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183 Lake Strekt. 




J18 M 


WE herewith present to the people of Wayne and Clay Counties a history of this por- 
tion of Illinois, from its earliest known existence to the present time. In some 
things the reader may think, especially if he should be a stranger to the pioneers or their 
descendants, that at times we deal in details that are tedious, but in a generation from now 
these details will be the more highly prized the more full and complete they are. 

Then, in telling the story of the general county histories, we believe they will be found 
clothed in a literary garb, and brightened with reflections, suggestions and philosophical 
deductions, that will make it a storehouse for young and old, where they may acquire new 
and enlarged ideas, and thus receive profit as well as pleasure, that will repay them a thou- 
sand-fold for the small outlay of the original cost of the book. 

This work has cost us much labor, and a large expenditure of money, and although our 
territory for patrons is sparsely settled, and, therefore, our patronage but limited, yet we 
have given in this book more than we promised, and we feel assured that all thoughtful 
people in the county now, and especially in the future, will recognize and appreciate the 
work and its permanent value. 

We are indebted to the kind assistance of most of the prominent people in the county 
for interesting facts and assistance in our compilations, and also to F. M. Woolard and G 
W. Smith for their valuable contributions of interesting chapters. 


Makoh, 1884. 





CHAPTER I.— A few Words on Geology in the Schools- 
Many Interesting Suggestions — The Outlines of Geology 
— Prairies, and about Their Formation— The Geology of 
Wayne County — Probabilities of Finding Coal Here, 
etc., etc., etc 11 

CHAPTER II.— The Daring Discoveries and Operations of 
the French in the Mississippi Valley — Some Corrections 
in History — The Catholic Missionaries— Discovery of 
the Mississippi River— Pontiac's Conspiracy — The Down- 
fall of Quebec— The Territory Ceded by the Indians — 
Illinois Separated from Indiana, etc., etc 21 

CHAPTER III.— The Old Settlers, Where They Were From, 
Together With Many Interesting Facts Concerning 
Them — Isaac Harris, Mrs. Goodwin, Col, Samuel Leech, 
George Merritt, "Jacky " Jones, George McCown, and 
Many Others — Rangers — Joe Boltinghouse's Avengers 
—Wayne County Organized March 26, 1819, etc 35 

CHAPTER IV.— Habits and Pastimes— The Borah Family- 
Cannons— Owens — Halls— First and Second Settlements 
in the County — First Schools and Churches— Gatherings 
of Old Settlers and Their Names— Nathan Atteberry— 
W. W. George— David Wright — Ellidges— Andrew Crews 
Alexander Campbell — And Many Others— Incidents and 
Anecdotes — The Disappearance of the Indian — Wild 
Game, etc., etc., etc 48 

CHAPTER V.— Some More Reflections Worth Reading— 
The Evils and the Good of the Country — An Account of 
the Officials and Who They Were — Some Big Men and 
Some not so Big— Gen. Leech, Rigdon B. Slocumb, W. 
B.Davis, or Black Bill — Senators, Representatives and 
County Officials— David W. Barkley, Warnioth, Turney, 
Burns, Barnhill, Nathan Crews, Clark, Hogue, Hanna, 
and Many Others — First Deed — Township Organization 
—Whisky Banished from the County, etc 60 

CHAPTER VI.— The Wars for Our Liberties— George Wash- 
ington and His Wayne County Heroes— Sequel to the 
Holtinghouse Massacre and its Wayne County Avengers 
— The Rangers Here and who They were— Winnebago 
and Black Hawk War— First Campaign a Bloodless One 
— Mexican War and the Part Therein of Wayne County 
— Col. Leech— Our Civil War, When Its Real History will 
be Written — The Companies That went from Wayne 
County, and Some Account of Them — Who were Killed 
and Wounded in Battle — The Eleven Companies Fur- 
insbed by Wayne'County — Capture of Jeff Davis, etc.. etc 68 

CHAPTER TIL— Miscellaneous Items of Interest— Birth>. 
Deaths and Marriages — Census of 1845 — Literary Sp< i. - 
ties— Old Store Accounts, etc., etc 68 

CHAPTER VIII.— A Complete History of all the Churches 
—The Methodist— Different Baptists— Christian— Pres- 
byterian— Catholic— Who Organized Them— Sketches 
of the Prominent Churchmen, etc 95 

CHAPTER IX.— Bench and Bar of Wayne County— The 

People of "Precedents"— The Coming Lawyer— The 
Laws and Other Legislation— First Court, Grand Jury 
and Lawyer in the County— Hubbard, Wilson— Edwin 
andC. A. Beech er— Campbell, Hanna, Boggs and Many 
Others, Including the Present Active Practitioners, et< - 129 

CHAPTER X.— The Press of Wayne County — MauySalutatn- 
ries and as Many Farewells— Wilmaus, Joe Prior, i'.augh, 
Tilden, Sibley, Schell, Smith, Walden, Stickney, Litzeu- 
berger, Barkley, McClung, Tracy, Holmes— Some Ac- 
count of the Many Papers that Started ;ind Perished, 
etc., etc., etc 148 

CHAPTER XL— Schools— An Account From the First One to 
the Present Day— A Comparison of the Improvements- 
Sunday Schools and the First Free Schools— Difficulties 
Attending Education at an Early Day— The Changes of 
Fifty Years— Discussions of the School System— Statis- 
tics, etc 1.57 

CHAPTER XIL— Railroads— Internal Improvement Fol- 
lies— Some Thoughts on Municipal Aid— Voters and 
Their Demagogues— Monopolies and Paupers— The Un- 
wisdom of Law-makers— Ignorance in Bulk Considered 
—The Five Horse Court — Swamp Lands— Sharp Figur- 
ing— O. A M. Road— Air Line— I). & O. Line— Narrow 
• lauge, etc., etc., etc 161 

CHAPTER XIIL— Recapitulation— Some General and Spe- 
cial Accounts of the People— Early Wills and Adminis- 
trations — Present County Wealth —Wayne Formed 
from Edwards, and then the South Line Changed— 
Then a Portion Set off to Clay County— Full List of Of- 
ficers— Some of the Literature of the Early and Present 
Day— An Immortal Speech— Israel Dewey, etc., etc., etc.. 172 

CHAPTER XIV.— City of Fairfield— The Original Plat, 
With Numerous Additions— Growth and Development 
—Some of the First Houses and Old Landmarks— Mer- 
chants and Merchandising— Taverns, Mills and Facto- 
ries — The Court House — Churches, Schools and News- 
papers — Freemasonry and Other Benevolent Orders — 
Incorporation of Fairfield— Town Boards, etc., etc 178 



• il U'TER XV.— Barnhill and Big Mound Townships — 

Their Geographical ami Physical Features— Settlement 
— An Incident of DaTia -Who the Pioneers Were, What 
They Hid, ami Where They fame From— Early Im- 
provements and Industries— The First Efforts at Mer- 
chandising—Wright's St, ire. Mill and Tanyard— A Busi- 
ness Place— Schools and Churches in Harnhill— The 
Same in Big Mound— Odds and Ends— Fairfield's Birth, 
etc., etc 193 

• 11 IPTEB XVI.— Jasper Township— Topography, Drain- 

age, -oil and Beauties— Its Streams, Lakes, Timbers and 
Wild Fruits— Bees, Honey, Flora and Fauna-Joshua 
Graham, the First Settler— Then Came James Dickin- 
son, the Cannons, William Husk, George Frazer, John 
Pitchett, Joseph Martin, the Borahs, Thomas Bradshaw, 
Ihe Owens, Jonathan Douglas and Many Others— How 
They Lived and Struggled— First Birth and Death— The 
First House. Mill, Blacksmith Shop, Lime-kiln and 
Land Entry and Marriage— A Panther Attacks a Wo- 
man—First Schools and Singing Schools, and Who 
Taught Them— First Sermons and Preachers— When 
Leading Families Came "" 

CHAPTER XVII.— Massillon Township— Early Facts and 
Reminiscences as Gathered from Jacob Hall, W. N. 
Borah, ,1. B. Borah, Judge Wilson and Others— Lovelette, 
the Traditional First Comer— Enoch Beach, the First 
Settler, with a Sketch— Name and Sketches of Our Sel- 
lers and Their Families— Camps and Cabins of the Ear- 
ly Day— Trundle Beds and Their Trash— First School 
and Who Taught It-First Marriage, Birth and Death— 
The Old Rangers— J udge Wilson and the Deer That 
Tore His Clothes off— John McCollum and His Coon- 
Wild Cats— First Mills, Churches, Preachers, etc., etc., 
etc., etc 217 

CHAPTER XYUL— Laniard Township— Description— To- 
pography, etc.— Early Settlements— Pioneer Improve- 
ments and Industries— Caudle's Distillery and the Early 
Fse of Whisky— Churches and Church Buildings— 
Schools— Dr. Jones, the First Teacher-How he went 
Snipe Hunting— Jeffersonville Laid Out as a Village- 
Its Growth, Development and Incorporation— Business 

. . 227 

Statistics, etc 

CHAPTER SIX.— Bedford Township— Geographical De- 
scription, Topography, etc.— Coming of the Pioneers— 
Their Early Struggles and Hardship—Wild Game- 
Pioneer Mills antl Who Built Them— Schools and 
Churches— Villages— Cisne Laid Out as a Town— Its 
Growth and Development — Hiuard — Laid Out, Im- 
proved, etc., etc., etc - 33 

CHAPTER XX.— Indian Prairie Township— Description- 
Topography, etc.— Early Settlements— Pioneer Improve- 
ments and Industries— Early Preachers and Churches- 
First School Teachers— First Death in the Township— 
1 hurches, Preachers and Officers— Johnsonville— When 
and by Whom Laid 1 Hit— Its' Growth and Improvements 
and Its Future Outlook— Railroad Prospects— Bine 
Point— When Laid Out and by Whom— A List of Town- 
ship Officers, etc., etc., etc 241 

CHAPTER XXL— lour Mile Township— Introduction- 
Boundaries— Surface— Water-courses — Productions— 

Beaus— Frog Island— Early Settlers and Sketches— 
The Wild Man— Population— Wayne city— Middleton— 
Keens— Schools, Churches -Politics— Officers, etc 246 

CHAPTER XX1L— Elm River Township— Boundaries and 
Settlement— Pioneer Incidents — Population — Surface 
and Water-courses— Enterprise— Education and School 
Statistics— Churches and Preachers, etc 251 

CHAPTER XXIII.— Zif Township— Boundaries and Sur- 
face—Origin of Name— First Settlers— Zif— Religious 
and Educational Notes— Agriculture— Main Productions 
—The Great Prairie Fire, etc 26* 

CHAPTER XXIV.— Mount Erie Township— Introduction 
—Boundaries— Early Settlers and Incidents— Alexan- 
der Ramsey— Topography— Chief Productions— Mills— 
The Village of Mount. Erie— When and by Whom Laid 
Out— Its Present Business Representations— Lodges- 
Churches— Schools, etc 2-'" 5 

CHAPTER XXV.— Arrington Township— Boundaries- 
First Settlers and Incidents— Uncle Jimmy Siniins— 
Topography— Chief Productions— Mills— Sims— Cincin- 
nati and Covington— Early Schools and Teachers- 
Churches— Officers, etc - 6 '- 

CHAPTER XXVI —Brush Creek Township— Description 
and Topograghy, etc.— Early Settlements— Pioneer Im- 
provements—Early Preachers— Berry Elledge, the First 
Schoolteacher— His Stroke of Paralysis Compelling Him 
to lay Three Days in the Woods Surrounded by Wild 
Animals— Murder of a Mr. Brazell by William Fathree 
—First Marriage, First Death— Churches— Schools, etc. 265 

CHAPTER XXVII.— Leech Township— Boundaries and To- 
pography— Water-co urses— General Productions— Ori- 
gin of Name and First Settlements— Some Indian 
Stories— Internal Improvements— Towns— Church His- 
tory and School Statistics, etc 369 

CHAPTER XXVIII.— Hickory HillTowuship— Topography 
and Boundaries— First Settlers— Who They Were— First 
Birth— First Farming— First Roads, etc 274 


CHAPTER I— An Interesting Chapter as well as much In- 
formation—Practical Questions Considered— Some Ideas 
on Education— How Farmers may Become the First 
People in the World— Wonderful Things from the Soil 
—Rocks, Soil and the Natural Products of the County- 
Coal and Mineral Springs, etc '■ 

CHAPTER IX— 1778— George Rogers Clark— Capt. Helm 
and Private Henry— Clay County Revolutionary 
Grounds— Its Soil Made Sacred by the Tread of the Rev- 
olutionary Army— The Hannibal of the Northwest— An 
Army of an Officer and Private— our Land Titles- 
Names of Some of the Army that Passed Through Clay 

County, etc 

CHAPTER 1 1 1.— The Earliest Settlers— Who They Were and 
How 'They Came -Appearance of the Country— John 
McCawley— How Our Titles to the Land Came— The 



indians— A List of Early Settlers— Thomas McCrackin, 
and Many Others — Trundle Bed — School Teacher — 
Singing Master^First Dudes— Writing Master— Bottle 
Race— Weddings— Many Other Interesting Facts and 
Fancies, etc 307 

CHAPTER IV.— Organization of the County- Its Name- 
Henry Clay— The First County Seat— Hist Officers- 
Grand Juries— Incidents, etc— Clay County— Its Name 
— Date Organized — Commissioners — First County Court 
and Officers, and List Complete to 1850— Hubbardsville, 
Maysville and Louisville the Three County Capitals— 
The County Buildings— Full Account of Early Roads, 
Bridges and Juries— A Chapter in which Every Para- 
graph is Full of Interest, etc 319 

CHAPTER V— Additional Accounts of the People — Neigh- 
borhood Feuds— Regulators and Some of Their Victims 
—Marriages, Commencing with Number One— The 
Courts — Juries and Lawyers and Court and County Offi- 
cers to date— First Indictments— First County Officers— 
The Presiding Judges, etc 328 

CHAPTER VI.— Agriculture and Horticulture— Stock-rais- 
ing— Dairying— Matters of Interest and Value to Every 
One— Apples and Sorghum— How to Make Your Land 
Worth $500 per Acre, etc 340 

CHAPTER VII. -Schools— A Reference to the Originals- 
Some Thoughts on the Subject Generally— The First 
Schools and Teachers-jThe Early Schools and Those of 
To-day Compared and Estimated— Thoughts on the Sub- 
ject of General Interest, etc 345 

( HAPTER VIII. — War — Revolutionary Soldiers — Black 
Hawk War— The Late Civil War— The Heroic Conduct 
and Bearing of the People of Clay County— lien. L. B. 
Parsons, Capt. .1. W. Westcott and Many Others, etc 351 

( HAPTER IX.— Harter Township and Flora— Who Came, 
and About Them— Thomas Elliott, Matthias Misen- 
heimer, Seth F. Hinkley, Russell T. Logan, Robert Bry- 
ant, James Jacobs, William Nichols and Others— Land 
Entries, First Schools, Teachers and Churches— Flora 
and Its History— Anecdotes— Railroads— Business, etc... 358 

CHAPTER X. — Louisville Township — Configuration- 
Boundaries, etc.— Drainage— Early Pioneers— Water 
Mills— Early Industries— Life on the Little Wabash— 
Boating— First Buildings and Business Houses—" Blind 
Tiger" and "Horned Rooster"— The Old Agricultural 
Society— Churches and Schools — Township Records, ete. 374 

CHAPTER XL— (lay City Township— Description— Topog- 
raphy— Flora and Fauna — Pioneer Settlers — John Mc- 
Cawley Driven Off by Indians— His Return— Capt. Rob- 
ert Toler— Faris— sheriff Riley— How He Held a Pris- 
oner—The "Hoss" Ordered to the Stable— Bill Colwell 
— First School and First Teacher— Schools and Officers — 
First Child— Township officers— Old Maysville— Its 
History, Settlement and Growth— County Seat— Hotels 
— Town Officers— List of Prominent People— Churches 
and Church People— List of Officials— Anecdotes, etc 390 

CHAPTER XII.— Stanford Township— Its Local History- 
Topography — Its Name — Stanford F'amily — Judge N. H. 


Dull— J. K. Bothwell — First Settlers and the Order of 
Their Coming — Schools and Churches — Anecdotes — 
Lynch Court — Early Preaching and Hunting— A Wolf 
Story — Township Record and Officers, etc 109 

CHAPTER XIII.— Oskaloosa Township— Its Topography- 
Early Settlement — Development — Village of Oskaloosa — 
Schools— Religion — Politics— Officials, Incidents, etc 122 

CHAPTER XIV.— Xenia Township — Description — First 
Settlers — Early Schools and Churches — Villages — Secret 
Societies, etc 12G 

CHAPTER XV.— Songer Township— Description — Agri- 
culture — Vegetation — Early Settlement and Settlers — 
Schools — Churches, etc 437 

CHAPTER XVI.— Blair Township— Full Account of all 
the Pioneers and People Down to Date — Incidents- 
Characters — Churches— Schools — Town Officers, etc 440 

CHAPTER XVIL— Hoosier Township— Its Topography and 
Physical Features — First F2ntries and Early Settlers — 
Churches, Schools, etc I4E 

CHAPTER XVIII.— Larkinsburg Township— Topography 
and Physical F'eatures — Soil aud Timber — Pioneer Set- 
tlement— Iiarly Mills — Its Growth and Development — 
Secret Societies — Schools and Churches— Present Busi- 
ness — Township Records, etc I ■ 

CHAPTER XIX —Bible Grove Township— Location— To- 
pography — Soil and Timber — How Its Name Came — 
F'irst Settler, With Long List of the People and the 
Order in Which They Came — Incidents — Robbery of — 
McKnight — Violent Deaths, etc 460 

CHAPTER XX. — Pisley Township — Geographical Position 
— Settlement by the Whites — Improvements — Mills and 
Roads — Schools, Schoolhouses. Churches, etc. — Village 
of Ingraham 46S 



Wayne County — City of Fairfield s 

Barnhill Township 43 

Mount Erie Township 61 

Bedford Township 72 

Biy; Mound Township 85 

Jasper Township 94 

Indian Prairie Township 102 

Leech Township 108 

MassiNon Township 113 

Arrington Township 117 

Laniard Township 121 

Brush Creek Township 126 

Four Mile Township 12S 

Elm River Township 137 

Zif Township 139 

Hickory Hill Township 140 

Bedford Township, Extra 142- 





Clay County. — Louisville Township 145 

Xenia Township 159 

Clay City Township 171 

I lousier Township 184 

City of Flora 191 

Harter Township 210 

Rible Grove Township 216 

Songer Township 224 

Pixley Township 229 

Stanford Township 234 


Larkinsburg Township 238 

lllair Township 240 


Barkley, J. G 79 

Cisne, W. H 257 

George, Francis 115 

Hall, Jacob 151 

Johnson, William M 187 

McCartney, James 43 

Smith, G. W 329 

Walters, J. P 223 

Westcott, J. W 298 

|T~sk; * 










A FEW words of the agricultural history 
of the county is not an inappropriate 
introduction to the story of the people who 
were here when the white man discovered 
the country, and their passing away, mark- 
ing, as they did. every step of their sullen, 
backward movement before the faces of the 
white man, with bloody and cruel carnage. 
as well as the interesting account of the 
brave pioneers and their tierce conflicts with 
the savages, the wild beasts and deadly dis- 
eases that afflicted the early settlers of the 
Mississippi Valley 

The soil is the Alma Mater — the nourish- 
ing mother, indeed, of all animate life in 
this world. The hopes, the ambitions, the 
wealth and joys, the beauties of both art and 
nature, the sweet maiden's blush, the love-lit 
eye, the floating Armada, the thundering 
train, the flaming forge and the flying spin 
die. the rippling laughter, and all there has 
been or will be in this bright and beautiful 
world is directly or remotely from the dull 
soil upon which we tread. Here is the 
fountain head, the nursing mother of all 
and every conceivable thing of; utility or 
beauty, mentally or physically, that a wise 

God has given to man. This page, reader, 
you are now perusing, the sweet girl's melo- 
dy that you may or have so passionately 
worshiped, the angel mother's voice, that 
will linger in your heart till the close of 
life's great final tragedy, are, with everything 
else, from the one same source — the soil. 
The Sun worshipers were not base in their 
adored ideal, the warmth and sunlight were 
a near approach to the fountains of life, and 
yet it was only as the husbandman, who aids 
the soil with his labors, and a world grows 
vocal with joys. It was the soil at last and 
not the husbandman who created, fructified 
and produced, not only our possessions, but 
life itself. Yet in the gray dawn of the 
traditions we find no account of the Soil 
worshiper-, and the fact is now unquestion- 
.iM\ plain that the soil has not been appre- 
ciated, its all commending value in this 
world not at all understood; and in the 
progress of civilization it was eventually rel- 
■d to the world's "drudges." the lit com- 
panion and associate only of serfs and slaves, 
and finally in a country whose air was too 
pure for a slave to breathe, inaugurated the 
long reign of the Feudal system, where the 



laborer and the soil he cultivated came to 
be considered one and the same, and the title 
to the so-called free man passed with the 
deed to the land on which he lived. While 
the soil has found no worshipers, it has been 
carefully ignored, and it has gone on increas- 
ing its bounties, showering its benefits upon 
us until it has lifted us from dull and dirty 
savages to this age of steam and electricity, 
until space itself has ceased to be in the 
transactions and social life of the world. 

Why should we teach our children to un- 
derstand the dull, stupid, uninteresting soil? 
Build schoolhouses and teach your children 
metaphysical mathematics seems to be the 
idea that has held sway in the world for all 
the ages. It's but dirt that flies as dust and 
soils your clothes, or as sticky mud seizes 
upon you and clings wherever it touches, 
and thus it comes to be considered but an 
evil of life. And from infancy to old age it 
is the same old story of 

" The yellow primrose on the river's bank, 
A yellow primrose is." 

The Soil comes from the rocks, and hence 
to the intelligent eye that examines the un- 
derlying rocks of a country it is at once 
plain enough of what the elements of the soil 
are composed, and what, if any, vegetation it 
will best sustain. Oar people are agricult- 
ural, their relation and interest in the soil 
is primary, and in the natural order of 
things one would suppose that this would be 
the first subject they would set about master- 
ing, or at least understanding the practical 
and hourly subjects of vital interests to 
which it is the eternal basis and foundation. 
Amazing as it may seem, the very reverse of 
this is true, 'and the evils it has inflicted are 
but too plainly visible in this wide tendency 
of the young men reared on farms to rush to 
the villages, towns and cities, and become 
clerks, tradesmen, or "learn a trade," and 

thus advance themselves beyond the station to 
which they were born. They see and feel 
the real and imagined refinement, elegance 
and ease and culture of the wealthy of the 
cities, and they look with contempt upon all 
forms of country life. They are not much 
to blame. The whole world has been falsely 
educated on this point. The farmer has been 
told to educate his family — send them to col- 
lege and have them taught to read Latin and 
Greek, and thus they can live without work, 
etc. The three or four years at school has 
taught him to know nothing about farming 
certain, and if there he has acquired a single 
idea that he can utilize in the practical 
affairs of life, he has surely beeD the fortu- 
nate one in a thousand. Teach them ab- 
struse mathematics, through all the arith- 
metics, algebras, geometries, trigonometries, 
the calculus, etc., and then he may become a 
starving professor, and drool out his useless 
life in a clean white shirt and an empty 
stomach, and imagine such a half-mendicant 
existence is eminently respectable. He left 
home a bright farmer boy, he returns a 
cheaply veneered gentleman — but little else, 
in fact, than an incipient tramp, prepared to 
soon spend what little fortune may be left 
him. and then enter upon that nightmare 
life of an educated young man looking for a 
"situation." Many years ago, Horace Gree- 
ley, in a well considered article in the Trib- 
une, estimated there were then in the city 
of New York 5,000 college-bred young men 
hunting for " situations " and half-starving. 
Here were the gathered fruits of this most 
vicious and cardinal idea that is inculcated 
in all the schools of getting an education and 
living without manual labor. To a sane 
mind, what a monstrous idea it is to call an 
institution a school where the child is taught 
that manual labor, farming especially, is both 
low and degrading. But all the schools will 



claim that this charge does not apply to 
thorn; that they are the latest patent im- 
provement, and they teach the pupil to think 
for himself. And they will in all earnest- 
ness tell you of the hundreds of devices they 
have invented, all tending to this divine 
perfection. After duly listening to all they 
claim, we deliberately repeat what we have 
said above. The young mind is not taught 
to think. We are not convinced that this i8 
among the human possibilities yet It may 
be done some day, it has not yet been done 
most certainly. In our judgment, there has 
not been a school ever yet taught where 
there was any approach toward this wonder- 
ful invention of teaching the mind to think. 
The incontestible evideuce of this is given 
in the fewness, the rarity of philosophical 
thinkers there are now or have been in the 
world. Read the books, the newspapers, the 
sermons, the discussions, of which the world 
is full, and about all of it, to the trained 
philosophical thinker, is but words, words, 
words, signifying nothing. For instance, if 
you go and listen to a joint discussion be- 
tween two men, the most eminent men in the 
country say. upon any subject, political, po- 
lemical or otherwise, and they divide the 
time, and by the day, week or month carry 
on the discussion, and you listen to it all 
from the first word to the last, nud you final- 
ly come to the end and go home and in your 
quiet add up what new knowledge you have 
gained. And what is it? If you are frank 
with yourself, you will acknowledge that after 
it all you really know less about it than you 
did before. There is a reason for this. The 
speakers or writers were empirics and so 
were their audiences. An empiric is a man 
who forms a judgment upon a subject from a 
one-sided view. His judgment may be cor- 
rect, but it is so by accident. A philosopher 
bases his judgment upon the fullest possible 

investigation of everything, immediate and 
remote, that can possibly bear upon the sub- 
ject, and still he doubts, or leaves room for 
possible doubts. The empiric is always very 
positive, and he loves to toll you how he 
hates a man who has no positive opinions. 
Educated empiricism may be a little better 
than downright ignorance, but it is not 
much, and mankind as yet has produced lit- 
tle else. It is said that the newspapers, the 
stump speakers, and the widespread discus- 
sions of political questions that precede our 
elections, make the best posted people 
on questions of political economy in the 
world. Is this true"? There is no question 
but that Washington and his compatriots 
left us the best government in the world, and 
there is just as little question but that we have 
allowed it to retrograde to some extent. If 
this is true, it is a marvelous fact, an amaz- 
ing commentary upon our boasted civiliza- 
tion, a biting irony upon the election and 
Fourth of July hulabaloos that do so abound 
and are so like the plunging Niagara. 

Last summer we dropped in for an hour 
and listened to the proceedings of a teacher's 
institute. There we're present 100 teachers, 
and we understood they were being taught 
how to teach school, how to teach tho best 
possible school and in the best way. During 
the hour we were present, there was a teacher 
at the black-board, and he was elucidating 
the subject of the " Equation of Payments," 
when probably not a teacher present nor a 
single future pupil of any of them, no mat- 
ter what his business in life might be. would 
ever have a single occasion to use the rule or 
anything connected with it, except in case 
he or she should become a school teacher. 
Years and years are spent in the school room 
in this way, and not perhaps a graduate who 
could return to his father's farm and pick up 
a clod of earth, and give you any idea at all 



about it. And yet in that simple clod are the 
destinies of all mankind and knowledge that 
is of endless and immeasurablevalne. Some 
gentlemen once applied to Agassiz for in- 
formation upon the subject of how to breed 
the best horse. " It is a question of rocks," 
was his sententious reply. The learned 
Professor was right. He knew the soil came 
from the rocks, and certain kind of rocks 
would produce a certain kind of vegetable 
growth and water, and that this determined 
not only the kind of horses that it would 
eventually produce, but the kind of people. 
In short, that he who understands the rocks 
and the soil will not only be the best farmer 
in the world, but he can tell the kind and 
quality of civilization it will eventually pro- 
duce and sustain. There is no witchery 
about this, but it is the simple result of 
knowledge, being really educated upon one 
of the most- practical and important subjects 
of life. The proper teacher can soon teach 
the children of his school the necessary ele- 
ments of geology and botany, so that they 
would make men and women who would place 
farm life where it should be. in the front 
rank of social existence; take it out of what 
it now mostly is, a life of dull drudgery and 
poorly paid toil. The agricultural people 
should possess a full share of the world's 
wealth — an abundance to give thnm the ease 
and leisure for education, travel, culture and 
relinement that would make it the most invit- 
ing and enviable position in life. The pres- 
ent state of affairs is the result of mistakes 
in education, and a false political economy 
that enslaves and cruelly oppresses. Suppose 
that for the mostly foolish, if not silly, ques- 
tions that are now required to be answered by 
the School Superintendents, and which all 
applicants to teach school are required to be 
able to answer before they can get a certifi- 
cate to teach, there were substituted a few 

common sense questions upon practical sub- 
jects of life. For instance: Tell us about 
the rocks in the county; and certain 
rocks given, what kind of soil do they 
make? And what the plant food they 
give, and about the water? When cer- 
tain vegetation is seen, what kind of a 
soil does it indicate'? An intelligent answer 
to these questions would indicate that the 
teacher could be able to take your children 
and ramble through the woods (to their in- 
finite delight and permanent benefit), and in 
the flowers, the trees, and babbling brooks, 
gather lessons they would never forget — that 
would be of inestimable value to them. Any 
ordinarily intelligent child can readily be 
taught such lessons as these, and understand 
it much better than they can the " rule of 
three," or any rule of the English grammar. 
But it must be taught by a teacher who could 
do more than is now required of teachers in 
the school room, namely, to make the child 
memorize its lessons, and when this is done 
enough, give him a diploma and pronounce 
his education complete. 

AVhen we come to give an [account of 
the schools of the county, we may then 
take occasion to more specifically point 
out the faults that have found their 
way into, and permanent lodgment in 
the school systems. We only wish here 
to point out the importance of an un- 
derstanding of the geology of your immediate 
locality at least, or of that part of the geology 
that bears its vital and practical lessons of 
wisdom, and results in benefits to all man- 
kind. If our views upon the subject are at 
all correct, are we not right in saying that 
the chapter on the topography and geology 
of the county should be recognized by the 
reader as being one of the most important 
chapters in the book? 

The world's history going back through 



its millions, probably billions of years, of ex- 
istence, is written in the rocks to be read and 
interpreted with almost unerring accuracy. 
At one time it was so hot that everything in 
the world was not only melted, but fused into 
the original gases — the sixty-one element- 
ary substances which variously combining, 
produce every form and quality of existence. 
The simplest designation of the rocks are 
the stratified and the unstratified. The un- 
stratified are called igneous rocks, because 
they have been melted by intense heat and 
occur in irregular masses. The desintegra- 
tion of the elements carried a sediment from 
these igneous rocks, and the waters carried 
these into the earth's depressions, and here it 
settled in parallel layers and thus formed the 
stratified rocks. This process of building 
the stratified rocks commenced upon the 
earth's first surface and extended upward. 
In the silent depths of the stratified rocks are 
the former creation of plants and animals, 
which lived and died during the slow, drag- 
ging ages of their formation. These fossil 
remains are fragments of history which 
enable us to extend our researches into the 
past, and determine their modes of life. We 
find that such has been the profusion of 
life that the great limestone formations of 
the globe consist mostly of animal remains 
cemented by the infusion of mineral matter. 
A large part of the soil spread over the 
earth's surface has been elaborated in animal 
organisms. Fiist, as nourishment, it enters 
the structure of plants and forms vegetable 
tissue. Passing thence as food into the ani- 
mal, it becomes endowed with life, and when 
death occurs, it returns to the soil and im- 
parts to it additional elements of fertility. 

Wayne County forms the dividing line 
between the heavily timbered belt of Southern 
Illinois and the great prairie ranges of the 
central and northern parts of the State. The 

true prairie is found here, but in small 
patches, and their whole extent in the county 
is only about twenty per cent of the area. 
How these prairies have been formed has 
long been one of the most interesting ques- 
tions for discussion among the scientific men 
of the country. Gov. Reynolds in his his- 
tory tells us how the caravan with which he 
came to Illinois was impressed with the view 
when the people first looked out upon the 
broad and undulating prairie, with its tall 
waving grass like the gentle roll of the 
waves of a great sea. He then proceeds to 
summarily settle these questions by saying 
there is no doubt but that they were formed 
by the annual tires that swept over the tall 
grass and burned up the young timber in its 
attempts to grow out over the prairies from 
all the edges of the timber. He thinks this 
is well demonstrated by the fact that since 
the fires have been subdued the timber has 
been rapidly encroaching upon the prairies. 
The ' ' old ranger " was mistaken. There 
has been no extension of the timber where it 
has been left to nature's forces. There are 
two theories that find advocates, one con- 
tending that the amount of rainfall deter- 
mines the question of the growth of timber, 
and that always where there is the greatest 
rainfall there is always the heaviest timber 
gr< iwth. According to the other view, prairies 
are at present in process of formation along 
the shores of lakes and rivers. During 
freshets and in flowing rivers, the center of 
the stream is always the highest and the 
heaviest particles carried in the waters are 
deposted at the outer edges of the channel, 
and thus by repeated deposts the banks are 
formed and are elevated above the floods. 
These natural levees, when sufficiently high, 
are overgrown with timber, and inclose large 
areas of bottom land back from the river and 
form Bloughs frequently of great extent. The 



shallow and stagnant waters are first invaded 
by mosses and other aquatic plants which 
grow under the surface and contain in their 
tissues lime, alumina and silica, the constit- 
uents of clay. They also subsist immense 
numbers of small mollusks and other diminu- 
tive creatures, and the constant decomposi- 
tion of vegetables and animals forms a stratum 
of clay corresponding with that which under- 
lies the finished prairies. As the marshy bot- 
toms are by this means built up to the sur- 
face of the water, the mosses are then inter- 
mixed with coarse grasses, which become 
more and more abundant as the depth dimin 
ishes. These reedy plants, now rising above 
the surface, absorb and decompose the car- 
bonic gas of the atmosphere and convert it 
into woody matter, which at first forms a 
clayey mold, and afterward the black mold of 
the prairie. The same agencies now operat- 
ing in the ponds skirting the banks of rivers, 
originally formed all the prairies of the Mis 
sissippi Valley. The present want of hori- 
zontality in some of them is due to the ero- 
sive action of water. The drainage, moving 
in the direction of the creeks and rivers, at 
length furrowed' the surface with tortuous 
meanders, resulting finally in the present 
undulating or rolliDg prairies. The absence 
of trees, the most remarkable feature, is 
attributable first to the formation of ulmic 
acid, which favors the growth of herbaceous 
plants, and retards that of forests ; secondly, 
trees absorb by their roots large quantities of 
air, which they cannot obtain when the sur- 
face' is under water or covered by a compact 
soil or sod; and. thirdly, they require solid 
points of attachment which marshy flats are 
unable to furnish. When, however, they 
become dry and the sod is broken by the 
plow, they may then only produce trees, but 
not otherwise. 

This is a mere statement of the different 

theories upon the subject cf the formation of 
prairies, without any effort to give the argu- 
ments upon which either are based. So far 
as the writer now remembers, the discussion 
was commenced about twenty- five years ago 
by Judge Walter B. Scates, of this State, and 
has since been taken up and carried on by 
some of the most eminent scientists of the 
country. The discussion is interesting and 
full of facts and valuable information. 

The surface of the county is generally 
rolling, and elevated from 50 to 100 feet 
above the bed of the streams. The bottoms 
on Skillet Fork and Little Wabash are rather 
low and flat, and are heavily timbered. The 
geological features are very similar to those 
of Wabash and Edwards, the drift deposits 
and the upper coal measures being the only 
formations exposed. In the southern portion 
of the county, the drift clays seldom exceed 
a thickness of fifteen to twenty feet, and in 
sinking wells the bed-rock is often found at a 
depth of ten or twelve feet below the surface. 
Toward the northern boundary of the county 
they are somewhat heavier, and on Elm 
Creek there are bluffs thirty feet or more in 
height that seem to be composed entirely of 
drift. Here the lower portion consists of the 
bluish-gray hard-pan, where it is sometimes 
found from fifty to seventy-five feet or more 
in thickness. The upper portion of these 
superficial deposits may be represented along 
the bluffs of the Little Wabash by a few feet 
of loess, but generally it consists of yellowish- 
brown gravelly clays and sands with numer- 
ous rounded pebbles, and occasionally bowl- 
ders, of metamorphic rock, of moderate size. 
Locally, the gravelly clays are tinged with a 
reddish-brown color, with the red oxide of 
iron, derived probably from the decomposi- 
tion of a ferruginous sandstone that forms 
the bed-rock in many places in the southern 
part of the county. The undulations of the 



surface often take the form of long ridges 
from thirty to forty feet in height, with a 
direction nearly parallel with the course of 
the streams. These ridges usually have a 
nucleus of sandstone or shale, but their Fides 
are so gently sloping, and the drift clay cov- 
ers then so evenly that the bed-rock is seldom 
exposed to view. The streams are sluggish, 
and meander through wide, fiat valleys, sel- 
dom showing any outcrop of the bed-rock 
along their courses. This renders the con- 
struction of continuous sections very difficult, 
and the determination of the true sequence 
of the strata can only be made in a general 
way by the examination of isolated outcrops. 
Coal Measures. —At the iron bridge on the 
Little Wabash, on the stage road from Fair- 
field to Albion, the following section is to 
be seen on the oast bank of the stream: 


Sandstone, partly in regular beds and partly 
massive 25 

Pebbly conglomerate, with fragments of coal 
and mineral charcoal '.'in I 

Black laminated shale, with concretions of 
bituminous limestone 3 

Dove-colored clay shale, with fossil ferns. . . .2 to 3 

Shaly sandstone appealing some distance be- 
low 3 to 4 

No fossils are found here that would ena- 
ble us to fix the horizon of these beds, but 
they present nearly the same lithological 
characters as the outcrop at Hamiaker's old 
mill on the Boupas, in Edwards County. At 
Beech Bluff, three or four miles above the 
bridge, the sandstone is more massive and 
extends to the river level, showing no out- 
crop of the underlying beds. 

At Massillon, on the west bank of the Lit- 
tle Wabash, on the northwest quarter of 
Section 15, Town 1 south. Range 9 east, the 
bluff is composed mainly of sandstone and 
sandy shale, with a few feet of argillaceous 
shales near the river level, containing several 
bands of clay iron ore. This outcrop seems 

to be identical with that at the old ford three 
miles above, in Edwards County, and it is 
quite probable the thin coal found there is a 
little below the river bed. A thin coal is 
found here in the sandstone some twenty feet 
or more above the river level; but it is prob- 
ably only a local deposit, or pocket, such as 
may be frequently met with in the sandstones 
of the coal measures. 

Mill Shoals is situated on the Skillet Fork, 
just over the line in White County, but the 
section made in this vicinity is partly in 
Wayne, and is as follows: 


Sandstone in thiu beds, partial exposure of 

about 6 

Bituminous shale, with streak of impure 

coal near the top 2A to 3 

Sandstone and sandy shale 40 to 50 

Space unexposed 15 to 20 

Hard, shaly sandstone in the bank of 

Skillet Fork 3 to 4 

Hard, black laminated shale, passing lo- 
cally into clay shale 6 to 8 

Shale with a thin coal 2 to 3 

Hard-grained limestone without fossils.. 2 to 3 

Greenish, pebbly shale 2 

Sandy shale 1 

The three upper beds in the foregoing sec- 
tion are found in Wayne County, about three- 
quarters of a mile northeast of Fairfield. 
Prof. Cox reports a section six miles south- 
east of Fairfield which seems to be nearly a 
repetition of that at Mill Shoals, as follows: 


Yellow clay and drift 15 

Sandstone, and locally some shale 45 

Gray silicinus shale 10 

Thin coal 

Limestone without fossils 2 

These two sections will give a general idea 
of the prevailing character of the rocks in 
the south part of Wayne County. The fol- 
lowing is a section of a well bored for oil by 
Maj. Collins on Section 25, of Township 2, 
Range 7 : 




Soil and subsoil 3 

Sandstone 50 

Slate (shale?) 27 

Coal 3 

Clay and blue shale 2 

Hard, gritty rock 4 

Hard yellow rock 4 

Hard sandstone 8 to 10 

Dark slate (shale?) 28 

White sandstone 66 

Black shale 4 

Total 206 

Reports have gone out from this county, as 
they have frequently from other counties, of 
the discovery of oil wells. These are to be 
taken with due allowance, in consideration 
of the fact that the persons having the work 
in charge were seldom qualified to determine 
the true character of the beds through which 
their drill was passing, and we see in the 
above section that no attempt was made to 
define the character of two beds of hard rock, 
while the beds denominated slates were prob- 
ably shale, with possibly a thin bed of slate 
intercalated therein. In this way bituminous 
slate is often mistaken for coal, and where 
the substance is reduced to an impalpable 
powder by the drill no one but an expert can 
fully determine the one from the other by 
the material brought up in the sand pump. 
At Mr. Black's place, about two miles north- 
west of Fairfield, there is an outcrop of hard, 
dark bluish-gray limestone weathering to a 
buff color, which is overlaid by a clay shale, 
with a thin coal or bituminous shale inter- 
calated therein, as indicated by a streak of 
smutty material, to be seen a few feet above 
the limestone. A thin coal, sometimes as much 
as eighteen inches in thickness, occurs at an- 
other locality under a limestone similar to this, 
and the same may be possibly found here by 
digging a few feet below the rock. The 
limestone has been quarried here as well as 
on the adjoining farm for building stone and 

for lime, and ranges from two to three feet 
in thickness. 

On Mr. J. H. Thomas' place, on Section 
7, Township 1 south, Range 8 east, a thin 
coal has been found below a limestone sim- 
ilar to that above mentioned. The coal was 
opened a few years since by sinking a shaft 
some fifteen or twenty feet in depth, and the 
coal is reported to have been eighteen inches 
thick, and the limestone two feet. The shaly 
poition of the limestone contained a few fos- 
sils, among which we identified Orthis pecosi, 
Spirifer cameratus, Chonetes vernenilianus 
and Lophophillum proliferum. 

On Mr. E. Pilcher's land, in Section 20 of 
the same township, a bed of black shale crops 
out on a hillside, at an elevation consider- 
ably above the coal shaft above mentioned, 
and was penetrated to the depth of fifteen 
feet in search of coal, but without finding it. 
On the opposite side of the hill and below 
the level of the "black shale, a calcareo- 
silicious rock has been quarried for building 
stone. It has a slaty structure, and is filled 
with fragments of broken plants, and appears 
to be the exact equivalent of the arenaceous 
limestone found at Mr. Boden's place two 
miles and a half south of Flora. The bitu- 
minous shale at Mr. Pilcher's place contains 
rounded bowlders of black limestone that 
weathers to a bluish dove color, and similar 
concretions were seen at the exposure south 
of Flora, which leaves no reasonable doubt 
of the identity of the beds at these points. 
A short distance south of Mr. Pilcher's land, 
limestone] was formerly quarried for lime- 
burning, but the outcrop is now covered up. 
The relative position of the beds above de- 
scribed is represented by the following sec- 
tion : 


Bituminous shale, with concretion of black 

limestone 15 to 20 

Shale partly exposed 10 to 15 



Slat} arenacious limestone with broken 

plants % to 4 

Dark limestone 2 

Shale (thickness not determined) 

Coal 1 

On Mrs. Williams' place on northwest quar- 
ter of Section 29, Town 1 south, Range 7 
east, about seven miles northwest of Fairfield, 
there is an outcrop of 1"> to Hi) feet of sandy 
and argillaceous shale, containing numerous 
hands of kidney iron ore of good quality. A 
thin coal has been passed through in digging 
wells in this neighborhood, and either under- 
lies these shales or is intercalated in them. 
This outcrop closely resembles those at the 
McDaniel place, near the north line of the 
county, hereafter to be mentioned, and the 
well water in this neighborhood is impreg- 
nated with epsom salts, like wells and springs 
in the locality above mentioned. Between 
this locality and Fairfield, and about three 
miles a little north of west from the town, 
an even-bedded sandstone is quarried for 
building purposes, similar to that at Hoag's 
quarry north of Xenia. This sandstone 
probably underlies the shale outcropping at 
the Williams place, three or four miles to 
the westward, and the coal there is probably 
a local deposit. 

On Section 21, Town 2 north, Range 6 
east, in the bluffs of Bear Creek, near the 
north line of the county, a massive sandstone 
outcrops for a long distance along the course 
of the stream, in perpendicular cliffs from 
twenty to thirty feet in height. This sand- 
stone was struck in the boring at Flora, at 
the depth of about sixty feet, and was pene- 
trated to the depth of about eighty-four feet. 
The outcrops on Bear Creek probably repre- 
sent only the lower portion of the bed. 

On Section '27, Town 2 north. Range 6 
east, argillaceous and sandy shales with bands 
of kidney iron ore crop out in the slopes of 
hills at various poiuts, showing an aggregate 

thickness of twenty feet or more, with a bi- 
tuminous shale or impure coal at the top of 
the exposure. A well sunk here struck a vein 
of water at the depth of twenty-two feet so 
strong that it soon rose to the surface, and 
has been flowing ever since. It has a strong 
taste of opsom salts, and produces an effect 
similar to that drug upon those who use it. 
At Eli McDaniel's place adjoining the above, 
a spring of the same kind of water is found, 
somewhat, stronger in mineral properties than 
that in the well. The water here seems to 
derive its mineral properties from the bed of 
argillaceous slate which forms the bed rock 
in this vicinity, as the wells sunk in the over- 
laying sandstone afford pure water. The fol- 
lowing additional notes and sections are re- 
ported by Prof. Cox in this county: " At Lib- 
erty they pass through sandstone in digging 
wells from ten to forty feet, and obtain pure 
water. On Section 30, Town 2, Range 7, 
limestone is obtained for building and for 
lime bed three feet thick, upper part shaly 
contains Productm loiii/is/u'iiHs, Machrohei 
lux jiriiiiigeniiis, Ailii/ris subtilita, Produc- 
ing costatus, and joints of Crinoidea. The 
same limestone is exposed at Whittaker's, 
on Section 25, of Town 2, Range 7. A thin 
coal is usually found beneath the limestone, 
and impure coal or bituminous shale is fre- 
quently seen in the shales above it. Clay 
iron ore occurs in a grayish shale, seven miles 
north of Fairfield, exposed by awash on the 
hillside. On Section :'>!, Town 1 south. 
Range 9 east, the following beds are seen: 

Kt. In. 

Heavy beaded sandstone '-25 

Arenaceous shale 10 

Black slaty shale .'. 2 

Pyritiferous shale, with fragments of shells 10 ^ 

Fire clay (good quality) 1 

Clayshale 6 

Shaly sandstone in river bed '•.' 6 

From the foregoing sections and remarks, 



it will be seen that there is but little divers- 
ity in the character of the rocks exposed in 
this county. They probably represent a 
thickness of 175 feet to 200 feet or more, com- 
prising mainly sandstone and shales, most of 
which decompose readily on exposure, and 
are therefore seldom found in bold outcrops. 
Building Stone. — Sandstone of a fair qual- 
ity for building purposes, is tolerably abun- 
dant, and quarries have been opened in nearly 
every township in the county. Three miles 
a little southwest of Fairfield, an excellent 
sandstone is quarried on a small branch trib- 
utary to the Skillet Fork The rock is in 
smooth, even layers, and resembles the sand- 
stone in Hoag's quarry, near Xenia. Along 
the Little Wabash, a heavy bedded sandstone 
is found throughout the course in the south- 
eastern part of 'the county, which, from the 
bold cliff it forms at many points along the 
bluffs of the stream, will no doubt afford a 
large amount of building material. Six 
miles southeast of, Fairfield, a good flag- 
sandstone is quarried in large slabs six in- 
ches thick. Three and a half miles north of 
Jeffersonville, on Section 30, Town 1 north. 
Range 6 east, a grayish sandstone of good 
quality is quarried in large slabs from a foot 
to eighteen inches in thickness. A similar 
stone is also quarried by Mr. Philips, on 
Section 16, Town 1 north , Range 7 east. 
These are some of the most valuable quarries 
opened at the present time, but others equally 
good may be opened at various places in the 
county, as the wants of the people may re- 
quire. Thej limestone over the eighteen- 
inch coal seam has been quarried at almost 
every spot where it outcrops, but the bed is 
thin and the supply to be obtained from it, 
without too great expense in stripping, is 
rather limited. 

Coal. — The only coal in the county that 
promises to be of any value for practical 

mining, is the eighteen-inch seam north and 
northeast of Fairfield. This might be 
worked in a limited way either by stripping, 
or by an inclined tunnel near its outcrop. 
But the seam is too thin to furnish an ade- 
quate supply for the general market. The 
main coals of the lower measures may be 
reached in the southern portion of the 
county, at depths varying from 4 to 600 
feet, and in the northern part from 5 to 800. 
Iron Ore. — Bands of iron ore of good 
quality occur at several places in the shales 
of this county, and have been noted in the 
sections already given. They seem to be in 
sufficient quantity in several localities to 
eventually become of some economical value. 
In Great Britain, bands six to eight inches 
thick are said to be worked successfully, and 
we find many localities in the coal measures 
where from twelve to eighteen inches of good 
ore can be obtained, from a vertical thickness 
of five or six feet of shale. The shale con- 
taining the iron ore observed in this county, 
underlies a considerable area in the center 
and western portions, mainly in Ranges 6 and 
7 east. At Mrs. Williams' place on the 
northwest quarter of Section 29 of Township 
1 south, Range 7 east, iron ore of good 
quality seemed to be quite abundant, and 
also at several places, in the ravines near 
Mr. McDaniel's place, not far from the north 
line of the county. Prof. Cox also notes 
an outcrop of clay iron ore in a grayish shale 
seven miles north of Fairfield, and also on 
Section 15, Town 1 north, Range 8 east. 

Potters' Clay. — A good clay, suitable for 
pottery or fire-brick is found on Section 32, 
Township 1 south, Range 9 east, but at the 
outcrop it was only one foot thick. Possibly 
it may be found at some other locality near 
by, where it is thick enough to be utilized 
for the manufacture of pottery or fire-brick. 

Clay or Sand. — Materials for brick can be 



obtained from the subsoils of the uplands, 
almost anywhere in the county, and from the 
abundant supply of wood for fuel, brick can 
be made in sufficient quantity to supply all 
future demands for this indispensable build- 
ing material. 

Soil and Agriculture. — The soil in this 
county is mainly a dark ash-gray or chocolate- 
colored clay loam, less highly charged with 
organic matter or humus than the black 
prairie soil of Central Illinois, but yielding 
fair crops of corn, wheat, oats and grass, 
both clover and timothy, and with judicious 
treatment will retain its fertility without any 
expense for artificial fertilizers 
afford excellent fruit farms. 

The ridges 

Recent developments have taught the peo- 
ple of Wayne County that here is the home 
of the apple in all its varieties. The soil 
and temperature made it the favored spot in 
the great, valley for the production of this 
valuable fruit. Either further north or fur- 
ther south than this, and the advantageous 
grounds are left for apple raising. The 
present season, 1883, has been marked in 
many parts of Illinois by a failure of much 
of the wheat and corn crops. It was too wet 
in the spring and too dry in the summer, but 
the apple crop in Wayne County has nearly 
compensated our people for the failure of 
corn and wheat. 






" Naught telling how the victim died, 
Save faint tradition's faltering tongue." 

THE cradle of American history is the 
lower St. Lawrence River, and the great 
storehouse is the Mississippi Valley. And 
going back nearly four hundred years, it is one 
of the world's most wonderful tragedies, run- 
ning through nearly four centuries in duration. 
The thrilling story has been a grand epic of 
mankind, and while its recital thrills the stu- 
dent of those tremendous events with consum- 
ing interest, it may command the eager in- 
vestigation of the whole thinking world, 
because it is fraught with more mastering 
influences — forces that have shaped the desti- 
nies of mankind, and of civilization to a 

greater extent, than has any other period in 
all the world's history. 

The truths of history in reference to this 
spot upon the globe are only now being crit- 
ically examined; and the revelations they 
afford command a deep interest and a wide 
attention. For this empire of magnificent 
proportions (the Mississippi Valley), the lead- 
ing powers of the Old World contended for 
nearly three hundred years, and the savage 
Indian yet sharpens his scalping knife and 
lifts up in deadly revenge his tomahawk. 
Tun pj.ver of the Old World was the church, 
and it is a curious fact that these warlike 
nations that struggle for empire by the 
sword were guided and pointed the way to the 



new and tempting continent — to the very 
heart of the homes of the most powerful and 
savage tribes of men that were here, by the 
missionaries of the Catholic Church, who 
carried nothing more formidable for attack 
or defense than their prayer books and rosa- 
ries, and the gentle and divine command of 
"Peace on earth and good will among men.' 
The French Catholic missionaries were as 
loyal to their government as they were true 
to their God. They planted the lilies of 
France, and erected the cross of the mother 
church in the newly discovered countries, and 
chauted the solemn mass that soothed the 
savage breast, and smoke the calumet with 
wild men of the woods. 

The settlement of the West and the first 
discoveries were made by the French, and it 
was long afterward the country passed into 
the permanent possession of the English ; the 
letter people wrote the histories, and tinged 
them from first to last with their prejudices, 
and thus promulgated many serious errors of 
history. Time will always produce the icon- 
oclast who will dispassionately follow out the 
truth, regardless of how many fictions it 
may brush away in its course. Thus history 
is being continually re-written, and the 
(ruth is ever making its approaches, and the 
glorious deeds of the noble sons of France 
are becoming manifested, as the views of our 
history are brought to light, particularly 
their occupancy of the valley of the Father 
of Waters. 

As early as 1504, the French seamen from 
Brittany and Normandy visited the fisheries 
of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. These 
bold and daring men traversed the ocean, 
through the dangers of ice and storms, to 
pursue the occupation of fishery, an enter- 
prise which to-day has developed into one of 
gigantic magnitude. 

France not long after this commissioned 

•Tames Cartier, a distinguished mariner, to 
explore America. In 1535, in pursuance of 
the order, they planted the cross on the 
shores of the New World, on the banks of 
the St. Lawrence, bearing a shield with the 
lilies of France. He was followed by other 
adventurous spirits, and among them the im- 
mortal Samuel Champlain, a man of great 
enterprises, who founded Quebec in 1608. 
Champlain ascended the Sorel River, ex- 
plored Lake Champlain, which bears his 
name to-day. He afterward penetrated the 
forest and found his grave on the bleak shores 
of Lake Huron. He was unsurpassed for 
braverv, indefatigable in industry, and was 
one of the leading spirits in explorations 
and discoveries in the New World. 

In the van of the explorations on this con- 
tinent were found the courageous and pious 
Catholic missionaries, meeting dangers an 
death with a crucifix upon their breasts'' 
breviary in hand, whilst chanting their 
matins and vespers, along the shores of our 
majestic rivers, great lakes and unbroken 
forests. Their course was marked through 
the trackless wilderness by 'he carving of 
their emblems of faith upon the roadway, 
amidst perils and dangers, without food but 
pounded maize, sleeping in the woods with- 
out shelter, their couch being the ground and 
rock. Their beacon light, the cross, which 
was marked upon the oak of the forest in 
their pathway. 

After these missionaries had selected their 
stations of worship, the French hunters. 
courriers de boift, voyagers and traders, 
opened their traffic with the savages. France, 
when convenient and expedient, erected a 
chain 1 of forts along the rivers and lakes, in 
defense of Christianity and commerce. 

France, from 1008, acquired in this conti- 
nent a territory extensive enough to create a 
great empire, and was at that time untrod by 



the foot of the white man. and inhabited by 
roving tribos of the red man. As early as 
1615, we find Father LeCarron, a Catholic 
priest, in the forests of Canada, exploring 
the country for the purpose of converting 
the savages to the Christian religion. The 
following year he is seen on foot traversing 
the forests amongst the Mohawks, and reach- 
ing the rivers of the Ottewas. He was fol- 
lowed by other missionaries along the basin 
of the St. Lawrence and Kennebec Rivers, 
where some met their fate in frail barks, 
whilst others perished in the storms of a 
dreadful wilderness. 

In 1635 we find Father Jean Brebeauf, 
Daniels and Gabriel Lallamaud leaving Que- 
bec with a few Huron braves to explore Lake 
Huron, to establish chapels along its banks, 
from which sprung the villages of St. 
Joseph, St. Ignatius and St. Louis. To 
reach these places it was necessary to follow 
the Ottawae River through a dangerous and 
devious way to avoid the Mohawks, Oneidas, 
Cayugas. Senecas and Iroquois, forming a 
confederacy as the "Five Nations," occupy- 
ing a territory then known as the New York 
colony, who were continually at war with the 
Hurons, a tribe of Indians inhabiting Lake 
Huron territory. 

As early as 1639, three Sisters of Charity 
from France arrived at Quebec, dressed in 
plain black gowns with snowy white collars, 
whilst to their girdles hung the rosary. They 
proceeded to the chapel, led by the Governor 
of Canada, accompanied by braves and war 
riors, to chant the Te Deum. These holy 
and pious women, moved by religious zeal, 
immediately established the Ursuline Con- 
vent for the education of girls. In addition 
to this, the King of Franco and nobility of 
Paris endowed a seminary in Quebec for the 
education of all classes of persons. A pub- 
lic hospital was built by the generous Duchess 

of D'Arguilon, with the aid of Cardinal 
Richelieu, for the unfortunate emigrants, to 
the savages of all tribes and afflicted of all 
classes. A missionary station was established 
as early as Kill, at Montreal, under a rude 
tent, from which has grown the large city < f 
to-day, with its maguilicent cathedral and 
phurches, its massive business houses and its 

The tribes of Huron Lake and neighboring 
savages, in 1641, met on the banks of the 
Iroquois Bay to celebrate the " Festival of 
the Dead." The bones and ashes of the 
dead had been gathered in coffins of bark, 
whilst wrapped in magniticpnt furs, to be 
given an affectionate sepulcher. At this 
singular festival of the savages, the chiefs 
and braves of different tribes chanted their 
low, mournful songs, day and night, amidst 
the wails and groans of their women and 
children. During this festival appeared the 
pious missionaries, their cassocks with beads 
to their girdle, sympathizing with the red 
men in their devotion to the dead, whilst 
scattering their medals, pictures of our Savior 
and blessed and beautiful beads, which 
touched and won the hearts of the sons of 
the forest. What a beautiful spectacle to 
behold, over the grass of the tierce warriors, 
idolatry fading before the Son of God. 
Father Charles Raymbault and the indomit- 
able Isaac Jorjues in 1641 left Canada to ex- 
plore the country as far as Lake Superior. 
They reached the Falls of St. Moaray's and 
established a station at SauK de Ste. Marie, 
where were assembled many warriors and 
braves from the great West, to see and hear 
these two apostles of religion and to behold 
the cross of Christianity. These two mission- 
aries invoked them to worship the true God. 
The savages were struck with the emblem of 
the cross and its teachings, and exclaimed. 
" We embrace you as brothers: come and 
dwell in our cabins." 



When Father Joques and his party were 
returning from the Falls of St. Mary's to 
Quebec, they were attacked by the Mohawks, 
who massacred the chief and his braves, who 
accompanied him, whilst they held Bather 
Joques in captivity, showering upon him a 
great many indignities, compelling him to 
run the gantlet through their village. 
Father Brussini at the same time was beaten, 
mutilated, and made to walk barefooted 
through thorns and briers and then scourged 
by a whole village. However, by some 
miraculous way they were rescued by the 
generous Dutch of New York and both after- 
ward returned to France. Father Joques 
again returned to Quebec, and was sent as 
an envoy amongst the Five Nations. Con- 
trary to the savage laws of hospitality, he 
was ill-treated, and then killed as an en- 
chanter, his head hung upon the skirts of 
the village and his body thrown into the 
Mohawk River. Such was the fate of this 
courageous and pious man, leaving a monu- 
ment of martyrdom more enduring than the 
pyramids of Egypt. 

The year 1(545 is memorable, owing to a 
congress held by France and the " Five Na- 
tions " at the Three Rivers, in Canada. There 
the daring chiefs and warriors and the gal- 
lant officers of France met at the great coun- 
cil-fires. After the war-dance and numerous 
ceremonies, the hostile parties smoked the 
calumet of peace. The Iroquois said : " Let 
the clouds be dispersed and the sun shine on 
all the land between us." The Mohawks ex- 
claimed: "We have thrown the hatchet so 
high into the air and beyond the skies that 
no man on earth can reach to bring it down. 
Tho French shall sleep on our softest blank- 
ets, by the warm tire, that shall be kept blaz- 
ing all night." Notwithstanding the eloquent 
and fervent language and appearance of 
peace, it was but of short duration, for soon 

the cabin of the white man was in flames, 
and the foot-print of blood was seen along the 
St. Lawrence, and once more a bloody war 
broke out, which was disastrous to France, 
as the Five Nations returned to the allegiance 
of the English colonies. 

The village of St. Joseph, near Huron 
Lake, on the 4th of July, 1648, whilst her 
warriors were absent, was sacked and its 
people murdered by the Mohawks. Father 
Daniel, who officiated there, whilst endeavor- 
ing to protect the children, women and old 
men was fatally wounded by numerous arrows 
and killed. Thus fell this martyr in the 
cause of religion and progress. 

The next year the villages of St. Ignatius 
and St. Louis were attacked by the Iroquois. 
The village of St. Ignatius was destroyed 
and its inhabitants massacred. The village 
of St. Louis shared the same fate. At the 
latter place, Father Brebeauf and Lallemand 
were made prisoners, tied to a tree, stripped 
of their clothes, mutilated, burned with fagots 
and rosin bark, and then scalped. They per- 
ished in the name of France and Christianity. 

Father de la Ribourde, who had been the , 
companion of La Salle on the Griffin, and who 
officiated at Fort Creve Cceur, 111., whilst re- 
turning to Lake Michigan, was lost in the 
wilderness. Afterward, it was learned he 
had been murdered in cold blood by three 
young warriors, who carried his prayer book 
and scalp as a trophy up north of Lake Su- 
perior, which afterward fell into the hands 
of the missionaries. Thus died this martyr 
of religion, after ten years' devotion in the 
cabins of the savages, whose head had become 
bleached with seventy winters. Such was 
also the fate of the illustrious Father Rine 
Mesnard, on his mission to the southern shore 
of Lake Superior, where in after years his 
cassock and breviary was kept as amulets 
among the Sioux. After thpse atrocities, 



these noble missionaries never retraced 'their 
steps, and new troops pressed forward to take 
their places. They still continued to explore 
our vast country. The history of their labors, 
self-sacrifice and devotion is connected with 
the origin of every village or noted place in 
the North and great West. 

France ordered, by Colbert, its great min- 
ister, that an invitation be given to all tribes 
West for a general congress. This remark- 
able council was hold in May, 1671, at the 
Falls of St. Mary's. There were found the 
chiefs and braves of many nations of the 
West, decorated in their brightest feathers 
and furs, whilst, the French officers glistened 
with their swords and golden epaulets. In 
their midst stood the undaunted missionaries 
from all parts of the country. In this re- 
markable congress rose a log cedar cross, and 
upon a staff the colors of France. 

In this council, after many congratulations 
offered, and the war dance, the calumet was 
smoked- and peace declared. France secures 
here the friendship of the tribes and domin- 
ion over the great West. 

Marquette, while on his mission in the 
West, leaves Mackinac on the 13th of May, 
1673, with his companion Joliot and five 
Frenchmen and two Indian guides, in two 
bark canoes freighted with maize and smoked 
meat, to enter into Lake Michigan and Green 
Bay until they reached Fox River in Illinois, 
where stood on its banks an Indian village 
occupied by the Kickapoos, Mascoutins and 
Mianiis. where the noble Father Alloues offi- 
ciated. Marquette in this village preaches 
and announces to them his object of discover- 
ing the great river. They are appalled at 
the bold proposition. They say: "Those 
distant nations never spare the strangers; 
their mutual wars till their borders with 
bands of warriors. The great river abounds 
in monsters which devour both men and 

canoos. The excessive heat occasions death." 
From Fox River across the portage with 
the canoes they reach the Wisconsin River. 
There Marquette and Joliet separated with 
their guides, and in Marquette's language, 
" Leaving us alone in this unknown land in 
the hands of Providence," they float down 
the Wisconsin, whose banks are dotted with 
prairies and beautiful hills, whilst surrounded 
by wild animals and the buffalo. After seven 
days' navigation on this river, their hearts 
bound with gladness on beholding on the 
17th day of June, 1673. the broad expanse 
of the great Father of Waters, and upon its 
bosom they float down. About sixty leagues 
below this, they visit an Indian village. 
Their reception from the savages was cordial. 
They said: " We are Illinois, that is, we are 
men. The whole village awaits thee; thou 
shalt enter in peace our cabins." After six 
days' rest on the couch of furs, and amidst 
abundance of game, these hospitable Illinois 
conduct them to their canoes, whilst the 
chief places around Marquette's neck the cal- 
UTiiet of peace, being beautifully decorated 
with the feathers of birds. 

Their canoe again ripples the bosom of 
the great river (Mississippi). When further 
down, they behold on the high bluffs and 
smooth rock above (now Alton) on the Illinois 
shore, the figures of two monsters painted in 
various colors, of frightful appearance, and 
the position appeared to bo inaccessible to a 
painter. They soon reached the turbid waters 
of the Missouri, and thence floated down to 
the mouth of the Ohio. 

Farther down the river stands the village 
of Mitchigamea, being on the west, side of 
the river. When approaching this place, its 
bloody warriors with their war cry embark 
in their canoes to attack them, but the calu- 
met, held aloft by Marquette, pacifies them. 
So tbey are treated with hospitality and es- 



corted by them to the Arkansas River. They 
sojourn there a short time, when Marquette, 
before leaving this sunny land, celebrates 
the festival 'oi the church. Marquette and 
Joliet then turn their canoe northward to 
retrace their way back until they reach the 
Illinois River, thence up that stream, along 
its flowery prairies. The Illinois braves con 
duct them back to Lake Michigan, thence to 
Green Bay, where they arrived in September, 

Marquette for two years officiated 
along Lake Michigan; afterward visited 
Mackinaw; from thence he enters a small 
river in Michigan (that bears his name) when, 
after saying mass, he withdraws for a short 
time to the woods, where he is found dead. 
Thus died this illustrious explorer and re- 
markable priest, leaving a name unparalleled 
as a brave, good and virtuous Christian. 

Robert Caralin La Salle, a native of Nor- 
mandy, an adventurer from France, arrived 
in Canada about 1670. Being ambitious to 
distinguish himself in making discoveries on 
this continent, he returned to France to solicit j 
aid for that purpose. He was made chevalier, 
upon the condition that he would repair Fort 
Frontenac, located on Lake Ontario, and open 
commerce with the savages. In 1678, he 
again returned to France, when, in July, 1679. 
with Chevalier Tonti, his Lieutenant, with 
thirty men, he left Rochelle for Quebec and 
Fort Frontenac. Whilst at Quebec, an agree- 
ment was made by the Governor of Canada 
with La Salle to establish forts along the 
northern lakes. At this time he undertook 
with great activity to increase the commerce 
of the West, by building a bark of ten tons 
to float on Lake Ontario. Shortly afterward 
he built another vessel, known as the Griffin, 
above Niagara Falls, for Lake Erie, of sixty 
tons, being the lirst vessel seen on the North- 
ern lakes. The Griffin was launched and 

made to float on Lake Erie. ' ' On the prow 
of this ship armorial bearings were adorned 
by two griffins as supporters ; " upon her 
deck she carried two brass cannon for defense. 
On the 7th of August, 1679, she spread her 
sails on Lake Erie, whilst on her deck stood 
the brave naval commander La Salle, accom- 
panied by Fathers Hennepin, Ribourde and 
Zenobi, surrounded by a crew of thirty voy- 
ageurs. On leaving, a salute was fired, whose 
echoes were heard to the astonishment of the 
savages, who named the Griffin the " Great 
W T ooden Canoe/' This ship pursued her 
course thTough Lakes Erie, St. Clair and 
Huron to Mackinaw, thence through that 
strait into Lake Michigan, thence to Green 
Bay, where she anchored in safety. The 
Griffin, after being laden with a cargo of 
pultries and furs, was ordered back by La 
Salle to the port from whence she sailed, but 
unfortunately on her return she was wrecked. 
La Salle during the absence of the Griffin 
determined, with fourteen men, to proceed to 
the mouth of the Miamis, now St. Joseph, 
where he built a fort, from which place he 
proceeded to Rock Fort in La Salle County, 
111. La Salle hearing of the disaster and 
wreck of the Griffin, he builds a fort on the 
Illinois River called Creve Cceur (broken 
heart). This brave man, though weighed 
down by misfortune, did not despair. He 
concluded to return to Canada, but before 
leaving sends Father Hennepin, withPiscard, 
Du Gay and Michael Aka. to explore the 
sources of the Upper Mississippi. They 
leave Creve Cceur February '2d, lf>80. float- 
ing down the Illinois River, reaching the 
Mississippi March 8, 1680 : then explored 
this river up to the Falls of St. Anthony; 
from there they penetrated the forests, which 
brought them to the wigwams of the Sioux, 
who detained Father Hennepin and compan- 
ions for a short time in captivity; recover] g 


their liberties, they returned to Lake Superior 
in November, 1680, thence to Quebec and 
France. During the explorations of Father 
Hennepin, La Salle, with a courage unsur- 
passed, a constitution of iron, returns to 
Canada, a distance of 1,200 miles, his path 
way being through snows, ice and savages 
along the lakes Michigan, Erie and Ontario. 
Reaching Quebec, he finds his business in a 
disastrous condition, his vessels lost, his 
goods seized and his men scattered. Not 
being discouraged, however, he returns to 
his forts in Illinois, which he finds deserted; 
takes new courage; goes to Mackinaw; finds 
his devoted friend Chevalier Tonti in 1681, 
and is found once more on the Illinois River 
to continue the explorations of the Missis- 
sippi, which had been explored by Father 
Marquette to the Arkansas River, and by 
Father Hennepin up to the Falls of St. An- 
thony. La Salle, from Fort Creve Cceur, on 
the Illinois River, with twenty-two French- 
men, amongst whom was Father Zenobi and 
Chevalier Tonti, with eighteen savages and 
two women and three children, float down 
until they reached the Mississippi on Feb- 
ruary 6, 1682. They descend this mighty 
river until they reach its mouth, April 6, 
L682, where they are the 'first to plant the 
cross and the banners of France. La Salle, 
with his companions, ascends the Mississippi 
and returns to his forts on the Illinois; re- 
turns again to Canada and France. 

La Salle is received at the French court 
with enthusiam. The King of France orders 
four vessels well equipped to serve him, un- 
do- Beatigerr, commander of the fleet, to 
proceed to the Gulf of Mexico to discover the 
Balize. Unfortunately for La Salle, he fails 
in discovering it. and they arc thrown into 
the Bay of Matagorda, Texas, where La Salle, 
with liis 280 persona, are abandoned by 
Beaugerr, the commander of the fleet. La 

Salle here builds a fort; then undertakes by 
land to discover the Balize. After many 
hardships he returns to his fort, and acain 
attempts the same object, when ho meets a 
tragical end, being murdered by the desper- 
ate Duhall, one of his men. During the 
voyage of La Salle, Chevalier Tonti, his 
friend had gone down the Mississippi to its 
mouth to meet him. After a long search in 
vain for the fleet, he returned to Rock Fort 
on the Illinois. After the unfortunate death 
of La Salle, great disorder and misfortune 
occurred to his men in Texas. Some wan- 
dered among the jsavages, others were taken 
prisoners, others perished in the woods. 
However, seven bold and brave men of La 
Salle's force determined to return to Illinois, 
headed by Capt. Joutel and the noble Father 
Anatase. After six months of exploration 
through the forest and plain, they cross Red 
River, where they lose one of their comrades. 
They then moved toward the Arkansas 
River, where, to their great joy. they 
reached a French fort, upon which stood a 
large cross, where Couture and Delouny, two 
Frenchmen, had possession, to hold commu- 
nication with La Salle. This brave band, 
with the exception of young Berthelney, pro- 
ceeded up the Mississippi to the Illinois 
forts; from thence to Canada. 

This terminated La Salle's wonderful ex- 
plorations over our vast lakes, groat rivers 
and territory of Texas. He was a man of 
stern integrity, of undoubted activity and 
boldness of character, of an iron constitution, 
entertaining broad views and a chivalry un- 
surpassed in tho Old or New World 

France, as early as possible,' established 
along the lakes permanent settlements. One 
was that df Detroit, which was one of the 
most interesting and loveliest positions, which 
was settled in 1701 by Lamotte de Cardillac 
with KK> Frenchmen. 



The discovery and possession of Mobile, 
Biloxi and Dauphin Islands induced the 
French to search for the mouth of the Mis- 
sissippi River, formerly discovered by La 
Salle. Lemoine D'Iberville, a naval officer 
of talent and great experience, discovered the 
Balize, on the 2d of March, 1699 ; proceeded 
lip this river and took possession of the coun- 
try known as Louisiana. D'Iberville re- 
turned immediately to France to announce 
this glorious news. Bienville, his brother, 
was left to take charge of Louisiana during 
his absence. D'Iberville returned, when Bien- 
ville and St. Denis, with a force, was or- 
dered to explore Red River, and thence to 
the borders of Mexico. La Harpe also as- 
cended Red River in 1719 ; built a fort called 
Carlotte ; also took possession of the Arkan- 
sas River ; afterward floated down this river 
in pirogues, finding on its banks many thriv- 
ing Indian villages. France, in September, 
1712, by letters patent, granted Louisiana to 
Crozas, a wealthy Frenchman, who relin- 
quished his rights and power in 1717 to the 
Company of the West, established by the no- 
torious banker, John Law. Under a fever of 
great speculations, great efforts were made to 
advance the population and wealth of Louis- 
iana. New Orleans was mapped out in 1718, 
and became the important city of Lower and 
Upper Louisiana. The charter and privileges 
of "Company of the West," after its total 
failure, was resigned to the crown of France 
in 1731. The country embracing Louisiana 
was populated by numerous tribes of savages. 
One of these tribes was known as the Natchez, 
located on a high bluff, in the midst of a 
glorious climate, about three hundred miles 
above New Orleans on the river bank. The 
Natchez had erected a remarkable temple, 
where they invoked the " Great Spirit," which 
was decorated with various idols molded from 
clay baked in the sun. In this temple burned 

a living fire, where the bones of the brave 
were burned. Near it, on a high mound, 
the chief of the nation, called the Sun, re- 
sided, where the warriors chanted their war 
songs and held their great council fires. The 
Natchez had shown great hospitality to the 
French. The Governor of Louisiana built a 
fort near them in 1714, called Fort Rosalie. 
Chopart, afterward commander of this fort, 
ill-treated them, and unjustly demanded a 
part of their villages. This unjust demand 
so outraged their feelings, that the Natchez, 
in their anger, lifted up the bloody tomahawk, 
headed by the " Great Sun," attacked Fort 
Rosalie November 28, 1729, and massacred 
every Frenchman in the fort and the vicinity. 
During these bloody scenes, the chief, amid 
this carnage, stood calm and unmoved, while 
Chopart' s head and that of his officers and 
soldiers were thrown at his feet, forming a 
pyramid of human heads. This caused a 
bloody war, which, after many battles fought, 
terminated in the total destruction of the 
Natchez nation. In these struggles, the chief 
and his four hundred braves were made prison- 
ers, and afterward inhumanly sold as slaves 
in St. Domingo. 

The French declared war in 1736 against 
the Chickasaws, a war-like tribe that inhab- 
ited the Southern States. Bienville, com- 
mander of the French, ordered a re-union of 
the troops to assemble on the 10th of May, 
1736, on the Tombigbee River. The gallant 
D'Artaquette, from Fort Chartres, and the 
brave Vincennes from the Wabash River, 
with a thousand warriors, were at their post 
in time, but were forced into battle on the 
20th of May without the assistance of the 
other troops, were defeated and massacred. 
Bienville shortly afterward, on the 27th of 
May, 1736, failed in his assault upon the 
Chickasaw forts on the Tombigbee, where 
the English flag waved, and was forced to 



retreat with the loss of his cannons, which 
forced him to return to New Orleans. In 
1740, the French built a fort at the month 
of the St. Francois River, ami moved their 
troops in Fort Assumption, near Memphis, 
where peace was concluded with the Chicka- 

The oldest permanent settlement on the 
Mississippi was Kaskaskia. first visited by 
Father Gravier, date unknown: but he was 
in Illinois in 1693. He was succeeded by 
Fathers Pinet and Binetan. l'inet became 
the founder of Cahokia, where he erected a 
chapel, and a goodly number <>f savages as- 
sembled to attend the great feast. Father 
Gabriel, who had chanted mass through 
Canada, officiated at Cahokia and Kaskaskia 
in 1711. The missionaries in 1721 established 
a college and monastery at Kaskaskia; Fort 
Chartres, in Illinois, was built in 1720, be- 
came an important post for the security of 
the French, and a great protection for the 
commerce on the Missi-sippi. " The Com- 
pany of the West " sent an expedition under 
Le Sieur to "Upper Louisiana about 1720 in 
search of precious metals, and proceeded up 
as far as St. Croix and St. Peter's Rivers, 
where a fort was built, which had to be 
abandoned owing to tbe hostilities of the 

The French as early as 1 7' >~i. ascended tho 
Missouri River to open traffic with the Mis 
souris and to take possession of the country. 
M. Dutism, from New Orleans, with a force, 
arrived in Saline River, below Ste. Gene- 
vieve, moved westward to the Osage River, 
then beyond this about 150 miles, where he 
found two large villages located in line prai- 
ries abounding with wild game and buffalo. 

France and Spain in 1711* were contending 
for dominion west of the Mississippi. Spain 
in 1720 sent from Sante F£ a large caravan 
to make a settlement on the Missouri River, 

the design being to destroy the Missouris, a 
tribe at peace with France. This caravan. 
after traveling and wandering, lost their way, 
and marched into the camp of the Missouris, 
their enemies, where they were all massacred 
except a priest, who, from his dress, was 
considered no warrior. After this expedition 
from Sante F6 npon Missouri, France, under 
M. DeRonrgmeut, with a force, in 1724 as- 
cended the Missouri, established a fort 
on an island above the Osage River, named 
Fort Orleans. This fort was afterward at- 
tacked and its defenders destroyed, and by 
whom was never ascertained. 

The town of St. Genevieve was the first 
settlement west of the Mississippi River, by 
emigrants from Franco and Canada, in the 
year 1735. 

The wars between England and France more 
or less affected the growth of this continent. 
The war in 1689, known as " King William's 
war,'' was concluded by the treaty of Rys- 
wick, 1697; " Queen Anne's war" termin- 
ated by tho treaty of Utrecht in 1713; " King 
George's war " concluded by the treaty of 
Aix la Chapelle in 174S. These wars gave 
England supremacy in the fisheries, the pos- 
session of the bay of Hudson, of Newfound- 
land and all of Nova Scotia. 

The French and Indian wars, between 
1754 and 1763 — tho struggle between En- 
gland and Franco as to their dominion in 
America- -commenced at this period. It was a 
disastrous and bloody war, where both parties 
enlisted hordes of savages to participate in a 
warfare conducted in a disgraceful manner 
to humanity. France at this time had erected 
a chain of forts from Canada to the great 
lakes and along the Mississippi Valley. The 
English controlled the territory occupied by 
her English colonies. The English claimed 
beyond the Alleghany Mountains to the Ohio 
River. The French deemed her right to this 



river indisputable. Virginia bad granted to 
the " Obio Company " an extensive territory 
reaobing to tbe Obio. Dinwiddie, Governor 
of Virginia, through George Washington, 
remonstrated against tbe encroachment of 
tbe French. St. Pierre, the French com- 
mander, received Washington with kindness, 
returned an answer claiming the territory 
which France occupied. Tbe " Ohio Com- 
pany " sent out a party of men to erect a 
fort at the confluence of the Allegheny and 
Monongahela Rivers. These men had hard- 
ly commenced work on this fort when they 
were driven away by the French, who took 
possession and established "Fort du Quesne." 

Washington, with a body of provincials 
from Virginia, marched to the disputed ter- 
ritory, when a party of French under Jumon- 
ville was attacked, and all either killed or 
made prisoners. Washington after this 
erected a fort called Fort Necessity. From 
thence Washington proceeded with 400 men 
toward Fort du Quesne, where, hearing of 
the advance of M. De Villiers with a large 
force, he returned to Fort Necessity, where, 
after a short defense, Washington had to 
capitulate, with the honorable terms of re- 
turning to Virginia. 

On the 4th of July, 1754, the day that 
Fort Necessity surrendered, a convention of 
colonies was held at Albany, N. Y., for a 
union of the colonies proposed by Dr. Ben 
Franklin, adopted by the delegates, but de- 
feated by the English Government. How- 
ever, at this convention, a treaty was made 
between the colonies and the " Five Nations," 
which proved to be of great advantage to En- 
gland. Gen. Braddock, with a force of 
'2,000 soldiers, marched against Fort du 
Quesne. Within seven miles of this fort, he 
was attacked by the French and Indian allies 
and disastrously defeated, when Washington 
covered tbe retreat, and saved the army from 
total destruction. 

Sir William Johnson, with a large force, 
took command of the army at Fort Edward. 
Near this fort, Baron Dieskan and St. Pierre 
attacked Col. Williams and troop, where the 
English were defeated, but Sir Johnson, com- 
ing to the rescue, defeated the French, who 
lost in this battle Dieskan and St. Pierre. 

On August 12, 1756, Marquis Montcalm, 
commander of the French army, attacked Fort 
Ontario, garrisoned by 1,400 troops, who 
capitulated as prisoners of war, with 134 
cannon, several vessels, and a large amount 
of military stores. Montcalm, destroying 
this fort, returned to Canada. 

By the treaty of peace of Aix la Chapelle 
of October, 1748, Arcadia, known as Nova 
Scotia, and Brunswick had been ceded by 
France to England. When tbe war of 1754 
broke out, this territory was occupied by 
numerous French families. England, fear- 
ing their sympathy for France, cruelly con- 
fiscated their property, destroyed their hum- 
ble homes and exiled them to their colonies 
in the utmost poverty and distress. 

In August, 1857, Marquis Montcalm, with 
a large army, marched on Fort William 
Henry, defended by 3,000 English troops. 
The English were defeated and surrendered 
on condition that they might march out of 
the fort with their arms. The savage allies, 
as they marched out in an outrageous man- 
ner, plundered them and massacred some in 
cold blood, notwithstanding the efforts of the 
French officers to prevent them. The mili- 
tary campaign so far had been very disas- 
trous to the English, which created quite a 
sensation in the colonies and in England. 
At this critical period the illustrous Mr. Pitt, 
known as Lord Chatham, was placed at the 
helm of state on account of his talent and 
statesmanship, and he sent a large naval ar- 
mament and numerous troops to protect tbe 

July 8, 1758, Gen. Abercombie, with an 



army of 15,000, moved on Ticonderoga, de- 
fended Marquis Montcalm. After a great 
struggle the English were defeated with a 
loss of 2,000 dead and wounded. 

August 27, 1758, Coi. Bradstreet with a 
force attacked the French fort, Fort Fronte- 
nac, on Lake Ontario, took it with nine 
armed vessels, sixty cannon and a quantity of 
military stores, whilst Gen. Forbes moved on 
Fort du Quesne, and took it, which fort was 
afterward called Pittsburgh, in honor of Mr. 

In 1759, the ^French this year evacuated 
Ticonderoga, Crown Point and Niagara. 
Gen. Wolf advanced against Quebec, then 
defended by the gallant Montcalm, where a 
terrible and bloody battle took place between 
the two armies. Gen. Wolf was killed and 
a great number of English officers. When 
the brav" Wolf was told the English were 
victorious, he said, "He died contented." 
Montcalm, when told his wounds were 
mortal, he said, " So much the better, I shall 
not live to see the surrender of Quebec," 
which city surrendered September 18, 1759. 

In 1760, another battle was fought near 
Quebec, which drove the English into their 
fortifications, and were only relieved by the 
English squadron. Montreal still contended 
to the last, when she was compelled to sur- 
render, which gave Canada to the English. 

Treaty of peace, February 10, 1763. By 
this France ceded to England all her posses- 
sions on the St. Lawrence River, all east of 
the Mississippi River, except that portion 
south of Iberville River and west of the Mis 
sissippi. At the same time all ihe territory 
here reserved being west of the Mississippi, 
and the Orleans territory was transferred to 
Spain. France, after all her labors, toil and 
expenditures, and groat loss of life, surren- 
dered to England and Spain her great domain 
in North America. The historv of France, 

embracing a term of 228 years, is replete 
with interest and with thrilling events in 
this country up to 1763. 

The defeats of the French in North Amer- 
ica greatly led to the establishment of the 
United States Government. The accom- 
plishment of such a glorious end was largely 
due to the gallant Frenchmen. As long as 
the anniversary of the American Independ 
ence shall be celebrated, the names of Wash 
ington and Lafayette will ever be remem 
bered by a grateful people. We can but con- 
gratulate ourselves, as citizens of this great 
valley, that owing to the sympathy of France 
and her people under the great Napoleon 
and the immortal Jefferson, that we to-day 
are a portion of this grand republic. 

The downfall of Quebec was the over-' 
throw of French power in North America. 
The French supremacy was only overthrown 
after a long and bloody struggle, and the re- 
coil of the blow that had smitten it down was 
the cause of another struggle more desolat- 
ing and widely extended than the first, but 
ended without accomplishing any political 
results. In this fierce conflict the red man 
became the principal actor, and exhibited a 
degree of sagacity and constancy of purpose 
never before witnessed in the history of his 
warfai-e. The English sent Maj. Robert 
Clark to take possession of the frontier out- 
posts. Tbe approach of Maj. Clark aroiised 
Pontiac, and he boldly demanded to know 
their mission. Pontiac was the Napoleon of 
his race, and suffice it to say here that this 
movement of the British troops resulted in 
his great conspiracy, and the destruction of 
British settlements, and the attack upon De- 

On the 13th of August, 1803, the treaty 
of Vincennes, and the additional treaty of 
December 30, 1805, was concluded with the 
Kaskaskias, by which they ceded to the 



United States, all that tract included within 
a line beginning below the mouth of the Illi- 
nois River, and descending the Mississippi 
to its junction with the Ohio, ascending the 
latter to the Wabash, and from a certain 
point up the Wabash west to the Mississippi, 
embracing the greater part of Southern Illi- 
nois, and including Wayne County. This 
was the act that divested the Indians of their 
title to the lands the people of the county 
now possess.* 

By act of Congress, February 3, 1809, all 
that part of the Indian Territory lying "west 
of the Wabash River, and a direct line drawn 
from the said Wabash River and Post Vin- 
cennes, due north to the territorial line be- 
tween the United States and Canada, should 
constitute Illinois. This, it will be noticed, 
included Wisconsin. It was the separation 
of Illinois from Indiana. This act of separ- 
ating Illinois from Indiana, found a hot 
anti -separation party in Vincennes, the cap- 
ital, and the villages and settlements east of 
that place. The excitement culminated in 
bloodshed; one of the leading men in favor 
of the measure was assassinated in the streets 
of Kaskaskia. The question of separation 
turned upon the ability of the Illinois mem- 
bers of the Legislature, in session in Vin- 
cennes in October, 1S08, to elect a Delegate to 
Congress in place of Benjamin Park, resigned, 
who should be favorable to the division. 
The Illinoisans found a suitable candidate in 
an Indiana member of the House, who was 

•The important historical facts that give an account of the 
acts of Gen. George Rogers Clark, by which all this vast ter- 
ritory was secured to the Tinted States, ami wrested from the 
British crown, are given in the Clay County history, and to 
which the reader iB referred. The reader will there see that the 
territory of Wayne and l lay Counties are historical grounds, 
were the scenes of most important events of the Revolution, and 
that ( ieu. Clark was here fighting out that great war for human 
liberty: that he was one of the greatest men America has pro- 
duced and that the territory of those counties may honor him 
as among their first visitors. 

also Speaker, by the name of Jesse B. Thom- 
as, who, for the sake of going to Congress, 
was ready to violate the sentiments of his 
constituents upon this question. Thomas 
gave a bond that he would procure from Con- 
gress a separation; and he was triumphantly 
elected by a majority of one vote — he voted 
for himself. He was hung in effigy in Vin- 
cennes, but he went to Congress and kept his 
bond and faith with Illinois, and came from 
Congress with a commission in his pocket for 
a federal judgeship in Illinois, and he re- 
moved to the new State, and thus was secured 
our great State and an eminent citizen. 

William Edwards, at the time Chief Jus- 
tice of the Court of Appeals in Kentucky, 
became Governor of the new Territory. John 
Bogle, of the same State, at first received the 
appointment of Governor, but declined the 
office and accepted that of Associate Justice 
of the same court whereof Edwards was 
Chief Justice. 

This brief outline of the history leading up 
to the final organization of the country that 
eventually made us what we are, is given for 
the double purpose of correcting many ma- 
terial facts that have heretofore either not been 
truly set forth or were deliberately falsified, 
and to call the attention of the reader to the 
fact that we are upon grounds that are full 
of history — history more interesting than any 
romance — and that every day is growing in 
interest and importance. 

To some extent we prefer to resume the 
story of the part this locality played in the 
Revolutionary war in our history of Clay 
County, because it was through that county 
the old Vincennes trace was located and it 
was over this route a portion of the Revolu- 
tionary army traveled on its way from Kas- 
kaskia to Vincennes. 





interested in the movements 

THE " simple annals " of the brave and 
hardy pioneers who came to this portion 
of Illinois to carve out new homes for them- 
selves, and fight it out with the bloody 
savages, the wild beasts and the deadly 
malaria, dates back only seventy years, the 
allotted span of extreme human life, and the 
fleeting years are fast carrying away all liv- 
ing testimony of the earliest settlers, and 
unless we now catch the shadow ere the sub- 
stance wholly fades, and tell the story of the 
most interesting people the country has pro- 
duced, it will soon be forgotten, and the 
world will thus lose a lesson that is worth 
more if fully told than any heritage that we 
can possess. To gather up the threads of 
their eventful lives — mostly broken threads 
now — is both a labor of love, and already a 
difficult task in many respects. The pleasure 
consists in listening to the story of the very 
few now left of those early comers, all of 
whom are venerable men and women now, 
and who were infants then, and the difficulty 
consists in the fact that no person is now 
alive who was then old enough to know and 
see and remember for themselves. Thus we 
are driven to their recollections of the tales 
that were told to them, and to those tradi- 
tion? that have hero and there been preserved 
from the fathers. 

Next in interest to the story of the lives of 
these pioneers is the study of their charac- 
ters. Man's nature is such that he is deeply 

purposes, great 
actions, heroic deeds, sublime sacrifices, the 
loves, the sports and pastimes of those who 
have gone before him. "Whether his fore- 
fathers were wiseor foolish, great and strong, 
or puerile and weak, he wauts to learn all he 
can about them. How they thought and 
what they did — acts and doings that, discon- 
nected from their story, might not only seem 
idle but foolish, are clothed with immense 
interests when they are told of those we love 
and respect — those whose lives were a long 
sacrifice which have produced the ripened 
fruits we now enjoy; and while even one or 
two are yet living who were here and parti- 
cipated to some extent in the stirring long 
ago, the task, so far as they can go in memory, 
is both easy and pleasant, but in a moment, 
and before we have had time to reflect upon 
the loss, they are all gone, and the places 
that knew them so well will know them no 
more forever. Hence the chronicler, who 
puts in a permanent form all these once sup- 
posed trifling details, has performed an in- 
valuable, if not an imperishable service. For 
the proper study of mankind is man. It is 
the great and inexhaustible fountain of 
knowledge, and the " man " that is or should 
be best studied is your own immediate fore- 
fathers or predecessors. To know them well 
is to master all you can really learn of the 
human family. To peer into the complex 
problem of the human race does not so much 



consist in trying to study all of the living 
and the dead, as in mastering, in so far as 
it is possible, the chosen few. 

Gov. Reynolds gives this quaint account 
of himself and the early pioneers: "All spe- 
cies of amusements were indulged in by the 
original inhabitants of Illinois. I do not 
pretend to say that every person was devoted 
to gaming; but it was considered at that day 
both fashionable and honorable to game for 
money; but, as gentlemen, for amusement 
and high and chivalrous sports. In this 
manner a great many gambled. Card play- 
ing was sustained by the highest classes as 
well as the lowest in the country. A person 
who could not or would not play at cards was 
scarcely fit for genteel society. The French 
delighted much in this amusement, which 
gave the card parties much standing and 
popularity with the Americans. The French 
at that time had the ascendency in the coun- 
try, and their manners and habits gave tone 
and character to many such transactions. 
The French masses in early times played 
cards incessantly in the shade of the galleries 
of their houses in the hot summer months. 
They frequently played without betting, but 
at times wagered heavily. Card playing was 
mostly the only gaming the French indulged 
in. The ladies of that day amused them- 
selves often in these games, and as they do 
at this day. At times the Americans, as well 
as the French, bet heavily at cards, although 
they were not considered gamblers. * * 
Shooting matches, with the Americans, were 
great sport. Almost every Saturday in the 
summer, a beef or some other article would 
be shot for in the rural districts, and the 
beef killed and parceled out the same night. 
A keg of whisky was generally packed to 
the shooting match on horseback. Sometimes 
a violin appeared, and stag dances, as they 
were termed, occupied the crowd for hours 

" In 1804, I witnessed a match of shooting 
in the orchard of Gen. Edgar, a short dis- 
tance west of Kaskaskia. It was a match 
between John Smith and Thomas Stubletield, 
and the bet was $100. Smith won the 
wager. A small tricky game for whisky was 
often played in these keg groceries, which 
was called 'finger in danger.' Every one 
that pleased, put his finger down in a ring, 
and then some knowing one counted the fin- 
gers until they counted some number agreed 
on, and the finger at that number when it 
was touched was withdrawn, and so on until 
the last finger in the ring was left, and then 
it had to pay the treat. 

"Aged matrons frequently attended these 
shooting matches with a neat, clean keg of 
metheglin to sell. This drink is made of 
honey and water, with the proper fermenta- 
tion. It is pleasant to drink, and has no 
power in it to intoxicate. The old lady often 
had her sewing or knitting with her, and 
would frequently relate horrid stories of the 
Tories in the Revolution in North Carolina, 
as well as to sell her drink. 

" In the early days of Illinois, horse-racing 
was a kind of mania with almost all people, 
and almost all indulged in it, either by being 
spectators, or engaged in them. The level 
and beautiful prairies seemed to persuade 
this class of amusement." 

The earliest settlement in this portion of 
Illinois it appears was made by Michael 
Sprinkle, the first white man to settle in 
Shawneetown. He was a gunsmith, and the 
Indians had petitioned Gov. Harrison for 
permission for him to reside among them to 
repair their guns, and he fixed his residence 
there in the year 1802. Other people were 
attracted to the locality, mostly on account of 
its convenience to the Salines, and in 1S05 
an unprovoked murder was committed by 
the Indians in the killing of Mr. Duff near 


the Island Ripples in the Saline Creek, and 
he was buried near the old salt spring. It 
was supposed the Indians wore hired to com- 
mit this murder. Shawneetown was occu- 
pied by a village of the Shawnee Indians for 
many ages, and it was the place where Maj. 
Croghan, the English officer, camped in his 
explorations of the country in 1765. He had 
a battle at this place with the savages. The 
old salt spring is situated about twelve miles 
northwest of Shawneetown, and around it a 
colony commenced to settle about the year 
1805. In 1803, Gov. Harrison had purchased 
of the Indians the salt works and adjoining 
lands, and the same year the Saline was 
leased by Capt. Bell, of Lexington, Ky., and 
this attracted the attention of immigrants. 

The attention of the early pioneers who 
had settled along the Lower Wabash and Ohio 
Rivers was attracted to this portion of Illi- 
nois by some of them passing over what is 
now Wayne County as rangers — those heroic 
men who went out and braved the savage, 
and, at the risk of their lives, protected the 
helpless and scattered families that had vent- 
ured out in the solitary wilds and com- 
menced to build permanent homes. 

The first settler in Wayne County was 
Isaac Harris, and until three months ago, 
when she died, his daughter, Mrs. Betsey 
Goodwin was not only the oldest living in- 
habitant in the county, but the first. She 
came here with her father's family in 1S14, 
she being then ten years old. Her death, in 
September, 1SS3. severed the last link con- 
necting the present with the first settlement 
in the county. Her father, Isaac Harris, 
left his Kentucky home with a few provis- 
ions and cooking utensils packed on horses, 
and followed a dim Indian trail to the terri- 
tory now comprised in Wayne County — then 
a perfect wilderness. Mr. Harris was the 
first white man to settle and build a house 

in our county. The site chosen was a high 
bluff at the edge of the Wabash bottoms, 
nine miles southeast of Fairfield. A large 
spring at the foot of the bluff was doubtless 
an attraction. Thomas Harris, ex-Supervisor 
of Leech Township, now lives on the exact 
site of the first building erected in "Wayne 
County. This first cabin had a dirt floor and 
its size is showu by Mrs. Goodwin's state 
ment as to the carpet used. Four bearskins, 
cut square, filled the cabiu and made a lux- 
urious carpet. The daily food of the pio- 
neers was corn meal, hominy, bear meat, ven- 
ison, honey and sassafras tea. The meal and 
hominy were ground in a mortar made out of 
a stump, a wooden maul attached to a spring 
pole being the pestle. The breadstuff for 
each day was pounded up before breakfast. 
Mrs. Goodwin thinks she has ground over a 
hundred bushels of corn in this way. The 
grist was sieved and the finer portion called 
meal, the coarser hominy. These mortars 
were used for three years. Bear meat was 
plentiful. Mr. Harris killing four or five a 
week. Venison was not a rarity in a house- 
hold where the head of the family has been 
known to kill nineteen deer before breakfast 
as Mr. Harris did. But this was doubtless 
an unusually good morning for deer. Mr. 
Harris' method of bringing home honey when 
out on a hunt was decidedly aboriginal. 
"When he found a bee-tree, he would kill a 
deer, takeoff the skin in a way best suited 
to the use he had for it. till the skin with 
honey, tie up the holes made by the legs and 
neck, throw it across his horse and make his 
way homeward. Honey was so abundant 
that great wooden troughs were provided for it. 
Mrs. Goodwin stated to her friends only a 
short time before her death, that she remem- 
bered man] times of seeing a bandied gal- 
lons of honeyed sweetness in a rude wooden 
trough. When a surplus of honev had been 



gathered, it was hauled on a sled to Carini 
and sold for 25 cents a gallon. The pioneers' 
luscious bill of fare was served on pewter 
plates, sometimes accompanied by milk poured 
from a gourd, and which had been strained 
through a gourd strainer. 

Bears were so bold that have been known to 
come within twenty steps of the house and 
carry off pigs. Their skins were made very 
useful. Mrs. Goodwin said she had made at 
leaBt 500 pairs of bear skin moccasins, and 
could do the work as well as an Indian. They 
were made with the hair on (turned inside), 
and for men, cut about as high as socks; for 
women, about the length of stockings. Mrs. 
Goodwin said she would enjoy wearing a pair 
even in 1880. 

The young ladies of the pioneer period 
wore deer skin dresses. The hair was re- 
moved, and the skin dressed so as to be soft 
and pliable, and when colored red and yellow 
made rather a stylish looking suit. The 
number of " breadths in the skirt " were 
about as few as in the tight-fitting, figure- 
displaying costumes of the super-fashionable 
belles of the present day. The men wore 
leather breeches and jackets. 

In 1880, Mrs. Goodwin related to the ed- 
itor of the Wayne County Press her recol- 
lections of her first calico dress. She said: 
" Daddy loaded a lot of deer skins and veni- 
son hams on a sled, and took 'em to Carmi 
and bought us gals each a calico dress. We 
thought they were powerful nice, and that 
arts nice." The barter was at these prices: 
A pair of venison hams 25 cents, and calico 
30 or 40 cents a yard. A few years later, 
shoes and stockings also became fashionable, 
but they were too highly valued for wearing 
even a whole Sunday. The girls would carry 
them tied up in their handkerchiefs until 
near the church or farmhouse where church 
was held. They would then take a seat on a 

log, don their shoes and stockings, and go 
into the house with as much of a dressed- up 
feeling as a city belle alights from her car- 
riage to enter the opera. Plainness of dress 
was the rule for girls, and wearing of " ruf- 
fles and bobs " to church was not generally 

At the earliest day of Mrs. Goodwin's rec- 
ollection, the Indians seem not to have had 
any permanent village in our county, but 
were frequently camped here in large num- 
bers. Mrs. Goodwin remembered seeing 
about 300 camped near Nathan Atteberry'6 
present home. Once she was so badly fright- 
ened by unexpectedly coming upon an Indi- 
an, that she ran a mile and a half at full 
speed, arriving home almost dead. Her 
father " gathered a parcel of men, and moved 
'em out." Mrs. Goodwin attended the first 
Fourth of July celebration ever held in Wayne 
County sixty-seven years ago. Fairfield 
then consisted of two cabins, and the patri- 
otic observers of the day we celebrate num- 
bered about thirty persons, prominent among 
whom were the Barnhills, Slocumbs, Leech- 
es and Jo Campbell. It was, Mrs. Goodwin 
said, " a sort of pay celebration." The re- 
freshments consisted mainly of a roasted pig 
and blackberry pies — regular " turnovers " — ■ 
baked in a skillet. Sam Leech was the ora- 
tor of the day. Mrs. Goodwin remembers 
that our fellow-citizen, J. W. Barnhill, was 
one of the patriotic pioneers. He was two 
years old, barefooted and wore a home-made 
cotton dress. 

Isaac Harris, the first settler, loved to joke. 
Dick Lock one day wanted some corn fodder 
(blades). Isaac told him to bring his wagon 
and get it. Lock, however, took a rope with 
him, intending to carry a bundle only. As 
he started off, Harris touch a chunk of fire to 
the load. While Lock was wondering how 
he fodder happened to burn up so suddenly. 



Harris told him to go get his wagon and come 
for it like a white man. Mr. Harris had a 
pleasant way of dealing with speculators 
who came into the country to buy large 
tracts of land. He was sought as a guide 
and would invariably take the Eastern follows 
through some of the most radically swamp 
land that could be found, and skip the good 
portions. On more than one occasion he 
purposely got lost, and compelled the land 
buyers to sleep a night in the woods, and go 
supperless to bed. 

Isaac and Gilham Harris (brothers), with 
their families, had spent the winters of 1812- 
13 in a camp, near where Nathan Atteborry's 
farm now is, bringing their hogs from their 
home in Big Prairie, White County, on 
account of the superior mast of that locality. 
And in 1814, as stated above, the families 
moved into the county as permanent settlers. 
Aunt Betsey Goodwin was then twelve years 
old, and from an interview with tho old lady in 
1880 by the editor of the Press, we extract 
the following interesting reminiscences: Her 
father, Isaac Harris, built the tirst cabin 
ever erected within the borders of Wayne. 
Mrs. Goodwin was twelve years of age then, 
and has a very distinct remembrance of that 
first low hut, with its dirt floor, carpeted with 
bear skins (and it took only four bears to 
supply the carpet). Mrs. Goodwin is seventy- 
seven years old, and promises fair to live out 
the century. Her mother lived to be ninety- 
one, her grandmother to bo one hundred and 
seven, making a visit to Ireland after her one 
hundredth year. 

Mrs. Goodwin yet thinks that the corn 
meal she ground or pounded in a stump mortar 
was better than that made by the steam mills 
of to-day. It was sifted through a home- 
made seive made by stretching a deer skin, 
tanned with ashes, over a hoop. The holes 
in the sieve were made with a small iron 

instrument heated hot. The smaller the 
iron the finer the meal. That portion of the 
grist which went through the seive was 
called meal — that which remained was used 
as hominy. As civilization advanced, home- 
made horso-hair seives came in fashion. 
Aunt Betsey remembers seeing Granny 
Hooper weave lots of 'em. The dishes 
and spoons used were almost wholly of 
pewter and were sold by peddlers. There 
were no stores in the county, and men 
and women both wore buckskin clothing 
made of deer skins, dressed with deer's 
brains, and colored yellow with hickory bark 
and alum, or red with sassafras. Three ordi- 
nary deer skins made a dres3. Leather 
whangs or homespun flax thread was used in 
making them. No frills, ruffles or diagonal 
pleatings were allowed. 

Clad in a short, red leather dress, and 
wearing a sunbonnet made of homemade cot- 
ton or flax, our hostess, then Miss Betsey 
Harris, must have been an attractive young 
lady when at the age of fourteen, and " wild 
as a deer," she struck the fancy and won the 
affections of Tom Jones, a stout young pio- 
neer in leather breeches and a coonskin cap. 
But the tender feeling was not reciprocated. 
Young Jones tried to make headway in his 
suit by presenting Miss Harris with a pair of 
side combs. She wouldn't take them, and 
Jones tried a flank movement by giving the 
combs to her little brother. But she never 
would wear them. 

While on this subject, we will state that 
many of the pioneers made their own combs. 
An old case knife was converted into a saw. 
and with this rude tool combs of everlasting 
quality were made from cow's horn. Mrs. 
Goodwin's mother wore such a comb of 
Wayne County manufacture for thirty-two 
years, and was buried with it in her hair, v 
a later period. Andrew Wright came from 



New Jersey, settled three miles south of 
Fairfield, and added to the scanty revenues 
of his farm by making wooden combs with 
saws especially made for that purpose. 

Mrs. Goodwin's first fine bonnet was bought 
of J. G. Barkley forty- two years ago, when 
he kept store in the north room of Mrs. E. 
Trousdale's residence in Fairfield. This bon- 
net was a palmetto, and was much larger 
than the shaker hoods which were worn a 
dozen or more years ago. 

About this time those enormous tortoise 
shell tuck combs were in fashion — immense 
semi circles, twelve inches in length, and 
with teeth four inches long. They were about 
as large as the bonnets of to-day. 

In those days, Uncle Charley Wood kept 
hotel in a log building just north of the Lang 
Hotel. Hon. I. S. Warmoth made saddles 
and harness in the present residence of A. R. 
Swan, near Thomas L. Cooper's residence. 

Caleb Williams and R. B. Slocumb were 
among the pioneer merchants. After they 
" broke up" no store existed in Fairfield for 
a year or more, and Mrs. Goodwin was com- 
pelled to send to Carmi for a set of cups and 
saucers. A little later, Page came with a 
stock of goods, and the pioneer did not have 
to go thirty miles to make little household 

Tallow candles, made by dipping, were 
first used for illumination. When the iron 
lamp was introduced, with its hook to hang 
on a nail and its sharp point to stick in the 
cracks in the logs, it was deemed a great in- 
vention. When filled with "coon" or bears 
oil it made a splendid light. Candles were 
also sometimes made from beeswax. 

The first school which Mrs. Goodwin at- 
tended was taught by Uncle George Meritt. 
There was not an arithmetic or slate in the 
school room, the studies being confined to 
the Testament and spelling-book. And Mrs. 

Goodwin added, " George was counted a big 
scholar in them days." 

Archy Roberts (grandfather of N. E. Rob- 
erts) was one of the first preachers in this 
part oF the State. He was a Methodist, as 
were most of the early ministers. 

As to weddings in the early times. Mrs. 
Goodsvin said she didn't have much of a 
wedding when she was married to Steven 
Merritt — her first husband. " Daddy cut up 
powerful about it — thought nobody was good 
enough for his gals, and we run off and got 
married." Mr. Harris soon afterward be- 
came reconciled to the match, and gave the 
bride money enough to buy a full set of pew- 
ter dishes. 

Mrs. Goodwin is a very large woman, and 
has been remarkably stout, well fitting her 
for the trials and hardships of a frontier life. 
R. B. Slocumb, many of our readers will re- 
member as a large man, yet Mrs. Goodwin 
one day won a bushel of salt from Mr. Slo- 
cumb by outweighing him, tipping the scales 
at 190 pounds. 

Steven Merritt came to Fairfield one Satur- 
day and won !?10 in a horse-pulling match. 
He bought a hat for himself, a calico dress 
for his wife, and expended the balance of the 
money, $3, in coffee. He got a meal sack 
full, as coffee then sold eighteen or twenty 
pounds to the dollar. Mrs. Merritt had never 
made a cup of coffee, having always used 
milk and sassafras tea, and this big lot of 
coffee was kept lying in the loft of the cabin 
untouched for a year or more, until a Ken- 
tucky cousin visited the family and explained 
to Mrs. Merritt the mysteries of making 

Mrs. Goodwin never seemed to learn to 
appreciate Jinuch of the modern luxuries. 
Even the spring seat in a two-horse wagon 
is an effeminate invention for which she had 
no use. She preferred to take her seat on a 




quilt or a pile of straw in the bottom of the 
wagon. And this sort of conveyance she 
thought more comfortable than a buggy. 

The commercial poverty of the country in 
its first settlement is shown by the fact that 
the smokers made their own clay pipes when 
they became too aristocratic to use a corn 
cob. Such a thing as a cigar was unheard of. 

What would the ladies of to-day think of 
a bedstead with only one post? On first 
thought they will say such an article of fur- 
niture is an impossibility. Not so, if the 
bedstead is built in one corner of the room, 
and holes bored in the logs for the insertion 
of the poles which constitute the one side 
and one foot rail needed. Such were the 
original Illinois bedsteads. 

Shoe blacking is a modern fashionable 
folly which was unknown in the days when 
venison hams sold for 50 cents- per pair and 
wild honey was stored away by the bushels 
in large wooden troughs. When Uncle Eph- 
raim Friend, lately deceased, was being mar- 
ried to his second wife, he felt the necessity 
of putting on a little extra style. In this 
respect he did not differ from the widowers 
of 1883. Shoe blacking was not to be had, 
and he inverted the oven used for baking 
corn bread and the soot on the bottom thereof 
was made to do service on his wedding boots. 

Window glass was unknown in the early 
cabins. A hole in the wall was left for light, 
but this was scarcely necessary, when we con- 
sider the pioneer's love for open doors, even 
in extreme winter weather. 

T. T. Bonhatn brought the first buggy to 
Wayne County. It was a stylish affair, im- 
ported from Pennsylvania. E» Bonhain, 
when a young man " cut a splurge " by driv- 
ing in this buggy to camp meeting. The 
civilization represented by the Eastern buggy 
was in great contrast with that of which Mr. 
B.'s dinner was a type. He was a guest at a 

farmhouse where the principal dish was 
baked 'possum. Mr. Bonham would have 
preferred fried oysters. 

The first show Pomp Scott ever attended 
was in Albion. He went on horseback, but 
not being the owner of a saddle, a bed quilt 
was used as a substitute. On this, with his 
gal behind him, he rode to the show, had a 
bully time, and thought himself as much of 
a bigbug as any aristocrat present. 

One day, Mrs. Goodwin and Sally Moffitt 
wished to visit the family of Alexander Camp- 
bell, Sr. , the father of Sheriff Campbell. 
They had on the farm a gentle steer which 
the boys had been in the habit of riding. 
The ladies thought that a ride on this steer 
would be better than walking. It was a rainy 
day, and they took with them an umbrella 
which had been left at the house by some 
land hunters. After getting fairly started, 
they stretched the umbrella, when the steer 
started off like mad. Both were thrown off, 
and the land speculator's umbrella broken all 
to smash. 

Soon after the first settlement of the county, 
when rjeace existed between the Indians and 
settlers, Joe Boltinghouse was killed by In- 
dians, while he was herding hogs on the 
heavy mast near Massillon. He was shot, 
scalped, and thrown in the fire of his camp 
so that his hands were burned off. His fam- 
ily were advised that something was wrong 
by his faithful dog " Beve " coming home 
alone. When the friends went to the camp, 
they found him scaled and mutilated, his 
horse stolen and the Indians gone. Three 
years after this, a party of seven Indians 
came to the same place and camped for a few 
weeks hunting. Among their ponies Joe 
Boltinghouse's horse was seen and recognized 
by one of the pioneers. The news was car- 
ried to his family, and a party organized to 
investigate. Joe Boltinghouse's father, his 

■_».' ' ■ ' l».» t 



brother Dan and Isaac Harris visited the 
camp. By strategy they obtained the guns 
of all the Indians but one. This warrior, an 
immense savage, was last to surrender his 
gun, and as soon as he did so ran and swam 
across the river. As he climbed the opposite 
bank he was seized by the half-wolf dog 
" Beve," dragged into the water and drowned. 
What became of the other six Indians the 
three revengeful pioneers would never tell. 
It was suspected that all were killed and 
thrown in the river. The stolen horse was 
reclaimed by the Boltinghouse family, and 
the ponies posted as estrays. Mrs. Goodwin 
says there " was a powerful stir in the neigh- 
borhood " about the matter, but no close in- 
quiry was ever made as to what became of 
the Indians. 

In 1810, came George Merritt, with his 
father. Ephraim Merritt, and settled near 
the Harrises, and also John Jones (preacher 
" Jacky " Jones), in company with his 
father, Cadwalader Jones, and settled in 
what is now Leech Township, on the east 
side near the county line. George Merritt, 
in answer to the question, when he came to 
Wayne County, replied: " Well, sir, I got 
here on the 3d day of August, 1816, half an 
hour by sun." There's exactness for 
you. Uncle George said he " helped rai»e 
the fourth house that was built in this fork"' — 
that is the country between the Skillet Fork 
and Little Wabasb. He said that in 1817 a 
vote was hold as to whether Illinois should 
be a Slave or Free State. The territory now 
comprising Wayne County was at that time 
a portion of Edwards County. Mr. Merritt's 
first going to mill was to New Haven, below 
Carmi. The settlers here had no com, but 
borrowed of Toliver Simpson, thon living at 
Concord, White County, four miles below 
Big Prairie. A year or two later, Mr. Simp- 
son moved to Wayne, and by that time our 

pioneers had small pieces under cultivation, 
and were able to return the borrowed bread- 
stuff. Uncle George took two horses when 
he went to mill, putting three bushels of corn 
on one and two bushels on the one he rode. 
The Skillet Fork was crossed in a log canoe. 
The corn was taken over first, and he then 
went back for the horses, making them swim 
beside the canoe. In 1810, only three small 
patches of ground were in cultivation in 
Wayne County. The first settlers preferred 
the timber to the prairie, on account of the 
toughness of the sod of the latter, requiring, 
Uncle George said, three yoke of cattle to 
break it. The first corn-fields were greatly 
annoyed by " varmints," and every farmer 
had a pack of hounds to keep the coon from 
destroying the corn. Uncle George said that 
the third winter he spent here his brother 
Steven killed seventeen bears. Yenison hams 
were then as staple a product of the county 
as wheat is now. And the price was uni- 
formly "two bits a saddle." Uncle George 
has hauled many a load to Shawneetown. 
He remembers that it was very difficult to 
raise wheat in the early days. It looked well 
enough, but failed to mature and make per- 
fect heads. Corn was the sole reliance for 

Notwithstanding the eighty winters that 
have silvered his head, he is as lively as a 
cricket, and from the cheerful words and 

: pleasant smiles he fires sometimes at a robust 
widow of sixty-six years, we think he has 
some notion of marrying, and beginning life 
anew to " grow up with the country. " 

The first mill in the county was built by 
Jo Martin, who hauled the stones from Bar- 

- ron County, Ky. Gaston's " band mill " was 
soon afterward built in Little Mound Prairie 
Its name was derived from the manner in 
which the wheel turned by the horses com- 
municated power to the grinding machinery. 


^cu*t*i fa cga^$2iy 

VlN' 1 I 



Many of our readers know of the creek 
which crosses the Liberty road just beyond 
Nathan Atteberry's farm, four miles south 
)f Fairfield. It is now perfectly dry uine 
:nonths of the year. It will be astonishing 
information to many of the present genera- 
tion that on this creek was built the first wa- 
ter mill ever in the county. Mr. Atteberry 
said that a lam across the creek furnished 
water power enough to run a small pair of 
corn stones two feet in diameter. A heavy 
rain would fill the dam and enable the miller 
to receive business. This mill was of great 
utility, saving the scattered settlers mauy a 
trip to New Haven. It was universally rec- 
ognize! as one of the most valued public en- 
terprises of tin- day. Such being the case, 
the capacity of the mill will be an interest- 
ing facl to note. Each damful of water 
would grind six or eight bushels of corn! 
Only that and no more. Abe Chapman used 
to illustrate the speed of the mill by the re- 
lation of a little incident: One day the mil- 

inliii ' iarson, started the stones and went 

is home a i tort Hstance off. His favor- 
ite hound pup >rent to the meal box and ate 

meal as fast as it came from the buhrs. 

'ii the miller returned, the grist was fin 
ibhed bnt ao meal was in the box. However, 
he improved appearance of the valued hound 
i is soon noticed and fully explained the 

I . iry. 
Between showers, the neighbors were wel- 

■ to come with their prists and grind by 
id, after the oriental style. 
George Merritt came with his father's 
family from Union County. Ky.. March 25, 

'. first stopping at Concordia. White 
■ ity. where the family made a crop, and 

. in September, eame to Wayne County, 

leech Township. He Eound then living 

Alexander Campbell, in the edge of 

vhite County, and Isaac Harris. Mr. Mer- 

ritt now thinks these included all the settlers 
who preceded his coming. With the Merritt 
family came Daniel Gray, Clarinda Hooper, 
and Samuel Slocurnb (the father of Rigdon 
B. Sloeurab). Merritt went to Concordia to 
get the first corn they had for bread, and 
took it down the river to New Haven to mill, 
on horseback. He had to cross the Skillet 
Fork on the trip, as is mentioned above. 

George Merritt was born January 30, 1799, 
in Pendleton County. S. C. Emigrated to 
Caldwell County, Ky., in 1809. In 181(3, 
he came from Kentucky to Illinois, and 
located in Burnt Prairie, which was then 
Edwards County, but now Wayne, on the 
16th day of August of that year. His father 
was Ephraim Merritt, born in Granville 
County, N. C. , 1776, and died at Burnt Prairie 
in August, 1844. His grandfather, Stephen 
Merritt, of Granville County, N. C, was a 
Captain of colonial troops during the entire 
Revolutionary struggle for independence, and 
participated in the following battles in South 
Carolina: Charleston. Monks Comer. George- 
town, Kings Mountain, Cowpens, and was 
wounded in a charge by Tarleton's cavalry at 
Cowpens, and also in a hard- contested battle 
at Guilford Court House, N. C. The pater- 
nal ancestor of this branch of the Merritt 
family was from Wales, and emigrated dur- 
ing the time of colonization by Sir Walter 
Raleigh. The maternal ancestor was the 
daughter of the Rev. Micklejohn, a minister 
of the High, or Established Church of Eng- 
land, born in Scotland and educated in En«- 
land for the ministry, and emigrated to this 
country prior to the Revolutionary war, and 
received his pay annually from the Crown 
during his life. 

Cadwalader Jones came, as stated above, 
in L^IU, and the same year John Jones, his 
son, was born, and thus he will go into history 
as the first, white child born in Wayne County 



Parson " Jacky " Jones says he came very 
near missing the county when he " lit " in 
this world, the spot being within six rods of 
the east line of the county. He was born in 
a tent, made by placing a pole between two 
trees, and then boards and brush put up the 
sides and end. Parson Jones is yet a hale and 
vigorous old man, as full of the enjoyments 
of life, its fun and jokes as the gayest of our 
youngsters. He has spent his long life in 
the county, and amid the roughest early sur- 
roundings he has picked up a fair education 
and a fund of reading, and at one time in 
life was a successful school teacher, and also 
a preacher — training the minds of the young 
and pointing to all the way to heaven. 

Cadwalader Jones' wife died in 1826, and 
he survived until 1856, when he died in this 
county. There were fifteen children in the 
family, and "Jacky" was the eldest. Sev- 
en of these children are now living — two 
boys and five girls. Two widows, Manahan 
and McKibbin, reside in Wayne County, and 
a son, Charles Jones, lives on the place first 
settled by his father. 

Parson Jones says the nearest and ouly 
neighbors his father bad were the Hunts, 
and Grandfather Jones, who lived in Edwards 
County. Of the early settlers in bis portion 
of the county, the Parson remembers Rich- 
ard Burks, of North Carolina and family, 
whose children grew up, and in after years 
the family removed to Sangamon County. 
Then there were Aquilla McCrackin and 
family, who settled about a half mile from 
Jones. Five of the McCrackin children 
died in 1834, and the next year this family 
removed to Arkansa3. 

Harman Horn married one of the Burks 
girls. He was 6nme time a Constable and 
Deputy Sheriff, and in 1837 he and family 
went to Arkansas. 

Pulliam Higginbotham came with the Mc- 

Crackins from Tennessee in 1819. The 
family went to Arkansas, in order to keep 
their slaves that they brought from Tennessee. 

Cadwalader Jones was an Indiana Ranger, 
in Barker's company. In scouting expedi- 
tions he traveled west about as far as Vanda 
lia. While his company were in what is 
now Wayne County, one of them named 
Honsly, accidently killed his comrade, 
Hughes — in some way mistaking him for the 
enemy and tired upon him. These ranger;: 
were in pursuit at that time of the Indians 
who had massacred the Cannon family on 
the Big Wabash. The murdered family con- 
sisted of old man Cannon and wifo. and his 
son Samuel, and taking prisoners Mr. Stark 
and wife and a son-in-law, and an old lady 
and a young daughter of Cannon's. Stark 
soon made his escape and returned home, 
and Mrs. Stark only made her escape many 
months after, when the Indians were on the 
Illinois River, and on foot she eventually 
made her way back home. It was on Grand 
father Jones' farm in Edwards County that 
Joe Boltinghouse was killed by the Indians 
— an account of which we give above. 

Parson Jones remembers that when six 
years old, a Dr. Spring was the first doctor 
he ever saw. He also remembers passing 
through Fairfield in 1823 when there was 
but one house in the place. He thinks that 
the first death in this section of the countn 
was the drowning of a trader named Dubois, 
in the Little Wabash. He was traveling for 
a man named Lasellet, who was at one time 
a trader, and the first in this part of the 
country. The first schoolhouse he has any 
recollection of hearing of. was about 30' I 
yards from his father's house, and the first 
teacher was George McCown. the great-grand 
father of Capt. Nick McCown, of Fairfield. 
This school was taught as early as 1823. 

He remembers as early a^ 1821. a preachi r 



from Edwards County, named William Keith, 
who preached in some private house about 
two miles from the Jones place. 

Parson Jones was married when he was 
twenty four years old to Nancy Stalen. daugh- 
ter of Peter Staten. He commenced preach- 
ing*(Missionary Baptist) at th>> age of forty- 
two. Jacob Line was the first County School 
Commissioner of Wayne County, and under 
his sign manual Jones got a certificate and 
commenced teaching school. He says he 
went in heavy on Dillworth's Spelling Book 
and Scales' Reading Lessons. 

Archy Roberts came to the county in 1S17. 
and settled on what was afterward the George 
Borah place. Samuel Slocumb settled on 
the Motlitt place. John Harris. Archy Rob 
erls and Daniel McHenry were among the 
first Methodist Episcopal preachers. 

During the year 1818, there was added to 
those first comers as given above. Andrew 
Kuykendall. Andrew Clark. James. Solomon 
and William Clark. Enoch Wilcox. George 
Borah. Felix and John Barnhill. Reuben 
Melton, Thomas and James Gaston, Joseph 
Campbell. Alexander and Andrew (Mark, 
Tyra Robinson. William B. Davis. Owen 
M.ulin. George W. Hines. Peter Watson, 
Michael Turney, Needham Hillard, James C. 
Gaston, John Turner. Thomas P. Fletcher, 
Robert Gaston, John Carson. Andrew Carson, 
Henry Tyler. Daniel < 1. Gray, Robert Gray, 
Sol Stone, George Close, A. B. Tnrney, 
Henry Hall. William Gray, Benjamin Clark, 
John Atteberry. John W. Ellidge, John Me 
Cauley, Joseph Martin. Samuel Leech. John 
Liveigood. Andrew Bratson, Ansley , Clark, 
Seth Carson, Samuel Bain and John Motlitt. 

George MeOown came from Kentucky in 
1S17. He was one of five brothers. Scotch- 
Irish. Two of the brothers settled in Ken- 
tucky, two in Virginia, and the other in 
South Carolina. George McCown's second 

wife was Martha Nash, of Kentucky. The 
eldest child by the second wife was Francis, 
who came to Illinois with his father. Two 
daughters of George MoCown were born 
here, namely, Nancy and Matilda. Francis 
married Parthenia Andnis in 1838, by whom 
he had two sons and three daughters, namely, 
X S. and James (died in infancy). Mary, 
who married Capt, Walsur, and died four 
years ago ; and Helen, who married Thomas 
Locke, and is now living in Fairfield. Nich- 
olas S. is one of the good people of Fairfield, 
whose biography may be found in another 
part of this work. 

In company with George McCown came 
Nicholas Smith, his brother-in-law. These 
two men were Rangers and belonged to the 
Regulators of the early time. Here are the 
names of over sixty settlers, young men about 
grown, some of them, and the most of them 
the heads of families. They, and others that 
we will refer to, were all there prior to 1819, 
and mostly participated in procuring the act 
of the Legislature, creating the new county 
(if Wayne, which was enacted by proper law- 
making power March 26, 1819, and is as fol- 

That all thai tract of country within the fol 
lowing boundaries, to wit: Beginning at the White 
County line, dividing the Ranges !• and 1" ea 
the Third Principal Meridian line; thence north to 
the line dividing Townships -i and 4, to thi Crawford 
Countj line, north of the base line; thenee west to 
the line dividing Towns 1 and 5 east of the Third 
Principal Meridian ; thence south to the White 
County line; thence east to the place of beginning, 
shall'constitute a separate county to he called Waj ne 
And for the purpose of fixings permanent se: 
justice therein the following persons be appointed 
Commissioners: Henry J. Mills. Benjamin Rey- 
nolds, George Claypole, Seth Gard and Levi Comp 
ton, which said Commissioners, or a majoril 
them, being durj sworn before some Judge or Jus 
tice of the Peace in ihis State, to faithful]'. 
into view the convenience of the people . the situa 
tion of the settlements, with an eye to the future 
population and eligibility of the place, shall i 



at the house of Alexander Campbell, in said county, 
and proceed to examine and determine the place for 
the present seat of justice and designate the same. 
Provided, The proprietor or proprietors of the land 
shall give to the county, for the purpose of erecting 
public buildings, a quantity of land not less than 
twenty acres, to be laid out in lots and sold for that 
purpose; but should the proprietors refuse or neg- 
lect to make the donations aforesaid, then, and in 
that case, it shall be the duty of the Commissioners 
to fix on some other place for the seat of justice as 
convenient as may be to the inhabitants of the 
county, which place so fixed and determined upon, 
the said Commissioners shall certify under their 
hands and seals and return the same to the next 
Commissioners' Court in the county aforesaid, 
which court shall cause an entry thereof to be made 
in their books of record; and, until the public 
buildings are erected, the court shall be held at the 
house of Alexander Campbell. 

The act then provides that the Commis- 
sioners shall have $2 a day each for their la- 
bors. It then provides that Wayne County 

shall vote in conjunction with Edwards 
County for members of tbe General Assembly 
of the State. And further that " the county 
of Wayne shall be and compose a part of the 
Second Judicial Circuit, and the courts there- 
in be holdeu at such times as shall be speci- 
fied," etc. 

And Wayne County was launched upon 
the sea of municipal existence, and the no- 
ble crew were the pioneers whose names we 
have given above. At the helm stood Sam 
uel Leech, one of the uoblest of men, and a 
man whose life, here in those early days of 
the young county, will always stand out in 
history as the conspicuous and commanding 
figure, and in the following chapters detail- 
ing from the records the history of the county, 
the reader may bear in mind that it was 
nearly all the work of this good man. 



THE writer remembers an interview some 
years ago with a couple of very aged 
ladies, and of the early times and their re- 
collections, he finds the following in his 
note book: 

When we came West it was known as 
the Louisiana. Then, in a fiat-boat, from 
Kentucky. It was in the year 1801, and I 
remember the trip well; chiefly, perhaps, be- 
cause a little colored girl was drowned in 
leaning over the edge of the boat to draw 

some water. It made the strongest impres- 
sion on me of anything that happened. 

"You remember the earthquakes in 1811 F" 
" Oh, yes, well, I can't tell how long they 
lasted, but there were so many shocks that 
we began to get used to them. They came 
on sometimes at night, and sometimes by 
day. First there would be a roaring we'd 
seem to hear in the west, like a storm. If it 
was in the day the sky would appear dark. 
Thou the "round would commence to shake. 



The shaking would be so hard that, when we 
tried to stand up and hold to the palings we 
couldn't do it. I remember the earth opened 
in a great crack right through the streets of 
St. Michael's. It must have been six or 
eight feet wide, and I couldn't tell how 
deep, only it seemed to get narrower. Right 
where the crack opened there was a party of 
miners camped, and their things went down 
in the crack. After a long time the earth 
came together slowly. At New Madrid the 
earth opened in cracks so large that whole 
houses, with people in them, went down. 
Between where we lived and New Madrid 
large trees went down through these cracks. 
We were badly scared at first, but we gradu- 
ally got so we didn't mind the earthquakes 
so much. At one time the shaking lasted 
half an horn - . 

" When the first one came father called 
out, 'What's going to be?' .Mother said, 
'Oh. it's only an earthquake I've felt it be- 

The old lady drifted readily into some of 
the features of housekeeping in those days. 

"Tell the reporter how you made combs," 
suggested a bright-eyed grand daughter. 

The old lady laughed heartily and re- 
plied, " We used to take ox-horns and boil 
them. That made them soft. Then we 
would saw them to make the teeth. They 
weren't like the combs yon have now, but 
they did very well, we thought. We made 
our spoons from the horns, too."' 

" We didn't have the groceries handy to 
run to for every little thing. We had to 
make our own bluing for one thing, and this 
was the way we did it : We gathered an 
herb called indigo weed, and put it in a barrel 
with water. This we had to churn and then 
we squeezed it. After that we had to put a 
little lye in to break the indigo from the 
water. The blue would settle, and weooured 

off the water. That was our indigo. We 
made starch ourselves, too, and very nice 
starch it was. in this way: W T e took wheat- 
bran and put it in water till it soured. Then 
we squeezed it through blankets and let the 
water settle. The starch formed in a cake 
at the bottom and we dried it in old plat- 

A counterpane was produced and shown. 
" I made it fifty-five years ago," she said 
with a touch of pride. " I made it all, too, 
raised the cotton, picked it. carded it, spun 
it, and then wove the cotton and worked the 
figures on it afterward." 

There was a largo rosebush with branches, 
leaves and blossom worked in the cloth. The 
design was faithful to nature. " How did 
you do that," was asked. The old lady 
laughed and explained. " I laid my cloth 
over a counterpane that another lady had 
made and pressed it over the figures with one 
of the pewter plates we used then. The rose 
bush left the impression, and I worked it on 
my cloth. The other lady got her impres- 
sion this way: She went out and dug up a 
rose bush from the garden, spread out the 
branches and leaves and roses and pressed 
her cloth upon them and got the impression 
which she worked in that way. W r e didn't 
have any stamping in those days." 

" Did the Indians ever trouble you?" 

" Oh yes ; many a time the men would get 
all the women and children together and 
'fort up,' and then go out to drive the In- 
dians off. Most of the timo they were peace 
able, though, and we used to get our cooking 
lard of them." 

Here both ladies indulged in a oheery 
laugh ovor the recollection " It was bear's 
grease. The Indians used to bring it in tied 
up in a deerskin sewed up in a bag. We 
would buy it and put it into pots. After it be- 
came warm we put in slippery elm to clarify 



it. It would come out as clear and pure as 
oil. Then we would put it in a hide drawn 
up with a throng so as to make a bag with 
the top open. The oil never turned bad, 
and we dipped it out with a gourd and used 
it for cooking. Oh, it was nice! We didn't 
have crocks in those days. Most of our ves- 
sels were gourds, some of them big as buck- 
ets. I've seen 'em big enough to hold half 
a bushel." 

" It was nice to bake the old-fashioned 
French pancakes with. You don't see those 
kind of pancakes nowadays very often. We 
used to take three dozen eggs, plenty of milk 
and a little flour. We baked them on a 
long-handled skillet. You took hold of the 
handle when you wanted to turn, gave the 
pan a little flirt and the cake would flop up 
and come down on the skillet. The cakes 
were thin as wafers, and we used to pile them 
up so high (indicating eighteen inches o r 
thereabouts). Shrove Tuesday was the great 
day for pancakes. The table would be set 
the length of the room and nothing on it but 
pancakes and molasses. The man that ate 
the most was taken out by the others and 
tossed up and down. The most I recollect of 
any one man eating at a time was twenty- 

" You had your amusements as well as your 
work in those days ?" 

" Oh, yes, but they were different from 
what you have now. On New Year's we had 
what we called 'guignanne.' The young 
men would disguise themselves and go to the 
house of somebody selected and tire their 
guns and sing." 

These were the days of pure simplicity, 
and yet there was a gallantry and refinement 
often to be seen that even in these days one 
can only read about in the story of a people 
that are passed away, and regret that with 
them have gone many customs that are to be 

regretted. There is nothing now more in- 
teresting than the details of the habits and 
customs of these people, but we choose just 
here to resume the story of the early settlers 
and of their coming to this part of Illinois. 

William N. Borah came with his father's 
family to Wayne County in the spring of 
1820. His uncle, George Borah, had come ,vith 
his family in 1818, and had made an im- 
provement in the southern part of the coun- 
ty, and to this place, the two brothers of 
George came and spent the summer and made 
a crop, and in the fall of the same year had 
prepared places for their families and moved 
to that part of the county where they now 
live in Jasper Township. 

Although William N. Borah was not yet 
three years old, he remembers distinctly 
passing through Fairfield as the family were 
on their way to their then new home, and 
that they stopped for dinner at an uncle's, 
named McMakin, some of whose descendants 
now live in Marion County. He remembers 
there were three houses in Fairfield at that 
time. Gen. Leech's. John Barnhill's and Dr. 
Park's. ^ Leech's house was on the northeast 
corner of the public square; Dr. Park's resi- 
dence is still standing on Main street a block 
west from the north side of the square. The 
entire settlement then in what is now Jasper 
Township or the Borah settlement was Enoch 
Beach, at one time a State Senator from this 
district and for many years a prominent and 
influential man; a good neighbor and friend, 
and an honorable, upright and valuable citi- 
zen. Then there was William Fraser and 
family. They were among the very earliest 
settlers in the county. He, at one time, was 
a Major in the State Militia, and in the very 
early day was rather a prominent man, but 
his fame waned somewhat before his death. 
The entire family have long since passed 
away. Enoch Beach reared a most excellent 



family and died about 1836. George Rus- 
sell was one of these early settlers. His fam- 
ily of children was large. His eldest son, 
Macomb, grew up a much better educated 
youth than the average then of young men in 
the county. He started for California in 
IS 49. and was killed on the way by Indians. 
Mrs. Russell was tbe main stay and prop of 
the whole family and a most exemplary 
woman indeed. After her death, the old 
_-'<utleuiau soon fell into bad health and 
finally got to telling some most wonderful 
stories about his own exploits. So extrava- 
gant were some of these, that they were very 
amusing and often furnished amusement for 
all the county. A fair specimen of these 
yarns was one about a bee-tree he found and 
cut. The honey, hi' said, occupied the hol- 
low of the tree for about ton feet, and he took 
out a piece of the honey cnmb. and put it on 
his shoulder, and so heavy was it (being 
nearly ten feet long), that he would have to 
stop and rest every little while, and he would 
then set it on end and lean it up against a tree. 
Russell's fame for such fictions extended far 
and wide, and some yet believe that he told 
them over from morn till night until he 
eventually half-way believed them himself. 

William and Jesse Cannon, brothers, were 
also in this settlement. Jesse was noted for 
his fun and practical jokes. He seeined to 
never tire of astonishing the men with some 
new prank. A neighbor once was trying to 
plow his horse on only grass feed, when Can- 
non told him to come to his place and get a 
load of fodder. The man came and tied up 
an immense bundle, and shouldered it and 
started for home. .Jess.' slipped up behind 
him with a "chunk of tire." and in a moment 
it was in a blaze, and the poor fellow threw 
it down and ran for dear life. He then 
helped him hitch up a wagon and gave him 
a wagon-load, and sent him home happy. 

Jesse Cannon was a most excellent neighbor 
and good man in every respect. About 1850, 
he started for California and died on the 
road. His grandson, Frank Cannon, is now 
a respected citizen of this county. The 
brother, old Uncle Billy Cannon, married 
William Fraser's widow, an aunt of Col. P. 
Hay, and died about 1839. 

Walter Owens and Andrew Crews, the lat- 
ter the progenitor of the large and respecta- 
ble Crews family of Wayne County, were 
among these early settlers in the Borah 
neighborhood. Walter Owens was an old 
man when he came West. He was a good 
man in every respect, and in the early times 
was noted as " the best corn -raiser " in the 
county; this theD constituted about all there 
was in farming. He was a member of the 
Baptist Church, and lived and died without 
an enemy in the world. He removed to 
Rock Island, where he spent the last few 
years of his life. 

Richard Hall came from Ohio and lived 
about two miles from Borah's. His only son, 
Jacob, is now a citizen of Fairfield. Richard 
Hall was born in New Jersey, near Trenton, 
on the 17th of November, 1775. His father, 
■John T. Hall, was of English descent. His 
mother's maiden name was Ann Low, a sister 
of Judge Low, the father of Gov. Low 
of Iowa. 

John T. Hall emigrated with his family to 
Warren County, Ohio, about the year 1793, 
and here he received his education and mar- 
ried Eleanor Foster, of Irish descent, in the 
year 1809, and after his marriage settled in 
Warren County, where he remained about 
four years, and then moved to Cincinnati, 
where he resided about two years, and in 
1815 moved to Rising Sun, End., and in 1816 
moved to Illinois, landed at Shawneetown 
and settled in White County, not far from 
Concord, Big Prairie, and purchased land in 



Wayne County, soon after his arrival in 
White County, and moved to his Wayne 
County farm in about ISIS, where he built a 
cabin on Section 30. Town 1 south, Range 9 
east. Here he made a large farm in its day, 
and here he remained until he died April 8, 
1836. He had nine children, four boys and 
five girls. Three of the children died when 
small. He was a large, muscular man, lix 
feet high, full chest and broad across the 
shoulders; weighed about 180 pounds; black 
hair, fair complexion and a sharp, hazel eye; 
fond of home and friends, kind to his chil- 
dren, but firm; such was his government over 
his children that a word was sufficient to do 
his will. He, indeed, was a man of but few 
words. His countenance indicated firmness. 
For the day and age in which he lived, he 
had a very fair education and was a very fine 
reader. His leisure hours were earnestly de- 
voted to reading and study; was a member 
of church. 

William Husk and James Dickinson were 
among these early settlers in this neighbor- 
hood. After residing here a few years they 
moved away, and we are told they went to 
White County. 

This was the second settlement made in 
what is now Wayne County, and we have 
given the names of all of the first settlers 
there. The Borahs, Owonses, Crewses and 
Beaches, were all Kentuckians. Hall was 
from Ohio and Russell from North Carolina. 
Andrew Crews was quite an old man when he 
came to Illinois. He was badly crippled in 
his feet, and could never get about much. 
His sons were about all grown men. He died 
in 1831 or 1832. His sons are now all dead, 
and it is only his grand and great-grand 
children who are now remaining. 

About 1824, there were new comers to this 
settlement of Samuel Borah, George and 
Thomas Wilson. Thomas Wilson died about 

L849, and Samuel in 1880. Samuel Borah 
also died in 1S80, leaving six daughters, all 
married. He had married three different 
wives, survived them all and was about eighty 
years old when he died. 

William N. Borah, to whom we are in- 
debted for this account of the early settlers, 
tells us that these men were all pious, God- 
fearing men, and were all members of some 
church except the two Cannons. He thinks 
Mr. Nesbitt one of the best men that ever came 
to the county. He was a man of fine intelli- 
gence and the very soul of integrity and 
manliness. His life was a continuous bless- 
ing to all with whom he came in contact. He 
died about 1878, having a daughter and son 
(Andrew) now living in Mt. Erie Township. 
We should have stated above that Mr. Nesbitt 
had settled in Mt. Brie. 

In the Borah settlement, those who came 
before 1825. except those noted above as 
moving away, have continued there, and they 
and their descendants make that their home 
to this time. This is more strongly a feature 
of this settlement than any other in the 

The early settlers in what is now Mt. Erie 
Township were a very worthy class of men. 
but they all, except Ramsey and Nesbitt and 
Michael Book, moved away after spending a 
few years in the county, and their places 
were taken by new comers. 

As early as 1822, there was an effort to 
organize the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Chitrch in Tom's Prairie. Before any school- 
houses or churches were built, the services 
were held in the woods or groves, and at the 
cabinsof the members. Woods N. Hamilton 
was among the first preachers. He was noted 
as a good and pious man. and an effective 

The first schoolhouse William Borah 
remembers, about 1824, was about half a 



uiilo from John Borah's house and was built 
on his land. Hove William went to his first 
school when he was not yet. six years old, and 
where his childish mind was dazed in looking 
upon the first school teacher he remembers 
seeing— G. W. Wilson. The schoolhouse was 
the rudest log hut, with dirt floor anil clap- 
board roof. It was only a summer school, 
and these people evidently did not imagine 
there would ever arise the necessity for a 
school in the winter. Mr. Borah could not 
restrain a smile when he told of the first home 
mill he ever saw, and the immeasurable awe 
with which he looked at, its vast and wonder- 
ful machinery. He thinks a flying steamboat 
of largest build would not now so utterly 
overwhelm him, as did Martin's horse mill, 
on Martin's Creek, where Sam Farris now 
lives, in all its wonderful aud flying machin- 
ery. The sound of the slow revolving aud 
crunching stones was the most awe-inspiring 
thing he ever heard. He now believes a 
wagon load of striped candy would not have 
hired him to touch the remotest part of this 
immense wonder. 

In 1824, old man Gaston had a hand mill 
in Big Mound Prairie. The first water mill 
was put up just a little south of Nathan 

A man named William Ellidge was an 
early settler. He lived just west of where 
Fairfield now is. He was noted as a very 
shrewd trader in a small way, and if he 
made a good trade, as he generally did, if 
he only had his ' ; old woman and gals" to 
help him, he was noted for sticking to it 
like a tick to a fat dog. On one occasion, 
two neighbors, Hofford and Sowenfrey, an 
Englishman, called at Ellidge' s to buy a 
milch cow. The small herd was looked at. 
and Ellidge told them they could have their 
pick, except the cow with the long bag, for 
so much. He would not sell that particular 

cow because he had "sorter promised the old 
woman and gals not to." The buyers were 
thus induced to want that very cow, when 
the old woman began to scold and the girls 
to bawl and cry at a terrible rate. To 
make a long story short, that cow was paid 
for and driven oil' in triumph amid the 
wails and sobs of the girls, and the vehe- 
ment anathemas of the wife. The happy 
possessors of the prize cow drove along the 
road and finally met a near neighbor of 
Ellidge, when he wanted to know what on earth 
they had got " that spoiled-bag cow for." He 
then gave them the history of the worthless 
brute, and their joy turned to disgust, and 
they drove the cow back. Ellidge met them, 
and told them that now the " old woman and 
gals" had been " peacefied," and he would 
not trade back and they must keep their 

The first settlement in what is now the 
northeast part of Wayne County, and in the 
present Mount Erie Township, was composed 
of Alexander Nesbitt, Alexander Ramsey, 
James Ramsey. William Farmer, William 
McCormick and Michael Book. These peo- 
ple left Hopkins County, Ky., in 1816, and 
came overland to White County, and located 
in Seven Mile Prairie, near where Enfield 
now is. Here they remained two years, and 
then, in 1818, constructed a pirogue, and 
started up the Little Wabash, to the mouth 
of what is known as Miller's Creek, and 
fixed their camp in a grove at the foot of the 
hill on which Mount Erie is built, on Christ- 
mas Eve. They Darned the place Ramsey's 
Grove. Here the party remained and rested 
for a shorttime, anil hunted game, and at the 
same time hunted out each his future home. 
Alexander Ramsey, Sr.. fixed his home in 
this grove. His son, Alexander, improved a 
place a little east of Mount Erie, near where 
the Little Gem Mill now is. Alexander 



Nesbitt improved a place about a mile and a 
half west of Mount Erie. Michael Book's 
family resided in this part of the county for 
fifteen years, and then removed to Big Mound 
Township, where he died, October, 1858. 
Nesbitt eventually removed to the village of 
Mount Erie, and died there in 1878. Alex- 
ander Ramsey, Sr. . died in 1857, and his son, 
Alexander, died there in 1851. 

A gathering of the old settlers of Wayne 
County was held May 7, 1880, at William H. 
Carter's residence, three miles east of Fair- 
field, to celebrate the eighty-third birthday 
of Mrs. Hannah Carter, mother of William 
H. and John R. Carter. The day was also 
the sixty-fourth anniversary of Mrs. Carter's 
marriage with William A. Carter, who died 
in 1870. The Press gave this list of the old 
settlers that were at two of the tables on this 
occasion. Twelve of the oldest guests sat 
down to the first table, We give below the 
names of these pioneers, their ages, and the 
length of time they have resided in Wayne 
County : 


George Merritt 81 64 

Dica Files 70 63 

Betsey Campbell 7 1 45 

Harriett Boze 73 55 

Sarah Houston 75 62 

Sally Moffitt 78 64 

Malinda Day 87 61 

Hannah Carter 83 52 

Betsey Goodwin 76 66 

Margaret Shaw 75 46 

Mary Holloway 70 25 

Margaret Bland 79 50 

Total ages 921 

The average age of the twelve is about 
seventy-seven years. A majority of the old 
ladies were sprightly and active for their 
years. That so many of one neighborhood 
of such extreme age have lived in our county 
for an average of about fifty-five years each, 
speaks strongly for the healthfulness of our 

county. A majority of these twelve guests 
came to Illinois from Kentucky. 

The second table was occupied as follows: 

V.K. IN CO. 

Nathan Atteberry 76 61 

Dr. R. L. Boggs 68 41 

W. T. Mathews 74 44 

Benjamin Brown 75 21 

T. W. Elliott 62 18 

John D. Simpson 64 53 

James Bland 53 50 

Mrs. James Bland 51 44 

Polly Grey 61 20 

Elizabeth Butler 66 66 

The conversation at the table turned 
largely upon reminiscences, and some of these 
were both amusing and interesting, as fol- 
lows : 

Dr. Boggs' memory of the early church 
was quite vivid. In 1840. a lady came in 
from the East who had been accustomed to 
"wearing brass ear bobs." She had been 
a member of the M. E. Church, but was de- 
nied admission here until the holes in her 
ears had grown up. Dr. B. referred to this 
alleged fact as a gratifying proof of the 
greater purity of the church in former times. 
Without deciding as to whether or not the 
Doctor is right, we are disposed to approve 
this action of fathers of the pioneer church. 

James Bland said that he was grown be- 
fore he knew that fruit could be kept through 
the winter in cans. Which remark reminded 
Dr. Boggs of the fact that he was fifteen 
years old before he knew that sugar could be 
kept in anything but a gourd. 

H. F. Vaughn's first suit of store clothes 
were bought of Thomas Cooper. His father 
sold castor beans to Mr. C. for 50 cents per 
bushel, and paid 50 cents per yard for Ken 
tucky jeans. 

Dr. Boggs, in the days of other years, 
owed Ed Butler $25, and Mr. Butler wanted 
the money " to put in Slocumb's hands 
where it would be safe.'' Dr. B. didn't have 



the cash, but went to Josiah Reed to borrow 
it. Mr. Rood's stocking happened to be 
empty of silver just then, but he sold five 
cows for $5 each, and loaned the money to 
the Doctor. 

\s late as 1835, William A. Carter sold 
cattle to David Wright, one of the pioneer 
merchants, at these figures : Cows, $4 ; 
good yoke of steers, $16. These were gold 
and silver prices. In State paper money, 
double these figures were the ruling rate. 

Dick Lock brought the first wagon to 
Wayne County. It was one of the good old 
fashion, with a long bed shaped like a new 
moon, very high before and behind, and with 
a holding capacity almost equal to a modern 
freight ear. This first wagon was not only a 
great curiosity, but was a decided public 
blessing. As one of the old ladies said : 
" There was a master ripin' and tearin' to 
get Dick Lock's wagon to gather corn with." 
Sleds were the most convenient vehicles be- 
fore the advent of Dick Lock's historic wagon. 

Craig Wright is fifty-seven years old ; was 
born in and has always lived in Barnhill 

John D. Simpson has been in Wayne over 
fifty years, and remembers when Fairfield 
consisted of only two houses in a crab-apple 

John R. Carter, as long as he lived at 
home, never had $5 worth of store clothing. 
The family made all their cloth of all kinds; 
tanned their own leather and made their own 
shoes. Mr. Carter never sported a pair of 
store shoes until grown. 

Nathan Attoberrv was born in South Caro- 
lina August 10, 1803, and in childhood was 
removed from there by his parents to Ken- 
tucky, where ho remained until 1820, when 
he came to Wayne County, where ho has re- 
mained over since. He was first married in 
1824 in this county. He is a hale and 

cheery old man, whose mind and body are 
strong, vigorous and active. His biography 
may be found in another part of this work. 
At the house of Mr. Attoberry, on the 10th 
day of last August, was gathered some of the 
friends and old settlors to celebrate his 
eightieth birthday. Among the guests were 
the following : 

Richard L. Boggs, born in Kentucky March 
6, 1811; came to Wayne County, 111., in 
1834 ; a physician by profession. 

Pradi S. Meeks, born in Kentucky April 
20, 1814 ; came to Wayne County in 1833. 

Joseph Odell, born in Kentucky March -!4. 
1813. Came to Wayne County in 1826. A 

Edward Butler, born in Kentucky July 1 4, 
1816. Came to Wayne County in 1825. A 

Silas Wilson, born in Kentucky November 
3. 1821. Came to Wayne County in 1838. 
A farmer. 

Andrew C. Wright, born in Wayne Coun 
ty January 29, 1823. A farmer. 

Margaret Ann Blissett, wife of Pradi S. 
Meeks, was born in Wayne County June 14, 

Jane Day, wife of Edward Butler, was. 
born in White County November 17, 1818. 

Anna Gray, wife of Gambrel Tucker, was 
born in Kentucky August 25, 1820. Came 
tti Wayne County in 1836. 

Elizabeth Shrewsbury, widow of Lemuel 
H. Harris, late deceased, was born in Ken- 
tucky August 16, 1822. Came to Wayne 
County in 1841. Was married in 1842, by 
W XV. George, Justice of the Peace. 

Sarah Renfrow, widow of Asa Atteberry, 
win) died many years ago, was born in 
Georgia September 12, 1812. Came to 
Wayne County in L829. 

Sarah Ann Files, widow of William But- 
ler, deceased, was born in Kentucky Febru- 



ary 25, 1814. Came to Illinois in childhood. 

Eliza Emmick, widow of. Elder Benjamin 
S. Meeks, deceased, was born in Gallatin 
County October 0, 1827. 

George Borah came with his family to 
Wayne County in 1818. Nathan N. Borah, his 
son, like many of this old and large family, is 
one of the most estimable citizens of the 
county. George Borah's family consisted of 
children by three different wives, having 
married his first wife in Kentucky. There 
were, of the three sets of children, twenty in 
all. Nelson N. was a son of the first wife, 
and was two years and four days old when 
the family came to this county. He was 
born in Nelson County, Ky., September 6, 

George Borah was one of the pioneer mer- 
chants of Wayne County, first opening a 
store in Burnt Prairie, within two miles of 
where the town of Liberty now is. 

Nathan Atteberry came to Wayne County 
and settled in Turney's Prairie in the fall of 
1819. In the party were the two brothers of 
Atteberry and their families. Their nearest 
neighbors were Reason Blessitt and his fam- 
ily of four children, George Close, William 
Watkins, Green Lee, Henry Coonrod. Mi 
chael Turney, Isaiah Turney, Thomas Turney 
and John Turney. These were all here when 
the Atteberrys came, and had been on the 
grounds the most of them long enough to 
have gone to keeping house in their rude 

Isaiah Turney taught a school in this prai- 
rie in 1820, and about this time Washington 
Faris also taught a school there. 

Mr. A. remembers attending a general 
muster and election in 1820, where the mili- 
tia officers for the county were elected. It 
was held at the house of Washington Faris, 
just north of Fairfield. One of the Turneys 
was elected Captain, and Justus Beach was 

elected commander, vice Gen. Samuel Leech. 
Mr. Atteberry afterward became a Captain 
and then a Major in the militia, where he 
served two years. James Clark was made 
Brigadier General of the militia. 

Nathan Atteberry was a bound boy to old 
John Turney, and by the terms of the in- 
denture was sent to school three months, and 
this was the total of his facilities in this 
line. His recollection is that George Close 
raised the first wheat ever grown in the 

W. W. George was born in South Carolina 
November 15, 1810. Removed to Kentucky 
about 1818; remained there until 1821, when 
he removed to Illinois and settled in Gallatin 
County, and removed from there to White 
County, where he lived until 1830, when he 
removed to Wayne County, where he has 
resided ever since. Was married in Hamil- 
ton County, 111., November 1, 1S27, to Miss 
Mary Maberry. United with the M. E. 
Church in 1842, in which he lived for several 
years, and afterward united with the First 
Presbyterian Church of Fairfield, where he 
remained until his death, which took place 
September 16, 1883. 

He was the father of sis children, who 
arrived at man or womanhood, five of whom, 
Mary Shaw, Martha Atteberry, Olive Way, 
Meshech George and William W. George are 
still living, and one, Helen Hendershott. is 
dead. Only two of his children, Mary Shaw 
and Martha Atteberry, are living here. 

Mr. George was continuously in public life 
from the time he attained his majority until 
his death. During this time there was one 
short period of eighteen months, during 
which ho held no office. He was elected a 
Justice of the Peace before he attained the 
age of twenty-one, and his commission was 
delayed until he arrived at legal age. He 
held the office of Justice forty-five years; was 


insTouy OF wavxi: cointy. 


County Judge four years; School Commis- 
sioner six years; was also Drainage Commis- 
sioner for Wayne County, and two years 
Commissioner on River Improvements under- 
taken by the State. 

His father, John George, was born in Ire- 
land, and when a child came to South Caro- 
lina, where he grew to manhood and married 
Mary Stone. She was born in South Caro- 
lina, but was of Irish parentage. The father 
was in the war of 1812, after which, in 1816, 
he removed to Kentucky, where he remained 
until 1824, at which time he removed to Illi- 
nois and settled in Gallatin County. In the 
last named county, and in White County, ho 
spent the remainder of his life. From 
White County he went to the Black Hawk 
war, serving until its close. He died in 
White County. 
— David Wright. 4th, came from New Jersey 
to Wayne County in lSl'.l, and settled and 
improved a farm three miles south of Fair- 
field, He started the lirst tan-yard in the 
county, using a wooden trough, which in 
time he increased to fourteen vats, in which 
he did an extensive business for those days — 
tanning all kinds of hides, even hog skins. 
The old family Bible, now in the possession 
of Charles W. \Y right, is covered with fawn 
skin tanned in his tannery. He soon opened 
a store and also built a horse mill, each of 
which were about the first of their kind in 
the county. People came fifteen and twenty 
miles to his mill on horseback, often camping 
to wait for their turn. The product of the 
mill was bolted by hand. D. W. Barkley, a 
grandson, says he has both lively and pain 
ful recollections of assisting in this part of 
the business. At least he remembers it was 
not so agreeable as driving the horses and 
riding on the beam. Mr. Wright had his mer- 
chandise hauled from Shawneetown, Mount 
Vernon, Ind., and Evansville, and his produce 

was taken to Beach Bluff and Mill Shoals and 
shipped to New Orleans by flat-boat. This 
mostly consisted of venison hams, wild fur 
key honey, deer and coon skins, etc. In 
those days, two-horse wagons, in which were 
to be seen teams in harness of which not a 
particle of iron was used — all home made 
leather, shuck collars, and names cut from 
the root of a tree. When the family lirst 
came to the county, as did all others, they 
pounded meal in a stump mortar. The first 
meal from a mill was procured at Shawnee- 
town, and until Mr. Wright's mill was put 
up, the nearest mill was at Carmi. 

Mr. Wright was a fine specimen of the 
hardy, thrifty pioneers. His industry never 
flagged, and his energy was tireless— all of 
which were most admirable qualities for aid 
ing in opening up and developing thp new 
country. His other good qualities were only 
equaled by his widely known integrity, and 
a morality and uprightness that marked his 
whole life and drew around him an extended 
circle of warm friends. 

His children were Thomas Curtis, Eliza 
Atkinson (afterward Mrs. J. G. Barkley), 
David, 5th, Sarah Ann (afterward Mrs. Dr. 
R. L. Boggs), Charles Williams, now living 
three miles north of Fairfield, on the place 
first improved by his father nearly sixty. five 
years ago. 

David Wright, 4th. died March 14, 1865. 

Andrew Crews came to Wayne County 
while Illinois was yet a Territory, from Ken 
tuck). Some years later, he was followed by 
his five sons, who are described as very tall, 
erect, strong and healthy men. They 

Mathew, the oldest of the five, had a :' 
ily of thirteen children, eight of whom 
ill- resnlt of a second marriage. William 
I of the thirteen. 

William had a family of six children who 



grew to maturity, one of whom died in the 
army. Joseph J. is the oldest of these. The 
father died in 1862, and the mother in 1877. 
Joseph was educated in the common school, 
and from delicate health was much his own 
teacher; taught nine years. Read law under 
Hon. James McCartney. 

He was admitted in 1871, and has practiced 
in Fairfield since. Married in Fairfield to 
Eliza Shaeffer, daughter of Henry and Eliza- 
beth Shaeffer. She was born in Tuscarawas 
County, Ohio. May 10, 1855. They have four 
children — Lillian, Edith, Carl and Bertha 

The first schoolhouee in Tom's Prairie was 
in 1822, and George Wilson was the first 
teacher. The first patrons were the families 
of John Borah, Thomas Wilson, William 
Frazer, Richard Hall, John Pritchett, Alex- 
ander Crews, Walter Owen, Enoch Beach, 
and Mr. Bradshaw, whose youngest son is 
now a resident of Fairfield. The first mar- 
riage in this portion of the county was Owen 
Morton with Mary Crews, and the first death 
was that of a Mr. King. The first preacher 
there was Wood M. Hamilton, of the Cum- 
berland Presbyterians. George Wilson, the 
first school teacher as named above, was at one 
time Sheriff of the county. He is remem- 
bered as an excellent, good man. He died 
about 1845. 

John Borah died in 1841, leaving William, 
Valentine. Baily, John and Milton, sons. 
The latter went to California. 

Alexander Campbell was a member of the 
Legislature in 1822. He was an illiterate 
man. but had good sense and an honest, warm 
heart. He has many descendants yet in the 
county. One of his sons now resides in 
Springfield, 111., and one of his daughters 
and many of his grandchildren are yet in the 
county. Among the early weddings of the 
county was the marriage of John Moffitt to 
one of Campbell's daughters. 

Beach Bluff was settled many years ago 
by a man named Hampton Weed. Mr. Weed 
built a mill at the place, and also sold goods 
away back forty-five years ago. It was then 
the most important place in Wayne County. 
Mr. Weed was a very enterprising man. At 
Beach Bluff the people would build flat boats 
and load them with pork and corn and float 
them down to New Orleans. 

The hardy explorers who first discovered 
this portion of the great Mississippi Valley, 
told the world in glowing terms of its rich 
lands, of its great old forests, and the beau- 
tiful and rich prairies, spread out like an un- 
dulating sea, and then they believed that all 
over this valley were inexhaustible mines of 
the precious metals. These were the almost 
fairy legends that they gave the world, and 
that brought the first sporadic efforts of men 
of wealth and political power to populate this 
country, and they could possess the richest 
empire in the world. But all these attempts 
at making permanent settlements failed, and, 
as a rule, bankrupted the daring projectors. 
It is doubtless best that this fate attended 
them; and thus the grand field was left un- 
occupied until the real pioneer — the hunter 
— was lured here by the abundance of wild 
game, and for this he came with all his glo- 
rious instincts for freedom, and his resolute 
daring to meet the savage upon his chosen 
fields and beat him down and drive him off. 

The Indian here now is but a memory. He 
accomplished nothing, and had he continued 
unmolested here a million of years he would 
most probably only have bred wretchedness 
and the vilest ignorance and savagery. Un- 
like the negro, he was ready to die, but never 
to be a slave, and the one only record that he 
has ever made that is worth remembrance 
was that he never was a slave. But he per- 
ished with that barbaric stoicism that ren- 
dered his exit above the reproach of contempt. 



The wild game has mostly gone with the 
Indian. The swift growth of our cities is 
not nearly as unparalleled as the rapid dis- 
appearance of our game animals. One hun- 
dred years ago, eastern North America was 
the finest game country in the world. " This 
valley is a hunter's paradise," says Col. 
Boone in his account of the expedition to the 
mouth of the Kentucky River. " Our dogs 
started three troops of deer in less than half 
an horn - ; on the river we saw tracks of elk, 
bears and buffalo, and the thickets along the 
slope were full of turkeys and mountain 
pheasants. From the cliffs above the junc- 
tion, our guide showed us the wigwams of 
the Miatuis. About eight miles to the north- 
west, we could see the smoke of their camp 
fires rising from the foot of a rocky bluff, but 
the hill country in the east and the great 
plains in the west, north and northeast, re- 
sembled a boundless ocean of undulating 

Northwest of the " Blue Ridge " buffaloes 
grazed in countless heards. During the heat 
of the midsummer months they used to re- 
treat to the highlands, and followed the 
ridges in the southward migration, as the ap- 
proach of winter gradually crowned the 
heights with snow. Along the backbones of 
all the main chains of the sunken Alleghanies 
these trails can still bedistinctly traced for hun- 
dreds of miles. " Buffalo Springs," "Buffalo 
Gap," and scores of similar names still attest 
the presence of the American bison in localities 
that are now fully 2,000 miles from the next 
buffalo range. The center of our buffalo pop 

ulation is moving northwest at an alarming 
rate. Herds, in the old-time sense of the 
word, can now be found only in British North 
America, and here and there along the fron- 
tier of our Northwestern Territories. In 
cold winter, small troops, of fifteen or twenty 
are occasionally seen in the Texas " Panhan- 
dle," in Western Utah, and in the valley of 
the Upper Arkansas, but nowhere on this side 
of the Mississippi. Their days are numbered. 
They cannot hide, and their defensive weap- 
ons are useless against mounted riflemen. 
Pot-hunters follow them to their far Northern 
retreats; the International Railroad will soon 
carry a swarm of sportsmen to their Mexican 
reservations, and in fifty years from now 
their happy pasture grounds will probably 
be reduced to the inclosed grass plots of a 
few zoulogical gardens. 

Panthers are still found in twenty-six or 
twenty-seven States, but chiefly at the two 
opposite ends of our territory — in Florida 
and Oregon. In the Southern Allegha 
nies they are still frequent enough to make 
the Government bounty a source of in- 
come to the hunters of several' highland 
counties. Wolves still defy civilization in 
some of the larger prairie States, and in the 
wild border country between North Carolina 
and East Tennessee. But, unlike panthers, 
they do not confine themselves to a special 
locality. Hunger makes them peripatetic, 
and in cold winters their occasional visits can 
be looked for in almost any mountain vallei 
between Southern Kentucky and Alabama. 





TO mark the changes in the social and 
business habits of the people in this 
country the last half century is to start the 

reader upon the investigations of some of 
those remarkable revolutions that are histor 
ical in their nature. Such a course of in- 
vestigation is one step in the commencement 
of the construction of real history — the ascer- 
taining the causes, in short, that have silent- 
ly worked these tremendous effects upon 
mankind, and that are the true eras to the 
profound historian. 

The pioneer people were the possessors of 
that boon to the world of human equality in 
a degree nearer perfection than, perhaps, of 
any other numerous people in the world. 
Doubtless there have been isolated societies, 
composed of enthusiasts in the hunt of Uto- 
pia, where a more perfect equality existed; 
but these were always short-lived communi- 
ties, and their equality was in a degree al- 
ways to their isolation from the great outside 
world. But among the early people of the 
West there were none rich and none poor, 
and Gov. Reynolds tolls us they were a sim- 
ple, contented and happy people. They 
slept the sweet sleep of innocent content, 
where came no dreams of modern colossal 
fortunes, no nightmare of assassination for 
pelf or position, or those miserable baubles 

that have plunged the world in bloody wars 
and blackened the fair face of nature. 

To-day we boast of our great population, 
our schools, churches, magnificent public 
buildings, our numerous population, splen- 
did civilization, and our boundless wealth. 
But the thinking man, even when he beholds 
all this, is confronted with the curious fact 
that wealth concentrates in a few hands more 
readily in this than any other country on 
earth. We have followed out the traditions 
of Jefferson in this country, and given every 
one an equal chance in the making of money, 
upon the theory that this would result in the 
equalizing of fortunes. To help bring about 
this desirable result, our laws call for an 
equal division of property on the death of the 
parent. But unrestricted competition has 
not borne out the claim of the Declaration of 
Independence that " all men are equal." The 
facts of the last fifty years show that oppor- 
tunity, brains and unserupulousness will en- 
able individuals, within a short lifetime, to 
gather to themselves enormons sums of mon- 
ey, which, under different institutions, would 
be diffused among the masses of the people. 
France, for instance, is a very rich country, 
but, outside of the Rothschild family, has 
few millionaires. It has a poor and frugal 
working class, but the great bulk of the 



French people belong to what is known as 
the " middle class," and are well-to-do. In 
Great Britain there are greater contrasts of 
wealth and poverty, but facts recently pub- 
lished go to show that the number of very 
rich is not large. It is safe to say that there 
have been more millionaires created in the 
United States since the beginning of the 
civil war than have been developed by a cent- 
ury of banking, manufacturing and trading 
in Great Britain There are no single fort- 
unes in England comparable to those of Van 
derbilt, Gould, Mackey, Flood, the Astor and 
the Stewart estates, and probably fifty others 
which might be mentioned. The great fort 
unes in England have been aggregating — 
some of them — for centuries: ours date back 
to the first year of the civil war, when vast 
accumulations were rolled up in contracts for 
supplying our armies. Then the Jeffersonian 
theory, which said to the Government, 
"Hands off," left the transportation field 
open to tip' monopolist. Our railway mag- 
nates have ta\e<l the public, the Government 
declining to interfere until very recently; but 
our highest court has at length decided that 
the nation is supreme, and has a right to su- 
pervise railway passenger and freight charges. 
The freedom of our institutions had been 
vastly more advantageous to the capitalist 
than the poor workman. Should the present 
tendencies continue, the middle of the twen- 
tieth century will see the Cnited States with 
ast laboring population, a small middle 
. and a few- hundred millionaires, who 
will monopolize the greal bulk of the prop- 
erty of the country. 

Delegate to the Constitutional Convention 
of 1847, from Wayne County. James M. 
Hogue; to the Constitutional Convention of 
1870, Robert 1'. Hanna The first and only 
State officer ever elected from Wayne County 
is .J mnes McCartney, the present Attorney 

General of Illinois. The first member of the 
Legislature from Wayne County was Alex- 
ander Campbell, in the sessions of 1822 and 
1824; the second was Bigdon B. Slocumb, in 
1824 and 1826. 

James Bird was the State Senator from 
Wayne and Lawrence Counties in 1826-28. 

W. B. Davis was a liepresentative in 1826. 
Mr. Davis was one of the remarkable early 
statesmen of Wayne County. He was knowD 
much better all over the county as " Black 
Bill" than by his baptismal name. His 
looks gave him this name. It is said that 
many of his acquaintances never dreamed 
but that this descriptive appellation was his 
only real name, and when they read his 
obituary notice they were innocent of sus- 
pecting that it was the story of the death of 
anybody they knew. Davis was a rare char- 
acter, who came to Wayne County at so early 
a date that there was no chronicler here to 
give the day and date of this event. He was 
as illiterate as the game he hunted — a genu- 
ine, unpretentious, pioneer hunter, who used 
as little soap as any man in America, lie 
lived an easy, careless life, and was innocent 
of even thinking ho was a great statesman 
until, all at once, in 1826, he was elected to 
tlin Illinois Legislature, and, arrayed in all 
his buckskin glories, he shouldered his rifle 
and footed it to Vandalia to attend the ses- 
sion of the Legislature. He was much an- 
noyed at the style he there found, especially 
in the pompous grandeur of Gov. Edwao 
It is said of Black Bill that he was told that 
it was customary for members to wash their 
faces lief. 're taking their seats, and he had 
repaired to a small pond of water in the pub- 
lic '[iiareand had laid down his coon-skin 
cap preparatory to his first ablution, when 
the Governor happened to pass by. when he 
addressed him familiarly by saying, "Cap'n, 
won't you have a wash with me?" 



During the term, he never rose and ad- 
dressed the chair but once, and that was upon 
some question that threatened to divide 
Wayne County, when his monitor told him 
to move to lay the bill upon the table. He 
bounded to his feet and said: " Mr. Speaker, 
I ask you to please put that on the table," 
and he sat down exhausted with his mighty 
effort to the extent that the perspiration 
dampened his buckskin suit. 

When sworn in and the Clerk was taking 
down the names of the members, he asked 
Davis the usual questions of name, etc. 
When he asked him his occupation, Davis 
stopped short and was as mum as a statue. 
The Clerk asked him if he was a farmer. 
"No," said Davis. " A merchant?" "No." 

"A trader?" "No." " What the -are 

you, then?" said the Clerk. "Ahunter.bydad!" 

Davis, it is said, soon tired of the flumer- 
ies of law-making, and one evening just as 
the House adjourned he rose and said, "I 
move Black Bill adjourns," and thereupon 
he shouldered his trusty rifle and returned 
to his admiring constituents. He thus quit 
public life, and his national usefulness was 
cut short. 

In the General Assembly of 1828-30, the 
counties of Wayne, Wabash and Edwards 
formed a Senatorial district, and the member 
was Enoch Beach, and in the Lower House 
again was Rigdon B. Slocumb. In the As- 
sembly of 1830-32, Beach was still Senator, 
and Alexander Clark was the Representative 
from Wayne. 

Iu the Assembly of 1832-34, the counties of 
Wayne, Wabash and Edwards composed a 
Senatorial district, and Henry I. Mills was 
the Senator, and Alexander Clark was again 
the Representative. 

In the Assembly of 1S34-36, Mills was 
Senator andSBenjamin A. Clark was the Rep- 
resentative from Wayne. 

In 183(5-38, Mills still Senator, and Daniel 
Turner was the Representative. 

In 1838-40, Mills was still the Senator, 
and Jeffrey Robinson was the Representative. 

Id the Assembly of 1840-42, Rigdon B. 
Slocumb was the State Senator from the old 
district of Wayne. Edwards and Wabash, 
and Daniel Turney was the Representative. 

Edward West was elected Representative 
from Wayne to the House of Representatives 

The General Assembly, 1844-46, Charles H. 
Constant was State Senator and Joseph 
Campbell Representative. 

In the Assembly of 1846-48, Charles H. 
Constable was Senator, and Rigdon B. Slo- 
cumb Representative. 

In 1848-50, John A. Campbell was the 

In Assembly of 1S52-54, Alexander Camp- 
bell was the Representative. 

Isaac R. Warmoth was Assistant Enrolling 
and Engrossing Clerk in the Assembly i if 

Charles P. Burns was the Representative 
from Wayne in 1856-5S. 

Rigdon S. Barnhill was Postmaster to the 
Senate in the Assembly of 1858-60. R! T. 
Forth was the Representative. 

In the Twenty -second General Assembly. 
1861, Nathan Crews was Representative and 
William H. Robinson was Second Assistant 

In the Twenty-third Assembly, 1863-64, 
James M. Herd was the Representative. 

In 1866-68, Robert P. Hanna was the Rep- 
resentative in the Legislature. 

In the Twenty-sixth General Assembly. 
1868-70, Dr. J. J. R. Turney was Senator 
from this district. 

David W. Barkley was a member of the 
House of Representatives in the Twenty- 
eighth General Assemblv. 



Robert P. Hanna was State Senator in the 
Thirtieth General Assembly, L876 78, and 
also in the Assembly of 187S-80. 

Judge Edwin Beecher"s commission as 
Judge of the Twelfth Judicial Circuit bears 
date June 25, 1S55. 

At the election, November '_', 1N80, the vote 
for State Senator in this district, as returned 
officially to the Secretary of State, was as 

c orvni - 



w abaab 

. . 

B V, 


- ' 

-. H 

Z U 

* EC 

f a 

.; - 

£ - 

K - 

r/; * 

. K 

..: a 










Thomas P. Fletcher, Alexander Clark and 
G. \Y. Faris were the first County Commis- 
sioners' Court elected in the county. Their 
first business was to arrange for the platting 
the town of Fairfield, and their first deed was 
to Daniel Kinehelo, Lot 24. in the town. 

Felix H. and John Barnhill made a deed 
to the county for the original town of Fair- 

The first deed recorded in the county bears 
date the 1st day of March, 1819, and is a 
deed from Walter Anderson (his mark) and 
his wife, Chole (Chloe?), to John Anderson, 
and conveyed the northwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 13, Town 1 south. Range It east. The 
consideration was $120. This deed is 
acknowledged before Robert Frazer, Justice 
of the Peace. 

There was no other deed made in the 
county until the following October, when 
John Anderson and Susan, his wife, deeded 
to Samuel Anderson the northwest quarter of 
Section 13, Town 1 south, Range '.» east; 
consideration, $600. This deed was acknowl- 

edged before John Depew, Justice of the 

The next document is a lease and contract, 
whereby Enoch Wilcox leases on the shares 
the farms and stock ranch of A. F. Hubbard 
of date September 22, 1819. 

The next record document is a bill of sale 
of "a sorrel horse and saddle" for $80 by 
Henry L. Cross to Thomas Lee. 

On November 8, 1859, a vote on the ques- 
tion of township organization resulted as 
follows : For township organization, 952; 
against, 130, as appears by the certificate of 
the two Justices, J. G. Barkley and AY. W. 
George. J. W. Barnhill, County Clerk at 
that time, records the report of the Commis- 
sioners, J. G. Barkley and W. L. Beeson, 
who designated the township boundaries and 
their names. 

At a regular meeting of the board for the 
purpose of organizing, June 4, 1860, there 
was present J. B. Borah, Daniel Wingate, 
William Holmes, Alexander Campbell, H. D. 
Taylor. Nathan Crews, William Clark. Na- 
than Atteberry, Robert T. Forth, William 
Beeson and Sylvester Ryder, J. AY. Barnhill, 
County Clerk, and H. A Orgon, Sheriff. The 
board adjourned, and the next day A. S. 
Hargraves, H. Holtzhauser and Nathan Mer- 
ritt appeared and took their seats as Super- 

Daniel Wingate was elected permanent 
Chairman, and the very first business that 
the new board took in hand was to appoint a 
committee to examine a trust deed and mort- 
gage executed 1 ly the county, which was 
signed by S. J. R. Wilson and Thomas M. 
Scott, and to make report of the same. This 
was the first movement in Wayne County's 
causes celebres that has waxed warm in all 
our courts from that day to this with ever- 
varying fortune (for particulars see chapter 
on railroads). 



Rigdon B. Slocumb died in Fairfield, 
April 20, 1874, aged seventy nine years two 
months and twenty -nine days. He was among 
the earliest men here, and in the organiza- 
tion and control of the county affairs, stood 
second only to Samuel Leech. He was a 
man of large ability and was esteemed by all 
the people of the county for ripe judgment 
and integrity of character. He filled con- 
tinously almost one or more of the county 
offices for years, and also represented the 
county ia the Legislature. He was the can- 
didate in 1828, on the ticket, with Gov. 
Reynolds, for Leiutenant Governor, but was 
defeated by Zadoc Casey, who was a candidate 
on the Kinney ticket. 

This election showed a singular state of 
politics in the State. The campaign was the 
longest and one of the most exciting ever 
held in the State. Reynolds and Kinney 
were the opposing candidates for Governor. 
Both were Democrats, as were all the can 
didates on each ticket, and, further, they 
were all Jackson Democrats, but at this day, 
a similar party division is designated by 
Stalwarts and Half-Breeds. Kinney and his 
crowd called themselves out-and-outer Jack- 
son men, while Reynolds and his crowd went 
in for kissing the babies, and shaking hands 
with the women and miklly bragging on Old 
Hickory. Kinney was a preacher, Baptist, 
and so was Casey, but Methodist. For years 
after it was said that Kinney was defeated 
because he was a preacher, and Casey was 
elected because he was a preacher. 

Samuel Leech. The history of the early 
official life and the biography of Samuel 
Leech are much one and the same thing. 
All the early record books and official papers 
are in his familiar writing, and in this way 
he laid the foundations for the young county 
to build upon. And this is true of all the 
early county courts. As the presiding officer 

of the Probate Court he had to some extent 
the charge of estates of widows and orphans 
in the county, and he was here as everywhere 
else their true and trusted friend. He was 
among the first merchants in the county, and 
it was here that he was as successful in lay- 
ing the foundations for the future commerce 
of the county as he had been instrumental 
in its official affairs. In another place we 
speak of his military life here, and of his 
unjust treatment from some cause in the part 
that he played in the Black Hawk war. His 
name is inseparably connected with all 
the early history of Wayne County, and they 
must go into history linked inseparably to- 
gether. We much regret that we can find no 
one here who can give us the facts about him 
before he came here and after he left in 
1S37. We are told that he resigned his 
offices in the county to accept the position 
in the Government Land Office, at Quincy, 111., 
where he acquired wealth, and afterward re- 
moved to Wisconsin, where he died. 

In 1806, the Board of Supervisors of 
Wayne County, by a vote of the full board, 
responded to the public demand on the ques- 
tion of whisky selling, and refused to license 
any more saloons in the county. 

The town of Fairfield, being the heaviest 
sufferer in the county, had gallantly opened 
the campaign in its December election of 
1866. The question was plumply submitted 
to the voters of the town, and the vote re- 
sulted in the election of George Scott, Isaac 
Fitzgerald, L. D. Bennett, Edward S. Black, 
and D. AY. Barkley, a straight-out anti 
whisky board. This vote was the death 
blow, as after events proved, to the How of 
legalized drunkenness in Wayne County, and 
from that day to this the principles of tem- 
perance have gained headway — not that all 
whisky drinking and intemperance have been 
abolished — but the public Haunting of a 



legalized traffic in the accursed drug has 
been made to hide itself away from the daj 
light of public life, and compelled to cany 
on its devilish arts of robbery behind screened 
doors and closed window blinds. It is not 
possible that this has worked any* real in- 
jury to the material interests of the county 
or to the welfare of the morals of the peoplo. 
On the contrary, the writer of those lines, 
an anti-States prohibitionist in the fullest 
sense of the term, yet he willingly bears tes- 
timony that his observation after several 
months' temporary residence in the county, 
that the sobriety and morals of the people 
are a most eloquent and deserved tribute to 
those noble men and women who put their 
shoulders to the wheel and rolled out of the 
county the infernal monster of legalized tip- 

November 28, 1822, John B. Thrasher, of 
Kentucky, tiled an affidavit with John John- 
ston, J. P.. of Wayne County, in which he 
made oath that ho had a just claim upon two 
negro women, slaves, who owed service in 
Kentucky, and had escaped to Illinois, and 
were secreting about the town of Fairfield. 
On the day above named, the Justice entered 
on his docket the following: 

State op [li lnois, Wayne County. 

This day came .1. B. Thrasher, and exhibited his 
claim as specified by his foregoing affidavit to two 
female slaves, and said women being examined be- 
fore me, and did not produce a certificate of free- 
dom, they are therefore deemed by the seventh sec- 
tion of the act entitled " An act respecting free ne- 
groes, mulattoe8, servants and slaves," to be runa- 
way slaves 

L. J. S. Turney died of pneumonia, at 
his residence, near Barton. 111., May 20, 
1881, aged sixty-one years. 

Mr. Turney was for many years a resident 

of Fairfield, and was well known to all the 
old settlers of the county. He was a \r\ 
eccentric man. possessed of a more than or- 
dinary amount of brain, but without that 
practical good judgment which constitutes a 
balance-wheel necessary to a successful life. 
His life was a series of great expectations 
and bitter disappointments. He was a law- 
yer, farmer, speculator, politician, statesman, 
Governor and Secretary of a Territory, rich 
and poor man in one, and a great financial 
schemer, and ate more than his share in life 
of Dead Sea apples. 

Speaking of his death in a letter published 
in the Wayne County Press, T. G. C. Davis, 
of St. Louis, says: 

" I knew the late Leander Jay S. Turney 
more than thirty years ago. He was my con- 
stant, personal friend during the whole time 
of our acquaintance, and my political friend 
during a large part of it. It rarely happens 
in the experience of any man that he can 
name a friend who has stuck to him through 
all the vicissitudes of war and peace for 
thirty years, but such a friend was Leander 
J. S. Turney. Mr. Turney tilled various 
offices in the State of Illinois in the course 
of his life. Ho was a good writer and at 
one time editor of a Democratic newspaper 
at Shawneetown. He was a lawyer of good 
education, and held the office of State's Attor- 
ney in the Shawneetown district one or two 
terms; was an unsuccessful candidate for 
Congress in opposition to Hon. S. S. Mar- 
shall in 1854. He was appointed Secretary 
of the Territory of Washington, and was for 
awhile acting Governor thereof in 186 I 62." 

Mr. Turney was the first born son of the 
late Dr. Daniel Turney, of Fairfield, and 
the brother of J. J. It. Turney, at one time a 
Senator in the Legislature. 





"And all the clouds that lowered upon our house 
Are in the deep bosom of the ocean buried." 

— Shakespeare. 

of seeing thern tortured to death. So keenly 
was this sport relished that they would cun- 
ningly extend the torture to the verge of 
THE most men are never too busy to stop death, and as often as they could would 
in the midst of the most exciting work restore the victim, and when revived, com- 

to look at a dog tight on the street. An emi- 
nent President of the United States, it is 
said, indulged much in cock righting, and 
would at any time brave wind or weather, 
and stake his last dollar on the result of the 
bloody chicken discussion. The Spaniards' 
great national holiday is a bull right. Cock 
fights, bull fights, dog fights and fist fights 
among men are only branches and relics of 
the earliest tribal wars, when little com- 
munities killed and enslaved each other, 
purely for the love of fighting, the excite- 
ment of spilling blood, and the exquisite joy 
and glee that marks the savage breast in look- 
ing upon the horrid tortures that kill the 
poor victim. Among the Indians with whom 
our forefathers contended in the deadly 
struggle for their new homes, it is said that 
when these savages had captured a white man, 
they w-ere rejoiced to take him alive and un- 
hurt in order that they might keep him for a 
gala day of all their people — especially the 
squaws and children — to enjoy tho rare sight 

mence again the horrid sport. Many of our 
pioneer fathers saved their lives by escaping 
while the Indians' slept, as he was thus being 
transported to the Indian village for a glori- 
ous holiday of murder. The savage instinct 
is to gloat at torture and the crudest death, 
and the relics of this barbarism are now to 
be found in the purlieus of the highest civ- 
ilizations yet formed. Among our fore- 
fathers in the West, it was grown and flour 
ished in the shape of drunken frolics and 
election and muster day fist fights. The 
neighborhood and county bullies then were 
there in pristine glory. They were heroes, 
who received the adulations and warm 
applause of a community that had the seeds 
of this bloody savagery in their breasts. 
The bully was nearly' always a craven cow- 
ard when brought face to face with genuine 
courage, but he fought for glory, and in his 
way was as much a hero as was ever Napoleon 
or Alexander. And to-day the self same ele- 
ment among men who worship the memories 



of great war fighters is much of the same 
leaven that warmed the souls of those stupid 

| pie who paid their disgusting homage to 

the bullet-headed country plug-ugly. In the 
Northwest, it was the blood-tubs, who bit and 
gouged and fought like wild beasts, that pre- 
vailed and was the admiration of the hour. 
In the South, it was the cold-blooded mur- 
derer and duelist that flourished unmolested, 
and here the vendetta sent its victims to their 
bloody graves. A better civilization has 
rooted out much of all this barbarism of the 
world, yet the cow-boy remains, and aesthetic 
1 ti -ton is the proud possessor of the champion 
prize tighter of the world — Sullivan. Wendell 
Phillips and baked beans! And yet who shall 
say that Boston is not still the "hub " from 

which radiates all the world's intelligei , 

education and saetheticism ? The great man in 
Boston is the human beast who tights like a 
bull dog. He can draw a bigger house and 
make more money in a single evening exhi- 
bition of his fists ihan could the greatest in- 
tellectual man that ever lived, was he now 
alive to open an opposition show to Sullivan, 
and pit brains against the gigantic brute. 

It is a common, yet a grievous mistake, 
that all men who tight are either brave men 
or patriots, and in either case, if they fall in 
battle, are worthy of the tendorest admiration 
of posterity. As a rule, this estimate is 
wrong. The history of mankind is full of 
wars, about all cruel, bloody and infamous, 
too. When Gen. Washington and his com- 
patriots drew their swords and threw away 
the scabbards, they engaged in a war holy in 
its purposes, and sacred to the dearest rights 
of all mankind. True, it was a war with the 
mother country, and the victory was with the 
rebels, and yet the glories and advantages 
flowing out from that struggle redounded as 
much to the permanent welfare of England 
as to the United States. 

It was a struggle for human rights — to re- 
pel invasion, and it was clothed with those 
attributes that alone are a justification for 
war under any circumstances. In the his- 
tory of mankind we know of no one thing 
that was a greater blessing to the human 
race than this war and its results. It freed 
America from the tyrant, but it freed not 
only England, too. but the whole world has 
felt its glorious effects, and let it be hoped 
that they may go on forever. The true les- 
sons of the American Revolution have not yet 
been taught the rising generations. The 
facts and dates and names, together with 
the usual Fourth of July spread-eagleism is all 
that we present to our school children's eyes 
and minds, when we tell them the great 
story of that immortal era, and we leave 
them with no proper comprehension of the 
causes and the [effects — effects that will con- 
tinue the immeasurable boon to all mankind 
forever. The glorious freedom from a be- 
sotted tyrant to the little speck of the globe 
that constitues the United States, was but as 
the grain of sand upon the sea-snore, as to the 
enduring effects and benefits to the whole 
human race that came from the war of the 
Revolution. Look at your neighbor, Can- 
ada, and behold she, although she did not 
join the colonies in the rebellion, and is to 
this day a British dependent, yet she is prac- 
tically as free, and as blessed in her freedom, 
as we are. When we remember the vast pos- 
sessions of the British Empire, so eloquently 
described by Webster, when he said of it: 
"Whose military drum beat, starting with 
the morning sun and keeping step with the 
stars, encircles the globe in one continuous 
strain of martial music,'' and when wo re- 
member that this great empire — the greatest 
upon which the sun has ever shown — has 
ince that eloquent description of Webster's 
added many millions of people to its vast 



possessions, and that to it, as woll as to Amer- 
ica, but especially to its colonies, were trans- 
mitted the benefits of this great war; we say, 
when these things are considered and re- 
fleeted upon, in reference to the life of 
George Washington, then indeed does his 
grand character and his great purposes begin 
to dawn upon the imagination of the student 
of history, and shine out like the great cen- 
tral sun, before whose light the other innu- 
merable heavenly bodies hide away their 
faces, and bide their time for the God of our 
universe to go down to his daily rest, before 
they again glint their glories upon the vision 
of man. The mass of Americans think of 
Washington as the " Father of his Country," 
a great General, who commanded the army of 
freedom, or more generally as the boy who 
had a hatchet and could not tell a lie. The 
real character of the man, his everyday life 
about home, with his family, and friends, 
and his servants — going to market with his 
vegetables to sell and treading with contempt 
upon that foolish general pride of the F. F. 
V.'s, and this, too, when he had retired from 
the first honors of his country and the 
world, and had put aside the proffered crown. 
The true picture of this man, a picture pre- 
senting him in the commonest affairs of 
every-day life, or one where he acts the 
grandest part for all mankind ever given to 
mortal to perform — a picture that shows him 
truly as he was, as a man with the common 
frailties of his kind, wholly human, a man 
that the common herd of men could approach 
and feel that he was mortal and as human as 
themselves, and yet to afterward reflect that 
they had held familiar intercourse with the 
man who had performed the greatest acts 
that have yet been chronicled in the history 
of the human race. We say, when such a 
mental picture is presented of the greatest 
man in the tide of time, it bears a lesson the 

world cannot forget, and 'that time should 
never fade. 

Wayne County has the distinguished honor 
of once being the home of a little band of 
old men who deserve to be immortal, because 
they had been soldiers under Washington. 
In 18-40, there were here John H. Mills, aged 
seventy-nine; Thomas Sloan, aged seventy- 
nine years; James Stuart, seventy-eight; 
George Clark, aged eighty-four years, and 
James Gaston, all of whom were at that time 
pensioners for wounds and disabilities in the 
war of the Revolution. Immortal men! 

James Stuart was born in South Carolina 
in 1763, and came out at the close barely a 
grown man. yet he, boy as he was, had then 
identified himself with an immortal life work. 
He lies buried in the old fair grounds in the 
north part of the town of Fairfield. Of his 
many and worthy descendants living here are 
Edward and Hugh Stuart and Mrs. John 

James Gaston was from South Carolina, 
and died in 1S40. His grave was the first 
one in Bovee Cemetery, where his bones now 

Thomas Sloan was also from Carolina, and 
died in 1840. He lies buried also in Bovee 
Cemetery. Of his descendants living, grand 
and great-grandchildren, are John. Albert 
and Henry Sloan, and Mrs. Amanda Gaston. 

The few who remember these Revolutionary 
sires will tell you generally that they did 
not know they had given names, as Stuart and 
Gaston were universally called " Grandsir,' ' 
and Sloan was universally known as ' ' Daddy' ' 

Their memories must not be forgotten. It 
matters 'not what else there was in their lives 
that was not noble, nay. what there was in 
their careers that may have shown them to be 
weak, frail or even ignoble, the one grand 
fact remains that may wash away a mountain 



of sins, namely, that they obeyed the orders 
and were a portion of those sublime heroes 
who liberated the minds and bodies of the 
human race, and filled the world with dearly 
all of the freedom and enlightenment that it 
now enjoys. Their names are enrolled in 
that band of patriots who were not of any 
particular age or country, but for every 
country and for all time. 

Then there was Gen. George Rogers Clark, 
who has been aptly called the ''Hannibal of 
the Northwest." with his little band of ho- 
roes, who truly, amid flood and field, and 
blood and carnage, fought oft' the tyrant and 
the savage, and rescued all this empire of 
the West, that is now the happy homes of 
millions of prosperous people, from their 
ungodly grasp. Here were grounds trod by 
a portion of the half armed and almost 
starved heroes of the Revolution. But of 
this we refer the readers to the history of 
Clay County in another part of this work. 

Then in the order were the rangers, the 
firsi of whom were organized as early as 
1809 in this State. They were called into 
existence by the law of s»elf protection from 
the Indians, who, in 1811, commenced their 
raids and perpetrated many terrible massacres, 
burning houses, stealing stock and capturing 
the women and children. The Indians were 
secretly aided and encouraged in this attack 
upon the whites by English emmissaries, and 
they were the tirst and provoking cause that 
culminated in the war of 1812-15. Nearly 
all the first white English settlers were iden- 
tified with these rangers, and they pursued 
the murderous midnight marauders, and at 
times visited upon them summary, terrible, 
but deserved punishment. 

Among the many terrible massacres was 
that of Boltinghuse. in what is now known 
as Boltinghuse Prairie. The Indians that 
were supposed to have committed this out- 

rage, were the Kickapoos. This was in the 
year 1814. Boltinghuse Prairie is in White 
County, not far from Albion. The Indians 
escaped after the Boltinghouse massacre and 
were not overtaken or punished by the aveng- 
ing rangers that were put upon their tracks. 
But a sequel to this bloody story comes to us 
in such form that we feel justified in giving 
it a place here. Preacher " Jackey " Jones, 
who, although the first white child born in 
what is now Wayne County, is jet halo and 
hearty and very clear in his recollections, 
tells what he heard Isaac Harris say about it, 
in the long years after the Indian had dis- 

There was a party of hunters camping 
out. four men, Gilliam and Isaac Harris and 
two others, Boltinghouse's relatives, near the 
mouth of King's Creek, in Wayne County. 
One morning they heard a bell, and following 
the sound they came upon the horse grazing, 
upon which it was. They followed the 
horses, and were led to an Indian camp, com- 
posed of five braves and three squaws. They 
had recognized the horse as one stolen from 
poor murdered Boltinghouse, and they warily 
approached the Indian camp. They cau- 
tiously got between the Indians and their 
guns, and finally asked where they got the 
horse. One Indian answered that he killed 
"white man and took horse." He was asked 
if he did not think that was wrong. " No, 
them's war and him good heap!" and he 
chuckled at his prowess. The Indian finally 
told how the white man begged for his life, 
but he killed him. When he had told all, 
he was then made aware that he was talking 
to a son of the man he had murdered, who 
answered the Indian's plea for his life that 
"if that was war then this is war " — as he 
shot him dead. The two other Indians 
started to run, but one of them was shot 
dead, and the dog of the murdered Bolting- 


house pursued the fleeing Indian and seizing 
held him until the white men came up and 
dispatched him. We regret to say, yet put 
yourself in his place and only then judge, 
the hot moment of bloody revenge only 
ended by the violent and swift death of every 
Indian in the camp. When these hunters 
looked through the Indian camp they found 
the vest, clothes and other articles that had 
belonged to whites who had been massacred 
by the Indians. Of course the young man, 
Boltinghouse, took the horse home, and in 
the family it always went by the name of the 
" stray filly." 

These rangers did much to make this 
country habitable for the whites. They in- 
timidated the Indians, and in their marches 
and pursuit of the fleeing marauders, they 
were led to view for the first time many por- 
tions of this beautiful land, and after their 
return from the service they would call up 
the pictures here and there where they had 
camped, and where they longed to make their 
future homes. In this way, Capt. Willis Har- 
grave's company of rangers, by camping one 
night just north of the present town of Fair- 
field, furnished the first settlers for this por- 
tion of the county. In his company were 
some of the Barnhill family, after whom 
Barnhill Township takes its name, and they 
remembering the beautiful camp returned and 
settled here as soon as peace was proclaimed 
and the Indian was out of the way. The fol- 
lowing is a list of Capt. Hargrave's company, 
of whom many names will be recognized by 
the old settlers as familiar names here among 
the early settlers: Captain, Willis Har grave; 
First Lieutenant. William McHenry; Second 
Lieutenant, John Graves; Ensign, Thomas 
Berry. Enlisted men, James Long, William 
Maxwell, David Trammell (a spy), James Wil- 
son. Thomas McKinney, John Smith. Taylor 
Maulding, Jeremiah Lisenboe, James Small, 

Thomas Trammell, James Hannah, Charles 
Slocumb, Edward Covington, Nathan Young, 
Joseph Upton, James Garrison, Robert D. 
Cates, Dickinson Garratt, Thomas Boatwright, 
Richard Maulding (a spy), Aaron Williams, 
John Sommers, Seth Hargrave, James Tram- 
mel, Lee Maulding, Morris May, David 
Milch, Henry Wheeler, Joel Berry, David 
Whoolley, Thomas McAllister, John Love, 
James Davenport, Thomas Stonery, James 
Carr, Daniel Boltinghouse, Gilham Harris, 
Abner Howard, Josiah Dunnell. Eli Stewart, 
Phillipp Sturn, Needham Stanley, Charles 
Stewart, John Lawton, Alexander Hamilton 
(see church history in another column for an 
account of Mr. Hamilton), David Snodgrass, 
Phillipp Fleming, John and George Morris, 
Thomas Upton, Martin Whitford, Joseph 
Love, John Dover, Samuel Cannon, John 
Mitchell, James McDaniel, Adam Warkler, 
W r illtam Wheeler, John Bradberry, Micheal 
Deckers, Thomas Williams, Barnabas Cham- 
bers, Ephraham Blockford (descendants live 
in Mount Erie), Rial Potter, Fredrick Buck, 
Charles Sparks, William McCormick and 
William Fowler. • 

In addition to this company of Hargrave's. 
that was composed of men from this portion 
of the State, there was Capt. Daniel Bolting- 
house's company, which is remarkable for the 
fact that it was the last body of enlisted men 
in the State for the war of 1812. This com- 
pany entered the service September 8, and 
served to December 8, 1814. It was a large 
company. There were none in this company 
that went from Wayne County, but many of 
them, influenced as were some of Hargrave's 
men, remembered this beautiful land, and 
when peace came they returned and fixed 
their homes here. Of these were Daniel Mc 
Henry, who was long a respected preacher 
here, and of whom the reader will find a com- 
plete account in the chapter on church his- 



tary. Hugh Collins, James and Charles 
Hencely, Jesse Kirkendall, Needbam Stanley, 
Jonathan Stewart, Jarrard Trammell and 

Up to this time the rangers had been dis- 
banded, and the contest with the savages had 
been forever settled in this part of Illinois, 
Wayne County bad not yet come in existence, 
and hence of all the soldiers above spoken of, 
it only refers to those men who, after (he 
wars mentioned above, had become matters 
of history that they came to Wayne County, 
not as armed warriors, but as peaceful pio- 
neers, leading the little band of early settlers 
who were destined to build these splendid 
homes of peace and plenty that now decorate 
the fair face of the land. 

The Black Hawk War. — In the order of 
events, next came this Indian war. But, by 
way of explanation, we may mention that 
preceding the Black Hawk war was the 
Winnebago war in 1827, in which the Gov- 
ernor marched tiOlt troops to Rock River, but 
the miners at Galena had organized for self- 
protection, and had captured Red Bird and 
also the then unknown Black Hawk, and ended 
this war inside of thirty days, the time for 
which these soldiers had been called into 
service. Red Bird died in captivity, and 
other chiefs were tried and some executed and 
others acquitted. Among those turned 
loose, it seems, unfortunately, was Black 

The rolls furnished from the War Depart- 
ment show that Illinois furnished, from first 
to last. 171 companies of volunteer rangers 
and spies, which were mustered into the serv- 
ice for the Black Haw k war. 

The Indians had agreed to abandon the 
country north of Rock River. About this 
time (182lli, the President issued his procla- 
mation, according to law. and all that coun- 
try above the mouth of Rock River (the an- 

cient seat of the Sauk nation) was sold to 
American families, and in the year follow- 
ing it was taken possession of by them. 
Another treaty was formed with the Sacs and 
Foxes on the 15th of July, 1830, by the pro- 
visions of which the Indians were to peace- 
fully remove from the Illinois country. A 
portion of the Sacs with their chief, Keokuk, 
quietly retired across the Mississippi. Black 
Hawk, however, a restless and uneasy spirit, 
who had ceased to recognize Keokuk as chief, 
and who was known to be in the British paj . 
emphatically refused to either remove from 
the lands or respect the rights of the Ameri- 
cans to them. He insisted that Keokuk had 
no authority for making such a treaty, and he 
proceeded to gather around him a large num- 
ber of the warriors and young men of 
the tribe who were anxious to distinguish 
themselves as " braves." and placing himself 
at their head, he determined to dispute with 
the whites the possession of the ancient seat 
of his nation. He had conceived the gigan- 
tic scheme, as appeared by his own admissions, 
of uniting all the Indians, from the Bock 
River to the Gulf of Mexico, in a war 
against the United States, and he made use 
of every pretext for gaining accessions to his 

In the meantime, Gov. Reynolds, the "old 
ranger," had been elected Governor. Black 
Hawk notified the whites to depart, ami they 
refusing to comply he commenced to destroy 
their property. The settlers petitioned the 
Governor, setting forth their grievances, and 
he at once called for volunteer--, and at once 
the whole Northwest resounded to the clamor 
of war; L,600 men were accepted, and June 
15, 1831, the army took up their march for 
the seat of war, and went into camp at Fort 
Armstrong, Gen. Gaines ami (Jen. Duncan, 
commanding. Measures of attack were soon 
concerted, but the wily Black Hawk, no 



doubt well apprised of tbe numbers of the 
force, concluded not to risk a fight, and he 
quietly recrossed the river. The soldiers 
thin were so chagrined at his escape that 
they destroyed the Indian village. From 
this retreat he was finally compelled to open 
negotiations with Gen. Gaines and Gov. Rey- 
nolds, and, accompanied by thirty " braves " 
and chiefs, he returned and entered into a 
new treaty. Among other things agreeing 
"no one or more shall ever be permitted to 
recross said river to the several places of res- 
idence, nor any part of their^hunting grounds 
east of the Mississippi, without permission of 
the President of the United States or the 
Governor of the State of Illinois." The 
troops were then disbanded, and thus, with- 
out bloodshed, ended tbe first campaign of 
the Black Hawk war. 

In the spring of 1832, Black Hawk, in 
the face of this treaty, recrossed the Missis- 
sippi River (April 8), with 500 warriors, and 
commenced his march up Rock River Valley, 
while his women and children went up the 
river in canoes. 

April 16, Gov. Reynolds called for 1,000 
volunteers, to rendezvous at Beardstown on 
the 22d of the same month. Eighteen hun- 
dred men, in answer to the call, met at 
Beardstown and were organized into a bri- 
gade of four regiments, and an aid and a spy 
battalion. On the 10th of May the forces 
reached Dixon. Maj. Stillman's command 
was ordered by Gov. Reynolds to proceed to 
Old Man's Creek, and on May the 14th oc- 
curred the battle of Stillman's Run, where 
his forces had been drawn from their camp 
and into an ambush by Black Hawk, and a 
panic among the soldiers ensued, and eleven 
were killed before they could reach Fort 
Dixon. This defeat alarmed the whole 
country, and the night following, Gov. Rey- 
nolds called for 2,000 more troops. Gen. 

Scott with 1,000 United States Troops was 
sent immediately to the Northwest. The new 
levies were to meet on the 3d of June at 
Beardstown. On the 19th of May the whole 
army marched up the river, and, pursuing the 
trails, found the Indians had left and divided 
their forces; the troops returned to the mouth 
of Rock River where they were discharged; 
and thus ended the second campaign of 1832. 

On the 6th of June, BJack Hawk made an 
attack on Apple River Fort, situated a quar- 
ter of a mile north of the present town of 
Elizabeth, and twelve miles from Galena. 
This garrison was only defended by twenty- 
five men, and there were 150 Indians attack- 

The new levies met as provided at Beards- 
town. but were ordered to Peru. A promis- 
cuous multitude of several thousand people 
was gathered there. 

On the 17th day of June, Col. Dement, 
with his spy battalion of 150 men, was or- 
dered to report himself to Col. Taylor (Pres- 
ident afterward) at Dixon, while the main 
army was to follow. On his arrival at Dixon, 
he was ordered to take position in Kellogg's 
Grove, where he received reports that there 
300 warriors had been seen northward that 
day. At daylight the next morning he sal- 
lied forth, and soon discovered spies of the 
enemy, when his men, regardless of his and 
Lieut. Gov. Casey's endeavors to the con- 
trary, his undrilled and undisciplined men 
charged on the foes, and recklessly followed 
them into an ambush Black Hawk had 
planned, where they were suddenly con- 
fronted by 300 howling, naked savages. A 
panic seized upon the soldiers, and each one 
struck out for himself iu the direction of the 

In the confused retreat, five of the whites 
were slain, while those who reached the fort 
were hotly pursued by the savages, who vig- 



orousiy assailed the fort, and a furious fight 
for over an hour followed, in which the Indi- 
ans retired, leaving nine of their number 
dead on the field. Col. Dement and Lieut. 
Gov. Casey displayed signal coolness and 
courage here, and to them was due the fact 
that a general massacre of the helpless fugi 
tives did not occur. At 8 o'clock in the 
morning, messengers were sent fifty miles to 
Gen. Posey for assistance, and toward sun- 
down the same day. that General and his 
brigade made their appearance. The next 
day Gen. Posey started iu pursuit of the 
savages, but the trail soon showed they had 
pursued their usual tactics of scattering their 
forces. The army continued its march up 
Rock River, expecting to find the enemy near 
its source. Gens. Henry and Alexander were 
sent to Fort Winnebago, between Fox and 
Wisconsin Rivers. Here learning that Black 
Hawk was encamped on the White Water. 
Gen. Henry and Maj. Dodge started in pur- 
suit. After several days' hard marching, and 
much suffering for food and exposure, on the 
21st day of July the enemy was overtaken on 
the bluffs of the Wisconsin, and a decisive 
battle fought in which Gen. Henry com- 
manded the American forces, which consisted 
of Maj. Dodge's battalion on the right, Col. 
Jones regiment in the center, and Col. Col- 
lins on the left, with Maj. E wing's battalion 
in the front and Col. Fry's regiment in the 
rear as a reserve. In this order they charged 
the enemy and drove him from every position, 
inflicting great loss, and when the sun went 
down they were victors everywhere. 

In the morning it was discovered the Indi- 
ans had fled, leaving 160 dead on the field, 
and of their wounded taken with them, 
twenty-five were found dea.l the next day on 
their trail, while Gen. Henry lost only one 
man killed and eight wounded. 

On the '25th, the whole army was put in 

motion — Gen. Atkinson's forces having ar- 
rived, making now the entire force 1,200 
strong — and on the 2d of August reached the 
bluffs of the Mississippi River. The Indians 
had reached the river and were preparing as 
fast as they could to cross. A portion had 
got over, when Capt. Throckmorton, who 
was on the steamer Warrior, attacked and 
killed a great many, he refusing to recognize 
a white flag they displayed. "When Gen. At- 
kinson fell upon the savages at the mouth of 
Bad Ax Creek, in which the Indians were 
routed and 150 more slam, besides many that 
were drowned. The American loss was only 
seventeen killed. 

This battle virtually ended the war. On 
the 7th of August, Gen. Wintield Scott ar- 
rived and assumed command. 

Wayne County furnished two companies — 
Capt. James N. Clark's and Capt. Berryman 
G. Wells', for the Black Hawk war. These 
Wayne County companies were in the Third 
Regiment, First Brigade. Illinois Mounted 
Volunteers, on the requisition of Gen. Atkin- 
son, by the Governor's proclamation, dated 
May 15, L832, and were mustered out August 
15, 1832. 

The roster of Capt, Clark's Company is as 
follows: James N. Clark, Captain; David 
Roy, First Lieutenant: Jesse Laid, Second 
Lieutenant; Daniel Sampler, William A. 
Howard, Henry Ooley and Isaac Street, Ser- 
geant-; Joseph Walker, John A. MeWhirter, 
Lewi- Watkins and Nathan E. Roberts, Cor- 
porals; Privates— Harris Austin, James B. 
Austin. David Alexander, Roberi Lain. Green- 
up Bradshaw (died r nth mar Edwards- 

ville), Asa Bui lard, Joseph ML Campbell (now 
living near Springfield, 111.). James Clark, 
William Clark, Younger 11. Dickinson, George 
Dalton, Andrew C. Dalton, George Farleigh, 
John F. Fitzgerald (died here seven years 
ago), Joseph L. Garrison, .James (JarrisOD, 



William Graham, Jeremiah Hargrave, Will- 
iani Harland, Alfred Haws, Benjamin Haws, 
John Hanson, Samuel James, Peter Kenche- 
low, David Martin, Andrew Mays, James 
Mays, William McCullutn, Joseph Morris, 
Chesley Ray, Asa Ray, Jacob Raster, Fenton 
Saunders, Richard Sissions, David D. Slo- 
cumb (brother of Rigdon B. Slocnmb), David 
Smith, James Trotter, Johalem Tyler, George 
Walker, Greenbury Walker, Jefferson War- 
rick, James B. Womack, John G. Widdus, 
Hugh L. White and Arthur Bradshaw (now 
living near Decatur, Methodist Episcopal 

AY ells' Company was — Captain, Benjamin 
G. Wells; First Lier.tenant, John Brown; 
Second Lieutenant, James B. Carter; Ser- 
geants, Hugh Stewart, James G. Brawner, 
Leon Harrys and Riley T. Serratt; Corporals, 
Robert S. Harris, Ransom Harris, Albert 
Butler and Elijah Harris; Drummer, Nathan 
Franklin; Trumpeter, Jonathan Wolsey; Pri- 
vates, John Bird, Justis Beach, John Brown- 
ing, John Berry, Robert D. Cates, HowletH. 
Cook, Isaac Carter, William Carter, Job 
Downing (went to Missouri, elected Sheriff 
and died), Robert H. Gaston, Jacob Hall, 
Isaiah Hodge, Isham Hodge, Isham Hodge, 
James D. Harlan, Moses Hart, Joseph Harris, 
William Irvin, Samuel Lock, Jonathan Mc- 
Cracken, Nathan Martin, Samuel Neel, An- 
drew Neel, Henry Neel, Thomas Phelps, Nich- 
olas Smith, John G. Shoemaker, Job Ste- 
phens (died in 1880), John W. Snider, Wesley 
Staton, Feilding C. Turner (was in the war 
of 1812, in Black Hawk war, and in Mexican 
war, and was quite awhile an Illinois ranger), 
James Turner, William White (now living a 
few miles east of Fairfield), M. C. Wells and 
Clement C. Y'oung. 

This constitutes a complete and corrected 
list of the Black Hawk soldiers who went 
from Wayne County, together with explana- 

tory notes, so far as we could at this late day 
ascertain them. It will be noticed that Jacob 
Hall and William White are the only sur- 
vivors who are now left who now reside in 
Wayne County. Mi-. White lives a few miles 
east of Fairfield, is now over seventy years of 
age, and is one of our most widely respected 
citizens. He is a thrifty farmer, genial and 
social in his habits, and his home and pleas- 
ant family is a favorite resort for his numer- 
ous admirers and old-time friends. For his 
complete biography, see the biographical de- 
partment in this work. 

Jacob Hall lives in the town of Fairfield, 
a cheery, hale and active old man, as sprightly 
as any of our young men. A green and 
cheerful old age is his, and the frequent re- 
currence of his name in all parts of this work 
is a good demonstration of the great value he 
has been in the labors of building up this 
county to its present large proportions. A 
good citizen, an elegant man in all respects, 
with a wide circle of friends and acquaint- 
ances, not only in Illinois but throughout 
the West. 

The following account is almost word for 
word as they were given to us by Mr. Hall, 
of his recollections of going a soldiering. 
He was only a little over eighteen years old 
at the time: They were mustered into the serv- 
ice at La Salle June 15, and at once went 
into an election for officers. Samuel Leech 
was elected Colonel. Three days after the 
election, was marched to Dixon, where tiny 
remained one night, and then moved on to 
Fort Hamilton; then made a forced march to 
Kellogg's Grove, in order to relieve Dement's 
command at that point. This is the march 
spoken of above, when couriers started to 
Fort Hamilton, a distance of fifty miles, at 
8 o'clock in the morning, and before dark the 
succoring army appeared at Kellogg's Grove; 
the men marched the fifty miles in a little 


Ies3 than eight Lours. Does not that record 
stand unequaled! The command returned 
to Fort Hamilton, and started up White River 
in pursuit of the enemy. How the enemy 
eluded them and fell into the hands of Gen. 
Henry is detailed above. Mr. Hall says that 
it took the command eleven days to return 
and join Gen. Henry's forces, and some idea 
may be drawn of the suffering and depriva- 
tion of the men in his account of how he 
nearly kdled himself from eating a bacon 
skin that had been left hanging in a tree, 
which was the first thing he could get hold 
of when he looked about for something to 
eat It had buns there for some time, and so 
hungry was he that upon sight he seized and 
eat it immediately. Of course it made him 
very sick, and the wonder is it did not kill 
him. and he was therefore in the hospital 
from that time on until able to return home. 
He did not get back home until the following 
September. It will be noticed that both 
companies were in the Bad Ax fight. 

Just here we wish to correct an error and 
a gross injustice done in the war records to 
one of the worthiest citizens Wayne County 
has ever had. We refer to the omission of 
these records to even mention the name of 
Col. Samuel Leech, who was an active and 
efficient officer in the Black Hawk war, and 
his name is wholly omitted, except where it 
once or twice appears incident ly in a note 
set opposite some private's name, with an en- 
try of " furloughed by Col. Leech." We 
have been told that Col. Leech was not pop- 
ular with Gov. Reynolds, and as an evidence 
of this fact, he was urged to stand for a Gen- 
eral's commission, and this was the wish of 
nearly all the men, but Col. Letch was afraid 
to resign his Colonelcy lest he should be in 
some way euchered out any position at all. 
It is not justice to the memory of Gov. Rey- 
nolds to believe he would do anything of the 

kind, and yet there can be no excuse for the 
treatment that was given Col. Leech in this 
war. Reynolds and Leech are now both 
dead, and for years their bones have been 
peacefully moldering in their graves. They 
were compeers and each in his place was 
worthy of the rank of the great and good. 
Col. Leech died, so far as we can learn, in 
Wisconsin. He was the most prominent man 
that Wayne County has ever presented. He 
was the architect of the destiny of the county 
and bore the great responsibilities that were 
devolved upon him nobly and well, up to the 
time he left Wayne County to take a position, 
we believe, in the Government Land Office at 
Quincy. But of Col. Leech we refer more 
fully in the chapter, giving some account of 
the legal life of the county. 

Mexican War. — This war demonstrated 
the fighting qualities of the Illinois soldiers. 
Prior to that time they had answered the 
severest demands the Government had ever 
made'upon them, and were known as a brave 
and chivalrous people whose patriotism had 
never been smirched with a single doubt. 
But bright as was this record, when they 
rushed upon the bloody battle fields of Mex- 
ico they surpassed themselves so far, and per- 
formed so many and heroic feats, that they 
stood out upon every page of the modern his- 
tory of the country with a reputation not 
excelled by the memorable Old Guard that 
had so often bore aloft the eagles of France, 
and rescued victory from the very month of 

On the 1 1th day of May, 1840, Congress 
passed an act declaring that " By the act of 
the Republic of Mexico, a state of war exists 
| between that Government and the United 
States." That body at the same time appro- 
priated SI 1 1. (it ii 1. 01 10 to carry on the war, and 
authorized the President to accept 50,000 
volunteers. Thirty five Illinois companies 



responded to the call, and the place of ren- 
dezvous was Alton. There had been seventy- 
five companies organized and reported. 
These men were all furious to go. Four 
regiments were at once mustered in, to wit: 
First, Col. Hardin; Second, Col. W. H. Bis- 
sell; Third, Col. Ferris Foreman. These 
included the thirty companies that were 
accepted under the first muster. Afterward 
Col. Boten was accepted with the Fourth 

The Wayne County company was assigned 
to the Third Regiment, Col. Foreman com- 
manding, and were mustered into the service 
July 2, 1846. The First and Second Regi- 
ments were brigaded together and the Third 
and Fourth together. The last were in Gen. 
Patterson's division, and marched from Mat- 
amoras to Tampico, where they formed a part 
of Gen. Shields' force while he was in com- 
mand of that city. On the 9th of March, 
the Third and Fourth Regiments took part in 
the descent on Vera Cruz. 

In the battle of Cerro Gordo, the Third 
Regiment, in which was the Wayne County 
company, was hotly engaged, and gained 
great credit for their bravery. It was here 
that Gen. Shields received his wound that is 
now celebrated all over the world as the most 
remarkable recovery on record. Six thou- 
sand prisoners were captured in the fort, to- 
gether with Gen. Santa Anna's carriage and 
wooden leg. 

The Third and Fourth Regiments were re- 
turned by vessel to New Orleans, and on May 
25, 1847, mustered out. 

The company from Wayne County was 
Company F, Third Regiment in the Mexican 
war, and the roster of the company is as fol- 
lows: Captain, John A. Campbell; First 
Lieutenants, Jacob Love, Ephraim Merritt 
and Samuel Hooper; Second Lieutenant, Sam- 
uel J. R. Wilson; Sergeants, Austin Organ, 

William Merritt, James Turner and Warren 
E McMackin; Corporals, Daniel Simpson, 
John W. Wallace, William B. Wilson and 
Joseph J. R. Turney; Musician, Jefferson W. 
Barnhill; Privates, William R. Armstrong, 
Rigdon S. Barnhill. Nathan Crews, James E. 
Cox, Hiram H. Cook, Howlet H. Cook, Will- 
iam M. Cook, Benjamin W T . Clevenger, John 
G. Dorris, David H. Day. Sterlin C. B. El- 
lis. John Y C. Edwards, John Ewing, Ben- 
jamin Funkhauser, Samuel Fitzgerauld. 
William J. Frazier, William Gray, Ellis S. 
Gray, Sion Harris, William D. Ham, Will- 
iam E. Harlin, Jqhn Hulshcraft, Riley V. 
Johnson, Silas Johnson, William Kiinmels, 
Bluford Lord, James Lacy, William T. 
Mathews, Willis Morris, Davis Murphy, 
James W. McCullough, David McCullum, 
Samuel McCullum, David Owen, Hosea C. 
Phelps, William C. Phelps, James Reid, 
William Reed (2d), Jeremiah Rasher, Henry 
C. Rusher, William C. Simpson, Andrew J. 
Simpson. William Simpson, Rowland H. 
Shannon, Jefferson Sloan, Ninian R. Taylor, 
James H. Taylor, John Tims, John White, 
Alfred West, Joseph Copeland, John R. Fra- 
zur, William J. Lockhart. William H. Ma- 
bry, Benjamin Merritt, Abraham Rister and 
William Reed (1st). 

Jacob Love died at Camargo October 5, 
1846. Ephraim Merritt resigned November 
' 28, 1846, at Matamoras. Samuel Hooper 
was elected Second Lieutenant from Sargeant, 
October 1, 1846, and promoted to First 
Lieutenant November 28, 1846. Lieut. 
Samuel J. R. Wilson resigned August 28, 
1846, at Camp Patterson, Texas. William R. 
Armstrong, William J. Frazier, Silas John- 
son, William Kimme) and James Lacy were 
sick at Matamoras December 14, 1846. And 
Sterlin C. B. Ellis was wounded at Cerro 
Gordo. Joseph Copeland died December 9, 
1846, in hospital at Matamoras. John R. 




Frazur died December 7. same place. Will- 
iam J. Lockhart died August 14. 1847, at 
Brazos Island, Texas. William H Mabry 
died August 10, 1846, on ship while crossing 
Gulf. Benjamin Merritt shot at Battle of 
Cerro Gordo, April 18, 1847. Abraham 
Rister died September 24, 1848, in hospital 
at Matamoras. William Reed list), died 
October 2, 1846. at Camargo. Discharged 
for disability, Isaac S. Warmouth. James 
H. Farley, William Black, Benjamin Beech. 
David Cox, Moses M, Campbell, Daniel H. 
Clevenger, Henry Fitch. James M. Harris, 
Thomas J. Harris, John B. Holmes, Abra- 
ham Linder, James McCrary. George W. 
Mathews. Jacob Palmer, Henry Reod. Tyra 
Robinson and Shirley Trotter. 

The Civil War. — Here was one of Ameri- 
ca's fatalities. Our people had fought out all 
their wars of defense; had met the red 
man "on his path and slew him," and had 
gone on with such splendor and success that, 
perhaps, in God's economy, it was needed 
that we be chastened. And sure enough we 
were compelled to drink the bitter cup to the 
■very dregs. But it is no purpose of this chap- 
ter to write the history of that war. It 
should not, it cannot be written now. The 
dates of those great and sad events may be 
chronicled, the statistics carefully gathered 
and the tremendous facts compiled and tiled 
away for that man who will come, long after 
we are all inhabitants of the eternal silent 
city, and who will have no prejudices or 
passions to contend with, and who then only 
will be able to see the real effect and group 
these and the real causes together, and show 
the world a complete picture of what it all 
was, what it meant, and what permanent 
evils it inflicted, not only on the American 
people, but upon the civilization of our times. 
The reader will understand that we mean 
much more than is commonly understood by 

the term History. We do not mean the sim- 
ple annals, and the mere order of events as 
they occured. The majority of people, in 
loose use of language, call such things his- 
tory, but they are not. This is mere chro- 
nology, that in its simplicity, and requires but 
very little higher order of talents to gather 
and write, than the rudest of nursery stories. 
To write the history of a people, the true 
history that gives events and demonstrates 
the connection of causes and effects, to show 
the farthest reaching of circumstances and 
their intimate connection one with another, 
and the effects that apparently widely dis- 
connected facts combined, and how and where 
they influenced for good or bad generations 
of men nho were not born until long after 
tbey had transpired, is the province of the 
great historian, who it is to be hoped will 
some time come and write the world's his- 
tory. This would be the greatest book ever 
given to man. aud if it is ever written, then, 
it is no extravagance to say, that you may 
make bonfires of all else that has so far 
come from the teeming printing-press. 
There is wisdom for the great mind in statis- 
tics, more here than anywhere else and the 
fault of the generations that have passed 
away, is that they never imagine in the re- 
motest degree, that the dry statistics of civil- 
ized man were but the mere husks for cranks 
and specialists to pour over and give even 
the slightest consideration. 

We deem these hints appropriate to give 
the reader in advance of our short account of 
the part played by the people of Wayne 
County in the great ami unfortunate war 
that so recently drenched this fair land in 
fraternal blood, and devastated so large a 
portion of our Union, in order to prepare his 
mind to not anticipate that wo are here writ 
ing any portion of the real history of the 
late war; for at least one hundred vears must 



yet pass away before all the far-reaching 
effects of that bloody issue will have worked 
out their mission and ceased to be an influ- 
ence upon men. and, at least, upon American 

In April, 1861, Fort Sumter was tired on 
by rebels, and the lightning's flash carried 
the gun's reverations to nearly every hamlet 
in the land, and instantly a great nation was 
in arms, and the " long roll " that was beat- 
en from ocean to ocean tilled all the streets 
and highways with excited men, weeping 
women and frightened children. By day 
and by night bands of music paraded the 
streets, and the clang of the church bells 
added to the universal din, and upon the 
surging people flared the bonfires upon "the 
puplic squares, and then, indeed, did the 
white-robed angel of peace fold her out- 
stretched wings, and war. grim-visaged war, 
stalked abroad in all the land, and the era of 
strife and agony and death was inaugurated. 
All over the land it was the same grim 
story; and yet how difficult it was for the 
sober-minded, reflecting citizen to realize 
that civil war was upon us — how impossible 
for them to comprehend the magnitude of 
the evil hour. " Cry havoc and let slip the 
dogs of war," was answered by Seward's call 
for 75.000 volunteers, to put down the rebell- 
ion in ninety days, and is it a wonder lhat 
the unthinking people concluded that such a 
war wasjbut a holiday picnic? 

We have said that we do not here propose 
to write the history of that war. but there is 
one phase of those times that are so extraor- 
dinary or curious that we cannot refrain from 
giving it to the reader, and it may start a train 
of reflection in his mind that he has not yet 
thought of. The rebels claimed that they 
stood upon the side of the fundamental law 
— the constitution — the supreme law of the 
land. Judge Taney. Judge of the Supreme 

Court, and a jurist of great ability and in- 
tegrity, had decided that by the plain terms 
of the constitution, the South had a right to 
take their slaves into the Territories, and the 
constitutionality of the Fugitive Slave Law 
had never been questioned. The Republican 
party of the North, it seems, could only an- 
swer that there was a Higher Law than the 
constitution, and Republican Legislatures 
nullified the fugitive law. 

Yet, after thus planting themselves upon 
the constitution, they fired upon the flag, 
levied war upon the Government, because 
the Republican party had, in accordance with 
the law, elected Mr. Lincoln President of 
the United States. And thus the scenes in 
the panorama shifted, and the Higher-Law 
men had the constitution upon their side, 
and the once fierce defenders of the strict 
letter of the law became rebels and outlaws, 
whom the constitution plainly said must be 
hunted to the death. 

But to refer to what was done here upon 
the reception of the news of the tiring upon 
Fort Sumter. Hon. W. H. Robinson, of 
Fairfield, tells us he was in Carmi attending 
upon the Circuit Court, and so intense and 
universal was the excitement that the court 
at once adjourned sine die, and he returned 
to his home in Fairfield, reaching there about 
midnight. He at that hour found the people 
upon the street, and the band was soon 
marching to inspiriting music, and bonfires 
threw a lurid light over the strange scene. 
The flag was soon run up on the court house, 
and the people wildly cheered it as the wind 
lifted its folds, and in its dumb language ap- 
pealed to the hearts of all patriots to protect 
it and avenge the insult that had been placed 
upon it. Soon a fifer and drummer had been 
secured, and when the band rested its shrill 
notes and martial drum beat rang out upon 
the air. and contributed not a little to swell 



the volume of hitont patriotism in the breasts 
of those who were soou to kindle the camp 
tires that nothing could extinguish except a 
restored Union and the stamping-out of every 
vestige of treason in the land. 

In a short time, a full company (Company 
G) of 107 men was recruited, the active, or 
perhaps, rather, the most active, organizers! 
being Dr. W. M. Cooper, N. Crews, P. H. 
Gillison and W. H. Robinson, Dr. Cooper 
was elected Captain, Nathan Crews, Firsi 
Lieutenant, and W. Robinson, Second Lieu- 
tenant. The company was ordered to Anna, 
and became a part of the Eighteenth Illinois, 
Col. Lawler's regiment. Mr. Robinson was 
detailed as Adjutant, and in this capacity. 
he says the first order he ever received was 
signed ('apt. U. S. Grant, mustering officer, 
who had mustered the Eighteenth Regiment, 
and at once issued order- for an election of 
field officers. The regiment soon went to 
Bird's Point. Mo. James D. Lichtenberger, 
J. W. Hill, W. A. Reuben and S. Boseman 
joined the regiment in July, the two former 
as musicians. 

July 15, another company was organized, 
called the Hicks Guards, Samuel Hooper was 
made Captain, and William Steward First 
and J. P. Rider Second Lieutenant. Among 
the privates in this company were Adam 
Files. James Hearn, H. A. Organ and Samuel 
Hooper, who were veterans in the Mexican 
war. Among the young men who joined 
here were James Ellsworth, A. Humes, Bates 
O. H. Owen, G. J. George, H. D. Pearce and 
J ames Jordan. On Monday. the22dof July, 
the citizens gave the company a dinner in 
the grove, where speeches were made by J. 
H. Cooper, W. H. Robinson and R. P. Han- 
nah. This company was at once assigned to 
the Fortieth Regiment. About this time a 
company was also organized at JefFersonvillo, 
Capt. Elm. It was also in the Fortieth 

Regiment. The two companies went to 
Springfield, where they went into training 
ipiarters. They were accompanied to Spring- 
field by a large number of citizens, among 
whom was the Fairfield Sax-horn Band. 
Capt. Hooper's company was transferred to 
Charleston, Mo., whore ten of the men de- 
serted, when Lieut. Stewart immediately 
returned to this county and secured the new 
recruits to fill thoir places. From Charleston, 
a portion of the company were sent on a 
scouting expedition and captured a rebel 
Lieutenant, Sergeant and a private. The 
mi \i day. twenty-six of the boys went on 
another scout, and instead of capturing any 
rebels they were suddenly tired upon by a 
hundred of the enemy, and in their hasty 
retreat lost two of their men as prisoners. 
In August,' H. H. Beecher was appointed 
Sutler of Hick's regiment. August 24, R. 
S. Barnhill joined the company, and Col. 
Hicks made him Adjutant of the regiment. 
On Monday. August 26. a meeting was hold 
at Mt. Frio for the purpose of organizing a 
cavalry company. 

Capt. W. M. Cooper, of Company G, 
Eighteenth Illinois Regiment, died at Cairo 
September 11. He was aged twenty -five 
years and four months. His body was 
brought home for burial. Nathan Crews 
wfis then chosen Captain by acclamation. 
Capt. Crews addressed the men after his 
eleet ion. and referring to their great loss in 
the death of Dr. Cooper hi' began to cry. and 
it is said the longer he talked the louder he 
cried, until the entire company joined him in 
sincere sorrow. October 21, Lieut. W. H. 
Robinson resigned and came homo on account 
of sickness. November 1, the Eighteenth 
regirnent was sent on an expedition to try 
and capture Jeff Thompson, who was sup- 
posed to be at Bloomtield, Mo. 

On Sunday evening, September 29, Will 



iain Evans was found murdered in camp at 
Mound City. The officer of the guard, hear- 
ing the shot, ran to where the man lay and 
discovered Robert Dickinson, of the same 
company, with a gun in his hands, and, upon 
being asked, "'"Where is the man that com- 
mitted the murder?" the latter answered, 
" I am the man. " He was taken to the guard 
house, and the next morning objection being 
made to having the prisoner tried by the 
authorities of Mound City, it was decided 
that he be tried by a jury of twelve men 
selected from his own company. Capt. 
Crews ordered the Orderly Sergeant to select 
twelve competent men to act as jurymen, with 
the following result: S. Stark, William 
Crews, Stephen B. Sibley, James Holmes, 
William R. Wood, B. T. Atherton, William 
R. ' Thompson, C. W. Gaston, George W. 
Powell, William Pendleton, V. L. Wilson 
and O. D. Schooley. Sis witnesses were sworn 
and examined, after which Capt. Crews in- 
structed the jury to bring in a verdict in 
accord with the evideuee. After a short de - 
liberation a verdict of guilty was rendered, 
and Capt. Crews proceeded to pass "sentence 
of death upon the prisoner. On Wednesday, 
October 2, the man was hung, Company G 
acting as a body comitatus. 

All through October and November, recruit- 
ing went on in this county, Capts. Organ 
and Sebell each enlisting a respectable squad 
of men. Capt. Samuel Hooper also enlisted 
some men in the county at this time. 

In Decembor, Sergt. A. H. Baker, recruit- 
ing officer of the Fortieth Regiment, came to 
this county, and enlisted quite a number. 
Already a large number of the AVayne County 
boys, who had previously enlisted, were at 
this time in Company A of that regiment. 

In the early part of 1862, the Fortieth 
Regiment, with which there were two Wayne 
County companies, were ordered to Paducah, 

Ky., where they spent most of the win 
ter. In December, 1861, the Eighteenth Reg- 
iment, with which Capt. Crews' Company 
was still stationed, was ordered into active 
service, and was in the Western Department 
all through the winter's campaign. On Feb- 
ruary, 1862, the regiment participated in the 
battle of Fort Donelson. In the fight, Com- 
pany G lost twenty-nine men killed and 
wounded. Among the killed were W. R. 
Thompson and O. D. Schooley, of Clay City, 
and John Gallent, Jefferson Powless, G. W. 
Powell, M. St. John, Thomas Green and 
William M. Young. Capt. Crews received 
two shots ; one broke his left arm, the other, 
a spent ball, only stunned him slightly. 
Among the others who were wounded at this 
battle was Sergt. Fitzgerel. Crews and Fitz- 
gerel both returned home on a short furlough, 
but returned to the conflict as soon as their 
wounds were mended. 

In the spring of 1862, the Fortieth Regi- 
ment was ordered to Savannah, Tenn., and 
there the Eighteenth soon joined them. The 
Fortieth Regiment participated in the battle 
of Pittsburg Landing, also Island No. 10. 
Capt. Cooper, of Company D, was killed, and 
twenty-nine were killed and seventy wounded. 
Among the killed were Adam Files, William 
Newby, E. H. Willett, George Gray, John 
Reene and G. H. Baird. 

Among the privates of Company E reported 
killed were C. W. Windland. W T . W. Eckman, 
William Ward, B. F. Shior, T. M. Miller, 
James Mays and F. Stanley. Among those 
killed in Company G were C. C. Hopkins. 
Jr., William S. Harlan, G. W. Harlan, D. 
W. Proudfoot and J. M. Smith. Of Com- 
pany I, there were three reported killed — 
Lieut. Holmes, Robert Hurley and T. B. 
Lee. Capt. Ulm, who was at first reported 
killed at this battle, was shot in the mouth. 

Company G, of the Eighteenth Regiment, 



did not suffer very much. Ten men were 
wounded, three of whom were severely — 
Lieut. E. George, William Crews and H. Me 
White. Lieut. George was taken to Mount 
Vernon, Ind., where he afterward died. His 
body was brought home and buried here. 
Lieut. H. H. Cook, formerly a resident of 
this county, but at that time with a company 
from Clay County, died afterward from his 
wounds. Capt. Crews acted as Major on the 
battlefield. In Jane, 1862. in writing home 
to a friend, he said: " It is twelve months to- 
day since we were mustered into service for 
three years. Twelve months have brought a 
great change to the Eighteenth Regiment. 
Out of 1.030 men that started with us. 193 
have gone to their long home, to rest from 
the toils of the war; 69 are disabled for life; 
87 are on detached service, leaving but 317 
all right for duty and a tight." From the 
pen of R. S. Barnhill we have the following 
report of the condition of the Fortieth Regi- 
ment at this time: "On entering upon the 
present campaign, the regiment had 874 
men, rank and file. The battle of Shiloh 
reduced the aggregate to 794; since then we 
have lost 92 men by wounds and disease; 
four-fifths of these have died of wounds re- 
ceived at Shiloh, and nearly every day we 
hear of some of our boys being dead or 
wounded or in the military hospitals. 

" Of our loss in commissioned officers, four 
were killed, six disabled, and seven have re- 
signed. Thus our aggregate up to dale 
stands 702. We have now only one field of- 
ficer with us, although we are looking for 
some commissions in a day or two to till 
some of the vacancies." 

In August, 1802. Capt. Organ secured a 
company of men from this county, and about 
the last of the month Capt. Organ again re- 
turned here, and procured quite an enlist- 
ment to his company of cavalry. 

In September. 1862, Maj. CrewR received 
pre .motion to the rank of Colonel, but after- 
ward resigned and returned to Fairfield. 

The Eighteenth Regiment was in the cam 
paign of 1S03 in the West, and assisted in 
the battles of Vicksburg, Champion Hill, 
Raymond, and other fights of that hard cam 

On January 15, 1864, Capt. Andrew 
George, of Company G, Twenty-first Illinois, 
died from a wound received in the battle of 
Chickamauga. In June, 1864, the time <>f 
enlistment having expired for a number of 
Wayne County men, three-fourths of the men 
in Company M, of the Fifth Illinois Cavalry, 
re-enlisted for another three years, under 
Capt. Jessup. 

January, 1S04, the Fortieth Regiment, 
camped at Scottsboro, Ala., also enlisted for 
another three years, and were granted a fur- 
lough by the Government. 

About the 1st of February, 1864, Lieut. 
Col. Howe, of the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fourth, proceeded to this point, and 
enlisted quite a number of men in his com- 
pany. In February, Brig. Gen. Harrow, of 
the Fortieth, was assigned to the command 
of the Fourth Division, Fifteenth Corps. 
He was from this part of Illinois, and was 
known as "Old Bill Harrow - ' among the boys. 

On January 4. 1864. while at the United 
Stairs Marine General Hospital, New 
Orleans. William H. Haynes, of Company 
I). Eighty seventh Regimont, died. The de- 
ceased was born in this county, on March 9, 
1844, and enlisted in the Eighty-seventh, on 
April 13. 180)3. He was the only brother of 
Capt Dan Haynes, of the Eighteenth Regi- 
ment, and was the youngest of the family. 

On April 23, 18.54, the veterans of the 
Fortieth and the Fifth Illinois Cavalry, 

which were hoi >n a furlough, were given 

a reception by the people of this county. 



la May, 1864, Compainy D of the Eighty- 
seventh Mounted Infantry, participated in the 
fighting in the Red River region. Among, 
the wounded from this county were G. W. 
Creamer, James Shannon, Julius Smith and 
Harrison Frazier. 

In May, 1864, Capt. Organ secured the 
enlistment of another company of men from 
this county for 100 days, and they were ac- 
cepted by Gov. Yates. 

In May, 1864, the following members of 
Crews' Company G of the Eighteenth Regi- 
ment returned home, their three years' enlist- 
ment having expired: Capt. Dan Haynes, 
William Wood, Joseph Hooper, Leander 
Knowles, Sam Sailor, William Pendleton, 
Wesley Foreaker, C. W. Gaston, Wade 
Beach, N. S. McCown, Theodore Edmonson, 
Alfred Casper aDd Mark D. Smith. 

On June 27, the Fortieth Regiment par- 
ticipated in the battle of Kenesaw Mount- 
ain. Lieut. Col. R. S. Barnhill, of this 
county, was shot through the head and in- 
stantly killed, while leading his column in a 
charge. Jasper Massey, of this county, who 
was in command of Company I, was also se- 
verely wounded, and fell into the hands of 
the enemy. Austin Burroughs, from this 
county, a private in Company E, was also 
killed in this battle. 

On July 10, Lieut. Col. A. T. Galbraith 
was severely wounded near Atlanta, Ga. He 
was shot by a rebel sharpshooter, the ball 
taking effoct in his ankle and breaking both 

On July 23, 1S64, the people of Hickory 
Hill and adjoining townships gave a recep- 
tion to Company K, of the Forty-ninth Reg- 
iment Illinois Veteran Volunteers. Over 
1,000 people were in attendance. 

August 5, 1864, Lieut. Baker, of Company 
M, Fifth Illinois Cavalry, died at Vicksburg, 
Miss., where the regiment was encamped. 

In the fight at Atlanta, Ga., Company D, of 
the Fortieth, lost one man killed, James T. 
Butler, and five wounded. Among those 
from this county who were wounded in the 
campaign that summer, were Lieut. G. I. 
George, Alfred W. Daisy, Pleasant Shores, 
who afterward died on July 8; James G- 
Price, James Lock, Isaac T. Steed and Sam- 
uel T. Chapman. 

Lieut. George was reported missing at 
that battle of Kenesaw Mountain, and was 
for a long time thought to be dead. He was 
taken a prisoner and sent to Charleston, S. 
O, where he slowly recovered from his 
wound, and from where he finally communi- 
cated with his friends here, much to their 
joy. (See his biography elsewhere.) 

Maj. Organ, while stationed at Cairo, 
died there in the last week in August, 1864. 
His body was afterward brought to Fairfield 
where it was interred. 

November 5, 6 and 7, 1864. the people of 
Fairfield and vicinity held a very successful 
Sanitary Fair at this point. The fair 
netted the round sum of $575 above all 

Thus it will be seen that Wayne County 
furnished during the war twelve full com- 
panies, to wit: Company G, Eighteenth Illi- 
nois : the officers are given above. Company 
D, Samuel Hooper, the first Captain, and 
William Stewart, his successor; at different 
times, the First Lieutenants were William 
Stewart, Joseph P. Rider and William C. 
Murphy; and the Second Lieutenants were 
Joseph P. Rider and Gilbert J. George. 
And Company E, Capt. Daniel N. Ulm, and 
the First Lieutenants were, in succession, 
Andrew F. Nesbitt and William H. Summers; 
Second Lieutenants, in the order given, were 
William H. Summers, Benjamin F. Best and 
William W. Dunlap. The last two compa- 
nies were in the Fortieth Illinois Regiment. 



Then there was Company I, of the Forty- 
eighth Regiment, Capt. Ashley T. Galbraith; 
First Lieutenants, in the order, EHas M. 
Holmes, Stephen F. Grimes, Thomas L B. 
Weems; Second Lieutenants. Stephen F. 
Grimes, T. L. B. Weeins, William M. Gal- 
braith. In the Fifth Illinois Cavalry were 
two companies. Company D, Capt. Henry A. 
Organ; First Lieutenant, S. J. R. Wilson; 
Second Lieutenant, Calvin Schell. Also 
Company M, Capt. Robert Schell, who was 
succeeded by Alexander Jessup; First Lieu- 
tenant, Samuel Burrell; Second Lieutenant, 
Albert S. Robinson. Next was Company H. 
Fifty-sixth Illinois, Capt. James P. Files; 
First Lieutenant, Aaron E. Scott; Second 
Lieutenant, John J. Scott. Then there was 
Company D, Eighty-seventh Illinois. Capt. 
Jacob B. Borah; First Lieutenant, James T. 
Price: Second Lieutenant, Lewis Mayo. 

Company F, Eighteenth Regiment, Capt. 
Jabez J. Anderson; John Olney, Mordecai 
B. Kelly and George Miller, First Lieuten- 
ants; and William M. Thompson, George 
Miller and Samuel P. Carmer, Second Lieu- 
tenants. This company was partly composed 
of men from other counties than Wayne. 

In 18lH, Capt. Organ enlisted a full com- 
pany of men from Wayne County for the 
hundred-day service. 

In September, 1862, Company K, One 
Hundred and Twenty- fourth Regiment, Capt. 
James H. Morgan, was organized. The First 
Lieutenants were Thomas J. William and 
Stephen N. Saunders; Second Lieutenants, 
Stephen N. Saunders and Hiram Hall. 
While this was a Wayne County company, 
yet a portion of the men were from other 
parts of the State, and we believe the com- 
pany was finally completed by being consol- 
idated with another part of a company at 
Centra li a. 

In addition to these companies there were 

squads in the Forty-ninth Regiment, and 
also in the Ninety-eighth Regiment. 

As Fairfield is honored by having among 
its citizens one of the soldiers who was " in 
at the death " of the rebellion, we believe we 
cannot more appropriately close this chapter 
than by giving the following documents that 
fully explain themselves; first, however, re- 
marking that Col. Thomas W. Scott is the 
present urbane and efficient Postmaster of tbia 

Macon, Ga„ Ma> 12, 1865, 11 o'clock A. M. 
Hon. Edwin M Stanton, Secretary of War, 

\V \sHINOTON. I). C.: 

The following dispatch, announcing the capture of 
Jell' Davis, lias jnsi been handed me by Capt. Scott, 
A. A. G., Second Division Cavalry. 

J. H. Wilson-, Major General. 

Headquarters Fourth Michigan Cavalry, i 

Cumberlandvili.e, (Ja.. May 11. 1883. \ 

Capt. Thomas W. Scott, A. A. G., Second Divi 
sion Cavalry, Military Division of Missis- 

Sir — I have the honor to report to you that at 
daylight yesterday at [rwinsville I surprised and 
captured Jeff Davis and family, together with his 
wife's sisters and brother, his Postmaster General. 
Reagan, Ins Private Secretary, Col. Harrison, Col. 
Johnson. Aid-de-Camp on Davis' Staff. Col. Morris 
Lubbeck and Lieut. Hathaway; also several import- 
ant names and a train of five wagons and three 
ambulances, making a most perfect success. 

Had not a most painful mistake occurred, by 
which the Fourth Michigan and First Wisconsin 
came in conflict, we should have done better. This 
mistake cost us two killed and Lieut. Bouth wounded 
through the arm. of the Fourth Michigan, and four 
men of the First. Wisconsin wounded. This occurred 
just at daylight, after we had captured t he ramp b\ 
the advance of the First Wisconsin, and they were 
mistaken for the enemy. 

I returned to this point last night and shall move 
right on to Macon, without waiting orders from you 
as directed, feeling that the whole object of the es 
pedition is accomplished. 

It will take at bast three days to reach Macon, as 
we arc at least seventy five miles out. and our stock 
much exhausted. I hope to reach Ilawkinsville to- 
I line the honoi to be your obedient servant 
B. D. Richard, 
Lieutenant Colonel Fourth Michigan Cavalry, Com- 





THE first marriage license ever issued in 
the county was dated June 8, 1819, to i 
William Clark and Peggy Carson. Then 
came a long resting spell in this line, until 
September 6 Elkana Bramblett and Sally 
Lofton were authorized to marry. On the 
18th of same month, William Clark and Ame- 
lia Hamilton received license. This was all 
the marrying done in the first year of Wayne 
County's existence. There was no other 
wedding in the county until the 21st of July, 
1820, when John Johnston and Hannah Mc- 
Cormick (widow) were married. August 13, 
John P. Farley and Milly Ramsy were mar- 
ried, Esquire Anthony Street performing the 
ceremony. On the 30th of July, 1820, 
Robert Penick and Elizabeth Clemmons were 
married by Owen Martin, Justice of the Peace; 
August 20, John Owen and Malinda Vaughn 
were married, and Joseph Martin and Eliza- 
beth Bird on August 29. On the 24th of the 
same month, David Monroe and Nancy Crews. 
John Moffitt and Sarah Campbell were mar- 
ried on the 7th of September, 1820. and 
Samuel MeNeal and Polly Shepherd on the 
17th: and Zachariah Hews and Sarah Bain 
on December 14. This was all the mar- 
riages in the county in 1820. 

The next year the business commenced by 
the marriage of Joel Ellidge and Mary Close 
on January 13. On the 1st of February, 
Thomas C. Gaston and Sally Conner. On 
the 19th of November, 1820, James Fitzger- 
ald and Clara Slocumb; on the 14th day of 
January, 1821, Jeremiah Job and Rachael 

Campbell; on March 4, Nathan Harris and 
Nancy Stanley; on the 25th, Jonathan Hart 
and Cynthia Turney; on the 6th, James 
Clark and Sally Bradshaw; on the 15th of 
May, Charles Wood and Sarah Dubois (wid- 
ow); June 19, James Cyrus Gaston and Peg- 
gy Clark; August 16, Owen Martin and 
Mary Crews; September 2, Samuel Close and 
Catharine Coonrod; September 8, David Ray 
and Jane Goode; September 27, Alexander 
C. Mackay and Polly Carson; November 8, 
Alexander Ramsey and Nancy Thrasher; 
November 28, "James Bolen and Nancy Tay- 
lor; October, Joseph C. Reed and Mary Cox. 
In the year 1822, the following marriage 
licenses were issued: January 10, Stephen 
Merritt and Elizabeth Harris; April 2, John 
Wyatt and Jane Reed; 3d, William Cald- 
well and Betsey Martin; 6th, Jonas Habday 
and Sally McCracken; May 10, Joseph 
Campbell and Elsy Campbell; 13th, Abra- 
ham Beach and Anna Price; June 1, Jacob 
M. Borah and Pamelia Fulkinson; July 29, 
Zachariah Simpson and Mary Gray; August 
26, Joseph Martin and Sally Walker; Nov- 
ember 5, Joseph White and Elenor Woods; 
December 14. Daniel P. Pennick and Coley 
Clement; December, James Taylor and Mary 
Kelly: January 4, 1823, John A. Grant and 
Abigail Seward; February 12, John David- 
son and Sally Travis, and George Meritt and 
Elizabeth Files; February 26, Collins Mc- 
Donald and Nellie Gallagher; March 3, Rob- 
ert Fenton and Karah Whitney; June 3, 
George Borah and Ellen Bradshaw; 14th, 


David Martin and Elizabeth Walker, and 
William Taylor and Margaret Gray; 28th, 
Enoch Wilcox anil Sebra C'att (widow); July 
21, Vbner Ellis and Frauky Drew; Septem- 
ber 1"). Van Lofton and Hilly McHaws; 18th, 
Lewis Black and Sally .Martin: October 9, 
Charles < iullagher and Sally It. Roberts; Jan- 
uary, L824, Richard Berks and Winna Will- 
iams; January 26, William McCormick and 
Nancy McCracken. 

The Legislature, by act of February 10, 
1821, created the "Courts of Probate'' in 
the several counties. Previous to this time, 
the Circuit Courts granted letters testament- 
ary and of administration, and performed 
other duties of a probate nature. In accord- 
ance with this law an election was held in 
Wa\ no County, and Samuel Leech was elected 
Probate Judge. The first court convened at 
the house of Samuel Leech, in Fairfield, on 
the 2d day of July. L821. Samuel Leech 
was then Circuit and County Clerk and Pro- 
bate Jndgi 

The first business in this court was the ap- 
plication to the Clerk, on the 10th day Jan- 
uary, 1821, of Ann Slocumb for letters of j 
administration upon the estate of Samuel 
Slocumb, deceased. She gave bond in the 
sum of $300, with Rigdon B. Slocumb and 
Ephraham Meritt as sureties. This was the 
total of the business of the first term of this 

At the next term of the Probate Court, De- 
cember IS. 1821. the only business transacted 
was the proof of the death of Joseph Mar- 
tin, and the fact that his wife Betsey had re 
linquished her prior right to administer on 
the estate, whereupon Owen Martin, Henry 
Martin, and Joseph Martin came into court 
and applied for lotters of administration, which 
was granted upon their entering into bond 
with James Baird, Alexander Jones, John 
Barnhill and Rigdon B. Slocumb, securities. 

in the penal sum of Si 1,000. Thomas Brad- 
shaw. John B. Gash and James Baird were 
appointed appraisers. These two cases were 
al! the business in the I'robate Court until 
the term of June IT, L822, when Sarah Mc- 
Wbirter, administratrix of the estate of Isaac 
Mc Wbirter, proceeded to make settlement 
with claimants against said estate. 

On the 18th of November, 1822, Hu^'h 
Stuart. John Livergood and Sally Warren 
came into court and applied for letters upon 
the estate of William Warren, which was 
granted upon their entering into bonds of 
$4,000, with Owen Martin, William B. Daws 
and Robert R. Gaston as sureties. 

On the 26th of December, 1822, Ann 
Bradshaw was granted letters upon estate of 
her husband, Thomas Bradshaw. Bond, 
$2,000. Her securities were James Brad- 
shaw, John B. Gosh and Archibald Roberts. 
In February, 1823, Hugh Stewart and John 
Livergood returned inventory into court of 
the estate of William Warren, deceased. The 
infant heirs of Joseph Martin, deceased, were 
Nathan Martin. Martha Martin and Elizabeth 
Martin. The oldest son Joseph being over 
fourteen years of age, selected Owen Martin 
as his guardian. Sally and Mary Martin, 
two other heirs over fourteen years of age, 
selected Joseph Martin as their guardian. 

November 29, L863, Isaac Harris was 
granted administration of the estate of 
Stephen Vicars, deceased. 

December, 1823, Mary Clark and Ronnah 
Wills were granted letters on the estate of 
Joseph Clark, deceased. Bond, 2,000, with 
David Wright and Cephas A. Parks, securi- 

April 13. 1824, letters were granted upon 
the estate of Henry Hall, deceased, to Alfred 
Hall. His securities were Andrew Kuyken- 
dall and John Barnhill. 

On the l'.ith of April, 1824, the first will 



was probated, that of John Travis, with John 
Davidson and Thomas D. Travis, subscribing 
witnesses, also Peggy Travis, and Rebecca 
Travis, Allen Travis and James Stephenson 
were executors. 

September 25, 1824, the last will and tes- 
tament of James Dickerson was probated. 
James Jaggers and David Thompson were 
subscribing witnesses. Michael and Lewis 
Dickerson were executors, and they declining 
to act the court appointed Charles Pugsley. 

On 23d of November, 1825, Sally Ellis 
was appointed administratrix of estate of 
John Ellis, deceased. 

May 15, 1826, Susanna Wood and John 
Wood were appointed administrators of es- 
tate of Thomas G. Wood, deceased. The 
next will filed was that of Mary Book, De- 
cember, 1826, with Tyrey Eobinson and 
Alexander Clark, subscribing witnesses. 

The records of January, 1827, on records, 
note the fact that Sally Martin, late Sally 
Ellis, administratrix of estate of John Ellis, 
was no longer a widow. Also that Sara Mc- 
Whorter had married Daniel Williams. 

On May 24th, 1827, George Walton was 
appointed administrator of estate of Thomas 
Walton, deceased. The same year. Green 
Lee was appointed guardian of Nancy Ann 
and Elsey M. Clark, heirs of Joseph Clark. 

On the 7th of January, 1828, appeared the 
following minutes on the probate record: 
Joseph Martin, one of the administrators 
of Joseph Martin, deceased, having given no- 
tice required by law in the Illinois Corrector, 
a public newspaper, printed at Edwardsville, 
111., that he would attend the Probate Court 
in Fairfield, etc. 

In April, 1828, Robert Jones reported to 
the court that he had made sale of the per- 
sonal estate of his brother, James Jones, 
without letters of administration, for the sum 
of $300, etc. 

In October, 1828, Richard Owen having 
departed this life, and his widow, Nancy, 
having relinquished her prior right of admin- 
istration, letters were granted to Epaphrody- 
tus C.Owen (and the Judge and Clerk, Leech, 
wrote the name in full and survived, without 

On the 3d day of January, 1829, proof 
was made of the death of Jacob M. Borah, 
and Panela and John Borah were granted 
letters of administration. 

In April, 1829, letters were granted Eliza 
Block on the estate of Robert Block, deceased. 

In July of the same year, Felix H. Barn- 
hill was granted letters upon the estate of 
John Barnhill, deceased. 

In November, 1829, similar letters were 
granted Polly Ann Holmes, widow, on the 
estate of Zephaniah Holmes, deceased. 

In October, 1830, similar action in estate 
of Daniel J. Wilson, deceased; letters to 
George Wilson. The next month, Novem- 
ber, same action in case of Samuel Watkins, 
deceased; letters to George Close and Elijah 

In November, 1830, last will of John J. 
Davis probated. 

In January, 1832, Charles Wood was ap- 
pointed administrator of Otho Wood, de- 
ceased; and in March, same year, the last 
will of Micajah T. Walker was probated, and. 
same day. letters of administration on the es- 
tate of Jesse McCracken, deceased. In Au- 
gust, same year, letters were granted on the 
estate of George Frazer, deceased, to William 
Frazer. In November, same year, Andrew 
T. Stator died, and letters were granted to 
Peter Stator. 

In February, 1833. the last will and testa- 
ment of Thomas Cox was probated; Griffin 
T. Snodgrass and Henry Tyler were subscrib- 
ing witnesses. On the 14th of November.same 
year, the will of James Lock was probated. 



Iu February, 1834, proof of the death of 
William MoVay was made, and letters 
granted Aquilla McCracken. 

In September, 1834. George Phenix, an 
orphan fourteen years old, was apprenticed 
to Edward West, by the consent of Judge 
Leech and Thomas Sloan, his grandfather. 
He was to remain uutil twenty-one years old, 
and then to have a new Bible and two suits 
of clothes. 

In October, 1834, James Clark died; let- 
ters granted Naoma Clark and B. A. Clark. 
Elsberry Armstrong died iu October, 1834; 
letters granted Abner M. Downer, with Jo- 
seph White, Hugh Stewart and James Denney 
as securities. At same court, similar letters 
were granted Samuel Hooper upon the estate 
of Dempsey Hooper, deceased. Tirey Robin- 
son's last will and testament was probated in 
April, 1835. Alfred Hall died in June, 1835, 
and letters were granted Jane Hall and Jef- 
frey Robinson, with R. B. Slocumb and Tyra 
Taylor as sureties. September of the same 
year, letters were granted Joseph Wilson and 
Nancy J. McLin on the estate of David Mc- 
Lin. deceased. 

Iu January. 1836, letters were granted 
upon the estate of Peter Kenshalo,"deceased, 
to Daniel Kenshalo. February 20, 183(5, let- 
ters were granted on the estate of Benjamin 
A. Clark, deceased, to James N. Clark. On 
6th of June of the same year, similar action 
was taken in case of Nathaniel Cbilson, de- 

Judge Leech continued to act as Probate 
Judge, County Clerk, Circuit Clerk, and Re- 
corder, as well as Colonel of the Wayne 
County Militia Regiment from the formation 
of the county until the early part of 1837. 
He then resigned the office of Circuit Clerk, 
and here, as well as in nearly all his other 
official positions, he was succeeded by Judge 
Rigdon B. Slocuml). At a' court held in 

Fairfield, March, 1837, by Judge Harlan, the 
following is the opening entry upon the 
records: "I, Justin Harlan, sole Judge of 
the Fourth Judicial Circuit, do hereby ap- 
point Rigdon B. Slocumb Clerk of the Cir- 
cuit Court in and for the countv of Wayne, 

On the 26th of July, 1826, Samuel Leech 
and Rigdon B. Slocumb entered into a part- 
nership for the purpose of vending goods in 
the town of Fairfield. Their stock on hand 
invoiced! 1,508. 52£. 

Enoch Wilcox leased Hubbard's place, 
September 22, 1819. 

Census of 1845 shows a total population of 
6,497; of these, 1,090 reported as subject to 
military duty. There were eight negroes, 
four males and four females. The total 
amount of machinery or manufactories is re- 
ported seventeen horse mills, two distilleries, 
one carding machine, one cotton gin, five saw 
mills, seven tanneries, one steam mill for 
sawing and grinding, and four water grist 
mills. Jesse Lord had a saw and gristmill; 
Horatio P Porter had a tannery and bark 
mill; Charles Wood had a water saw and 
grist mill; Abraham Martin had a horse 
mill; Alexander Ramsey, Sr., and Jesse Fly 
had each a horse mill; James Martin had a 
bark mill; Newberry Cline had a water saw 
and grist mill; George Campbell, Sr., had a 
horse mill; Hampton Weed had a steam saw 
and grist mill; John Kimmel had a distill- 
ery; David Wright a horse mill; P. L. Funk- 
houser, a bark mill; Hiram Stats, a tannery; 
R. B. Slocumb, horse mill; H. H. Cook, tan- 
no -y; James Harper, carding machine and 
cotton gin; John Skelton, horse mill; R. F- 
Jenkins, horse mill; Walter Burch, tannery; 
Enos Maulding, water saw and grist mill; 
Able Dewitt and Francis Hayney had each a 
stum]) mill. These were probably the last of 
these kind of mills ever in use in the county. 



Daniel Gregory, horse mill; William Hallo- 
way, horse mill; Moses Garrison, tannery; 
Wesley Staton, saw mill; Jonathan Whit- 
stons horse mill; C. L. Carter, John Bovee, 
James Cooper and Benjamin Haws each had 
a horse mill; Lewis Myers, a distillery. 

Literary Society. — As early as 1823, the 
leading citizens of the county met and or- 
ganized a debating and literary society. 
Articles were drawn and signed by John Mc- 
Makin, A. \V. Sorgenfry, J. T. Hefford, 
George and Richard Grant, A. C. McKay, 
Elihu Farley, John Carson, R. B. Slocumb, 
Jeffrey Robinson, Andrew Carson, Cephas A. 
Parks, George Turner, John Johnston, J. R. 
Taylor, Samuel Leech, Alexander Campbell, 
and John Barnhill. 

C. A. Parks was appointed President; 
Samuel Leech, Secretary. 

An excellent constitution was adopted, 
among other things providing that nothing 
said by any speaker should be considered his 
personal sentiments. 

The first question, " Is there more pleasure 
in the pursuit of an object or actual posses- 
sion?" Discussed with great ability and 
learning for possession by John Barnhill, 
George Grant, George Turner, Elihu Farley, 
Joseph T. Hefford and Samuel Leech. On 
the negative, Enoch Wilcox, John McMackin 
and Andrew Carson. The records say: 
"The President, after mature deliberation, 
gave the following decision: That the most 
forcible argument was used in favor of pos- 

The second question discussed was: "Are 
ideas natural or acquired?" This must have 
been an exciting debate, and it never seems 
to have been imagined by any of the learned 
disputants that, generally speaking, ideas 
are neither natural nor acquired, but to the 
most of men the Sheriff's return of non est 
invntus would apply, and, in fact, the im- 

proved returns of the Sheriff when he said, 
' • in swampum, and none could not come at 
him," would not be much out of place. 

The third question was unique in phrase- 
ology, as follows : " Does a man possessed of 
extreme wealth, or one moving in a middling 
sphere in life, enjoy .the most real happi- 
ness." The next question was a stunner in 
the following: "Which are the most happy, a 
married or single life?" Then, " Which is the 
greatest benefit to society, a penitentiary or a 
gallows?" It was warmly argued, and aroused 
a deep and thrilling interest. These people 
were inclined_to be luxurious and ease-loving. 
The elderly members said there was more 
solid comfort in the rope, while the younger 
and more hopeful members thought the ball 
and chain the more durable of the two. 

The society amended the constitution and 
provided a fine of 50 cents against any mem- 
ber who might be appointed to any duty and 
failed, and the record of nearly every meet- 
ing has entries against members for absence, 
etc., etc. 

Weekly meetings continued until October, 
1823, and then after a big discussion meet- 
ings were abandoned for two years, when, 
pursuant to a public notice by Sam Leech, 
Secretary, the society again met, and it was 
unanimously agreed that the Fairfield Debat- 
ing Society be ' ' organized and commence 
operations immediately." The society re- 
solved to take up where it had left off the 
great question, " Which are the most benefit 
to society, a penitentiary or a gallows?" and 
it was resolved to discuss this at the next 
meeting. Of this meeting, we find the fol- 
lowing entry on the record: "Dr. C. A. 
Parks, A. C. Mackay, W. F. Turney, James 
B. Brown and F. C. Turner spoke in favor of 
the penitentiary, and Samuel Leech, R. B. 
Slocumb, Jeffrey Robinson, John Barnhill, 
George Turner and John Wood in favor of 



the gallows; and the President (Andrew 
Carson), "after due deliberation," decided 
that the most forcible argument was used in 
favor of the gallows, and, tb ere fore, that the 
gallows is the most benefit to society, from 
which said decision Dr. C. A. Parks prayed 
an appeal, which was granted. "It is, 
therefore, ordered that said question be again 
debated at the next regular meeting of the 
society." The excitement continued to in- 
crease, and men and women took sides, anil 
in the houses and upon the loafers' corners it 
was from morn till night gallows and peni- 
tentiary and penitentiary and gallows, and 
when the society met the disputants were 
"freighted to the water's edge" with the 
subject. But again was the gallows triumph- 
ant,, and only thus and thus, after nearly 
three years of discussion and hot contention 
was the great question permanently settled. 
The society then turned to the more peaceful 
and quietiDg question of " Which are the 
most benefit to community, commerce or 
agriculture?" This was decided in favor of 
agriculture. Then they tackled the follow- 
ing: "Which is and has been the most 
advantage to the United States, gunpowder 
or printing?" In reference to this discus- 
sion, we find the following: " The President, 
after mature deliberation, decided in favor of 
gunpowder as of more use to the United 
States than the press." 

The society moved along in their weekly 
meetings, and, in 18'27, the great question of 
the comparative benefits of the penitentiary 
or gallows was revived, and finally the old 
decision in favor of the gallows was reversed, 
and the penitentiary was decided to be the 
greater blessing of the two. 

The Debating Club seems to have kept ac 
tively alive, and thejpeople showed much in- 
terest in all its acts and doings. 

On the 7th day of November, 1837. the 

town of Fairfield had a Library Room, and 
on that day a meeting was called, and the 
Fairfield Library Society was organized. 
Joseph Wilson was appointed President, and 
T. A. Wood, Secretary. 

A committee of three, Jacob H. Love, R. 
B. Slocumb and T. A. W T ood were appointed 
to draft a constitution and by-laws for the 
society. Their report was adopted, and Jef- 
frey Robinson was appointed Secretary. 

At the first regular meeting, the record 
says William F. Turney "delivered an able 
and eloquent lecture on the subject of the 
Fairfield Literary Society-." The record then 
recites "the following subjects were assigned 
to the following members, to speak from in 
turn: Daniel Turney, Agriculture; J. Rob- 
inson, Mathematics and Geography; J. H. 
Robinson, the Propriety of Correct Language 
in Speaking; T.A. Wood, the Utility of Com- 
mon Schools and Education; 0. J. Ridgeway, 
Commerce; N. N. Smith, History; William 
F. Turney, Anatomy; J. A. Robinson, G. T. 
Snodgrass and J. G. Stuart were named as 
lecturers, but their subjects are not given. 
Then we find J. H. Robinson assigned to a 
lecture on the Inconsistency of Negro Slav- 
ery; and D. Turney, on Agriculture, a sec- 
ond time; T. A. Wood lectured on the Util- 
ity and Advantages of a Railroad from Mount 
Carmel, via Fairfield to St. Louis; N. N. 
Smith, history, second time; W. F. Turney, 
anatomy, second time; Joseph Wilson, on 
the Truths and Evidences of Christianity, 
continued; James A. Robinson, ou the In- 
consistency of Negro Slavery, continued; 
Leander Turney, Education. 

We find pasted in the front part of the 
record book a letter dated " Lebanon, III, 
February 24, 1836," and addressed W. F. 
Turney and Thomas A. Wood, committee in 
behalf of the Fairfield Library Society. The 
letter is signed by B. F. Kavanaugh. The 



letter is written on foolscap paper, folded 
without envelope, and is sealed with an old- 
style red wafer, that we used to get in those 
round, wood boxes, that always had a wafer 
stuck on the top of the box. The postage 
on this letter was 25 cents. It seems to have 
been written by Mr. Kavanaugh, in response 
to an invitation to deliver an address before 
the literary society. We give a paragraph 
from the letter that will go far to explain its 
purport: "Then, sirs, permit me to con- 
gratulate you in the successful efforts which 
have been made by yourselves and those with 
whom you have the honor to be associated in 
the organization of a society which has for 
its objects the expansion and illumination of 
the immortal mind. ***** Take 
for example Herskill, who was once a com- 
mon soldier under the British banner, who, 
while standing sentinel at Dight, had the 
large powers of his giant mind wakened into 
action, while he gazed upon the heavens, and 
ere its labors were concluded, the science of 
astronomy was extended, and the learned 
were informed of the existence of a large 
worlds connected with the sun, of which ours 
is a member. And while the great planet, 
which now bears his name, shall wheel in his 
course, in distant space around the sun, the 
name of 'Herskill' will be carried down the 
tide of time, till the heavenly messenger an- 
nounces that 'time shall be no more.' And 
who shall say his praise shall cease with 

In a further examination of the records we 
find the Debating Society by resolution were 
admitted as spectators to the Literary So- 
ciety. A library had been established, and 
at the meeting of the literary society, Janu- 
ary '!'•), L836, a resolution was passed in which 
it was resolved that each member of the so- 
ciety " in order to promote the general diffu- 
sion of knowledge be requested to use his in- 

fluence to obtain new members to the Fair- 
field Library." 

The moral tinge that prevailed in those 
literary works is made evideut by the follow- 
ing resolution, passed at a regular meeting 
of February 6, 1836. " On motion agreed 
that this society will read Dr. Blair's lec- 
tures through at their subsequent meetings, 
each member to read a suitable number of 
pages at each meeting to take it in turn as 
they speak, and on motion agreed that Dr. 
William F. Turney read the first evening, 
which he proceeded to do. 

From an old file of the Wayne County 
Press we extract the following items in the 
account book of David Wright; the entries 
were made just fifty years ago. 

This day book was commenced January 1, 
1834. The items given below are copied ver- 
batim and are interesting as illustrating life 
in the early times in Wayne County. The 
first item in the book is suggestive of the 
habits of the early settler. Here it is: 
Job Chapman, i gal. whisky .*....$ 31} 

The next charge is of the same character 
but covers more historical ground: 

Moses Renfro. By 10 lb. Deerskins fl 00 

To 1} yds. bleached muslin® 37f 
To 2} yards calico @ 43f. 

To 2 lb. coffee 50 

To 2 lb. shugar 33 

To 2 gal. whisky 1 00 

The next customer was certainly extrava- 
gant for those days: 
Peter Staton, to 5 yards drab cloth $14 31 J 

Those were the times before Ayers, Wake- 
field, Hostetter et al supplied almanacs, for 
evidence of which read this charge: 
Nathan Attebury, to 1 Almanack $ 6} 

And then we have the following: 

Henry Pickering, 1 box Lee's Pils $ 50 

William Clevenger, KJ lbs. honey ;i? J 

Presley Simpson, 1 quart whisky 25 

1 pint molasses 10 

Thomas Parmer. 1 casteel aeks 3 00 



Caleb Wilmans, 1 cow ami calf 00 

1 steer - years old 6 00 

Jacob Beard, li gunllinls 6} 

William Robberta, 1 iir hat 4 75 

Asa Attepervy, 1 lb pepper.... 43J 

C. A. Parks. T yards ealieo 2 62} 

paper pins 18} 

l pair [Hill combs 25 

Pressley Simpson, I. oven and lid 2 50 

Hugh Steward. ■"> weeks hoard for .lames I 00 

David Reed, 2 ounzes sowing thread 12J 

1 coon skin 12 J 

2 ral'it skins 8 

2 Hi. feathers 50 

1 quart whiskey 18} 

George Tibs, by 9} lb. Deerskin 92} 

3 pair hams 1 12} 

4 Hi. calfskin 50 

.lames Turner, 2 pair uppers 50 

William Irvin, 2) yards janes . 2 50 

1 yard flax linen 18} 

William Goodman. 1 quart whiskey 18} 

1 spelling book 18} 

David Reed, li lb. cotton 30 

James Campbell, 1 tucking comb 50 

Richmond Hall, 2 gallons whiskey 1 00 

1 yard lase 12} 

8 fish hooks 12} 

1 j ard riben 6} 

Caleb Wilmans, • dozen tea spoons 25 

Low isa Butler. 1 yard lase 37 J 

1 comb 31} 

Josiah ('. Heed, 1 pair shoes 1 00 

John Cox, 1GJ lbs. butter. @ 6 cents. 

William Clevenger, 1 lb. nales 12} 

} lb. tea 50 

James Butler, 1 deer skin 75 

} lb. alum 12 

John Attelmry, 1 oz camfire 12} 

Andrew Hall, G needles 6} 

Harmon Horn, by 3 days work 2 25 

A. C. Wright. 4} lbs. coffee 1 00 





Saw ye not the cloud arise, 

Little as the human hand ; 
Now it spreads along the skies . 

Hangs o'er all the thirsty land." 

— Old Hymn. 

AMONG the early pioneers in the Illinois 
country were some of the soldiers of 
Gen. George Rogers Clark, who. after his 
successful expedition and capture of this 
vast domain, returned with their friends and 
settled in this Territory. A few of these 
had been trained in the principles of Chris- 
tianity, though we have no positive assurance 
that, there were any church members among 
them, but there is a tradition that a Mrs. 
Bond had once belonged to the Presbyterian 

We are, however, led to the conclusion 
that their hungering after the " Word of 
Life" was great, inasmuch as, in the absence 
of the Gospel ministry and all sanctuary 
privileges, some of them were in the habit of 
assembling at private houses on the Sabbath 
day. for the purpose of hearing read the 
Bible or any other good books that could be 
obtained for the occasion. 

One of their number (generally Judge 
Bond) would read, after which they would 
discuss the subjects read and inquire of each 
other the meaning of the different passages 
that had attracted their attention. It is not 
at all probable that there was any public 
praying at these meetings, as there were none 



so far advanced in the cause as to undertake 
so great a task. 

The tirst Gospel minister to visit Illinois 
was a Baptist by the name of Smith, who 
preached to the people in 1787, and we un- 
derstand that there were some conversions 
under his ministry, among whom was Capt. 
Joseph Ogle, who afterward became a Meth- 
odist class leader and a prominent man in 
the commonwealth. 

Conspicuous among those who have borne 
the Btory of Calvary, and carried the glad 
tidings of salvation to the pioneer cabin, 
offering in the name of the Great Master, life 
to fallen men, was the itinerant Methodist 

Invincible, untiring ; if one should fall by 
the way another would rise up to take his 
place. In the frontiers, without roads or 
bridges, swimming swollen streams, enduring 
cold and hunger, with other hardships and 
privations, poorly clad and often without the 
means of securing adequate covering ; keep- 
ing watch with the stars at night, far away 
from human habitation, with no sounds to 
cheer or disturb their quiet, save the winds 
or storms among the forests, the howl of 
wild beasts, and sometimes the echoing war- 
crv of the savages ; alone in the world, with 
poverty as a constant companion, far away 
from loved ones, they pressed the battle to 
victory, denying themselves that others might 
live. Others may have equaled them in 
zeal and good works, but certainly none ever 
surpassed them. 

So far as is now known, the first Methodist 
preacher to visit Illinois was Joseph Lillard, 
in 1793. He had been a circuit preacher in 
Kentucky, and after bis location came to this 
country, and after preaching to the people, 
organized the first class in the Territory, and 
appointed Joseph Ogle class leader. He was 
a crood man of moderate ability, but some- 

times afflicted with mental trouble. During 
one of these periods of abberation he escaped 
from his friends, and while wandering in the 
woods, came across the body of a man who 
had recently been murdered and scalped by 
the Indians. While he tarried gazing upon 
the mangled remains, the cloud passed 
from his mind, and becoming conscious he 
returned and gave the alarm. Thirty years 
afterward he again visited Illinois and 
preached to the people, finding many things 
changed for the better. 

In 1796, Rev. Hosea Riggs, a local preacher, 
settled in Illinois, where he became of great 
service to the church and country, dying at 
the advanced age of eighty-one years, in 1841. 
He was a Revolutionary soldier. Rev. 
John Clark came to Illinois, and preached 
and taught school, being loved and honored 
by all who knew him. He preached the first 
Protestant sermon west of tbe Mississippi 
River. In his old age he joined a sect of 
Baptists, calling themselves "Friends of 
Humanity," but retained the confidence of his 
old friends. 

Rev. Thomas Harrison, settled near Belle- 
ville, in Illinois, in 1S04, and labored with 
acceptability for more than fifty years. 

In 1803. Rev. Hosea Riggs visited the 
Western Conference in Kentucky, and 
secured a circuit preacher for Illinois. Ben- 
jamin Young was the first itinerant circuit 
preacher in the Territory, commencing his 
work in 1S03. He reported sixty-seven 
church members in Illinois at the end of the 

In 1804, Joseph Oglesby was appointed to 
Illinois, and the membership was increased 
to 140 daring the year. He was a man of 
good stock, and died a few years since in 
Indiana, greatly respected. 

In 180r>. William MeKendree was Presid- 
ing Elder, and not at that time a Bishop as 



Gov. Reynolds states. He was a soldier in 
the Revolution, a great preacher, the peer of 
any man in the nation, and was receiving, as 
any other itinerant preacher, a salary of only 
$80 a year. He was soon afterward elected 
Bishop, and we would here remark tbat a 
Bishop is the only member in the M. E. 
Church that is entitled to neither a vote nor 
a veto. 

In 1805, Charles B. Matheny was pastor 
this year, and, on account of ill health, lo- 
cated in Springfield in 1818, where he left 
an honorable record and a worthy family. 

In 1806, Jesse Walker came, and though 
volumes might, be written in his praise, the 
want of space admonishes us to pay more re- 
gard to their chronological order than the 
character of the preachers. 

1MI7 — John Clingan, P. C. ; James Ward, 
P. E 272 members. 

1808— Jesse Walker. P. C. ; Samuel Park- 
er, P. E. 

L809— Abraham A.nios; 341 members on 
Illinois Circuit. 

1810— Cash Creek Circuit, Thomas Kirk- 

1811 — Cash River, Baker W rather; James 
Axley, P. E. 

1812 — Illinois Circuit was attached to the 
l ■ rn'ssee Conference. Wabash District, 
Peter Cartright, P. E. ; Little Wabash Cir- 
cuit. John Smith. 

1813— Jas. Porter. P. C. ; Jesse Walker, P. E. 

1814— John C. Harbison. 

1815 — Daniel McHenry. 

1816 — Illinois for eight years formed a 
part of the Missouri Conference. John Har- 
ris, P. C. : Samuel H. Thompson, P. E. 

1817— Daniel McHenry. 

1818 — Charles Slocumb, P. C. ; Jesse 
Haile, P. E. 

1819-20— Thomas Davis, P. C; David 
Sharp, P. E. 

1821 — H. Vredenburg and Thomas Rice. 

1822 — Wabash and Mt. Vernon, Josiah 
Patterson and William H. Smith. 

1823 — Wabash and Mt. Vernon, William 
H. Smith, P. C; S. H. Thompson, P. E. 

1824 — Illinois Conference established. 
Wabash Circuit. Cornelius Ruddle. 

1825 — Wabash Circuit, Thomas Davis, P. 
C. ; Charles Holliday, P. E. 

L826— Robert Delap. 

1827— James Hadley. 

1828 — William Mavity; George Lock, 
P. E. 

1829— John Fox and Alfred Arriugton. 

1830— Thomas H. Files and Philip T. 

1831— Thomas H. .Files and James M. 

1832 — James McKean and J. W. Corbin; 
Michael S. Taylor, P. E. 

1833 — James W. Corbin and William 

1834 -James Walker; John S. Barger, 
1'. E. 

1835— John Fox. 

1836— William Taylor and William Met- 

1837 — Rhodam Allen and John Parsons; 
Hooper Crews, P. E. 

1838— Arthur Bradshaw; A. E. Phelps, 
P. E. 

1839— G. W. Strebling; G. W. Robins, 
P. E. 

1840 — William Cummings and Ashael 

1841 — John Shepherd; Barton Handle, 
P. E. 

After this year, the work in Wayne County 
was called Fairfield Circuit. 

It will not be out of place to mention a 
few incidents in connection with some of the 
foregoing preachers. 

The fiery, impetuous and fearless Daniel 



McHenry was the right man for the circuit 
during the Indian war, as a less courageous 
man would have failed in the midst of dan- 
gers so menacing. He was a terror to evil- 
doers and entertained a great antipathy to 
slavery. On one occasion he, with his son 
and a negro, actually whipped and drove 
back into Kentucky a company of kidnapers. 

After an absence of fifty years, William H. 
Smith visited the Conference at Mt. Vernon 
and met a few of his early parisnoners. 

Cornelius Ruddle, while moving from his 
circuit at New Haven to Equality, with both 
his horses, was killed by a falling tree. His 
wife was compelled to return on foot four 
miles to the settlement to procure help. 
James Hadley's wife died in the vicinity of 
Fairfield. Father Mavity (pronounced Mo- 
vit-ee) died and was buried at Mellrose's, in 
Edward's County, on the place now owned 
by Mr. West. 

Alfred Arrington is remembered by very 
few now living here, but by those few well 
remembered. Though unassiiining, he proved 
to be a young man of great erudition, and 
became an able and eloquent preacher. He 
was expelled from the church, after which he 
studied law, became an' able advocate, and 
settled in Chicago, where he was elected 
Judge, and died a few years since.'XKoman 

While crossing the Little Wabash River, 
at the mouth of White Oak Creek, a little 
below the "Air Line " Railroad bridge, in 
1839, William Metcalf was drowned. He 
lies buried in the Mathew Crews' Cemetery. 

More than sixty-seven years ago, or within 
a few weeks after the first settlers had come 
to the region of Burnt Prairie, in 1816, 
came John Harris, the Methodist circuit 
rider, following the wake of the early pio- 
neer, serving the flocks, gathering up the 
scattered fragments that had strayed into 

the wilderness waste, carrying the glad tid- 
ings to the lost, administering to the spiritual 
wants of a people widely separated, and per- 
suading men to seek a better inheritance and 
live better lives. At his first appearance in 
the settlement, in August, 1810, Mr. Harris 
preached at the house of Alexander Hamil- 
ton, to five persons as his congregation, viz. : 
Mr. Hamilton, his wife and two nieces and 
George Meritt, a young man at that time. 

Early in the winter of 1817, Archy Rob- 
erts, a talented local preacher, settled on the 
southeast quarter of Section 11, Town 3 
south, Range 8 east, and at his house it is 
thought the first Methodist society was or- 
ganized. It is also stated by Mr. Meritt that 
it was several years before the ministers of 
other denomination visited these settlements. 

In 1817, Daniel McHenry, on his rounds, 
found the Gillison family, and established 
preaching at their house. In the new settle- 
ment the necessaries of life were not only 
costly, but hard to obtain. Mrs. Gillison 
had carded, spun and wove a piece of jeans, 
taken it on horseback to Shawneetown, and 
sold it, taking in part pay corn meal at $1 
per bushel, which she brought home, and 
with this fed the circuit preacher's horse on 
his first visit. So glad were many of the 
people to have these messengers of Christ 
make their monthly rounds, that they would 
endure almost any hardship and undergo 
many privations, that they and their children 
might obtain the " Word of Life." To this 
society belonged the Robertses, Fileses, 
Pattens, Gillisons and others. 

In 1820, John Bovee, with his family, re- 
moved to Big Mound Prairie, and found here 
an organized Methodist society, with regular 
circuit preaching at Hugh Stewart's, north 
east quarter of Section 5, Town 2 south, 
Range 7 east, latterly the home of the late 
Rev. John Chambers. The early members 



were Stewarts, Robinsons, Gastons, Bovees 
and Andrew Hall's family. Rev. James A. 
Robinson was born here, and Rev. James M, 
Massey, step-son of Bovee, grew to manhood 
in this settlement. In 1831, the preaching 
was removed to Bovees house, on the south- 
east quarter of the northeast quarter of Sec- 
tion 9, where it remained about five years, 
when it was again removed to the Bovee 
Schoolhouse, southwest quarter of the north 
west quarter of Section 32, in Lamard Town- 
ship, and became the headquarters for 
Methodism for many miles around. About 
1859, as the membership had increased and 
the house would no longer answer the de- 
mands of the congregation, Mt. Olivet 
Church, a substantial log house was built 
about sixty rods west of this place, which 
amply serves the society at the present time. 
The cemetery is still near the schoolhouse. 
Many souls have been converted at this place, 
and among the most prominent revivals were 
those resulting from the protracted meetings 
conducted by Revs. Samuel Walker, C. W. 
Sabine, C. A. Young and Robert D. Ellis. 
Connected with this society at present are 
many good and substantial members, and 
the sabbath school has been in a flourishing 
condition for many years. 

Ebenezer. — In 1819 or 1820, the untiring 
itinerant appeared at Andrew Crews, in Mas- 
sillon Township, and the organization of a 
Methodist society was. shortly afterward ac- 
complished. Among the lirst members were 
Andrew Crews and family. Jonathan Douglas 
and wife, McMackens, Monroes, George Wil- 
son and probably some others. After 1829, 
the place of worship was at Matthew Crews' 
dwelling house for a number of years, and 
this society became the center of the circuit, 
and in fact, the most prominent Methodist 
organization in Wayne County. James 
Crews was the first class leader. In 18 40, 

when the Crows' dwelling house would m 
longer accommodate the increasing congre- 
gations, it was determined to build a church 
house, when Matthew Crews remarked that 
"it must be ready before the next quarterly 
meeting." This declaration gave assurance 
that the work would be done, and a substan- 
tial log house, with two glass windows, a 
large stove (the first in the township), and 
fine, broad plank seats, made bench fashion, 
was erected on the northwest quarter of 
the southwest quarter of Section 31, in Mas- 
sillon Township. 

At this place was also established a ceme- 
tery and a camp ground. The church was 
called " Ebenezer," a name by which the so- 
ciety has been known for the past forty-four 

While R. H. Massey was on the work in 
1865. the society erected a neat, frame 
chapel, 24x36 feet, at, a cost of $1,000. on 
the southeast quarter of the northeast quarter 
of Section 35, Jasper Township (land do- 
nated by John M. Creighton), and this house 
still serves as a temple of worship, where an 
active society still offers up prayer and praise. 
In 1851, under the ministry of Thomas 
Sharp, at the camp ground, a sweeping re- 
vival visited this community. 

The principal revivals at this place since 
that time have attended the labors of Revs. 
Hazen and C. W. Sabine, although there 
has been some revival influence almost every 

Woodland. — As early as 1826, a Methodist 
society was organized at the dwelling of 
John McMackon, northwest quarter of the 
northeast quarter of Section 21, in Jasper 
Township, on the place now owned by Mr. 
G. E. Shank. Among the first members 
were the McMackens, Bradshaws, Douglases, 
and George Wilson. Some of these were 
transferred from the Crews' society. The 



preaching was sometimes at the house of 
Jonathan Douglas. Clinton McMacken, 
James and Thomas Bradshaw were early 
class leaders, and, in fact, five sons of Mrs. 
Ann Bradshaw became leaders at this place. 

An amusing incident occured here, shortly 
after the organization of the society. A 
boy fell asleep, during preaching one day, 
and. dreaming that the hogs were in the 
yard clapped his hands and hollowed, to 
frighten them away, when the preacher, 
mistaking the shout for a conversion, ex- 
pressed great satisfaction that another sinner 
had turned from his evil ways. 

The increase in the congregation at this 
place, had placed the society under the 
necessity of providing larger accommodations. 
In 1843, it was determined to build a church 
house, and the only question agitating the 
brethren was with regard to the location. 
J. J. Bradshaw had offered an acre of ground 
on the northwest corner of the southwest 
quarter of the northwest quarter of Section 
15, when Thomas Bradshaw terminated the 
controversy by proposing that all go to work 
in the morning, with axes and broadaxes. 
Some hesitated for a while, but]by the next 
evening the woods were ringing with the 
sound of axes and falling trees, and Wood- 
land, a neat log church, was completed, which 
serves the congregation as a place of worship 
at the present time, though they greatly 
need, and ought to have a better house for 
the worship of God. 

There have been many revivals of religion 
at this place, and many have found peace 
and rest here, that have entered into their 
great reward. 

Rev. Arthur Bradshaw of the Illinois Con- 
ference entered the itinerancy from this place, 
and Rev. Lewis A. Harper, of the Southern 
Illinois Conference, preached his first sermon 

From information that seems to be reliable, 
we have reason to believe that there was a 
Methodist society in existence at Virden's as 
early as 1830. 

The appointment was supplied from Mt. 
Carmel, at first, and latterly, from Albion 
Circuit. Two camp-grounds were established 
near this place, many years ago, and the 
church has been favored with good revival 
influences, at different times. 

Among the early members, were the Ver- 
dens, Melroses, Robinsons, Scotts, Ewings 
and others. Dr. H. G. Thrall, a talented 
and useful local preacher, and Rev. L. A. 
Harper were probably licensed to preach at 
this place. 

Rev. J. A. Robinson, whose wife was a 
Melrose, from this society entered upon his 
long and useful career as an itinerant minis- 

Many years ago, the society built a log 
church house on the southwest corner of 
the southeast quarter of the northwest 
quarter of Section 24, Town 2 south, Range 
9 east, in Leach Township. The church is 
still flourishing to some extent, and after a 
long course of usefulness, is still in the field, 
but we are unable to give any statement as 
to their numerical strength. The church is 
sometimes known by the names of Scottsville, 
Wabash, and Brushy Prairie. 

We have no means of ascertaining, at pres- 
ent, when the first Methodist organization 
was established in this community, as Wayne 
County formed a part of a large scope of 
country, known as Wabash Circuit, the 
records of which are not now known to be in 
existence, and the records of Fairfield Cir- 
cuit did not commence until 1842. We have 
been able to ascertain, with certainty, that 
there was a society in existence in 1830, at 
Moses Woods' house, in the southwest quar- 
ter of the northwest quarter of Section 30, in 



Leach Township, the place now owDed by 
John L. "Wagner. Preaching was sometimes 
at Sion Harris', where there was' once' quite 
a revival; also at Harlan's. near Beach Bluff, 
and at Andrew Neal's, Benjamin Mabry's and 
Marcus R. Day's. 

The early members were the Woods', Mrs. 
Stanley, Elizabeth Hooper, Frank Day and 
wife, with probably others. Minsey James 
was class leader. Rev. Benjamin S. Mabry, 
from Tennessee united with this society 
about 1840, and was useful in building up 
the church. 

In 1873, a neat, frame church house, 
28x48 feet, was erected at the cross-roads, on 
the northeast corner of the southeast quarter 
of the northeast quarter Section 14, Town- 
ship 2 south. Range 8 east, in Barnhill 
Township. The society has continued to 
prosper since building the church. Revs. 
Sabine, Carter, Owen and Houser's labors 
have been blessed in the conversion of many 
at this place. James H. Hodges was the 
tirst to join the church in the new house, and 
was licensed to preach while a member of 
this society. William Neal was long ago a 
local preacher here. Dr. Homer G. Thrall, 
a local preacher of no mean ability, and a 
thorough Methodist, though a lover of all 
Christians, was a lender in building the new 
church, and died here greatly lamented. 

At a period not later than 1832, a society 
of Methodists was in existence at Lot Greg- 
ory's, in Hickory Hill Township, and still re- 
mains as a distinct organization, although 
the preaching was moved around from place 
to place as convenience or caprice might 
suggest. Sometimes it was at Thomas 
Buck's, William Ellis' or at other places, 
and we presume of late years has been held 
at public schoolhouses. The early members 
were Lot Gregory, "Thomas Buck, William 
Ellis, Albert Brannon, Garrison, William Ir- 

win, Samuel Bradford, Isaac Milner, with 
their wives, and others. 

A new frame church worth about $800 has 
just been erected on the southeast corner 
of the southwest quarter of the northeast 
quarter of Section 28, Township 1 south, 
Range 5 east, in Hickory Hill Township. 
This work has been accomplished chiefly, 
through the labor and perseverance of Mr. 
Thomas Bilbro, who did not live to enjoy 
the anticipated pleasure of having a house of 
God to worship in, but passed away to the 
brighter rest in the church triumphant 

About fifty years ago, we are informed, 
there was a great revival at this place, that 
was so general in its influence that it affected 
the entire community. A man not a mem- 
ber of the church states that it was impossi- 
ble to resist its power; that they got him and 
his young lady friend down at the altar be- 
fore he knew it; that he came very near join- 
ing church in spite of all his efforts to the con- 
trary; and that the power of the meeting 
was so great that it " run the cattle all out 
of the country." Under the labors of Mr. 
Helm, there was also a gracious revival here 
many years ago. 

About 1842, a society in Six Mile Prairie, 
Four Milej Township, was organized, but it 
is now difficult to state what ministers offi- 
ciated at its first organization. Revs. Andrew 
Maulding, John Fox, Williams and F-.'nn 
are known to have labored here in an early 
day, and Thomas Cottingham and Charles 
Coker, local preachers from Hamilton Coun- 
ty, did good service among tho people here. 
Among tho early members of the church were 
the Mauldings, Mrs. Mabry, Mrs. Abbott, S. 
Boyd and wife, Mrs. Hopkins, George Ma- 
bry and family, Mary Wood, Simons, Tyler, 
William Harlan, Walden, with their wives, 
Calvin Schell and others. While John Fox 



was pa6tor, preaching was at an old store- 
house, near Maulding's bridge, a little north 
of the present Wayne City. Meetings were 
also held at Maulding's and Mabry's. There 
was a general revival in this society in an 
early day. so sweeping in its effects that 
most of those for miles around, who were not 
already members of some society, were re- 
ceived on trial in the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. The work in this portion of Wayne 
County was probably supplied by preachers 
on the McLeansboro Circuit. A church 
house is greatly needed in this community, 
and permanent religious prosperity cannot be 
expected without it. 

Middleton, or Long Prairie. — Long Prairie 
Methodist Episcopal Society in Four Mile 
Township; was established in 1S41 or 1842. 
Among the early members were Mary Ander- 
son, Frederic Davis, Andrew Davis, Jabez 
Anderson, James Boswell, Howard, William 
Johnson, with their wives and others. James 
Boswell was class leader. King Allen, Jesse 
Johnson, McKinsey, Hardy, Laird and other 
local preachers labored here. 

About 1860, a good sized frame church 
was built in the village of Middleton, but 
does not seem to have been well constructed, 
and was abandoned in 1875. 

A neat frame chapel, 26x40 feet, was erect- 
ed in 1852, on the southeast quarter j of the 
northeast quarter of Section 9, Township 3 
south, Kange 5 east, where the society of 
eighty members now worship. Rev. R. 
Oliver, of the Middleton Circuit, is the pres- 
ent pastor. 

Frog Island. — The Methodists organized a 
society near the old town of ''New Balti- 
more," in Four Mile Township, previous to 
1844, at the Gray Schoolhouse, nearE. Gray's, 
on Frog Island, which still exists, with a 
membership of twenty or more. Among the 
early members attached to this society were 

Stephen Bradford and family, Mrs. Mauld- 
ing, Mrs. Crouch, Mrs. McMillan, King 
Trotter, John Ballard, Richard Norman, 
AVilliam Miller, with their wives, and prob- 
ably some others. S. Bradford and King 
Trotter were class leaders. 

This little band have struggled on faith- 
fully, through many discouragements, and it 
is to be hoped that a brighter day in the near 
future awaits them. 

More than forty-five years ago, in the 
southern portion of Barnhiil Township, the 
Methodists had a society, and regular circuit 
preaching at Henry Mericle's. The first 
members were H. Mericle (class leader), 
Presly Simpson, William Boze, and their 
wives, Mrs. Conn, Mrs. Bradshaw and some 

Their membership was transferred some 
years since across the line into White 
County, and constitutes in part what is now 
known as Union Church, about two miles east 
of Mill Shoals. There have been some re- 
vivals in the past at this place, but the old 
original members have about all passed away, 
and I do not think there is regular stated 
preaching at the place. A few very worthy 
members hold on to their integrity with un- 
swerving devotion. 

Brush Creek Toivnship. — About 1S50, a 
Methodist society was established at Mathew 
Warren's, in Brush Creek Township. Lat- 
terly, the services were conducted at Mr. 
Phillips' house, and the society had some 
prosperity for a few years, but, I think, is not 
flourishing at present. Among the earlier 
members were Rev. Cook, Anns, Z. Phillips, 
Joseph Phillips. Van Sycles, Borroughs, 
Lovelace, with members of their families, 
and probably some others. 

Probably after the organization at Phillip's, 
fully thirty years ago, a live, active little 
society of Methodists was established at the 



Copeland Schoolhouse in Brush Creek Town- 
ship, and seemed to be in a flourishing con- 
dition at the commencement of the great war, 
when dissensions and divisions occurred which 
almost destroyed its usefulness as a Chris- 
tian body. It is unnecessary to ask how any 
true Methodist stood when his country was 
assailed. The members were Rev. A. C. 
Gonterman and wife, the Sullivans, Irvins, 
Moores, Smothers, and others. Our infor- 
mation has been but meager, and we should 
not court a severe criticism as to dates and 
incidents. Preaching in this portion of 
Wayne County was supplied by the pastors 
of Xenia Circuit. 

About 1842, the local and circuit preach- 
ers established a Methodist society in the 
Buckeye neighborhood, near the northeast 
corner of Laniard Township. At different 
periods, the services were held at Rutger's, 
Swain's, or Hays', according to the conven- 
ience of those most deeply interested. The 
society existed here with varied success until 
after the establishment of Jeffersonville as a 
flourishing village, when John Rutger 
preached the first sermon in David C. Por- 
ter's house, and John E. Taylor is thought 
to have been the first circuit preacher to 
minister to the people of the village, and, 
during a protracted meeting under his labors 
in 1854, a good little revival resulted. 

We are, at present, unable to state who 
were the first members constituting this so- 
ciety, but doubt not, like the present mem- 
bership, they were stalwart to the very core. 

Among the most noted revivals may be 
mentioned those under the labors of Revs. 
Samuel Walker, J. H. Lockwood, Hazen, 
Sabin, Carter, Owen, Baldridge and Young- 
ling. Under the administration of J. C. 
Baldridge, in 1872, a neat and commodious 
frame church, 30x00 feet, was commenced, 
and completed the next year at a cost of 
about $1,800. 

Brother Baldridge preached tho first sermon 
in the new house, and it was dedicated by 
Rev. William Tilroe. 

There are a number of substantial Method- 
ists in connection with this church, and the 
outlook is promising. The parsonage of the 
Jeffersonville Circuit is located at this 
place, and the church property is free from 
debt. The pastors of this circuit since its 
commencement in 1803 have been Revs. 
Hazen, J. P. Rutherford, F. M. Woolard, 
William Tilroe, C. W. Sabine, J. C. Green, 
J. C. Baldridge, R. M. Carter, William M. 
Owen, David Moore, C. J. T. Tolle, J. D. 

Reeder, W. F. Brown, Houser, J. P. 

Youngling, N. Stauffer, and C. D. Lingen- 
filter, the present pastor. 

Methodist preaching was kept up, societies 
established and long maintained at Faurote's 
and Allen's Schoolhouse, near Enterprise, 
for many years, accomplishing some good; 
but on account of deaths, removals and other 
causes, the organization was abandoned some 
years ago. 

The societies established in an early day at 
Gaston's, Capt. John Clark's, Linn Grove 
and Boamer's, have been absorbed by Bethel 
and Fairfield, or scattered by death and re- 

Near Beamer's, two miles south of Fairfield, 
was once a society of about thirty members, 
who commenced and partially completed a 
log church house, but the title to the prop- 
erty proving defective, the enterprise was 

Organ's Schoolhouse. — For many years a 
flourishing society existed at Organ's School - 
house, two and a half miles northeast of 
Fairfield, where great good resulted from the 
labors of tho preachers in that community, 
but it is no longer maintained as a distinct 
organization, its members having been trans- 
ferred to Woodland, Kbenezer and Fairfield. 
The folly of establishing societies in almos 



every school district, thereby dividing their 
strength so as to render them unable to 
build houses of worship, has certainly been 
demonstrated among our people, to an ex- 
tent that ought to teacb them that its repeti- 
tion is a grave mistake. 

Johnsonville Circuit. — Our information is 
somewhat meager concerning the earlier so- 
cieties on this work, and there is no doubt 
much of value that unless gathered soon will 
be lost, even if it is not already too late in 
many instances. 

The early records of Fairfield Circuit meD- 
tion Galbraith's, Hills', Tibbs', Round 
Prairie, Forackre's, Watson's, Baker's, Lib- 
erty Schoolhouse, and probably some other 
places, but lest we should cause confusion in 
attempting to classify them in connection 
with the present appointments of Johnson- 
ville Circuit, we would prefer passing them 
by with the mere mention of their names. 
The following from Rev. Lewis A. Harper, 
the present pastor of the circtiit, in few 
words and very much to the point, contains 
information the most reliable that we have so 
far been able to obtain. 

"The territory now embraced in Johnson- 
ville charge, from the time there was preach- 
ing in it, was included in the Fairfield Cir- 
cuit until the fall of 1858, when the John- 
sonville Circuit was formed, and James I. 
Richardson appointed to the work. Under 
his administration the parsonage was built 
that still stands. In 1859, J. H. Lockwood 
was appointed to the work, and remained two 
years. There was some religious prosperity 
during his term. 

"In 1861, the work was supplied by W. 
F. Massey, who remained till near the close 
of the year, when he enlisted in the United 
States Army. In 1862, J. P. Rutherford was 
appointed. He made some improvements in 
the parsonage property. In 1863, J. \Y. 

Grant was appointed. These being war times, 
and Brother Grant being strongly Union, 
there was some trouble, and but little or no 
revival. In 1864, Anderson Meyers was ap- 
pointed, and the present church at Johnson- 
ville was commenced and nearly finished, at 
a cost of nearly $4,000. 

"In 1865, 'Uncle Jimmy' Johnson was 
appointed, and continued two years. In 
1867, G. W. Brannine was appointed, and 
remained three years. 

" In 1871, N. E. Harmon was appointed, 
and had some revival work. 

" In 1872, R. M. Carter was appointed. 
He had poor health, and there was not much 
done in revival work. In 1873, J. P. Young- 
ling was appointed. During his administra- 
tion, the brick church at Rinard was bought. 
In 1874, William McMorrow was appointed, 
and remained two years, during which time 
there was some revival influence. In 1876, 
L. A. Harper was appointed, and remained 
two years, during which time there was con- 
siderable revival work, the most noted of 
which was a union meeting with Rev. Gaston 
at Mt. Zion, which resulted in about sixty 
conversions. In 1878, A. L. Downey. In 
1879, M. L. King, who remained two years. 
Sixty joined the church during his first year. 
In 1881, W T . R. Bradley was appointed, and 
remained two years, and there was consider- 
able revival work during his term. In 1883, 
L. A. Harper was returned, and is making an 
effort to build a parsonage, which is greatly 

" There are four churches, worth about 
$4,000, and seven appointments, and a mem- 
bership of about 230." 

Mr. Harper further states that: " The first 
meetings in Arrington Prairie by the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church were in 1859, at David 
Baker's house, by Andrew J. Maulding, Israel 
Turner and Jacob O. Feather, then a member 



of our church. About that time, a Meth- 
odist Episcopal class was formed at the old 
Liberty Schoolhouse, in the south part of Ar- 
rington, and continued until L858, when the 
Zion Church was built, northwest corner of 
the northwest quarter of the northwest quar- 
ter of Section 24, Town 1 south, Range 6 
east, on land donated by Esq. John Cisne. 
This church is a frame of some respectabil- 
ity, and has been lately repaired. Among 
the first members were David Baker. Rev. 
Jacob O. Feather, Jacob Baker, Alfred Baker, 
Aaron Graham, with their wives and some 
others. This church is ten miles south of 

"Three miles southwest of Johnsonville 
there is a society of over twenty-five years' 
standing, with preaching first at the houses 
of H. D. and John Taylor, and then at school- 
houses, when they built a log church (south- 
east corner of the southwest quarter of the 
southwest quarter of Section 17, Town 1 
north, Range 6 east), which is called Wesley 
Chapel. This house is one of the regular 
preaching places of this circuit. Among the 
first members were John Taylor, H. D. Tay- 
lor, Nicholas Borders, Joseph Spicor. with 
their wives and others. 

" There is a society three miles southeast 
of Johnsonville, on the Dry Fork, of more 
than twenty-five years' standing, with preach- 
ing for many years at the Watson School- 
house. Eight or nine years ago, a frame 
church east of the Dry Fork was put up, and 
used for some time, but never finished, and 
the preaching is now in a log church, ownod 
by the Baptists. Henry Schell, George 
Cariens, Enoch Greathouse, Elias Holmes, 
their wives and others were early members." 
ML Erie circuit. — We are somewhat at 
a loss, from the fact that we have been un- 
able to obtain adequate information concern- 
ing the early membership of tln> church in 

one of the most interesting fields of labor in 
Wayne County, feeling that an injustice has 
been done to Mt. Erie Circuit, for which no 
one is to blame; and we can only regret that 
our account is not moi - e full in detail of the 
unwritten portion of the history of the church 
in that section. 

From old records, we obtain the names of 
Vandaveor's. Farmer's, Walker's, Ake's, Lo- 
cust Grove, Long Prairie, Bradshaw's and 
Yohe's, which were, doubtless, the nucleus 
from which sprang the towers of greater 
strength, Mt. Erie Church, McKendree Chap- 
el and other modern preaching places. 

The following very concise official account 
has fallen into our hands, which we suppose 
was written by Rev. J. P. Youngling: 

'■ The first society of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church in Mt. Erie Township was or- 
ganized in 1839 or 1840, by Alexander Blake- 
ly, a local preacher. Rev. Guthrie began to 
preach at two or three points in this section. 
The societies until 1854 were served by the 
same pastors as those of Fairfield Circuit. 

"I copy from the records: At the session 
of the Southern Illinois Conference in Sep- 
tember, 1854, the New Massillon Mission 
was formed out of territory formerly belong- 
ing to the Fairfield and Louisville Circuits. 
At its organization, the mission consisted of 
eight appointments, having 144 members 
and sixty -two probationers. It was a part 
of Salem District; J. I. Richardson, P. E., 
and Cavoy Lambert, P. C. A parsonage was 
commenced and so far completed as to be 
occupied by the preacher in the winter. 

" In 1855, Brother Lambert was returned, 
the parsonage debt was nearly paid, needed 
improvements were made and the work was in 
good condition generally. In 1850, the 
mission appropriation of $50 was withdrawn, 
the charge named Mt. Erie Circuit and Rev. 
James M. Massey appointed preacher in 



charge. He was a man of more than ordi- 
nary preaching ability. 

" During the year 1856, the present church 
building was put under contract, but not en- 
closed until the spring of 1857. In 1857,' 
Rev. R. H. Massey was appointed P. C. 
The church was dedicated October 3, 1858, 
by Rev. J. M. Massey. It is a frame build- 
ing and cost $1,300. The following preach- 
ers then successively served the charge: J. 
H. Lockwood, J. I. Richardson. R. H. Mas- 
sey, who was appointed Chaplain of the 
Fortieth Illinois Regiment, and "Wilbur F. 
Massey supplied the charge until the next 
session of the conference. (W. F. Massey 
died a prisoner of war in the pen at Ander- 
sonville, Ga.) 

" In 1862, the Mt. Erie and Flora Circuits 
were united, and Rev. Cavey Lambert ap- 
pointed P. C. The next year Mt. Erie and 
Flora Circuits were restored to their original 
bounds, and Rev. C. Lambert was appointed 
to Mi Erie. Brother L. was succeeded by 
Rev. Calvin Gibbs, and in 1866, Rev. O. Bru- 
nei - was appointed. 

"In 1868, Rev. John Thatcher was ap- 
pointed to the Mt. Erie and Clay City Cir- 
cuits. He died March 3, 1869. The work 
was then divided, and Rev. M. L. King was 
placed in charge of Clay City, and Rev. 
Richard Thatcher at Mt Erie. 

" In the fall of 1869, Brother King was ap- 
pointed toMt. Erie; 1870 to 1873, J. C. Bal- 
dridge; 1873 to 1876, J. B. Ravenscroft; 1S76 
to 1879, Caleb D. Lingenfelter; 1879 to 
1880, V. D. Lingenfelter; 1880, William 
Tilroe; 1881-82, J. P. Youngling; 1883, J. 
D. Reeder, the present pastor. 

" There are, at present, five regular ap- 
pointments, with occasional "preaching at 
two others. There are five Sabbath schools, 
doing good work. The society three and one- 
half miles southeast of here have a comfort- 

able church house. The other societies are 
worshiping in schoolhouses at present. But 
one church house will be erected this year, 
and others, we think, will be in the near 

In addition to the above account, we have 
learned that McKendree Chapel, a good 
frame house, 26x40 feet, situated on the 
northeast quarter of the northwest quarter of 
Section 33, in Mt. Erie Township, and cost 
ing $1,350, was erected in 1876, and dedi 
cated, free from debt, by Dr. J. W. Locke 
The Trustees were W. H. Portertield, A. L 
Wall, James Bradshaw, W. H. Wells, J. F 
Troyer and Albert Vandaveer. 

In 1849, under the ministry of Rev. James 
Johnson, there was a great revival in this 
neighborhood at Ake's Grove. In 1877, 
Rev. C. D. Lingenfelter conducted a revival 
meeting at McKendree Chapel, during which 
sixty- five persons were converted. 

In 1881, during the service of Rev. J. P. 
Youngling, fifty people were converted at 
the same place. 

In the vicinity of the places formerly 
known in the old church records as " West's 
Schoolhouse " and " Massillon," a new frame 
church house, 26x40 feet, on the southwest 
quarter of the northwest quarter of Section 
10, Massillon Township, is now under con- 
struction, to be known as the West M. E. 
Church. Mrs. Salina West, widow of the 
late Mr. Wayne West, died in 1865, leaving 
forty acres of land for the purpose of erect- 
ing this chapel. The land has been sold, 
and through the liberal contributions of a 
generous public, in addition to the bequest, 
a small society, with a flourishing Sunday 
school and good prospects, will soon have a 
good house of worship, where it is greatly 
needed. We suspect that through the energy 
of A. L. Wall, Esq., and others, this work 
has been greatly facilitated. The Trustees 



of this property are W. V. Goodall, Sylves- 
ter I'rice, John R. Trover, A. L. Wall, Yan 
E. Price and W. E. Allison. 

Zif Township. — In JS87. "Aunt Hannah 
Husselton," like Barbara Heck, went in quest 
of a preacher, when J. I. Richardson came 
and preached at her house on his last round. 
Rev. John Fox was the next preacher, and 
organized a society there. The early mem- 
bers were Mrs. Husselton, John Williams, 
Thomas G. Williams, John H. Hill, James 
Cochran, John Husselton, and their wives. 
J. H. Hill was class leader. Preaching was 
sometimes at the dwellings of Hill and the 
Williams. The appointment was known as 
"' Williams," but is now known as the Grove 
Creek Schoolhouse. Rev. J. C. Williams is 
a member of this society. 

Rev. John H. Hill entered upon his long 
and useful career as an itinerant minister 
from this place. The society is at present 
connected with the Mt. Erie Circuit. Previ- 
ous to the establishment of the Williams So- 
ciety there was a Methodist organization at 
Isaac Creeks, with regular circuit preaching. 
The pioneer members were Creek and Jordan 
C. ■ Patterson, with their wives and other 
members of their families. Patterson was a 
useful local preacher. John Husselton and 
his wife died here. Preaching was afterward 
held at Mrs. Humes, who was also a mem- 
ber, and then at the Patterson Schoolhouse, 
until a neat chapel was erected in the neigh- 

Circuit preaching in Zif Township must 
have been supplied from the old Maysville 
Circuit, as these societies were established 
prior to the organization of either the New 
Massillon Mission or the Mt. Erie Circuit, and 
they nowhere appear on the Fairfioldrecords, 
which commence in 1842. The society is 
now in connection with the Mt. Erie Circuit. 

Camp-meetings. — Realizing fully how in- 

complete this account would be without it, 
we will digress, at this point, to give a brief 
sketch of the early camp-meetings of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church in Wayne 
County, in which strong men often partici- 
pated, and where many precious souls were 

After considerable labor and inquiry, we 
believe the dates attached to each may be 
relied on with considerable certainty, although 
there are, doubtless, many incidents of inter- 
est, which have long since passed from the 
memory of living men. 

This manner of conducting public worship 
in the early days of the church in the West, 
when people would travel long distances on 
foot, on horses or in ox-carts, to worship 
God, when the country was little less than a 
"waste, a howling wilderness," was almost a 
necessity, as no houses in the country, at that 
time, were large enough to contain the as- 
sembled throngs; such congregations would 
not, at the present time, be considered large, 
but then, when the nearest neighbors were 
ofteu miles apart, a few hundred people were 
considered a very large assemblage. 

From Uncle George Meritt, who certainly 
deserves to be classed as the "oldest inhabi- 
tant," and among the very first pioneers, we 
learn that " The first camp-meeting in Wayne 
County was held by the Methodists in May, 
1818, conducted by Charles Slocumb, Zadoc 
Casey, John Slocumb and Archibald Roberts. 

" Tho meeting was hold at what was then, 
and is yet known as the Meritt Springs, in 
the southwest corner of Leech Township." 

We visited this ground a few days since 
in order to definitely locate it, before those 
knowing its situation should all pass away. 
The place of encampment is now a cultivated 
field, and the springs are still flowing, but 
much neglected. 

At or very near the southeast corner of the 



southwest quarter uf the southwest quarter 
of Section 7, Town 3 south, Range 9 east, on 
the spot where Ales Stewart's house now 
stands, was the place of the encampment. 
About forty paces ] to the east of this house, 
on the brow of a small hill, in the field, 
stands, at present, a large, black gum stump, 
from which the tree has been recently cut, 
and, under the shade of which, facing west, 
or south of west, was erected a stand, from 
which, more than sixty-five years ago, Charles 
Slocumb, Zadoc Casey, men of giant minds, 
with others, proclaimed the word of life and 
salvation to the assembled pioneers; and 
grand results were attained on the occasion, 
as many obtained the " Pearl of great price." 

It is no disparagement to Gov. Casey, 
though a great and talented preacher, to say, 
that he was not by any one regarded as the 
peer of the eloquent and inimitable Slocumb. 

This most sacred spot is now a part of the 
domain of our truly worthy friend, Esquire 
Nathan Meritt. The springs thirty or forty 
rods to the southeast, on Section 18, are on 
the estate of Mr. Charles Winzenberger. 

South of the Meritt camp -ground one and 
one-fourth miles, and east of Burnt Prairie, 
was the Patten camp-ground, where the same 
preachers, in connection with some others, 
conducted a meeting in 1822. Meetings 
were kept up here for a number of years, 
and great good was evidently accomplished, 
as this means of gathering the people to- 
gether was continued, until houses of wor- 
ship were built of sufficient capacity to ac- 
commodate the multitude. Circumstances 
strongly indicate that the meeting about 
which Dr. William Beauchamp writes, and 
mentioned in Bangs history, occurred on this 

At these early meetings, though denomi- 
national in their character, the Cumberland 
Presbyterians and Methodists usually united 

in bearing the burdens for the occasion and 
the labors of the altar; sometimes Methodists, 
at others, Presbyterian; their denominational 
features were only determined by the minis- 
ters in charge. 

In the summer of 1827, and for some years 
afterward, the Methodists held a camp-meet- 
ing near a spring, on the Porter place, one 
and one-half miles northeast of Fairfield, 
under the charge of Jacob Delap, the pastor. 
James M. Massey first exhorted here. It was 
here that Charles Slocumb preached the 
funeral of John Barnhill and his wife. There 
were many converts and a great stir on the 
occasion. Daniel McHenry and Archy Rob- 
erts were active at this meeting. 

Coming to this meeting, John Y. Brad- 
shaw, then a boy, was driving an ox team, 
when approaching the creek the thirsty oxen 
suddenly made a dash for the water, upset- 
ting the cart, and turning the box upside 
down, with old Mrs. B. and the camp provi- 
sions on the under side. 

A vessel of honey was spilled on Mrs. B., 
when she hollowed lustily for dear life, de- 
claring that she was already killed dead, 
mashed flat, every bone in her body crushed 
into splinters, and that she was all covered 
with blood. When released, unhurt, she 
seemed greatly disappointed at finding no 
real blood, and left in high dudgeon, saying 
it was an unpardonable sin to attend a Meth- 
odist meeting anyhow, and that this was a 
judgment sent on her for so doing. She was 
never afterward seen in an ox cart riding to 
a Methodist camp-meeting. 

In 1835, a Methodist camp-ground was es- 
tablished, and continued for some years after- 
ward, as such, on the Jonathan Douglas 
place, one and one-half miles west of south 
of the Grinnell Pond, where the old ceme- 
tery yet remains. Among the ministers pres- 
ent were Charles Slocumb, B. F. Kavanaugh, 



Thomas Hinds. James Crews and John 
Thatcher, then a young man on his way to 
Missouri. By some means, Brother Thatcher 
was regarded with suspicion, being an entire 
stranger, and so unministerial in his personal 
appearance. With what very different feel- 
ings and emotions did many of these same 
people regard him, when, after the lapse of 
nearly thirty years this truly wonderful man 
became their devoted pastor. 

A groat work was accomplished at the first 
meeting, and among the converts was a lad 
fifteen years of age, who afterward was aud 
is now known as Col. Warren E. McMackin, 
of Salem. 

About 1S38, the Methodists held a camp- 
meeting about two miles north of Scottsville, 
in the eastern portion of Wayne County. 
The encampment was afterward'made about 
one-half mile west of that village, where 
similar meetings were conducted for some 
years. "We know nothing definite concerning 
the outcome of these meetings, nor who were 
present as ministers. It is, however, not 
probable that camp-meetings were maintained 
here for a series of years, without some good 
being accomplished. Circumstances strongly 
indicate that Methodist preaching was es- 
tablished in this community at an earlier 
period than we have been in the habit of 
placing it. The Mt. Carmel Circuit preacher, 
in 1820, had a preaching place in Wayne 
County; and as the territory east of the Lit- 
tle Wabash was connected with that circuit, 
it is probable that this is the place. 

In 1S44, the Methodists commenced^hold- 
ing camp-meetings at the Mathew Crews en- 
campment, where the old Ebenezer Church 
stood, in the southwest corner of Massillon 
Township. These meetings were maintained 
for about eight years, and this place became 
somewhat noted as a Methodist center. There 
were some sweeping revivals here, by which 

great and lasting good was accomplished. 
It was said to be a custom with Mathew 
Crews, when people came from a distance to 
attend these meetings, to show them his past- 
ures, his corn, hay and oats, and toll them 
that all were free, and to help themselves. 

About thirty years ago, a camp-meeting 
was conducted by the Methodists, one mile 
and a half southwest of Middleton, in Four 
Mile Township, on the land of Richard Jen- 
kins, but we have been unable to ascertain 
any facts concerning it, except that Bev. 
Thomas Casey was a prominent factor dur- 
ing the progress of the meeting. 

There was a camp-meeting hold about one 
mile north of the town of Middleton, shortly 
after the war, but our information concerning 
this, is even more meager than that of the first 

These short accounts cover all the camp- 
meetings, conducted by the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church in Wayne County, so far as we 
have been able to learn. 

After his return from the Black Hawk war, 
in 1S32, Mr. Hugh Stewart removed to Fair- 
field, and as a consequence, regular circuit 
preaching was commenced, and has been 
mantained to the present time. There may 
have been a society, and Methodist preaching 
in the village before tho coming of Mr. S. 
but, unless possessed of more definite infor- 
mation on the subject, we should hesitate to 
state this as a fact. 

The town seems to have been largely 
given over to hardness, whisky drinking, 
fighting, gambling, and even worse things 
were prevalont, and but little attempt was 
made to conceal the dominant wickedness of 
the place. Mr. Stewart entertained preach- 
ing at his ijwn residence, often supporting 
the quarterly conference, laboring and trust- 
ing, with a persistent courage, amidst em- 
barrassments, that would have made a less 



stout-hearted men quail, until a few addi- 
tional members wore added to their little 
band. Jonathan Douglass, living five miles 
in the country, came into the town regularly, 
and attended to the duties of class leader. 
An attempt was made to build a church 
house, and a log pen was raised for that pur- 
pose, but they were unable to finish it, and 
the enterprise was abandoned. Preaching 
was, for a time conducted in the court house, | 
and there were a few additions there, among 
whom we may mention Mr. John Wilson, but 
there came into office, men " dressed in a 
little brief authority," who were so indignant 
at the public building being desecrated by 
Gospel preaching, that the little band had to 
seek quarters, elsewhere. Mr. Stewart held 
to his purpose with such heroic constancy, 
that he may justly, under Divine Providence, 
be regarded as the Fattier of Methodism, in 
Fairfield. He has long since passed to his 
reward, but his memory is held in reverence 
by the few now living, who knew him, and, 
although he did not live to see the triumph 
of his work here, could he but come to Fair- 
field to-day, and see six good Christian 
church houses, each with a respectable hold- 
ing, the saloons banished, iniquity driven to 
dark corners, and Christ triumphant, his soul 
would be satisfied. 

"Sow iu the morn thy seed ; 
At eve, hold not thy hand ; 
To doubt and fear give thou no heed, 
Broadcast it o'er the land." 

In 1832, the Illinois Conference established 
what was then called Fairfield Circuit, with 
James Hadley as pastor. We think his wife 
died here. Of the bounds of the work, at 
that time, we have no record; but the next 
year, it was again merged into the Wabash 
Circuit, and so remained until 1842, when 
Fairfield again appears on the minutes, and 
has so continued to the present time. Fair- 

field charge in 1842, embraced all the terri- 
tory lying between the Skillet Fork and 
Little Wabash Rivers, to the north line of 
Wayne County, with, probably the exception 
of two societies in Zif Township and some 
in the west part of the county. Out of this 
territory have since been formed Fairfield 
Station, Jeffersonville, Johnsonville, Mt. 
Erie and Liberty (Burnt Prairiel Circuits. 

Robert E. Guthrie was appointed the first 
pastor of the new Fairfield Circuit, and Bar- 
ton Rande was Presiding Elder. Extensive 
revivals prevailed this year, and " Guthries 
revivals " are often spoken of by old citizens. 
During one of these meetings some young 
men were playing cards, in the woods near 
by, at night, when a meteor passed over, 
which, they thought, dropped close by them. 
They ran for the meeting with all the power 
that was left in them, and prayed and bel- 
lowed with their might, as though his brim- 
stone majesty had them already in his 
clutches. It was but a short time, however, 
until their pristine bravery returned, and 
they had no more use for meetings, until a 
tornado or something else should come along 
and give them another fright. In 1843, James 
M. Massey was pastor. He was a grand 
man, a workman indeed who passed to his 
reward in 1859. 

In lS44,Ephraim Joy, PC; John Van Cleve, 
P. E. 1845, Daniel Fairbanks. 1846, T. C. 
Lopas, a gifted but eccentric man, who never 
married. 1847, Jacob E. Reed. P. C. ; W. K 
Taylor, P. E. ; Thomas Parker. A. P. 1848-49, 
James Johnson. 1850, James Haley. 1851, 
Moses Shepherd, P. C, ; W. W. Mitchel, P. 
E. 1852, Hiram Sears. 1853, Thomas 
Sharp, P. O; J. I. Richardson, P. E. ; John 
Wilson was elected Recording Steward this 
year, which position he has filled to the pres- 
ent time. 1854, James Knapp. 1855-56, 
John Gilham. 1857, Wesley Williams and 



John E. Taylor; G. W. Robbins, P. E. 
1858-59. Samuel Walker, P. C; William 
Cliffe. P. E. 1860, S. E. Willing and James 
Burke. 1861, John H. Lookwood. 1862, 
John Thatcher and William M. Owen; T. F. 
Houts, P. E. 1863, James A. Thrapp. 1864, 
Richard H. Massey. 1S65, Fairfield was made 
a station and R. H. Massey, preacher in 
charge. 1866, R. H. Massey." 1'. C; C. J. 
Houts, P. E. 1867, James Johnson, P. C. : 
Z. S. Clifford, P. E. 1868, William B. 
Bruner. I860, J. S. Barnes. 1870-71, 
Simon P. Groves; R. H. Massey, P. E. 
1872, Calvin Gibbs. 1873-74, John H. Hill, 
William F. Davis, P. E. 1875, •>. A. Baird; 
John Leeper, P. E. 1876-77. Caloway Nash. 
1878, James L. Wallar. 1879-81, William 
F. Davis, P. C; Owen H. Clark, P. E. 
1882-83, Milo N. Powers, the present 

For convenience, we have thought it best 
to give the chronological order of the pas- 
tors without disturbance, and recur again to 
the records, traditions and oral testimonies 
for a brief account of incidents that trans- 
pired from time to time. It must bo remem- 
bered that ever since Fairfield became the 
head of a circuit, pastors and people lived on 
a more meager allowance than would now bo 
deemed necessary for the ordinary day-labor- 
er's family's support. The preacher's disci- 
plinary allowance was $1(10 a year, with a like 
sum for his wife and a small stipend for each 
child under fourteen sears of age. To this 
was added by the "estimating commit- 
tee " whatever sum was thought necessary 
for feeding the preacher's family and horse, 
fuel, etc., and this last was denominated 
" table expenses." The committee, in 1851, 
reported $70 as table expenses for Moses 
Shepherd and family. At a later time, when 
$140 were reported for John Gilham, he 
stated that it was more than was necessary. 

so it was reduced to $128. In 1843, the fol- 
lowing, which may appear unique to some, 
was passed by the Quarterly Conference: 
" Resolved, That the stewards of this circuit 
be appointed a committee, to solicit and col- 
lect cattle, for the purpose of purchasing a 
horse for the preacher in charge." The sub- 
ject was up again, and it is supposed Brother 
Guthrie obtained a horse, for in those days 
" trade and barter " was the rule, and as 
money was almost out of the question, the 
preacher took in paymeut anything that him- 
self and family stood in need of. 

At the first Quarterly Conference this year, 
the public collection amounted to $1.52$, and 
the entire sum in cash, gathered from the 
seventeen appointments, footed up $5.62$, 
and the cash receipts for the year for Elder 
Randall and the pastor was $87.85^. 

At a little later period, as an evidence of 
the improvement in the times and more lib- 
eral ideas among the people, while Elder 
Van Cleve and Rev. Joy were conducting 
the meeting, the public collection amounted 
to $2, even. 

James M. Massey's regular appointments, 
besides occasional preaching places, in 1843, 
were Fairfield, Bovee's, Hay's, Thomas Brad- 
shaw's. Harris', Massillon, Ebenozer.Mabry's, 
Wood's. Stewart's. Hutchcraft's, Staley, W. 
W. George's, Powles', Gillison's, Harnil- 
ton's, New Schoolhouse, N. Harlan's, G. 
Bradshaw's, Capt. Clark's. Gaston's and 
Reed's; involving not less than 300 miles 
travel each month. In some instances two of 
these may have been classes in the same ap- 

Ebenezer, a log house, was the only 
Methodist Episcopal Church house on the 
circuit. In 1850, a Board of Trustees was 
appointed for a church house to be built in 
Fairfield. In 1851, under the pastorate of 
Rev. Moses Shepherd, the frame church 



house, 32x45 feet, was contracted at $700, 
and commenced. 

In 1S52, John Gillison, the most active 
member of the first society in Wayne Coun- 
ty, passed away. At the Second Conference 
in 1853, [Rev. Hiram Sears reported that 
" Ninety have joined the church since con- 
ference; eleven by letter, and seventy-nine 
on probation; seventy-five have professed re- 
ligion; three have been expelled for drani- 
drinking; two have been received into full 
connection, and one died and gone to 

This year, we find the names Galbraith's, 
Farmer's Schoolhouse, Locust Grove. Shaw's, 
White's, Sampson's, Hill's and Enterprise as 
preaching places, or classes. In 1854, 
Thomas Sharp, at the Third Conference re- 
ported 101 received on probation. In 1855, 
the members in the societies were — Fairfield, 
44; Bovee's, 20; Tibbs', 4; Hill's, 8; Jeffer- 
sonville, 5; Faurote's, 11; Organ, 4'2; Ebe- 
nezer, 42; Woodland, 54; George's, 10; 
Craven's, 4; Staley's, 4; Mabry's, 35; in 
all, 287. 

A number of appointments had been at- 
tached to other circuits. Jonathan Douglas, a 
very prince among class leaders, died this year. 
John M. Walden was at this time a local 
preacher at Fairfield. The class leaders were 
Charles Sibley, John Chambers, Israel For- 
acre, Ellis Evans, William Rutger, Clinton 
McMacken, Daniel Creighton, F. George, 
David Staley, William Sampson and J. Mon- 
roe. In 1856, according to the records, the 
preacher's claim was apportioned for the 
first time, among the classes, which secured 
more satisfactory collections. At the same 
time, the conference "approved the action of 
the board of trustees of the church in Fair- 
field, in borrowing money, to save the house 
from being sold," and $117 was contributed 
at the same time by persons present. The 

records do not show when this church had 
been completed. 

In I860, Samuel Walker reported over two 
hundred accessions to the church. George 
Clinton McMacken, a sweet singer in Israel, 
died this year. John M. Creighton was ap- 
pointed a steward this year, and from this 
time until his triumphant death, the finances 
of the church were looked after in a more 
business-like manner. The exhorters at this 
time were Lewis H. Baker, John Russell, 
G. Bradshaw— W. C. Borah, O. G. Trussell, 
R. D. Ellis, C. A. Young, J. W. Wheeler, and 
J. Miligan. Early in 1861, Brother Willing's 
health failed and James Burke was appointed 
to supply his place. In 1S64 the parsonage 
question was agitated, the final result of 
which was the purchase of the house now used 
for that purpose. 

We will state here, lest the matter be for- 
ever lost, that many years ago, a man named 
Owen, donated the lot where F. M. Woolard's 
barn now stands, to the M. E. Church. On 
this was a shanty of some kind, fit for no one 
but a Methodist preacher to live in. There 
is a tradition that James Hadley lived in 
this shanty when his wife died. The lot was 
sold by the church. 

Fairfield Station — In 1865, at the annual 
conference at Olney, Fairfield was made a 
station, and at the first quarterly conference, 
January 6, 1866, the official board consisted 
of Christopher J. Houts, P. E. ; R. H. Massey, 
P. C. ; David Campbell. William M. Owen, 
J. G. McCoy, M. W. Collins, and Fayette 
Turney, local preachers ; O. G. Trussell, ex- 
horter ; John Wilson, W. M. Owen, F. 
George, Dr. D. Adams, R. Schell, T. T. 
Bonham and E. C. Owen, stewards; Charles 
Sibley, and Francis George, class leaders, 
and C. Sibley, Sabbath School Superintend- 

•This year, a centenary fund of $180, and 

g/?t>VL-+<- ol* S^t^y^- 



$10 for church extension was raised. For 
bell, repairs on church, and parsonage, $837 
were contributed, besides the regular church 

In 1872. Mrs. Nancy Gillison, an old 
veteran passed away. 

During the pastorate of Rev. Calvin 
Gibbs, the question of church building was 
agitated, and. near the close of the year, at 
aD official meeting, Dr. John L. Handley 
presented the following: " Resolved, that we 
build a new Methodist Episcopal Church in 

A committee was instructed to secure Lot 
No. 58, for which $650 was paid. 

In 1874, the board reported the sale of 
the old church for $1,000, reserving its use 
for two years, also, retaining the seats, which 
were finally placed in the basement of the 
new church. 

In 1875, John Wilson, John L. Handley, 

E. Bonham, Dr. C. W. Sibley, A. H. Baker, 
G. J. George, R. D. Adams, S. M. Staler and 

F. M. Woolard, were elected trustees of 
church property. Mrs. Esther Harper, 
mother of Rev. L. A. Harper, died this year, 
at a great age, having served her Master 
from childhood. 

March 1, 1875, a contract was entered 
into with John Barlow, of Olney, and Wells 
T. Clark, of Fairfield, for the construction 
of a brick church, 101x45 feet wide, accord- 
ing to plans and specifications, furnished by 
Barlow, for $9,455. Darling & Ford con- 
structed the brick work for contractors. 

It was then determined to put on a slate 
roof at an additional cost of $350, and this, 
with the cost of the bell, $325, organ, 
$300, chandeliers. $225, furniture, $75, car- 
pets and matting, $105, with some minor 
expenditures, brought the entire cost up 
to $11,577. 

On June 16, 1876, the new church was 

dedicated by Bishop Thomas Bowman, on 
which occasion over $4,000 was subscribed 
for the liquidation of claims. A large por- 
tion of this subscription, however, was never 
realized, and a debt hung over the church 
until the summer of 1883, when, by heroic 
efforts, the last dollar of indebtedness 
against Fairfield Methodist Episcopal 
Church property, amounting, principal and 
interest, to $2,350 was paid. 

The first substantial revival in Fairfield, 
was under the labors of Elder Cliffe and 
Samuel Walker. In 1864, through the 
labors of R. H. Massey, there occurred a 
good revival among the Sabbath School 

In 1869. under the labors of W. B. Bru- 
ner, there was manifested general seriousness 
in the congregation, which, by the Sabbath 
School Convention, immediately following, 
was turned into earnest inquiry, and cnlmi 
nated in a grand work under J. S. Barnes, 
when about 120 were converted. S. P. 
Groves and J. A. Baird, also had revivals. 
In 1880, through the labors of W. F. Davis, 
assisted by Thomas Massey, there was a re- 
vival in the new church, in which 170 were 

As a matter of fact, seldom equaled, we 
are prepared to state, that, of eighty-seven 
pastors and elders, having the oversight of 
this work since 1816, Mrs. Francis George 
has known eighty-six of them, while John 
Harris, the first one, doubtless, visited her 
father's (John Gillison) house, in her early 
childhood. Some of the early preachers she 
knew in later years. 

Among the local preachers who have la- 
bored in Wayne County, we have secured the 
names of Archibald Huberts, Andrew Mauld- 
ing, James Crews, Benjamin S. Mabry, Amos 
Phelps, Jacob O. Feather, John Rutger, 
William Rutger, Robert H. Ellis, Robert D. 




Ellis, William M. Owen, Asa B. Owen, John 

Chambers, Carr. George Swain, 

Price, Elliott Robberts, Greenup Bradshaw, 
Cephas A. Young, Joseph , Winchester, Dr. 
William Johnson, Johnson Monroe, Abraham 
Johnson, John M. Waklen, David Moore, Sr., 
David Campbell, Minsey James, William 
West, Thomas Mason, Thomas Cottingham, 
James Sloatt, Dr. Alex Jessup, David Koontz, 
Joseph Cook, William Neal, J. C. Williams, 
S. H. Williams, Jourdan C. Patterson, Stan- 
ford Ing, C. McKelvey, John Griffith, Joe 
Helm, G. G. Helm, William C. Borah, Ed- 
ward Ulm, Dr. J. B. Hall, David Moore, Jr., 

Dr. J. S. Miligan, Dr. H. C. Thrall, 

Jaggers, F. M. Woolard, Dr. E. West, Dr. 
A. C. Gonterman, John Cook, W. F. Massey, 
J. H. Hodges, Fayette Turney, Dr. J. G. 
McCoy, M. W. Collins, Alex Blakely, Fur- 
ney Stanley, Israel Turner. Dr. George Camp, 
Charles Coker, William Smith. 

There are, doubtless, others whose names 
we have been unable to obtain. 

In addition to the list of local preachers, 
the following have entered the traveling con- 
nection from this coiinty: James M. Massej*, 
Arthur Bradshaw, Thomas Parker, James A. 
Robinson, John H. Hill, Lewis A. Harper, 
Charles E. Creighton, James A. Baird, Will- 
iam M. Owen, Fayette Turney, David Moore 
and possibly others. 

Feeling that this work would be incom- 
plete without some further allusion to that 
most wonderfully gifted man, Charles Slo- 
cumb, and fully realizing our inability to do 
full justice to the subject, we can only hope 
to so far rescue his memory from the oblivion 
into which it is fast falling, as to preserve 
some facts worthy of the attention of the 
future historian, that will enable him, who- 
ever he may be, to present a character sketch 
befitting this truly great man. We have been 
driven to the conclusion that he scarcely had 

an equal as a preacher in the West, and it is 
doubtful whether his superior exists there to- 
day. However strange these statements may 
appear, they are based upon the fact that 
when he stood beside men of such recognized 
ability as William Beauchamp, S. H. Thomp- 
son, Hooper Crews, Zadoc Casey and John 
Van Cleve, he was regarded as surpassing 
them all in eloquence, and it was no uncom- 
mon thing for some of these men to put Slo- 
cumb forward on occasions where it would 
have been considered almost presumptuous 
for them to preach when he was present. 

Again, we have conversed with men of in- 
telligence who knew Slocumb well; men who 
have kept pace with the times, and have 
heard some of the most eloquent men of the 
church or State, and they all, without a sin- 
gle exception, unite in the opinion that he 
was not equaled by any of them as an orator. 

Charles Slocumb was born in Kentucky 
(probably Union Count}*) in the latter part of 
the eighteenth century, and came with his 
parents to White County, 111., in 1812, where 
he entered Gen. Hirgrave's rangers against 
the Indians in 1814. He was converted, it 
is thought, in 1815, in White County, and 
joined the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
commenced preaching immediately, as we 
find him on Vincennes Circuit in 1816. We 
traveled, in connection with the annual con- 
ference, some eight or ten years, at different 
times In his person he was tall and erect, 
magisterial in his bearing, and presented the 
appearance of one born to lead men. He 
was of dark complexion, with dark hair and 
fascinating black eyes, and possessed a mag- 
netic influence that won all hearts that came 
in contact with him, and retained their con- 
fidence to the last. " As true as Slocumb's 
preaching." became a by- word, when men 
wished to add force to any assertion they 
had made. 



In reading the Scriptures or lining the 
hymns, his emphasis was natural, and it 
was done with such elegance and grace that 
the true force and poetic meaning were im- 
pressed upon his hearers. His gestures were 
easy and graceful, and so true to nature that 
they were said to almost speak, and greatly 
contribute to the interest of his wonderful 
displays of eloquence. His voice was sonor- 
ous, possessing great scope and capable of 
great endurance. In prayer, he was compre- 
hensive, earnest and reverent, ; with no as- 
sumed adulation of the Deity that he did 
not feel ; no attempt at personal display ; nor 
did he presume upon God's ignorance by ; 
telling him of things that he did not already 
know. In his preaching he was solemn, pro- 
found, deeply experimental and practical. 

His eloquence was always powerful, some- 
times almost irresistible, and in its effects 
upon his hearers, learned and unlearned 
alike, was truly wonderful. He challenged 
the intelligence of his audience, and spoke 
as one commissioned by the Great Kin«\ 
failing not to bring a message of peace and 
love. Men totally indifferent to the preach- 
ing of others would, as if bound by some 
unseen hand or magic spell, hang upon the 
words of Charles Siocumb with a rapt atten- 
tion that made them oblivious of all that was 
passing around them; and often, without 
seeming consciousness of the fact, would 
stand leaning forward, as if fearful that 
some of his words would bo lost. So pure 
was his life, and so upright his walk, that he 
won the hearts of men, even those who re- 
garded not his teaching. 

His religious impressions were of the 
deepest cast, and of that intense character 
that fixed them as settled facts in his mind 
and heart, and were so indelibly stamped 
upon his life, that their influence was felt by 
all who came into his presence. If men were 

boisterous and hilarious before, thej became 
hushed and quiet, as he passed along. If 
riotous and threatening, a motion of his 
hand, or a word of admonition from Charles 
Siocumb, would calm the raging sea of pas- 
sion. But, in the midst of his career of 
great usefulness, in the prime of life, as it 
were, he was stricken down by the fell de- 
stroyer in 1844, and his ashes repose on his 
old homestead in Concord, White County. 
With his life-loug friend, Rev. John Shrader, 
he had arranged that when one of them 
should die, the other should preach his 
funeral, and Shrader came from Indiana on 
the occasion, and attended to the last sad 
rites of his lamented friend. It was re 
marked of him at the time of his death, that 
" the sword ivas too sharp for lite scabbard." 
To many it was a matter of wonder why one 
so greatly useful in the world, should be 
called away so early by an overruling Provi- 
dence. It may be answered that " death 
loves a shining mark," and that Charles Sio- 
cumb was fully ripe for the kingdom, and it 
was not meet that he should longer tarry, or 
remain away from his Master's abode. 

His family have all passed away, and are, 
doubtless, with him, enjoying a rich reward 
and brighter rest above. His life, like a 
celestial meteor, shown with brilliancy upon 
all the surrounding horrizon: 

■• He sleeps the sleep of the just." 

Regular Baptist Church.*— In attempting 
to write the history of this church in this 
county, we have had to encounter several ob- 
stacles, among which is the loss or want of 
sufficient church records, and the treachery 
of memory in the older persons. If this 
sketch should fail to come up to what some 
might desire they must attribute the failure 
to the want of sufficient facts on which to 

•John Keene, .Jr. 



base it, and not for want "of a desire on the 
part of the writer to do them justice. 

The earliest organization of the Baptist 
Church in this county which we have been 
able to gather, was at what was then and still 
is known as Hopewell, in the southern part 
of Barnhill Township. This church was or- 
ganized August 5, 1820, by Elders William 
Hanks and Benjamin Keith. The persons 
entering: into this organization at that time 
were James Bird, Snsan Bird, William Wad- 
kins, Polly Wadkins, Stephen Coonrod, John 
Coonrod, Anna Blissett and Naomi Close, all 
of whom most likely have long since passed 
away. The church record from which we 
gather these facts, after giving the organiza- 
tion, articles of faith, and rules of decorum, 
makes a skip of some twenty years, that is 
from 1820 to 1840, and this interval we are 
unable to supply, except from what few stray 
items we have been able to gather from per- 
sons who were living here at that time. We 
presume this congregation had no house of 
worship at the date of their organization, as 
we find in their record at the time of their 
organization this entry: "Done at the place 
of George Close's, Wayne County and State 
of Illinois." They afterward, however, but 
at what date we do not know, erected a house 
of worship. As to who their early preachers 
were we are not informed. We find in 1840 
that William Wadkine was their pastor, and 
Asa Atteberry, clerk. This parent church 
flourished and prospered for some years, and 
the membership lived in harmony until prob- 
ably froin 1S30 to 1835, when one Daniel 
L'arker, from somewhere in Illinois, came 
amongst them and began to preach doctrines 
which some of the members could not relish 
Just what those doctrines were we were not 
advised, but one thing we find they were in- 
duced by Parker and his adherents to take 
upon themselves the name of " Regular Bap- 

tists." By what name they were known be- 
fore this we are not advised. From a short 
history of this church which was written 
some years after this, by one Carter J. Kelly, 
we find this statement made by him: "The 
churches were then known universally as 
United Baptist, the original having emi- 
grated from Kentucky and Tennessee, where 
they were universally known as United Bap- 
tist." We" only give this as we find it. and 
do not wish to be understood as endorsing or 
rejecting it as true, as it is not our province 
to attempt (were we able to do so) to settle 
church disputes. We find, however, that the 
breach already made continued to widen, until 
March, 1845, it culminated in a division of 
the church, one party taking the name of 
United or Missionary Baptist, the other tak- 
ing to themselves the name of Regular Pre- 
destinarian Baptists. Both factions claim to 
be the genuine original Baptist Church, and 
to have descended in a regular line from the 
Waldenses, and the contest has been long and 
bitterly contested, and is still unsettled, and 
we do not feel called upon, neither do we 
desire to take sides in the matter, but to 
leave it where we find it, unsettled. 

After the organization of the Hopewell 
Church, we have no record of the organiza- 
tion of any other church of this denomina- 
tion until July, 1S46: at this time there was 
organized by Elders Richard Gardner, Jere- 
miah Doty and C. S. Madding, a church in 
Mt. Erie Township, then and still known as 
Providence Church. 

The persons entering into this organization 
at that time were Jesse Williams, Thomas 
Traverse, John Meadows, Nathaniel Traverse, 
Reuben Whitaker, William H. Harrelson, 
Nancy Williams, Hannah Vandaver, Mary 
Rice, Elizabeth Collins, Christina Traverse, 
Catharine Harrelson and Belinda McCollum. 

From the best information we can get, the 



larger part of tbo9p entering this organiza- 
tion are now dead; but others have united 
with the church from time to time, and it is 
still kept ap. They have a house of worship 
and regular preaching. 

The nest church organized was in Decem- 
ber 1848, in Hickory Hill Township, and 
known as Little Flock. This church was 
organized by Joseph Hartley, John Martin, 
Barnes Reeves, Solomon Blissett and Brady 
Meeks. The persons entering this organiza- 
tion were Sarah M. Crask, Stout Atteberry, 
Fanny L. Atteberry, Alfred Wilson, Joseph 
Crask, Nancy Crask, AbraLam P. Witter, 
Sarah M. Wilson. Enos K. Wilson, Wilkins 
Dewees and Eleanor Dewees; of this number 
only three are now living, to wit: Fanny L. 
Atteberry, Joseph Crask and Abraham P. 

This church, like many others, has had its 
days of prosperty and its days of adversity. 
They have a comfortable house of worship, 
and regular preaching; and notwithstanding 
nearly all the old members who "bore the 
heat and burden of the day " have passed 
away, yet others have come forward and 
taken their places; and though they are few 
in number, yet they may be said to be in 
a fair condition of prosperity. 

There have probably been other churches 
of this denomination organized in the county, 
but they have gone down, and only these 
three so far as we are advised, now exist. 

As to who the earlier preachers were, we 
are at quite a loss. We will, however, give 
the names of a few we have been able to 
gather: — Dewey, Robert Eskiidge, Samuel 
Dickens, William Wadkins, Joseph Hartley, 
Jeremiah Doty, Isaiah Walker, Charles H. 
Clay, William Lawson and others. 

As a people the "old Baptist," as they 
style themselves, are honest and sincere; and 
whatever the world may think of their doc- 

trines, manners and customs as a church, 
still all must admit that they are honest in 
their views. 

One of the main reasons for the split in 
the Baptist Church, not only in this county, 
but elsewhere, was on the missionary ques- 
tion. The "Regulars" claim to be the true 
missionary church as organized by Christ 
and his apostles. They maintain that when 
God calls a man to preach, that the man so 
called feels that a necessity is laid upon him, 
and that he feels as did the Apostle Paul, 
" Woe is me if I preach not the Gospel," 
and that feeling thus, they are compelled to 
go wherever the Lord directs, and that with- 
out " stave or script." So, taking their own 
version of the matter, they are not opposed 
to missions, but to the manner of sending 
them out; or, in other words, they believe a 
preacher should go and preach, and not be 
sent out by a board. 

Numerically speaking, they are a weak 
church, and likely to remain so, as their doc- 
trines and customs are not in keeping with 
the fast age in which we are living; and in 
churches, as in all other institutions the ma- 
jority want to be on the popular side. 

Free- Will Baptists. — The first church was 
organized in this county about two miles 
west of Jeffersonville, September 2, 1854, 
by Rev. S. S. Branch, and consisted of six 
members: S. S. Branch, Elizabeth Branch, 
Densy Tnbbs, Samuel Branch, Jacob S. 
Hawk and Mary Hawk. Of this number 
the last three are still living, and active 
members of the church. S. S. Branch was 
chosen pastor; J. S. Hawk, clerk, and Sam- 
uel Branch, deacon. The Saturday before 
the third Sabbath of each month, was ap- 
pointed for covenant meetings. Regular 
services were held on the Sabbath. Rev. S. 
S. Branch was born in Vermont.Sin 1794, re- 
moved to Ohio in 1820; professed religion 



in April, 1831; baptized by Rev. Steadman, 
a powerful preacher of Southern Ohio; or- 
dained in 1841 j removed to Illinois, 1853; 
died January 29, 1862, leaving a wife and 
eight children. At last accounts his widow 
was living in Rock County, Minn., with her 
son, Joseph. Of the ten children of this 
family, four are living. The oldest, Sirenus 
Branch, is living in the northern part of this 
county, and is a carpenter by trade. The 
second child of the family was the second 
wife of Titus Buffington, of Xenia, 111., who 
is well known to many of our readers. 
Stephen Branch is living at Sandoval, 111.; 
Joseph Branch in Rock County, Minn.; 
Levi 13 , in Kansas. Of the other orig- 
inal members, Densy Tubbs is living 
another life in the "bright beyond;" J. S. 
Hawk is living on a good farm, enjoying the 
rounds of life; Samuel Branch is living in 
Jeffersonville,Wayne County, in aripe old age. 

The church flourished for a time under the 
efficient labors of its pastor, who was an 
earnest, practical preacher of Gospel truths. 
After his death, Rev. John Rhodes, of Bone 
Gap, Edwards Co., 111., preached to the 
church for a time. 

The church struggled on, but removals, 
death and dissensions ere long reduced the 
number and disheartened all. 

The ' ' lions by the wayside " caused many 
to retrace their steps to the enticing shades 
of sinful pleasure. 

Years rolled by, and although the church 
had almost lost its visible form there were 
some who still stood firm to the faith, and 
kept alive the coals from which, since then, 
a bright tiro has been kindled. 

In 1872, Rev. G. H. Moon, having located 
in the county, the church chose him as 
pastor, but its progress for a few years was 
not rapid, although its life blood pulsated 
with more regularity. Dr. Talmagehassa'd: 

" A prayer never goes heaven high that does 
not go pocket deep," and history affirms that 
the progress of a church is in proportion as 
its means are consecrated. In the early 
spring of 1878, the church enjoyed a sweep- 
ing revival under the labors of the pastor. 
Members were quickened, back-sliders re- 
claimed and sinners brought to Christ. From 
that time on it has been such as to merit the 
best regards of 'all Christians. Upon the re- 
signation of G. H. Moon. Rev. J. C. Gilliland 
was chosen pastor in January, 1880. An- 
other revival made sad havoc among the 
workers of iniquity, and the church was 
greatly strengthened. 

A church house was soon talked of, and 
soon stood upon its foundations in a beauti- 
ful place, about two and three-fourth miles 
west of Jeffersonville. It is a structure that 
honors the church and the community where 
it stands. 

J. C. Gilliland having moved away, Rev. 
W. R. Moon was selected as paBtor, June, 
1883. He had been licensed to preach, but 
on October 21, he was ordained to the full 
work of the gospel ministry. Another revival 
was now enjoyed under the labors of Rev. 
Harry Thompson, of Lebanon, 111. A young 
man, writing to the pastor said: " The whole 
community is love." The Sunday school 
which was already large was tired with new 
zeal and interest. A public praver meeting 
was held every Sunday night, and a young 
people's prayer meeting every Wednesday 
night. The membership at present (January, 
1884) is ninety-two. 

In June, 1872, another church was organ- 
ized at Big Mound, by Rev A. J. Hoskin- 
son, of Odin, 111., consisting of ten members: 
G. H. and Mrs. Moon, Joshua Davis, Mrs. 
Elizabeth Davis, H. N. Moon, Mrs. Lillie 
Moon, Mr. and Mrs. E. Scranton, Betty Vir- 
den and Flora Moon. 



The biography of some of these will bo 
found in another chapter of this volume. 

Of this number four have removed to other 
localities, one has died. The otber live, 
Joshua Davis, Mrs. Davis. G. H., Mrs. M. 
B. and Flora Moon are still standing with 
shoulder to the wheel. 

H. N. Moon has removed to Ohio, and is 
residing in Marion County. E. Scranton 
removed to Laniard Township, and Betty 
Virden silently closed her eyes and fell into 
a peaceful slumber to awake again on the 
farther shore. 

Q. H. Moon was chosen pastor at the time 
of organization, and held the position till 
1880, during which time different revivals 
were enjoyed by the church. Upon his res- 
ignation, Rev. J. C. Gillilaud was chosen 
pastor, but, owing to ill-health, his labors 
with the church were not regular. After his 
removal to another locality, G. H. Moon 
again ministered to the spiritual wants of 
the church until the spring of 1881, when a 
good revival was had, and W. It. Moon was 
chosen pastor. 

The difficulties through which this church 
has passed have been many and grievous, but 
they have only cemented more firmly togeth- 
er the sturdy hearts that crowd around the 

Although its career has not been the most 
brilliant, yet no jar of discord has ever 
marred its ebb and flow. It now numbers 
thirty-seven members, and sustains a regular 
prayer meeting. 

The local church is always an independent 
body so far as relates to its own government; 
chooses its own officers, and disciplines its 
own members; that immersion is the only 
mode of baptism; do not believe in fore- 
ordination; believe in unrestricted communion 
with all true believers; takes an active part 
in educational work, as it shows the remark- 

able record of an institution of learning to 
every 6,000 members of its order. It also 
stands high in missionary work, and has 
about thirty workers; eleven well established 
schools, and also a printing establishment in 
the foreign held. 

General] Baptist Church.— The religious 
organization that maintains that there is a 
possible general atonement for all mankind, 
and that all good people have a right to the 
communion, regardless of whatever religious 
creed they may belong to, is known as " The 
General Baptists," and had its origin in the 
United States in 1637, twenty-sis years prior 
to any organization of the kind in England. 

The first church of the above denomination 
that was organized in Wayne County, was 
so effected by Elder R. Stinson in the fall of 
1853, and was known as the " Old Arrington 
Prairie Church." The original members were 
H. H. Brown and wife, John Wheeler and 
wife, James W. Gwin, C. C. Ayres, Thomp- 
son Fares and Samuel Rogers. At this or- 
ganization, James W. Gwin and Thompson 
Fares were ordained Elders by Elder Stin- 
son, assisted by Elder Samuel Branch. 

Elder Givin possessed but a limited edu- 
cation, yet was endowed with strong natural 
qualities, and at once set out with earnest ef- 
forts in his ministerial labors, and on March 
26, 185'J, he organized Mt. Pleasant Church, 
when, assisted by Elder S. Branch, he or- 
dained H. H. Brown and VV. M. Montgall. 
Later, by the efforts of H. H. Brown and W. 
M. Montgall, the Johnson Prairie and Wil- 
son Branch Churches were organized from 
persons who held their membership with the 
Liberty Association, General Baptist Church, 
in Indiana. It was in 1863 that they ob- 
tained permission from the mother church in 
Indiana to effect an association in Wayne 
County, and accordingly the Union Grove 
Association was organized by Elders Brown, 



Branch and Stinson. The organization has 
continued to grow from the beginning, and 
at present thirteen churches are numbered in 
its list, which are in Wayne County. Elder 
Gwin, who was instrumental in bringing 
about the above organizations, moved to Ar- 
kansas soon after the Union Grove Associa- 
tion was established, where he subsequently 
died, after having organized other associa- 
tions. Elder William M. Montgall was an 
earnest worker, but was taken with consump- 
tion soon after having been ordained, and 
his short but useful career was abruptly end- 
ed. The writer could obtain but little data 
relative to the life of Elder Fares, but H. H. 
Brown is living in Johnsonville. and has 
served well his religious organization in va- 
rious places, and has been entrusted with 
some small but important offices in the gift 
of the general public where he resides. He, 
like the other originators of the General Bap- 
tist Church in Wayne County, had but a 
limited education, but with such energies as 
he could "muster up " he has, like them, 
done a noble work, notwithstanding the mem- 
bership of the various churches where they 
have labored in this county is composed of 
persons of limited circumstances, such that 
they are not, even now, able to compensate 
the various Elders as largely as other asso- 
ciations. Upon the whole, the vicissitudes 
of the church in this county have been vari- 
ous. Sometimes they had marked prosperity, 
which would last for a short time, and this 
frequently followed by a decade of lingering 
apathy, or at least a state of comparative 
quiescence, but the average has been a vital- 
ity that is not at all discouraging to the many 
members who in the long ago learned to love 
it as the child does its protecting and cher- 
ishing mother. 

United Baptists.* — Pleasant Grove Church 

•D. K. Felix. 

was organized September 25, 1853, with 
twelve members, as follows: Samuel C. 
Pendleton. James Hearn, John R. Carter, 
Eliza R. Pendleton, Hannah Carter, Lidia 
Doris, Susan Fitzgerald, Phebe Butler, Ma- 
hala Boyce, Rosanna Meritt, Mary Butler, 
Sarah A. Robinson. Two of these are still 
living, James Hearn and Rosanna Meritt. 

The ministers composing the presbytery 
were Elders Joseph P. Ellis, Carter J. Kel 
ley, William P. Sneed and Solomon M. 
Webb. At the close of the meeting, which 
lasted about ten days, there were twenty-four 
converts baptized into the church, and eleven 
others united with the church by letter and 

There have been about rive hundred names 
enrolled on the church book since its organi- 
zation. Three churches have been organized 
from this church, viz., Bethel Church, in 
White County, Providence Church and 
Barnhill Church in Wayne County, and a 
portion of the members that went into the 
third organization at Fairfield, were from 
this church in the thirty years that the 
church has had an existence. A great many 
have drawn letters and moved away; some 
have been excluded and others died, leaving 
at the present writing about one hundred 
and forty-six members. The church has set 
apart three to the ministry, viz.. Revs. B. S. 
Meeks, D. C. Walker and S. C. Pendleton, 
all of whom have served the church as pastor, 
B. S. Meeks for a number of years, perhaps 
half the time since the church's organiza- 
tion. The above-named ministers have all 
departed this life. 

Three other ordained ministers have be- 
longed to the church — Revs. C. J. Kelley, E. 
W. Overstreet and Gideon Tenison, besides 
licentiates that have been ordained by other 
churches after receiving letters from this 
church, J. M. Madding and S. M. Tenison, 



while others have been licensed and or- 
dained since. 

Pleasant Grove Church might properly be 
called the mother of the Baptist Churches in 
the southern part of Wayne County and the 
northern part of White County. 

Of the six ordained ministers that have 
belonged to the church, none are living. The 
church has no minister of its own. and has to 
be supplied from abroad. 

We give the names of the ministers that 
have served the church as pastors since its 
organization : 

Carter J. Kelley, E. W. Overstreet, B. S. 
Meeks, J. B. Smith, S. C. Pendleton, D. C. 
Walker, J. H. Murray, K. G. Hay. Elder S. 
A. Martin served as pastor a few months. 

The following deacons were ordained : 

B. S. Meeks, J. R. Carter, D. W. Atte- 
berry and D. K, Felix. William P. Whiting 
was ordained by Salem Church of White 
County, and is a member of this church. 
Four different ones have served as clerk, viz. : 

D. C. Walker, D. K. Felix, J. R. Carter. 
D. W. Atteberry. 

Christian Church. — In the year 1839, a 
number of families emigrated from Colum- 
biana. Carroll and Stark Counties. Ohio, to 
this county, and settled in Lamard Prairie 
and vicinity. All of these families belonged 
to the Christian Church, among whom we 
name Jesse Milner, Isaac Whitakor, Edward 
Whitaker, Jonas Lumm, John Morlan, Mar- 
tin Emmans, Noah Towers. James McNeely, 
John Skelton and James A. Maslan, Fenton 
Lumm and Townsend Richards. About the 
same time a few families settled in the same 
neighborhood from Tennessee, among whom 
were the Butcher family and the Caudle 
family, and Edward Puckett and others, who 
were members of the Christian Church. At 
the time that these parties settled in this 
neighborhood, the county had but a very light 

population, and in the vicinity of this settle- 
ment the land was all vacant, being but a 
few squatters residing in a radius of several 
miles. No schoolhouses or churches within 
several miles of this settlement. The first 
work was to locate their homes, build their 
houses, and get a little land opened up for 
cultivation. As soon as this was done, the 
next work was to build a house that would 
answer the double purpose of a schoolhouse 
and a place of public worship. 

The church was not properly organized un- 
til the fall of 1840. The writer has at this time, 
no means of knowing the names of all that 
went into this organization. With this first 
emigration, there were a number of preachers 
that did good work in establishing the cause 
in this, and adjoining counties, among 
whom were Jones Lumm, Fenton Lumm, 
Isaac Whitaker and Cornelius Ades. This 
church at its first organization, besides the 
labors of the above named brethren, had the 
labors of the Goodwin brothers — Moses and 
Elijah — of William Bristow and David R. 
Chance, although these brethren have all long 
since gone to their long home, where they 
are resting from their labors. Three names 
are fresh in the memories of all the brethren. 
As these old soldiers and pioneers have 
one by one passed away, new ones have 
sprung up in their places, among whom will 
name Jeramiah Butcher, E. J. Hart, Joseph 
Skelton, and more recently Brother Rose, 
Brother AVall and Brother D. Logan. The 
school that was first taught at the Buckeye 
Schoolhouse (this was the name given the 
house and also the name given the church), 
was taught by Gibson B. Davis ; he taught 
there for several years, and by his labors in his 
school, in the Sunday school and the church, 
assisted largely in building up the cause of 
morality and religion in the neighborhood. 

About the years 1850, 1851 and 1852, an- 



other large emigration came into the county 
from the central part of Ohio, and settled in 
the west part of Lamard Township, among 
whom we will name: Isaac Brock and family, 
George Brock and family, John Burton and 
family. The two last named were both 
preachers and assisted largely in building up 
the Christian Church. This old Buckeye 
Church by emigration and proselyting had 
spread over so much territory, and had be- 
come so strong numerically, that it was thought 
advisable for the convenience of its members, 
and for the purpose of extending its influence, 
to organize from its membership other or- 
ganizations. The first move in this direction 
was to cut off the west portion of the body 
and organize a new congregation about four 
miles west of the old organization. The new 
organization was called Pleasant Grrove. This 
took place about the year 1855. After this, 
several years, the Cisne congregation was 
organized first at the schoolhouse near 
Brother Levi Cisne's. After this, when the 
Shawneetown branch of the Ohio and Mis- 
sissippi Railroad was built, and the town of 
Cisne was laid out, the brethren built a neat 
church house at the town of Cisne and 
moved the membership there. About the 
same time the brethren in and around Jeffer- 
sonville, ^thought it best to establish the 
cause there and went to work and built a 
good house of worship in that town, and or- 
ganized a congregation under the name of 
the Christian Church, at Jeffersonville. The 
membernhip that composed this new organi- 
zation was taken from the membership of the 
old Buckeye Church and Pleasant • Grove 
Church, the same year that the church was 
built at Jeffersonville. The brethren at the 
Buckeye Church erected a new church house, 
about one-half mile north of the old school- 
house, where the church was first organized. 
About the year 1873, a little band of breth- 

ren that were worshiping at what was called 
the Gunion school about four or five 
miles northeast of Cisne, built a neat, frame 
church house and organized a congregation. 
The congregations named are all the out- 
croppings of the old Buckeye Christian 
Church. All have good houseB of worship 
and are in good condition, no two of the 
church houses being more than seven miles 
apart. Another fact that should be named 
in this connection is, that the territory cov- 
ered by the membership of these five congre- 
gations has always been noted for morality, 
industry and Christianity. From the first 
settlement of the country the membership of 
these five churches will aggregate about 800 
members with a church property which will 
aggregate in value $8,000. Soon after the 
organization of the Buckeye Church, a few 
brethren from Tennessee settled in and 
around Turnoy's Prairie, about six miles 
south of Fairfield and organized a congrega- 
tion at what was called the Walker School- 
house, among whom the writer recollects the 
names of William Baze, P. J. Pucket, 
Thomas Pucket, Joseph Odell, John Shruse- 
berry and Anderson Walker, who toiled to- 
gather under great opposition to build up 
the cause of primitive Christianity; the 
pioneers of this organization have all fought 
their last battle and won the victory and 
gone to rest, except Brother Odell who is 
still lingering on the shores of time, waiting 
for the Master to call him home. The con- 
gregation still has an existence and has a 
comfortable house of worship and a live 
membership. The congregation at Barnhill 
was organized from a portion of the member- 
ship of this congregation. The Barnhill 
congregation has a comfortable house of wor- 
ship and a live membership. 

The Fairfield congregation has a member- 
ship of about one hundred ; at present is 



meeting in the Opera Hall: is building a brick 
house of worship which, when completed, will 
cost about §3,500. The congregation has a live 
and zealous membership, and assist largely in 
throwing restraint and religious influence 
around the citizens of the growing little city 
of Fairfield. There are many other small con- 
gregations in the county that the writer is 
not acquainted with the history of. Thero are 
two organizations in Four Mile Township, 
two in Leach Township, one in Zif, one in 
Elm River Township, one in Brush Creek, 
one in Arrington Township, one in Indian 
Prairie. There are in the county fifteen 
or sixteen church organizations, with an 
aggregate membership of about one thou- 
sand five hundred, with a church property 
that is worth about 114,000. These peo- 
ple have done a good work in this county, 
and are all working faithfully to restore the 
apostolic order of things, discarding creeds 
and confession of faith, taking the Bible aad 
the Bible alone as the rule of faith and prac- 
tice, pleading for a union of God's people on 
the one foundation of Apostles and Prophets, 
Jesus Christ being the Chief Corner Stone. 

Zachariah W. Wood, the present serving 
pastor of the church, was born in Rocking- 
ham County, Ya. He removed to Missouri 
with his father's family, and in 1855, came 
to Wayne County, and commenced preaching 
in 1867. 

Catholic Church was organized in this 
place about twenty- five years ago. The serv- 
ices were first conducted by Father Fisher, 
who in passing through the county would 
serve mass at the residence of S. Rider. The 
first organization was principally of the Rider 
families, and John and William Bowles and 
their families, and meetings were at their 

The present church edifice^was erected by 
these families, assisted greatly by James Hil- 

lard, James Henings, Miss Josie Cooper, 
Nelly Barnhill, John Taafe and others. The 
present serving priest, L. Reisner, took steps 
and commenced and completed the building 
in 1881. It is a one story brick and cost $3,000. 
The Rider brothers, J. and A. B. were made 
trustees, in which position they are now ac- 
ceptably serving. The present membership 
is about forty- five. 

Presbyterian Church. — There was a Pres- 
byterian Church organized, perhaps as early 
as 1825, by B. F. Spillman. 

It was called by three or four different 
names, Fairfield, Franklin and Bethel, aris- 
ing probably from as many different places 

j of preaching. The principal point was 
Bethel, or New Bethel, now Mount Erie, 
about twelve miles northeast of Fairfield. 
The Elders, so far as now known, were Isham 
B. Rubinson, aged eighty, still living ; Alex- 
ander Ramsey and Samuel McCracken. It 
had quite a considerable membership. Among 
them, Mrs. Gen. Leach, whose husband was 
quite prominent in the early history of the 
county, and Mrs. Slocum, B. F. Spillman, 
and Thomas A. Spillman paid them occasional 
visits. Rev. Isaac Bennet, from Eastern Penn- 

' sylvania, Bucks County, and a graduate of 
Jefferson College, Penn., with the highest 
honors of his class, also a graduate of Alle- 
gheny .Theological Seminary also served them. 
He was the greatest preacher — as a preacher 
— who had ever appeared in this part of the 
country; and the impression he made was 
worthy of his talents. He was devoted and 
zealous and successful. Rev. Mr. Bennet 
labored here during 1829, and probably after- 
ward. He was at this time only a licenciate 
and was not ordained for some three years 
afterward (April 13, 1833). He purchased 
hero of George Russell that] famous horse, 
"Jack," with whom he lived in such close 
intimacy at Pleasant Prairie, Coles County. 



But Mr. Bennett was called away from 
them, and their organization was lost. But 
immediately after the re- union of the two 
largest branches of the great Presbyterian 
family— -known as Old School and New 
School — Father Galbraith, a most earnest, 
zealous and self-denying missionary, who 
was then preaching at Flora, Clay County, 
came down to Fairfield, and after repeated 
visits and after earnest invitation, the Pres- 
bytery of Cairo organized or reorganized the 
Presbyterian Church of Fairfield, which was 
done on the '23d day of April, 1871, when 
the following persons gave their names and 
united at its organization: 

John Robinson, Mrs. E. A. Robinson, A. 
R. Robinson, James R. Dales, Susan Dales, 
Mrs. Belle Ball, Dr. William M. Kerr, Mrs. 
Grace Fetherstone, Henry L. Beecher, Mrs. 
Eliza Rea, J. C. Claudy, Alexander Moore, 
Mrs. Jane Moore, John Rankin, Mrs. Eliza 
Rankin, Mrs. L. Claudy. 

At the same meeting, Rev. Robert C. Gal- 
braith was called as pastor for half his time. 
The other half of his time was occupied by 
the church at Flora. 

Mr. Galbraith was ^born in Indiana or 
Pennsylvania February 26, 1814, was the 
son and grandson of ministers. He gradu- 
ated at Jefferson College, Pennsylvania, in 
1834, and at Princeton Theological Seminary 
in 1837. 

Mr. Galbraith was a scholar and a gentle- 
man of the old school. Most of his minis- 
try had been in Virginia and Baltimore, Md. 
He came to this State in 1865. He preached 
for a time in Odin, Marion County, 111., but 
the cessation of business and travel after the 
war closed, resulted in his removal to Flora, 
and afterward in substituting Fairfield, 
Wayne County, for Odin, which led to his 
removal to Fairfield in 1873, giving his full 
time there. 

He remained here as pastor until June, 
1880, when the pastoral relation was dis- 
solved by the Presbytery of Cairo. 

He thence removed to Metropolis and sup- 
plied the church there for one year and a 
half. He is now, 1S84, pastor of the church 
of Golconda. 

At this first meeting of the church for its 
organization, the following gentlemen were 
elected elders: Messrs. John Robinson, of 
Wayne City; James R. Dales, now of Olney; 
J. C. Claudy, now of Newville, Penn. Also 
the following gentlemen were elected its first 
Board of Trustees: Messrs. C. A. Beecher, 
Oliver Holmes, T. L. Cooper and Dr. William 
M. Kerr to serve for three years, and Mr. 
Joseph T. Fleming, William H. Robinson 
and Adam Rinard for the term of five years; 
and also that said Board of Trustees act as a 
building committee in the erection of a 
church building. 

Rev. R. C. Galbraith was installed pastor 
of the church by the Presbytery of Cairo May 
14, 1871. 

The proposed church was erected during 
the summer — a very fine one for the time; 
one of the best, if not the very best, in South- 
ern Illinois, costing about S7,000, the last 
$1,000 not being paid until §1,000 had been 
spent in interest, just ten years after, in Au- 
gust, 1881. 

Fairfield, when the church was erected, 
was a village of less than 1,000 inhabitants. 

The years have mainly been years of 
growth, but one year without some uniting 
on profession of their faith in the Lord Jesus 

The church was organized with but six- 
teen members. Its first report to the General 
Assembly of the church was thirty- four. It 
has had on its roll about 135, but by reason 
of death and removals it has now sixty. 

Its present pastor, Rev. Edward P. Lewis, 



was called here August 30, 1880, when he 
visited the church. He entered regularly 
upon his work tho last Sabbath of Septem- 
ber, the 26th, 1880, since which time there 
have been twenty-five members united with 
the church, all but four upon profession of 
faith in Christ, as Presbyterians moving into 
Southern Illinois are few and far between. 

Rev. E. P. Lewis was born in Indiana ' 
County, Penn. ; was the son of Rev. David 
Lewis, pastor of the Presbyterian Church of 
Lewisville, Penn. ; the same church as waB 
Rev. Joseph Henderson, the grandfather of 
Rev. R. C. Galbraith. 

After the death of his father, the mother 
removed to Washington, Penn., the seat of 
Washington and Jefferson College, for the 
purpose of educating her three sons and 

Mr. Lewis graduated at the college in 
1860, and afterward at Allegheny Theologi- 
cal Seminary in the spring of 1864. 

Immediately afterward, he was called to 
the Presbyterian Church of Atchison, Kan. 

He resigned this church in 1868, on account 
of his health, and returned to Pennsylvania, 
whore he remained until accepting the invi- 
tation to the church at Fairfield, in tho sum- 
mer of 1880. 

This church in all its history has been 
marked for its special liberality, not only to 
homo expenses, but to outside and missionary 
objects, its gifts amounting annually to thir- 
ty-three and one-third dollars per member. 

Alexander Moore was elected an elder 
January 3, 1875, and remained an elder un- 
til his death, which occurred on the 19th of 
August, 1883. 

The present officers are: 

Pastor, Eev. Edward P. Lewis. 

Elders, John Robinson, Michael Heid, 
Oliver Holmes and J. C. Youngkin. 

Deacons, Joseph T. Fleming, John Keen, 
Jr., and William J. Sailor. 

Trustees, Oliver Holmes, Joseph Ball, C. 
W. Summers, Joseph Fleming, Adam Rinard, 
William H. Robinson and Thomas Cooper. 



THE very earliest settlers in Illinois bad 
neither churches, preachers, doctors, 
nor lawyers. A good dog and a trusty rifle 
were a greater necessity than any of these 
now probably necessary evils of modern 
times, and refined villainies and wide-spread 
demoralization that have not only kept pace. 

but apparently outstripped, the wonderful 
growth of schoolhouses and splendid churches, 
whoso bristling steeples, piercing the sky, 
and are kissed by tho earliest morning 
sun, and point so eloquently the way to 
Heaven, that now so plentifully are dotted 
all over the land. At one time in tho his- 



tory of the early settlement of Illinois, was 
here a people without courts, officers of the 
law, churches or schoolhouses. There are 
some astounding truths to be read between 
lines in this recital of a simple historical 
fact, by that reader who has the comprehen- 
sion to read all that there is in the naked 
announcement of this truth. It is full of 
food for the unprejudiced and reflective 
mind. Look on this picture and then on 

Gov. Reynolds has given us the following 
account of the people he found here in 1800, 
the year he came to the Territory: "They 
were an innocent and a happy people. They 
were removed from the corruption of large 
cities, and enjoyed an isolated position in 
the interior of North America. In a century 
before 1800, they were enabled to solve the 
problem that neither wealth, nor splendid 
possessions, nor an extraordinary degree of 
ambition, nor energy, ever made a people 
happy. These people resided more than a 
thousand miles from any other colony, and 
were strangers to wealth or poverty; but the 
Christian virtues governed their hearts, and 
they were happy. One virtue among others 
was held in high esteem and religiously ob- 
served. Chastity was a sine qua non, and a 
spurious offspring was almost unknown 
among them. * * * * Their energy or 
ambition never urged them to more than an 
humble and competent support. To hoard 
up wealth was not found written in their 
hearts, and very few practiced it. They 
were a temperate, moral people. They very 
seldom indulged in drinking liquor to ex- 
cess, etc." 

Remember, reader, this was away back in 
the year 1800, and the old ranger waB writ- 
ing his recollections after he had lived here 
fifty-five years, and had seen and been a part 
of all the wonderful changes that the half 

century had wrought. There are none living 
here now who saw the people of Illinois at 
the time he did. And the traditions that we 
have are often wholly wrong when they are 
called upon to tell us what manner of people 
these were who lived here, sans churches, 
sans preachers, sans courts, sans everything. 
They had no schoolhouses, and they were, as 
a rule, illiterate, and that unthinking man 
who confounds illiteracy with ignorance 
would foolishly say that they were very ig- 
norant. Yet the truth was, that the promi- 
nent men of that day would be great men 
now, or in any age or in any place. 

The people were in the way of supersti- 
tious beliefs more ignorant then than now — 
that is, than some are now. But remember, 
the whole world believed then in witches and 
spooks and a literal brimstone and hell fire. 
Hideous apparitions universally confronted 
men in every turn in life, projecting their 
ghastly presence between husband and wife, 
parent and child, and crushing out all the 
highest and holiest human impulses and pas- 
sions. The revolutions of the earth have 
brought us the times of "universal faith among 
men — beliefs and so-called moral codes en- 
forced by tire and faggot, by the headsman's 
ax and the gibbet, by the bloodiest wars in the 
tide of time, turning this bright and beautiful 
world into a blackened and desolate waste, 
when men became moral monsters and every 
fireside was a penal colony, where the flesh was 
punished to the limit of endurance, and the im- 
agination tortured until poor suffering men 
and women sought refuge in suicide and a 
wild plunge into the literal hell and the in- 
conceivable tortures of the damned. Time, 
when not only a whole nation, but all so-called 
civilized people believed the same belief, 
and the church and State were one and the 
same. The State was supreme over body and 
soul, and persecution had completed its 



slaughter, and the permitted science, litera- 
ture and philosophy of the learned world, 
consisted only of the Lives of the Saints — of 
which the pious and learned churchman had 
gathered many great libraries of hundreds 
of thousands of volumes. 

Here then are the two extremes — the ear- 
liest pioneers without church or State — the 
old world with nothing else but church and 
State, that laid waste a world and dried up 
the fountains of the human heart, and made 
the wholo earth desolate and sterile. One 
producing death and desolation, the other 
wresting the desert wilderness from the sav- 
age and the wild beast, and literally making 
the solitude to blossom with intelligence and 
bear abundantly the immortal fruit of glo- 
rious civilization. These stateless, church- 
less, schoolless people blazed the way and 
prepared the ground for the coming of the 
school teacher, the preacher and the lawyer, 
the .hospitals, the insane asylums and the 
penitentiaries, the problems of life, the knot 
of the hangman, the saloon and the gambler, 
the broken-hearted wife and the bloated sot, 
the great sob of innocence betrayed, and the 
leer of human goats as they wag their scut 
and caper upon their mountain of offense, 
the millionaire and the starving tramp; and 
then, too, with all these, come the comforts 
of wealth, refinement and culture. And with 
that highest and most enduring pleasure of 
all life, the acquisition of new truths. With 
these lazaroni, these goats and monsterB of 
civilization, thank God, there came also the 
man of doubts and questions, the star of 
hope in the universal gloom, the world's 
beacon lights that shine out upon the 
troubled waters. 

The hardy and illiterate pioneer awoke 
here the resting echo, and following them, 
when they had fought out the battle with the 
plumed hereditary lords of America, and his 

congener, the wild beast 
viper, came together into 

and the deadly 
one plot all the 
ends of the world, and all the degrees of 
social rank, and now they offer to the same 
great writer, the busiest, the most extended 
and the most varied subject, for an enduring 
literary work. For is not their simple story 
a sublime epic? Their lives a tremendous 
tragedy — their present struggles, their vast 
schemes, their whited sepulchers, a perpetu- 
al comedy? The travail of ages — of the rev- 
olutions, wars, beliefs and bloody reforms 
and revivals — things that seem to retard, but 
really are the demonstration of the progress 
of the race. The creation, molding anil 
building up of that philosophy that reaches 
out to the great mass of mankind, and re- 
sults in that culture and experience which 
deepens and strengthens the common sense 
of the people, rectifies judgments, improves 
morals, encourages independence, and dissi- 
pates superstitions. In the prolonged human 
tragedy of the ages —this chaos of ignorance 
and wild riot of bigotry — there has been 
born now and then the great thoughts of the 
world's few thinkers, and they are growing 
and widening slowly but forever, as truth 
alone is eternal, and is beginning to yield 
the world a philosophy that worships the 
beautiful only in the useful, and the relig- 
ious only in the true. A philosophy that is 
the opposite and the contradiction of senti- 
ment as opposed to sense, that requires a 
rational personal independence of thought on 
all subjects, whether secular or sacred, and 
that equally rejects an error, whether it is 
fresh and novel, or gloriously gilded by an- 
tiquity. A philosophy that yields no homage 
to a thing because it is a mystery, and ac- 
cepts no ghostly authority administered by 
men, and the root of which lies in a florid 
mysticism. There is a perceptible intellect- 
ual activity that marks the present age, and 



that prevades all classes, asking questions and 
seeking causes. It is practical, not theoret- 
ical, and its chief end is to improve the arts 
and industries, to explore and remedy evils 
and to make life every way better worth liv- 
ing. Its types are the electric light and the 
telephone, better ships and railways, cleaner 
houses and habits, better food and wiser in- 
stitutions for the sick, insane and destitute, 
and that has already scored upon its side of 
victories, that immeasurable boon of length- 
ening the life of a generation to forty years, 
where a few years ago it was scarcely more 
than thirty years. In the history of the hu- 
man race, all its advances, all its victories 
compared to this one, are as the invisible 
moat to the wheeling world. Let the mind 
dwell upon this magnificent miracle, and 
call these practical philosophers what you 
please, but what coronet is fit to crown their 
memory save that of the divine halo itself. 
Thev taught mankind the sublime truth that 
God intends us to mind things near us, and 
that because knowledge is obtainable, it is 
our duty to obtain it, and that the best re- 
ligion is that which abolishes suffering and 
makes men and women better and healthier. 

The disputes of the schoolmen and theolo- 
gians are regarded as a jargon of the past, 
and to listen to them is time wasted. Noth- 
ing is considered worth studying but what 
can be understood, or at least sufficiently un- 
derstood to be usefully applied. This is 
kindly, tolerant and courageous thought, free 
from the disfigurement of bigotry and preju- 
dice. This is where we can see the advance- 
ment in the school, the press, in the pulpit 
and everywhere. It is irresistable, and its 
inflowing tide is sun-lit with hope, like the 
blue iEgean, when the poet spoke of " the 
multitudinous laughter of the sea waves." 
This is the meaning of Bacon's idea, that the 
growth of truth is like the " delivery " of the 

body of a tree. " It draws its sap and growth 
from the soil of ages, and its fruitage and 
perfection will be displayed in a distant but 
glorious summer." 

In the slow, dreary centuries, the world 
looked to the learned professions — by some 
strange twist of the tongue called " learned " 
— the law, medicine and theology for their 
wisdom, that is, the bread of life, and re- 
ceived the stones and husks that were cast to 
them; swallowed them, and thus puffed out, 
they thought they grew strong and fat. 
Theology appealed to the strong arm of the 
law and the bloody sword to make people 
moral, and in the faith, if their morals were 
strictly attended to, their intelligence would 
take care of itself. The medical men ap- 
pealed to Esculapius, in the belief that he 
knew all that could be known about " hot 
water and bleeding." And the lawyers ap- 
pealed to ancient precedent, and told the 
world that here was the concentrated wisdom 
of the ages. Each one of these learned pro- 
fessions had their special followers, who put 
their faith exclusively in them, while the 
great unthinking mass of mankind implicitly 
believed in the infallibility of all of them. 
This self-constituted trinity of wisdom was 
agreed upon one thing, namely, that all 
worldly or other wisdom must come through 
them, in order to be " regular." Any thought 
or jtheory that was not " regular " in their 
judgment was to be ostracised, to the extent 
of being burned at the stake, if milder means 
failed to kill it off. They were all theorists, 
whose methods were exclusively metaphysical, 
and the greatest man among them was in- 
variably the wildest theorist, who talked the 
most about which he knew the least. Hence, 
medicine, theology and law became in the 
largest affairs of life coparceners, and one 
entrenched the other, and all wared upon 
poor, suffering mankind. 



To this bloody triumvirate came the orator 
and the poet " crooking the pregnant hinges 
of the knee, that thrift might follow fawn- 
ing," singing their praises in word and song, 
and thus finally church and State, law and 
medicine and poetry, and eloquence and lit- 
erature were so braced and interwoven that 
they were nearly all-powerful in worldly 
matters, and they held high carnival over 
their possessions over men. They compla- 
cently deified the old and the mysterious, and 
they gave the world their unchanging ukase, 
and emblazoned their own glories across the 
face of the sky. They esteemed their victory 
over the thoughts of men as complete and 
perpetual ; they had put shackles upon the 
human mind, and imprisoned it in the im- 
penetrable cells of the gloomy dungeons. 
But at all times in the world's history there 
were other men, men who had never been of 
the "learned professions." or. if having 
been once members, had quit them, and 
turned their faces away from the ancient 
precedent, and looked ahead and not behind, 
and saw the slow, yet resistless power of 
truth has, through these men. fought 
back ignorance enthroned in power, which 
has at last compelled even the learned pro- 
fessions to begin to look and learn — to inves- 
tigate and study for themselves. This is the 
one great page in the book of life — the most 
important lesson in the world's history. In 
all organized governments of laws and con- 
stitutions the lawyers are a component part 
of the government itself. A lawyer is in 
one sense an officer of the government under 
which he lives. Differing greatly, it may be 
true, from any other official of the ruling 
power, yet his status is as fixed as any of 
them. Upon him rests the highest of the 
temporal duties toward men that flow out to 
them from the government. Their cast of 
thought should have grown in a larger mold 

than did any of the other so-called learned 
professions. Possibly it did. Yet it was 
never of that sufficiently large and ennobling 
quality that could fill a supreme mission and 
help the world to true freedom in the great 
fight between right and wrong. They not 
only left her to fight her battles with ignor- 
ance, but too often joined in the unholy 
crusade against truth — we mean that perse- 
cuted minority who asked questions and 
sought out causes. They who, if they looked 
at the old. it was to point out its errors as 
well as to perpetuate its few demonstrated 
truths. Their great concern was for the 
Now, and they conld see no more reason for 
deep concern for a future that they could 
know nothing about than for the past, 
when " all was without form and void." 
And the work of these men is the adding of 
ten years to the average life of man. These 
were the men. when a man announced a 
new truth from nature's arcana, who never 
stained their hands in his blood for making 
the discovery, but if he could demonstrate 
his fact, they gave it a patient examination, 
and without prejudice for or against, yielded 
to their unbiased judgments. 

The extent of the labors required of these 
men who thus gave the world this new lease 
of ten years of life to the individual, was a 
long, a great, a patient, dangerous and im- 
measurable one. Their innocent aDd heroic 
blood stained the stream of time from its 
source to the present hour. They worked 
out their inventions, proclaimed their im- 
mortal discoveries and were killed at once, or 
became hiding fugitives from the inappeas- 
able wrath of mankind. The brutal mob 
tore their quivering bodies into shreds, and 
then complacently erected those immortal 
monumental piles to baseness and ignorance 
that pierced the heavens and disfigured the 
face of the earth. This was the unequel 



fitrbt between truth and ignorance. To look 
at the world in its travails, to reflect how 
pure and good and stainless is truth, and how 
very weak it seems when brought face to 
face with panoplied ignorance and brute 
force, is to despair and believe that creation 
itself is a mere horrible nightmare, but in 
the long centuries that reach down to us, her 
victories are marvellous, and in return for 
the cruel tortures and death that were lying 
in wait upon every foot of the pathway of 
these children of thought, they have given us 
all these glories of this gilded civilization 
we now enjoy. " Return good for evil," 
saith the command of heaven, but here is 
more, it is the blessing to all, and that en- 
dureth forever, that transcends as infinity 
does the tick of the clock, all the earnest 
and united supplications of the just and holy 
that ever ascended toward the Great White 
Throne. Their blessings are not only the 
comforts, pleasures, wealth and holy love of 
one another that we see, but it is life itself 
purified and exalted beyond the comprehen- 
sion of the ignorant receivers of the inesti- 
mable boon. No lash was ever raised, no 
law was ever enacted, no pain was ever in- 
flicted, no schoolhouse was ever built, no 
policeman was ever starred, no judge was 
ever ermined, no diploma was ever granted, 
no law was ever invoked in the interest and 
in behalf of these outlawed children, who 
thought, who invented, who discovered these 
immortal truths that are great enough, strong 
enough to lift up and bear aloft civilization 

When the "learned profession" secured 
the protection of the State, and enacted a 
law that no one should practice or compete 
with them, except he be first licensed by au- 
thority, they admitted away all their claim 
to be of the " learned profession." The 
idea of a license to labor, to earn your living 

by the sweat of you brow is an open confes- 
sion of barbarism. Protection! From whom? 
The •' learned" from the ignorant; the lawyer 
from the lout; the doctor from the quack, 

"Like a weak girl, the great Coesar cried. 
Help me Cassius, or I sink." 

When the lawyer has set the example, and 
claimed a license to protect his guild from 
the outside and unlearned poacher, the doe- 
tor is certainly not to blame for claiming a sim- 
ilar protection for himself. The lawyer who 
studies the law should be the first man in the 
community to begin to see the plain, first 
principles of political economy. He should 
not have waited to be told by a non-lawyer, 
that one of the most glaring oppressions that 
have afflicted men in all governments, is over- 
legislation. This applies to every govern- 
ment of which history gives any account. 
And always it has been the newest govern 
ments that have suffered the least. Time 
only gives the legislative bodies the oppor- 
tunity to pile up these evils, the new upon 
the old, Pelion upon Ossa, until human 
endurance ceases, and with the sword, the 
insurgent people cut their way out. ' 

Ignorance feels an imaginary or real op- 
pression, and it cries out for some new law to 
remedy the wrong, when there can be no safer 
assertion than that there is not one remedial 
law in a thousand but that aggravates the evil 
it was intended to cure. So wide-spread is 
this ignorance, that almost every man who 
gets elected to the Legislature, understands 
his constituents, will measure his greatness 
and value by the number of new laws that 
be can have passed that have his trade mark 
upon them. Success here will constitute 
him a leading legislator, and make him a 
great man at home and abroad. Ignorance 
and demagogism have so pushed this in this 
country that our immeasurable statute laws 
are a marvel to contemplate. There is not a 



lawyer alive that ever even cursorily read 
them all, and yet the most practical and in- 
flexibly enforced maxim is " every man is 
presumed to know the law." Indeed, an in- 
stance happened in the Supreme Court of this 
State recently, wherein, without knowing it, 
it gave one opinion that was exactly opposite 
to a recent preceding one. An opinion of 
the Supreme Court is law. An act of Con- 
gress is law. So of the Legislature. V city 
ordinance is law. A custom is law. Con- 
tracts, agreements and transactions among 
men are quasi laws. The United States, the 
State, the County, the city and village, the 
township and the road district, all have exec 
utive and to some extent law-making powers. 
Then there are the multitudinous courts 
pouring out their printed volumes of laws 
annually by the hundreds of volumes. And 
next month the high courts will reverse each 
decision upon every contested case made last 
mouth. To all these are charters, constitu- 
tions, treaties, great libraries of commenta- 
tors, laws fundamental, general, public and 
private. Decisions and orders of depart- 
ments, civil and military. Revenue, postal, 
and excise laws, criminal, civil and chan- 
cery, written and unwritten laws, worlds 
without end. Upon nearly every contested 
question of law may be found hundreds of 
decisions, no two of which will exactly agree, 
and the proposition has been seriously ail 
vanced for the State to commission a board 
of lawyers to attend upon the Legislature to 
act as a surpervising committee upon every 
new law brought forward by our great states 
men, to see how many other laws it may 
come in direct conflict, or agreement with. 
In the mad whirl of folly we cannot imagine 
why such a commission is not in existence. 
It might be a good thing. Who can tell? 
Let this commission be provided with clerks, 
auditors, judge advocates, and a hundred 

or so of the leading attorneys of the State. 
at a fat salary, as counsellors, and a suffering 
world that is always weeping for more law — 
forever more, may temporarily be made happy, 
until some other good scheme is thought up. 
The thing of appointing a board of commis- 
sioners, is a modern invention. It relieves 
the strain for more new laws by the cord and 
ton every hour from the legislative solons. 
Its a kind of side-show possessing, wo sup- 
pose, a mixture of the legislative and execu- 
tive powers and duties. Illinois is now 
blessed with commissioners on taxes and on 
railroads. Why not follow this up with one 
on forms and another on tooth-pick shoes for 
our dudes? In short, there need be no limit 
to this new patent process of multiplying 
laws and law makers, and it is a thing that 
would only exhaust itself when every man. 
woman and child in the State was in some 
way a part ami parcel of a board of com- 

The unthinking people do not realize the 
evils that come to them from the folly of the 
law makers. They are taught that it being 
the highest duty of a good citizen to obey 
and respect the law, therefore, law is of it 
self a good. And from here springs much 
of the flood of foolish and mostly bad laws. 
And, hence, the evils are now great from this 
source, and a mere reference to the whole 
stupendous fabric is but little else than a 
biting satire upon the common intelligence. 

For much of these evils we lay the charge 
at the door of the lawyers, not that they have 
any more than the average intelligence as a 
mass, but their study and investigation 
should have shown them tirst of all, and they 
should have warned the people that it is not 
quantity in laws that is good, but that the 
fewer, simpler, and more stable the laws, the 
happier and better the people. Upnn the 
threshhold of their reading, this simple fact 



should have been patent to the law student, 
and we do not doubt had such convictions 
ever entered his mind, he would have at once 
so proclaimed to the world We are aware 
it has not been a willful fault of the profes- 
sion, but the law student, like nearly all other 
students, when he was first placed in position 
to study and prepare himself to master his 
profession, universally had his face turned 
exactly the wrong way, and that he would 
look only in the direction pointed out to him 
was to be expected. Hence it has been that 
the world is at last being taught the true 
philosophy of law by biologists and philoso- 
phers that have come not of the ' ' learned 

It will take many years to teach the mass 
of mankind to unlearn the lessons that have 
been instilled into it on this subject. The 
average man clings to the old; he reverences 
only long accepted ideas of things, and he 
resenis as a personal indignity, as well as a 
slur upon the memory of his forefathers, any 
innovation upon the way that they thought, 
and the ideas they accepted and approved. 
When schools are founded and run upon this 
idea, the world will soon be much better ed- 
ucated than it now is. Better scholars will 
come from our colleges, and better lawyers 
and doctors from the universities. Then the 
great doctor will be he who teaches mankind 
how to best live; how to conquer contagious 
diseases and epidemics, and to avoid disease 
and suffering in all its forms, and meet and 
overcome them in a better way than did our 
progenitors. He will then cease to be an 
empiric (that's all there is in medicine now), 
and his greatness will not consist in these 
miraculous cures that are so coinrnon, and 
that bring such notoriety and so much money 
to the lucky ones in life's lottery. Empiri- 
cism and quackery are a mere play upon 
words — tweedle-dum and tweedle-dee. To 

the money-getters in the profession these 
will be words worse than wasted. They will, 
as they ought to, resent and condemn them 
without stint. But, nevertheless, while it 
has always been true, it will always remain 
true that the world's truly great men, its 
sublime benefactors, its givers of all good, 
have received neither money nor fame for 
their grand labors in behalf of mankind. 
Their immortal work came like the gentle 
dews of heaven, silent and unseen, aud no 
more appreciated by men than they were by 
the dull cattle upon the hills. 

The coming great lawyer will be also not 
the great compiler or the brilliant student of 
ancient precedents and hair-splitting decis- 
ions; not the magniloquent orator, nor the 
successful and rich practitioner, with his 
troops of rich clients; and the mob, with 
greasy caps and stinking breaths, shouting 
at his heels, but he who frankly tells them 
the truth, and, mayhap, therefor receives their 
blows; he who teaches the people that law is 
not a blessing, but a necessary and oppressive 
evil. It is immaterial whether this truly 
great man has a license and is called a law- 
yer by authority or not. He will compel ig- 
norant man to know that his welfare consists 
in the fewest, plainest, simplest possible 
laws; so few and so plain and so simple that 
the school child may be able to master them 
all in a day, and once mastered they will 
never be forgotten and they will not be 
changed. This Utopia may never come — we 
do not at all believe it a possibility — but its 
smallest approach is a boon for which let the 
praying pray, and the militant tight to the 

Gov. Hubbard. — The first lawyer that 
ever filed a paper in the Circuit Court of 
Wayne County was Adolphus F. Hubbard. 
As further noted above, there were but two 
civil cases, both of debt, at this first court, 



and the declaration in each case was signed 
by Hubbard. He was the second Lieutenant- 
Governor of the State, succeeding Pierre 
Menard December 5, 1822. His residence 
was Gallatin County. 

Concerning Gov. Hubbard we tind the fol- 
lowing interesting items in the current his- 
tory of the State: 

"In the summer of L825, emigration ro- 
vived considerably. A great tide set in 
toward the central part of the State. Through 
Yandalia alone, 250 wagons were counted in 
three weeks' time, all going northward. 
Destined for Sangamon County alone, eighty 
wagons, and 400 persons were counted in 
two weeks' time. Sangamon Couuty was at 
that time, without doubt the most populous 
county in the State. All the northern coun- 
ties were most disproportionately represented 
in the General Assembly. While such coun- 
ties as Randolph and White had each a Sen- 
ator and three Representatives, Sangamon 
had one Senator and one Representative. 

" It happened at this time that Gov. Coles 
was temporarily absent on a visit to Virginia, 
and Lieut. -Gov. Hubbard was acting-Gov- 
ernor. His excellency, <ui interim, struck 
with the injustice of this unequal representa- 
tion, issued his proclamation for an extra 
session of tho Legislature, to convene at the 
seat of government on the first Monday in 
January, 1S26, for the purpose of apportion- 
ing the State and for business generally. He 
was not loth to claim power. Gov. Coles 
returned on the last day of October, and re- 
sumed his office, but tho acting-Governor 
was not inclined to yield up, claiming he had 
superceded the former, and to be Governor 
de jure under Section 18, Article 111, of the 
constitution which read: 

In case of an impeachment of the Governor, his 
removal from office, death, refusal to qualify, resig- 
nation or absence from the State, the Lieutenant- 
Governor shall exercise all the power and authority 

appertaining to the office of Governor, until the 
time pointed out by the Constitution for the elect 
ion of a Governor shall arrive, unless the General 
Assembly shall otherwise provide by law for the 
election of a Governor to fill such vacancy. 

" After the arrival of Gov. Coles, Hubbard, 
as a test, issued a commmission to W. L. D. 
Ewing, as Paymaster- General of the State 
militia, which was presented to the Secre- 
tary of State, George Forquer, for his signa- 
ture, who refused to sign and affix the signa- 
ture thereto. In December following, the 
Supreme Court being in session, Ewing ap- 
plied for a rule on the Secretary to show 
cause why a mandamus should not be 
awarded requiring him to countersign and 
affix the seal of the State to his commission 
issued and signed by Adolphus Fredrick 
Hubbard, Governor of Illinois. The rule 
being granted, the Secretary answered, stat- 
ing the facts, whereby the whole question 
was brought before the court, and argued 
at length with much ability by talented 
counsel on both sides. The judges after 
much deliberation, delivered separate opin- 
ions of great learning and research, but all 
agreed in the juelgment pronounced, that the 
rule must be discharged. Hubbard was still 
irrepressible, and next memorialized the 
Legislature in reference to his grievance. 
But the Senate decided that the subject was 
a judicial one, inexpedient to legislate upon, 
and the House laid his memorial upon the 

In this connection, we cannot refrain from 
giving a remarkable [incident in the State's 
history, a part of which arose out of this 
contest of Hubbard'a 

The census of the State, for 1825, returned 
a population of 72,817, being considerably 
less than the sanguine expectations of many 
led them to hope for. The State was duly 
apportioned anew at the special session of 
January, 1826, with reference to the distri- 



bution of population, in accordance with the 
call of Gov. Hubbard. The question 
was also mooted at this session of repeal- 
ing the Curcuit Court system, not that the 
court did not subserve a great public need, 
but that the politicians in their disappoint- 
ment in obtaining office the winter preceding, 
sought to redress their grievances tirst by de- 
priving the Circuit Judges altogether of of- 
fice, and[next by loading the Supreme Judges 
with additional labors by remanding them 
to circuit duty. The latter being life mem 
bers, could not be otherwise reached as objects 
of their vengeance, wherefore they were 
charged with having too easy a life as a 
court of appeals for a State so embarrassed 
as was Illinois. The house, however, struck 
out of the bill to repeal all after the enacting 
clause, and as a piece of pleasantry inserted 
a section to repeal the wolf-scalp law, in 
which the Senate did not concur. 

In March, succeeding this special session 
of Hubbard's legislature, svithin five miles of 
where this body sat, a five-year old child of 
Daniel Huffman, which had wandered from 
home into the woods a mile or so, was at- 
tacked and killed by a wolf. The animal 
was seen leaving its mangled and partly con- 
sumed body, by the neighbors in search of it 
on the following day. 

In the race for Governor of the State in 
1826, the candidates were A. F. Hubbard, 
Thomas Sloo and Ninian Edwards. The first 
named had just been Lieutenant Governor 
and he supposed it was a matter of course 
he would be elected Governor. It turned out 
however, that the real contest lay between 
Sloo and Edwards. Sloo had been a member 
of the General Assembly for years, from 
Gallatin County, and possessed a wide and 
favorable acquaintance over the State, that 
he attracted to him by his agreeable manners 
and irreproachable character. He was a 

merchant, and was not accustomed to public 
speaking, while Edwards was a fine talker, 
polished and courtly in manners, vain and 
gifted. The vote was close between the last 
mentioned two, but Edwards was elected, 
and Hubbard's faith in the people was pro- 
bably much impaired. 

Gov. Hubbard was a better lawyer than 
politician. He was a genial, open-hearted 
and generous companion and friend. Very 
liberal in money matters, and altogether warm- 
hearted and impulsive, and generally im- 
pecunious. The latter arising from his in- 
attention to financial matters and his open- 
handed liberality. An instance related by 
Judge George, throws much light on his 
characteristics in this respect. Mr. George 
had gone to Shawneetown on his way to Ken- 
tucky, and for expense money, depended 
upon collecting a due-bill which he held on 
a prominent business man of Shawneetown. 
Upon arriving there and telling his wants to 
his friends, the fact came out that the debtor 
did not have the money, and after making 
several efforts, had failed to raise it, and 
the disappointment of the two men was very 
great. After repeated failures Mr. George 
had concluded to return home to Fairfield, 
and await a while before making the Ken 
tucky trip. The two men were bewailing their 
fate when Gov. Hubbard came in, and when 
he learned the situation of affairs, he was 
much concerned, and finally run his hand in 
his pocket and jingling the ten or twelve 
silver dollars he possessed remarked, I've got 
some money, and I wish I could loan it to 
you. I would do so in a minute, but the fact 
is, I owe this and at least fifteen hundred 
times more, and I must pay my creditors 
some or they will begin to get uneasy. His 
auditors knew he was telling the truth and 
they warmly thauked him and took the will 
for the deed. 



To complete the story of Mr. George's finan- 
cial trouble we will say that while they were 
thus talking and bewailing the bad luck all 
around, a man rode up, called out the debtor 
and paid over just $25, that he owed him, 
and, as in the move all were made happy, 
and the Judge did not have to retrace his 
long ride to Fairfield in vain. Judge George 
informs us that Gov. Hubbard was a great 
snuff-taker, especially when deeply engaged 
in the court room, and he was constantly tak- 
ing snuff or else getting rid of it, and that 
he could blow the loudest nasal blasts that 
were ever heard in a court room. 

Gov. Hubbard came to Illinois about 1809, 
and fixed his permanent abode in Gallatin 
County. He was intimately known to all the 
early settlers in Wayne County, at one time 
owning an extensive stock farm here, which 
he would from year to year lease out to some 
citizen on the shares. 

Circuit Courts. — The first Circuit Court 
ever held in Wayne County, commenced on 
Monday the 13th day of September, 1819, at 
the house of Alexander Campbell (between 
eight and nine miles south of the present 
city of Fairfield |; Judge Thomas C. Browne 
was the Presiding Judge. Samuel Leech 
was the Clerk. He hail been appointed by 
Judge William P. Foster, and his commis- 
sion bore the date of June 19, 1819, and was 
issued at Kaskaskia. Andrew Kuykendall 
was the first Sheriff, and on the opening day 
of the court produced his bond as such offi- 
cer, with George Borah. Archibald Roberts, 
John Johnston, Enoch Wilcox, Tirey Robin- 
son and Alexander Campbell as sureties, 
which bond was approved and the following 
grand jury was reported and sworn: Enoch 
Beach, foreman; William Frazer, Alexander 
Clark, John Young, Robert Gaston, Andrew 
Clark. William Clark, Solomon Clark. James 
Clark, Alfred Hall, Seth Cayson, George 

Close, John Turney, William Davis, Andrew 
Carson, Robert Gray. William Simpson, 
Thomas Cox, Ephraham Meritt and Caleb 
Ridgeway. John M. Robinson was Circuit 
Attorney, and came into court and took the 
several oaths of office. 

Samuel Leach gave bond with Enoch Wil- 
cox, Archibald Roberts and Andrew Kuyken- 
dall as sureties; which bond was approved 
by the court. 

The first case entered on the docket was 
Benjamin Dulany vs. James Brown; in debt. 
This suit, on motion was dismissed at the 
cost of the plaintiff. The papers in this 
and the second case of Cardwall vs. Hooper 
and Slocumb, are each in the name of A. F. 
Hubbard. P. Q. Just what kind of an attor- 
ney that is the writer does not know, but one 
thing is evident, Mr. Hubbard was, by the 
papers, a first-class common law pleader, and 
his papers iudicata he was a thorough master 
of Chitty's pleadings. 

The labors of the grand jury at this first 
term consisted in the finding of a single bill 
of indictment against Alexander Campbell, 
for assault and battery. When he was tried 
at the succeeding term of the Circuit Court 
he was acquitted. 

Daniel I. Wilson was a Constable, and 
attended upon this court as Deputy Sheriff, 
and he was made a regular Deputy Circuit 
Clerk by Samuel Leech. 

The second term of the Circuit Court con- 
vened at the house of Samuel Leech on Mon- 
day, April 10, 1820. At this court William 
Wilson was the Presiding Judge. He con- 
tinued to hold every Circuit Court in Wayne 
County until 1824, when Judge James Hall 
held several terms, and then James O. Wattles 
held court, and Judge Hall again was pre- 
siding; and, 1827, Judge William Wilson 
again appeared as Judge, and for years, until 
1835, he presided as Judge at every term of 



the court. At tbe March term, 1335, Justin 
Harlan was the Presiding Judge. At the 
September term, 1835, A. F. Grant was 
Judge. Then Judge Harlan held the courts 
until April term, 1841, when Judge William 
Wilson again was presiding officer. Of all 
the remarkable jurists of Illinois, Judge Wil- 
son will take rank as pre-eminent in history. 
He came to Illinois a very young man. and 
had nothing of the politicians' tricks about 
him, and yet at the age of twenty- four years 
he was elected Associate Justice of the Su- 
preme Court, and lacked only a few votes of 
beating Gov. Reynolds for the office of Chief 
Justice, and in 1825 he was elected over Rey- 
nolds to that office by an overwhelming ma- 
jority. He continued to be Chief Justice of 
the Supreme Court until he was legislated 
out of office, in 1848, by the Constitution of 
that date. He was an eminent and just Judge, 
a great man, his grandeur of character at 
once impressing itself upon all with whom 
he came in contact. He was a Whig in pol- 
itics, though never a politician, and the 
Democrats did a very unwise thing when they 
legislated him out of office. It was a mis- 
erable political victory over this great jurist, 
who for nearly thirty years was Supreme 
Judge of Illinois, and who was as innocent 
as a babe of all political intrigue. He had 
held his place solely by his strength of in- 
tellect and the purity of his convictions of 
duty. His education was such as he had ac- 
quired by dilligent reading and self culture. 
As a writer, his diction was pure, clear and 
elegant, as may be seen by reference to his 
published opinions in the court reports. 
With a mind of rare analytical power, his 
judgment as a lawyer was discriminating and 
sound, and upon the bench his learning and 
impartiality commanded respect, while his 
own dignified deportment inspired decorum 
in others. He was an amiable and accom- 

plished gentleman in private life, with man- 
ners most engaging and friendships strong. 
He died at his home in Carmi, on the banks 
of the Little Wabash, in the ripeness of age 
and the consciousness of a life well spent, 
April 29, 1857, in his sixty-third year. 

At the second term of the court in Wayne 
County, the grand jury was composed of 
Anthony B. Turney, foreman; Benjamin 
Sumpter, John Johnston, David Wright, 
James Butler, William Simpson, Toliver 
Simpson, Michael Turney, William Watkins, 
Robert H. Morris, William Penix, Jacob 
Borah, James Dickeson, Richard Hall, Wal- 
ter Owen, Nathan Owen, James Patterson, 
Daniel Bain, Sr. , John Elledge, Joel Elledge, 
and John Young. This grand jury returned 
fourteen indictments against nearly every 
prominent man in the county. All for as 
sault and battery. 

John Darrah appears upon the records at 
ihis term as the first citizen naturalized in 
the county. 

At the September term, 1820, tbe grand 
jury was dames Bird, foreman; William 
Clark, James Gaston, Thomas Cox, Thomas 
Lee, John Turney, Stephen Coonrod, Daniel 
Kenshelo, Robert Gaston, Epraham Merritt, 
Richard Locke, John Owen, Robert L. Gray, 
Solomon Shane, George Close, Tirey Robin- 
son, Thomas Ramsey, John B. Gash, Rennah 
Wells, George Turner, Andrew Carson and 
John Waiker. 

At the September term of the court, Enoch 
Wilcox presented his bond as Sheriff and 
entered upon the duties of that office. His 
sureties were Tirey Robinson, John Carson, 
Solomon Clark, Samuel Leech. Andrew Kuy- 
kendall and Andrew Carson. John Walker 
was the County Coroner. 

The first lawyer to locate here was a man 
named Osborn. He came here from Clay 
County. This was about 1840, it is supposed. 



He was meager and somewhat stunted, and 
his career was insignificant and it is said was 
cut short by. an order of Judge Wilson's. 
About 1842, a lawyer named Selby, from 
Portage County, Ohio, came. He was a fine 
looking man, and a fair lawyer. He remained 
only a short time and loft. 

The third was a man named Ward. He 
was from Memphis, Tenn. Died in early 
part of 1845. His widow and family event- 
ually returned. 

Judge Edwin Beecher camo in April, 1844. 
Born in Herkimer County, N. Y. , which 
place he left when eighteen years, and in 
company with father's family removed to 
Licking County, Ohio, remaining there until 
1844, when he came to Wayne. Bead law 
with Henry Stanberry and Van Trump, rela- 
tives of Judge Beecher. When he was ad- 
mitted to the bar, he turned his eyes west- 
ward, and through the solicitations of an old 
schoolmate, came to Salem and thence to 
Fairfield. The coming to Fairfield through 
a letter from Bigdon B. Slocumb, the then 
County Clerk of Wayne County. He found 
office with the Circuit Clerk, J. G. Barkley. 
The first court he remembers, or was at here, 
was in August, 1844. Wilson, Judge, Fieklin 
and Linden, from Coles County. Bat Webb, 
S. F. S. Hago, Albert Shannon, were attor- 
neys from Carmie. and Charles H. Constable 
from Mt. Carmel; Kitchell, of Olney, was 
Prosecuting Attorney. Gov. A. C. French, 
from Palestine, was also an attendant. He 
says the average length of a court then was 
two days; recollects no jury trial at the term. 

The first case the Judge had was an assault 
and battery before John H. Brown. Justice 
of the Peace. Daniel Wheeler made an as- 
sault on a woman. Was elected Probate 
Justice — now called County Judge — in Au- 
gust, 1840, and served until the constitu- 
tional amendment of 1848, which created the 

new office of County Judge. On the 4th of 
June, 1855, he was elected Judge of the 
Twelfth Judicial Circuit. This circuit then 
consisted of Wayne, Edwards, Wabash, Ma- 
rion, Jefferson, Hamilton, Saline, Gallatin, 
and White Counties. The term served was 
six years. 

Judge Beecker was appointed Paymaster 
by President Lincoln, on the 19th of Novem- 
ber, 1862, in the army, and entered upon 
active duties of the office in January, follow- 
ing. He was mustered out about 1872. He 
had been retained under some orders in ref- 
erence to the Freedmen's Bureau. 

John Trousdale came in 1845, from White 
County. He had read law in Carmi. and 
was there admitted to the bar. He died in 
1864, in Fairfield, leaving a widow and six 
children, three girls and three boys. Trous- 
dale was a fair lawyer. He was a much bet- 
ter lawyer.before a jury than before a court. 
He went to California in 1850, as much for 
his health as anything else. He died of 

Louis Keller, from Indiana; Bob Bell 
came from Mt. Carmel. These men were 
partners here. Keller was a very fine young 
man, universally popular, and promised well 
in his profession. He died in Mt Carmel 
when young, to which point the firm had re- 
moved after practicing hero nearly two years. 
Bob Bell is still in Mt. Carmel — a good law- 
yer, very clever and pompous gentleman. It 
is said that on the smallest occasion he could 
start a covey of spread eagles and soar them 
all up at once, and send them higher, and 
spread their pinions wider than any other 
lawyer in the Wabash "deestrict. " 

Joe Conrad, a partner of Judge Constable, 
was located a short time here. 

Jacob Love, of whom we can learn noth- 
ing, except that at one time in the early day 
he was here a short time as an attorney. 



Tom Houts, before he got to be a reverend, 
was one of the regular practicing attorneys 
who visited the Fairfield courts. He was a 
good lawyer, and rapidly laid the founda- 
tions for an extensive and lucrative practice. 
But when young in life, and especially in 
the practice of the law, he laid down the 
law and turned bis attention to theology, and 
was soon ordained a minister of the Method- 
ist Church. His commanding talents, and 
his power and force as a preacher, has here 
singled him out from bis brethren even 
more strongly than it did in the law. He is 
still actively at work in his- chosen path of 
life, and was recently made Chaplain to the 
Southern Illinois Penitentiary. 

A. B. Campbell, the temperance lecturer, 
came here ten or twelve years ago from Indi- 
ana, and formed a partnership and practiced 
law for a while. When business would be 
dull with him in the law line, he would en- 
liven things generally by a lordly spree. 
He left bere and went to Bloomington, where 
we believe he now makes his home. He is a 
relative of Campbell, the founder of that 
church. In person he is large and inclined 
to be portly, very brilliant, and at times elo- 
quent when speaking, and always forcible 
and commanding. For the past few years, 
he has given up all other business, and has 
traveled and lectured over many of the West- 
ern States in the cause of temperance. The 
writer saw Mr. Campbell at the general 
United States Conventions of the " Murphy 
movement " at Decatur, 111., and Bismark, 
Kan., and has always remembered him as 
much the most conspicuous figure at either 
one of these gatherings of the lights of tem- 
perance. In his private confidences, he tells 
his friends that when his law practice would 
keep him busy — always when his work would 
literally rush him' along — he then had no 
desire for stimulants, but the moment a lull 

came and he had nothing to do, then he must 
have drink. That it was only upon such oc- 
casions that the uncontn lable desire would 
come upon him, but that when it came at 
such times he could no more restrain him- 
self than he could control his heart beating, 
etc. Then he went down, down, down, un- 
til the b itter cup would be drained to its 
bitterest dregs. For him to tell the simple 
story of his horrible sufferings that would 
follow such a debauch, was always a power- 
ful temperance lecture, that would impress 
the hearer like a hideous nightmare. But it 
has always been a serious question in the 
writer's mind whether such recitals by these 
gifted but unfortunate erratics were not of 
evil tendency in their final results upon the 
minds of our young people or not. Their 
commanding eloquence in their recitals — 
their erratic genius and its loud applause, 
are ever returning to take their places in the 
mind of the young listener, and unconscious- 
ly, in the end he will clothe the drunk and 
the genius in one and the same glamour, and, 
in the end, that which is low, beastly and 
horrible, is in some indefinite way mixed 
with the gifted and admirable: and then he 
saw the open way to win the world's pity and 
applause by making of himself a drunken 
genius. They can command the drunk, 
but the gifts of genius are as far out of their 
reach as the farthest star, and they are the 
simple, disgusting drunken beasts that po- 
lute the pure air of Heaven and defile the 
fair face of the earth. How many youths, 
think you, have been made drunk by reading 
the story of Daniel Webster and his fond- 
ness for wine in his boyhood"? Webster's 
transcendant genius made him a nation's 
idol, and the only way a boy can be like 
Webster is to drink, and, therefore, in the 
language of Bjron, " Man being a reasoning 
being must get drunk." 



I. S. Warmoth was at one time one of the 
regularly enrolled attorneys of Fairfield. He 
came here, we believe, a harness-maker, and 
for some time carried on his trade. He was 
from Kentucky, and was born a little over 
seventy years ago, and came to Illinois when 
a young man. At one time he kept a hotel 
here, and the Judge and lawyers often 
stopped with him during the term of courts. 
He was for years a Justice of the Peace, and 
his attention being 'thus directed to the stat- 
ute laws, he soon became sufficiently ac- 
quainted with the practice to be licensed by 
the court as a regular lawyer. His son Hen- 
ry, now a citizen, and ex-Governor of 
Louisiana, was reared in Fairfield. He was 
always a bright, though very mischievous 
boy. He attended the public schools, played 
" hookey," and went tithing and swimming, 
and thus successfully passed through the 
eat-killing-bird-nest-robbing age of boyhood 
successfully, and heroically encountered the 
usual assortment of measles, whooping-cough 
and mumps, and when eighteen or nineteen 
years old commenced reading law with W. 
B. Cooper, of Effingham. The mischievous 
boy at once became the attentive student, and 
he set about seriously preparing himself for 
the battle of life. He was soon admitted to 
the bar, and removed to St. Louis, and here 
he actively engaged in politics, and became 
the editor of a paper that soon commanded 
considerable influence. Here he soon at- 
tracted the notice and patronage of Gen. 
Frank Blair and other leading anti-slavery 
men of Missouri. Then came the late war, 
and this was the ripened opportunity of 
\oung Warmoth's life. He raised a regi- 
ment, was made Colonel of it, and soon was 
widely and favorably known to the country. 
While in the South with the army, he looked 
about him and saw here a most inviting held 
for ambitious young men from the North. 

The war over, he located in New Orleans, 
and in the work of reconstruction he was the 
one commanding figure. He was soon made 
Governor of the State, and tilled the posi- 
tion, even in the most trying time in the 
State's history, with ability, so much so, 
that to this day his administration is remem- 
bered with respect by his political friends 
and foes. 

Hon. Charles A. Beecher was born in Her- 
kimer County, N. Y., August 25, 1829, and 
with his family removed to Licking County, 
Ohio, September, 1836, and located in Fair- 
field June 8, 1854. He had been a pupil — 
irregular attendant — in the Wesleyan Uni- 
versity, Delaware. Ohio, from September, 1849, 
to December, 1853, and during vacations he 
taught school during the winters and attended 
school during the summers, and sometimes 
performed hard manual labor during vaca- 
tions. He attended the Law Department of 
the Farmer's College, College Hill, near Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, from December 1, 1853, to 
June, 1854, and was admitted to the bar in 
February, 1856, and at once entered actively 
upon a lucrative and successful practice. 
During five years, from 1870 to 1875, he was 
out of the active practice of the law, and 
was bending all his energies toward the con- 
struction of the Springfield Branch of the 
Ohio & Mississippi Railroad. In December, 
1868, he had been elected Vice-President of 
that road, which position he held until the 
property was sold to the Ohio & Mississippi 
Railroad in January, 1875. In September, 
1873, he was appointed Receiver with Alex- 
ander Storms by the United States Circuit 
Court of Illinois, of the Springfield & Illi- 
nois Southeastern Railway, and this position 
he continued to fill until the sale of the road 
by a decree of the court in September, 1874. 
Mr. Beecher was then appointed the agent of 
the bondholders, and operated and controlled 



the road in their behalf until the formal 
transfer of the road to the Ohio & Missis- 
sippi Railroad March 1, 1875. He was then 
made Division Superintendent of the Ohio & 
Mississippi, in which capacity he acted until 
June 1, 1875, at which time he was appointed 
General Solicitor of the Ohio & Mississippi 
Railroad and branches. This road was placed 
in the hands of a receiver in November, 1876, 
and Mr. Beecher has continued to the present 
time its general solicitor. October, 187(5, he 
was elected a member of the Board of Di- 
rectors of the Ohio & Mississippi Railroad 
and is still a member, and his term of office 
to this position will not expire until 1886. 

The charter of the Illinois Southeastern 
Railway was granted in 1867, and Mr. 
Beecher was made one of the incorporators, 
and upon the original organization of the 
company he was elected Treasurer. In 1872, 
the duties of his office required him to move 
his residence to Springfield, 111., where he 
remained for three years, and, in 1875, he 
removed to St. Louis, and, in 1879, the 
growth of the work in his office as General 
Solicitor of the great corporation of the 
Ohio & Mississippi Railway required his 
removal to his present residence in Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. These are the dates and figures 
that are the strong outline, when well stud- 
ied, of the career of Mr. Beecher since, as a 
very modest and unassuming young attorney, 
he commenced life in Fairfield. The dates 
and figures tell much of the story of a man 
who was destined to rise by the inherent 
power that was within himself. He entered 
the corporation of the Springfield & Illinois 
Southeastern Railway as one of its most un- 
assuming corporators. A stranger would 
uotice in the young attorney but little else 
than a pleasant, smiling face, affable man- 
ners and a retiring modesty. He was given, 
much by accident, an obscure and unimport- 

ant office — Treasurer to a corporation without 
a dollar, and with but little hopes of ever 
being more than a paper railroad. His 
nature was not self- asserting, and yet no 
great progress had been made in putting the 
enterprise on its feet until it was most mani- 
fest he was the master spirit of the scheme, 
and many men from Shawneetown to Spring- 
field soon came to know that if the road was 
ever built it would owe this good fortune 
largely to Beecher. His genius and untiring 
energy gave all that part of Southern Illinois 
the railroad now running from Shawneetown 
to Beardstown. The ordinary rule in life is 
for the big fish to swallow the little ones, but 
it is a very easy matter to read most plainly 
between lines, as we give the dates and facts 
above of Mr. Beecher's connection with the 
great corporation at which he now stands at 
the most important post, that he controlled its 
destinies. From his first connection with 
the railroad interests he was thrown in con- 
tact with some of the ablest financiers, as 
well as some of the most eminent attorneys 
in this country as well as in Europe, and 
yet he came in conflict with none that in 
either law or in large and intricate financial 
schemes that ever overreached him, or that 
probably did not retire in the faith that in 
some way the rural attorney from Wayne 
County had left them at the foot of the class. 

Mr. Beecher cast his first vote for Presi- 
dent in 1852, for Gen. Scott. In 1856, he 
voted for Fremont, and has since voted reg- 
ularly with the Republican party. From 
1862 to 1868, he was a member of the Re- 
publican State Central Committee. In 1867, 
he was one of five Commissioners appointed 
by Gov. Oglesby to locate and build a South- 
ern Illinois Penitentiary, but the Legislature 
failing to make the necessary appropriation, 
therefore nothing further was done. 

Such are the outlines of the career of no 



common man, and of all the attorneys who 
have ever pitched their tents in Wayne 
County we strongly incline to the belief he 
will go into history as the prominent central 
figure in the entire list. He is bnt now upon 
the threshold of his professional life, and 
has already accumulated a large fortune, and 
a fame and name among the attorneys of the 
country that cannot be gainsaid. 

Judge C. C. Boggs was born in Fairfield 
in 1842. He attended the Law Department 
of Ann Arbor University, and read law with 
Judge Beecher, and was admitted to the 
practice'in 1867. Was at one time State's 
Attorney from 1872 to 1876, aud the year fol- 
lowing was elected County Judge of Wayne 
County. He was married, in Fairfield, to 
Miss Sarah Shaefer in 1870. A strong and 
brilliant attorney, a Mason, an A. O. U. W., 
and a stanch and unflinching Democrat, and 
don't you forget it. 

A. M. Funkhouser was also a native of 
Wayne County. He attended the public 
schools here, and was awhile, we believe, a 
student in Ann Arbor University. He was 
at one time County Attorney of Wayne Coun- 
ty, and had built up an extensive practice, 
but, deeming his opportunities here circum- 
scribed, he went to St. Louis, where he is 
now engaged in the practice of the law. 

W. J. Travis, a native of Kentucky, came 
to the county and taught school and studied 
law; was admitted in 1879. Was City At- 
torney, and in the early part of 1883 removed 
to Kansas, where ho is now practicing. 

M. H. Bacon, of White County, came here, 
studied law with Robinson & Boggs, married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas L. Cooper, of 

this place. She died soon after marriage, 
and Mr. Bacon left the county and located in 

James A. Creighton, born in W T hite Coun- 
ty, came to this county when very young. 
Studied in the office of C. A. Beecher. He 
removed to Springfield in 1877, where he 
now resides. 

W. J. Sailor was among the ante-bellum 
times. Was a student at McKendree Col- 
lege, and with some other students stole 
away from school and enlisted in the army 
in the late war. He practiced for some time 
in the firm of Beecher, George & Sailor, and 
finally he relinquished the active practice 
and became the cashier of the bank, a posi- 
tion he now holds. 

Col. H. Thompson, formerly of New York, 
and later of the northern portion of Illinois, 
came to AVayne County about 1877. 

Ben S. Organ, now of Carmi, was for some 
time a prominent lawyer here. He recently 
removed to his present homo, where we un- 
derstand ho has already a good practice. 

James McCartney, the present Attorney 
General of the State of Illinois, is a resident 
of Fairfield — the only man ever elected to a 
State office from Wayne Count} - . His com- 
plete biography may bo found in another 

The present bar of Wayne County is com- 
posed of the following: J. G. Crows, W. H. 
Robinson, C. C. Boggs, G. \V. Johns, R. P. 
Hanna, R. D. Adams, Edwin Beecher, John 
Keene, Jr., Jacob R. Creighton, C. E. Sib- 
ley, G. J. George, W. P. Bunch, Edward 
Kramer, N. S. McCown, F. P. Hanna, J. I. 
Montray, H. Tompkins and Z. B. West. 








AT the first view one would think the 
story of the printing press in a county 
would be an easy one to compile, from the 
fact that each paper is its own printed record, 
and all the writer would have to do would be 
to run over the old files, and there gather 
exact and full dates and records. But these 
files can never be found. Like many other 
things, when they were made the people could 
not imagine that they could ever become of any 
value, and hence their existence was short. 
Then, when the first newspaper in a coun- 
ty were started, it generally took only about 
three months to starve out the printer-editor, 
when the office would be closed, and some- 
times no files would be kept, and then others 
who had kept files would carry them away 
when they left. Thus the average experience 
of nearly every county is that no early files 
of the local papers can now be found, and 
hence no very accurate history of the first 
newspaper men of any county can now be 
given. It is only in the time when the county 
improves and the patronage of the paper ex- 
tends and begins to pay at least a scant liv- 
ing to the printer that it assumes the form of 
a permanent institution, and then men come 
into possession of the office who are careful 
to preserve their issues, and who realize that 
as these grow in age so will they grow in 

We incline to the opinion that the first ad- 

venturous spirit to come here and start a 
paper was Augustus A. Stickney, a native of 
St. Clair County, in this State, where the 
family were early settlers and prominent 
people. They were related to the Omelveny 
family. A. A. Stickney went to Jefferson 
County in 1852, and formed a partnership 
with John S. Bogan, now Circuit Clerk of 
the county, and perhaps the veteran news- 
paper man in Southern Illinois. He learned 
type setting in the Congressional Globe office, 
Washington, and followed his trade there un- 
til 1840, when he was induced by Gov. Casey 
to come to Illinois. Of Stickney Mr. Bogan 
gives us this account. He was a man of 
brains and vim, but not much physical 
strength. He worked the old Ramage press 
in Mt. Vernon, which required tremendous 
power to pull its four impressions to every 
paper, and used inked balls instead of rollers, 
which was too much for Stickney and caused 
him to commence spitting blood. He retired 
in a short time and came to Fairfield, and 
started in June, 1852, the Independent Press, 
in Fairfield, a six-column paper. John M. 
Walden became editor for Stickney. the pub- 
lisher. They had anything but a paying 
success, jet as they did almost the entire 
labor themselves, and could get some little 
credit on the paper and ink used, they 
struggled along and kept the paper alive, 
probably waiting in great patience for some 



ambitious man to come along and be willing 
to buy out the establishment and pay the 
bills for the pleasure of seeing in print his 
inward-surging great thoughts that were to 
turn the world upside down and spill out all 
this outrageous ignorance of men. In 1855, 
C. T. Lichtenberger bought out Stickney and 
Walden, and Stickney went South, and from 
thence to San Francisco where he commenced 
publishing the Alaska Herald, and for ought 
we know he is still publishing bis icy organ, 
and pouring ice cannon-balls, " blizzards," 
and other iced condiments into the sacri- 
ligous Bible revisors for extirpating from the 
language the genial glow of the lake of fire 
and brimstone. 

Walden is now the senior member of the 
firm of Walden & Stow, of Cincinnati, agents 
of the M. E. book concern. 

Lichtenberger soon tired of the name of 
Independent Press and at a serious outlay 
for streaked job type, changed it to the Illi- 
nois Patriot. The Press had been demo- 
cratic, and, of course, the Patriot was only 
more so, only it was solicitous upon the sub- 
ject of the genuineness of its patriotism. 
We were enabled to find a few stray copies 
of this paper, that are now in the possession 
of D. W. Barkley, the latest date being Sep- 
tember 17, 1856. 

There is a tradition, but not sufficiently 
confirmed, that Lichtenberger first changed 
his paper's name to Pioneer and then Patriot 
If this should prove to In' true, it only is an 
additional evidence that the poor fellow was 
always beset by the great question of how to 
keep his paper from starving to death, and 
perhaps the gallant commander going down 
with his flag ship. At all events, in the lat- 
ter part of 1855 or the early part of 185G, he 
put away the Patriot's little slippers and 
went to Chicago, induced, no doubt, by the 
more alluring and lucrative business of 

" blowing up " water lots and assisting the 
denizens in putting up ten-story buildings, 
with a mortgage on each floor. In the ex- 
citement we enjoyed in following the patriotic 
changes in names, we forgot to mention that 
Lichtenberger was a doctor, and while he 
poured drastic Democratic editorials into a 
deluded world,' ho also compounded pills and 
potations for the sick and afflicted, and that 
now he is engaged in the practice in Cook 
County, near Chicago. 

Rev. J. M. Walden was strongly anti- 
slavery in sentiment, and in politics he was 
a Republican before the party came into ex- 

J. D. Lichtenberger was here among the 
earliest of the printers and publishers. He 
died three years ago in the Government Hos- 
pital in New Orleans. 

The Fairfield Weekly Kpics, James H. 
Smith, editor and proprietor, was started in 
1856. . It was strictly neutral in politics; 
was a four-column folio, and the columns 
being long, gave the paper about as slim- 
waisted an appearance as Sara Bernhardt. 
Volume I, No. l,of this paper has a long and 
high-sounding salutatory, and promised a 
great deal, and, as usual, we presume, found 
the pay too small to encourage such mighty 
efforts. In 1857. Smith enlarged the Neivs 
to a six-column paper and otherwise made 
many improvements in the general make-up 
and its contents. 

June 22, 1858, appeared the first number 
of the Fairfield Gazette, Alfred S. Tilden, 
proprietor. In his bow to the patrons he 
said, "I came to Wayne County to purchase 
the printing press here which has been lying 
idle for nearly two years." And he an- 
nounced that his politics were "like those 
propagated by every lover of State Sovereign- 
ty and Popular Rights." 

In a copy of the Press of 1854, are the ad- 



vertisements of the I. O. O. F.'s, Dr. J. M. 
Whitlock, N. G. , and J. W. Barnkill, R. S. ; 
then Charles Wood, Drainage Commissioner, 
has a card; Joseph G. Barkley, Circuit 
Clerk, gives a notice, and John Trousdale, 
County Clerk, a swamp land notice; the Mt. 
Carmel Academy, H. C. Wood, Principal, 
also. John Moreland advertises for poultry 
and eggs for his store. Henry R. Neff, ad- 
ministrator of the estate of Ephraim Hay- 
wood, has a notice. D. Bear advertises his 
store. William Powless, administrator of 
Dagg's estate has a notice. T. T. & E. 
Bonham say " Clear the track for the wheel- 
barrow express." Jeremiah Hargrave, ad- 
ministrator of John Kirkpatrick's estate, gives 
notice. Dr. J. D. Cape, of the Fairfield 
drug store, has a say. B. Bailey, of Jeffer- 
sonville, advertises his store. Dr. J. W. 
Whitlock's card as physician appears. He 
removed to New Mexico, and in 1861, he was 
most brutally shot down and murdered in the 
streets of Las Vegas by a company of sol- 
diers. He had been drawn into a discussion 
with an officer, and hot words and a blow 
had passed, but they were separated by 
friends and no injury inflicted, when the 
officer left to arm himself, and Whitlock had 
started for his office for the same purpose it 
is supposed, in order to defend himself from 
the threatened attack, and just as he was 
about to enter his office he was attacked by 
over a hundred armed men, who beat him 
down with their guns and then riddled his 
body with bullets — one of the many dis- 
graceful, cowardly and brutal murders that 
marked too frequently that era of crime and 

Next in order appears the card of Dr. J. J. 
R. Turney and Dr. S. W. Thompson, and 
as attorneys, E. Beecher, L. J. S. Turney 
and John Trousdale. E. S. Aylos advertises 
a new tin-shop. In the candidates' column 

appears S. S. Marshall, for Congress, and 
L. J. S. Turney, as an Independent Consti- 
tutional candidate for Congress. Austin 
Organ, Alexander Campbell and William 
Beeson, for Sheriff, and C. C. Hopkins and 
J. W. Wheelock, for Representatives. 

February 22, 1859, was issued the first 
number of the Prairie Pioneer, by William 
Loyd Carter, and November 10, 1860, Car- 
ter retired from the paper with a valedictory 
of over a column, in which he says he has 
" stood at the helm through nearly two years 
of the storms of adversity," and he was evi- 
dently tired and wanted to quit with a big 


His successor was B. T. Atherton, who 
overhauled the paper generally, and pro- 
claimed that he would make it strictly neu- 
tral in politics. 

In March, 1859, Miles B. Friend entered 
into partnership with Carter in the publica 
tioti of the Prairie Pioneer. He opens out 
with a lengthy salutatory, in which he says, 
in " assuming the oditorship and management 
of the Pioneer" etc., that he will enforce his 
new departure and go upon the cash plan ex- 
clusively, and he says: "There will be no 
further prodigal display of talents in the 
paper without the cash on the counter." Mr. 
Friend is still living, and is publishing a 
paper in McLeansboro. He propably never 
in all his life since he came to Fairfield has 
written such a long bow to the public as he 
did here. It must have been too long, be- 
cause we find in March 15, 1859, he publishes 
the following, his " Obquitatory," as he 
facetiously calls it, and retires leaving the 
paper in Carter's hands: "Under financial 
stress I have quit." This is followed by an 
article from Carter's pen. from which we 
take the following: " A.bout the only good 
county paper ever published in the county 
was the Wayne County Herald, by Stickney, 


, \\H\ 



the Independent Press, by F. C. Manley, 
and the Illinois Patriot, by C. T. Lichten- 
berger, the immediate successors of the Pa- 
triot, each of which, after, a short struggle 
for public favor, failed. * * Probably no 
paper in Southern Illinois, established no 
greater length of time, has passed through so 
many different hands, or changed proprietors 
so often." 

October 20, 1859, Carter left the editorial 
chair, and was succeeded by J. D. Lichten- 
berger. son of T. C. Lichteuberger. In his 
farewell. Carter thus refers to his successor: 
"For us to attempt to say anything in his 
extolation. would be simply superfluous." 
March 15, I860, Theo Edmondson be- 
came the publisher, and W. L. Carter was 
again editor. Edmondson retired in August 
following, and Benson T. Athorton, from 
Wabash County, became publisher. October 
12, 1862, the Prairie Pioneer suspended 
publication, to be revived by J. D. Lichten- 
berger, who had reduced it to a four column 
concern, and then again Atherton tried to 
make it live and grow, but it continued to 
grow smaller and smaller, and in September, 
1st',:;, it breathed its last. 

We should have stated in the proper place 
above, that in 1858, Joe M. Pryor came to 
Fairfield and as printer, publisher and editor 
took charge of the Pioneer. He retired Feb- 
ruary 2, I 859, and says: "Good Bye!" He 
then confesses he was too much of a '"nig- 
gerite" to publish a paper in Fairfield, and 
then he throws up his head and "gives one 
long, loud, terrific yell forW. H. Seward and 
Abe Lincoln, our next President and 
Vice President." He then repels with scorn 
the slanders that some of the ■"Fairfield pop 
enjays" bad started on him. namely, that he 
was an " abolitioni.-t " 

Poor Joe, witty, jolly, vigorous and whole- 
souled, a man of much natural newspaper 

ability, and at times a very pungent para- 
graphist, yet eratic and restless. He floated 
about the country until 1862, when he died, 
having in life been appreciated for his full 
worth by few of the many who knew him or 
were associated with him. 

We have spoken of Alfred S. Tilden. He 
wound up his career in Fairfield, and became 
what nature intended him for, a roving tramp 
printer, smart and wholly reckless and dis- 
sipated, and thus soon wound up a short and 
reckless life. 

In the Fairfield Gazette of July 1, 1858, 
we find the following: " The tri-weekly stage 
line from Mt. Vernon, Ind., to Xenia and 
return, goes into operation this afternoon. 
The establishment of this route gives us mail 
connection with the O. & M. Railroad every 
Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday, and will 
expedite all our business transactions. The 
heart of Wayne County is now open for 
traverse by her business men and the traveler, 
and we look from this time forward for a 
stead}' improvement." 

March 22, 1860, the Pioneer had a stun- 
ning editorial article, vindicating Hon. John 
A. Logan from the vile aspersions of the 
Abolitionists. It said he was " the eagle- 
eyed orator of Egypt, and ably repels the 
vile epithet of ' Dirty-work Logan,' " and 
proclaims that this " virtuous statesman is in 
favor of carrying out the laws," especially 
the " fugitive slave law." 

In this same paper appears the law card 
of D. T. Linegar. and the same year it an- 
nounces that he is the " loyal " candidate for 
Congress against John A. Logan, the Demo- 
cratic nominee. It is said that politics 
makes strange bedfellows. There are yet 
voters living who well remember this great 
one-sided Congressional race. Linegar was 
an out-and-out Republican. Logan was a 
better Democrat than Douglas " or anv other 



yallerhainmer," in the language of the Bu- 
chanan-Danites of the country. Dave chal- 
lenged John for a joint discussion. He bad 
neither money nor friends, but he could an- 
noy the great "eagle-eyed orator" immense- 
ly. In fact, some irreligious Republicans 
said that the only two times they met, that 
Dave knifed him from the word " go ;" and 
now comes the curious fact, that Dave's logic 
drove Logan into " loyalty " and himself into 
being, of all in the "traitor's camp," the 
one altogether lovely. Linegar is well re- 
membered by all the leading early Republi- 
cans of Wayne County. Linegar left the 
county on receiving the appointment from 
Lincoln of Postmaster in Cairo, where he 
has lived ever since, and, except that his 
character was stained by being indicted with 
Dan Munn as one of the notable whisky 
thieves, he has pursued his profession suc- 
cessfully, and now for the past four years he 
has been regarded as one of the ablest Repre- 
sentatives in the Illinois Legislature. A 
man of strong mind, resplendent genius and 
incorruptible politics. 

In 1862 Dr. Sibley purchased James D. 
Lichtenberger's paper, and run it on the red- 
hot loyal platform. He soon associated with 
himself R. B. Schell, and off and on contin- 
ued the paper urtil 1868. The Democrat, in 
the meantime had been brought here by Joe 
V. Baugh, and the excitement ran high, and 
the paper pellets of the bruin at times fairly 
made it lightning all around the sky. The 
Democrat was published in the bar-room of a 
hotel, where Scott's store now is, but when 
it passed into Joe Baugh's possession he 
moved it to the Sailer property. 

In 1S04, about all the many paper ventures 
had ceased to vex the gentle air of heaven 
about Fairfield, except the War Democrat, 
by Sibley, when he finally caught the war 
fever and sold to D. W. Barkley, the present 

proprietor of the Wayne County Press, noted 
for its public spirit, liberality and enterprise, 
which under Mr. Barkley's able management 
have long made it conspicuous among the 
Republican journals of Southern Illinois. 
The War Democrat in D. W. Barkley's hands 
started in life neutral in politics. For some 
time his partner was M. G. Revill, who re- 
tired and went to Salem, 111., and started a 
paper, and afterward merchandising, which 
he continued until a few years ago, when he 

In 1865, C. Sibley announced his farewell, 
and was succeeded by D. W. Barkley, who, 
in his announcement, says : " This is my 
first attempt to serve the people in the 
capacity of an editor, and in January. 1866, 
he took Revill into paitnership, who says in 
his " announcement " that he had been for- 
merly connected with the Union Banner of 
Carlyle, and he very pointedly asserts that 
this fact " warrants us in the assertion of our 
competency for our present position." The 
title of the paper was changed to itB present 
name, the Democrat, and afterward the 
Press, was in the new management for a 
while neutral in politics. After Revill re- 
tired Barkley associated with himself his 
brother, O. F. Barkley, and for some time 
the two published the paper. Then D. W. 
purchased his brother's interest, and he is 
now and has since been an employe in the 

The War Democrat had been started by 
C. J. Wilmans January 14, 1S64. He had 
purchased the old Pioneer office. In Febru- 
ary, 1864, Wihnans associated C. W. Sibley 
in the publication. 

Under this new arrangement, the paper 
threw off all disguises about being democrat- 
ic, and fairly " went in Dugan " in the way 
of peppery articles about traitors, rebels and 
copperheads. It struck from the shoulder, 



and denounced treason without mercy, and 
flambagantly took its place in the ranks 
where " -John Brown's soul is still marching 
on." Particularly was this so after Wil- 
raan'a early retirement, and when Sibley was 
left alone in his glory. In August, 1864, C. 
J. Wilmans returned as Sibley's associate, and 
it was agreed that this arrangement should 
continue for one year. January l'_\ lN(i5. 
the paper was reduced in size to a half sheet, 
and in February, Wilmans again retired, 
and C. Sibley, the father of C. W. Sibley ran 
it awhile and sold to D. W. Barkley, as stated 

Barkley started his paper on the neutral 
side, and so published it for awhile, and then 
it was made a strong Republican organ, es- 
pecially in 1868. But then it left the Re- 
publican party and was a " Granger," and 
battled with the "broad horns" manfully 
until 1876, when it was again in its old place 
with its party and where it has apparently 
settled to stay. 

In 1878, the Republican was started by 
Robinson. It was an out-and-outer radical 
paper, and it made so much noise in the 
Wayne County political world, that Barkley 
finally bought it out and swallowed it up in 
his Press office. 

In 1SGS, George W. Bates started the 
Fairfield Democrat. He got out the paper 
occasionally, and he got " off his base" with 
wonderful regularity. A presidential elec- 
tion was on hand, and the leading Demo- 
crats induced John Moffitt, who was then in 
the Clerk's office, to take the paper and " save 
the country." John says he had never been 
in a printing office but once in his life be 
fore he was installed as "Editor in Chief." 
He wrote his editorials — started up, as it 
were, his screaming political eagles — 
launched his thunderbolts, to put it mildly, 
at the heads of his devoted country, and with 

bated breath awaited the result. He says 
his amazement, after the issue of his first 
paper, at seeing the world move on in its 
regular orbit, may be imagined, not described. 
He was dumbfounded — paralyzed, so to 
speak — and in a dazed kind of way looked 
around him. He picked his flint and tried 
it again the aexl week — a little stronger, if 
possible--and yet the sun, moon and stars 
bowled along in their usual way — the earth 
even did not fly off its handle and go spin- 
ning recklessly around, and bobbing against 
stray comets and things generally. Queen 
Victoria did not resign and become a dairy 
maid, and Bismark took his " swei glass'' 
regularly and without choking, and even Eli 
Perkins continued to peddle his lies to liter- 
ary and religious clubs, at $35 a night, and 
John was editorially demoralized slightly. 
At all events, in a couple of months the elec- 
tion was over, and Moffitt retired with a sar- 
castic farewell from the newspaper World, 

Joseph Carter and Will Goudy started the 
Dci/ister September 11, 1SN0. a democratic 
folio paper, of some ability and sprightliness, 
which they ran for about three months, and 
sold to McClung. of the Record. Goudy is 
now a postal route agent, and has quit his 
trade- of printer. 

The Fairfield Weeldy Democrat, an eight- 
column folio. Democratic paper, was started 
by Bates & Holmes. .Inly 3, L868. The of- 
fice had been purchased by l\. F. Brown and 
shipped here, and, as Brown abandoned the 
enterprise before it was fairly launched, it 
was run awhile by Moffitt, and then by C. J. 
Wilmans,and Stanley, and Schell, and Friend, 
and then Bauj'h. In 1S71 and 1872, C. E. 
Sibley and Et. B. Schell were proprietors. 
In 1875, Brown, who was a noted newspaper 
starter, again was in possession, and he sold 
about this time to Oliver Holmes. Then Sib- 
ley ran it awhile for Joe Crews, and for 



these years it was run by Wilmans, who 
owned it twice and was in and out a number 
of times; by Baugh twice, Brown twice, and 
finally Wilmans sold to Ed McClung, the 
present proprietor. McClung entered the 
office in 1876 as an humble boy apprentice, 
under Stanley & Schell. While he was in the 
office, it was sold under mortgage, and Wil- 
mans was the purchaser. McClung then be- 
came foreman, and so continued until he pur- 
chased the office three years ago. Wilinans 
and Joe Prior were the two most remarkable 
men developed among the early scribes of 
Fairfield. When Wilmans sold out, he went 
to Texas, and for some time was connected 
with different papers in that State. He is 
now a resident of St. Louis, and, we under- 
stand, is temporarily out of the newspaper 
business. His talents as a writer were above 
the average. 

In looking over our notes of the innumera- 
ble changes of ownership of the Democrat, 
we learn that R. D. Adams, and James Mc- 
Cartney were at one time the owners, and 
they leased it to E. B. Renard, of the Olney 
Times, who tried the experiment of running 
the two papers. He soon got enough of it, 
and the concern reverted again to Wilmans. 

As stated elsewhere, McClung purchased 
the Register in December, 1879, and at once 
changed the name to the present Record. 
Wilmans was in 1881, still running the Demo- 
crat, and McClung purchased it at that time 
and consolidated it with the Record. In the 
early part of 1883, he added a new Campbell 
power-press, and new type and material, and 
commenced the publication of a first-class 
country paper. In the fall of 1883, he 
changed the paper from an eight-column 
folio to a six-column quarto, and again made 
great improvement in a paper that already 
deservedly ranked well. 

The two men now conducting the Fairfield 
papers ar9 admirably fitted to supply the 
wants of the people of the county in their 
line, as well as a further illustration of the 
law of the "survival of the fittest," as the 
record we have given above shows that all of 
the many rivals have passed away, and most 
ly have been transferred to the Record or 
Press, and in each instance going to the one 
they were struggling to supplant or rival. 

Papers in Jeffersonville. — In April, 1ST'.!, 
George P. Slade removed the Christian In- 
structor from McLeansboro to Jeffersonville. 
This was an eight-column paper, devoted to 
the cause of the Christian Church — Slade, 
editor, and C. E. Wolfe, publisher. It 
dealt in church dogmas and launched thun- 
derbolts at all who differed from its church 
tenets. It commenced in April and died from 
exhaustion in December following. 

Then Wolfe and R. A. Moss started from 
this office the Wayne County Central, a polit- 
ical paper of the Republican persuasion. It 
was an eight-column folio, and about every 
issue it would politically " Whereas, the 
earth and all offices therein contained belong 
to the political saints, and, therefore, Re- 
solved, that we are the political saints." And 
thus it fought out the great battles of the 
country after the cruel war was over. The 
paper was continued under this arrangement 
until 1873, when Moss retired and J. M. 
Tracy took his place, who, after six months, 
took the office to Fairfield, and in a short- 
time Israel & Wolfe sold it to Prof. W. S. 
Scott, now of White County. 

The second paper started at Jeffersonville 
was by Wall & Tracy — the Evangelist at 
Work. This was in pamphlet form, and was 
thus run for one year, when it was changed 
to a four-column folio. This was another 
church organ, and after a year of varied fort- 

s *. 



unes the office was closed. The old press 
and types of this office are still in Jefferson- 
ville and belong to Tracy & Wolf. 

The third and only other paper started in 

this place was a Sunday school organ, in 
pamphlet form, sixteen pageB, by E. J. Hart, 
editor, and Tracy, publisher. It died when 
only eight months old. 



have given a 

preceding chapters we 
genera] account of the 
first feeble, but heroic efforts here to estab- 
lish and maintain the cause of education 
among the rising generation. We use the 
word education in the common acceptation of 
the term as synonomous with schools. Our 
forefathers here had no " free. " or State 
schools, and the result was they employed 
only teachers who were willing to work for 
very small pay and " board round," as they 
expressed it in their written contracts. To 
" board round," meant the teacher would, at 
his own discretion, divide up his time among 
the families of the pupils, and thus they would 
all contribute their equal share of the keep 
of the teacher. The writer has a distinct re- 
collection of how the different young men who 
taught the schools of those days would ad- 
just this problem. He would select some 
boarding place where there were the most 
pretty girls and the fahest table fare, and by 
helping get wood of an evening, making 
fires in the cook-stove, and sometimes, we 
blush to say, a flame in the eyes and heart 
of the buxom belle of the rancbe. he would 
almost be one of the family, and here he 

would 6tay, and the less comfortable places 
were but little annoyed by his presence, while 
the very poor never once would see him on 
their premises. But, in justice to the best 
farmers, we believe there was never any 
complaint from them on account of this in- 
equality in the " board round " of the differ- 
ent teachers, and in return the other patrons 
were never known to complain if this favor- 
ite's family's children had all the teacher's 
partiality — especially the big girls. 

The first, and for that matter, the only 
real " free schools " our people ever had were 
the Sunday schools, that were invented about 
sixty-five years ago in this part of the world. 
They were originally much better institu- 
tions than the same things are now. They 
came in response to the great need and de- 
mand of a pioneer people, who were sparsely 
settled over the broad land and who were too 
poor to import school teachers or build Bplon- 
did houses for school rooms, and further 
they had but few books for their children, 
and hence their families had not the neces- 
sary facilities often to teach the children at 
home to read and write. We said the 
schools then were better than they are now. 



We are convinced that this is true upon an 
investigation of their mode of management 
of the early schools and a comparison with 
the manner now. The original idea was to 
enable the chileren to learn to read and write 
— not to till with foolish dogmas and to pros- 
elyte to some special church. In these early 
Sunday schools, the only lessons were to learn 
to read and spell, and the only mark between 
that and the secular school was that the ex- 
ercises were opened with a prayer and song, 
suitable to the sacred day. Here the whole 
family assembled, and young and old partic- 
ipated in the exercises of the day. 

The scattered condition of the inhabitants 
over a large area of country, the difficulties 
of travel through the prairies in consequence 
of the luxuriant growth of vegetation, with 
paths only leading from one neighbor's 
cabin to another, made it very difficult for 
children to get to school alone. In the fall 
the prairies were swept by lire — adding 
another danger. In winter, travel was hin- 
dered by lack of bridges on either large or 
small streams. The latter at that time rose 
to a much greater height and remained up 
longer than now. These troubles, to- 
gether with the great respect we had for 
wolves and other wild beasts, made the pro- 
curing of an education impossible. 

But the difficulties enumerated were not 
all they had to contend with. If the com- 
mon school happened to be in winter, two- 
thirds of the children were not sufficiently 
clothed and shod to attend. And, again, 
should the school be in summer, when it was 
suitable for them to go on account of the 
weather, all the boys large enough to work 
could not be spared by their parents, for the 
reason that all were poor and must work. 
Our work was not then done on large farms 
as at present, but on " truck patches " such as 
cotton, flax, turnip and all other kinds of 

patches that we have now, and a corn patch 
of five to fifteen acres. In the latter part of 
the summer, they would commence clearing 
a good-sized turnip patch, and so add patch 
to patch until after many summers they had 
considerable farms, say forty acres. Our 
poor sisters could not be spared by our moth- 
ers if they were only high enough with a 
wheel-peg in their hands to turn a spinning- 
wheel and draw a pair of cotton-cards. Poor 
girls, they had no one but their mothers for 
music teachers, and good teachers they were, 
too. All the daughters graduated in their 
profession — manufacturing from the raw ma- 
terial taken from the cotton patch, picked 
out the seeds with the fingers — carded and 
spun four cuts per day, and so followed up 
the profession until the copperas stripe ap- 
peared in the cloth, and the maple-bark-col- 
ored hunting shirt was perfected into a gar- 
ment. Great skill was exercised in cutting 
garments, five yards being allowed for a dress 
pattern for a grown woman, not that five 
yards was a scant pattern, but the main point 
was to save some portion of the five yards to 
use when the garment was found to retro- 
grade, not exactly bustle attachments as it is 
the custom at the present day, but rather the 
reverse, to strengthen the garment, to make 
it pass through a certain period of time to 
make a connection with the fruit of the loom, 
which was periodical. 

But in slow process of time our people 
came to possess what we now call free or 
public schools, and for fifty years the only 
question that has concerned the advocates of 
schools has been to get enough of it. True, they 
sometimes talk about the quality of the thing, 
and you can generally hear much of graded 
schools, magnificent and costly school houses, 
and high -salaried teachers, and the county 
that has these in the greatest abundance, 
plumes itself and brags mightily upon its 



wonderful strides in civilization. Fifty years 
has witnessed a wonderful change in this 
country on this subject. The rise and spread 
of the public schools has has been almost a 
marvel, and already it has in some portions 
of the country been pushed to what many 
think is a legitimate conclusion, namely, a 
demand for compulsory education. And all 
over the land now we hear the cry for this 
summum bonum. It is powerfully advocated 
by the leading school teachers and school 
men in the country. The schools are free, 
say they, that is the people of Illinois, for 
instance, are taxed annually about $10,000,- 
000 to support free schools, and now the 
great question is how to compel the people to 
send their children to these free schools. A 
kind of compulsory freedom, as it were. 
And. American- like, the whole thing has 
been pushed to its utmost extremity from the 
beginning, and in the midst of all this wild 
clamor for more, more, more, of this the only 
entirely good thing on earth, reading and re- 
flecting men were recently startled by an 
able scholar and strong writer, but not a 
teacher, propounding, in the North American 
Review, the ominous proposition, which he 
sustains with a strong array of facts and fig- 
ures, "Are the Public Schools a Failure t n He 
boldly says they are, and appeals to the United 
States Census Reports for proof of the pre 
raises he lays down. This article started a 
warm discussion in the public press, the 
school teachers taking up the gauntlet with 
eagerness and great ability, and then the 
friends of the writer in the Review stepped 
forward boldly in his defense, and it is no 
uncommon thing now to pick up a daily pa- 
per and read there able and sometimes savage 
editorials denouncing the whole scheme of 
public schools as they are now taught, and 
arraigning them severely, and as many good 
people believe, justly. 

The school men say, " Give us compulsory 
education, then, indeed, will we show the 
rich fruits of our public schools." To this 
is answered: " You have had public free 
schools already more than a generation, and 
show us what you have done." They claim 
it is no answer to say look at our tine school- 
houses all over the land, or the many teach- 
ers, and the buildings all crowded. These, 
of themselves, are nothing. They are not 
responsive to the question, cui bono? that is, 
where is the good in advancing our civiliza- 
tion. And they triumphantly quote this 
passage from the greatest writer on political 
economy the world has yet produced, as fol- 
lows: "•How do we measure the progress of 
our civilization, by work and thoughts of our 
great geniuses who discover new truths in 
the mental or physical laws, new and useful 
inventions in the arts and the promise and 
expectancy of others still greater to follow 
these — by the freedom of the people — free 
dom from oppression and government med- 
dling— freedom from errors, freedom from 
prejudices, and freedom from supersti- 

These discussions are a healthy sign of the 
times. They call the attention of the people 
to the question of supreme importance to 
men in this life. If it results in getting the 
people — the masses, so to speak — to once 
really understand what is education, it will 
have done more for mankind than have all 
the public schools in Christendom. That is, 
it will put the people in the" way of taking 
matters in their own hands — for the people 
are always wiser than their State government 
— and evolving from this chaos of inanity a 
system of real schools where brains will be 
trained and developed, and not a hothouse 
yielding largely vagabonds and tramps. 

Freedom of discussion, and freedom for 
men to do their own thinking sometimes, are 



of themselves good schools, probably the best 
in the world. 

It is to be hoped that the future of the 
schools in the county may be as full of prom- 
ise as tbe past has been prolific of the growth 
and increase that has come here in the sixty 
years since the first log cabin was dedicated 
to the purpose of education. 

The School Commissioner in 1860, E. A. 
Johnson, reports total school moneys received 
$7,681, and that he paid out $7,907. 

County School Commissioner, 1864, Cal- 
vin A. Cooper, reported total amount of 
money received, $7,068. 

In 1868, J. B. Mabry was County Com- 
missioner, and reported the whole school 
moneys for distribution that year at $8,958.31. 

William A. Vernon was School Superin- 
tendent, and retired from the office in 1873. 

F. M. Woolard elected in 1873, and was 
succeeded by Ben F. Meeks, and at the end of 
his term Z. B. West was appointed by the 
board to serve one year, and in 1882 was 
elected for the term he is now serving. His 
report for 1883 shows the following: Number 
males under twenty-one in the county, 6,039, 
number females, 5,985. Total under twenty- 
one years of age, 12,024; number of males 

between the ages of six and twenty-one, 
3,928; number of females. 3,834; total be- 
tween those ages, 7,762. There are two 
school districts in the county that have no 
schools. Total number of schools in the 
county is 121, and of these five are graded 
schools. Total number of teachers em- 
ployed, 199. There are 112 schoolhouses, 
two brick, 101 frame and fourteen log 
houses. Four districts have libraries. There 
are two private schools, and in these are 
fifty. eight pupils and three teachers. The 
highest monthly wages paid any male 
teacher being $125, and the lowest $16; high- 
est monthly wages paid female teacher, $40, 
lowest $16. Total amount paid male teach- 
ers, $17,079; total paid females, $8,356. 
Total amount of district tax levy for the 
year, $20,693. Total estimated value of 
school property, $76, 508. There are reported 
as illiterate, between the ages of twelve and 
twenty-one years, thirty-one. The " inci 
dental expenses of treasurers and trustees " is 
reported, P96.31. Amount of interest paid 
on district bonds, $1,247. Total expendi- 
tures for the year $35,880. 10. The County 
Commissioner reports his total compensation 
for the year ending June 30, 1883, at $641.75. 






RAILKOADS.— As far back as 1837 this 
county was deeply engaged in the grand 
scheme of building railroads through the 
county. That was more than a generation 
ago, and while at first there was nothing but 
loss and grievous disappointment, yet their 
children when they came on, joined their 
fathers in the generous spirit of public enter- 
prise, and took up the work as soon as the 
debris of the splendid wreck of the old in- 
ternal State policy had been cleared away, 
and while then there was not a county in the 
State that could boast its mile of railroad track, 
now there is scarcely a county but that is 
fairly gridironed with these highways of 
wealth and commerce. 

Judge S. J. R. Wilson tells us he was a 
member of the surveying party that surveyed 
the line of a railroad through Wayne County, 
in 1837. It was intendid to build a line from 
Mt. Carmel to Alton. The people of Illinois 
were filled with extravagant day dreains, and 
they went wild, and the State went daft, and 
the State commenced not only to make itself 
and each voter rich, but it would, by a kind of 
Chinese home pi - otection, build its own great 
cities and have them here in Illinois. And the 
wisdom of the law-makers was exquisitely 
manifested when they selected Alton. Shaw- 
neetown, Cairo, Mt. Carmel and a few other 
places that are not now designated on the 
maps, and determined that here the world's 

great cities should and would be built. 
These were great statesmen, and they flour- 
ished mightily, and the few members of the 
Legislature who had sense enough to forsee 
the calamities that awaited their folly, were 
pooh-poohed down, and a glorious constitu- 
ency retired them at the first opportunity, to 
private life. But the bubble burst, and not 
a mile of railroad track was built, and yet 
millions of the people's money A*as squan- 
dered, and worse than wasted, and bankrupt- 
cy and pinching poverty were wide spread over 
the land. A remarkable, yet a common fact in 
history, was that at that time a commercial 
panic ran round the civilized world, thus 
demonstrating that it was the age that these 
people lived in, more than the special igno- 
rance and folly of the people of Illinois that 
evolved this calamity to the young State at 
that time, and it will sometime become the 
historian's duty to con the statistics of that 
age, and tell what movements it was in states 
and societies that produced this culminating 
era of blindness and ignoi - ance on these vital 
questions. The chastisment of the people was 
long and severe, and it taught them a most 
wholesome lesson, and in the end perhaps was 
the best thing that could have haj>pened to 
them. There is danger that this generation 
>may forget the story. If the schools that the 
State runs at such an enormous expense would 
only hold such lessons as these up to the 



minds of the young that are placed in their 
hands, it would tend to recompense somewhat 
for the outlay of the people's money. It is 
simply in other words, that proper knowledge 
of the past that should enable us to avoid the 
errors of those who have gone before us- 
Teach the young more of these practical les 
sons of life, and less of that glittering and 
fundamental folly of the fathers that " all 
men are equal." The truth is all men are 
unequal in every thing and in every way, 
and governments are instituted solely to 
increase this natural unequality. One of the 
most wonderful things in nature is that there 
are no two things in existence that are ex- 
actly alike — either hairs, grains of sand or 
blades of grass, letters in a book or any con- 
ceivable thing, and this is the very life, the 
essence of the cosmic worlds and the universe 

There are strong-minded men who now 
doubt that the lesson Illinois had in its 
young days on the subject of internal im- 
provements has not been misread to the ex- 
tent at least that these great improvements 
are or should be any more the care of the 
State or municipalities to build than dairies, 
cheese factories, corn-fields, or cattle and 
sheep ranches; that the transportation of the 
commerce of the country is a private business, 
and, like all such things, it should be left to 
private enterprise, that always in due time 
meets the public wants with a prompt supply. 
A hue and cry runs over the land about 
crushing monopolies — gigantic combinations 
of capital that sap the people of their staff 
of life, and breed wide dish-ess, financial 
panics and pinching poverty among the la- 
boring classes, and something of this public 
complaint arises from the railroads; and it is 
not mere foolish babbling. At present, per- 
haps what we see of this public disturbance 
is mere smoke, but certain the tire is some- 

where below, and fortunate will it be indeed 
if the time would soon come when this pub- 
lic alarm about monopolies in this country 
should cease for the want of any solid basis 
of facts to rest upon. A now growing evil 
has arisen in the last twenty years, and so 
swiftly has it come that now three men are 
said to control the commerce, railroads, bank- 
ing, and the business of the western slope of 
the continent. And without a blush they 
boast that they own the State legislatures of 
their vicinage, and recent confidential let- 
ters that have found their way to the pub- 
lic prints, show that their grasping ambi- 
tion has extended to, and been met with 
smiles, too, by the Congress of the United 
States. Could more testimony be wanted 
when it is an open secret that already the 
office of United States Senator has been pur- 
chased more than once, and the rich scoun- 
drels have filled their terms in the high 
chamber of justice instead of the penitentiary 
where they belonged. The monopoly com- 
bination of capital is made possible in this 
country only by foolish laws, that were orig- 
inally made in the great mistake that it was 
the jirovince and duty of the Government to 
aid in developing the business of the country. 
These monopolies, when they have been made 
strong and rich, and when, as in California, 
they have every business man and the labor 
of the State by the throat, are answered by 
that feeble and often foolish scheme of labor 
combination — the very thing combined cap- 
ital wants to see, as it gives them a pretext 
for their open attacks upon the public, and 
apparently justifies the grievous exactions 
that they demand and collect in the name of 
the strong arm of the law. So long as they 
can control the legislation of Ihe country, so 
long may they laugh at the voters — that pal- 
ladium of the laborer of universal suffrage, 
"Vote, vote, vote on forever," say they, 



" and we will tax you to the poorhouse and 
the potter's field." 

In looking over American law books, no 
intelligent man could ever for a moment sup- 
pose that this country had produced a soli- 
tary political economist — a single writer who 
understood anything of the science of politi- 
cal economy — how best to govern a people, 
and yet in the mountains of foolish laws ev- 
ery man is supposed to know the law, and, 
supremest of all other nonsense, in every ig- 
norant noddle in the land is faithfully en- 
grafted the fact that he is not only equal to 
the wisest and best, but that he is in the race 
for every office in the land, especially that of 
President of the United States. Universal 
suffrage is worth nothing to ignorance — in- 
deed it may be the weapon, wielded by its 
own hands, for its destruction — not the de- 
struction of ignorance, for this seems to be 
indestructible, but the ignorant. 

If the schools of the country, instead of 
contributing to these evils of mankind, would 
turn about and begin to systematically instill 
into the children of the nation a few simple 
axioms of life such as would enable them to 
better regulate not only their own affairs, 
but enable them when they reached the age 
of majority to go to the ballot box and there 
deposit an intelligent vote — a vote that would 
contribute to the bettering of the Government 
and the condition of all the people, it would 
be a happy consummation, and would soon 
give a sublime solution of the now mooted 
question, " Are the schools a failure?" 

Our law-makers, in other words, believe 
they possess the wisdom to make laws that 
will more rapidly develope the country, and 
thereby make the people rich and happy. 
That they can pass friendly laws for railroads, 
canals, rivers and harbors and lines of ocean 
steamers is readily granted, andj that the 
laws that aid these enterprises by the public 

money, or by special privileges and favors 
from the Government, can and do stimulate 
into a quicker existence these great measures 
there can be no doubt, and they lend an ap- 
pearance to the world's splendor, wealth and 
glittering prosperity. But the pomp and 
glitter may be there and yet the people may 
be miserably oppressed — the suffering victims 
of mistaken laws— the starving slaves of 
pampered monopolies. The dreariest paths 
in the long past history of the human race 
are to be found in the impartial story of 
these meddlings of Government in affairs 
that it should let alone. At one time in the 
name of a divine king; at present and for a 
hundred years in this country, in the name 
of the divine mob, which with "greasy hands 
and stinking breaths " can vote. The cruel- 
lest taskmaster was always the fellow slave; 
he always wielded the bloodiest lash, and 
laid on its pitiless tortures with the most 
unsparing hand. And now, following the 
thoughtful question in reference to the 
schools, will come eventually the greater 
question, " Does universal suffrage make un- 
iversal wealth or happiness." The dema- 
gogue, the combination of capital and the 
ignorance of the voters, are the menace to 
democracy and freedom in America,and if fifty 
years of our public schools is slapped in the 
face with the astounding fact that ignorance 
has spread faster than the free school system 
itself — not illiteracy, mind you, but ignor- 
ance that is duped by demagogues to voting 
for its own men — if this has even kept step 
with the growth of schools, and the result is 
that in a hundred years we have degenerated 
in the scale of a poor, happy and contented 
and innocent people, to a rich, prosperous 
and demoralized nation, what account can 
the annual institutions give to such facts as 

Wo are arguing none of the problems of 



political economy. We are merely hinting 
at a few things — suggestions that may cause 
some minds of a thoughtful tendency, to in- 
vestigate those subjects which vitally concern 
every voter ia this land of much voting and 
more law making. It is simply a ciime to 
vote upon matters you know nothing about. 
and the evil will fall upon the head of the 
ignorant voter always. This penalty cannot 
be detached from ignorance. In the econo- 
my of God. this is inflexible, and hence that 
man is troubled with a hopeless idiocy who 
believeB that he can be made great, good or 
happy by much voting and much law making. 
It was a non- voting English woman, who, 
from a simple interest in the human family, 
studied and investigated into the science of 
governments, and wrote books on the subject 
that are worth more to men, than have or 
will all the votes that may ever be cast. It 
is, therefore, the thinker, and not the voter, 
who benefits his fellow man. The most 
ignorant man that ever voted may be told, 
and he may be made to understand the re- 
markable fact that since governments have 
been instituted, the masses — the voters in 
this country, have always furiously voted 
against and often violently resisted at first 
every human scheme and invention that gen- 
ius offered for their sole behoof and benefit. 
The superfical demagogue and the dishonest 
politician is ever proclaiming as a political 
axiom, that the people are always infallible, 
where the plain truth is they never ap- 
proached that perfection, but have nearly 
always been wrong or mistaken. So true is 
this that a wise and just government cannot 
be found, and cuuld not exist over any 
nation in the world for an hour. Because a 
government, either monarchic or democratic, 
is a reflex of the people's intelligence over 
whom the government exists. It is nonsense 
to talk about the tyranny of governments that 

exist for centuries in their cruel oppressions 
— it is the ignorance of the people who are 
governed, that is at fault. That kind of 
ignorance that in the voter in some way 
thinks the government can meddle in men's 
private affairs, and do better by its subjects 
than they can do by themselves; that stolid 
assininity that pushes forward its long ears 
and listens to the demagogue, who tickles 
them with promises that when he gets to the 
legislature he will pass laws to make them 
all rich and happy; that he will lay a tax, so 
smart and cunning, too, it will be, that it 
will take money from bloated wealth and, 
under the name of work and big pay, fill the 
coffers of all the poor. The dupe does not 
realize that his innate dishonesty is alone 
appealed to, but thinks it is his patriotic 
love of his fellow man, and, therefore, he is 
a patriot and the government that, in his 
imagination, . allows him to rob somebody 
else, is the greatest and best government on 
the planet. 

We dismiss this subject with this simple 
proposition, that is so plain, and to the writ- 
er's mind so true, that it will do much to 
better the condition of men, and advance 
civilization if ever it comes to be generally 
understood. That is this. Every society 
in all times and all places is good or bad 
exactly as it is wise or ignorant — nay, fur- 
ther, a people is moral or immoral, chaste, or 
base, upright or dishonest, sober or drunken, 
good or bad, exactly as it may be wise o r 
ignorant. And the only way under heaven 
to make good men is to store their minds 
with the simple and divine truths of nature -- 
this Holy Writ must be read, studied and 
obeyed, or otherwise its penalties will have 
to be endured. 

Swamp Lands. — September 28, 1850, 
Congress passed an act entitled " An act to 
enable the State of Arkansiis and other States 



to reclaim the swamp lands within their 

The Legislature of Illinois, Juno 22, 1852, 
passed " An act to dispose of the swamp and 
overflowed lands, and pay the expense of 
surveying and selecting the same" and vest 
ing the title in these lands to the respective 
counties in which they were situated. 

By these acts, Wayne County became pos- 
sessed of about 100.000 acres of swamplands. 

November 5, 1855, the voters of Wayne 
County voted in favor of the proposition 
" For appropriating the swamp and over 
flowed lands of Wayne County, as a bonus 
to any company for building a railroad 
through the county. 

March 13, 1N[>(>, the county conveyed the 
lands to Charles Wood, Trustee, to the use 
of the Belleville & Fairfield Railroad Com- 
pany, the Mount Carmel & New Albany 
Railroad Company, or to any'railroad com- 
pany which should build a railroad through 
the county, conditioned that work should 
commence on the execution of the deed. 
Nn work, or expenditures were ever done by 
any railroad under this deed during the two 
years of its limitation. 

September 24, 1857, the county again con- 
veyed the same land to Thomas Cooper, and 
eleven other citizens of the county (desig- 
nated sometimes as the twelve apostles of 
Wayne), on condition that they build a rail 
road through the County W ayne and town of 
Fairfield to the Wabash and Ohio Rivers, 
within two years, with the right of exten- 
sion of three years. Nothing was ever done 
under this deed, and it is not cancelled ex- 
cept by its terms. 

November 10, 1S5S, the county entered 
into a contract with Yanduser, Smith & Co., 
to construct a railroad through the county 
by November 10, 1SG0, the county to pay 
$12,500 for each three miles of grading, and 

when the road was completed, to pay $6,000 
per mile in swamp lands at $5 per acre, 
the land to be conveyed to the contractors 
when the road was completed. If the con- 
tractors failed to complete the contract in 
time, then to forfeit to the county all they 
had done, and receive nothing. 

While this contract was in force, the 
Mount Vernon Railroad, which only had a 
charter from Ashloy to Mt. Vernon, but 
which had this curious provision in its char- 

Any county through which any other railroad 
may run with which this road may join, connect or 
intersect, may, ami arc hereby authorized and em- 
powered to aid in the construction of the same or of 
such other mad with which it may so connect, and 
for this purpose the provision of the seventh, eighth 
and ninth sections of this act shall extend, include 
and be applicable to every said county and every 
said railroad. 

On the 20th of April, 1S59, the Mount 
Vernon Railroad Company claiming to have 
acquired the contract made with Vanduser, 
Smith & Co., by assignment and by agree- 
ment to fulfill the conditions of the agree 
ment as a consideration, procured two of the 
County Judges of Wayne County, to execute 
a deed and mortgage of said lands to Isaac 
Seymour as Trustee, to the use of the Mount 
Vernon Railroad Company, as security for 
$800,000 of bonds to be issued by the Mount 
Vernon Railroad Company, for the construc- 
tion of the said railroad. The Mount Ver- 
non Railroad Company, at the same time 
agreeing to, and did execute to Isaac Sey- 
mour, Trustee, a mortgage on the franchise 
and " all property " of every character and 
description, whatsoever and wheresoever, 
and of the kind of title acquired, or to be ac- 
quired, that they might have, to secure the 
payment of said bonds covenanting, also at 
thr same time to pay all tax assessed against 
heir property, when due. Nothing was done 



under this contract or assignment, nor under 
the deed and mortgage, when at March term 
of County Court, 1860, the Mt. Vernon Rail- 
road Company appeared and asked an exten- 
sion of the time to commence and complete 
the railroad under the Vanduser, Smith & 
Co., which was granted. The conditions of 
which were, that they were to file, plat and 
survey of location of the railroad in twenty 
days, and keep fifty men at work and more 
if necessary to its completion in two years, 
failing in either, the contract and all there- 
under done or had, should be null and void. 
Nothing was done under this extension of 
time, when in August, 1860, Isaac Seymour 
abandoned his trust, and the railroad com- 
pany abandoning all effort to construct a rail- 
road, and Seymour having died in 1861, all 
was at sea, when the County Court at De- 
cember term, 1862, passed the order directing 
the Swamp Land Commission to proceed and 
sell the said lands as heretofore by preemp- 
tion or otherwise, which was done, the last 
being sold October 13, 1868. 

March 7, 1865, suit was commenced by 
John W. Kennicott, et al, claiming that they 
held the bonds for the payment of which 
these lands were mortgaged. 

In the meantime, a large portion, perhaps 
all these lands had been conveyed to private 
parties, many of whom were citizens of the 
county and who had thus, as they supposed, 
secured a homestead. 

These suits that have gone on for the past 
eighteen years will go into history as its 
celebrated cases. They have run the gant- 
let of about all the courts, and only just now 
has it been settled in favor finally of the 

The whole thing was a fine piece of sleight- 
of-hand by which the county was to be 
euchered out of its lands and to receive 
nothing in return. The people expected a 

railroad to be built, and they were liberal 
enough to give all they had for it, and the 
sharpers appeared and plucked the goose. 

The gift of a hundred thousand acres of 
land to the county was simply its greatest 
misfortune ; and yet, there are people silly 
enough to believe and to vote that their own 
government possesses only much money, 
great wisdom, and all the virtues, and in 
some way or another they never doubt but 
that if they fail to take care of themselves 
the paternal government will certainly do all 

The Five Horse Court. — The session of the 
Illinois Legislature of 1867 met, and the 
whole people of the State were wild and en- 
thusiastic over the subject of new railroads. 
Wayne County was represented by a strong 
lobby at Springfield, and the Springfield & 
Southeastern Railway Charter was passed, 
and as the county was under the control of 
fifteen Supervisors, and for fear that this 
body was too large to handle well in the mat- 
ter of submitting propositions to the voters 
to aid railroads, a cunning scheme in the way 
of an act of the Legislature was submitted 
and passed the Legislature. This was exclu- 
sively a Wayne County law, and it was due 
to the wisdom alone of Wayne County men 
that the law was conceived and brought forth. 
This was known as the ' ' Five Horse Court '» 
law. It was passed under the modest title 
of " An act to change the time of electing 
certain officers in a county therein named." 
It simply abolished the Board of Supervisors, 
consisting of fifteen members, in Wayne 
County, and divided the county into four dis- 
tricts, and for five Supervisors, two to be 
citizens of Fairfield. The two in town, of 
course, were in favor of any road, east and 
west, or north and south, and the cunning 
act so arranged matters that three controlled, 
and hence, no matter what direction any 



road might want to take there would be three 
certain to favor all propositions for subscrip- 
tions in aid thereof. 

The act was to continue in force four years 
and then the county would return to its old 
fifteen Supervisors. 

O. & M. Ra il road.— February 25, 1867, 
the Legislature passed the act incorporating 
the Illinois Southeastern Railway Company; 
the incorporators were Charles A. Beecher, 
Joseph J. R. Turney, Robert P. Hanna, Car- 
roll C. Boggs, Joseph T. Fleming, Henry 
Halthausen, Edward Bonham, all of Wayne 
County, and John W. Westcott, "William B. 
Wilson, Daniel McCauly and William H. 
Hanna. of Clay County. 

The charter designated the track of the 
road might commence at some suitable point 
on the Chicago branch of the Illinois Cen- 
tral Railroad, and run by way of Fairfield to 
some point on the Ohio River, not south of 
Metropolis nor north of Shawneetowu. An- 
other provision provided it should not join 
the Central at a point north of the town of 
Mason, nor south of Kinmundy. The char- 
ter provided for eight members for the Board 
of Directors, with power to increase the num- 
ber to thirteen. 

The charter provided that Charles A. 
Beecher, Joseph T. Fleming, William H. 
Hanna, Edward Bonham, William B. Wil- 
son and John \Y . Westcott, should be the 
first Board. 

February 24, 1869, the Legislature passed 
an amendment to this charter, giving it in- 
creased powers, and legalizing certain acts or 
doings of the Board. 

In February, 1857, the Legislature had 
passed a charter for the Springfield & Pana 
Railroad. This road was provided to run 
from Springfield to Pana via Taylorville. 

[n April 1869, was passed the act incor- 
porating the Pana, Springfield & Northwest- 

ern Railroad, or rather an amendment to this 
charter was passed at that time, and among 
other things it provided the Pana & North- 
western Railroad might build a road from 
Pana to some point on the branch of the Illi- 
nois Central Railroad. 

December 7, 1859, articles of consolidation 
of the Pana, Springfield & Northwestern 
Railroad, and the Illinois Southeastern Rail- 
way Company were entered into, and formed 
the Springfield & Southeastern Railway Com- 

The first directors of the new company 
were D. D. Shumway, S. W. Priest, C. W. 
Matheny, George H. Black, Alexander Starne, 
Thomas S. Ridgeway, W. B. Wilson, Edward 
Bonham, Charles Carroll, W. H. Hanna, W. 
H. Robinson, C. A. Beecher and William P. 

Dodge, Lord & Co., and William P. Cut- 
ler, had contracted to build the Illinois 
Southeastern Railway, and Cutler, Dodge & 
Co. had contracted to build the Pana, Spring- 
field & Northwestern, and the articles of con- 
solidation provided that as soon as the con- 
tractors had completed and have ready for 
equipment any part of the road between 
Shawneetown and Beardstown, for the dis- 
tance of five continuous miles, the railroad 
should issue to them $100,000 of capital 
stock, or an equal amount of bonds converta- 
ble into stock. 

The work of construction was pushed for- 
ward to completion from Beardstown to 
Shawneetown. Wayne County and certain 
townships had subscribed $150,000 in bonds, 
which were duly paid over, except $20,000 
subscribed by Fairfield and Barnhill Town- 
ships, which was never paid, and upon suit 
the road was defeated, because the conditions 
of the donation had not been complied with 
by the railroad company, the paramount fail- 
ure being in not putting up two depots in 



Barnhill Township, which had been made a 
condition precedent in the vote. 

July 3, 1874, upon the suit of the Farm- 
er's Loan & Trust Company against the 
road, a foreclosure was had and a sale de- 
creed, and on September 15, 1874, a sale by 
John A. Jones, Master in Chancery, the 
franchise was sold to M. H. Bloodgood, and 
a deed of conveyance executed. The amount 
of the indebtedness for which the road was 
sold was 83,895,099.59. The amount bid at 
the sale by Bloodgood was the sum of $500,- 
000. On this it appears he paid in cash 
$118,015.94, and the residue in bonds of 
the company. This cash payment was the 
amount of interest due in coin on the first 
mortgage bonds. 

Exceptions were filed to this decree by W. 
H. Miller, Williams & Orton Manufacturing 
Company, M. D. Carlyle, William Gillmore 
and T. D. Craddock. The court allowed the 
claims of these parties, and January 18, 
1875, the Master in Chancery issued a deed 
of confirmation to M. H. Bloodgood. 

January 28, 1875, M. H. Bloodgood con- 
veyed by deed to Fredrick S. Schuchardt, 
and John Bloodgood conveyed the entire 
franchise, and on January 29, 1875, these 
parties conveyed by deed the property to 
Daniel Torrence. The next day, these par- 
ties transferred the road to the Ohio & Mis- 
sissippi Railway Company, and it then be- 
came what it now is, the Springfield Division 
of the Ohio& Mississippi Railway Company. 

The Air Line. — We have already stated 
that as far back as 1837. a survey was made 
through the county of a road to run from 
Alton to Mt. Carmel. The State was bank- 
rupted, as stated above, and the schemes fell 
through. But this Alton & Mt. Carmel road 
had interested Gen. William Pickering, and 
the road passed into his hands. He under- 
took to finish it and spent his fortune upon 

it, but only succeeded in getting a road 
built from Princeton, Ind., to Albion, 111. 
He had arrangements made with Eastern 
capitalists to complete the road, but about 
this time the political excitement of the 
North and South on the subject of slavery 
culminated in the death of Owen Lovejoy at 
Alton, and capitalists became alarmed and 
withdrew their promised support, leaving 
Gen. Pickering unable to go any further. 
He clung to his road until he was appointed 
Governor of Washington Territory, when he 
sold out his road to Bluford Wilson and 
others. The agreed price was only nominal, 
and Pickering got none of that, but we un- 
derstand about $14,000 was paid his heirs 
after his death. 

In April, 1869, the St. Louis, Mt. Carmel 
& New Albany road was chartered, and also 
the Louisville, New Albany & St. Louis Air- 
Line Railway. Under the latter name the 
company, by Augustus Bradley, President, 
and George Lyman, Secretary, executed a 
mortgage to Calhoun & Opdyke for $4,525,- 
000, due in 1902, but it is not known that 
any money was ever got under this mortgage. 
At all events, very little was done until May, 
1881, when the stockholders met in Mt. Car- 
mel, and resolved to issue $3,000,000 first 
mortgage bonds, and $3,000,000 four per cent 
fifty-year cumulative income bonds, and 
$1,000,000 second mortgage bonds. Robert 
Bell was President, and Burr and Wilson 
held about all the stock. This meeting in- 
creased the capital stock from $3,000,000 to 
$5,000,000. In November of the same year 
the name was changed to Louisville, Evans- 
ville & St. Louis Railway Company. But in 
June, 1881, the company had executed a 
mortgage to the Mercantile Trust Company 
and Noble C. Butler, in which the route is 
described as being from New Albany, by 
Huntington, Ingleton, Oakland City. Prince- 



ton. Mount Carmel, Albion and Fairfield to 
Bit. Vernon, about 192 miles; forty-five miles, 
from Ingleton to Albion, had been then fin- 
ished. The change Of name was made neces- 
sary by a consolidation with roads from 
Evansville to Jasper. Ind., and from Rock- 
port to Gentryville, Ind., making now a total 
of 260 miles. March 1, 1882, the road was 
completed from Bit. Vernon, 111., to Hunting- 
ton, in all 202 miles, and by a mortgage 
$1,000,000 was secured to complete the road 
to New Albany. Jonas H. French succeeded 
Mr. Bell as President, and he was succeeded 
in turn by John Goldthwaite, the present 
incumbent. This road, one of the best 
equipped and best run in Southern Illinois, 
has cost the people of this section compara- 
tively nothing. Blost of the money used in 
its construction was furnished by Ballou, of 
Boston. After it was completed, the road 
was much damaged by high water, and lay 
quite awhile before trains run regularly, but 
the result was a settling of the earth, which 
made it from the start one of the best road- 
beds in the State. Its business at once was 
a paying one. The Air-Line is at present 
using the Louisville & Nashville track to St. 
Louis from Mt. Vernon, but it is the inten- 
tion soon to have its own track to St. Louis, 
and by a consolidation with the Chesapeake 
& Ohio it will become one of the great trunk 
lines from the Blississippi to the Atlantic. 

Coming Roads. — Southern Illinois is so 
full of roads building and projected that 
hardly a county in this portion of the State 
but may point to one or more new roads 
either just completed, or soon to be completed. 
The time will come when this portion of 
country will sustain as many first-class rail- 
roads as will any section of equal extent in 
the world. 

Two unfinished roads are now on their way 
to Wayne County. The Danville & Ohio 
road is in the hands of a Receiver, and we 
are informed the court has ordered the Re- 
ceiver to issue his certificates to complete the 
road from Danville to Fairfield. This will 
fill a long-felt want of a direct road to Chi- 
cago. Such a road will do wonders in devel- 
oping the entire country. And it is hoped 
that work will commence in the early spring 
and be pushed to a rapid completion. 

The Toledo, Texas & Rio Grande road was 
begun in June, 1882, and has a fifty-year 
charter. The route is from Charleston or 
Danville, 111., to Cape Girardeau, and thence 
to an intersection of the Texas & St. Louis 
road, and, when built, will complete a chain 
of road from Mexico to New York City. 
Much work was already done on this road in 
the latter part of 1883, and it is expected 
that it will bo completed the present year 










TO conclude the story of the people of 
Wayne County is the scope and purpose 
of this last chapter, and to do this it is not im- 
proper to give a rapid and short review of 
the people who came in the slow accretion of 
population that marked this section down to 
the year 1860, and an account of the early 
and modern officials of the town to the pres- 
ent time. To this we propose to add a brief 
account of the legislative department, inso- 
far as the State Legislature was appealed to 
and did act in behalf of the people of Wayne 
County, and finally, but not least, the reader 
need not be amazed or scandalized if there 
are some general deductions that may tend 
to indicate the class of men who in early and 
modern times have had their say in the gen- 
eral control and the shaping of the State 
legislation, insofar as the same affected the 

In visiting through the county and in the 
presence of old settlers, the writer had. the 
pleasure of meeting Susan Jane Cook, who 
came to the county in 1821, a well preserved, 
high spirited and outspoken woman, with 
such nerve, independence and a natural com- 
manding nature that she is sometimes de- 
scribed as the "Queen of Barefoot." By 
way of explanation, it may be necessary to 
explain that " Barefoot Nation " is in the 

east and northern portion of the county, and 
derives its name from the early habit of the 
pioneers, who never saw a pair of tooth-pick 
shoes, or a live dude in their lives. She dis- 
tinctly remembers all the first settlers of the 
county, particularly Harris, Richard and 
Sam Locke and the Carters, and says the 
first preacher she ever heard was a man 
named Finley, who came from somewhere 
South. Then she describes the first Camp- 
bellite she ever heard of as a " little, old, 
sour, cross man," but "he had a voice like a 
bell." When very young, she says she heard a 
negro (called colored men nowadays) preach, 
and he "was powerful for to hear" is her 
recollection. She remembers it was common 
those days at meetings for several to have the 
" jerks," and in this business she credits the 
"nigger with as much power as the best of 
'em;" she remembers hearing Merritt preach 
once, and he announced that " Christ was in 
the camp," and then the shouting raged like 
mad. The first school she attended, " in a 
slip, and barefoot," was "over in the Statt's 
settlement," where old man Kennedy handled 
the long hazel, and then "old man Taylor 
taught there," who was considered •"the 
smartest man in the world '' at that time. 
The first wedding she remembers was wh-n 
her elder " sister Nancy married Bill Carter.'' 



Charles Carter is now an old man and is 
still living in Fairfield, verging on sixty-nine 
years of age. He was born in Kentucky and 
came to Wayne County in 1831 and settled 
in Turner's Prairie. He remembers Samuel 
Leech as the first merchant in the county. 
and he thinks Caleb Wilmans the second. 
and R. B. Slocumb the third. Carter says 
he worked for and lived with Wilmans' fam- 
ily for six years. Wilmans wont to Califor- 
nia in 1849, and soon after died there. 
Carter informs us that R. B. Slocumb was 
married twice, his second wife beiug Caleb 
Ridgeway's daughter, and that he left chil- 
dren, Mrs. Seth Crews, of Chicago, Mrs. 
James Stanley, Mrs. Woodward, of Jit. Ver- 
non, and sons Eugene. Clarence and a mar- 
ried daughter, Ibey Groesbeck, now in New 

When he first remembers Fairfield, Will- 
iam Patton, who died years ago, lived here. 
Andrew Mays was then in what is now Elm 
River Precinct. Presley Simpson lived five 
miles south of town. He was a Tennessean, 
and had a son, John D., now living in the 
county. In 1S3'2, Wilmans & Weed, who 
were relatives, were merchandising here. 
They finally built a steam saw mill on the 
Little Wabash, near Beach Bluff. He re- 
members William Irvin as a good farmer 
and a quiet, peaceable man ; also James Massey ( 
a preacher. He left a son. also a preacher. 
Richard Massey. Elijah Harlan was one of 
the principal citizens on Skillet Fork, near 
Mill Shoals. He had a large family, but all 
are supposed to be dead. Samuel Close 
lived in Tnrney's Prairie; had a large fam- 
ily; was a Kentuekian. Removed to North 
somewhere. His father died here at an ad- 
vanced age. Gambril Bartlett lived near En- 
terprise; moved away about 1838. James 
Houston lived near Fairfield; had an old 
tread mill and distillery; died in 1840. leav- 

ing a son, Rigdon, still living here. The 
patriarch of the celebrated Turney family 
was Michael. His sons were Moses, Di\ 
Daniel, Isaiah, Anthony B. and Dr. William 
F. The last lived in Fairfield; was in 
Black Hawk war, and died at Leech's Mills 
in 1838. Anthony B., father of Thomai 
Jefferson Turney, who now lives at Mill 
Shoals, and also father of Jackson and 
Washington Turney, removed to Wabash 
County, and then emigrated West. Isaiah 
Turney, in 1834, went to Jersey County, and 
Moses went to Texas in 1840, and Thomas 
moved North in 1846, Dr. Daniel Turney's 
son, Lafayette, went West twelve years ago. 
John Clark, Sr., was a Kentuekian; was 
here at a very early day. (See previous 
chapters.) He died in 1838. His brothers 
were Andrew and Alexander. David McLin 
was an early Cumberland preacher. His 
surviving son was William. Alfred Hall 
lived in Big Mound — a rollicking fellow. 
Wesley Staton was a Black Hawk war sol- 
dier. He was a hatter in Fairfield; finally 
went onto a farm in Arriugton Township. 
He was stung to death by bees. Joseph 
Morris lived in Long Prairie; left a large 
family. "William Cray lived in Four Mile 
Prairie. Miles Morris and Greenbury Wal- 
ker lived in Lontr Prairie. When he first 
saw Fairfield he remembers there were then 
here Hugh Stewart and family, Dr. Parks, 
Sam Leech, Archy Roberts, AVesley Sta- 
ton, John Brown, the Wilmans, Dan 
Turney, David McLin, John W. Snyder and 
W. F. Turney. These all had families ex- 
cepi W- F. Turney and Staton. Mathew 
Franklin was the chief carpenter. He was 
a great crony of C. C. Young. Mr. Carter, 
in 1838, married Louisa M. Wilson, daugh- 
ter of Joseph and Nancy Wilson, who died 
January, 1881, leaving three boys and two 



At June term, 1836, letters of adminis- 
tration were graQtedto Rhoda Ray and Jesse 
Lord, upon the estate of Asa Ray, deceased. 
October, 1836, was probated the last will of 
Enoch Beach. Witnesses: James Crews 
and Minzy James. Justice Beach was ap- 
pointed administrator. 

February, 1837, administration granted 
upon the estate of James Clark, Jr. ; Joseph 
Campbell appointed administrator. 

The bold and striking signature of Judge 
Leech appears to all the meetings of the 
Probate Court, from the time of the organi- 
zation of the county until the 14th day of 
February, 1837, without break or interrup- 

At the term of the Probate Court com- 
mencing on the 22d day of May, 1837, ap- 
pears for the first time the name of R. B. 
Slocumb, Probate Judge. His first act as such 
officer was granting letters testamentary to 
Edward Puckett and Martha Fulton, upon 
the nuncupative will of James B. Fulton, 

On the 10th day of August, 1837, Mathew 
Crews was appointed guardian for the fol- 
lowing minor heirs of Enoch Beach, to wit: 
Jennett E., Judith A., Zenas, Minerva, 
George M. and Margaret Beach. 

At the same time Jacob Gregory was ap- 
pointed guardian for Crockett Holiday. 

On the 26th of August, 1837, the nuncu- 
pative will of Reuben Atteberry was pro- 
bated. It was attested by Nathan Atteberry 
and John G. Meeks. At the November 
twenty-fifth term, of the court the estates of 
Robert R. Gaston and Jesse Reed were ad- 
ministered upon. 

On the 6th [day of September, ^1838, the 
will of Michael Turney was probated. At 
the same term, the will of Robert R. Smith. 
William Patterson was appointed executor. 

January, 1839, letters granted on the es- 

tate of George Harlan. Same month, Daniel 
Turney and Moses Turney appointed execu- 
tors of the will of William F. Turney. In. 
February, same year, Alexander Clark, Pub- 
lic Administrator, granted letters upon the 
estate of James Gibson, deceased. In March, 
William Merritt and Sarah Huston granted 
letters upon the estate of James Huston. At 
same time, letters granted upon the estate of 
James Turner, Sr. 

On the 16th day of November, 1840, Judge 
John Brown was holding a term of court. 

The following is a complete list of the 
county officers, from the organization of the 
county to date (1884): 

Sheriffs — -Andrew Kuykendall, 1819 to 
1820; Enoch Wilcox, 1810 to 1824; Andrew 
Kuykendall, 1824 to 1827; Joseph Campbell, 
182*7 to 1832; Ben A. Clark, 1832 to 1834; 
Charles Wood, 1834 to 1838; George W. 
Wilson, 1838 to 1842; Allen M. Downen, 
1842 to 1844; George W. Wilson, 1844 to 
1846; William L. Gash, 1846 to 1848; Alex- 
ander Campbell, 1848 to 1852; James Clark, 
1852 to 1856; C. L. Carter, 1S56 to 1858; 
H. A. Organ, 1858 to 1860; Alexander Camp- 
bell, 1860 to 1862; Richard Childers, 1862 
to 1864; Alexander Campbell (died 1865), 
1864 to 1865; William C. Murphy (to fill 
term), 1865 to 1866; N. J. Odell, 1866 to 
1868; L. D. Bennett, 1868 to 1870; J. B. 
Tidball, 1870 to 1872, Lowry Hay, 1872 to 
1874; Martin E. Bozarth, 1874 to 1876; 
Adam Rinard, 1876 to 1880; L. D. Bennett, 
1880 to 1882; Isaac B. Carson, 1882 to 

County Judges (prior to 1821 was County 
Commissioners) — Samuel Leech, 1821 to 
1837; Rigdon B. Slocumb, 1837 to 1840; 
John H. Brown, 1840 to 1849; R. B. Slocumb, 
1S49 to 1854; Daniel Turney, 1854 to 1857; 
S. J. R. Wilson, 1857 to 1861; William W. 
George, 1861 to 1865; William L. Beeson, 



1865 to 1873; Copelin McKelvy, 1873 to 
1877; C. C. Boggs, 1877 to 1882; John 
Keen, Jr., 1882 to . 

County Clerks — Samuel Leech, 1S19 to 
1840; Joseph G. Barkley, 1840 to 1847; 
Caleb Wilnians, 1847 to 1849; Francis Mc- 
Cown, 1849 to 1854; John Trousdale, 1S54 to 
1858; Jeff W. Barnhill, 1S58 to 1865; Oliver 
Holmes. 1805 to 1873; John Morris, 1873 to 
1877; Joe D. Shaeffer, 1877 to 1882; Joseph 
E. Wilson, 1882 to . 

County Treasurers — Samuel Leech, 1819 
to 1824; James Bird, 1824 to 1826; Andrew 
Kuykendall, 1826 to 1S27; James Butler, 
1827 to 1828; Charles Wood, 1828 to 1844; 
Andrew Wilson, 1S44 to 1847; John C. 
Gash. 1847 to 1853; C. L. Carter, 1853 to 
1857: William L. Gash, 1S57 to 1863; John 
Keen, Jr., 1863 to 1865: John C. Alexander, 
1865 to I860; John A. Moffitt, 1869 to 1873; 
Alonzo M. Cable, 1873 to 1877: John Mor- 
ris, 1877 to 1879; Benjamin S. Organ, 1879 
to 1882; O. P. Patterson, 1882 to . 

School Commissioners — Jacob Hall, 1842 
to 1844; Jacob H. Love, 1S44 to 1S45; Rob- 
ert Wilson, 1S45 to 1849; David Wright, 
1849 to 1852; John A. Campbell, 1S52 to 
1854; E. A. Johnson, 1854 to 1864; Calvin 
Cooper, 1864 to 1871; William A. Vernon, 
1871 to 1S73: Francis M. Woolard, 1873 to 
1877; Benjamin F. Meeks, 1877 to 1881; 
Z. B. West, 1881 to . 

Circuit Clerks — Samuel Leech, 1832 to 
1836; R. B. Slocumb, 1836 to 1840; J. G. 
Barkley, 1S40 to 1850; R. B. Slocumb, 1856 
to 1804; William L. Gash. 1864 to 1868; 
John L. Handley, 180S to 1870: R. E. Ma- 
bry, 1876 to 1884. 

State's Attorneys — O. B. Ficklin, for dis- 
trict ; Aaron Shaw, for district: Alfred Kit- 
chell, for district; James S. Robinson, for 
district: L. J. S. Turney, acting for district ; 
E. B. Green, acting for district; T S. Casey, 

for district; W. H. Robinson, acting for dis- 
trict; C. S. Conger, acting for district; Et. 
\V. Townshend, 1868 to 1872; C. C. Boggs, 
1872 to 1876; A. M. Funkhouser, 1876 to 
1880; J. R. Creighton, 1880 to 1884. 

The present county assessment will show 
something of what the people have been 
doing since the first settlers here in the way 
of building up the country: 





1:1 mi MV 







81,307,1 83 



ITT.i 32 





Railroad ami Telegraph 



State Tax $ 9,799 13 

County Tax 18,18101 

Town Tax 3.150 89 

Road and Bridge Tax 4,784 87 

County Bond Tax 14,017 45 

Town Bond Tax 2,682 72 

Incorporation Tax 1,773 27 

School Tax 25,511 00 

District Road Tax 2,304 81 

Dog Tax 3,142 00 

Back Tax 35 57 

Total §83.332 22 

Horses, 6,034; valuation each, $23.39 Cattle, 
14.484; valuation each, f 6.72. Mules and at i s 
1.330; valuation each. $22.60. Sheep, 14,51 4; valu- 
tion each, $1.00. Hogs, 19,759; valuation each, 

Wayne County was formed out of Edwards, 
and it seems there grew up some misunder- 
standing between the two counties as to the 
exact southern line of the former county, and 
therefore, in 1829, the Legislature passed an 
act to exactly define this line. See laws, 
1829, page 32. And another law was passed 
in 1831, giving the county its full pro rata 
share in the Gallatin salines. In 1837, the 
county applied to the Legislature, and pro- 
cured an act changing the original applica- 



tion of this saline donation. In 1855, the 
county was in the throes of the greatest finan- 
cial troubles, largely by the death of stock 
and failure of crops, and it procured the 
authority and did borrow $5,000 to " purchase 
breadstuff's for the unfortunates." A small 
portion of the territory of Wayne was taken 
and added to Clay County in 1863. On the 
28th of February, 1867, the act virtually 
abolishing the Board of Supervisors (which 
consisted of fifteen members), and had what 
was known as the " Five Horse Act," passed. 
This law cannot readily be found in the laws 
of 1867, simply because by its strange title it 
never would be recognized. The curious 
reader, however, will find the document on 
page 102. When the matter got into the 
courts, the great joke on the lawyers was 
that they could not find the act, although 
they were well aware one had been passed. 
Another remarkable fact was that every law- 
yer as soon as he examined it, knew it was 
unconstitutional, and yet it was secured to 
literally gouge the people out of large sums 
of money for railroad purposes, and this part 
of the scheme was really more shrewdly car- 
ried out than the first, for the simple reason 
that before the question was taken into the 
courts, the bonds had been issued and parties 
had purchased in good faith, and the Su- 
preme Court was compelled finally to decide 
that although the act was unconstitutional, 
yet the " Five Horse Court, " upon a suit 
upon the bonds was a de facto court, and 
therefore bonds were good. We consider this 
whole transaction one of the sharpest that is 
to be found in the legislation or the law re- 
ports of our State. 

Burnt Prairie Manual Labor Seminary 
(this was partly in Wayne only) was char- 
tered as early as 1836. The next year, the 
Fairfield Library Company was made a 
charter institution. In 1839, the Fairfield 

Institute was chartered and the Library 
Company was merged into the same, and the 
Ewing Seminary was chartered in 1845. 

We have noticed, at considerable length in 
another and preceding chapter, that at the 
very earliest day, when usually other counties 
of the same age had hardly reached the day 
of house-raisings yet, that Fairfield was dis- 
cussing, among other questions, with hammer 
and tongs, those and all great literary prob- 
lems, " Which is the most beautiful, art or 
nature ?" 

This question, as well as others we have 
noticed elsewhere, was the theme of hot de- 
bates for many years. From week to week 
and from season to season the debate would 
go on, gather in interest, intensity and mag- 
nitude like the rolling snow-ball, and they 
were brought down to comparatively modern 
times; so recent in fact that we are enabled 
to give almost the complete effort of one of 
these budding Demusthenes. We were told 
the gentleman is still living, but we did not 
learn his name. But the mighty effort ran 
as follows: 

" Mr. President: What are (I want to 
know!!) more beautif idler, that was ever seed 
in this great nateral world!! than a nateral 
steamboat running up a nateral river!!!" 

And the man sat down exhausted and im- 
mortal. It is supposed that the great con- 
troversy that had run so high and for so 
many years ended exactly here. What more 
could be said on the great theme? 

Nothing could more appropriately close 
the history of the county than the following 
sketch of Dewey: 

One of the active, earnest, tremendous 
preachers, of the Hard Shell persuasion in 
the good old honest times in Wayne County, 
was the Rev. Israel Dewey. He was an in- 
dustrious man, and there was a power and 
fascination about his wonderful sermons that 



makes us greatly regret that we cannot make 
a pen picture of some one of his many efforts 
that would carry to the remotest posterity, to 
edify them and impart also some of the great 
pleasure tasted by the good people of "Wayne 
during his active and pious life. There were 
no short-hand writers in Dewey's day. Per- 
haps it is quite as well there were not, for 
while the stenographer might have taken 
down the words, and a Hogarth might have 
painted the man in all his ragged eloquence 
of posture, as he stood with his hand to the 
side of his face looking at a crack, and warm- 
ing to his work, and the froth from his ear- 
nest lips flying all over his nearest auditors, 
but who, except Allec Moffit or Capt, Bill 
Stewart, could have given his heavenly tone — 
those nasal blasts that went direct to fright- 
ened sinners' souls like the crack of doom. 
It was once said of the great poetic songster, 
Byron, that — 

"He touched lii~ harp 
And nations heard entranced." 

But Dewey in the country puncheon- 
floored meeting house, was the sublime 
preacher, who was like the great and rapid 
river that runs on forever. Like any true 
child of genius, he had his times of special 
inspiration, and his most intimate admirers 
had learned him so well that they could gen- 
erally tell when he was in one of these great 
moods the moment he commenced his sermon. 
The only pulpit in Dewey's time — at least 
the only kind of pulpit he ever used — was a 
split-bottom chair, and if he pranced up to 
this with his head up and that triumphant 
smile that sometimes was seen on his face, 
and a slight swagger in his shoulders, his 
best judges knew that Dewey was himself 
again, and they braced themselves to with- 
stand the torrent nay, the plunging Niagara 
of his eloquence. 

4 • Bretherens and sisterenes-ah. I am 

going to preach-ah, Dewey's sentiments 
to day-ah, and I don't care a rotten possum 
skiti-ah whose toes it hurts-ah. My text 
can be found in the leds of the Bible-ah, and 
in the two-eyed chapter of the one-eyed John- 
ah. Now there's brother one-eyed Bob Gray- 
ah, and ho can see as far into the kingdom of 
heaven-ah as auy other one-eyed man-ah, who 
don't wear no specks- ah. Aint that so, 
brother Toliver Simpson?" 

And then the good man would begin to 
warm up with his theme, and he would un- 
button his shirt collar, then his vest, and as 
the cyclone increased he would fling aside 
his coat, and then roll up his shirt sleeves, 
and by this time the great preacher, in the 
eloquent language of Andy Hunter in his 
great Democratic speech, would sweep all 
before him " like a cyclone of the desert, like 
a cyclopa of the sea ! " By the way, when Ham 
Sutton asked Andy what he meant by "' Cy- 
clops of the sea. " " Damfino," said Andy, in 
innocent simplicity. 

Dewey in his day had few equals, and no 
superiors among the numerous powerful 
preachers of his persuasion. Like his kind, 
he preached not for pelf or fame; his carriage 
horses were a yoke of breech y stags, that were 
scanty in their make-up except the horns. He 
attended his appointments to preach on foot, 
witb his rifle on his shoulder. A gentleman 
now living in Fairfield tells us the first dime 
he was the happy possessor of he got from 
this gond preacher for "minding" a deer he 
had killed on his way to church, and hung 
up, and then secreted his gun in a hollow tree 
and washed his hands and went on and 
preached his sermon, and then returned and 
had the venison taken home. 

Bob Gray and Toliver Simpson were solid, 
thrifty farmers, and were foremost among the 
best people of the county. They were pious, 
good men, and they never failed to be in their 



places when Dewey preached, and when he 
made a point in his sermon and would say, 
"Aint that so, brother Toliver Simpson?" 
or "Brother Bob Gray?" they [ would nod 
their affirmative approval, and in this way 
they were as much of the essential of the ser- 
mon as the text itself. Had they staid away 
from church any time, it is supposed Dewey 
would have signally failed in at least that 
sermon. They were the loving Davids to 
Dewey's eloquent Jonathan. 

Dewey's life and works were purely those 
of a good and holy man. He feared naught 
but the lake of tire and brimstone, and he 
poured hot shot and chained balls of doctrinal 
theology into the ranks of all deluded Bible 
readers who failed to understand the good 
Book as he did. 

He has gone to his fathers, and sleeps the 
sleep of the just. His day and times have 
passed away forever. Let his memory be 
cherished, and his good works be not forgotten. 



FROM the birth of the human race, the 
sons and daughters of men have shown 
a preference for each other's society, and de- 
veloped a tendency to congregate together in 
numbers. At first this was more for protec- 
tion than for social intercourse. But as 
people became more enlightened, and civil- 
ization advanced, the social inclination grew 
stronger, and as a result towns and cities 
were built, thus bringing multitudes together 
into a closer relationship. The social prin- 
ciple in man is strong. He may be proud, 
domineering, or all that is bad, but to con- 
fine him with Diogenes in a tub, or a Pla- 
tonic lover in some brilliant sphere, were an 
intolerable punishment. Solitary confine- 
ment is, and ever must be, the keenest 
corrective trial. A man may rave about his 
independence, and desire a whole universe to 

•By W. H. Perrin. 

himself, hollow to resound his massive tread, 
and mirrored to reflect his noble form; but 
therein he stifles the outgrowing inclinations 
of his own heart, and does not guess how 
sensibly he would feel the want of the com- 
monest expressions of social life and social 
intercourse. Prometheus, chained on his 
crag, amid the eternal snows, and gnawed 
by the vulture; and Simon Stylites on his 
lonely column, are apt types of such a dreary 
life, and solitary, friendless creature. In- 
dividual isolation is unnatural and inhuman. 
The disposition to gather into towns and 
cities, on the other hand, is both natural and 

The pioneers understood this, and both for 
protection and for social enjoyment and 
intercourse, and for humanity's sake, and 
perhaps for other reasons, they laid out 
towns and built up villages. Something of 



this character gave birth to Fairfield sixty - 
four years ago — a period when there was 
doubtless, not two hundred people in what 
now forms "Wayne County. The fathers of 
the enterprise (of making u town) had an eye 
for the glorious and beautiful; neither were 
they utterly devoid of romance. They dis- 
played their exquisite taste in the selection 
of a site for a town — a site that is not ex- 
celled by that of any town in the State — 
being a slight elevation in the middle of a 
broad, beautiful and level plain, and their 
romance cropped out when they called it 
"Fairfield." No fairer field could certainly 
be found in Southern Illinois than the plain 
surrounding Wayne County's beautiful capi- 

Fairfield was laid out as a town in the 
year 1819, and is situated at the junction of 
the Springfield Division of the Ohio & Miss- 
issippi and the Louisville, Evansville & St. 
Louis Kailroads, thirty miles east of Mount 
Vernon and fifty-three miles north of Shaw- 
neetown. The first sale of lots took place 
November 8, 1S1U. The plat was surveyed 
by John Johnston, County Surveyor, under 
the direction of George W. Farris, Thomas 
P. Fletcher and Alexander Clark, the then 
County Commissioners. The original plat 
was not recorded untii September 4, 1825. 
The range of lots on the south of original 
plat is 112|xllli feet; the range of lots on 
the north of plat 111 £x92 feet, and the re- 
mainder of lots 1 1 1 \ feet square; streets 
sixty feet wide and alleys eight feet wide — 
Water street is only forty feet wide. This 
was the original plat of Fairfield, and to the 
town as laid out emigration was invited. 
Where attention had been paid to details, it 
could not be expected that the matter of 
settlement had been overlooked, and hence 
many people flocked into the new town as 
soon as laid out and surveyed, and the place 

quickly became a scene of bustling activity. 

It is an accepted tradition — a tradition 
borne out by local facts — that the first house 
in Fairfield was built by the Barnhills. They 
had entered the land from the Government, 
upon which the town was laid out, and had 
lived there for some time before, and thus 
may be termed the first settlers of the town, 
as well as the first of the township. This 
first house stood a little north of the present 
bank building, but on the opposite side of 
the street, near the marble factory. It has 
passed away with other landmarks of the 
pioneer days, and the spot now is only known 
by a few of the older citizens. The house 
was torn down by Mr. Womack, who built a 
residence upon the site which is still stand- 
ing, but which has been considerably en- 
larged and improved, and is now owned by 
Mr. Smith. John Barnhill built the second 
residence in Fairfield, on the lot where Mr. 
Thomas L. Cooper's handsome brick residence 
now stands. It was of logs, and was built by 
Barnhill just after his marriage, which took 
place about the time of laying out the town. 

The elder Barnhill, the patriarch of the 
Barnhill family, died in Gallatin County be- 
fore any of the family moved to this section, 
as we have stated in a preceding chapter, and 
his widow came herewith her children among 
the earliest settlers of the county. Hardin 
Barnhill was the eldest son, and John, men- 
tioned above, was the second, while Audley 
was the third and youngest. The family at 
one time was a rather numerous and promi- 
nent one — prominent in business and local 
affairs, but of no particular pre-eminence. 
They were honest, industrious, honorable, 
faithful and accommodating — kings among 
their kind, fine types of their class, with in- 
stincts keenly whetted in their struggle for 
existence against the wild game, the fero- 
cious beasts and the murderous savage. The 



Barnhills have now been dead for many 
years, with no lineal descendants surviving 
them nearer than the grandson of the Widow 
Barnhill — "Jeff" Barnhill, as he is called. 
Even he is growing old, and is becoming 
bent with age and infirmity. There is much 
in the history of the Barnhills that recalls a 
type of that day. They had been admirably 
trained, or had trained themselves, for their 
place in life, and in security and content had 
lived out their span, filling to fullness their 
measure of ambition. 

The next residence in Fairfield was built 
where the new cemetery has recently been 
laid out. It was erected by a man whose 
name is now forgotten, but who was related 
in some way to the Barnhills. It was fol- 
lowed by a house put up by Samuel Leech, 
opposite Mr. Ed Bonham's residence. It 
was a log building and is still standing, 
but has been improved and modernized by 
receiving a coat of weather-boarding. An- 
other of the early residences was built by 
Dr. Parks, and is also standing. It is nearly 
opposite Mrs. Johnson's boarding-house ) 
and, like the one above described, has been 
weather-boarded, so as to give it a modern 
appearance. The nest building erected as a 
dwelling-house was by some of the Barnhills, 
and stood upon the site, or very nearly so, of 
Mr. Thomas T. Bonham's house. At this 
residence was dug the first well Fairfield ever 
had. It was dug by the Barnhills, but was 
for general use of the people. 

The settlement of the town of Fairfield 
was sui generis. Nature had prepared a site 
for the town unsurpassed in beauty, while 
the community, linked together by family 
and business relations, was like a colony 
fitted and furnished for a career already 
marked out. This was the influence under 
which the town began its existence, and 
started on its course of successful experi- 

ment. It is barely probable that, in order to 
secure a town by legal right, the Commis- 
sioners spent no great amount of time in can- 
vassing the claims of the different locations 
as a site for the future capital. The first 
and main object was to locate the county 
seat. The town now known as Jeffersonville 
was a formidable competitor for the seat of 
justice, and it stood those in hand, interested 
in Fairfield, to decide the question without 
delay, before the prize should slip from their 
grasp. This led, as we have said, to the site 
of Fairfield being chosen with but little dis- 
cussion. The years succeeding the laying- 
out of the town were not characterized by a 
rapidity of growth and development, but, on 
the contrary, both growth and development 
were rather slow, but the more sure, perhaps, 
for being slow. The brilliant prospects of 
the town had attracted little attention from 
the ambitious and enterprising, and the puny 
village was moving on to fame and fortune 
at a slow pace. Like Longfellow's squash 
vine, " it grew and it grew and it grew," 
slowly, however, and at the end of its first 
decade of existence, it had, probably, less 
than a hundred inhabitants. 

Additions. — The plat of the town accord- 
ing to the original survey has already been 
given, and comprised its area for nearly 
twenty years before the increase of popula- 
tion demanded room, room! The want of 
room has been the cause of many of the 
bloodiest wars known to history. It has been 
the plea of every robber-chief from Nimrod 
down to the present day. Tamerlane, when 
he descended from his throne built of 70,000 
human skulls, and marched his savage battal- 
ions to further slaughter, doubtless said, "I 
want room.'' Baja/.et was another of kin- 
dred tastes, and ' ' wanted room." Alexander, 
too, the " Macedonian Madman," when he 
wandered with his Greeks to the plains of 



India, and fought a bloody battle there, no 
doubt did it for — •"room." Thus it was in 
the olden time, and thus it is in the fast 
age of "Young America." We all want 
room- -room to grow up, to expand, to spread 
out — in short to gather in everything in 
reach and sweep all before us. This prevail- 
ing trait of our American energy and enter- 
prise led to an addition being made to the 
town of Fairfield in 1S37, followed by a 
number of others of later years. Fiddeman 
made the first Addition after the original 
plat, which is dated July 19, 1S37, and re- 
corded May 19, 1S3S. Hugh Stewart made 
an addition Juue 1, 1840, which was surveyed 
by William L. Gash, County Surveyor. 
Felix Barnhill's Addition bears date July 16, 
1841, and George L. Slocumb's December 4, 
1851. Turney made two additions — one 
dated August 25, 1852, and the other Feb- 
ruary 14, 1853. Isaac C. Sailer made two 
additions dated as follows: December 30, 
1IS72, and January 7, 1873; Rinard made 
three additions, dated November 22, 1870, 
January 3, 1874, and May 10, 1874. On the 
3d of April, 1873, Hiram F. Sibley made an 
addition, and Rider Brothers April 30, 1874. 
The Railroad Addition was made September 
22. 1871 ; Hayward's Addition September 6, 
1881; G. J. George's, May 0, 1881, and 
Shaeffer's Addition made about 1882, but is 
still unrecorded. These additions, together 
with the original plat, comprise the present 
area of Fairfield. It covers ground enough 
for a place of 10,000 inhabitants, but its cit- 
izens have laid out their grounds, improved 
their lots and built their houses with an eye 
to the fact already mentioned — room. Fair- 
field ought to be a large town. It has every 
natural facility for becoming so — a lovely 
site, a healthy location, with two railroads 
crossing at right angles, and a wealthy com- 
munity surrounding it. What more is 

needed? Energy, enterprise, goahead-ative- 
ness, and live, wide-awake business zeal and 
management. The natural surroundings can 
not be improved; let but the people do as well 
as nature, and Fairfield will yet be a great city. 
Stores. — Samuel Leech was the pioneer 
merchant of Fairfield. He opened out a stock 
of goods in a house erected for the purpose 
near his residence. His store was finally 
burned, but he continued in business several 
years longer, and then engaged in politics. 
He held all the county offices, and if there 
had been more offices he would doubtless 
have held them, too. He was also Postmas- 
ter. He was one of those characters who 
seem to appear just where and when they are 
most needed. His finger-marks are still to 
be seen, and tell to those who have succeeded 
him the story of his handiwork, and have 
inscribed his epitaph upon the hearts of 
the thousands who are reaping the fruits of 
his labors and his foresight. A man named 
McFadden was the next merchant to Leech. 
He was from Mt. Vernon, Ind., but did not 
remain here long. His store stood on the 
corner now occupied by Ball's shop. A man 
named Gold, from Shawneetown, was the 
next merchant. He sold goods in a house 
opposite David W. Barkley's, on the east side 
of the street. A residence now stands upon 
the lot, and is occupied by Mrs. Barger. 
But few now living are aware that a business 
house ever stood there. A man named Redd 
succeeded Gold in this house, continuing bus- 
iness in it for several years. The next effort 
in the mercantile line was a copartnership 
between Leech and Rigdon B. Slocumb. 
They remained in partnership for about five 
years, when Leech retired, and Slocumb car- 
ried on the business some years longer, but 
then embarked in politics. As a politician, 
his record will be found in another part of 
this volume. 



Cahb Williams next entered the mercan- 
tile trade. He appeared upon the scene 
about 1829. Both his residence and busi- 
ness house are still standing, and constitute 
but one building. He lived in one end, and 
sold goods in the other end. It stands on 
the corner, just across the street from J oseph 
Ball's saddle and harness shop. It was of 
logs, but has been weather-boarded. C. I. 
Ridgeway was afterward associated with him 
as a partner, and together they built the 
house now occupied by Bonham as a store, 
and continued in it until 1844—15. They 
built the house one story only, and the pres- 
ent proprietors have added another story. 

The building known as the " marble 
front," was for many years a landmark, and 
was well known over a large district of 
country. It was built by Wesley Staten, who 
manufactured hats, and used it both as store, 
warehouse and factory. Archibald Roberts, 
mentioned in the history of Barnhill Town- 
ship, was for some time his partner in busi- 
ness. The house stood south of Bonham' s 
store, and on the opposite side of the street. 
The trade of hatter was as common and as 
popular a trade then as that of blacksmith, 
as the merchants did not bring on hats in 
those days like they do now, but they were 
manufactured by the hatter the same as 
plows were manufactured by the blacksmith. 
The hatter bought all kinds of furs, and these 
he manufactured into hats at his leisure, or 
as his trade demanded. The back end of 
Staten's building was used for storing furs, 
and was without a floor other than the ground. 
In one corner of the room a well had been 
dug, which was quite deep and without curb 
or box. One day, when a number of custom 
ers were in the store, a small child wandered 
into the back room, and accidentally tum- 
bled into the well. Staten, as luck would 
have it, saw it fall in, and without a mo- 

ment's hesitation jumped in and rescued it, 
to the great joy of its nearly frantic mother. 

This brings the record of the mercantile 
business down twenty years from the date of 
laying out the town. In 1839, Jacob Hall 
opened a stock of goods in Leech's old store- 
house, north of Bonham's residence. Later 
on he built a storehouse on the lot where Mr. 
J. F. Smith's photograph gallery stands. 
He then sold goods for awhile on the south 
side of the square, with John Truesdale as a 
partner, and in swinging around the circle, 
he next had his store in the old corner house 
— now Ball's harness-shop. Mr. Hall is one 
of the active business men of Fairfield. For 
forty-two years he has been actively engaged 
in the town as a merchant and a banker, 
and energetic business man, with but one 
short interruption during the time. He is 
still a stirring, wide-awake, energetic worker. 
The elder Bonham was perhaps the next mer- 
chant to Hall. He commenced business 
about 1843-44, where the old Jackson 
House stood. From this stand he went to 
the corner brick (Ball's harness-shop), and 
thence to the present Bonham store. This 
brings the business, however, down to a late 
day, when it is not an easy task to keep trace 
of the new stores as opened. The town now 
embraces a list of merchants, who for cour- 
tesy, business energy, and genuine polite- 
ness, are not surpassed by any place in the 
country. Tbey are, to a considerable extent, 
successful and prosperous, and command the 
confidence of the people. 

The first bank ever in Fairfield, and the 
only bank of issue, was the Corn Exchange 
Bank, started in the spring of 1856. It was 
owned by W. S. Vandusen, and had a circu- 
lation of $750,000, secured by Illinois State 
Stock. It continued in existence until the 
commencement of the war, when it was closed 
up, as were all similar institutions, and in 



the final wind-up of its business it paid 95 
cents on the dollar. Vandusen sold out his 
interest to a man named Osgood, of Joliet, 
and he to one Charles Keath, who also lived 
somewhere in the north part of the State. 
Keath was the owner of the bank when it 
was wound up and ceased business. Mr. 
Jacob Hall was cashier from the beginning 
to the final closing Tip of the institution. He, 
however, continued the exchange part of the 
business, buying and selling exchange, as 
banks do, until the organization of new bank- 
ing facilities in the town. 

The bank of Bonham & Co. was started 
some six or eight years ago, and comprised 
in the firm Messrs. Ed Bonham, Charles 
Beecher and William Sailer. They still 
carry on the banking business in all its 
branches, and have a neat and commodious 
bank building west of the public square. 
Forth, Robinson & Boggs, started a bank 
some years ago, but continued the business 
but a short time. 

Mills and Factories. — The manufacturing 
industries of Fairfield are few, and mostly 
unimportant, being confined chiefly to mills. 
Hardin Barnhill built the first mill in the 
town in a very early day. It was a horse 
mill, and stood just across the street from 
Air. Thomas Cooper's residence. Probably 
the next mill was built by Bonham & Tarles, 
and was a steam mill. It was both a grist 
and saw mill, and did well for the time. It 
finally burned. Ephraim Johnson built the 
next mill on the creek north of the bank, 
which was also a steam mill. It was bought 
by the owners of the Sucker Mills, after 
the erection of their mills in order to get it 
out of their way. Next came the Fairfield 
Mills. They were built by John Gaddis, 
about 1875-70, and were afterward burned. 
Then the present mills were built. After 
their completion. Gaddis sold, in the spring 

of 18S3, to Benheimer, who has greatly im- 
proved them. He has put in all the modern 
machinery, including the roller process, and 
guarantees to make as good flour as is made 
by any mill in the country. The Sucker 
Mills precede the Fairfield Mills in point of 
time of building them. They were put up 
in 1867, at a cost of $20,000, by Rider 
Brothers & Rinard. They were started with 
four set of buhrs, three for wheat and one for 
corn. In 1870, the firm changed to Rider 
Sons & Rinard, and in 1873, Rider & 
Rinard retired, when the firm became Rider 
Brothers. They refitted the mills in 1882, 
putting in the roller process at an additional 
cost of $0,000, and increasing their capacity 
to 100 barrels per day. The mills are located 
near the O. & M. depot, and obtained the 
name of "Sucker Mills," in consequence of 
the original proprietors all being "Suckers.'' 
The Fairfield Woolen Mills were projected 
originally by Thomas C. Stanley, and were 
on a very limited scale, but sufficient for the 
time in which they began work. The first 
mills stood on the site of the present build- 
ing, and was a large frame. This building 
burned in the spring of 1871, incurring a 
heavy loss to the proprietor. The enterprise 
was then revived by a joint-stock company 
chartered the same year. The official board 
were James McCartney, President; W. J. 
Sailer, Secretary and Treasurer, and Thomas 
C. Stanley, Superintendent. They erected 
the present handsome brick building, and 
arrauged for a more extensive business. The 
approximate cost of the establishment as it 
now stands is $40,000. The mills make a 
specialty of "Kentucky jeans," finding 
their market with jobbers throughout the 
Central and Northwestern States. They em- 
ploy sixty-three regular hands, running in 
the busy season sixty looms, technically 
known as a three-set mill. The corporation 



ceased to exist in 1882, and became the prop- 
erty of W. J. Sailer and A. H. Baker. For 
the year ending December 31, 1832, the ap- 
proximate sales were $100,000; the pay-roll 
is about $20,000 per year. 

The manufacture of castor oil was at one 
time an extensive business in Fairfield. Dr. 
William Turney first started into the man- 
ufacture of the oil in a small way, by what 
was known as the lever press. He was fol- 
lowed by James Torrence and McClerkins, 
and after them Thomas Cooper, Sr. They 
pressed by 1 screw power driven by horses. 
Isaac Fitzgerrel was also in the business. At 
one time the cultivation of caBtor beans by 
the farmers was extensive, and was the largest 
crop produced by them. But as years 
passed the business drooped, and was finally 
discontinued entirely. This, so far as we 
can learn, comprises the history of Fairfield 

Samuel Leech was the first Postmaster of 
Fairfield. Then the olfice was small and in- 
significant, and Mr. Leech could very easily 
have carried the office and its emoluments, too 
as to that, in his breeches pocket, and then 
had vacant room left for his plug of tobacco. 
Mr. Tom Scott, the present Postmaster Gen- 
eral, finds the manipulating of the mail-bags 
a far larger job then did Mr. Leech some 
half a century before him. Some idea of 
the growth of the country, and the changes 
that have been wrought in the passing years, 
may best be had by a comparison of the busi- 
ness of the post office then and now. It 
would be difficult to think of society at pres- 
ent without the post office. It is one of the 
most important and useful institutions to 
civilization that is given to us by the United 
States Government. The first Postmaster, 
Mr. Leech, did not, on an average, receive 
three letters a month in his post office. Mr. 
Scott receives in his over 5,000 per month. 

For years after the establishment of a post 
office, the reception of a newspaper through 
the mail was a most uncommon occurrence, 
but now great bags full of them are received 
daily. At one time the mails, carried on 
horseback, passed through the county weekly, 
when they were permitted by the streams to 
go through at all; now the mails are brought 
from the East and the West, and the North 
and the South by lightning railroad trains. 
This increase of mail matter shows to some 
extent the proper measure of the growth of 
population of the county, and the spread of 
intelligence and education. 

The first blacksmith in Fairfield was a man 
named Graham, who kept a shop on the bank 
of the creek near where Mrs. Johnson's 
boarding house stands. Hugh Stewart had 
an early shop across the street from Graham's. 
Stewart came from Big Mound Township, 
and for years was a man of considerable 
prominence. He laid off an addition to the 
town, and did many other acts for its im- 
provement and prosperity. 

Taverns. — There was no regular tavern in 
the town for several years after it was laid 
out. Samuel Leech was the first individual 
who entertained the " wayfaring man," or in 
hotel parlance, " entertained man and beast," 
but he did not keep a regular tavern. It was 
left to Charles Wood to open the first public 
house. A house had been bui It for a tavern 
by Jackson, known as the " Jackson House," 
but Jackson failed, and Wood became the 
landlord of the Jackson House. Moses 
Turney kej>t the next tavern, but soon failed, 
broke up and went to Texas. Jacob Hall 
built a tavern at the O. & M. depot, which is 
also called the Jackson House, from the fact 
that he (Jackson) [kept it for awhile. The 
Jackson House was finally burned. The ho- 
tels thus described were all the town had 
until the erection of Lang's Hotel. This is 



a large, commodious, and even elegant hotel 

Court House. — In the older counties and 
cities and towns of the world, there is some 
characteristic to be observed, some peculiarity 
that distinguish them, and render them noted 
among the nations and the people. In dif- 
ferent places it is different objects of inter- 
est. Here it may be tho style of architect- 
ure, there the grandeur of public works or 
buildings, in this place magnificent ruins, in 
that, manners, customs, etc., but there is al- 
ways something in every country, or city, or 
community, to distinguish it from the rest of 
the world. Egypt, for instance, has been 
noted for a thousand years for its colossal 
pyramids; the lofty columns of Persepolis, 
the magnificent city of the plain, have 
moldered into dust, but as ruins remain to 
challenge our admiration; Jerusalem is famed 
wherever civilization has extended, for Solo- 
mon's Temple, of which the Queen of Sheba 
declared " half the glory had not been told." 
Coming down to a more modern epoch, Lon- 
don is famed for its St. Paul's Cathedral and 
Westminster Abbey, and Paris for the Tuil- 
leries and its magnificent parks and gardens. 
In our own great country, New York has her 
Crystal Palace; Boston, Old Faneuil; Phil- 
adelphia, Independence Hall, and Fairfield 
— has her court house. This huge pile of 
brick and mortar'(the Fairfield Court House), 
like the temple of Tadmor in the wilderness, 
may be seen from afar, and serve as a beacon 
light to guide the traveler and stranger on 
his way. It looms up above the surrounding 
buildings as the giant oak of the forest tow- 
ers above the willow of the marsh, and is 
surmounted by a lofty cupola which pierces 
the clouds. This massive structure was 
erected so long ago that " the mind of man 
runneth to the contrary," and if " old ago is 
honorable," as we are told that it is, then 

honors should be heaped upon it from every 
quarter. But to dispense with all jesting 
and light remarks, we doubt not the time is 
near at hand, when a new court house will 
be erected, upon tho sito of this dilapidated 
structure, that will be a credit to tho great 
and wealthy county of Wayne. Though it 
may be that the present one is endeared to the 
people as a 'relic of tho prehistoric period, 
yet, that is no reason why the old shell should 
stand as an eyesoro among the improvements 
that are rising around it. 

Fairfield has been visited more than once 
by the " fire fiend, " but none of the fires 
have been of a very destructive character. 
Among them were the burning of Bonham & 
Tarles' Mills; the old Fairfield Woolen Mills; 
the Jackson House; the old frame school- 
house; the O. &. M. Depot, etc., etc. None 
of these fires entailed a very great loss, but 
usually the vacant spots thus made have been 
filled with much better buildings, as in the 
case of the woolen mills, the Jackson House 
and the schoolhouse. When we look at so 
many wooden towns, we are led to wonder 
that more of them are not burned than there 
are. A town springs up on the prairie, built 
almost wholly of pine lumber, and in a few 
years it becomes so dry that it burns very 
easily. When one happens to take fire with 
a prairie wind blowing twenty miles an hour-, 
it is usually doomed. Fairfield has escaped 
well, considering it has had so many oppor- 
tunities to burn. 

The press of Fairfield is no inconsiderable 
factor in tho history of the town and county. 
There is no more faithful historian of a com- 
munity than the local press; and be it ever 
so humble or unpretentious, it cannot fail in 
tho course of years to furnish valuable in- 
formation for future reference. A file of the 
local paper for a dozen or more years pre- 
sents a fund of information, the value of 



which can hardly be estimated. An eminent 
divine has said, " the local paper is not only 
a business guide, but it is a pulpit of morals; 
it is a kind of public rostrum where the af- 
fairs of state are considered; it is a super- 
visor of streets and roads; it is a rewarder of 
merit; it is a social friend, a promoter of 
friendship and good will. Even the so-called 
small matters of a village are only small to 
those whose hearts are too full of personal 
pomposity." It is very important if some 
school boy or school girl reads a good essay, 
or speaks well a piece, or sings well a song, 
or stands well in the class room, that kind 
mention should be made publicly of such 
success, for more youug minds are injured 
for want of cheering words than are made 
vain by an excess of such praise. In the 
local papers, the funeral bell tolls more 
solemnly than in the great city dailies. The 
rush and noise of the metropolis take away 
the joy from items about marriages, and de- 
tract from the solemnity of recorded deaths; 
but when the local paper notes a marriage 
between two favorites of society, all the 
readers see the happiness of the event; and 
equally when the columns of the home 
paper tell us that some great or humble per- 
son has gone from the world, we read with 
tears, for he was our neighbor and friend. 

The newspapers of Fairfield — the Record 
and the Press — are written up in a chapter on 
the county at large, and their history will not 
be repeated in this connection. The Press 
and Record are live, wide-awake papers, and 
the people of Fairfield and of Wayne Coun- 
ty should feel proud of them and should sup- 
port them liberally. The newspaper is the 
people's friend, and the people should look 
to its support. 

Schools. — The first schools in Fairfield 
were taught in any building that might chance 
to be vacant and convenient for school pur- 

poses. The names of the first teachers are 
now forgotten. The first schoolhouse was 
built on the opposite side of the street from 
the new Methodist Episcopal Church. It 
was a large frame building, and served the 
purposes of education for a good many years, 
but was finally burned. The present brick 
schoolhouse was built in 1874, and cost orig- 
inally about '$10,000. Since its comple- 
tion, improvements and additions have 
been made to it, running its cost up half 
as much more. The house is large, com- 
modious and comfortable, and is well 
arranged for educational purposes. At pres- 
ent eight teachers are employed, as follows: 
I. M. Dickson (Principal), Mrs. E. S. Phelps, 
Miss Elizabeth Graham, Miss Hannah Bean, 
Miss Bessie Taylor, Miss Lulu Porterfield, 
Miss Mabel Hollister, Miss Ida Swan. 

The church history will be found in 
another chapter, and only the briefest allu- 
sion will be made here. The Baptists put up 
the first church building in the town. It has 
been gone for at least twenty-five years, and 
few now remember that such a building ever 
stood in the town. The Presbyterians and 
the Cumberland Presbyterians were the first 
denominations to hold meetings, but the Bap- 
tists built the first church. The Cumberland 
Presbyterians built the next house of worship, 
and were followed by the Methodists. The 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church is still 
standing, but begins to show signs of age. 
A church was built near where Overbay's 
boarding house now stands, but it was never 
completed. The town now can boast of five 
as handsome church buildings — modern brick 
edifices — as may be found in any country 
town. There are five brick and one frame 
church buildings, and are owned respectively 
by the Presbyterians, Cumberland Presby- 
terians, Christian, Baptists, Methodists and 
Roman Catholics. For a more complete his- 




• * w 'V... *. '* "■ p i'«v » v ' vj^*» • • /^.vi » • • 

• • » - 

•SIGN' < A '" rt 



tory of the Fairfield churches, see chapter 
on the church history of the county. 

Freemasonry, the most ancient and honor- 
able of all the secret orders and societies, has 
long existed in Fairfield. Its origin is a 
point upon which there is much curious spec- 
ulation among men. and about which there 
is some contradiction and more conjecture 
among those noted for their knowledge of 
ancient history, that it originated so long ago, 
that no history tells of its beginning, is true. 
That Masons are to be found in almost every 
country, subjected to the white man's suprem- 
acy, is a point universally admitted. In tribes 
and countries, where letters and arts are ex- 
tinct, and where commerce and modern im- 
provement have as yet made no impression 
npon the national character, the grand features 
of Masonry are found to be correct. This re- 
markable coincidence is accounted for in 
various ways by different writers upon the 
subject. All who have carefully considered 
the origin of the order have been convinced 
that the germ from which it sprang was co- 
eval with that wonderful command of Jeho- 
vah, "Let there be light." At the building 
of King Solomon's Temple, the order as- 
sumed something like a definite form. "We 
Learn from tradition and from Josephus that, 
at the erection of that superb model of archi- 
tectural beauty, there were employed three 
grand masters. 3,300 masters or overseers of 
the work. 80,000 fellow-crafts, and 70,000 
entered apprentices, who were ail systemat- 
ically arranged according to their grade and 

We have been told by a writer of intelli- 
gence and veracity, that, " after the comple- 
tioa of the Temple at Jerusalem, most of the 
Tyrians who had been employed by Solomon 
returned to their native country.'" From the 
same source we learn that many of the Jews 
who had been engaged upon the Temple 

migrated to Phoenicia, a country of which 
Tyre was then the principal city. For some 
cause, left unexplained by the historian, this 
Jewish colony was oppressed by its neigh- 
bors, and flew to their friends, the Tyrians, 
for relief. The latter furnished them with 
ships and provisions, and they (the Jews) 
took their departure for a foreign land, and 
finally settled in Spain. If as workmen at 
the Temple, they had been invested with 
secrets not known to others, there can be no 
doubt but that they preserved and carried 
them wherever they went. Another writer 
informs us that about 190 years after the 
Trojan war, which would be about fifteen 
years after the completion of the temple at 
Jerusalem, a colony of Jews from Palestine 
made a permanent settlement on the western 
coast of Africa. From these three distinctive 
points, we may follow the march and spread 
of Masonry throughout the world. In all 
the countries settled by emigration from these 
places, or connected with these people, either 
by alliance or commerce, Masonry is found, 
her signs the same, her mystic word the same 
in all. And that it has existed in some form 
ever since there is no shadow of doubt in the 
mind of the educated craftsman. At what 
precise date it became speculative and 
dropped the operative form is not definitely 
known. In the early part of the eighteenth 
century, the Grand Lodge of England was 
established, and from that day to this the 
history of Masonry is familiar to all reading 
members of the order. 

Fairfield Lodge, No. 200. A., F. & A. M., 
was chartered October 7, 1856. Among its 
charter members were T. H. Lowrey, B. Baer, 
J. Watson, E. Brock, H. Weed and C. C. 
Kelley. The first officers were as follows: T. 
H. Lowrey, Master; J. Watson, Senior War- 
den; E. Brock, Junior Warden; H. Weed, 
Treasurer; D. Turney, Secretary; B. Baer, 



Senior Deacon; C. Ridgeway, Junior Dea- 
con, and B. Glessner, Tiler. The lodge has 
now seventy-rive members, officered as fol- 
lowed: J. W. Tullis, Master; George C. 
Chittenden, Senior Warden; Z. West, Junior 
Warden; J. T. Fleming, Treasurer; J. L. 
Handley, Secretary; L. D. Bennett, Senior 
Deacon; J. H. Nicholls, Junior Deacon; and 
W. H. Rea, Tiler. 

Fairfield Chapter, No. 179, R. A. M., was 
chartered October 30, 1879, with the follow- 
ing charter members: J. L. Handley, J. W. 
Tullis, L. D. Bennett, T. M. Rogers, H. V. 
Leech, R. D. Adams, J. T. Fleming. W. H. 
Robinson, N. E. Roberts, W. Bestow, G. C. 
Chittenden, J. Nevins, A. Rinard, R. P. Han- 
na, W 7 . M. Murray, George Felix, R. Wheel- 
er, F. Bestow, A. H. McClain, G. H. Hil- 
lard and John Gaddis. The first officers 
were J. L. Handley, H.\ P.\; J. W. Tullis, 
K.\ ; L. D. Bennett, S.-. ; H. V. Leech, C.\ 
of H.\ ; G. C. Chittenden, P.\ S. \; N. E. 
Roberts, R. \ A.\ C. \ ; G. H. Hillard, R. P. 
Hanna and R. D. Adams, Veilsmen; A. Ri- 
nard, Treasurer; J. T. Fleming, Secretary; 
and L. D. Shaeffer, Tiler. The chapter now 
has forty members, and is officered as follows: 
J. L. Handley, H. \ P. \ ; R. D. Adams. K. \ ; 
R. E. Mabry, S.\; L. D. Bennett, C.\ of 
H.\ ; G. C. Chittenden, P.". S.\ ; J. W. Tul- 
lis, R.. A.-. C.\ ; C. L. Poindexter, J. R. 
Creighton and J. E. Wilson, Grand Masters 
of the Veils; J. T. Fleming, Treasurer; W. 
G. Carothers, Secretary; and J. C. Alexan- 
der, Tiler. 

Fairfield Council, No. 64, Royal and Se- 
lect Masters, was chartered October 21, 1883, 
with the following charter members: J. C. 
Alexander, D. W. Barkley, R. D. Adams, L. 
D. Bennett, J. R. Creighton, G. C. Chitten- 
den, W. G. Carothers, J. T. Fleming. J. L. 
Handley, R. P. Hanna, J. Morris, R. E. 
Mabry, E. McClung, B. F. Meeks, W. M. 

Murray, C. L. Poindexter, N. E. Roberts, A. 
Rinard, J. D. Shaeffer, E. Steiner, T. W. 
Scott, J. W. Tullis, N. M. Powers and W. J. 
Elwell. The officers are J. L. Handley, T. I. 
G. M. ; N. E. Roberts, D. I. G M. ; L. D. 
Bennett, P. of W.; J. T. Fleming, Recorder; 

C. L. Poindexter, Treasurer; G. C. Chitten- 
den, C. of G. ; E. Steiner, Sentinel, and the 
names of twenty-nine members are on the 

Local Branch, No. 137, Order of Iron Hall, 
was organized .November 27, 1882, with 
charter members as follows: Jacob Raden- 
bach, James C. Long, Jacob A Miller, 
James A. Johnston, Charles C. Smith, Win- 
field Scott, Z. C. Woodworth. Zelma Bean, 
Jacob Puff. John Crouch, John J. Sloan, John 

D. Long, Ira D. Long, Z. B. West. Charles 
W. Sibley, James Abbott, E. P. Thompson, 

E. L. Carlton, John Tullis, Jr.. J. W. Darl- 
ing, James Emmons and Thomas Cottrill: 
with the following officers: Jacob Raden- 
bach, C. J.; C. C. Smith, V. J.; J. B. West, 
A.; Z. C. Woodworth, C; J. J. Sloan, P. ; Z. 
Bean, A.; Ira D. Long, H. ; John D. Long, 
N.; Jacob Puff. V.; and C. W. Sibley. M. E. 
The amount of sick benefits paid to members 

I to December 20, 1883, is $960. It has cer- 
i tainly proven to be the poor man's friend, 
and bids fair to have a rapid growth. 

Royal Templars of Temperance was char- 
tered December 30, 1879, and started on its 
career with the following charter members: 
Males — W. H. Vandewater, G. M. Davis, J. 
Frank Smith, E. B. Hanna, R. W. McCall, 
C. W. Sibley, H. L. Wheat, George A. Steal- 
ly and N. J. Odell. Females— Mrs. S. J. 
Steally, Mrs. L. J. Boggs. Mrs. E. B. Gal- 
braith, Mrs. McClure, Mrs. Louisa Shaw, 
Mrs. N. J. Smith, Mrs. Edna Fogle, Mrs. M. 
M. Campbell and Mrs. J. A. Brown. The 
first officers were J. F. Smith, S. C. ; Mrs. S. 
J. Steally. Y. C; H. L. Wheat. P. C. : Mrs. 



E. B. Galbraith, C. ; W. H. Vandewater. R. 
S. ; G. S. Steally. F. S. ; G. M. Davis, T. ; 
N. J. Odell, H. ; Mrs. McClure, D. H. ; Mrs. 
L. J. Boggs, G. ; E. M. Hough, S. The 
membership is twenty males and sixteen fe- 
males, with the following officers: J. Frank 
Smith, S. C. ; Mrs. A. B. Haggard, V. C. ; 
G. M. Davis, P. C; D. M. Steally, C; Mrs. 
N. Dickson, R. S.; George A. Steally, F. S.; 
E. J. xMarlow, S. ; N. J. Odell, H. ; Mrs. L. 
J. Boggs. D. H. ; Mrs. N. B. Smith, G; 
Robert Moon, T. 

Odd Fellowship at one time flourished in 
Fairfield, and the fraternity had an active 
working lodge. From some cause unusual 
with this zealous and praiseworthy order, the 
lodge has become lukewarm, and recently 
ceased to exist altogether. There is strong 
talk of reviving it, and doubtless it soon will 
be revived, and set to work again with its 
old-time vigor. 

Lodge No. 65, A. O. U. W., was organized 
March 30, 1S79. The charter members were 
John Morris, Thomas W. Scott. W. G. Ca- 
rothers, Edward E. Leonard. Joseph D. 
Leonard, Joseph D. Shaeffer, Francis A. Fel- 
ton, Framis M. Woolard, John L. Haudley, 
Robert E. Mallory, Alexander Richardson, 
Sumner Lindsay, Daniel C. Groves, George 
Newton, James A. Cox. Lewis H. Baker, 
Charles W. Sibley. Arthur J, Hutchins, John 
Gaddis, Ansel M. Lusley and Joseph L. Ball. 
The first officers were as follows: J. L. 
Handley, P. M. W. : T. W. Scott, M. W. ; 
W. G. Carothers, F.; A. M. Lusley, O. ; R. 

E. Mallory, G. ; J. D. Shaeffer, B.; L. H. 
Baker, F.; E. E. Leonard. R. ; J. A. Cox, J. 
W. ; George Newton, O. W; C. W. Sibley, 

F. A. Felton and Alexander Richardson, 
Trustees. The institution has eighty mem- 
bers at present, and is officered as follows: 
William Lusley. P.'*M. W.; D. W. Barkley, 
M. W.; S. Forney. F. : N. M. Powell, ().; .1. 

L. Handley. ]!,: C. T. Johnson, R. ; S. 
Steiner, F. ; W. L. Rea, G. ; G. W. Johns. J. 
\\\; R. P. Hanna, O. W. ; William Foster, 
R. P. Hanna and L H. Baker, Trustees. 

Village Organization. — The town of Fair- 
field was incorporated May 26, 1856, and at 
the first election the following Board of 
Trustees was chosen: Charles Wood, John 
D. Cope, Roley Jackson, Thomas T. Bonhnm 
and Jacob Baker. At the first meeting, the 
board organized for business by electing 
Thomas T. Bonham, President, and John D. 
Cope, Clerk. By-laws and ordinances for 
the government of the town were drafted by 
Bobert Bell, Charles Beecher and Hall Wil- 
son. Ephraim Johnson was appointed Treas- 
nrer; Hall Wilson, Collector; William Pow- 
less, Town Constable; and Robert Schell, 
Street Commissioner. The following, with a 
few exceptions, in which the records are de- 
fective and incomplete, is a list of the boards, 
from the incorporation of the village to the 
present : 

Elected in June, 1857— Charles Wood, Ja- 
cob Hall, Sampson Wickersham, -lames Pen- 
dleton and John D. Cope. 

Elected in June, 1858 —John D. Cope, 
George W. Turney, James B. Ardery, Fran- 
cis George and John Truesdale. William 
George was elected Police Magistrate and L. 
D. Bennett, Town Constable. It was at the 
first meeting of this board that the sale of 
li(juor was prohibited in the town or within 
half a mile of the corporate limits. There is 
no record of an election of Trustees this year, 
but the minutes show the organization of a 
new board as follows: Roley Jackson, Presi- 
dent; C. T. Lichtenberger, Clerk; and T. T. 
Bonham, J. P. Covington and H. H. Beech 
er: II. S. Barnhill, Town Constable. 

For 18<i<). there is no record of an election, 
but on the 9th of July, a new board was or- 
ganized as follows: H. H. Beecher, Presi- 



dent; Forsythe Turney, Clerk; and T. T. 
Bonham, C. T. Litchtenberger and L. D. 

At the election held December 20, 1869 * 
Oliver P. Patterson, Thomas C. Stanley, Jo- 
seph L. Ball, Gilbert J. George and Jacob 
Hall were elected Trustees for the ensuing 
year. Jacob Hall was elected President; J. 
L. Ball, Treasurer; G. J. George, Clerk; and 
H. F. Sibley, Town Marshal. 

At the election, December 19, 1870, lor 
the ensuing year, the following board was 
elected: Jacob Hall, President; G.J.George, 
Clerk; J. L. Ball, Treasurer; and O. P. 
Patterson and Thomas C. Stanley. S. T. 
Nance was appointed Town Marshal. 

At the election of December 18, 1871, the 
following board was elected to serve the en- 
suing year: J. C. Alexander, President; C. C. 
Boggs, Treasurer; and G. J. George and D. 
W. Barkley. S. T. Nance was appointed 
Town Marshal, and J. L. Ball, Street Com- 

At the election of December 16, 1872, for 
the ensuing year, James A. Creighton, A. B. 
Rider, J. L. Handley, O. P. Patterson and 
G. J. George were elected. George was 
elected President of the board; Creighton, 
Clerk; and Ed Wilson, Town Constable. 

At the election of December 15, 1873, the 
folio ving board was elected for the ensuing 
year: Oliver Holmes, R. D. Adams, N. J. 
Odell, A. H. Baker and J. V. Baugh. 
Holmes was elected President of the board; 
Baugh, Clerk; and Phil M Crabb, Town 

At the December election in 1874 for the 
ensuing year, A. B. Rider, J. W. Tullis, J. 
A. Moffit, G. J. George and J. G. Crews. 
George was elected President of the board; 
Crews, Clerk; and P. M. Crabb, Town Mar- 

♦There is a break in the records from 1860 to 1809, and hence 
the boards for those years could not be obtained. 

At the December election in 1875 for the 
ensuing year, J. L. Handley, A. B. Rider, 
John W. Tullis, Thomas A. Martin and John 
Morris were elected. Handley was made 
President; Morris, Clerk; Martin, Treasurer; 
and W. N. Dickey, Town Marshal. 

At the election in December, 1876, for the 
succeeding year, John Morris, David W. 
Barkley, E. W. Pendleton and John Keen, 
Jr., were elected. Barkley was appointed 
President; Morris, Clerk; Keen, Treasurer; 
and P. M. Crabb, Marshal. 

At the election in December, 1877, for the 
next year, L. J. Rider, G. M. Davis, John 
W. Tullis, C. C. Wickersham and J. P. 
Rider were elected the board. Tullis was 
appointed President of the board; Davis, 
Treasurer; Wickersham, Clerk; and Crabb, 

At the December election, 1878, for the 
next year, the following board was elected: 
S. M. Steally, J. D. Shaeffer, G. W. Johns, 
H. F. Sibley and N. J. Odell. Johns was 
elected President; Steally, Treasurer; Sibley, 
Clerk; and William Head, Marshal. 

At the December election, 1879, for the 
next year, E. W. Pendleton, T. M. Rogers, 
O. P. Patterson, B. E. Johnson and John 
Morris were elected Trustees. Rogers was 
elected President; Morris, Clerk; Johnson, 
Treasurer; and P. M. Crabb, Marshal. 

At the December election in 18S0, for the 
ensuing year, the following board was elect- 
ed: L. J. Rider, E. S. Black, J. L. Handley, 
C. W. Summers and Ed Bonham. The latter 
was appointed President; Handley, Clerk; 
Black, Treasurer; and William Rea. Town 

At the December election in 1881, for the 
ensuing year, William G. Carothers, Robert 
E. Mabry, B. E. Johnson, Dr. C. W. Sibley 
and James R. Norris were elected ^Trustees. 
Carothers was chosen President; Mabry, 



Clerk; Sibley, Treasurer: and R. B. Schell, 

At the election in December. 1882, for the 
ensuing year, Thomas L. Cooper, John L. 
Handley, John Morris, E. Steiner anil L. J. 
Rider were elected Trustees. Cooper was 
appointed President of the board; Handley, 
Clerk; Steiner, Treasurer; and R. B. Schell. 
Town Marshal. 

At. the December election in 1883 (the 
present year), for the next year. Thomas L. 
Cooper, E. W. Pendleton. John Morris, A. H. 
Baker and J. F. Fleming were elected the 
board. At our latest advices, however, the 
new board had not organized or elected their 

An item worthy of note in the town organ- 
ization of Fairfield is that at the election of 
Trustees in 1866 a temperance board was 
elected. The members were George Scott, 
Isaac Fitzgerrell, L. D. Bennett. Ed S. Slack 
and W. D. Barkley. This was a straight 
anti-whisky board, and, with the beginning 
of its administration, saloons were closed, 
and have never, to this day, been re opened. 
For nearly eighteen years all whisky drink- 
ing in Fairfield has been done from private 
jugs or behind the door, as no licenses have 
been granted to saloons since the election of 
(he first temperance board. This speaks well 
for the morals of the town and the temper- 
ance habits of its citizens. 



THE history of Barnhill and Big Mound 
Townships is so interwoven that it can- 
not very well be given otherwise than in a 
single chapter. Both townships were settled 
early: they lie side by side, and the county- 
seat is alike situated in both, thus rendering 
much of their history identical. Each town- 
ship contains fifty-four sections, or one and 
a half Congressional townships, and the 
quality of the land partakes much of the 
same nature in its topographical features 
throughout the two entire divisions. The 

«rty W. II IVrrin. 

surface may be termed generally level or un- 
dulating. But little of it is low and flat, 
nor is much of it broken and hilly. There 
is. however, a considerable quantity of what 
is termed " swamp land " in both townships. 
A large swamp takes up nearly all of Sections 
25 and 26 of Barnhill. into which (lows sev- 
eral small streams. Plenty of artificial 
drainage will, no doubt, reclaim even these 
swamp lands in time, and make them valua- 
ble for farming purposes. A swamp runs 
entirely through Big Mound Township, be- 
ginning in Section '■'> I . and passing through 



Sections 32, 33, 28, 27, 34, 3 and 2, and like 
that in Barnhill, is fed by numerous streams, 
which keep it tilled with stagnant waters the 
greater part of the year. The principal 
water-courses are Skillet Fork in Big Mound 
and Pond Creek in Barnhill, both of which 
are considerable streams, with a number of 
small and nameless tributaries. These town- 
ships are bounded on the north by Jasper 
and Laniard Townships, on the east by 
Leech, on the south by Hamilton and White 
Counties, and on the west by Four Mile and 
Arrington Townships. Barnhill, under the 
Government survey, comprises Township 2 
and one-half of Township 3 south, Range 8 
east; and Big Mound, Township 2, and one- 
half of Township 3 south, Range 7 east, of 
the Third Principal Meridian. The latter 
township received its name from an elevation 
of land which is known as "Big Mound," 
and is perhaps the highest point in the coun- 
ty. The " Air Line " Railroad passes over 
it, and a depot has been built upon the sum- 
mit of the elevation known as " Boylston 
Station." Barnhill was named in honor of 
the Barnhill family, who were among the 
earliest settlers. The name was suggested 
by Mr. W. W. George, at township organi- 
zation, and was unanimously adopted. Both 
townships were originally heavily timbered, 
with the exception of a few small prairies 
which, however, do not take up much of 
their area. A great deal of the timber has 
been cutoff, but there still remains enough 
for all domestic purposes. The predominat 
ing timbers are several kinds of oak, ash, 
hickory, sweet gum, elm, swamp maple, etc., 
with numerous shrubs. Barnhill and Big 
Mi mud have the advantage of two railroads, 
viz., the Louisville & St. Louis Air Line, and 
the Springfield Division of the Ohio & Mis- 
sissippi, which have done much to increase the 
value of lands and other property. 

The settlement of these townships, and 
particularly Barnhill, may be classed among 
the early settlements of the county. Nearly 
seventy years ago, homes were selected in 
what is now the latter township by white 
people. This is but a short period when 
considered in the world's chronology, but in 
the history of this part of our country it 
seems a long, long time. Many and start- 
ling events have transpired since then — 1813 
— throughout this country and the old 
world. Thrones and kingdoms have passed 
away; empires have risen and flourished and 
fallen, and the remembrance of their glory 
has almost faded from the minds of men, as 
the waves of dark oblivion's sea sweep o'er 
them, and scarcely leave a track to tell us 
how, or where, or when they sunk. Ancient 
palaces, in whose spacious halls the mightiest 
rulers proudly trod, show the ivy clinging to 
their moldering towers, and 

" Victor's wreaths, and monarch's gems, 
Have blended with the common dust." 

In our own county mighty changes have 
been wrought. Political revolutions have 
shaken the continent, and " Red Battle, with 
blood-red tresses deepening in the sun," 
and " death-shot glowing in his fiery hands, 
raged and maddened to and fro " in our fair 
land, and the shackles of slavery have been 
stricken from four millions of human beings. 
But these are the least of the great events 
the past seventy years have witnessed. Hu- 
man progress and human inventions have 
done more in those years than in ten centu- 
ries before. The railroad, the telegraph, and 
improved machinery of every kind and de- 
scription attest the rapid strides of the age. 
The early simple settler of the oountry little 
dreamed what his short span of life would 

The Barnhills were the first settlers in 
this part of the county. A tradition is cur- 



rent that Gen. Hargraves and his rangers 
encamped at a spring in 1813, near the north- 
west part of the present town of Fairfield, 
and that some of the Barnhills were with 
him. The tradition is further authority for 
the fact, that while the rangers were en- 
camped here, the Barnhills selected the lands 
upon which they afterward settled. In the 
absence of authentic information to the con- 
trary, we will give them the credit of being 
the first settlers here, and of dating their 
coming back to the year mentioned above. 
The elder Barnhill, the patriarch of the 
tribe, died in Gallatin County, where he had 
located very early, but his widow came here 
with her family, and settled in the north or 
northwest part of this township. The Widow 
Barnhill has a grandson living in Fairfield, 
now quite an old man. Another grandson 
was killed in the late civil war. but at the 
time lived in Xenia, Clay County. The older 
members of the family are all gone, and 
nearly forgotten, too, by the growing up gen- 
eration. They came here because the coun- 
try, although but a wilderness, was beautiful 
to behold, and the abundance of wild ani- 
mals gratified their passion for hunting. 
They flinched not from th>> contest that met 
them on the wild border, and even their 
women and children often performed deeds 
from which the iron nerves of manhood 
might well have shrunk in fear. In their 
death passed away some of the landmarks 
that divide the past from the present. Their 
names should not be suffered to sink in ob 
livion, but as the pioneers of this immediate 
vicinity, they should bo kept in bright re- 
membrance. Much is said of the Barnhills 
in other chapters of this volume. 

Other early settlers of Barnhill were Will- 
iam Watkins. Asa Haynes, Walker Atteberrv, 
Nathan Arteberry, Renfro brothers, Archi- 
bald Roberts, William Simpson, Jr., Daniel 

Gray, Moses Musgrave, James H. Smith, 
W T illiam Davis, James and John Butler, 
Daniel Kinchloe, Henry Tyler and his 
mother, John Cox, David Wright, the Tur 
neys, Stephen Slocumb, David and Lewis 
Hall. Stephen Merritt, Sr., — Stanley, 
George Borah, Jacob Beard, Day brothers, 
Gillem and Isaac Harris, - - Puckett, and 
perhaps others whose names have been for 
gotten. Puckett had one of tjie early mills 
of the township. Gillem and Isaac Harris 
were among the earliest, and were great bear 
hunters. The Day brothers came in early, 
and are both now dead, but a son of one of 
them still lives in the township. Daniel 
Kinchloe and Jacob Beard were brothers-in- 
law. Both were very early settlers, and 
Kinchloe lived to be ninety-five years old be- 
fore passing to his reward. George Borah 
settled early and was a man of some note. 
He was a man of more than ordinary intelli- 
gence, took much interest in educational 
matters, and exerted a great influence in the 
community. His farm was one of the larc- 
est and best improved in the neighborhood. 
He farmed extensively, raised stock, and was 
a successful farmer and a useful man in the 

Archibald Roberts came from Virginia, 
and settled in Barnhill in 1817. His father 
was killed in that State by the Indians, when 
the remainder of the family moved to Ken- 
tucky, and afterward to Illinois. Archibald 
located in the south part of the township, and 
there commenced the manufacture of hats. 
He afterward moved to Fairfield, where he 
long continued the same business, but finally 
went to Mount Carmel and there died in 
1863. A man named Stanley, whose first 
name is forgotten, came early, and was the 
first cooper ever in Wayne County. Stephen 
Merritt. Sr., was an early settler. He had 
three sons. Stephen, George and William, who 



came at the same time, and also rank as early 
settlers. They were from Kentucky, and are 
all now dead except George, who is still liv- 
ing in the township. The Halls were also 
early settlers. A son of one of them now 
lives on the old Hall homestead. The Slo- 
cumbs settled here as early as 1816. Stephen 
Slocumb, the father of Eigdon B. Slocamb, 
came from Union County, Ky. , and settled in 
this township, where the family figured act- 
ively for many years. So much is said of 
them in other chapters, particularly of Rig- 
don, that anything here would be but a repe- 
tition. A Mrs. Tyler, whose husband died 
before she came here, was an early settler. 
Henry Tylw, a son of hers, is looked upon 
as an early settler. William Watkins settled 
in the southeast part of Section 9, on the 
place now owned by Gideon Gi fiord. He 
came from Kentucky, and was a zealous 
preacher in the Baptist Church, as well as an 
enterprising farmer. W 7 illiam Simpson came 
from Tennessee, and had a large family. 
They were all thrifty farmers, and a large 
number of the name still live in the township. 
Daniel Gray came from South Carolina and 
settled on Section 11. He sold out here to 
W. W. George, and moved into White Coun- 
ty, where the remainder of his life was spent. 
G. A. Church now owns the place on which 
he originally settled. The Butlers settled on 
Section 28, and were energetic farmers. 
They accumulated considerable property, and 
died well off, so far as this world's goods go. 
Representatives of toe family still live in the 
township. Walker Atteberry Bettled on Sec- 
tion 8, and Nathan Atteberry settled on Sec- 
tion 29. on the west border of the township. 
The Turneys settled in Section 10, and 
came from Kentucky. The elder Turney was 
a man of ability and energy. He reared 
several sons, who partook largely of the 
father's strength of character and intellect. 

Daniel Turney, one of these sons, was a phy- 
sician, who attained to eminence in his pro- 
fession, and also in politics, and was several 
times elected to the Legislature. He had a 
son, who, like his father, was a physician, and 
at one time was a member of the State Senate. 
William, a brother of Dr. Daniel Turney. 
was also an eminent physician. The old man 
died in the township, and most of his progeny 
have followed him to the land of shadows. 
Only one representative of the family now 
remains in Barnhill Township. Asa Haynes 
married a daughter of Turney. He was a 
plain farmer, and died in the township several 
years ago. 

An early settler of Barnhill was William 
Davis, who settled on Section 34 — afterward 
known as the Moses Musgrave place. Davis 
was a great hunter, and quite an eccentric 
character. He was once elected to the Legis ■ 
lature, and many incidents, some of them very 
ludicrous, are related in connection with his 
public service. The following is a sample : 
When the clerk of the house asked him his 
occupation, he was unable to obtain a direct 
answer. "Are you a farmer?" asked the 
clerk. "No," replied Davis. The same ques- 
: tion was asked of all the other trades and 
professions, receiving each time the answer 
of no. The clerk very impatiently demanded 
— " What in the Helen blazes are you then ? " 
To this Davis replied, " A hunter by G — d," 
and was so recorded among the faithful. The 
proceedings of the Legislature show that his 
only great act during his term of service in 
the House, was upon a certain occasion when 
there was a bill pending, which he thought, 
effected his constituency. He arose, and 
tremblingly addressed the speaker as follows: 
" Mr. Speaker, I would.thankyou to lay that 
bill on the table," and then sat down, over- 
come by his own great effort. When Moses 
Musgrave came to the township he settled on 



the place on which Davis had originally set- 
tled. James H. Smith settled in north part 
of the township; Kinchloe and Tyler settled 
on Section 31, Cox on Section 30 and David 
Wright on Section 20. The Renfro brothers 
settled on Section 7, in the southern part of 
the town-hip. .Most of the settlements men- 
tioned were made in the southern part, and 
were scattered principally along the old State 
road, leading from Fairfield, through Carmi 
and on to Shawneetown. 

The following entries of land in Barnhill 
will add something perhaps, to the history of 
its early settlement. Many persons, however, 
entered land who never even settled in the 
county, much less in this township, and the 
following is given merely as a bit of ref- 
erence : 

Nathan Owen, in 1S1U. in Section 1; 
Adam Murray, in 1818, in Section 3; Mat- 
thew Kuykendall, in 1818, in Section 5; 
Ormsby and Hite, in 1818, in Section 5; J. 
Felix and H. Barnhill, in 1818, in Section 
6; John Carson, in 1818, in Section 7; An- 
drew Carson, in 1818, in Section 7; J. Dun- 
lop, in 1818, in Section 7; Joseph Martin, 
in 1818, in Section 11; Robert Leslie, in 
1818, in Section 12; R. B. Slocumb, in 1818, 
in Section 13; William S. Merrill, in 1818, 
in Section 13; Ralph Hatch, in 1818, in 
Section 14; A. C. Ridgeway, in 1825, in 
Section 20; Caleb Ridgeway, in 1818, in 
Section 21; Joseph Cundiff, in 1819, in Sec- 
tion 24; Robert B. Knight, in 1817, in 
Section 27; Thomas P. Fletcher, in 1818, in 
Section 27; James Butler, in 1818, in Section 
28; Jacob Ridgeway, in 1818, in Section 30; 
John Johnson, in 1818, in Section 30; Peter 
Statou, in 1819, in Section 30; Thomas 
Cox, in 1819, in Section 30; A. Hubbard, in 
1818, in Section 30; Henry Tyler, in lM'.i. 
in Section 30, and all in Township 2 south, 
and Range 8 east. John Moffitt, in 1818, in 

Section 1; Joseph Campbell, in 1818, in 
Section 2; Alexander Campbell, in 1818, in 
Section 2; Blissett heirs, in 1818, in Section 
5; George Close, in 1817, in Section 9; 
William Wakins, in 1817, in Section 9; 
Archibald Roberts, in 1818, in Section 11; 
William Gray, in 1817, in Section 11; T. 
Simpson, in 1818, in Section 12; William 
Simpson, Jr.. in 1818, in Section 13; Solo- 
mon Stone, in 1818, in Section 13; J. 
Armstrong, in 1817, in Section 13; AVilliarn 
Simpson, Sr., in 1819, in Section 14; G. S. 
Taylor, in 1817, in Section 14, all in Town- 
ship 3 south, and Range east, being the 
southern part of Barnhill as at present 

Set! tunc ill of Big Mound. — Among the 
early settlers of Big Mound Township, as it 
now exists, were the following, who were all 
English people: Hefford, Sargentpi'ee, James 
Simms, John White and the Widow Walton. 
The last two mentioned are loner since dead. 
Simms is still living and is now about ninety- 
five years old. He came here a stripling of 
a lad with Hefford and Sargentpree, and 
lived with them for some time after they 
settled here. Hefford and Sargentpree went 
to New Orleans, where they opened a com- 
mission house, and for years did a large 
business. But they finally failed and came 
back to Illinois. Hefford afterward went 
to Mexico, and Sargentpree located in Carmi 
and died there some years later. Mr. Simms 
is, perhaps, the oldest settler now living in 
the township. 

John and James Young, two brothers, 
came about the year 1818. John was a man 
of fine intelligence, but uneducated — illiter 
ate but not ignorant. He loved money and 
held on to it like grim death, which eventu- 
ally gave rise to the belief that he was a 
downright miser. His cabin was of the 
usual pioneer style — built of logs, and in 



one of these, which, like the Hardshell 
preacher's "board tree," was "holler at the 
butt," he hid his money, afterward plastering 
over the aperture with rnud. When on his 
death- bed he told his son of the hiding-place 
of his money, and upon searching according 
to the old man's directions quite a sum of 
gold and silver was found. He died but a 
few years ago, at an advanced age, and was 
rich, having considerable property in addi- 
tion to his hidden wealth. He was a man of 
fine taste and excellent judgment; he 
bought but little, but that was of the very 
best quality. He possessed little of the re- 
finements of life, indeed, lived almost like 
an animal, and with his animals. Ewing 
Young, a son of John, siill lives in the 
county. In many respects, he is like his 
father, being intellectual, enterprising and 
wealthy, and like his father is fond of money, 
and takes care of what he gets. He owns 
several good farms well improved and 

Two early settlers of what is now Big 
Mound Township were a couple of old Rev- 
olutionary soldiers named Stewart and Gas- 
ton, but whose first names are forgotten. 
Gaston was a fleshy, large, imwieldy man, 
and having ridden one day to Fairfield on 
horseback, to draw his Revolutionary pen- 
sion, his horse became frightened and un- 
manageable, throwing him violently to the 
ground, from the effects of which he died in 
a few hours. He has no descendants in the 
county nearer than a great- grandson. But 
John Gaston, a son, was among the early 
settlers and was a soldier of the war of 
1812. He, too, is long since dead. Cyrus 
Gaston was a brother of John's, and moved 
away from this section. Stewart, like Gas- 
ton, was a Revolutionary soldier, and died 
many years ago. Hugh Stewart, a son, and 
whom many of our readers will remember. 

was an old settler in this township. He af- 
terward moved into the town of Fairfield, 
where he spent the remainder of his life in 
active business. More is said of him in the 
history of Fairfield. 

The Books were early settlors of the town- 
ship. Michael and William were brothers. 
The former was a hatter by trade, and 
worked at the business here for many years. 
He had a son named Michael, who is still 
living, and is an excellent citizen of the 
township. The Clarks were also early set- 
tlers. There were four brothers — John, 
James, Andrew and Alexander. John, who 
was known as " Jackey,'' was a great deer 
hunter, and is said to have killed more deer 
than any other man who ever lived in the 
county. He spent most of his time in the 
delightful pastime, and was remarkably suc- 
cessful in bringing down the game. James 
was also a hunter, but was not so successful 
as his brother. Andrew was a plain old 
farmer. Alexauder was a man of some note, 
and represented the county a time or two in 
the State Legislature. They came originally 
from Kentucky, and settled in Gallatin Coun- 
ty prior to the war of 1812, and a few years 
after its close came here. A man named 
Livergood came in early. He was a Yankee, 
and had one of the first mills in the town- 

Other settlers of the township were Enoch 
Neville, Andrew Hall, John Bovee, Capt. 

John Clark, Robinson, Daniel Cleven- 

ger, etc. Enoch Neville was a great story- 
teller, a kind of a Joe Mulhatton of a fel- 
low. He could entertain his listeners by the 
hour with the most wonderful stories that 
could be imagined. He talked through his 
nose, and this lent additional interest to his 
yarns. Andrew Hall was a perfect giant; 
loved whisky and a row better than anything ^ 
else. He was the bullv of the neighborhood, 



and never missed a tight if there was any 
chanco to get into it by fair or foul means. 
John Bovee lived near the Laniard line, and 
had an early mill. Robinson was a man of 
some note, and served several terms in the 
State Legislature. Clevenger was a Yankee, 
and a great coon hunter, and in those early 
days coonskins wore a legal tender, and paid 
all debts, and were even taken at par for 
whisky. So the township settled up, and 
people came in, at last, faster than we are 
able to keep trace of them. Both Big Mound 
and Barnhill Townships were soon dotted 
over with cabins, and smoke from pioneer 
settlements began to ascend from all quarters. 

A kind of sympathy or brotherhood existed 
among the pioneers which has almost faded 
away with other landmarks of the earlj pe- 
riod. When a "covered wagon " was espied 
coming over the prairies or through the for- 
est, the ciy would be, " There comes another 
settler," and all would start to meet the new- 
comer, and give him a hearty welcome. They 
would take axes and help to cut out a trail to 
his land, and aid him in selecting a good site 
for his cabin. When all was agreed on, they 
would chop and roll two logs together, kindle 
a lire between for the good woman to cook 
and provide something to eat, while they 
went to work clearing off a spot on which to 
erect a cabin. In two or three days sufficient 
logs would be cut, and the cabin erected, a 
hole cut in one side for a door, and the fam- 
ily housed in their new home. This was pio- 
neer friendship and hospitality, and was far 
more sincere than they are at the present day. 

The following pioneer reminiscence is illus- 
trative of the period of which we write, and 
many of the older citizens of the county, 
will doubtless bo able to appreciate it: 

"I have seen a whole family, consisting of 
father, mother, children, pot pigs, young 
ducks and chickens, and two or throe dogs, 

all occupying the same room at the same 
time. Some endured hardships, having large 
families to support and no money; meat 
could be obtained from the woods. The 
writer of these lines has seen the time (and 
more than once, too), when he has brought 
home a sack of meal, and did not know 
where the next was to come from. When I 
look back half to three-quarters of a century, 
and see this country a howling wilderness, 
thronged with wild boasts of various kinds, 
hardly a white inhabitant from here to the 
Rocky Mountains, I am struck with wonder 
and surprise at the progress of our nation." 
This is but the experience of hundreds of 
others who settled here when Illinois was 
the extreme portion of Anglo-Saxon civiliza- 

One of tho earliest manufacturing estab- 
lishments in Barnhill Township was a tread- 
mill- -that is, a mill, the power of which was 
received from a tread-wheel. It was built 
and owned by Samuel Leech, and to the mill 
was added a distillery, for the purpose of 
making up the superfluous corn and rye into 
whisky. A largo business was done by it for 
some years ; people came long distances to it, 
and remained sometimes several days, in 
order to get their grinding. It was at the 
time the largest mill in the county. Another 
mill was built by John Butler. It was but a 
corn-cracker, and Butler would throw a " turn 
of corn" into the hopper at night, and then 
go home, and by morning it would be about 
all ground out. It was built on a little wet- 
weather stream that is nameless, and has 
long since passed away. Lock also built a 
very early mill. It .was a horse mill, but 
ground both corn and wheat, and did good 
will; fur the time. Puckett had a horse mill 
on the road from Fairfield to Burnt Prairie, 
which was an excellent mill of the kind. 
David Wright, later on, built a horse mill on 



the road, throe miles south of Fairfield. He 
attached a cotton-gin. the only one ever in 
the county run by horse-power. He also 
had a tanyard and a store, and thus made 
himself one of the most useful men in the 
community. His place was at one time 
more noted than Fairfield, and did consider- 
ably more business. Charles Wright, a son, 
now owns and lives on the homestead, and is 
a highly respected and worthy citizen. 

In Big Mound Township, one of the first 
mills built was Bovee's and Livergood's. The 
latter gentleman was from some one of the 
Eastern States, and was termed a "Yankee." 
He finally sold out his mill and other belong- 
ings here and moved away. Bovee was also 
an Eastern man, and of course a Yankee. 
He had a horse mill, which was one of the 
early institutions of the township. 

Hugh Lyon manuf actnred castor oil in Big 
Mound Township, when the castor oil busi- 
ness was one of the largest and most exten- 
sive in the county. He bought beans in 
Fairfield, but had his factory in this town- 
ship, and for many years carried on a large 
business. This comprises, so far as we could 
obtain, the early manufacturing industries of 
the township. Nothing of late years has 
been added to it, unless it has been a few 
saw and grist mills. Big Mound is decidedly 
an agricultural region, and the people devote 
their time and energies principally to agri- 
cultural pursuits. 

Of the early schools of Big Mound Town- 
ship we know little or nothing beyond the 
fact that they were of the usual pioneer style 
and taught by the usual pioneer teachers. At 
present there are good comfortable school - 
houses on Sections 4, 17, 14 and 29. In 
these, good schools are taught for the usual 
terms each year by competent teachers. 

The church history of the township is 
written up in a chapter of the general county 

history, and needs no repetition here. A 
brief allusion is all that is required. 

The Methodists were the first religious sect 
in the township. Hugh Stewart was a zealous 
Methodist, and took great interest in church 
matters. After he moved to town, Rev. 
Chambers, a local Methodist preacher, took 
his place, and " kept the ark a-moving." The 
Baptists were the next denomination which 
organized churches. There are now a Baptist 
Church on the northwest corner of Section 3; 
a Baptist Church on Section 16; New Hope 
Baptist Church on Section 25, near the town- 
ship line. 

The first schools of Barnhill, like those of 
Big Mound Township, were primitive, and 
would be considered by us at the present day 
as very poor institutions of learning indeed. 
It is not known now who taught the first one 
in the township. The schools of the present 
day, however, will compare favorably with 
those in any portion of the county. But this 
is not paying any extravagant compliment to 
the schools of Barnhill, for the entire system, 
not only of the county, but the southern part 
of the State, might be vastly improved. We 
have now in this township schoolhouses on 
Sections 1. 4, 10, 11, 13, 16, 17, 29, 34, 6 and 
10. The last two mentioned are in the 
fractional part of the township. The houses 
are comfortable and commodious, and good 
schools are maintained. 

The church history of this township will 
also be found included in a chapter upon the 
churches of the county. The early settlers 
wore disposed to be religious, and early or- 
ganized societies and built churches. We 
will not repeat the church history of the 
township in this chapter. There are churches 
now as follows: Pleasant Hill Church on 
Section 14; Shiloh Church on Section 29; 
Pleasant Grove Church on Section 34; Hope- 
well Church on the line between Sections 8 



and 9; a Christian Church on Section 9. The 
last two are situated in the fractional part of 
the township. 

Barnhill Township was loyal during the 
late war, and turned out a goodly number of 
soldiers. In fact, kept its quota filled, or 
rather, more than tilled, so that no draft was 
ever levied in the township. 

The township voted §20,000 to the railroad 
— the Springfield & Southeastern, as then 
called, but now a division of the Ohio & 
Mississippi Railroad — on the condition that 
the road would establish two depots in the 
township. With this condition, the road 
failed to comply, and in retaliation, or by 
way of revenge, the township repudiated its 

The first roads through Barnhill and Big 
Mound Townships, were trails through the 
forests and across the prairies. These had 
first been trod by the red man, and the pale 
face, following close in his footsteps, had 
improved them, cutting out the trees and 
leveling down embankments, until they be- 
came wagon roads. The township now has 
as good a system of wagon roads as can be 
seen in this portion of the State. There are 
no turnpikes, but, for dirt roads, these can 
be but little improved. 

There are no villages in Barnhill and Big 
Mound outside of the county seat — Fairfield 
— with the exception of a few stations on the 
' " Air Line " Railroad, places that have sprung 
up as towns since the building of the road. 
They are too young to have any history, be- 
yond the mere fact of birth, and are little 
more than a depot, post office, a store and 
shop or two. What celebrity they may attain 
to will be properly recorded in the next cen- 
tennial history of the county. 

We have now given most of the history of 
Barnhill and Big Mound Townships of espe- 
cial interest, except that of the county seat 

itself, which, as we said in the opening of 
this chapter, is situated in both townships. 
Hence a great deal of their history centers in 
Fairfield, as is usually the case with town- 
ships containing county seats. With a few 
parting words in memory of the early set- 
tlers and pioneers, we will close the sketch 
of Barnhill and Big Mound, and in a new 
chapter take up the history of Fairfield, which 
was laid out as a town about sixty- four years 

The generation now prominent upon the 
stage of action, as they behold the "old set- 
tler," can scarcely realize or appreciate the 
hardships through which he passed, or the 
part he performed in reclaiming the country 
from savage tribes that x-oamed at will over 
all parts of it. " Young America," as he 
passes the old settler by, perhaps unnoticed, 
little dreams that he has spent the morning 
and the noontide of his life in helping to 
make the country what it now is, and in pre- 
paring it for the reception of all those mod- 
ern improvements which surround us on 
every side. But few, very few of the pio- 
neers are left, and those few are fast ap- 
proaching, or have passed the allotted three- 
score and ten and are stooped and bent with 
age. The importance that attaches to the lives, 
character and work of these humble laborers 
in the cause of humanity and civilization 
will some day be better understood than it is 
now. They will some time, by the pen of 
the wise historian, take their proper place in 
the list of those immortals who have helped 
to make this world wholesome with their 
toil and their sweat and their blood. Of 
them all, the pioneer was the humblest, but 
not the meanest nor the most insignificant. 
They laid tho foundations on which rests the 
civilization of the great West. If the work 
was done well, the edifice stands upon an 
enduring rock; if ill, upon the sands; and 



when the winds and the rains beat upon it, 
it will tremble and fall. " They, it is true, 
builded wiser than they knew," and few, if 
any, of them ever realized the transcendant 
possibilities that rested upon their shoulders. 
As a rule, their lives were aimless and ambi- 
tionless, with little more of hope, or far- 
reaching purposes than the savages or the 
wild beasts that were their neighbors. Yet 
there stands the supreme fact that they fol- 
lowed their restless impulses, took their 

lives in their hands, penetrated the desert 
wilderness, and with a patient energy, reso- 
lution and self-sacrifice that stands alone and 
unparalleled, they worked out their allotted 
tasks, and to-day we are here in the enjoy- 
ment of the fruitage of their labors. 

Fairfield, the county seat of Wayne County, 
now claims our attention. In a new chapter 
we will take up its history from the period of 
its being laid out as a town, and follow it in 
important features down to the present time. 



"Tread lightly! This is hallowed ground, tread 

reverently here! 
Beneath this sod, in silence, sleeps the brave old 

Who never quailed in darkest hour; whose heart 

ne'er felt a fear. 
Tread lightly, then ! and now bestow the tribute 

of a tear." 

William Hubbabd. 

WITH the best written description of a 
township before us, without behold- 
ing for ourselves, one must draw largely 
upon the imagination, and then only secure 
twilight glimpses, while many readers are 
left in uncertainty, however plain the por- 
trayal may be, and are possessed of no ade- 

•By Frank M. Woolard. 

quate conception of the realities described, 
though the work be done with consummate 
skill. In attempting a physical description 
of Jasper Township, we shall only write a 
brief, plain account, that can be understood 
by all, and we trust, to some extent appreci- 
ated by the patrons of this work. 

To the inquisitive, who are curious to 
know the origin of the name of this truly 
beautiful township,|we]jwould|answer3that it 
was""nanied^ in° Jionor^of^the^ indomitable 
Sergt. Jasper, of the Kevolutionary war,*and 
had^been'so'calledjlong prior to^the adoption 
of^the presenfs ystem* of' townsh ip organiza- 
tion in the county. C Jasper is the corporate 
name of ' u the ^Congressional Township 1 


south. Range 8 east, of the Third Principal 
Meridian; and though short from east to 
west, and shorter still from north to south, it 
has not been short in public spirit, noble men 
and women, patriotic deeds and good morals. 

The soil is very productive and well culti- 
vated; there is timber enough for domestic 
purposes, and some for exportation, and 
stone easy of access, in quantity sufficient for 
all practical purposes. Almost the entire 
surface of the township is gently undulating, 
with no abrupt hills or precipices, the slopes 
ranging from a quarter to a half mile in ex- 
tent. The valleys intervening between the 
higher lands are so inclined as to need but 
little drainage, and in fact almost every foot 
of land within the bounds of the township is 
susceptible of easy cultivation. Few purely 
agricultural regions present a more fascinat- 
ing appearance as you stand upon some one 
of her elevations, and view the surrounding 
rural scenery, decked with farm houses and 
barns, orchards and meadows, fields of wav- 
ing grain and herds and docks. 

Jasper Township is well drained by a 
number of small streams, amply sufficient to 
carry off the surplus rainfall, within a few 
hours. Elm River, bearing in a southeast- 
erly direction, runs through the northeast 
corner, and after leaving the east line, 
empties into the Little Wabash. Borah 
Creek, from near the center of Section 28. 
flows easterly into Elm River. The south- 
east is drained by Owen's Creek and the 
northwest by Martin's Creek and its tributa- 

Between Martin"s Creek and Pilcher's 
branch, at the intersection of Sections 5, 0, 
7 and 8, exists one of those low depressions, 
frequently found in the central and the 
northern part of Illinois, but not so often in 
this portion of the State; not very deep, but 
with insufficient outlet, forming a basin of ' 

several acres in extent, that retains water 
during the greater portion of the year, and 
is called by the unpoetical name of " the 
goose pond," on account of the large number 
of wild geese that congregated and rested on 
its surface, when on their migratory flights 
in the spring of the year. 

Commencing in the southwest corner of 
Section 2. and bearing southeast across Sec- 
tion 11, is a body of water somewhat noted in 
the surrounding country, and known by the 
name of "Grinnell Pond," in honor of that 
most active, energetic and "hard-to-catch" 
member of the tinny tribe, the grinnell, which 
is unquestionably the dominant race in its 
placid waters. This pond is about one and one- 
fourth miles long, averaging one furlong in 
width, with a depth of fifteen feet in places, 
and is supposed to be fed by living springs 
in the bottom. For an outlet, it has a shal- 
low, sluggish channel, leading into Elm 
River, when the flats are overflowed. The 
banks are low, being composed of the river 
bottoms surrounding it, and along its shallow 
borders the button willows grow in thickets, 
while bullrushes and water lilies flourish in 
abundance in the borders of the water. Tall 
trees stand at the brink, and appearances 
would indicate that at some remote period in 
antiquity there had occurred a down-sinking 
of its surface, by which moans the basin had 
beon formed. Considerable numbers of fish 
are caught with the seine when the waters are 
low, and, upon the whole it affords rather a 
pleasant place to camp and angle with hook 
and line. 

In the southeastern portion of Jasper 
Township, occupying about three square 
miles in extent, is a beautiful, undulating 
region, called " Tom's Prairie." Why it was 
so named is not certainly known, but is sup- 
posed to be in honor of Capt. Thomas, a 
ranger in the war of 1812. 



Near this prairie were formed the earliest 
settlements in the township and around its 
border cluster the memories of many of the 
earlier pioneer scenes and incidents. Its 
fine farms are generally owned and occupied 
by the descendants of the first settlers. 

Hargrave Prairie covers about eight sec- 
tions of land in the western part of Jasper 
Township, and was named in honor of Capt. 
AVillis Hargrave, who, with his company of 
stalwart rangers in 1814, traversed this sec- 
tion for some time, guarding the lower settle- 
ments, and having his headquarters at a 
spring, northwest of the present town of 

Jasper is joined on the north at the base 
line by Elm River Township, on the east by 
Massillon, on the south by Barnhill, and on 
the west by Lamard. There has not at any 
time been a village or post office within her 
bounds, but her citizens have procured their 
mail and merchandise at Fairfield. 

The population has steadily increased from 
the commencement of the first settlement, 
until the present time, the United States cen- 
sus of 1880 showing a population for that 
year of 1,143. 

Running northwest through Jasper Town- 
ship is a famous old buffalo trace, visible in 
many places at the present day, along which 
lay many bones, scattered and bleaching, 
when the white man came to possess this 
goodly land. 

The timber growth consisted principally 
of the different varieties of oak, elm, hick- 
ory, walnut, cherry, ash, pecan, sassafras, 
locust, gum, box- elder, persimmon, linn, 
hackberry, sycamore, mulberry, maple, cat- 
alpa and others, some of which are nut-bear- 
ing. The wild fruits indigenous to the soil 
were blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, 
grapeH, plums, haws, cherries, crab-apples, 
persimmons, papaws and others, greatly in 

excess of the demand, and some of which 
surpassed in flavor the "improved" varieties 
to which the skilled arts of culture have been 

After the departure of the Indian, the 
pioneer hunter was attracted to this section 
by large numbers of deer, bear, an occasional 
elk, wolves, foxes, panthers, wild cats, cat 
amounts, raccoons, opossums, beavers, otters, 
mink and some smaller " varmints." Of the 
feathered tribes, wild turkeys, prairie hens, 
quail, ducks, eagles, hawks, cranes, swan, 
wild geese, brants, owls, pelican, thrush, 
mocking birds, with many others, like Col. 
Seller's imaginary profits, were by the " mill- 
ion." In addition to those above mentioned, 
were flocks of paroquets, a beautiful bird of 
the parrot family, possessing great wealth of 
green plumage, hard to catch, but easily do- 
mesticated, and vicious when provoked. 

Domestic bees, having run wild, had trav- 
eled so far in advance of civilization, that 
bee-trees, laden with large quantities of 
honey, were found in considerable numbers 
awaiting the huntsman's ax. It was not un- 
common to secure a barrel of wild honey for 
a family supply during the year. Troughs 
were sometimes dug out, and filled with 
honey, where barrels could not be obtained. 
The " bee-moth " was unknown, and the bees' 
only enemies were men and bears. 

If a strictly accurate account of all the 
early incidents and first white settlers in Jas- 
per Township were imperatively demanded at 
our hands, it is improbable that, at this late 
date, we could give entire satisfaction, for 
the very simple reason that the sources of in- 
formation within reach, though strictly reli- 
able as to integrity, differ so widely as to un- 
important matters, that it has been difficult 
to determine with certainty in many instan- 
ces. But in all cases we have done the very 
best we could, having no interest whatever 



in overdrawing or lessening the proportions 
of any incident in these pages; and after the 
most diligent research, things not thought of 
before for years will be called to mind. It 
must be remembered that it is hard, after 
sixty-six years have borne their burdens into 
eternity, to gather unwritten history with 
certainty. The earliest pioneers of Jasper 
Township have all passed to the shades, many 
of them, doubtless, to grand and glorious re- 
wards, having lived lives of virtue and honor 
amid their privations and hardships here. 

We are indebted to Mr. Jacob Hall, Messrs. 
William and J. Bailey Borah, Judge Samuel 
Wilson and others for the chief information 
contained in this account. 

The first white settler in Jasper Township, 
was probably Joshua Graham, a bachelor, 
who came in 1817 from Indiana, being at- 
tracted by the abundance of wild game in the 
country after the Indians were driven out. 
He built a pole cabin on the northwest quar- 
ter of the southeast quarter of Section 13 
(the place now occupied by E. B. Pilcher), 
in which for many years he lived a bachelor's 
life, following the chase as a means of sup- 
port. It is said that he carried corn meal on 
hi-- shoulder from Carmi to make his bread. 
He is remembered as having a very small 
face, as tall as Dave Barklev. and casting 
even a thinner shadow, very close in his 
dealings, saing his money and bartering for 
his necessary supplies. He died about 1840, 
leaving two sons, John and Joshua, residents 
in the township. 

Shortly after his coming, and through his 
influence, came James Dickinson and the 
Cannons, from Kentucky, when Dickinson 
and Jesse Cannon, two bachelors, built a log 
cabin on the northwest quarter of the south- 
west quarter of Section 23, where they kept 
bachelor's hall, and enjoyed, according to 
tradition, " a high old time. " Dickinson was 

emphatically a woodsman, one of the " hunt- 
ers of Kentucky," pre-eminent as a bee 
hunter; could not be lost in the woods on the 
darkest night or be bewildered in the day. 
He blazed the first road from Elm River 
crossing to Fairfield, traces of which are yet 
visible at Ansley Johnson's farm and some 
other places. Consumption claimed him for 
it* victim, carrying him off in a few years. 

Jesse Cannon was keen and sharp; culti- 
vated his wits much more than the soil; a 
horse jockey in the fullest sense of that term; 
wild, hilarious, and full of mischief; the 
father of whisky-drinking and card-playing 
in the community; cunning and clover, he 
kept in the back-ground, while others went 
forward; hence the uncertainty of melon 
harvest, and he is said to have trained sev- 
eral young men from good families in im- 
moral ways. He died on his way to Califor- 
nia in 1849. 

William Husk and family kept house for 
Dickinson and Cannon in 1821. But little 
is known of him, except that he soon moved 
to White County, in this State, where he 
reared a family, some of whom were living a 
few years since. 

Dick Cannon moved to Northern Illinois 
in 1833, and died there. William Cannon, 
for some years a bachelor, lived and died on 
the southeast quarter of the northwest quar- 
ter of Section 13, in Jasper Township. Some 
of the descendants of the Cannons are still 
respectable residents of the county. 

George Frazier came from South Carolina 
with Russell, to whom he was related, in 1817 
or 1818. He was the fourth in the quartette 
of early bachelors, whoso nick-names termin- 
ated in "ell," viz.: "Moz-ell, "Mik-ell," 
"Zeek-ell" and "Sam-ell." Frazier is re- 
membered as a miser, very industrious, a 
quiet citizen, attending strictly to his own 
business. On one occasion, when he was in- 



viting his neighbors to a corn-husking, Mrs. 
Borah, solicitous for the comfort of his 
guests, inquired if any addition was needed 
to hislarder, to which he replied that he had 
plenty of "buck and bacon." The venison 
was boiled with green cabbage leaves, in true 
bachelor style, but the bacon, which cost 
money, was not discovered at the repast, 
while the pot liquor was of lean quality, and 
none of the guests were accredited with rav- 
enous appetites. He afterward so far re- 
formed as to take to himself an additional 
"rib," and lived until about 1830. 

John Pritchet came from South Carolina 
in 1817, with Enoch Beach, his brother-in- 
law, in his (B. 's) big schooner wagon, and 
settled on Section 35, a part of what is now 
the John M. Creighton estate. A man of 
more than ordinary intelligence, with a good 
education for the times, he was well read, 
and a good man generally. He was an un- 
fortunate man; his horses would die 
early, and blight, with a deathly grasp, 
seemed to lay hold on most of his undertak- 
ings. His neighbors would plow his ground 
in the spring, and he would cultivate his crops 
with the hoe. A large family of girlsgreatly 
increased his burdens, without diminishing 
his embarrassments or aiding in the increase 
of his exchequer. As an instance of pioneer 
female courage, an incident in connection 
with Mrs. P., the sister of Beach, the great 
bear hunter of this region, will not be out of 
place. On one occasion the dogs had treed 
a large bear near their house, when the 
Madame seized the rifle, and, with the cool- 
ness of an old hunter, brought bruin tum- 
bling to the ground, thereby adding to the 
larder, so accustomed to chronic depletion, 
a bountiful supply of bear meat. At a later 
period, on another place, their dogs treed a 
cub bear, when Mrs. P. galloped in haste 
to John Borah's in the true trooper style of 

ridiug, and procured Mr. B. to shoot the 
bear. It was the last one killed, so far as is 
now known, in Jasper Township. Mr. Prit 
chet, after the death of his wife, married a 
Widow Caudle, and, like Wilkins Micawber, 
when life's sun had began to descend its 
western slojae, he became comfortably situ- 
ated, and died greatly respected about 1852. 

Joseph Martin came from Kentucky to 
Bear Prairie in 1818, purchased the southwest 
quarter of Section 7, in Jasper Township, of 
Clarinder Hooper, where he settled in 1819^ 
and. entering other lands, immediately im- 
proved a large farm. He was reputed the 
richest man that had ever moved to Wayne 
County, having, brought it was said, a half 
bushel of silver money with him. His energy, 
enterprise and wealth rendered him an im- 
portant factor in the county. He built on his 
place, in 1819. the first horse mill in Wayne 
County; and a mulberry post of this mill, 
after sixty-four years of exposure, is still 
standing. Mr. Martin burnt the first brick- 
kiln, built the first brick chimney, dug the 
first well and established the first blacksmith 
shop in Jasper Township. He employed men 
to work, created a demand for many things, 
disseminated money through the country 
where it was greatly needed, and was a bene 
factor to the community; but his career of 
great usefulness to the material prosperity of 
the country was cut short by his death, which 
occurred in 1821. He was was buried on his 
own premises on the banks of Martin's Creek, 
a place now known as Buckeye Cemetery. 
The loss of such a man in that day was irre- 
parable, as there were none to take his place, 
for a rich man, with generous impulses, and 
enterprise, can greatly benefit a community. 

After Mr. Martin's death, his fine estate 
was soon scattered. 

James B. Martin came to Illinois about the 
same time that Joseph did. but moved to 



Arkansas some years later and died. There 
were some others of the .Martin family who 
have left descendants in the county. 

Thomas Bradshaw left Kentucky on account 
of slavery, and came to Jasper Township in 
1819, and improved a farm, entering the 
southwest quarter of Section 10, where he 
died in 1822, and was buried the first in the 
cemetery at that place. He left a largo 
family to the care of one of the most excel- 
lent mothers of the pioneer times, and she is 
said to havo fully discharged her onerous 
duties to ber children, and to the community, 
in a manner that cast a halo of glory around 
her memory, that is not easily forgotten. A 
friend to the needy, a wise counselor to those 
in distress, she gave comfort and relief to the 
afflicted within her reach. A smile of pleas- 
ure and approbation is seen to play over the 
c iiintenances of men whose heads are sil- 
v Ted with age at the mention of her name, 
after the lapse of more than half a century. 
Truly, it may be said, "her works do follow 

Walter and Richard Owen came with the 
Martins from Kentucky, being kinsmen of 
theirs. They were good, honest men, well 
spoken of and h«ld in general esteem. Their 
influence was cast on the side of the right, 
and their lives were living examples of what 
they professed. Their good works still live. 
though they themselves have long since 
passed away. 

At a later period came Jonathan Douglas, 
from Kentucky, and settled on the place 
known as the " Pigeon Roost," on Section 10. 
A man of good parts, of unflinching integrity, 
his influence was felt for many miles around, 
and his memory is held in great veneration 
at the present time. In youth, he had not 
learned to look upon intemperance as an un- 
mixed evil; but when he beheld the hydra- 
headed monster in all its deformity he cast 

his influence in favor of right, making the 
first temperance speech in the county. He 
came to Wayne County in a very large pi- 
rogue, ascended Elm River, and landed near 
Mr. Richard Hall's. 

George, John, Jacob and Samuel Borah, 
brothers, came to Wayne County from Ken- 
tucky in a very early day, and John settled 
in Jasper Township in 1821, his brother 
Samuel somewhat later. No family has ex- 
erted a greater influence for good, or con- 
tributed more to the Christian and moral 
stamina of the community than these noble 
men and their worthy descendants. Through 
their means were largely counteracted those 
banoful influences at work at the time of 
their arrival. They gave tone to the healthy 
sentiment that has so long prevailed in the 
community. A numerous offspring perpetu- 
ate their example by worthy lives and worthy 
deeds. William N., Jacob B. (John, de- 
ceased) and Voluntineare prominent citizens 
in Jasper Township to-day. They are among 
the most intelligent and influential men in 
the county, and, with their worthy wives, 
their hospitalities are of that character that 
will make a very stranger feel at home while 
partaking of their welcome cheer. 

Thomas Wilson came from the Green River 
region in Kentucky in 1823, and settled on 
the southwest of northeast Section 22. A 
worthy man, of good sense, a fair education, 
very social, a warm-hoarted friend, and fond 
of a joke. He left a large family, among 
whom is Judge S. J. R Wilson. George 
Wilson, a brother of Thomas, was a pioneer 
school teacher in Jasper Township. He was 
a man of integrity and push, served many 
years as Sheriff of Wayne County, and was 
accounted a good citizen. His descendants 
are numerous in the county at the present 

Among the prominent early and later set- 



tiers may be mentioned the Monroes, James 
Hearn, Farris, McMackins, Rankins, Green, 
Bergs, Joseph Wilson (a very prince among 
good men), Prices, Bowles, Hoskins, Russell, 
Murfet, Gregorys, Owens, Whites, Thatchers, 
Fitzgeralds, Shaws, Ellis, Kelley, Messer- 
smith, Browns, Schenks, Creightons, Heidin- 
gers, Groves, Georges, Grice, Robinson, 
Moss, Lacy, Bings, Darrs, Bobbetts, Stan- 
ners, Darrows, Thomas, Organs, Travers, 
Witters, Files, and other worthy families, 
but the want of space admonishes us to bring 
this class of sketches to a close, and while 
their history may remain unwritten, their 
good works will live, for it is beyond the 
power of the human ken to estimate the in- 
fluence of good deeds on the generations fol- 

Dr. Gerren, from Huntsville, Ala., was 
probably the first physician to practice med- 
icine in Jasper Township. He came in 1S29 
and settled southwest of northwest Section 
21, the place now owned by James Hearn. 

It is a matter of some doubt as to who 
preached the first sermon in the township, 
but it is thought to have been Archy Roberts, 
a Methodist local preacher. 

David McLin, a Cumberland Presbyterian 
minister of great ability and usefulness, was 
early in this field, and organized a society 
which has continued in a flourishing condi- 
tion to the present time. A Methodist soci- 
ety was early organized, and has also exerted 
great influence for good. A full account of 
these societies will be given in county church 

The lands in Jasper Township were sur- 
veyed in 1809, by Arthur Henry, and the cer- 
tificate and plat were filed December 4, the 
same year. 

On July 30, 1818, according to the records, 
the first land entry was made by James Snead 
aking northwest and northeast of Section 3 0, 

a large portion of which remains in his 
name at the present time. On the following 
day, July 31, 1818, Ormsby & Hite entered 
southeast of Section 19, and southwest of 
Section 20. August 17, 1818, Enoch Beach 
entered northeast of Section 35. Other en- 
tries rapidly followed by which many set- 
tlers secured homes and land speculators 
secured large tracts. 

The first birth in Jasper Township is at 
present unknown, but is thought to have been 
a child of one of the Frazers. 

The first death, as near as can be ascer- 
tained at this remote period, was the wife of 
Owen Martin, and the second was that of 
Joseph Martin, and letters of administration 
were issued to his sons, Owen, Henry and 
Joseph, December 18, 1821. 

On December 20, 1822, letters of admin- 
istration were issued upon the estate of 
Thomas Bradshaw, to Ann, his wife. 

" Marrying and giving in marriage " was 
as prevalent, in proportion to population, in 
pioneer days, as among their more refined 
and educated offspring. On August 22, 1820, 
David Monroe led Nancy Crews to the hy- 
meneal altar, and on February 1, 1821, 
James Clark and Sally Bradshaw were made 

The first school in Jasper Township was 
taught by George W. Wilson in 1823, in a 
house built for the purpose, on land now in- 
cluded in William N. Borah's farm. This 
house had a dirt floor, but was without chim- 
ney, windows or door shutter, having a log 
cut out of the side to let in light. Mr. Wil- 
son taught two schools here. 

The first Sabbath school in Wayne County 
was also organized in this same house, in 
1824, and John Borah, Richard Hall, Thomas 
Wilson, George Wilson and James Crews 
taught classes. The sessions lasted much 
longer than they do at the present time. 



The second school in the township was also 
taught by George Wilson, near the " Pigeon 
Roost,"' ou the Jonathan Douglas place, in 
18U5. Among the pupils at this school were 
S. J. R. Wilson, Jacob Hall. William Borah, 
Bailey Borah, Finley Shaw, Clinton, Jack- 
son and Warren E. McMackin, the Brad- 
shaws, Pritchets and others. 

These early educational instructions were 
erected conveniently near to hazel thickets. 
Upon the approach of Christmas, the patrons 
of the school came early in the morning to 
witness the exploit of the boys "turning the 
teacher out," a custom prevalent in those 
days, and found the shutterless door blocked 
with benches. By some means, the teacher 
found access to the inside, and the struggle 
commenced in good earnest. Some of the 
boys made their escape, but the more coura- 
geous, laid hold with a hearty good-will, and 
soon had the teacher at a disadvantage, wal- 
lowing him on the dirt floor and pouring 
water over him, from the drinking gourd. 
At a signal from the teacher, one of the 
Pritchet girls snatched the Ljourd and broke 
it, so as to stop that part of their fun. 
These scenes were greatly enjoyed in early 
times by teacher and pupils, and on this oc- 
casion, the citizens resolved to put a floor in 
the schoolhouse, and one was accordingly 
made of puncheons, so that the boys in fut- 
ure could not dirty the teachers clothes so 
outrageously William Metcalf, William 
Gash, Jacob Love, Min>"v James, Thurmutis 
Crews, Gibson Davis. Samuel Edmunson, 
Matthew Blakely, David Reece, and Mr. 
French, a Baptist preacher, were among the 
teachers who taught many years since in 
Jasper Township. 

Twenty-eight years ago, the present school 
system was inaugurated. Prior to that time, 
the schoolhouses were generally built by the 
contributions or labor of the patrons, and the 

teachers were paid by subscription, by the 
parent, at a stipulated sum per scholar. 
The furniture, if such it might bo called, was 
of the rudest kind and. as to books, one or 
two wore deemed sufficient for a large family. 
The rod was considered an indispensable 
requisite in shedding light upon the pupil's 
mind. " Loud schools" were the order of the 
day, in which all were expected to study out 
loud, so that the teacher could detect any 
want of application or dereliction of duty. 

The ability to teach "reading, writing and 
spelling" were the common qualifications of 
the teacher, and at a later date, he was ex- 
pected to be able " to cipher to the rule of 
three." The pens were all made by the 
teacher, from goose quills, and many a bold, 
round hand-write, executed with a quill pen, 
might have been seen. But these things are 
changed now, and Jasper Township has 
seven neat frame schoolhouses, worth with 
their furniture and grounds 83,100; ">S0 
children of school age, upon whom were, last 
year, expended $1,995, while the schools 
averaged more than six months each. 

James Miller, the father of Rev. Miledge 
Miller, taught the first singing school in 
Jasper Township, at William Frazier's, in 
1 83 I. Jacob Hall, Douglases, Fraziors, Kings, 
Beaches, McLins, McMackins and others at- 
tended. Old stylo patent notes were used. 

John Gash, Sr., established a distillery on 
Martin's Creek in an early day, which was 
run for a few years, greatly to the injury 
of somo young men in the neighborhood. 

Hunting parties of Indians continued to 
make their winter camps on the Wabash and 
Elm Itivers until IS'iti. A favorite camping 
ground with them was on land now owned 
by Dr. C. W. Sibley. They were quiet; but 
pioneer mothors took advantage of their pres- 
ence to improve the morals of their own 



As Polly Crews was passing through the 
tall prairie grass, in the dusk of evening, 
near Mr. Pritchet's, answering what she mis- 
took for the repeated calls of a woman in 
distress, she came upon an enormous panther, 
and was so paralyzed by fear that she could 
not run, on which account she probably es- 
caped a horrible death. The beast seemed 
also bewildered, from some cause, and would 
rear upon its feet, placing its paws upon her 
shoulders, and glare in her face with its wild 
and piercing eyes. Her screams brought 
men to her rescue, and the panther escaped. 
A destructive tornado passed through the 
country from southwest to northeast iu 
March, 1823, creating sad havoc and causing 
• destruction, leveling trees and almost every- 
thing else in its pathway. Its track was 
about one hundred rods in width, and while 
a few houses were blown down, much greater 
damage would have occurred had the country 
been as thickly settled as at present. 

While Jasper Township has entirely es- 
caped murders, accidents with a fatal 
termination have occurred in considerable 
numbers within the last sixty years. Will- 
iam Mitcalf was drowned in the Little 
Wabash River in 1839. Thomas Wood 
was drowDed at a later period, and a 
man by the name of Nickson was drowned at 
Leech's Mill. Adam Simonson's son was 
thrown from a horse and killed in 1840. 
Samuel Frazier, while drunk, was chilled to 
death as he lay out all night. While he was 
in the saloon in Fairfield, the men around 
the place would light sulphur matches and 
hold them under his nose to see him jerk 
his head. He was then left out alone with 
the above result. 

Stewart, a son of Rev. Henry Phelps, was ac- 
cidentally shot with fatal effect while hunting 
a few years since. Burrel Cook was drowned 
in Elm River in 1850, while generously as- 

sisting other parties to cross. A young man 
by the name of Stinett while running a 
blind horse was thrown and killed in 1847. 
George Posey was killed while felling a tree 
a few years ago. A five year-old son of 
Samuel Farris was drowned in Martin's 
Creek in 1879. 

The early blacksmiths in Jasper Township 
were Joseph Martin. William Posey and 
Charles Dalton. 

Guns were made and repaired by Alexan- 
der Clark, of Big Mound. 

Abram Beach made the chairs; John Mc- 
Mackin was the first cabinet-maker; David 
P. McLin, the wheelwright and wagon-maker; 
and James Bradshaw was the shoe- maker. 
Jonathan Douglas built the first frame 
house, and Jacob Hall burnt the first lime- 
kiln on the southeast quarter of Section 29. 
Mr. Hall also ran the first flat boat out of 
Elm River, and established the first general 
store on the southwest quarter of the south- 
east quarter of Section 25, the place now 
owned by William Murfit. He sold good 
brown sheeting at 75 cents per yard; good 
calico at 50 cents (six to eight yards making 
an ample dress pattern); nails, 12J cents per 
pound; powder, 75 cents, and lead at 20 cents; 
eggs were worth 3 cents per dozen; butter, Q\ 
cents per pound; and pork brought $1.25 
per 100 pounds. 

Jonathan Douglas also kept a small store 
on his place. 

Salt was brought from the saline works, 
near Equality on horseback, for which the 
pioneer bartered venison hams, peltries, tal- 
low, beeswax and honey, the latter selling at 
50 cents per gallon. Wells were not common, 
and those who were not fortunate in owning 
springs, hauled their supply on sleds from the 


Matches were unknown, and fire was either 
produced by flint and steel, or borrowed from 



the neighbors. Percussion caps made their 
appearance some time after L830, previous 
to which, and even much later, flint locks 
were used on guns. Before mills were built, 
different plaus were adopted to manufacture 
corn into meal for bread while the corn was 
yet soft. It was grated into corn meal by 
rubbing over a piece of tin, punched full of 
holes to make it rough. 

Mortars were made by cutting off a tree 
about three feet from the ground, and burning 
a hole a foot in depth and diamater, in the 
top of the stump. Into this the corn was 
placed, and a hard hickory pestle, or an iron 
wedge attached to a 9priug pole, was used to 
pound it fine. It was then shaken through a 
domestic sieve, constructed by weaving long 
horse hairs over a wooden hoop. The finer 
portions were used for bread or mush, and the 
coarser for hominy. Bread was often made 
by mixing the meal with water and salt, 
placing the dough in wet corn shucks, or 
green cabbage leaves, and roasting in hot 
embers. The more common method was to 
place the dough in a skilet, in three oblong 
lumps, called " dodgers," covering with a lid 
and putting hot coals above and beneath. 

When the lid was turned up-side down ; 
coals of tire underneath, and bread baked on 
top. it was called ""hoe cake," and was con- 
sidered an antidote for dyspepsia. The 
"johnny-cake," was made by making the 
dough very rich with lard, and placing it on 
a board to roast before the tire. The best 
constructed cook stoves, with all modern ap- 
pliances, have failed to make corn-bread as 
palatable as the meanest of these methods. 

Granulated honey, well drained and dried, 
was used for sugar. For tea sassafras root, 
sage, spicewood and sycamore bark were used. 
Coffee cost money, and was but little used 
except on rare occasions. Strings of red 
pepper and various medicinal herbs were hung 

upon the wall, in readiness for any emergency, 
or demand that might be made upon them. 

Pumpkins were cut into rings and hung 
upon sticks over-head to dry for spring and 
summer use. Very few Irish potatoes were 
used, but yams being a Southern growth, were 
more generally cultivated. Peaches were 
plentiful, after a few years, with those who 
were not too indifferent to plant them. 

It is thought that John Borah raised the 
first apples and the first wheat in Jasper 
Township, but the latter was little used on 
account of the difficulty of manufacturing it 
into Hour. Metheglin and persimmon beer 
were often used as a domestic drink. 

After the days of buckskin, the pioneer 
clothing was carded, spun and woven by 
hand, the thread, buttons etc., being of home 

Cotton was grown to a considerable extent, 
and after the seeds were picked out by hand, 
was colored by native barks, and made into 
cloth. A cross-checked, homespun, cotton 
dress, woven in checks of " copperas and 
white," made a wedding outfit of which the 
Queen Dowager might have been proud. 

Flax entered largely into the supply of 
apparel. The seeds were thickly sown that 
it might grow tall and slender, after which 
it was pulled up b) the roots, rotted, broken, 
swingled, hatcheled and spun on a small 
flax wheel for use. 

Men, women and children were compelled 
to work hard in those days for the necessaries 
to say nothing of the comforts of life. Per- 
sons reared under the influence and inspira 
tion of modern progress, can form no just 
conception of the hardships endured, or the 
shifts to which the toiling pioneer was often 
compelled to resort. 

Winter caps were made of the skins of 
wolves, foxe9 and raccoons, and summer hats 
were made of plaited straw. Grain was cut 



with the sickle, and -when the cradle was in- 
troduced, about 1830, it was almost as great 
an innovation as the reaper and binder of the 
present day. The grain was threshed by the 
hand flail, or tramped out by horses, and 
" winnowed " in any manner by which could 
be applied the most wind. After being 
around into flour, it was bolted by hand, and 
a (lark, inferior article it made indeed. 

The plows were decidedly primitive in 
their construction; first the bull- tongue, then 
the barshare and the Cary. with wooden 
mold-boards, from which the dirt had fre- 
quently to be scraped with a paddle. Work 
oxen were in general use, but a mule had not 
been seen in Jasper Township until Peter 
Cartwrigbt passed through, riding one, which 
caused no little stir among the people. The 
men were attracted by the sight of the great 
pioneer preacher, and the boys by the mule. 

That terrible scourge, so common at an 
early day, and even at a much later period, 
known as the "milk sickness," was held in 
dread by the inhabitants of Jasper Town- 
shin, and so general was it that the people 
did not deny its presence. What is it? I 
don't know! though my limbs for more than 
thirty years have quivered under its baneful 
influence. What is your opinion? It would 
settle no question if I were to answer you. 
Thirty-five years ago, Sailor's Springs and 
some springs in Crawford County were se- 
curely fenced, to preserve cattle from the 
clutches of this fell destroyer. Finley Paul 
and Martin Woodworth, of Palestine. 111., 
claim that it is caused by an herb, and that 
its use by stock under certain conditions is 
sure to produce the malady. If the scattered 
blades of fodder were left over night in Henry 
Gardner's dooryard, northwest part of Fay- 
ette County, 111., and his calves were per- 
mitted to eat it in the morning with the dew 
on, they soon grew shakey and died, and this 

was repeated A few miles northwest of Al- 
tamont, some years since, was a well from 
which several people contracted this disease 
and died. Its victims become dizzy and 
nervous, while an intense, burning fever tor- 
ments the whole system. Congestion and 
excruciating pains in the stomach rack the 
very life from the sufferer. A peculiar odor 
is emitted that need not be mistaken. Hap- 
pily, the cause, whatever it may be, passes 
away when the ground is cultivated, tramped 
or the original wild growth is eaten out. 

From Mr. E. B. Hearn, Township Clerk, 
we have secured the names of the following 
officers who have served in Jasper Township 
since the adoption of township organization 
in 1859. In 1860, J. Bailey Borah was 
elected Supervisor; Robert Black, Clerk; John 

A. Russell, John M. Creighton and John C. 
Borah. Highway Commissioners; J. Morland 
and Amos Phelps, Justices of the Peace. 

1861 — Samuel Stewart, Supervisor; Robert 
Black, Clerk; J. C. Borah, Commissioner, 
and Z. C. Roberts, Justice of the Peace. 

1862 — James A. MeLin. Supervisor; Rob- 
ert Black. Clerk: Amos Phelps, H. C. Phelps, 
E. P. Grove, Commissioners. 

1863 — James Hearn, Supervisor; Alex. 
Crews, Clerk; William Crews, Justice of the 
Peace; and J. C. Borah, Commissioner. 

1864 — James Hearn, Supervisor; Joseph 
Wilson, Clerk; Henry Darr, Commissioner; 
and B. S. Brown, Justice of the Peace. 

1865 — William N. Borah, Supervisor; E. 

B. Roberts, Clerk; John M. Creighton and 
Henry Rankin. Commissioners. 

1866— William N. Borah. Supervisor; E. 
B. Roberts, Clerk; John M. Creighton, Com- 
missioner; and James A. McLin, Justice of 
the Peace. 

1867 — James A. McLim, Supervisor; Ben- 
jamin H. Hearn. Clerk; \\ illiam E. Pilcher, 



1868— L. P. Hay. Supervisor; Robert 
Black, Clerk; Robert Schell and James A. 
McLin, Commissioners; L. P. Hay and E. B. 
Pilcher. Justices of the Peace. 

1869— L. P. Hay, Supervisor; John W. 
Borah, Clerk; Robert Schell, Commissioner. 

1870 — E. B. Pilcher. Supervisor: A. M. 
Cable, Clerk; J. H. Thomas, Commissioner. 

1871 — William N. Borah, Supervisor and 
Justice; — Limpert, Clerk; T. H. Darr, Com- 

1872 — William N. Borah, Supervisor; Gil- 
lison George, Clerk; B. E. Johnson, Com- 
missioner; William Crews andE. B. Pilcher, 
Justices of the Peace. 

1873 — William N. Borah, Supervisor; E. 
Berg, Clerk; J. B. Borah, Commissioner; 
Emanuel Berg, Justice of the Peace. 

1874 — James A. McLin, Supervisor; E. 
Berg. Clerk: Caleb Crews, Commissioner. 

1875 — William N. Borah, Supervisor; E. 
Berg. Clerk; P. B. Grice, Commissioner. 

1876 — D. C. Monroe, Supervisor; S. H. 
Rea, Clerk; Z. C. Roberts, Commissioner; 
Caleb W. Crews. .1 notice of the Peace. 

1877 — Voluntino C. Borah, Supervisor; E. 
B. Pilcher, Clerk; B. E. Johnson, Commis- 
missiouer; James A. McLin and Caleb W. 
Crews, Justices of the Peace. 

1878— M. H. Crews, Supervisor; E. B. 
Pilcher, Clerk; B. E. Johnson, Commissioner. 

1879 — Samuel H. Rea, Supervisor; E. R. 
Hearn, Clerk: Thomas M. Young, Commis- 

1880— V. C. Borah, Supervisor; E. R. 
Hearn, Clerk; O. Beard. Commissioner. 

1881— V. C. Borah, Supervisor; E. R 
Hearn, Clerk; T. E. T)arr, Commissioner; 
Charles E. Creighton, .). A. McLin and Sam- 
uel S. Farris, Justice of the Peace. 

1882— S. H. Rea, Supervisor; E. R. Hearn. 
Clerk: George M. Owen, Commissioner. 

1883 — David H. Holman, Supervisor; E. 

R. Hearn, Clerk; John H. Bradbury, Com- 

William A. Frazier came from South Car- 
olina with the other Fraziers in 1818, and 
settled on the northwest quarter of Section 
13. He was an illiterate man, but aspired 
to better things than ho had been accustomed 
to, desiring to associate with those who tread 
the higher walks of life. Being an aspi 
rant for honors, he sought the company of 
educated people, and, wishing to appear to 
advantage in their presence, he, indiscrimi 
nately used big sounding words without re- 
gard to their meaning. His ambition was 
chiefly to be well thought of, and such a 
man cannot be mean. He was elected Major 
of the militia. He was a hatter by profes- 
sion, and as his finances improved, he im- 
proved his premises. His wool hats sold at 
SI. 25, and were so stiff that they could be 
used as a stool. His fur hats were made on 
the shares, or, for sixteen coon skins he 
would make a hat that would last ten years. 
He was a good man, and died in 1835. His 
son Jqkn died in the Mexican war. Other 
sons moved to Arkansas many years ago. 

John Borah, Sr., wa£ born in Lancaster 
County, Penn., about 1777, and removed to 
Butler County, Ky., in an early day, and 
came to Wayne County, 111., and settled on 
the southwest quarter of the southeast quar- 
ter of Section 23, in Jasper Township, in 
1821. He was a man of sterling integrity. 
of good common sense and fixed principles. 
He was long an Elder of the Cumberland 
Presbyterian Church, and died in 1842. 
His father, Jacob, was a Revolutionary 

William N. Borah, the first son of John, 
is one of the most substantial citizens of the 
county. Few among us are more extensively 
read in general literature than he. He has 
five times tilled the position of Supervisor, 



and has paid especial attention to the in- 
terests of education. He is a pleasant, hale 
gentleman of the old style, and it is a treat 
to spend an evening with him, when the con- 
versation will not be allowed to falter. 

John McMackin came from Kentucky about 
1822, and first settled near Fairfield, where 
the great tornado blew down his house with- 
out injuring his family, and he afterward 
moved to the northwest quarter of Section 
21, where he died. He was an early cabinet- 
maker and carpenter. His sons were Clin- 
ton, a great singer, John and AVarren E. 
The latter became a Cumberland Presbyte- 
rian minister of considerable note; but it 
is not especially in this capacity that he has 
most brilliantly shone. At the breaking 
out of the war of the rebellion, he was ap- 
pointed Chaplain of the Twenty first Illi- 
nois Infantry, by U. S. Grant, the Colonel. 
Upon the promotion of the latter, he was ap 
pointed Colonel of the regiment, and won 
many laurels during the war. When Gen. 
Grant became President, with his usual cus- 
tom of remembering true and tried friend*. 
he did not forget Col. McMackin, but ap- 
pointed him to different positions, among 
which was Pension Agent in this district. 
He is now enjoying an honored old age in 
Salem, 111., though his health is impaired 
by his army life. 

Jacob JB. Borah, another son of John, the 
pioneer, was born in Wayne County, 111., in 
1820. He is mentally well preserved, jbright, 
quick and well read. He has certainly been 
of great value in compiling this history, by 
the accurate fund of information from which 

copious notes have been frequently drawn. 
He was a Captain in the late war, and is 
highly esteemed as a private citizen. It is 
by such men that the world is made better. 

James Hearn came from Tennessee and 
settled on the southwest quarter of the north- 
west quarter of Section 21. about 1842. He 
served as a soldier in the Seminole war, and 
also on the Union side in the war of the 
great rebellion. As a man he is positive in 
his convictions, gentle in his temperament, 
a very active member of the Missionary Bap- 
tist Church, but catholic in his sentiments, 
and no mau among his numerous acquaint- 
ances possesses, in a higher degree, the 
confidence and friendship of all than 
" Uncle Jimmy Hearn." 

John M. Creighton came from White 
County, and settled on the northwest quarter 
of the northeast quarter of Section 35, in 
Jasper Township, where he improved one of 
the finest estates in Wayne County. He was 
a thorough Methodist, a thoroughgoing busi- 
ness man, and one of the grandest accessions 
that the county has ever received. Possessed 
of a well-balanced mind, he managed his own 
affairs with prudence and was a wise counselor 
and true friend to those in need. His 
death, which occurred in the fall of 1869, 
was a heavy loss to the community at large. 
His sons, James A., of Springfield, Joseph, 
of Taylorville, and Jacob R., of Fairfield, 
are attorneys. Charles E. is a minister, and 
Mattie is the wife of Dr. Borah, of Louis- 
iana. His younger sons are cultivating the 
estate upon which his worthy widow, the 
daughter of Rev. James Crews, resides. 






r | ^O demand a complete and thorough his- 

- 1 - tory, perfect in all its parts and bear- 
ings, in relation to the events of the "long, 
long ago " — events that were second-hand at a 
time when heads now silvered by the fronts 
of many winters were in the bloom of child- 
hood — is only equaled by the expectation of 
finding perfect men in this world, or seeking 
infallibility in a weak and fallen race. The 
standpoint from which events and incidents 
are observed must be considered as well as 
the opportunities of the witnesses upon 
whose testimonies we are chiefly called upon 
to rely for the most accurate information ob- 
tainable at the time. 

The intelligent observer is sometimes led 
on to wonder, and even to amazement, when 
he hears, in our courts, good men, honest 
and true, testifying diametrically opposite to 
each other about events, viewed at the same 
time by each, yet from different standpoints. 
But, in rendering judgment, the reasonable- 
ness, the weight of testimony, as well as the 
idiosyncrasies and opportunities of each wit- 
ness, must be taken into consideration. 

*By F. M. Woolard. 

It is little different in gathering incidents 
of history, for, after the greatest care and 
diligent research, many items will doubtless 
remain untold, and others will appear among 
chronicled events that, are questionable as to 
accuracy, and some may possess an air of im- 

But history is useful, inasmuch as it se- 
cures to us the advantage of the experience 
of others, whose successes and failures in 
life are as beacon lights, by which we may 
safely guide our floating barks on life's sea 
to a haven of security. 

The first actors on the arena of civilized 
life in Massillon Township, the men who 
" came, and saw, and conquered," have long 
since passed to their reward, and their places 
are now largely occupied by men who knew 
them not, but have entered into their labors 
and are enjoying the blessings procured by 
the others' hardships. There is no excel- 
s without groat labor, and the labor and 
endurance of the first were the means by 
which the latter generations have procured 
immunity from kindred privations. Some 
of them were, indeed, grand men — men whose 



lights would shine in any age or sphere, and 
brilliantly illume the horizon around them. 
In a few instances, their sons, who either 
came with them in early childhood, or were 
"to the manor born," are still living, as 
bright men as any among us, but even their 
steps are tottering with age, and, ere many 
changing seasons, as the morning dew be- 
neath the summer's sun, they, too, must pass 
away and be gathered to their fathers. 

We here wish to acknowledge our obliga- 
tions to Messrs. Jacob Hall, William N. Bo- 
rah, J. B. Borah, Judge Wilson and some 
others, for reliable information concerning 
the early pioneers and many incidents in 
this narrative. These gentlemen are all re- 
markably well preserved in mind and body, 
and in addition to being the sons of hardy 
pioneers, possess stores of valuable informa- 
tion from which we have copiously drawn 
for these chronicles. 

Massillon Township embraces the whole 
territory designated by Government survey- 
ors as Town 1 south, Range 9 east, of the 
Third Principal Meridian, in Wayne County, 
111. It is bounded on the east by Edwards 
County, on the south by Leech Township, 
on the west by Jasper Township, and on the 
north by Mt. Erie Township. In its physical 
features it differs somewhat from any other 
township in the county, having within its 
boundaries two rivers, between and along 
which are large areas of swamp lands cover- 
ing almost fourteen sections, which are sub- 
ject to overflows, and are often submerged to . 
considerable depths. These low lands, when 
cultivated, yield an alluring wealth of farm 
products, unequaled in their abundance, but 
the uncertainty of harvesting the fruit of the 
husbandman's labor, on account of overflows, 
has, to a large extent, acted as a hindrance 
to their general cultivation. While very pro- 
ductive in favorable seasons, these lands have 

generally been left in their wild and uncult- 
ured state, and furnish ample pasturage 
for thousands of cattle and other stock dur- 
ing nine or ten months in the year. This 
pasturage will probably remain for many 
generation to come, and will continue to fur- 
nish a luxuriant growth of rich and succu- 
lent grasses that may be turned to advantage 
by the thrifty stock-grower of the future. 
These flat lands must of necessity remain 
unfenced for many years to come, and the 
grand range be open and free to all men un- 
til large sums are expended for levees to 
secure fences from breakage by high 

Much the larger portion of Massillon 
Township, as the white man found it, was 
covered with a heavy growth of timber, 
which has been of great value, not only to 
the surrounding country but for exportation. 
Very considerable quantities of the better 
grades of hard wood yet remain, and can be 
obtained at fair prices. 

When the red man abandoned this country, 
these forests were comparatively open, but 
little undergrowth being found to obstruct 
the vision. This destruction of the germs of 
trees and shrubs was brought about by the 
annual autumnal fires that swept over both 
timber and prairie alike. These fires were 
not the result of accident as many have sup- 
posed, but were caused by the deliberate act 
of the Indians, that there might be no hiding 
places for the wild game, upon which they 
relied for sustenance. The prairie fire must 
be seen, and that in the night time, to be 
fully appreciated. The sight is a grand one, 
often terrific, and not easily forgotten: but he 
who relies upon the account of western sen- 
sational writers for information on this sub- 
ject, is sure to be misled, and can have no 
just conception of this really beautiful pan- 
orama, for the simple reason that their state- 



ments are overdrawn, and the authors never 
saw what they pretend to describe. 

Over portions of Sections I, 3, l 11 and 9, in 
Massillon Township, extends an arm of Grand 
Prairie, which is known here by the name of 
Long Prairie. In the southeastern portion 
of the township, next to Jasper Township. 
Tom's Prairie covers about one section of 
land. Since the cessation of the early fires 
before mentioned, the timber growth has 
made considerable encroachments upon these 
prairies, so that their area is not so great now 
as it was sixty years ago. 

Massillon Township, as a whole, is very 
fertile, and some of tin? finest bodies of farm- 
ing lands to be found in Southeastern Illi- 
nois are located within her borders. The 
lauds, aside from the flats, or overflowed 
lands along the river, are undulating, with 
sufficient drainage to carry off the rainfall 
within a few hours' time. The abundant 
crops of hickory nuts and various kinds of 
acorns are of great value as swine food, be- 
sides which large quantities of hickory nuts 
are shipped and bring considerable revenue 
into the community. In the good old times, 
pecans grew in great abundance, and formed 
no inconsiderable article of early commerce, 
being bought by merchants and shipped in 
flat-boats to New Orleans, where they found 
a ready market. But the vandal hands of 
shiftless men, who, like the fabled boy that 
slew the goose that lay the golden egg, have 
felled the trees bearing those truly luscious 
nuts, that they might share the profit of the 
single crop obtained thereby, though their 
destruction deprived themselves and others, 
including their own children, of the enjoy- 
ment for many years, thi> luxury of this fruit. 
It has been said that " the Anglo-Saxon race 
is a race of pirates," and one must indeed 
close both eyes and ears almost every day of 
his life to not be forced to the con- 

clusion that the declaration is but too true. 

Catalpa, a tree of large and abundant 
growth, with a luxuriance of flowers, and ex- 
tensively used for shingles and posts on ac- 
count of its durability, is indigenous and 
deserves a special mention. In fact, the tim- 
ber growth of this, both in quantity and va- 
riety, is scarcely excelled by that of any other 
township in the State. 

The fauna of Massillon Township was the 
great attraction to the red man in his day, 
and this was the Elysian field of the pioneer 
hunter, the alluring magnet that drew him 
here. From the best information now at 
hand, the bear, deer, turkeys and larger 
game, to say nothing of the smaller varieties, 
existed in larger numbers, and remained 
longer after the first settlement in this town- 
ship than elsewhere in Wayne County. 
Birds existed in great variety, many species 
of which yet remain. Wild fruits in 
great abundance were indigenous to the soil, 
and were a welcome article of food to the 
early settler. 

At the intersection of Sections 20 and 28, 
but lying chiefly in the northwest quarter of 
the northwest quarter of Section 28, is a 
pond somewhat noted for the large numbers 
of water-fowl that formerly congregated there, 
and was a place of resort for hunters in quest 
of the same. Wild ducks and geese were 
killed here in quantities sufficient to make the 
modern quail and snipe hunter feel the utter 
insignificance of his calling. 

Owing to the deposit from the frequent 
overflows, and the rank growth of vegetation, 
falling and remaining on its surface, it is 
supposed that, within the recollection of 
in. mi now living, the depth has decreased 
not less than three feet. In addition to this 
the portion belonging to Mr. David Monroe 
ha- been partially drained, and some attempts 
made at cultivation; but the overflow, which 



seems to be almost as sure as death and taxes, 
precludes the possibility of successful culti- 
vation, notwithstanding the great wealth of 
accumulated soil on its bosom. 

Near this pond, on the northeast quarter of 
the northeast quarter of Section 29, the 
property of Marvel Hill, are three mounds, 
composed of sandy loam, about ten acres of 
which are above all overflow, supposed to 
have been the work of ancient Mound -Build- 
ers. Signs of Indian burial are to be seen 
there yet, and small pieces of human bones, 
teeth, ^"scraps of pottery with other relics are 
still to be found. 

In 1833, while Judge Wilson, then a lad, 
was plowing on the largest of these mounds, 
his plow struck something hard, which 
caused him and his father to investigate, and, 
upon digging down, they unearthed a slab- 
stone vault, 2x3 feet in size, in which was 
doubled up a large human skeleton, apparently 
in a fair state of preservation, but which soon 
crumbled, with the exception of the teeth, 
when exposed to the atmosphere. The flat 
stones of which this vault was composed 
were unlike anything of the kind found in 
the neighborhood. 

The Little Wabash River enters Massillon 
Township near the center of the eastern line 
of Section 12, bearing in a southwesterly di- 
rection through Sections 11, 14, 15, 22, 27, 
33 and 32, where it enters Leech Township. 
The western portion of the township is 
drained by Elm River, which runs through 
Sections 18, 19, 30, 29 and 32, where it en- 
ters the Little Wabash River. 

Village Creek in the east and Little Elm 
in the northwest carry off the surplus rain- 
fall in those portions of the township. 

On the premises of James Ed Lane, south- 
east quarter of the northeast quarter of Section 
31, are yet distinctly to be seen portions of the 
buffalo trace, along which were scattered many 

bones when the county was first settled. Signs 
of an Indian village having existed here are 
numerous, and many relics, such as stone 
axes, arrow points, etc., have been found 
at this place. Along the bluffs of Section 
31 are numerous springs of water that flow 
the year round, and the driest seasons have 
not perceptibly affected them. 

There is not the uncertainty as to who 
were the first permanent settlers in Massillon 
Township that we sometimes encounter in 

There is an old tradition, however, wheth- 
er true or untrue we have no means at hand 
of ascertaining, that a Frenchman by the 
name of Lavalette, prior to the war of 1812, 
had a trading post, for barter with the Indi- 
ans, at or near the place where the town of 
New Massillon was afterward founded. 
Through the same tradition, we also learn 
that, being impressed with a sense of inse- 
curity, so remote from any other white man, 
when the war clouds began to gather, he also 
" gathered '' his traps and sought a place of 
greater security. 

Enoch Beach is entitled to the honor of 
being considered the first settler in Massillon 
Township. He came from South Carolina 
and located on the northeast quarter of Section 
30 as early as 1817. He moved in a large 
"schooner" wagon, a style of wagon un- 
known to the present generation, the first 
wagon brought to Wayne County, and with 
him came King, his brother-in-law, who 
sood died, and Pritchet, who settled in Jas- 
per Township, and also Abraham Beach, his 
nephew, with their families. The intelli- 
gence, benevolence and energy of Mr. Beach 
made him a prominent factor in the com- 
munity until his death, which occurred about 
the year 1836. He early became an exten- 
sive land -owner, and improved a large farm; 
was elected or appointed Justice of the 



Peace, the duties of which ho administered 
to the satisfaction of all; he tillod tho posi- 
tion of State Senator with honor, and, while 
modest and unassuming, he was foremost 
in all public enterprises or movements for 
the welfare of the people. Prudent in the 
management of his own affairs, he always 
had some ready money, a matter of no small 
moment at that time, and it is said that if a 
neighbor was in want of money he could sell 
his stock to Mr. Beach for cash, and thus ob- 
tain relief, when without such an opportu- 
nity many would have been distressed. Hav- 
ing the only wagon in the neighborhood, he 
would gather the people's corn and do their 
heavy hauling, for which he charged five 
bushels of corn per day. A man of enlarged 
views, ho did not follow hunting for the sake 
of the peltries that could be secured, but as 
a sportsman engaged in the chase for recrea- 
tion. Seeking larger game, he kept heavy 
dogs, and bear-hunting was his favorite pas- 
time. After the extermination of the bears 
in the country, his instincts led him in quest 
of the deer, and the dash and game in his 
nature were shown when mounted on a tine 
charger. His hvinting was always on the 

Sixty-three years ago, he built what was 
then and remains to this day one of the best 
dwelling houses in the community, owned and 
now occupied by Mr. Stewart Cunningham. 

Not himself a church member, he opened 
his house to public preaching, and it is 
thought by some that the Cumberland Pres- 
byterian Church of Tom's Prairie was first 
organized in his dwelling. 

He planted the first apple-trees in the 
county, some of which are still standing, but 
gradually are being borne down by the weight 
of years. He also raised the first wheat in 
the community, and by his enterprise the 
interests of the country were greatly advanced. 

Mrs. Mays and her daughter, of Fairfield, 
and Mrs. Andrew Crews, of Marion, are the 
only lineal descendants remaining to him in 
this community. 

Abraham Beach came from South Carolina 
with Enoch Beach in 1S17, and is reputed to 
have been a good, quiet man. A millwright 
by profession, he built many of the early 
horse mills in the country, and also made 
coffins. He lived to bo quite old, and died 
about 1S38. 

In 1837, Andrew Crews came from Ken- 
tucky and lived one year in Barnhill Town- 
ship, and in 1818 settled on Section 31 in 
Massillon Township, where bis descendants 
still own a fine farm. He was born in Hali- 
fax County, Va., lived near the Cumberland 
River in Tennessee, remained in Kentucky 
but a short time, and then came to Illinois. 
He is remembered as a man of moral stamina. 
having a determined will in favor of right, 
and his counsels were of weight in the com- 
munity. Being a Methodist, his house was 
long a preaching place, and the present 
Ebenezer Society was organized there. He 
was, for many years prior to his death, afflict- 
ed with rheumatism. 

George Russell came with the Frazier's, 
his brothers-in-law from South Carolina in 
1818, and settled on Section 19. He was an 
uneducated man, talked too much, and often 
about other people's business, sometimes 
causing trouble, without so intending. He 
was a successful hunter, and shiftless in 
other respects, but possessed an active busi- 
ness wife. Being an Old School Presbyte- 
rian, the early preachers of that denomination 
preached at his house. He died about 1842. 
His son Macomb was killed by the Indians 
in California in 1849. His son John be- 
came a Baptist minister, and with his brother 
Frank moved to Arkansas. 

Rev. James Crews came to Illinois with 



his father, and was for many years a useful 
Methodist Episcopal local preacher. Though 
a Methodist, he was a lover of all Christian 
people, and died greatly respected a few 
years since. 

Rev. Woods M. Hamilton lived on the 
Enoch Beach farm in an early day, and, be- 
ing a regular pastor, a fuller account will be 
given of him in the account of the Cumber- 
land Presbyterian Church, 

Rev. David McLin, a Cumberland Pres- 
byterian minister of great ability, and one 
who made his impress in all this region of 
country, organized his church in Massillon 
Township as early as 1822. He will be 
more fully mentioned in connection with his 

Edward West came from Pennsylvania, 
about 1822, and settled on the northwest 
quarter of the southwest quarter of Section 
10, where he improved a good farm and be- 
came the wealthiest man in the township. A 
man of good education for the times, he was 
possessed of good tastes and refinement, and 
was intelligent and progressive. He was the 
first Justice of the Peace in the present ter- 
ritory of Massillon Township, also a Repre- 
sentative in the Legislature; was a live-stock 
dealer, and died about 1846. One of his 
daughters is the wife of William N. Borah. 

Jobn Henson came from Indiana about 
1826, and was the first to settle on the In- 
dian mound between the rivers. He built a 
camp for his family, and being a successful 
hunter, supplied them with meat, and noth- 
ing more, his wife having to furnish the other 
supplies by her own labor. He was not a 
good man, being unscrupulous, a practical 
joker, and his gallantry among the ladies 
was often offensive. A Mr. Chapman, father- 
in law to Henson, came soon after, and built a 
small cabin on the mound near the pond, but 
died in a short time. He was almost a giant 

in stature, weighing over 300 pounds. He 
was a fine-looking man, and reared a large 
family of well developed and exceedingly 
handsome sons and daughters. The sons 
were fond of good horses, and were great- 
fighters. The family moved away after the 
death of the father. 

Samuel McCollum came from Indiana 
about 1828, and it is thought that he was 
originally from Georgia or Alabama. He 
was a large and very portly man, always 
dressed well, full of life, fun and frolic, very 
fond of fine horses, a jolly jockey, ran many 
horse races, and was fond of seeing a fight, 
though peaceable and good-natured himself. 
He bought the water-will of Saunders, which 
he ran for many years afterward. 

William McCollum, a son of Samuel, im- 
proved a farm on the southwest quarter of 
Section 16, where he died. He was a quiet, 
peaceable man, attending to his own busi- 
ness, and was highly esteemed as a good 

Matthew Monroe lived one year on Richard 
Hall's place, and then moved to Tazewell 
County, 111., where he recently died. 

Gillison Price came from Indiana about 
1835, and settled on the northeast quarter of 
Section 6. He was a good, upright, indus- 
trious and progressive man, and left a worthy 
family. When Gen. McLernand was a can- 
didate for Congress, he told him frankly that 
he should not vote for him, because he liked 
his opponent better. His death occurred 
about 1860. 

Larkin Price came with his brother Gilli- 
son, and improved a good farm on the south- 
east quarter of Section 6. Like his brother, 
he was a truly good man, and at his death, 
which occurred in 1859, he left a worth}' 
family, that have, by their upright lives, re- 
flected anew their father's memory. 

Miles Morris came from Indiana about 

'/Z^T Hi, ^S 



1826, and settled near " Farmer' s Link. " He 
was a good hunter, but not progressive, and 
died many years ago. 

Farmer' s Lick was a famous evening resort 
for deer, on or near Section 15, where the un- 
suspecting animals were ambushed, aud, dur- 
ing their career, many thousands of them 
were slain there. 

William Farmer settled on the northwest 
quarter of Section 15 as early as 1825. His 
occupation was that of a hunter. He built 
scaffolds in the trees, near the lick, where he 
concealed himself of evenings, where, it is 
claimed, he killed 500 deer. He moved to 
Elm River Township, and died about 18-18. 

Nathan Martin, generally called " Big 
Nuck." the son of James Martin, came to 
Wayne County in 1818, and settled in 1825 
on the southwest quarter of Section 15. He 
was a peaceable man, but would defend the 
weak, when oppressed; hence his many fights, 
in which he was always victorious. He died 
at Clay City a few years since. Monroe 
Martin and Mrs. Meliuda Crews are his chil- 

Daniel Baily, whose wife was a Cannon, 
came from Kentucky in 1817 or 1818, and 
was the first man to settle east of the Wabash 
River, in Massillon Township. He improved 
a tine farm on the southeast quarter of the 
southeast quarter of Section 25. An indus- 
trious, progressive man, he came to the 
county poor, and by his thrift, previous to 
his death, which occurred in 1847, he 
amassed a good property. 

William Batson came to Massillon Town- 
ship as early as 1828, and settled on the west 
half of the southwest quarter of Section 34, 
where he improved a good farm, planted a 
large orchard, built a hotel on the road lead- 
ing from Mt. Carmel to Salem, and was a 
progressive man, and valuable citizen gener- 
ally. He died in Leach Township about 1844. 

Joseph Welch came from Pennsylvania 
about 1826, and lived on Richard Hall's 
place, being too shiftless to build a cabin of 
his own. Being a good hunter, he provided 
wild meat fur his family, but let them raise 
their own bread. 

He was fond of whisky, and when drunk 
would drive his family from home. When 
his wife was tired of venison, he would fur- 
nish a fresh supply of coon and ground-hog. 
To insure a supply of meat, he salted down 
coon and possum, which was called Welch's 
"small bacon." He moved to the mouth of 
the Wabash River, Indiana, where his fami- 
ly nearly all died. His son, an old man, 
after an absence of forty years, returned to 
Fairfield, where he lived a year or two, but 
recently returned to Ohio and died. 

Among others who settled in Massillon 
Township many years ago, were Samuel Al- 
lison, James Simms, W. H. Porterfield, 
Daniel Spitler, Stephen West, and his son 
Michael, the homeliest men in the world, J. J. 
Lum, George L. Borah, George W. Court- 
right. W. M. Shearer, John Hays, Clifton 
Boles, James Wheat, Marvel Hill, Thomas St. 
Ledger, Walter Dunn, James Thomas, Hi- 
ram Miller, Charles lies, Stewart Cunning- 
ham, Levi Garrison, Daniel Kendrick, Will- 
iam Collins, Cyrus Oakley, Isaac Tree, A. 
Mason, James Lane, J. A. Paul, Lee Duck- 
worth, Willin McCollum, and his brothers, 
John, Daniel, James and Samuel. 

Hugh, Joseph, James and Green Walker 
came about 1832. An account of, Richard 
Hall will be found in the general history of 
the county. 

The Government land in Massillon Town- 
ship was surveyed in 1809. The entry price 
was for many years $2 per acre, with the 
privilege of partial payments. 

Many entered more than they could pay 
for, but were allowed to apply all their pny- 



ments on smaller tracts, and thus secure 

Many settled on Congress land without 
purchasing the same, and were called " squat- 
ters." The homes of the squatters were 
sometimes entered by others, and they lost 
their homes. As before stated, much of 
Massillon Township is composed of swamp 
lands, and the growth of the community bas 
been retarded by unfavorable litigation in 
connection with the same. 

The county has expended many thousands 
of dollars in this litigation, but somehow 
has always met with repulse and defeat 

Seven or eight years ago, Col. H. Thomp 
kins came to Wayne County and undertook 
to remove the cloud from the title of many 
tracts of this land for private owners. After 
a long and tedious struggle for many weary 
years, he has recently obtained decisions 
from the highest tribunal in the State, con- 
firming the 1 title in the rightful owners. The 
test case was " Scates vs. King." 

The careful student of the world's economy 
will have observed that the natural blessings 
to mankind have been tolerably evenly dis- 
tributed by a kind and overruling Providence. 
One country will surpass another in many 
respects, while it has its drawbacks, and is 
more than equaled by the other in other qual- 
ities. Life, health, soil, materials, oppor- 
tunities and many other conditions enter as 
competitors in these lists in the conflicts of 

The pioneers in Wayne County were nearly 
all poor, and forsook the many advantages of 
older communities, depriving themselves of 
many comforts, and enduring many hardships 
that they might better their own condition, 
and secure a settlement with homes for their 
children. A majority of them came on pack 
horses, others in pirogues, and some even on 
foot. There were no roads in the countrv. 

and they were under the necessity of follow- 
ing a course or mere trail to their destina- 
tion, and even after their arrival and settle- 
ment with most of them it took many weary 
years of toil before they could hope to be- 
come moderately comfortable. Few of thorn 
had money, and what they had was reserved 
to purchase the much-coveted homestead. 

A Mr. King's, brother-in-law to Beach, and 
grandfather to Mr. Clay King, is thought to 
have been the first death in Massillon Town- 

Mr. Haulcome, a school teacher, was the 
n«st victim, so far as is now known. He 
died of milk sickness, and was the first to tell 
what his ailment was, having been ac- 
quainted with the same disease in Indiana. 
On the 22d of August, 1822, David Monroe 
and Nancy Crews were married, Archy Rob- 
erts officiating. This was undoubtedly the 
first matrimonial venture in the township, 
and proved to be a good one. August 13, 
1821, Owen Martin and Polly Crews were 
married by the same, but the alliance was 
not a fortunate one. On May 13, 1822. 
Abraham Beach was joined in bonds matri- 
monial to Anna Price, by Owen Martin, Esq. 

The early pioneers were necessarily self- 
reliant, and many shifts were resorted to in 
their penury that would seem ridiculous to 
the present dependent generation. In their 
labors and plannings, as is generally the case, 
the noble women bore a generous and heroic 
part. It has been said that " woman is God's 
noblest and best gift to man," and without 
her refining and restraining influence man 
becomes a savage, and soon sinks low in the 
descending scale of human depravity. 

The pioneer cabins were built of small 
logs, and covered with clapboards, upon which 
were placed weight poles to keep them in 
place, nails being out of the question, and 
those used long after were forged by the 



blacksmith. The chimney, which occupied 
a large portion of one end of the house, was 
built on the outside, of sticks and clay. The 
floor was made of hewed puncheons, and the 
door of riven board, and hung on wooden 
hinges. For the window, a small hole was 
cut, through which one could peep out, and 
it was many years before the people generally 
could afford the luxury of a glass window. 
This one room was used for kitchen, parlor, 
dining-room, dormitory, and chapel, and con- 
tained the spinning wheel, reel, winding 
blades and loom, besides the family and cas 
ual visitors. Ten to sixteen children were 
esteemed no disgrace, and often constituted 
the family's greatest wealth. Trundle beds 
were used to stow away children at night, but 
placed under the larger steads in day time. 
The larger children slept up stairs, or rather 
climbed a ladder into the loft, where beds 
were spread for them. Four or five children 
in one bed were supposed to keep each other 
warm in winter. Cook stoves were unthought 
of, and the cooking was done on the hearth 
before the fire, by means of pots, skillets and 
pans. Gourds were used for drinking cups, 
and in them were often stored lard, salt, soap, 
honey and the oil from wild animals. The 
dishes were often made of pewter, and could 
not easily be broken. In summer, strips of 
venison were cut and hung in the chimney 
above the tire to be tried, and was called 
"jerk." Corn was grated when soft, or 
pounded in wooden mortars, before mills were 

The blades of corn were stripped off and 
cured, as they are in the Southern States to- 
day, for fodder. Prairie grass was often cut. 
and made excellent hay. Oxen were used 
for plowing and drawing loads, and sleds and 
truck wagons were common vehicles. The 
plows were primitive, but answered their 
purpose in the redundant soil. Flour was 

but little used, and was not so highly esteemed 
for bread as corn meal. 

The first school in Massillon Township 
was taught by William Aldrich in a house 
built by Welch on the southwest quarter of 
the northeast quarter of Section 3D. There 
are only two schoolhouses in the township 
at present, but some union districts have 
houses in adjoining townships, the low lands 
being so distributed as t >make such divisions 

The first singing school was taught at 
Richard Hall's by James Miller. 

Preaching by the Cumberland and also 
Old School Presbyterians, the Methodists and 
Baptists was commenced and kept up in pri- 
vate houses almost from the first settlement. 
The morals of the first settlers were generally 

Grain cradles came into use about 1830, 
and rats first made their appearance in this 
township in 1840, coming gradually from the 
direction of Shawneetown. 

Of accidents and incidents of a tragic 
character, Massillon Township has furnished 
a fair proportion. If an old tradition be re- 
liable, a man by the name of Dubose, on 
his way from Vincennes to Kaskaskia, was 
drowned in the Little Wabash River, at or 
near the present site of New Massillon, pre- 
vious to the war of 1812. 

While the rangers were camped near th" 
same place, in sight of the Indian camp fires, 
a man by the name of Hensley shot and 
killed a comrade named Hughes, mistaking 
him for an Indian. George Laird was 
drowned at Massillon, while swimming his 
horse across the river, about 1860. 

Isaac, a twelve year-old son of William 
Collins, fell from a canoe at (he lower bridge 
on Elm River, and was drowned, about 1850. 
About 185-"), a man named Orr, while drunk, 
was killed bv a man whose brother he was 



assaulting. A daughter of Samuel Duck- 
worth was thrown from a horse and killed 
near the town of Massillon a few years since. 

In 1841, Judge Wilson, while hunting 
near the place of his present residence, shot 
and wounded a very large buck, and suppos- 
ing him to be killed, as he was down, gath- 
ered hold of him, but to his sorrow found 
him to be only stunned. A terrible struggle 
ensued, sometimes one and then the other 
having the advantage, but finally the deer 
escaped, leaving Wilson shirtless, the skin on 
his back split, his few remaining articles of 
apparel in shreds, and himself in no elegant 
plight to appear in drawing-room or parlor. 

While John McCollum was one night hunt- 
ing in the bottom, near the mounds, he treed, 
as he thought, four coons on a large water 
oak having many limbs. As was often done, 
he climbed the tree to drive off the game 
that his dogs might catch them when they 
should come to the ground, but to his amaze- 
ment a large wild-cat sprang on top of his 
head with a scream and made her escape, but 
McC, letting all holds go, tumbled from 
limb to limb till he reached the ground con- 
siderably bruised, but more scared than hurt. 

In 1843, Newbery Cline laid off the village 
of New Massillon, on the south half of the 
southeast quarter of the northwest quarter 
of Section 15 in Massillon Township. 
There were six blocks, composed of sis- 
teen lots, each lot 50x100 feet square. 
AVilliam L. Gasb was the Surveyor. North' 
street, leading north, was forty feet wide, 
and intersecting this street at right angles, 
was Main street, fifty feet wide and Second 
street, forty feet wide. 

On the 25th of November, 1849, Wiley 
Webb, assisted by Thomas E. Burket, the 
Surveyor of Edwards County, made an ad- 
dition to the town, and on the 13th of March, 
1850, Mr. Webb made another adddition, in- 

creasing the number of lots in the village to 
sixty, at the same time establishing Mill and 
Water streets. William Whitacre was the 
surveyor, and the true meridian is given, 
and also the magnetic meridian, with a bear- 
ing of 70' 30' east. 

It seems that a man named Saunders 
erected a water mill for grinding, at this 
place, as early as 1825, which he afterward 
sold to Samuel McCollum, when he moved to 
Arkansas. McCollum operated this mill till 
about 1836, when it was washed away. Wiley 
Webb built a mill on or near the same site, 
for the purpose of grinding and sawing, in 
1849, which he operated for many years. 
The village grew rapidly, and became a com- 
peting point in population and business with 
Fairfield, though it is hardly probable that it 
ever equaled the county seat in these respects. 

In 1854, there were sixty families living 
in New Massillon, and town lots were sold as 
high as §50 each. At that time there were 
three general stores in the village, kept by 
Harris & Vandaveer, Dr. W. H. Camp and 
Ed Willey, the latter being succeeded by 
Alvis Boze. Two saloons also flourished at 
this time, and were not looked upon as they 
would be at the present in Wayne County, 
where there has been nothing of the kind 
for the past seventeen years. 

Benjamin Harris was the first Postmaster, 
and is remembered as an enterprising and 
most excellent man. He moved to Clay City 
subsequently and died. 

Samuel McCollum operated a tanyard, 
while the cooper shop was run by a man 
named Entriken, and the coffins and wagons 
were made and chimneys built by Justice 
Beach. James L. Vandaveer was the black- 
smith. There was a toll bridge across the 
river, but it fell down about 1855. 

Benjamin Harris was the Justice of Peace. 
Wiley Webb early built a steam saw and 



grist mill, so that tbe village bad two mills 
running at the same time. Wiley Webb 
seems to have been one of the most enter- 
prising men that ever lived in the township. 
Considerble quantities of pork were packed 
at this place during its prosperity, which 
was transported to New Orleans on flat-boats. 
A number of flats, loaded with produce, were 
sent down the river from New Massillon. 
Martin and Henry Webb, and Crews & Camp- 
bell shipped several boat- loads of hoop-poles. 
A Methodist parsonage existed here, and 
the pastor of New Massillon Circuit lived in 
it. The Baptist Church at one time had a 
membership of about sixty people in this 
vicinity, and the Methodists were probably 
equally flourishing, but neither of them have 

been prospering for a number of years past. 
The town of New Massillon was quite a 
village in its day, being at least the secoud 
in importance in Wayne County. But, like 
many ancient cities, it enjoyed its periods of 
rise, growth, maturity and decay; and upon 
the establishment of .Mount Erie, New Mas 
sillon began to decline, some of the houses 
being torn down and removed to that village, 
while others were taken to different places in 
the surrounding country, until at this writing 
very little remains to mark the spot where 
New Massillon one flourished. 

Upon the establishment of township organ- 
ization in Wayne County in 1859, the town- 
ship was called Massillon in honor of the 
village of that name. 



" Like the one 
Stray fragment of a wreck, which thrown 
With the lost vessel's name ashore, 

Tells wlin they were that live no more." 

— Moore. 

FEW studies are more interesting and 
profitable to mankind than that of the 
past experiences, deeds, thoughts and trials 
of the human race. The civilized man and 
the untutored savage alike desire to know the 
deeds and lives of their ancestors, and strive 
to perpetuate their story. National patriot- 
ism and literary pride have prompted many 

» By ,1. M. Runk. 

in all times to write and preserve the annals 
of particular people, but narrow prejudices 
and selfish interests too often have availed 
to suppress the truth or distort the fact. It 
is the aim of the writer to collect and prepare 
in a readable form some of the facts of the 
early settlements and subsequent growth of 
Lamard Township, which furnishes the sub- 
ject-matter for this chapter. The families 
whose ancestors were early on the ground, 
and whose members have made it what it is, 
are worthy of remembrance, and their diffi- 
culties, sorrows, customs, labors and patriot- 



ism should not be allowed to fall into ob- 

Lamard Township was organized as such 
in 1859. From 1819 up to its organization, 
it was classed in the precinct system. It is 
located near the center of the county, and is 
bounded on the north by Bedford, on the 
east by Jasper, on the south by Big Mound, 
and on the west by Arrington Townships. 
It comprises thirty-six sections, and is known 
as Congressional Township 1 south, Range 7 

A large portion of the township is a beau- 
tiful prairie, 

" Where travelers entering behold around 
A large and spacious plain on every side, 
Strewed with beauty, whose fair grassy mounds, 
Mantled with green, and beautified 
With ornaments of Flora's pride.'' 

The soil of this prairie is of great fertility, 
and well adapted to the growth of almost all 
crops cultivated in this region, and particu- 
larly to grasses. Hundreds of acres of " red 
top " is grown, and the seed procured from it 
brings from 50 to 75 cents per bushel, thus 
furnishing a large portion of the revenue of 
the people. The woodland is somewhat of a 
rolling nature, but is also productive, and 
yields crops of corn, wheat, rye, oats and 
vegetables. Almost all the fruits common to 
this latitude are cultivated here in abundance. 

At the time of the early settlements in the 
territory now included in Lamard Town- 
ship, many wild animals were then abundant. 
Now all is changed, as the ax and plow, gun 
and dog, railway and telegraph have meta- 
morphosed the face of nature, and the wild 
animals have been either exterminated, or 
have hid themselves away in the wilderness. 
The only stream of any importance is Martin 
Creek, which has its source in Section 9, 
from where it makes a horseshoe bend 
through Sections 25 and 32, passing out of 

the township, and through Section 12, of 
Jasper Township, and thence empties into 
Deer Creek. 

Tradition seems to be the only authority 
for naming the township in honor of a sup- 
posed settler, by the name of Lamard. Of 
him or his actual settlement we know but 
little, and that is not such as to warrant our 
naming his nativity or tolling what became 
of him. There is little doubt, however, that 
such a man did live in the township, and if 
not the first, he was among the first white 
men within its present limits. 

John Moore was among the very first set- 
tlers of the township, and came from Meigs 
County, Ohio. At one period he possessed 
about 1,600 acres of land near the present 
site of Jeffersonville, where he had originally 
settled. He died here, and his widow sur- 
vives in Jackson Coitnty, this State. Moore's 
children were James, Luther, Mary A. and 
Malantha. Moore was a man of rigid belief, 
yet perhaps, in some respects, a little preju- 
diced, and, coming from Ohio, he entertained 
political sentiments at variance with the ma- 
jority of his neighbors. He was what was 
then termed an Abolitionist, and at the time 
was not so popular as he might have been. 
He employed several negroes to labor on his 
farm, and was finally arrested, being charged 
with having induced some of the colored 
race to locate in Southern Illinois. He was 
acquitted on the ruling of a certain Judge 
"that the United States Government had 
brought them to Cairo." 

The Buckeye State gave birth to many 
who were early settlers in Lamard Township. 
John Moreland, Townsend Richards, Jesse 
Milner, H. Henthorn and Jesse Ward were 
all Ohioans. Moreland came in 1838, and 
hailed from Columbiana County, and settled 
on Section 6 (now Jasper Township), where 
ho purchased about 200 acres, and engaged 



in rural pursuits until about the close of the 
late war, when he mo\ed to Jeffersonville. 
where he has siDce resided, and is character- 
ized as an exemplary man, and as having 
been a zealous and active worker in the 
Christian Church. Mr. Richards was also 
from Columbiana County, and came here in 
1838, settling one mile west of where is now 
Jeffersonville, and, like Moreland. was an 
energetic churchman. He died of paralysis, 
leaving a number of sons, among whom were 
William, Isaac, Sylvester, John, David and 
James; daughters, Rhoda and Sarah. Jesse 
Ward came in 1841, and was from Washing- 
ton County. He settled on Section 17, where 
he lived until 1875, when he became a per- 
manent resident of Jeffersonville. Milner 
settled on Section 1, and reared fourteen 
children, of whom Man, Elizabeth, Jehu, 
David, Jesse and Harmon are living. Hen- 
thorn is still living in the township. Elisha 
Emmons settled near where the old fair 
grounds were located, and his sons were Jes- 
se, Walter, Eli, and his only daughter mar- 
ried John Black, of Fairfield. Mr. Emmons 
was a hunter of some notoriety, and a usual 
remark of his was that the day before Mon- 
day was his lucky and most successful one 
to hunt. He was, however, an upright man 
and a good citizen. 

Edward Puckett came from Tennessee 
about 1837, and located on Section 6. He 
was a good man. and was ordained Elder of 
what was known as the Buckeye District 
Christian Church. 

Dr. T. P. Green settled here in 1S38. His 
original settlement was outside of the town- 
ship, and he was one of the first physicians 
in the country. About 1840, Isaac Brock 
and Jonathan Hayes settled on land adjoin- 
ing, about one mile north of Jeffersonville. 
The former died here at the good old age of 
eighty years, and the latter spent the most 

of his time hunting, but as the settlements 
grew, the bustle and hostility of the new 
comers drove the wild animals away, and he 
followed them whither they went, where he 
dually ended his allotted time in the full en- 
joyment of his favorite pursuit. Isaac 
Whit taker, and Aaron. William and Phin- 
eas, his sons, were among the first settlers 
in the vicinity of the old Buckeye Church. In 
the same neighborhood, John Blackford, 
David Metz and Cornelius Ades, settled a 
little later. James Ades, the father of Cor- 
nelius, is living, and is probably the oldest 
man in the county. Cornelius Ades was a 
minister of the Christian Church. Joshua 
Caudle and son, Thomas, came from TGiines. 
see. The former was peculiar and eccentric, 
but was a zealous member of the Christian 
Church. During the latter years of his life, 
he would hobble to church, and upon reach- 
ing the entrance to the sacred tabernacle, he 
would yell at the top of his voice, " Brethren 
and sisters, how do you all do ? " And it 
made no difference if services had commenced, 
as was usually the case upon his arrival, his 
greeting was as above stated. For a long 
time previous to his decease, he expressed the 
most ardent desires to meet the grim monster, 
and seemed to entertain no fears whatever of 
crossing the cold dark river. 

Isaac Jerretts and a Mr. Sumter were set- 
tlers at a subsequent date. The latter located 
on the farm now owned by Jesse Ward, and 
after spending the most of his time hunting 
here, he went with the wild game to other 
homes in the West. 

The early settlers of Lamard Township in 
common with the pioneers of other portions 
of the county, were subjected to the dangers 
and privations of the times. One of the 
great drawbacks was the procuring of broad. 
The hand-mill and mortar were the first 
modes of) getting meal. Next was the horse 



mill. Joshua Candle had the first one of the 
latter makeshifts. It was located on his 
farm, and he not only ground corn but wheat 
also. He put up a distillery, and for some 
time manufactured whisky, an article said 
to have been used extensively as an antidote 
for snakebites, but now as a beverage, until 
the snakes bite inside of some men's boots. 

The fair grounds of the County Agricult- 
ural Association were for some time located 
in Lamard Township, near Jeffersonville. 
The selection was made of this place by a 
vote taken of the people, with Fairfield and 
Jeffersonville heading the respective tickets. 
Recently a change was made of the grounds. 

Early in the history of the township, a 
number of Ohio people settled in and adja- 
cent to Section 1. In a short time they or- 
ganized a Christian church in their midst, 
which they named "Buckeye Church." 
Among the first ministers was Moses Good- 
win, and in the preceding pages some of the 
leading members have been mentioned. 
They built a hewed-log house in which they 
held meetings for many years. They have 
subsequently built a house about three quar- 
ters of a mile north of the old one, where 
services are now conducted and a good 
Sunday school mantained. A graveyard was 
laid off near the old church, and within its 
gloomy precincts slumber many of the early 
members of the church and pioneers of the 
township. It is thought that one of the first 
schools taught in Lamard Township was in 
this old church, but the first teacher's name 
is not remembered. The township now has 
a number of substantial and comfortable 
schoolhouses, and excellent schools are kept 
up during the usnal term. 

Village of Jeffersonville. — The original 
plat of Jeffersonville was surveyed in 1853, 
by William Whittaker. from the land of Jas- 
per Branch. In 1855, William Gash sur- 

veyed what was called the Thorn Addition, 
from the property of Elisha, Dickerman and 
Stoddard Thorn, sons of Leonard Thorn, who 
came from Ohio to this place in 1852. The 
town was named by Jasper Branch. It is 
said that he desired to perpetuate himself by 
naming the town, and the nearest he could 
come to it wa& to call it Jeffersonville, which, 
with his own name of Jasper, commenced 
with the same letter of the alphabet. 

The first building erected was that now 
owned by Charles Wolfe. A short time af- 
terward, or perhaps not until 1854, J. S. 
Rinard put up three small clapboard houses 
in a row. He kept a general store in one, 
selling a general line of goods to the inhab- 
itants, and taking in exchange such produce 
as they had to spare, which consisted mostly 
of deer, raccoon, fox and opposum skins. 
These he sold to the American Fur Company, 
and hauled them by teams mostly to Vin- 
cennes, Ind. Mr. Rinard lived in another of 
these cabins, and rented the third to 
Thomas Johnson, who came from Ohio 
and erected the first saw mill in the village. 
The next store was kept in the first building 
erected in the town, by a man by the name 
of Baily. He subsequently transferred his 
goods to a building which was erected by 
Adam Rinard and Nathan Sidwell which was 
the third store room put up in the place. 
Soon after laying away his stock in the latter 
building, Baily failed and returned to Wa- 
bash County, from whence he came. A post- 
office was established in the old house first 
occupied by Baily in 185G or 1857, and N. 
Branch was the first Postmaster. D. C. Por- 
ter kept the first blacksmith shop, where 
John Lusk's butcher shop is now. A school, 
the first in the town, was taught in a frame 
building put up by N. Phelps, for a dwell- 
ing. Dr. Jones was the teacher, and retired 
at the end of the first term. He was an old 



genius, and many stories and incidents are 
told of him. The following will servo as a 
sample, and although the same storj has been 
told upon scores of individuals in every State 
in the Union, yet it will illustrate Jones, as it 
has others. The custom of snipe-hunting is an 
old one. and was participated here whenever 
a subject could be obtained. The rule was, 
when a green fellow happened along who 
was not familiar with the sport, he was gen- 
erally inveigled into a snipe hunt. Jones 
was considered a good subject, and so, when 
a company one evening proposed the thing, all 
went into ecstacies over the contemplated 
fun, and Jones eagerly joined the party. 
With the necessary equipments (a small bag 
into which to drive the snipe the hunters 
started for their nearest swamp and crab- 
apple thicket. When they arrived in the 
proper place, one of the densest thickets to 
be found, then the fun began. Each clam- 
ored for the positiou of holding the bag, un- 
til finally Jones came in as peace-maker, 
arguing that, as he had never experienced 
such sport, he ought by rights to hold the 
bag, and the party yielded to his request 
with seeming reluctance. Placing him in 
the proper position, each one started in a 
different direction t<> drive iti the birds, but 
as soon as thev were nut <>f Jones' hearing 1 , 
they made straight for home, leaving Jones 
with an empty bag to hold, and " awaiting 
for the snipes to come in." It is sufficient to 
say that he returned in the morning at the 
crowing of the " cock " with an empty bag 
and a heavy heart, but a wiser head. 

The denomination of Christians erected the 
first church house in the village, which is a 
frame 36x40 feet, on the northwest corner of 
the original plat. It cost about §2,500. 
The present officers of the church are: Elders, 
Jesse Ward, John Moreland and W. Bestow; 
Deacons, James Skelton, William Sehofield 

and Timothy Ward; Minister, Elder D. Lo- 
gan; Sunday School Superintendent, AY 
Bestow; Assistant Superintendent, John 
Moreland; Chorister, J. Rochell; Secretary 
and Treasurer, Mrs. Dr. Barricksman. The 
Methodist Episcopal Church was organized 
in 1879. A frame building. 30x46 feet,serves 
them for a place of worship. It cost about 
$2,300, and is a handsome building. The 
present officers of the church are: Trustees, 
Dr. Carson, William Blackburn, W. B. 
Smith, William Taylor and S. F. McKirahan, 
and those of the Sunday school are, Super- 
intendent, W. B. Carson; teachers, W. B. 
Carson, Mrs. J. Q. Rapp. William Taylor, 
P. Fearn, S. J. Witters and Rebecca A. Mc- 
Kirahan; Secretary and Treasurer, Millie 
Taylor. A Masonic Lodge was organized in 
1S65. The present officers are: T. M. Long, 
Master; D. J. Brock, Senior Warden; L J. 
Forth, Junior Warden; A. M.Martin, Treas- 
urer; G. E. Branch, Secretary; J. L. Miller, 
Senior Deacon; F. L. Heath, Junior Deacon; 
and R. M. McCoy, T. A Post of the G. A. 
R. has recently been established. 

Jeff ersonvi lie was incorporated under an 
act of the Legislature, April 1, 1869, and S. 
D. Witters, D. N. Ulm and Jasper Branch 
were elected Trustees. The present officers 
are C. Morgan. A. M. Martin, William Seho- 
field. L. J. Keath and Thomas McDaniels, 
Trustees; W. B. Levre, Constable, and A. 
M. Martin, Street Commissioner. 

The following is a showing of the business 
of the town: Mrs. J. Q. Rapp, general 
store; J. B. Pendleton, grocery store; J. 0. 
Bestow, grocery store; Forth iV. Weaver, gen- 
eral store; J. M. Tracy, drug store; G. W. 
Mason, wagon shop; John Owens and James 
Miller, blacksmiths: Morgan, Buffington, 
Davis and Branch, millers; D. N. Ulm, James 
Skelton and Thomas McDaniels. Lilly Mills; 
Mrs. Black, millinery; Mr. Sampson, furni- 



tare; D. N. Ulm, Postmaster; Mr. Timoihy, 
shoe-maker; A. II. Martin, William Schofield, 
C. B. Morgan and Levi Mercer, carpenters; 
F. L. Heath, depot agent, etc.; A. D. Skel- 
ton. livery and feed stable; boarding houses, 
Mr. Wolfe and James Skelton. During its 
existence as a town, Jeffersonville has had 
but one regularly licensed saloon, and it was 
short lived. It was opened by George Gash 
in 1858, and about the same time, under the 
earnest efforts of Mr. Sibley, Jasper Branch 
and others, in an organization known as the 
" Sons of Temperance," a great good was 
done, and was, no doubt, the indirect cause 
of closing up the saloon; since then the town 
has been strictly temperate and moral in the 
highest degree. 

Jeffersonville at one time was a place of 
considerable importance, and enjoyed a large 
and profitable trade. It even had aspirations 
fur the county seat, and made a vigorous 
light for it. but lost the battle, and since has 
been content to plod on in the even tenor of 
its way. 

The following is a list of township officers 
since its organization: 

Supervisors. — Sylvester Rider, 1860, 1861, 
1862; Adam Rinard, 1863; J. A. Smith, 
1864; Jacob C. Brock, 1865; Adam Rinard, 
1866, 1867; J. C. Hull, 1868. From 1869 
to 1870, the county was ruled by five Super- 
visors, and J. 0. Bestow was Township Treas- 
urer; J. C. Brock, 1871; R. A. Moss, 1872, 
1S73; N. Sidwell, 1874; G. H. Hilliard, 1875; 
Robert Taylor, 1876, 1877; G. H. Hilliard, 
1878, 1879, 1880, 1881; D. N. Ulm, 1882, 

Town Clerks. — W. S. Barricksman, 1860; 
Jacob Kurtz, 1861,1862; W. Hull, 1863; N. P. 
Branch, 1804, 1865: S. F. McKirahan, 1866; 
Luther Moore, 1867, 1868; X. Woodworth, 
L869, L870; R. A. Moss, 1871; G. C. Collins, 
1872, 1873; W. Bestow, 1874; W. Taylor, 

1875; James Rochell, 1876, 1878; J. M. 
Tracy, 1877; C. E. Wolfe, 1879, 1880, 1881, 
1882; G. Ed Branch, 1883. 

Assessors. — Alonzo Newell, 1860; Adam 
Rinard, 1861 and 1862; Eli Brock, 1863; 
Joseph Holloway, 1864; Jesse Ward, 1865; 
James Branch, 1866; Joseph Pendleton, 
1867; J. S. Hawk, 1868; J. B. Pendleton, 
1869; William Graham, 1870, 1871; Wilson 
Coughenour, 1872, 1873, 1874, 1875; I. T. 
Brock, 1876, 1877, 1878; Julius Hart, 1879, 
1880; E. B. Pilcher, 1881; I. T. Brock, 
1882; J. J. Davis, 1883. 

Collectors. — James Branch, 1860; Samuel 
Branch, 1861; Jumes Branch, 1862, 1863; I. 
T. Brock, 1864, 1865, 1866; A. L. Rinard, 
1867; Eli Brock, 1868; I. T. Brock, 1869; 
J. B. Pendleton, 1870; I. T. Brock, 1871; 
N. Sidwell, 1872; I. T. Brock, 1873; R. 
Smith, 1874; James Scott, 1875, 1876, 1877, 
1878, 1879, 1880, 1881, 1882, 1883. 

Justices of the Peace. — George W. Martin, 

1860, 1861; J. S. Hawk, 1861: A. B. Paint- 
er, 1863; W. Hull, 1864; Jacob C. Hawk. 
1865; John Bestow, 1866; M. W. Collins, 
1870; J. B. Pendleton, 1871, 1873; J. Hollo- 
way, 1877; J. S. Hawk, 1881. 

Overseers of the Poor. — J. A. Smith, 1860, 

1861, 1862, 1863; Samuel Branch, 1864; F. 
C. Hoyt, 1865; James Skelton, 1866; James 
Truscott, 1867; Thomas Scott, 1871; R.Tay- 
lor, 1872. 

Highway Commissioners. — T. P. Green 
and William Ellzey, 1861; W. D. Ellzey J. 
C. Brock and William Taylor, 1862; E. 
Brown, 1863; A. V. Dudrey 1864; D. N. Ulm, 
1865; James Pendleton and John Thompson, 
1866; G. C. Collins, 1867; J. C. Brock, 
1868, 1869; M. Book, 1870; N. Sidwell, 
1871; G. C. Collins, 1872; A. Bean, 1873; 
C. A. Young, 1S74; J. Holloway, 1875, 1876; 
Ben Dixon, 1877; William Blackburn, 1878; 
W. P. Beck, 1879; John Lear, 1880; W. H. 



Blackburn. 1881; J. B. Bean, 1882; J. T. 
Lear, 1883. 

Constables.— Peter Myers, 1862; Peter Ro- 
chell, 1804; William Lapen, L866; Mack 
Walker, 1868; Thomas Sett, 1869; ft. 
Smith. INTO; Levi Branch, 1ST;!: W. R. 
Granden. 1876; James Rochell, 1S77: W. 

K. (Jraii.leu, 1SS1; William Sehorield, 1882. 
School Trustees. — Jesse Ward. 1873; E. 
5Toung, 1^74: W. H. Miller, 1875; Joseph 
Skelton, 1876; W. Coughenour, 1877; W. 
H. Miller. 1878; W. Coughenour, L880; W. 
H. Miller. 1881; Joseph Skelton, 1882; I. 
T. Brock. 1883. 



BEDFORD TOWNSHIP lies in the north 
part of the county. It is one of the 
wealthy townships, and its people are among 
the most prosperous of any section of Wayne 
County. The products are grain, stock, grass, 
fruit and vegetables, all of which flourish ex- 
ceedingly well. Red top grass is a profitable 
crop. Besides being used as hay, great quanti- 
ties of it are threshed for the seed which com- 
mands a good price. It is said that more of 
this grass seed is shipped from Cisne than 
from any other point in the United States. 
The surface of the town-hip partakes much 
of the same nature of the surrounding coun- 
try, and is diversified between woodland and 
prairie, the former predominating to some 
extent. The prairies are generally small, 
level and productive, and are largely culti- 
vated in wheat. The woodland though not 
so rich as the prairies, yet is quite productive, 
and of a somewhat rolling or undulating sur- 
face. Wheat, corn, oats, fruits and vegeta- 

»By W. II. renin. 

bles do well upon these lands. The town- 
ship is bounded on the north by Clay Coun- 
ty, on the east by Elm River Township, on 
the south by Lamar d Township, on the west 
by Indian Prairie Township, and comprises 
Township 1 north, and one-half of Township 
2 north, all in Range 7 east of the Third 
Principal Meridian. The principal water 
courses of Bedford, are Deer and Elm Creeks, 
with their numerous tributaries. The latter 
flows through the northeast, corner and the 
former through the southern part of the 
township, affording ample drainage and 
plenty of stock water. The timber of the 
township is the same as described in the sur- 
rounding sections of the country. The 
Springfield Division of the Ohio & Mississippi 
Railroad passes nearly north and south 
through the township, and has been of the 
utmost importance to the people and their 
business. Two thriving villages have sprung 
up on the railroad in the township, which 
are described further along in this chapter. 



Settlement. — The settlement of Bedford 
Township dates back to a time when the 
mind of man runs not to the contrary. The 
early settlers here, as well as of the county 
at large, were poor so far as regarded worldly 
goods. They came here desirous of better- 
ing their fortunes, and like pioneers general- 
ly, were kind to a fault, and ever ready to do 
a favor. They came with a meager outfit, 
but strong in faith and hope, expecting to in- 
crease their worldly store, and provide a home 
in old age. Some came in frontier wagons 
drawn by horses or oxen, and some used the 
more primitive pack-horse as a means of 
transportation. Either was slow, compared 
to the more modern modes of travel, and their 
encampment was made wherever night over- 
took them. A fire was built bj the wayside, 
over which an iron kettle was suspended, and 
in which the evening meal was cooked. The 
pioneer's gun through the day provided 
abundance of fresh meat of the choicest kinds, 
for squirrels and wild turkeys were plenty, 
and deer were really " too numerous to men- 
tion." Yet, let the advantages of the jour- 
ney be the best, it was one of toil and 
privation. Then there were no bridges over 
the streams, nor any well-trodden highways. 
Each band of emigrants followed the general 
trail, but each sought a new track for his own 
team. This cut the way into innumerable 
ditches, of which traces of some may still be 
seen through the country. If the season was 
one of much rain, the swamps lying in the 
way would often be found impassable, and 
the roads or trails heavy; if the season was 
dry, the roads were rough, so that at its best 
the journey could not be termed pleasant; 
yet the way was often cheery, and through the 
wild prairie, brown with the Bomber hue of 
autumn, or overtopped with myriads of brill- 
iant blossoms, the forests robed in their 
hues of brown and gold, the emigrant passed 

on joyously, despite bis wayside troubles. 
He could endure trials, hunger and pain, if a 
home stood at the end of the journey. Faith 
and hope are two anchors of the soul, with- 
out which the poor mortal on life's pathway 
would indeed be cheerless on his way. 

The exact date of the first settlement could 
not be ascertained, but we know there were 
settlements made in the township as early as 
1816, but how much earlier we do not know. 
The Campbells and several other families 
came in 181(3. The pioneer of the family 
was Alexander Campbell, and he was the 
father of four sons — all early settlers. Camp- 
bell, we were told, was by birth an Irishman, 
though Campbell is a memorable name in 
Scotland. He emigrated to this country and 
settled in Virginia; went from there to Ken- 
tucky, and from thence to Illinois in 1816, 
as above. His sons were Alexander, John, 
Moses and Joseph. The old gentleman died 
here in 1S55-56, Moses soon after, and Joseph 
died last year in Sangamon County, at the 
age of eighty -four years. John and Alex- 
ander, Jr., are also dead. Nathan Morris 
was among the earliest settlers. He sold out 
here and went to Salt Lake City, but not 
liking Mormondom as well as he thought he 
would, he returned to his old home here. He 
died several years ago, but has several sons 
still living. Thomas Sessions, also an early 
settler, sold out when Morris did, and wen 
with him to Salt Lake City. Unlike Morris, 
he was so well satisfied with being a Saint — 
a rustler for the golden stairs, that he re- 
mained there in the city of the faithful. 
Isaac Suns was an early settler, and is still 
living in the township. 

John Pritchett came from South Carolina 
in 1816, and settled first in what is now 
Jasper Township, but shortly after moved 
into Bedford, and died here in 1854. The 
Stines came from Ohio. There were four 



brothers — Stephen, Isaac, Peter and Eri— all 
early settlers. Isaac is dead, but the other 
three are still living. Ephraim Lecroy was 
very early in the township. He came from 
Ohio, and is still living. He first settled in 
Bond County, 111., but came hero in an early 
day. Martin Emmons was also from Ohio, 
and is still living in the township at quite 
an advanced age. Noah Towns, another 
Ohioan, was an early settler in Bedford, but 
now lives in Elm Township. Jesse Laird, 
Sr., was probably from Kentucky, and came 
in early. He has been dead several years. 
but has a son living on the homestead. 

Other early settlers of the township are as 
follows: R. T. Forth, Jeff Murphy, Stephen 
and Merritt Harris, Elias May, Jamos Clark, 

John Pettyjohn. Edward Pettyjohn, 

Gibbs, Lane Posey, John Rutger, Gil Hawes, 
Tira Taylor, O. P. Vail. William Cooper, 

Swain, Metz, Barney McDaniel, 

and perhaps others whose names havo been 
overlooked. Forth was probably from Ken- 
tucky, and came here very early, bringing 
his entire possessions in an ox-cart. He set- 
tled originally near where Mrs. Johnson, in 
Fairfield, now lives, but later moved into 
Bedford and still later into Hickory Hill, 
where he now lives, quite an old man. He 
was rather prominent in the county, and of 
more than ordinary intelligence. He was 
several times elected to the Legislature, and 
filled other important positions. 

Jeff Murphy came from Kentucky, and 
went to California from here, where he died. 

Stephen and Merritt Harris first settled in 
Barnhill, but afterward in this township. 
They were sons of Isaac Harris, who, it is 
claimed, was the first settler in the county. 
Merritt was born here, is still living, and a 
citizen of Moultrie County. 

Elias May came from Ohio, and has been 
dead manv voars. 

James Clark was a very early settler, and 
has children still living here. 

John Pettyjohn and his father, Edward 
Pettyjohn, came in very early. The old man 
has been (lead many years, but John is still 
Irving, about two miles from the village of 

Gibbs was a very early settler, and used to 
burn brick. He is long since dead. 

Lane Posey, another early settler, died in 
Jasper Township, whither he moved some 
years ago. 

John Rutger was a local Methodist preach- 
er, and came into the township very early. 
He was also a tailor by trade, and the first of 
his kind in the settlement. He has been 
dead some time, but has two sons still living 
in the township. 

Hawes was a very early settler. Imbibing 
Mormon principles, he went to Salt Lake 
City, where he had his name recorded in the 
book of the faithful. 

Tira Taylor was an old settler. He was a 
soldier in the Mexican war, and also served 
in the late civil war. 

Oliver P. Vail was also an early settler, 
and came from Ohio. He is a plasterer by 
trade, and lives at the present time a little 
north of the village of Rinard. 

Cooper came from Pennsylvania, and has 
been dead several years. 

Swain and Metz were early settlers, and 
early sold out and moved away. 

Barney McDaniel came and made an im- 
provement, but had gone away and left it, 
and it was overgrown with trees when the 
later emigrants came. Many of the early 
settlers found apple trees bearing on his de- 
serted improvement when they came to the 
township. But we can no longer keep track 
of emigrants as they came into the neighbor- 

The settler on his arrival began at once 



preparations for a shelter. During this pe- 
riod, the family lived in the wagon, or in a 
tent, and the cooking and washing were per- 
formed by the women under the sheltering 
branches of a tree. Often a rude pole cabin, 
with no other floor than the ground, and no 
windows, save the interstices between the 
poles forming the walls of the cabin, was 
temporarily erected, and should the time of 
arrival be spring, this rude structure sufficed 
for a habitation until the crops were planted. 
After that important work was done, there 
was a season of comparative leisure, during 
which preparations were made to erect a more 
comfortable abode. 

Another pastime of the early settlers was 
the enjoyment or necessity of hunting. 
"Wild game was very plenty, so much so that 
often the settler was obliged to cease work, 
and, with his neighbors, join in a kind of 
crusade against it, wolves particularly. These 
pests were very destructive to young pigs, 
and to any domestic fowls straying far from 
the cabin. Hogs could be fattened on the 
wild mast fonnd in the timber, and needed 
care only when too small to resist the wolves, 
who were decidedly fond of fresh pork. 
These marauders of the forest were gradually 
exterminated with the advance of civiliza- 
tion, and are no longer seen. 

Venison was one of the staple articles of 
food when white men first subjugated this 
portion of Illinois, and in those early days 
deer were often seen in great herds as they 
wandered over the plains or gathered on 
some prominence. Their flesh made an ex- 
cellent article of food, while th^ir skins, well 
tanned, were made into leggins and hunting 
shirts. But few bears were found here. 
They prefer a colder climate, and were a 
dreaded foe to the Indian, who experienced 
great delight in hunting them, and had al- 
most exterminated them when the whites 

came here. But the experiences of the early 
settlers were so similar that a repetition of 
them destroys the novelty. It can never lose 
the charm, however, to the few pioneers still 
left, or destroy the interest to them, but it 
renders the description more valuable, ap- 
plying, as it does, to so many. 

Mills. — The first settlers used the mortar 
and grater for making meal. These appli- ' 
ances are the oldest known for grinding or 
crushing corn. The mortar is referred to in 
the Bible, while the grater is as old as Amer- 
ica. John Skelton, who was an early settler 
from Ohio, built a horse mill, the first mill 
the township ever had, without it was Laird's, 
which some say was just over the township 
line. Harmon Milner had an early mill. It 
was also a horse mill, and did very good work 
for its day. Milner was an early settler, 
and is still living near Cisne. A man named 
Henderson built the first steam mill ever in the 
township. It stood east of the present vil- 
lage of Riuard, and was quite an institution. 
Henderson died some years ago at his resi- 
dence near the mill. A steam mill was 
built on the road to Flora, on the Middle 
Fork of Deer Creek. A saw mill was added, 
and large business was done for years both 
in grinding and sawing. Eri Stine owned 
and ran a horse mill for a number of years. 
James Cooper, a brother of William Cooper, 
built a horse mill. John Pettyjohn also 
built a horse mill. The township, it will be 
seen, has been well supplied with mills in 
its day, such as they were, and, though most 
of them were rude and primitive, yet they 
served the purpose for which they were built. 

The early schools of Bedford Township 
are much the same as in the other portions of 
the county in the early period of its history. 
The names of the first teachers are forgotten, 
and the exact spot whereon the first school- 
house was erected cannot be now designated. 



There are at present eight schoolhouses in the 
township. These are all frame buildings, 
and are comfortable and commodious. Good 
schools are taught each year by competent 
teachers, and the educational facilities of the 
township are not equaled in the county. 

There are but two church buildings in the 
township outside of the villages — the Buck- 
eye Christian Church and the Pleasant Hill 
Christian Church. A more extended sketch 
of these churches will be found in another 
chapter of this volume. 

We have already alluded to red-top grass, 
and the seed as an article of commerce. The 
grass grows very luxuriantly in this part of 
the county, and yields sometimes as much as 
fifteen bushels of seed to the acre. This seed 
sells readily at 75 cents per bushel, and after 
being threshed the grass makes good hay. 
After the ground has once been well seeded, 
it has been known to do well for twenty 
years without being interrupted. 

The township is well watered. The best 
of water can be obtained by digging wells to 
a depth of from ten to twenty feet. Veins 
of pure water, and in great abundance, are 
found at this depth. 

Village of Cisne. — The building of the 
Springfield Division of the Ohio & Mississippi 
Railroad was the prime cause which gave 
birth to the town of Cisne. It was laid out 
in 1870, and located on the land of David 
Simpson and Peter Perrine. The survey was 
made by John Deem, Deputy County Survey- 
or, and the plat submitted to record. The 
name of Cisne was given to the place in honor 
of Levi Cisne. F. A. Kutz bought the first 
three lots sold, paying for them $25 apiece. 
As an inducement to the purchase, the pro- 
prietors donated to him one lot. Mr. Kutz 
erected the first house in the town. It was 
a frame and now forms a part of the business 
house of J. P. Billington. Kutz was the 

first merchant, and soon built up a large 
trade. Tho second building erected was the 
railroad depot, and soon after it was com- 
pleted J. N. Palmer moved a houso from Blue 
Point and sold goods in it for a time. It is 
the house in which the post office is now 
kept, and in which T. D. Colvin does busi- 
ness. In 1872, a blacksmith shop was built 
by J. P. Billington, who carried it on in con- 
nection with a wood shop, doing the latter 
work himself and employing Charles Phillips 
to do the blacksmith ing. A saw mill was 
started in 1871 by J. G. Hill, H. Milner and 
E. Shaw. They operated it for awhile with- 
out so much as a shed over it, but afterward 
inclosed it and added a grist mill. It is now 
owned by Taylor & Jump, who do a large and 
profitable business. The post office was es- 
tablished soon after the town was laid out, 
and was at first kept by Jesse Milner, Jr., 
at the depot. It was afterward moved to the 
residence of W. S. Borah, but is at present 
kept by Thomas B. Colvin at his place of 

The first school taught in the village was 
in a frame building which had been used as 
a schoolhouse in an adjacent district. The 
district in which Cisne is situated, and which 
is No. 7, was formed out of other districts, 
and this building purchased for a school- 
house. The present school building is a 
two-story frame, aud was erected at a cost of 
about $1,300. The average attendance is 
about sixty pupils, with a requisite number 
of competent teachers to instruct them. 

A church of the Christian denomination 
was organized during the Christmas holidays 
in 1874, and the first preacher was S. V. 
Williams. The church building is a frame 
oT>x4S feet. It was erected before the soci- 
ety was really organized by means of sub- 
scriptions raised among the people. A por- 
tion of the members who organized this 



church had belonged to one of the same 
creed, which used to meet in the old school- 
house above mentioned. The present mem- 
bership is about 150, under the pastorate of 
Elder Rose. A good Sunday school is main- 

The Methodist Episcopal Church was or- 
ganized in the Bedford Schoolhouse, one and 
a half miles north of Cisne. But they have 
recently moved to the village, and at present 
meet in the Christian Church building. 
Rev. Mr. Harper is the pastor in charge. 

The first physician in the place was Dr. 
W. H. St. John, and the second was Dr. J. 
A. Parmenter. The present physicians are 
Drs. T. Vanfossen and J. P. Walters. 

The following statistics show the present 
business of the town: T. D. Colvin, G. T. 
Harrington and Robert Davidson, general 
stores; J. P. Billington, drugs and groceries; 
H C. Hill, groceries; J. C. Brock, hotel and 
groceries ; Brock & Cisne, grain buyers; F. 
A. Kutz, grain and stock; William White, 
furniture; J. C. Phillips, blacksmith; George 
Trager, wagon shop; David SI ade, shoe-maker, 
and W. Cisne, railroad agent. 

Rinard Village was laid out in 1870, but 
was not platted until April 18, 1871. The 
plat shows 109 lots on the northeast quarter 
of Section 31, land owned by Ed Bonham, 
of Fairfield. The circumstances which led 
to the location of a town here, were as fol- 
lows: A proposition was made by C. A. 
Beecher, at that time Vice President of the 
railroad, to Mr. T. R. Center, to buy so 
many thousand bushels of oats to be shipped 
from this point, and he would put in a side 
track. Upon learning of this, Mr. Bonham 
and Adam Rinard. at once employed Center 
to purchase the oats, amounting to several 
thousand bushels. The side track was then 
put in, and the little town of Rinard, named 
in honor of Adam Rinard, at once sprung up. 

The first building was erected by D. F. & 
B. J. Chaney. It stands on Lot 29, and is 
the one now used by R. L. Wilcox as a store. 
The next house erected was the depot build- 
ing. Before the depot was built, Mr. Wilcox, 
who was the first, the last and the only 
station agent the railroad has had at this 
place, kept the depot in a box car. The depot 
was built in the spring of 1871, about the 
time the town was surveyed. The second 
house, aside from the depot, was put by C. 
McDaniels, and was a two-story frame build- 
ing. The lower room was used by him for a 
store, and the upper for a dwelling. Later 
his brother was conducting business there, 
and the building was burned. McDaniels 
then erected a dwelling, and for some time 
carried on a general merchandise business. 
The building which burned stood on the 
present site of D. T. Chaney's store. 

The Presbyterians built a church in Rinard 
in 1S73. It is a brick structure, 25x50 feet, 
and cost about $1,400. The first preacher 
was Rev. J. H. Hughey. The Presbyterians 
soon sold the building to the Methodists, 
who still own it, and use it for a temple of 
worship. The membership is about sixty, 
under the pastorate of Rev. L. A. Harper, 
and a good Sunday school is kept up, of 
which A. R. Spriggs is Superintendent. A 
good comfortable schoolhouse was built in 
1875. It has two rooms, and one teacher is 

The post office was established soon after 
the town was laid out. R. L. Wilcox was 
the first Postmaster and still holds the posi- 
tion. He first kept the office at the depot, but 
now keeps it in his store. Mr. Wilcox is also 
a Notary Public, and deals largely in grain. 

Rinard has about eighty inhabitants, and 
the business outlook is as follows: R. L. 
Wilcox, general store: D. F. Chaney, gen- 
eral store; M. W. Naney and W. W. Wheeler, 



blacksmiths; C. E. Yokey, shoemaker; mil- 
linery store in charge of Mrs. Martha Fletcher; 
It. L. Wilcox, grain dealer; Dr. J. H. Hall, 
physician. The first physician here was Dr. 
J. A. Jeffries, and was soon followed by Dr. 

A. R. Spriggs. W. W. Naney was the first 
Justice of the Peace; the town boasts of 
none now. R. L. Wilcox, who is a Notary 
Public, attends to what little legal business 
the place requires. 



"Where nothing dwelt but beasts of prey, 
Or men as fierce and wild as they, 
He hids (li oppressed and pour repair 
And build them town- and cities there 

— Old Hymn. 

-L this chapter is devoted, was organized as 
such in 1859. It is bounded on the north by 
Clay County, on the east by Bedford, on the 
south by Arrington and on the west by Brush 
Creek Townships, and comprises one and one- 
half Congressional townships, making fifty- 
four sections, and is known as Town 1 and 
2 north, and Range 3 east. The name was 
given in honor of a tribe of Indians who in- 
habited this beautiful land many years aero. 
The township is about equally divided be- 
tween woodland and prairie. The former, 
when cleared of its massive growth of white, 
jack, black, pin and post oak, hickory, wal- 
nut, sassafras, elm and various shrubs, is well 
adapted to the cultivation of corn, wheat, rye, 
oats and vegetables, while the prairie is 

•By J. M Runk 

especially adapted to the grasses. Many 
acres of the " red-top " are grown with abun- 
dant success. The portion known as Johnson's 
Prairie, was so named after a man by the 
name of Johnson, who was an early hunter 
here, but whose history went out into the 
dim and shadowy past and cannot now be 
secured. Dry Fork is the most important 
stream in the township, and has its source 
in Section 15, from a small stone quarry, 
and runs southward through Arrington Town- 
ship, and when entering Big Mound Town- 
ship it spreads out into a swamp, but is 
again formed into a channel which empties 
into Skillet Fork near the boundary line be- 
i Wayne and Hamilton Counties. Rock 
Branch and Elk Fork having their sources, 
the former in Section 16, and the latter in 
Section 28, constitute the only important 
affluents of Dry Fork. Along the northern 
boundary of the township courses Bear 
Creel; in an easterly direction. This stream 
received its name from the number of bears 
seen and killed along its banks, and was 




christened such by a Mr. Meisenheiuier, who 
was a very early settler. The principal early 
roads were the Haysville & Mount Ver- 
non, and the Fairfield & Salem, each of 
which crossed the township. 

Who the first settlers of Indian Prairie 
Township were is not known. Isaac Elliott, 
Thomas Elliott and Mathias Meisenheimer 
were among the first, if not the first, white 
men who settled permanently in what was 
then Indian Prairie. The exact time of their 
settlement is not fixed, but it was while the 
Indians held almost unbounded sway of all 
the eye could see. It is probable that these 
men came from Pennsylvania, and they set- 
tled in territory that is now in Clay County. 
Meisenheimer was a brother-in-law to the 
Elliotts, and he and Isaac were strong sup- 
porters of the Methodist Episcopal faith, 
and were among the leading characters in 
organizing a church of this denomination 
near where they settled. Meisenheimer died 
after having done considerable to improve 
the wild country. He was the projector and 
operator of a saw mill on Raccoon Creek, and 
was the father of Isaac, Levi, Jackson, John, 
Isaiah, David, Ellen and Betsey. Isaac El- 
liott resides in Xenia. and maintains the 
same good health that it has been his fortune 
to experience through life. Thomas Elliott 
was a Universalist, and exerted his energy to 
establish his religious belief in the com- 
munity where he lived. He has long since 
been summoned from earth's labors. John 
M. Griffith was a local Methodist min- 
ister who came very early to the northern 
part of the township. He preached and 
taught school in any cabins he could obtain, 
and later he erected a double log cabin, and 
in one department had his dwelling and in 
the other he taught all the children for three 
or four miles circuit. He died the father of 
Martha, Elijah, Olive, John, Thomas, Will- 

iam, Jesse, Jane, Mary, Elizabeth and Re- 
becca. A number of "squatters" were in the 
north part of the township in 1839, but soon 
after that year they moved away. 

Alf. Hargraves settled pretty early in the 
southwest part of the township; was a farmer 
and reared quite a large family. Clint, 
one of his sons, occupies the old homestead. 

William Sessions came to the township in 

1838, from Kentucky, and settled on Section 
9. After awhile he sold out and went to 
Texas; was an honest man and made con- 
siderable money while here. His children, 
Richard and Mary J., the wife of N. King, 
are living in the county. Robert Galbraith < 
came from Jefferson County, this State, in 

1839, and settled on Section 17. In 1859, 
he removed to Johnsonville, where he had 
for some time been operating a blacksmith 
shop. He died November 9, 1870 in John- 
sonville, and his consort died in 1872. Their 
union resulted in several children, five of 
whom are living, namely, Wiley, A. T. , Mar- 
tha (the wife of W. Ellis), Elizabeth J. and 
step-son, T. P. Alvis. Robert Galbraith was 
Postmaster at Johnsonville one term; was a 
man of good standing; a Democrat until the 
war, at which time he united with the Re- 
publicans, and was aggressive in espousing 
that cause. James McGrew settled in what 
is now Clay County before 1S32; was a 
Methodist preacher, and died in that county. 
John McGrew, his son, sold a farm to Daniel 
McDaniels, who settled on the same in 1839, 
and died there about five years subsequent. 
He was a native of North Carolina, and mar- 
ried and settled in East Tennessee, and from 
there came to the place spoken of above. 
Richard Burg settled on Section 12, in the 
spring of 1839, and put up a log cabin. He 
remained here but a short time, selling to 
Thomas Howe, who lived there until his 
death. Huwe was from Marion County, HI., 



and held some township offices here; he and 
son, Clark, were distinguished as expert 
hunters, and played havoc with the wild 
animals that then inhabited tln> prairies. 

Richard Clark came from Marion County, 
this State, in 1S39. and settled on Section 4, 
where he remained until 1S47, when he 
traded farms with William Irvin, of Hickory 
Hill Township, and each became pormanent 
residents of the respective townships. 

Wiley and W. W. Galbraith came to the 
township in 1841, and settled on Section 21. 
The former is now a resident of Alexander 
County, and the latter died in Jonsonville. 

W. B. Goodpaster came from Tennessee | 
about the year 1843 1 t, and located on Sec- 
tion 10. He was a trader and dealt mostly in 
Btock, but after a short period he located in 
Menard County, this State. 

A. S. Hargraves came in 1889 from Ken- 
tacky, and was soon guilty of matrimony 
with Milley A. Cliff, of Hickory Hill Town- 
ship. He was an active man and held some 
of the township offices. He died near RJd- 
ard in 1875. Samuel Halliday bought Will- 
iam Sessions out in 1859, and after the late 
war he sold and returned to Ohio. Some of 
his sons are influential and wealthy citizens 
of Cairo, 111. A. Maxey settled on Section 
16, now the home of Col. "Weems in 1S42. 
In a few years he returned to Jefferson Coun- 
ty. Col. T. L. B. Weems was reared by 
Robert Galbraith, and has always been an 
honest, upright citizen, and was Colonel of 
the Forty-eighth Regiment. 

A melancholy event, the first death to 
occur in the township, was a daughter of 
Henry Burrough, and filled the first grave in 
the Johnsonville Cemetery. 

William Irvin had a small distillery in the 
township at an early period and distilled 

L. D. Bullard who settled on Section 5, at 

an early period, had a horse mill on his farm, 
and ground corn. 

Robert Metcalf, a professional hunter, is 
remembered as having located for awhile in 
the township, and a small stream running 
along where ho settled is called Bob's Branch 
in honor of him. 

Among the early rectors of the township 
came Rev. James Keal, who, with Rev. Grif- 
fith, preached in dwellings in various parts of 
the country. 

Village of Johnsonville. — Johnsonville was 
laid off in 1855, by James Ading, from the 
land of Wiley Galbraith, in sixteen lots. S. 
R. Caudle put up the first house to mark tho 
place. It was a hewed-log structure, and is 
now used as a kitchen by A. Tenney; Caudle 
used it for a dwelling. He was a house car- 
penter, and, being unable to obtain as much 
work as he was able to perform, owing to the 
slow growth of the village, he moved away. 
Tho next building erected in the place was 
by Wiley Galbraith for a store room. It was 
a frame, and is the present business room of 
N. W. Galbraith. In the spring of 1856, G. 
B. Galbraith put in a stock of goods in this 
building He was the second merchant in 
the place, the first being T. P. Alvis, who 
had moved a log cabin from his farm, about 
one mile north of the present site of the vil- 
lage, in which he had been selling goods 
since 1850. He located in the town early in 
the spring of 1856. Later, Mr. Alvis put up 
the store building now occupied by Leander 
Galbraith. and, transferring his merchai 
to it, he made a stable of the orignial log 
store room. Here Mr. Alvis sold goods until 
1863, in the meantime being in partnership 
with Nathan Bullard and A. T. Galbraith. 
About tho same time of putting up the si ore 
room, Mr. Alvis erected a dwelling-house, 
just south of the store. W. W. Galbraith 
put up a building in the town which is now 



owned by Mrs. Bowden. W. W. Hoskinson 
began merchandising in the village in 1857, 
and continued the same until 1860, when he 
went to Xenia, and subsequently to Benton, 
where he is now engaged in the same business. 

Robert Galbraith started the first black- 
smith shop in Johnsonville. It stood on the 
east side of the public square, and was con- 
structed by setting posts in the ground and 
planks nailed to them. In a short time, Na- 
than Bullard erected a shop, and worked at his 
trade until 1859, when he went to Texas. 
The first school in the town was either taught 
by J. O. Fether or Thomas Garrod, soon after 
the village was laid off. The building used 
for the school was the log house now the 
residence of C. C. Bunch. In 1872, the dis- 
trict bought from the Methodist Episcopal 
organization, a small frame building, which 
stood where A. Tenney's store room now 
stands. In a short time this building was 
consumed by fire, and in 1874 the present 
commodious two -story frame building was 
erected at a cost of about $1,800, and since 
then good schools have prevailed. R. E. 
Seichrest is Principal for the present term, and 
has forty-eight pupils in his department; and 
Miss Frankie Galbraith is the primary teach- 
er, with forty-three pupils. 

The first post office was established in 1857, 
and W. W. Hoskinson was the first Post- 

The Methodist Episcopal Church was the 
first and only one ever organized in the vil- 
lage. It was so effected in 1855 by Rev. W. 
H. Maxey. G. B. Galbraith, Wiley Galbraith, 
and wives, Joseph Black, Mrs. E. Buck and 
Yarby Galbraith and wife were among the 
early membors. It was organized in a small 
frame building erected for the purpose, 
where A. Tenney's store room stands, and 
was afterward sold to the district for school 
purposes. In 1805, the present well ar- 

ranged building was erected, mostly by the 
members, at a cost of $3,500. The Rev. 
Harper is the present pastor. The present 
Trustees are John D. McLucus, A. Armstrong, 
F. M. Galbraith, W. M. Johnson, A. T. C. 
Johnson and T. L. B. Weems. F. M. Gal- 
braith is Superintendent, and A. T. C. John- 
son Assistant Superintendent of the Sunday 
school of seventy-five pupils, and W. M. Al- 
vis, N. J. Galbraith, R. E. Seichrest, Eugene 
Tenney, Theo A. Johnson, Mary A. Johnson 
and Frank Galbraith are teachers. 

The following is a showing of the business 
of the village: A. Tenney, general merchant, 
Postmaster, Notary Public, etc. ; Galbraith 
& Haney, general merchants; Forth & Weav- 
er, general merchants; C. C. Bunch, black- 
smith; Alvis & Stephens, cabinet-makers; 
Johnsonville Milling Company; J. H. Nehf, 
harness shop; S. B. Mason, carpenter; W. 
M. Johnson and W. H. Kelson, physicians; 
W. L. Tenney, stoves and tinware; Brooks 
Brothers, shoe-makers; D. Dunlap, barber; 
Mrs. A. T. C. Johnson, millinery; A. Arm- 
strong, hotel. Coming down to the present 
time, there are but few persons remaining 
who lived about Johnsonville twenty-five years 
ago. While the little village will compare 
favorably with any locality in the county 
for health, many have died; but make the 
same review of the changes wrought in 
twenty-five years, and the numbers vvho have 
died are below an average mortality. Since 
the town is somewhat isolated, being situated 
several miles from railroad, it necessarily 
possesses comparatively less notoriety than 
some of its neighboring villages, through 
which the iron horse passes. The early set- 
tlers, many of whom have gone to their re- 
ward, have been succeeded by a class of un- 
pretending citizens, that for industry, intel- 
ligence and prosperity will compare favora- 
bly with any part of the county. The social 



habits of the place have of corn ;ed in 

the last quarter of a century. While some of 
the present inhabitants arc eager for the 
daily papers that are brought once a day by 
hack from Gisne, lesl th lir interest may be 
affected by the "spring" or "decliae" in 
" the market," the pioneers were content with 
mail once a week, or less frequently. There 
is certainly a brighter future for Johuson- 
ville just beyond. Two railroads are now in 
progress, each of which is to pass adjacent 
to the place. Blue Point was laid out by 
Thomas Howe in 1855. 

Felix Mills was for awhile a dealer in 
general merchandise at the place, and was 
Postmaster. Mills pursued the business here 
for sometime, and then sold out. The build- 
ing and stock of go, ids were moved to Cisne. 
The dwelling where Mills lived yet marks 
the village. It is thought that C. C. Bunch 
conducted a blacksmith shop there for some 
time; anyway, a shop of that kind was in ex- 
istence, whether Bunch owned and run it or 
not. A schoolhouse was erected there soon 
after the place was laid out, and is still to be 
seen. Drs. Hall and Sprigg were stationed 
there for awhile. The town is a thing of the 
past, there being no business whatever done 

The following is a list of township officers 
since its organization: 

Supervisors.— A. S. Hargraves, 1800, 186] ; 
Robert Gray. 1862; A. S. Hargraves. 1863, 
1804. 1S65; A. T. Galbraith, 1806. 1867; T. 
P. Alvis. 1868, L869 (county ruled by five 
Supervisors). \V. H. Mix. 1872; I. J. Tur- 
ner, 1873; G. M. Karr, 1874, 1875; I. Mil 
ner, 1876; G. M. Kan-, 1S77: J. Milner, 
1878; L. P. Cook, 1879; Lewis Miller, 1880; 
T. L. B. Weems, 1881; Jesse Pennington. 
1882, 1S83. 

Town Clerks. — Samuel Halliday, I860, 
1861. 1862; John Rudesell. 1863; Felix 

Mills, 1864; G. M. Kan-. 1865, 1806; H. H. 
Brown, 1807; James Roy, 1868; G. Karr, 
L869; A Tenney, L870, 1871; S. B. Ma 

. T. I, B Weems. 1873; A. J. Hale, 
1871, 1875; J. R. Alvis, 1876; Samuel Stut- 
ter, 1877; H. H. Brown. 1878; W. H. Dur- 
ham. 1879; Israel Stephens, 1880, 1881; E. 
M. Turner. 1882; II II Brown, 1883. 

Assessors. -W. B. Harrison, 1860; W. B. 
Harrison. 1861; W. E. Ellis, 1802, 1803; 
Robert Gray, 1864; F. M. Ellis, L865; H. 
Mix, 1866, 1867, 1868; James Irwin, 1869; 
W. E. Mix. L870; -I. Gleeson, 1871; B. 
H. Cornwell, 1872; A. T. Galbraith, 1873; 
E.J. Ream, 1874; W. M. Gilliland, 1875; 
\V. Church, 1876; S. Bunnell, 1877; T. L. 
B. Weems, 1878, 1879; B. H. Cornwell, 
L880; •). W. Evans. 1881; A. T. C. Johnson, 
1882; E. M. Turner. 1883. 

Collectors.— A. T. Galbraith. i860: J. C. 
Maxey. 1861; H. H. Brown, 1802; C. C. 
Irvin, I Mi:! ; H. H. Brown, 1804. 1865; W. 
B. Hammond, 1866, L867; H. H. Brown, 
1868; J. W. Chaney. ISO!); A. S. Hargraves, 

1870; B. H. Cornwell, 1871, ; W. H. 

Mix, 1873; James McGrew, 1874; D. Spicer, 
1875; H. P. Mix, 1876; A. J. Hale, 1877; 
F. M. Ellis. 1878; II. P. Mix, 1S7 ( J; I. J. 
Hale. 1880; H. P. Mix, 1881, 1882: N. T. 
Hale, 1883. 

Commissioners of Highways. — J. W. Brad- 
ley, Thomas 1 lowe and Jesse Pennington,lS60 
Thomas Howe, 1861 ; .1 esse Pennington, 1862 
David Mills, 1863; J. W. Chane>. 
X. E. Huberts, 1865; E. Milner, 1866; Moses 
Jones, 1867; George Flick, 1868; D. Spicer, 
ISO'.); .1. C. W i. 1870; Thomas 

Senters, 1871; I). Spicer, 1873; W. L. Har- 
rison, L874; J. A Wagner and A. J. Heath, 
L876; Joseph Kurtz. L877; J. A. \Y;> 
1878; A. J. Heath. 1879; N. Border, 1880, 
1881; I. X. Cunningham, 1882; G. A. 
Gaumer, 1883. 



Constables.— T. W. Hill and W. W. 
Vaughn, 1860; P. Crissip, 1865; H. G. 
Wbeeler and W. S. Griffith, 1868; J. L. 
Curry and T. N. Connard, 1872; J. A. 
Weems and J. B. Holmes, 1873; John Miller 
and A. S. Hargraves, 1875; G. W. Penning- 
ton and H. M. Nehf, 1877; J. L. Currey, 
1879; William Holmes, 1883. 

Overseers of the Poor. — George Weaver, 
1860; J. L. Day, 1866; A. S. Hargraves, 

Justices of the Peace. — John Cunningham 
and I. J. Turner, 1860; T. P. Alvis and 
Samuel George, 1868, 1869, 1S70, 1871; 
J. Cunningham and T. P. Alvis, 1872; J. 
Wilson and T. P. Alvis, 1873; C. C. Bunch 

and W. A. Vernon, 1877 (Bunch resigned, 
and a special election was held, l-esulting in 
the election of T. P. Alvis). The record does 
not show who was elected from 1861 to 1868, 
from 1872 to 1S77, and from 1878 to 1883. 
Politically the township is about equally di- 
vided, as the following will show, taken 
from the township poll books of the spring 
election of 1883: For Supervisor, Republi- 
can votes, 124, Democrat, 119; for Assessor, 
Republican, 135, Democrat, 114; Collector, 
Republican, 135, Democrat, 116; Clerk, Re- 
publican. 141, Democrat, 107; Commission- 
ers of Highways, Republican, 131, Democrat, 
117; Constable, Republican. 135, Democrat, 



DEPLORABLE indeed it is that more 
preciseness in regard to the dates of the 
interesting occurrences in which the history 
of the township revels, could not be secured. 
It again illustrates the invaluable importance 
of the present work, the importance of gath- 
ering and preserving all that can be obtained 
now, lest even this also be lost in the dark 
confines of oblivion, from which there arc 
no means to recover it. The youth of the 
present generation have but a faint idea, if 
any, of the dangers and hardships through 
which their forefathers were compelled to 
pass, of the trials and sufferings they had to 
endure, and of the formidable obstacles they 
had to surmount in order that this beautiful 
land of ours might be wrested from its wild 

and barbarous possessors and turned over to 
intelligence and civilization, under whose be- 
nign influence it has since bloomed and pros- 
pered. The story, then, of our early pioneers 
is not only interesting but instructive, and' 
worthy of thoughtful study. To study their 
habits and characteristics, their manner of 
gaining a subsistence, their romantic experi- 
ences, and the noble impulses which led them 
to strive and labor for the benefit of those to 
follow them, more so than for their own, af- 
fords not only delightful recreation, but it is 
a theme which offers rich returns to an ear- 
nest contemplation thereof. But we have in 
other chapters devoted considerable space to 
this subject, and we will not repeat. 

Four Mile Township, to the immediate 



history of which this chapter is allotted, is 
the largest in the State of Illinois. It em- 
braces within its present limits eighty-six 
sections of land, although several of these 
do not possess the requisite number of acres. 
Its territory is made up of parts of four Con- 
gressional townships —Sections 7 to 36. in- 
clusive, of Town 2 south, Range 5 east; 17 
to 36 inclusive, of Town 2 south, Range 6 
east; 1 to 13 inclusive, of Town 3 south, 
Range 5 east; and 1 to 13 inclusive of Town 
3 south, Range 6 east. The boundaries are 
as follows: North, by Hickory Hill and Ar- 
rington Townships; east, by Arrington and 
Big Mound Townships; south, by Hamilton 
County, and west, by Jefferson County. The 
original precinct or rather the territory em- 
braced in Four Mile Precinct, previous to 
township organization, had the following 
boundaries: Commencing with the intersec- 
tion of Horse Creek and the Jefferson County 
line, following the course of the former to 
its confluence with Skillet Fork, and the lat- 
ter to its point of crossing the line of Ham- 
ilton County; west on this line to that of 
Jefferson County, and north again to Horse 
Creek. The territory comprised within these 
described limits was, although of different 
shape, about the same size as the present town- 
ship. The preciuct took its name from Four 
Mile Creek, and the township did not. choose 
to change it, but who named the creek could 
not be ascertained. The origin of the name 
is equally obscure, and there appears to be 
nothing even as a suggestion for it. 

The surface of this township is greatly 
varied. Something like one-half of it is 
swamp laud, which includes the immense 
flats and bottoms along Skillet Fork. Large 
tracts of these low lands are nearly continu- 
ally overflowed, and the whole of them are 
not at present subject to profitable tillage. 
The improved systems of drainage w 

undoubtedly render hundreds of acres capa- 
ble of successful cultivation, and it is prob- 
able that they will be applied before many 
years. The township includes, however, sev- 
eral large prairies, known as Sis Mile, Long, 
Brush and Elk, and upon these are many 
beautiful farms. The soil is sandy and loamy 
in some parts, but it is more inclined to be 
clayish than in some parts of the county. It 
is generally rich, and gives good returns for 
the labor of the intelligent farmer. The 
principal water courses are the Skillet Fork 
and Four Mile Creek, each of which have 
numerous small tributaries. Tbe former 
enters the township in Section 14, Town 2 
south, Range 5 east, and flowing southeast 
leaves it in Section 36, Town 2 south, Range 
6 east. Four Mile comes in at Section 30, 
Town 2 south, Range 5 east, and, flowing east, 
empties its muddy waters into Skillet Fork 
in Section 28, Town 2 south, Range 6 east. 
Along the Skillet Fork, in former days, the 
finest and most luxuriant growths of white 
oak timber grew there in great abundance. 
The principal timber at the present day, con- 
sisting chiefly of the many varieties of oak, 
hickory and gum, are found in the bottoms 
along the water -courses, but there are also a 
few high ridges on which good timber is 
found in considerable quantities. The water 
of this portion of the county is unusually 
good, and is struck at an average depth of 
twenty feet, but in some parts borings have 
been made for upward of 100 feet in depth, 
without success. 

The main productions of the township are 
the usual cereals, red-top graHs seed and ap- 
ples. The considerable boom which the lat- 
ter have taken during the past few years has 
resulted in the setting out of many hundreds 
of young trees, mostly of the Ben Davis and 
Rome Beauty varieties, and this boom is far 
from being a spasmodic one, for the incom- 



parable adaptability of this section of the 
State to fruit culture has already been clear- 
ly established. Several years back, tbe at- 
tention of the farmers of Four Mile was di- 
rected almost wholly to the raising of castor 
beans, and quite a reputation was gained on 
account of the large quantities raised and 
shipped, but somehow they seem to have got 
enough of the oily article, and the cultiva- 
tion of them is now not very extensive. 

What is now, and has for a long time 
been known as "Frog Island," is a por- 
tion of land situated in the southeast 
part of the township, and extending 
into Hamilton County. During periods 
of high water, it is entirely surrounded, 
although several small streams, gulches and 
swamps materially assist in making it an 
island proper. The " island " contains some 
rich farming lands, and although not having 
as large a population as New York, it is, 
nevertheless, a very important " deestrict, " 
and one that is heard from pretty loudly 
sometimes on election days. It is some seven 
or eight miles long, east and west, by four 
or live north and south. 

To particularize each early settlement in 
a township, or to give the exact date and de- 
tails of the arrival of each old settler, is a 
task not easy of accomplishment. John It. 
Smith was the first man to settle in what is 
now Four Mile Township, about whom much 
is known. He came from Kentucky, but 
in what year we could not learn. He was the 
biggest man in the county, weighing up- 
ward of 300 pounds, and was fond of per- 
forming a variety of feats requiring great 
strength and nerve. He always claimed to be 
very illiterate, but was brimful of jokes, and 
was marvelously well posted on points of 
Scripture. He could not only quote prof use- 
ly from any writer in the Book of books, but 
was able, if some passage was read to him, 

to immediately tell the verse, chapter and 
author with remarkable precision. He 
raised a large 'family here, and died here 
himself at a good old age. Two sons, Will- 
iam H. and Daniel, and a daughter, Betsey, 
are yet living, the latter the wife of William 
Collins, a resident of Hamilton County. 

A remarkable character came into Four 
Mile about the same time as Smith. It was 
William Hetherly, but more commonly 
known as the " Wild Man." He came from 
Tennessee, and after living here a few years, 
went — nobody knows where. He received 
the name of the "Wild Man" from his in- 
satiate delight in hunting and tramping the 
wilderness from one end to the other. Fre- 
quently has he been seen to start out with 
his own " big self," his boy and his dog — all 
upon the same old bob tailed filly. The boy 
would keep an eye out for bee-trees, while 
the old man would cast suspicious glances at 
every thicket for a deer, and the dog — the 
dog — yes, he probably had his hands full 
watching the old man, and was brought into 
service when the deer came out. The old 
hunter fed his family on wild meat and 
honey, and clothed them with the proceeds 
arising from the disposal of the hides. John, 
Henry, Martin, Jacob, Abram, Polly and 
Sally Myers, all brothers and sisters, were 
early settlers in Four Mile Township. They 
came from Kentucky, and many of their de- 
scendants are yet living here and in the sur- 
rounding country. Polly Myers married 
John R. Smith, of whom we have already 
spoken, and Sally married Martin Sowell, an 
old settler here. After his death, she mar- 
ried Asel Cross, who came here from Tennes- 
see at an early day. The only r one of the old 
Myers yet living is Winnie, the widow of 
Henry. She is a daughter of Bart Atchison, 
who was an old settler in Moore's Prairie, 
Jefferson County. Previous to her marrying 



Myers, she was the wife of a man by the 
name of Farnsworth. 

David Garrison and Charles Trotter came 
into the township at an early day, and lo- 
cated on Frog Island, ami many of their de- 
scendants yet reside in that neighborhood. 

Solomon Boyd located in Six Mile Prairie 
early, after having been in Hamilton County 
for a few years His family consisted of five 
sons — Henry, Lyle, John, William and Mil- 
ton, and three daughters — Catharine, Lizzie 
and Mary. Mr. 13<>\d bad the reputation of 
being the greatest rail maker in the country. 

Andrew Davis came from Tennessee here 
about 1836, and is yet living in Four Mile. 
From the same Stale came James P. Boswell, 
and his children. as follows: William, Joseph, 
James, John. Washington, Timothy, Sally, 
Phoebe and Cynthia. Upon certain occasions, 
the old man would style himself " Jimmie 
Pepper," and many will remember him bet- 
ter by that name. Joseph is now living in 
Mount Vernon, 111., aDd William, Tim 
and Sally in this township, the latter the 
widow of Richard Jenkins, who came here 
among the first, and whose chief character- 
istic was that of whistling, of which recrea- 
tion he was never tired. Among other early 
settlers are mentioned Solomon and Richard 
Mandrill, Calvin Shell, the latter of whom 
came in 1838 from Tennessee; Ennis .Mai- 
den and his son-in-law, George Mabery, 
and the Austins; John Mateer, his wife 
Peggy, his four sons -Robert. John, An- 
thony and Montgomery, and his daughter, 
Rosanna, wife of Knight Reed, came from 
Pennsylvania a hoi 1 1 L840. 

The township since 1850 has settled up 
gradually but steadily, and has a present 
population of about 2,000 souls. 

The little village of Wayne City is situated 
on the Air Line Railroad, in Section 13. 
Township 2 south, Range 5 east, and IS. 

Township 2 south. Range 6 east. It was 
laid out in 1881, by Hilliard, County Sur- 
veyor, and incorporated the following year. 
But a few years ago there was nothing here 
but two or three little log cabins, a black- 
smith shop and an old saw mill. But in the 
short time since elapsed, it has taken a con- 
siderable boom, and grown to very promising 
proportions. It has general stores by J. B. 
Scudamore, who was her first merchant, and 
is the Postmaster; John Chandler, Augustus 
Smith and Reid Bros. ; John Tyler, hard- 
ware; Charles Jacobson, drugs; harness and 
furniture. L. Knowles; City Hotel; and 
Drs. Garrison, Bristow and Branson. The 
village supports were excellent graded 
schools, with able teachers in the Misses Bran- 
son and Staton. A fine merchant flouring 
mill was erected here in 1882. by Robert 
Ellis, and dpes a thriving business. Wayne 
City Lodge I. O. O. F. was organized in 1875, 
and was moved to the village in 1881. It 
has a membership of about thirty. The fol- 
lowing are the first and present village offi- 
cers: Board of Trustees, J. B. Scudamore, 
President, C. R. Ellis, J. R, Chandler, J. M. 
McRill, E. B. Reid and L. Merritt ;> Police 
Magistrate, A. K. Robinson; Village Clerk, 
Dr. B. E. Garrison; Marshal, A. C. Boswell; 
Street Commissioner, George Hollinger. 

Middleton, a small town, situated on Sec- 
tion 5, Township 3 south, Range 5 east, was 
laid off in 1854 by Wiliiam Whitacre, 
County Surveyor. It has not grown much in 
size since the first, as it has never had the 
advantages of any railroad facilities. The 
post office at this point is called Long Prairie 
post office, and mails come by way of i 
Station on the Air Line. Middleton had a Ma- 
sonic Lodge organized there before the late 
war, but it was afterward moved to Bell Hive, 
rson Co., 111. Asbury Lodge, No. 248, 
I. O. O. P., was organized about 1854, and is 



in a prosperous condition. In 1861, the 
Methodists built a church at this place, but 
it was subsequently torn dovvn and a more 
substantial one erected, at a cost of $1,300. 
It is situated on Section 9, near the Farns- 
worth Graveyard, one mile southeast of the 
town. The hist doctor to locate in Middle- 
ton, was Daniel Wingate, and he represented 
this district under the " Five Horse Act." 

Keen Station is a small town situated on 
the Air Line three miles west of Wayne City, 
and consists of two general stores, and one 
grocery. It has a good school, and a substan- 
tial church building is being erected by the 
Missionary Baptists. A grist mill was put 
up there in 1881, and there are also two saw 
mills at this place. 

The first mill of any description in Four 
Mile Township was put up by John E. 
Smith, and was situated on Section 35 or 36. 
It was the old stump arrangement, with 
horse-power, and it ground meal for all the 
surrounding country for many years. After 
this, a water mill was put up on Skillet 
Fork, by Ennis Maiden and George Mabery. 
It was a grist and saw mill both. There is 
now no trace of it left. William Boswell 
had a stump mill also, and after that Martin 
Myers built a horse mill on Frog Island. 
The people of this section would also go to 
the Leech Mill on the Little Wabash River 
in Leech Township. 

The vast benefits to be derived from schools 
were not overlooked by the old settlers of 
Four Mile Township. Schools claimed their 
attention next to that of their families and 
their immediate wants. There were many 
little log cabins put up here and there over 
the township very early, but the exact loca- 
tion and the names of their first teachers 
could not be ascertained. An early school 
was kept on Frog Island by Thomas Gibbs, 
but wo could learn no further details regard- 

ing it. Another one was situated in Long 
Prairie, on the land of Richard Jenkins, and 
this was used for religious purposes also. 
The following items represent approximately 
the status of the schools of Four Mile at the 
present writing: Number of pupils enrolled, 
750; number of school buildings, 11; num- 
ber of teachers employed, 21; average pay of 
same, males, $30 per month; females, $25. 
Estimated value of school property, $10,000. 

The church history of Four Mile is brief, 
although by this we do not mean to say that 
she is behind in her religious duties. All 
the preaching that the early pioneers enjoyed 
was done by traveling ministers of the Gos- 
pel, whose large circuits would not permit of 
visits more frequent, generally, than once or 
twice a year. Charles Koker and Thomas 
Cottonham, both Methodist preachers from 
McLeansboro, 111., visited the people here in 
an early day, and they organized the first 
Methodist Church, and preached at the house 
of Ennis Maiden, which was located on a 
spot now included within the limits of 
Wayne City. William Finn, a man by the 
name of Fox, John Gillum and John Gill 
were all early preachers, and of the Meth- 
odist denomination. The Regular Baptist 
preachers came in later, and preached first at 
a schoolhouse in Long Prairie, and built a 
church building near there, which was sub- 
sequently replaced by another one on the 
same place. 

We will here insert a few items worthy of 
record. The political parties in Four Mile 
are about equally divided, and many of the 
election contests in the township have been 
more a fight for politics than for men. They 
have had what they called the " Convention 
Ticket," the " People's Ticket," the " Bolter's 
Ticket" and all other kinds of tickets, but in 
later years the right man wins, as he should, 
be his politics what they may. 



The last bear killed in the county was 
killed in 1877 in this township. A man by 
the name of Jones was the slayer, and the 
bear, which was a black one, weighed after 
being dressed. 450 pounds, including the 
hide. The bear had probably taken a notion 
to tramp, and had wandered up here from 
the South. 

The following is a list of some of the offi- 
cers of Four Mile since 1805: 

Supervisors — C. C. Myers, 1865-66; Dan- 
iel Wingate, 1867-71; J. B. Scudamore, 
L872-75; John Robinson, 1876-77; William 
Mabery. 1878-79; J. W. Jenkins, 1880; 
Samuel Keen, 1881; O. P. Nesmith, 1882-83. 

Town Clerks — W. H. Cleudenin, 1865-66; 
S. Farnsworth, 1S67-6S; A. .1. Slaton, 1869; 
J. R. Boswell, 1870-71; S. A. Long, 1872- 
73; J. W. Roark, 1874; J. B. Brooks, 1875; 
S. Farnsworth, 1876; George Draper, 1N77; 

B. M. Garner. 1878; W. H. Clendenin. 1879; 
W. W. Coffee, 1880; J. W. Ellis, 1881; V. 
Hagarty, L882; Daniel Ballard, 1883. 

Assessors — C. C. Hopkins, 1865; J. F. S. 
Hopkins, 1866; W. J. Myers, 1867; N. M. 
Williams, 186S; Joseph Boswell, 1S69; N. 
M. Williams, 1870; J. D. Sewis, 1871-72; 
X. M Williams, 1873; A M. Bruce, 1874; 
H. M. White, 1875-76; Thomas Burgan, 
1S77; W. T. Faulkner, 1878; S. Boswell, 
1879; John Robinson, 1880; G. W. Draper, 
1881; William Gray, 1882; P. Buffington, 

Collectors — Knight Reed, 1865; E. H. 
Chase, 1866-77; Thomas Scudamore, 1868; 
James Maulding, 1869; John Robinson, 
1870-75; J. S. Austin, 1876; W. T. Faulk- 
ner, 1877; S. Boswell, 1878; S. L. Austin, 
1879; Samuel Wood, 1880; S. L. Austin, 
1881; P. Buffington, 1882; J. K.Wright, 1883. 



ELM RIVER TOWNSHIP is bounded as 
follows: On the north by Zif Township, 
on the east by Mount Erie Township, on the 
south by Jasper and on the west by Bedford 
Township. Its position, as laid down by the 
Congressional survey, is Township 1 north, 
Range 8 east, of the Third Principle Me- 
ridian. The name given it at the time the 
county adopted the plan of township organi- 
zation, was that of Newton, but the name was 
subsequently changed to the prosent one, 
after Elm River, its principal stream, 
ami the latter owes its cognomen, it is said, to 

the large quantities of elm timber that for- 
merly grow along its banks. 

This township was not settled up as early 
as some others in the county, inasmuch as it 
comprised within its borders a large propor- 
tion of timber land, and consequently was 
not so easily accessible, nor so favorable to 
speedy cultivation and improvement; and 
furthermore, the early settlers, coming as 
they mostly did from Kentucky and Tennes- 
see, struck the southern ami the eastern por- 
tions of the county first, and so the first 
settlement made in Elm River was several 



years subsequent to the earliest in some other 
townships. Samuel McCracken is credited 
with having been the first one to settle with- 
in its present limits. He came it is be- 
lieved in the year 1823, from near Hopkins- 
ville, Ky., and he lived and died upon the 
place he first located. He first penetrated 
the township upon a mere venture, and was 
greatly surprised at hearing, when near the 
spot he afterward concluded to make his 
home, what sounded to him like human voices, 
and he soon discovered them to be such. A 
band of Government surveyors were on the 
ground, busily engaged in their " mysterious " 
work, and the meeting of all hands was very 
hearty and enthusiastic. Mr. McCracken 
erected the first horse mill in the township, 
and it was operated for several years, supply- 
ing the all-important meal to the residents of 
the surrounding country. Jesse Fly and his 
five sons — John, James, Jackson, Perry and 
Columbus, and his three daughters — Eliza, 
Sarah and Martha — came about the same time 
as McCracken, as did also Thomas Mayes, 
the latter the grandfather of T. J. Mayes, 
who was born in the township December 27, 
1828, and is yet a resident of it. Jesse Fly 
also put up a horse mill in an early day, and 
ran it for several years. It was situated on 
Section 24. John McCracken, a brother to 
Samuel, followed the latter into the township 
but a few years later, and his eldest child, 
now Mary J. Cross, was the first child born 
in it. She is still living and yet resides near 
the place of her birth. William McCormick, 
William Fitch, Daniel Kelley and Aaron 
Flat followed the McCrackens and Flys but 
a few years subsequently, and the township 
settled up gradually up to 1850, during which 
year the population was materially increased 
by the arrival of many German families, and 
the German element is now numerically in 
the ascendency in the township; in fact 

there are more in Elm River than in the 
balance of the county. In 1853, several fam- 
ilies came from Ohio and Indiana, and the 
arrivals from this date on became more rapid, 
giving the township a present population of 

The surface of Elm River Township is di- 
versified between woodland and prairie, and 
the soil which is of the dark grayish order 
is sufficiently rich to give abundant returns 
for the labor of the farmer. Good water is 
found at an average depth of twenty or twen- 
ty-five feet, although some wells in the town- 
ship are sunk as deep as sixty feet. The 
principal water-courses are Elm River and 
Deer Creek. The former winds its course 
across the township, nearly diagonally from 
northwest to southeast, and with its numer- 
ous small tributaries, affords ample drainage 
to a large scope of country. It is, however, 
subject to overflows to a considerable extent 
at nearly all times of the year, and some 
damage has been thereby done to the crops, 
etc., on land lying adjacent to its banks. 
Deer Creek enters the township in Section 
31, from the west, and flows in a southwest- 
erly direction, leaving the township near the 
corner of Sections 34 and 35, and loses its 
name at its junction with Elm River in Jas- 
per Township. 

Enterprise. — This little town is situated 
in the north part of Section 18, and stands 
upon land formerly owned by Jacob Bartlett, 
who was an early settler in the township. 
Bartlett sold the farm to Benjamin Cobourn, 
who a few years later disposed of the same 
to Jacob H. Biddle, who had the town plat- 
ted, named it Enterprise, and put up the first 
store in it. A post office was created at this 
point in 1852, and Henry Farnswcrth was 
appointed the first Postmaster. He was suc- 
ceeded by the following in the order named: 
R. B. White, David Faurat, J. B. Tidball, 



J. W. Ingram. T. J. Mayes, Jeremiah Mur- 
phy, William Ziudle and L. D. Barth, the 
present incumbent. John Rinard, F. A. 
Kutz, B. Cooper, T. J. Mayes and J. W T . In- 
gram have all merchandized in Enterprise 
successfully, as the town commands the trade 
of a large scope of country. The business 
references at the present time are a general 
store, L. D. Barth, proprietor; a blacksmith 
and wagon shop, by Louis Frehse, and G. 
W. Rucker, physician and surgeon. 

In the matter of education, the early pio- 
neers were disposed to give this supreme 
subject the attention it deserved. They 
clearly perceived the inadequateness of the 
school facilities of their day, and they at 
once set about to improve them for the bene- 
fit of the following generation. The first 
schoolhouse built in Elm River was an or- 
dinary log hut with puncheon floors and 
slab seats, and it was taught by Russell Cur- 
ry. The following items, regarding the 
status of the schools of this township, are 
taken from the report of the County Super- 
intendent, and are for the year ending June 
30, 1883: 

Number of school buildings, frame, five; 
brick, one, and log. one. Number of pupils 
enrolled, 2'.lU. Number of teachers employed, 
10. Average pay of same, males, $30; fe- 
males $22. Estimated value of school prop- 
erty, $3,000. 

The church history of Elm River is short 
and easily told. There were no churches for 
several years after the earliest settlements, 
and religious meetings were in those days 
held in private cabins and the early school - 
houses. The circuits of the pioneer men 
who labored hard and earnestly for the cause 
of Christ were very extensive and embraced 
a large scope of territory, and their visits at 
a place were seldom more frequent than once 
or twice a year. Revs. Bennett and Spil 

man, both of the old Presbyterian school, 
wore the first to dispense the precious Gospel 
truth to the scattered inhabitants of this town- 
ship. A man by the name of Griffy was an 
early Baptist preacher, and afterward taught 
school here, but 'left the country, it is re- 
ported, under circumstances reflecting little 
credit upon his morals. There are now three 
church buildings in Elm River, one a Bap- 
tist Church made of brick and called the 
Brick Church, situated on Section 24, and 
was erected in 1873 by the people of all de- 
nominations, but it ha.-i been principally used 
by the Baptist people. About the same time, 
the German Albright Evangelical Church 
was erected in the town of Enterprise, but 
was superseded in 1883 by a larger and 
more substantial structure, and the old build- 
ing is used as a storehouse in connection with 
the business house of L. D. Barth. This 
church is composed of the German residents, 
and a large and prosperous Sunday school is 
maintained, of which L. D. Barth is Super- 
intendent. The Brown Church, named so 
after the color of its paint, is a frame struct- 
ure, located on Section 23, and is used by 
all denominations. 

The following is a list of the officers of 
Elm River since 1860: 

Supervisors. — Henry Holtzhouser, 1860- 
61; John Rapp, 1862; Henry Holtzhouser, 
L863 64; J. W. Atteberry, 1865-66; Henry 
Holtzhouser, 1867. From this time to 1873, 
the county was governed by what was called 
" The Five Horse Court." A. A. Campbell 
L874-75; John Mann, 1878; A. A. Camp- 
bell, 1X77; John Mann, 1878-79; A. A. 
Campbol), 1880-81; Milton Holmes, 1882, 
andL. D. Barth, 1883. 

TmvnClerks.- T.J.Mayes, L860-61-62; M. 
J. Morris, L863 64; R. B. Wright, 1865; 
Richard McClure, 1866 67; A. Berninger, 
1868; Richard McClure, L869; I. W. Ingram, 



1870; Peter Lewis, 1871; M. J. Morris, 
1872-73-74-75; T. J. Mayes, 1876; J. T. 
Hendershott, 1877; J. T. Mayes, 1878; M. 
J. Morris, 1879; T. J. Mayes, 1880; O. S. 
Brown, 1881-82; L. E. Frazier, 18S3. 

Assessors. — Calvin Keeton, 1860; Joseph 
Fitch, 1861; E. B. Wright, 1862; Calvin 
Keeton, 1863; S. W. Trotter, 1864-65; Cal- 
vin Keeton, 1866; J. R. Shelton, 1867; Cal- 
vin Keeton, 1868; Milton Holmes, 1869; Cal- 
vin Keeton, 1870; J. S.Morris, 1871; George 
Marvel, 1872; S. W. Trotter, 1873; Calvin 
Keeton, 1874-75; John A. Rn-sell, 1876; M. 
J. Morris, 1877; B. J. Smith, 1878; N. C. 
Phelps, 1879; M. J. Morris, 1880-81-82; and 
T. H. B. King, 1883. 

Collectors. — P. Rogers, 1860; David Holmes, 
1861; M. J. Morris, 1862; R. B. Wright, 
1863; A. B. Rogers, 1864-65; T. J. Mayes, 
1866; David Holmes, 1867; A. B. Rogers, 
1868; P. Rogers, 1869; S. W. Trotter, 1870- 
71; R. F. Atteberry, 1872-73; L. E. Fra- 

zier, 1874-75; Calvin Keeton, 1876; Milton 
Holmes, 1877-78; J. A. Rogers, 1879-80; 
William McCracken, 1881; L. D. Barth, 
1882; and Jasper Trotter, 1883. 

Commissioners of Highways. — Anderson, 
Cox and McCracken, 1860; Trotter, Walker 
and Marvel, 1861; Laird, Rogers and Shel- 
ton, 1862; Laird, Rogers and Sharp, 1863; 
Laird, Walker and Johnson, 1864; Trotter, 
Walker and Fitch, 1865; Laird, Johnson 
and Jones, 1866; Walker, Stein and Best, 
1867; Atteberry, Holtzhouser and Shelton, 
1868; Atteberry, Laird and Walker, 1869; 
Johnson, Campbell and Marvel, 1870; A. A. 
Campbell was elected in 1871; J. Marvel in 
1872; J. Vanfossen in 1873; A. A. Camp- 
bell, 1874; Joshua Graham, 1875; L. E. 
Frazier, 1876; Charles Mott, 1877; John Mc- 
Cracken, 1878; A. Holman, 1879; W. W. 
Laird, 1880; T. H. B. King, 1881; James 
Padget, 1882; and David Billington, 1883. 





THIS beautiful little township has the 
following boundaries and position — 
Clay County on the north, Mt. Erie Town- 
ship on the east, Elm River Township on the 
south, and Bedford Township on the west, 
and is designated as Town 2 north, Range 8 
east, but includes only the southern half of 
this Congressional township. 

Zif occupies a most admirable position, 
being included almost wholly in Long 
Prairie, and its gently undulating surface 

dotted here and there with its several large 
and beautiful private dwellings, presents a 
most pleasing landscape to the appreciative 
eye. The only timber within the limits of 
Zif, is situated in the western portion and 
northeast corner of the township, and is com- 
posed chiefly of the usual varieties of elm, 
oak and hickory. The soil of this township 
is generally of an ash-gray color, and al- 
though possessing less humus or organic 
matter than the black loamy soil of Central 



Illinois, yet, is sufficiently rich to yield 
abundant returns under the intelligent labor 
of her prosperous farmers. The streams of 
this township are all small, yet afford a good 
and sufficient drainage to the whole territory 
embraced in it. They all flow from the cen- 
tral part in oast and southwest directions. 
The word Zif, which is a somewhat pecu- 
liar name for a township, was the one se- 
lected by J. C. Patterson and W. R. Barker, 
who represented this portion of the county at 
the fast convention held after the cptestion of 
township organization had been affirmatively 
settled. It was patterned after the old He- 
brew month of the same name, and this we 
presume is all the significance it has. Con- 
cerning the early settlers, not much of the 
history regarding their advent into this town- 
ship could be ascertained. . The first pioneer 
to permanently locate within its limits is be- 
lieved to be John McDaniel, who was an in- 
veterate hunter, and who raised a large fam 
ily here. William Tanner, Isaac Creek, 
John Parish and Jacob and Henry Reister 
were also among the first of the early set 
tiers. Jacob C. Williams, the oldest settler 
now living in Zif, came here from Ohio in 
1838, and has resided in the township mostly 
ever since. 

The little town of Zif, whoso all consists 
in a residence or two, a store having a post 
office in it, all of which is owned and run by 
Mr. Ezra Banker, has never been laid off. 
The post office was established about the 
same time the township was organized, and 
the order of the successive Postmasters is aB 
follows: J. C. Patterson, Levi Johnson, 
Louvina A. Sharp, and the present incum- 
bent, Ezra Banker, who has had the office 
since 1868. He also keeps a general store, 
and has a large trade from the surrounding 

The history of the early churches and 

preachers is given at large in another por- 
tion of this work, and that of Zif is sub- 
stantially the same as that therein described. 
The Zif Baptist Church, situated on Section 
28, was the first church building erected in 
the township, and the church is still in a 
prosperous condition. The Methodists have 
a large and substantially built church edifice, 
where regular and largely attended meetings 
are held. It is situated on Section 20. 

The cause of education has always received 
the studied attention it deserves at the hands 
of the people of Zif, and the primitive log 
cabin, with puncheon floors and slab seats, 
has been superseded by more pleasant and 
commodious structures, and there are now in 
Zif three of these latter, with other items in 
relation thereto, as follows, taken from the 
County Superintendent's report, for the year 
ending June 30, 1883: 

Number of pupils enrolled, 113; number 
of teachers employed, 6; average pay of 
same, §25; estimated value of school prop- 
erty, $1,500. 

As previously stated, Zif Township com- 
prises within its limits a section of country 
of high agricultural worth. Its farmers are 
generally prosperous and wealthy, and pos- 
sess in many instances from 400 to 800 acres 
of land each, which are devoted considerably 
to the raising of quality stock, although ad- 
mirably adapted to the successful production 
of the cereals, and, on the higher ground and 
ridges, to fruit culture, particularly that of 
apples, which latter has received the especial 
attention of the farmers for the last few 
years, owing to the happy discovery that a 
better portion of the Great West, for this 
purpose, could hardly be pointed out. 

A brief account of a prairie fire, as given 
by one of the oldest residents of Zif, is here 
recorded. Only those who have seen the 
like_ can fully imagine with what terrific 



rush and destruction it sweeps across the 
country, ofttimes distancing a horse upon 
the dead run, and spurred on perhaps by the 
frenzied anxiety of his rider to reach his dis- 
tant home and save his family and goods. 
Upon the occasion to which we refer, and it 
occurred in the fall of 18-43 when the prairie 
in Zif was as yet unsettled, the wind which 
was in the southwest, suddenly shifted to the 
northwest, apparently to meet and combine 
forces with a huge black cloud that had 
gathered in that quarter, and backed by this 

the fire that had caught the prairie to the 
north came on with a terrible velocity and 
vengeance, sweeping everything in its path- 
way, and destroying game in large quantities, 
and also many horses and hogs that found 
no time to escape from its fearful onslaught. 
A rain, that had come up in the meantime, 
[ put a stop to the scene, and probably saved 
| some of the lower settlements along its in- 
tended path from partial if not total de 
> struction. 



THE historian, to whom is ascribed the 
pleasant yet ofttimes perplexing task of 
gathering together the tangled threads from 
which a comprehensive recital of the historical 
happenings incident to the time of the coun- 
try's early struggle for occupation and devel- 
opment can be given, has to usually contend, 
among other obstacles, with that of a consid- 
erable lack of details and of preciseness in 
names, dates and early records, and these 
constitute the very elements of despair in 
his endeavor to reach a satisfactory conclu- 
sion of his labors. The pioneer generations 
have nearly all passed away, and with them 
has unfortunately gone a share of the inter- 
esting and valuable history concerning days 
long gone by. Such history is certainly as 
interesting and instructive as it is varied and 
strange. To sit by our firesides at the pres- 
ent day and be enabled by means of the im- 

proved facilities in writing and printing to 
read the romantic story of the stanch and ad- 
venturous pioneer, to study his character and 
habits, and to learn of his manner and means 
of gaining a subsistence in the hitherto un- 
explored domain of wild men and beasts, is 
indeed a source of extreme satisfaction and 
profit. There are happily a few old settlers 
yet left us, whose infancy was spent amid the 
romantic scenes of early times, and whose 
memories still retain the innumerable descrip- 
tive stories told them in days of old at the 
old fireside by their fathers and grandfathers, 
and we snatch these as we would a child from 
the burning building, lest they are all con- 
signed to oblivion, and the future know little 
of the interesting past. 

Mt. Erie Township, to the history of which 
this chapter is devoted, revels in historical 
occurrences of the greatest importance. The 


//»/X K^^C^t^t^r 


territory embraced within its limits comprises 
some of the richest farming lands in the 
county of Wayne, and it is no surprise that 
it was among the first to be settled up. The 
one and one half Congressional townships, 
Township 1 north and the south part of 
Township 2 north, Range 9 east, of the Third 
Principal Meridian, of which Mt. Erie is now 
composed, were formerly and previous to 
township organization included in Long Prai- 
rie Precinct, which latter was also called by 
some for a few years Mt. Erie Precinct. 

The present boundaries of the township 
are: On the north Richland and Clay 

Counties; on the east, by Edwards County; 
th. by Massillon Town hip: and west, by 
Elm River and Zif Townshi s, which situates 
it in the northeast corner of Wayne County. 

Alexander Ramsey came into the township 
a prospecting tour in the latter part of 
the year 1818, and on Christmas night ar- 
1 at the foot of the hill on which the 
village of Mt. Erie now stands. No wonder 
that he paused here. A. large and beautiful 
spring, whose crystal waters glistened and 
sparkled in the sunlight, sent forth a spon- 
taneous invitation to him to stop and freely 
partake of its refreshing draughts. It was 
Minuted at the foot of the hill and in the 
midst of a grove of the finest and most lux- 
uriant growth of white oak timber that his 
eyes had ever beheld. This, with the beau- 
tiful prairie which stretched for miles before 
his anxious gaze, so gently undulating and 
dressed in the garments of nature, undis- 
turbed, with a broad river winding its rip- 
pling and solemn way through the pictur- 
esque scene to the north, caused him to make 
a halt, which he did. and here, upon the 
same spot, he died in 1856, at the advanced 
age of ninety-two years. Ho named the 
grove spoken of, and it was known by his 
name for upward of forty years. Mr. Ram- 



as born in South Carolina, and when 
only sixteen years of age entered the service 
in ili ■ Revolutionary war. and served during 
the last two yearsof that memorable struggle 
for liberty and independence. Coming with 
Mr. Ramsey into the township were his son 
JamjSs, Alexander Nisbet, William Farmer, 
William McCormick, and possibly Andrew 
Bratton. The balance of Mr. Ramsey's fam- 
ily, consisting of his wife, two sons and two 
daughters, followed him shortly afterward, 
as did also the families of the others men- 
tioned, with the exception of McCormick, 
who was a single man. The old settlers 
were usually ardent hunters; especially was 
old Mr. Ramsey fond of the hunt and chase, 
and many a bear and deer have succumbed to 
his unerring aim. The last bear killed in 
Mt. Erie Township was shot by Alexander 
Nisbet. A man by the name of Thrasher 
came into the township from Kentucky in 
1819 or 1820, and died a few years after- 
ward, being the first grown person that died 
in the township. William Whitford and 
family, and families by the name of Davis 
and Stinson, came a year later, as did also 
William Fitch, who afterward moved into 
Elm River Township, and Anthony Street, 
both latter of whom came from Tennessee. 
John Rice located hero about 1827, and died 
in the townshi p. About the samo year, David 
Ray and family came from Tennessoo, and 
after residing in Mt. Erie about fifteen years 
moved into Brush Creek Township, where 
he died. About 1825, William Farley and 
family came from Kentucky, and he died 
here at an old age. His son, Andrew J. 
Farley, still resides in the township, and a 
daughter, Jane, is also living, the wife of 
John Fitch, a farmer in Elm River Township. 
Joseph, Hugh and James Walker, three 
brothers, eamo from Indiana hero in 18:i'J, 
and the following year Charles and lames 


2 GO 


Vanderveer, Larkin and Gillison Price and 
Jesse Williams, coming from the same State, 
located here also. Settlements were less 
rapid up to about 1850, in which and several 
subsequent years there arrived many families 
from Ohio. 

Mt. Erie Township, as before stated, lies 
in a rich farming section of country. It is 
diversified between woodland and prairie, 
and the soil is usually light or grayish and 
very rich. The principal timber of the town- 
ship, composed chiefly of the various varie- 
ties of oak and hickory, is found along the 
course of the Little Wabash River, which en- 
ters the township in Section 19, Town 2 north, 
Range 9 east, and leaves it in Section 12, 
Town 1 north, Range 9 east. Miller Creek, a 
small stream, rises in the south part of the 
township, and flowing northeast empties into 
the Little Wabash. As pure water as is 
found anywhere in the county is found in 
Mt. Erie at an average depth of twenty feet, 
though there are a few wells that have a 
depth of sixty feet. 

The chief productions of the township are 
the usual varieties of grain and the seed of 
the red-top grass, the latter being one of the 
chief productions of this and the surrounding 
country. The farmers of this section give 
considerable attention to stock, including 
principally the finer and hardier breeds of 
cattle and hogs. 

Among the first things to claim the atten- 
tion of the old settlers was some kind of a 
mill by which their corn could be converted 
into meal, and this was one of supreme im- 
portance. The old stump mill had been su- 
perseded by the horse mill, and the first ma- 
chine of this description brought into Mount 
Erie Township was run by old Alex Ramsey 
for about fifteen years. It was located where 
Mount Erie Village now stands, and its suc- 
cessor was one put up in the east part of the 

township by James Bradshaw, about 1840 
and this was operated for ten years. The 
first steam mill was erected in the village of 
Mount Erie in the year 1866, by William 
Schwarberg; a grist mill was added, and a 
carding machine subsequently attached. It 
was sold to Price & Nisbet. who ran it for 
five years, when it was sold to Price, Bald- 
ridge & Co., who shortly afterward built a 
new mill, now known as the " Gem Mills," 
and operated by Miller, McCollum & Co. 

A substantial bridge, having a total length of 
140 feet, and resting upon wooden piers, was 
bnilt by the county in 1880 across the Little 
Wabash River, in the north part of the town- 
ship. It was built at a cost of SI, 300, and 
is of infinite advantage to the residents of 
the township on both sides of the river. 

The Village of Mount Erie. — This is a most 
beautiful little town, situated on a consider- 
able rise of ground in the south part of Sec- 
tion 17, of Town 1 north. Range 9 east. Its 
corporate limits include, 240 acres of land. 
Seen from a distance, it presents an extreme- 
ly romantic and picturesque scene, reminding 
one of some ancient citadel, reared upon the 
crest of a lofty hill. The original plat con- 
sisted of ten acres of ground sold by Alex- 
ander Ramsey to Nathaniel Travers and Jon- 
athan Copley, with conditions in the deed 
that the latter two would lay out a town, 
which they did in the year 1853, the plat 
being surveyed by William Whitacre, then 
County Surveyor. The town was to be 
named Ramsey, but Mr. Ramsey himself pre- 
ferred "Mount Airie," and this latter name was 
given it. The first building erected in town 
was a little frame hut, put up by William 
Copley, and used by him as a dwelling and 
store. A post office was created at this point 
in 1856, and Andrew Crews was appointed 
the first Postmaster. He was succeeded in 
the order named: 

By A. F. Nisbet, Edward 



Willey, L. Mayo, V. R. Price, and J. T. 
Price, the present incumbent. Mount Erie 
Lodge, No. 331, A., F. & A. M., was organ- 
ized in 1858, with the following charter 
members: E. Boor, George L. Camp, C. 
McElvy, J. T. Price, J. M. MeCormick, Ed- 
ward Willey and J. C. Williams. The first 
officers were: E. Boor, W. M. ; G. L. Camp, 
S. W. ; J. M. MeCormick, J. W. ; J. T. Price, 
Sec. ; C. McElvy, S. D. ; J. C. Williams, J. 
D. ; and E. Willey, Treas. The present 
(1883) officers are: A. N. Nisbet, W. M.; 
M. H. Sheldon, S. W.; L. Wright, J. W.; J. 
W. Vanderveer, Sec. ; J. T. Price, Treas. ; D. 
Holmes, S. D. ; and F. M. Yoke, J. D. The 
Lodge is in a prosperous condition, owning 
their own property, which includes a neat 
and commodious hall, and has a membership 
of about forty. The principal business rep- 
resentations in the village are as follows: 
General stores, by J. T. Price & Co., A. F- 
Nisbet & Son, Vanderveer & Bradskaw, and 
Camp & Quinby. Hardware, Carson & Van- 
derveer. Milliners, Mrs. Holt and Mis. 
Helen Blackford. A fine saddle and harness 
shop, two blacksmiths, one wagon -maker's, 
and one cabinet-maker's shop. The resident 
doctors are Mundy, Blackford and Sheldon. 
Mount Erie supports an excellent graded 
school, employing three teachers. The builds 
ing is a large frame structure, erected in 
1866, and is divided into three grades, under 
the management of Principal Stats, with able 
n--Mstants Lillie Holmes and Ella Kron- 
iniller. Mount Erie has two church build- 
ings both frame structures, one built by the 
Presbyterians in 1856, with William Finley 
as first pastor, and the other by the Method- 
ists, two years later, and this latter church 

is still in a flourishing condition. Rev. John 
Reader is the present pastor. The outlook 
for the little village of Mount Erie is bright. 
Her people are an enterprising one, and she 
possesses an admirable location, which, with 
the ample railroad facilities soon promised, 
bespeak for her a progressive prosperity for 
all time. 

The early church and school history of 
Mount Erie Township is substantially the 
same as elsewhere, and receives adequate at- 
tention in other chapters of this work. Jacob 
E. Reed came through this country on his 
circuit at a very early day, and Alexander 
Blakley was the first pastor of the Methodist 
Church. Revs. Spilman and Bennett, both 
Presbyterians, paid annual visits to this sec- 
tion, and dispensed the Gospel to its scattered 
residents. The only church building outside 
of Mount Erie Village lies a few miles south- 
east of the latter, and is known as the Mc- 
Kendree Chapel. It was built by the people 
generally, but has been used principally by 
the Methodists. 

The first school taught in the township was 
by a man by the name of Camp, and the lit- 
tle log schoolhouse was situated but a short 
distance southeast of Mount Erie. Russell 
Curry succeeded Camp, and taught in the 
same building. The following items regard- 
ing the schools of Mount Erie Township are 
compiled from the official report of the 
County Superintendent, and are for the year 
ending Jane 30, 1883: 

Number of frame schoolhouses,7; number of 
pupils enrolled, 51)1; number of teachers em- 
ployed, 14. Average pay of same, males, 
$35; females $25. Estimated value of 
school property, $4,000. 





lowing boundaries: On the north, by 
Indian Prairie Township; on the east, by 
Lamard and Big Mound Townships; on the 
south, by Four Mile Township: and on the 
west, by Four Mile and Hickory Hill Town- 
ships. Within its limits are comprised Con- 
gressional Township 1 south, Range 6 east, 
and sixteen sections of Township 2 south, 
Range 6 east. The township took its name 
from the large and beautiful prairie included 
within its borders, and the prairie was named 
in honor of Charles Arrington, one of its first 
settlers. Previous to his arrival, however, 
there came Thomas and George Walton, 
brothers, and Joseph White. They were all 
natives of the north part of England. They 
had heard of the glorious land of liberty and 
plenty, and in the year ISIS crossed the ocean, 
and pushing for the far West, passing State 
after State, never resting their weary limbs 
until they reached beautiful Arrington, when 
they halted, satisfied that this was the place 
to make their homes. But poor Thomas did 
not have long to enjoy the expected pleasure 
and happiness surrounding his new abode, 
for in but two short years he died, his death 
being the first in the township. His brother 
and Joseph White lived hero, and died many 
years later. Charles Arrington came from 
Tennessee, bringing his family with him. 
He resided here about twenty years, and 
moved to Williamson County, 111., where he 

probably lived until his death. John, a son 
of Joseph White, was the first child born in 
the township; he was born about 1824. 
James Simms located here in 1821, after 
having lived in Big Mound Prairie for a few 
years. He was born March 7, 1792, in Buck- 
inghamshire, England, and was twenty-seven 
years of age when he sailed for America, be- 
ing about five weeks in crossing the ocean. 
He is still living, and is yet a resident of 
Arrington. He still possesses a retentive 
memory, a strong voice, and is remarkably 
active for one of so advanced an age. He 
has several children, grandchildren and 
great-grandchildren living, most of whom are 
residents of the township. James and Lewis 
Warmick and Peter and Henry Ooley came 
from Kentucky, and located here at an early 
day. James Turner was also an early set- 
tler, and a man by the name of Dewey came 
about 1824. Dewey came up the creek in a 
boat of some kind, on which he had his fur- 
niture and cooking utensils, and during the 
trip his skillet was lost in the stream, and 
this circumstance, if it served no other pur- 
pose, gave at least a name to the creek, and 
Skillet Fork has retained it ever since. Will- 
iam Simms, a brother of James, of whom we 
have spoken, and his nephew William, James 
Edge and his two sons, John and Cornelius, 
all brought their families, and settled here 
very early. They came from Ohio. A man 
by the name of Eddings and his son came 



from Tennessee, and located here at an early 
day also, but after a short residence left for 
some more northern county. Among other 
old settlers were James Cissna and Richard 
Grant, the latter of whom came from En- 
gland. Isaac Harlan and William Harlan, 
both of whom came from Kentucky, and a 
man by the name of Tnbbs, who emigrated 
here from Ohio. After 1850, many families 
came here from Ohio and the Eastern States. 
Thomas Wilson and family. Israel Foracre 
and family, George Hilliard and M. M. 
Wheeler were among those who came about 
that time. M. M. Wheeler settled in the 
county in 1823, and located in this township 
in 1852, after residing in Barnhill and Leech 
Townships. The settlements in Arrington 
have been quite rapid during late years, and 
the township shows a pi-esent population of 
upward of 1,600. 

Arrington Prairie is about ten miles in 
length by two to three in width, and is in- 
cluded almost wholly by this township. The 
soil is somewhat varied, being loamy in some 
places, but is generally made up of a yellow- 
ish clay, possessing strong productive qual- 
ities, and yields abundant crops of every- 
thing that can be grown in this section. It 
is particularly adapted to wheat-growing, and 
to look across the prairie jusi before harvest, 
one might think that every acre was devoted 
to the cultivation of that studio cereal. 

The principal watercourse is Dry Fork, 
which enters the township in Section 2, Town 
1 60uth, Range east, and flows through its 
entire length, due south, and leaves it from 
Section 14. Town '.' south. Range G east. Its 
numerous small tributaries, with those of 
Skillet Fork, which barely crosses the corner 
of Section 7, Town 2 south. Range east, 
afford ample drainage to the entire section. 
Dry Fork derives its name from the fact that 
there are no springs in it, and it contains 

water only during wet seasons. It ofttimes 
overflows, however, doing considerable dam 
age to crops, etc., on lands lying adjacent to 
its banks. The only timber in the township 
lies along the streams, and it consists chiefly 
in oak, hickory, sweet gum, elm and maple. 
Good water is usually found at an average 
depth of twenty feet, though in some places 
wells have to be sunk considerably deeper. 

It was not long a f ter the first settlement in 
Arrington that a mill was put up. Mills 
were among the first things claiming imme- 
diate attention. The early pioneers had to 
eat, and some kind of an arrangement by 
which their corn could be converted into 
meal was therefore a matter of supreme im 
portance. The first mill in this township 
was put up by Jonathan Whitson. It was a 
horse mill, and was located a short distance 
northwest of the present little town of Cin- 
cinnati. About the same time, Wesley Staton 
erected a water mill on Dry Fork, and Ben- 
jamin Mabery built the dam. No traces of 
either one of these are now visible. A steam 
grist and saw mill was built about twenty 
years ago on Section 30, Town 1 south. 
Range 6 east, by John Walton and Alfred 
Denny. It is known as the Covington Mills, 
and is at present operated by Simms & Stan- 

The little town of Arrington, called also 
Simms, or Sims as the Post Office Depart- 
ment spells it, was laid off in the summer of 
L882 by James Hilliard, County Surveyor, 
on land belonging to John Simms, aud the 
post office took his name. The original plat 
consisted of about twelve acres, and 
there have been no subsequent additions. 
The town is located on Section 9, Town 
2 south, Range 6 east, and is on the line of 
the Louisville, Evansville & St. Louis Rail- 
road. A post office was created at this point 
in 1882, and J. M. Logan was appointed the 



first Postmaster. He was succeeded by S. S. 
Palfreeman, the present one. There are two 
general stores here, kept by J. M. Logan and 
Bright & Burkett. Cincinnati and Coving- 
ton are two rival little towns situated on 
opposite sides of Dry Fork. Whether they 
will reach the proportions of the cities of the 
same name on the Ohio we cannot say. Cov- 
ington has a post office called Pin Oak, with 
Elizabeth Potter as Postmistress. 

The early settlers of Arrington gave due 
attention to school matters, as we find a good 
school in successful operation at a very early 
day. The house was built by the Regular 
Baptists in 1828 or 1829, for religious pur- 
poses, and it was used by them for some time 
after the first term of school had commenced. 
The school was run on the subscription plan, 
and the first term opened with a man by the 
name of French as teacher. French was a 
brother in-law to Charles Arrington. He 
taught for about three years, and was suc- 
ceeded by Jeptha Blisset and Jackson Arm- 
strong, and during a term taught by one of 
these latter the house was burned down. 
This school was located on Walton or Big 
Creek, and was called the Walton Creek 
School. The Mud Prairie Schoolhouse, a 
little cabin concern, was the second one erect- 
ed in the township. It was located in Mud 
Prairie, and was built by the people gener- 
ally. Among its early teachers were James 
Gaston, Jacob Borah, William Gash and 
Rodina Baldwin. A little log cabin with a 
rock chimney was next built on Dry Fork, 
and called the Dry Fork School. Its early 
teachers were John Jones, Edward Terrell. 
Jacob O' Feather and John Deene. The fol- 
lowing items show the status of the schools 
of this township at the present day: 

Number school buildings, 9; number 
pupils enrolled, 300; number teachers em- 
ployed, 1(5; average pay of same, males, 

$30; females, $25; estimated value of school 
property, $4,000. 

The religious history of Arrington is, in 
the main, the same as in other portions of 
the county. Elsberry Armstrong was prob- 
ably the first one to preach to the scattered 
inhabitants of this section. He delivered 
his discourses in the Walton Creek School- 
house, which was used for religious purposes 
for several years. He was of the Regular 
Baptist denomination, as were also William 
Watkins, old man French, who taught school 
also, and Robinson Eskridge, all of whom 
were early preachers in this township. The 
Mount Zion Church, a frame structure located 
on the Johnsonville road in Section 34, 
Town 1 south, Range 6 east, was the first 
church building erected in the township, ex- 
cept the Walton Creek Schoolhouse, which, 
as before stated, was built by the Baptists 
for church purposes. The Mount Zion 
Church was built by the Methodists, some time 
before the late war, and it has since been used 
by them. The Dickeyville Baptist Church 
was built by the Missionary Baptists about 
186S, and is located on Section 30, Town 1 
south, Range 6 east. Both of these churches 
have a strong membership, and are in a pros- 
perous condition. 

The political vote of Arrington shows the 
parties to be about equally divided, with a 
small majority, perhaps, on the Democratic 

Following is a partial list of the officers of 
this township since township organization: 
Supervisors — W. L. Beeson, 1860-62; Rich- 
ard White, 1863-66; R. T. Forth, 1867; Dan- 
iel Wingate, 1868-71; Thomas Davis, 1877; 
N. N. Borah, 1878; William Schwarberg, 
1879-82; M. T. Berry, 1883. Assessors— 
A. C. Womack, 1860-62; James Cissna, 
1863; J. D. Stephens, 1864-67; E. E. 
Cates, 1868; S. N. Pasco, 1869; J. D. 



Stephens, 1870; A. J. Hale, 1871; H. M. 
Twadell, 1877; T. ft. Tolbert, 1878; David 
Mills, 1S79-S0; D. F. Truax, 1881; H. M. 
Twadell, 1882; E. J. Dezouche, 1883. Col- 
lectors—A. J. Hale, 1860-62; W. P. Smith, 
1863-64; W. L. Beeson, 1865-66; T. W. 
Hill, 1867; W. P. Smith, 1868-69; James 
Cissna, 1870; A. W. Womack, 1871; Levi 
Wheeler, 1877; A. G. Borah, 1878; James 

Smith, 1879; William Harris, 1880; Marion 
Berry. 1881-82; William Bnrkett, 1883. 
Town Clerks— J. W. Hi I Hard, 1860-62; J. 
W. Gardner, 1863-64; J. W. Hilliard, 1865- 
66; A. Gr. Borah, 1867; W. E.Harlan, 1868- 
70; A. G. Borah, 1871; T. L. Dickey, 1877; 
S. S. Pal freeman, 1878; Joseph Gaston, 1879; 
S. S. Palfreeman, 1880; John Howerth, 1881; 
Lewis Tunnel, 1882; J. D. Harlan, 1883. 









" He bent his way where twilight reigns sublime 
O'er forests silent since the birth of time." 

THE world is now taking time to look 
back, and tho story of the pioneer is be- 
coming one of absorbing interest. The chil- 
dren of the pioneer settlers are rapidly being 
gathered to their fathers during each decade, 
and the old landmarks one by one have de- 
cayed and passed away with those who placed 
them there. The men who opened up Brush 
Creek Township to the illuminating rays of 
civilization, though possessed of an unusual 
degree of culture for those days, were practi- 
cal men. They came to better their material 
prospects, and, while they labored to bring 
about them those influences which would 
mold the new community into the highest 
form of social life, they did not undertake to 
demonstrate a theory of social philosophy. 

•By J. M. Runk. 

Their labors have not been in vain. But 
those who remain, upon whose shoulders the 
burden of responsibility rests with so poor a 
grace, look in vain to the Btory of the early 
days for the secret of their success. They 
builded wiser than they knew, and glad to 
think that the rising generations would be 
wiser than they, died and left no sign. The 
writer finds himself not more favored than 
the socialist. The men who faced the diffi- 
culties of frontier life in the opening of the 
nineteenth century, or a little later, found no 
time to trace their records, and the following 
pages are presented more as the result of 
a groping in the dark than as an historical 
array of facts. 

Tho part of territory to which the reader's 
attention is now directod is the outgrowth of 
a later development. Brush Creek Town- 
ship, known as Townships 1 and 2 north, and 



Range 5 east, is bounded on the north by 
Clay County, on the east by Indian Prairie 
Township, on the south by Hickory Hill 
Township, and on the west by Marion Coun- 
ty. The principal stream is Brush Creek, 
which has its source in the northern part of the 
township, and runs in a southerly direction, 
empties into Skillet Fork. Johnson's Fork 
and Bobb's Branch are small affluents from 
the east of Brush Creek. Turner Creek is 
the only branch of any importance that 
empties into Brush Creek from the east. 
The amount of small brush along Brush 
Creek gave rise to its name, and after it the 
township was called. There is but one small 
prairie in the township, which is mentioned 
elsewhere in this chapter. The remainder is 
woodland, and is very undulating and broken, 
but when the timbers are cleared away, it is 
productive of grain, vegetables and fruits. 

Jeremiah Hargraves was among the first 
settlers in Brush Creek Township. He came 
from Kentucky, in 1822, and settled on the 
farm now owned by William B. Hallaman. 
He died in the township, was a good, ener- 
getic man, and at one time possessed consid- 
erable means. In his latter days, he had the 
misfortune to have both arms broken above 
the wrists. It was very singular, though a 
fact, that his arms were broken at different 
times, but exactly the same distance from the 
wrist. The first arm was broken with a sash 
saw, and the last was fractured by a wagon 
turning over with him. Neither bone ever 
healed, and in his old days, he had 
scarcely any use of his hands that had done 
so much to clear away the forests. A son 
named Clinton, was made a life-long cripple 
by a severe attack of fever, which destroyed 
the strength of the hipB. His father (Jere- 
miah) gave him the greater portion of his 
property. A son named William is living 
in Clay County. 

About the time Hargraves came to the 
township, Benjamin Alney and Alexander 
Haws located near by him; also Richard 
Sessions. The above gentlemen were related 
by marriage, etc., and formed a settlement. 
Mrs. John Hawkins and the Burges brothers 
now own the land where the Hawses settled. 
Alney Haws died here, but Benjamin jour- 
neyed off among the Mormons. They were 
each in the Black Hawk war. Philip Henson 
moved to the township in 1827, and settled 
on Section 4. He entered soon after forty 
acres of land and his son W. C. entered 
eighty acres. Here Philip lived an upright 
life, and in 1860 he moved to Southeast 
Missouri, where he and wife died some time 
afterward. W. C. Henson is yet living in 
the township. He deeded the first land in 
Brush Creek in 1833, which is a part of his 
present possessions. It is in what is called 
Garden Prairie, which was so named by 
James Scott, who came to the township in 
about 1835, was a married man, and partook 
too freely of ' ' spirits," and when on one of his 
usual drunks he gave the name of Garden 
Prairie to the only spot in the township that 
even resembled a prairie. Philip Henson 
and son, W. C, erected the first cabin on 
this small prairie, on Section 4. Philip was 
the father of six children, five of whom are 
living, viz., Lucinda married Jeremiah 
Chapman, Mary married John Bruner, W. C. 
Norcissa married John Brown and Sarah 
married Josiah Burkitt. 

Deaton Meadows came to the township in 
1830, from Marion County, 111., where he 
had located from Tennessee several years 
prior to that time. After awhile he made 
his final settlement in Marion County, where 
he died. Three of his sons are living in 
this township, namely, W. P., Henry and 
Hyrman; the latter is a minister of the 
general Baptist organization; he has also two 



daughters living. One married a man by 
the name of Middleton. and lives in Mis- 
souri, and the other, Lydia, married John 
Montgomery, and is living in Xonia. Jer- 
emiah Chapman came pretty early from 
Indiana with his father, William, and set- 
tled for awhile, cast of Fairlield. Here 
William becoming a little enraged at some 
one, made a kick at him, and struck his foot 
against a log in a house which completely 
crushed his foot, making him a cripple the 
remainder of his days. He was a large man, 
weighing 375 pounds. Jeremiah moved to 
this township between 1S35 and 1840. 

John Burkitt came to the township in 
1833, from Indiana, and settled where John 
Hawkins now lives. He changed about con- 
siderably, and finally died vest of Johnson- 
ville. Ho was a native of Kentucky, and 
was the father of twelve children, five of 
whom survive, viz.: Missouri, married K. H. 
Fathree; Nancy, married Irvin Scott; Julia, 
married Joseph Brown; Joseph keeps the 
county poor farm; Josiah married Sarah 
Henson, and lives in the township. 

W. A. Forth came from Kentucky and 
settled on Section 27 in 1841. Here he 
died in 1878; was once Supervisor; was the 
father of twenty- one children by three 

Matthew Warren came very early and 
settled near Mr. Forth, and there died, leav- 
ing some relatives who yet reside near where 
he located. Alex and John Warren, brothers 
of Matthew, came here about the same time 
as he, and died in the township. 

William Holaway, a native of Kentucky, 
settled a neighbor to Forth in 1843. He 
enlisted in the late war, where he died. Some 
of his children are living. 

Benjamin and William Fathree were among 
the first settlers, and were considered rough 
characters. The former died in the town- 

ship, and the latter absconded to free himself 
from the fangs of the law. The circum- 
stances relating to his hasty departure were 
about the following: Fathree was a man who 
partook freely of the ' ' tangle foot. " and on 
one occasion, he was at a little mill, located 
in Marion County, the proprietor of which 
sold whisky. This was a regular rendezvous 
for the neighborhood, and it was not an un- 
common thiug for them to engage in a regular 
knock-down. Fathree, at the time in ques- 
tion, was feeling pretty ill, and a number of 
the men who were waiting for their " grind- 
ing," engaged in teasing him for having got 
so full, and the man who seemed to rouse his 
ire the most was a Mr. Brazell, whom Fath- 
ree singled out for revenge, and while Bra- 
zell was loading a sack of corn, he struck 
him on the back of the neck with a club, kill 
ing him almost instantly. Fathree departed 
and has never been heard of since. 

B. Meadows came to the township at an 
early period, and is living there yet. In his 
early introduction to the unbroken wilderness, 
he engaged mostly in hunting. 

The first death that occurred in the township 
was William Warren, who was buried near 
his residence. Soon after died a desolate 
old lady, who came from Kentucky with 
Robert Anderson, at an early date. He re- 
mained only a short time and went West. 

The first wedding in the township was 
John Brunei- and Mary Henson. John was 
a son of Henry Brunei - , of Kentucky. He 
came to the county with Philip Henson, 
whose daughter he married; was reared by 
Jesse Henson, of Kentucky. He died in 
18S2, leaving his widow in affluent circum- 

Benjamin Haws, in an early day was the 
proprietor of a horse grist mill, which was of 
much accommodation to the early settlers. 

Deaton Meadows had what was called a 



stump haud mill; though quite a novelty, yet 
was used considerably to crush corn. 

Isaac Harris and Elijah Draper own and 
operate a good saw mill, with attachments 
for grinding meal. It is the only enterprise 
of the kind in the township. 

Warren Stoddard is running a blacksmith 
shop near where the Buchanan road crosses 
Brush Creek. 

The first school was taught in this town- 
ship in a log cabin that was located on a 
farm now owned by John Morris, and it is 
thought that Berry Elledge, then a resident 
of White County, was the teacher. The 
school was given him by the generous patrons 
more as a sympathy than as a desire for his 
qualifications, as the following narrative will 
show: As stated, his home was in White 
County, and at the time, a brother-in-law of 
his started for a new home near Springfield, 
this State, and Mr. E. concluded to accom- 
pany them for two days. He accordingly 
saddled his horse and shouldered his gun, 
and for a distance led the course. When 
entering Brush Creek Township, he remarked 
that he would leave the road and take off at 
a tangent, with the belief that he would kill 
a deer, and overtake them by camping time. 
He had gone scarcely out of sight, when he 
was taken with a stroke of paralysis, and fell 
from his horse. Here he laid in an almost 
unconscious condition for three days before 
he was found by the searching party, who set 
out soon after his horse returned home with- 
out him. The relatives, who had gone on, 
thought that he had concluded not to go any 
farther, and pursued their journey without 
any uneasiness, until some of the search 
men overtook them to inquire of his where- 
abouts. At this juncture the excitement 
grew high, and a more careful search was 
instigated, which resulted in finding him 
surrounded by wild animals. The woods had 

been on fire since he had fallen there, and 
the fire had burned the leaves and grass to 
within a few feet encircling him, and it was 
a remarkable fact, so says W. C. Henson, that 
the fire had gone out in the thickest leaves 
and grass closelv surrounding him. Mr. El- 
ledge was taken home, but was forever a crip- 
ple, and I aught the above school in the days of 
his unfortunate condition. 

The early inhabitants of Brush Creek 
Township experienced all the hardships 
and inconveniences incident to the life of 
the pioneer, and not the least among them 
was the church facilities. Those inter- 
ested in church-going, gathered for many 
miles around at some farmer's cabin, and 
found their way there after night by means 
of hickory bark torches for lights. It was 
no uncommon occurrence for the pioneer to 
be headed off from his course either to or 
from the meetings by the sound of the large 
rattlesnakes, that were very plentiful in those 
days. Although many thousands were killed 
by the early settlers, a few remained to trans- 
mit the species to the present day. Richard 
Sessions was the only person who was bitten 
by these poisonous reptiles, and he was barely 
saved by means of a " mad stone " obtained 
from Dr. Garrison, who lived at the time 
northeast of Fairfield. Among the noted 
huntsmen who played havoc with the rattle- 
snake as well as the wild animals, we 
mention, Philip and W. C. Henson, Jack and 
Benjamin Haws, Jerry Hargraves and John 
Burkitt. Among the early preachers were 
known Nathaniel Escridge and Samuel D. 
Hefton, of the Old School Baptist faith, and 
Thomas Middleton, of the Universalist de- 

The first church organized in the township 
was by the Mormons. This denomination 
has one active church in the township, lo- 
cated at White Cloud Schoolhouse, and holds 



services every month, with a large attend- 
ance. I. A. Morris is the present Elder. J. 
B. Henson is also an Elder of the same. The 
schools of the township are hardly an average 
with the other townships of the county, ow- 
ing to the financial condition of the settlers. 
Brush Creek Township is one in the wide, 
wide world that wants no railroad, and the 
writer's daring horseback ride up and down 
the cliffs in search for data caused him to 
form a conclusion that the railroad did not 
want them. When an election was held in 
the county for the purpose of voting for and 
against an appropriation for a certain rail- 

road to run through the county, there was 
only one man in the township who voted for 
it, and he soon after moved to Fairfield, 
where he might live in quiet enjoyment, and 
hear the whistling of the iron horse. After 
many years of toil and labor, the few remain- 
ing early inhabitants and descendants of 
many of the others have at last struck oil 
in the raising and cultivation of fruits. The 
business is just in its infancy, and it is not 
improbable that, within another decade, the 
woodland will be cleared of its heavy growth, 
and in its stead will be thousands of acres of 
fine orchards, yielding enormous crops. 





HISTORICALLY, Leech Township oc- 
cupies a foremost raDk among those of 
Wayne County. Its pioneer settlements were 
made very early, and to undertake to give an 
exhaustive and detailed account of the inter- 
esting and varied scenes and occurrences in- 
cident to the time thereto, would be a most 
difficult task, as well as one demanding more 
space than can bo allotted to it at this time. 
Moreover, a sufficiently comprehensive idea 
of them can be obtained from the few de- 
scriptive stories that we shall here record, aud 
in the portion of this work devoted to the 
history of the county at large will be found 
also interesting accounts of the lives and do- 
ings of the pioneers, and of their ways, hab- 
its and times. 

The stud}' of man is a most proper one for 
the present and future generations, and it is 

one that is calculated to give rich returns to 
any thoughtful and inquiring mind that will 
undertake it. And in the lives of what class 
of mankind can we find, in a comprehensive 
examination thereof, more material for 
thoughtful and profitable contemplation than 
in those of our forefathers and the whole- 
souled patriarchs of days long gone by; those 
who sacrificed their own comforts and inter- 
ests, and ofttimes their own lives, for the 
benefit of those to follow'them. The gener- 
ally impoverished circumstances of these 
men, the hardships, privations and positive 
dangers immediately surrounding them, the 
formidable obstacles of every description with 
which they were almost daily called upon to 
contend, all are conditions of life under 
which not many of the present day could 
live and make progress. But yet, under all 



of these unfavorable and distressing circum- 
stances, trie old settler made substantial pro- 
gressive strides toward a better state of 
things, and happy must he have been when 
in his old age he would take a retrospective 
view, and cause, as it were, a grand pano- 
rama of the vivid scenes and thrilling inci- 
dents of time past to pass in life-like review 
before his mind's eye, and by comparison to 
be enabled to witness the slow but steady 
advancement from a state of poverty and in- 
security to that of higher civilization and 
consequent prosperity. So we say that the 
study of the lives and times of our pioneers 
affords abundant gratification and profit, and 
to so studiously examine into his varied char- 
acteristics, his habits, his thoughts and his 
motives that the future might secure thereby 
a comprehensive idea of the character of the 
man, and of the times in which he lived and 
died, this might well be the ambitious work 
of one's life, and how invaluable would such 
a work be. 

Leech Township, to the history of which 
this chapter is devoted, revels in historical 
happenings of great interest and importance. 
It lies in the southeast corner of Wayne 
County, having the following boundaries, to 
wit: North, by Massillon Township; east, by 
Edwards County; south, by White County; 
and west by Barahill Township. Its limits 
comprise Congressional Townships Town 2 
south, Range 9 east, and the north half of 
Town 3 south, Range 9 east. The surface of 
this township is diversified between woodland 
and prairie. The somewhat prevailing opin- 
ion that Leech contains nothing but poor and 
unprofitable lands finds no confirmation in an 
impartial examination thereof. The general 
surface is somewhat broken, and large tracts 
of low though not entirely worthless lands 
lie along the Little Wabash River, but by the 
proper use of tiling, which we are glad to 

notice some of the farmers of Leech have 
already introduced, large bodies of these 
lands will be redeemed, and will be seen not 
many years hence covered with luxuriant 
growths of the yellow grain. The soil of the 
"flats," as these low tracts of land are gen- 
erally called, is inclined to be more loamy 
and possesses more organic matter than the 
soil of the prairies, which has a yellowish- 
ash-gray color, and for this reason the " flats," 
if successfully drained, will afford abundant 
returns for the labor of the intelligent farmer. 
The Little Wabash, which is the principal 
stream of the township, enters the latter in 
Section 5, Town 2 south, Range 9 east, and 
after flowing a very crooked course in a gen- 
eral southeast direction, leaves it from Sec- 
tion 1, Town 3 south, Range 9 east. It is 
subject to overflows of a considerable extent, 
and at times serious damage has been done 
to crops, etc., on land lying adjacent to its 
banks. Owen's, King and Pond Creeks are 
the principle smaller streams of the township, 
and these, with many other nameless ones, 
afford generally a sufficient natural drainage 
to most parts of it. Timber in great abun- 
dance lies along the streams, and is composed 
chiefly of the several varieties of oak, hickory 
and ash, though other varieties are found in 
some quantities in different parts of the town- 
ship. A small prairie, known as Brush Prai- 
rie, is situated on the east side of the Little 
Wabash, while on the west side a consider- 
able portion of land lies in Bear or Shipley's 
Prairie, which latter extends also into Barn- 
hill Township. 

The principal productions of Leech are 
i the same generally as other parts of the coun- 
ts-, including the usual varieties of grain, and 
considerable attention is also given to the rais- 
ing of stock. Some years ago, when the excite- 
ment about castor beans was at its height, 
Leech took her part in it, and many acres 



of land were entirely devoted to the raising 
of them; but they proved to be an unprofita- 
ble crop, outside of their cultivation, extract- 
ing a proportionally large amount of the 
richness of the laud, and the raising of them 
is consequently now not very extensive. 

The first settlement in Leech Township 
dates back to the year 1S14. The territory 
comprised within its present limits was at 
that time included in the "Wabash Precinct, 
and the name of "Wabash was also one first 
given to the township, but the name of the 
latter was subsequently changed to Leech, in 
honor of Gen. Samuel Leech, the first Coun- 
ty Clerk of Wayne County. 

The first white man to penetrate within the 
present boundaries of Leech was Isaac Har- 
ris. He came, as before stated, in 1814, 
from the settlement in Big Prairie, "White 
County, but was a native of Kentucky. He 
located on the high land, at the edge of the 
bottoms along the Little Wabash, and he was 
living here when he became involved in a 
scrape with an Indian, an account of which 
we will here record. 

Just what the trouble was between Har 
ris and the native inhabitant we could not 
learn, but it soon magnified itself into an 
open tight, in which the latter was summarily 
sent to the happy hunting grounds. Harris, 
for fear of being seriously dealt with by the 
Indians of the neighborhood, immediately 
fled the country in the night time, heading 
toward the settlement in "Whito County. He 
had with him at this time his fourteen year 
old daughter, who afterward became Mrs. 
Goodwin, wife of John Goodwin, a farmer 
of this township. She died in tho summer 
of 1S83, aged eighty-three years. After 
reaching the settlement, Harris entered the 
service in the war, known as the war of 1812, 
and in 1816 returned and again entered 
Leech, this time with his two brothers, Eli- 

jah and Gillum. The three brothers had 
their families along also, as they intended to 
make a permanent settlement in the town- 
ship. This they did, and all lived and died 
here, leaving many descendants who yet re- 
side in the surrounding country. 

Another story we will here record as illus- 
trative of the " kind " feelings which the 
early settlers and the red men entertained 
for each other. During the time of the war 
above spoken of, a son of Capt. Boltinghouse, 
a resident of the township also, was killed, 
supposedly by the Indians. Some time sub- 
sequently, the Captain, Isaac and Gillum 
Harris, and a man by the name of King, 
were out on a hunt, and while perambulat- 
ing around, accidentally came across the 
horse belonging to the murdered son of the 
Captain. The latter at once interrogated the 
Indian who had charge of the animal with 
reference to his son's death, whereupon the 
red fiend stutteriugly replied that the son 
had been killed in war; that it was right to 
kill in time of war, etc., and went on further 
to describe with barbarous delight how the 
son, with uplifted hands, had vainly begged 
and implored the savage to spare his life, 
etc. This was too much for Capt. Bolting- 
house, who was a sensitive, as well as a very 
resolute and determined man, and he imme- 
diately declared war, and advised the Indian 
to consider the present the time of such, but 
tin' latter had hardly time to think over the 
matter, for he was dispatched on the spot at 
once. About the same time, the two Harrises 
and King bagged an Indian each out of four 
" braves," who, with three squaws, made up 
the camp, which had in the meantime been 
discovered in the immediate vicinity. Tho 
fifth savage started up an adjacent hill on a 
run, but found it inconvenient to carry a dog 
along with him, who, being desirous of ren- 
dering material assistance to his white mas- 



ter, had formed a close acquaintance with the 
calf of the Indian's leg. The savage man- 
aged, however, by sheer strength to shako 
the enterprising canine off, but not in time 
to escape several deadly bullets, which were 
fired by determined hands. Serious attention 
was afterward devoted to the squaws, and 
they were also sent to accompany their "brave" 
companions to their last resting place. The 
white party turned back triumphantly, taking 
along with them the horse belonging to the 
butchered son of Capt. Boltinghouse, and 
another which the Indians had, and this was 
known for many years as the " stray filly." 

About the same time as Harris' second 
coming into Leech Township, there arrived 
old Gadwalder Jones, who was the father of 
John Jones, familiarly known as " Jacky " 
Jones, and who is yet living in Arrington 
Township, this county. The latter was born 
August 30, 1816, and was the first white 
child born in Leech Towuship, and also in 
Wayne County. Among other of the ear- 
liest settlers was Aquilla McCracken, who 
came with a large family from Georgia. His 
son-in-law, Pulliam Higginbottom, came also, 
and Harmon Horn. Charles Rollin and 
Richard Bircks came from North Carolina, 
and about the same time came Reuben, Hiram 
and Levi Shores from Alabama. John 
Burch came early from Ohio, as did also 
"William Batson, from the same State. A 
man by the name of Johnson was an early 
settler here, and Benjamin Phillpot also; the 
latter came from Virginia. Ephraim, George 
and William Meritt and their father were 
among the earliest to locate within the pres- 
ent limits of Leech. They came from South 
Carolina. George is still living near where 
he first located. John Moffitt arrived in the 
country in the year 1818, but he located 
just across the line in Barnhill Township. 
Richard Locke and a man by the name of 

Butler were also early settlers, and they 
erected at an early date a horse mill on 
Pond Creek, a branch of the Little Wabash. 
There is now no trace of the mill visible. 
The township settled up gradually in after 
years, and shows a present population of 
about 1,500. 

Gen. Samuel Leech put up in an early day 
a water mill, with a saw mill in connection. 
For many years this mill, which was known 
as Leech's Mills, did the grist and saw work 
for the country for miles around. Trips, 
which would consume several days, were 
often made to this mill, from points twenty 
and thirty miles away in all directions. No 
trace of this mill remains at the present day. 
Just below its site, on the Little Wabash, 
John Pulleyblank and A. E. Scott erected a 
water mill about 1867. Something to eat 
was of course the first thing to claim the 
attention of the pioneer, and soon after their 
advent into a new country some kind of an 
arrangement by means of which their corn 
could be converted into meal was put into 
operation. The primitive stump mill, or the 
mortar and pestle, was succeeded by the horse 
mill, and that by the water mill, which in 
turn has made way for the subsequent im- 
provements in milling machinery. 

Noticeable among the many substantial 
improvements made in Leech Township is 
that of the building of the iron bridge across 
the Little Wabash, on Section 21, Township 
2 south, Range 9 east. Provious to the 
erection of this structure, great difficulty was 
ofttimes experienced in crossing the river, the 
course of which divides the township into 
two divisions, and the settlements on either 
side were quite distinct from each other. 
The bridge was built by contract for the 
county in 1865, at a total expense of about 
14,000 and 12,000 acres of swamp land. 

The little village of Scottsville, which con- 



sists of but a few houses and business 
places, is pleasantly located in the south part 
of Section '23. Township 2 south, Range 9 
east. Robert Monroe laid it out partially, but 
no actual survey and plat has ever been record- 
ed. Wabash Post Office has been at this point 
for several years, but it was finally moved 
to Scott, or Scott Station, a little town of 
tender age, situated on the "Air Line" Rail- 
road, and on the south part of the south half 
of the southeast quarter of Section 11, Town- 
ship 2 south, Range 9 east, on land belong- 
ing to J. R. Parks and Frances W. Fawkes. 
The land was surveyed and platted by James 
W. Hilliard, Deputy County Surveyor, Octo- 
ber 9, 1882, and was recorded by him three 
days later. Scott has a good location, and 
with proper care promises to grow in size 
and prosperity. 

The religious history of Leech Township 
is much the same as elsewhere in the county. 
The early pioneers, amid all their trials and 
hardships, and the severity of their sur- 
rounding conditions, stood in great need of 
the consoling influence of Gospel truths, 
and the moetings at some little log cabin 
home of a neighbor were comparatively 
largely attended by people living miles 
away in every direction, who were anxious to 
hear the blessed words of the preacher, whose 
large circuit seldom permitted him to visit a 
vicinity more often than once or twice a 
year. In another portion of this work will 
be found sketches of the lives and doings of 
the early disciples of Christ, and we will 
not here repeat. William Keith was one of 
the earliest preachers of this section, though 
his meetings were hold mostly in Edwards 
County. For many years religious meetings 
were held in the neighboring houses and the 
early school buildings, and it was some time 
before any building, to be used exclusively 

for church purposes, was erected. The Mis- 
sionary Baptists built a substantial structure 
on Section 17, Town 3 south, Range 9 east, and 
this for years has been the principal church 
in the township. It is still strong in num- 
bers, and is healthy and prosperous in condi- 
tion. The Methodists built a church build- 
ing on Section 24, a little northeast of Scotts- 
ville, and this is used we believe for the ben- 
efit of general gathering's. 

Educational matters have received in 
Leech the attention they unquestionably de- 
serve. A comparison of the little log cabin 
structures of the early times with the more 
substantial, commodious and pleasant school 
buildings of the present day, bespeaks 
great credit to the citizens of Leech, and of 
the material manner in which they regard 
the school question About 1823, a school 
was taught in Edwards County, by a man by 
the name of McCowen.and this was attended 
some by the children of some of the early 
settlers in Leech Township. John Jones 
taught the first school in the township. The 
little log house was situated on Section 36, 
Town 2 south, Range 9 east, and Jones was 
the teacher for the first six months of school. 
He was succeeded by James Harrison, who 
was followed by Reuben Ewing, both of 
whom taught in the same house. In after 
years, school buildings were erected to keep 
pace with the increasing population, and the 
following statistics compiled from the County 
Superintendent's report will show the pres- 
ent status of the schools of this township. 
They are for the year July 1, 1882, to June 
30, 1883: Number of school buildings, 10; 
number of pupils enrolled, 322; teachers em- 
ployed, 1 1 . Average pay of same — males, 
$35; females, $25. Estimated value of school 
property, $4,150. 





These brave men's bones are lying 
Where they perished in their gore; 

Their bones were left to whiten, 
On the spot where they were slain ; 

And were ye now to seek them, 
They would be sought in vain. — The Pioneer. 

ABOUT fifty years ago, the first settle- 
ment was made in Hickory Hill Town- 
ship. But with us time is tested not by 
periods but by eras. Of how much value is 
one year in America, where life is so intense. 
We live as much in a day as the old Romans 
did in a month. Here, great, thronging events 
so crowd and jostle each other, and rapid de- 
velopment is such a very marvel, that the 
wild dreams of yesterday become the sober 
reality of to-day. Volumes of history are 
being made everv hour, and to write of 
things that are past for the generations who 
are to follow makes one pause. 

Hickory Hill Township is bounded on the 
north by Brush Creek Township; on the 
east by Arrington Township; on the south 
by Four Mile Township; and on the west by 
Jefferson County. It comprises forty-two 
sections. The Dame Hickory Hill originated 
from a hill by that name located in the north- 
west part of the township, and now part of 
the farm owned by William Irvin. In an 
early day this hill was covered with a heavy 
growth of hickory timber. To the south and 
east of this hill was a prairie, about three 
miles long and two wide, and this was also 
called Hickory Hill Prairie; so that the 
township now bears the name of the highest 

*By F. S. Tyler. 

hill and largest prairie within its boundaries. 
Besides the prairie above referred to, there 
were originally two other smaller prairies in 
the township; one, Locust Prairie, was in 
the northwest part of the county, and was 
about half a mile square. Another still 
smaller one was in the southwest part of the 
township. It has been noticed that of late 
years, where the prairie land has not been 
kept in perfect cultivation, that a thick 
growth of timber is being formed. Besides 
these three prairies, the township was orig- 
inally covered with timber. Considerable 
water oak, pin oak, white oak, sweet gum 
and maple are found, together with some 
sycamore and elm. About half of the town- 
ship is at present in cultivation. Probably a 
fourth of the latter is devoted to pasture and 
grazing, the remainder being confined about 
equally to corn and wheat growing. Of the 
timbered land, most of it is in the eastern 
part of the township, along the banks of 
Skillet Fork. At one time, the timber was 
of a very heavy growth in this bottom land, 
but of late all the best trees have been cut 
away, until now but little if any remains. 

There are three creeks in the township. 
Of these the largest is Skillet Fork, which 
enters the township from the north, in the 
northeast quarter of Section 5. It flows 
through the township in a general south- 
eastern course, and leaves the township in 
Section 2. Although generally a quiet, in- 
significant stream, it sometimes overflows its 
banks, and covers the bottom land for a mile 



each side of the creek. In Section 3, 
Brush Creek empties into Skillet Fork. 
This creek has its head in Brush Creek 
Township, of this county, and flows in a 
southwesterly course until its conjunction 
with Skillet Fork. Flowing through the 
southern part of the township is Horse 
Creek. It enters the township from Jeffer- 
son County in Section 31, going south into 
Section fi, and then continues in an easterly 
course until it leaves the township in Sec- 
tion 3. About a half mile south of the town- 
ship lino. Horse Creek empties into Skillet 
Fork. The first bridge in the township was 
probably built about 1850. It was across 
Skillet Fork on the old Xenia & Fairfield 
road. Since that time that bridge has given 
way to another, that in turn to another, and 
in the spring of 1883 a new structure was 
erected. In an early day there was also a 
bridge built across Skillet Fork, where the 
Fairfield & Xenia road crosses it. That 
also rotted away. Two others were afterward 
built, but they, too. have been carried away, 
until now there is no bridge at this point at 
all. About 1870, there was abridge erected 
across this creek on the Fairfield & Mount 
Vernon road, at what is known as Rock 

Owing to the gnat abundance of timber 
land in this township in an early day. there 
was consequently an abundance of game, 
and accordingly the first settlers in the con- 
linos of what is now Hickory Hill Township 
were hunters and trappers. Probably the 
first settler was an old hunter by the name of 
James Nees. He came in an early day and 
\ settled on the banks of Horse Creek. He 
built, a cabin on a little rising knoll, but loft 
the county some time before 1830. In that 
year some later settlors discovered the 
empty cabin, and it was supposed that its 
lonely occupant had gone West. About 1830, 

several families immigrated to this township. 
About the first to come was Samuel Carter, 
accompanied by his.two step-sons. Josiah and 
Elijah Blanchard. They were from Gray- 
son County, Ky., and pre-empted land in 
Section 21. Carter died here and afterward 
the Blanchards emigrated West. Elijah died 
in Arkansas. Josiah, however, is now liv- 
ing in Colorado. William Ellis was another 
settler that came that year. He settled in 
Section 7, and there resided until his death 
in the summer of 1883. He raised a large 
family of children, ten of whom, five sons 
and five daughters are now living. Mr. El- 
lis, the present member of the County Board, 
in this county, is from this family. The 
Gregorys were another large family that 
came to this township. There were five 
brothers of them — Jacob, Daniel, Benjamin, 
Joseph and Absalom. They settled in the 
extreme southwest part of the township — 
three of them on this side of Horse Creek, 
and the two others finally settled across the 
line in Jefferson County. All are now dead, 
but there is a numerous family of their de- 
scendants in the western part of the town- 
ship. Elijah Harris had settled in the 
northern part of the county some years prior 
to this, but in 1830 he removed into the 
township. After a few years' residence there, 
he went West, whore he died. The year after, 
Ashford Keen came to this township from 
Sumner County, Teun., and settled near the 
present site of Keenville P. O. , on land now 
owned by John Webber. Thore he died in 
L835; his two sons, John Keen, Sr., and 
James Koen, are still living and are now 
among the oldest pioneers in the county. 
William, the third sou, had come to Marion 
County, 111., from Tennessee, in 1829, but 
in 1831 came to this county and settled in 
this township, whero he resided until his 
death on December 7, 1881. His children, 



three sons and four daughters, are all living 
in the county. Soon after the arrival of the 
Keen family, a family by the name of Gra- 
ham came to this county, but they first set- 
tled in the edge of Arrington Prairie. This 
consisted the mother and a large family of 
sons. The mother died in Arrington Town- 
ship, but Josiah Graham came to this town- 
ship in 1S30. and first settled in Section 20. 
He afterward removed onto Section 13. and 
there lived until he died. 

The first child born in this township was 
William Ellis, a son of William Ellis, al- 
ready referred to. He was born either in 
1831 or 1832. The first death of which any 
record has been kept was that of Mrs. Rebecca 
Carter, wife of Samuel Carter, another of the 
early pioneer settlers. She died in 1S37. and 
was buried in the first burying ground in the 
county. It was a small piece of ground, and 
was surrounded by ten oak posts. From that 
it gained its name, and was known for a long 
time as "The Ten Post Oaks." It is said 
that this Mrs. Carter was an own sister of 
the famous Hartz brothers, of Kentucky, who 
in an early day were companions of D aniel 

The first marriage was that of a young 
man by the name of Edward Millner to Miss 
Rebecca Carter, a daughter of Mrs. Carter, 
already mentioned. The twain lived in this 
county for a few years, and then went West. 

Early Incidents. — As we remarked above, 
the great growth of timber in the township 
furnished secure hiding places for all kinds 
of game. The numerous fur -bearing ani- 
mals that were so much sought after in those 
days were especially abundant. The first 
settlers that came found the game to be un- 
limited, and spread the news. The first 
comers only proved forerunners to many, 
many more trappers that soon flocked to this 
township. It was not long before several 

Eastern fur companies had agents in this part 
of the county. Among the most noteworthy 
and most prominent of these fur agents and 
trappers was John Keen. Sr., now an old 
and retired farmer, but in those days one 
of the most daring of the many brave and 
courageous men. The company of whom he 
was the representative gave him unlimited 
sway over several counties in this part of the 
State. About two-thirds of the time he was 
on the road, and no matter what kind of 
weather it was, or how high the streams were, 
he never stopped in his travels. So fearless, 
indeed, was he, that he soon gained a name 
for himself far and wide. He was a famous 
swimmer, and both summer and winter he 
was in the habit of swimming fearlessly the 
largest and most dangerous streams along 
his route. In fact, he performed so many 
perilous feats that he was given the sobri- 
quet of " Sumter " Keen, and this title has 
clung to him ever since. 

So plentiful did the game continue to be 
that for a number of years no attention was 
paid to anything else besides hunting and 
trapping, and it was not until about 1^40 
that the first ground was broken, and then 
only corn was planted. Not until about 
■ i ' did the settlers finally turn from the pur- 
suit of the deer, bear and other animals and 
give their attention to the tilling of the soil. 
The large trees in an early day also formed a 
home for the wild bees, and at one time al- 
most as much attention was paid to the gath- 
ering of the wild honey as to trapping and 
hunting. Indeed this honey was one of the 
principal articles of commodities among 
these early pioneers; and upon what was 
considered good bee days the woods would 
be filled with both men and women, who 
hunted both far and wide for this deli 
- _reat. it is said, was the desire to gather 
this honev. bv both great and small, th;.' it 

I of a good old preacher th&: in 
mak:i_- m appointment upon one "wm« 

he saii. " Brether. :. _■ -:~r.Z-z — Pr: — - 

denee permitriEg. I nil] be — one 

month from to-day providing it is Dot a good 
bee d 

The rrrt road to be surreyed or rn»Ha 
through this township was the old ft»lcm 
k Fairfeld road, is et:. there 

was a blazed path through the timber. It 
entered the township and 

crossed B Sedan where a 

bridge w.- Frr-rr-Iinz ir =. 

northwesterly coarse, it lefl 
- m 6. As early as -■' •'-_ ere 

■ '■ ■'- -:>:!.:; '. :_ Id: L- ;.;_-.:; :,; 
-- ■ - - 

— -' • i ~"-~ — " I: rir t - -._, : tie ;li 
town of Keen-rille. and over it a mail and 
stage line SO. Tie 

first road from Fairfield to lit. Vernon 
originalir ran about a half mile sooth of 

surveyed through this township, and the 
latter road is now the main Fairfield k. Mr. 

inroad. It enter- ship on the 

section line between the Sections 24 and 

. -- _ - 
of Sectic a . i new bri Is 


:n line between Sections 30 

■ - 

to the mill, sometimes two wh: ^-ere 

; -■ "-—-". :_ r _g and coming amdingrind- 

erhaps a single bushel of eon. 
time between 1S40 and 1S50. a man b-. 
name of - 
first horse mill ever used in Hici 


■" ■ _• 


"~— . . -_ 

-..-■■- : ..-■-- 
- - Ties- nei s: i :U~J 

inter - — .-ill to Keen & 

- -" ' " '■ - ~ :;;: : 

As earb 

---■:■: :- :li: p -.:: : -_- 

: J ■--. -.L: hi: :i~ ::-■ 

- :-i I: >" . h- ;::■ 


— -"- -" • '..-_-- - ■-.: :_i: ;■ .-:. 

. 1889. In that rem 

-" " " • '■'-: W .. .:. - 
appointed Postmaster. 



Mr. Williams took his stock of goods to I 
Keen's Station, in Four Mile Township. Al- 
though the town was never laid out, the 
neighborhood in the vicinity of Mr. Keen's 
residence still bears the name of Keenville. 
In 1881, the post office was, however, moved a 
mile south of the old location, where Mr. A. 
F. Atteberry is now running a store. The 
mail is now brought by carrier twice a week 
from Xenia via Keenville, to Keen's Station- 
Besides the store of Mr. Atteberry, there is 
one in the southeast part of the township, 
near the conjunction of Horse Creek with 
Skillet Fork, near the Fairfield & Mt. 
Vernon road. Business has been carried on 
there since 1880 by a James Crask. 

Schools. — In a very early day there were a 
few subscription schools held at some of the 
farmhouses in the township. But the first 
schoolhouse was built as early as 1845, in 
Section 29. It was of hewn logs, with 
puncheon floors, and was erected by the peo- 
ple of the neighborhood on land donated by 
Harvey Braddy. It was eighteen feet wide 
by twenty feet long, and was built by plans 
furnished by J. B. Bozarth. School was held 
in this building every season until 1879, 
when the building finally burned. Among 
the persons who taught there were Asa F. 
Atteberry, A. K. Atteberry and T. M. Atte- 
berry. A short time before the building 
burned it was decided to divide the district, 
as the school was becoming large. In con- 
sequence, after the fire it was decided to erect 
two buildings. Accordingly, one building 
was erected in Section 28, on land donated 
by Stout Atteberry. It was a frame build- 
ing, 24x36, and cost when completed about 
$650. At present the enrollment of the dis- 
trict is about sixty, with a general attendence 
of about forty. At the same time another 

building of about the same size and about 
the same cost was erected on land donated by 
Albert Gregory. The enrollment of that 
school is about the same as the other. Be- 
sides these two schools, there are two others 
— one near the eastern edge of the township, 
and another near the north line of the town- 
ship, close to Brush Creek. 

Lilly Methodist Episcopal Church. — It has 
been a matter of considerable difficulty to 
obtain sufficient data concerning the history 
of the churches of this township. That there 
was preaching on stated occasions in the 
township in an early day is an authenticated 
fact, but where and by whom is not so easy 
to ascertain. Some years ago, what is known 
as the Lilly charge of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church was organized. Its first mem- 
bers were Elsberry Gregory, Samuel Garri- 
son, William McCoy and family, and a Mrs. 
Walters. At present the membership is 
about fifteen. The first place of meeting of 
this organization was in the old log school- 
house in District No. 2, and afterward in the 
west frame schoolhouse of that district. In the 
summer of 1883, it was decided that the so- 
ciety erect a building of its own. This idea 
was put into effect, and subsequently a struct- 
ure, 24x36, was built at a cost of about $600. 
In this place of worship services are now 
held on stated occasions. 

Sunday School. — The first Sunday school 
in the township was organized in the sum- 
mer of 1877. It was held under the auspices 
of the Methodist denomination in School- 
house No. 2. During the summer the at- 
tendance was on an average about fifty. At 
the beginning of the cold season, the school 
was disbanded, and has since then not been 








IT is the purpose and object of this chap- 
ter to make it of more money value to 
our patrons than the cost of the book. We 
sincerely believe that if the writer succeeds 
in his purpose — reaching properly the under- 
standing of his readers — that we will not 
only here repay the outlay of the work, but 
give benefit that will be many times such 
values, and that will be permanent and last 
ing and continuously increasing. 

The question of paramount and supreme 
interest to all civilized men is that of the 
soil and climate in that particular section in 
which tbey pass th6ir lives. Is this assertion 
startling? It is true, not only in a temporal 
sense, but in those highest types of thought 
that pertain to a future existence, a heaven 
and God. 

From the soil comos all life, all beauty, 
pleasure, wealth and enjoyment. Of itself 
it may not be beautiful, but from it comes 
all beauty, all good; the golden fields, the 
fragrant flower, the blush upon a maiden's 
cheek, the flash of the lustrous eye, that is 
more powerful to subdue obdurate man than 
an army with banners. From it direct springs 
up the great cities, whose temples and mina- 

rets glisten in the morning sun, and whose 
ships with their precious cargoes fleck 
every sea — the sigh of first and passionate 
love and the smoke and roar of the wheels 
and paddles of the world's commerce— the 
bird singing and swinging upon the limb, 
and the rippling laughter of blessed, inno- 
cent childhood. The rich draught from the 
old oaken bucket, and the far richer and 
deeper draughts from Shakespeare. The very 
intelligence that beams its love upon your 
entranced soul from the eyes of your child, 
as well as the bread and meat upon which it 
lives to spread your pathway with the high- 
est joy of life. In short, upon the geological 
structure of a country depends the pursuits 
of its people (not on this or that circumstance, 
as the world has foolishly supposed) as well 
as the very genius of its people, nay, its 
morality and its religion, and there is noth- 
ing about civilization that does not spring 
directly from the rocks and the soil. Agricult- 
ure is the outgrowth of a fertile soil. Mining 
results from the mineral resources, and from 
the waters come the great navies and the 
world's commerce. Men who have studied 
the varied and wonderful force and the al- 



most supreme power of heat in the economy 
of the universe, have been free to say that 
they blame the ancient sun-worshipers but 
very little for their faith. But had the an- 
cients understood geology, they would have 
had a much more rational worship at their 
feet instead of the sun and its many millions 
of miles away, with all its intense and con- 
suming heat. A god whose ability to con- 
sume is such that could a million of his live 
worshipers have been bundled into one bun- 
dle as a sheaf of wheat, and thrown at the 
face of their deity, before the vast body of 
human life could have touched the sun's 
face, it would have been burned into the 
original gases, not leaving even a speck of 
ashes. Yet heat in the economy of the uni- 
verse is the chief factor, and at the distance 
of 95,000,000 of miles it is the source of 
life, with its genial rays and its vast labora- 
tory that it puts to work upon' the rocks, and 
our rivers, seas and oceans, unlocking as it 
has the secret wealth and glory of this world 
and forming and fashioning it as we now 
possess it to enjoy. 

Every phase of life, and the very modes 
of thought of every people that has ever 
lived, has depended upon the geological and 
climatic structure of their country. If these 
control their phases of life and modes of 
thought, then there is no question but that 
it creates and directs their moral and intel- 
lectual qualities. Where the soil and sub- 
jacent rocks and climate are profuse in the 
bestowal of wealth, man is indolent and 
effeminate; where effort is essential to life, 
he becomes enlightened and virtuous. A 
perpetually mild climate, and fruits and even 
bread is found growing upon the trees, the 
country will produce only ignorant and 
brutal savages. In the Sandwich Islands the 
soil will produce enough poi to subsist an 
average family, on a piece of ground twelve 

feet square, and hence hundreds of years' 
contact with civilization has left them to-day 
the same ignorant, lascivious breeders of timid 
savages and lepers that were found there when 
Capt. Cook landed his vessel at the island. 
South America is so rich in nature's gifts 
that it is simply uninhabitable. Sailing 
along the treacherous shores of this immense 
country, the eye of all navigators has been 
struck with its rich beauties, its majestic 
rivers, the sweep of its hills and its vast 
savannas, its immense forests and beds of 
flowers — the forests so dense, the foliage so 
luxuriant, that it resembled the rolling sweep 
of one of our prairies, and tilled with birds 
of song and beauty; and perched perhaps 
upon the tips of the tallest trees sat the birds 
of paradise, fitting jewels of nature's master- 
pieces, to cap and crown the entrancing 
scene. If you could penetrate on down from 
this view, you would find that life increased 
every inch you went, but it is all deadly life 
that is fittingly represented by the striped 
panther and the snake spotted with deadly 
beauty — these standing at the head of the 
column, down to the deadly parasite that 
swarms and creeps in its innumerable armies 
over and around and through all this world 
of havoc and death. It is all death and 
destruction, simply because of its endless 
profusion of nature's bounties. 

The heaviest misfortune that has so long 
environed poor, persecuted Ireland, and not 
so much her want of representation or even 
a separate Government, has been her ability 
to produce in such great abundance the pota- 
to. The yield is so enormous per acre, 
and this, coupled with the other fact, that 
like the poi of the Sandwich Islands, the 
potato alone will keep life in the body, 
without anything else, for a long time, if 
not indefinitely, is the secret of the woes of 
her people. This makes a people hopeless 



bondsmen, and prevents them entering the 
great avenues of commerce and trade, the 
two great civilizers of all half-enlightened 

The Islander cannot export his poi, but 
must eat it at home and go naked and be a 
savage. The Irishman cannot export his 
potato, and he to-day would bo worse off 
than the Islanders were it not true that he 
can and has produced other industries that 
would furnish a nucleus for the world's com- 

And thus it is all over the world. The 
soil, the subjacent rocks and the climate rule 
imperiously and mako and unmake all civil- 

There is another fact the reader should 
think of and boar in mind, namely, it is only 
a certain zone or belt spanning around the 
world, and not a very wide belt either, from 
which alone have come any of the world's 
truly great men. The equator never has 
produced one, nor have the arctics. And a 
most extraordinary fact is that the half of 
the world south of the equator has produced 
nothing, and in the world's history has been 
nothing. The isothermal lines must be remem- 
bered when it is answered that it is impossible 
to fix that belt exactly. Yet the belt is there, 
has been there, and so far as can know, will 
remain unalterable forever. 

When we speak of a groat man, we do not 
mean a great warrier, prize fighter, ruler or 
king, who may have gone into history as 
great, or the grand monarch, when for the 
world's good they should have been strangled 
in their cradles. For such men cannot be 
great. But we mean some man who has 
thought out or done something that has ad- 
vanced civilization, whose life has been a 
real blessing and whose good works will 
endure to bless man forever. 

The man who conceived the idea of putting 

the eye of the needle in the point is a man 
that deserves a rich immortality. He did 
more for the human family than all the war- 
riors, lawyers, teachers and preachers, who 
were only and exclusively such, that have 
ever lived. And the beauty of his thought cannot be lost to the world, for it only 
grows and widens its benefits and will reach 
all mankind and then be ready for still 
greater blessings for all the unborn genera- 
tions. The spinning jenny had just boon or 
was about to bo ushered into existence, and 
if we believed in Providential interferences, 
we would have no hesitation in saying that 
the Great iluler sent His special messenger to 
start upon its way the idea that resulted in 
the sewing machine. 

A geologist of sufficient intelligence to 
philosophically comprehend the full import 
of his profession, can examine the soil and 
rocks of a country, and foretell precisely the 
remotest future of its people, and the stand- 
ard and type of their civilization. He can 
foresee their wants and their modes of sup- 
plying those wants. What we would impress 
by this is the fact that geology is one of the 
greatest practical subjects in tho world. It 
is full of knowledge, every iota of which is 
ripe wisdom and possesses a moneyed value. 

When Agassiz was approached by some 
gentlemen and questioned as to some of the 
conditions for a locality for breeding a 
superior horse, simply answered: "Gentle- 
men, it is a question of rocks." It was a 
certain rock formation that gave off and pro- 
duced the Blue Grass Region of Kentucky, 
and here, until a similar or superior spot is 
found, is the home of the fine horse. That 
entire region is underlaid with a peculiar 
formation of limestone, and the intelligent 
geologist may be able to find whole sections 
and innumerable places where he may be 
enabled to say: "Here raise your horso." 



If geology teaches you all about raising 
fine horses, may it stop there and be able to 
tell you nothing about pumpkins and 
splendid women, hay, apples, peaches or the 
finest physical people in the world. Blind 
chance has ruled the world, and afflicted men, 
too, long enough. Let the one subject, that 
will better educate the people than all the 
schools and colleges in the world, come to be 
universally understood, and as sure as fate 
it will lift up communities and even the 
greatest of peoples more than all else. 

And a word here upon that vital subject of 
education will not be out of place, because it 
is a natural sequence to what we have said 

Education should be eminently practical, 
but for seventeen hundred years the one idea 
has prevailed to rind teachers who knew the 
miserable text books best, but who seldom or 
never knew anything else, and now the 
best men in the land are constantly 
asking, " Does education educate ? " And 
the astounding fact is, that not one 
single man of erudition has answered 
this carping inquiry in the affirmative, ex- 
cept it be a school teacher. We are not go- 
ing here to argue the great question, but to 
present to the school men a practical idea, we 
think, which we ask them at least to consider. 
When children are shut up in a school room, 
that very fact has deprived them of one of 
nature's best weapons for the mind. The 
playful gamboling and varied movements 
which are so characteristic of the young of 
all animals, man not excepted, and which are 
at once so pleasing and attractive, might have 
taught us that activity of feeling and affec- 
tion, and sprightliness of mind, are intended 
by nature to be the source and accompani- 
ments of healthful and invigorating muscular 
exercise; and that the system of bodily con- 
finement and mental cultivation, now so much 

in vogue, is calculated to inflict lasting in- 
jury on all who are subjected to its restraints. 
Muscular or mental growth and development 
can only come of active nervous and mental 
stimulus. To walk, for instance, under an 
order from the teacher, with no wish, pur- 
pose nor stimulus from the mind in view, is 
tiresome drudgery, and had better be omitted. 
Hence the superiority, as exercises for the 
young, of social and inspiriting games, which, 
by their joyous and boisterous mirth, call for 
the requisite nervous stimulus to put the 
muscles into vigorous and varied action, and 
hence the dull walk or the duller drumming 
in the room are each in open defiance of that 
law of nature, that from the muscles to the 
brain, and from the brain to the muscles, 
there must run that nervous stimulus, or 
neither will do its work well. Without 
buoyancy of spirit the mind will drag, and so 
will the body, and it is passing strange that 
this idea has not suggested the experiment to 
some community in the world to hire a 
teacher to play with the children, and sub- 
stitute him for one term for the stern, great 
man of the birch and ferule. Now we have 
no hesitation in the assertion that this pas- 
time could be found, with all its healthy men- 
tal and physical stimulus in rambles and ex- 
cursions, in which the teachers would be the 
mere jolly companion of the class, and in 
this way every pupil may be made a fair bot- 
anist, geologist, and have at the same time a 
reasonable smattering of the rudiments of 
natural history. Such a teacher would train 
mind and body at the same time, unconscious 
though he might be of it. About the only 
use that should ever be made of the school 
room would be to make a kind of meeting 
place of it. Two years of such education, 
running the terms as the schools do now, un- 
der a competent practical teacher, would 
startle the world with the grand idea of a 



new invention at last in the science of school- 

The corner-stone upon which nearly all of 
life rests is the farmer, who tickles the earth, 
and it laughs with the rich harvests that so 
bountifully bless mankind To him espe- 
cially is a knowledge of the soil the very first 
consideration in life. Vile demagogues talk 
about the " honest farmer," the intelligent 
farmer, and tell him he is the greatest man 
in the world. Such stuff is an insult to every 
intelligent farmer in the land. To catch his 
votes does he throw him this slush, and per- 
haps when in the Legislature, in order to 
feed his henchmen and bummers at the pub- 
lic crib, he may pass some swindling State 
Industrial School bill. This talk of educat- 
ing the farmer simply means to rob him and 
have him send his boys to college, where they 
may return as graduates, more ignorant really 
than when they left home; their only acquire- 
ment generally is to be unfitted for being a 
farmer, and he starts to town to look out a 
situation. That boy has been cruelly wronged, 
and the chances are one in three his whole 
life has been wrecked. The farmer grows to 
be an old man, and ho will tell you that he 
has learned to be a good farmer only by a life 
of patient toil, experiments, and many and se- 
rious disappointments. And if you should tell 
him that these experiments had made him a 
scientific farmor, he would think you were 
poking fun at him. He tells you, porhaps, 
he was reared poor, and had no advantages 
of education. If he was reared on a farm — 
especially under the eye of an intelligent 
father or guardian — we would not hesitate to 
tell him that the luck of his life was that he 
was too poor in youth to go to college.- 

Suppose that in his youth a well-digested 
chapter on the geological history, that would 
have told him in tho simplest terms all about 
the land he was to cultivate, how invaluable 

the lesson would have been, and how much in 
money value it would have proved to him. 
In other words, if you could give your boys 
a practical education, made up of a few les- 
sous pertaining to those subjects that im- 
mediately concern their lives, how invaluable 
such an education might be, and how many 
men would be saved the pangs and penalties 
of ill-directed lives. 

The parents often spend much money in 
the education of their children, and from this 
they build great hopes upon their future that 
are often blasted, not through the fault, 
always, of the child, but through the error 
of the parent in not being able to know in 
what real practical education consists. If 
the schools of the country, for instance, could 
devote one of the school months in each yean 
to rambling over the hills and the fields, and 
gathering practical lessons in the geology 
and botany of the section of country in 
which the children were born and reared, 
how incomparably more valuable and useful 
the time thus spent would be to them in after 
life than would the present mode of shutting 
out the sunshine of life, and spending both 
life and vitality in studying metaphysical 
mathematics, or the most of the other text- 
books that impart nothing that is worth the 
carrying home to the child's stock of knowl- 
edge. At all events, the chapter in the 
county's history, or in the history of any 
community or country, that tells its geolog- 
ical formation, is of first importance to all its 
people, and if properly prepared it will be- 
come a source of great interest to all, and do 
much to disseminate a better education 
among tho people, and thus be a perpetual 
blessing to the community. 

Tho permanent effects of the soil on the 
people are as strong and certain as they are 
upon the vegetation that springs from it. It is 
a maxim in geology that the soil and its under- 



lying rocks forecast unerringly to the trained 
eye the character of the people, the number 
and the quality and the civilization of those 
who will, in the coming time, occupy it. Indeed, 
so close are the relations of the geology and 
the people that this law is plain and fixed, 
that a new country may have its outlines of 
history written when first looked upon; and 
it is not, as so many suppose, one of those 
deep, abstruse subjects that are to be given 
over solely to a few great investigators and 
thinkers, and to the masses must forever 
remain a sealed book. 

Geology traces the history of the earth 
back through successive stages of develop- 
ment to its rudimental condition in a state of 
fusion. The sun, and the planetary system 
that revolves around it, were originally a 
common mass, that became separated in a 
gaseous state, and the loss of heat in a planet 
reduced it to a plastic state, and thus it com- 
menced to write its own history, and place 
its records upon these imperishable books, 
where the geologist may go and read the 
strange, eventful story. The earth was a 
wheeling ball of lire, and the cooling event- 
ually formed the exterior crust, and in the 
slow process of time prepared the way for 
the animal and vegetable life it now contains. 
In its center, the fierce flames still rage with 
undiminished energy. Volcanoes are outlets 
for these deep-seated fires, where are gen- 
erated those tremendous forces, an illustra- 
tion of which is given in the eruptions of 
Vesuvius, which has thrown a jet of lava, 
resembling a column of flame, 10,000 feet 
high. The amount of lava ejected at a sin- 
gle eruption from one of the volcanoes of 
Iceland has been estimated at 40,000,000,000 
tons, a quantity sufficient to cover a large 
city with a mountain as high as the tallest 
Alps. Our world is yet congealing, just as 
the process has been constantly going on for 

billions of years, and yet the rocky crust that 
rests upon this internal lire is estimated to 
be only between thirty and forty miles in 
thickness. In the silent depths of the 
stratified rocks are the former creation of 
plants and animals, which lived and died 
during the slow, dragging centuries of their 
formation. These fossil remains are frag- 
ments of history, which enable the geologist 
to extend his researches far back into the 
realms of the past, and not only determine 
their former modes of life, but study the 
contemporaneous history of their rocky beds, 
and group them into systems. And such has 
been the profusion of life, that the great 
limestone formations of the globe consists 
mostly of animal remains, cemented by the 
infusion of animal matter. A large part of 
the soil spread over the earth's surface has 
been elaborated in animal organism. First, 
as nourishment, it enters into the structure 
of plants, and forms vegetable tissue; pass- 
ing thence, as food, into the animal, it be- 
comes endowed with life, and when death 
occurs it returns into the soil and imparts to 
it additional elements of fertility. 

The realization of great defects in the 
education of our young farmers and of their 
losses and disappointments, and even dis- 
asters, in the pursuit of their occupation of 
tilling the earth, that come of their neglect 
in early education and training, prompts us 
to present a subject that many of our readers 
without investigating, may consider dry and 
uninteresting. The views of the writer are 
not wholly those of the visionary enthusiast, 
nor are they the mere theories drawn from 
books. Born and reared on a farm, with 
nearly a quarter of a century's experience in 
tilling the soil, qualities him to tell, not so 
confidently, but with nearly the facility of 
H. Greeley, of what "I know about farming." 
The supreme subject is how to get a practi- 



eal, real education; how to fit our youths for 
the great struggle of life that is before them. 

That the reader may gather some idea of 
the first lesson of the rocks, and in the hope 
it may stimulate him to look further into 
this simple but sublime subject, we give in 
their order the different groups and systems 
in the plainest and simplest form we can 
present them, as gathered from the geolo- 
gists. We only deem it necessary to explain 
that all rocks are either igneous or stratified, 
the former meaning melted by fire, and the 
latter sediment deposited in water. Their 
order, commencing with the lowest stratified 
rocks and ascending, are as follows: 

The Laurentian system is the lowest and 
oldest of the stratified rocks. From the 
effects of great heat, it has assumed, to some 
extent, the character of the igneous rocks 
below, but still retains its original lines of 
stratification. A principal effect of the great 
heat to which its rocks were exposed is crys- 
tallization. The Laurentian system was for- 
merly believed to be destitute of organic re- 
mains, but recent investigations have led to 
the discovery of animals, so low in the scale 
of organization as to be regarded as the first 
appearance of sentient existence. This dis- 
covery, as it extends the origin of life back- 
ward through 30j000 feet of strata, maybe 
regarded as one of the most important ad- 
vances made in American geology. 

The Huronian system, like the one that 
precedes it, and on which it rests, is highly 
crystalline. Although fossils have not been 
found in it. yet from it^ position, the infer- 
ence is they once existed, and if they do not 
now, the great transforming power of heat 
has caused their obliteration. This, and the 
subjacent system, extend from Labrador 
southwesterly to the great lakes, and thence 
northwesterly toward the Arctic Ocean. They 
derive their names from the St. Lawrence 

and Lake Huron, on the banks of which are 
found their principal outcrops. Their emer- 
gence from the ocean was the birth of the 
North American Continent. One face of the 
uplift looked toward the Atlantic and the 
other toward the Pacific. 

The Silurian age, compared with the more 
stable formations of subsequent times, was 
one of commotion, in which fire and water 
played a conspicuous part. Earthquakes 
and volcanoes furrowed the yielding crust 
with ridges, and threw up islands whose crag- 
gy summits, here and there, stood like sen- 
tinels above the murky deep which dashed 
against their shores. The present diversities 
of climate did not exist, as the temperature 
was mostly due to the escape of internal 
heat, which was the same over every part of 
the surface. As the radiation of heat in fut- 
ure ages declined, the sun became the con- 
trolling power, and zones of climate appeared 
as the result of solar domination. Uniform 
thermal conditions imparted a corresjaonding 
character to vegetable and animal life, and 
one universal fauna and flora extended from 
the equator to the poles. During the Silu- 
rian age, North America, like its inhabitants, 
was mostly submarine, as proved by wave- 
lines on the emerging lauds. 

The Devonian age is distinguished for the 
introduction of vertebrates, or the fourth 
sub-kingdom of animal life, and the beginning 
of terrestrial vegetation. The latter appeared 
in two classes, the highest of the flowerless 
and the lowest of the flowering plants. The 
Lepidodendron, a noted instance of the 
former, was a majestic, upland forest tree, 
which, during the coal period, grew to a 
height of eighty feet, and had a base of more 
than three feet in diameter. Its description 
is quite poetical, and is as follows: Beauti- 
ful spiral flutings, coiling in opposite direc- 
tions and crossing each other at fixed angles, 



carved the trunks and branches into rhom- 
boidal eminences, each of which was scarred 
with the mark of a falling leaf. At an alti- 
tude of sixty feet, it sent off arms, each sepa- 
rating into branchlets, covered with a needle- 
like foliage destitute of flowers. It grew, 
not by internal or external accretions, as 
plants of the preseut day, but, like the build- 
ing of a monument, by additions to the top 
of its trunk. Mosses, rushes and other 
diminutive flowerless plants are now the only 
representatives of this cryptogamic vegeta- 
tion, which so largely predominated in the 
early botany of the globe. Floral beauty 
and fragrance were not characteristic of the 
old Devonian woods. No bird existed to 
enliven their silent groves with song; no ser- 
pent to hiss in the fenny brakes, nor beast 
to pursue, with hideous yells, its panting 

The vertebrates consisted of fishes, of 
which the Glanoide and Placoids were the 
princtpal groups. The former were the fore- 
runners of the reptile, which in many re- 
spects they closely resemble. They embraced 
a large number of species, many of which 
grew to a gigantic size; but, with the excep- 
tion of the gar and sturgeon, thej have no 
living representative. The Placoids, struct- 
urally formed for advancement, still remain 
among the highest types of the present seas. 
The shark, a noted instance, judging from its 
fossil remains, must have attained 100 feet 
in length. Both groups lived in the sea, 
and if any fresh water animals existed, their 
remains have either perished or not been 
found. So numerous were the inhabitants of 
the ocean, that the Devonian has been styled 
the age of fishes. In their anatomical struct- 
ure was foreshadowed the organization of 
man. reptiles, birds and mammals being the 
intermediate gradations. 

The Carboniferous age opened with the 

deposition of widely extended marine forma- 
tions. Added to the strata previously de- 
posited, the entire thickness in the region of 
the Alleghanies, now partially elevated, 
amounted to seven miles. The most promi- 
nent feature of the Carboniferous age was 
the formation of coal. Being carbonized 
vegetable tissue, the material furnished for 
this purpose was the vast forest accumula- 
tions peculiar to the period. The coal fields 
of Europe are estimated at 18,000 square 
miles, those of the United States at 150,000. 
In Illinois, three-fourths of the surface is 
underlaid by beds of coal, and the State con- 
sequently has a greater area than any other 
State in the Union. The entire carbonifer- 
ous system, including the coal beds and the 
intervening strata in Southern Illinois, is 
27,000 feet in thickness and in the northern 
part only 500 feet. 

The Reptilian age came next, and it is 
distinguished for changes in the continental 
borders, which generally ran within their 
present limits. 

The Mammalian age witnessed the increase 
of the mass of the earth above the ocean's 
level threefold, and next in regular succes- 
sion was the age of Man, which commenced 
with the present geological conditions. 
These are the order of the earth's formation, 
or as it is sometimes called, its growth, sim- 
ply given to the time of the coming of man. 
Though the absolute time of his coming can- 
not be determined, he was doubtless an in- 
habitant of the earth many thousand years 
before he was sufficiently intelligent to pre- 
serve the record of his own history. 

The present age still retains, in a dimin- 
ished degree of activity, .the geological action 
we have briefly sketched. The oscillations of 
the earth's crust are still going on, perhaps 
as they ever have. As an evidence of this, 
it is a well-known fact that the coast of 



Greenland on the western side, for a distance 
of 600 miles, has been slowly sinking for the 
past 400 years. Thus constantly have the 
bottoms of the oceaD been lifted above the 
waters and the mountains sunk and became 
the beds of the sea. In the science of geolo- 
gy, this solid old earth and its fixed and 
supposed eternal mountains are as unstable 
as the waves upon the water. 

Clay County embraces a surface area of 
about 466 square miles, and is bounded on 
the north by Effingham and Jasper Counties, 
on the east by Jasper and Richland, on 
the south by Wayne, and on the west by 
Marion and Fayette. The Little Wabash 
River runs diagonally across the county 
from northwest to southeast, and with afflu- 
ents —Elm Creek on the south and Muddy 
Creek on the northeast — drains nearly the 
whole of its area. Tb9 surface of the county 
is nearly equally divided into prairie and 
timber land, the latter forming wide belts 
along the streams, and the former occupying 
the highest areas between them. The differ- 
ence of level between the creek bottoms and the 
adjacent highland is not very great, probably 
nowhere exceeding fifty to seventy-five feet. 

Locally the streams are bordered with pre- 
cipitous bluffs from forty to fifty feet in 
height, and at other points there is a grad- 
ually sloping surface from the bottoms up to 
the level to the adjacent prairie. 

The bottoms along the Little Wabash vary 
in width from one to three miles, and are 
subject to overflow during the annual spring 
freshets, and hence have not been brought 
under cultivation, but are still covered with 
primeval forest of excellent timber. The 
alluvial soil of these bottoms is exceedingly 
rich, and if subdued and brought under cul- 
tivation would produce abundant crops of 
corn and all the cereals usually cultivated in 
this latitude. 

Drift Deposits. — The uplands are covered 
with blue and yellow drift clays, ranging 
from ten to forty feet in thickness, and pos- 
sibly along the bluffs of some of the streams 
they may attain even a greater thickness than 
that above indicated. The surface of the 
bedrock was often eroded into valleys of con- 
siderable extend before the drift was deposit- 
ed, and being subsequently filled with these 
gravelly clays the deposit is not uniform, 
but is much thicker in some places than in 

In the borings at Xenia and Flora, the 
bedrock was struck at the depth of thirteen 
or fourteen feet, and generally upon the 
prairie iu sinking wells the drift clays and 
gravel beds are found to range from ten to 
twenty feet. In the bluffs at Elm Creek, 
south of Flora, and some other points in the 
county, they attain a thickness of thirty to 
forty feet. The upper part is generally a 
brown or buff gravelly clay, with occasional 
bowlders of a foot or two in diameter, and 
the lower part, where the deposit attains its 
greatest thickness, consists of bluish or ash 
gray clay, or hardpan, as it is usually de- 
nominated, from its being more compact and 
harder to penetrate than the brown clay above 
it. Bowlders of granite syenite, greenstone 
and quartzite are not uncommon, and occa- 
sionally nuggets of native copper and small 
specimens of galena are to be met with in 
these gravelly clays in this county. 

Stratified Rocks. — The rock formation 
proper in this county all belong to the upper 
coal measures, and the only seam in this 
county that has been worked to any extent is 
No. 16 of the general section, and the high- 
est seam but one known in the State. There 
have been three borings made in the county, 
one at Xenia and two in the vicinity of Flora, 
but none of them were carried down far 
enough to reach the main workable coals of 



the lower measures. The flax mill boring on 
the eastern edge of Flora is reported as fol- 
lows : 

Feet. Inches. 


Soil and drift clay 13 

Sandy shale and gray sandstone 47 

Black shale and Coal No. 14 3 

Hard sandstone 84 

Clay shale, soapstone 33 

Black shale 3 

Shale limestone 2 

Coal, No. 13 7 

192 9 

A shaft was commenced near where this 
boring was made, and carried down to a 
depth of 115 felt, mainly through sandstone 
and sandy shale. The flow of water in the 
shaft was so strong as to seriously interfere 
with the prosecution of the work, and finally 
filled it to within about five feet of the sur- 
face of the ground, where it still remains. 
The shaft terminated in the heavy bed of 
Sandstone No. 4 of the preceding section. 
Another boring two miles to the westward of 
this, near the fair grounds, was reported as 

Feet. Inches. 

Soil and drift clay 13 

Sandstone 40 

Clay shale, soapstone 7 

Hard gray sandstone 38 

Hard rock, probably sandstone 3 

Sandstone 47 

Impure limestone 4 

Black shale 8 

Limestone 8 

Clay shale, soapstone 37 

205 6 

These borings commence at least forty or 
fifty feet below the coal and limestone north- 
west of Louisville, and were discontinued 
before reaching the horizon of any workable 
coal. The boring at Xenia was carried to 
the depth of 450 feet, passing through three 
thin coals, one of which was reported to be 
four feet thick. The following is the section 
of this boring as furnished by Capt. Dyer: 

Feet. Inches. 

Soil and drift 14 

Clay shale, soapstone 92 

Bluish gray sandstone 31 

CoalNo.13 9 

Crevice, probably soft fire clay 1 6 

Clay shale, soapstone 3 

Limestone 1 6 

Conglomerate 3 

Bluish gray sandstone 4 

Blue shale 64 

Hard rock 1 

Blue shale No. 12 9 

Sandstone 12 

Blue Shale 14 6 

Coal No. 11 4 

Fireclay 6 

Sandstone 15 

Pebbly rock 2 

Shale 2 6 

Blue Shale 29 

Micaceous sandstone 4 

White sandstone 4 

Hock with few fossils 1 

Coal No. 10 1 6 

FireClay 2 6 

Sandstone 11 6 

Blue shale 4 

Sandstone 2 

Blackshale 15 

Flint rock 10 

Shale 23 

Hard rock 4 

Shale 11 

Sandstone .' 7 

Clay shale 6 

Sandstone 14 

Blue shale 6 

Gray sandstone 14 

444 9 

So far as it is possible to correlate this 
section with what is known as the upper coal 
measure strata of Central Illinois, we are 
inclined to believe that the ten-foot bed of 
hard rock described in the boring as flint is 
the limestone of Shoal Creek and Carlinville, 
which is usually a very hard rock, and that 
the succeeding coals are 10, 11, 12 and 13 of 
the general section. The small coal outcrop- 
ping north of Hoag's quarries about two 





miles, at Jacob Spiker's place, is probably 
No. 1 5, and the nest succeeding seam would 
be the Nelson coal of Effingham County, 
which outcrops in this county about two 
miles northwest of Louisville, and at several 
points northwest of there in the bluffs of the 
Little Wabash and its tributaries, and will 
be more particularly described further on in 
this chapter. 

One mile north of Xenia, a fine, evenly- 
bedded freestone is extensively quarried by 
Mr. Hoag;. The rock is a rather fine grained 
sandstone in even layers, from two inches to 
two feet in thickness, and can be easily quar- 
ried in large slabs. It is partly brown and 
partly of a bluish gray color, dresses freely 
and hardens after being taken from the 
quarry, and is the best building stone known 
in this portion of the State. The rock is as 
evenly-bedded as the magnesian limestone of 
Joliet, and the thin layers make good flag- 
stones, while the heavier beds afford a fine 
quality of cut-stone for ashlars, window- 
caps and sills, lintels, etc. A large quantity 
of this stone is furnished to the city of St. 
Louis, where it bears an excellent reputation 
as a superior building stone. About eight 
feet in thickness of this freestone is worked 
in this quarry, the heaviest beds ranging from 
one foot to thirty inches in thickness. This 
sandstone is overlaid in the vicinity of this 
quarry with twenty to twenty -five feet of soft 
brown shale, with numerous bands of iron 
ore, closely resembling the shales on the 
waters on Raccoon Creek, southwest of Flora, 
and described in the report on Wayne Coun- 
ty. The waters (if a well sunk in this shale, 
about half a mile south of Hoag's quarry, 
has the same taste as that of McGannon's 
spring, near the north line of Wayne County, 
and no doubt the shales are identical. The 
shale here contains numerous bands of iron 
ore of good quality, and several points were 

observed on the small branches northeast of 
the quarry, and not more than a mile distant, 
where from twelve to sixteen inches of good 
ore could be obtained from a vertical thick- 
ness of four or five feet of shale. The thin 
coal at Spiker's place overlies this shale, and 
the beds exposed there gave the following 


i eet. 

Bituminous shale 4 

Hind blue limestone — septaria 6 inches to 1J 

Blue shale 1 to 1J 

Coal i 

Fire Clay and clay shale 1 

A few well preserved fossils were found in 
the septaria over the coal, among which were 
Nautilus occidentalis, Macrocheilua primi- 
genious, Productus pertenuis, Spirifer ca- 
meratus, Myalina subquadrata, Chonetes, 
joints of Crinoidea, etc. All the beds ex- 
posed from Hoag's quarry to this point are 
probably above those passed through at the 
Xenia bore. 

At Mr. John Lampkin's place, about two 
miles northwest of Louisville, on the north- 
west quarter of Section 20, Town 4, Range 6, 
there is an outcrop of gray limestone, under- 
laid by a coal seam, with ranges from twelve 
to eighteen inches in thickness, and is worked 
by Mr. Lampkin in a limited way. affording 
a coal of fair quality. The limestone over 
the coal is a compact, hard, gray rock, rang- 
ing from three to four feet in thickness, con- 
taining numerous fossils that may be ob- 
tained from the calcareous shaly layers asso- 
ciated with the limestone in a fair state of 
preservation. The section here is as follows: 

ButT shale with iron bands 5 to 8 feet 

Compact gray limestone 8 to I feet 

Calcareous shale 2 to 3 feet 

Coal 1 to i feet 

Clay shale or fire clay 1 to 3 feel 

Sandy shales ? 

The fossils observed here include the fol- 
lowing species: Orthis Pecosi, Fusulina 




cylindrica, Spirifer cameratus, Spiriferina 
Kentuckensis, Lophophyllum proliferum, Pro- 
duetus longispinus, P. costatus and P. punc- 

On Section 10, Town 4 ? Range 5, this 
limestone is found on Crooked Creek, but lit- 
tle above the creek bed, aud the coal, if 
found at all, would be below the water level. 

On the southwest quarter of Section 25, 
Township 5, Range 5, about two miles east 
of Larkinsville, the coal and the overlying 
limestone outcrop in the bluffs of Dismal 
Creek. The limestone is here from four to 
five feet in thickness, and the coal is reported 
to be about the same as at Lamkin's place. 

There are here from ten to twelve feet of 
sandy shale exposed in the bluffs of the 
creek below the coal. 

On Section 16, Township 4, Range 5, near 
the northwest corner of the section, a bed of 
hard shaly sandstone outcrops in the bank of 
a small branch, overlaid by slaty bitumi- 
nous shale of a foot or more in thickness, con- 
taining lenticular masses of a black 
limestone or septaria. 

The shaly sandstone was about three feet 
in thickness, and it probably overlies the 
limestone and coal at Lamkin's place, though 
the exact connection between them was not 

On the southeast quarter of Section 21, 
Township 4, Range 6, a sandstone quarry 
has been opened where the rock shows a per- 
pendicular face from four to six feet in 
thickness The sandstone is overlaid by a 
buff-colored shale, succeeded by a black 
laminated shale containing concretions from 
black or dark-blue limestone or septaria, 
containing a few fossils. 

On Section 16, in the same township, a 
hard sandstone is found in the bluffs " of 
Crooked Creek, which resembles the rock at 
l he quarry on Section 21, and it is here un- 

derlaid by shaly sandstone and shale to the 
water level. If these sandstones are identi- 
cal, the section here would show the follow- 
ing order of succession: 

Black laminated shale, with septaria... 5 to 6 feet 

Buff or drab shale 6 to 8 feet 

Sandstone quarry rock 4 to 6 feet 

Sandy shale — partial exposure 12 to 15 feet 

Just below the mouth of Crooked Creek, 
in the bluffs of the Little Wabash, we find the 
following section: 

Soil and drift clay 12 to 15 feet 

Soft shales— partly argillaceous 15 feet 

Irregularly bedded sandstone 3 to 4 feet 

Sandy shales 12 to 15 feet 

These beds outcrop at intervals along the 
bluffs of the stream from the mouth of 
Crooked Creek to Louisville, and at the old 
mill dam we find nearly a repetition of the 
above section, as follows: 

Black laminated shale 2 to 3 feet 

Coal i foot 

Buff and blue shales — partial exposure 6 to 12 feet 
Irregularly bedded hard sandstone. . . 4 to 6 feet 
Sandy shales extending below the river 

bed 10 to 12 feet 

Buff and blue shales — partial exposure 6 to 12 feet 
Irregularly bedded hard sandstone. . . 4 to 6 feet 
Sandy shales extending below the river 

bed 10 to 12 feet 

The thin coal in the above section is local- 
ly overlaid by a few inches of chocolate 
colored shale, passing into a hard blue lime- 
stone containing a few fossils, among which 
we were able to identify Productus Pvatte- 
ni si its, Choneles granulifera, Lingula uujti- 
loi es, Pleurotomaria carbonaria, Macrochei- 
his, etc. This thin coal is probably identical 
with that of Mr. Spiker's, three miles north 
of Xenia, and is either of local seam or else 
represents Coal No. 15 of the general section. 
The beds on the Little Wabash at Louisville 
underlie the limestone and coal at Lamkin's 
place and on Dismal Creek, but the exi - 



iires were too isolated to obtain a complete 
section of the strata. 

Four miles southwest of Flora, on a 
branch of Raccoon Creek, sandstone and 
sandy shales outcrop along the bluffs of the 
stream for some distance. The bed is alto 
gether some ten or twelve feet in thickness, 
the upper part a sandy micaceous shale pass- 
ing downward into micaceous sandstone 
interstratified with the shales. The sand- 
stone strata vary in thickness from six to 
fourteen inches, and when freshly quarried 
the rock is rather soft, b.ut hardens on ex- 
posure and becomes a durable building stone. 
The quarry opened here belongs to Mr. John 
McGannon, and is located on Section 3, 
'I 1 ! iwnship 2, Range 6 east. In the same 
township, a massive sandstone outcrops 
in the bluffs of Raccoon, in an appar- 
ently solid bed, projecting in some places 
several feet over the bed of the stream by 
the wearing away of the lower strata. 

On Bear Creek, another tributary of Elm 
Creek, just over the line in Wayne County, 
on Section 21, Township 2 south, Range 6 
east, this massive sandstone is found in per- 
pendicular cliffs of twenty to thirty feet in 
height, above the bed of the stream. This 
is probably a part of the sandstone passed 
through in the shaft and borings at Flora, 
and it forms a bed-rock over a considerable 
area in the south part of Clay and the north- 
ern part of Wayne Counties. 

On Willow Branch, about six miles south- 
west of Flora, a blue argillaceous shale is 
found containing several bands of arsilla 
ceous ore of good quality. The exposure of 
shale is twenty feet or more in thickness, 
with a streak (if smutty coal or bituminous 
shale near the top of the exposure. The 
water that percolates through the shale be- 
comes highly impregnated with salts, and 
acts as an effective cathartic on those who use 

it freely. This shale probably overlies the 
massive sandstone on Raccoon Creek, but no 
continuous outcrop is found that will deter- 
mine definitely their true relations. 

The following notes of localities are re- 
ported from the notes of Prof. Cox: On a 
branch of Skillet Fork, on Section 32, Town- 
ship 4, Range 5. found the following beds: 

Drift clay 4 to 5 

Blue argillaceous shale 8 

Bituminous shale and limestone in the bed of 

the creek ? 

Crystalsof selenite (sulphate of lime) of 
small size were found disseminated through 
the shale, and are reported to be abundant at 
many points on this branch, and also on the 
main creek. 

On Mr. R. T. Roberts' place, two miles 
and a half south of Clay City, a thin coal is 
found underlaid by fire clay and argillaceous 
shale. The section of exposure hero is as 


Feet, [nches. 

Soil and drift 10 

Shall- 6 

Coal 6 

Fireclay 4 

Argillaceous shale 1 

Siliceous shale 2 

In digging a well on the top of the hill 
about a quarter of a mile from this outcrop, 
Mr. Roberts went through from four to six 
inches of fossil if erous limestone, which prob- 
ably belongs above the coal. 

Three-quarters of a mile south of Mays- 
ville is a sandstone quarry owned by Hugh 
Miller. The rock is of a yellowish gray 
color, and the exposure from seven to eight 
feet thick. The so-called " sail pond " is 
on the south half of Section 4, Township :!, 
Range 8, and is a bog surrounded by high 
ground. Sticks may be thrust into it through 
the spongy mass to the depth of ten or fif- 
teen feet, and cattle, and formerly wild ani- 
mals also, resorted here for water. 



At Moore's quarry, on Section 14, Town- 
ship 4, Range 6, there is a fine-grained 
buff sandstone that was used in the founda- 
tion and also for caps and sills for the Ma- 
sonic Hall building in Louisville. There are 
three layers of the rock exposed from eight 
to ten inches thick, overlaid by two feet of 
siliceous shale. 

At J. Elkin's place, on Section 36, Town- 
ship 5, Range 5, the following section was 

found : 


Soil and drift 2 

Gray argillaceous shale 8 

Limestone in the bed of the creek 1 

Down the creek, the limestone is two feet 
thick, the upper part full of encrinite stems 
and fusulina cylindrica. The limestone is 
quite compact, and will take a good polish. 
Still lower down on the creek, there is a thin 
coal below the limestone. This limestone is 
again seen 'on Limestone Creek, on Section 
34, Township 6, Range 4, near the north 
line of the county. The limestone above 
mentioned is undoubtedly the same as that 
found over the coal at Lamkin's mine near 
Louisville, and on Dismal |Creek, east of 
Larkinsburg, and a limestone very similar in 
appearance is found on Muddy Creek near 
the northeast corner of the county, where it 
is quarried both for lime and building stone. 
Coal. — The only coal seam in the county 
that promises to be of any value for mining 
operations is that on Mr. Lamkin's place, 
northwest of Louisville, and this is so uneven- 
ly developed that there are probably but few 
localities in the county where it will prove to 
be of any practical value. At some points, it 
affords from eighteen to twenty inches of 
good coal, and possibly may thicken at some 
localities to a little more than that, while at 
othors it thins out to a few inches or is want- 
ing altogether, and its place is only indicated 
by a thin streak of bituminous shale. "Where 

well developed, it affords a very good quality 
of coal, and may be worked to advantage in 
a limited way to supply the local demand. 
We believe it to be the same as the Nelson 
coal found in the southwest corner of Effing- 
ham County, which is No. 16 of the general 
section, and the highest workable coal in the 
State. The main coals of the lower coal 
measures are j>robably from eight hundred to 
a thousand feet below the surface in any 
part of the county, and borings or shafts 
should not be encouraged unless parties are 
prepared to go to that depth. The coal seam 
reported to have been found four feet in thick- 
ness in the boring at Xenia could not have 
been lower in the series than No. 11 or 12, 
and if its thickness was correctly ascertained, 
it is probably only a local thickening of one 
of these upper coals. The lower coals offer 
no serious impediment to their being mined 
successfully, whenever the demand for coal 
shall be such as to justify such an expendi- 
ture of capital as will be required to open 
up a mine at this depth. 

Building Stone. — Sandstone of fair quality 
for building purposes is found at several lo- 
calities in the county and the quarries near 
Xenia, described on a preceding page, afford 
a freestone of superior quality that is ex- 
tensively quarried for exportation to St. Louis 
and other points where a stone, suitable for 
architectural display, may be required. This 
rock had a very even texture, dresses freely 
and can be easily cut into elaborate designs 
for ornamental work. A rock similar enough 
in texture and general appearance outcrops 
on Raccoon Creek, south of Flora, which 
probably belongs to the same bed, as the gen- 
eral trend of the strata appears to be from 
northwest to southeast. Other sandstones 
that afford a fair quality of building stone 
outcrop iu various parts of the county, as has 
already been noted in the preceding pages. 



The limestone over the eighteen-inch coal 
seam in the northern part of the county will 
afford a very hard and durable stone, but re- 
quires a greater amount of labor to quarry it 
and prepare it for use than the sandstone 
found in the same neighborhood, and hence 
has been but little used. 

Lime. — The only rock in the county that 
seems at all adapted to the manufacture of 
lime is the limestone above mentioned as 
overlying the eighteen-inch coal at Lamkin's 
mine, and outcropping at several other points 
in the north part of the county. This rock 
varies in thickness from two to four feet. 
and seems usually pure enough to afford a 
fair quality of lime, and has been burned 
for that purpose in a limited way at two or 
three points in the county. 

Iron Ore. — Bands of iron ore of good 
quality, intercalated in a bed of shale, were 
observed in two or three places in the coun 
ty, especially in the upper course of Elm 
Creek, and on some small tributaries of the 
same stream southwest of Flora and near the 
Wayne County line. 

Clays. — Clay suitable for pottery occurs on 
Mr. Bothwell's place, one mile south of Clay 
City, and good brick clays may be found in 
almost every neighborhood in the subsoil of 
the uplands. 

Timber. — Although much of the timbered 
land has been subdued and brought under 
cultivation since the first settlement of the 
county, the rapid growth of the remaining 
portion, with the addition of the brush lands, 
which, since the annual tires have been kept 
down, have hoen covered with a fine growth 
of young timber, lias nearly or quite kept up 
the original supply, and there js probably 
about as much timber in the county at the 
present time as there was in its early settle- 

Prospects for Coal. -There is no doubt but 

all this portion of Southern Illinois is under- 
laid with heavy coal veins. But the dip of 
the rock and the coal is to the northwest, 
and the Belleville vein is probably 1)00 or 
1,000 feet below the surface. The pit at 
Mattoon is now being worked, and is over 
900 feet deep. The difficulties to contend 
with here will probably be water or quick 
sand, or both. . 

Mineral Waters. — No county in Illinois is 
probably so well supplied in this respect as 
Clay. The fame of the Sailor Springs has 
already extended all over the country, and 
the healing and restoring properties of these 
waters are constantly working wonders. Only 
fifteen years ago, these now celebrated 
springs, where has sprung into existence 
splendid hotels and a prosperous village, and 
where, during the summer months thousands 
of visitors flock, were considered and called 
the " poison springs," and the people pre- 
ferred to go a long way around rather than 
pass them. They were supposed to be so 
strongly impregnated with milk-sick that they 
poisoned the air for a distance around. And 
the people fenced them up to keep their stock 
away from them, and by common consent they 
were called the " Milk sick Springs." 

In 1869, Mrs. Thomas M. Sailor ex- 
changed property in Fjrbana, Ohio, for 400 
acres, on which these springs were. Her 
husband visited the place, examined the wat- 
ers, tested them and became satisfied they 
were valuable mineral waters, that, gave only 
health to those who might use them and not 
disease. There are sixteen of these springs 
grouped together. Mr. Sailor had one of 
the largest analyzed, and, without giving the 
proportions, he found contained in the water 
soil i um. potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, 
chlorine, sulphuric and carbonic acid. There 
are nearly as many different varieties of water 
as there are springs; and this constitutes one 



of the great values of them. Some of them 
are as hue artesian springs as have been found 
in the country. There is a constant emission 
of strong gases, which can be caught, and 
burns with a strong white light, much re- 
sembling the electric lights. 

Two large hotels, containing together 

about 100 rooms, are filled during summer 
months, and hundreds of people are in tents 
all about the grounds. New and important 
improvements are projected and are much 
needed by the constantly increasing public 
patronage that flows toward these celebrated 



ALONG the Atlantic Coast the conflict 
for American independence was raging 
fiercely with the armies of England. The 
American settlements in the West were beset 
by the bloodiest savages, urged on in their 
hellish work by British emissaries. The 
West just then was in great distress and often 
was threatened with extermination, and the 
truth is the country here was just then sadly 
in want of a hero to prevent these indiscrim- 
inate slaughters of the people and to wrest 
this great Mississippi Valley from the Crown. 
At the critical moment the hero came — 
George Rogers Clark — who has been not in- 
aptly called the Hannibal of the West. 

To know that, this remarkable man and 
his equally remarkable band of less than two 
hundred men were once encamped and 
marched through and won their imperishable 
victory, and countermarched again through 
Clay County, is enough to demand of us 
more than a passing account of the com- 
mander and of his army, aB well as a word in 
reference to their accomplishment. 

George Rogers Clark was born in Albe- 
marle County, Va., November 19, 1752, and 
when only a well-grown lad, the stories of 
the West attracted him irresistibly, and he 
followed the bent of his inclination; and 
when a very young man he was the chief act- 
or, assisted by Gabriel Jones, in the erection 
of the territory and the forming of the coun- 
ty of Kentucky. Here would have been a 
sufficient work for an ordinary man to have 
been content with, as he had not only been 
the architect of the State of Kentucky, but, 
at the head of the militia, he had fought out 
the bitter fight with the foe that has given it 
the name of the ' ' Dark and Bloody Ground." 
He was the first to discover and carry to Gov. 
Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson the in- 
telligence that, the Indian outrages were 
caused largely by British emissaries. To 
this discovery do we owe the fact that Gov. 
Henry sent Clarke with a force to dislodge 
the British strongholds in this portion of the 
country, especially Indiana and Illinois. 
Clark started down the Ohio River on the 



24th day of June, 1778. The day is posi- 
tively fixed by the fact that almost at the 
moment of launching the expedition the sun 
was in total eclipse. He dropped down the 
river to near Fort Massac, where, concealing 
the boats in a small creek, the expedition 
started across the country for Kaskaskia. 
Everything depended upon secrecy. They 
came in the vicinity of the place on the 4th 
of July, 1778. He reconnoitered during the 
night, and the next day the bloodless victory 
was made and the American flag floated in 
triumph over the place. So complete was the 
surprise that not a gun was tired, and so wise 
and just was his government on taking pos- 
session, that at once the entire population 
were won over and remained true and loyal. 
M. Rocheblave, the British commandant, was 
not aware that he was a prisoner till the offi- 
cer of the detachment which had captured 
the fort, entered his bedroom and tapped him 
on the shoulder. 

An equally bloodless victory and surprise 
captured Cahokia. 

When the Virginia Legislature learned of 
the conquests of Clark, tho Legislature of 
that State in October. 1778, organized the 
county of Illinois, which included all the 
territory of the commonwealth west of the 
Ohio River. This immense region, exceed- 
ing in superficial extent the whole of Great 
Britain and Ireland, was at that time the 
largest county in the world, and contained the 
garden spot of the continent 

Gen. Clark now turned his attention to 
the British post of Vincennes (called St. Vin- 
cents). He therefore called in M. Gibault, 
the Catholic priest of both Vincennes and 
Kaskaskia, and through him secured an em- 
bassy favorable to securing a transfer of 
allegiance of the people of Vincennes. The 
embassy under De Lafont and a spy went 
to Kaskaskia, and in a short time fully ac- 

complished their mission, appointed a tem- 
porary Governor and returned to Kaskaskia. 
This expedition returned and reached Kas- 
kaskia about the 1st of August. The his- 
torian of the expedition modestly concludes 
his narrative by saying: "This news was 
both a source of astonishment and gratifica- 
tion, as such a result was hardly to be ex- 
pected. " 

Thus, in three short months, by a mere 
squad of ragged, half-starved, half-equipped 
patriots, and without bloodshed, was accom- 
plished the most marvelous campaign in 
history, the most splendid conquests in all 
the annals of war. The essence of true great- 
ness and heroism are the same, whatever may 
be the scale of action, and although numbers 
are the standard by which military honors 
are usually awarded, they are in reality only 
one of the extrinsic circumstances. 

But it is of the recapture of Vincennes by 
Gen. Clark in person, and the marvels of that, 
expedition, that we propose mostly to speak 
of him and his army, because it was this that 
brought this heroic band into the confines of 
Clay County, and the fact that they had 
kin ih' I their camp fires here should inspire 
the entire people to learn to know and ap- 
preciate them more completely than they have 

After his great conquest, he commenced 
the work of negotiations aud treaties of peace 
and friendship with the surrounding Indians. 
While thin engaged, the British Governor at 
Detroit heard of Clark's invasion, and was 
incensed that the country which he had in 
charge should be wrested from him by a few 
ragged militia from Virginia. He therefore 
hurriedly collected a force, consisting of 
thirty regulars, fifty French Canadians and 
400 Indians, and marching by way of the 
Wabash, appeared before the fort at Yin 
cennes on December 15, 1778. The inhab- 



itants made no effort to defend the town, and 
when Hamilton's forces arrived Capt. Helm 
and a man by the name of Henry were the 
only Americans in the fort. Henry loaded a 
cannon and placed it in the principal gate- 
way, Capt. Helm taking his position be- 
side it; as soon as Hamilton's army came 
within hailing distance, he called " Halt! " 
The British officer halted, but demanded the 
surrender of the place. Helm replied that no 
man could enter there until he was informed of 
the " terms offered." Hamilton replied, " you 
shall have the honors of war." Thereupon, 
Capt. Helm and private Henry surrendered 
with the "honors of war," and is it now too 
much to say that they also had something of 
the honors of immortality! 

It was six weeks before the news of this 
reached Gen. Clark at Kaskaskia. He at 
once sent Col. "Vigo to reconnoiter. An ad- 
mirable selection it proved to be. When 
within five miles of Vincennes, he was capt- 
ured by the Indians and taken before Gov. 
Hamilton. He was regarded as an American 
spy, but being a Spaniard, and well known 
to all the people about Vincennes, and very 
popular, the Governor did not treat 
him severely. Hamilton agreed to let him go 
if he would agree during the war to do no 
act injurious to the British. Col. Vigo re- 
fused these terms, but agreed to do no act 
prejudicial on his way home. He returned 
to St. Louis, remained long enough to change 
his clothes, and reported to Gen. Clark. He 
informed Clark of Hamilton's intentions of 
regaining Illinois at all hazards, and then to 
push his victories until he had re-conquered 
all to Fort Pitt, so that he would be master 
of the Virginia territory between the Alle- 
ghanies and the Mississippi. 

Clark, realizing the critical state of affairs, 
wrote the facts to Gov. Henry, and at once 

commenced preparations to attack Hamilton, 
because, as he afterward said. " I knew if I 
did not take him he would take me." Vigo 
had informed him that there were eighty 
men, three cannon, and some swivels, and 
now if he could attack the town before Ham- 
ilton could recall his troops which he had 
dispersed, he might succeed, but in no other 
way. Without a moment's delay, a galley 
was fitted up, mounting two four pounders and 
four swivels, and placed in charge of Capt. 
John Rogers, with forty -six men, with orders 
to force their way to the mouth of White 
River, and there await orders. 

On February 7, 1779, just eight days after 
the reception of the news, the little army of 
170 men started overland from Kaskasia to 
Vincennes. On the 13th, four days out, they 
reached the forks of the Little Wabash, the low 
bottoms of which were covered with water. 
At this point of the stream, the banks were five 
miles apart, and the water so deep in many 
places as to be waded with the greatest difficul- 
ty. It rained almost incessantly. They con- 
structed a raft to ferry over their baggage. 
The men had not murmured, although their 
sufferings had been great from the start, until 
now. A little Irish drummer boy would 
wade along until he came to water too deep, 
when he would mount his drum and request 
some tall soldier to push him along, when 
he would sing a comic song, at which he was 
most excellent, and this simple fact would 
often cheer the others to another effort when 
'. they were ready to lie down in despair. 

On the morning of the 18th, eleven days 
after leaving Kaskaskia, they heard the sig- 
| nal guns of the fort, and the evening of the 
same day arrived at the Great Wabash, nine 
miles below Vincennes. The galley had not 
arrived, and hence the exhausted supplies 
I could not be replenished, and the men were 



almost starving. It is doubtful if there were 
many other men alive who could have kept 
up the spirits of the men as did Clark. 

Fortunately, from this point on. we have 
a description of the journey in Gen. Clark's 
own words, and no human pen can tell them 
half so well, and we prefer to give as we 
find them: 

"The nearest land to us in the direction of 
Vincennes was a spoi called the 'Sugar 
Camp,' on the opposite side of the slough. 
I sounded the water, and finding it as deep as 
my neck, returned, with the design of having 
the men transported on board the canoes to 
the camp, though I know it would spend the 
whole day and the ensuing night, as the ves- 
sel would pass slowly through the bushes. 
The loss of so much time to men half-starved 
was a matter of serious consequence, and I 
would now have given a great deal for a day's 
provision or one of our horses. When I re- 
turned, all ran to hear the report. I unfort- 
unately spoke in a serious manner to one of 
the officers; the whole were alarmed without 
knowing what 1 said. I viewed their eon- 
fusion for a minute, and whispered for those 
near me to do as I did. I immediately put 
some water in my hands and poured powder 
on it. blackened my face, gave the war 
whoop, and marched into the water. The 
party immediately followed, one after an- 
other, without uttering a word of complaint. 
I ordered those near me to sing a favorite 
song, which soon passed through the line, 
and all went cheerfully. I now intended to 
have them transport e< I across the deepest 
part of the water, but when about waist deep 
one of the men informed me that he thought 
he had discovered a path. We followed it, 
and finding that it kept ou higher ground, 
without further difficulty arrived at the camp. 
where there was dry ground on which to 
pitch our lodges. The Frenchmen that we 

had taken on the river appeared to be uneasy 
at our situation, and begged that they might 
be permitted during the night to visit the 
town in two canoes, and bring from their 
own houses provisions. They said that some 
of our men could go with them as a surety 
for their conduct, and that it would bo im- 
possible to leave that place till the waters, 
which were too deep for marching, subsided. 
Some of the officers believed that this might 
be done, but I would not suffer it. I could 
never well account for my obstinacy on this 
occasion, or give satisfactory reasons to my- 
self or anybody else why I denied a proposi- 
tion apparently so easy to execute and of so 
much advantage; but something seemed to 
toll me it should not be done. 

" On the following morning, the finest we 
had experienced, I harangued the men. 
What I said I am not now able to recall, but 
it may be easily imagined by a person who 
possesses the regard which I at that, time en- 
tertained for them. I concluded by informing 
them that passing the sheet of water, which 
was in full view, and reaching the opposite 
woods, would put an end to their hardships; 
that in a few hours they woidd have a sight 
of their long-wished for object, and immedi- 
ately stepped into the water without waiting 
for a reply. Before a third of the men had 
entered, I halted and called to Maj. Bowman, 
and ordered him to fall into the rear with 
twenty-five men and put to death any man 
who refused to march with us, as wo did not 
wish to have any such among us. The whole 
gave a cry of approbation, and on wo went. 
This was the most trying of all the difficulties 
we experienced. I generally kept fifteen of 
the strongest men next myself, and judge 
from my own feelings what must bo that of 
others, (letting near the middle of the in- 
undated plain, I found myself sensibly fail- 
ing, and as there wero no trees for the men 



to support themselves, I feared that many of 
the weak would be drowned. I ordered the 
canoe to ply back and forth, and with all 
diligence to pick up the men; and to encour- 
age the party, sent some of the strongest 
forward, with orders that, when they had ad- 
vanced a certain distance, to pass the word 
back that the water was getting shallow, and 
when near the woods to cry out land. This 
stratagem had the desired effect. The men, 
encouraged by it, exerted themselves almost 
beyond their abilities, the weak holding on 
the stronger. On reaching the woods, where 
the men expected land, the water was up to 
their shoulders; but gaining the timber was 
the greatest consequence, for the weakly 
hung to the trees and floated on the drift un- 
til they were taken off by the canoes. The 
strong and tall got on shore and built fires; 
bat many of the feeble, unable to support 
themselves on reaching land, would fall with 
their bodies half in the water. They were 
so benumbed with cold, we soon found that 
fires would not restore them, and the strong 
ones were compelled to exercise them with 
great severity to revive their circulation. 

" Fortunately, a canoe in charge of some 
squaws was going to town, which our men 
captured, and which contained half a quarter 
of buffalo meat, some corn, tallow and ket- 
tles. Broth was made of this valuable prize, 
and served out to the most weakly with great 
care. Most of the men got a small portion, 
but many of them gave a part of theirs to 
the more famished, jocosely saying some- 
thing cheering to their comrades. This lit- 
tle refreshment gave renewed life to the 
company. We next crossed a deep but nar- 
row lake in the canoe3, and marching some 
distance, came to a copse of timber called 
Warrior's Island. We were now distant only 
two miles from town, which, without a sin- 
gle tree to obstruct the view, could be seen 
from the position we occupied. 

" The lower portions of the land between us 
and the town were covered with water, which 
served at this season as a resort for ducks 
and other fowl. We had observed several 
men out on horsoback shooting them, half a 
mile distant, and sent out as many of our 
active young Frenchmen to decoy and take 
one of them prisoner, in such a manner as 
not to alarm the others. Being successful 
in addition to the information which had 
be9n obtained from those taken on the river, 
the captive reported that the British had 
that evening completed the wall of the fort, 
and that there were a good many Indians in 
town. Our situation was truly critical. No 
possibility of retreat in case of defeat and 
in full view of the town, which at this time 
had 600 men in i t. — troops, inhabitants and 
Indians. The crew of the galley, though not 
fifty men, would now have been a reinforce- 
ment of immense magnitude to our little 
army, we could not think of waiting for 
them. Each had forgotten his suffering, and 
was ready for the fray, saying what he had 
suffered was nothing but what man should 
bear for the good of his country. The idea 
of being made a prisoner was foreign to 
every man, as each expected nothing but tort- 
ure if they fell into the hands of the Indi- 
ans. Our fate was to be determined in a few 
hours, and nothing but the most daring con- 
duct would insure success. I knew that a 
number of the inhabitants wished us well; 
that many were lukewarm to the interests 
of either party. I also learned that the 
Grand Door had but a few days before openly 
declared, in council with the British, that he 
was a brother and a friend of the Long Knives. 
These were favorable circumstances, as there 
was but little probability of our remaining 
until dark undiscovered. I determined to 
commence operations immediately, and wrote 
the following placard to people of the town: 



" ' To the Inhabitants of Vincknnes: 

" 'Qentlemen— Being now within two miles of your 
-village with my army, determined t'> take your fort 
this night, and not being willing to surprise you, I 
take this opportunity to request such of you as are 
true citizens, and willing to enjoy the liberty which 
I bring you, to remain still in your houses, and 
those, if there 1"- any. who are friends of the king. 
let them instantly repair to the fort, and join the 
Hair Buyer General and light like men; and if any 
of the latter do not go to the fort and shall be dis- 
covered afterward, they may depend upon severe 
punishment. <>n the contrary, those who are true 
friends to liberty, may depend upon being well 
treated, and I once more request them to keep out 
of the street--, for everyone I find in arms on my 
arrival shall be treated as an enemy 

We don't care to give the details of the 
capture of Gov. Hamilton and his forces in 
the fort and running up again over the 
stronghold the American flag, although it, 
like nearly every act of the great Clark's life, 
■wtis a historical fact that transcends in thrill- 
ing interest all fiction. Nothing, reader, 
could interest you more, if you are not al- 
ready familiar with the story, than to read 
in detail the history, as made by George 
Rogers Clark, of how the great Mississippi 
Valley was saved from the British Empire. 
There is not a line in the history of his 
transactions while here, by order of Gov. 
Henry, but that is material enough and to 
spare for the biography of almost any other 
hero. If there was any man in American 
history, except George Washington, who 
contributed as much to the material glory of 
our country, and who toiled amid greater pri- 
vations and .sufferings and with truer heroism, 
we are frank to say we do not just now re- 
member him. He was a true hero, great 
soldier and wise statesman, and it is strange 
the neglect that has followed his memory. 
There were Vigo, Helm. Private Hour; and 
their superb commander. Chirk, who here 
made the very ground of Clay County sacred 
by their presence here, as one of the most 

important parts of the Revolutionary army. 
We know of no other warrior in history who 
won as many battles — battles of more impor- 
tance than Waterloo or Thermopylae— without 
tiring a gun or wasting a drop of blood, but 
solely by his commanding and overpowering 
presence. With his little ragged squad of 
tatterdemalions, yet, each in his suffering, 
starvation and rags, made a sublime hero 
because of his commander, and with this 
burlesque of our ideas of an army, he never 
hesitated to invest any stronghold of the 
enemy, and to boldly demand an unconditional 
surrender. He always struck his blow when 
most unexpected, and the language that he 
used in his bold demand was of itself a 
panoplied army, and before the enemy had 
time to recover from the blow of the an- 
nouncement of his investment, he would be 
so pressed that he would call for a conference, 
and then Clark's victory was assured. The 
conference convened, his demands were only 
the more peremptory, and he stood, in the 
presence of the already conquered the one 
supreme master spirit, and the truce always 
ended by his receiving the enemy's surrender 
on his own terms, and then he would exhibit 
almost a stern ferocity, and just as the fallen 
foe had given up all for the executioner, he 
would, as he had intended all the time, at 
the last moment, relent, and bid the trembling 
supplicants stand up and be a brother, and 
then show them how magnanimous he could 
be as a friend, and thus the wisest purposes 
wore carried out. This original diplomacy, 
especially with the Indians, made those 
people both fear and love him, above, per 
haps, any other man who appeared in that 
And the descendants of the pioneers 
of all this great valley have really little or 
no conception of the debt of gratitude they 
owe the memory of Clark, in this particular 
respect, if in no other way. 



Thus, all this magnificent domain of the 
northwest was acquired, or rather we have 
briefly mentioned a few of the acts of the 
man to whom we owe this rich and magnifi- 
cent empire that has literally already fed the 

To take possession of this after Clark had 
wrested it from the enemy was the next nat- 
ural step. 

In the spring of 1779, Lieut. John Todd, of 
Kentucky, by commission of Patrick Henry, 
came to Kaskaskia and organized civil gov- 
ernment, which has gone on uninterruptedly 
ever since, and under its continuation we now 

At this period, with the exception of the 
French along the Mississippi, and a few fam- 
ilies along the Wabash, the whole country 
was the abode of the savage Indian. 

The first Western emigration commenced 
at this time, and the descendants of several 
of +hese early pioneers are here yet. It is a 
singular fact that it was the wars that always 
helped Illinois. Soldiers would be sent 
campaigning over the State, and the country 
was so beautiful that they would return, and 
to this we owe many of the best citizens that 
have ever come to the State of the noble band 
of Clark's soldiers who made that immortal 
march, from Kaskaskia to Vincennes, and 
passed through Clay County, and that at 
once became permanent citizens of Illinois; 
we have the record of James Piggot, John 
Doyle (afterward the first school teacher), 
Robert Whitehead and a Mr. Bowen. 

St. Clair County was organized in 1700, 
and named in honor of the first territorial 
Governor. The boundaries of this, the 
mother of counties in this State, included 
the present State boundaries, extending as 
far north as the Little Mackinaw Creek on 

the Illinois River. This of course included 
what is now Clay County. 

The next step in which the local history of 
this part of Illinois is concerned, was the 
extinguishment of the Indian titles to the 
lands we now enjoy and possess. Our peo- 
ple as a rule, in fact without exception, in all 
matters of transfer of lands, make no further 
inquiry after titles, except to trace them to the 
Government, but as a fact and as a part of 
the history of every acre of land in all this 
part of the world, the titles were all at one 
time in the Indians, and the country's 
records show that these original owners 
passed the title first to the Government, and 
this was a condition precedent to that power 
possessing a title to give to its inhabitants. 

August 13, 1803, the treaty of Vincennes 
was concluded with the Kaskaskias. The 
expressed consideration being $580 in cash, 
an increase in their annuity, under the treaty 
of Greenville, to $1,000, and $300 toward 
building a church and an annual payment 
for seven years of $100 to a Catholic 
priest stationed among them. The tribe of 
Kaskaskias, reduced to a few hundred individ- 
uals, but still representing the once powerful 
confederacy of the Illinois, ceded to the 
United States, except a small reservation, 
all that tract included within a line beginning 
below the mouth of the Illinois, descending 
the Mississippi to its junction with the 
Ohio, as ending the latter to the Wabash, and 
from a point up the latter, west to the Missis- 
sippi River, embracing the greater part of 
Southern Illinois, some 8,608,167 acres. 

The reader will readily understand that we 
have not attempted a synopsis of the early 
history of Illinois, but only the briefest refer- 
ence to that portion of the general history 
as has references or connection with this 
particular part of Illinois. 









reader must bear in mind that the whole face 
of the country has undergone during the past 
thirty or forty years a great change. Natural 
and artificial drainage has dried the lagoons 
and swamps until farms in a high state of 
cultivation have taken their places. The 
once almost impenetrable forests have given 
place to well trimmed and cleaned pasture 
lands, and all of that wildness that once 
reigned here oppressively in its magnitude 
has disappeared before the patient industry 
of man. Only a few years ago, during the 
rainy spring seasons, it was almost impossi- 
ble to cross these prairies with a team, even 
where the road had been thrown up in the 
center, and ditches had been cut at the sides 
to let off the world of surplus water. On the 
untouched prairies was a strong sod, strong 
enough to bear up a horse and man, as well 
as strong enough to bear a wagon, unless 
heavily laden. And it would bear even the 
heaviest wagon, except in this very wet 
spring weather. Plenty of men can well re- 
member that at one time vou could by jump- 
ing up and down at times and iu numerous 
places shako the sod for a rod all around. 
The action of the strong sod was as though 
it rested solely upon water, and to a certain 
extent this really seems to have been the 
case. Where once were large ponds that 
would be the resort of all kinds of water 
fowls in the spring of the year, are now dry 

rpHE first settler in Clay County was John 
-*- McCawley, as tine a specimen of the 
pioneer and genuine man in every respect as 
ever made his name a household word that 
cannot perish in any new community. When 
it was simply a desert wild, with nothing but 
the wild beast, the game and the Indian, this 
man came and took up his abode, and he 
made friends of the Indians, captured the 
game for his family supplies, and commenced 
the work of exterminating the wild beasts, 
which were the enemies to every living thing 
that came in their way, and contributed 
nothing toward the good of the world. He 
was a splendid type of man evidently for the 
heroic work that had been set apart for him 
to do. It is much to say of any one that he 
was the first white man to settle in a county. 
The simple statement of the fact to any one 
who at all bears in mind all that the term 
implies — its hardships and dangers, its drear- 
iness and loneliness in the eternal solitudes; 
its oppressive silence, save the scream of the 
panther, or the " war-whoop that oft woke 
the sleep of the cradle; " the prowling wolf 
and the fear-inspiring hoot of the owl, like a 
midnight messenger of evil — and when the 
day and its quiet solitude would come, it 
only aroused the greonhead fly, whose ravon- 
ous armies upon the broad prairies made any 
attempt to dispute their possession both a 
daring and a dangerous one indeed. The 



farms. The water would fall over a large 
portion of the prairies, and lie where it fell, 
and have to await the slow process of evapor- 
ation or soaking into the ground before it 
would disappear. The rainfall was not 
greater then than now, but so small a quanti- 
ty had such lasting effects and was slow to 
disappear, that the evils the superabundant 
waters produced were an hundred-fold great- 
er then than now. To these waters upon the 
prairies was added the dense, tall, prairie 
grass, almost every vestige of which has now 

This country was once the regular rang- 
ing place of the buffalo, and a fact not known 
to many people is, that with the disappear- 
ance of the buffalo, disappears invariably the 
buffalo grass. Hence this peculiar grass 
must have atone time prevailed all over these 
prairies, and as the buffalo crossed the Mis- 
sissippi not to return again, his grass seems 
to have followed him, and then it was that 
the prairie grass came to be in its turn ex- 
terminated by the present grasses, and it is 
the judgment of the writer that a few years 
will witness the disappearance of all the 
present wild grasses, to be followed by the 
final grass that is the handmaiden of the 
highest state of laud cultivation — the blue 

Mr. McCawley had started West. His pi- 
lot and guiding star on his route was the old 
" Vinsans " trace, as the old Vincennes, St. 
Louis & Kaskaskia Indian and buffalo path 
was called and known in the early day. 
When he came, it had been twenty-two years 
since George Rogers Clark and his noble 
band of heroes had passed over the ground 
where MaCawley concluded to stop and erect 
his roof- tree. 

The Kaskaskia Indians had ceded to the 
Government all these lands in Illinois seven 
years before he came here, that is, the treaty 

was made in 1803, and the title had run in 
the General Government seven years before 
any white man came to claim any part or por- 
tion of them as a home. The Indians were 
here, and they alone were the only semblance 
of man to hold dispute with the wild beasts. 
The best title had belonged to the Kaskaskias, 
and it was of them the Government acquired 
its title, but other Indians were here, chiefly 
the Kickapoos. but all, Indian-like, were 
roving hunters, nomadic in all their habits, 
always professing the greatest friendship 
for the whites when begging salt and some- 
thing to eat; yet by those who knew them 
best, they were always trusted the least. The 
Indian and his congeners, the wolf and the 
greenhead fly, the bear and the deer, and the 
panther, have gone, and one has left, like the 
other, nothing but a memory. All these 
were beasts, but the Indian is called human, 
because of his vastly superior sense, but as to 
values there were many species of game that 
have disappeared whose loss will always be 
regarded as far greater than that of the red 
man. We know nothing of the Indian ex- 
cept what we saw of him after we found him 
in the possession of a country that he had 
not the intelligence to hold or appreciate. 
How long they had been in this country we 
now have no means of knowing — it is doubt- 
ful if the race knew anything on this subject 
themselves. Their interest and information 
as to their own early history was satisfied 
with a few incoherent and impossible tra- 
ditionary tales. And now the white man, 
the natural archaeologists of the world, are 
prying everywhere in the Indian's tracts to 
trace his story back to its origin. For a long 
time it was believed they had built the 
mounds, and, therefore, they had once pos- 
sessed a superior civilization and had been 
the happy possessors of great and strong cen- 
tralized governments; perhaps spelling na- 



tion with a big N. This theory is not yet en- 
tirely abandoned, but the better opinion 
among patient investigatoi-s is, that at the 
most, the Indian found the mounds here 
when he came, and that he used portions of 
them as suitable burying places, and it is 
only possible that there was among the many 
different tribes of fighting red men here, 
some of the many who had sufficient intelli- 
gence to do this. Because we have seen 
that those we found hero buried their dead 
in trees, on poles, and in various ways above 
ground. No. The Indians that the whites 
found here built no mounds, nor did they 
build anything else. Every pulsation of 
their nature opposed the very idea of slavery. 
The Indian was ready to die, but never to be 
a slave. The peoples who built all such 
works as the mounds were slaves. This is 
true of all the groat historical works — works 
where great time and innumerable numbers 
of men were necessary to do the actual labor. 
Thus, the pyramids, a monument to slaves 
alone — slaves did the work, and the infinites- 
imal glory that may bo extracted therefrom 
belongs to them alone. And this silly hunt 
of half-cracked enthusiasts wbo go upon their 
pilgrimages to thesphynx and the pyramids, 
the Kremlin and the ruins of Alhambra, are 
only feeding a transparent delusion, in sup- 
posing they will ever find there the evidences 
of some supremely exalted evidences of civ- 
ilization and intelligence. 

We say it was the opposite of all we know 
of the Indian character to suppose he or 
any of his kind over built a mound. The 
Indian was intelligent; and shiftless, but 
every tissue of his body was at war with be- 
coming a slave. The Brat whites that ever 
looked upon the shores of this continent saw 
about the same characteristics in the Indian 
that we see to day. His shrewdness taught 
him to bo jealous of the superior white man 

and his coming, and he inaugurated a war 
that he then could not know, must sooner or 
later end in the utter extermination of his 
race. The struggle was long and bitter. 
Many a campaign was planned by warriors 
fit to command great armios for the destruc- 
tion of the whito invaders. Their King 
Philip was beyond doubt their Napoleon and 
Hannibal, and when he delivered his blow the 
white man for the first time was awakened to 
the serious and bloody work before him. The 
endurance, courage and bravery of the whito 
man was taxed to its utmost throughout all 
New England. Then in the West was his 
compeer, Tecumseh, who, like Philip, real- 
ized the power of organization and union 
among the roving tribes, and his was to be 
the supreme general effort in the West to 
stay the on-marching civilization. The 
Creeks challenged the people of the South to 
mortal combat, and it required all the genius 
of a Jackson to withstand the desperate as- 
saults. In 1814 was fought the decisive 
battle of Tohopeko, and since then there has 
been no memorable battles with the Indians, 
at least none where the supremacy of the 
whites was seriously menaced. The Black 
•Hawk war, about the last organized effort, 
required but a few weeks' service of raw 
militia to quell. Since that day, in 1832, cam- 
paigns have dwindled into mere raids, battles 
iDto mere skirmishes or ambuscades, and the 
Custer massacre in Montana was merely an 
accident. No possible number of such oc- 
currences could menace any fractional portion 
of the country. It was a melancholy affair 
indeed, but like a sad accident at a fire or 
railroad and no longer felt than they. 

The Indian, as a race, is doomed by the 
inexorable laws of humanity to a speedy ex- 
tinction. Accepting the inevitable with the 
stoical indifference which the instinct of 
self-preservation or the promptings of re- 



venge seldem disturb, he may excite pity 
only now, certainly not fear. Discouraged 
and demoralized, helpless and hopeless, he 
sits down to await a swiftly approaching 
fate; and if now and then in feeble and 
hopeless bands he treads the war-path, and 
takes here and there a defenseless scalp, it is 
more from force of habit and the savage in- 
stinct for blood, than from any hope of check- 
ing or crippling the power that is swiftly 
sweeping him and his out of existence. 

AVhatabrief time ago it was the white man 
lived in this country by the red man's consent, 
and less than a century ago the combined 
Indian strength properly handled might have 
driven the whites into the sea. In the oldest 
settlements of the country are still to be 
found the moldering remains of the rude 
fortifications the settlers had to build to de- 
fend themselves and families from the hosts 
of enemies around them, but now where can 
need be for snch protection from the Indian ? 
If any, certainly, only a few points in Arizo- 
na, New Mexico and Oregon. The fierce 
enemy that once encamped his clans in their 
hideous war paint, within sound of the waves 
of the Atlantic shores, has retreated across 
the Alleghanies, the Mississippi, the Rockies, 
and now in all this settled country of fifty 
millions of people, there is nothing left of 
the tribes save an occasional name that was 
of their invention or use, with here and there 
a degraded remnant of a once powerful tribe, 
dragging out a miserable existence as the 
most wretched of beggars, and outcasts 
among their conquerors. A very few years 
hence and the Indian will live only in story 
and song. He will leave nothing behind 
him but a memory, for he has done nothing 
and been nothing. He has been consistent 
only in his resistence to all attempts to civi- 
lize him — every attempt to inject the white 
man's ideas into the Indian brain. He has 

not wanted and would never have our morals, 
manners, religion or civilization, and has 
clung to his own and perished with them. 
There is but one redeeming thing that should 
linger forever in the memories of the savage, 
and that was that he preferred the worst pos- 
sible freedom to the best and even luxurious 
slavery. More attempts were made to enslave 
him than to civilize him; a nod of assent to 
hew wood and draw water for the superior race, 
and, like the negro, he might now be living 
by the million and enjoying the blessings of 
Bible and breeches, and sharing the honors of 
citizenship and the sweets of office, seeking 
and receiving the bids of rival political par- 
ties, and selling his vote and even his influ- 
ence at the polls, and then going to a na- 
tional convention and gathering in more 
shekels for a single district vote than all his 
tribe got for an indefeasible title to the half 
of the State of Illinois. No; he would not 
do this, because his make-up was such he 
could not be a slave. He chose rather to die. 
Whether his choice was a wise one, the read- 
er can say for himself; but it is impossible 
not to find some little spark of respect to that 
indomitable spirit that accepted sufferings 
unspeakable, and hardships cruel unto death, 
but who never bowed his neck to the yoke, 
never called any man " master." 

The treatment of the Indian by the white 
race is not defensible as a whole. Gov- 
ernment officials have robbed, cheated and 
lied to them so long and so persistently — not 
satisfied with this, the rascally Government 
Indian rings have time and again, indeed 
almost times without number, forced them to 
commit depredations, or white men would 
commit an outrage to lay at their doors, and 
all that these rascals might call out the army 
to punish the Indian, but really to increase 
their stealings. Such accursed action on the 
part of officials and their ring friends was 


it 13 

not only a deep outrage upon the Indians 
and whites, but against humanity. What- 
ever else the red man may be. he is no fool, 
and for 250 years ho has experiences of thp 
white man's dishonesty and double dealing 
that were dismal enough to cause us not to 
wonder that he will have none of our man- 
ners, morals or religion, and away back of 
these swindling agencies was a sickly sen- 
tiniontalism, that read Cooper's silly novels 
about the Indian, and went over the country 
prating and mouthing about taking away his 
birthright and his lands. One was the hon- 
est sentimentalism of fools, and the other the 
cunning of crafty thieves. The talk of the 
sentimentalists about the Indian being here 
first, as beautiful as it may be, applies with 
as much force to the wolves and snakes the 
red man found here as it does to the Indian. 
The snakes were here probably before the 
wolves. So long as there was none to dis- 
pute their title, they wore not disturbed, but 
the snake or the wolf when he came be- 
tween the Indian and his welfare and exist- 
ence, was mercilessly scotched and killed. 

The Indian stood as a barrier in the path- 
way of civilization, and it was best that he 
has perished. It is nonsense to talk about 
his being a human; in the economy of God 
even, everything human perishes, and the 
existence of the Indian was not only not pos- 
sible, but it was infinitely better that it 
should be as it is. It is the law of the " sur- 
vival of the fittest." A law of nature appli- 
cable to all living things, animal or vege- 
table or human, and like all nature's laws 
cannot change, nor can it possibly be avoid- 
ed. It is inflexible, inexorable, eternal, and 
cunning schemes to cheat nature are only 
prolonging the agony, the inevitable throes 
of death and extinction that await the infe- 
rior in the presence of its superior. The 
white man is civilized, not perfect, not per- 

Eeotible, but he is the Indian's superior, as 
lit* is the superior of the negro and the Mon 
golian. The Anglo Saxon is the superior of 
the white races, and he is becoming, and will 
be, if he is not already, the world's master, 
because " blood will tell." 

The Tribes of Southern Illinois wero the 
Delawares, Kickapoos, Shawnoes and Pianke- 
shaws,wi th many fragmentary bands of various 
other tribes. Of these, the Delawares were 
once the most powerful tribe. They called 
themselves the Lenno-Lenape, signifying 
"unmixed" men. When the country was 
first discovered, they occupied much of the 
shores of the Hudson River, and along the 
Atlantic coast. Their traditions, not enti- 
tled to much consideration, however, were 
that they had occupied the whole continent 
at one time and another. 

Tecumseh' s Army. — As previously stated, 
Mr. John McCawley had located where the 
old town of Maysville was afterward laid off 
in 1810. He had proceeded quietly in build- 
ing him a home for his family, and opening 
the first improvement, not only in what is 
now Clay County, but the first for a wide 
stretch of country in every direction then in 
Illinois. Vincennes was his nearest trading 
point, and as for neighbors he had none ex- 
cept the Indians With these he held honor- 
able and friendly intercourse. 

Ho had lived along in this way for nearly 
two years, when Tecumseh's army that he 
had been gathering in the north began to 
pass. The very presence of these men meant 
war upon all whites. McCawley was informed 
by some friendly neighbors of what was go- 
ing on, and that he must fly for his life. 
But the details of all this are fully given in 
the history of Clay City Township, to be 
found in another chapter, and to which we 
refer the reader. 

In every line of the history of the county 




and the story of this portion of the State be- 
fore the county was formed, the name of 
John McCawley is connected and is in fact 
the chief part ; and from that day to the pres- 
ent hour, the name has passed along and 
borne the same honorable distinction and 
wide respect that was conferred upon it by 
its original founder. His two sons now re- 
side in the county and they are both men of 
wealth, high standing and untarnished repu- 
tations. But as their biographies appear in 
full in another part of the work, the reader 
will naturally turn there for further par- 

Philip Devore, Seth Evans and a Mr. 
Circles soon followed the second coming of 
John McCawley to the county. We cannot 
now find any one able to tell us Mr. Circles' 
given name, but he is remembered well by 
all the very early settlers, because of the fact 
that he put up a horse mill east of Flora, and 
for some time furnished bread, or the means 
of grinding their own corn, to the early set- 

John and Benjamin Bishop settled near 
where the town of Iola now stands, and were 
the first adventurers in this portion of the 

John Sutton and a family named Smith set- 
tled near what is now Oskaloosa. For many 
years this was known as Sutton's Point, tak- 
ing its name from John Sutton's improve- 
ment. It would seem that without any 
strong reason, it was a pity not to continue 
to know the place perpetually by its original 
name in honor of this early settler. 

In 1818, William Lewis brought his family 
and settled in the western portion of the 

At the same time Thomas Elliott settled and 
commenced an improvement where John A. 
Gerhart now lives, a little east of Flora. And 
Math i as Meisenheimer came at the same time, 

and settled on the west side of Raccoon Creek, 
on a farm owned now by Seth F. Hinkley. 

In 1S'2'2, came Isaac Elliott, Isaac Mont- 
gomery, James McGrew, John M. Griffith and 
John Onstott, who settled in the western por- 
tion of the county. 

The following is a tolerably complete list 
of the early settlers of Clay County with their 
respective ages: Francis Apperson, eighty - 
three; Isaac Elliutt, eighty-five; John L. 
Crutchfield, seventy-four; J. J. Spriggs, 
sixty-five; Abraham Songer, seventy-seven; 
John Peirce, seventy-two; Jacob Songer, 
eighty-one; Jesse Blair, seventy- four; Joseph 
Bishop, seventy- six; Sarah Bishop, seventy- 
one; Enoch Sceif, seventy-two: Elizabeth 
Sceif, seventy-one; Crawford Erwin, sixty- 
five; M. A. Davis, sixty-five; A. P. Cox, sev- 
enty-five; A. J. Moore, seventy-four; Felix 
Cockerell, seventy four; Robert N. Smith, 
sixty-five; Basil Davis, sixty-nine; Margaret 
Davis, sixty-two; Isaac Baity, sixty-eight; 
James Baity, sixty-seven; Mary S. Saunders, 
sixty-three; Alexander Baity, fifty-seven; 
Louis A. Tolliver, sixty six; Levi Onstott, 
sixty-seven; W. L. Colclasure, sixty-two; 
James Hoard, sixty-seven; Sarah A. Morris, 
fifty-nine; Theodore McKennelly, sixty-six; 
Silas Ooton, fifty-eight; R. McClellan, fifty- 
two; Jesse Montgomery, seventy-one; Feild- 
den Bridgewaters, sixty-seven; Samuel Jones, 
fifty-one; I. W. Craig, fifty one; Daniel 
Moore, sixty; J. P. Aldridge, fifty-one; 
Henry Long, seventy; J. C. Craig, fifty-one; 
Thomas Higgenbotham, fifty-oDe; F. C. 
Smith sixty-seven; Harvey Gray, fifty-nine; 
M. P. Harris, eighty-one; William McCoily, 
Joseph Colclasure, Mrs. E. J. Colclasure. 

As seen in the records of the offices and the 
courts, among the prominent men here at 
the organization of the county was Thomas 
McCrackiu. In 1825, he was appointed to 
take the census of the county, and in 1835 



Robert Toler was appointed to till the Fame 

This list does not include all the first settlers 
in the county, nor all of those who were here 
thetirst decade of the county's existence as a 
municipality. Of course the first scattered 
and sparsely populated settlement was col- 
lected around the McCawley settlement; the 
next was probably around the settlement made 
by Thomas Elliott. 

This is a pretty full list of those who may 
properly be termed old settlers here who are 
now, or were a few months ago, still among 
tin' living. They are the relics of the One- 
Leg Bedstead Age that came, nourished 
in its day of usefulness, and is gone> 
never to return. To many readers of to-day 
this will sound strange, and they will not 
comprehend that this is possible. The writer 
having made one and slept in it, is prepared 
to say that nearly all the first bedsteads were 
made with one post or leg. To start with, 
you must have an unplastered log house, 
then a post and two bed rails; each rail is 
fastened in an auger hole in the wall, the 
sides of the house wall forming the end and 
one side of the bed, and thus a one-legged 
bedstead is complete, and here has been 
found as refreshing rest and as sweet dreams 
as ever came to the royal iulaid bedstead of 
magnificent carving, and that was clothed in 
down and royal laces. Another part and 
accompaniment of the one-legged bedstead, 
was the fact that this bed was not rolled 
about over the house to sweep, but was sta- 
tionary, and one of the earliest purchases of 
tho family was a few yards of bright calico 
— this was a great tax too, and only the 
wealthiest could afford it — to make a " val- 
ance " to run around the bed from wall to 
wall. In those days flooring was either hewn 
puncheons or plank that came from the 
" whip saw," and therefore the space under 

the bed, being hid from sight was left with- 
out any floor at all. True the dogs some- 
times made free use of this from their kennels, 
which was all under the house, to the warm 
corner with the children, with furtive looks 
at the food as the family ate, and sometimes 
ii" doubt a sweet pilfered morsel. But as 
said, the one-legged bedstead passed away, 
no one can tell exactly when or how, but not 
one has been in the county for years and 
years. It was in some way succeeded by the 
trundle-bed, the bed of nearly all our early 
ancestors here. It came; it seemed to strike 
all creation hereabouts at once, and mightily 
did it and its trundle-bed trash flourish for a 
long period It was simply a bed cinder a 
regular bed. The result of the happy com- 
bination was such that about every lied in 
the county might be said to be a two-story 
one. If the house was large enough, or the 
housekeeper not too indifferent, this trundle- 
bed would be pulled out at night, if there 
was room to do this, and during the day 
shoved back under the big bed, and thus a 
happy purpose, where house-room was scarce 
and children plenty, was served. 

The trundle-bed, too, has come and gone. 
It served its time and purpose, and its days 
are numbered, and now for years it is only a 
recollection among our older people, and, in 
a short time, the coming generation will read 
this and conclude that we are only romanc- 
ing. But the writer can bear testimony that 
boys slept in the trundle bed; in very cold 
weather it seems it was an economy in 
clothing to leave it in its place all night, un- 
til they were nearly huge enough to begin to 
oai ( sheep's eyes at Maria Jane away ai 
at the Point. 

Then came the store bed with its splendid 
sea grass-rope cord, that would be tightened 
up at least every spring, this requiring a 
man to get up on the ropes and walk on them 



by turns. It is proper to state that the first 
had holes bored in the rail, and it was some 
time afterward that the elegant improvement 
of turned knob or button, fastened on top of 
the rail, was introduced. It took many years 
to supersede this real advance in the early bed- 
stead. There was a loud and musical creak 
about these old rope bedsteads, that must 
have been inherited from the " truck " wagon 
— at one time the only musical instrument in 
the county. Did you, reader, ever see or 
hear a truck wagon? The wheels were sawed 
out of a large log, and were a solid piece of 
wood with a hole in the center; soft soap 
was the only grease ever used on them, and 
the writer can testify, when a little dry of 
soap, their "hullabaloo!" could bo heard 
for miles as they passed along the road. 

Social life at first was confined to house 
raisings and weddings. That is, these suc- 
ceeded the days of "forting. " The fun at 
these was boisterous and rough, but innocent 
and happy as the day was long. The young 
men when rigged out in a new tow-linen suit 
(commencing at about seventeen years old) 
were ready to go courting. They would most 
generally meet some of the brothers at a 
shooting match or at meeting, and go home 
with them and stay all night, sometimes 
three or four sleeping in the same bed. If 
there were many of the neighbors' girls there 
visiting at the same time, these were stowed 
away about as thickly. Somewhere in about 
these days, a great drink, called " metheglin," 
was here. This was made in every house- 
hold when they took their winter's honey; it 
was a part of the honey crop, and was simply 
the water of the waste honey made very sweet, 
and, by putting in a place with exactly the 
proper,temperaturo, a slight fermentation took 
place, and it was then ready to drink. But 
the good old " metheglin " days and times 
are gone. The memory of the writer is that 

they fled before the writing master, who 
came armed with the clarified goosequill, 
and, ye gods! what a flourish he was — what 
outstretched eagles, what twisted birds, and 
how he could write and encircle in flourishes 
the name of every one of his pupils, but the 
belle of the neighborhood he would always 
bring to his feet by the extra touch of dot- 
ting the letters of her sweet name with poke- 
berry juice — red and blue! — he always used 
blue ink — emblems of his constancy and his 
bleeding heart. He thus had assailed every 
well-to-do farmer's daughter in every neigh- 
borhood he had ever visited, but could mortal 
girl — Martha Clementina Rhoda Emelina — 
withstand all of Cupid's assaults, think you? 
Indeed no! The wedding was the affair of 
the day. She caught the writing master, 
and only one or two envious girls of doubt- 
ful age, who tossed their heads and rattled 
their corkscrew curls in contempt of " such a 
catch!" while all others rejoiced, and the 
little world for miles determined to attend 
the wedding. 

At the house of the bride was commotion, 
and a gathering of the neighbor's girls for 
days before the great event. Pumpkin pies, 
apple pies, plum pies, bride's cake and sweet 
cake and cakes, and raisin cakes and chick- 
ens and float! ah! thou nectar, float! and 
more chicken and cake and float, and hams 
boiled by the cauldron and kettleful, and 
still more hams and cake and pie, and float! 
oh! float on forever! The morning of the 
great day came, and the watchmen from the 
house of the bride, cried out: " Behold the 
bridegi-oom cometh!" and then there was 
swiftly mounting of all about the premises 
who rushed out to meet the groom and his 
party, and put forth their fleetest horse and 
safest rider in the "race for the bottle." 
The party with the groom accepted the chal 
lautre, and sent forth their best horse and 



rider; a straight stretch in the road, about 
half a mile usually, was selected, judges 
posted, the riders mounted and the race ran; 
the winner then was handed the bottle and 
all its fluttering ribbons, and the cavalcade 
rode to the house in great glee.