present are: President, Katherine D. 
Hamilton; secretary, Mrs. Hiram M. Steele; treasurer, Abbie S. Kingman. 

Of the directors who were on the original board in T884 only the president, 
Tames S. Elton, is now among the living. Of the corporators named in the 
original charter, only James S. Elton and Frederick J. Brown survive. 

The officers for 1917 are as follows: President, James S. Elton; vice presi- 
dent, Henry H. Peck; treasurer, Albert J. Blakesley ; secretary, J. H. Bronson ; 



164 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

executive committee, Otis S. Northrop, J. Richard Smith, Henry H. Peck; super- 
intendent, Miss Grace L. Wolcott; directors, James S. Elton, Harris Whitte- 
more, Henry H. Peck, Otis S. Northrop, Henry S. Chase, J. H. Bronson, William 
E. Fulton, J. Richard Smith. 

The following is the medical staff for 191 7: 

Senior surgeon, F. E. Castle; ophthalmic senior surgeon, C. S. Rodman; resi- 
dent consulting physician and surgeon, C. W. S. Frost ; non-resident consulting 
physicians and surgeons, J. S. Martin, Watertown; E. K. Loveland, Watertown; 
W. S. Munger, Watertown; H. S. Allen, Woodbury; J. M. Benedict, Wood- 
bury; N. L. Deming, Litchfield; F. J. Tuttle, Naugatuck; R. S. Goodwin, Thomas- 
ton ; G. D. Ferguson, Thomaston ; Robert Hazen, Thomaston ; H. B. Hanchett, 
Torrington ; Harold B. Woodward, Terryville ; attending staff, physicians, W. L. 
Barber, D. B. Deming, Charles Engelke, F. G. Graves, E. L. Smith, A. D. Variell; 
surgeons, W. L. Barber, Jr., A. A. Crane, N. A. Pomeroy, E. H. Johnson, J. S. 
Dye, G. M. Smith; assistant physician, H. E. Hungerford; assistant surgeons, 
Edmund Spicer, E. H. Kirschbaum ; gynecologists, H. G. Anderson, C. H. 
Brown; obstetricians, J. J. Gailey, D. B. Deming, Edmund Russell; laryngol- 
ogist, C. E. Munger; pathologist, Charles Engelke; orthopedic surgeons, F. H. 
Albee, J. L. Moriarty ; opthalmic surgeons, D. J. Maloney, T. F. Bevans ; anaes- 
thetists, Edmund Russell, Eugene F. Callender, A. F. McDonald ; radiographer, 
C. H. Brown; dermatologist, T. M. Bull; dental surgeons, H. W. Stevens, A. B. 
Holmes ; urologist, A. C. Swenson. 

st. mary's hospital of waterbury 

St. Mary's Hospital, which is conducted by the Sisters of St. Joseph, opened 
its doors for the care of patients in 1909. 

The need of thoroughly equipping an institution of this beneficent character 
became more and more pressing. The women of Waterbury met on March 7, 
1908, and organized what is now known as St. Mary's Hospital Aid Association. 
It was through its splendid efforts that the hospital was enabled when it finally 
began its great work of service, to present an institution supplied with every 
convenience and modern appliance for the care of the sick. 

St. Mary's Hospital may be called a monument to the memory of the late 
Right Rev. Mgr. William J. Slocum. It was through his effort that the initial 
funds were raised, he starting it with a contribution of $20,000, and it was largely 
through his urging that the building project assumed shane in 1906 and 1907. 
In the latter year the State of Connecticut contributed $10,000 to the under- 
taking, adding $6,250 to this in 1909. 

The total cost of land and buildings up to January 1, 191 1, was $247,555.39. 

The building is constructed on the models of the finest institutions of the 
kind in the country. Its equipment is in every way up-to-date. 

Dr. D. J. Maloney furnished the children's ward ; Mary J. Russell and mem- 
bers of her family furnished another ward. Others were furnished, one by 
friends in memory of J. C. Mulville, one by Frank P. Brett and Mary Minnehan, 
one by E. T. and Jeremiah H. Daly, one by Notre Dame, one by St. Bonaventure's 
Alumnae, one by the St. Thomas Parish, and one by Fred Wm. Derwin. Many 
private rooms were endowed in addition to the above ward endowemnts. 

In July, 1910, the hospital was formally incorporated, the board consisting of: 
President, Right Rev. John Nilan, D. D., vice president, Rev. Luke Fitzsimons, 
P. R. ; superintendent, Sister Mary Xavier, all of whom continue in their 
respective offices. The directors were Right Rev. John Nilan, D. D., Very Rev. 




ST. MARY'S HOSPITAL, WATERBLTRY 



WATERBURY AXI) THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 165 

Thomas Duggan, V. G., Rev. Luke Fitzsimons, P. R., Right Rev. John Synnoth, 
Rev. Timothy Crowley, LL. D., Rev. James E. O'Brien, Win. S. Jones, Terrence 
F. Carmody, Mortimer I teffernan, W'm. Kennedy, Thomas F. Jackson, Sister 
Mary Germain. 

The first medical staff of St. Mary's Hospital was as follows: President, 
Dr. B. G. O'Jlara; vice president. Dr. Nelson A. Pomeroy; secretary, Dr. John 
D. Freney. The surgeons were Doctors Pomeroy, Kilmartin, Crane, Lawlor, 
Russell and O'Connor. The consultants were Drs. D. F. Sullivan, J. F. O'Con- 
nor, J. B. Boucher of Plartford, T. F. McGrath of New York, and J. J. Higgins 
of New York. The physicians were Drs. M. J. Donahue, P. J. Dwyer, J. H. 
Dillon, F. I. McLarney, J. J. McLinden, P. J. Brennan. The consultants were 
Drs. J. E. Castle, A. W. Tracy of Meriden, W. J. Hogan, W. J. Delaney of Nau- 
gatuck, I). Reidy of Winsted, W. J. Barber, Jr., \V. J. Conklin of Ansonia, J. H. 
Kane of Thomaston, L. J. Thibault. Gynecologist, Dr. Charles A. Monagan; 
obstetrician. Dr. B. A. O'Hara ; ophthalmologist, Dr. D. F. Maloney; laryngologist, 
and aurist, Dr. J. D. Freney ; dermatologists, Drs. C. W. S. Frost and T. J. 
McLarney ; pediadrists, Drs. J. E. Farrell and T. F. Healey ; radiographist and 
orthopedist, Dr. J. L. Moriarty; pathologist, Dr. D. B. Deming; gastrologist, 
Dr. J. Gancher. 

In 1911 the hospital cared for 1,705 patients, an increase of 239 over the 
previous year. In 1912 there was an increase of 373 patients or 2,001 cases 
treated at the hospital; in 1913, 2,202; in 1914, 1,999; in 191 5, 2,619; m I 9 J 6, 

3 ? 388. 

St. Mary's Hospital as it is today has long since reached the limit of its 
capacity and the need of additional facilities is so apparent that the two proper- 
ties adjoining the hospital on Franklin Street have now been purchased, the one 
costing $11,500 and the other $15,000. On this it is proposed to construct the 
necessary additions just as soon as building conditions warrant. 

The Nurses Home, which was opened two years after the dedication of the 
hospital, has been an effective aid to the institution and is in charge of a corps of 
thoroughly experienced teachers. 

St. Mary's Hospital Aid Association, which was organized two years before 
the actual opening of the hospital and which at the very outset supplied the 
furnishings for the institution, has continued its splendid work of looking after 
the minor needs of the hospital. No year has passed without its array of useful 
gifts to the institution and patients. 

The officers of St. Mary's Hospital Aid Association follow : President, Mrs. 
M. J. Lawlor ; recording secretary, Angela Maloney ; financial secretary, Mar- 
garet Higgins ; treasurer, Susan O'Neil. 

The medical staff of the hospital is at present as follows: President, B. A. 
O'Hara, M. D. ; vice president, Nelson A. Pomeroy, M. D. ; secretary, J. D. 
Freney, M. D. ; visiting physicians. P. L Brennan, M. D. ; M. J. Donahue, M. D. ; 
T. J. McLarney. M. D. : J. H. Dillon. M. D. ; P. J. Dwyer, M. D. ; J. J. McLin- 
den, M. D. : assistant physician, R. J. Lawton, M. D., Terryville ; consultant phy- 
sicians, \V. T- Delaney, M. D. ; W. A. Reilly, M. D.. Naugatuck; visiting surgeons, 
T. T. Kilmartin. M. D. ; N. A. Pomeroy, M. D. ; M. J. Lawlor. M. D. ; G. W. 
Russell. M. D; P. T. O'Connor, M. D. ; consultant surgeon, A. A. Crane, M. D. ; 
assistant surgeons. J. W. Fruin, M. D. ; T. E. Parker, M. D. ; J. A. Grady. 
M. I).; A. I'. Yastola. M. D. ; attending surgeons, John Sinclair Dye, M. D. ; 
Andrew Jackson, M. D. ; gynecologist, Charles A. Monagan. M. D. ; proctologist. 
John J. Egan, M. D. ; obstetrician, B. A. O'Hara, M. D. ; pediatrists, J. E. Far- 



166 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

rell, M. D. ; T. J. Healey, M. D. ; R. J. Quinn, M. D. ; ophthalmic surgeon, D. J. 
Maloney, M. D. ; laryngologist, J. D. Freney, M. D. ; orthopedist, J. L. Moriarty, 
M. D. ; radiographists, J. L. Moriarty, M. D. ; J. H. McGrath, M. D. ; dermatolo- 
Frost,gist, T. J. McLarney, M. D. ; consultants, T. M. Bull, M. D. ; C. W. S. 
M. D. ; gastrologist, J. B. Gancher, M. D. 



CHAPTER XIV 
THE ORGANIZATION OF CHARITY 

ORGANIZATION OF THE ASSOCIATED CHARITIES — CHANGE IN OFFICIALS — SOCIAL 
SERVICE CLUB AND ITS WORK AIDING THE RED CROSS THE BUILDING OF LIN- 
COLN HOUSE — -THE ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS LEAGUE STARTING THE OPEN-AIR 

SCHOOL — RECORDS OE TWO YEARS ITS OFFICIALS FIRST "UNITED CHARITIES" 

DAY NURSERY — THE SOUTH MAYD HOME KING'S DAUGHTERS BABY WELFARE 

STATION THE QUEEN'S DAUGHTERS DAUGHTERS OF AMERICA SALVATION 

ARMY. 

In Waterbury, a generation ago, everybody knew everybody else, and sick- 
ness or misfortune that called for more than simple neighborly help could be 
brought to the attention of churches, lodges or employers and speedily relieved 
with certainty as to the conditions to be ameliorated. But as the city grew this 
communal system became disorganized. For many years after the depression 
which began in 1893 there was no public emergency that called for relief with 
the exception of the South Waterbury fire, which made many families homeless. 
The panic of 1908 fell suddenly and brought with it the realization that the exist- 
ing social machinery had not grown with the community and that a systematic 
organization of charitable effort was necessary. 

Before this, there had been a deepening social consciousness and a deepening 
interest in the community's living conditions which had manifested itself, espe- 
cially in the anti-tuberculosis work, part of a nation-wide crusade. Many good 
enterprises were already on foot ; some of them showed a tendency at times to 
overlap and some means of preventing duplication of effort became necessary. 
Thus the Associated Charities of Waterbury was formed in 1909, largely as a 
result of experience and observation of conditions during the preceding year. 

Lincoln House, the permanent home of the Associated Charities, has been 
designed for the Social Service work of the community. It was formally occu- 
pied during August, 191 7. This splendid structure, ideal for its purpose, is the 
gift of a small coterie of Waterbury's most prominent citizens, who have ex- 
pended approximately forty-two thousand dollars in their self-imposed task of 
properly housing the beneficent activities of the community. It may be said to 
mark for permanence the great work of co-ordinated charity in Waterbury. 

Of the growth of the Associated Charities since the date of its organization, 
and of the growth as well of the altruistic spirit that has fathered the movement, 
the following figures of monies raised and expended since October 1, K)O0, speak 
in no uncertain tones : 

October, ujog, to June 30. [910 $ 3,893.52 

July 1 . mho, to June 30, 1911 5.705-54 

July 1 . ii)ii, to June 30, [912 7, 578.76 

July 1. 1912, to June 30. 1913 8,097.14 

July r. 1913, to June 30, 1914 9,618.32 

167 



168 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

July i, 1914, to June 30, 1915 14,462.61 

July 1, 1915, to June 30, 1916 10,389.90 

July 1, 1916, to June 30, 1917 11,725.15 



$71,472.94 



This total does not include the money separately raised for playground work. 
The Associated Charities of Waterbury began its labors of co-ordinating and 
directing the charitable efforts of the community on October 1, 1909, and from 
that date until the end of its fiscal year, June 30, 1917, it has had under careful 
investigation and consideration approximately forty-five hundred cases, involv- 
ing close to fourteen thousand individuals. This is sufficient testimony that the 
organization has ably carried out its important mission of supplementing the 
various philanthropic enterprises which prior to 1909 worked along distinct lines, 
in many instances duplicating and confusing the great work of helpfulness to the 
unfortunates in Waterbury. 

Today by means of the organization, all of the city's philanthropic enterprises 
— district nursing, relief work, the war on tuberculosis, day nurseries, boys' and 
girls' clubs — are all in the field, each with its corps of willing and trained work- 
ers, laboring together and co-ordinated on behalf of the destitute and stricken. 

The functions of the Associated Charities may be regarded as fivefold. First. 
Co-ordination : To stand as a clearing house for the different philanthropic 
agencies, that each may know what the others are doing and thus be left free to 
carry its own work at highest efficiency. Second. Investigation : To inquire 
carefully into the needs of all applicants brought to its attention and bring them 
at once into communication with those organizations or other forces best fitted 
to meet the need. Third. Relief: To see that destitution is relieved so far as it 
is in its power to relieve it. Fourth. Civic Action : To endeavor to trace desti- 
tution to its social causes and to direct its energy toward the removal of those 
causes, wherever this is possible. Fifth. Charities Endorsement: To investi- 
gate the appeals for money or other assistance which come to the people of 
Waterbury from other cities for alleged charitable institutions or societies wher- 
ever these appeals come to its notice, and to keep on file a record of the results 
of inquiries for the benefit of all citizens who may be aided by such information. 
The Associated Charities is in existence to study the problem of poverty in 
Waterbury as a whole. Its aim is to protect the community from the worst evils 
due to poverty and to place destitute families in a position to help themselves. 

The history of its inception begins with the growing conviction in the years 
just prior to 1909, that a real and increasing need existed in the city for the 
establishment of some central office or agency to fill an evident gap in the local 
field of charitable effort. A number of active organizations for benevolent pur- 
poses were already in operation: the city department of charities, the churches, 
the hospitals, the day nurseries, the Industrial School, the Boys' Club, the Visiting 
Nurses' Association (which does nearly all the external hospital work of the city), 
the Anti-Tuberculosis League, the Women's Christian Temperance Union, the 
King's Daughters, the Queen's Daughters (a group of noble women who came 
from France when the religious orders were suppressed), the Sunshine Society, 
the Salvation Army (organized in Waterbury in 1892), all were doing charitable 
work, but each along its own particular line and each independently of the others. 
As a result, there was considerable repetition of relief ; some beneficiaries were 
receiving assistance from several sources without the knowledge, one of the 
other; others, in equal or greater need, failed to receive the kind or amount of 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 169 

assistance fitted to their necessities. There was no central office from which 
anyone could learn whether an applicant for relief was or was not already being 
aided by other means. Particularly was the lack felt of some place where the 
busy citizen or minister of a church, besought by frequent appeals for aid, could 
send an applicant and know that his case would be carefully investigated and that 
he would be brought into touch with the agency best suited to care for him. 

It is a pleasure to acknowledge at this point the appreciation that is felt for 
the inspiration proceeding from the heart and mind of Miss Helen E. Chase, 
whose time and means have always been given freely to brighten the lives of 
others. Circumstances prevented her from taking an active part in the organi- 
zation of the society and thanks are due to a few 7 other public-spirited citizens for 
the initial steps. Following their deliberations and their desire to obtain the best 
advice on the subject, correspondence was started with the Charity Organiza- 
tion Society and Russell Sage Foundation in New York City, which resulted in 
sending to Waterbury in January, 1909, Miss Margaret F. Byington, one of the 
heads of the department for the extension of organized charity. 

Conferences were then held between some of the ministers of the city churches, 
the head workers and directors of several philanthropic organizations, and a group 
of business men invited for the purpose, at which Miss Byington explained the 
objects, principles and methods of charity organization societies. The opinion 
was generally expressed by those present that such a society was needed in Water- 
bury. As a result of these meetings, a committee of eleven persons was appointed 
to take charge of the formation of the proposed society. This committee, as 
finally constituted, consisted of representatives from eight churches, from the city 
government, and from the general body of business men, and included the fol- 
lowing persons: Chairman, John Moriarty; secretary, Robert E. Piatt; John M. 
Burrall, Wallace H. Camp, Terrence F. Carmody, Isidore Chase, Louis E. Fitz- 
simons. Charles P. Kellogg, William O'Neil, Archibald E. Rice, and J. K. Smith. 
Frequent meetings of this committee were held during the winter months. On 
February 28, 1909, a general meeting was held at which delegates from the vari- 
ous churches and charitable organizations were present, articles of association 
were signed by thirty-one persons, and a constitution and by-laws for the pro- 
posed society were adopted. A body of thirty-six directors-at-large was elected 
at this time and an address was given by J. B. Deacon, manager of the Associated 
Charities of Paterson, N. J. 

The first regular meeting of the board of directors was held in City Hall 
Annex on April 18, 1909, when the officers and executive committee were elected 
who had charge of the society during its first year of active existence. A special 
public meeting of the society was held on May 25th, in Institute Hall, at which a 
revised constitution and by-laws were adopted and James Minnick, superintend- 
ent of the Society for Organizing Charity in Providence, R. I., spoke upon some 
of the broader aspects of organized charity work. 

At all of the meetings of the organizing committee, and later of the execu- 
tive committee, much attention was devoted to the nature of the work that it 
was proposed to do in Waterbury, and to the question whether there should be 
engaged as manager of the society some resident of the place, or whether some 
person of experience should be secured elsewhere who had had training in this 
particular kind of work. The decision was in favor of engaging an experienced 
worker. The executive committee felt itself fortunate in securing in July, 1909, 
as manager of the Waterbury society, Howard L. Udell, who had just completed 
a year and a half as head of the Associated Charities of Pawtucket, R. I., and 
before that had been for three years in the Bureau of Charities in Chicago, part 
of the time in charge of one of the large district offices of that society. 



170 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

The Associated Charities of Waterbury opened its office in the Cowell-Guil- 
foile Building, on October I, 1909, under the direction of Mr. Udell. 

In the very first nine months of its history, the nature of its work was made 
clear. It provided hospital care in 15 cases and it referred patients in 42 in- 
stances to the Anti-Tuberculosis League, and in 26 instances to the Visiting Nurses' 
Association. 

Of the 64 cases of unemployment which were brought to it during the nine 
months ending July 1, 1910, not a few were the result of either intemperance or 
inefficiency. Thirty applications for help were traced directly to intemperance. 
28 to old age, 21 to accidents, 19 to death of the bread-winner or some older 
member of the family, 11 to grave mental defects, 7 to poverty and illness attrib- 
utable directly to immorality, 4 to the bread-winner being imprisoned, several 
to desertion, and 51 to the power of self-support having been destroyed or seri- 
ously impaired by the habit of promicuous begging. 

During this initial period the Associated Charities was asked to give or with- 
hold its endorsement in six instances where outside persons solicited funds in 
Waterbury for alleged charitable institutions. Two of these were pretended uni- 
versities in the South. Most careful inquiries could not, however, discover any- 
thing resembling a university in either of the places. In one there were few, if 
any, students, and the man who posed as president evidently reaped considerable 
profit out of northern philanthropists, desirous of helping the cause of education 
among the colored race. The other was declared by persons having knowledge 
of the situation, to be inefficient to the last degree. The organization was also 
called upon by out-of-town societies and institutions to make investigations in 
twenty-three instances. 

The keynote of the second year's labor of the Associated Charities was 
sounded at the annual and mid-winter meetings of its board of directors. The 
first of these was addressed by Dr. Hastings H. Hart, of the Russell Sage Foun- 
dation, on the general subject of "Child-Helping." The speaker compared at 
length the advantages of home and institutional care for children and showed the 
incomparable superiority of home life as a means of fitting a boy or girl for ulti- 
mate citizenship. At the second meeting. Judges Clark, of Hartford, and Math- 
ewson, of New Haven, told of the splendid work done in each of these cities by 
a woman probation officer, in visiting the homes of neglected or incorrigible chil- 
dren, guiding them and their parents toward better living. As a result of their 
representations, the meeting placed itself on record as urging the desirability of 
appointing a woman probation officer in Waterbury. After a thorough investiga- 
tion of the qualifications of various candidates, the choice fell upon Miss Lillian 
Greenwood, of Philadelphia, whose services in Waterbury began September 1, 
1911. 

During the summer of 191 t, the South Main Street playground was opened 
through the efforts of the Associated Charities, and Miss Sadie Bleistift, a teacher 
in one of the New York public schools and an experienced worker in the recre- 
ation centers of that city, was engaged as play-leader, entering on her services 
July 1st and continuing until August 31st. During that time her capability and 
resourcefulness was the wonder of all who saw her. An attractive feature was 
the folk-dancing, in which the girls took part with great enthusiasm, while the 
younger ones had their time and talent absorbed by the study of one of Mrs. 
John Shotwell's charming playlets. 

The regretted and unexpected departure in May, 191 2, of the manager, How- 
ard L. Udell, to a position of larger responsibility and remuneration as head of 
the Associated Charities in Detroit, Mich., called attention to the affairs of the 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 17] 

Waterbury society in a way that his quiet but effective work might not otherwise 
have done. As his successor, the executive committee secured Eugene Kerner, 
of Newark. X. J., who came highly recommended after two years' experience in 
the Organized Charities of Chicago, fourteen months as head of the Ohio Valley 
district of the Associated Charities of Pittsburgh, and two years as organizer of 
the state-wide antituberculosis campaign in Kentucky. 

An interesting event in the record for the year 191 2 was the incorporation of 
the society under the general laws of the state, regulating the formation of volun- 
tary associations without capital stock. 

Some further evidence of the helpful work of the Associated Charities among 
the destitute and stricken was brought out in the manager's report for the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1912. Among the 588 families applying to the society in the 
year [911-1912 there were found 275 persons suffering from bodily or mental 
defects of long standing and. not susceptible to immediate cure. Seventy-one of 
these were victims of tuberculosis, 14 suffering from defective sight, 11 were 
feeble minded, there were 7 paralytics, there were 6 epileptics, 6 insane. 6 who 
suffered from chronic heart trouble, 5 deaf mutes, 5 suffering from rheumatism, 
4 handicapped with chronic kidney trouble, 4 totally blind, 3 with deformed feet, 
3 affected with serious venereal, trouble, 3 with spinal difficulty, 2 with Bright's 
disease, broken back, infantile paralysis, deformed hand, cancer, loss of an arm, 
loss of a hand, mental backwardness, loss of a leg, and defective speech. In addi- 
tion to these there were 8 families having tubercular history. 6 in which tubercu- 
losis was suspected, and 91 cases of alcoholism. 

There were 22 instances of sex immorality, 6 families with children in the 
reform school, 6 addicted to the habitual use of drugs, 6 truant children, 5 incor- 
rigibles. 4 persons with simply a police record. 4 others who had served time in the 
penitentiary, 3 privately known to be dishonest, 3 merely irresponsible, 2 sex 
degenerates, and 2 deserting mothers. 

In the summer of 1912, Waterbury possessed four public playgrounds in addi- 
tion to the two conducted respectively by the Waterbury Industrial School and 
the Associated Charities. 

What the Associated Charities has been able to do in the interest of housing 
reform in Waterbury has been, as yet, only tentative. Through the efforts of the 
society a committee of the State Conference was enabled to authorize an investi- 
gation of the housing conditions of the city. The services of Dr. Carol Aranovici, 
formerly with the Bureau of Municipal Research in New York and later at Prov- 
idence, were secured by this committee. Under his direction, an investigation 
was conducted which covered 1,000 tenement houses in Waterbury and the 
result of this survey was presented in a series of graphic stereopticon pictures at 
the second meeting of the State Conference on the evening of Sunday. April 14, 
1912. 

An interesting feature of the activities of 1912 was the organizing of the 
Social Service Club, to which all persons having rendered some service to any 
one of the city's philanthropic organizations are eligible. It meets one evening 
each month, from October to May. Its program consists of a dinner, followed 
by an address from some specialist in social work on his own-chosen line, con- 
cluding with a general discussion. This club has for its object, chiefly the promo- 
tion of acquaintance and good-fellowship among the active workers in the chari- 
table field, and secondarily to provide an intellectual stimulus that can not fail to 
be a source of added strength for the tasks of the day. 

It was in the fiscal years ended June 30, 1914, and June 30. 1915, respectively, 
that the Associated Charities had its greatest tasks. During the winter of 19 14 



172 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

it rendered some kind of useful service to 775 families, comprising 3,434 individ- 
uals, of whom 1,892 were children under fourteen years of age. Twenty-four 
nationalities were represented. This number does not include hundreds of home- 
less men who applied for assistance. 

It met the unusual conditions of hundreds of unemployed by providing 882 
days of emergency employment for all able-bodied men with families. It paid 
these men daily in the form of cash, food, fuel or rent as seemed best for each 
particular case. There was spent in this way $1,335.45. It kept the men in good 
physical condition and preserved their independence and self-respect. To the 
splendid success of this scheme much credit is due to the city street department, 
which furnished the teams, tools and foremen for the work. 

It created sewing for a large number of women who were the bread-winners 
for the family. The sum of $1,373.08 was spent in this way for labor and mate- 
rial. These women turned out 3,800 garments, 2,521 of which were sent to the 
Red Cross and Belgian Relief, and the remainder were used locally. 

It secured the co-operation of citizens, who provided days work for the unem- 
ployed and paid them in cash. 

With the return of prosperity came a new problem for the Associated Chari- 
ties, — that of providing for those hard hit by the high cost of living. In its report 
for the year ended June 30, 1916, the manager says: "There are many families 
with a large number of children who are worse off now than before our prosperity 
began. We spent $4,415.53 in the form of material relief in giving needed aid 
to these families. 

"No able-bodied and mentally normal men have applied to the Associated 
Charities during the entire year. Only sick, old and physically handicapped are 
asking for help now. The present demand for able-bodied men only makes their 
case more pitiful. 

"Material relief without careful personal service is not enough for these fami- 
lies. Where there is illness, careful attention must be given to insure proper med- 
ical care. The well members must be given adequate income so that they may 
be kept well. 

"Where defective eyes are formed, a competent oculist is consulted and glasses 
purchased. Where children have improper clothing and shoes for school, the 
parents must be persuaded (in some cases forced) to buy them, or if upon inves- 
tigation they are found unable to buy these articles, they must be provided for 
them. * * 

"With the relief goes the care and plan for the future, which is the only 
thing that really makes relief worth while. To give a man food one day and not 
sufficient thought and service with it to know what will become of him the next 
day will secure no benefit for him. The Associated Charities aims to remove as 
far as possible the cause of poverty, thus making the need for relief less neces- 
sary." 

Nor does the work of helpfulness end here. There is the task also of the 
Visiting Housekeeper, who is working with scores of families monthly. 

As secretary of the Committee on Civilian Relief of the local Red Cross Chap- 
ter, the manager of the Associated Charities had charge of the investigations and 
disbursements of the fund for dependent families of soldiers called to the Mex- 
ican border in 191 6, in the Army service. The workers of the Associated Chari- 
ties at all times give freely of their services to kindred social service work, such 
the the Red Cross work, Christmas Seal Campaign, Social Service Club, and 
others. 
. During the fiscal year ended June" 30, 1917, the unusual growth and develop- 



WATERBURY AND THE NTAUGATUCK VALLEY 173 

inent of the Red Cross work, due to the war, has tested the energies of the Asso- 
ciated Charities. Its Red Cross Civilian Relief work has also gone on along the 
lines of the Mexican mobilization period. 

Its regular work of assistance for the poor and the sick has been looked after 
with the expert skill which has given the Associated Charities of Waterbury a 
title to the gratitude of the community. 

The officers of the organization at present are: John P. Elton, president; 
Darragh DeLancey, vice president; Edwin C. Northrop, treasurer; Robert E. 
Piatt, secretary; Eugene Kerner, manager; executive committee, Mrs. J. Hobart 
Bronson, Mrs. Arthur R. Kimball, Miss Alice Kingsbury, W. S. Jones, Dr. D. B. 
Deming, Charles P. Kellogg, Walter D. Makepeace, and Mrs. H. L. Wade. 

The directors-at-large elected in 1917 were: Mrs. J. Hobart Bronson, Rev. 
F. D. Buckley, Rev. Robert E. Brown, Mrs. W. H. Camp, T. F. Carmody, Miss 
Helen E. Chase, Isidore Chase, X. Combellack, Darragh DeLancey, Dr. A. Bed- 
ford-Deming, Dr. D. B. Deming, John P. Elton, Mrs. John P. Elton, Dr. F. J. 
Erbe, George A. Goss, Mrs. K. D. Hamilton, H. G. Hoadley, Mrs. C. A. Jackson, 
William S. Jones, Mrs. A. R. Kimball, Miss Alice Kingsbury, W. D. Makepeace, 
Julius Maltby, Dr. James L. Moriarty, John Moriarty, Edwin C. Northrop, 
William O'Neil, Miss Katherine L. Peck, Robert E. Piatt, Rev. H. B. Sloat, Mrs. 
Archer J. Smith, Cornelius Tracy, Mrs. H. L. Wade, Jay H. Hart. 

THE ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS LEAGUE OF WATERBURY 

W'aterbury's Anti-Tuberculosis League was officially organized February 16, 
1908. During the nine years of its existence, it has a record of upwards of one 
hundred and seventy thousand visits to houses in which advice or service was 
needed. It has taken out of Waterbury and placed into sanitarium or into health- 
ful country surroundings approximately four thousand patients, who thus ceased 
to be a menace to family and friends. Outdoor sleeping accommodations have 
been provided in several hundred cases. Caretakers have been supplied in many 
instances ; milk, food, and medicine have been distributed where needed. The 
open air school, now a part of Waterbury's school system, was inaugurated. The 
children's clinic has done incalculable good. 

These results, thus briefly summarized, give the objects that underlie the 
organization of the Waterbury Anti-Tuberculosis League. 

It was at a meeting, not well attended, in the early days of 1908, that the first 
steps were taken to create the league. At this meeting an address was delivered 
by John F. Gunshanan, of Hartford, and the plan of organization was outlined 
by the men and women who have been continuously at its helm. These were 
Arthur R. Kimball, still the president of the league; Dr. Thomas J. Kilmartin, 
secretary throughout its history, and Dr. Elizabeth C. Spencer, of its early execu- 
tive committee and now an honorary member. 

The plan of organization embodied the election of delegates by the various 
fraternal societies to represent them on a central committee. This central com- 
mittee, consisting of 156 delegates, met and elected the customary officers and an 
executive committee of fifteen, who were empowered to carry on the active work. 
The executive committee organized immediately and proceeded to adopt consti- 
tution and by-laws. It was early decided that the dispensary system of reaching 
and aiding those afflicted was the one best suited for Waterbury and contributions 
were solicited from the various societies that had sent delegates. Societies re- 
sponded in amounts ranging from five to one hundred dollars, and in a very 
short time $1,310.59 was raised in this way. Private contributions brought the 



174 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

amount up to $2,037.02, and with this fund as a nucleus the real work began by 
the installing of Mary C. Gormley as nurse in charge, the supplying of the needy 
with articles of diet suited to their condition, and the providing of means for an 
out-of-door life to those who could not otherwise procure it. 

It seems only simple justice to make official record in this place of the league's 
appreciation of the remarkable and devoted work, in behalf of the success of 
Waterbury's first Tag Day, of Dr. Elizabeth C. Spencer, her immediate associates, 
and practically all the women of Waterbury. This gave an additional $5,965.28 
for the work of the league during the first year. 

The actual labors in behalf of Waterbury's victims of the White Plague 
began April 20, 1908. 

At first, when the patients were few in number, the nurse was able to give 
them considerable practical care. But as the number increased, it was evident 
that preventive and educational work must take the lead, and the friends and 
relatives of the patients must receive instruction that would enable them to give 
baths and attend otherwise to the personal comfort and well-being of the patients. 

A number of cases were reported by the Board of Health, Board of Charities, 
a few by the doctors, and some by the patients themselves, their friends, and other 
sources. The favorable cases were discovered by having those who had been 
exposed to the disease examined by Doctor Deming at his class meeting on 
Wednesday mornings, when possible for the patient to attend, or at his office by 
appointment. 

A summary of the first year's work is interesting. Fifteen patients were sent 
to the Gaylord Farm Sanatorium, only two of whom were self-supporting. Two 
patients were supported by the league, three by different fraternal organizations, 
one by the Board of Charities, five by individuals interested in work being done, 
and two by presidents of manufacturing concerns. 

Two patients, rejected from Gaylord Farm Sanatorium, were sent to a sani- 
tarium in Rutland, Mass. One of 'these was self-supporting and one was sup- 
ported by two clergymen. 

One patient was sent to the Hartford Hospital, and one was sent to Ireland 
by the Board of Charities ; one was sent to Ireland by relatives ; one to Cleveland, 
O., by fraternal organizations; one to Denver, Colo., by a benevolent society; one 
went South by the aid of friendly subscriptions ; one went to Providence, R. I., 
and one ex-patient of Gaylord Farm Sanatorium went to work in Westfield, 
Mass. Five were sent to country places where homes had been secured. 

One hundred and fifty-two patients were visited by the nurse, a total of 1,872 
visits being made. 

Fourteen patients were ordered to sleep out of doors on verandas, protected 
by drop curtains; twenty reclining chairs were loaned to patients while taking the 
cure at home, and to ten patients room and board allowance were given. 

At the beginning of the second year, it was found necessary to engage the 
services of a second nurse, and Miss Josephine V. Hayes, a graduate of the New 
York City Training School, having had considerable experience, and being a very 
efficient Waterbury nurse, received the appointment. The work of instructing 
and helping patients in their homes was therefore strengthened and a great deal 
of good has been accomplished. 

During the second year, 162 new cases were given service and 3,850 visits 
were recorded by nurses. Of the 27 patients sent to Gaylord Farm Sanatorium, 
in 1909, only 6 were self-supporting, 8 were supported by private individuals, 8 
received partial support by the league, 2 were entirely supported by the league, 
1 by the city, 9 received help from manufacturers and fraternal organizations. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 175 

During this year the work grew apace, and Dr. Dudley B. Deming, assistant 
secretary, recorded over one hundred examinations. Dr. John E. Farrell was 
appointed to take special charge of a children's anti-tuberculosis class. 

In 1912 the opening of the pavilion for children in the Gaylord Farm Sana- 
torium supplied a long-felt need. Two Waterbury children were sent there by 
the league immediately after the opening. 

Two years ago the open air school, which had been conducted by the league 
with eminent success, was turned over to the school system. It is now conducted 
during the school year on the roof of the Clark School. The average number of 
pupils is forty. These are all those in the public schools who show a tendency to 
lung trouble, and who have permission of parents to attend the school. Break- 
fast and noonday lunches are supplied, and these consist of the diet so essential 
in cases with tubercular tendencies. 

In August, 1 91 7, the league occupied its new rooms in Lincoln House. Here- 
after it will have splendid accommodations in which to continue its work. 

The records for the last two years ended February, 1917, show the growth of 
the work. During this two year period, 362 cases were sent to Gaylord Farm, 
586 were sent to state sanitaria, 145 to county or other institutions, a total of 
1,093 removed from Waterbury and no longer a menace to the healthy. During 
this two year period, league nurses visited 3,539 cases needing special attention. 
In addition, 65,000 visits were made to houses in which advice or service was 
needed. 

During the nine years of its existence, Waterbury's citizens have provided 
well for its needs, the total approximating close to seventy-five thousand dollars. 

The officers of the league are as follows : President, A. R. Kimball ; first vice 
president, J. L. Saxe ; second vice president, S. F. Gorham; secretary, Dr. T. J. 
Kilmartin ; assistant secretary, Dr. Dudley B. Deming ; treasurer, Walter W. 
Holmes; publicity secretary, Eugene Kerner; executive committee, Oscar Zieg- 
ler, John Robinson, John F. Galvin, Christian F. Lund, William Tysoe, F. S. 
Gorham, Rocco Mancini, Paul G. Schultze, A. W. Darley, William Dinneen, 
D. L. Summey, W. J. Pape, Albert Lampke, Dr. Chas. Engelke. 

THE FIRST "UNITED CHARITIES" 

On April 30, 1894, at a meeting held in the old Y. M. C. A. Hall the "United 
Charities" of Waterbury was organized. This to begin with co-operated with the 
Association for Christian Visitation and Charity which had been organized in 
1891 by the Protestant churches of the city. At this meeting in April E. M. 
Dickinson represented the association for Christian Visitation and Charity, Mrs. 
R. N. Blakeslee represented the King's Daughters, Henry W. Scovill represented 
the Boys' Club, Patrick Holahan the Catholic churches, Horace G. Hoadley the 
Citizens' Bureau. Later the Hebrew Ladies' Benevolent Association, the Indus- 
trial School and other like organizations joined. Until January 1, 1896, the 
expense of maintaining the central office was borne by the directors of Christian 
Visitation and Charity, who also continued their work, particularly that con- 
nected with a broom factory established in 1893. Its secretary was Edward M. 
Dickinson. For two years it held its quarterly meetings in February, May, 
August and November, but in 1897 the organization work waned and the activities 
were again taken up by the various societies. 

TITK WATERBURY DAY NURSERY 

The Waterbury Day Nursery, the object of which is the daily care of children 
under ten, whose mothers are forced to self-support outside their homes, had its 



176 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

beginning in February, 1895, in a small building on Leavenworth Street, later 
the site of the tire house. It began with the care of three babies whose cribs 
were market baskets, but under the devoted care of Mrs. Steinmeyer, the first 
matron, it grew both in number and equipment. In 1897 it moved to Spring 
Street, and in 1898 it secured the home on Kingsbury Street. This, with a large 
yard in the rear for a playground, made an ideal place for its work. 

One of its beautiful customs established since its second year is the annual 
Christmas tree which all of its children come to enjoy. 

In 191 1 its total attendance was 9,322. Its largest record for one day was 
fifty and its smallest eight. 

This record of service has been kept up through the years since then, with 
over fifty children on the list and an average daily attendance of thirty-six. Its 
record for May, 1917, was 762; for June, 745; for July, 948; for August, 648; 
for September, 639; for October, 646; for November, 858. 

The equipment for its work is ideal. The kindergarten is finished in red 
enamel and has in it all of the usual appurtenances of educational beginnings. 
The baby room is in white enamel and has thirteen cradles. In this room are 
low circular tables with playthings. There are fine bathing facilities for the 
children. 

Dinner and supper are served the children daily. While no children over 
eight years of age are cared for, meals are provided for any little ones that 
require such service. 

At present Airs. L. M. Fowler is superintendent. 

The officers of the Day Nursery are : President, Edith Kingsbury ; secretary, 
Mrs. H. Milroy Steele ; treasurer, Martha R. Driggs. 

THE SOUTH MAYD HOME 

Mrs. Thomas Donaldson was the founder of Southmayd Home. Although 
it was not opened until 1898 it was in her mind as early as 1889, when she 
deposited $10 in a savings bank as the nucleus of a fund for the establishment 
of an Old Ladies' Home in Waterbury. Within four years she had secured 
$1,700 and many pledges, so that on June 26, 1894, the property on North Main 
Street on which the home was first located was purchased. 

It was the original purpose of Mrs. Donaldson to establish the home for 
members of the First Congregational Church only. But gradually the plan 
broadened, and although the lot and home were deeded to the First Church it 
was decided to make the home non-sectarian. 

The name "Southmayd" was suggested by Dr. Joseph Anderson in honor of 
one of the early pastors of the church. 

Its first board of managers was selected in December, 1894, and consisted of 
Mrs. Thomas Donaldson, Mrs. G. S. Parsons, Mrs. W. E. Riley, Mrs. C. F. 
Chapin, Mrs. O. S. Northrop, Mrs. C. A. Hamilton, Miss Susan H. Cairns of the 
First Church, Mrs. A. A. Blackmail, Miss Charlotte B. Merriman, Mrs. A. C. 
Northrop, Mrs. A. I. Goodrich, Miss Caroline A. Piatt representing the other 
churches of the city. H. H. Peck, E. C. Lewis and Cornelius Tracy were named 
as advisory committee. 

The managers did not meet until 1897. Mrs. Donaldson had, however, been 
busy and in August, 1897, announced that the Southmayd Home was free of 
debt and would be opened in the spring. 

At the first meeting of the board of managers, January 26, 1898, Mrs. A. I. 
Goodrich was chosen president; Miss Susan H. Cairns, secretary, which position 



WATERBURY AND THE XAUGATUCK VALLEY 177 

she still occupies, and Mrs. Thomas Donaldson, treasurer. It was not opened in 
the spring, hut the delay was brief, for on September 26, 1898, the home was 
dedicated, its first occupant being Mrs. Betsey 15. Merritt, eighty-one years old 
and blind. She died at the home October 7, 1900. 

On January 6, 1901, the board selected Mrs. Thomas Donaldson as superin- 
tendent and she occupied this position until 191 1. Mrs. Donaldson died in 
November, 1916. 

The home on North Main Street was entirely inadequate, even with an annex 
which was later added, for it could accommodate but six old ladies. 

In 191 1 the former Nurses' Home, of twenty-five rooms, part of the older 
buildings of the Waterbury Hospital, was leased to the Southmayd Home 
managers and it now accommodates sixteen old ladies. 

The organization has, however, purchased a lot on the Boulevard and will 
begin the construction of an ideal Old Ladies' Home with more than double 
the present capacity, as soon as building conditions permit and as quickly as a 
building fund can be obtained. The need of this is imperative, as the applica- 
tions are now far beyond capacity. 

The Southmayd Home has, through the bequest of Elisha Leavenworth and 
E. C. Lewis, about $90,000 in its maintenance fund, but this cannot be touched 
for building purposes. 

The officers and directors of the Southmayd Home are as follows : President, 
Mrs. W. H. Pierce; vice president, Mrs. W. E. Riley; secretary, Miss S. H. 
Cairns; treasurer, Mrs. H. G. Anderson. 

Members of the board are : Mrs. W. H. Pierce, Mrs. W. E. Riley, Miss S. H. 
Cairns, Mrs. H. G. Anderson, Mrs. W. W. Holmes, Mrs. C. A. Hamilton, Mrs. 
D. B. Deming, Mrs. W. S. Kellogg, Mrs. C. H. Merriam, Mrs. A. D. Field, 
Mrs. J. A. Coe. 

Members of advisory board: Cornelius Tracy, H. H. Peck, Edgar S. Lincoln. 

THE KIXG'.S DAUGHTERS 

The King's Daughters was organized in May, 1888, and of its ten original 
members there are now living Mrs. I. N. Russell, Mrs. R. William Hampson, Mrs. 
Ralph N. Blakeslee and Miss Florence Mabel Chapman. Mrs. A. I. Goodrich, 
who was its president for twenty-five years, died three years ago. She was also 
among the founders. The organization is non-denominational and does its work 
of benevolence and charity quietly and effectively. It takes many cases in hand 
which could not well be looked after by the Associated Charities. In many 
instances it supplies weekly allowances to really deserving poor. 

At Christmas time it distributes baskets of fruit to its long list of people 
needing help. 

In November, 191 6, the King's Daughters purchased the three-story building 
at 38 Grove Street. In this, to begin with, six girls were provided with room 
and board. In November, 191 7, there are twenty-two girls in Grove Hall and 
many applicants that cannot be considered because of lack of accommodations. 
The young women are given room and board for $6.00 or $7.00 weekly. The 
property cost the King's Daughters $15,000, and this has nearly all been paid off. 

There are at present eighty members who pay annual dues and who secure 
donations for the work of the organization. 

Its president is Mrs. Ellen J. YVhiton, the second to serve it in this capacity 
since its organization. Other officers are : Secretary, Miss Flora Church ; treas- 
urer. Miss Helen Chase. The board of managers consists of the officers and 
Vol. 1—12 



178 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Mrs. Ralph N. Blakeslee, Mrs. S. R. Kelsey, Mrs. George S. Bissett and Airs. 
Rosa Simmons. The house mother is Mrs. Elizabeth C. Osborne. 

THE BABY WELFARE STATION 

The Visiting Nurses' Association of Waterbury among its many notable good 
deeds since its organization has done nothing more beneficial to the community 
than the establishment in June, 1916, of the Baby Welfare Station at 904 Bank 
Street. There clinics are held weekly on Tuesday and Friday with volunteer 
medical services. A nurse is daily in attendance, and until 1 1 o'clock every morn- 
ing pasteurized milk is sold at wholesale to mothers. 

The Ladies' Aid Society has been a helpful factor in the work. This consists 
of Miss Edith Kingsbury, Mrs. John N. Lewis, Mrs. Fred. S. Chase, Miss Martha 
R. Driggs, Miss North, Mrs. Henry L. Wade. 

THE QUEEN'S DAUGHTERS 

The Queen's Daughters is a Catholic women's charitable organization, founded 
in 1900 with Father Dunnegan as its first chaplain. Since then it has been 
served in this capacity by Father Dooley of Sacred Heart Parish, Father James 
Broderick and now Father J. A. Doherty of Immaculate Conception. It helps 
the poor and sick throughout the city by furnishing food, clothing, fuel, medicine, 
etc., by employing as nurses for the needy sick the Sisters of the Holy Ghost, 
who made 1,026 visits during the year, to November 30, 191 7, and by giving 
treatment at St. Mary's Hospital when necessary. Its members now number 
362. Its officers are : Mrs. B. Doran, president ; Margaret Higgins, vice presi- 
dent; Mrs. J. Powers, recording secretary; Anna Dwyer, financial secretary; 
Rev. J. A. Doherty, treasurer and chaplain. 

The Sisters of the Holy Ghost are French nuns who sought refuge in the 
United States on their expulsion with many other religious orders from France. 

THE DAUGHTERS OF AMERICA 

The Daughters of America, Lincoln Council No. 5, is the Waterbury branch 
of the national organization of that name. The local council has been in existence 
since 1905. It pays only funeral benefits. Its membership is about thirty. 

Its present officers are : Curator, Mrs. Lillian Schroeder ; recording secretary, 
Mrs. Minnie Clark; financial secretary, C. L. Clark; treasurer, J. A. Schroeder. 

THE SALVATION ARMY 

The Salvation Army began its work in Waterbury in April, 1892, and the first 
officers in charge were Capt. Alexander Lamb and Lieut. W. Salmon. The first 
meetings were largely street gatherings, and night after night required police 
protection. A little later the interest increased and the old rink, which stood 
on the site of the present Buckingham Music Hall, was engaged for the meetings. 
Even though these were held indoors, they were by no means always of a peaceful 
nature. In fact, there is a story which has been handed down as an authentic 
Salvation Army human document, which tells how Captain Lamb was thrown 
out of a window by the roughs who had come to the rink to break up the meeting. 

But the work grew as it has grown in all American cities. The interest of 
Waterbury in the institution may be said to date from the mass meeting at the 



VVATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 179 

Auditorium October 29, 1894, when the head of the army, Gen. William Booth, 
addressed both indoor and overflow gatherings. 

In 1895 the social or industrial work of the army was started by Capt. John 
York. This was made possible by the helpfulness of Waterbury citizens. Henry 
W. Scovill loaned the army the land on which its first woodyard was established. 
Ralph N. Blakeslee gave his team to draw the wood, and there were many gen- 
erous people who gave the money to buy the wood or gave the wood. This was 
very successful through several cold winters, and was one of the best aids the 
city had in its charitable work. 

In 1900 the army was in a position to occupy a building of its own, and the 
present two-story structure at 281 Bank Street was erected by Mrs. Ida Norton. 
While it was used for a time, it was not until 1905 that it was bought outright. 
One ground floor store is rented out, and the remainder is used for the religious 
work of the army. The officers in charge today feel that the Salvation Army 
needs new and larger quarters and in a section where it can be more useful. 

One other notable visit, that of Commander Booth-Tucker, now in charge of 
the Salvation Army work in India, in 1905, attracted local attention to its work 
and was followed by generous assistance on the part of public-spirited citizens 
of Waterbury. 

From 1905 on, the army leased the building at 324 South Main Street for its 
industrial work. This proved of exceptional value in the charitable work of the 
city. To supplement the work done in this building, Mr. Scovill loaned the army 
the property at the corner of Field and Meadow streets, where baling of paper 
was done and furniture and garments were sorted for distribution in the larger 
building. During the past five years, six teams have been employed collecting 
furniture, garments, shoes, paper, in a wide area. Twenty-five to thirty men 
have been given employment. This work, until April, 191 7, was in charge of 
Envoy Harry G. Frese. 

At that time the rented building at 324 South Main Street was sold, the rent 
was trebled, and the army forced to give up its industrial work in Waterbury, as 
it was found impossible to find another suitable location at a reasonable outlay. 
This was followed by the transfer of Envoy Frese to Boston, where he is now 
helping at the Salvation Army's social center. The teams were shipped to Boston 
and Hartford, and the army is waiting a change in rental conditions so that the 
work can be resumed here. 

In the meantime, the religious work continues in charge of Adjutant and 
Mrs. A. J. Tilley, who have been here for three years, coming from Framingham, 
Mass. They began their Salvation Army work thirty years ago, as pioneer 
officers in Newfoundland, and went from there to Canada. For the last twenty 
years they have been with the army in nearly every large town in New England. 

The work of the Salvation Army has appealed to the best people here, and its 
list of annual donors contains the name of nearly every public-spirited citizen 
of Waterbury. H. B. Tuttle of Naugatuck, A. A. Benedict, I. H. Chase, H. H. 
Peck and Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Reed Kimball are among those who have in the 
past decade been particularly helpful. 

Just now Adjutant and Mrs. Tilley are arranging to have the Waterbury 
branch represented in the great war work done by the Salvation Army, and which 
is much along the lines of the Red Cross work. 



CHAPTER XV 
REVIEW OF WATERBURY'S MANUFACTURES 

THE CENTER OF THE BRASS INDUSTRY ITS PERCENTAGE OF OUTPUT BY DECADES 

CENSUS FIGURES SHOW STRANGE CHANGES — PRODUCTION OF NEEDLES, PINS, 

HOOKS AND EYES NUMBER AND WAGES OF WORKERS IN WATERBURY FACTORIES 

SINCE 1899 CENSUS FIGURES ON VALUE OF WATERBURY PRODUCTS WHAT 

WATERBURY MANUFACTURES CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT SEX OF WAGE 

EARNERS THE WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION LAW FACTORY CONSTRUCTION 

SINCE I9OO. 

The older readers of this volume, whose memories run back to the Waterbury 
of the '90s, will remember some of the qualms with which many of our native 
New Englanders, who then constituted the bulk of the population, regarded the 
future of the city. 

It had been growing satisfactorily in business and population, having estab- 
lished itself as the brass center of the United States and having definitely out- 
grown, by the census of 1900, such former leaders or old rivals as Norwich, Meri- 
den, Danbury and New Britain. It did a thriving business in pins, machinery 
and clocks. It was the home of the Waterbury watch. 

But to many earnest observers of the times, all this seemed to be against 
nature. New England as a whole was working against difficulties which must 
cause her manufactures to decay as her agriculture had in the preceding gen- 
eration. Cotton mills were developing in the South, shoe factories in the 
Middle West, machine shops in Pennsylvania, brass foundries in Illinois and 
Michigan. New England was doomed. The argument against Waterbury was 
stronger than against New England as a whole. All of our raw materials 
came from long distances. Coal had to be hauled from Pennsylvania and no cop- 
per was mined within a thousand miles. With the upbuilding of the industries 
of the Middle West, and consequent shifting westward of the center of demand, 
was it reasonable that we could continue to haul copper and spelter past the 
factories of so many of our customers, and ship it back to them as brass bearing 
the charge of a double freight rate? Waterbury had no natural advantages, — 
absolutely none. With the industrial awakening of the enterprising West, she 
must cease to grow and her business must languish! In 1898 the opening of 
Center Street was opposed at a public hearing on the ground, that Waterbury had 
ceased to grow and would never need another business street. 

There was another cause for uneasiness in the "trust" movement which 
marked the closing years of that decade. Our industries might be gathered into 
the grasp of giant corporations whose controlling spirits, destitute alike of local 
affiliations and decency of sentiment, would cold-bloodedly close down many 
factories on the ground that Waterbury was not a logical site for an industry, 
When the International Silver Company acquired the local silver plate factories 
and promptly vacated the newly-built Rogers & Hamilton factory, the gloomiest 

180 




P 

H 



(— i 
Q 
P 

P 

m 

H 

« 
i— i 

o 



x 



VVATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 181 

prophecies seemed confirmed. To the minds of the prophets of evil it was a 
sign and a warning. 

One of the capable manufacturers of Waterbury, who has been a wizard in 
making two crucible furnaces blossom where one had previously shone, was asked 
a few years ago whether the iqio census, then being taken, would indicate that 
Waterbury was in danger of losing her position as the seat of the American 
brass trade, lie said frankly that he did not know. He knew the percentage of 
growth of his own enterprises but not the proportion of the brass business 
that was done in Waterbury. But he answered in terms of brick and mortar. 
He pointed out that the continuous enlargements of the Naugatuck Valley brass 
foundries was the best answer to any misgivings as to the future of the brass trade 
hereabouts. 

"The brass industry in Connecticut," says Lathrop in his valuable monograph, 
"The Brass Industry," published in 1909, "affords a notable example of concen- 
tration. In 1880, 76%; in 1890, 70%; in 1900, 71%; and in 1905, y^/o of the 
rolling of brass and copper and the manufacture of the same was returned by 
the census as centered in the State of Connecticut. This concentration has been 
accomplished, notwithstanding the entire absence of raw materials within the 
state, and without any near absorbing market, except as such has appeared in the 
course of the development of the industry itself. The gross product of the brass 
mills is now more than seventy million dollars a year. There was, in 1900, no 
example of specialization involving so large a product which was as notable. 
* * * Connecticut is retaining her hold upon the brass industry in increasing 
rather than in diminishing proportion." 

The early census schedules were not consistently classified and some confusion 
exists as to former conditions, but it is clear that textile manufacturers were for a 
long time more important in this state than the brass industry. In 1900, however, 
the product of all the textile mills combined fell below that of 1880, while in 
1890 brass manufacture became the leading industry in the state, and with its 
allied lines of manufacture had a gross product 25% larger than that of all the 
textiles. In 1905 the rolling mills alone had a product equal to that of the 
textile industry, while the addition of allied branches produced a product more 
than twice that of the textiles. 

"From the first," says Lathrop, "Waterbury has been the recognized center 
in the country of the brass industry, and within the city itself this has of 
course been the leading industry." Although the census apparently confuses 
manufactured and unmanufactured brass or treats them differently at successive 
census periods, the returns showed in 1890 that Waterbury was making 31% of 
the brassware of the United States and 40% of the brassware of Connecticut. 
In 1900, 48^ of the brassware of the country and 88% of the brassware of the 
state came from Waterbury. Account must be taken here, however, of a failure 
to distinguish a change which had taken place. Formerly practically all of the 
brass mills in the state both rolled brass and manufactured brassware. This con- 
dition prevailed in 1890 but a change w y asi taking place. The foundry and rolling 
mills were a logical unit, the brassware mill another, and plants tended to 
specialize. Some important exceptions existed, however, of which the Scovill 
Manufacturing Company is an instance of a great concern which casts, rolls and 
remanufactures its brass. While the separation spoken of was taking place the 
product of some plants might be classed either as "brass and copper, rolled" or 
"brassware" according as to which constituted at the time the greater volume of 
business. 



182 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

These conditions resulted in some surprising vagaries in the census figures. 
For instance : 

Brass and Copper, Rolled (Entire Country). 
1879 1889 1899 

Wage-earners 5,082 2,698 8,459 

Value of Products $14,329,871 $8,381,472 $44,309,829 

Brass Castings (Entire Country). 
1879 1889 1899 

Wage-earners 6,237 10,943 9,154 

Value of Products $10,808,742 $24,344,434 $23,891,348 

Brassware. 

1879 1889 1899 

Wage-earners 1,142 7,157 8,770 

Value of Products $1,523,098 $13,615,172 $16,803,764 

To accept these figures must be to suppose that from 1879 to 1889 brass 
casting operations more than doubled but brass rolling fell off nearly one-half, 
while the manufacture of brassware, largely out of sheet brass, increased nearly 
900 per cent. The 1910 census volume on manufactures admits this inconsistency 
in the figures on brass rolling and ascribes it to "changes in the classification of 
reports of some establishment." From 1899 to 1909, it points out, there was 
greater uniformity in the method of classifying. 

Obviously, estimates of the relative percentages of brass rolling, brass casting, 
etc., done by Waterbury, Naugatuck Valley, or Connecticut concerns cannot be 
accurately made from the census figures for these earlier periods and compari- 
sons extending back forty years are untrustworthy. 

There has been a change in the classification, however, since 1899, bronze 
products and reclaimed brass being included in the 1904, 1909 and 1914 brass 
classification. This now includes the following subdivisions of the heading 
"Brass and Bronze Products:" 

Brass : Ingot brass and shapes for remanuf acture. 

Brass and Copper, Rolled : Sheets, bars, rods, etc. 

Brass Castings and Finishings : Brass foundry work and finishing as dis- 
tinguished from lighter brassware ; car and engine brasses ; refining brass ; oiling 
devices ; safety steam appliances ; brass spigots ; hose couplings. 

Brassware : Ornaments for furniture, stair plates and stair rods, fenders, 
screens, plates, novelties, metal spinning, brass tubing. 

Bronze Products : It will be seen that the above list contains many articles 
that are not in Waterbury 's line at all while on the other hand, "Foundry and 
.Machine Shop Products" (primarily iron and steel wares) contains the following 
subdivision in which some characteristic Waterbury and Naugatuck Valley prod- 
ucts will be recognized : 

Hardware : Locks, brass draping chains, metal curtain rods, fancy uphol- 
stery nails, trunk trimmings ; cabinet, car, carriage, casket, furniture, piano and 
organ hardware. 

However, there is no doubt that we are living in a brass state, valley and 
city. The leadership is plainly set forth by the census bureau which sets forth 
that in 1909 Connecticut made 44.6 per cent of the brass and bronze products 



66,932,969 


53,916,445 


49,059,000 


44.6 


527 


55-3 


31,061,875 


19,086,964 


20,238,000 


21.3 


19-5 


22.8 


16,409,613 


16,297,911 




11.0 


15-9 




4,445,658 


5,382,761 


4,147452 


3-o 


5-2 





WATERBURY AND THE XAUGATUCK VALLEY 183 

of the United States, the two states next in order being New York with 14.8 per 
cent and Michigan with 9.3 per cent. As to the increase or decrease between 
censuses, the only figures exactly comparable are for 1904, 1909 and 1914, the 
1899 figures being taken on a slightly different basis, and figures for previous 
census years being subject to vagaries. The comparison for these four manu- 
facturing censuses is as follows: 

BRASS AND BRONZE PRODUCTS 

I9H I9O9 I904 1899 

United States $162,199,019 $149,989,058 $102,407,104 $88,654,000 

Connecticut 69,353,103 

Per Cent of U. S 42.1 

Waterbury 32,624,187 

Per Cent of U. S 20.1 

Ansonia 

Per Cent of U. S... 10.7 

Bridgeport 

Per Cent of U. S.. . 

The home of the brass industry is thus shown to be holding, its own. The 
addition to the brass classification of articles in which we do not compete and the 
inclusion in other schedules of some of our typical brass products, vitiates exact 
comparisons with earlier census reports while emphasizing the general conclusions 
to be drawn from them. 

The census bureau finds in the localization of the industry hereabouts one of 
the remarkable examples of industrial specialization worthy of emphasis in the 
special chapter devoted to the subject. There are four large industries in which 
Connecticut leads all other states : Brass and bronze, cutlery, firearms and plated 
ware. In three of the four Waterbury is interested and in one of them she is the 
leading manufacturing city. 

There is another, smaller but still significant, industry in which both Connecti- 
cut and Waterbury lead. It is the classification of "needles, pins and hooks and 
eyes." All three of these articles are never made in the same plant, yet they are 
historically and technically closely associated, so perhaps the classification is not 
unnatural. Here are the figures : 

PRODUCTION OF NEEDLES, PINS, HOOKS AND EYES 

IC/>4 1909 I914 

I "nited States $4,/55>5 8 9 $6,694,095 $7,890,879 

Connecticut 3,062,193 4.236,036 5,108,556 

64-5% 63.3% 64.7% 

Waterbury. of course, produces an important part, perhaps the major part, 
of these pins and hooks and eyes, while Torrington similarly attends to the pro- 
duction of the needles, but the census reports do not go into too much detail 
because the number of plants engaged is so small that to do so would tend to 
disclose individual operations. The case is similar with clocks and watches made 
in Waterbury, which are listed under "all other products" so as not to disclose the 
operations of individual plants. 



184 WATERBURY AXD THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

With these lines of manufacture lumped in the Waterbury manufacturing 
figures, the foundries and machine shops appear in the schedules as the second 
industry in size for which figures are separately given. The growth in this line 
from 1904 to 1909 has been especially significant: 

1904 1909 

Number of plants 13 23 

Persons engaged 899 2,167 

Capital engaged $1,409,000 $3,985,000 

Salaries and wages 628,000 1,563,000 

Value of products 1,335,000 3,558,000 

Such capacity for development in a highly competitive industry indicates that 
Waterbury's machine shops and foundries are serving distinct needs both of their 
district and elsewhere and are less dependent upon easy access to cheap coal, 
iron and steel than on the command of technical knowledge and skill in handicraft 
which are native among our people. 

Waterbury, then, may feel secure of the future of its leading industry, which 
is localized also in the Naugatuck Valley and in Connecticut and has generations 
of stability behind it. Dr. Anderson expressed the belief that it was our poor 
soil which turned the energies of Waterbury's people to manufacturing. Brass 
having been chosen and the primacy secured, the skilled labor trained, and the 
inventive ability developed, capital accumulated in the hands of men born in 
the business, the exacting technique of the business tended to keep it centered 
here. It is shown in Lathrop's history that after the beginning of what came 
to be the Benedict & Burnham Manufacturing Company in 1823, there was not 
a single enterprise in existence in 1900 in Connecticut or outside of it, except 
the Manhattan Brass Company of New York City, which had been organized 
independently of the mills in the Naugatuck Valley. Of the five outside Con- 
necticut in 1895, one has since become a branch of the American Brass Company. 
Since that time two of comparatively recent origin have entered the trade, and 
one, the Chase Rolling Mill Company, has begun operations in Waterbury, but 
the growth of the local mills has apparently exceeded by far that of its outside 
competitors. The next census will probably show Waterbury's position in its 
basic industry to be more secure than ever. 

Nearly all of the other industries of the city are affiliated with brassmaking 
in either supplying its needs or using its product. The machine shops are here 
to devise and build the machinery which make the product and form it into 
articles of utility, the brassware factories (or "cutting-up shops," as the workmen 
say) taking the sheets and wire and fashioning them for consumption. In this 
class finally belong the clock, watch and pin industries, which grew out of the 
parent brass mills. They could have originated in any locality and brass sheets 
or wire would have been shipped to them, but the brass lore was here, with the 
knowledge of handling our peculiar metal and the native ingenuity required to 
make tools and machinery and devise methods to turn out small parts and articles 
economically and rapidly. 

It must be remembered that the strategic basis of our closely interlocked 
industries is the brass casting shop and the brass rolling mill, usually operating 
together, and that successful operation of these call for technical knowledge and 
skill which are not widespread and in this country are generally acquired in 
this district. The brassware manufacturers tend to group near their source of 
supply, which is the rolling mill. In 1 904, Connecticut was able to report that 
more than four-fifths of the brass and copper was rolled within the state and 
that more than one-half of the brassware was made within her borders. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 185 

The great extensions that have been made by the brass companies since 1914 
have brought up the question whether there will be business enough to keep 
them going after the war. Undoubtedly a period of readjustment must come, 
but for some years after the war there must be a continued demand for replace- 
ment which has been neglected during the period of hostilities and for the 
enormous and inevitable work of reconstruction necessitated by war devastation. 
Many observers foresee five years of active demand for Waterbury's goods and 
that is as far as foresight will go in most human affairs. By that time, the 
expansion of the country's business and the great possibilities of permanent 
export trade may have enabled the peace demand to overtake the facilities 
created for war purposes. It was stated by John H. Goss in 1916 at a conference 
between manufacturers and railroad operating officials that the Scovill Manu- 
facturing Company had not built and would not build any factory construction 
that it did not expect to occupy permanently after the war. 

Some large local concerns have already made inquiries as to new methods of 
marketing and advertising products which can be manufactured in their plants. 
Such a method of taking up a temporary slack after the war. would be a 
departure from local practice. The tradition has been that Waterbury's energies 
are best devoted to improving productive methods, leaving the marketing to 
others. The city produced goods which were largely materials for other manu- 
facturers. When the sheets or wire were re-manufactured in Waterbury, it 
was generally on order. The principal marketing successes were made over 
outside trademarks. Probably the time has come to enter these wider fields, but 
it can be pointed out that so far the accustomed policies have served the city 
very well. 

The fact that Waterbury contributes to the common stock of goods so many 
thousands of articles of such varied uses, and so many sizes and shapes, but 
invariably articles of use rather than luxury, has stabilized the manufacturing 
business to a degree which might not have been attained if the product had been 
a comparatively few specialized lines with a varying demand. It is literally true 
and has been for years that it is almost impossible to make anything from an 
umbrella to a pair of shoes or a suit of clothes, from a small electric motor to a 
locomotive or a battleship, from a trunk or handbag to a great office building 
or hotel, without creating a demand for something made of brass or copper 
and sending to Waterbury. ^/*\(^ ^^^u^h 

Waterbury is known as the Brass City" and it has been entitled to this 
significant name since 1858, when it had twenty-five corporations in that industry. 
In 1873 there were twenty-seven companies in the brass business, and in 1896 
thirty-nine were in the brass or kindred industries. The combinations that have 
since been made have greatly reduced this number, but vastly increased plants 
and outputs. For 1900 Waterbury produced 48 per cent of the brass ware of 
the country; in 1904 the figure was 42.2 per cent; in 1909 it was 21 per cent of 
all the brass and bronze produced in the country. The census of manufactures 
for 19 14 makes this figure 20.1 per cent. 

The census of manufactures for 1914 gives the total of brass, bronze and 
copper products as $162,199,019, and credits Connecticut with $69,353,103, 42.1 
per cent of the United States' total. Of this Connecticut total the Waterbury 
output is given by the census as $32,624,187, or 20.1 per cent of the United 
States' total. 

With this percentage in mind, that Waterbury's output was approximately 
one-half of the state output, the following figures can be easily reduced to give 
fairly exact estimates for Waterbury's 1914 record: 



186 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

The number of establishments in the brass, bronze and copper industries in 
Connecticut for 1914 were 67 ; the average number of wage earners, 16,781 ; 
primary horse power, 57,033; capital, $51,886,000; wages, $9,846,000; cost of 
materials, $53,886,000; value of products, $69,353,103. 

In 1 91 7 the number of factory employees in the brass industry in Waterbury 
is approximately 25,000. This is a conservative figure. The wages are nearly 
$18,000,000, and the value of products for the state will be nearly, if not over, 
$140,000,000. 

Manufacturing in Waterbury has taken a remarkable step forward since 
191 5, the beginning of the period of large munition orders from abroad. This 
trade flowed to a greater or less degree into almost every plant in the city. The 
totals for the last two years, giving value of products and number and wages of 
employees, would show, judging from the experience of individual plants, much 
more than double those of 1914, the last Government statistics now available. 
As an illustration : At that date the number of employes at the Scovill Manu- 
facturing Company plant was 7,500. Today it is 13,500. Wages have increased 
on the average. from twenty to thirty per cent, so that it is evident that the figures 
given here for 1914 must be much more than doubled to get at even a fair 
estimate for 1917. In the value of output, it is clear that the doubling and even 
quadrupling of plants, means a tremendous increase over the 1914 figures. 
While the actual tonnage has more than doubled, its value can only be estimated 
by taking into consideration also the increase in prices of raw and finished 
products. Thus on October 28, 1914, both Lake and electrolytic copper were 
quoted at n.50; spelter at St. Louis was 4.95. On October 26, 1916, both Lake 
and electrolytic copper were quoted at 28.50, and spelter was at 9.30. Other 
materials used in the industries in Waterbury had the same phenomenal rise. 

With this clearly in mind, the census figures form a basis for 19 17 estimates. 

WAGE EARNERS IN WATERBURY ( CENSUS FIGURES) 

Number Wages 

1899 13,225 $ 6,691,000 

1904 15,406 8,016,000 

1909 20,170 1 1,244,000 

1914 20,189 1 !, 503,000 

1917 (est.) 35,ooo 25,000,000 

VALUE OF WATERBURy's PRODUCTS (CENSUS FIGURES) 

Value No. of Plants Capital 

1899 $30,330,300 124 $21,967,000 

1904 3 2 ,367,359 143 32,950,000 

I9°9 50,349, 8l ° 169 44,6"53.ooo 

1914 50,659,000 190 50,288,000 

The figures given in the census for 1914 on fuel used for power are interesting. 
Thus Waterbury's industries in 1914 used 76,210 gross tons of anthracite coal, 
143,848 net tons of bituminous coal, 3,157 net tons of coke, 84.943 barrels of oil, 
28.748,000 cubic feet of gas. 

A GENERAL REVIEW 

By specializing and by devoting brains and tenacity to its business, Waterbury 
has developed the manufacture and multiplied the uses of brass, copper and 



WATERBURY AND THE NTAUGATUCK VALLEY 187 

( lerman silver until they have created markets that are world-wide. They now 
practically control these trades in the United States. 

Waterbury is credited with having a larger number of skilled artisans than 
any other city of equal size in the world. The products of Waterbury can be 
found in every quarter of the civilized world. The Ingersoll watch at the 
Waterbury Clock Company's immense factor)-, long- ago reached the guaranteed 
output of more than 12,000 daily. The Watcrbury-Ingersoll, made at the Ingersoll 
plant in Waterbury. has reached nearly 2,000 daily. 

No city in the world has such ;i reputation for buttons of all kinds. The 
button industry dates back to 1760, at least, when Joseph Hopkins made them 
of sterling si her, and to last forever. The products of Waterbury button fac- 
tories today reach every country on the face of the earth. 

Waterbury has made lamps and lamp trimmings for nearly fifty years, and 
for over thirty years this industry has been a great factor in the growth of the 
city. Every factory in the city, accustomed to lead in the small brass goods, makes 
some sort of lamp trimming. In addition to the regular lamp burners for house- 
hold use, there is the lantern, — the original Deitz and its imitations and several 
others in whole or part, and perhaps as great an industry as any of this character, 
the mantel gas burners of several varieties. Against all odds the manufacturers 
have obtained and maintained their royal share of the burner business so sub- 
stantially begun more than fifty years ago by such men as L. J. Atwood, John C. 
Booth, Israel Holmes, and others, who were aided materially in their endeavors 
by the best mechanical skill in New England. 

One of the greatest of Waterbury's industries is the making of pins of all 
kinds. Though the city has won signal honors in the ornamental pin, the hat pin 
and the safety pin, she has by no means stopped in her triumphs at the ordinary 
brass and iron pin industry. Her pins are used everywhere. Waterbury makes 
nearly seventy-five per cent of the world's output. 

CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT 

The census figures show that the prevailing hours of labor in the brass and 
bronze business were 54 to 60 hours a week in 1910, the condition obtaining 
in Waterbury. The average salaries and wages paid here have been shown to 
be considerably higher than for the average manufacturing industry. Not until 
the relatively unimportant manufactures of the Mountain States and the far West 
are reached does a higher wage scale prevail. The higher wages paid in a few 
large cities to balance higher living expenses, and the competition of new indus- 
tries, like the automobile manufacture, tend to draw mechanics away from Water- 
bury, but many of them find conditions outside less to their liking and sooner or 
later return. And there is a constant gravitation of ambitious youths here to 
participate in the benefits of learning machine and metal trades in one of the 
best training schools in the world. Obviously the inflow is greater than the 
outflow. 

The better organization of manufacturers' employment offices has been a 
development of the last few years, and particularly of the busy war period. The 
opening in 1917 of a manufacturers' employment bureau with offices in Apothe- 
caries' Hall Building- is a still further refinement of the old haphazard methods 
of "hiring and firing," and is expected to reduce the waste involved in the frequent 
turn-over of labor. 

The State Free Employment Bureau has been in operation sixteen years. 
During the greater part of that period, the Waterbury office has been extending 



188 WATERBURY AXD. THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

its usefulness, which extends only in part to securing employment in factories. 
In 191 5 situations were secured for 1,568 people; in 1916 work was found for 
1,409. Of these 910 were females, 652 males, in 191 5, and in 1916, 842 were 
females and 567 were males. 

* 

SEX OF WAGE EARNERS 

In manufacturing industries requiring physical strength and a high degree of 
skill males are the largest proportion of workers, while the proportion of women 
and children is largest in the industries requiring dexterity rather than strength. 
There is enough of the lighter forms of employment in Waterbury factories to 
furnish suitable employment for thousands of women. For all manufacturing 
industries in the United States in 1910 the proportion of workers was as follows: 
Males of 16 years or over, 78 per cent; females 16 years or over, 19.5 per cent; 
children under 16, 2.5 per cent. 

For Waterbury's 20,170 workers the proportions were: Males, 15,088, or 
74.8 per cent ; females, 4,648, or 23 per cent ; children, 434, or 2.2 per cent. The 
proportion of females was slightly larger and the proportion of children slightly 
lower than the general manufacturing average. This has been the general condi- 
tion for many years and still obtained in 1914. 

The employment of women in the munition trade in Waterbury has grown 
during the past three years until now it is estimated at as high as 35 or 40 per 
cent in some establishments. 

In 1914-15, in addition to the regular munition factories in the state, others 
which had been working in metal products turned to the manufacture of firearms, 
ammunition and parts thereof. Apparently scores sprung up over night to enter 
an industry which seemed to offer the most abundant and quick returns. The 
swift and nimble fingers and adaptability of women caused them to be employed 
in great numbers. The high wages offered and the general search for labor led to 
the diversion of young women from other occupations, particularly domestic 
service. In much of the work, no special qualifications beyond skill in manipula- 
tion was required, the skilled men being placed where tools were made and the 
more delicate mechanism was constructed, the unskilled filling the benches. Hun- 
dreds of foreign born women who had never been employed in any such labor 
were soon made passably efficient through instruction. Many other industries 
lost their workers. It was difficult to obtain women to do work which a few 
months before they were clamoring to obtain. 

The State Bureau of Labor in its report for 1916 says of this development : 

"A visit to the various munition factories shows the responsible positions are 
filled by women who have been there some time, by newcomers who have superior 
intelligence, and by those who are being constantly promoted from the lower 
grades of the work. An unceasing vigilance is exercised over the choice of the 
proper sort of workers for the task upon which they are to be engaged, as the 
least mistake in this way would be productive of far-reaching disaster. In the 
less unskilled and almost perfunctory routine work there are fully fifty-seven 
varieties of foreigners, nationalities that are not found to any great extent in 
other industries being represented here: Russniak (Ruthenian), Bohemian, 
Moravian, Albanian, Finnish, Magyar, Slovak, Bulgarian, Servian, Spanish, 
Montenegrin, Croatian and Slavonian. The Lithuanians and Roumanians have 
been present in large numbers for some time." 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 189 

I 1 1 I \Y< IB K M EN 'S COMPENSATION LAW 

On October i, 1913, the compensation commissioners of the state assumed 
office and put into operation the new workmen's compensation law. The board 
now comprises: Frederic M. Williams, Fifth District (Waterbury), chairman; 
George li. Chandler, First District; James J. Donahue, Second District; George 
E. Beers, Third District ; Edward T. Buckingham, Fourth District. 

According to the law certain legal compensation is due an injured workman 
for all loss of time after ten days from date of accident, and for the loss of the 
use of certain parts of the body, as eye, finger, arm or leg. 

Accidents which keep an employe from work for one day or more are reported 
to the compensation commissioner for the district. If the accident is so serious 
that the waiting period of ten days elapses, the employe is entitled to compensation 
under the state law, provided the injury has not been due to serious negligence 
or wilful misconduct. Except in cases of this latter sort, an agreement may 
then be entered into between the company and the employe, according to pro- 
visions of the law, without any formal claim being put in. The agreement must 
be filed with the commissioner. In the failure of such an agreement, the matter 
is taken up with the commissioner sitting as a court. Sympathy, patience and 
common sense are requisites in settling satisfactorily the questions that arise 
out of these compensation cases, and in the larger factories of Waterbury the 
force in charge of this service is selected and carefully trained. 

The following figures for the entire state summarize the work of the com- 
mission from its inception to January 1, 1917: 

1914 1915 1916 

Accidents reported 18,054 37,070 4 f) >935 

Voluntary agreements 3-444 7A4-8 9>75 D 

Cost to self insurers : 

For compensation $ 49,685.58 $101,812.10 $ 202,483.48 

For medical service 36,866.15 67,899.57 177,328.24 

Cost to insurance companies for compen- 
sation and medical service 396,684.30 605,455.66 939,620.63 

Total for compensation and medical 

service $483,236.03 $775,167.33 $1,319,432.35 

The number of voluntary agreements is growing yearly. In most cases this 
-'Vilifies that the terms of the act were amicably complied with by the parties 
without delay. Such settlements are usually effected through an "adjuster" or 
claim agent. In the case of self-insurers this is some official of the company or 
iv>ponsible employe, and in the case of insurance companies some young attorney 
o.r other competent person who has worked into the post from a clerical position. 
If the accident occurs in the plant of a self-insurer it is promptly made known 
through the first aid department, and when the waiting period has elapsed an 
agreement on the form provided by the commissioners is put before the employe 
for execution. If the injured employe is working in the plant of an insured 
employer, the insurer is notified of the injury on the form provided by the 
insurer. If the injury is one promising to call for weekly compensation, the 
adjuster makes due investigation and, if the claim is found valid, it is settled in 
like manner. In most cases settlement is effected without delay or misunder- 
>tanding. Sometimes the employe questions the accuracy of the computation of 
average weekly earnings and asks to have it verified. In other instances the 



190 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

employe delays until he can consult some friend. Not infrequently he or his 
friend consults the commissioner before signing the agreement. As soon as the 
agreement is executed, it is forwarded to the commissioner for his approval, as it 
does not become effective until so approved and duly filed with the clerk of the 
Superior Court for the county. 

FACTORY CONSTRUCTION FROM JANUARY, I9OO, TO NOVEMBER 3O, 1916 

The following record of factory construction in Waterbury is from the 
records compiled annually since 1900 by the State Bureau of Labor. The record 
is here classified by concerns, the names of which are given as they existed in 
the years in which the buildings were constructed. Thus much of the great 
building work done by the American Brass Company appears largely under the 
names of its branches. A few of the corporations and firms have changed names 
and personnel, but the record of construction remains as the best evidence of 
success and of progress. 

INTERNATIONAL SILVER COMPANY FACTORY J 

Total 

1907- 8 — 2 buildings $4,250 

1909-10 — 2 buildings 2 ,S°° $6,75° 

PLUME & ATWOOD MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

1907- 8 — i building $16,700 

191 1-12 — 2 buildings 21,000 

1913-14 — 2 buildings 3, 700 

1915-16 — 1 building 30,000 $71,400 

SHOE HARDWARE COMPANY 

1900 — I building $25,000 

1907- 8 — 2 buildings 26,500 

1909-TO — 1 building 8,000 

i<;ii-I2 — 2 buildings 55,000 $114,500 

WATERBURY CASTINGS COMPANY 

1 <)07- 8 — 3 buildings $23,000 

1915-16 — 1 building 3,ooo $26,000 

B. H. FRY & CO. 

1904 — 1 building . . $2,000 

F. H. KALBFLEISCH & CO. 

1904 -i building $15,000 

1 005 — 1 building 2,000 

1907- 8 — 1 building 5,000 

1909-10 — 2 buildings 5,5°° 

1913-14 — 1 building 7,S°° 

1915-16 — 1 building 9,500 $44,500 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 191 

MANUFACTURERS FOUNDRY COMPANY 

1904 — 2 buildings $19,500 

1906 — 2 buildings 5,ooo 

1907- 8 — 4 buildings 26,000 

1909-10--1 building 7,S°° 

191 1-12 — 1 building 500 

1913-14 — 4 buildings 13,000 

1915-16 — 1 building 3,000 $74,500 

E. J. MANVILLE MACHINE COMPANY 

1904 — 5 buildings $62,000 

KJ09-10 — 3 buildings 2,500 

1913-14 — 1 building 20,000 $84,500 

ROWBOTTOM MACHINE COMPANY 

1904 — i building $4,500 

1906 — 2 buildings 4,200 

1911-12 — 1 building 1,500 

191 5-16 — 1 building 16,000 $26,200 

AMERICAN PIN COMPANY 

1901 — i building $25,000 

1902 — 1 building 27,000 

1903 — 1 building 15,000 

1904 — I building 12,000 

I 9°5 — l building 21,000 

1906 — 2 buildings 62,000 

1908 — 1 building 5,000 

1909-10 — 2 buildings 1,000 

1913-14— 4 buildings 76,500 

[915-16 — 1 building 27,000 $271,500 

BERBECKER & ROWLAND MFG. COMPANY 

1901 — I building $10,000 

[905 — 2 buildings 7,000 

1907- 8 — 2 buildings 8,500 

1909-10 — 2 buildings 18,000 

1911-12 — 4 buildings 11,300 

1913-14 — 2 buildings 15,000 $69,800 

WATERBURY FARREL FOUNDRY & MACHINE COMPANY 

190 1 — 1 building $50,000 

1902 — 1 building 70,000 

1904 — 1 building 8,000 

1905 —2 buildings 38.500 



192 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

1906 — 2 buildings 20,000 

1907- 8 — 1 building 16,000 

191 1-12 — 1 building 10,000 

1913-14 — 1 building 22,000 

1915-16— 3 buildings 105,000 $339,500 

WATERBURY BATTERY COMPANY 

1904 — i building $5, 500 

1909-10 — 1 building 12,500 

191 3-14 — 1 building 2,600 $20,600 

WATERBURY BRASS COMPANY 

J 9°3 — 3 buildings $90,000 

1904 — 1 building 75,o°° 

1905 — 2 buildings 16,800 

1907- 8 — 8 buildings 121,500 

1909-10 — 3 buildings 5,oco 

191 1-12 — 5 buildings 77,000 

1913-14 — 2 buildings 4,500 

1915-16 — -14 buildings 200,000 $589,800 

WATERBURY CUTLERY COMPANY 

I 9°3 — : building $1,000 

WATERBURY MACHINE COMPANY 

I 9°3 — 2 buildings $7,000 

1907- 8 — 2 buildings 7,000 

1909-10 — 1 building 15,000 $29,000 

AMERICAN MILLS COMPANY 

1904 — I building $4,000 

1907- 8 — 1 building 500 

1909-1O' — 2 buildings 47, 500 $52,000 

WATERBURY CLOCK COMPANY 

1900 — 3 buildings $41,000 

1903 — 1 building 5,820 

1904 — 5 buildings 87,500 

1906 —2 buildings 4,000 

1907- 8 — 1 building 35>o°o 

1913-14 — 1 building 55,ooo 

191 5- 16 — 1 building 14,000 $242,320 



WATERBURY AXD THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 193 

WATERBURY MFG. CO. 

1900 — 2 buildings $3,000 

1904 — 1 building 55,ooo 

] 9°5 — J building 7,000 

1909-10 — 4 buildings 104,000 

1915-16 — 7 buildings 393,000 $562,000 

BENEDICT & BURNHAM MFG. CO. 

1900 — I building $15,000 

1902 — 4 buildings 40,000 

1904 — 1 building 10,000 

1905 — 1 building 2,500 

1907- 8 — 1 building 10,000 

191 1-12 — 1 building 70,000 

1913-14 — 1 building 65,000 

1915-16— 21 buildings ■ 5 2 5>°o° $737>50o 

O'NEIL & WARNER 

1900 — 2 buildings $2,000 

PLATT BROTHERS & COMPANY 

1900 — i building $1,000 

I 9°3 — l building 2 5,ooo 

1907- 8 — 1 building 1,600 $27,600 

STEELE & JOHNSON MFG. COMPANY 

1900 — 2 buildings $5,ooo 

1907- 8 — 3 buildings 20,200 

1909-10 — 1 building 25,000 

191 1-12 — 2 buildings 16,500 $66,700 

CHASE ROLLING MILL COMPANY 

1902 — 2 buildings $42,000 

I 9°3 — l building 3,000 

1906 — 3 buildings 5, 200 

1907- 8 — 9 buildings 46,500 

1909-10 — 6 buildings 46,500 

1913-14 — 2 buildings 4,500 

1915-16 — 21 buildings 750,000 $897,700 

WATERVILLE CORPORATION ( CHASE METAL WORKS) 

1911-12 — 2 buildings $73,500 

1913-T4 — 8 buildings 149,000 $222,500 

Vol. 1—13 



194 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

NEW ENGLAND WATCH COMPANY 

1902 — 3 buildings $8,000 

SCOVILL MFG. COMPANY 

1901 — 5 buildings $ 128,000 

1904 — 1 building 27,000 

1905 — 5 buildings 1 19,200 

1906 — I building 2,000 

1907- 8 — 6 buildings 48,000 

1909-10 — 13 buildings 103,550 

191 1-12 — 1 building 2,500 

191 3-14 — 7 buildings 69,000 

1915-16 — 24 buildings 1,025,000 $1,544,250 

A. H. WELLS & COMPANY 

1904 — I building $8,000 

1907- 8 — 2 buildings 7,5°° 

1909-10 — 1 building 9,000 

1911-12 — 2 buildings 1 1,500 

1913-14 — 1 building 1,700 

1915-16 — 2 buildings 35,ooo $72,700 

THE BRISTOL COMPANY 

1905 — I building $10,000 

1907- 8 — 1 building 30,000 

1909-10 — 1 building 18,500 

191 1-12 — 2 buildings 5,300 

1913-14 — 1 building 31,000 

191 5-16 — 1 building : 50,000 $144,800 

HOLMES, BOOTH & HAYDENS COMPANY 

x 9°5 — l building $6,000 

MATTATUCK MFG. COMPANY 

IQ0 5 — I building $ 500 

1907- 8 — 2 buildings 7,75° 

1909-10 — 4 buildings 2,500 

1911-12 — 1 building 1,500 

1913-14— I building 2,500 $14,750 

RANDOLPH & CLOWES COMPANY 

1905 — i building $4,500 

1906 — 2 buildings 7,7O0 

1907- 8 — 2 buildings 20,000 

1909-10 — 1 building 2,000 $34,200 



WAXKKliKRY AND XI IK XAl'CAXUCK VALLEY 195 

J. E. SMITH & CO. 

I 9°5 — : building $20,000 

WATKRIU'RV BUTTON COMPANY 

1 9°5 — 2 buildings $15,500 

1906 — 1 building 3,ooo 

1909-10 — 1 building 18,000 

1915-16 — I building 60,000 $96,500 

WATERBURY CRUCIBLE COMPANY 

1905 — I building $6,000 

WATERBURY PAPER BOX MFG. COMPANY 

1905 — I building $28,000 

1913-14 — 1 building 10,500 $38,500 

HEMINWAY & BARLETT SILK COMPANY 
M. HEMINWAY & SONS SILK COMPANY 

I 9°5 — 2 buildings $7,000 

191 1-12 — 2 buildings 8,500 

1 91 3- 14 — 4 buildings 74,ooo 

191 5-16 — 1 building 5,000 $94,500 

THE OAKVILLE COMPANY 

1905 — 2 buildings $20,200 

1907- 8 — 2 buildings 40,000 

1909-10 — 1 building 50,000 

191 1-12 — 2 buildings 4,S°° % l i-4>70° 

AMERICAN RING COMPANY 

1906 — I building $17,500 

1909-10 — 1 building 750 $18,250 

FRENCH MFG. COMPANY 

1906 — 2 buildings $5,ooo 

1907- 8 — 1 building 800 

1909-10 — 1 building 6,000 

1911-12 — 2 buildings 8,500 

1913-14 — 2 buildings 31,000 $51,300 

THOMAS F. JACKSON 

1906 — i building $15,000 



196 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

ROGERS & BROS. 

1906 — i building $4,000 

SMITH & GRIGGS COMPANY 

1906 — 2 buildings $10,000 

WATERBURY MACHINE COMPANY 

1907- 8 — 2 buildings $7,000 

1909-10 — 1 building 15,000 $22,000 

WATERBURY ROLLING MILLS COMPANY 

1907- 8 — 4 buildings $20,000 

1909-10 — 3 buildings 22,500 

1915-16 — 2 buildings 20,000 $62,500 

BAIRD MACHINE COMPANY 

1907- 8 — 1 building $4,500 

AMERICAN FASTENER COMPANY 

1915-16— I building $8,500 

EASTERN BRASS & INGOT COMPANY 

1915-16 — I building $60,000 

PILLING BRASS COMPANY 

1913-14 — I building $7,000 

1915-16— 1 building 7,957 $14,957 

WATERBURY BRASS GOODS CORPORATION 

1909- to — 3 buildings $5, 500 

191 1-12 — 2 buildings 12,500 $18,000 

GEORGE HARTLEY 

1915-16 — i building $2,000 

NOERA MFG. COMPANY 

T9T1-T2 — 1 building $2,500 

1915-16 — 1 building 4,000 $6,500 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 197 

STANDARD ENGINEERING COMPANY 
1915-16 — i building $7,500 

WATERBURY BRASS & BRONZE COMPANY 
1915-16 — I building $10,000 

WATERBURY TOOL COMPANY 

1915-16 — i building $56,000 

METAL SPECIALTY MFG. COMPANY 

191 5-16 — 1 building $25,000 

NATIONAL COMPANY 

1913-14 — 1 building $8,500 

1915-16 — 2 buildings 30,000 $38,500 

ANDREW C. CAMPBELL, INC. 

1913-14 — 1 building $16,000 

1915-16 — 1 building 8,000 $24,003 

BLAKE & JOHNSON COMPANY 

1909-10 — 2 buildings $150,000 

1913-14 — 1 building 4,500 

1915-16 — 1 building 5,ooo $159,500 

AMERICAN BRASS COMPANY 

1913-14— 5 buildings $i55.o°o 

GENERAL MFG. COMPANY 

191 1-12 — 1 building $ 750 

1913-14 — I building 8,000 $8,750 

WATERBURY BUCKLE COMPANY 

1913-14 — 1 building $28,000 

WEBSTER & BRIGGMAN 

191 3-14 — i building $5,ooo 



198 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

JAMES F. GAFFNEY 

1909-10 — I building $8,000 

MATTHEWS & WILLARD MFG. COMPANY 

1909-10 — i building $500 

GEORGE PANNETON 

1909-10 — i building $10,000 

G. G. RIGGS 

1909-10 — 1 building $13,500 

WATERBURY LUMBER & COAL COMPANY 

1909 — 1 building $15,000 

ROBERT WILMOT 

1911-12 — 1 building $1,500 

WATERBURY FOUNDRY COMPANY 

1911-12 — 1 building $700 

WATERBURY WELDING COMPANY 

1911-12 — i building $800 



CHAPTER XVI 
THE LARGER BRASS COMPANIES 

THE CHARTER OF 1893 NEW CONSOLIDATION PERFECTED ITS FIRST BOARD OF 

DIRECTORS CHANGES TO AN OPERATING COMPANY PURCHASES THE BUFFALO 

PLANT ITS BUILDINGS IN WATERBURY, TORRINGTON, ANSONIA, KENOSHA AND 

BUFFALO NEW CONSTRUCTION EARNINGS OF THE COMPANY ITS BALANCE 

SHEET FOR 1916 THE EMPLOYMENT BUREAU ITS HOUSING PLANS TESTI- 
MONIAL TO ITS PRESIDENT, CHARLES F. BROOKER SKETCH OF HIS CAREER THE 

SCOVILL COMPANY ITS PHYSICAL GROWTH ITS NEW BUILDINGS ENORMOUS 

EARNINGS OFFICERS OF THE PAST QUARTER CENTURY EMPLOYMENT BUREAU 

ITS HOSPITALS. 

After 1870 the organization of existing corporations in the brass industry into 
one or possibly two combinations was a source of constant and most careful con- 
sideration. Pools to regulate and apportion production were formed from time 
to time but broke up regularly. So in 1891 and in 1892 the heads of several of 
the largest concerns doing business in the Naugatuck Valley met and discussed 
values, economies, and finally agreed upon a tentative plan of combining interests. 

On Tune 7, 1893, a special charter was obtained for a combination of the Coe 
Brass Manufacturing Company, of Torrington, the Scovill Manufacturing Com- 
pany, the Benedict & Burnham Manufacturing Company, the Waterbury Brass 
Company, Holmes, Booth & Haydens and the Plume & Atwood Manufacturing 
Company. This included, therefore, all of the Waterbury rolling mills except 
Randolph & Clowes, and excluded in Ansonia the Ansonia Brass & Copper Com- 
pany. The steps in this proposed consolidation were by no means harmonious 
and the Scovill Manufacturing Co. elected to preserve its identity. 

It was not until December 14, 1899, that the American Brass Company was 
formed by the Coe Brass Company, the Waterbury Brass Company, and the An- 
sonia Brass & Copper Company. This had been preceded in 1896 by the transfer 
of the Wallace plant in Ansonia to the Coe Brass Company. It will be seen that 
the earlier tentative combination had been given up, the differences in views and 
to some extent in physical interests, being practically irreconcilable. 

Its first officers were: Charles F. Brooker, president; A. A. Cowles, first vice- 
president; James S. Elton, second vice president; John P. Elton, secretary and 
treasurer. Its capital was $10,000,000. 

The first board of directors was as follows: Charles F. Brooker, Ansonia; 
Alfred A. Cowles, New York; James S. Elton, Waterbury; D. Willis James, New 
York; Chandler X. Wayland, New York; Elisha Turner, Torrington; William 
E. Dodge. New York ; James A. Doughty, Torrington; John P. Elton, Waterbury. 

In 1901 the stockholders of the Holmes Booth & Haydens Company changed 
their holdings at 25 per cent premium for stock of the American Brass Company, 
the American Brass Company thus becoming the owner of the Holmes Booth & 
Haydens Company. 

199 



200 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

On November i, 1905, the entire property of the Holmes Booth & Hay dens 
Company of whatever nature was sold to the Benedict & Burnham Mfg. Company 
for 10,000 shares, par value $25 each of Benedict & Burnham Mfg. Company 
stock at a ratio of five to one, or $1,250,000. The Holmes Booth & Haydens office 
was then given up. 

In 1904 the officers of the Holmes Booth & Haydens Company were: T. B. 
Kent, president and treasurer; E. L. Frisbie, Jr., vice president; A. M. Dickinson, 
assistant treasurer; G. H. Benham, secretary. 

The officers of the Benedict & Burnham Mfg. Company at the time of the 
consolidation were : President and treasurer, Edward L. Frisbie, Jr. ; assistant 
treasurer, G. W. Burnham; secretary, A. M. Dickinson. 

The officers of the Waterbury Brass Co. at the time of the consolidation were : 
President, James S. Elton; vice president, Charles F. Brooker; treasurer, John 
P. Elton; secretary, G. C. Hill. 

In 1909 Wm. G. Lathrop in his valuable book, "The Brass Industry," said of 
the new company: "The American Brass Company is today the largest and most 
important brass making and handling company in the world. It makes more than 
two-thirds of all the brass used in the United States, besides which it handles 
much copper and various alloys, such as German silver and many mixtures, the 
composition of which is regarded as a trade secret. It uses approximately one- 
third of all the copper consumed in the United States, and is the largest single 
user of copper in the world. About one-half of its output proceeds from Ansonia, 
one-third from Waterbury, and the remainder from Torrington. With the excep- 
tion of a few specialties which it controls by patent or otherwise, it has abandoned 
manufacturing. The tendency is towards specialization of output, each plant 
being used more largely for such product as it can most advantageously produce." 

On January 1, 1912, the American Brass Company became an operating com- 
pany, instead of a holding company. Its subsidiaries of the period, the Ansonia 
Brass & Copper Company, the Benedict & Burnham Manufacturing Co., and the 
Waterbury Brass Company, became branches known by the name of the old cor- 
poration. Each branch from this time on had its own accounts, but checks were 
drawn to and by the American Brass Company. Besides the corporations that 
were thus extinguished, the American Brass Company controlled the Chicago 
Brass Company, of Kenosha, Wis., the Waterbury Brass Goods Corporation, and 
the Ansonia Land & Water Power Company. Under the new order of things, 
these became the property of the American Brass Company through stock 
ownership. 

The new company was now the strongest single factor in the brass industry in 
America and further strengthened itself by the purchase of the Chicago Brass 
Company. 

This left the following big firms in this vicinity outside the combination : 
The Chase Rolling Mill (then being organized), the Scovill Manufacturing Com- 
pany, the Plume & Atwood Manufacturing Company, the Randolph & Clowes 
Company, the Bridgeport Brass Company, the Bristol Company and the Seymour 
Manufacturing Company. 

The company had first been capitalized at $10,000,000, but this was twice 
increased before January 1, 191 2, by $2,500,000, so that the capitalization at that 
time was $15,000,000. 

Under the new arrangement the officers remained as follows : President, 
Charles F. Brooker; vice presidents, Edward L. Frisbie, Jr., A. A. Cowles, James 
S. Elton ; treasurer, John P. Elton ; secretary, Gordon W. Burnham. The other 
directors were : Thomas B. Kent, J. E. Wayland, E. Holbrook, Arthur C. James, 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 201 

John J. Sinclair, Cleveland H. Lodge, James A. Doughty, Adelbert P. lline, T. 
Brownell Burnham. 

In June, 1917, announcement was made by William A. Morgan, president and 
general manager of the Buffalo Copper and Brass Rolling Mills, of Buffalo, N. Y., 
of the sale of the company's properties to the American Brass Company. At a 
meeting held July 6, 1917, this sale was officially ratified. The price paid was 
several millions. The plant is one of the largest in the country, employing over 
five thousand men. 

In 1912 the general equipments of the company, which have been so vastly 
extended in the past three years, were about as follows: 

In Ansonia: Casting shop, rolling mill, copper rolling mill, rod mill, bar and 
bolt mill, copper mill, wire rod mill, refining mill, coarse wire mill, cable screw 
building, wire-covering mill. 

The Benedict & Burnham plant had a casting shop, tube-casting shop, sheet 
metal mill, brass wire mill, brass rod mill, seamless tube mill, brazed tube mill, 
rule mill, blanking mill, copper wire mill, copper rod mill, insulated wire mill, 
fastener building. 

At the Chicago Brass Company in Kenosha it had a casting shop, sheet metal 
mill, seamless tube mill, brazed tube mill, press room. 

At the Coe Brass Mfg. Company, Torrington, it had a casting shop, sheet metal 
mill, brass wire mill, brass rod mill, seamless tube mill, brazed tube mill, press 
room. 

At the Coe plant in Ansonia it had a casting plant, sheet metal mill, drawn 
copper mill. East rod mill, West rod mill, coarse wire mill, fine wire mill, rivet 
and bur extension plant, Rockwell furnace plant, diamond die building and 
machine shop. 

At the Waterbury Brass Company plant there were a casting shop, sheet brass 
mill, brass wire mill, brass rod mill, manufacturing department and two additional 
structures. 

In all there were seventy mills. 

At Torrington among the new structures built since 1914 are a rod mill, metal 
storage building and a power plant. 

At the Waterbury Brass Branch a machine shop, in addition to the wire mill, 
a power plant, an addition to the casting shop, an addition to the rolling mill and 
a metal storage building have been put up since 19 14. 

At the Benedict & Burnham branch construction since 1914 was as follows : 
Seamless tube mill, manufacturing packing and shipping building, carpenter shop, 
an addition to the rolling mill. 

In addition a general office building and a general machine shop have been 
built in Waterbury. 

At Ansonia, the construction since 1914 was as follows: A forging shop, an 
addition to the extrusion department, an addition to the wire mill, a shipping and 
manufacturing building, a casting shop. The old rolling mill was rebuilt and an 
addition to the metal storage building, and power plant, were put up at Ansonia. 

In Kenosha, Wis., the company built an office building, a casting shop, a metal 
storage building, a lumber storage building, an addition to the power plant and 
addition to nearly all the other mills. 

Some conception may be obtained of the amount invested in new buildings 
and plants in recent years from the figures of the annual reports. In 1910 and 
hut. the company deducted $500,000 for depreciation for each of these years. 
In 19 10 the value of the real estate, machinery, buildings, and actual physical 
holdings, outside of merchandise, amounted to $9,203,298. In 191 1 , with the large 
depreciation against it, this value was placed at $9,057,723. 



202 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 



In 1912, with the usual charge for depreciation, the physical properties were 
valued at $11,322,162. The figures given in the annual report supplement this 
figure with the following: "Expended for permanent improvements, $760,926; 
less charged off for depreciation, total $11,533,088." 

In 1914 the real estate, machinery, etc., had grown in value to $12,858,197. 

In 191 5 this was placed at $13,545,669, and in 1916 at $13,640,869. Allowing 
for the heavy depreciation it will be noted that extensions and betterments each 
year for the past five years have gone well over a million annually. 

In 1917 the Buffalo plant was added, and this will, of course, appear in added 
valuation in the next annual report. 

In the matter of earnings, the annual reports as printed in the Financial and 
Commercial Chronicle are enlightening on the progressiveness of the men back 
of this great industry. 

In 1910 the earnings were $1,887,006; in 1911 these were $1,445,543; in 1912, 
they were $2,274,338; in 1913, they were $1,917,605; in 1914, $1,450,347; in 
1915, $6,128,453; in 1916, $10,991,670. The dividends paid were in 1910, $1,069,- 
860, 7 per cent; in 1911, $932,000, 6 per cent; in 1912, $1,050,000, 7 per cent; 
in t 9 1 3 , $1,050,000, 7 per cent; in 1914, $900,000, 6 per cent; in 1915, $1,950,000, 
13 per cent; and in 1916, $3,750,000, 25 per cent. On Jan. 25, 1917, the American 
Brass Company declared an extra dividend of 11 per cent and the usual quarterly 
payment of 1^2 per cent on its stock. Similar dividends were declared quarterly 
until October, when the total dividend was reduced to 6 per cent quarterly to 
conserve the company's cash in view of the heavy war taxes impending. 

The balance sheet for 1914, 1915 and 1916 follows: 

ASSETS 



1914 

Real Estate, Machinery, etc $12,858,197 

Cash 2,017,501 

Bills and Accts. Rec 3,336,518 

Woodlands 138,81 1 

Stocks and Bonds Owned 1,644,250 

Patents 1 ,000 

Merchandise 6,624,905 

$26,621,182 



1915 

$i3,545,o69 

2,662,776 
6,126,557 

l 57,7 11 
1,311,116 

1,000 

7,987,052 



1916 

$13,640,867 

6,213,914 

9,423,610 

184,638 

L343-0 21 
1,000 

10,118,515 



$31,791,281 $40,925,568 



LIABILITIES 



1914 I915 I916 

Capital Stock $15,000,000 $15,000,000 $15,000,000 

Current Accounts Payable 2,021,631 2,013,276 : ,9°5,893 

Reserved for Contingencies 1,000,000 2,000,000 4,000,000 

Surplus 7,149,204 6,649,551 9,028,005 

Net Earnings for Year 1,450,347 6,128,454 10,991,670 

$26,621,182 $31,791,281 $40,925,568 

The Iron Age, in commenting on the report for 191 5, said: "The net divisible 

profits for 191 5 represent an increase of 322 per cent over 1914. The best pre- 
vious year was 191 2, when the profits amounted to $2,274,738." 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 203 

The American Brass Company has not confined its work to mere money mak- 
ing. Its "housing" work is fully covered in the chapter on that subject. 

On June 20, 1914, Miss Xina Keir. a "welfare secretary," was added to the staff 
of the American Brass Company. This official was placed in charge of the com- 
pany's emergency or first aid hospital located at 721 Hank Street, the former 
Holmes, Booth & llaydens plant. At this hospital there are four nurses and 
attendants. Miss Keir also has charge of similar hospitals at the company's 
Torrington and Ansonia plants. 

The hospitals are solely for emergency work and are not in any way designed 
to take the place of physicians. 

At these hospitals one of the most important duties is the care of cases of 
"spelter shake" or "brass founder's ague." This is caused by the inhalation of 
metal fumes, and as a rule attacks a newcomer in the mills after the first few days 
of work. It has all the symptoms of ague and cramps. It is never fatal, and is 
temporarily cured by the use of Jamaica ginger. The effort of the company, how- 
ever, is now entirely devoted to prevention of the disease by improvements in 
metal working methods. In 1913 the Connecticut Legislature passed an act com- 
pelling physicians to report immediately attacks of all kinds of occupational dis- 
eases, including this. 

In December, 191 3. the new office building of the American Brass Company, 
opposite the Union Station, was opened. The main entrance has a handsome set 
of brass and glass doors, the brass being an exemplary work of the artistic side of 
brass manufacture. A marble stairway leads to the long entresol or lobby, which 
extends nearly the full length of the building. The executive offices and private 
offices of the company officials are on the first floor. The general offices and tele- 
phone exchange are en the second floor. The exchange connects 1,600 telephones 
in the various plants of the company throughout the state, and is one of the 
largest private exchanges in Connecticut. 

There are five drafting rooms, a library, and eighteen office rooms for 
employes on the third floor. The basement contains a garage, a large storage 
room, and an excellent heating plant. 

At the annual meeting of the American Brass Company Feb. 6, 1917, the resig- 
nation of George E. Cole, as assistant treasurer and auditor was reluctantly 
accepted. He had been with the Coe Company at Torrington and with the Ameri- 
can Brass Company for twenty-five years. 

At this meeting in February, 191 7, the following vice presidents were placed 
in charge of the various companies : F. L. Bramer, Coe Brass branch, Torrington ; 
H. M. Steele, Waterbury Brass branch ; A. M. Dickinson, Benedict & Burnham 
branch; Wm. A. Cowles, Ansonia branches; Arthur S. Brown, Ansonia branches; 
George H. Allen, Kenosha (Wis.) branch; F. M. Wills, Buffalo branch. 

The officers of the company are as follows: President, Charles F. Brooker; 
vice presidents, Edward L. Frisbie, John P. Elton, Thomas B. Kent and John A. 
Coe, Jr. ; treasurer, John P. Elton ; assistant treasurer, C. F. Hollister ; secretary, 
Gordon \V. Burnham; assistant secretary, Franklin E. Weaver. 

The present directors of the American Brass Company are: Charles F. 
Brooker, Ansonia; Edward L. Frisbie, James S. Elton, John P. Elton, John A. 
Coe, Jr., all of Waterbury ; Arthur C. James, Gordon W. Burnham, Edward 
Holbrook, Cleveland H. Dodge, Thomas B. Kent, John E. Wayland, all of New 
York; James A. Doughty, of Torrington; T. Brownell Burnham of Sussex, 
England. 

In its dealings with its 15,000 employes, the American Brass Company has 
been exceptionally fortunate. During these crucial years it has had but one 



204 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

serious interference with business. This was on Feb. 17, 191 6, when the Ansonia 
employes struck. On Feb. 20 the strike was settled at a slight increase over the 
original offer of the company. It increased wages 15 per cent, allowed time and 
a half for overtime, and a half holiday Saturday with full pay. 

On Sept. 10, 1915, there was also a voluntary increase by the company of 10 
per cent in wages. 

In April, 19 14, the Copper Producers' Association of America celebrated by 
a banquet at Sherry's in New York the fiftieth anniversary of Charles F. 
Brooker's connection with the brass business of this country. Tbe leading men 
in the industry were present at this testimonial and the tributes that were paid 
this pioneer of the brass industry were many and deserved. 

Charles Frederick Brooker, the president of the American Brass Company, 
was born March 4, 1847, in Litchfield, Conn. His family has its American origin 
in Guilford, where John Brooker, an Englishman, located in 1695. Two gen- 
erations later Abraham Brooker, Jr., his father, removed to Wolcottville, now 
Torrington. 

At the age of seventeen he became bookkeeper for the Coe Brass Company, 
of Torrington, becoming secretary in 1870. On the death of Lyman W. Coe, his 
uncle, in 1893, Mr. Brooker succeeded him as president of the Coe Brass Company 
of Torrington. 

When the American Brass Company was formed, he was elected its first presi- 
dent. Both in Torrington and Ansonia he held many important positions on the 
directorates of many banking, water, and manufacturing companies. He was for 
years a director of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Company. In New 
York City he is a member of the Union League Club, the New England Society 
of New York, the New York Chamber of Commerce, the New York Yacht Club, 
the Engineer's Club, the Lawyers' Club and the Transportation Club. 

He was a member of the Connecticut Assembly in 1875 and of the State 
Senate, in 1893. He was a member of the Republican State Central Committee 
for years, also a member of the National Republican Committee. 

Mr. Brooker, since his marriage to Mrs. Julia E. Clark Farrell in London 
some years ago, has made his residence in Ansonia. 

In 191 1 the Government proceeded against the individual directors, who had 
formed what was termed the copper wire pool. This had been dissolved several 
years before, in fact as soon as it was found that it was in contravention of the 
Sherman anti-trust law. 

Pleas of nolo contendere were entered and a fine of $1,100 was assessed 
against each of the offending directors Aug. 4, 191 1. 

THE SCOVILL MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

The Scovill Manufacturing Company of Waterbury is today the largest single 
brass-making and brass-fabricating plant in the United States, and if not the 
largest in the world at least well at the top in that class. It employed in Decem- 
ber, 1917, between 13,000 and 14,000 hands. Its employment record speaks elo- 
quently of its remarkable growth: 

Years Number of Employes 

1850 190 

i860 193 

1870 538 

1880 399 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 205 

Years Number of Employes 

[890 1,200 

1900 2,000 

1910 4,000 

i9 J 4 7-500 

I9 1 / I3-50O 

As -a corporation it began business in 1850 with a plant which had 80 horse- 
power. This in 1893 had grown to 1,400 horsepower, and in 1902 to 2,250. 
Today one new power house, that constructed in 19 16, the first of several pro- 
posed units, has a capacity of 8,000 kilowatts. Its water, steam and electric power 
is so enormous today that it literally drives miles of machinery. 

In 1902 when it celebrated the 100th anniversary of its existence as a going 
business — it was not incorporated as the Scovill Manufacturing Company until 
1850 — its plant, then already great, was confined aside from its North Elm and 
Maple Street buildings well within the area bounded by Baldwin, Mill, East 
Main, Hamilton Avenue and Bridge streets. Within these limits it actually util- 
ized less than half the ground, the earliest constructed buildings being those along 
the Mad River. Today it extends from the junction of Mill and East Main streets 
to the point where the Mad River strikes Silver Street, a length of over 4,800 feet. 
Over this stretch of nearly a mile and in the territory lying between Bridge Street 
and Hamilton Avenue and East Main Street it has erected more than three hun- 
dred buildings, including its extensions and its rebuilt structures. 

Erom 1850 to 1902, a period of fifty-two years, the Scovill Manufacturing 
Company paid cash dividends amounting to $3,613,986.15, and in stock dividends, 
$1,980,281.25, a total of $5,594,267.40, for this period of over half a century. 

In 1916 with a capitalization of $5,000,000, the Scovill Manufacturing Com- 
pany paid dividends amounting to $11 1 a share, the total payments being almost 
as great as in its first fifty-two years. Its net earnings for 1916 amounted to 
$13,403,462, equal to $268 a share on outstanding stock. Besides accumulating 
this extraordinary profit, the company spent out of earnings $3,654,368 for plant 
additions and charged off approximately $2,000,000 for depreciation. A special 
reserve of $2,200,000 was set up for federal, state and city taxes, and the general 
reserve for contingencies and improvements was increased to more than $1,500,- 
000. The surplus account from $3,063,845 in 19 14 had been expanded to nearly 
$i6,oco.coo in 1916. 

A minute history of this company would be a history of the rise and progress 
of brass manufacture, the German silver manufacture, the daguerreotype, ambro- 
type, and photographic business, the munition making business, and of all the 
ramifications of these industries since they began to exist in the United States. A 
brief account of this earlier history is essential to ascertain the lines on which the 
corporation was established. 

The business which afterwards became the Scovill Manufacturing Company 
began in 1802 when the firm of Abel Porter & Co., undertook the manufacture of 
gilt buttons. The firm was composed of Abel Porter, Daniel Clark, Silas Grilley 
and Levi G. Porter, all of Waterbury. In August, 1809, Silas Grilley sold out 
to his partners and September 19, 181 1, the whole business passed into the hands 
of Dr. Frederick Leavenworth, David Hayden and James M. L. Scovill, and the 
firm name became Leavenworth, Hayden & Scovill. On April 4, 1827, Leaven- 
worth and Hayden sold their interest and William H. Scovill purchased a half 
interest in the business for which he paid about ten thousand dollars. The firm 
became T. M. L. & W. H. Scovill. 



206 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Within the next ten years several subsidiary organizations were established 
in which the parent firm became a partner with others. Among these was the 
firm of Scovills & Buckingham, consisting of J. M. L. and W. H. Scovill and 
John Buckingham, their brother-in-law, which was established in Oakville for 
the manufacture of brass butts, snuffer trays, belt ornaments and other small brass 
goods; also the firm of W. R. Hitchcock & Co., with W. R. Hitchcock and Joseph 
C. Welton as partners, which undertook the manufacture of cloth buttons in a 
building on the west side of Union Square. Later Welton sold out and the firm 
became a corporation under the same name. About 1850 this business was 
removed to a factory on North Main Street, which had been built for the fork 
and spoon business, where the Waterbury Manufacturing Company now is 
About 1839 came the firm of Scovills & Co., with Scovill M. Buckingham and 
Abram Ives as partners, for the prosecution of the gilt button business. The 
energies of the parent concern were at this time directed more towards sheet 
brass. Abram Ives sold out his interest and withdrew after two or three years. 

In 1850 all of these interests except that of W. R. Hitchcock & Co. were con- 
solidated into one joint stock company under the name of The Scovill Manufac- 
turing Company, with a capital of $200,000, the stock being taken by the Messrs. 
Scovill and their partners and a few others who had long been in their employ 
or were otherwise connected. In 1852 the capital was increased to $250,000, in 
1854 to $300,000, in 1865 to $350,000, in 1882 to $400,000, in 1898 to $1,600,000, 
and in 1900 to $2,500,000, in 1904 to $3,250,000, in 1907 to $4,000,000, and in 
191 3 to $5,000,000. It still remains at that figure. 

In 1 88 1 a special charter was granted to the Company under the same name 
by the Legislature. 

Leavenworth, Hayden & Scovill dated their real beginning of success from 
1820, when Mr. James Croft, an Englishman, entered their employ. After 
remaining with them one year he was secured by Mr. Benedict and in 1829 he 
became one of the partners of the firm of Benedict & Co., then organized. It was 
largely due to the advice and encouragement of Mr. Croft that the venture was 
continued. Trained in the art of making gilt buttons in Birmingham, England, 
he was the first workman of technical skill whose name appears in connection 
with the infant industry. His knowledge of the needs of the business here, and 
as well of conditions in Birmingham, England, led Mr. Benedict to send him 
seven times to England for tools and workmen. It was Mr. Croft who secured 
for his employer the machinery which enabled him to compete successfully with 
the older firm, Leavenworth, Hayden & Scovill. 

In 1834 it was the Scovill Company which challenged the exclusive right 
of the United States Government to issue coins. During the next seven years 
many tokens were issued by them of nearly two hundred different designs. The 
most of these were stamped from sheet copper, although a few were alloyed 
with tin. These passed as current coin, even after their manufacture ceased. 
In 1842 the issue was enjoined by the Government. After 1866 the Scovill 
Company furnished the United States mint with blanks for the three cent nickel 
and after 1890 with blanks for the one cent bronze and five cent nickel coins. 
Many coins, both blanks and fully stamped, have been issued by the Scovills and 
by others for many South American states. 

The most notable achievement in the history of the country in the line of 
medal making was the full set of medals — 23,757 m number — furnished by the 
Scovill Manufacturing Company for the Columbian Exposition of 1893. These 
were particularly rich and full in design, and special machinery and processes 
were devised for their manufacture. 




OFFICE OF SCOVILL MANUFACTURING COMPANY, WATERBURY 




PLUME & ATWOOD MANUFACTURING COMPANY. WATER P.URY 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 207 

In n)02, on the occasion of the one hundredth anniversary of the Scovill 
Manufacturing Company, a bronze medal, 3 inches in diameter, was struck to 
commemorate the occasion. This had on its face outline portraits of the original 
founders of the business, J. M. L. and \Y. Jl. Scovill, and on the obverse side, 
the dates 1802-1902 and the commemorative statement. It was classed with the 
best medal work that has been turned out in the country. 

In 1914, at the outbreak of the war, the Scovill Manufacturing Company 
was among the first to tender its services for munition-making. With the plant 
splendidly equipped for this work, and land and other resources at hand for 
immediate extension, agents for foreign governments were not slow to take 
advantage of this offer. The contracts for the making of time fuses were not 
alone speedily closed, but all the skill and ingenuity of the best workmen in the 
country were applied to the great task. The Scovill Manufacturing Company 
made the first and best deliveries and its orders were greatly increased. 

Huge orders for shrapnel shell cases were taken. These were shipped to 
inspection points where thirty shells out of every 4,000 are tested. Those which 
stand the test are then sent to the Bethlehem Steel Works and other similar 
plants for final assembling and disposal. There have been but few rejections. 
In 1917 Government orders along the same lines were received. 

The physical growth of the plant may be roughly divided into three periods. 
The first period is that extending to 1900, during which time the total expended 
for buildings and machinery amounted to $1,411,865. This expenditure is tabu- 
lated as follows by the company: 

1865 to 1870 $134,446 

1870 to 1875 80,479 

1875 to 1880 3 6 ,37 8 

1880 to 1885 351,658 

1885 to 1890 181,927 

1890 to 1895 239,283 

1895 to 1900 387,694 

Since 1902 the greater part of the plant has been constructed, but the third 
period beginning with 19 14 has been by far the most extensive in construction, both 
in extensions and new buildings. The expenditures for additions to land, build- 
ings and machinery in the war period have been as follows : 

1914 $ 403.5 2 476 

1915 2,336,244.66 

1916 3,654.3 8 577 

1917 to May 1st 1,158,754.36 

Total $7-552.909-55 

The following record of buildings erected since 1902 gives a fair conception 
of the rapidity of the plant's growth : 

Four-story manufacturing building back of East Main Street with a one-story 
addition, frontage of 200 feet. Brick construction. Period prior to 1910. 

One-story brick rolling mill building approximately 100 by 75 feet, centrally 
located in the older plarit. One-story addition to this approximately the same size. 

Casting shop, four-story, new style construction. Replaced old building. Con- 
structed in 191 2. 



208 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

One-story reinforced concrete and brick oilhouse. Built in 1916. 

Extension of power house on canal. One-story, brick. Built in 19 10. 

Extension of japanning building on Mill Street, built 191 1. 

Five-story extension to manufacturing building back of East Main Street, 
brick, mill construction. Erected 1910. Frontage 200 feet. 

One-story manufacturing building back of .Last Main ; built in 1909. 

Five-story and basement manufacturing building, mill construction. Built 
in 1910. Back of Mill Street. 

Five-story manufacturing building; narrow frontage on Mill Street; length 
about 250 feet, brick, mill construction. Erected in 1909. 

Two reinforced concrete hve-story manufacturing buildings with frontage of 
about 600 feet on East Main Street. Seventy-eight feet deep. Constructed in 
1915 and 1916. 

Two-story brick manufacturing building between Mill and Hayden streets. 
Erected in 191 5. 

Hayden Street residence completely remodeled for hospital uses, 1914. 

One-story temporary structure added to smaller manufacturing building on 
East Main Street. 

Two-story box and barrel factory completely rebuilt after the fire. 

One-story wood salvage plant building, erected in 1912. 

Ash-reclaiming plant, built in 1913. 

Incinerating plant built in the East yards in 19 13. 

Hayden Street building thoroughly remodeled for paint shop. 

Former garage in the East yards remodeled into tinsmithing plant. 

Experimental building of brick and steel construction in East yards, built in 
19 1 7. Used for research work. 

Large storehouse 106 by 247 feet, steel frame with wood roof, built in 191 5 
with front on East Main Street. Moved in 1916 to Silver Street plant. 

The first unit of new power houses in Silver Street plant. Has capacity of 
8,000 kilowatts. Furnishes electric power only. Erected in 1916. Part of a 
duplicate unit now under construction. 

Steel and corrugated iron one-story temporary power and boiler house in 
Silver Street plant. 

Four-story, steel frame, brick walls, casting shop 160 by 200 feet. Erected 
in 1916. This is the building with the twelve smoke stacks and is perhaps one of 
the largest casting shops in the country. 

Mill building, 120 by 220 feet, steel frame, brick and glass walls, one story high, 
erected on Silver near Meriden Road in 191 7. 

Small casting shop, steel and corrugated iron, 50 by 170, Silver Street plant, 
erected in 1917. 

One-story high mill building 310 by 850 feet, steel frame, brick and glass walls, 
near Hamilton Avenue, started in 191 5; finished in 19 16. 

Two-section barn, 40 by 200 feet, off Hamilton Avenue. 

Chemical laboratory, 50 by 212 feet, one story high, reinforced concrete, on 
Caroline and Ambrose streets. This is one of the most completely equipped labo- 
ratories in the country. W. B. Price, chief chemist, is in charge. 

Hot forging plant, one story high, steel frame and corrugated iron, 125 by 
284 feet, erected in 1917. 

There are now under construction : 

New garage and manufacturing building, reinforced concrete, five stories, 
East Main between Hamilton Avenue and Ambrose Street, 78 by 218 feet. One- 
third of a proposed unit. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 209 

Extension to the big mill building near I lamilton Avenue, size 200 by 225 
feet. One story high, steel, brick and glass construction. 

Extension to Silver Street plant power house, as already mentioned. 

One-story, steel frame wood roof temporary extension to storehouse, 106 by 
192 feet. 

New hospital on Hamilton Avenue, west of Building 68. Heavy wood con- 
struction. One story. Just completed. 

In addition to this work, two dams have been built, the Mad River dam in 
1916 and the Wolcott dam in 19 17. 

The financial returns from this vast progressive plant have been enormous. 
On January 25, 19 1 7, the Scovill Manufacturing Company declared an extra 
dividend of 10 per cent, payable February 1st. This was the tenth monthly divi- 
dend of 10 per cent to be declared in succession. On January 1st, the extra and 
the regular quarterly 2 per cent were paid, and a special dividend of 25 per cent 
in Anglo-French bonds was distributed on January 5th. In 1916, the extra and 
regular dividends amounted to in per cent. 

The balance sheets for 191 5 and 1916 follow: 

1915 1916 

Land, buildings and machinery $ 6,157,547 $ 7,390,950 

Cash and certificates of deposit 3,436,212 6,047,763 

Bonds 1,409,947 S.SW'SSS 

Stock in other companies 3,248 56,788 

Bills rec, etc 3,004,471 5,671,588 

Merchandise 3>5°9>i3 6 5»3 I 4,79° 

$17,520,561 $28,001,237 

Capital stock $ 5,000,000 $ 5,000,000 

Surplus 2,163,846 2,588,208 

Accounts payable, etc 2,882,353 809 567 

Contingencies and improvement reserve 1,500,000 4,000,000 

Reserve for taxes 2,200,000 

Net earnings for year 5,974,362 13,403,462 

$17,520,561 $28,001,237 

The housing work done by the Scovill Manufacturing Company, one of its 
most important methods of helpfulness to its employees, is fully covered under a 
chapter devoted to that subject. The history of its police and fire departments, 
which work in conjunction with the city departments, is fully told in the chapters 
devoted to the city's protection methods. 

Its hospital work started in January, 191 4, with Miss Nora A. O'Brian, 
registered nurse, in charge. Miss O'Brian has three graduate nurse assistants and 
two male nurses. The hospital is open night and day for service, and no matter how 
slight the injury, it must be reported and looked after by the physician in charge. 
The main hospital on Hayden Street has an operating room, rest rooms for men 
and women, an X-ray room, a sterilizing room and a laboratory. The East 
Hospital contains all of these equipments except laboratory and X-ray room. 
These hospitals provide for free examination of employees, free treatment in 
case of accidents and also serve to assist in placing employees at work which 
cannot aggravate any organic trouble which they may possess. 



Vol. 1—14 



210 WATERBURY AND THE XAUGATUCK VALLEY 

In explanation of the work the following written by the capable nurse in 
charge of the Scovill Manufacturing Company's hospital, Miss Nora O'Brian, in 
her 1916 report, is enlightening: 

"During our few years' existence, our experience has taught us that, in the 
administration of industrial enterprises, few factors are of more importance than 
medical and surgical supervision; care of the health and sanitary conditions, in 
the modern industrial concerns, carries with it no light responsibility. Employees 
are constantly encouraged to seek medical and surgical aid and advice in case of 
even the most trivial accident or the slightest illness. No physical phase in the 
life of the employee, or his family, is too large or too small to claim the atten- 
tion of the company's physicians and surgeons, and a visiting nurse, whose service 
is gratuitous, is always on call and frequent visits are made to the homes of the 
employees. During the past year the management is able to report numerous 
improvements and better general conditions. With the co-operation of the 
employment office, with the information obtained from our various committees 
and associations, we are frequently able to place employees having physical disa- 
bilities to good advantage and applicants for work are not necessarily debarred 
because of physical disabilities. When we find, through accident or observation, 
an employee who is not fitted for his work and is undermining his health by 
performing such work, with the co-operation of the foreman this employee is 
placed to advantage and kept under observation. 

"Due to the co-operation of the foreman, by reporting accidents immedi- 
ately, infection cases are reduced to a minimum and very little time is lost 
through infection. 

"Employees suffering from physical disabilities, such as hernia, epilepsy, 
varicose veins and diseases of the heart and kidneys, must sign instructions not 
to do any heavy lifting or over-exert themselves and are placed to advantage, 
also kept continually under observation by reporting to the hospital for peri- 
odical examination. 

"The number of accidents for the year 1916 will approximate 16,000; casual- 
ties (for which the company is not held responsible), 11,287; total number of 
cases treated by the medical department in all its branches, 27,286 ; total number 
of surgical dressings, 60,000; as compared with 11,493 accidents, 4,623 casualties, 
and 16,728 dressings during the previous year. The increase in number of cases 
is due principally to a much larger number being employed, and also because 
employees have been encouraged more strongly to report any indisposition to the 
hospital. 

"The management has also extended the use of the Scovill Hospital to 
employees of outside concerns, who may be working on the premises. Due to 
the extensive additions and alterations of the Scovill plant for the past few years, 
the number of outside concerns' employees receiving treatment at this hospital 
has shown a decided increase. During the year 191 4, forty outside employees 
were treated; 1915, 400; and indications for the present year are that 500 outside 
employees will probably receive treatment at this hospital." 

The employment bureau of the Scovill Company, established as a distinct 
branch of the vast business, was opened in 1914, and is now in charge of 
Robert E. Piatt, head of the industrial service department. All applicants, both 
men and women, pass through this department, averaging from 50 to 100 a day. 
When an employee is first taken on, he is given a set of instructions in the; 
language he can read best, to which he signs his name. These instructions in 
effect tell him to "go to the hospital when he is injured or sick." He is given a 
ticket describing him, his injury, where and when occurred, etc. This, when 



\\ ATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 211 

injured, he takes to the hospital at once, where he receives treatment, the ticket 
being given a serial number and tiled for reference. 

The employment bureau is closely connected with what is known as the 
permanent safety advisory committee, a group of representative foremen and 
superintendents who carry on frequent inspection of dangerous localities and 
investigate all serious accidents with a view to carrying out such changes as will 
lessen the chance of a repetition. Furthermore, new buildings and machinery 
are designed with special reference to safety and health, while all dangerous 
tools, machines and localities are safeguarded as soon as recommendation is made 
by this committee. But in the matter of the help they do much to see that in the 
line of both skilled and unskilled labor, only physically able men and women are 
taken on. 

The industrial service department was started in April, 19T7, with Rev. H. D. 
Gallaudet in charge. He left in May to enter the army service and Robert E. 
Piatt is now in charge of this work. It is rapidly developing into its proposed 
line of usefulness, which to begin with will be largely survey work so that special 
adjustments can be made intelligently. It is proposed to develop this department 
so that in its sociological work it will help the employees along educational as 
well as along recreational lines. 

It is interesting to note here that the service flag of the company, which is 
now, December, 191 7, in preparation, will have about four hundred stars in it. 

The Scovill Manufacturing Company has had but little labor trouble. On 
August 25, 191 5, the company increased wages 15 per cent and granted the 
Saturday half-holiday with full pay. Since that date it has made further sub- 
stantial increases with a bonus system which enables the skilled workmen to make 
excellent wages. 

The number of women employed changes often. At present, December, 1917, 
about one-quarter of all employed are women. 

The officers of the corporation have been as follows : 

PRESIDENTS 

J. M. L. Scovill 1850-1857 

Scovill M. Buckingham 1857-1861 

Samuel W. Hall 1861-1868 

Frederick J. Kingsbury 1868-1900 

Chauncey P. Goss 1900-1917 

VICE PRESIDENTS 

Frederick J. Kingsbury 1900-191 1 

Mark L. Sperry 1911-1917 

TREASURERS 

William H. Scovill 1850-1854 

Scovill M. Buckingham 1855-1861 

F. J. Kingsbury 1861-1864 

Henry Merriman for one month. 

F. J. Kingsbury 1 864-1865 

I '.arrett Ripley 1865-1866 

Chauncey P. Goss 1866-1917 



212 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

SECRETARIES 

Scovill M. Buckingham 1850-1858 

Edward S. Clark 1858-1862 

Frederick J. Kingsbury 1862-1864 

Chauncey P. Goss 1864-1869 

Mark L. Sperry 1869-1917 

ASSISTANT TREASURER 

Edward O. Goss 1 900-1917 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY 

Theophilus R. Hyde, Jr 1900-1907 

C. M. DeMott 1907-1917 

DIRECTORS 

James M. L. Scovill 1850-1857 

William H. Scovill 1850-1854 

Scovill M. Buckingham 1850-1862 

George Mallory 1850-1855 

Samuel W. Hill 1850-1877 

Mark L. Sperry l &77~ 

Edward S. Clark 1855-1862 

Samuel Holmes 1855-1878 

Frederick J. Kingsbury 1858-191 1 

Christopher C. Post 1862-1869 

Scovill M. Buckingham 1863-1889 

Douglass F. Maltby 1866-1867 

Thomas L. Scovill 1866-1886 

Thomas C. Morton 1867-1876 

Douglass F. Maltby 1 869-1898 

Chauncey P. Goss l &77~ 

Washington I. Adams 1878-1896 

William E. Curtis 1910- 

Henry W. Scovill 1889- 

Guernsey S. Parsons 1890-1897 

Joseph T. Whitlesey 1896-1903 

Theophilus R. Hyde, Jr 1897-1901 

Edward O. Goss 1898- 

John H. Goss !9°3- 

C. M. DeMott 1907- 

The present directors are: C. P. Goss, E. O. Goss, |. H. Goss, Mark L. 
Sperry, H. W. Scovill, W. E. Curtis, C. M. DeMott. 

CAPITAL 

1850 — January, original $ 200,000 

1852 — January, increase 50,000 

1854 — January, increase 50,000 

1865 — September, increase 50,000 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 213 

1882 — August, increase 50,000 

1892 — January, increase 1,200,000 

1900 — January, increase 900,000 

1904 — January, increase 750,000 

1907 — January, increase 750,000 

1913 — January, increase 1,000,000 



$5,000,000 

THE MATTHEWS & WILLARD MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

The Matthews & Willard plant on North Elm Street is now a branch of the 
Scovill Manufacturing Company, having been bought out in May, 1903. It was 
incorporated originally for $250,000 in 1890, and its officers then were: Presi- 
dent, F. L. Curtis; treasurer, C. P. Goss; secretary and manager, George G. 
Blakeslee. Its output is along the general lines of brassware made by the Scovill 
Company. 



CHAPTER XVII 
OTHER BRASS AND BRASSWARE COMPANIES 

THE AMERICAN RING COMPANY RANDOLPH & CLOWES COMPANY THE WATERBURY 

ROLLING MILLS A. H. WELLS & CO. FRENCH MANUFACTURING COMPANY THE 

PILLING BRASS COMPANY WATERBURY BRASS GOODS CORPORATION STEELE & 

JOHNSON THE NATIONAL COMPANY — THE SMITH & GRIGGS MANUFACTURING 

COMPANY THE SHOE HARDWARE COMPANY PLATT BROTHERS & COMPANY 

NOVELTY MANUFACTURING COMPANY BERBECKER & ROWLAND MATTATUCK 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY WATERBURY BUCKLE COMPANY — L. C. WHITE 

COMPANY NOERA MANUFACTURING COMPANY THE GENERAL MANUFACTUR- 
ING COMPANY THE AMERICAN FASTENER COMPANY THE SIMONSVILLE MAN- 
UFACTURING COMPANY THE WATERBURY METAL WARES COMPANY THE 

SOMERS COMPANY, INC. — THE CONNECTICUT MANUFACTURING COMPANY. 

The Plume & Atwood Manufacturing Company is one of the larger inde- 
pendent manufacturing establishments of the country. It was organized in 1869, 
assuming its present name in 1871. Israel Holmes was its first president and 
David S. Plume its treasurer. It constructed the older part of its present factory 
on Bank Street in 1872, also purchasing the brass rolling mill of the Thomas 
Manufacturing Company at Thomaston. Within the past twenty years the plant 
at Thomaston has been greatly enlarged and the factory in Waterbury, a very 
modest structure to begin with, has now a frontage of 679 feet on Bank and 
144 feet on Jackson streets. There are in all twelve buildings in the present plant. 
The Waterbury factory manufactures general brass products which are sold to 
retailers and jobbers all over the world. 

The presidents since 1890 have been: Lewis J. Atwood to February 23, 1909; 
Cbarles H. Tucker, April 19, 1909, to February 8, 1910; Walter S. Atwood, 
February 8, 1910, to February 14, 191 1; John Booth Burrall, February 4, 191 1, 
to the present time. 

The vice presidents of the company have been as follows : Charles H. Tucker, 
February 11, 1902, to April 19, 1909; Walter S. Atwood from April 19, 1909, 
to February 8, 1910; Robert C. Swayze, from February 8, 1910, to February, 1916, 
when he was succeeded by the present vice president, Otis S. Northrop. E. M. 
Burrall, one of Waterbury 's most enterprising manufacturers, was for fifteen 
years, until his death in 1901, a director of this company. 

The present secretary is S. Kellogg Plume, elected February 11, 191 5, suc- 
ceeding Fred T. Millham. David S. Plume was its treasurer from January 25, 
1870, to February 19, 1907. He was succeeded by John Booth Burrall. The 
present treasurer, John H. Hurlbut, has been in office since February 11, 1914. 

Its capital is $1,250,000 and it employs about one thousand hands in the 
plants at Waterbury and Thomaston. 

The Plume & Atwood Manufacturing Company are manufacturers of brass, 
copper and German silver in the sheet, wire and rod, copper and brass rivets and 
burrs, printers' rule strips and galley plates, brass butt hinges, brass and iron 

214 



WATERBURY AND THE N'AUGATUCK VALLEY 215 

jack chain, escutcheon pins, "The Royal Lamp," kerosene oil burners and lamps, 
lamp trimmings and gas and electric fixture parts. 

THE AMERICAN RING COMPANY 

The American Ring Company , now under the control of the Plume & Atwood 
Manufacturing Company, incorporated in 1852. It started at first on Canal 
Street in a very small factor}'. Today in its Rank Street factories it employs 
500 people. Its capital is $50,000. This is the original amount for which the 
company had been incorporated and has not been changed. 

The company manufactures furniture trimmings and bathroom accessories, 
which are sold to jobbers and retailers. It has a five-story factory and branch 
offices in New York, Roston, Chicago and San Francisco. 

The officers in i$()?, were: E. M. Burrall, president; D. S. Plume, treasurer; 
and David N. Plume, secretary. On the death of D. N. Plume in 1899, F. S. 
Chesson became secretary. In 1902 Charles H. Tucker was made president, with 
D. S. Flume treasurer, and F. W. Chesson secretary. In 1906 the officers were : 
Charles IF Tucker, president; D. S. Plume, treasurer; John M. Burrall, secretary; 
John R. Rurrall, assistant treasurer. February 11, 1914, John B. Burrall was 
elected president and treasurer, and John M, Burrall secretary and general 
manager, which positions they hold in 1917. 

One of its most successful patents, which is still manufactured in large 
quantities, is the Washburne fastener, a combination button and spring clasp. 
It is today a staple in trades and industries requiring fasteners. 

The great success of this company was due largely to the business acumen 
and progressiveness of Edward Milton Burrall, its president from 1888 to 1901, 
the year of his death. He was for years vice president and trustee of the Dime 
Savings Bank and a director of the Colonial Trust Company. 

RANDOLPH & CLOWES COMPANY 

Of the various establishments in the brass industry aside from the Scovill 
Manufacturing Company, the Chase Companies, and the American Brass Com- 
pany one of the largest single plants is that of the Randolph & Clowes Company. 

This firm began business in 1886, purchasing part of the plant of the defunct 
concern of Brown & Brothers. Edward F. Randolph, of New York, furnished 
the money and the management was placed in the hands of George H. Clowes. 
Work was begun in April, 1886, with fifty men and one clerk. At the end of 
three years, the business had grown to $600,000 a year, largely by reason of the 
ability and energy of Mr. Clowes. 

In 1890 Mr. Clowes had developed the business to such an extent that he 
was prepared for the manufacture of sheet brass and sheet copper and bought 
the disused rolling mill of the old company for this purpose. 

The death of Mr. Randolph in 1898 forced a change in the affairs of the 
company, and long litigation ended in the defeat of Mr. Clowes, Charles Miller 
and associates taking over the Randolph and controlling interest in the firm of 
Randolph & Clowes. 

Mr. Clowes did much to develop Waterbury, not alone along manufacturing 
lines, but in the way of civic beautification. In a few years he worked marvelous 
changes at Norwood, the Pines and at Overlook. In 1894 Mr. Clowes was presi- 
dent of the Board of Trade. He died May 17, 191 2. 

In August, 1899, Randolph & Clowes was incorporated for $500,000 and its 



216 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

first officers were : President, C. P. Goss ; treasurer, Franklin A. Taylor ; secretary 
Curtis J. Birkenmayer. In 1904 Charles Miller, to whomi the courts awarded a 
controlling interest, acquired by purchase during the previous few years, was 
chosen president ; Franklin A. Taylor, vice president and secretary, and Charles E. 
Hall, treasurer. 

In 1917 its officers are: Vice president, Ralph H. Smith; secretary, Henry I. 
Farnum. Its president, Charles Miller, died February 6, 1917, and Mr. Hall 
died later in the year. 

Mr. Miller was one of the most prominent business men of Waterbury, having 
come here in i860 and with Henry H. Peck founded the Miller & Peck Dry 
Goods Company. In 1899 he retired from this and devoted his time to the devel- 
opment of the business of Randolph & Clowes. Mr. Miller died at the ripe age 
of seventy-nine years and five months. 

The Randolph & Clowes plant today comprises twenty buildings in which 
about seven hundred men are regularly employed. Fully half of these buildings 
are of modern factory construction and equipped with one of the finest crane 
systems in the city. 

It manufactures seamless drawn brass and copper tubing and shells to 32 
inches in diameter ; sheet brass and bronze ; brass and bronze rods ; Muntz metal 
sheets and rods ; marine bronze sheets and rods ; brazed brass tubing and mould- 
ing; spun brass kettles and Brown & Brothers seamless copper range boilers. 

THE WATERBURY ROLLING MILLS 

The Waterbury Rolling Mills, Inc., was organized in March, 1907. Its capital 
is $200,000. The first officers of the company were : President, Ambrose H. 
Wells; secretary and assistant treasurer, Fred B. Beardsley; treasurer, Frank P. 
Welton. 

Its officers in 1917 are: Cornelius Tracy, president; Fred B. Beardsley, 
secretary and treasurer ; R. D. Somers, vice president and assistant treasurer. 

In 1908 additions of considerable importance were made to the plant. The 
new factory building put up in that year is of brick and steel construction, one 
story high, 65 by 150 feet in size, with wing 32 by 40 feet. The casting shop 
and boiler house are of the same construction, also one story in height. The 
dimensions are 50 by 64 feet and 34 by 45 feet, respectively, and were put up 
in 1908. 

In 1909 the one-story concrete and steel building, 48 by 150 in size, was 
erected, together with some frame additions. Further additions followed and in 
1917 a shipping building, blacksmith shop, and a new garage are under 
construction. 

The Waterbury Rolling Mill employs about one hundred and twenty-five hands, 
and manufactures German silver, bronze, gilding metal, platers, bars, low brass 
and other special alloys in sheet and rolls. 

A. H. WELLS & CO. 

A. H. Wells & Co. began business in 1887. Its incorporation, however, was 
deferred until 1907, when its capital was fixed at $50,000. In 1916, this was 
increased to $250,000. Its first president was A. H. Wells, who died February 15, 
1910. The company since then has had the following officers: President, S. J. 
Wells; secretary, C. H. Wells; treasurer, G. H. Wells. 



\\ ATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 217 

Its output is confined to small sizes of seamless brass and copper tubing. The 
plant gives employment to 160 hands. 

In [905, the new factory building on Watertown Avenue was added to the 
plant, and from that time on extensions have been made repeatedly with the 
growth of business. 

Both brick and concrete and frame additions were put up in 1907, 1908 and 
1909, the latter 40 by 100 feet in size. The additions in 191 1 were one-story 
brick structures, 64 by 107 and 35 by 55. Smaller additions were made in 1914, 
and in KJ15 and 1916 a 100 by 160 factory was erected. Many improvements have 
been added in the past two years. 

The plant is today one of the most complete of its kind in the country. 

THE FRENCH MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

The French Manufacturing Company was organized in 1905, with F. W. 
French as president, L. R. Carter as treasurer, and George L. Jenks as secretary. 
Its capital was $25,000, increased March 2, 1910, to $50,000, and March 14, 
1913, to $100,000. 

The first factory was built at 128 Robbins Street, and was 40 by 60 feet. 
Since then additions have been built every two years. The factory is now 260 
by 80 feet, and three stories in height. It is of brick and steel construction, with 
cement floors and roof. The company manufactures seamless brass tubing in 
small sizes and fine gauges, also seamless brass copper, aluminum and other alloy 
tubing and various products made from seamless tubes. It also manufactures 
piano player hardware and copper electrical linings, its product is sold to other 
manufacturers. 

Its plant is operated by electric power. It employs 140 hands, of whom 
35 per cent are skilled workmen. 

THE PILLING BRASS COMPANY 

The Pilling Brass Company was incorporated in April, 1907, with a capital of 
$25,000, increased July 8, 191 5, to $100,000. Its business from the outset has 
been that of making thin gauges of brass, copper and German silver. Its first 
officers were : J. W. Pilling, president and treasurer, and Jacob L. Sweiger, 
secretary. Mr. Sweiger sold out in 1909 and was succeeded by James H. Pilling 
as secretary. It has greatly enlarged its plant, building a new addition in 1916. 

On November 1, 1917, the business was sold to the Connecticut Brass Cor- 
poration of West Cheshire, Conn., which is now operating the plant under the 
name of the Connecticut Brass and Manufacturing Corporation. The Con- 
necticut Brass Corporation was started in 1912 by Michael E. Keeley and sold 
in 1 91 7 to the Liggett interests, who also owned the Mayo Radiator Company 
of New Haven, and wanted to secure an assured supply of sheet brass. About 
five hundred hands are employed in the two plants, and this will be increased 
soon to 800. The company is planning large extensions. The Connecticut Brass 
Company supplies all of the metal needed for the manufacturing of the Mayo 
radiators, and the Cheshire plant furnishes sheets to be further manufactured 
into small sizes by the Waterbury plant. 

THE WATERBURY BRASS GOODS CORPORATION 

The Waterbury Br.iss Goods Corporation was incorporated in July, 1904, and 
took over remanufacturing departments of American Brass Company subsidiaries. 



218 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Its capital is $500,000. Its president is John A. Coe, Jr., its secretary John P. 
Durfee, its treasurer Gordon W. Burnham. 

The company is a large manufacturer of brass goods, lamps, kerosene burners, 
butts, hinges, chains, and brass and bronze castings. It occupied part of the 
Holmes, Booth & Haydens plant. It erected its first two buildings in its Wash- 
ington Street plant in 1909, and added two large buildings in 191 1 and 1912. 

THE STEELE & JOHNSON MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

The Steele & Johnson Manufacturing Company was incorporated on March 
17, 1857, as the Steele & Johnson Button Company. In 1874 the business was 
removed to its present location on South Main Street and in 1888 the company 
purchased the property and erected its first structures. In 1894 the officers were : 
Charles M. Mitchell, president and treasurer, and Benjamin L. Coe, secretary and 
superintendent. Elisha Steele, the founder of the business, died in June, 1875. 
Charles F. Mitchell, the present executive, succeeded his father in the position. 
Benjamin L. Coe still holds his position as secretary. 

Its capitalization is $150,000. 

The company manufactures brass goods from sheet wire, rod and tubing, 
sheets, drawn, stamped and spun ; stamped shells up to 24 inches diameter, nuts, 
washers, chain, brass and iron chandelier chain, buttons for uniforms, ornaments 
and novelties, supplies for lighting fixtures, electrical and plumbers' trades, and 
automatic screw machine products. 

Since 1900 the company has put up eight factory buildings on its present 
site. The largest of these buildings, four stories, 42 by 150, was put up in 1909 
and 1 9 10. A four-story factory, 40 by 89, was put up in 1907 and 1908, and 
another of four stories, 33 by 51, was erected in 191 1. 

OTHER BRASS COMPANIES 

Newcomers in the field are the Waterbury Brass and Bronze Company, which 
in 1917 changed its name to the Connecticut Brass Foundry Company. Its 
business is devoted to brass, bronze and aluminum castings. It was incorporated 
originally in 1916 for $10,000, with Bernhard L. Coe as president and Henry L. 
Silver as secretary and treasurer. 

The Eastern Brass and Ingot Company, of New York, entered the Waterbury 
field in 1916. While incorporated in New York, it is a Chicago firm, with 
Howard Baker of Chicago as president. A. C. Duryea, vice president, is in 
charge of the new plant erected in the fall of 1916 on East Aurora Street. Its 
business is the conversion of finely-divided metal scrap into solid briquet-ingots. 
It employs fifty hands. 

THE NATIONAL COMPANY 

The National Company, manufacturers of brass, copper, bronze and nickel 
seamless tubing, has made a record in 191 7, its plant having been increased in 
the past twelve months from 7,000 square feet in its main buildings to 21,000 
square feet. It was incorporated in April, 191 3, with a capital of $250,000. Its 
officers then were : President and treasurer, M. J. Byrne ; vice president, A. A. 
Tanner ; secretary, George M. Beach. These are its present officers, with the 
exception that the vice presidency is now held by Walter N. Lovell. In addition 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 219 

to its officers, its directors are B. M. Gardner of Cleveland and Miss Mary C. 
( )'Neill of Waterbury. The company employs about one hundred men. 

Jt is doing some excellent housing work near its plant on Huntingdon Avenue. 
having in process of construction a 28-room single story dwelling, which is to he 
for the use of four families. Each seven-room section has a cellar, city water, 
electric light and every possible convenience. 

THE SMITH & GRIGGS MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

The Smith & Griggs Manufacturing Company was incorporated in 1869 for 
S40.000, and this capital was not increased until 1907, when it was fixed at 
S ;oo,ooo, the amount of its present capitalization. The original partnership was 
formed in 1864 by John E. Smith and Henry C. Griggs. 

The company manufactures all kinds of brass and metal goods, buckles, 
clasps, auto and carriage hardware, etc. 

In 1894 A. S. Chase was president; E. S. Smith, treasurer; R. H. Smith, 
secretary. 

Its officers and directors in 1917 are: Ralph H. Smith, president and treas- 
urer; J. R. Smith, assistant secretary; directors, Ralph H. Smith, J. R. Smith, 
H. S^ Chase, I. H. Chase, A. J. Smith, R. F. Griggs, Julius Maltby. 

Its plant on South Main Street, near Pearl Lake Road, was enlarged in 
1906 by the addition of two factories, sizes 43 by 137 and 20 by 30. 

THE SHOE HARDWARE COMPANY 

The Shoe Hardware Company of Waterbury was organized with a capital 
of $25,000 in 1898. This was increased to $400,000 December 20, 1913, and 
reduced to $100,000 April 19, 1917. It is a subsidiary of the United States 
Rubber Company and manufactures much of the hardware used by that corpora- 
tion. Its annual output of buckles runs into many millions. There have been 
few changes in the personnel of its officials since its organization. In November, 
191 7, Henry L. Hotchkiss, of New Haven, who had been president since its 
organization in 1898, resigned and A. D. Field, of Waterbury, who had been 
secretarv and treasurer since the company began business, was elected president ; 
Mr. Hotchkiss becoming vice president and E. W. Rutherford secretary. 

The company's plant on Brown Street has been greatly extended, additions 
having been made nearly every year of its existence. In 1900 the central three- 
storv building, 86 by 97, was erected, and in 1908 the large addition, 66 by 82, and 
the brick boiler house were added. In 1909 the wing, 73 by 107, was added. In 
ion and 1912 the five-story brick building, 84 by 99, and the three-story brick- 
building were added. 

Henry L. Hotchkiss, who was its president for so many years, has been closely 
identified with the United States Rubber Company as a director and was on its 
executive committee for the first seven years of its existence. 

THE PLATT BROTHERS & COMTAXV 

Among the long-established manufacturing enterprises of Waterbury is that 
of the Piatt Brothers & Company, which was incorporated in 1876, but was 
founded on the first of April, 1847. Even before that date the business had its 
inception, having been established by Alfred Piatt, grandfather of Lewis A. Piatt, 
who is now president of the concern. 



220 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

It continued the manufacture of buttons until 1910, when that branch of 
the business was taken over by a newly organized company under the name of 
the Patent Button Company, capital $48,000, of which Lewis A. Piatt, however, 
remains the treasurer. The original firm of A. Piatt & Co. was afterward reor- 
ganized under the name of A. Piatt & Sons and upon the death of the founder 
of the business it was incorporated in 1876 under the name of The Piatt 
Brothers & Company. The capital is $30,000. It has not been changed. This 
company manufactures all kinds of light metal articles, including eyelets, and 
sells direct to manufacturers. It employs about one hundred operatives in the 
factory, 50 per cent being skilled labor. After the incorporation of the company, 
W. S. Piatt was chosen president, with his brother, Clark M. Piatt, as secretary 
and treasurer. The latter succeeded to the presidency on the death of W. S. 
Piatt in 1886, while Lewis A. Piatt, son of Clark M. Piatt, became secretary. 
He continued in that office until chosen to the presidency, which position he 
still fills. 

The Piatt Brothers & Company factory was destroyed by fire in 1893, but 
was rebuilt in 1896 and 1897 and contains about twenty thousand square feet. 
It uses both water and electric power and the factory is equipped with both 
individual and group motors. There are five turbine water wheels, furnishing 
400 horse power from the river. Clark M. Piatt continued as president to the 
time of his death in 1900, when Lewis A. Piatt became president, with J. H. Hart 
as treasurer and Wallace H. Camp as secretary. 

THE NOVELTY MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

The Novelty Manufacturing Company was organized in June, 1872, and 
William Bake was president; Edwin H. Putnam, treasurer; Thomas Fitzsimons, 
secretary, and John Cushbaum, with the three officers, constituted the board of 
directors. The business was begun at 125 Maple Street in a small way. In 1886 
Mr. Blake died and Mr. Putnam became president. On his death in 1889, Mr. 
Fitzsimons, who had been treasurer from 1886 to 1889 became president and 
treasurer, purchasing the Putnam interest, with Mr. William E. Blake as secre- 
tary. The latter withdrew in February, 1892, and in July Louis E. Fitzsimons 
became secretary. Thomas Fitzsimons died in 191 1, and Oscar Fitzsimons 
served as president from 1910 until October, 1912, with Louis E. Fitzsimons as 
secretary and treasurer. On October 2, 191 2, C. L. Holmes bought out Oscar 
Fitzsimons and on the 23d of January, 1913, became vice president, with Louis E. 
Fitzsimons as president and treasurer. O. S. Gage became secretary October 2, 
191 2, and the three officers remained in their respective positions until August, 
1917, when Louis E. Fitzsimons died. 

In 1894 the company built a factory, 36 by 88, four stories, of mill con- 
struction. In 1900 it built a large addition in two parts, four stories. In 1902 
it bought more ground, the building on it was remodeled and in 1906 a new 
building was added. The company now has 50,000 square feet in all. 

On July 13, 1910, the capital stock was increased from $12,500 to $200,000. 

The company manufactures metal goods, including bathroom fittings and 
accessories. It is the largest manufacturer in the United States of pipe ferrules, 
table cutlery, trimmings, lawn sprays, cabinet hardware, and curtain fasteners 
for automobiles. It makes all kinds of metal specialties, manufacturing several 
thousand different lines. It sells to other manufacturers and to the retail trade. 
It has a tool making department. It employs over two hundred and fifty people. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 221 

THE BERBECKER & ROWLAND MANUFACTURING! COMPANY 

The Berbecker & Rowland Manufacturing Company was organized in 1894, 
capital $150,000, when Herbert S. Rowland purchased an interest in the Tucker 
Manufacturing Company, which had been incorporated July 31, 1886. Its capital 
today is $350,000. 

The officers in 1895 were: Julius Berbecker, president; C. W. H. Berbecker, 
secretary, and H. S. Rowland, treasurer. 

In 1917 the officers are: E. N. Berbecker, president; Herbert S. Rowland, 
secretary and treasurer; and Robert S. Booth, assistant treasurer. Its capital 
is unchanged. 

The growth of the business is indicated by the fact that the plant has doubled 
its capacity several times by the building of various additions to the factory. 
Since 1900 it has erected thirteen factory buildings in its twenty acres of ground 
at Waterville. 

It now employs 275 people. The company manufactures cabinet, upholstery 
and drapery hardware, which is sold all over the United States and abroad. 

Its buildings are nearly all of mill construction. 

THE MATTATUCK MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

The Mattatuck Manufacturing Company was organized October 15, 1896, 
with Henry L. Wade as president, George E. Judd as treasurer, and George 
Tucker as secretary. On the death of Mr. Wade, Mr. Judd succeeded him as 
president, while continuing in the office of treasurer, and Mr. Tucker has been 
succeeded by William E. Fielding, who is now secretary and general manager. 
Its capital is $225,000. 

The factory at No. 1987 East Main Street has a frontage of 200 feet. The 
property of the company covers several acres of land, with seven model houses 
for employes. 

There are two factory buildings, each 150 by 44 feet, four stories high, and 
of mill construction, with the sprinkler system. 

The company manufactures brass and wire goods, furniture nails, upholstery 
nails, spring bed fabrics, screw machine products, handcuffs, wire forms and 
shapes and novelties. The company employs 500 people, 60 per cent skilled, 
15 per cent girls. 

THE WATERBURY BUCKLE COMPANY 

The W'aterbury Buckle Company was organized April 7, 1853. Its capital 
was increased in 19 12 to $400,000. Its present officers are Archer J. Smith, 
president and treasurer, and Julius Maltby, secretary. 

The company now has 400 employes, mostly skilled. Its main factory is 600 by 
400 feet, the old building three stories high and the new building five stories. 

The company manufactures all kinds of buckles and brass and steel specialties, 
selling extensively to other manufacturers. 

Its early success was due largely to the work of its former president, Earl 
Smith, who joined the company first as secretary and manager in 1865 and later 
as president. He died July 22, 1906, having been with the company over thirty 
years. At his death he was president of the American Mills Company, the Smith 
& Griggs Company, the Narrow Fabric Company of New Haven, the Waterbury 



222 WATERBURY AND THE XAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Buckle Company, and a director in the Waterbury National Bank. In 1890 he 
was one of the committee appointed to revise Waterbury 's charter. He was 
prominent not alone in industrial lines, but took a deep interest in the civic 
development of the city. 

THE L. C. WHITE COMPANY 

The L. C. White Company was incorporated July, 1888, for $15,000, at which 
it remains today. In 1893 George L. White became president and served until 
his death, December 1, 1914. Frank J. Ludington continued as vice president 
until his death October 11, 1909, when Frederick W. Ludington succeeded him 
and is still in office. In 1903 George L. White, Jr., became secretary and in 
1914 became president and treasurer, with W. H. White as secretary. 

The company manufactures buttons, upholstering nails and button part nov- 
elties, and employs 100 people, mostly men. It developed a line of automatic 
machinery for the manufacture of its product, which is sold all over the United 
States and abroad to jobbers and manufacturers. 

THE NOERA MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

The Noera Manufacturing Company was incorporated in 1905, although it 
had been in business as the Noera Company for many years. Its president and 
treasurer is Frank P. Noera, and its secretary is George W. Seeton. 

The capital is today $75,000, the amount given in the original incorporation 
papers. 

The Noera Company employs 275 hands, making all kinds of hardware spe- 
cialties, bicycle and auto sundries, but particularly oil cans, of which its output 
is very heavy. 

Its new factories were erected in 191 1 and 1912 and the larger brick building 
was put up in 191 5 and 191 6. In 191 7 storage buildings have been added to 
the plant. 

THE GENERAL MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

The General Manufacturing Company was organized in 1909 with a capital 
of $10,000 and the following officers in charge: President, John Draher; secre- 
tary, Charles F. Probst ; treasurer, Max Kiessling. 

In 19 1 5 the capital was increased to $40,000 and Charles H. Swenson suc- 
ceeded to the position of secretary. 

In 1917 the officers remain as above, with Miller P. Dayton as vice president. 

The General Manufacturing Company employs about seventy-five people, 
and its specialty is the manufacture of rivets, screws, and steel balls. 

The company began business in 1907, two years before its incorporation, and 
erected its first buildings on Brown Street in 191 1 and 191 2. Its plant was 
greatly extended in 191 3 and 191 4. 

THE AMERICAN FASTENER COMPANY 

The American Fastener Company was organized in November, 191 5, with 
a capital of $24,000, and with Charles Josephson, of New York, as president ; 
John Draher, of the General Manufacturing Company, as treasurer, and Max 
Kiessling, also of the General Manufacturing Company, as secretary. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 223 

This company manufactures press buttons and Mr. Kiessling is the inventor 
of the machine used in manufacturing them. The concern employs twelve people 
and Mr. Kiessling has done much toward developing the automatic machines 
used by this company, as well as those used by the General Company. Its 
factory was erected in 1915. 

THE SIMONSVILLE MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

The Simonsville Manufacturing Company, located on Pearl Lake Road near 
Tracy Avenue, was incorporated in July, 1916, for $25,000. It has leased its 
present site and has increased its capacity by adding a 40 by 20 addition to the 
older 60 by 20 building. Its president is Charles W. Roller; secretary, George 
Carney; treasurer, Roderick Perrault. The business was begun by these officers 
in 1915 as a partnership to manufacture Diamond brass paper fasteners. These 
are much like the old McGill fasteners, except that they have the diamond point. 
The company also manufactures tools and does much other novelty work. 

THE WATERBURY METAL WARES COMPANY 

The Waterbury Metal Wares Company was incorporated October 23, 191 5, 
for $50,000, and in November opened its factory on Jackson Street for the manu- 
facture of specialties in brass and other metals, its main output being lighting 
fixtures. The president of the company is L. W. Andersen; secretary, E. W. 
Andersen. The position of treasurer is at present vacant. 

THE SOMERS COMPANY, INC. 

The Somers Company, Incorporated, was established in 191 5 and incorporated 
in 191 6 with a capital of $50,000. It manufactures thin gauges of sheet brass in 
its factory at 94 Baldwin Street. The officers are : Robert D. Somers, president, 
who is also vice president and general manager of the Waterbury Rolling Mills ; 
Louis J- Somers, secretary; Joseph E. Somers, treasurer. 

THE CONNECTICUT MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

The Connecticut Manufacturing Company was incorporated December 29, 
1909, with C. H. Swenson, president and treasurer, and John Swenson as secre- 
tary. It established a plating plant which was, however, discontinued when 
Mr. Swenson went with the General Manufacturing Company, of which he is now- 
one of the principal officials. 



CHAPTER XVIII 
CLOCKS, WATCHES, PINS, NEEDLES, HOOKS AND EYES 

THE WATERBURY CLOCK COMPANY THE BEGINNINGS OF THE "iNGERSOLU" WATCH 

FROM THE ^JUMBO''' TO THE SMALL "DOLLAR" WATCH MAKING ITS OWN 

CRYSTALS R. H. INGERSOLL & BROTHER BUY THE NEW ENGLAND WATCH COM- 
PANY PLANT THE STORY OF THE "LONG WIND" WATERBURY WATCH THE LUX 

CLOCK MANUFACTURING COMPANY THE AMERICAN PIN COMPANY ITS PLANT 

ITS NEW BUILDINGS SINCE igOO THE OAKVILLE COMPANY AND ITS EXTEN- 
SIONS OFFICIALS OF THE BIG PIN COMPANIES. 

Clock-making on a large scale in Waterbury was formerly a branch of the 
business of the Benedict & Burnham Manufacturing Company. On March 2J, 
1857, this was made a separate concern under the title of the Waterbury Clock 
Company, with a capital of $60,000. 

It grew rapidly and secured larger quarters on North Elm Street in 1873. 
Arad W. Welton, the first president, was succeeded by Charles Benedict, at 
whose death in 1881 G. W. Burnham became president. He died in 1885 and 
Henry L. Wade, who had been secretary from 1871, was elected president, with 
Irving H. Chase as secretary. Both continued in the business until 19 12, when 
Mr. Wade died and Mr. Chase became president, with William J. Larkin as 
secretary. The factory has been vastly enlarged and the number of employes 
greatly increased. The company manufactures every kind of clock, and in many 
designs. The output of its glass factory is now 2]A tons of glass per day and 
this department alone employs 300 people. The total employes in 1887 were 300; 
in 1917 they are over three thousand. The capacity is now 23,000 timepieces 
daily. 

The buildings are all of mill construction. The company manufactures its 
own electricity and uses electric power group drive for motors. It has established 
a large experimental department in which men are continuously employed. The 
company now manufactures about seven hundred different styles of clocks, 
watches, and special features of timepieces. It has recently erected a new 
factory, 70 by no feet, six stories and basement, made of reinforced concrete, 
and equipped with sprinkler system. The work benches of the company, placed 
end to end, would extend over seven miles. 

The Ingersoll "dollar" watch has much to do with the great success of the 
Waterbury Clock Company. In 1899, the officers of the company conceived the 
idea of putting upon the market a watchcase with a clock movement and small 
enough to be carried in an overcoat pocket. It was sold for $1.50, was an inch 
and a half in thickness, and nearly three inches in diameter. It wound up like 
an alarm clock. It was called the "Jumbo" and a considerable sale was worked 
up on it. In 1893 Robert H. Ingersoll was running a small store on Fulton 
Street, New York, which he had opened in 1877 for the sale of rubber stamps 
and novelties. He happened to see a "Jumbo" in a jeweler's window, realized 
almost immediately what publicity could accomplish in the sale of what now 

224 




OFFICE OF THE WATERBURY CLOCK COMPANY. WATERBURY 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 225 

seems a cumbersome timepiece, but then had all the earmarks of a successful 
invention. 

Mr. Ingersoll came to Waterbury, and after a thorough investigation placed 
an order for 188,000 improved Jumbos. He sold all of them, and in the following 
year his order was for 300,000. By this time the idea of a smaller watch had 
taken possession of his inventive mind, and improvements followed so quickly 
that by 19 10 the Waterbury Clock Company was delivering to R. H. Ingersoll 
& Bro. 3,500,000 of the "dollar watches" every year. The output today in the 
Waterbury Clock Company of these watches runs over 12,000 a day. This means 
that there are always 168,000 of these watches in the timing racks, for no watch 
is turned out until it has had at least a two weeks' "timing" test. Robert H. 
Ingersoll in 1901 sold 1,000,000 of the watches to Symonds' London stores. 
This started the present world-circling sale of the "dollar" watch. 

As a result of the constantly expanding sale of this cheap, practical timepiece, 
the Waterbury Clock Company has had its most phenomenal growth since 1900. 
In that year it built two five-story brick factory additions, one 34 by 88 feet, the 
other 40 by 114 feet. In 1901 it added three additional factories, each five stories 
and respectively 34 by 88, 40 by 114, and 44 by 70. In 1904 and 1905 it added five 
buildings to the plant. One of these was the brick boiler house, another the engine 
house. One of the new factory buildings, of brick and heavy mill construction, 
measures 43 by 116. The other five story brick measures 43 by 104. Approxi- 
mately $125,000 was expended for new buildings in this period. 

In 1907 and 1908 it had again outgrown its capacity and added a five story 
factory, size 40 by 176. In 1909 and 1910 it expended approximately $100,000 
on further additions. 

The Waterbury Clock Company is probably the only concern of its kind that 
has a factory for making its own watch crystals. 

In 1914 after the outbreak of the war the Waterbury Clock Company found 
itself shut off from its German and Swiss glass crystal sources. It was typical 
American enterprise that started a factory to meet this need and had it in full 
blast by May, 1915. The company is making about five hundred gross, or 72,000 
crystals daily now. A new seven story factory now being erected is for use in 
the making of watch crystals, and this means that the supply will be greatly 
increased in 1918. 

The entire watch output of the Waterbury Clock Company is sold to Robert 
H. Ingersoll & Brother. This is the world-famous Ingersoll watch. 

Its capital stock is today $4,000,000. 

ROBERT H. INGERSOLL AND BROTHER 

Like the Waterbury Clock Company, the Waterbury Watch Company, later 
the New England Watch Company and now an integral part of the Robert H. 
Ingersoll & Brother organization, was a department of the Benedict & Burnham 
Manufacturing Company. It soon outgrew its quarters in the parent plant, in 
which it had done business for two years, and in 1880 was organized as a new 
corporation, the Waterbury Watch Company, with a capital of $400,000. The 
factory completed in May, i88r, is the present site on Dover Street. Among its 
first directors were Charles Benedict, Gordon W. Burnham, Charles Dickinson. 
George Merritt, Edwin A. Locke and D. A. A. Buck. 

It was through the ingenuity of D. A. A. Buck that the watch long known 
to the country as the "long-wind Waterbury" was placed on the market. This 
was finally withdrawn in 1891 and a perfected short-wind watch was introduced. 

Vol. 1—13 



226 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

In 1888 Augustus S. Chase succeeded Charles Dickinson as president and 
remained in this office until his death in 1896. In this year, 1896, Arthur O. 
Jennings was secretary and Edward L. Frisbie treasurer. At this period it 
employed 400 hands. 

In 1898 the Waterbury Watch Company became the New England Watch 
Company with a capital of $600,000. Its president was E. L. Frisbie, and its sec- 
retary and general manager was A. O. Jennings. It was then making a special 
drive on the " Elfin" watch, the smallest time piece made in America, and on the 
'"Hyde," which was in competition with the dollar watch. 

By 1906 it had increased its capital to $750,000 and its president was George 
L. White, its vice president E. L. Frisbie, Jr., its secretary William H. White 
and its treasurer A. O. Jennings. 

Competition now became so keen that the company was having a hard time 
to make ends meet. Its cheap watch, successful for a time, could not stand up 
under the long, hard struggle for permanent trade. 

The capital had been increased to $1,000,000, but the sale of stock failed to 
help the project and application for a receiver was made on July 17, 1912. 
Harris Whittemore and John P. Elton were named as receivers. 

In November, 1914, when the building and plant, which had been inventoried 
at $325,000, were to be sold by court order, R. H. Ingersoll & Brother, who had 
their main plant at Trenton, N. J., announced that they were ready to bid for it. 

The city entered the combat, thinking to use the building as a Technical High 
School. The belief was general that the plant was to be dismantled and the 
machinery moved to Trenton. Charles H. Ingersoll, secretary and treasurer of 
this company, then announced that the Ingersolls would at once put the plant 
into condition for operation and would be turning out from 1,000 to 2,000 watches 
daily within a year. 

The Chamber of Commerce and the Board of Aldermen both received this 
pledge, on the strength of which the Ingersoll bid of $76,000 was accepted on 
November 25, 1914. 

This company has more than kept its promise. In 1917 it is employing 700 
neople. has a weekly pay roll of over ten thousand dollars, and the output of 
watches is reaching 1,500 a day. The company is now making what it terms the 
"Ingersoll-Waterbury" watch, thus reviving the old name with a perfected time- 
piece. 

The receivership of the old company was finally ended on January 7, 191 6. 

The Bannatyne Watch Company was incorporated for $100,000 in Novem- 
ber, 1905, with Franklin Farrel, Jr., of Ansonia, president; George E. Bryant, 
treasurer; Archibald Bannatyne, secretary. Mr. Bannatyne had been long in 
the employ of the Waterbury Clock Company and was the practical man in the 
new concern. Its factory was located at 31 to 37 Canal Street. The company 
discontinued the business in 191 1. It manufactured principally a watch retailing 
at $1.50 and smaller and neater than the original dollar watch, being more like 
the improved lines selling at $1.50 and $2.00. Mr. Bannatyne has long been 
regarded as the inventor of the original dollar watch by many people. He was 
master mechanic of the Waterbury Clock Company when the "Jumbo" watch 
was put out, and thinking along this line, decided that if it were manufactured 
in large enough quantities, a small watch in a nickel case with a stem-wind could 
be made at a price which would make it possible to retail it at $1.00. At that 
time he estimated that on an order of 500,000 the manufacturing cost would be 
29 cents each. The preliminary investment required for tools staggered the direc- 
tors, however, and before anything was decided upon, Mr. Ingersoll visited the 




FORMERLY NEW ENGLAND WATCH COMPANY; NOW OCCUPIED BY THE INGERSOLL- 
WATERBURY PLANT. OWNED BY R. H. INGERSOLL & BROTHER 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 227 

factory with a promise of a market for such a watch. In placing his original orders, 
he insisted that his name should go on the dial, where it has remained to this day. 

The old "long wind" Waterbury watch, on which D. A. A. Buck took out 
twelve patents from 1S79 to 1885, was the pioneer cheap watch. It had what was 
at that time a tremendous sale, although its retail price was $3.50. It was not 
only the favorite hoy's watch but the rough-and-tumhle watch of hundreds of 
thousands of men. Its tick was heard round the world and had made Waterbury 
famous. Why was it not the Waterbury watch that developed into a dollar 
watch ? Why did the Waterbury Clock company seize the idea which would 
have saved the Waterbury Watch Company from liquidation? 

The Waterbury watch ceased to be an attractive novelty because of its long 
wind, which was a favorite joke of vaudeville performers and newspaper humor- 
i-is. and the company came to the conclusion in 1891 that cheap watches were 
only a passing novelty. It was decided to manufacture medium grade watches 
and for fear the cheapness of the Waterbury watch would cling to the new 
product, the name of the corporation was changed to The New England Watch 
Company. Thus the factory entered upon the experiment of starting in new 
fields, already well occupied, without an established reputation. It is easy to 
assert that the Waterbury watch could have been at that time both improved in 
quality and reduced in price and made a commercial success. All we know is 
that eight years later the Waterbury Clock Company made the attempt and won. 

It has often been thought that the company's change of name was unfor- 
tunate. In 191 3 the receivers considered the question of re-assuming it on the 
theory that after the lapse of more than twenty years it would be an asset as 
a trademark. The same idea was suggested to Charles H. Ingersoll after his 
purchase of the factory and resulted in one of the new products being christened 
the Ingersoll-Waterbury. 

THE LUX CLOCK MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

Paul Lux started the Lux Clock Company in a small shop on East Farms 
Street in March, 1914. In 191 5 it had outgrown its quarters and moved into a 
large loft in Printers' Court. In January, 1917, it was incorporated as The Lux 
Clock Manufacturing Company with a capital of $50,000 and took larger quarters 
at 21 Harrison Street. Its officers are: President, Paul Lux; vice president, 
Michael Keeley; secretary, A. H. Hauser; assistant secretary, Herman Lux; 
assistant treasurer, Frederick Lux. The company manufactures clock move- 
ments. 

THE PIN COMPANIES 

It was in what may be called the segregation of its industries and in the 
development as separate organizations of what were to begin with branches of 
parent branches, that much of the great success of Waterbury manufactures 
lies. 

The pin industry is the earliest and most striking illustration of this. This 
began in Waterbury originally as a branch of the Benedict & Burnham Manu- 
facturing Company, and became a distinct organization in 1846, as the Ameri- 
can Pin Company. The invention by Chauncey O. Crosby of a machine for stick- 
ing pins on paper led to the formation in 1852 of the Oakville Company. The 
contest over the Crosby patent, which was claimed to be an infringement of the 
American Pin Company's "goose neck" patent device for sticking pins, was the 



228 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

foundation of the Oakville Company's success. In this the courts upheld the 
Oakville Company. After this controversy, the two companies developed along 
thoroughly harmonious lines. 

The American Pin Company was incorporated in November, 1846, and the 
incorporators were Adam Benedict, G. W. Burnham, Henry Bronson, J. S. 
Mitchell, Jr., Bennett Bronson, Charles Benedict, Benjamin DeForest, John 
DeForest, J. C. Booth, A. W. Welton, D. F. Maltby, Philo Brown, J. P. Elton, 
Ambrose Ives, James Brown, P. W. Carter and S. B. Minor. The American Pin 
Company was organized with a capital stock of $50,000. The business was a 
feeder for the wire mills. 

Nelson Hall became the secretary, treasurer and manager of the business in 
January, 1847, an d continued as manager until Theodore I. Briggs became 
treasurer on the 24th of January, 1865. On the 24th of December, 1866, he was 
made secretary and treasurer and was made president and treasurer on January 
24, 1888, while George A. Driggs succeeded to the position of secretary. Theodore 
I. Driggs continued in the presidency until June 28, 1893, when A. M. Blakesley 
was elected his successor and continued from January 30, 1894, until his death 
in October, 1908, when George A. Driggs became president and treasurer. He 
had previously been secretary and treasurer for fifteen years and upon his elec- 
tion to the presidency W. R. Willetts was elected secretary, continuing until 
February 6, 1913, when he in turn was succeeded by W. W. Bowers. 

It was a considerable period after the organization of the company before 
the president became an active factor in the management of the business, and 
the first president after the incorporation in 1846 was Philo Brown. The presi- 
dents of Holmes, Booth & Haydens, of the Waterbury Brass Company, of the 
Brown Company and of the Benedict and Burnham Company served in turn but 
were not active in control of the business until Theodore I. Driggs became presi- 
dent on the 24th of January, 1888. On the 6th of February, 1913, Fred E. Bart- 
lett became vice president, with H. B. Jenkins as assistant secretary. On the 2d 
of February, 1914, the same officers were chosen save that T. I. Driggs was 
elected assistant treasurer. On the 2d of February, 191 6, Gordon W. Burnham 
became a director, together with John P. Elton, H. B. Jenkins, T. I. Driggs, Geo. 
A. Driggs, Harris Whittemore, F. E. Bartlett. W. W. Bowers and John 
Booth Burrall. In February, 1916, T. I. Driggs was elected general manager as 
well as assistant treasurer. 

The business was originally located on East Main Street, where the Poli 
Theater now stands, but was removed in 1894 to Waterville in order to secure 
more room. In 1890 the company was doing a business of about one hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars per annum. Today the business of the corporation 
amounts to $3,000,000 per annum. 

The plant covers 50 acres of ground, and the factory comprises 7 buildings, 
4 stories in height with basement. One building is 250 by 50 feet, another 160 by 
60 feet, a third 150 by 35 feet, a fourth 33 by 40 feet, and a fifth 60 by 150 feet. 
There is also a 1 -story building 80 by 100 feet and another 80 by 150 feet. They 
employ 900 people, 35 per cent of whom are skilled operatives. Forty per cent 
of the employes are women. 

The company manufactures notions and brass goods, safety pins and hooks 
and eyes. The plant is operated by steam and electric power. Automatic 
processes have been developed and the output, under the name of the American 
Pin Company, is sold all over the world. 

Its construction work for the past seventeen years is the best evidence of its 
vast growth. 




BENEDICT & BURXHAM MANUFACTURING COMPANY, WATERBURY 




PLANT OF THE WATERBURY MANUFACTURING COMPANY, WATERBURY 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 229 

In 1900 it erected the 4-story central factory, 40 by 192, at a cost of $25,000. 
In 1902 it added the 4-story brick factory, 40 by 36, at a cost of $23,000. in 
1903 the new foundry building, i-story brick, 60 by 62, was put up in Water- 
ville at a cost of $15,000. In 1904 the casting shop, 62 by 120, was added to the 
Waterville plant. This was followed in 1905 with a 2-story brick addition 53 
by 162 and in 190O with the large 4-story brick, 53 by 257, and the wing, 18 by 
23, which was put up at a cost of $62,000. In 1909 and 1910 the 2-story brick 
buildings, 15 by 23 and 18 by 23, were added to the plant. In 1915 it further 
iucreased its working plant by a 1 -story brick building containing 8,858 square 
feet. 

The Oakville Company, organized in 1852 by Greene Kendrick with a capital 
stock of 853,000, has grown to be one of the largest organizations of its kind in 
the country. 

From the start of a few low buildings, the growth has been very satisfactory, 
as the plant now consists of several brick buildings, ranging from one to five 
stories in height. The various departments are equipped with the latest and most 
approved automatic wire machines, and all needed appliances operated by either 
steam, electricity or water, and lighted by electricity supplied by the companv's 
own electric plant. 

Its construction work has kept pace with the growth of its business. In 1900 
two additions of brick, one 4 stories, 40 by 45, and the other 2 stories, 35 by 65, 
were put up. In 1905 the 4-story brick, 32 by 92, and a i-story brick, 18 by 81, 
were added. In 1907 and 1908 the two 4-story brick buildings, 38 by 200, and 
40 by 200, were added, thus giving them most of the present large frontage on 
the main road. In 1909 and 1910 the 5-story brick building, 30 by 251, was added, 
and in 1916 the latest 5-story was put up, the most modern of all the equipment. 

It now employs about one thousand hands, of whom 40 per cent are women. 

It has done some fine work in the way of securing improved housing condi- 
tions for its employes and has built model homes, both for workmen and clerical 
help. Ten of these smaller homes are now under construction. 

Elisha Leavenworth succeeded to the presidency on the death of Joseph C. 
Welton in 1874. His successor was E. C. Lewis, who was succeeded by J. Hobart 
Bronson, who still occupies that position. Mr. Bronson succeeded Nathaniel 
H. Perry as secretary and general manager in 1877, becoming president on Novem- 
ber 18, 1 90 1. At that time Walter Place was secretary and the directors were J. H. 
Bronson, Elisha Leavenworth, J. S. Elton, H. S. Chase and J. A. Smith. 

The present directors are : H. S. Chase, W. E. Fulton, J. R. Smith, Truman 
S. Lewis, George Boden, J. Hobart Bronson. Its present officers are : J. Hobart 
Bronson, president and treasurer; vice president, Henry S. Chase; assistant 
treasurer, Bennett Bronson; secretary, George Boden. 

Its capitalization is $600,000. 

In 1909 there were employed in the United States 4,976 hands in the pin, 
needle and hook and eye business of the country. Waterbury and Torrington 
together are credited with nearly half of these employes. The proportion has not 
been reduced since that time. The three concerns in Waterbury, the American 
Pin Company, the Oakwell Company and Plume & Atwood, manufacture con- 
servatively estimated, one-half of all the pins and safety pins made in the United 
States, fully as large, if not an even larger percentage, of hooks and eyes and 
some needles. Needles are also made at Torrington in the Naugatuck Valley. 



CHAPTER XIX 
MACHINE SHOPS AND FOUNDRIES 

THE WATERBURY FARREL FOUNDRY & MACHINE COMPANY THE WATERBURY 

MACHINE COMPANY — THE E. J. MANVILLE MACHINE COMPANY THE BLAKE & 

JOHNSON COMPANY — THE WATERBURY TOOL COMPANY — THE LUDINGTON CIG- 
ARETTE MACHINE COMPANY — THE ROWBOTTOM MACHINE COMPANY — -ANDREW 

C. CAMPBELL, INC. HENDERSON BROTHERS SEYMOUR SMITH & SON THE 

MANUFACTURERS FOUNDRY COMPANY THE WATERBURY CASTINGS COMPANY 

THE METAL SPECIALTIES COMPANY THE ATLAS MACHINE COMPANY — WATER- 
BURY STANDARD TOOL AND MACHINE COMPANY WATERBURY PRESSED METAL 

AND TOOL COMPANY. 

The plant of the present Waterbury Farrel Foundry & Machine Company 
was started in 1851, and in 1857 was conducted in connection with the Ansonia 
Foundry under the name of the Farrel Foundry & Machine Company, and so 
continued until 1880. when the Farrels sold out. In the latter year the present 
company was organized as the Waterbury Farrel Foundry & Machine Company, 
with E. C. Lewis as president, Wm. E. Fulton as secretary, and George B. Lam- 
har as superintendent. 

The men at the head of affairs have been with the company for many years. 
William E. Fulton is president, David C. Griggs secretary and William S. Fulton 
is treasurer. Its capital is $440,000. 

It has constructed eleven factory buildings on its present site since 1900. In 
1 001 a four story brick factory building 48 by 196 was erected. In 1902 the three 
story brick and steel factory 47 by 194 was put up. It has built additions nearly 
every year, those in the period from! 1915 to 1917 summing up approximately 
$150,000. 

The Waterbury Farrel Foundry & Machine Company designs and builds rolling 
mill machinery, for brass, copper, and German silver, brass tube and wire 
machinery, hydraulic presses, power presses, drop presses, foot presses, cartridge 
and special machinery, and rivet machines for making automatically rivets, bolts 
and screw blanks. 

In the two plants it now employs about eight hundred hands. 

Edward C. Lewis, formerly president of the Waterbury Farrel Foundry & 
Machine Company, was one of the best known manufacturers in this section. He 
came to Waterbury in the early '50s to manage the branch of what was then 
known as the Ansonia Farrel Foundry & Machine Company. He died October 
24, 1901. and at that time was a director in the Dime Savings Bank, one of the 
original projectors of the Manufacturers Bank, president of the Oakville Com- 
pany, a director in the Benedict & Burnham Company, the Plume & Atwood Com- 
pany and the Holmes, Booth & Haydens Company. 

THE WATERBURY MACHINE COMPANY 

The Waterbury Machine Company, reorganized in 1885, capital $60,000, was 
originally located in Oakville, and was moved to Waterbury in 1891. In 1893 

230 



W'ATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 231 

its officers were William E. Fulton, president; George B. Lamb, treasurer; R. S. 
YVotkyns, secretary. In 1911 it was taken over as an adjunct corporation of the 
Waterbury Farrel Foundry & .Machine Company, the plants being- operated under 
one management and with identical outputs. It has, however, still a separate cor- 
porate organization. At present on its old site the two companies are putting up 
a large extension with a two story front on Bank Street, and a one story build- 
ing on .Meadow Street. Its capital remains at $(K),000. 

Its officers at present are: President, William E. Fulton; secretary, William 
1). Pierson ; treasurer, William S. Fulton. 

The company manufactures automatic machines of great ingenuity, such as 
automatic machinery for making hinges and butts. The machines for making 
screw blanks and nut blanks are particularly complete and show the advance that 
has been made in the way of automatic devices. 

THE E. J. MANVILLE MACHINE COMPANY 

The E. J. Manville Machine Company was established by Eli J. Manville Sep- 
tember 15, 1878. He invented various machines, of which the best known are 
the planer and shaper called the ''Hendey," the cold reducing machine to reduce 
the size of wire, which brought into existence the Excelsior Needle Company of 
Torrington, and the safety pin machine, the building of which was the starting 
point of the E. J. Manville Machine Company. Mr. Manville was the president 
of the company until his death in 1886. 

On October 6, 1886, the concern was incorporated, capital $25,000, with E. J. 
Manville as president, which position he held only twenty- four days; R. C. Man- 
ville, treasurer; W. W. Manville, secretary, and F. B. Manville, F. J. Manville 
and G. H. Manville, directors. 

In 1896 the Manvilles sold out and Martin H. Brennan became president and 
manager, with D. T. Hart as treasurer. Charles T. Brennan is now secretary 
and superintendent. Its capital now is $100,000. 

The company is now extensively engaged in making direct-acting, double 
stroke, solid die cold heading and bolt machines, the bolt head trimming machines, 
thread rolling machines and the automatic Duplex belt-cutting machine. The 
Manville Company designed all the automatic machinery for the Ford Automo- 
bile Company. 

The original factory was on Benedict Street. The company removed to Meadow 
Street in 1886, and in 1904 to the present location, where they have a frontage of 
300 feet on. East Main Street, with a depth of 325 feet. The buildings are in 
part j'j stories in height and partially of sawtooth construction. The factory 
has about two acres of floor space, and employs 300 people, mostly skilled 
machinists. . 

In 1904 the Manville Company put up five of its factory buildings. Extensions 
were made in 19 10 and H)\-\. Additional construction work is now going on. 

Tilt: BLAKE & JOHNSON COMPANY 

Blake & Johnson, which was organized on February 17, 1852, with a capital of 
$8,000. is one of the historic industrial concerns of the city, with an unbroken 
record of success. In 1894 it was located on East Main Street and its officers 
were : President and treasurer, Orville H. Stevens ; secretary, R. R. Stannard. 
On November 17, 1894. Mr. Stevens died and James S. Elton succeeded to the 



232 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

presidency and Mr. Stannard to the treasurership. The directors were then F. J. 
Kingsbury, James S. Elton, C. N. Wayland, and R. R. Stannard. 

In 1898 Franklin A. Taylor became secretary, remaining until October 10, 
1899, when he resigned to join the Randoph & Clowes forces, Robert P. Lewis 
succeeding him. In 1899 Mr. Stannard succeeded to the presidency, which posi- 
tion he held until his death, January 4, 1906. John P. Elton succeeded to the 
presidency, which position he still holds. In 1914 Lancaster P. Clark was made 
secretary and general manager. In January, 1917, Charles E. Stevens, son of 
its former president, became secretary, which position he still holds. Mr. Clark 
is now treasurer and general manager. 

On May 3, 1906, Blake & Johnson changed its name to The Blake & Johnson 
Company. On January 30, 1908, its capital was increased to $120,000. On 
February 3, 19 14, it was again increased to $200,000. 

The company operates two plants. Its manufacturing division is located at 
1495 Thomaston Avenue, where its output is rivets, screws, studs, nuts, wire 
forms, cotter pins, screw machine products, piano, organ and player hardware, 
and specialties from wire and rod. 

In its machinery division at 173 North Elm Street it makes threaders for roll- 
ing threads, headers for making rivets, presses, grinders, slitters and formers for 
wire forming. 

It employs about four hundred hands. 

The Blake & Johnson Company erected its new plant at Waterville in 1909. 
This consists of a factory building of brick and concrete construction, 200 by 260 
feet in size, one story with basement, and a power plant, also of brick and con- 
crete, one story and basement 50 by 80 feet in size; cost $150,000. 

It built a two story addition in 1914 and is at present making still further 
improvements. 

THE WATERBURY TOOL COMPANY 

The Waterbury Tool Company was incorporated in September, 1898, by 
Horace G. Hoadley, who has been its president and treasurer since that time. Its 
capital is $280,000. It began building the Universal ratchet drill invented by 
Prof. Harvey D. Williams of Cornell. This was perfected by Reynold Janney, 
who has been vice president and chief engineer of the company since 1904. Its 
hydraulic machines for transmitting power at variable speeds are now used for 
turret turning, gun-elevating, shell hoists and powder hoists, rammers, main 
steering gear, and to control submarine diving rudders. 

This business was started on the top floor of the factory of the New Britain 
Machine Company in that city. Later the present site on East Aurora Street, 
Waterbury, was bought and a large factory was built. The main building is 120 
by 212 feet, and one of the best equipped structures in the country. 

The company has built for rental to its employes nine one- family frame 
houses on the part of its 10-acre shop site most distant from the present machine 
shop. A 40-foot street has been laid out and the houses built on both sides of it. 
They are of five dissimilar types so that the group does not have the appearance 
of factory houses. They are of five and six rooms, on lots 50 by 120 feet, and 
have city water, bathrooms, hot-air furnaces, electric light and arrangements for 
sewage disposal by means of septic tanks. The company has also built, for rental 
to foremen, on lots 60 by 140 feet, within fifteen minutes' walk of the shop, two 
twin houses with modern improvements. 

The officials of the Waterbury Tool Company are Horace G. Hoadley, presi- 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 233 

dent and treasurer ; Reynold Janney, vice president and chief engineer ; Charles 
P. Haight, secretary and assistant treasurer, and William S. Wilkinson, superin- 
tendent. 

THE LUDINGTON CIGARETTE MACHINE COMPANY 

The Ludington Cigarette Machine Company was incorporated for $50,000 in 
1909. Its first officers were Frank J. Ludington, president; F. E. Ludington, vice 
president, and V. M. Shaw, secretary. The death of F. J. Ludington occurred 
in the year of the company's organization and his nephew, F. W. Ludington, suc- 
ceeded. At present the officers are F. W. Ludington, president; F. C. Cannon, 
vice president, and F. E. Ludington, secretary and treasurer. 

The company manufactures cigarette and tobacco machinery, the basic inven- 
tions being the creations of its founder, Frank J. Ludington. These proved epoch- 
making and profitable and the business he created, though at first small, expanded 
rapidly and was eventually incorporated shortly before his death. From 1907 
the company occupied first two and later three floors in the T. F. Jackson loft 
building on Printers' Court, now the Republican Building, but by November, 1917, 
it had outgrown these quarters and announced its intention of erecting a plant on 
the Watertown Road, next to the New Haven Dairy Company, to consist of one 
long two story and basement factory building. 

On January 31, 1917, the company's capital was increased to $350,000. 

THE ROWBOTTOM MACHINE COMPANY 

The Rowbottom Machine Company was organized June 1, 1902, capital 
$10,000. Its first officers were George Rowbottom, president; W. A. Robbins, 
vice president, and Hugh A. Pendlebury, secretary and treasurer. It started in 
a little wooden building as manufacturers of special automatic machinery. In 
1903 it bought a small piece of ground and built a small brick factory. In 1905 
it built the first large addition, following it in 191 1 with another addition. In 
1912 it purchased the business of the Manville Bros. Company, machinery build- 
ers. Tn 191 5 the company more than doubled all its space, and now has 19,500 
square feet of floor space in mill construction buildings. The company owns three 
acres of ground, and a plant equipped with electric power, individual motors and 
sprinkler system. It employs about seventy-five skilled mechanics. 

It has developed automatic machinery of various kinds, including one of the 
first successful machines for making high grade cigarettes, with a capacity of 450 
per minute, a machine for sewing hooks and eyes on cards, turning out three cards 
of two dozen hooks and eyes per minute ; also tube forming machinery, box 
machinery, disc grinding machinery, automatic button machinery, and tube bend- 
ing machinery. It now builds and sells a universal coin milling machine which 
will mill any style of coin. The company does a large business for the trade in 
milling coins, medals, etc., and their business in this particular covers the two 
Americas. 

ANDREW C. CAMPP.ELL, [INCORPORATED 

Andrew C. Campbell, Inc., was chartered in 1912, with a capital of $50,000. 
The following are the officers : President, Andrew C. Campbell ; secretary, W. 
Wheeler; Treasurer, Walter 15. Lasher, of liridgeport. 



234 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Mr. Campbell has designed some of the most successfully operated machines 
in America and in 191 2 opened his own plant to manufacture his latest machinery 
for the lightning manufacture of the cotter pin a split pin used very extensively, 
especially in the making of automobiles. 

In 1 91 6 the American Chain Company of Bridgeport, makers of the Weed 
tire chain, needing Mr. Campbell's services, purchased the plant, but operates it 
under the former corporation name. It has recently purchased two adjoining 
lots, and will at once extend the factory erected in 1913 by Mr. Campbell. Mr. 
Campbell is now designing some of the machinery needed in the emergency fleet 
equipment works of the American Chain Company's plant at Norfolk, Va. The 
output of cotter pins at the Waterbury plant is nearly a million daily. Sixty men 
are employed. 

Mr. Campbell has been a very prolific inventor, having taken out thirty-six 
patents from 1880 to 1912. 

The DeLong Company of Philadelphia contracted with the E. J. Manville 
Machine Company for twenty-two machines to turn out their hooks at higher 
speed. Their last machine was designed by Andrew C. Campbell and turned out 
240 "see that hump" hooks per minute. The model or first machine was run at 
300 hooks per minute and was the fastest machine of the kind in the world. 
The adjustable treadle, made by the Waterbury Farrel Foundry & Machine Com- 
pany for its presses was the invention of A. C. Campbell and is still put out with 
the firm's presses. 

The machine put out by the E. J. Manville Machine Company for a special 
assembling operation on shoe shanks was a Campbell invention. The E. J. Man- 
ville Machine Company's double stroke header, which has been the biggest kind 
of a money-maker and time saver, was also a Campbell invention. The same firm 
also made the machine designed by Campbell for making bicycle nipples. After 
an infringement fight in which the Manville Company won out, this patent was 
sold to the Excelsior Needle Company of Torrington. The Manville success with 
screw slotting machines began with the machines designed by Mr. Campbell. 

Andrew C. Campbell also designed for John Granger of Philadelphia the 
machine to make the "Granger" dress hook. It is able to turn out the hooks at 
the rate of 150 per minute. 

The ball heading machines which turns out 125 balls per minute were designed 
by Campbell, and are in use all over the country. 

HENDERSON BROTHERS 

Henderson Brothers, machinists, organized in 1880 with John and Alexander 
Henderson as firm members. Ten years later the business was reorganized under 
the name of Henderson & Baird Company, with John Henderson, Thomas Hen- 
derson and Joseph H. Baird as incorporators, and with a capital of $20,000. In 
1884, it removed to 133 South Leonard Street, where the company has two build- 
ings, one of which is two stories in height and the other one story. With the 
withdrawal of Mr. Baird partnership relations were resumed. The company is 
now engaged in the manufacture of patent elevators and tumbling barrels, the 
latter being the invention of John Henderson. About twenty people are employed. 

THE SEYMOUR SMITH & SON, INCORPORATED 

The Seymour Smith & Son (Inc.) of Oakville was incorporated December 
31, 191 2, capital $25,000, succeeding Seymour Smith & Son, established in 1872. 



VVATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 235 

Seymour Smith, the founder of the business, had one son, William II., who 
became the associate and afterward the successor of his father, continuing the 
business of manufacturing pruning implements of various kinds and descriptions 
which are largely sent to a foreign field. It employs thirty hands. 

The present officers are William II. Smith, president; Ella R. Smith, secre- 
tary, and ( ieorge II. Smith, treasurer. 

MIK MANUFACTURERS FOUNDRY COMPANY 

The Manufacturers Foundry Company was incorporated in January, 1900, 
with a capital of $10,000. Its first officers were: President, Henry D. Beach; 
secretary and manager, Edward W. Beach ; treasurer, Charles F. Bronson. From 
the outset, its special castings for chemical work gave it a reputation throughout 
the east. It is now making exclusively high grade motor cylinder castings for 
autos and aeroplanes. 

In [90*5 its capital had been increased to $50,000 and its officers were: George 
\V. Beach, president; Edward W. Beach, secretary and treasurer; F. C. Fromm, 
assistant treasurer. In the following year Air. Fromm became treasurer. 

In 1908 the capital was increased to $100,000, and in 1909 the officers were: 
S. E. Hopkins, president; secretary, Edward W. Beach; treasurer, F. C. Fromm. 

The capital of the company in 1917 is $200,000, and its officers are: Presi- 
dent, S. E. Hopkins ; vice president, E. W. Beach ; secretary and treasurer, F. C. 
Fromm. 

Practically the entire plant has been built in the last twelve years, since it 
moved from its location on Benedict Street to its present site on Railroad Hill, 
near Eagle Street. It has taken a number of years to develop the grade of gray 
iron castings now made exclusively by the company. 

In 1904 it erected two two-story brick buildings, one 80 by 170 and the other 
2j by 34. In 1906 two additions were erected. In 1907 and 1908 four steel and 
concrete structures were added. In 1909 and 1910 one further addition was 
made. 

In 1913 and 1914 four of its buildings were put up. Some further additions 
were made in 1916 and 191 7. 

THE WATERRURY FOUNDRY COMPANY 

The Waterbury Foundry Company was incorporated in 1907 with a capital 
of $140,000. taking over the business of B. H. Fry & Company and the factory 
erected by that firm in 1904. Until his death in 191 1, Benj. H. Fry was presi- 
dent of the Waterbury Foundry Company with Arthur A. Tanner, secretary. 
The latter succeeded to the position of president and treasurer, which he still 
holds. The vice president in 19 17 is John S. Neagle, and the secretary, C. F. 
Fiederman. 

No large additions have been made to the plant since 1912, although the 
capacity of the foundry has been greatly increased by recent important alterations. 

THE WATERBURY CASTINGS COMPANY 

The Waterbury Castings Company was organized in njoj. J. R. Smith was 
president ; P. A. Piatt, vice president; C. S. Bull, treasurer; and George E. Camp, 
secretary. 



236 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

The plant is on Railroad Hill Street and covers four acres. Its capital is 
$100,000. It has a one story foundry of mill construction, with 22,000 square 
feet of floor space. There are 175 employes, of whom 50 per cent are skilled. 
It is a jobbing foundry with a capacity of twenty-five tons of castings daily. The 
product is sold in Waterbury and to outside points. 

THE METAL SPECIALTIES COMPANY 

The Metal Specialties Company was organized June 7, 1912, capital $25,000, 
with John W. Potter, president ; Clark Lewis, treasurer ; A. L. Schwartz, secre- 
tary and general manager; and Cyrus T. Gray, director. 

In October, 1913, Harris W. Langley became secretary, and with the resig- 
nation of Mr. Potter, Mr. Gray became president in February, 1914. In April, 
1915, Mr. Lewis and Mr. Langley both resigned and H. H. Heminway was 
elected treasurer and Charles Bronson secretary. In February, 191 7, Mr. Hemin- 
way became secretary and treasurer, while Mr. Gray remains as president. 

The company began business at No. 23 Jefferson Street, occupying a part of 
a room on the third floor. In 19 15 it took two rooms on the top and on the lower 
floor, and on January 1, 1916, began occupying the entire building. On the 1st 
of April, 191 7, it moved into its new building on East Aurora Street. This is 
120 by 190, with an addition 30 by 40 feet, is of sawtooth mill construction, 
equipped with sprinkler system and electric power. 

The company manufactures snap buttons, burnishing and bearing balls, special 
rivets, metal novelties, selling to jobbers. It employs sixty to seventy-five people. 

THE ATLAS MACHINE COMPANY 

The Atlas Machine Company was incorporated in March, 1906, with a capital 
of $10,000, which in 1910 was increased to $50,000. Its officers are : President 
and treasurer, Adam Callan ; secretary, Carlton F. Atwood. 

Its output consists largely of metal and wire working machinery. 

THE WATERBURY STANDARD TOOL AND MACHINE COMPANY 

The Waterbury Standard Tool and Machine Company was incorporated 
February 20, 1913, with a capital of $10,000, its officers being Jeremiah W. 
Phelps, president and treasurer; John B. Doherty, secretary. It manufactures 
automatic machinery of all kinds, but more especially that used for the making 
of watch parts, and the output is classed among the most perfect in the country. 
The company occupies two floors of its five-story building at 31 Canal Street. 
Mr. Phelps has built up a thriving business, as he is looked upon as one of the 
watch machinery experts of the country. 

THE WATERBURY PRESSED METAL AND TOOL COMPANY 

The Waterbury Pressed Metal and Tool Company was incorporated February, 
1916, with a capital of $25,000. Its president and treasurer, Alfred L. Schwartz, 
was for many years general manager and secretary of the Metal Specialty Com- 
pany. The secretary of the new company is Ernest A. Austin. Its output is tool 
and machine work and all classes of metal stampings. 



CHAPTER XX 
OTHER MANUFACTURING CORPORATIONS 

THE INTERNATIONAL SILVER COMPANY — THE AMERICAN MILLS COMPANY — THE 
WATERBURY PAPER BOX COMPANY — THE WHITE & WELLS COMPANY — THE KALB- 
FLEISCH CORPORATION — THE WATERBURY BATTERY COMPANY — THE WILLIAMS 
SEALING CORPORATION — THE WATERBURY JEWEL COMPANY — THE AUTOYRE COM- 
PANY — THE LANE MANUFACTURING COMPANY WATERVILLE CUTLERY COMPANY 

— THE MORDEN MANUFACTURING COMPANY — THE H. L. WELCH HOSIERY COM- 
PANY — THE WATERBURY INSTRUMENT COMPx\NY THE WATERBURY ICE COR- 
PORATION THE SPRING LAKE ICE COMPANY — THE HELLMAN BREWING COM- 
PANY — THE EAGLE BREWING COMPANY — FEW MANUFACTURING LOSSES. 

The Bristol Company was organized in 1889 as a partnership by \V. H., B. H. 
and F. B. Bristol. It was incorporated in 1894 with a capital of $10,000. W. H. 
Bristol was the organizer and founder of the business, and with the exception of 
a short interval has been president since incorporation. The company began to 
manufacture recording steam gauges and steel belt lacing. Business has now 
been expanded to cover every kind of recording instrument, covering over two 
thousand different uses. The invention of Prof. W. H. Bristol formed the basis 
of the Bristol Company's success. He has a record of over one hundred inven- 
tions, all of them in the line of recording instruments. His electric pyrometer 
is perhaps the most important. Business was begun in a little wooden building in 
Platts Mills and since 1894 additions have from time to time been made to the 
the present factory until the company now has 175,000 square feet of floor space. 
The buildings are from one to six stories in height, nearly all of mill construc- 
tion, with sprinkler system. 

The company employs over four hundred people, all highly skilled labor. Its 
product is sold all over the civilized world. It has branch offices in Boston, New 
York, Pittsburgh, Chicago, San Francisco and agencies in all foreign countries. 

At the Panama Exposition in San Francisco the Bristol Company received 
the highest possible award on their whole line. 

The officers are: W. H. Bristol, president; Harris Whittemore, treasurer; 
S. R. Bristol, secretary. 

In 1908 E. H., B. B. and B. H. Bristol sold out their interest to the Bristol 
Company and moved to Foxboro, Mass., where they established the Foxboro 
Company, which is still in business there making recording instruments. 

THE INTERNATIONAL SILVER COMPANY 

The International Silver Company of New Jersey in 1899 succeeded to both 
Rogers & Brother and the Rogers & Hamilton Company, occupying at the present 
time the Rogers & Brother plant. The Rogers & Hamilton Company's new plant 
on Griggs Street remained vacant until 1907 when it was taken over by the Noera 
Company. 

237 



238 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Rogers & Brother, established in Hartford in 1847, na d removed to Water- 
bury in 1858. The Rogers & Hamilton Company was established with a capital 
of $50,000 February 14, 1886. 

The plant is officially known as International Factory Company, Factory J., 
but passes locally as "the spoon shop." It has been greatly enlarged since the 
consolidation and still manufactures the * Rogers & Bro. A-i brand of silver 
plated ware. These goods are sold all over the world. 

In the Waterbury factory about six hundred hands are employed. The secre- 
tary of the International Silver Company, George Rockwell, is general manager 
of the Waterbury plant. 

Four buildings have been erected since 1907 and further improvements are 
now contemplated. 

THE AMERICAN MILLS COMPANY 

The American Mills Company, which was organized in 1881, was incorporated 
on November 19, T909, with a capital of $150,000 and with its present executive, 
Archer J. Smith, as president. On July 7, 1914, the business was extended to 
include the New Haven Web Company, Hamden, Conn., and the Narrow Fabric 
Corporation, New Haven, the capitalization being $1,200,000. 

In the Waterbury plant of the company 250 hands are at present employed. 

Its officers are : President, Archer J. Smith ; vice president, F. M. Chambers, 
of New Haven; secretary, C. B. Twitchell, of New Haven; assistant treasurer, 
I. B. Smith. It manufactures narrow elastic and non-elastic fabrics, and its 
trade is now worldwide. 

Its largest building in the Waterbury plant is just being completed, a two- 
story and basement factory addition, 300 feet long. The building is also to con- 
tain the offices of the company. 

Its newer construction work began in 1904 and in 1910 it put up a large two- 
story and basement brick and steel structure, size 64 by 191, and a one-story brick 
addition. 



THE WATERBURY PAPER BOX COMPANY 

For many years the paper box industry has been an important one in Water- 
bury, large numbers of the boxes used for perfumery, cutlery, silverware and 
toilet articles being manufactured here and shipped to the makers of these articles 
elsewhere, as well as druggists' boxes and boxes for the local factories. 

The factory of R. E. Hitchcock & Company was one of the old landmarks of 
Waterbury industrial life. Situated on Canal Street, it gave employment to over 
one hundred people. Mr. Hitchcock was succeeded by his partner and son-in- 
law, Arthur C. Northrop, under whose regime the business grew and developed 
until some of the finest box work of the country was done in this factory, espe- 
cially the fancy boxes used by leading perfumers for putting up their goods. The 
property passed into the hands of the present owners in 1901 and received its 
present namte, that of the Waterbury Paper Box Company. Since that time it 
has doubled itself and now employs about two hundred and fifty hands. Its 
capital was $25,000. increased January 27, 1914, to $50,000. 

A plot of ground on South Leonard Street was secured, and in 1904 a com- 
modious and convenient building, designed especially to meet the needs, was 
erected. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 239 

One of the departments of the Waterbury Paper Box Company which has 
always been a very important one is its printing department, which also occupies 
a portion of the office floor. Established in the first place to meet the needs of 
the factory itself, in the way of labels, box tops, etc., the work soon grew and 
developed until line job printing became a regular feature of the company's work. 

In 1913 a 60-foot addition was built, mill construction, giving the company 
a 300- foot frontage. 

Its goods are sold all over the United States to perfumery, toilet goods and 
silverware manufacturers. 

Marry 11. Ileminway is president, and William H. Beers, secretary and 
treasurer. 

THE WHITE & WELLS COMPANY 

The White & Wells Company was a partnership until 1895, when the third in 
direct descent from the founder of the business, James White, incorporated it 
for $50,000. Its officers were : George L. White, president and treasurer ; C. H. 
White, vice president ; W. E. Norris, secretary. 

The factory at Naugatuck was run in addition to the old plant at 214 Bank- 
Street. On December 1, 1914, George L. White, who had inherited the business 
from his father, died and was succeeded by his son, William Henry White. 
Its secretary is W. E. Treat. The two large factory buildings in Waterbury 
are now headquarters for a plant that has well-established branches in Nau- 
gatuck, Bridgeport and New Haven. There has been no increase in capitalization. 

THE KALBFLEISCH CORPORATION 

The Kalbfleisch Corporation of New York, one of the largest manufacturers 
of acids and heavy chemicals in the United States, has one of its most important 
plants in Waterbury, located on Railroad Hill Street, near Eagle Street, and 
employing 120 hands. It began the construction of a local plant in 1904, with a 
one-story brick factory 50 by 185. This has been enlarged from year to year, 
with further improvements now in progress. Seven buildings with a total front- 
age of nearly 800 feet comprise the plant today. 

The local manager is J. A. Garde. The officers of the New York company 
are: President, F. H. Kalbfleisch; vice president, R. S. Perry; treasurer, A. B. 
Savage ; secretary, Richard Sheldrick, all of New York. 

Until May, 191 7, it was known as the Franklin H. Kalbfleisch Company. 
At that time it was incorporated under the laws of New Jersey as the Kalbfleisch 
Corporation. 

It manufactures sulphuric, muriatic and nitric acids, all chemicals used by 
silk, cotton and wool manufacturers in dyes, replacing much of that nature for- 
merly imported from Germany. 

WATERBURY BATTERY COMPANY 

The Waterbury Battery Company was incorporated in 1899 with a capital 
of $125,000, to manufacture opened and closed circuit batteries and to handle 
battery zincs and battery materials. Its president and treasurer has been and 
is Charles B. Schoenmehl. Its vice president and general manager is E. E. 
Hudson, and its secretary and factory manager is M. L. Mattus. At present the 
company employs about a hundred hands. 



240 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Its first new building was erected in 1904, and in 19 10 and 1914 the larger 
structures were added. 

THE WILLIAMS SEALING CORPORATION 

The Williams Sealing Corporation was organized October 19, 1909, with 
John H. Goss, president; N. R. Bronson, vice president; George A. Williams, 
treasurer and general manager; Charles D. Nye, secretary; J. E. Tackaberry, 
assistant secretary and treasurer. Its capital is $150,000. It is located at No. 37 
Benedict Street, where it has a frontage of 160 feet, and a depth of 120 feet. 
It occupies two buildings three stories in height, one of which is of mill 
construction. 

The company manufactures "Kork-N-Seal" bottle caps. These are sold to 
manufacturers of food products, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, mineral waters, 
wines, liquors, patent medicines, fruit juices, and other liquids. It also makes 
automatic machinery for applying the caps to the bottles, but the cap can be 
applied without the use of the machine. 

The output is sold largely to big manufacturers. The article is being adopted 
by such firms as the Parke-Davis Company of Detroit, the Standard Oil Company, 
Scott & Bowne, manufacturers of Scott's Emulsion, and the R. L. Watkins 
Company of Cleveland. The plant employs 125 people. 

THE WATERBURY JEWEL COMPANY 

The Waterbury Jewel Company was established February 8, 1911-, with 
E. M. Grilley and F. G. Neuberth as partners. It was incorporated February 18, 
1915, with F. G. Neuberth as president; H. M. Werner, secretary; E. M. Grilley, 
vice president, treasurer and manager. Its capital is $25,000. With the with- 
drawal of Mr. Werner, R. F. Neuberth became secretary. 

The business was started on Burrall Court, and now occupies the two upper 
floors of the Standard Tool and Machine Company Building at 31 Canal Street. 
It manufactures all kinds of small instrument jewels and talking machine playing 
points. The product represents a high grade of mechanical skill, work being 
based on processes devised by Mr. Grilley. It employs sixty hands. 

SMALL-WIRE DRAWING 

The Standard Wire Die Company was organized and incorporated in 1914. 
Its officers were and are Frederick Quigley, president; Irving Spies, vice presi- 
dent; J. P. Wall, secretary, and H. W. Quigley, treasurer. The company manu- 
factures dies for drawing wire. It makes diamond-wire-drawing dies and 
diamond tools of all descriptions. They manufacture diamond dies for gauges 
as low as .0005 of an inch in diameter, and up to one-sixteenth of an inch in 
diameter. The product includes diamond tools of all shapes for turning hardened 
steel pinions, rubber, fiber, etc., and diamond drills for drilling glass, eyeglasses, 
etc. There are only five concerns in this line in the United States. 

The company employs twenty high grade mechanics. It has factories in 
New York, Worcester, and Waterbury. 

George Hartley succeeded his father in the manufacture of small steel wire 
from which hair springs for watches are fabricated. He has built the business up 
to a commanding position in the trade. In 1915 and 1916 a factory 40 by 40 feet 
was erected. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 241 

The Hartley Wire Die Company is owned by William M. Hartley, son of 
George Hartley, and manufactures diamond wire dies of small sizes. It was 
registered in July, 191 7. 

Harris Hayden has been for thirty years one of Waterbury's famous diamond 
die sinkers and is still in business, occupying part of the George Hartley plant. 

THE AUTOYRE COMPANY 

The Autoyre Company was organized in June. 1912, for $200,000, with J. H. 
Cowles, president; F. M. Peasley, vice president; R. C. Stewart, secretary and 
treasurer. Its factory is at Main and Oakville streets, in the buildings formerly 
occupied by the Baird Machine Company, now of Stratford, where it manufac- 
tures a general line of wire goods, corkscrews, bottle openers, wire loops, fruit 
jar trimmings, dress fasteners, having automatic machines for all these processes. 
It employs 150 people. 

THE LANE MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

The Lane Manufacturing Company w r as founded in 1850 by Merritt Lane, 
who had been in the button business with Rufus E. Hitchcock prior to that date. 
In 1867 Spencer B. Lane, a brother, became manager. In 1894 its officers were: 
E. D. Steele, president; Spencer B. Lane, treasurer, and H. B. Lane, secretary. 
The factory at 50 Elm Street has been occupied continuously since 1873. Merritt 
Lane died in 1888. In 1896 Spencer B. Lane became president of the company 
and remained in the position until his death in 1907. The officers now are: 
President and treasurer, Henry B. Lane: secretary, Charles B. Guernsey. 

The company makes metal buttons, buckles and snap fasteners. At present 
its entire output is snap fasteners. 

THE WATERVTLLE CUTLERY COMPANY 

The Waterville Cutlery Company, founded in 1890 with a capital of $25,000, 
was built up to a commanding position in the line of cutlery manufacture by its 
president and treasurer, W. Sumner Babcock. In 1903, after his death, his 
attorney, N. R. Bronson, became temporary president of the company and in 
1904 disposed of it to George J. Babcock, a brother of the former president. In 
1913 the Superior Court on application of Mr. Babcock appointed Lawrence L. 
Lewis receiver with orders to dispose of the property. The order of the court 
approving the sale and discharging the receiver was recorded October 10, 191 3. 

THE MORDEN MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

Early in 1904 Miss L. M. Morden, a stenographer, secured a patent on a 
"loose-leaf" metal ring and in August of that year incorporated the Morden 
Manufacturing Company with a capital of $40,000. She has since patented other 
loose-leaf devices and her plant occupies a large loft at 141 Waterville Street. 
-It turns out these devices in great quantities. Miss Morden is the only woman 
in active executive work along manufacturing lines in Waterbury. The officers 
of the company in 1917 are: President and treasurer. Miss L. M. Morden; vice 
president, B. F. Morden; secretary, A. E. McDonald. 

Vol. 1—16 



242 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

THE H. L. WELCH HOSIERY COMPANY 

Henry L. Welch in 1870 started the business which in 1890 he incorporated 
as the H. L. Welch Hosiery Company with a capital of $80,000. In 1895, on the 
death of Mr. Welch, his interest went to his daughter, Mrs. F. Samson of Hart- 
ford, and to her children. It was doing a big business in fine knit underwear 
and under the management of Frank B. Buck grew so that its Waterville building 
was enlarged. 

In 1914, at the beginning of the war period, many of its best hands left it to 
go into munition-making lines and the business began to drop off. The buildings 
were disposed of in 1916, the realty going to John W. Hard, who is the purchasing 
agent for the Chase interests. All the machinery and stock were sold to other 
concerns in this line of manufacture. In September, 19 17, the papers dissolving 
the corporation were filed with the secretary of state. 

THE WATERBURY INSTRUMENT COMPANY 

The Waterbury Instrument Company was incorporated in 191 5 for $25,000 
and until 191 7 its work was done in the plant of the Waterbury Jewel Company. 
This year it was established as a separate concern and is now busy perfecting 
its reproducer for talking machines. Its product is not yet on the market. The 
officers are: President, C. H. W. Newton; secretary, Henry M. Werner; treas- 
urer, Joseph Wilhelm. 

THE WATERBURY ICE CORPORATION 

The Waterbury Ice Corporation was organized in 1902 with a capital of 
$15,000. Its first officers were Charles R. Vaill, president, and Charles B. Everett, 
secretary and treasurer. It was located on Brook Street until 191 5, and is now 
at 74 Watertown Avenue, where it has 500 feet frontage on the avenue with 
an average depth of 60 feet. With a spur track from the trolley line, it 
easily handles and stores the ice it cuts at Lake Quassaug. The plant has a 
capacity of 150 tons, with storage at the lake for 8,000 tons. The company uses 
twenty teams in warm weather for delivery, employing eighty people in the 
summer season. The company does 75 per cent of the ice business in Waterbury. 

THE SPRING LAKE ICE COMPANY 

The Spring Lake Ice Company has two large ice houses in Reedville, and is 
owned by George E. Storm. It furnishes over 20 per cent of the ice supply of 
Waterbury. 

THE HELLMAN BREWING COMPANY 

The Hellman Brewing Company, one of the three largest breweries in the 
state, was established in 1878 by Frederick Nuhn in a small building on its 
present site. In 1881 Martin Hellman and Michael Kipp bought the plant and 
erected the present main building, 5^2 stories high with a tower, used 
now for malt bins. In 1895 the business was enlarged by the addition of an ale 
plant and a two-story brick stable. The ale plant is three stories in height, 40 
by 40. In 1901 the Hygeia ice plant was built. In 1916 storage cellars were added 
and this year a large addition is being built to the wash house. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY' 243 

Martin Hellman, who had bought out his partner in 1889, died in 1895, and 
his widow. Mrs. Martin Hellman, incorporated the business with a capital of 
$50,000. The original officers were: President, Mrs. Martin Hellman; vice 
president, William Hellman; secretary and treasurer, William 1). Richardson. 
In [902 William Hellman died and his brother, Charles M. Hellman, took his 
place on the board. Mr. Richardson died in [914. The present officers are: 
President, Mrs. Martin Hellman; secretary and treasurer, Charles M. Hellman. 

In 1901 the plant of the Ilygeia Ice Company, part of the Hellman brewery, 
was built at 1095 Rank Street. It is equipped to manufacture ice from distilled 
water by what is known as the can system — that is, freezing the water in cans. 
It is sold only at wholesale and the greater part of its daily 60-ton output is bought 
by the Waterbury Ice Corporation. 

Till-; EAGLE BREWING COMPANY 

The Eagle Brewery was established in 1901 by Thomas Finnegan and Paul 
Suese. In 1902 it was taken over by Thomas H. Hayes and Mr. Finnegan and 
incorporated in July, 1903, for $25,000, with Thomas H. Hayes as president, and 
Thomas Finnegan, secretary. The present four-story main building, 150 by 80, 
was erected in 1902 and is used for the manufacture of ale, lager and porter. 
The brewery's capacity today is from 80,000 to 100,000 barrels a year. 

Thomas H. Hayes died April 11, 1913, and he was succeeded in the presidency 
by his widow, Mrs. Thomas H. Hayes, who still holds that position. In 191 7 a 
modern bottling shop, 100 by 50, was erected. 

Its officers today are: President, Mrs. Thomas H. Hayes; vice president. 
Thomas Finnegan; treasurer, Thomas E. Guest; assistant treasurer, Daniel J. 
Leary ; secretary, Michael T. Hayes. 

FEW MANUFACTURING LOSSES 

The record of industrial growth of the past quarter century has been marked 
by few removals of manufacturing plants. The additions, as the history shows, 
have been extensive. 

The Raird Machine Company, which was incorporated in July, 1894, moved 
its plant to Waterbury in 1900. At that time its president was J. H. Raird and 
its secretary John M. Hopkins. It remained here until 1912, erecting a factory 
in 1907 and 1908. In 191 1 it decided to move to Stratford, where it is now- 
located. It makes automatic machinery. 

The Manville Rrothers Company was organized in 1897 an -d incorporated 
by R. C, W. W. and G. H. Manville. The firm manufactured automatic 
machinery along lines similar to the output at present of the Rowbottom Machine 
Company, to whom the business was finally sold in 1912. In 1902 George H. 
Manville withdrew from the firm and organized the G. H. Manville Pattern and 
Model Company, which was incorporated in 191 3. 

The National Wire Mattress Company incorporated in Connecticut in Febru- 
ary, 1902, for $20,000, with R. B. Hill as president and William J. Fielding as 
treasurer. Its connections were such that in 1906 it decided to move to New 
Rritain, where it is now located and is known as the National Spring Bed 
Company. 

The Waterbury Crucible Company incorporated in Connecticut in November. 
[904, with a capital of $50,000. Its officers were: President, Edgar R. Seidel : 
treasurer, Levi S. Tenney of New York; secretary. F. S. Little of New York. 



244 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

It was located at Meadow, corner of Benedict Street, where it had a two-story 
brick factory, size 51 by j6. In 1910 it decided to remove to Detroit to be nearer 
its trade. 

The Standard Electric Time Company manufacturers of self-winding clocks, 
regulators, electric tower clocks, electric time plants, was located at 23 Jefferson 
Street. 

The officers of the company were George L. Riggs, president ; J. J. Estabrook, 
secretary. 

In 1908 when E. H., B. B. and B. H. Bristol moved to Foxboro, Mass., they 
made this a part of their new business. It was then repurchased by George L. 
Riggs and associates, who moved it to Springfield, where it is now located. 



CHAPTER XXI 
THE MASONIC ORDER AND OTHER FRATERNITIES 

EARLY MASONIC HISTORY — HARMONY AND CONTINENTAL LODGES MASONIC CLUB— 

CLARK COMMANDERY — EUREKA CHAPTER, R. A. M. — WATERBURY COUNCIL, NO. 

21 — THE WATERBURY MASONIC TEMPLE THE ODD FELLOWS — NOSAHOGAN LODGE 

— ENCAMPMENT AND CANTON — DAUGHTERS OF REBEKAH KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS 

-B. P. 0. ELKS — KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS — ANCIENT ORDER OF HIBERNIANS — 

UNITED WORKMEN FORESTERS — LOYAL ORDER OF MOOSE — HEPTASOPHS — EAGLES 

—RED MEN UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS WOODMEN AND OTHER FRATERNI- 
TIES — FRENCH, ITALIAN, SWEDISH AND GERMAN SOCIETIES — LABOR ORGANI- 
ZATIONS. 

The past twenty years in Waterbury have been remarkable for Masonic 
activity and Harmony Lodge has played a very important part in the wonder- 
ful growth of Masonry, thus continuing and developing the work begun by 
Worshipful Brother Byington and his associate workers and brethren 120 years 
ago, when the lodge was founded. 

The one hundredth anniversary found the craft enjoying their own quar- 
ters in Masonic Temple at 126 Bank Street, but in the disastrous fire which 
swept Waterbury February 2, 1902, this temple was totally destroyed. All 
property, jewels and furniture therein, except records and jewels in the vault. 
were lost. 

After the fire, the various Masonic bodies held meetings in St. John's parish 
house until a suitable hall could be found. Waterbury was rapidly rebuilt and 
arrangements were made for a hall to be laid out on the fourth floor of the 
Mullings Building at 95 Bank Street. It soon became apparent that these quar- 
ters were not large enough to accommodate the various Masonic bodies. The 
need of a new and properly equipped temple was evident to all, and the first 
step in this direction was taken in December, 1905. A by-law was then adopted 
by both Harmony Lodge, No. 42, and Continental Lodge, No. 76, F. & A. M., 
providing that the trustees of both of said lodges should constitute a joint board 
of trustees, to be known as the Masonic Building Fund Trustees, to care for 
and invest all funds received for the purpose of purchasing land and erecting 
and furnishing a temple thereon. The fund was started by an appropriation of 
$1,000 by each of the lodges, and other contributions were made from time 
to time. 

In 1908 a building committee, representing all bodies, was appointed and in 
the early part of the year 191 1 the homestead of Elisha Leavenworth became 
available as a possible site for the proposed temple. The executors of Mr. 
Leavenworth's will declined to divide the frontage on West Main Street, and 
as other parties were ready to purchase, prompt action was necessary. It was 
then that Almon C. Judd, Robert P. Lewis, John R. Flughes, Carl Munger and 
Albert Schumaker, all members of the craft, and enthusiastic workers for the 
new temple, came forward and purchased the entire frontage on West Main 

245 



246 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Street. These men then offered to convey to the Masonic building committee all 
or any part of said land without any advance in price, and the committee finally 
secured a site for the new temple at a price of $20,000. This met with instant 
approval, the money was raised in part by subscription and the full purchase 
price was paid over on July 1, 191 1. 

In the same year the members of the Masonic building committee recom- 
mended to the several bodies that a corporation without capital stock be formed 
under the statute laws of the State of Connecticut by incorporators, representing 
all the Masonic bodies of Waterbury, to take charge of the building of the 
temple. 

In accordance with this and other recommendations, each body appointed three 
of its members to act as incorporators, with full power and authority to act with 
the incorporators appointed by the other Masonic bodies in this city, in forming 
such a corporation. The incorporators met and organized the Waterbury Ma- 
sonic Temple Corporation, which erected and maintains this beautiful temple for 
the use, benefit and occupancy of the several orders of Masonry, situated within 
the Masonic jurisdiction of the Town of Waterbury. 

Until 1847 Harmony Lodge was the only Masonic organization in Waterbury, 
and until July 1, 1845, there was no other fraternity of any kind. Now, how- 
ever, there are within the original territory, five Masonic lodges, three chapters, 
a council, a commandery, and a lodge, council and chapter of the Scottish rite. 

Continental Lodge, No. 76, was formed in 1869. In the charter of Continental 
Lodge are the names of forty-nine brethren, one-half of whom were members 
of Harmony Lodge. From its origin 'to the present time Continental Lodge 
has enjoyed uninterrupted prosperity and the relations between it and its mother 
lodge have been of the most cordial and fraternal character, having made it 
possible for many enterprises to be carried out by them together. Among these 
might be mentioned the Masonic Board of Relief, the purchase of a burial lot 
and the erection of a monument in Riverside Cemetery, and co-operation with 
the other Masonic organizations in forming the Waterbury Masonic Temple 
Corporation. 

There have been seventy-one masters of Harmony Lodge in the 121 years of 
its existence, and there are now between fifty and sixty veterans of over thirty 
years' standing. Among its early members were eleven men who had served in 
the Revolutionary war, and from that time on, it has been represented in every 
war in which this country has engaged. There were four men in the war of 
1812, two in the Mexican war, thirty in the Civil war, two in the Spanish war, 
and at least eighteen have answered the call of their country in the present emer- 
gency. 

Many of its members have filled high places in state and national govern- 
ments. Among these are George L. Lilley, governor of Connecticut and member 
of Congress; Stephen W. Kellogg, member of Congress for three terms; Joel 
Hinman, chief justice of the Supreme Court of Errors of the State of Connecticut ; 
Charles E. Turner, United States consul-general at Ottawa, Canada, and Henry 
I. Boughton, Henry F. Fish, George W. Benedict, Aner Bradley. Jr., John Ken- 
drick, Philo G. Rockwell, Joseph B. Spencer, George B. Thomas, William E. 
Thorns, Francis T. Reeves and John W. Webster were mayors of Waterbury. 
Many members have served as state senators and representatives and on various 
municipal boards of the city of Waterbury. Many prominent clergymen of various 
denominations have been members. Among them Rev. Joseph Anderson, D. D., 
pastor of the First Church in Waterbury for over forty years and a member of 
the corporation of Yale University, and Rev. F. D. Buckley, rector of Trinity 
Church for twenty-five years. 




MASONIC TEMPLE, WEST MAIN STREET, WATERBURY 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 247 

In the fraternity itself many of its members have been called to fill high 
places of honor and esteem. Randolph B. Chapman was the grand master of the 
most worshipful Grand Lodge of Connecticut, John W. Paul was at one time 
grand secretary, the Rev. F. D. Buckley, grand chaplain. James Coer was grand 
senior deacon at the time of his death. James Callan was grand high priest. 
Grand Royal Arch Chapter. Frank H. Trowbridge was the most puissant grand 
master of the Grand Council of Royal and Select Masons in Connecticut. Nathan 
Dikeman, John W. Paul, Frederick A. Spencer and Nelson J. Welton were grand 
commanders of the Grand Commandery of Connecticut. Nelson J. Welton and 
John R. Hughes were thirty-third degree Masons of A. A. S. R. 

Both Harmony and Continental Lodges now rank among the largest in the 
state. The membership of Harmony Lodge is 527 members, a gain of 65 during 
the present year. Continental Lodge has about the same number. 

The past masters of Harmony Lodge from 1893 to 1917 were: Ralph L. 
Bronson, Harry O. Miller, J. Ward B. Porter, Frederick E. Stanley, James P. 
Elliott, Eugene C. Adt, Randolph B. Chapman, Edward E. Bacon, John F. Morden. 
Adam Callan, Louis C. Chapman, Frank A. Alden, Walter G. Chapman, Robert 
S. Walker, William H. Callan, Frank J. Erbe, Ernest L. Green, Ernest F. Guil- 
ford, Irving W. Harrison, James B. Isherwood, Crayton F. Carpenter, Joseph 
Wilhelm, Clark H. W. Newton. 

The past masters of Continental Lodge from 1893 to 1917 have been: George 
E. Tompkins, William M. Cottle, William E. Norris, Hollis B. Bagg, William E. 
Brown, Edwin S. Babcock, Everett L. Starr, Frank E. Fenner, Charles M. 
Brooks. Jacob Kaiser, Joseph S. Neill, Walter D. Austin, George H. Crane, 
George G. Mullings, Edwin K. Diver, Samuel H. Patterson, Otto P. Armbruster, 
Louis E. Granger, Marshall F. Kloppenburg, William R. Keaveney, Leon H. 
Cummings, Richard S. Wood, Herman M. Turrell, Arthur T. Mayhew. 

The present officers of Harmony and Continental lodges follow : 

Harmony Lodge: Clark H. W. Newton, worshipful master; George S. Callan, 
senior warden; Alfred G. Germain, junior warden ; Irving W. Harrison, treasurer; 
John A. McKay, secretary; Leon A. Duley, senior deacon; I. Franklin Story, 
junior deacon; Ralph E. Day, senior steward; Frederick J. Willits, Jr., junior 
steward; Carlton B. Coe, chaplain; William H. Phillips, marshal; Crayton F. Car- 
penter; tyler. 

Continental Lodge : Arthur T. Mayhew, worshipful master ; John W. Potter, 
senior warden; Arthur A. Bradley, junior warden; Wilbur P. Bryan, treasurer; 
Franklin B. Daniels, secretary ; Burton A. Young, senior deacon ; Hubert L. Bas- 
sett, junior deacon; Frederick B. Peck, senior steward; James W. Abercrombie, 
junior steward; Rev. Charles E. Benedict, chaplain; Ralph T. Benedict, marshal; 
Henry H. Peck, tyler. 

The Masonic Club, a purely social organization, was organized on January 
24, 1895, in the old Masonic Temple, 126 Bank Street. Its first officers were: 
President, George F. Hughes; vice presidents, J. W. B. Porter, Harry F. LaForge; 
secretary, George C. Curtiss ; treasurer, James W. Cone; board of managers. 
Ezra L.' Chapman, James Callan, H. T. Stedman, Wm. E. Norris. Howard G. 
Pinney, Jacob Kaiser. 

It was active in a social way until 1900 when it went out of existence. Its last 
officers were : Dr. T. F. Axtelle, president, and C. H. Rockwood, secretary and 
treasurer. 

For many years it has been evident to many observers that the interests of 
Freemasonry demand the establishment of another lodge in Waterbury and un- 
doubtedly the time has come when steps will be taken to bring this about. Both 



248 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

lodges are so strong, relations between them so cordial, Masonic work in this 
city so plentiful, that it seems a most opportune time to form another lodge, one- 
half of the charter members to be drawn from Harmony Lodge and the other 
half from Continental Lodge. The movement is well under way and in the hands 
of men who have the best interests of Freemasonry at heart. 

CLARK COMMANDERY 

Clark Commandery, No. 7, Knights Templar, constituted May 10, 1866, has 
continued its notable work throughout the past quarter century. The annual 
observance of Ascension Day is still one of the customs of the commandery. 
Services are held in one of the city churches, after which the graves of deceased 
knights are decorated with flowers. Its equipment for the rendering of the 
ritual is second to none in the jurisdiction. Its membership today is about 290. 

The following are the officers for 1917-1918. Marshall F. Kloppenburg, emi- 
nent commander; S. McLean Buckingham, generalissimo; Herbert L. Beardsley, 
captain general; John L. Scott, prelate; Charles A. Templeton, senior warden; 
Robert V. Magee, junior warden; Wilbur P. Bryan, treasurer; George H. Crane, 
recorder; James W. Abercrombie, standard bearer; Fenton F. Niver, sword 
bearer; Howard F. Moody, warden; Charles W. Hotchkiss, sentinel; Ernest A. 
Andersen, third guard; Franklin A. Wells, second guard; Cleaveland D. Wilson, 
first guard ; Carl E. Munger, Nelson J. Welton, J. Richard Smith, trustees ; Carl 
E. Munger, Nelson J. Welton, Henry H. Peck, trustees Clark Good Will Fund; 
Almon C. Judd, commissary; Franklin B. Daniels, drill master; Frederick C. 
Marggraff, instructor of ritual and work. 

The past commanders of Clark Commandery since 1893 are: Fred A. Spencer, 
Alfred J. Shipley, Wm. G. Smith, Elliott E. Candee, George C. Curtiss, J. W. B. 
Porter, Carl E. Munger, Fred E. Stanley, W. P. Bryan, John B. Ebbs, Benjamin 
L. Coe, Joseph H. Woodward, John R. Hughes, Charles M. Brooks, Frederick C. 
Marggraff, Franklin B. Daniels, John L. Scott, Wm. R. Keaveney, Paul Klimpke, 
W. L. Babcock, Marshall Kloppenburg. 

\ 

EUREKA CHAPTER, NO. 22, R. A. M. 

Eureka Chapter, organized in the town of Oxford, October 12, 1826, removed 
to Waterbury November 2, 1847, has now in 1917 a membership of 350. This is 
a growth from 216 in 1895. The 1917 officers are as follows: John E. Porzen- 
heim. excellent high priest ; Edward W. Johnson, king ; Louis C. Chapman, scribe ; 
Wilbur P. Bryan, treasurer; George E. Irion, secretary; Louis E. Granger, 
C. of H. ; George J. Munson, P. S. ; Frederick W. Davis, R. A. C. ; I. Franklin 
Story, 3 V. ; Harry J. Rider, 2 V. ; Clarence F. McKay, 1 V. ; Charles W. Hotch- 
kiss, sentinel ; trustees, Alfred J. Shipley, Carl E. Munger. 

The past high priests of Eureka Chapter, from 1893 t0 I 9 I 7» are: James Cal- 
lan, Alfred J. Shipley, Eldridge E. Candee, William E. Norris, Elliott E. Candee, 
Carl E. Munger, William E. Thorns, Charles M. Brooks, Henry F. Marendaz, 
Eugene C. Adt, Joseph S. Neill, Walter C. Bon, Frank E. Beardsley, John J. 
Gailey, William E. Brown, Harry A. Richardson, W. L. Babcock, Wm. R. Kea- 
veney, Frank Mitchell, Thomas D. Prescott, Roberts G. Hannegan, Harry P. 
Sanderson, Alpheus E. Betts, John E. Porzenheim. 

WATERBURY COUNCIL, NO. 21, R. & S. M. 

Waterbury Council, No. 21, R. & S. M., was constituted March 21, 1853. In 
1895 it had a membership of 245. Its roster today is nearly 325. Its present 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 249 

officers are: Edward W. Johnson, thrice illustrious master; Crayton F. Carpen- 
ter, Rt. 111. D. M. ; Arthur W. Robbins, P. C. & W. ; Wilbur P. Bryan, treasurer ; 
George E. Irion, recorder; Louis C. Chapman, C. of G. ; Ralph E. Day, conductor; 
William H. Miller, steward; Charles W. Hotchkiss, sentinel; trustees, Alfred J. 
Shipley, Carl E. Munger, W. L. Babcock. 

The following are the thrice illustrious masters of Waterbury Council from 
1893 to 1917; Frank H. Trowbridge, James Callan, R. R. Bird, Fred E. Stanley, 
Eugene C. Adt, Joseph S. Neill, Walter H. Ruggles, Walter C. Bon, George C. 
Curtiss, Harry J. Beardsley, Charles H. Swenson, Harry A. Richardson, Win. E 
Brown, Wm. R. Keaveney, W. L. Babcock, Thomas D. Prescott, Frederick C. 
Marggraff, Frank Mitchell, Frederick M. Davis. John E. Porzenheim, Edward 
W. Johnson. 

Doric Lodge of Perfection, which confers from the fourth to the fourteenth 
degrees, Ionic Council, Princes of Jerusalem, which gives the fifteenth and six- 
teenth degrees, and Corinthian Chapter, Rose Croix, seventeenth and eighteenth 
degrees, were all chartered September 23, 1897. The 191 7 officers of these Ma- 
sonic bodies are as follows : 

Doric Lodge of Perfection: Robert S. Walker, thrice potent master; Freder- 
ick W. Chesson, deputy master; Charles A. Templeton, senior warden; Charles 
M. Brooks, junior warden; Carlton B. Coe, orator; Almon C. Judd, secretary ; 
Willis M. Hall, treasurer; George C. Curtiss, master of ceremonies; Alpheus E. 
Betts, guard; Alfred J. Shipley, hospitaler; Charles W. Hotchkiss, tyler. 

Ionic Council, Princes of Jerusalem: Robert H. Batton, sovereign prince; 
Clark H. W. Newton, high priest; Arthur B. Buckman, senior warden; Hiram L. 
Kilborn, junior warden; Willis M. Hall, treasurer; Almon C. Judd, secretary; 
George W. Seeton, master of ceremonies; John E. Porzenheim, master of en- 
trances ; Alfred J. Shipley, hospitaler ; Charles W. Hotchkiss, tyler. 

Corinthian Chapter of Rose Croix : Howard F. Moody, most wise master ; 
Harry B. Sanderson, senior warden; Ralph E. Day, junior warden; Benjamin L. 
Coe, orator ; Willis M. Hall, treasurer ; Almon C. Judd, secretary ; George C. Cur- 
tiss, master of ceremonies; Alfred J. Shipley, hospitaler; Albert I. Chatfield, 
guard ; Charles W. Hotchkiss, tyler. 

Xaomi Chapter, No. 23, Order of Eastern Star, which was instituted September 
12, 1879, an d constituted October 8, 1879, has the following officers in 1917: 
Catherine Goppelt, worthy matron; Louis E. Granger, worthy patron; Lura K. 
Richardson, associate matron; Jennie Marggraff, secretary; Sarah A. Patchen, 
treasurer; Margaret Moore, conductress; Lena S. Perkins, associate conductress; 
Charlotte Hannegan, chaplain ; Nellie E. Candee, marshal ; Clara H. Wirth, organ- 
ist ; Elizabeth Huber, Adah ; Blanche L. Heebner, Ruth ; Mary E. Woodcock, 
Esther ; Ereena T. Callender, Martha ; Charlotte Abercrombie, Electa ; Louis C. 
Chapman, sentinel; Susie H. Granger, warder. 

Evergreen Court, No. 2, Order of Amaranth, which was chartered April 22, 
1910, has the following officers for 1917 : Daysie Perry, royal matron ; E. K. Diver, 
royal patron ; Elizabeth Booth, associate royal matron ; Grace R. White, secretary ; 
Elizabeth Hengeveld, treasurer; Mary Woodcock, conductress; Katherine Turrell. 
associate conductress. 

The Waterbury Masonic Aid Association, which was instituted July 16, 1896, 
has the following officers for 191 7: Louis E. Granger, president; Ferdinand 
Wolff, vice president; George C. Curtiss, treasurer; Raymond H. Ryder, secretary. 
Directors, Ernest H. Horn, Charles W. Hotchkiss, Harry A. Richardson, Fer- 
dinand Wolff, Charles E. Schlier. Sick visiting committee, Harry A. Richardson, 
George O. Monroe. 



250 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Kellogg- Lodge, No. 5, F. & A. M., an organization of colored Masons, was 
organized October 12, 1874. Its officers at present are : Worshipful master, A. H. 
Gatling; senior warden, W. W. Holland; junior warden, A. J. Darrow ; secretary, 
C. C. Fowler; treasurer, W. H. Costen; tyler, S. Norwood. 

THE WATERBURY MASONIC TEMPLE 

The Masonic Temple, specially designed and planned for the use of the fra- 
ternity, is really two buildings erected at right angles to each other. The West 
Main street front building is 26 by 100 feet, four stories high, and is located directly 
opposite the Soldiers Monument. On the first floor is the main entrance, a large 
lobby, corridor, and the incorporators' room. The general library and reading 
rooms occupy the entire second floor, and the various lodge parlors and social 
rooms are on the third and fourth floors. The rear portion contains a fire-proof 
stair and elevator tower. 

The main building is 70 by no feet, and extends from the rear of the stair 
tower across to Park Place, opposite the Y. M. C. A. gymnasium. It contains four 
halls, with all necessary anterooms and conveniences. A large auditorium, known 
as Temple Hall, beautifully decorated and furnished, is on the first floor. It has 
a large stage, gallery, kitchen, several dressing rooms and six exits. It will seat 
about nine hundred people, and is considered the best equipped and most acces- 
sible hall for public use in the city. It is intended for a banquet hall for large 
Masonic gatherings as well as a source of revenue. 

The second floor, which is on the same level as the third floor of the front build- 
ing, is divided into two lodge rooms, one 27^ by 50 feet, and one 37 by 65 feet. 
These are used by the two blue lodges, chapter, council and orders of the Eastern 
Star and the Amaranth. The commandery asylum, 50 by 58, is on the third floor, 
and this room, which has a pipe organ and a large stage, is also used by the 
Scottish rite bodies. 

The Temple is owned and controlled by the fraternity through the Water- 
bury Masonic Temple Corporation, a corporation without capital stock, organized 
under the laws of the State of Connecticut June 29, 191 1, by the following incor- 
porators, representing all the Masonic bodies of Waterbury : 

Harmony Lodge, No. 42, F. & A. M., Robert S. Walker, Albert Schumaker, 
Rev. F. D. Buckley. 

Continental Lodge, No. 76, F. & A. M., Nelson J. Welton, H. H. Peck, F. B. 
Daniels. 

Eureka Chapter, No. 22, R. A. M., E. C. Adt, G. G. Mullings, W. L. Bab- 
cock. 

Waterbury Council, No. 21, R. & S. M., W. R. Keaveney, G. C. Curtiss, James 
Callan. 

Clark Commandery, No. 7, K. T., J. R. Smith, B. L. Coe, Carl E. Munger. 

Doric Lodge of Perfection, A. A. S. R., J. R. Hughes. F. C. Marggrarr, M. F. 
Kloppenburg. 

Ionic Council, Princes of Jerusalem, A. A. S. R., Robert P. Lewis, J. K. Smith, 
J. M. Woodward. 

Corinthian Chapter, Rose Croix, A. A. S. R., Almon C. Judd, John B. Ebbs, 
Willis M. Hall. 

The corner stone of the new temple was laid on Saturday, August 10, 1912, 
at 3 130 in the afternoon by M. W. Justin Holden, grand master of Masons in 
Connecticut, assisted by his associate grand officers. The ceremony of laying 
the stone was in accordance with the ancient Masonic custom and the exercises 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 251 

included appropriate addresses by members of the craft and singing by the Ma- 
sonic choir of Waterbury. There were a large number of Masons present from 
all parts of Connecticut, and the event was one of the most impressive of its kind 
ever held in Waterbury and will long be remembered by all who witnessed it. 
Thirty-six lodges were represented and ten thirty-third degree Masons were 
present when the stone was laid. 

The stone contains a large number of historical documents, coins and medals, 
many of which had once before been deposited in a corner stone, that of the old 
temple on Bank Street, which was destroyed by the great fire of 1902, and recov- 
ered when the stone was taken from the ruins. 

The temple was informally opened by the Waterbury Masonic Temple Cor- 
poration on Tuesday evening, March 24, 1914, and hundreds of the members of 
the fraternity visited the building and inspected their new home for the first 
time. 

The first meeting in the temple for Masonic work was held by Harmony 
Lodge in the memorial lodge room on Thursday evening, March 26, 1914. The 
E. A. degree was conferred upon one candidate in the presence of a very large 
gathering. 

The temple was dedicated May 23, 1914, by M. W. Grand Master Edgar H. 
Parkman, assisted by his associate grand lodge officers in the presence of a large 
number of the brethren. 

A beautiful bronze medal was made to commemorate the dedication of the 
temple. The dies were cut by Alpheus E. Betts of Harmony Lodge and were 
presented to the corporation by him. The medals were also presented to the 
corporation by members of the fraternity employed by the Waterbury branches 
of the American Brass Company, where the metal was made and rolled. 

The present officers of the Temple Corporation are : Vice president and treas- 
urer, Robert S. Walker ; secretary, Willis M. Hall ; owing to death of N. J. Wel- 
ton, there is at present a vacancy in the presidency. Directors, George C. Curtiss, 
Franklin B. Daniels, Willis M. Hall, John R. Hughes, Almon C. Judd, Carl E. 
Munger, Henry H. Peck, Albert Schumaker, John R. Smith, Robert S. Walker. 

THE ODD FELLOWS 

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows is, next to the Masonic order, the 
oldest and strongest of the secret fraternal orders in Waterbury. Nosahogan 
Lodge, No. 21, now has a membership of 940, and one of its members, George M. 
Chapman, is at present at the head of the order in the state. 

Nosahogan Lodge celebrated both its fiftieth and its seventieth anniversaries 
in the last quarter century, both celebrations being the occasion of a large state 
gathering. It was organized July 1, 1845. 

Together with Townsend Lodge it has now entertained the Grand Lodge 
of the state three times since 1892, and will again entertain it in 1918. In 1892 
George H. Cowell, a member of Nosahogan Lodge, was grand master. The next 
meeting of the Grand Lodge was held in 1898, when John Blair, another member 
of Nosahogan Lodge, was retiring from the office of grand master. It met again 
in Waterbury in 1910, when Wm. E. Thorns was grand master. In 1918 it will 
hold a session in Waterbury, George M. Chapman, grand master and a member 
of Townsend Lodge, closing his term as head of the order in the state. 

Nosahogan Lodge has had the honor of having ten of its members in the 
mayoralty chair. Of the later ones this includes former Mayors Reeves, Thorns, 
Bradley, Webster, Barlow, and Mayor-Elect Sandland. Judges Kellogg and Bur- 



252 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

pee of the Superior Court are prominent members. Former Chief of Police E<*an 
and the present chief, Geo. M. Beach, are enthusiastic members of Nosahogan 
Lodge. 

One of the most beneficent features of Nosahogan Lodge is its mutual aid 
association. This was instituted on May 2, 1884, and pays death benefits of $250 
to widows of deceased members, and pays sick benefits of $6 weekly for thirteen 
weeks. In 1906 its method of assessment was altered and is now graded according 
to age. On December 10, 1917, all its bills were paid and it had in the treasury 
$5,761.33. It paid out in 1917 $1,471. 

Its officers are: President, Herbert J. Phillips; secretary, George M. Egan ; 
treasurer, Homer G. Filley. 

The present officers of Nosahogan Lodge are : Noble grand, Lester J. Smith ; 
vice grand, Robert Gardner ; recording secretary, R. C. Frink ; financial secretary, 
Wm. H. Lowe; treasurer, Peter B. Reeves; board of trustees, Francis T. Reeves, 
W. J. Larkin, F. C. Fromm. 

The past noble grands of Nosahogan Lodge since 1893 are as follows : Herbert 
J. Phillips, Seron Decker, William J. Larkin, Charles H. Tomlinson, Frederick 
E. Cross, William B. Kelsey, John H. Guernsey, Charles H. Keach, John J. Sie- 
bert, Edward L. Bronson, Charles P. Haight, William A. Chase, William E. 
Thorns, Charles F. Pierson, Clayton M. Andrews, Peter B. Reeves, Adam Callan, 
Addison A. Ashborn, Albert H. Mills, William E. Wildman, Franklin B. Fischer, 
W. M. Ashborn, G. T. Fuller, James A. Callan, Edmund B. Stocking, O. P. Arm- 
bruster, F. C. Fromm, John H. Morrow, C. H. Granger, H. C. Dews, C. E. Mann, 
A. F. Ells, E. S. Ross, H. R. Dews, R. C. Frink, F. B. Williams, W. J. Pettis, 
Geo. Delevieleuse, Jr., Geo. A. Smith, F. A. Hungerford, H. J. Reynolds, R. C. 
Perry, F. E. Hanchett, H. G. Reynolds, A. B. Phillips, Edward Shepard, Lester 
J. Smith. 

Townsend Lodge, No. 89, I. O. O. F., was organized January 1, 1872, by a 
group of members from Nosahogan Lodge. In 1895 its membership was 339. 
It is today, 19 17, 860. 

The present officers are as follows: Noble grand, Louis F. Marggraff; vice 
grand, Louis F. Hine ; recording secretary, Colin F. Wilson ; financial secretary, 
George M. Chapman; treasurer, Henry A. Hoadley. 

Ansantawae Encampment, No. 20, I. O. O. F., was organized September 25, 
1853. Today its membership is 575, consisting of members of both Odd Fellow 
lodges who expressed a desire to take higher degrees in the order. Its officers 
for 1917 are: Chief Patriarch, Louis F. Hine; high priest, John H. Schaff ; senior 
warden, O. Perry; junior warden, William McKee ; scribe, William H. Lowe; 
treasurer, Peter B. Reeves. 

Canton T. R. Martin, No. 8, Patriarchs Militant, I. O. O. F., which is the 
uniformed rank of the order, was named after its first commander, November 
16, 1893, although it had been instituted on May 30, 1883, first as the Ives Degree 
Camp, No. 9, and later, March 31, 1886, as Canton Waterbury. It now has a 
membership of no. Its present officers are: Captain. Karl L. Winter; lieu- 
tenant, Louis Marggraff; ensign, Louis Wenzel; clerk, Robert A. Babcock; 
accountant, G. A. Stafstrom. 

On June 15, 1892, Winona Lodge, No. 8, of the Daughters of Rebekah was 
instituted with Mrs. Elizabeth Geddes as first noble grand. On January 1, 1893, 
its membership was over one hundred. It today has a membership of nearly 
three hundred. The officers at present are : Noble grand, Winona Russell ; vice 
grand, Mrs. Margarite Maxwell; recording secretary, Mrs. Ida Wildman; finan- 
cial secretary, Mrs. Ada Reeves; treasurer, Mrs. Tillie Cleveland. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 253 

The Odd Fellows Hall Association holds meetings the third Friday in Janu- 
ary, April, July and October. The president is W. J. Larkin ; secretary and 
treasurer, F. W. Tate. 

These are the activities of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. 

In addition there is a lodge known as Loyal Pride of the Valley, Xo. 7223, 
I. O. O. F., Manchester Unit} - , which was instituted September 30, 1893. Its 
present officers are: Noble grand, James Pheden; vice grand, Anthony Carabina; 
P. S., George Holton; treasurer, George S. Fields. 

The Odd Fellow lodge organized by colored men is known as Brass City 
Lodge, No. 3049, Grand United Order of Odd Fellows, organized November iO. 
1888. Its present officers are : N. G., A. Wooders ; P. S., J. B. Lassiter ; treasurer, 
Shepard Mnnn ; P. N., F. W. W. Holland; N. F., Isaac Broman. 

Household of Ruth, No. 799, G. U. O. of O. F., which is the woman's adjunct 
of the Brass City Lodge, was organized November 2^, 1892, and at present has 
the following officers: M., N. G. Ella McKinney ; P. M., N. G. Vandellia Louther; 
prelate, Susan Brown ; W. R., Henrietta Hatcher ; treasurer, J. Edward Jones. 

The Odd Fellows Hall was dedicated October 15, 1895, celebrating the ending 
of a half century of existence of the order in Waterbury. The association was 
organized in June, 1892, with Past Grand Master George H. Cowell as president; 
Past Grand John Blair, vice president; Past Grand Casimir H. Bronson, secre- 
tary, and Henry T. Stedman, treasurer. A charter was granted and the capital 
stock, placed at $40,000, was soon subscribed. One of the first acts of the asso- 
ciation was the purchase of the property owmed and occupied by the Second 
Congregational Society at the east end of the Green and in 1894 a board of 
directors and a building committee were elected to carry out the building project. 
The directors were George H. Cowell, Henry T. Stedman, David B. Wilson, Jay 
H. Hart, Benjamin L. Coe, Herbert W. Lake, James S. Gailey, Henry L. Wade, 
John Blair, Albert I. Chatfield, Thomas D. Barlow, Henry W. French, Casimir 
H. Bronson, Frederick E. Cross. The building committee consisted of George 
H. Cowell, Albert I. Chatfield, Herbert W. Lake. The plans were drawn by Wil- 
fred E. Griggs, a member of the order. The corner stone was laid November 27, 
1894, and the building was dedicated October 15, 1895. 

It is well to chronicle again the fact that in October, 1892, the Odd Fellows 
Home for Aged and Infirm Members was opened in New London, a result of the 
efforts of Grand Master George H. Cowell, of Waterbury, who made the first 
contribution of $500. 

On April 21, 1895, what was known as Connecticut Lodge, No. 6, International 
Order of Odd Fellows, was organized as a Catholic branch of the Odd Fellows. 
It began with a membership of 34, and with D. H. Tierney as its first noble grand. 
The growth was slow and the flow of Catholic membership towards the Knights 
of Columbus compelled its promoters to dissolve it in 1902. Its last officers were : 
Noble grand, Michael Driscoll; vice grand, Thomas Donahue; recording secre- 
tary, John S. Neagle ; corresponding secretary, John J. Geraghty ; treasurer, Daniel 
E. Cronin. 

KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS 

Speedwell Lodge, No. 10, K. of P., is still one of the banner lodges of the 
state, a reputation it acquired at the state encampment held in Waterbury in 
September, 1894. Out of this lodge has come a group of notable Pythian 
activities, both in the way of splendid beneficiary work and also of military training 
in the uniformed rank. The membership of the order in Waterbury today is 
placed at over 2,000. 



254 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

The officers of Speedwell Lodge at present are : Chancellor commander, Edwin 
E. Fry; vice chancellor, Wm. Klebes; prelate, Frank P. Dews; master of works, 
C. Rockwell Clyne ; keeper of record and seals, Frank J. Ogden ; master of finance, 
Frank M. Treat; master of exchequer, Clifford Wells; master of arms, Benjamin 
Port ; inner guard, George Wells ; outer guard, Harry Upson ; physician, Dr. Ed- 
ward Kirschbaum ; trustees, Dr. Fred Marggraff, George Wells, Edward Wells. 

Speedwell Lodge on December 10 had 287 members. 

The Pythian Aid Association of Speedwell Lodge is now in its twenty-fifth 
year of existence. It pays $5 a week sick benefit, and $100 death benefit. It has 
125 members. Its officers are: President, George H. W r ells; secretary, E. R. 
Snagg; treasurer, Edward B. Condet. 

The past chancellor commanders of Speedwell Lodge, Knights of Pythias, 
from 1893 to 191 7 are as follows : George W. Kinney, James A. Knox, Clyde M. 
Howard, Wm. E. Thorns, Wm. R. Hitchcock, John A. Hitchcock, Lewis M. Hol- 
land, Ed. B. Condet, Benjamin Fairclough, Arthur J. Leonard, Frederick C. Marg- 
graff, G. Fred Moore, P. Besancon, George F. Lancaster, Arthur M. lies, Ralph 
Stoddard, Robert Babcock, Frank L. Snagg, Wallace Duxbury, Dr. Edward H. 
Kirschbaum, Joseph G. Kirschbaum. 

Comstock Lodge, No. 13, K. of P., was instituted October 30, 1883. Its 
officers at present are : Chancellor commander, James Miller ; keeper of record and 
seals, Martin L. Wiegner; master of finance, Nelson F. Thomas; master of ex- 
chequer, George E. Petit jean. 

The past chancellor commanders of Comstock Lodge since 1893 are as fol- 
lows : Charles S. Bradley, J. C. Lang, W. W. McLennan, John M. Newell, John 
Houston, F. S. Phelps, W. H. Black, Charles Manville, Leon L. Hall, Percy D. 
Petitjean, Leonard S. Tenney, Carl Kilborn, Charles S. Townsend, Adam Wilkie, 
James Miller. 

Good Will Lodge, No. 53, K. of P., in Waterville, was instituted April 30, 
1894. Its officers at present are: Chancellor commander, William Bower; keeper 
of record and seals, Charles H. Draper; master of exchequer, Joseph A. Gagnon; 
master of finance, Newell Porch. 

Magnolia Lodge, No. 60, K. of P., was instituted May 13, 1896. Its officers 
at present are : Chancellor commander, Wm. P. Jones ; keeper of record and seals, 
H. S. Miller ; master of finance, John C. Clarke ; master of exchequer, Charles 
Drubva. 

The Uniformed Rank, Knights of Pythias, now has its state headquarters 
in Waterbury, with George E. Petitjean brigade commander, Col. Martin L. 
Wiegner, assistant adjutant general, and Col. William Tysoe, assistant quarter- 
master general. 

This change of headquarters to Waterbury was made in 19 16. There is 
under the brigade commander in this part of the state the second regiment, which 
consists of the companies from Salisbury, Torrington, Bristol, Waterbury, Meri- 
den, Waterville. In 1909 when it was organized as a regiment, its first colonel 
was L. L. Hall. He was succeeded in 1912 by George E. Petitjean, who remained 
in command until 1916. The second regiment now has the following officers: 
Colonel, Fred Gauthier, Hartford; lieutenant colonel, Nelson F. Thomas; major 
first battalion, Christian Hanson, Hartford; major second battalion, Charles H. 
Draper; adjutant lieutenant, D. Brooks Rubin; quartermaster lieutenant, John 
Wheeler. 

The two Waterbury companies are officered as follows: 

E. F. Durand Company, No. 11, Uniformed Rank, K. P., was instituted 
April 1, 1890. The present officers are: Captain, Frank J. Ogden; first lieu- 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 255 

tenant, Joseph T. Dick; second lieutenant, Frank T. Dews; treasurer, Albert C. 
Kaecher; recorder, Wallace Duxbury. 

The past captains of E. F. Durand Div. U. R., K. P. from 1893 to I 9 I 7 were: 

F. R. White, C. L. Chapelle, Charles Schmidt, Frank J. Ogden, Edward J. 
Schuyler, Wilfred L. Snow, F. B. F. Wallace, Ernest C. Colby. 

Waterbury Company. Xo. 20. U. R., K. P., was instituted .May 3, 1894. Its 
officers at present arc: Captain, Wade S. Manville; first lieutenant, Adam Wilkie ; 
second lieutenant. S. G. MacDonald; recorder. Martin L. Wiegner; treasurer, Eli 

G. Main. 

The past captains of Waterbury Company, U. R., K. P., 1894 to 1917 are: 
( .eorge E. Petitjean. Wm. R. Keaveney, David Miller, Frank R. White, M. L. 
Wiegner, Jean Ingraham, George A. Pouard, Nelson F. Thomas, Loren S. Chase, 
Wade S. Manville. 

The following are the officers of Waterville Company, U. R., K. of P. : (Dap- 
tain, L. L. Northrop ; first lieutenant, Howard C. Post ; second lieutenant, William 
Draper ; recorder, Joseph Davis ; treasurer, Charles H. Draper. 

Section No. 3275, Insurance Department, K. of P., was instituted September, 
1896. The president is William H. Strickland ; secretary and treasurer, Martin 
L. Wiegner. 

Myrtle Temple, Pythian Sisters, has the following officers : M. of R. and C, 
Minnie Hitchcock; M. of F., Charlotte Harmon. 

Ivy Temple, No. 5, Pythian Sisters, has the following officers : M. E. C. Mrs. 
Adelia Fields; M. of R. and C, Mrs. L. Dutton; M. of F., Mrs. Lottie Petitjean. 

Section 248, Endowment Rank, K. of P., was instituted in 1892. Its presi- 
dent from 1893 to I 9°9 was Joseph H. Somers. After that date, all the official 
work has been looked after by its secretary and treasurer, Henry Baumgartner. 
Its membership is small. 

Friedrich Wilhelm Lodge, Knights of Pythias, organized in 1876, was a 
thriving German Lodge in 1893. It was dissolved in 1901, and its members 
joined other lodges of the order. Its past chancellor commanders from 1893 
to 1901 were: P. Meerlaender, Charles Schmidt, Otto Haude, M. Vogt, E. Ker- 
sten, C. E. Hassler, O. Tuebner, Frank Deharde. 

WATERBURY LODGE, B. P. O. ELKS 

The Order of Elks was instituted in 1867, by a few members of the theatrical 
profession, drawn together for social intercourse. It has developed into a wide- 
spread and powerful order of benevolence and charity, with lodges in over two hun- 
dred and twenty-five of the principal cities of the Union. Nearly all of the rep- 
utable male members of theatrical profession are members of the order, and on its 
roll of membership will be found the names of prominent officials, merchants, 
bankers, journalists, legal and medical men and bright lights of the world in art, 
literature and music. 

Waterbury Lodge was instituted on June 15, 1893. It was the sixth 
Elk lodge organized in Connecticut. The charter members numbered thirty-four 
and the first officers of the lodge were as follows : Exalted ruler, Michael J. 
Colloty; esteemed leading knight, William Hellmann; esteemed loyal knight, Ed- 
ward J. Starr; esteemed lecturing knight, John F. Holohan ; secretary, Joseph A. 
Cullen ; treasurer. James E. Watts ; esquire, William D. Richardson ; tyler, Edward 
E. Harvey ; chaplain. Thomas J. Moran ; organist, John H. Christie ; inner guard, 
William T. Carroll ; trustees, David T. Mack, David David, William Johnson. 

It furnished a suite of rooms at 108 Bank Street, where it held its meetings and 



256 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

its affairs until the fire of 1902 completely destroyed its effects. For three years 
it had rooms in the Waterbury Trust Company Building, but in 1909 it raised 
the funds for the purchase of the Curtiss Home on West Main Street. In 1910 
it built its beautiful home back of the old residence, and the dedication exercises 
were attended by notable Elks from all over the country. 

In 1914 Truman S. Lewis offered the club $16,000 for the complete interior 
renovating of the old building and its outfitting. When the work was completed, 
the cost amounted to $26,100, and Mr. Lewis insisted on making this the amount 
of his donation. This included the new bowling alleys and tennis courts. 

Its present officers are : Exalted ruler, Truman S. Lewis ; secretary, Edward 
F. Moran; treasurer, Maurice C. Culhane; tyler, John F. Griffin. 

The following is a list of the past exalted rulers: Michael J. Colloty, 
William D. Richardson, Christopher Strobel, Richard F. Grady, Edward L. 
Maloney, John H. Cassidy, James E. Madigan, William H. Johnston, William 
J. Spain, Acly W. Castle, Charles A. Jackson, Lewis M. Holland, William J. 
Shannahan, Thomas B. Carney, Harry J. Cook, Milton V. Medling, Andrew D. 
Dawson. 

KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS 

The Knights of Columbus, a fraternal and beneficent society of Catholic men, 
was founded in New Haven February 2, 1882, by Father M. J. McGivney, a 
Waterbury man, whose grave in St. Joseph's Cemetery has become a shrine for 
members of the order from all over the country. The purpose of the society is 
thus stated : "To develop a practical Catholicity among its members, to promote 
Catholic education and charity, and through its insurance department, to furnish 
at least temporary financial aid to the families of deceased members." 

Waterbury's two councils have been heavy contributors to all the national 
movements of the order, including the gift of $50,000 for the endowment of a 
chair of American history in the Catholic university in Washington, and the fund 
for the monument to Columbus at Washington. 

Sheridan Council of Waterbury was one of the twenty-five highest donors to 
the university fund which was formally presented April 14, 1904. 

On April 27, 1885, steps were taken to organize the first Waterbury Council 
of the order, and on May 3, the initiation took place in the G. A. R. Hall. The 
first officers were: Cornelius Maloney, grand knight; M. F. Connolly, deputy 
grand Knight; J. A. Hynes, recording secretary; Matthew Kennedy, treasurer; 
W. F. Dillon, lecturer; T. D. Healy, advocate; J. J. Donegan, warden; T. F. 
Butler, outside guard; D. J. Mahaney, inside guard; J. H. Fruin, H. D. Smythe, 
assistant guards; D. J. Gaynor, J. J. Egan, W. E. Buckley, trustees; J. J. Neville, 
physician. 

Sheridan Council had grown to such an extent that on February 3, 1886, 
the first move was made to organize a new council to be known as Carrolton 
Council. On March 24, 1886, in Sheridan Hall, East Main Street, the new coun- 
cil was instituted, the degrees conferred and the officers installed by District 
Deputy Cornelius Maloney. The following were the first officers and members 
of the new council: J. A. Moran, grand knight; D. H. Tierney, deputy grand 
knight; M. H. Brennan, chancellor; George Byrnes, recording secretary; T. F. 
Jackson, financial secretary; D. T. Hart, treasurer; M. F. Spellman, warden; 
M. J. Jordan, inside guard ; J. H. Kilduff, outside guard ; Dr. E. W. McDonald, 
physician ; D. H. McGraw, Robert McGrath, W. S. Jones, J. E. Watts, John J. 
Jackson, Peter Lamb, D. H. Buckley, A. J. McMahon. 



WATERBURY AND THE N'AUGATUCK VALLEY 257 

This was dissolved May 6, 1895, and its members at once affiliated with Sher- 
idan Council. 

On December 16, 1888, Sheridan Council moved from G. A. R. Hall to St. 
Patrick's Hall, going- two years later to Pythian Hall. In 1896 it met in Elks 
Hall in the Jones-Morgan Building, and January 1, 1902, moved to Knights of 
Columbus Hall at 43 East Main Street, where it is now domiciled and where its 
social adjunct, the Columbus Club, occupies the floor below its meeting place. 

The past grand knights of Sheridan Council are as follows: Cornelius Ma- 
loney, J. J. McDonald, B. F. Reid, J. A. Moran, J. D. Bolan, J. W. Wigmore, 
J. W. McDonald, J. E. Smith, T. F. Donovan, J. A. Hynes, E. J. Finn, Lucien 
Wolff, John J. Galvin, P. II. Real, Charles E. Finley, E. J. Real, Thomas B. 
Carney, Dr. D. J. Donahue, M. J. Carney, John L. Gaffney, Wm. F. Moher. 

Its membership now is approximately five hundred. 

The present officers are : Grand knight, John L. Gaffney; deputy grand knight, 
Timothy F. Barry; recording secretary, William F. Guilfoile; financial secretary, 
Thomas F. Behan. 

On August 10, 1887, in the hall of Sheridan Council, the third council, 
which was known as Barcelona Council, No. 42, was instituted and officers in- 
stalled as follows by District Deputy Cornelius Maloney : Grand knight, fohn F. 
Bossidy ; deputy grand knight, Thomas Kane ; financial secretary, J. J. Madden ; 
recording secretary, Jeremiah Crowley; treasurer, Wm. C. McDonald; warden, 
Wm. J. Delaney; inside guard, Thomas Bergin; outside guard, Thomas Fleming; 
physician, Dr. J. F. Hayes. 

The members of Barcelona Council joined with Sheridan members in organ- 
izing the Columbus Club. In 1917 Barcelona's principal officers were: Grand 
knight, William F. Ryan ; recording secretary, Thomas Dodds ; financial secretary, 
Michael F. Conlon; treasurer, Walter E. Monagan. 

There have been two other councils, Hendricken, established in 1899 and dis- 
solved in 1909, and Mulcahy Council, established in 1900 and dissolved in 1910. 
Both were active for a time, but the membership was finally merged with both 
Sheridan and Barcelona Councils. 

The first annual pilgrimage to the grave of Father McGivney. founder of the 
order of the Knights of Columbus, took place June 10, 1900. Sheridan entered 
heartily into the affair, and on June 10 visiting knights from New York, Brook- 
lyn and many places in Connecticut, with their friends to the number of 
about five thousand came to Waterbury. The local councils prepared for them on a 
grand scale, and this everft was one of the most memorable in the history of the 
order. New and increased interest was taken in the Knights of Columbus at once, 
and as a result, the old councils received a number of new members. 

The second annual pilgrimage of the Knights of Columbus to the grave of the 
founder of the order, Rev. M. J. McGivney, took place June 10, 1901. 

The insurance feature has been greatly altered since the inception of the 
society. At present it is confined to three classes, one, two and three thousand, 
and payments are made by assessment and according to age. 

Columbus Club occupies the greater part of the third floor at 43 East Main 
Street. This has been finely furnished, has billiard and pool tables, a complete 
library, and files of many newspapers and magazines. It is now five years old. 
Its first officers were: President, Charles J. Finley; secretary, Frank J. Hogan ; 
treasurer, Edward J. Real. 

Its present officers are: President, T. F. Barry; secretary, Paul Schultze ; 
treasurer, Raymond F. Downey. 

The Knights of Columbus in December, 1917, raised $35,000 for the order's 

Vol. 1—17 



258 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

national "camp" fund, which is to be used along the lines of the Y. M. C. A. for 
the benefit of the boys in the army. 

ANCIENT ORDER OF HIBERNIANS 

In 1895 the Ancient Order of Hibernians with a membership of 1,600 was 
operating in five divisions, all of which held meetings in St. Patrick's Hall. Their 
presidents were : Division No. 1, James E. Finley ; Division No. 2, John M. Lynch ; 
Divison No. 3, James P. Morris; Division No. 4, John H. Moran; Division No. 5, 
M. Doran. These had been organized respectively in 1874, 1884, 1886, 1888 and 
the fifth on October 12, 1893. 

In 1898 the growth had been such that a sixth division was organized with 
John H. Powers as president, Patrick K. Finnan as recording secretary, Charles 
E. McDonald as financial secretary, and J. H. Mulville as treasurer. Meeting 
places had again been changed, Divisions 2, 4 and 5 meeting in Hibernian Hall 
at 73 East Main Street. The first and sixth met at G. A. R. Hall, and the third 
in Congress Hall. 

In 1903 the interest in the order was at its highest, and a ladies' auxiliary was 
formed, with Margaret Crane as president, Mary Cavanaugh as vice president, 
Annie Meara as recording secretary, Mary Halpin as financial secretary, and 
Mary Phelan as treasurer. 

In 1904. Company E, Hibernian Rifles, was organized with John Griffin as 
captain, William Moher, first lieutenant, and John P. Sheehan as second lieutenant. 
An experienced drill master was engaged and drills were held from October 1st 
to May 1st every Tuesday in Hibernian Hall. From 1908 until 1916 it held its 
drills on Sundays. 

In 191 1 Peter Griffin became first lieutenant and Patrick Shanahan second 
lieutenant. In 191 2 Peter Griffin became captain, Patrick Shanahan first lieu- 
tenant, and William Driscoll second lieutenant. 

Company E, Hibernian Rifles, which is still in existence, with Peter Griffin 
as captain, Patrick Shanahan, first lieutenant, and William Driscoll as second 
lieutenant, has held no drills since 191 6, owing to the fact that many of Its mem- 
bers either volunteered or were called out in the draft. 

In 1905 Division No. 6, which had suffered a loss in membership, gave up its 
charter and its members joined the other divisions. 

The order now began to feel the encroachments of the Knights of Columbus 
on its membership and interest waned to some extent. In 1909 the members 
of the second and fifth divisions joined to form Monsignor Slocum Branch with 
these officers : President, D. J. Slavin ; vice president, T. F. Luddy ; recording 
secretary, P. Shanahan; financial secretary, Joseph McGrail, and M. Bergin, 
treasurer. In 19 10 the members of Division No. 1 dissolved and joined the re- 
maining branches, Divisions Nos. 3 and 4 and Monsignor Slocum Division. 
These are the organizations in existence today. 

The present officers of the various organizations connected with the order 
follow : 

Division No. 3: President, Timothy F. Luddy; financial secretary, John 
Kearney ; recording secretary, Patrick Kendrick ; treasurer, John Claffey. 

Division No. 4: President, Patrick McFadden; financial secretary, Bernard 
Whiteny ; recording secretary, Joseph Holahan ; treasurer, John D. Carey. 

Ladies' Auxiliary, A. O. H.: President, Mrs. Charles A. Jackson; recording 
secretary, Nellie Lynch ; financial secretary, Mary E. Kelly ; treasurer, Mrs. John 
Lynch ; chaplain, Rev. Luke Fitzsimons. 



WATERBUKV AXI) THE NAUGATUCK \ ALLEY 259 

Mgr. Slocum Branch, A. O. H. : President, William II. Dunleavy; reeording 
secretary, William J. Driscoll; financial secretary, John J. Foran; treasurer, 
George A. Hynes. 

ANCIENT ORDER OF UNITED WORKMEN 

Waterbury Lodge, No. 5, of the Ancient Order of United Workmen was 
instituted August 3, 1880, with twelve charter members. This grew to 250 in 
1895 and today is close to that figure. The officers at present are: master work- 
man, [. E. Sandland; recorder, J. A. Garde; treasurer, G. M. Egan; receiver 
L. A. Totten. 

American Lodge, No. 44, was instituted January 23, 1890. Its officers at 
present are : Master workman, Anthony Moore ; recorder, Ellsworth G. Reynolds ; 
financier, Henry J. Reynolds. 

Connecticut Lodge, No. 52, was instituted May 18, 1892. Its present officers 
are: Master workman, W. H. Brakenridge; recorder, Charles Baumgartner; 
financier, James McKnight. 

ANCIENT ORDER OF FORESTERS 

There are now in existence in the United States four distinct orders which 
use the name "Foresters." The original lodge formed in Waterbury, July 8, 
1874, Court Fruitful Vine, No. 5991, Ancient Order of Foresters, was and is 
still under the English jurisdiction. In 1889, When the first separation came, the 
courts upheld it in its right to the title, "Ancient Order of Foresters." 

The present officers of Court Frutiful Vine are : Chief ranger, George John- 
son ; past chief ranger, Arthur W. Thompson ; recording secretary, J. W. Mc- 
Keller ; financial secretary, Donald McKeller ; treasurer, Charles E. Turner. 

FORESTERS OF AMERICA 

In 1889 the American order assumed the title "Foresters of America" and was 
completely separated from its English connections. In 1893 it was an independent 
American order. 

It had nine courts, three side degrees and about twelve hundred members. 
Today it has fourteen courts, with a membership over double that of 1895. Its 
activities as at present organized are as follows : 

Court Shields, No. 29, F. of A., was instituted May 4, 1887. Its officers at 
present are as follows : Chief ranger, Andrew Stine ; financial secretary, M. F. 
McKennerney ; recording secretary, William Vance ; treasurer, Patrick Barry. 

Court Waterbury, No. 3, F. of A.: Chief ranger, Roger Lynch; recording 
secretary, Henry H. Hayden; financial secretary, John Z. Dowling; treasurer, 
James J. Connelly. 

Court Falcon, No. 44, F. of A., instituted July 12, 1889. Its officers at present 
are: Chief ranger, Thomas O'Leary, Jr.; recording secretary, Edward Herbert; 
financial secretary, James P. Herbert ; treasurer, Patrick G. Egan. 

Court Linden, No. 75, F. of A., was instituted August 1, 1892. Its officers 
at present are: Chief ranger, John Finnerty; financial secretary, Joseph S. W^ors- 
ley; recording secretary, John B. Marcoux; treasurer, Thomas M. McGrath. 

Court Welch, No. 84, F. of A., has the following officers: Chief ranger, Joseph 
McArdle; financial secretary, George H. Heckelman ; recording secretary, Joseph 
A. Brenneis ; treasurer, Elmer J. Chatfield. This is the Waterville branch of the 
lodge. 



260 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Court Martin Hellman, No. 86, F. of A., was instituted November 7, 1894. 
The officers at present are : Chief ranger, William J. Caldwell ; financial secretary, 
James Cosgrove ; recording secretary, Patrick Kendrick ; treasurer, Paul Asheim. 

Court America, No. 98, F. of A. : Chief ranger, John Vose ; financial secretary, 
Benjamin W. Johnson; recording secretary, George H. Clark; treasurer, June D. 
Cashman. 

Court Oregon, No. 138, F. of A.: Chief ranger, Edward Foley; recording sec- 
retary, Thomas Byrnes ; financial secretary, William F. Guilf oile ; treasurer, James 
McKnight. 

Court Richard Wagner, No. 139, F. of A., has the following officers: Chief 
ranger, R. G. Amberg ; financial secretary, Louis H. Pellinitz ; recording secretary, 
H. E. Wilhaus ; treasurer, John J. Sief en. 

Court Champlain, No. 146, F. of A., has the following officers : Chief ranger, 
Henri Vigeant ; financial secretary, Charles Charpentier ; recording secretary, 
Emile A. Schneider ; treasurer, Ralph L. Brandely. 

Court D. B. Hamilton, No. 147, F. of A.: Chief ranger, H. Miller; financial 
secretary, B. F. Hoggett; recording secretary, M. Cossett; treasurer, Stanley B. 
Heaton. 

Court Guiseppe Verdi, No. 151, F. of A., has the following officers: Chief 
ranger, Santolo D'Andrea ; financial secretary, Nicola Garzia ; recording secre- 
tary, Angelo G. Stanco ; treasurer, M. Pesee. 

Nordsjernum Lodge, No. 165, S. F. of A., has the following officers: Presi- 
dent, David Dahlstrom ; secretary, Arvid Morten ; financial secretary, Oscar Rich- 
ardson ; cashier, Edward Strom. 

Pine Rock Circle, No. 29, Lady Foresters of America : Chief commander, 
Mrs. Mary Dechon ; sub. chief commander, Sophia Carroll; recording secretary, 
Helen Cross; financial secretary, Catherine McNeish; treasurer, Mary C. Goe- 
merly. 

INDEPENDENT ORDER OF FORESTERS 

The Independent Order of Foresters was a further separation, and was or- 
ganized solely for insurance purposes. Court Waterbury, No, 3578, was estab- 
lished June 1, 1897. Its officers are: Chief ranger, William La Force; financial 
secretary, Thomas A. Maton; recording secretary, George A. Hines; treasurer, 
Adam Wilkie. 

Court Eugenie, No. 794, I. O. F. : Chief ranger, Flora Gagne; recording sec- 
retary, Mrs. Eugenie Duguay; financial secretary, Pomela La France. 

There is also now a Catholic Order of Foresters. 

LOYAL ORDER OF MOOSE 

The Loyal Order of Moose, Waterbury Lodge, No. 703, was organized 
August 1, 191 1, as the local lodge of the national fraternal organization of that 
name. Its membership today in Waterbury is 1,500. The order pays a sick 
benefit of $7 a week and a death benefit of $100. It also cares for dependent 

orphans. 

Its present officers are: Dictator, Frank H. Bailey; vice dictator, Peter J. 
Shea; past dictator, Thomas W. Parrie ; treasurer, John H. Butler; secretary, 
Cornelius Horgan; prelate, Albert Whitaker; trustees, M. A. Gray, Thomas H. 
King, Thomas E. Bywater. 

Its first officers in Waterbury were: Dictator, Matthew J. Smith; past die- 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 261 

tator, Robert Palmer; vice dictator, Herbert E. Hughes; prelate, Arthur Young: 
treasurer, Howard L. Rogers; secretary, Chris. J'. Harmon. 

Meetings were held for eighteen months in the hall at No. n North Main 
Street. After that time, club rooms were leased and elegantly furnished. Four 
years ago, the lodge moved to 95 Bank Street, and the club rooms were greatly 
enlarged. They are now kept open daily for the entertainment of its members. 

ORDER OF HEPTASOPHS 

Until August 1, 1917, there were three conclaves of the Improved Order of 
Heptasophs, a fraternal insurance organization. These were Waterbury Conclave, 
No. 326; Silas Bronson Conclave, No. 651, and Jacques Cartier Conclave, No. 
810. The membership of these was about three hundred, although since its insti- 
tution in Waterbury in 1888 it had at one time attained to a membership of over 
six hundred. 

On August 1 st all these groups which desired to continue the insurance were 
taken over by the Federal Aid Union of Lawrence, Kan., which assumed all of 
the liabilities of the old order of Heptasophs. 

FRATERNAL ORDER OF EAGLES 

The Fraternal Order of Eagles, Waterbury Aerie, No. 379, the local branch 
of a national organization, which is largely social, was established April 28, 1903. 
It now has a membership of 1,275. In March, 1916, the local aerie purchased the 
Waterbury Club Building on North Main Street. 

The Eagles have had a prosperous career in Waterbury. At its recent bazaar, 
which was given in Buckingham Hall for the purpose of securing a building and 
furnishing fund, the sum of $4,700 was raised, a good start for its purpose. It is 
believed that it will in the spring of 1918 have enough money in its building fund 
to begin the erection of its new dance hall in the rear of the present beautiful 
club house. 

At its election held in December, it elected the following officers : President, 
John H. Crery; vice president, Edward Foley; secretary, Dennis R. Mitchell; 
treasurer, Charles Lynch ; chaplain, Martin Hayden ; recording secretary, Patrick 
Hogan; trustees, Thomas D. Temple, Ed. J. Walsh, Edward Mraz. 

Its first meeting place was at 288 South Main Street, and its officers in 1906, 
the year of its organization here, were : President, J. C. Haren ; secretary, Dennis 
R. Mitchell; treasurer, P. J. Courtney. 

In 1908 it moved to Knights of Columbus Hall and in 1910 to Eagle's Hall 
at 151 Bank Street. There it fitted up beautiful club rooms, and remained until 
it purchased the property of the Waterbury Club. 

IMPROVED ORDER OF RED MIA 

The Improved Order of Red Men haw two tribes in Waterbury, with a 
Woman's Auxiliary. It is a social, secret, fraternal and benevolent association, 
and its first Connecticut Great Council was organized in August, 1887. On 
December 15, 1889, Waterbury's first tribe came into existence. Its officers at 
present are : 

Tunxis Tribe, No. 10, C. of R.. E. M. Clarck; C. of W.. W. F. Engert ; K. 
of W., Edward M. Dwyer. 

Toantick Tribe. No. 22, was instituted October 19, 1892. Its officers are: 



262 WATERBURY AXD THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Sachem, George Pond; C. of R., William S. Bolton; C. of W., Frank A. Wells; 
K. of W., H. L. Bassett. 

Momamton Council, No. 5, D. of P. is the ladies' branch of the organiza- 
tion, and has the following officers : Pocahontas, Mrs. Katherine Turrell; K. of 
R., Mrs. Louis Brown; K. of W., Mrs. Clara Leonard. 

ORDER OF UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS 

The Order of United American Mechanics was organized in Philadelphia, as 
a patriotic organization. It later extended its activities and became a beneficiary 
as well as a social and patriotic society. Franklin Council, Progressive Council, 
Martha Washington Council, as well as the Gen. Joseph Warren Commandery, 
have all been merged into the parent body, Excelsior Council, No. 2, or the 
Woman's Auxiliary, Lady Trumbull Council, No. 5, Daughters of Liberty. 

Excelsior Council, No. 2, O. U. A. M., was instituted February 1, 1877. 
The officers are : Councilor, F. F. Partiss ; recording secretary, D. L. Russell ; 
financial secretary, H. W. Edwards ; treasurer, C. S. Ryder. 

Lady Trumbull Council, No. 5, Daughters of Liberty, instituted June 30, 
1882. Councilor, Charles Gibson; recording secretary, Rachel Chase; financial 
secretary, Clara Wilmarth ; treasurer, Abbie Seeley. 

Fidelity Council, No. 47, Sons and Daughters of Liberty. Councilor, Mrs. 
Elizabeth Richmond; recording secretary, Mrs. Fannie Warner; financial secre- 
tary, Mrs. Lettie J. Flood; treasurer, Mrs. Frank Blakeslee. 

Progressive Council, United Order of American Mechanics, was in 1895 a 
young and flourishing council which had been organized on February 22, 1893. 
In 1897 its membership had grown so small that it surrendered its charter, the 
members joining Excelsior Council of the order. 

Gen. Joseph Warren Commandery, United Order of American Mechanics, 
was organized in 1892 by the members of Progressive and Excelsior councils, as 
the uniformed rank of the order. Its officers in 1895 were: Captain, E. J. 
Schuyler; first lieutenant, A. J. Scott; second lieutenant, C. A. Green. 

These officials, together with the members, decided in 1896 to surrender the 
charter as the membership was too small for effective drill work. 

' MODERN WOODMEN OF AMERICA 

The Modern Woodmen of America, a national fraternal and insurance organ- 
ization, with headquarters in Rock Island, 111., organized Rosedale Camp, No. 
9,615, in Waterbury on May 1, 1902. It now has 174 members. Its present 
officers are: Counsel, David McNamara ; clerk, George S. Husker; banker, 
Edward Keenan. 

WOODMEN OF THE WORLD 

The Woodmen of the World, a national fraternal and insurance organization, 
has four camps in Waterbury. The first of these, White Oak Camp, No. 3, was 
established in 1896 and Arbutus Camp, No. 8, came soon after this date. The 
total membership in Waterbury in 191 7 is 1,500. The officials of each of the 
camps are as follows : 

White Oak Camp. No. 3, C. C, H. Cook; clerk, W. E. Roberts; banker, 
O. G. Rabe. 

Arbutus Camp, No. 8, C. C, D. F. Cass ; clerk, H. W. .Edwards ; banker, 
F. C. Meisinger. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 263 

Pine Camp, No. 68, C. C, Dr. G. G. Mangini; clerk, Santolo D'Andrea ; 
banker, Donato Margiotto. 

workmen's circle 

The national fraternal and insurance organization known as Workmen's Circle, 
has three branches in Waterbury, Workmen's Circle, No. 26, was organized in 
March, 1903, and now has a membership of 155. Workmen's Circle, Branch 
137, organized in 1910, has a membership of 120. Workmen's Circle, Ladies' 
Branch 190, has now a membership of 40. The order has its own sanitarium 
at Liberty, N. Y., where it cares for those of its members who are stricken with 
tuberculosis. It pays sick and death benefits. 

The officers are: Circle 26, George Fisher, secretary; treasurer, J. Green- 
blatt ; Circle 137, secretary, M. Saltzman; treasurer, H. Feldman; Circle 190, 
secretary, Bessie Cassel; treasurer, Mrs. Max Levin. 

SONS OF ST. GEORGE 

The order of Sons of St. George is a progressive fraternal society which 
English residents in the United States formed as a social and benefit organiza- 
tion. Hawthorne Lodge, No. 213, was instituted in Waterbury July 6, 1883. 
Its membership is naturally limited, though at present it is well over the hundred 
mark. Its officers for 1917 are: W. P., H. T. Matthews; W. T., G. R. Lewis; 
secretarv, Thomas Hodkinson. 

SHEPHERDS OF BETHLEHEM 

Shepherds of Bethlehem, Radiant Star, No. 2, is a woman's fraternal and 
benefit organization. Its present officers are : Commander, Mrs. Grace E. Can- 
dee; scribe, Mrs. Susie M. Granger; accountant, Mrs. 'Jennie C. Ainslee; treas- 
urer, Mrs. Helen M. Stanley. 

KNIGHTS OF THE GOLDEN EAGLE 

The following are the officers of Amity Castle, No. 11, Knights of the Golden 
Eagle : Noble chief, William McNaught ; master of records, F. B. Reynolds ; 
clerk of exchequer, H. W. Edwards; keeper of exchequer, William Hatton. 

It has in addition to its insurance feature, an adjunct in the Amity Social 
Club, which has finely furnished club rooms adjoining the lodge hall at 136 
Grand Street. All the members of the Amity lodge are entitled to club privileges. 

NEW ENGLAND ORDER OF PROTECTION 

The Waterbury lodges of the New England Order of Protection celebrated 
the thirtieth anniversary of the organization of the order November 15, 1917. 
The first lodge in Waterbury was Archer Lodge, No. 4. established June 1, 1888, 
the year following the founding of the order. Since its foundation it has paid 
out in the five New England states, which comprise its jurisdiction, $17,000,000 
in insurance. It has now placed its rates on a new basis, insuring permanency 
to the order. 

The lodges with date of organization and present officers are as follows: 
Anchor Lodge, No. 40, organized June 1, 1888. Warden, George S. Davis; 
secretary. Frank L. Kainz ; financial secretary, Edward J. Morgan; treasurer, 



264 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Annie E. Burritt. The approximate membership in 191 7 is two hundred and 
thirty. 

Mattatuck Lodge, No. 187, organized March 15, 1892. Warden, J. S. Neill; 
recording secretary, H. W. Alden; financial secretary, Ira Markle; treasurer, 
George M. Condet. The approximate membership in 191 7 is two hundred. 

Alexander Von Humboldt Lodge, No. 210, organized February 23, 1893. 
Warden, Elizabeth Huber; recording secretary, Emil C. Steinman; financial 
secretary, Valentine Hahn ; treasurer, Clara Armbruster. The approximate 
membership in 191 7 is two hundred and fifty. 

Brass City Lodge, No. 244, organized December 5, 1894. Warden, Mrs. 
Mary E. Deehon ; secretary, Thomas Eddy ; financial secretary, Edward Byrne ; 
treasurer, Patrick Barry. The approximate membership in 191 7 is two hundred. 

Sheridan Lodge, organized May 31, 1893. Warden, Jennie A. Turley ; re- 
cording and financial secretary, Joseph O'Connell ; treasurer, John H. Butler. 
The membership in 1917 is approximately one hundred and seventy-five. 

Waterbury Lodge, No. 486. Warden, Mrs. Sarah Cook; secretary, John 
Parry. The approximate membership in 1917 is one hundred. 

ORDER OF OWLS 

Order of Owls, Waterbury Nest, No. 1,427, has the following officers: Presi- 
dent, J. A. Reed; secretary, W. F. Guilfoile; financial secretary, George M. 
Chapman ; treasurer, A. L. Hellenstein. 

UNITED ORDER OF PILGRIM FATHERS 

Mizpah Colony, No. 163, United Order of the Pilgrim Fathers, was organ- 
ized March 15, 1895, with thirty charter members. Its first governor was Jacob 
B, Blakeslee. 

Its present officers are: Governor, Reinhold R. Book; secretary, Sarah A. 
Benham ; treasurer, Louis R. Silvernail; collector, Helen M. Stanley. 

KNIGHTS OF MACCABEES 

The Knights of the Maccabees, a national fraternal and insurance organiza- 
tion, has three lodges in Waterbury. Valley Tent, No. 13, organized December 
8, 1896, has a membership of sixty, and Waterbury Tent, No. 36, has between 
fifty and sixty. The Woman's Benefit Association of the Maccabees is called 
Eagle Hive, No. 16. 

The officers of these organizations at present are : 

Knights of the Maccabees, Valley Tent, No. 13: Commander, Charles F. 
Loomis ; lieutenant commander, Ad9lph Recker ; record keeper, Colin F. Wilson ; 
finance keeper, Harris Hayden. 

Knights of the Maccabees, Waterbury Tent, No. 36: Commander, Thomas 
W. Gill; lieutenant commander, Patrick J. Lynch; record keeper, T. J. Coyle; 
finance keeper, William J. O'Brine. 

Woman's Benefit Association of the Maccabees, Eagle Hive, No. 16: L. C, 
Mrs. Elizabeth Shearon; L. L. C, Annie Courtney; finance keeper, Julia M. 
Cunningham ; record keeper, Mrs. Mary Keef e. 

UNITED ORDER OF THE GOLDEN CROSS 

The United Order of the Golden Cross is both an insurance and a temperance 
organization. Sterling Commandery, No. 300, was instituted in 1886, and in 



WATERBUKY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 265 

1895 had a membership of 132. This has been reduced, but the commandery is 
still active in its work and thriving. Its officers at present are : N. C, George 
Clapp; K. of R., Mrs. Annie Rowley; F. K. of R., Mrs. S. Nellie Clapp; treasurer, 
Mrs. Margaret Meeker. 

THE ROYAL ARCANUM 

The Royal Arcanum, a national fraternal and insurance organization, has one 
council, Mattatuck, No. 713, in Waterbury, established October 13, 1882. It 
grew to large proportions and held its membership until a few years ago, when 
the first change in rates was made effective. A further change in 1916 affected 
Mattatuck Council as it did the councils all over the country, where the average 
loss of membership was about 20 per cent. The present officers are as follows : 

Regent, Charles A. Hill; secretary, Wallace Roberts; collector, Louis A. 
Totten ; treasurer, George W. Watson. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY 

The object of this great national order is the education and elevation of the 
American farmer, and the social, moral and intellectual development of its 
members. 

Mad River Grange, No. 71, started December 1, 1887, with fifty charter 
members. During the height of its success, Mad River Grange had as many as 
700 names on its list. In 1895 there were 200. Today the list is small, but 
composed of the best farmers in this section. It meets weekly in Grange Hall, 
Mill Plain, during all but the three summer months. Its officers at present are : 
Master, Merton E. Reid : overseer, Oscar B. Todd ; lecturer, Charles A. Graham ; 
secretary, Bessie D. Parks. 

ORDER OF THE SILVER STAR 



Martha Washington Council, Order of the Silver Star, was a social and sick 
benefit organization which flourished in 1895 and in 1902 had finely furnished 
club rooms in Johnson's Hall. The fire of that year destroyed all its possessions 
and for a time it met in the homes of its members. Its councillor at this time 
was Frank L. Snagg and he and his associates decided in 1903 to discontinue the 
meetings. It has never been officially dissolved and still has a small fund in 
the bank. 

FRENCH SOCIETIES 

Club Sadi Carnot was organized August 21, 1904. Its officers for the present 
year are as follows: President, L. Grasselor; secretary, Pierre Besancon ; record- 
ing secretary, J. V. Fesselet ; treasurer, Frank Graber. This is an organization 
composed of European French and is solely for educational and social purposes. 

Council St. Jean Baptiste d'Arnerique, No. 304, was organized June 1, 1877. 
Its present officers are: President, Roderick Adams; recording secretary, Joseph 
Lecomte; financial secretary, Charles R. Charpentier; treasurer, Edmond Thibault. 

L'Union Fraternelle Francaise has for officers: President, E. Pouard : finan- 
cial secretary, C. Didam ; recording secretary, J. A'. Fesselet; treasurer, C. Gueble. 

L'Union St. Jean Baptiste d'Arnerique, Council Laval. No. 189, has the fol- 
lowing officers: President. Roderick Adams: recording secretary, Philias Le- 
comte ; treasurer, Edmond Thibault. 



266 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUGK VALLEY 

ITALIAN SOCIETIES 

Below is a list of the Italian societies organized in Waterbury, with their 
officers : 

O. F. D. I. Order, Sons of Columbus, No. 273. President, Charles Sciullo ; 
secretary, Joseph Caporaso ; treasurer, Joseph Sciullo. 

O. F. D. I. Vittorio Emanuele, No. 351. President, Luigi Lerz; secretary, 
Vincenzo Guarini ; treasurer, Giovanni Laudati. 

O. F. D. I. Queen Elena Lodge, No. 222. President, Mrs. Lucian Pinto ; 
recording secretary, Mrs. Maria A. Carissimi ; financial secretary, Mary G. 
Sciullo ; treasurer, Angelina Jamele. 

Order Sons of Italy, Loggia Dante Alighieri, No. 66. Venerabile, G. Salva- 
tore ; recording secretary, L. Carissimi. 

Order Sons of Italy, Loggia Lucitoe, Prov. No. no. Venerabile, Nicola M. 
Ventresca ; financial secretary, Nicola R. Ventresca ; treasurer, Francesco Ca- 
rissimi. 

Society Operia Aviglianese of Soccorso. President, Canio Rosa ; secretary, 
L. Lovallo ; treasurer, F. Verrastro. 

SWEDISH SOCIETIES 

Odin Benefit Association. President, Gustaf R. Lofblad; secretary, Carl 
Nelson; cashier, Edward Strom. 

Order of Vasa, Gota Lejon Lodge, No. 19, was organized January 20, 1900. 
The following are the present officers: President, Gustaf Johnson; secretary, 
Franz Johnson; cashier, Eric Larson. 

GERMAN SOCIETIES 

Below is a list of the German societies of Waterbury : 

Concordia Singing Society. President, John E. Weiss ; corresponding secre- 
tary, John Kern ; recording secretary, William Bierbaum ; financial secretary 
Albert Lampe, Sr. ; treasurer, Wolfgang Schaeffer. 

The Concordia is justly termed the leading German singing society in the 
state. Twenty-two years ago it elected Hans Saro as its musical director, and 
it is due to his masterful training that five first prizes were won by the society at 
eight of the state saengerfests. It began its triumphant career at Bridgeport in 
1898 with a first prize, following it with similar successes at Union City in 1900 
and at Seymour in 1902. It won first prize at the State Saengerfest in Hartford 
in 1910 and again at New Haven in 191 2. The society numbers fifty active 
members, but in all competitions it is recruited to ninety. 

During the war period there have been no saengerfests, but these will be 
resumed as soon as conditions are again favorable. In the meantime the society 
continues its local concerts. 

D. O. H. Gleichheit Manner Lodge, No. 71, was organized October 1, 1887. Its 
officers for the present year are : O. B., George Groetzenbach ; secretary, Franz 
J. Keller; cashier, Henry Kluttig; treasurer, Charles Kopp. 

D. O. H. Steuben Lodge, No. 391, was oganized February 29, 1876. Its 
officers at present are: O. B., Nicholas Massonnet; secretary, George Groetzen- 
bach; financial secretary, Henry Kluttig; treasurer, Karl Kopp. 

D. O. H. True Sisters Lodge, No. 28, at present has the following officers : 
O. B., Mrs. Lena Hennegger; secretary, Mrs. Anna Thomas; financial secretary, 
Mrs. Charles Yoos ; treasurer, Mrs. Eliza Schmidt. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 267 

Dramatic Association of Lyra Singing Society has the following officers: 
President, Lonis Jositz ; secretary, August Beutter. 

Harmonia Benevolent Association was instituted in 1861. The present offi- 
cers are: President, Christian Schlag; secretary, Ferdinand Schroeder; financial 
secretary, Joseph Sevetag; treasurer, John Kirschbaum. 

1. O. B. B., Melchizedek Lodge, Xo. 200, has the following officers: Presi- 
dent, Herman J. Weisman; secretary, Louis L. Simons; treasurer, Samuel A. 
Chase. 

The Lyra Singing Society has the following officers: President, Louis Jositz; 
financial secretary, Alfred Waldheim. 

O. D. H. S. Freundschafts Lodge, Xo. 8, was organized March 29, 1887. The 
present officers are: President, Edward Koslosky; secretary, Edward Cramer; 
financial secretary, Julius Xatush ; treasurer, Fritz Cramer. 

The following are the officers of the Turnverein Vorwaerts: President, Fred 
erick Cramer ; secretary, Emil Hummel ; treasurer, Albert Hummel. 

The Unity Association has the following officers : President, Herman J. 
Weisman ; secretary. Louis L. Simons ; treasurer. Samuel A. Chase. 

U. O. R. M., Uhland Stamm, Xo. 190, was organized January 28, 1874. The 
present officers are : President, Louis Grohs ; secretary. Christian Wiemer ; 
cashier, Jacob Baer; treasurer, Richard Selback. 

The Waterbury Turnverein has the following officers : President, F. 
Schwaller ; corresponding secretary, Karl Wilke ; treasurer, J. Sasloff . 

The Workmen's Sick and Death Benefit Fund, Branch Xo. 42, was organized 
in 1 89 1. The following are the present officers: President. G. Waldheim; re- 
cording secretary, Emil Bierbaum; financial secretary. Charles Blattman; treas- 
urer. Frank J. Gatter. 

THE LABOR ORGANIZATIONS 

WATERBURY BUILDING TRADES COUNCIL 

In 1900 a Building Trades Council was formed by the painters, the carpenters, 
and the plumbers, which affiliated with the National Building Trades Council in 
1902. The latter endured for three years. In 1905 the council applied for a 
charter from the Structural Building Trades Alliance and remained with the body 
during its existence, after which it became affiliated with the present building 
trades department of the American Federation of Labor. Under this parent body 
the Waterbury Building Trades Council has really increased in membership. 
The eight locals now affiliated with the council are as follows: Carpenters and 
Joiners, Xo. 260; Electrical Workers, Xo. 660: Sheet Metal Workers, Xo. 199; 
Painters and Decorators, Xo. 491; Plumbers, Steam and Gas Fitters, Xo. 22; 
Naugatuck Carpenters and Joiners, Xo. 804; Xaugatuck Painters and Decorators. 
No. 418; Xaugatuck Plumbers, Steam and Gas Fitters, Xo. 169. 

The council maintains commodious, well-arranged quarters at 127 East Main 
Street, consisting of two meeting halls, reading room, and business agent's office. 

The relations between the building contractors and the building trades organ- 
izations are most cordial. There is a business-like spirit of co-operation existing 
between the organizations that brings forth the best result for all concerned, 
those having buildings erected coming in for their share of the good results of 
this harmony. 

The present officers are: President. James Campbell (Painters) ; vice presi- 
dent. R. Beardsley (Electrical Workers); recording secretary, II. T. Strickland 



268 WATERBURY AND" THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

(Electrical Workers) ; financial secretary, James Johnson (Painters) ; treasurer, 
William Byron (Carpenters) ; James P. Donahue, business agent. Meetings are 
held on the first and third Wednesdays. 

THE CENTRAL LABOR UNION 

The Waterbury Central Labor Union was first organized in 1893, then lapsed 
and was again instituted June 18, 1902. Twenty local unions were affiliated, the 
great majority of which are still in existence and still members of the central 
body. In 191 7 the unions affiliated number twenty-eight. 

Meetings are held on the first and third Fridays in Building Trades Council 
Hall, 127 East Main Street. 

The present officers are : President, James E. Corrigan ; vice president, Joseph 
C. Baker ; recording secretary, Rensselaer Beadle ; financial secretary, Charles 
Westendorfl ; treasurer, James A. Cleland ; sergeant-at-arms, William Hermann ; 
business agent, James P. Donahue ; trustees, Thomas Quinn, William McLean, 
Charles Mulholland. 

WATERBURY LOCAL UNIONS 

Allied Printing Trades Council. Joseph Cote, president ; P. J. Lynch, secre- 
tary. 

Bakers, No. 155, organized February 1, 1901. President, Daniel Finske; 
vice president, Daniel Sullivan ; recording secretary, Paul Lauer ; financial secre- 
tary, Herbert Waldron ; treasurer, Charles Witzman ; sergeant-at-arms, Joseph 
Mussary; label section, Otto T. Dreher; business agent, State Organizer Striby; 
trustees, Paul GrafT, Paul Lauer; C. L. U. delegate, Otto T. Dreher. 

Barbers, No. 732. President, Louis D. Schiavone ; vice president, P. Madda- 
line ; recording secretary, Angelo Possemato ; financial secretary, Patrick J. 
Cavanagh ; treasurer, Patrick Mancini ; sergeant-at-arms, Nick Solcids ; trustees, 
Joseph Fiore, Ernest Petrone, and Peter D. Cicco. 

Brewery Workmen, No. 126. President, William Barton; vice president, Gus 
Schmidt ; recording secretary, Aug. Beutter ; financial secretary, John Mantel ; 
treasurer, Jos. Schmid ; sergeant-at-arms, Jack Kelly ; business agent, Aug. 
Beutter; trustees, Alfred Waldheim, Alfred Seidel, Josef Stiegler. 

Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers, organized March 1, 1894. President, 
L. E. Stephens ; secretary, Louis Corr ; business agent, Wm. McCarthy. 

Carpenters and Joiners, No. 260. Chris Christof eson, president ; Thomas C. 
Quinn, secretary; N. J. Engelke, financial secretary; Walter R. Talbot, treasurer; 
James P. Donahue, business agent. 

Cigarmakers. President, John E. Cunningham ; vice president, M. Cross- 
land ; recording secretary, H. Bushman ; financial secretary, Val C. Hahn ; treas- 
urer, W. Crossland; sergeant-at-arms, Wm. J. Pierce; business^ agent, H. F. 
Varanelli ; trustees. Otto Brodt, Frank Smith and Edward Sanders. 

Electrical Workers, No. 660. President, John E. Cunningham; vice presi- 
dent, M. Crossland; recording secretary, H. Bushman; financial secretary, Val 
C. Hahn; treasurer, W. Crossland; sergeant-at-arms, Wm. J. Pierce; business 
agent, H. F. Varanelli ; trustees, Otto Brodt, Frank Smith and Edward Sanders. 

Granite Cutters. Ralph Stuart, secretary. 

Horseshoers. Charles E. Mann, secretary. 

Locomotive Engineers. Brass City Division, No. 867. B. F. O'Neill, secretary. 

Machinists, Brass City Lodge, No. 322. Financial secretary, Charles Westen- 
dorft; treasurer, John B. Cutty. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 269 

Molders, No. 298. Thomas R. Allen, secretary; James A. Loveday, business 



agent. 



Moving- Picture .Machine Operators, No. 304. President, James Corrigan; 
vice president, Nick Melleti; recording secretary, Tim Garren; financial secre- 
tary-treasurer, William Jenusaitis; business agent, Abe bandella; trustees, Ralph 
Stanco, Steve Sangovimio, John Kuster. 

Musicians. President, Kay E. Reilley; vice president, C. E. Loveridge; re- 
cording and financial secretary, E. Sherwood Beardslee; treasurer, William Mc- 
Lean; sergeant-at-arms, Arthur Martel; business agent, Ray E. Reilley. 

Painters, No. 491. President, R. Beadle; vice president, Win. Cook; record- 
ing secretary, Michael F. Cody; financial secretary, James Campbell; treasurer, 
William Woods; sergeant-at-arms, Irving Cowdry ; business agent, James P. 
Donahue ; trustees, A. C. Pratt, Phillip Roy, James Johnston. 

Pattern Makers. Robert McDougal, secretary. 

Plumbers and Steam Fitters, organized 1894. Present officers : President, 
William Coyle ; vice president, James Whitty ; recording secretary, Daniel M. 
Cass ; financial secretary-treasurer, William R. Finn ; business agent, James 
Donahue. 

Pressmen and Assistants, No. 150. President, Louis Schmidt; vice president, 
Lew Baker; financial secretary, Frank Gregory; sergeant-at-arms, Joseph M. 
Cipriano. 

Railroad Trainmen, No. 423. G. H. Turkington, secretary. 

Sheet Metal Workers, No. 199. President, L. C. Schiltz; vice president, 
Otto Herbst ; secretary, Charles E. Decker ; financial secretary, A. E. Gerard. 

Stone-cutters. Patrick Quinlan, secretary. 

Street Railway Employees, Division 570. President, Lawson A. Luth ; vice 
president, David J. Scully; recording secretary, George B. Degnan; financial 
secretary, Thomas Brube ; business agent, A. H. Luth. 

Theatrical Stage Employees, No. 88; organized in 1901. President: John 
J. Fitzgerald ; vice president, Frank Brown ; recording secretary, Thomas Corri- 
gan ; financial secretary, Frank J. Stone; treasurer, James Cleaveland. 

Typographical, No. 329, organized November 20, 1898. President, Fred S. 
Gorham; vice president, Hubert B. Royce; recording secretary, Leroy E. Bowles; 
secretary-treasurer, Patrick J. Lynch. 

Foremen's Association of the Plume & Atwood Mfg. Co., organized March 
13, 191 1. President, Edward C. Sanderson; secretary, Thomas Mathon ; treas- 
urer, P. H. Chabot. 

Manhan Aid Association of American Brass Co., Waterbury Brass Branch. 
President, Frederick B. Williams; secretary, Edward B. Simpson; treasurer, 
C. E. Beardsley. 

Scovill Foremen's Association. President, Frank W. Ineson ; secretary, Clar- 
ence H. Stilson. 



CHAPTER XXII 
COMMUNITY EFFORTS, PHILANTHROPY AND REFORMS 

THE Y. M. C. A. AND ITS GROWTH FUND FOR NEW BUILDING WAR-TIME WORK 

THE WATERBURY BOYS' CLUB — -MR. COMBELLACK's GREAT WORK THE BOY SCOUTS 

OF AMERICA THE WATERBURY INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL AND GIRLS' CLUB THE 

TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT IN WATERBURY RESCUE MISSION THE COMMUNITY 

CHRISTMAS TREE THE EARLY CLOSING MOVEMENT ELISHA LEAVEN WORTH'S 

BENEFACTIONS. 

The Waterbury Y. M. C. A. is the oldest association in Connecticut and the 
fourth oldest in all New England. The first in the United States dates back to 
December, 1851, and was started in Boston, Mass., by Thomas Sullivan as repre- 
sentative of twenty religious associations. 

The original constitution of the Waterbury Y. M. C. A., with the signature of 
the charter members and the original business records, have been preserved to 
the present day. This association was active from 1858 until 1876 and was 
never formally dissolved. A more formal organization was effected in 1883. The 
life of the association is divided into two periods: the first of twenty-five years, 
ending in 1883, during which the service of all officers and workers was purely 
volunteer work. During that period the association had rooms at the corner of 
West Main and Leavenworth streets. The original start was made in a room 
over what was known as Cone's drug store at the corner of Bank and West Main 
streets. 

The second period started with the engagement of trained Y. M. C. A. workers, 
due to the realization of what an immense power for good in the community 
the association would be and the full knowledge of how great a work it had 
taken up by the words of its charter, "To promote the physical, mental and moral 
welfare of young men." 

Then in 1889, after the state convention of the Y. M. C. A. held in Waterbury, 
came the building project at a meeting in the parlors of the old Scovill House. 
This was followed by a later meeting and the appointment of a committee on 
buildings and soliciting. 

The building committee, selected from the board of directors, which made its 
first report on May 18, 1891, was as follows: L. J. Atwood, H. L. Wade, J. R. 
Smith, F. S. Chase, F. B. Rice, E. O. Goss, W. E. Fulton, I. A. Spencer, W. E. 
Griggs, C. F. Mitchell, G. W. Beach, J. N. Webb, H. W. Scovill, F. B. Hoadley, 
C. S. Chapman, A. C. Mintie, E. D. Welton and A. D. Noble. 

The project was then sent along under full sail by the gift of a lot on North 
Main Street, part of which is now occupied by a portion of the Hotel Elton. The 
gift was made by Henry W. Scovill and his wife. This lot was later sold and 
the present site purchased. It was then the Philo Brown property. 

The soliciting committee completed its work in December, 1890 ; the revised 
plans for the building were accepted March 22, 1892; the contract was awarded 
April 21, 1892, and the association moved into the completed building June 1, 1893. 

270 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 271 

Since that time there have been additions to the structure from time to time 
as they were needed, and the money was obtainable. As designed by its far- 
sighted founders, it did priceless work in promoting physical, mental, and 
moral welfare of the young men of Waterbury, and it may be said that the city 
is the better for the association and that the initial investment in dollars had 
been realized hundreds of times over in a better humanity. 

The rosters of names connected with the various steps in the growth of the 
Y. M. C. A. is interesting, as many of the names are to be found woven through 
the history of the rise of Waterbury. In the list of the charter members of 1858 
are to be found the following: Anson F. Abbott, L. S. Davis, Dwight L. Smith, 
F. L. Curtis, George W. Beach, E. L. Beach, E. L. Bronson, Charles Benedict, 
D. 1". Maltby, A. M. Blakcsley, and H. W. Keeler. Governor William A. Buck- 
ingham was an honorary member. 

Among the signers of the document pledging the funds which changed the 
association from volunteer ranks in 1883 were the following: F. J. Kingsbury, 
J. 'S. Elton. .Airs. M. L. Mitchell, J. M. Burrall, L. J. Atwood, H. W. Scovill, 
I. A. Spencer, J. R. Smith, Rev. J. G. Davenport, G. E. Terry, A. A. Benedict, 
H. L. Wade, G. C. Hill, C. S. Rodman, and B. G. Bryan. 

The names of the incorporators of the association in 1889 were: Imri A. 
Spencer, Edward L. Bronson, George H. Benedict, Walter C. Meyers, G. H. 
Benham, James S. Elton, John Henderson, Jr., Charles S. Chapman, F. S. Chase, 
A. D. Noble, F. E. Stanley, Nelson W. Heater, and William E. Norris. 

The war work of the Y. M. C. A. has been a notable feature of its activities. 
It began this work in 1916, when the members of the local companies were called 
to the armory preparatory to leaving for the border. All the privileges of the 
Y. M. C. A. were extended to the men and remained so until their departure and 
after their return. 

When the United States declared war, and a part of the National Guard 
was stationed in W r aterbury, Y. M. C. A. privileges were again extended to the 
men occupying the armory. These included the baths, the use of the gymnasium, 
and all social privileges. 

Later, when a battalion camp of the First Regiment, C. N. G., was estab- 
lished at Fairlawn Manor, the Y. M. C. A. immediately pitched a tent there 
under the direction of W. A. Smethurst, the physical director. Mr. 'Smethurst 
and several assistants took charge of the outgoing mail ; supplied tables and writing 
equipment, as well as reading matter, consisting of the latest magazines and 
newspapers. A piano and Victor talking machine were provided as a means of 
amusement. Baseball suits and balls and bats were given to all men who joined 
the teams organized into an inter-company league. 

During this time special meetings were held every Sunday afternoon, at which 
special music and other features did much to attract the soldiers. 

Since the departure of the National Guard, the Home Guard has used the 
Y. M. C. A. gymnasium for drilling purposes. The Second District Registration 
Board has made the association its headquarters. All of the physical examina- 
tions were held in the gymnasium and questions concerning the draft and 
exemption rules are answered at the desk. 

In connection with the enrollment of drafted men, two gymnasium classes 
were conducted by Mr. Smethurst each week to give the men training in setting 
up exercises previous to their strenuous camp work. These exercises, and all 
the privileges given to army and navy men, have been absolutely free of cost. 

To every man already in camp has been given a special ticket, good for 
privileges in any Y. M. C. A. in the world. Thus the local Y. M. C. A. has 



272 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

opened the doors of Y. M. C. A. buildings in every place where a Waterbury 
boy may be stationed. 

Rev. Robert K. Brown, pastor of the Second Congregational Church, has 
sailed for France, where he will remain for six months, engaged in the war 
relief work of the Y. M. C. A. In leaving his home duties for six months, Mr. 
Brown is responding to a call which has been issued for 1,000 men to carry on 
Y. M. C. A. work in France. He is the first Waterbury man to answer this call. 

The Y. M. C. A. has been exceptionally fortunate in its selection of general 
secretaries. In 1892, E. N. Folsom, who had been secretary of the Y. M. C. A. 
at St. Johnsbury, Vt., came to Waterbury and remained until 1895, when he was 
succeeded by T. P. Day. Mr. Day left in 1898 and was succeeded by Robert S. 
Ross. It was largely through the efforts of Mr. Ross and his splendid committee 
aids that the heavy mortgage on the present building was lifted. In 1909, much 
to the regret of his many friends in the association, he resigned to go to the New 
Haven Y. M. C. A., and was succeeded by Ernest F. Goodyear. Mr. Goodyear 
resigned August 1, 191 2, and was succeeded on September 1, 191 2, by the present 
general secretary, William H. Davis. 

The membership in 1895 was 375 in addition to 175 sustaining members or 
patrons. In November, 1917, the membership is 750, including patrons. 

The present officers of the Y. M. C. A. are as follows: 

President, W. W. Bowers ; vice president, Levi Wilcox ; treasurer, A. B. 
Dayton; recording secretary, Oscar Stahl; general secretary, William H. Davis; 
board of directors, E. A. Andersen, W. W. Bowers, C. F. Carpenter, R. L. Coe, 
A. N. Colegrove, C. P. Cook, J. H. Curtis, A. B. Dayton, Dr. F. J. Erbe, J. E. 
Neily, B. P. Hyde, Theodore Lilley, E. F. Phelan, H. C. Post, R. E. Piatt, Oscar 
iStahl, C. H. Stillson, F. B. Webster, Levi Wilcox. 

The Woman's Auxiliary of the Y. M. C. A. was organized in 1892, and has 
been helpful in all the association's endeavors. In 1893 lt supplied the funds for 
the furnishing of the dormitories of the new building. It also helped in raising 
the money to lift the mortgage on the present structure. It has now a membership 
of 150, and its president is Mrs. W. H. Hoffman. 

On December 11, 1916, the campaign for a new Y. M. C. A. Building began, 
with Charles Sumner Ward, of the International Committee of the Y. M. C. A. 
in charge. The object was to raise $350,000 for a new site and building. It was 
the first large "intensive" campaign to raise money on the plan which has since 
become familiar. 

TJie three groups that were effective in collecting the building fund were 
headed by John H. Goss, Darragh DeLancey, and Robert L. Coe. Former 
President William H. Taft was a speaker at the opening banquet. Practically 
half of the fund was raised in twenty-four hours. On December 19, 1916, the 
fund was completed. 

The site first selected, the Driggs property on West Main Street near Willow, 
proved to be unpopular and on October 25, 191 7, the old Baptist Church site on 
Grand Street was decided upon for the new Y. M. C. A., and tentative plans have 
been made to raise the additional amount needed for the purchase of the ground. 

The appointment late in 191 7 of Charles Lee, of Bemis, Tenn., to take charge 
of the Industrial Department of the Y. M. C. A., has been fraught with excellent 
results. The purpose of this department is to take the Y. M. C. A. program out- 
side of its building and to co-operate with all other agencies that are striving to 
improve conditions. The English night school opened December 10, 191 7, in the 
Sprague School at Waterville for the benefit of foreign workers, was the direct 
result of Mr. Lee's work. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 273 

Walter A. Smethurst, physical director and his assistant, Willard A. Manor, 
have kept the Y. M. C. A. progressing on all indoor and outdoor athletic activities! 

The presidents of the Y. M. C. A. since 1895 were as follows: George W. 
Beach, Henry W. Scovill, T. R. Hyde, Jr., Benj. L. Coe, Charles D. Nye, John 
H. Goss, Clarence P. Cook, and W. W. Bowers. 

WILLIAM H. DAVIS 

William H. Davis, the present general secretary of the Y. M. C. A., assumed 
his position on September 1, 1912. 

Mr. Davis is a native of Leicester, Mass., and was graduated from the Y. M. 
C. A. Training School (now college), at Springfield, in 1894. He had held 
association positions in Greenfield, Mass., Bridgeport, Brooklyn, Portland, Me., 
North Adams, Mass., and Cambridge. He was general secretary in several of 
these places, including Greenfield, Bridgeport and Portland, and at North Adams 
he reorganized the Y. M. C. A. after activities had been suspended, during hard 
times. 

He has the distinction of having played basketball on the first team to play 
the game in this country, at the Springfield Training School. He also played 
football at Springfield and was a half-back on the famous training school organ- 
ization known as "Stagg's eleven." 

THE WATERBURY BOYS' CLUB 

The Boys' Club of Waterbury was planned by John C. Collins of New Haven, 
and was established by him in January, 1888. Mr. Collins' idea was to provide 
a place where street gamins could find recreation at night and where their interests 
would be protected. W. P. Jarrett was the first superintendent of the club, which 
started work at 4 Market Place and he remained in charge one year. He was 
succeeded by H. N. Hansel, who retired in 1890. The club did not prosper in 
those years. It was a new institution and there were many difficulties to over- 
come. The public did not understand it, and it threatened to be a failure. 

It was at that time that the attention of the directors was called to Nicholas 
Combellack, who was conducting a club in New Haven for the divinity students 
of Yale College. They visited his institution and were so much impressed with 
his ability as a manager that they engaged him September 1, 1890, to superintend 
the Waterbury Boys' Club. Mr. Combellack has since been in charge of it and 
under his control it has grown to its present importance. It removed to 21 Harri- 
son Avenue in September, 1891. 

Mr. Combellack when he came to Waterbury found a reading room and library 
where boys who belonged to the club congregated at night and read such news- 
papers and books as best pleased them. They were not particularly cleanly, so 
he established a bath room and insisted that every member of the club should 
bathe at least once a week. This was a great improvement, and the boys soon 
learned cleanly habits. Mr. Combellack then added a little gymnasium, buying 
dumbbells and Indian clubs and invited the boys to exercise their muscles. This 
proved popular. 

No provision had been made to house the boys who came in from the street. 
They were obliged, when the club rooms closed, to return to the pavement and 
find shelter where they could. Mr. Combellack told the directors that they should 
furnish beds for the boys who had no homes, and with their sanction he rented 
the floor above the library and fitted up a dormitory in the winter of [892. He 



Vol. 1—18 



274 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

found that Waterbury was the goal of many runaway boys from other towns who 
were in the habit of sleeping in freight cars and railroad yards or wherever they 
could find a place. He said that such boys should be taken to the club rooms and 
he organized his club members into a corps to search for and bring runaways to 
the club where they could have shelter until returned to their families. In this 
way, many runaways who might have been led to criminal lives have been re- 
stored to their homes or put to work at useful occupations. 

The dormitory naturally led to the establishment of a dining-room and 
kitchen, and then Mr. Combellack provided for the improvement of the boys' minds 
by organizing a class to teach them the rudiments. As the membership increased, 
he enlarged the gymnasium and engaged instructors to teach them in military 
drill, fencing and singing. The club was incorporated under the general joint 
stock law in May, 1895, Douglas F. Maltby being the first president. 

The following were the officers in 1897: President, D. F. Maltby; vice presi- 
dent, D. L. Smith ; secretary, A. C. Mintie ; treasurer, B. G. Bryan ; superin- 
tendent, Nicholas Combellack; directors, D. F. Maltby, A. C. Mintie, C. S. Chap- 
man, C. F. Mitchell and D. L. Smith. 

After occupying rooms at No. 4 Market Place until September, 1891, the club 
was located at 21 Harrison Avenue. 

The new home of the Boys' Club on Cottage Place, next to the Federal Build- 
ing, was opened January 9, 1906. The club proper occupies the second floor. 
The office is at the top of the first flight of stairs. The entrance, as well as all of 
the woodwork of the interior, is finished in quartered oak. The quartered oak 
office with its glass panels must be passed before any other portion of the club 
can be visited. 

Opening out of this office is the private office of the superintendent. The 
directors' room is immediately in front of the private office. The three rooms 
occupied by Superintendent Combellack and family are located in the front of 
the building. 

In the rear of the office is the dormitory in two galleries opening into the game 
room. Each room is fitted up with bed, dresser, clothes tree and chair. The large 
dining-room, kitchen and club parlors are to be found on the third floor. Read- 
ing rooms and class rooms are also to be found on this floor. 

Baths, shower and tub, are liberally sprinkled over the building. A large 
swimming tank in the basement affords one of the best indoor baths in the state. 
It has a raised wall all around it to prevent accidents. No boy can be pushed 
into the pool against his wish without considerable exertion on the part of the 
pusher. 

The first floor, rear, is fitted up with a combination gymnasium and game 
room. There are three rooms here which can at once be thrown into one for 
entertainments, if occasion requires. A stage has also been fitted up in the 
gymnasium. 

The building was erected and furnished throughout by generous friends of 
the institution. The bedrooms each bear the name of its donor or donors. A 
full list of these patrons and patronesses follows: Dr. William A. Goodrich, 
John C. Sherwood "in memory of Captain Colby," Miss Edith Kingsbury "in 
memory of her brother," the Young Women's Guild of Trinity Church, Dr. E. J. 
Abbott, a friend, L. W. Street, Miss E. D. Warner and Mrs. Julia V. W. Spencer 
"in memory of a brother," F. S. Chase's children, J. B. Burrall, Fletcher Judson. 
Mrs. T. I. Morton "in memory of her grandson," the Misses Katherine A. and 
Sarah J. Prichard, two rooms "in memory of David Prichard," Charles P. Kel- 
logg, Miss Hughes, Miss Annie Cables, Mrs. W. H. Holmes "in memory of 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 275 

Dr. Walter Hamlin Holmes," .Mrs. George W. .Minor, Dr. W. O. Beecher, E. A. 
Bass, Levi Wilcox, Miss Burrall, A. E. Rice, a friend. 

The secret of success at the Boys' Club has been the aim of Mr. Combellack 
to make the institution as homelike as possible. For the comfort and entertain- 
ment of the hoys there now are the gymnasium, the bowling alleys, pool tables, 
dance hall and private orchestra, moving pictures, shower baths and the large 
swimming tank, private baths, a large dining-room, dramatic club, debating club, 
library equipped with 2,500 books, sitting room, game room and reception room. 

Air. Combellack runs the club to mjake both ends meet by turning out the best 
meals and affording the best rooming conditions available in this city for the 
price. The rates differ, the price being regulated according to the position held 
by the boy or young man. Prices run from two to five dollars a week. There is 
a homelike atmosphere which appeals to homeless boys and there is liberty for 
all members that the boys naturally prefer the club rather than a boarding house, 
which offers no such choice of occupations and recreations. Boys who live with 
their parents patronize the club extensively, enjoying the privileges of the game 
room, gymnasium, tank and dance hall. 

The first improvement on the new building was the establishment in 1913 of 
fourteen dormitories in the annex, a building next to the main club building and 
formerly the old Steele home. This is under the supervision of a competent 
matron. The rooms are well furnished. 

The next need for larger quarters was felt in the gymnasium. At the time 
the new building was put up, the "gym'' was considered large enough to meet the 
club's needs for years to come. It was not until 191 3 that the club felt able to 
undertake the extensive improvements necessary for the enlarging of the "gym." 
By knocking out the south wall and raising the roof eight feet, it was possible 
to enlarge the floor space from jo by 50 feet to 50 by 60 feet, and also to install 
a running track six feet wide, with twenty-seven laps to the mile. 

In his report of 1917, the superintendent speaks as follows of the work: 

"This has been a year of prosperity for the Boys' Club, and we have felt its 
results. We have cleared our indebtedness, paying off a debt of $18,000, so that 
we are now practically free from debt. 

''Our membership has kept up to 1,000, its usual number. The gymnasium 
classes have been very popular, as they always are. The wireless class has a 
large membership, something very gratifying in these days when it has become 
necessary to prepare for all possible emergencies. 

"Our Sunday night pictures and lectures have steadily grown in popularity. 
We have shown the Paramount pictures and our average attendance has been 
600. This branch of our work has been very greatly helped by the acquisition of 
a new Powers moving picture machine, $400 toward the cost of the machine, $602, 
being the gift of a friend of the club, and the balance paid by the boys them- 
selves. The boys have also purchased a new player piano and paid for the picture 
films, raising the money by collections among themselves and their friends. The 
I'.ronson Library has placed a number of interesting books in our club library, 
as a loan library for the boys, and many books have been taken out to be read in 
the homes. Our club savings bank has received a large number of deposits. 
The endowment fund, which should eventually amount to S50.000 in order to 
place the Boys' Club on a permanent basis has grown to $10,000 through the 
generosity of the late Mrs. Julia V. Warner Spencer." 

In 1908 Air. Combellack organized the Watt rbury Boys' Club Band, which 
was soon so well trained that in the following year it gave concerts in Hamilton 
Park. To begin, there were twenty-four boys in the band, ranging in age from 



276 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Edward Osphalat, the 8-year-old drum major, to boys of sixteen. In 191 1 it 
was changed to the Waterbury Boys' Club Military Band, and a junior band for 
training was added. 

It has visited neighboring cities, and is a part of all parades in Waterbury. 
The present membership ranges from twenty-four to thirty. 

The following table gives a very good idea of the club's activities. It is a 
statement for 1916 and includes the savings bank statement: 

RECEIPTS FOR 1916 

Balance $ 1,901.50 

Miscellaneous 218.53 

Interest on money in bank 75-59 

Receipt from Wade Endowment 95.00 

Gifts for special purposes 2,325.00 

City Basket Ball League 82.79 

Athletic meet 52.10 

Band 808.00 

Pool 163.75 

Loan 202.88 

Board 10,798.65 

Lodgings 3,684.25 

Memberships 410.30 

Club rents 1,178.15 

Entertainments 7 I 4~ 2 5 

General gifts 3,244.00 ' 

Special gifts for debt 5,450.00 

Total $31,404.74 

EXPENDITURES FOR I916 

Dining hall and kitchen $ 8,823.42 

Bedrooms 834.53 

Janitors 472.16 

Salaries 2,669.50 

Furnishings 908.73 

Office 1 13.54 

Lighting 7°7-49 

Heating 1 ,529.69 

Expense gift to Doctor Denman 300.00 

Christmas entertainment 34-5° 

Amateur League 7 2 -79 

Liquid soap 44- I0 

Traveling expense, physical director 58.00 

Incidentals 667.39 

Tax on loan 62.80 

Athletic Association 5 2 -io 

Athletic Association 1,291.68 

Insurance 5°°4 I 

Interest 7 8 5-°° 

Repairs 1,215.12 



WATER BURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 277 

Entertainments 1,435.00 

1 land 937-40 

Loan 390.45 

Water rent I 95-3 ( J 

Building fund 6,224.21 

Balance 2,371.05 

Total $31,404.74 

Boys' savings bank account for 1916; number of deposits 47; amount de- 
posited, $178.35 : amount withdrawn, $176.10; balance on hand, $2.25. 

The officers for 1917 are: President, Cornelius Tracy; secretary, W. J. Lar- 
kin, Jr.; treasurer, Charles F. Mitchell. 

These, together with F. S. Chase, Hugh L. Thompson, Truman S. Lewis, 
Charles P. Kellogg and John S. Dye, form the board of directors. 

THE BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA 

The Boy Scouts of America established a Waterbury Council in September, 
1913. Prior to that in 191 1 E. L. White had organized a Boy Scouts Troop at 
the Y. M. C. A., consisting of twenty-five boys. This formed the nucleus of the 
Boy Scout work in the city. This troop was superseded in January, 1912, by 
anotber organization called Troop I, with E. L. White as scout master. This 
troop met at St. John's Parish, as it was composed largely of boys from that 
church. In June, 1912, Troop 2 was organized at the First Methodist Church 
with C. F. Northrop as scout master. 

The first officers of the council were: Julius Maltby, president; W. J. Shana- 
han, secretary and treasurer, and E. L. White, scout commissioner. 

The work of the council consisted in extending the work, in organizing new 
troops and in supervising troops already organized. After Troop 9 was organ- 
ized it became apparent that the scout commissioner needed assistance, and C. F. 
Northrop .was appointed deputy scout commissioner in September, 191 5. During 
191 5 Troops 10 to 21 were organized, giving a total membership at the end of 
191 5 of approximately three hundred. Mr. Northrop now gave part time to the 
work on salary. In April, 19 16, a financial campaign for funds was begun to 
raise $12,000 to continue the work for three years. This was the first of the 
financial campaigns along these lines conducted in Waterbury, and instead ot 
$12,000, the amount raised was $24,000. 

Troop 31, organized at St. Ann's Roman Catholic Church, was the last one 
instituted up to November 1, 19 17, but in December five new troops were to be 
in shape for organization. The total membership December 1, 191 7, was 750. 
The officers of the council now are: Darragh deLancey, president; C. H. W. 
Newton, T. F. Carmody, H. H. Heminway, vice presidents; C. E. Spencer, Jr., 
treasurer; E. S. Sanderson, scout commissioner; C. F. Northrop, secretary and 
scout executive. 

The Waterbury Scouts have been a great aid in all of the war work, assist- 
ing particularly in both Liberty Loan campaigns and in co-operating with the 
Red Cross. 

The Boy Scout movement seeks to help boys on leaving school to escape the 
evils of "blind alley" occupations, that is, such work as gives the boy a mere 
wage for the moment, but leaves him stranded without any trade or handicraft 
to pursue when he is a man and so send him as a recruit to the great army of 
unemployed, and what is worse, the unemployable. 



278 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Scoutcraft includes instruction in first aid, life saving, tracking, signaling, 
cycling, Nature study, seamanship, campcraft, woodcraft, chivalry and all of the 
handicrafts. No expensive equipment is required. All that is needed is the out- 
of-doors, a group of boys and a competent leader. By combining wholesome, 
attractive, out-door activities with the influence of the Scout oath and law, the 
movement develops character. 

In scouting, the boy does not stand still. The opportunity and incentive for 
progress is always at hand. 

He becomes a tenderfoot, and then a second class Scout, and then a first class 
Scout. After this, the whole sphere of the Scout program is made available by 
the boy's own application in qualifying himself to pass the test for the various 
merit badges. 

There are now among the Boy Scouts, a number who have become expert in 
making fire by friction, that is by the "Bow" method of rubbing sticks. Fire by 
friction was first made in Waterbury scout ranks by Raymond Bedell, formerly 
of Troop 2, now assistant scout master in Troop i, at Oakville. His fastest 
time was 35% seconds. Since then in local and state competitions the record 
has gone steadily down. James Walker of Troop 11, Bunker Hill, broke the 
world's record for Scouts in a meet at Bristol, March 3, 1917, making it in 13% 
seconds. Shortly after in an exhibition at the Brooklyn Athletic Club of this city 
he lowered this record to 12 seconds flat. In the fall scout meet held at Hamil- 
ton Park, October 6th, he again broke his record, lowering it to 11 seconds. He 
will soon in all likelihood make the record 10 seconds or better, as he has already 
done this in practice. Paul Steere and Jos. DeMunda of Troop 1 1 have both 
done faster than 12 seconds. 

In the knot-tying contest Waterbury holds the state record, John Kitchenka 
of Troop 3 having made it in 18 seconds. 

Scout meets are held regularly on February 8th, the anniversary of the scout 
movement, and usually a state meet is held about February 22d. It is also 
customary to hold local and state meets in October. In the last two state meets 
Waterbury outpointed all other cities in the state combined. 

THE WATERBURY INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL AND GIRLS' CLUB 

The Waterbury Industrial School and Girls' Club, founded to meet a great 
social need in 1865, is still working along the same general lines of helpfulness 
outlined by those far-seeing men and women in the earlier years of Waterbury's 
history. In 1890, through the generosity of Elisha Leavenworth, who gave it 
$10,000 toward a building fund, it opened the beautiful building on Central 
Avenue. In 1895 its charter was amended so that the corporation could hold 
property to the amount of $100,000. 

On the death of Mr. Leavenworth in 191 1, in addition to a gift of $25,000, 
the Waterbury Industrial School Association was bequeathed the Leavenworth 
house and part of the property touching upon the original site of the school itself. 
The house was moved back from West Main Street, placed so as to front upon 
Park Place, renovated, and so fitted up that ten children, besides three boarders, 
could be accommodated in it. 

The house is now used as a home for the teachers and is in charge of the 
director, Miss Margaret M. Goodwin. 

In 19 14 the playground, which was part of the old Leavenworth garden, was 
opened and has been one of the most successful of the school's activities. 

For small children there are now daily classes in cooking, sewing, knitting, 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 279 

embroidery, nursing and housekeeping. These are held from 4 to 5 130 each after- 
noon during eight months of the year. The little ones pay 5 cents a month for 
this privilege. 

Similar classes arc held in the evenings from 7:30 to 9:30 for girls who work 
during the day. For this privilege, the girls pay $1.00 a year. Twice a month 
there are social evenings and quite often during the season there are amateur 
dramatic performances and dances. 

There are five teachers regularly employed and twenty-live volunteer teachers. 

( >ne paid employee devotes all her time to the bathing facilities. These are 
showers and tub baths which are patronized daily by the children from poorer 
families and from the congested districts. 

The officers in 1893 were: President, Mrs. S. E. Harrison; vice president, 
Mrs. A. S. Chase; secretary, Mrs. G. C. Hill; treasurer, Katherine L. Peck; 
prudential committee, Mrs. Rufus E. Smith, Katherine L. Peck, Elisha Leaven- 
worth, ]•'. B. Rice, A. S. Chase. 

The officers for 1917 are: President, Miss Katherine D. Hamilton; vice 
president, Mrs. Katherine L. Peck; treasurer, Mrs. Nelson A. Pomeroy; secre- 
tary. Mrs. Edyth A. Allen; auditor, Mrs. Albert D. Field; assistant auditor, Miss 
Delia Field; prudential committee, Mrs. Katherine D. Hamilton, Mrs. Katherine 
L. Peck, Otis S. Northrop, Arthur R. Kimball, John H. Goss. 

The income of the association is derived from private donations, an endow- 
ment fund, and from the fees from pupils. 

To make it thoroughly effective, the work is not being carried on simply 
within the school, but all those who are actively engaged as teachers and assist- 
ants are making it a part of their work to visit the homes of their pupils, thus 
taking a personal interest in each child and gaining an insight into what that 
child most needs to make her a good American woman. 

At the present time there is a total of ten cooking classes — five afternoon and 
five evening classes, and also two supper clubs. These supper clubs are one of 
the new departures in the school work. They are made up of the older girls 
who work during the daytime. 

Because of their novelty and departure from the usual run of cooking classes, 
the supper clubs are specially interesting, but there is no lack of interest or of 
enthusiasm in just the plain cooking classes. The afternoon classes are made 
up of girls between the ages of eight and fourteen years. No girl who takes 
cooking in the public schools is supposed to take cooking at the industrial school. 
The classes begin with the most simple recipes and gradually work up through 
the harder and more difficult concoctions until they are able to master bread, 
cake, pie, etc. 

The tasks which are set before the little workers are the very homely tasks 
of washing old tins, scrubbing sinks, cleaning stoves and the like, but the children 
enter into them with a zest that accomplishes wonders. To keep up this interest, 
the leaders are having the children make scrapbooks in which, by means of pic- 
tures cut from magazines, they arrange kitchens to suit their own tastes. Thus 
they learn how to plan with an eye for saving needless steps. In their visits to 
the homes of the children, the leaders see wherein the lessons taught at school 
are applied to home conditions and this transplanting into the homes what has 
been learned outside is unconsciously passed from the daughters to the mothers, 
and before long it becomes the customary way of doing things in that child's home. 



280 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

WATERBURY INSTITUTE OF CRAFT AND INDUSTRY 

The Waterbury Institute of Craft and Industry, known until 1908 as the 
Young Women's Friendly League, is now in its twenty-eighth year of usefulness. 
It was organized in 1889 and incorporated in 1893. I ts teachers are in charge of 
Miss Harriet Goddard Brown, and most of them are graduates of Drexel Insti- 
tute, Philadelphia. These instructors, whose departments give some idea of the 
nature of the institution's work, are as follows: 

Miss Helen C. Palmatary, director of the school of housekeeping; instructor 
in cookery and household economics ; Miss Helen J. Long, director and instructor 
of the courses in domestic art ; Miss E. Lillian Gillespie, instructor of the courses 
in domestic art; instructor of the courses in handicraft; Mrs. Albert H. Fassen- 
der, instructor of the courses in pillow-lace-making; Miss Phyllis D. Clarke, 
director and instructor of physical training; Miss Helene Cecil Tuttle, director 
and instructor of the courses in expression and dramatic art; Arthur Schuckai, 
director of the institute chorus. 

The institution has now approximately two hundred pupils. It is supported 
by the tuition of the students and by private donations. The institute owns its 
building on Leavenworth Street. 

Its officers in 1917 are: President, Anna L. Ward; vice presidents, Mrs. 
Frederick D. Buckley, Mrs. Arthur Reed Kimball, Mrs. Edward T. Root, Mrs. 
Otis S. Northrop, Mrs. Frederick Wilcox, Mrs. Jay H. Hart; treasurer, Floren- 
tine H. Hayden; recording secretary, Ellen R. Townsend; auditor, George E. 
Judd ; advisory board, Mrs. Frederick M. Peasley, James S. Elton, Otis S. 
Northrop, Irving H. Chase, Archer J. Smith, Henry L. Rowland. 

For nineteen years its annual exhibitions have given the people of Waterbury 
a fair conception of the extent and thoroughness of its work. On June 7, 1917, 
at its exhibition for this year, its new department in dietetics prepared meals in 
accordance with charts defining the number of calories necessary to sustain life 
according to the nature of occupation, height, weight, etc. 

In the department of domestic art Miss Helen J. Long, the director, ex- 
hibited an extensive array of wearing apparel, including suits, dresses, lingerie, 
waists, skirts and hats. Attractive collar and cuff sets made from odd material 
were an interesting feature of the display. 

Hand work in the form of beaded work, embroidery and fancy stitching were 
in evidence on many of the dresses. 

The feature of the display was the handicraft department, containing numer- 
ous exhibitions of loom work, including rugs and table covers of the most 
attractive styles. There are nine looms at the institute, and all were used con- 
stantly during the past year. Miss DeNeergaard, the instructor, had also on 
hand many pieces of hand tooled leather and basketware, trays and other articles 
in which block printed silk, an old industry revived, is used. There were also 
splendid exhibits of pillow lace making, made under the supervision of Mrs. 
Fassender. 

THE TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT IN WATERBURY 

The temperance movement in Waterbury was at its height in 1894 and 1895. 
There was then in existence the Evergreen Temple of Honor No. 16, with 
George S. Butler as president, a branch of a national temperance association. 
This was dissolved in 1897. The Good Templars had one lodge known as 
"Fraternity," which remained in existence from 1894 to 1899. Its first president 



WATER BURY AXI) THE XAUGATUCK VALLEY 281 

was William Loncka. The Good Templars in 1904 established Oscar 11 Lodge 
No. 50, with Andrew Olson as its first president. It still exists with a member- 
ship of nearly a hundred and with A. M. Anderson as its chief official and Carl 
G. Fogelberg and Andrew Munson as secretary and treasurer, respectively. 

The Sons of Temperance also had a brief existence here, with High Rock 
Division, which began its work in 1894 and dissolved in 1898. Its first presiding 
officer was Arthur Hall. 

The most determined campaign along temperance lines was waged during 
this period by the Catholic societies. In 1895 St. Joseph's Total Abstinence 
Society was organized and has been in existence ever since. Its meetings were 
at the outset held in St. Patrick's Hall and on every second Sunday in the month 
a mass meeting open to the public was arranged. It had its offices in the old 
Lilley Block and its first officers were : President, J. J. McDonald ; vice president, 
J. F. McKnight ; recording secretary, P. F. Shields; financial secretary, Thomas 
Luddy ; treasurer, D. J. Casey. 

Its present officers are: President, Edward Dowling; recording secretary, 
M. H. Scully; financial secretary, William F. Guilfoile; treasurer, Jeremiah 
Dillane. The society now has its own clubhouse at East Main and Maple streets. 

St. Patrick's Total Abstinence Society with Father J. H. Duggan as spiritual 
head and John F. Galvin as president, was organized in 1895 an d did splendid 
work for some years, merging later into other church activities along similar lines. 

The St. Aloysius Total Abstinence Society existed from 1896 to 1905, when 
it also merged into another similar church body. 

The St. Francis Xavier Temperance Cadets were organized March 27, 1897, 
and continue to be a splendid influence for good in the community. The present 
officers are : President, Raymond Bergin ; secretary, James Kelly ; director, Rev. 
James J. Egan. 

The Waterbury Roman Catholic Total Abstinence and Benevolent Society, 
which was organized February 21, i860, was a flourishing organization in 1895 
with the following officers: President, Henry R. Byrnes; vice president, James 
Meagher; recording secretary, John Thompson; financial secretary, William C. 
Keenan; corresponding secretary, William Duncan; chaplain and treasurer, Rev. 
Hugh Treanor; Marshal, James Eustace. This was a powerful organization 
which had made Father Matthew's cause its own, and its meetings on each 
second Sunday in St. Patrick's Hall were largely attended. It was active in its 
work until 1905, when its duties were assumed by other church bodies. 

The Murphy Temperance Club, of which Adelbert F. Chandler was presi- 
dent, the Young Men's Temperance Union, J. F. Mix, president, and the Tem- 
perance Alliance of which Rev. W. P. Elsdon was the head, had brief but active 
existences during 1895 and 1896. 

From 1895 to 1899 the Helping Hand Society of the Second Congregational 
Church held public temperance gatherings. 

There was also a Reform Club which, under the direction of Rev. R. A. 
Nichols, held Sunday afternoon temperance meetings at Jacques Theater. 

Practical work in the temperance cause was done by the Union Rescue Mis- 
sion, a movement in which the men and women of the whole city took an interest. 
It began its labors in 1895. Its first officials were: President, Aaron A. Bene- 
dict; vice president, Mrs. F. F. Cook; secretary, Rev. J. G. Davenport; treasurer, 
A. C. Mintie; board of management, Revs. W. P. Elsdon, Joseph Ander- 
son, T. G. Davenport, G. Eldridge, F. S. Townsend, C. Pike ; Messrs. E. S. Robbins, 
A. C. Mintie, A. A. Benedict, J. N. Webb, G. H. Woodruff, T. Patchen; 
Mesdames F. F. Cook, F. L. Allen, O. E. Brower, A. C. Peck, N. Jenkins, G. O. 



282 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Robbins, J. H. Tripp, K. H. Simons, T. D. Bassett, R. M. Strong, W. A. Holgate, 
W. Berkeley; executive committee, the above named officers and Mrs. G. O. 
Robbins, Rev. Frank S. Townsend, Mrs. R. M. Strong; committee on superin- 
tendent, Rev. J. G. Davenport, E. S. Robbins; committee on rooms, A. C. Mintie, 
Mrs. G. O. Robbins, Rev. C. Pike, E. S. Robbins, Mrs. K. H. Simons. 

In 1898 it had established itself at 267 South Main Street with John E. 
Hendsey as superintendent. In 1900 Edgar Forrest was superintendent, but the 
city in 1901 took up the charitable end of the work and the mission was dis- 
continued. 

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union has been a quiet but consistent 
and persistent advocate of the cause in Waterbury for much over a quarter of a 
century. In 1895 its meetings were held at 267 South Main Street in the rooms 
of the Union Rescue Mission. Its officers then were: President, Mrs. F. F. 
Cock , vice presidents, Mrs. Asa Peck, Mrs. N. Jenkins, Mrs. G. O. Robbins, 
Mrs. J. H. Tripp, Mrs. K. H. Simons, Mrs. R. A. 'Nichols, Mrs. W. A. Holgate, 
Mrs. C. S. Gaylord, Mrs. G. S. Fields; recording secretary, Mrs. O. E. Brower; 
acting corresponding secretary, Mrs. F. F. Cook ; treasurer, Mrs. F. L. Allen. 
These represented practically all of the Protestant churches in the city. 

From 1900 to 1903 the W. C. T. U. met in Alliance Hall. In 1903 the organ- 
ization moved to 149 South Main and in 1906 it went to 47 East Main Street. 

Its present officers are as follows : President, Mrs. Frank F. Cook ; record- 
ing secretary, Mrs. Charles Wickwire; corresponding secretary, Mrs. Edwin 
Morgan; treasurer, Mrs. James Angrave ; Mrs. W. Schofield, city missionary; 
directors, Mrs. V. M. Neeld, Mrs. Wm. Holgate, St., Mrs. Edw. Morgan, Mrs. 
N. Jenkins, Mrs. Wm. Thompson, Mrs. Milton Wittier. 

Mrs. Wm. Thompson is chairman of the medal contest and supervises an 
annual competition among school children for the best recitation or essay on a 
temperance topic. 

THE EARLY CLOSING MOVEMENT 

The movement for early closing of business houses has been a continuous 
agitation beginning with the first organization of business men in the community. 
One of the first accomplishments, and this dates back to 1900, was the agreement 
to keep stores open on only two nights of each week, Wednesday and Saturday. 
Prior to that, there had been three nights of work, including Tuesday, in many 
if not most of the stores of the city. 

The efforts of the present chamber of commerce were for five years directed 
to a 9 o'clock closing on both Wednesday and Saturday. 

In April, 1917, the business men's branch of the chamber of commerce finally 
managed to get the merchants together for a conference. At this the signatures 
were obtained, and the 9 o'clock closing, both Wednesday and Saturday, has been 
in effect ever since. There are but few stores outside of the agreement. 

The movement for a Tuesday afternoon holiday during the summer months 
was agitated for years, but was only spasmodically carried out by a few mer- 
chants until 1908, when, under the chairmanship of H. W. Langley, a committee 
visited all of the merchants and secured their consent to the inauguration of the 
half holiday in 1908. 

From July to Labor Day, the Tuesday half holiday has been the rule. A 
fpw of the hardware stores and others, however, give the Saturday half holiday. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 283 

THE COMMUNITY CHRISTMAS TREES 

Waterbur) was one of the first cities in the country rind the first in Connecticut 
to establish the custom of the Community Christmas Tree. This was due to 
Rev. John X. Lewis, who. in 1913, collected funds privately and put up a tree on 
The Green. The city, through Mayor Scully, took up the idea next year and 
since then it has been an annual event. 

A loose organization known as the Christmas Tree Committee exists, which is 
called together by the mayor annually and ordered to find a tree and make 
arrangements for its decoration and dedication. The park and street superin- 
tendents furnish labor and supervise the cutting and erection of the tree. The 
electric light company furnishes free current for the lighting and the tree is wired 
free by local electrical contractors. The printing offices furnish song sheets and 
usually there has been a volunteer chorus of school children, trained by the 
music supervisor, to lead the thousands who assemble in a program of Christ- 
mas and patriotic music. A bugle sounds, and the lights are turned on to music 
by a band. All this takes place annually on Christmas Eve. It was decided in 
[917 not to bring out the school children in a body as the weather sometimes 
makes the affair in the nature of a hardship for the youngsters. In 1916 the tree 
was erected in Library Park, but in 191 7 it was on The Green once more. 

The committee organized in 1917 by electing Rev. John N. Lewis chairman 
and William J. Pape, clerk. 

There is a project to plant a growing spruce or pine on The Green so that 
Waterbury will have a permanent Christmas tree and not have to ravage the 
woods anew each year. 

elisha Leavenworth's benefactions 

The will of Elisha Leavenworth, made October 17, 1910, the year prior to 
his death, has become an historic document for Waterbury. He was, perhaps, the 
greatest of the city's philanthropists, and had during his life time given much 
toward the betterment and the beautirication of Waterbury. The gifts, the first 
of the donations to the Mattatuck Historical Society and to the Waterbury In- 
dustrial School and Home for Girls, are all mentioned in their proper chapters. 

The will itself after many individual bequests to relatives and others, gave 
$15,000 to the Petersburg, Ya., Home for the Sick. Its Waterbury public bequests 
were as follows : 

To the Waterbury Plospital he bequeathed $io,coo for general purposes and 
$10,000 for the purpose of maintaining ''a free bed in said hospital, to be known 
as the Cynthia Leavenworth free bed, in memory of my deceased wife, for the 
use of such persons as may be designated by the executive committee of said 
hospital, the same to be to it and its successors forever." 

His bequest to the Waterbury Industrial School was $45,000, of which 
$25,000 was to be invested and the income only to be used for the general pur- 
poses of the school. The remaining $20,000 was given to the school "to provide 
an income which is to be used solely for the purpose of providing fuel for the 
needy of said Waterbury, and in case it shall not all he needed for the purpose, 
for the purpose of giving aid in the payment of rent for such of the needy of 
said Waterburv, without regard to nationality or religious creed, as the executive 
officers of said school may designate." 

To the Mattatuck Historical Society he gave $90,000 of which $40,000 was 
to be used for site and building and the income of the remainder to aid in defray- 
ing the general purposes of the society. 



284 WATERBURY AXD THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

He bequeathed $50,000 to the City of Waterbury, the income to be used "for 
the purpose of purchasing equipment and supplies for and otherwise maintaining 
a manual training school or instruction in manual training in any of the public 
schools of said City of Waterbury." 

His executors, Edwin S. Hunt and John R. Clayton, were empowered to 
erect "on the westerly end of the Public Square or Green, in Waterbury, a statue 
to Benjamin Franklin, with such necessary surroundings, railings and pavement 
as to them, my executors, shall seem wise and proper, and to expend for the 
purpose a sum not to exceed fifteen thousand dollars ($15,000)." 

To the First Congregational Society of Waterbury he left $5,000. 

To the Boys' Club of Waterbury, $2,500. 

To the Waterbury Institute of Crafts and Industry, $3,000. 

To the Day Nursery of Waterbury, $3,coo. 

To the Riverside Cemetery Association, $5,000. 

To the Southmayd Home for Old Ladies, $20,000. 

To the Silas Bronson Library, $10,000. 

For the improvement and maintenance of Chase Park, $5,000. 

To the Connecticut Children's Aid Society of Newington, Conn., $3,000. 

To the Mount Carmel, Conn., Children's Iiome, $3,000. 

To St. Mary's Hospital, Waterbury, $5,000. 

He finally bequeathed "the rest, residue and remainder of my estate, real and 
personal, wheresoever situated, in equal shares, one share to The Colonial Trust 
Company as aforesaid in trust for the City of Waterbury for the purposes and 
on the terms and conditions mentioned in Article Twenty-Ninth of this will 
(manual training school), one share to said Southmayd Home, one share to said 
Waterbury Hospital, one share to said Waterbury Industrial School, and one 
share to said Mattatuck Historical Society." 



CHAPTER XXIII 

CLUBS AND ASSOCIATIONS, BUSINESS, SOCIAL. PROFESSIONAL 

AND PATRIOTIC 

THE WATERBURY CHAMBER OF COMMERCE ITS BEGINNING AS THE MERCHANTS' 

ASSOCIATION THE WATERBURY CLUB ITS NEW HOME THE COUNTRY CLUB 

WATERBURY DRIVING ASSOCIATION AUTOMOBILE CLUB NATURALIST CLUB 

THE ELKS CLUB OTHER SOCIAL CLUBS PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 

WOMEN'S CLUBS AND SOCIETIES — ATHLETIC AND SPORTING ORGANIZATIONS THE 

G. A. R. AND W. R. C. WATERBURY's REPRESENTATION IN STATE PATRIOTIC 

SOCIETIES SARSFIELD CLUB. 

The Waterbury Chamber of Commerce, which is just now learning to walk 
as a commercial and civic organization with a permanent headquarters and per- 
manent secretary, is the outgrowth of a series of associations of business men, 
dating back to the commercial beginnings of the city. As a chamber of commerce 
it is only four years old and until February 26, 191 7, had no permanent office. 

In May, 1897, Waterbury merchants took steps to organize an association. 
On Thursday, May 20, 1897, in the former Congress Hall, in the Moriarty Block, 
the first meeting of the Waterbury Merchants' Association was called to order 
with John B. Mullings as temporary chairman. The experience of the New 
Haven Retail Merchants' Association inspired this movement and the meeting 
was addressed by Messrs. Howe, Hunn, Hart, Johnson and O'Connor of New 
Haven, with such effect that the meeting immediately proceeded to effect per- 
manent organization. . 

The records of the association show that the first officers were John B. 
Mullings, president; John Moriarty, first vice president; Thomas D. Barlow, 
second vice president; Charles E. Hall, secretary; Edward Fitzgerald, treasurer. 
The first directors were, L. F. Haase, Isadore Chase, J. G. Cutler, W. A. Guilfoile, 
F. G. Humphrey, Jacob Kaiser, Thomas H. Hewitt, C. F. Trott, W. D. Upson, 
Chas. Boylan. 

The charter members of this association were the following : 

The Upson & Singleton Company, clothiers; Apothecaries Hall Company; 
C. R. Russell, agricultural implements; C. A. Bailey, meat and groceries; Spen- 
cer & Pierpont, groceries ; Frank Miller & Company, coal dealers ; Fred E. Gill- 
mor, clothier and hatter ; Woodford & Allen, boots and shoes; A. F. Taylor, house 
painter; Waterbury Grocery Company; W. Easton Smith, crockery; Geo. W. 
Minor, plumber; C G. Belden, tailor; Alfred A. Adt, photographer; S. M. Kern, 
hatter and furnisher; Boston Furniture Company; Turnbull & Company, dry 
goods; Curran's, dry goods; Geo. Harrington, cigar manufacturer; N. S. Snow, 
fish market; T. P. Hutchinson, shoe store; E. W. Hale, news dealer and stationer; 
W. H. Lowe, real estate; Martin Bergen, stationer and undertaker; Waterbury 
Blank Book Company; Maier Kaiser, clothier; Reid & Llughes, dry goods; Con- 
Ion Bros., dry goods ; Jas. Coughlin, meat market ; Trott Baking Company, bakery ; 
Connecticut Boot and Shoe Company ; LI. G. Dodge & Company, boots and shoes*; 

285 



286 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

The L. F. Haase Company, interior decorators ; Chas. Ochsner, meat market ; 
C. H. Hart, real estate; The H. W. Keeler Company, plumbers; John Moriarty, 
furniture ; J. G. Twining, furniture ; John J. Geraghty, boots and shoes ; Lake & 
Strobel, jewelers; City Lumber & Coal Company; Jones, Morgan & Company, 
clothiers; John McElligott, coal and wood; The Barlow Bros. Company, plumb- 
ers and gas fitters ; The Driggs & Smith Company, pianos ; The Upson Jewelry 
Company; E. J. Finn, boots and shoes; Lucy & Fitzgerald, shoe dealers; E. G. 
Kilduff, clothier ; Henry Schwartz, for the Rochester Clothing Company ; W. A. 
Guilfoile, meat market; Isadore Chase, millinery; Wm. Riether, meat market; 
J. G. Cutler Company, harnessmakers ; Chas. Boylan, York State Butter Com- 
pany ; Simon Bohl, meat market ; John C. Latus, confectionery and news depot ; 
The Miller & Peck Company, dry goods; J. B. Mullings, clothiers; The Hewitt 
Grocery Company, grocers; M. J. Byrne, lawyer; A. W. Castle, meat market; 
J. H. Devereaux & Company, news dealers ; Waterbury Boot & Shoe Company ; 
P. J. Bolan, hardware; Wm. W. Jones, boots and shoes; H. B. Sanderson, meat 
market; W. J. Cassidy, grocer; Bauby Bros., fruit dealers; Martin J. Fahy, 
plumber ; The Chas. Thatcher Company, plumbers ; A. F. Cowles, millinery ; 
Thomas F. Casey & Company, druggists ; John B. Ebbs, druggist ; The D. B. 
Wilson Company, hardware ; C. Siebert, manager Singer Manufacturing Com- 
pany; J. F. Phelan, tea store; W. N. Ladd, groceries; S. A. Kingman, furniture; 
The Bonner Preston Company; William H. Hall, tailor; Wright & Weible, tea 
store ; E. F. Piatt, groceries. 

One of the first campaigns of the association was in the direction of uniform 
procedure in regard to opening and closing of stores, in addition to such prob- 
lems as street lighting, credit ratings for use of merchants only and store lighting. 

Meetings of the association were held in different places, one of the most 
popular meeting places being the office of Atty. M. J. Byrne. In 1899 the records 
show that the association was interesting itself in parcel post, food exhibits, 
merchants' carnivals, collection of bad debts, and occasionally in important 
municipal problems. 

In 1S99 the membership of the association was 108. In that year the State 
Association of Business Men was formed and Waterbury was represented at 
the first meeting by John B. Mullings. The committees appointed in 1899 had 
the following titles : Executive and legislative, arbitration and complaints, trans- 
portation and insurance, debts and debtors, telegraph, telephone and postal facili- 
ties, lighting and water facilities, house accounts, clothing, organization. 

Early in its career the Merchants' Association took up the problem of trading 
stamps which was finally disposed of by the state. Other questions agitated were 
extension of trolley facilities, lower rates for telephone service, improvement of 
telephone service, and improvement of railroad service. The association also 
seems to have accomplished some results in the direction of improved mail service. 

At the annual meeting held January 11, 1902, it was voted to change the name 
of the Waterbury Merchants' Association to that of the Waterbury Business 
Men's Association. The annual dues were kept at the same figure, $5.00 per year, 
and Warren L. Flail was chosen its first president. The character of the associa- 
tion was much the same as under the old name, but the records show that the 
activities of the association were broadening gradually. In February, 1902, the 
association put itself on record in favor of securing a Government building for 
Waterbury, a step which was completed when the city had its present Federal 
Building in which the postoffice is located, erected on Grand Street. It was in 
1902 also that the Waterbury Business Men's Association first took steps to urge 
upon the railroad company the necessity for the erection of a Union Station in 
Waterbury. 




PES 

ID 






P 

a 






WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 287 

During the period between the change from the Waterbury Merchants' Asso- 
ciation to the Waterbury Business .Men's Association, there was an undercurrent 
in favor of broadening the sphere and work of the association, but the member- 
ship was still confined to 100 merchants and a few professional men, and most 
of its activities were therefore along lines of interest only to its members. 

With a larger number of professional men in the ranks and a few manufac- 
turing concerns, there was a sincere desire to shape the affairs of the organization 
for the benefit of the community as a trading center. Thus the extension of the 
trolley system, the improvement of state roads and municipal needs were topics 
of discussion at meetings. Legislative enactments which were designed to im- 
prove or to impair Waterbury as a business and residential community were 
carefully considered and efforts made to demonstrate the true state of public 
sentiment by trips to the state capitol at Hartford during sessions of the General 
Assembly. These undertakings were always led by the Business Men's Associa- 
tion and were more or less effective. 

In Tanuary, 1913, at the annual meeting of the Waterbury Business Men's 
Association the following officers were elected: 

President, Charles A. Colley; first vice president, A. K. Chattaway ; second 
vice president, Charles E. Puffer; directors, William E. Fulton, Almon C. Judd, 
John C. Sherwood, Frederick S. Chase, Dr. Frank J. Erbe, Charles L. Campbell, 
William J. Larkin, Earl R. Hudson, C. H. Preston, Jr., A. S. Lyall, W. F. Harper, 
Harry C. Post, C. S. Redmond, James W. Galavin, Harry A. Lennon, Archie T. 
Jones, Robert P. Lewis; secretary. Miles F. McXiff ; treasurer, Samuel A. Chase; 
auditors, William J. Pape, Harris W. Langley. 

In accepting the presidency, Mr. Colley announced that he favored renaming 
the organization the Chamber of Commerce, and this was accordingly done. 

This change, together with an aggressive personal campaign for membership 
which Mr. Colley began as soon as he was elected, brought a great change into 
the organization. Within five months the membership, which was about two 
hundred in January, 19 13, was increased to about five hundred and when the first 
year of Mr. Colley's service as president was concluded the membership was 
about six hundred. This brought the attention of the whole state to the change 
made here. Mr. Colley was for some time one of the directors of the State 
Chamber of Commerce and did much to keep the Waterbury organization before 
the public eye as an after-dinner speaker and a progressive director of the state 
organization. 

There was a demand here for a new state armory and also for a normal 
school and the chamber of commerce did much to influence the general assembly 
in favor of them, but thus far without avail. 

One of the outstanding features of the chamber's activity under Mr. Colley 
was the social prominence of the organization. Its banquets were notable events, 
with celebrated speakers among the guests. Its hospitality was extended to the 
large delegation of the Boston Chamber of Commerce which made a visit to 
inspect Waterbury in 1914, and to a committee of legislators who made a visit 
to inspect the old state armory, but who were so well entertained that they forgot 
all about the wretched building they had seen and forgot to find an appropriation 
for a new one. 

There was a splendid municipal budget exhibit made under the auspices of 
the chamber of commerce, following an extensive survey by the Bureau of 
Municipal Research of New York. The chamber of commerce also handled the 
celebration of Old Home Week, which took place here Thanksgiving week, 19 15, 
in connection with the completion of the new City Hall and the dedication of 
the clock on The Green. 



288 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Publicity of an aggressive type also was a feature of the chamber's work in 
the days of Mr. Colley's administration. Handsome folders with views of the 
city were printed in quantities and distributed everywhere, and, except during 
the summer months, the Chamber of Commerce Bulletin was issued monthly 
with comments and original articles on topics of the hour. Most of these were 
from the pen of Mr. Colley himself, but some were contributed. 

With all this there was still much to be desired and Mr. Colley felt the need 
of a permanent headquarters and a secretary who would be employed to give all 
his time to chamber activities. He insisted in 1915 that he would not serve a 
fourth term and pointed out that the work of the chamber was growing and 
there was need of a secretary who could give it all his attention. He was pre- 
vailed upon to run again and was elected president in 19 16, even after he declared 
that he would have to be paid a salary of $1,200 if he should hold the office 
another year. 

In recognition also of the extra work of the secretary, Miles F. McNiff, a 
young attorney, who also was re-elected, was given a larger salary, so that the 
chamber's payroll jumped from $300 a year to $1,800 per year. 

At the end of that year the salary of the president was discontinued, and the 
nominating committee brought in a recommendation that a permanent secretary 
be employed. The officers and directors elected in January, 1917, are named 
below : 

President, Nathaniel R. Bronson ; vice presidents, Charles E. Puffer, and 
Alexander S. Lyall ; treasurer, Samuel A. Chase; directors, Edward W. Beach, 
John M. Burrall, Frederick S. Chase, Charles A. Colley, Darragh DeLancey, 
Dr. F. J. Erbe, James W. Galavin, Atty. Frank P. Guilfoile, William T. Larkin, 
Martin* J. McEvoy, Atty. Miles F. McNiff, Harry C. Post, John C. Sherwood, 
Charles A. Templeton, Cornelius Tracy. 

T. F. Barry, former managing editor of the Waterbury Republican, was 
elected secretary of the chamber of commerce and the chamber opened head- 
quarters February 26th, at 108 Bank Street. 

From the beginning of this period the chamber has been more active and 
more interested in all local activities. During the year 191 7 it assisted in all 
undertakings of a community nature incident to the war. Two Red Cross 
membership campaigns, food conservation movements, Liberty Loan campaigns, 
recruiting campaigns for the army, navy, officers' training camps and co-operation 
with the local exemption boards and the draftees of the city and surrounding 
territory are outstanding features of its war work program. 

Its officers have been re-elected for service in 19 18 and while its activities of 
this year have depleted its treasury, with the exception of a reserve fund of 
$4,000 judiciously set aside during President Colley's administration, it is facing 
the future with hope of opportunities for greater service to the community and 
anticipation of generous and stanch support while it continues to give service. 

THE WATERRURY CLUR 

The Waterbury Club was organized September 20, 1881, with thirty members. 
Its first president was Augustus S. Chase, with D. S. Plume and Charles Dickin- 
son as vice presidents, Mark L. Sperry as secretary, and F. L. Curtiss as treasurer. 
In July, 1894, the club moved from small quarters in the Waterbury Bank 
Building, which had been taken in 1899, to the large house on North Main Street 
built by Dr. Alfred North. In 1916, when the new building on West Main Street 
was planned, the old club house was sold to the Fraternal Order of Eagles, who 
at once took possession, the club moving to the top floor of the Elton. 




THE COUNTRY CLUB, WATERBLTRY 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 289 

The new club house, of which the architect is Cass Gilbert of New York, is 
in the Colonial style of architecture. 

It has a length of 135 feet on Central Avenue and a frontage of 68 feet on 
West Main Street. It is three stories in height and of brick construction, the 
interior to be finished largely in oak. 

In the basement there will be three bowling alleys, with a large squash court 
on the West Main Street front. The gymnasium, which occupies the rear of 
the building for its full width, takes up the remainder of the basement and part 
of the first floor and will be one of the finest athletic rooms in the state. 

On the main floor the entire West Main Street front will be occupied by a 
sumptuously furnished lounging room. At the rear of this, with a lobby entrance, 
will be the cafe on one side and the billiard room on the other. The rear of this 
floor is the upper part of the gymnasium. 

On the second floor the club dining-room will front on West Main Street. 
Behind this are to be the kitchen and card rooms on the Central Avenue side. 
Over the gymnasium there will be a finely-equipped ladies' dining-room and 
ladies' lounging room. The library is to be close to this. 

On the third floor the Home Club will have its bachelor quarters. The entire 
West Main Street front is to be a lounging room. There are to be eighteen 
apartments for club members, with a balcony extending along the Central Avenue 
side and another on the opposite side. Servants' quarters are provided for on 
the fourth floor. 

It is believed the club house will be ready for occupancy by the late spring 
of 1918. 

The Club Site Committee, which is in general charge of the construction work, 
consists of Arthur R. Kimball, George A. Driggs, George Rockwell, F. S. Chase, 
Edwin C. Northrop, and Charles E. Spencer, Jr. 

The present officers are : President, Charles E. Spencer, Jr. ; secretary, Lewis 
M. Hart; treasurer, Edwin C. Northrop. 

The presidents of the Waterbury Club have been as follows, with year of 
election : 

August S. Chase, 1881 ; James S. Elton, 1892; Mark L. Sperry, 1894; Fred- 
erick B. Rice, 1898; George L. White, 1899; Arthur O. Jennings, 1901 ; Lewis 
A. Piatt, 1902; Charles S. Rodman, 1904; Robert F. Griggs, 1905; Lewis A. 
Piatt, 1907; C. M. Clark, 1910; A. R. Kimball, 1912 ; Charles E. Spencer, Jr., 1915. 

THE COUNTRY CLUB OF WATERBURY 

The Country Club of Waterbury was the immediate successor of the Water- 
bury Golf Association, which had a small clubhouse and a nine-hole golf course 
on the golf lots on West Main Street, following the east shore of the Naugatuck 
River northwards. It was in existence from 1898 until succeeded by the new 
organization. The last officials of the Golf Association were : Frederick J. 
Brown, president; Howard S. White, secretary; I. P. Kellogg, treasurer. The 
Waterbury Country Club, formed in 1907, was incorporated in 1908. Its first 
officials were: President, George L. White; secretary, Frederick J. Brown; 
treasurer, William B. Merriman. 

The grounds, 183 acres, on what is now known as the Country Club Road, 
on the outskirts of Middlebury, were in 1908 laid out for golf and tennis, and a 
beautiful clubhouse erected. In 191 7 two additional tennis courts were laid out, 
making six in all now open for use by members. 

Vol. 1— in 



290 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

The present officers are: W. W. Holmes, president; S. P. Williams, secre- 
tary; Roberts G. Hannegan, treasurer. 

Former President Wm. H. Taft is an honorary member. 

THE WATERBURY DRIVING ASSOCIATION 

The Waterbury Driving Association was organized in 1889, as tne Waterbury 
Driving Company, leasing the grounds on the Watertown Road and laying out 
the present driving park. The association has held no races during recent years, 
although sub-letting to others who have given meets. The present officers are : 
President, Thomas Bland : secretary, Henry W. Minor ; treasurer, Frank Hayes. 

THE WATERBURY AUTOMOBILE CLUB 

The Waterbury Automobile Club, organized through the efforts of Almon C. 
Judd, February 20, 1909, was active for some years in the work of protecting the 
interests of automobile owners. It has done but little along these lines during 
the past two years. 

Its present officers are: President, W. W. Holmes; treasurer, H. S. Seeley. 

THE NATURALIST CLUB 

The Naturalist Club of Waterbury was organized in June, 1895, through the 
efforts of H. F. Bassett, then librarian of the Bronson Library. It has held its 
meetings on the second and fourth Mondays of each month regularly throughout 
each winter since that time, following the club motto, "Observe and Remember." 
Its meetings have always been held in the parlors of the Second Church. On 
June 22, 191 5, the club celebrated its twentieth anniversary with a banquet. 

The present officers are : President, Richard C. Allen ; vice president, Miss 
Enuma L. Bailey; recording secretary, Mrs. Elsie Camp Martin; corresponding 
secretary, Miss Anna H. Pierpont; treasurer, Miss M. Louise Seymour. 

THE NOSAHOGAN PISCATORIAL ASSOCIATION 

The Nosahogan Piscatorial Association is a club formed by members of 
Nosahogan Lodge of Odd Fellows. It was established as a fishing club in 1890, 
but is now a social club with rooms in the Odd Fellows Temple. Its present 
officers are: President, George M. Egan; secretary and treasurer, Frederick 
W. Tate. 

THE ABAGADASSET CLUB 

The Abagadasset Club was first chartered December 15, 1902, and when the 
Mullings Building was completed in 1903 special club rooms were provided for 
the organization. The founders were George G. Mullings, George W. Camp, 
Frank T. Clark, Wm. P. Lamb, J. A. Upson, J. Rawson Hughes, E. T. Crooker, 
Dr. W. O. Beecher and J. H. Gray. It was purely a social organization. Its 
officers in 1914 when it decided to dissolve were : President, Archie T. Jones ; 
secretary, Arthur F. McGraw; treasurer, George W. Greene. It took its name 
from the Indian word which meant a place of shelter, and is mentioned in the 
historial works of Waterbury. 




AN INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ELKS' CLUB. WATERBURY 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 291 

111 I. ELKS CLUB 

The comfortably arranged and beautifully appointed Elks' I Ionic is located on 
West Main Strict, the dedication of the new building taking place in 1910. The 
exercises were attended by a notable gathering of Elks from all over the country. 
The club and lodge at first occupied a suite of rooms at 108 Hank Street, where 
its affairs were held until its effects there were destroyed in the great conflagration 
of 10,02. For three years it had its rooms in the Waterbury Trust Company Build- 
ing but in [909 its members raised funds to purchase the Curtiss Home on West 
.Main Street and the following year it erected a handsome building hack of the 
old residence. In 1914 Truman S. Lewis offered the club Si 6,000 for the complete 
interior renovating of the old building and also its outfitting. Upon the work 
being completed it was found out, however, that the cost had run up to $26,100, 
yet Mr. Lewis insisted in making this amount his donation. The arrangements are 
most convenient, including new bowling alleys and tennis courts among the attrac- 
tions for the entertainment of members and guests. 

THE ALGONQUIN CLUB 

The Algonquin Club was a social organization with a membership of twenty, 
having club rooms at 42 liank Street. Its officers, when it was organized in 
1908 were : President, Edward Real ; secretary, Alfred Straub ; treasurer, Michael 
J. Lawlor. In 1916 its membership was small and it gave up its club rooms and 
its existence. 

PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 

WATERBURY BAR ASSOCIATION 

The Waterbury Bar Association is not a continuing organization with by-laws 
and regular elections, but is in existence for emergency purposes only. When- 
ever action by the Waterbury bar is necessary, the dean of the profession, who at 
this time is Judge Edward F. Cole, calls a meeting and at this a secretary is 
elected who holds that office for the next meeting. At present the acting secretary 
is Lawrence L. Lewis. 

WATERBURY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 

The Waterbury Medical Association was organized February 5, 1857, and 
although it did much during its earlier existence to preserve the ethics of the 
profession, it was not until March 20, 1908, that it was incorporated with this 
as its specific object, "to establish and maintain the practice of medicine and 
surgery in this city upon a respectable footing." 

It has done much in the way of mutual improvement and in the establish- 
ment of harmonious relations between members. 

Its membership on December 1, 191 7, is sixty-three. 

Its present officers are : President, Dr. P. T. O'Connor ; vice president, Dr. 
Edward L. Smith; secretary, Dr. Edward A. Hcrr; treasurer, Dr. Charles S. 
Rodman. 

THE WATERBURY DENTAL ASSOCIATION 

The Waterbury Dental Association was organized as a purely professional 
body on May 16, 1905, and has now twenty-eight active members on its list. At 
present its officers are: President, Dr. William C. Spain; vice president, Dr. 



292 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

William D. Greenberg. Both the secretary, Dr. Frederick C. Daniels, and the 
treasurer, Dr. Maurice D. Berman, have volunteered for professional work in 
the army. 

THE CELTIC MEDICAL SOCIETY 

In 1906 twenty physicians of Waterbury formed the Celtic Medical Society. 
It had but one purpose, the establishment of a second hospital in the city. The 
society began at once to gather data and to present facts to prominent citizens, 
interesting especially Monsignor Slocum, who then became the mainstay of the 
projected St. Mary's Hospital. Its officers were: President, Dr. E. W. Mc- 
Donald; vice president, Dr. B. A. O'Hara; secretary, Dr. John D. Freney; 
treasurer,* Dr. J. F. Hayes. 

In 1909, when St. Mary's Hospital was dedicated, the Celtic Medical Society 
ceased to exist. 

WOMEN'S CLUBS AND ASSOCIATIONS 

THE WATERBURY WOMEN'S CLUB 

The Waterbury Women's Club was organized in April, 1898, through the 
efforts and the inspiration of Mrs. George S. Abbott. 

The first officers of the club were : Corinne R. Morrow, president ; Elizabeth 
O. R. Abbott, corresponding secretary ; Harriet E. Meers, recording secretary ; 
Harriet Elton Stevens, treasurer ; and Jennie A. Upson, auditor. The first 
regular meeting of the club was held in the parlors of the first Congregational 
Church. At the close of the fourth year the club membership had increased 
from 45 to 135, and in 1891 it was united with the General Federation of Women's 
clubs, uniting with the State Federation in 1897. It was incorporated in 191 5. 

The present membership is 350, with a waiting list. Meetings are held twice 
monthly, from the first Tuesday in October, until the last Tuesday in April. 
The object of the club is to promote the intellectual and social culture of its 
members and its line of work includes the study of ethics, art and literature, 
education and science. Each year an excellent course of lectures is given. 

Many interesting papers were read at the meetings by members of the club. 
Among the purely social events of the club are the opening reception, which is 
called the club tea, the first Tuesday in October; the midwinter tea in January, 
and the annual reception in April. 

The present officers of the club are : President, Mrs. Adrian L. Mulloy ; 
recording secretary, Mrs. John L. Geist ; corresponding secretary, Mrs. Clarendon 
Nickerson; treasurer, Mrs. Benjamin Chatfield. 

The following have been the presidents of the Waterbury Women's Club 
since its organization: 1889-1890, Mrs. J. Henry Morrow; 1890-1892, Mrs. 
Daniel F. Webster; 1892-1894, Mrs. Edward L. Frisbie; 1894-1896, Mrs. Gilman 
C. Hill; 1896-1898, Mrs. Sumner A. Kingman; 1898-1899, Mrs. Isaac N. Russell; 
1899-1901. Mrs. Jay H. Hart; 1901-1903, Mrs. David B. Hamilton; 1903-1905, 
Mrs. Otis S. Northrop; 1905-1907, Mrs. Wm. H. Phipps; 1907-1909, Mrs. Wm. 
F. Chatfield ; 1909-1910, Mrs. Ellis Phelan ; 1910-1912, Mrs. Frederick D. Buckley; 
1912-1914, Mrs. Frederick M. Peasley; 1914-1916, Mrs. Augustin A. Crane; 
1916-1918, Mrs. Adrian L. Mulloy. 

DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 

Melicent Porter Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution was founded 
January 2y, 1893. by Mrs. S. W. Kellogg and now numbers forty members. In 



\\ ATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 293 

Bronson Library is a bronze tablet erected by this chapter, in memory of the 
men from this town who fought in the Revolutionary war. The chapter also 
put a tablet in the old Porter Home in Union City. It aided in the erection of 
the Scott monument at Watertown, and in the placing of the historic boulder 
on Andrews Hill in Naugatuck. On its roster are the names of many of Water- 
bury's most distinguished residents. 

On November 8, 191 2, the nineteenth general meeting of the Connecticut 
Daughters of the American Revolution met with the Melicent Porter Chapter 
at the First Congregational Church. The address of the day was by the Rev. 
Samuel Hart, president of the State Historical Society. 

The past chapter regents of Melicent Porter Chapter are : Mrs. Stephen W. 
Kellogg, 1893-1898; Mrs. Henry C. Griggs, 1898-1900; Miss Susie Hill, 1900-1901 ; 
Mrs. Otis S. Northrop, [901-1903; Mrs. John S. Castle, 1903-1905; Mrs. D. F. 
Webster, 1905-1906; Mrs. Edward W. Shannon, 1906-1908; Mrs. B. H. Bristol, 
1908-1910; Mrs. Edward Shannon, 1910-1915; Mrs. R. Wm. Hampson, 1915-1917. 

Its present officers are: Honorary regent, Mrs. Emily A. Shannon; regent, 
Mrs. R. William Hampson; registrar, Katherine D. Hamilton; treasurer, Almira 
C. Twining; recording secretary, Mrs. E. Sidney Bronson; corresponding sec- 
retary, Mrs. J. B. Jones; historian, Mrs. C. B. Everitt ; curator, Mrs. Cornelius 
Tracy. 

catholic women's benevolent legion 

The Catholic Women's Benevolent Legion, Rev. Lawrence Walsh branch, 
was organized in 1907 by Mrs. RafTerty of Worcester, Mass. The object of the 
legion is principally benevolence. 

The present officers are : President, K. E. Conway ; secretary, E. G. Guilf oile ; 
collector, Mrs. J. H. Turley; treasurer, Jennie Bergin. 

THE MOTHERS' CLUB 

The W'aterville Mothers' Club was organized April 1, 1904, meeting on the 
first Thursday of each month at Sprague School. Its first officers were: Presi- 
dent, Mrs. Alfred L. Emmons; secretary, Mrs. J. S. Holroyd. It has developed 
into an exceedingly valuable organization giving teachers an opportunity to discuss 
many essential school needs direct with the mothers of the pupils. In 1916 the 
title was changed to the Waterville Child Welfare Association. Its officers are : 
President, Mrs. Geo. Monroe; secretary, Mrs. Fred Wolf; treasurer. Mrs. W. 
Harper. 

ATHLETIC AND SPORTING ORGANIZATIONS 

THE RECREATION ROD AND GUN CLUB 

The Recreation Rod and Gun Club was organized in 1912, and leased the 
large ten-room house belonging to the T. H. Hayes estate and located on the 
Pearl Lake Road near Piedmont. Its first officers were : President, B. A. Wilmot ; 
secretary, W. G. Donovan ; treasurer, G. F. O'Neill. It now has a membership 
of ninety-two. Its present officers are : President, George H. Wheeler ; secretary, 
William G. Donovan ; financial secretary, William H. Muus ; treasurer, George 
F. O'Neill. 

The members enjoy both the hunting and fishing which is plentiful during 
seasons. Its club evenings are held on the second Friday of each month. 



294 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

THE BROOKLYN ATHLETIC CLUB 

The Brooklyn Athletic Club, founded in 1889, was in 1894 a flourishing organ- 
ization with many of its athletic activities in full swing. Its officers in that year 
were : President, John M. Barrett ; vice president, James W. Dawson ; recording 
secretary, Thomas F. Mitchell ; financial secretary, James Powers ; treasurer, 
Patrick Keough. 

At that period the club was meeting at 796 Bank Street. In 1902 it moved to 
its present quarters at 776 Bank Street. Its membership is today 125. Of these 
forty-one are now in the army, a service record of which the club is justly proud. 
It has in its parlors today twenty-one silver trophies won by its athletic teams 
since 1901. In that year they took second prize in the City Amateur Baseball 
League, winning first place in 1902, 1903, 1904, 1906 and 1909. In 1913 it won 
the mile relay at the municipal meet in Hamilton Park on Labor Day with this 
team: John Hickey, manager, J. Brickley, H. Auray, Z. Jamelle, T. Caldwell. 
It also won the point trophy at this meet. 

In 1914 with W. Pollard, manager, and G. Kingston, J. Brickley, Z. Jamelle, 
and W. Roberge, it again won in the team relay. 

The point trophy was again won in 191 5 at the city meet. 

In 1916 it finished first in the city basket-ball tournament, having finished 
second in both 19 14 and 191 5. 

These are but a few of its athletic victories. 

Of the first thirty-eight members examined for the army there was but one 
rejected. 

Among its honor members in the United States service are Captain William 
J. Shanahan and Sergeant Edward Groody. 

Its officers now are : Thomas Conway, president ; John Danisevicze, vice 
president ; John Gloven, recording secretary ; Frank Regan, financial secretary ; 
Anthony Carroll, treasurer. 

THE MATTATUCK ROD AND GUN CLUB 

The Mattatuck Rod and Gun Club was incorporated in 1902 although it had 
then been in existence for some years with a small membership of ardent hunters 
and trap shooters. After its incorporation it leased ground on the Watertown 
Road near the site of the present Waterbury Rolling Mills and built an 18 by 24 
cottage. In 1905 it put in two "western" traps and has held annual turnaments 
until the beginning of the war period. In 1906 it organized its women's corps of 
which Mrs. C. H. Beere is now captain. Some fine scores have been made by the 
women at the traps. 

It has now about one hundred members and its officers are : Dr. C. H. Beere, 
president and secretary ; David R. Walker, vice president ; Peter Fitzhenry, 
treasurer; William Woods, financial secretary; John Draher, field captain. The 
club is now looking about for new grounds and will probably build a model club 
house in 191 8. 

THE WATERBURY PISTOL AND RIFLE CLUB 

The Waterbury Pistol and Rifle Club was organized in August, 1917, by officers 
of the Home Guard with a view to perfecting its members in pistol and rifle shoot- 
ing. Among its prominent organizers are Colonel James Geddes, Lieut. Col. 
A. F. Wolff, Maj. Wra. H. Sandland, Captains Thomas F. Jackson, and R. L. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 295 

Keaveney, Joseph O'Neill, Henry Littlejohn, C. A. Templeton, and Fred W. 
Chesson. It now numbers about one hundred members. Its range is at Reynolds 
Bridge, Thomaston. 

WAD I [AM POST, G. A. R. 

The Grand Army of the Republic, once the largest military society in the 
United States, is rapidly dwindling away. Waterbury is proud of Wadham Post 
No. 49, G. A. R., which was organized with forty members on August 14, 1879, 
by Department Commander Charles E. Fowler. It took its name from that of 
three Waterbury brothers killed in action in the Civil war within the space of 
sixteen days. The post did much toward the erection of the Soldiers' Monument, 
and has never failed to respond to every call for patriotic work. The same may 
be said of the Wadham Relief Corps. 

Its highest membership was 360. Today there are sixty-two left on the roll, 
eleven having died in 1916. Here is the roll of Wadham Post No. 49, G. A. R., 
on December 1, 1917: 

Charles E. Beeman, 2nd Conn. H. A., Co. H. 

Hopkins J. Benham, 2nd Conn. H. A., Co. P. 

James W. Benham, 14th Conn. Infty., Co. I. 

Edward Bergen, Seaman, Ship Utah, Navy. 

Zenas C. Bowen, 10th Vermont Infty., Co. H. 

Eli Bronson, 23rd Conn. Infty., Co. A. 

Henry Menold, 9th Conn. Infty., Co. F. 

Alex Buchanan, 20th N. Y. Ind. Battery. 

John Byrnes, 2nd Conn. H. A., Co. G. 

Oliver G. Camp, 15th Conn. Infty., Co. H. 

Wesley F. Cashman, 14th N. Y. H. A., Co. E. 

Wm. T. Chatfield, Master Mate, Gunboat Kittatinny. 

Frederick Coon, 8th Conn. Infty., Co. E. 

Thomas M. Dodds, Ship Richmond. 

George M. Evans, 1st Conn. Cav., Co. B. 

Niles J. Engelke, 47th N. Y. Infty., Co. L. 

Moses Hallas, 22nd Conn. Infty., Co. F. 

George W. Jackson, 1st Vermont Cav., Co. I. 

John S. Hayes, 3rd Conn. Battery, L. A. 

John W. Hill, 6th Conn. Infty., Co. E. 

Walter F. Hinckley, 45th Infty., Co. H. 

William A. Hollman, Landsman, Ship Richmond. 

Charles Hutchins, 23rd Mass. Vols., Co. G. 

George Hartley, 23rd Conn. Infty., Co. H. 

Andrew J. Kenneally, 14th U. S. Infty., Co. F. 

Frederick Korngiebel, 21st Conn. Infty., Co. A. 

James Loucks, 15th N. Y. Infty., Co. E. 

Volney Matthews, 2nd X. J. Infty., Co. B. 

Dennis A. McGraw, 23rd Conn. Infty., Co. H. 

John McLarney, U. S. Navy. 

Henry W. Brown, 14th Conn. Infty., Co. C. 

Harris W. Minor, 6th Conn. Infty., Co. E. 

Abraham C. Naylor, 39th Mass. Infty., Co. F. 

Homer F. Northrop, 24th N. Y. Cav., Co. C. 

Aaron Peck, 17th Conn. Infty., Co. G. 



296 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Eugene A. Pendleton, 9th Ohio Ind. Battery, L. A. 
George L. Piatt, 8th Conn. Infty., Co. E. 
Hanford L. Plumb, 112th N. Y. Infty., Co. B. 
Wales Porter, 8th Conn. Infty., Co. I. 
William B. Quigley, 22nd Conn. Infty., Co. E. 
Daniel J. Rafferty, 1st Conn. H. A., Co. C. 
George O. Robbins, 16th Conn. Infty., Co. K. 
Charles M. Rowley, 2nd Conn. H. A., Co. I. 
John L. Saxe, 4th N. Y. Cav., Co. F. 
Chauncey Seeley, 2nd Conn. H. A., Co. I. 
George E. Sellew, 7th Conn. Infty., Co. C. 
Sylvester Shea, 13th Mass. Battery, L. A. 
Samuel C. Snagg, 1st Conn. H. A., Co. C. 
Dwight L. Somers, 14th Conn. Infty., Co. C. 
John S. Stephen, 76th N. Y. Infty., Co. H. 
Stephen A. Talmage, 6th Conn. Infty., Co. E. 
Levi W. Tillotson, 1st Kansas Infty., Co. E. 
Ruby M. True, 2nd N. H. Infty., Co. B. 
William Tysoe, 124th N. Y. Infty., Co. G. 
LeRoy Upson, 1st Conn. Battery, L. A. 
Charles D. Weaver, 10th Conn. Infty., Co. F. 
Curtis P. Wedge, 2nd Conn. H. A., Co. A. 
David L. Wells, 120th N. Y. Infty., Co. C. 
Andrew Winters, 6th Conn. Infty., Co. C. 
Seth Woodward, 27th Conn. Infty., Co. E. 
James R. Young, 1st Conn. H. A., Co. C. 

Below is a list of the past post commanders with dates of service : William 
Tysoe, 1879; George Robbins, 1882; Oscar W. Cornish, 1888; Wesley F. Cash- 
man, 1889; George L. Piatt, 1891 ; John S. Hayes, 1893; William E. Quigley, 
1896; Eugene A. Pendleton, 1898; John S. Stephens, 1900; Chauncey Seeley, 
1901 ; Frederick Korngiebel, 1905 ; John L. Saxe, 1910; Levi Tillotson, 1912; Alex 
Buchanan, 1914; Henry W. Brown, 191 5; Andrew J. Kenneally, 1916; Curtis 
P. Wedge, 191 7. 

The following are the officers for 1917: Commander, Curtis P. Wedge; 
S. V. commander, Aaron Peck; J. V. commander, Wales Porter; Adjt, Chauncey 
Seeley; Q. M., William Tysoe; surgeon, Hanford L. Plumb; chaplain, Levi W. 
Tillotson. 

Wadham Relief Corps No. 1 has the following officers : President, Mrs. 
Mattie Ward; secretary, Mrs. Fannie M. Warner; treasurer, Mrs. Lura E. Dutton. 

SONS OF VETERANS 

Sons of Veterans Wadham Camp No. 49, has the following officers: Com- 
mander, Venton D. Cashman; S. V. C, William Loomis; J. V. C, Robert S. 
Cooper; secretary, John S. Gallagher; treasurer, Louis E. Granger; chaplain, 
Benjamin R. Singleton; patriotic instructor, Herman M. Turrell. 

OTHER PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES 

The Connecticut Society Sons of the American Revolution, which is a state 
branch of the national organization of that name, has no distinctively local chapters. 
Waterbury has, however, been honored quite often by representation in its official 
family. In 1899 former Congressman Stephen W. Kellogg was on its board of 




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fc 









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WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 297 

managers. In 1901 and 1912 George E. Judd was similarly honored. In 1902 
and 1903 Mark L. Sperry and in 191 1 John P. Elton served in the same capacity. 
Gen. Merrit Heminway of Watertown was also for years on its board of managers. 

In the State Society of Colonial Wars, Arthur R. Kimball of Waterbury 
was in 1909 chosen lieutenant governor, serving until 191 3. 

In the Military Order of the Foreign Wars of the United States, Connecticut 
Branch, Col. Lucien F. Burpee was vice commander for 1912 and 1913. Rev. 
Alexander Hamilton of Woodbury has been- chaplain since 1908. 

In 1903 the Connecticut officers of the Spanish-American war formed a state 
branch of the Naval and Military Order of the Spanish-American war. Of this 
Judge Lucien F. Burpee has been vice commander since its organization. It 
holds annual meetings in the State House at Hartford. 

In 1903 the Department of Connecticut, United Spanish War Veterans, was 
formed with local branches in many towns of the state. Emerson H. Liscum 
Camp No. 12, of Waterbury, was organized in 1907 with Aubrey S. Edwards 
as captain. Its captains since that date have been Joseph Monaghan, Joseph C. 
Heolion, Adolph P. King, M. A. Carter, Wm. H. Atkins, John H. Hitchcock, 
Frederick P. Houston. 

Gustave Asheim and A. P. King of Waterbury have both served as marshal 
and inspector of the State Department. 

Waterbury is strongly represented in the Connecticut Society of the Order 
of the Founders and Patriots of America. Rev. John G. Davenport has been 
its state chaplain since 19 13, and Aldis A. Lovell has served it for the same period 
as state's attorney. In 1916 Benj. L. Coe was chosen councilor for three years. 
Its genealogist is Charles Westburn Church. 

Waterbury's women descendants of Colonial Dames have taken a deep interest 
in the Connecticut Society of the Colonial Dames of America. In 1905 and 1906 
Martha R. Driggs was its recording secretary, serving in 1909, 1910 and 191 1, 
and again in 1916 as vice president. In 1908 Edith D. Kingsbury was vice presi- 
dent and in 1912 served a term as corresponding secretary. Its meetings are 
held annually. 

THE PATRICK SARSF1ELD CLUB 

The Patrick Sarsfield Club is a purely educational organization which in 
1895 was already active in its work of keeping alive the Gaelic language and 
in commemorating all those celebrated deeds and events which have made history 
in Ireland. Its important meeting is held annually, on some great Irish anniversary, 
and is in the shape of a banquet at the Elton, but this has been discontinued during 
the war period. Among its notable officials have been Henry Southwick, John 
Claffey, Joseph McGrail, Morgan T. Burke, John Kierney, Michael J. Lynch, 
Francis P. Guilfoile, Dennis J. Slavin, John J. Howard. 

Its officers in 191 7 are: President, Timothy F. Luddy; recording secretary, 
Wm. J. Hughes; financial secretary, Michael Carroll; treasurer, John J. Claffey. 



CHAPTER XXIV 
MUSIC AND THE DRAMA 

WATERBURY SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA CHURCH CHOIRS REKINDLE INTEREST IN 

MUSIC THE BUCKINGHAM MUSIC HALL ORATORIO SOCIETY AND ITS CELE- 
BRATED MAY FESTIVAL WATERBURY CHORAL CLUB GERMAN SINGING SOCIETIES 

—THEATRICAL HISTORY OF A QUARTER CENTURY THE ADVENT OF POLl's THE 

MOVIE PERIOD THE WORK OF EUGENE JACQUES AMATEUR THEATRICALS. 

Waterbury, like all American cities, has had constant changes in its musical 
life, but since 1893 it has at least been rich in a great host of music lovers, who 
have given their time and their money to educate the city from a musical stand- 
point. 

Beginning in 1866 and still continuing, now the oldest musical organization in 
the city, is the Concordia, a German male chorus, Hans Saro, director, and its 
concerts are of the highest order. Director Saro has for over two decades been 
active in this fine work of advancing musical interest in Waterbury. 

In 1902 the Waterbury Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Charles E. Farn- 
ham was a decided artistic advance. This, too, has been a continuous organization. 
For years it was known as the Farnham Symphony Orchestra. During the past 
three years it has been known as the Waterbury Philharmonic Orchestra. Its 
latest concert, given in 1916, was up to its usual high standard. The president of 
the organization is John L. Bonn, with George E. Boyd and Howard Bristol also 
active in its management. 

But the churches did most to keep alive the practice of music and the taste 
for it. Dwellers in great cities, where concert and opera are frequent, often over- 
look the relative importance of church music in smaller communities. In cities 
of 100,000 or less, the singing of a standard choral work by an ambitious choir, 
or even the special music prepared for Christmas, Easter, or other church 
festivals becomes a matter of popular note and significance. The history of 
music in America begins, all commentators agree, with the psalm and hymns of 
early New England worshipers. 

So it was a church choir that rekindled in 1903 the general interest of Water- 
bury in music. Its latest predecessor had been the Harmonic Society, born in 
1889, died in 1894, which in 1890 gave "Elijah" for the first time in Waterbury 
and brought to the city the famous Germania orchestra of Boston. Its director 
was Alex S. Gibson. 

Meanwhile the choir of Trinity Church had been developing into a reliable 
and flexible musical instrument. Its organist and director, George E. Boyd, at- 
tracted considerable notice for the choir by performing Stainer's Crucifixion, 
Sullivan's Prodigal Son, Dudley Buck's setting of the Forty-sixth Psalm, Gaul's 
Passion Service, and long excerpts from Mendelssohn's St. Paul. 

Pressure of other business compelled Mr. Boyd to resign his church post 'in 
1898. But in October, 1903, desiring to give The Messiah, Mr. Boyd organized 
the Trinity Choral Society, with the choir as a nucleus. The singers were good 

298 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 299 

readers, for after only nine rehearsals, the eighty-four voiees got through 
creditably. The orchestra of forty gave Mr. Boyd his first experience as a 
conductor of instrumental music. In [904-5 the Trinity Choral Society repeated 
The Messiah and also sang Elijah, having grown to 135 voices. There was similar 
activity the following year. 

When the Waterbury Hospital was planned, John II. Whittemore modestly 
offered to give a plot in the heart of the town and to erect thereon a line business 
building. — a donation to the hospital, valued at over two hundred thousand 
dollars. This was the moment seized upon by Mr. Boyd, Miss Mary R. Hillard, 
Isaac B. Clark. Albert J. Blakesley, John L. Bonn, Charles E. Farnham, R. A. 
Laslett Smith, and other far-seeing musical enthusiasts to urge Waterbury's 
need of a first-class concert hall. They laid the facts before Mr. Whittemore. 
They showed how inadequate the city hall and the churches had proven, for 
important musical gatherings They pointed out the growing taste for music, the 
existence of a measurable and increasing public demanding the best and willing, 
under proper conditions, to pay for it. They suggested that a large concert room 
in the proposed Buckingham Building would provide revenue for the hospital 
by encouraging the visits of the great orchestras and musical artists. 

After due consideration, Mr. Whittemore acquiesced. The new hall, as part 
of the large office building, was designed by McKim, Mead & White, and was 
dedicated October 2, 1906, with two concerts. Victor Herbert and his orchestra 
played ; the soloists w-ere Mme. Louise Homer and Campanari ; the Choral Society 
sang the Hallelujah chorus from the Messiah, with other fitting music. It became 
a Nattgatuck Valley occasion and the people thronged the new house and evinced 
the liveliest satisfaction. Mr. Herbert declared the hall superior in acoustics to 
any in New York, and the musicians and auditors joined him in praise of its 
comfort, convenience and beauty. 

This music hall holds an audience of fifteen hundred, and there is room for 
nearly five hundred persons on the stage. It was planned and executed with all the 
skill and taste that the architects, backed by the liberal giver, could command. 

The choral body later became the Waterbury Oratorio Society, conducted by 
Richard T. Percy of New York. 

At the published suggestion of Miss Mary R. Hillard, the Music League was 
formed to raise and manage what was intended to be a permanent guarantee 
fund. In 1901 half a dozen men of W T aterbury, taking their ideas from a Hartford 
organization, formed themselves into the Camelot Club. Raising among its six 
members several hundred dollars, the Camelot Club kept this as a fund, enabling 
it to risk engaging distinguished musicians for concerts in Waterbury. Under 
the club's auspices, the Kneisel Quartet, the Mamies Quartet and several recital 
givers made excellent music to such good audiences that the fund was scarcely 
touched. The newly formed Music League then absorbed the Camelot Club, 
borrowed its plan and began to apply it on a larger scale. 

The Waterbury Oratorio Society promptly voted to co-operate in building up 
the Music League, and named as a committee Messrs. C. B. Churchill, Isaac P. 
Kellogg, Charles P. Mitchell, R. A. Laslett Smith. J. Edward Keegan, H. H. 
Romer, and George E. Boyd. 

On December 14. 1906, the Waterbury Oratorio Society gave "The Messiah" 
with Richard T. Percy, directing. The soloists on this occasion were Mrs. Caroline 
Mihr-Hardy, soprano; Adele Laeis Baldwin, contralto; Frank H. Ormsby, tenor: 
and Ericsson F. Bushnell, bass. The symphony orchestra of forty-five took part 
in the concert. 

On May 13 and May 14, 1917. the Waterbury Oratorio Society gave its notable 



300 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

May musical festival with a program that provided for two rehearsals and three 
concerts. Damrosch's New York Symphony orchestra was engaged for the 
festival with Maud Powell, Madame Charlotte Maconda, Isabelle Bouton, Ellison 
Van Hoose, Gwilym Miles, and Frederick C. Weld, as soloists. The first rehearsal 
took place Monday afternoon, May 13th. The first concert took place Monday 
evening, with a Wagner program and with Maud Powell and Ellison Van Hoose 
as soloists. The second rehearsal took place Tuesday morning. The second 
concert took plaee Tuesday afternoon, with a Symphony program and Maconda 
as the soloist. Tuesday evening the Waterbury Oratorio Society, assisted by the 
Damrosch orchestra, gave the oratorio "Samson and Delilah" with Isabelle Bouton, 
Charlotte Maconda, Ellison Van Hoose and Frederick C. Weld as soloists. 

This was perhaps the most pretentious musical affair ever held in Waterbury. 
While it was a tremendous artistic success, the Music League was called upon 
to make up a considerable deficit. 

The Waterbury Oratorio Society gave a notable concert on January 9, 1910, 
with an orchestra of fifty, George E. Boyd conducting. The soloists were Miss 
Laura Louise Combs, Mrs. Robert Spencer May, Dr. Franklin Lawson, and 
Willard Flint. 

The Waterbury Choral Club, a mixed chorus with 125 voices, is in 1917 the 
leading musical organization of Waterbury. It is the outgrowth of the former 
Trinity Church Choir which closed its career in 1913, when Trinity changed to 
a boys' choir. Isaac B. Clark, who was musical director of the Trinity Choir, 
became leader of the Choral Club and it is now in its fourth year. In 1914 it 
gave a single concert, singing Grieg's "Christoforus." Its soloists were : John 
Barnes Wells, Mrs. Clara Oakes Usher, Mrs. Isaac B. Clark, and Rollin P. Clarke. 

In 191 5 at its January concert, it sang "The Messiah" with an orchestra of 
forty pieces recruited from New York, Hartford, Waterbury, and Bridgeport. 
The soloists were John Barnes Wells and Edgar Schofield of New York, Clara 
Oakes Usher and Miss Edith Aab. At its April concert in 191 5 the soloist was 
Arthur Middleton, of the Metropolitan Opera. 

In 1916 the Choral Club gave the oratorio "Elijah" with Miss Rhea Massicotte, 
of Meriden, as soprano, Robert Maitland of Covent Garden, London, as baritone, 
Miss Abbott of New York, alto, and Paul Althouse, of the Metropolitan Opera, 
tenor. The orchestra of forty-five pieces was again recruited from New York, 
Hartford, Waterbury, and Bridgeport. At the miscellaneous concert in 1916, 
Henry Dunn of Waterbury was the piano soloist, and Althouse, of New York, 
the tenor. 

The Choral Club is now preparing to produce the oratorio "St. Paul" in 
January, 1918. 

The capable accompanist of the club is Miss Eunice Broughton. 

The Waterbury Choral Club is Unit No. 2 of the Liberty Chorus of Con- 
necticut, and Mr. Clark hopes to have 1,000 voices trained when the first call for 
patriotic singing comes from headquarters. 

The Masonic Choir, ranging from forty to fifty voices, is now in its eighth 
year. It was in charge of Isaac B. Clark as musical director shortly after its 
organization. For three years it was under the musical direction of Arthur H. 
Turner, and is now again under the direction of Mr. Clark. It gives one annual 
concert in May and tours the state. Its soloists at the last May concert were 
Lambert Murphy and Leonora Sparks. 

Its most notable concert was that given January 27, 1914, at the opening of 
Temple Hall. Alma Gluck was the soloist, Arthur H. Turner conducted, George 
E. Boyd was at the organ, and Ralph E. Douglass was accompanist. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 301 

Of other musical organizations the Swedish singing society which has been 
giving concerts for some years, is worthy of mention. Its work is always excellent. 

The same may be said of the Lyra Society, a German singing organization, of 
which Director Keller has charge. 

The Waterbury German singing societies, particularly the Concordia and 
Lyra, have always taken an active part in the Connecticut Saengerfests. Twelve 
years ago this was held in Waterbury and the Concordia as usual won medals for 
excellence. 

Waterbury has reason to be particularly proud of its bands. The most im- 
portant of these is that conducted by Bert L. Fulton. This organization founded 
by James M. Fulton, now of Boston, was formerly the American Band, then 
became Fulton's American Band, and last year enlisted in the Home Guard. It 
is now known as the Fifth Regiment Home Guard Band. There are also the 
Boys' Club Band, DiVito's orchestra and band and Wolff's orchestra, all of which 
are competent musical organizations. 

Waterbury has an opportunity, through Paul Prentzel, local impresario, to 
hear all of the world's greatest musicians. In the last decade there has not been 
a year in which some of the best of the country's singers and instrumentalists 
on concert tour have not come to Waterbury. 

On November 13, 1913, Mr. Prentzel had Kathleen Paulow, the violinist, in 
Waterbury. following on January 26, 1914, with Harold Bauer, pianist and 
Madame Hudson Alexander, soprano. On March 3, 1914, Jan Kubelik was his 
attraction. The remainder of his 1914 musical program included Anna Case, 
Arrigo Serato, Carl Friedberg, Felice Lyne, with the New York Symphony 
orchestra, Maggie Teyte, Mark Hambourg, and Edmund Burke. 

In 191 5 he began the year with Marcella Sembrich and followed with Fritz 
Kreisler, Pasquale Amato, Olive Kline, Josef Hofmann, Mischa Elman. Then 
in order since 191 5 he has brought here Josef Stransky and Julia Culp with 
the New York Philharmonic orchestra, Madame Schumann-Heink, Alma Gluck, 
Ysaye, Boston Symphony orchestra, Maria Barrientos, Zimbalist, Sophie Breslau, 
Elena Gerhardt, Martinelli. Percy Grainger, the Metropolitan Opera orchestra with 
Leon Rothier, Mabel Garrison and Giuseppe De Luca. 

On March 3, 1916, C. Z. Sparadowski brought Paderewski to Waterbury. He 
played at Buckingham Music Hall to a packed house. 

THEATERS AND AMATEUR DRAMATICS 

During the past twenty-five years Waterbury, like all American cities, has 
witnessed the many transformations which mark the history of the theater in 
the United States. In 1893, the beginning of this period, the drama was in the 
ascendant, and Waterbury with its new Jacques Opera House, opened November 
1, 1886, and the old city hall which had done service since the Theodore Thomas 
orchestra had opened its hall on October 26, 1869, saw practically all of the great 
stars and successful plays of the day. It was the height of the traveling company 
period. There was running at this time also the old rink on the site of the 
Buckingham Building. This had been operated for some years as a theater, its 
name in 1893 having been changed from "The Casino" to the "People's Theater." 
In this place of amusement Denman Thompson is said to have given the first 
performance of "The Old Homestead." Margaret Mather also played there. 
But in 1893 it was relegated to the cheaper class of entertainments. 

Waterbury owes much to the enterprise of its earliest theater manager, Eugene 
Leslie Jacques. He was born in Plymouth April 30. 1855, was educated in the 



302 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

Waterbury schools, and gave this, his home town, all the energy and brains that 
made for success in a theatrical way. Eugene Jacques died December 4, 1905. 

At Jacques' Theater, until the opening of its first real opposition, Poli's Theater 
December 15, 1897, all of the great artists of the day appeared. The list included 
Edwin Booth, Ezra Kendall, Richard Golden. Marion Manola and Jack Mason. 
May Irwin, Modjeska, Bernhardt, Barrett, Ada Rehan, the Daly musical suc- 
cesses, Kyrle Bellew, and Mrs. James Brown Potter, Fay Templeton, Louis fames, 
Marie Wainwright, James O'Neil, Fanny Davenport, Melbourne McDowell, Neil 
Burgess, Robert Mantell, James A. Heme, and all that host of great players who 
made that period illustrious. 

The old city hall, after the building of Jacques, was used largely by local 
dramatic societies although some excellent professional attractions continued to 
appear there for many years. 

In both the building of the old rink and in the construction of the new 
Jacques, Eugene Jacques had as partner. Arthur H. Fenn, now the well-known 
golf professional at Poland Springs and Palm Beach. In these days Fenn was a 
professional fancy skater. The old rink even as the People's Theater, failed to 
pay after the roller skating and polo craze died out. Henry Pincus later turned 
it into a summer garden, with a Hungarian orchestra. It was in its last years 
given over to cheap attractions, medicine shows and the like, finally coming into 
possession of Mr. Whittemore who tore it down to make way for Buckingham 
Music Hall. 

In 1891 Mr. Jacques built the Auditorium on South Main Street. This, with 
its hard maple floor, 5,000 square feet of dancing floor, a good stage and all 
necessary accessory rooms, was at once in demand for large gatherings and big 
local fairs, bazaars and prize fights. Gen. William Booth, head of the Salvation 
Army, spoke in this place, to an immense gathering October 29, 1894. 

For a time it was used by the David M. Hartford Stock Company, but this 
venture was not successful. It is now a picture house, and is still used for 
conventions, auto shows, fairs, and other such affairs. It was in the Auditorium 
that Terry McGovern, then managed by Sam Harris of Cohan & Harris, fought 
his first big fight. 

In the early '90s, Sylvester Z. Poli, who had for some time run a successful 
vaudeville theater in New Haven, looked around for new openings in his line. 
Mr. Poli had been a sculptor in his younger days, and finally made some of the 
wonderful wax figures at the Eden Musee in New York. From this he drifted 
into the theatrical business, and now owns theaters all over New England. After 
New Haven, Waterbury was his first new field. In 1896 John Moriarty bought 
the East Main Street property of the American Pin Company and the Blake & 
fohnson Company, both concerns having moved into new plants at Waterville. 
The greater part of it was remodeled for a furniture store. The remainder of 
the space was used for the construction of Poli's theater. There had been com- 
plaint by some of the traveling companies that the Jacques stage was not large 
enough for big productions. It was therefore decided to make the stage one of 
the largest in the country and to provide seating accommodations for at least 
one thousand two hundred. With its magnificent furnishings, its beautiful system 
of lighting, its advantageous location, Poli's at once assumed its place as the lead- 
ing theater of Waterbury. The attraction on the opening day, December 15. 
1897, was Francis Wilson in "Half a King." 

The competition between Poli's and Jacques' became keen, both houses suffer- 
ing financially. This continued for two years, when the two theater managers, 
Eugene Jacques and Sylvester Z. Poli, got together and formed a partnership. 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 303 

which continued until the death of Eugene Jacques. During these years Mr. 
Jacques managed both theaters. There was another factor that entered into the 
settlement of the local theatrical light and that was the Waterbury bill-posting 
privilege which was owned by Eugene Jacques. It was the lack of this Aery 
necessary means of advertising that finally brought Mr. Poli to terms. 

I 'oli's was now used for high class attractions and Jacques for "ten-twenty- 
thirty" melodrama, presenting such plays as "Streets of New York," "Shadows 
of a Great City," "The Gnat Metropolis," "The Lights of London." In 1902 
Jacques' became a vaudeville house and ran successfully for several seasons. 
Then a summer stock company was formed with Earle Simmons as the leading 
man and stock finally crowded out vaudeville. There was a popular craze for 
stock and Simmons, Ernestine Morley, David M. Hartford, James Devine and 
others of the principal actors, had many admirers. 

The stars of the period from 1900 to 1910, when the "movie" craze was 
completing its work of transforming the dramatic world, all appeared at Poli's. 
These comprised among many others, the Empire Theater Stock Company plays, 
all the Frohman attractions, Richard Mansfield, Forbes Robertson, E. S. Willard, 
Maude Adams, Irving and Terry, Rhea, Bernhardt in "Camille" January 4, 191 1, 
and others as famous. 

After the death of Eugene Jacques in 1905, Mr. Poli took over the lease of 
Jacques Theater, still running it as a stock house, but after a time sold his interest 
to P. F. Shea. Mr. Shea undertook to play high class attractions, but the people 
who patronize these plays did not come in paying numbers. He tried burlesque 
three nights a week and light opera three nights. This also failed to go. He 
gave up his lease, and Michael E. Keeley, who was administrator for the estate 
of Eugene Jacques, together with T. Frank Hayes, of the T. H. Hayes Compam\ 
took over the building and engaged James Clancy, an experienced theatrical man, 
to come from Rochester to Waterbury and run Jacques Theater. Mr. Clancy 
had managed it before as a vaudeville and stock house. He at once put in 
burlesque and the theater is playing almost to capacity practically every night. 

Five years ago Poli's Theater, like all others of the larger theaters in the 
United States, accepted the inevitable and changed to a successful popular priced 
vaudeville theater, with a popular summer stock company to fill in between 
seasons. Harry E. Parsons was local manager until 191 7, when he took charge 
of the financial end of all the Poli theaters. Walter Griffiths now manages the 
theater. High-class attractions are booked from time to time. 

Up to about 1910 moving pictures were merely an interlude in theatricals, 
being shown between the acts at vaudeville and stock performances. Then the 
era of "store shows" began, small moving picture houses being started in vacant 
stores and showing for a 5-cent admission fee. Chotzranoff Brothers built the 
Garden Theater at this time and leased it to Poli, who operated it as the first 
regular moving picture theater. It had a seating capacity of 500 and a real 
attempt was made to put the "movie" on a higher plane. Carl F. Chapin was 
the first man in Waterbury with the vision to see the present possibilities of the 
new form of entertainment and in 1910 he made an arrangement with Poli to 
manage the Garden for awhile. Mr. Chapin raised both the standard of the 
pictures shown and the admission fee, but the experiment was made a year or 
two ahead of the proper time and did not succeed. The Garden is now owned 
by Judge Edward F. Cole. 

Meantime the success of the small "store shows" turned many active business 
men into moving picture house proprietors. Within a year or two there were 
built the Carroll on North Square, the Colonial on South Main Street, the Scenic 



304 WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 

on Bank Street, the Star on Baldwin Street, the Eden in Brooklyn and a number 
of others, Patrick H. Carroll, Benedict E. Hausdorff, Robert Molzon, John L. 
Fernandez being among the pioneers of the moving picture movement. There 
were frequent changes of management and interest, too bewildering to follow 

In 1913 John J. O'Neil built the Strand Theater, which was first leased to 
William Fox of the Fox Enterprise Company, and operated as a vaudeville house. 
The first season was not successful and Marcus Loew added it to his string of 
theaters in 1914. In 191 5 it was taken over by Mr. Poli and is now run as a very 
successful "movie" house. 

The Princess on Center Street, a beautiful, cosy theater, was opened in 
June, 1913, by a local company of which Otis S. Cowles is treasurer and C. L. 
Martin manager, and is now giving "first run" attractions. Its capacity is 500. 
The building was reconstructed in five weeks' time and was opened with "The 
Pilgrim's Progress." 

The Rialto, opened in the Poli Theater Block on East Main Street in October, 
191 7, is the most ambitious moving picture theater yet opened in Waterbury. 
The cost of reconstruction, furnishing and equipment, including a large pipe 
organ, was announced at $90,000. The seating capacity is 1,400. J. F. Nichols 
is the manager. 

AMATEUR THEATRICALS 

Waterbury has been particularly interested in amateur theatricals. Its younger 
sets from generation to generation have shown unusual talents and have had 
each in turn the advantages of excellent training. Prof. Francis T. Russell, D. D., 
who was for years at the head of St. Margaret's School, was a remarkable 
teacher of elocution. The performance by local talent of "The School for Scan- 
dal" on May 22 and 23, 1896, under his direction, is still remembered as an 
exceptionally meritorious performance. This was given at Jacques Opera House 
and among those who took important parts in the production were Lewis A. 
Piatt, who was the Sir Peter Teazle, John H. Goss, who was Lady Sneerwell's 
servant, Medora H. Piatt, now Mrs. Walter Hamlin Holmes, who was a remark- 
able Lady Teazle, C. Sanford Bull, Isaac P. Kellogg, Archer O. Hitchcock, 
Harold R. Durant, G. Middleton Parsons, Pierson J. dimming, Albert M. Bur- 
rett, 2d, Charles F. Mitchell, Miss Emily M. Plume, Mrs. John P. Kellogg, Miss 
Alma J. Scott, Miss Elsie Shaw. Mrs. Holmes showed promise of ranking with 
the best professionals of the day if she had elected to take to a stage life. 

Among the most notable of the dramatic societies of the early years of this 
quarter century was the Acme Dramatic Club, which in 1893 and 1894 was under 
the training of E. L, Maloney, and in 1894, 1895, 1896, 1897 and 1898 under the 
supervision of Thomas D: Freney, to whom Waterbury is indebted for many of 
the best amateur performances of the past two decades. In 1899 the Acme 
Dramatic Club's performance of "May Blossom" was under the direction of 
Dr. J. L. Moriarty. 

"Colleen Bawn" was the play given in 1893 with T. F. Carmody, E. L. 
Maloney, F. P. Becton, J. R. Freney, Mrs. J. L. Moriarty, Mrs. T. J. Kilmartin, 
Miss Lou Donahue in leading parts. W. J. Hughes and E. L. Tuttle furnished 
the musical part of the performance. In 1894 "Under Two Flags" was given and 
Dennis J. Slavin, then a judge in embryo, Peter Fox, Miss Josie Egan, Mrs. J. E. 
Smith, the Misses Murphy and Garde, joined the society. "Clouds" was given 
in 1895, "My Geraldine" in 1896, "Fair Rebel" in 1897, "Shenandoah" in 1898. 
Dr. John D. Freney, William T. Smith, Rev. William Fox, and Miss Rose Mc- 



WATERBURY AND THE NAUGATUCK VALLEY 305 

Donald appeared in many of these plays, in addition to those mentioned above. 
The plays were presented to begin with at the City Hall, later at Jacques' and at 
Poli's in 1898 and 1899. 

Company G Dramatic Club in 1901 gave an excellent performance of "The 
Girl I Left Behind