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Entered according tx) Act ot Congi-ess. in tlie year l&stt, by 


[n the Olliw of the Librarian of C^ongi'ess. Washington, D. C. 

/^ lO^P"^ 



Woodward's Commencement. 

Act of Legislature Establishing Wayne County — Original 
Boundaries — Population in 1800 — Milford and Wilsonville, 
the First Seats of Justice — Permanent Location of the 
Courts at Bethany and Erection of the First County Build- 
ings — Attempts to Change the Location Abortive — The 
People Refuse to Comply with Legislative Enactment — 
First County Commissioners — Beginning of Official Mis- 
deeds and Delinquencies — Sacredness of Public Trusts — 
A Depleted Treasury — Investigating County Finances — 
An Era of Progress and Prosperity — Navigating the Dela- 
ware — How Sui)plies were Procured — Division of the 
County 1 . 


The Indians. 

Wronged and Abused by Invaders — The Tribes that Inhabited 
Wayne County — The Chai-ter Granted to W^illiam Penn — 
A Treaty that was Never Broken — No Quaker Blood Ever 
Shed by an Indian — How the Boundaries of Penn's Prov- 
ince were Determined — Dissatisfaction of the Indians — 
Wars and Massacres — The Great Council at Easton — 
Peace Concluded — Indian Plot to Annihilate the Whites 
— Mountains and Valleys Crimsoned with Blood and Car- 
nage — Bounties Offered for Indian Scalj^s — The Red Men 
Alarmed and Plead for Peace — Final Purchase of their 


Lands — Charter Granted to Connecticut — Disjjuted Titles 
— Misguided Indian Revenge — Final Settlement of Diffi- 
culties — Description of the Indians and their Mode of Life 
—Their Belief in a Future State— The Tribes almost Ex- 
tinct 12 


Wayne County. 

After Whom it was Named — Its Geology, Climate, and For- 
ests 32. 



The Animals that Once Roamed the County's Forests — Anec- 
dotes about the Bear — Description of the Bear, Wolf, 
Panther, Deer, Elk, Beaver, Marten, Raccoon, Wood- 
chuck, Hedgehog, Skunk, Otter, Musk-Rat, Mink, Wea- 
sel, Squirrel, Wild-Cat, Fox, Hare, and Rabbit 42. 



The Birds of the Past and Present — A Description of their 
Plumage and Peculiarities — Why they Rear their Young 
at the North — The Dyberry Taxidermist 62. 



The Trout — Other Fish — Introduction of Black Bass by Mc- 
Kown 91. 



The Rattlesnake — The Whiskey Antidote for its Bite — Unven- 
omous Reptiles 94 




Those that Abound m the County — Honey-Bees — How they 
were Kept by the First Settlers — Their Wisdom 95. 


Land-Titles and Subveys. 

The Penn Family Accused of Being Adherents of the British 
Government — Confiscation of Estates — The Land- Office — 
Early Prices of Unimproved Land — Laws in Regard to 
State Lands — Unprofitable Investments — Jason Torrey, 
Agent for the Sale of Lands in "Wayne and Pike Counties 
— Subsequent Agents — Inaccuracy of the Original Sur- 
veys — Present Declination of the Needle — Land- Warrants 
— How they were Granted — County Surveyor — "Cham- 
ber Surveys. " 97. 



The First Judges — President Judges — Associate Judges — Sher- 
iffs — Prothonotaries — Registers and Recorders 108. 


Townships — Damascus. 

Damascus — Its Early Settlement— The Minisinks — First Set- 
tlers — First Attempt to Run Logs to Market on the Dela- 
ware a Failure — Perseverance and Ingenuity Rewarded 
with Success — The First Raft that Successfully Descended 
the River — Settlers Attacked by the Indians —The Mur- 
der of Kane and his Family — The Whites Flee from their 
Homes — Subsequent Attacks by Marauding Whites — Bit- 
ter Dissensions about Titles of Lands — Effect of the Wyo- 
ming Massacre — Battle of Minisink — Gen. Sullivan's Ex- 
pedition into the Indian Country — Return of the Settlers 
to their Homes and the Reign of Peace — Brief Sketches;of 
the Early Settlers — The Hamlets of Branningville, Darby- 
town, Damascus, Milan ville, and Tyler Hill llV. 



Townships — Lebanon. 

Its Lands, Streams, aud Ponds — First Settlements — Sliields- 
boro' — Incidents of Pioneer Life — Sketches of the Early 
Settlers — Agriculture their Chief Pursuit and Depend- 
ence 140. 


Townships — PALaiYKA. 

Taken Prisoner by the Indians — An Ingenious Escape — Jones, 
and not Haines, the Murderer of Can ope — First Improve- 
ments — Sketches of the Pioneers — Strange Curiosities — 
Com23letion of the Delaware & Hudson Canal — The Penn- 
sylvania Company's Gravity Railroad — The Failure of a 
Great Project — Falls of the Wallenpaupack — A Water- 
power of Immense Magnitude — A Mammoth Pine — Schools 
and Churches 156. 


Townships — Paupack. 

When Erected — Silas Purdy, Sen., the First Settler — Names 
and Sketches of the Early Residents — "The Shades of 
Death " — A Touching Incident 165. 


Townships — Canaan. 

One of the Original Townships — Its Soil and Productions — 
The Easton and Belmont, and Milford and Owego Turn- 
pikes—Great Thoroughfares in their Day— The First Fam- 
ilies that Settled in the Township — A Sketch by Asa Stan- 
ton — Mrs. Frisbie — Her Interpretation of the Command, 
"Thou Shalt not Kill "—Merciful to all of God's Creatures 
— The Borough of Waymart 170. 


Townships — Mount Pleasant. 
The Smtzerland of Northern Pennsylvania — A Paradise in 


Summer, and a Siberia in Winter— Streams and Ponds- 
Former Great Thoroughfares— The First Settler— Fir. 
Public House— Sketches of the First Settlers— Their Hart 
ships and Struggles to Procure Food and Raiment— Lcs 
Children— The Meredith Family— The First Treasurer ( ■ 
the United States— His Place of Interment Unmarkcvl- 
An Aged Lady— Standing Sentinel for Her Husband lu- 
ing the Revolution— Poetry by Asa Stanton, Entitle.) 
'♦ The Golden Age of Mount Pleasant. " l<Si 


Townships — Buckingham. 

Streams and Lakes — The Township Assessment in 1806 — Sui 
uel Preston, Sen., the First Settler — Stockport — He.. 
Merchandise was Conveyed up the Delaware — Durha , 
Boats— Wayne County's First Associate Judge — The Pre 
ton. Knight, and Dillon Families 21 


Townships — Manchesteb. 

Its Original Name — A Box of Maple Sugar Sent to Georj^^ 
Washington — His Letter of Acknowledgment — A Coi ; 
pany Formed to Manufacture Maple Sugar and Pei 
Ashes — Streams and Ponds — Early Residents — Matthi 
Mogridge — His Eventful Life— He Fights Gen. Jacks* 
at New Orleans — Accompanies Napoleon to St. Helena 
A Visit to His Native Country, and His Call on Hora 
Greeley — The Village of Equinunk 21; 


TowT^SHiPs — Scott. 

Streams and Lakelets — The Soil and its Productions — Sh« 
man— Names of the Early Settlers— The North-East C< 
ner of Pennsylvania 2/ 


Townships — Preston. 
Named in Honor of Judge Preston — N oted for its Numero 

:iiji CONTENTS. 

I Lakes and Ponds — Destined to be an Important Bntter- 

j Making District — Early Settlers — A Sketch of Pioneer 

\ Life, and Some Interesting Anecdotes, by C. P, Tallman 

^ — Starrncca Borough 289, 


I Townships — Salem. 

When Erected — Division of the Township and Erection of 
Lake — Names and Sketches of the First Settlers — Battles 
with the Indians — The Author of Wood bridge's Geogra- 
phy — The Township's Hamlets, Churches, and Schools — 
The First Postmaster and the First Store — The Time 
when only Two Newspapers were Taken in the Township 
— The News of the Battle of Waterloo Four Months in 
Reaching the Beech Woods 260 


Townships — Steeling and Drehek. 

The Lands— The First Settler—Resident Taxables at the Time 
of the Town's Formation — The First Grist-Mill and Saw- 
Mill — Sketches of the Original Settlers — Mingled Nation- 
alities — Peaceful, Law- Abiding People — New Township — 
Named in Honor of Judge Dreher 279. 


Townships — Cheery Ridge. 

Settlement Commenced before the Organization of the County 
—The Assessment of 1799— Sketches of the First Settlers 
— Origin of the Township's Name 286. 


Townships — Dyberry. 

Formed from Palmyra, Canaan, and Damascus — Sketches of 
the First Settlers — The First County Commissioner Elec- 
ted by the People — The Hamlets of Dyberry and Tanners 
Falls— Establishment of a Glass-Factory 292. 



Borough of Bethany. 

The Coimty Seat — Land Deeded to the Comity by Henry 
Drinker — Convening of the First Court — The First Conrt- 
House and Jail — Imprisonment for Debt — The First 
Dwelling and First Public House — Growth of the Bor- 
ough — A Noted Surveyor— By Whom the First House 
was Built in Honesdale — Sketches of the Early Besidents 
— An Impartial Judge — The First Newspaper Published 
in Wayne County— The Birth-place of *'Ned Buntline" 
—Removal of the County-Seat — The Old Court-House 
Converted into a University — Churches and Societies — 
Alonzo Collins' Poetic Description of the Place 303. 


Townships — Clinton. 

When Erected— Jefferson Railroad— Sketch by Alva W. Norton 
— Early Settlers — Aldenville — Churches and Schools . . 322. 


Borough of Prompton. 
When Incorporated — First Settlers — Taxables — Schools . . 330. 


Townships — Berlin. 

When Erected — The First Assessment and First Taxables — 
Transportation and Travel between Honesdale and the Erie 
Railroad — Sketches of Noted Settlers — Beech Pond — Tan- 
ning and Lumbering — Honesdale and Texas Poor 332. 


Townships — Oregon. 

When Erected — Streams and Ponds — The Adams Family — 
Probable Origin of the Name — Early Events — Girdland — 
First Land Taken up by Jason Torrey 338. 


Townships — Texas. 

When Erected — White Mills — Dorfiinger's Celebrated Glass- 


Works — Indian Orchard— Leonardsville— Tracy ville— First 
Grist-mill — Honesdale Glass Company — White's Ax Fac- 
tory — Seelyville — Rev. Jonathan Seely — The First Settler 
— First House and First Koad — Sket<;li of R. L. Seely — 
Other Settlers —Manufactures — Election Districts 342. 


BoBOUGH OF Honesdale. 

First Clearing — Attempts at Coal Transportation — Construc- 
tion of the D. & H. Canal — Gravity Railroad — Opening of 
the Canal — Original and Present Shipments of Coal — After 
whom Honesdale was Named — Wlien Incorporated — When 
Made the County Seat — Honesdale Bank — Hawley and 
Honesdale Branch of the Erie Railway — First Beginners 
in Honesdale — The First Locomotive in America — First 
Settlers and First Merchants — A Noted Tavern Keeper — 
Surviving Old Settlers — Past and Present Physicians — 
Postmasters — Christian Denominations — The Hebrews — 
D. & H. Canal Company — The Soldiers' Monument — The 
County's Soldier-Dead — Foster's Tannery — Members of 
Wayne County Bar— Manufactures and Industries— Schools 
and their Principals — Court-Houses — Newspapers. . . .354:. 


Palmyka, Pike County. 

First Settlers — Troubles with the Indians and Tories — Battle 
of Wyoming — Fleeing of the Settlers — Their Return. .381. 



Life in the Log-Cabins — School-Houses and Schools — The 
First Church Organized in the County — Religious Denom- 
ination s — Manufactures — Agriculture- -Pennsylvania Coal 
Company — Population of the County 387. 


Pike County. 

The County Seat— Milford— Noted Men— The Route over 
which the Early Pioneers * * Columbused " their Way to 
Wyoming Valley — Conclusion 406. 


In the year 1873, Hon. Geo. W. Woodward an- 
nounced his purpose to write a history of Wayne 
county, and came hither to gather up materials 
for his work. Being a native of the county, reared 
and educated therein, and acquainted with many of 
the original settlers, also, having been a member of 
the conventions that framed the Constitutions of the 
State in 1838 and 1873, and a member of Congress, 
and judge of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, his 
position, legal attainments, and extensive knowledge 
peculiarly fitted him to write a popular history of his 
native county. In the summer of 1874 he told me 
that the task of compiling his history would take more 
time than he had at first anticipated ; that he had 
written only a few pages, but that he intended to have 
it published by the commencement of the Centennial 
year. I never saw him afterwards, altliough I contin- 
ued, at his request, to collect materials for his proposed 


work. He sailed for Europe, from Philadelphia, 
October 22d, 1874, and died at Kome, May 10th, 
1875, of pneumonia, complicated with Roman fever. 
Some months after the death of the Judge, his son, 
Hon. Stanley Woodward, of Wilkesbarre, generously 
returned to me all the manuscripts and material that 
I had collected for the construction of his father's his- 
tory. He had written eleven pages. How large a 
book he designed to write, and in what manner he 
would have arranged its contents, I know not. He 
strongly assured me of his wish that in case he should 
be unable to iinish his work, that I should undertake 
the task of completing it. But it may be asked, is 
such a history needed? If it contained nothing but 
the truth, would it be valuable and interesting? 
Whatever the answers may be to these questions, it 
must be conceded that an important part of our knowl- 
edge is derived from historv. Therefrom we learn the 
rise and progress of our country through darkness and 
sunshine, war and peace, to its present eminence 
among the nations of the earth. We respect and ad- 
mire the Hebrew people who, although scattered 
abroad among all civilized nations, have preserved a 
history which, throughout Christendom, is believed to 
be commensurate with the morning of the world. 
Almost every important county in Pennsylvania has 

PREFACE. xiii 

published a history of its early settlement, tlie nation- 
ality of its people, their struggles, privations, and 
peculiar modes of living. Should the economy, indus- 
try, honesty, and self-denial of the primitive settlers 
be practiced for ten years to come, by all our inhabi- 
tants, the complaint of hard times would be heard no 
more in the land. There was little diversity in the 
hard experience of the pioneer settlers of Northern 
Pennsylvania. Many of them had been soldiers in the 
Revolutionary war, or were the children of those who 
had been impoverished thereby. Is there nothing in 
the history of such a people worthy of preservation ? 

** Let not Ambition mock their useful toil, 
Their homely Joys, and destiny obscure ; 
Nor Grandeur hear with a disdainful smile, 
The short and simple annals of the poor," 

Judge Woodward regretted that he had not begun 
at an earlier day to collect materials for his history, 
which might have been obtained from the old settlers 
themselv^es. But those old settlers are now all gone, 
and but very few of their children survive. If their 
history is ever written it must be done soon. Already 
some of it is fragmentary and uncertain ; but such as 
it is, I have concluded, after much hesitation, to pre- 
sent what I have collected ; not for fame, but as a 
tribute of respect to the people of my native county. 

My main object will be to preserve a history of the 


primitive settlers, and of events which occurred in 
early times, not neglecting to give a cursory exhibit of 
the progress of the connty from its erection to the 
present time. 

As Pike county was formerly a part of Wayne, 
some of its history is so intermingled witli ours, that 
it cannot, with propriety, be separated from it. The 
history of Palmyra in Pike county is so full of inter- 
est, and has been so well preserved, that I cannot fore- 
go the pleasure of giving it in detail, much of which 
I learned from the settlers themselves. 

Those wlio have furnished sketches about the early 

settlers of their townships, will please accept tlie 

thanks of the writer. Want of space has forced me 

to condense their contributions, but the pith of them 

has been retained. 


Bethany, Wayne County, Pa., 

June, 1880. 


Page 13, 26tli line from the top of the page, "twenty-six mil- 
lions," should read sixteen millions. 

" 33, Uth line from the top, "pots in which the glass is 
melted," should read arches of their furnaces. 

" 107, in running title, "Judiciary," should read Land- 
Titles and Sm'veys. 

" 155, in running title, " Palmyra," should read Lebanon. 

" 204, 7th line, after " another," read Stephen J. Par- 
tridge, father of James and William Partridge, of 
Mount Pleasant, also, married a daughter of James 

" 267, 5th line, after "age," read They have four sons 
living, adding to those mentioned the name of Alva 

" 276, 17th line from top, "Asa Johnson," should read 
Asa Jones. 

" 292, 6th line from the bottom, "Sand pond," should 
read Long 2'>ond. 

" 300, 13th line from top, after "Dwight Henshaw," read 
and the wife of W. B. Arnold, 





rpHE territory which constitutes the counties of Wayne 
-^ and Pike, in the State of Pennsylvania, was set 
off from the county of Northampton, in pursuance 
of an act of Legislature, passed on the 21st of March, 
1798. "All that part of Northampton county," said 
the act, "lying, and being to the northward of a line 
to be drawn, and beginning at the west end of George 
MichaeFs farm, on the river Delaware, in Middle 
Smithfield township, and from thence a straight line 
to the mouth of Trout Creek, on the Lehigh, adjoin- 
ing Luzerne county, shall be and the same is hereby 
erected into a county henceforth to be called Wayne." 
This line of excision separated from Northampton not 
only the territory of the present counties of Wayne 
and Pike, but also two townships, subsequently taken 
from Pike and incorporated with other townships of 
Northampton, to form the present county of Monroe. 
The original boundaries of Wayne county w^ere, there- 



fore, the northern line of the state on tlie north, the 
Dehiware river on the east, Northampton (now Mon- 
roe) on the sonth, and Luzerne and Susquelianna coun- 
ties on the west. The area of the county was 1,492 
square miles, and the population in 1800 only 2,562, 
an average of less than two persons to the square mile. 
A handful of people, scarcely more than an ordi- 
narv town-meetinf? in modern times, scattered over so 
large a space of rugged territory, destitute of roads, 
mills, and other conveniences of civilization, must have 
found it very ditticult to maintain the necessary expen- 
ses of a county organization, and excessively incon- 
venient to attend the courts and places of election. 
The act of '98 established the courts in the house of 
Greorge Buchanan, in the town of JVlilford, as a tempo- 
rary arrangement. The 10th section of the act (3rd 
Smith's Laws, p. 318) appointed Daniel Stroud, Abm. 
Ham, John Mahallen, Samuel 0. Seely, and Samuel 
Stanton, of Northampton and Wayne, a board of trus- 
tees for the latter county, and empowered them to fix 
on the most eligible spot for the seat of justice in and 
for the said county, to purchase or take and receive 
any quantity of land wdthin said county and to survey 
and lay out the same in town and outlots, and to sell 
as many of said lots at auction as they should think 
proper, and with the money arising from said sales 
and other moneys to be duly levied and collected as 
taxes, to pay for the lands they should purchase, and 
to build a court-house and jail on such of the town 
lots as they should require for that purpose. 

The 11th section empowered the county commission- 
ers who should be elected at the next annual election , 
to take the title to such lot as the trustees should se- 
lect for the court house and jail, and to assess the 
necessary taxes for erecting said buildings, "not to 
exceed two thousand dollars." 


The location of the county seat must have greatly 
agitated this sparse population scattered along the 
valleys of the principal streams, for the next year, 
1799, the Legislature removed the courts from Mil- 
ford to Wilson ville, until suitable buildings should 
be erected, '' within four miles of the Dyberry forks 
of the Lackawaxen river." This was the Legislative 
mode of describing the junction, at what is now^ Hones- 
dale, of the North and West branches of the Lacka- 

But Wilsonville, a small manufacturing village at 
the falls of the Wallenpaupack, a few miles above the 
point at which that stream empties into the Lacka- 
waxen, was found not to be satisfactory, even as a 
temporary location of the courts, for, on the 5 th of 
April, 1802, the Legislature remanded them back to 
Milford for " three years and no longer." 

Meanwhile, the trustees, under the organizing act 
of '98, accepted from tienry Drinker, Esq., of Phila- 
delphia, a large land proprietor in Wayne county, a 
conveyance, upon a nominal consideration, of a tract of 
999 acres of land in trust for the county of Wayne, 
to be laid out in town and outlots, and to convey to 
the county commissioners such of said lots as they 
shall fix on for the purpose of erecting a court-house, 
jail, and ofiices for the safe-keeping of the records. 
This deed, made the 30th of August, 1800, was a 
compliance with the act of 1799, for the land it con- 
veyed was within fom* miles of the Dyberry forks. 

The trustees had the land surveyed into lots, and 
on the 2d of January, 1802, conv^eyed to the county 
commissioners the lots necessary for a public square 
and county buildings, and sold at public auction 241 
lots, at prices ranging from a few cents to twenty-seven 
dollars eacli, the proceeds amounting in the aggregate 
to $2,735.97. The remaining lots and outlots, 183 in 


number, were then conveyed to the county commis- 
sioners, who continued to sell from time to time, until 
they were fdl disposed of, at an aggregate of $1,524.66, 
making a total of the proceeds of the Drinker grant 
$4,260.63. Besides this sum there was the land that 
forms the beautiful square in Bethany and the site 
of the public buildings, and sev^eral lots given to the 
town for church and school purposes. 

It was in this manner Bethany became the county 
seat of Wayne. A frame court-house and a log jail 
were erected upon the pul)lic square and the court was 
removed there from Milford,in 1805. But no sooner 
was the seat of justice establislied at Bethany than the 
inhabitants of the lower end of the county began to 
complain of the hardship of going so far to attend 
courts and consult the records. The valleys of the 
Delaware and of the Wallenpaupack contained almost 
the entire population of the lower half of the county. 
The reo;ion Ivino; between these rivers and called " The 
Barrens " to this day, was, at that time, an utter wilder- 
ness. But along the Delaware and the Wallenpau- 
pack were narrow but fertile valleys whi(?]i invited a 
hardy and industrious population of farmers and lum- 
bermen. It was quite natural that these people should 
complain of the distance they had to travel over bad 
roads to the seat of justice, and, accordingly, they pre- 
vailed upon the Legislature to pass an act of the 19tli 
of March, 1810, (5th S. L., p. 125) authorizing the 
Governor to appoint commissioners to fix a place for 
the county seat at or within five miles of tlie territo- 
rial center of the county. The preamble to this act is 
in these words: ''Whereas, it appears to the Legisla- 
ture that those inhabitants of Wayne county who live 
near tlie line of Northampton county, along the river 
Delaware, below Milford, are sul)jected to very great 
hardships in their attendance on courts and other pub- 


lie business at Betliany, on account of the great dis- 
tance and the uninhabitable region over which they 
are obliged to travel : and, whereas, it also appears that 
Bethany is situated many miles to the north of the 
territorial center of Wayne county, and that by a re- 
moval of the seat of justice to a place at or near the 
center, the inhabitants first above mentioned would 
gain some relief, whilst the inliabitants of the upper 
townships would not suffer any material disadvantage 
by such removal ; " therefore it was enacted that the 
Governor should appoint three disinterested commis- 
sioners " to fix on a place for the seat of justice at or 
within five miles of the territorial center of said 
county," witli power as to laying out and selling lots 
similar to those conferred upon the trustees by the act 
of '98. The commissioners appointed under this act 
reported on the 21st of August, 1810, that they had 
fixed on a place known as Blooming Grove, now 
within the limits of Pike county and called Nyce's 

The county commissioners refused to levy the 
necessary taxes for the erection of public buildings at 
Blooming Grove and they set forth their reasons in a 
paper that was drawn with great ability. After co- 
gent statements for believing that the Legislature 
meant that the public buildings should be principally 
paid for by grants of land rather than by taxation of 
a people already heavily oppressed, the county com- 
missioners said in conclusion : " but while the county is 
annually subjected to a heavy tax without being able 
to discharge its just and necessary expenditures ; while 
after the most vigorous exertions in collecting taxes 
there remain many orders on the Treasury unpaid, 
while the poor juror and laborer is compelled from 
his necessities to sell his hard-earned county orders to 
some speculator at a discount of from twelve to twen- 


ty-five per cent., while the traveler is put in jeopardy 
by the failure of bridges which the county wants the 
necessary funds to repair; and while with their best 
efforts and strictest economy, the commissioners are 
able but gradually to retrieve the credit of the county, 
they cannot consider that there are any existing cir- 
cumstances or advantages to the county which would 
result from forcing a fund for the purpose of erecting 
public buildings at Blooming Grove which would bear 
any comparative weight in counterbalancing the evils 
which would necessarily follow a pursuit of the meas- 
ure." And then followed a formal resolution not to 
tax the people for this purpose. 

ReiJrarded as resistance to an act of Assemblv this 
was a bold step, but the poverty of the people pleaded 
so strongly in favor of the stand assumed by the com- 
missioners that all parties acquiesced in it, or at least 
no appeal was made to the courts to compel obedi- 
ence to the behests of the Legislature. 

The names of the lirst county commissioners were 
Eliphalet Kellogg, Johannes Yan Etten, and John 
Carson. John Brink was the iirst county treasurer. 
On the 26th of December, 1799, Jason Torrey and 
John H. Schenck presented to the court the hrst aud- 
itors' report of the iinances of the county, in wliich 
they noticed and excused some irregularities on the 
part of the accounting otticers, but, on the whole, com- 
mended their measures as reflecting credit upon them- 
selves and the county. On the 11th of December, 
1800, Jason Torrey was reappointed auditor in connec- 
tion with James Eldred and Martin Overfield,but their 
report submitted at the February terili of court, 1801, 
was less complimentary to the county commissioners 
and their clerk than that of the previous year. The 
commissioners were charged with selling bridges with- 
out prescribing the manner in which the work should 

woodwabd'jS commencement. 7 

be done nor when they should be completed — with 
paymg for them in full without exHmination and be- 
fore there was any pretence of their completion — with 
paying their clerk upwards of $200 for a year's service 
while there w^ere persons in the county w^ho would 
perform the duties for half the money — w^ith allowing 
one of their number (Mr. Carson) to go to Philadel- 
phia and advertise in three daily papers for three 
months that he was there to receive taxes on unseated 
lands, and receiving a considerable amount without 
accounting for them to the auditors, and with various 
other irregularities. This report was not finally tiled 
imtil the 14th of September, 1801, when Major Torrey 
appended to it a note partially exonerating Mr. Car- 
son and clerk Kellogg from the charges preferred in 
the text of the report. 

The irregularities so justly censured by the auditors 
show that even in this infant county, of slender re- 
sources and small finances, official delinquencies and 
misdeeds had begun which in after times and in other 
counties, if not in Wayne, have grown into enormous 
abuses. Official infidelity to public trusts is a crying 
evil of our times. And it is not peculiar to any peri- 
od or place. It has come down to us in regular suc- 
cession from an antiquity much beyond the origin of 
our counties or even our State, and it grows apace, 
l)oth in the State and nation. When and from whence 
is the corrective to come ? Only from a better moral 
education of the masses. When schools, the press, 
and the pulpit shall impress the rising generation with 
the sacredness of pul)lic trusts — and with the thought 
that office exists for the convenience of the people and 
not for the emolument of the possessor, and that 
wealth acquired from public office is prima-facie evi- 
dence of crime — we may hope to find men for public 
servants who will not steal. 


During the following year the receipts from actual 
residents amounted to $605.87, and from unseated 
lands to |C)13.68, making a total of $1,219.55, while 
the expenditures of the year 1 800 w^ere $1,050.06. Each 
year the aggregate of taxes increased with the increas- 
ing population, but expenditures increased also. The 
county treasury was unable to redeem the orders 
drawn upon it, and pul)lic accounts fell into confusion 
until 1807 and 1808, when an earnest effort was made 
to straighten public affairs. The records had been 
removed to the new offices in Bethany, and the first 
meeting of the county commissioners was held there 
early in 1807. A careful examination of the financial 
condition of the county disclosed the fact that there 
was no money in the treasury, while its liabilities in 
the shape of unpaid checks, refunded taxes, etc., amount- 
ed to about $5,000. Upwards of $16,000 were due 
the county from owners of unseated lands, delinquent 
collectors, dilatory sheriffs, overpaid commissioners, 
and other officers, w^hich, if collected, would, it was 
claimed, put the county out of debt, and leave a con- 
siderable balance in the treasury. As one of the re- 
sults of this investigation, in 1808, the sheriff, Abisha 
Woodward, w^as directed to sell such unseated lands as 
were in arrears for taxes, which he proceeded to do, and 
in 1809 the receipts from these sales amounted to be- 
tween $9,000 and $10,000. In 1811 the inconvenien- 
ces and losses to the county and to individuals w^hich 
had resulted from the neglect of treasurers to furnish 
information to the commissioners with respect to the 
state of the treasury, led to the adoption of a series of 
resolutions requiring the treasurer to report, on the 
first day of every term, the exact condition of the 
finances, and declaring a failure to do so as well as the 
buying up of county orders at a discount with tlie pub- 
lic funds, to be a misdemeanor in office. The Com- 


missioners might well treat such official misconduct as 
ground for removal, for they held then the appoint- 
ment of county treasurer, and were, in a very special 
sense, the exclusive fiscal agents of the county. 

Under the sharp animadversions of the county audi- 
tors, and with increasing experience in the conduct of 
public affairs, the linancial condition of the county im- 
proved with the increase of population. The frame 
court-house and the log jail at Bethany were complet- 
ed; courts were held regularly there; farms were 
cleared, roads were Iniilt, and the winters were improv- 
ed to get out logs and squared timber from the forests 
of pine, hemlock, and oak, to be rafted down the Lack- 
awaxen and Delaware to Easton, Trenton, and Phila- 
delphia, wlien the spring freshets came. The supplies 
of store goods, of iron, salt, leather, cloths and grocer- 
ies, purchased wdth the proceeds of the lumber, were 
transported to the scattered settlements with great dif- 
ficulty. The "Durham Boat" on the Delaw^are was 
the prime, and for a long time, the only ascending nav- 
igation. This craft which has disappeared from these 
waters within the last quarter of a century, was a long, 
trim boat, which, though laden wdth several tons, drew 
so little water that it could pass up the rifts and shoals 
of the streams, propelled by a poleman on each side, 
and guided by a steersman at the rudder. Another 
mode of getting goods into Wayne county was to car- 
ry them up the Hudson river to Newburg, and thence 
cart them by way of Cochecton to Bethany and other 
points. After the north and south turnpike was built 
through Sterling, Salem, and Canaan townships, a con- 
siderable trade was established with Easton. 

But although the industries of Wayne were in proc- 
ess of gradual though healthful development, great 
discontent continued to be manifested by the people 
along the Delaware below Milford, on account of the 


location of the county seat at Bethany, and, in 1814, 
the LegisLiture, witli the general consent of the people, 
set oif the lower end into a new county, to be called 
Pike, with the seat of justice at Milford where it has 
remained ever since. The division line was run by 
John K. Woodward, conformably to the act of Sep- 
tember, 1814, beginning at the lower end of Big Eddy 
on the Delaware, thence to a point on the Lackawaxen 
opposite the Wallenpaupack, thence up the Wallenpau- 
pack and the South l)ranch thereof to the old north 
and south State road, and thence west seven miles and 
ninety two perches to the Lehigli creek. Thus was 
Pike county set off with an area of 772 square miles, 
and witli a population, ^vhich, according to the census 
of 1820, amounted to 2,894. The area left to Wayne 
was 720 square miles, and the population in 1820 was 

I have compiled, from various sources, the lead- 
ing events that attended the formation of the two 
counties of Wayne and Pike. The people were gen- 
erally poor. Most of the old men had been soldiers 
in the Revolutionary war, and others were descendants 
of families who had suifered in various ways in that 
struggle and from frequent incursions of Indians. The 
settlements Avere sparse and Avidely separated. The 
soil and climate were rigorous. The land which was 
worth clearing for agricultural purposes was heavily 
timbered with beech, maple, and hemlock, though much 
of the mountain range that runs through Pike cdunty 
was and still is " The Barrens," and utterly insuscep- 
tible of cultivation. Except along the river-bottoms 
the arable land was stony, requiring much labor to re- 
move them and lay them into w^alls for fences of the 
lields. Much of the soil was wet and needed ditching 
to make it productive. Yet with all these disadvan- 
tages, the hardy and industrious people who settled 


the bills and valleys of these counties, persevered in 
lumbering and farming until they established large 
and prosperous communities, built towns and tm-npikes, 
improved their farms, established schools and churches, 
so that these counties have become influential in the 

The foregoing is all that Judge G. W. Woodward wrote of 
the History of Wayne County. 



PROBABLY a history of Wayne would be considered 
imperfect that did not embrace a description of the 
Indian tribes that once chiimed and occupied the ter- 
ritory as their favorite hunting grounds. Having be- 
come extinct in consequence of their conflicts with the 
whites, who had the superior means of sharpening the 
scythe of death, and who, in encroaching and overpow- 
ering numbers, dispossessed tliem of their lands and 
homes, none of them are left to rehearse, in truth and 
sadness, how they were ^\Tonged and abused by their 
invaders. From the scanty traditions preserved by 
the early explorers and settlers, it appears that a tribe 
called the Mousey s, wdio held their head-quarters or 
council fire at a place on the Delaware, called "Mini- 
sink," (a part of which tribe settled at Wyoming) held 
jurisdiction over the lands now embraced in Wayne, 
Pike, and Susquehanna counties. This tribe claimed 
to hold their territory independent of the Delawares 
from whom William Penn purchased his lands. A 
tribe, or remnant of a tribe, lived on the Delaware, 
scattered between Shehawken and tlie mouth of the 
Lackawaxen, most of them a]>out Cochecton, and were 
known as the Mohicans or Cushetunks. But there 


was a powerful confederacy southward of the Great 
Lakes, known as the Six I^ations, consisting of the 
Onondagas, Senecas, Cayugas, Mohawks, Oneidas, and 
Tuscaroras.* These chiimed to hold the Monseys, 
Delawares, and Shawnees in subjection, and denied 
that they had any right to sell lands to the whites. 
These six nations, by an early alliance with the Dutch, 
who first settled on the Hudson, obtained fire-arms by 
the use of which they were able to check the encroach- 
ments of the French and to reduce to submission many 
bordering tril)es. From these they exacted an ac- 
knowledgment of fealty, permitting them under such 
humiliation to occupy their former liunting grounds. 
To this dependent condition the Iroquois asserted that 
they had, by conquest, reduced the Lenni Lenape. 
Charles the II., King of England, in 1681, granted a 
charter to William Penn of a large province of land 
in the JS^ew World, as it was then called, the extent of 
which was to be three degrees of latitude in breadth by 
five degrees of longitude in length; the Delaware river 
was to be the eastern boundary, and the northern 
boundary was to begin on the commencement of the 
three and fortieth degree of north latitude, which pro- 
vince was by royal order called Pennsylvania. The 
amount of land embraced in said charter comprised 
twenty-six millions of acres. In 1682, AYm. Penn came 
over from England to found a colony upon the broad 
principles of Christian charity, free toleration, and con- 
stitutional freedom. Althouo-li he had obtained a char- 

*Called by the French, Iroquois. 


ter from th3 king of England empowering him to take 
possession of the lands therein embraced, yet he hon- 
estly admitted that the Indians were the only true 
owners of the lands. Acting under that conviction 
he had not been long in the country before he took 
measures to bring together the Indians from various 
parts of his province, to form with them a treaty of 
peace and friendship. Sucli a treaty was made and, 
unlike most Indian treaties, was never broken. Not a 
drop of Quaker blood was ever shed by an Indian. 
The colony was peaceful and prosperous for seventy 
years. It is remarkable that no original \\'ritten re(*- 
ord can be disc^overed of Penn's memorable treaty 
with the Indians, though traditional evidence is abun- 
dant regarding its occurrence. The heirs of William 
Penn, who were called the Proprietaries, were the 
governing element in the province until near the days 
of the Pevolution, but took no measures to fix and de- 
termine the boundaries of the lands which their great 
progenitor or his agents, in his life-time, purchased of 
the Indians, until 1733. The northern boundary of 
one important purchase was to be determined by a 
man's walk of a day and a-half. Beginning on the 
bank of the Delaware, near Wrightstown, in Bucks 
county, (the boundary of a former purchase), the walk 
was to be done by three white men and a like number 
of Indians. The men having been selected, the wdiites 
walked with all their might, and arrived at the north 
side of Blue mountain, the first day, which was as far 
as the whole walk would extend, according to the ex- 


pectations of the Indians; and when they found the 
walk was to proceed half a day further, they were 
angry, said tliey were cheated, and wonld go no fur- 
ther. The whites started again next morning; two of 
them gave out: but one, Edward Marshall, went on 
alone and arrived at noon on a spur of Pocono moun- 
tain, sixty-five miles from the starting point. Sher- 
man Day, the historian, says : "If the w^alk had ter- 
minated at the Kittatinny, the line from the end of 
the walk to intersect the Delaware, if drawn at right 
angles, would have intersected the Delaware at the 
Water Gap, and Avould not have included the Mini- 
sink lands, a prominent object of the speculators. The 
line as actually drawn by Mr. Eastburn, the surveyor- 
general, intersected the Delaware near Shohola creek, 
in Pike county. Overreaching^ both in its literal and 
figurative sense, is the term most applicable to the 
whole transaction." The Indians remonstrated against 
the great wrong done them by the said walk, and de- 
clared their intention to hold the disputed lands by 
force of arms. The Proprietary Government, know- 
ing that the Six Nations held the Delawares under a 
sort of fear and vassalage, prevailed upon them l)y 
presents to interpose their authority, in the expulsion 
of the refractory Delawares. Accordingly, in 1742, 
a delegation of two hundred and thirty of the Six Na- 
tions met in Philadelphia, and being made to believe 
that the Delawares had actually sold the disputed lands, 
Canassatoga, on the part of the deputation, roundly 
berated the Delawares for selling the lands at all^ call- 


ing them vassals and women, thereby adding insult 
to injury, and ending by bidding them instantly to 
remove from the lands. They dared not disregard 
this peremptory command. Some of them, it is said, 
went to Wyoming and Shamokin, others to Ohio. 
Even at this council the deputies complained that the 
whites were settling on unbought lands and spoiling 
their hunting, and demanded the removal of the set- 
tlers upon and along the Juniata, who, they said, were 
doing great damage to their cousins, the Delawares. 
In March, 1744, war was declared between France 
and Great Britain. The drsrk clouds of savage war- 
fare gathered over the western frontiers, and many 
murders were committed by tlie Indians. The French, 
hovering around the Great Lakes, spared no pains to 
seduce the savages from their allegiance to the Eng- 
lish. The Shawnees at once joined the French, the 
Delawares only waited for a chance to revenge their 
wrongs, and the Six Nations were wavering; massa- 
cres ensued, and no age or sex was spared. A treaty 
was made between France and Great Britain, in 1748, 
but it tended very little to abate tlie violence of savage 
warfare. The Proprietors, anxious to secure all the 
lands of the Indians, in July, 1754, purchased of the 
Six Nations all the lands within the province not ])e- 
f ore obtained, lying south-west of a line, " Beginning 
one mile above the mouth of Penn's creek, thence run- 
ning north-west by west to the western l)oundary of 
the province." The line instead of striking the west- 
ern line of the State, as the Indians supposed it would, 


struck the northern boundary thereof, west of Cone- 
wango creek. The Shawnees, Delawares, Monse3^s, 
and other tribes soon found out that their lands on the 
Susquehanna, Juniata, Allegheny, and Oliio rivers, 
which the Six Nations had guaranteed to tliem, had 
been sold from under their feet. The Indians on the 
Allegheny at once went over to the French. After 
Braddock's defeat, in 1753, the whole frontier, from 
the Delaware to the Potomac, was desolated by the 
Indians, who, having been joined by other tribes, laid 
waste all the settlements beyond the Kittatinny moun- 
tains, burning the hamlets and scalping the settlers. 
The Proprietors became alarmed and, in November, 
1756, held another grand council, at Easton, between 
Teedyuscung, a noted Delaware chief, and some other 
chiefs, on the one part, and Governor Denny, on the 
part of the Proprietors. The conference lasted nine 
days. The discontents of the Indians with regard to 
the great walk and the purchase of lands made by the 
Proprietors, in 1754, were heard and inquired into, 
and a treaty of peace was patched up with the Dela- 
wares. But the complaints of the Indians that the 
whites were encroaching upon their lands continued 
and became boisterous. It was found that something 
must be done. Another great council was summoned 
to meet at Easton, in the fall of 1758. Easton was a 
noted place for holding councils between the whites 
and Indians. It was, as now, the county seat of North- 
ampton county, which county w^as established and sep- 
arated from Bucks county, in 1752, and, at the time 



of its establishment, included Wayne, Pike, Monroe, 
Lehigh, and Carbon counties. The said council was the 
most important and imposing one ever held in the prov- 
ince. It was attended by chiefs both of the Six Nations 
and Delawares, and by the agents of the governments 
of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. About five hundred 
Indians were present, representing all the Six Nations, 
most of the Delawares, the Shawnees, the Miamis, the 
Mohicans, Monseys, Nanticokes, and Conoys. Many 
Quakers, who were anxious that peace and justice 
might prevail, were present as the friends of the In- 
dians. Teedyuscung spoke for several of the tribes. 
He was a noted Delaware chief. He rehearsed the 
wrongs of the Pennsylvania tribes, and accused the 
Proprietors of being very profuse of promises, and 
neglectful in keeping them; and he accused the Six 
Nations of dealing and deciding unfairly with the 
Pennsylvania tribes, and that they had been, from time 
to time, perverted from doing their duty by the rich 
and abundant presents made to them by the agents of 
the Proprietary Government. The Six Nations were 
offended at the boldness of Teedyuscung, and sought 
to counteract his influence ; but he bore himself Avith 
dignity and firmness, and although he was well-plied 
with liquor, he refused to yield to the Six Nations, 
and resisted all the wiles of the intriguing whites. 
The council lasted eighteen days, and all matters which 
had caused discontent among the Indians were freely 
discussed. All lands claimed as having been purchas- 
ed of them, beyond the Allegheny mountains, were 


given up. An additional compensation for lands al- 
ready purchased was to be given. In short, another 
peace was concluded, and at the close of the treaty — 
to the shame of the whites be it said — stores of rum 
were given to the Indians, who soon exhil)ited its ef- 
fect in frightful orgies or stupid insensibility. The 
English having taken Quel)ec from the French, in 
1759, and captured all their forts and military depots 
on the north-west and western frontiers, peace was con- 
cluded between Great Britain, France and Spain, in 
1762, and Pennsylvania was, for a short time, relieved 
of the horrors of war. But the short cahn was fol- 
lowed by a terrific storm. The Indians about the 
Great Lakes and on the Ohio, without complaint, had 
permitted the French to erect and maintain a chain of 
forts from Presque Isle (Erie) to the Monongahela, so 
long as they proved a barrier to the encroachments of 
the English, but when they saw Canada and these forts 
in the hands of the English, and reflected that the 
lands upon which said forts stood w^ere never purchas- 
ed of the native owners, their hatred of the intrusive 
whites became intense and wide-spread. A great In- 
dian chief, named Pontiac, of the Ottawas, (a western 
tribe), formed the plan of uniting all the Indian tribes 
and of precipitating them at once upon the whole fron- 
tier. Tlie utter extermination of the whites was his 
object. With the suddenness and violence of a tor- 
nado, the attack was made. The English traders 
among the Indians were killed first. Out of one hun- 
dred and twenty only three escaped. Scalping parties 


overran the frontier settlements among the mountains, 
marking their way with blood and carnage. The forts 
of Presque Isle, Yenango, St. Joseph, and Mackinaw 
were taken, and their garrisons slaughtered. Other 
forts were saved with great difficulty. The dismayed 
settlers on the Juniata and Susquehanna, with their 
families and ftocks, sought refuge at Carlisle, Lancas- 
ter, and Reading. The peaceful Moravian Indians fled 
to Philadelphia which was their only place of safety. 
This was the most destructive and fiercely-contested 
war ever waged between the whites and Indians in 
Pennsylvania. The cruelties and barbarities perpetra- 
ted in tliis war on both sides are too shocking to relate. 
In October, 1763, John Penn, grandson of William 
Penn, came over from England as lieutenant-gover- 
nor, and, having ignored the peaceful non-resistant pol- 
icy of the Quakers, by proclamation offered bounties 
for the capture, death, or scalps of Indians, viz: "For 
every male above the age of ten years captured, $150; 
scalped, being killed, $134; for every male or female 
Indian enemy above the age of ten years captured, 
$130; for every female above the age of ten years be- 
ing scalped or killed, $50." Effective measures were 
at once taken by the Proprietary Government to repel 
the assaults of the savages by carrying the war into 
their own country. Volunteers from Cumberland and 
Bedford counties, under Col. Armstrong, went up and 
defeated several parties of Indians on the West 
branch. General Amherst dispatched Col. Boquet, 
with a large quantity of provisions, under a strong 


force, to the relief of Fort Pitt. From thence, in the 
autumn of 1764, he extended his expedition to the 
Muskingum in Ohio. The Indians were alarmed and 
sued for peace. The Delawares, Shawnees, Senecas, 
and other tribes agreed to cease hostilities, and they 
gave up a large number of prisoners that in former 
wars they had carried into captivity. 

Though peace was restored, yet the complaints of 
the Indians were continued and not causelessly; for 
lawless white men continued to settle upon the Indian 
lands and to incite hostilities by the unprovoked 
murder of the peaceable natives. Another savage war 
was threatened, which, happily, was prevented by the 
tact and wise intervention of Sir William Johnson, a 
British officer, at whose instance, a great council was 
held at Fort Stanwix, in New York, at which all 
grievances were adjusted, and a treaty made Novem- 
ber 5tli, 1768, with the Six Nations, who then sold 
and conveyed to the Proprietors,. "All the land wdthin 
a boundary extending from the New York line on the 
Susquelianna, past Towanda and Pine creek, up the 
West branch over to Kittanning and thence down the 
Ohio." This was called the "New Purchase," and in- 
cluded the lands in Wayne and Susquehanna counties, 
most of Luzerne and part of Pike county. This was 
the last purchase made by the Proprietors. The State 
afterwards bought of the Indians all the lands which 
remained unsold witliin its chartered limits. 

(If the preceding narrative of Indian matters should 
be deemed irrelevant to the history of Wayne county, 


the following continuance thereof may be a sufficient 
apology for its presentation.) 

In the month of August, 1762, about two lumdred 
colonists from Connecticut commenced a settlement at 
Wyoming, on the Susquehanna river, claiming a right 
under the said named State, which founded her claim 
under the original charter granted in 1620 to the Ply- 
mouth Company by James I., Avhich charter was con- 
firmed by Cliarles II., to Connecticut in 1663, and set- 
tiuix forth that the said charter should include : " All 
that part of our dominions in New England, in Ameri- 
ca, bounded on the east by Narragansett bay where the 
said river f alleth into the sea, and on the north by the 
line of the Massachusetts Plantation, on the south by 
the sea and in longitude as the Massachusetts Colony 
running from east to west — that is to say, from the 
Narragansett bay on the east, to the South sea on the 
west part." Tliis charter, it w^as claimed, included all 
the lands of sixty miles in width extending to the Pa- 
cific ocean, excepting the intervening part betw^een 
Connecticut and Pennsylvania, w^hich had been con- 
ceded to the province of New^ York, in consequence of 
a charter granted by Charles II. to his l^rother, the 
Duke of York and Albany. The charter to the col- 
ony of Connecticut was made eighteen years prior to 
that made to William Penn, by the same monarch. 
It has ]>een presumed that said monarch knew^ little or 
nothino; of the location or extent of the territories that 
he granted, and tliat his title to the same w^as little 
superior to his knowledge. 


In the year 1753, a number of persons, mostly in- 
habitants of Connecticut, formed a company with the 
intent of purchasing the lands of the Indians on the 
Susquehanna, and establishing settlements at Wyo- 
ming. This association was called the "Susquehanna 
Company." The said two hundred settlers of 1762 
were a part of them. The agents of said Company 
attended a council of the Six Nations held at Albany 
on the 11th of eluly, 1754, and made a purchase from 
the Indians of the Wyoming lands, the boundaries of 
which are thus given in their deeds : "Beginning from 
the one and fortieth degree of north latitude, ten miles 
east of the Susquehanna river, and from thence by a 
north line ten miles east of the river to the end of the 
forty-second degree of north latitude and so to extend 
Tvest two degrees of longitude, one hundred and twenty 
miles, and from thence south to the beginning of the 
forty-second degree, and thence east to the beginning, 
which is ten miles east of the Susquehanna river." It 
has never been denied but that this purchase included 
the valley of the Wyoming and the country westward 
to the head waters of the Allegheny river. At the 
time the above-named purchase was made, the country 
east of the Susquehanna Company purchase was 
bought of the Indians by another association, called 
the "Delaware Company," under whose encourage- 
ment the first settlement of whites was made, at Co- 
checton, on the Delaware, in 1755. This was the first 
attempt made to liold lands under said Connecticut 
and Indian titles. The progress made by the last-nam- 


ed colony will be noticed under the head of Danuis- 
cus township. At the time the last-above-named pur- 
chases were made of the Indians, commissioners were 
present to act for tlie Proprietors, but there is no evi- 
dence that they then made any purchase of the Wyo- 
ming and Delaware lands, though they obtained a deed 
on the 6th of July, 1754, of a tract of land between the 
Blue mountain and the forks of the Susquehanna river. 
Gov. Morris, of Pennsylvania, on the return of his 
commissioners from Albany, having learned that the 
Susquehanna and Delaware Companies had effected a 
purchase of the Wyoming and other lands, wrote to 
Sir William Johnson, (so Chapman alleges,) on the 
15th of November, 1751, requesting him to induce the 
Indians, if possible, to deny the contracts they had 
made, and, as a means of effecting it, to wdn over Hen- 
drick, a noted chief, to his interests, and persuade the 
chief to visit Philadelphia. The Connecticut settlers 
reprobated the conduct of Governor Morris, as dis- 
honorable and unworthy of a man occupying his po- 
sition. The settlers knew that the villainy which the 
whites taught the Indians, they were ready to practice. 
It is probable that the Indians would have sold the 
lands as often as they could get pay for them. They 
kept no record of their sales, and knew but little about 
the boundaries and extent of what they had sold, and 
looked with contempt upon the titles which the kings 
in Europe pretended to have to lands in America. 
Indeed, as has been before stated, the Six Nations, at 
general council, held at Fort Stanwix, November 5th, 


1708, conveyed to the Pennsylvania; Proprietors, the 
same lands which they had sold to the Susquehanna 
and Delaware Companies in July, 1754. 

The reader will now readily miderstand that the 
contention which so long existed between the people 
of Connecticut and Pennsylvania, and which caused 
so much suffering, spoliation, and bloodshed, origina- 
ted in an interference of the territorial claims of the 
contending parties. The charter of Connecticut ante- 
dated that of William Penn eighteen years. The pur- 
chases of the Susquehanna and Delaware Companies, 
it was claimed, antedated that of the Proprietors four- 
teen years. The Susquehanna Company, honestly be- 
lieving that their title was paramount, commenced 
their settlement at Wyoming in all good faith. They 
located themselves so as not to interfere with the In- 
dians, and built a log-house and several huts at the 
mouth of a small stream, now called Mill creek. Not 
having sufficient provisions to keep them through the 
winter, they hid their few tools and went back to their 
native homes in Connecticut. 

Early in the spring of 1763, these settlers returned 
to Wyoming, attended by their families and a number 
of new settlers. They brought with them cattle, and 
swine, and provisions for immediate use. Their build- 
ings had not been disturbed. The chiefs of the Six 
Nations had never forgiven Teedyuscung for his bold- 
ness and independence displayed at the great council 
held at Easton in 1758 ; and their emissaries, in the 
autumn of 1763, murdered him or burned him in his 


cabin, and then made the Delawares believe it Avas 
done by the Yankees. They had thus far been peace- 
able, but at once sought revenge. They surprised the 
whites while at work in their lields, killed upwards of 
twenty of them, took some prisoners, and, after the 
remainder had fled, set fire to the buildings, and drove 
away the cattle. Chapman says, " Those who escaped 
hastened to their dwellings, gave the alarm to tlie 
families of those who were killed, and the remainder 
of the colonists, men, women, and children, fled to 
the mountains, Tliey took no provisions with them 
except wliat they had hastily seized in their flight, 
and must pass through a wilderness sixty miles in ex- 
tent, before they could reach the Delaware river." 
They had no means of defense, had not sufficient 
raiment, and, with such cheerless prospects, com- 
menced a journey of two hundred and flfty miles on 
foot. Some of the whites reached the settlement 
on the Delaware, at Cochecton. The Susquehanna 
Company, still persisting in their determination to es- 
tablish a settlement in Wyoming, early in 1769, sent 
forty men thither to look after their former improve- 
ments, and found that they had been taken possession 
of l)y agents of the Proprietary Government. Noth- 
ing daunted, they selet^ted another piece of land and 
built temporary huts, and Avere soon joined by two 
hundred additional emigrants, wh(^, anticipating that 
they w^ould be aimoyed by the Pennsylvania party, 
built a fort near the bank of the river, and near it 
erected about twenty log-houses, with loop-holes 
through which to Are, in case of an attack. 


It would ex(5eed the intended limits of this work to 
give, in detail, the subsequent history of the heroic set- 
tlers of Wyoming. The reader that wishes to know 
what outrages, imprisonments, and murders were in- 
flicted upon the settlers, under the tyrannical domina- 
tion of the land-holding Proprietors and their unscru- 
pulous agents, and of the horrors of the Wyoming 
massacre, is referred to the histories by Chapman, Mi- 
ner, Stone, HoUister, and Pierce for full information. 

The settlers at Cochecton, Paupack, and Wyoming 
took a deep interest in one another's welfare and, 
thougli widely separated, warned one another in season, 
of the approach of an Indian. 

To settle the long-contested question between Penn- 
sylvania and Connecticut, as to wdiich state the juris- 
diction of the disputed lands belonged, the Continen- 
tal Congress appointed a board of commissioners to 
hear the question, wdio met at Trenton, N. J., and, 
after a deliberation of ^yq weeks, on the 30th of De- 
cember, 1782, pronounced their opinion as follows: 
"We are of the opinion that the State of Con- 
necticut has no right to the land in controversy," etc. 

The justice and impartiality of the decision were 
questioned and have not as yet been conceded. The 
State of Connecticut still clauned lands west of Penn- 
sylvania, but in 1786 made a cession of the same to 
the United States, with a reserve of about a half of 
a million acres. The lands thus reserved were called 
"]New Connecticut," or the "Western Keserve," by the 
sale of which, Connecticut realized a fund of $1,900,- 


000 for the support of her common schools. If the 
title of Comiecticiit to the Reserve lands was valid, 
why was not a like title good in Pennsylvania ? The 
inhabitants at Wyoming were willing to submit to the 
laws and jurisdiction of Pennsylvania, but contended 
that as the State of Connecticut had conveyed her in- 
terest in the soil to the Susquehanna Company, from 
which they derived their riglit, tliat the decision did 
not deprive them of their title to the lands upon which 
they had settled. The subsequent measures used by 
the land-holding government of Pennsylvania, were 
attended by acts of violence, suffering, and bloodshed, 
in dispossessing this brave and long-suifering people. 
They did not, however, tamely nor suddenly submit to 
the exactions of their oppressors. Even as late as 
1799, Judge Post, an emigrant from Long Island, 
took up land under the Pennsylvania claimants, near 
Montrose, for which he was mol)bed, burnt in effigy, 
and insulted by the Yankees, who could not bear that 
any one should acknowledge the validity of the Penn- 
sylvania title. Finally, after years of turmoil, more 
just and reasonable laws were enacted, under the oper- 
ation of which, the New England people, in all the 
settlements, became quiet and valuable citizens. 

With re<rard to the Indians but little can be said. 
There was some diversity of color among them. Gen- 
erally their skin was of a reddish, copper color. They 
were symmetrical in form, tall in stature, with deep-set 
eyes, high cheek-l)ones, often with aquiline noses, and 
long, straight hair. The squaws were short, with broad, 


liomelj faces, Tlie senses of the Indians were intense- 
ly acute. Tliey could follow the footsteps of man or 
beast over plains or mountains, where the white man 
could not discern the slightest vestige. When not 
engaged in war the chief employments of the men 
were hunting and fishing. The squaws did all the 
work, l)uilt all the cabins, planted all the corn, 
tended it, and prepared it for food by roasting, parch- 
ing, or pounding it in a stone mortar. The ancient 
weapons of the Indians were the bow, and arrows 
pointed wdth flint, the stone hatchet, and the scalping 
knife. It is said that some of the western tribes had 
hatchets and kettles made of copper. If so they had 
advanced one step nearer to civilization than the Lenni 
Lenape tribes of Pennsylvania. 

Dr. Horace Hollister, of Providence, Pa., has made 
a full and curious collection of all the warlike weapons 
and culinary and domestic utensils, used and employed 
by the Indians that once lived in Pennsylvania. The 
colle(!;tion is made up largely of warlike implements, 
while the scarcity of domestic utensils attests the slight 
elevation that our Indians had attained above the 
"Stone Age." The dress of the Indians, before their 
commerce with Europeans, was mostly, if not wholly, 
made of skins. Their wigwams were differently con- 
structed by different tribes. The rudest were made 
of poles resting against each other at the top, and cov- 
ered with l)ark and skins, with an aperture at the top 
for the escape of smoke. How the poor creatures con- 
trived to live throuo'h the cold winters of the northern 


climate is a problem uiisolvable. The practice of tor- 
tm'ing and l)urniiig their prisoners was most abhorrent 
and revolting. When we think of them as gloating 
over the agonies of their victims, we are consoled with 
the reflection that they have been exterminated. It 
must be admitted, however, that white men, though 
boastful of the humanizing influences of civilization 
and religion, have with pleasure indulged in the same 
devilish enormities. That the Indians resorted to de- 
ceit and treachery, to cruelties and diabolism, in their 
I'ontests with the whites, cannot be denied. When 
they commenced selling lands to the whites, they had 
no just conceptions of their overpowering numbers. 
Said Red Jacket, "My forefathers sold one tree to a 
white man, who came with ten more men, who each 
cut down a tree, and then there came ten more to each 
tree." When they found that they had been deluded 
and cheated, they fought with the desperation of de- 
spair. What mercy should we show to an invading 
enemy as much superior to us in deadly weapons of 
war as we were to the Indians, if such invaders were 
intent upon dispossessing us of our lands and homes 'i 
What compensation did the Pennsylvania Indians 
receive for the 16,000,000 of acres in this State ? Had 
the lands been sold at live mills per acre, they would 
have brought §80,000. Have we any evidence that 
they were paid even that amount? 

The Indians worshiped no idols. From the earth and 
firmament, "that elder scripture writ by God's own 
hand," they inferred the existence of an overruling 


Intelligence which they called the Great Spirit. They 
had a iirm and abiding belief in a fntnre state of ex- 
istence. They have been spoken of in the past tense. 
They belong to the past. In the early discovery of 
the conntry, it is supposed that there were 200,000 In- 
dians east of the Mississippi river. They are now ex- 
tinct. Disease, war, and intemperance have destroyed 
them. In the early part of this century, occasionally 
a few straggling Indians with their squaws and a pap- 
poose or two would \^sit Beaver Meadows and some 
other places in the county, stealing warily and fearful- 
ly through the tangled woods, perhaps to visit, in want 
and anguish, the graves of their fatliers, who once 
owned and governed this wide domain. A few tribes, 
destined to be duped and cheated by governmental 
agents or hunted down by military bands and destroy- 
ed like wild beasts, are still left in our Territories. 
Why does not our Government imitate the just policy 
of the English Canadian Government, which has had 
no trouble with their Indians for the past seventy 
years ? Finally, had the whites dealt justly with the \y'' 
Indians, after the manner of William Penn, thousands 
of lives w^ould have been saved. Had not the Pennsyl- 
vania claimants resorted to wrong and violence to dis- 
possess the Connecticut people, the massacre at Wyo- 
ming might have been averted, the settlers at Cochec- 
ton and Paupack would not have been murdered or 
driven from their homes, and no battle would have 
been fought at the mouth of the Lackawaxen. 



WAYNE County was named in honor of Anthony 
Wayne, a major-general in the Hevolntionary 
war, who was l)orn in Chester county, Pennsylvania, 
in 1745, and died at Presqne Isle, in 1796. In de- 
votion to the cause of liberty, and in heroic, dashing 
exploits, lie was second to no officer in tliat war. The 
Legislature of 1879 made an appropriation for tlie 
erection of a monument at Chester, Pa., commemora- 
tive of his great services to his country. 

In point of population, Wayne county is by no 
means inconsiderable. There are in the sixty-seven 
counties in the State, about thirty in number that 
have each a less amount of population and taxables 
than Wayne. 

Geologically considered, the whole county is of 
a secondary formation, excepting the alluvions along 
the streams, and is destitute of basalt, gypsum, mica, 
and limestone. No fossil remains of animals have 
l)een found. The rocks are generally a compound of 
sand and clay, with the exception of red shale, which 
is composed of line grains of sand cemented by the 
oxide of iron. The rocks are mostly arranged in hor- 
izontal strata, whatever may be the contour of the 


ground. The surface is diversified with many inequal- 
ities, bat they are not of such extent or abruptness as 
to render much of it worthless. The general average 
elevation of the upland is estimated at 1,400 feet 
above tide water, and parts of the Moosic mountain 
are 600 feet above the upland. 

The southern extremity of that mountain is in 
Lackawanna county. In Canaan the county line cross- 
es the mountain, thence running westward of it, leav- 
ing Ararat and Sugar Loaf in Wayne. On and about 
this mountain are quartz rocks of intense hardness 
from which the first millers in the county fashioned 
their mill-stones. The glass-factories obtain from the 
same source, the stone of which they make the pots 
in which the glass is melted. The hill-sides along the 
various streams, sometimes steep and precipitous, have 
the greatest part of the rocky, stony, uncultivatable 
land. The soil is an admixture of clay and sand, 
which, in its primitive state, was covered with a leafy 
mould. The main streams in the southern part are 
the Paupack and Middle creek, with their branches ; 
in the middle are the West branch and Dyberry, 
which, uniting at Honesdale, form the Lackawaxen; 
in the north is the Starrucca; and in the northern and 
eastern part, as tributaries of the Delaware river, are 
Shrawder's creek, Shehawken*, Equinunk, Little Equi- 
nunk, Hollister's creek. Cash's creek, and Calkins' 
creek. These streams afford abundant water-powder 
for the propulsion of mills and factories. 

* Among the oklest records the name ''Shehawken " is thus 




The elevation of the county above tide-water will 
account in part for the rigor of our winters. But that 
elevation insures a pure air and an assured immunity 
against the plague and Asiatic cholera. The extremes 
l)etween tlie heat of our summers and the (-old of our 
winters are very great, and appear to be increasing. 
The removal of our forests exposes the country to tlie 
cold winds in winter, thereby decreasing the tempera- 
ture, wdiile the exposure of the soil in summer to the 
<lirect rays of tlie sun increases the temperature. 
Sixty years ago, on account of the coolness and hu- 
midity of the summers, Indian corn was an uncertain 
crop ; at the same time such was the mildness of the 
winters that the peach trees were not injured by the 
severity of the cold, and bore fruit from year to year. 
Now the thermometer in summer rises to ninety-six 
degrees, Fahrenheit, and, in the winter, falls to twenty 
degrees below^ zero. Some meteorologists entertain 
the theory that Avinters of extreme cold, and sum- 
mers of intense heat have their appointed cycles. 
From some cause unknown, the winters of 1819, 1836, 
and 1843 were very cold and the summers of 1816 
and 1836, short, cold, and frosty, while the summers 
of 1838 and 1845 were remarkable for long-continued 


These in their primitive glory consisted of white, 
and yellow pine; hemlock; white, and red beech; hard 
maple, called also rock, or sugar-maple ; white, or 


red flowering maple ; white, and black ash; poplar, or 
tulip-tree; black cherry ; black, and yellow birch; but- 
ton-wood; basswood, or linn; white, and slippery 
elm ; hemlock spruce, and dwarf spruce ; pepperidge ; 
tamarack, or larch; balsam fir; white, black, and red 
oak ; chestnut ; butternut ; shagbark walnut ; hickory ; 
and many smaller trees and shrubs, yiz: ironwood, 
fire cherry, aspen or quiver-leaf, mountain ash, june- 
berry, black maple or buckhorn, mountain and swamp 
dog-wood, water beech, green osier, sassafras, white 
dwarf maple, choke-cherry, yellow plum, tag alder, 
swamp apple, spotted alder, crooked alnus, prickly 
asli, bilberry, crab-apple ti-ee, willow, bachelor tea, 
swamp whortleberry, hardback, leather-wood, mountain 
and dwarf laurel, spice-bush, hazel-nut, poison sumac, 
tanners' sumac, pigeon bush, witch-hazel, dwarf juni- 
per, hemlock bearing red berries, (a very rare tree,) and, 
perhaps, a few others. 

The forests standing at the present time liave little 
of the yalue of those that adorned the country a cen- 
tury ago. The lofty pines, which then lined the 
streams and cro^^^led the hills, have been removed ; 
the hemlock, once considered a nuisance, having be- 
come valuable, is fast disappearing. It is a tree of 
v'ery slow growth, and if the ground were now cover- 
ed wdth a second growth, generations would pass away 
before the timber would be large enough to be valua- 
l>le. Hemlocks, which were cut into ninety years ago, 
have only added a growth of four or five inches to 
their semi-diameters. An enormous one o^rew on the 


north side of Middle creek, about a mile below Rob- 
inson's tannery. Tlie grain, or growths of the 
wood, showed that it was one thousand years old when 
it died. It must have been a large tree, when Chris- 
topher Columbus discovered America, in 1492. The 
late Mrs. H. G. Otis, of Boston, who often came to 
Bethany, greatly admired the hemlock. She said she 
had seen all the noted evergreen trees of Europe, but 
that in fineness, delicacy, and compactness of foliage, 
coolness and neatness, the hemlock surpasses them all. 

The poplar, which is a straight, tall tree, from 
two to three feet in diameter, was once quite com- 
mon, especially in the lower part of the county, but 
the w^ood, which was light and easily removed, being 
valuable, was at an early day all sent to market. It 
was all used up forty years ago. White ash was once 
so abundant as to be split into rails, and w^as often used 
for fire-wood. It has been valuable for many years 
as the quantity is constantly decreasing. It is, how- 
ever, a tree of rapid growth and may be saved and 

The black cherry, now so valuable for cabinet-work, 
was once to be found on almost every hill, it often 
beins: three feet in diameter. Abraham J. Stryker 
told me, many years ago, that it was so abundant in 
Cherry Kidge that the first settlers split it into rails 
and stakes, used it for barn frames, and burnt some of 
it up. What now^ remains of that timber is costly 
and of poor quality. Where it is not shaded by other 
timber it crrows very fast. 


The basswood, found in every part of the county, 
has long been used for siding in lieu of pine. Large 
quantities of this himber have been yearly sent to 
market. It is a beautiful tree and is growing scarce; 
but as its growth is very rapid, there is some hope 
that it will not all be destroyed. 

The black bircli is a heavy, substantial wood. It is 
being substituted for black cherry. Both the black 
and yellow birch make excellent fire-wood. 

The chestnut was plentiful in Scott township and in 
Salem, and not scarce in other townships. In Salem, 
it was, on some ridges, the chief timber, and some of 
the trees were very large. The largest tree that I ever 
saw in Wayne county was a chestnut-tree standing on 
the old road between Jonestown and Cherry Ridge. 
It was, I think, larger than the big elm in Damascus. 
Tliey were both unusually large. It was rare sport 
to gather chestnuts in those old forests. There were 
enough of them for the boys, bears, raccoons, and 
squirrels. Those chestnut-trees were all cut down, 
split into rails, or stakes, or bnrnt up. But few, if any, 
of them were ever sent to market. About the same 
fate befell tliat w^hich grew in the upper part of the 
county. Being of sudden growth the tree may survive. 

The beech is the most abundant tree in our for- 
ests, and will probably continue to be, so long as we 
shall have any forests. It is the only tree that tlie 
lightning seems to respect. Is there not a ligneous 
acid in the tree which repels the electric fluid i The 
wood is valual^le for many purposes. The ^vhite beech 


when standing alone assumes a pyramidal form of 
exceeding beauty. About the Red school-house in 
Dy berry, a mile east of Bethany, are some of the love- 
liest specimens of the beauty and symmetry of the iso- 
lated white beech. 

The elm, grand and majestic, is a tree which is like- 
ly to continue in existence as its wood is not so valu- 
a])le as to invite its destruction. . Long may it wave! 

The hemlock spruce, sometimes called double spruce, 
is found only in the south-western part of the county. 
It grows to the height of the white pine, is equally 
straight, and often attains a size of two and a half feet 
in diameter. It is found chieliy along the head-waters 
of the Lehigh and Tobyhanna. The timber was for 
many years the common plunder of the shingle-makers, 
who found a ready market for their shingles in North- 
ampton county. Tlie timber is free and easy to work, 
and since the construction of the Delaware, Lackawan- 
na and Western railroad, the timber has advanced in 
value, and large quantities of it are yearly prepared for 
market, at the mills of Dodge tfe Co., at Tobyhanna. 
Like the hemlock, it is a slow-growing tree, and will 
not be reproduced for a century. 

The white oak and other varieties of the oak were 
found principally about Moosic mountain and Pahnyra 
and Paupack townships. The timber, never very abun- 
dant, has been used up in the county. Could the fires 
be kept out of the woods, some of it might be repro- 
duced and preserved. 

The shaffbark hickorv was and is found onlv in iso- 


lated places, generally upon hills, as upon Hickory hill 
in Lebanon, McCollam's hill in Damascus, and Collin's 
liill in Cherry Ridge. It was found, also, upon the 
alluvial soil of the Paupack, above Wilsonville, where 
many of tlie trees grew to be twT> and a half feet in 
diameter. Whether they have all been taken off, I do 
not know. The nut in size and flavor is exceeded only 
l)y the English walnut. 

The butternut is found along the hill-sides of all the 
large streams of the county, seeming titted to the deep, 
strong, stony land in such places. But it will grow^ 
almost anywhere remote from streams. It is found at 
tlie foot of Hickory hill in Lebanon, several miles from 
the Delaware river, whence those useful tree-planters, 
the squirrels, carried the butternuts, it is supposed. 
If the nuts are planted soon after they fall, by cover- 
ing them with soil and leaves, they grow with a rapid- 
ity attributed to Jonah's gourd, and if cut do^^Ti will 
sprout up again. The wood is valuable for ornamen- 
tal purposes. Tlie tree seems likely to escape extinc- 
tion. The Lombardy poplar, mulberry, locust, horse- 
chestnut, and black-walnut have not been named, ])e- 
cause they are not considered indigenous to this pai't 
of our country. 

The sugar-maple. This tree is found in most of the 
Northern States, and is one of the marvels of the 
American forests. The extraordinary neatness of its 
appearance, and the beauty of its foliage, which in sum- 
mer is of the liveliest green, and in autumn of a glow- 


iiig crimson, has led to its selection as a beantiful or- 
nament in our yards and avenues. It will grow upon 
almost any soil, and is easily transplanted. When 
used for fuel, its wood almost equals tlie solid hickory. 
The tree has l)een destroyed with a reckless prodigality 
and a thoughtless disregard of its value. Tlie consid- 
eration, how^ever, that the tree yields a sugar wdiich is 
delicious to the tastes of the young and the old, the 
manufacture of w^hich.may be made profitable, is like- 
ly to lead to its future preservation. In some parts 
of the county, especially in Mount Pleasant, the farm- 
ers are wisely saving the second growth of maples for 
sugar-orchards. On almost every hilly farm is some 
rocky spot, uniit for the plow, wliich might be planted 
with maples. In the Eastern States the farmers set 
maples on both sides of the highw^ays, from which trees 
some of them make all the sugar they need. They 
also furnish the traveler with cooling shade and add 
to the farmer's prospective store of fuel. The day 
Avill come w^ien tlie higliways of Wayne county will, 
in like manner, be embellished with maples, to the 
proht and comfc^rt of the farmers. In ordinary sea- 
sons, four pounds of sugar can be made from a tree of 
medium size. The sap of second-grow^th trees produces 
more sugar than tliat from trees found in old forests. 
The seed of the sugar-maple ripens and falls in October. 
There are varieties of this tree called "birds'-eye" and 
"curled" maple, the wood of wdiich, fifty years ago, 
was valual)le and much sought after by cal)inct-makers. 
It commanded a liigh price in England. But the 


caprice of taste is siicli that its value has greatly 

The red flowering maple is a beautiful tree. It blos- 
soms in the latter part of April. The blossoms are of a 
beautiful red and unfold more than a fortnight before 
the leaves. The tree is called soft maple and the grain 
is sometimes curled like the sugar-maple. Sugar is 
made from the sap of the tree as wliite as that made 
from the other maple, if the bark of the tree is not boil- 
ed with the sap. The tree grows luxuriantly in rich, 
moist land, the bark is smootli, the body straight, and 
the foliage of a light green ; many consider it more 
graceful than the hard-maple. The wood is used for a 
variety of purposes in making domestic wooden ware 
and agricultural implements. The utility and beauty of 
the tree should insure its cultivation and preservation. 

The amoimt of money received in Wayne county 
during the past eighty years for all kinds of lumber 
sent to market and for hemlock bark sold to our tan- 
neries, cannot be estimated, but, if it could be, the 
amount would astonisli us. Probably the wants of the 
people were such that they were justified in cutting- 
down our most valuable trees, to ol)tain what they could 
from them. But it appeared to us that some descrip- 
tion of our native forests would l)e appropriate, lest 
some of our noblest trees, once the glory of our hills 
and streams, should ])e forever forgotten. 




ANY of the kinds of wild beasts which lived in 
the original forests of Wayne eoimty, have become 
extinct. The bear, wolf, pantlier, elk, beaver, and 
marten, have entirely disappeaj-ed. Tlie bear lived a 
solitary, qniet life in forests and deserts, sal)sisting o\\ 
fruits, chestnuts, beech-nuts, and roots, and, al- 
though not carnivorous, would, when incited by hun- 
ger, attack and devour small animals. Like the Rel)- 
els, they liked to be let alone ; but, forced into a con- 
flict, tliey fought desperately. Owing to the liardness 
of tlieir skulls, tliickness of hide, and tenacity of life, 
they were hard to kill. When sliot down from trees, 
or caught in traps, hunters, sometimes, by going too 
near them, paid dearly for tlieir rashness, l^arely es- 
(^aping with their lives. 

Asa Stanton, of Waymart, says his father. Col. Asa 
Stanton, once caught in a trap a bear which broke the 
(^hain, and, there being a tracking snow, his father fol- 
lowed the trail over the mountain, down to al)out 
Archbald, Avhere lie overtook the fugitive. A large 
dog that he had along, pitc^hed in for a tight, but soon 
got the worst of it. Stanton's gun was Avet ; so, to re- 
lieve his dog, he went at the bear with his knife. 


Brniii caught Stanton by the leg, above the knee, and 
tore it so that lie bled very profusely. But the dog, 
annoying the l^east, made him quit his hold of his 
master, who, cleaning and reloading his gun, shot the 
monster dead. Stanton, weak and faint, was found 
])y a hunter, who went with him to his home. From 
the wound received, he was lame the rest of his life. 

Seth Yale, Esq., shot and \\'Ounded a young bear at 
the head of the Upper Wood's pond, in Lebanon. The 
old dam came to the rescue, and, with open moutli, ad- 
vanced upon the Esquire, who struck at her with a 
hatchet. She knocked the hatchet from the handle. 
He ran the handle into her mouth, but she managed 
to seize him by the arm, and, with her iron jaws, 
almost crushed it. The Esquire luckily had a faith- 
ful dog along, which, annoying the bear in the rear, 
made her release her hold upon the Esquire and turn 
upo7i the dog, which was too cunning to let her 
get hold of him. Yale picked up his gun, retreated 
a few rods, reloaded it, shot and mortally wounded the 
bear, and then with his dog went for his home, which 
he reached with difficulty, being weak and faint from 
the loss of blood. Had it not been for the sagacity 
of the dog, it was the opinion of the Esquire that tlie 
bear would have overcome them both. 

The Ijear is a hibernating animal. At the begin- 
ning of the winter, when very fat, lie retires to some 
hollow tree, and slet^ps through the heart of the win- 
ter. The Indians seldom attacked the bear, and free- 
Iv admitted that l)ruin was too much for them. But 


the whites killed them for their skins, and often 
smoked and ate the flesh. Hilkiah Willis and my 
father killed one, the meat of which weighed about 
five hundred pounds. The skin was glossy black, and 
they sold it for twelve dollars. It would now l^e 
worth forty dollars, at least. The bears in the sum- 
mer months had their wallowing places, near which 
they were in the habit of standing upon their hind 
legs, and marking, or registering, their utmost height 
by biting the bark on some chosen tree. The bear 
may be said to be extinct in Wayne county. 


The common gray wolf, originally found in all the 
Northern States, traversed every hill, and howled in 
every swamp. Being wholly carnivorous, he killed 
and devoured every animal that he could overpower. 
The first settlers found it absolutely necessary to keep 
sheep to supply them with wool, from which, l)y hand 
labor, they manufactured their winter-clothing. The 
wolves hunted the deer in packs, but the deer, when 
not impeded by snows, often ran to the rivers or 
ponds and escaped. But sheep and young cattle could 
not thus escape, and if not watched l)y day and se- 
curely folded by night, were sure to fall a prey to the 
wolves. It w^as said by the old farmers that witli all 
their watchfulness, thev lost vearly one-eio^hth of their 
sheep by wild beasts. A law was passed the lOtli of 
March, 1806, requiring the county to pay to the per- 
son producing the scalp of a full-grown anoK or pan- 


tlier, eight dollars, and for the scalp of a young whelp 
or cub of the same, four dollars; another act was pass- 
ed the 16th of March, 1819, raismg the bounty on a 
full-grown wolf or panther to twelve dollars, and on a 
whelp or cub of the same, four dollars. 

The farmers and hunters, encouraged by the boun- 
ty laws, made constant war upon th^ir enemies. But 
the wolves were cunning and suspicious, and were not 
often caught in traps. Esquire Spangenberg and 
Charles Kimble walked one down in two days and kill- 
ed him ; and Alva W. l^orton, Esq., with a companion, 
pursued and walked down two Canadian black wolves 
and shot them, but these were exceptional cases. Old 
hunters used to say that wolves, having made a de- 
scent upon a flock of sheep and satiated their hunger, 
at once put off upon a long tramp, as experience and 
instinct taught them tliat they were not safe to re- 
main long near the scene of their depredations. Pur- 
suit was generally una^^ailing. After many years they 
were all exterminated. Fhineas Teeple, a famous 
hunter in Manchester, prol)ably killed the last one 
heard of in the county. 


The panthers, though less numerous than the wolves, 
were more to be dreaded because they could climh 
over any fence that could be built. They often sprang 
from their covert lairs and caught sheep in the day- 
time. I once saw one spring from a thicket and kill 
a sheep in the public road near the place where Geo. 


Foote afterwards l)uilt a house. A iieiglil)or came 
along and frightened tlie beast away before he had 
tinished his meal. The carcass of the sheep was taken 
for bait, a trap was set in a spring near by, and the 
panther canght. About the year 1809, Joseph Wood- 
))ridge, Esq., of Salem, bought eleven choice sheep. 
He kept them in a lot near his house, and built a 
high fence around a pen, in which to keep them dur- 
ing the nights. He came to my father's one morning 
greatly excited, saying that some animal had been in 
his pen and killed the most of his sheep, and sucked 
the blood from their throats. The finding was that the 
killing had been done by a panther, and the sentence, 
"immediate death.'" A large mastiff dog soon treed 
the murderer, and my father shot at him with a mus- 
ket. The monster fell down the tree wounded and 
fought desperately and almost killed the dog, but he 
was iinally overcome. Several hunters said it was 
the largest panther they had ever seen or heard of. 
Its claws were sent to Connecticut to show the 
Yankees what kind of monsters the settlers had to 
contend with in the beech woods. IN^ot being a rov- 
ing animal, the panther was much sooner destroyed 
than the wolf. If there is one left in the county, he 
must live in the most desolate places. It is almost 
safe to say that the panther has in these parts bec^ome 

The marvelous stories sometimes told about bears, 
wolves, and panthers, without provocation aggressively 
attacking men, women, or children, should l)e received 


with many grains of allowance. That fear of man, 
seemingly impressed on the brute creation by a Higher 
Power, restrains them from committing any sncli 


These most useful of all the wild animals were onc^e 
the most numerous. They were shy and retiring, del- 
icate in form, fleet as the race-horse, with sight and 
heai'ing intensely acute. They were called red in the 
summer and gray in the winter. Their skins were val- 
uable only when in the red coat. Throughout the 
whole species the males have horns which are shed and 
renewed yearly, increasing in size and the number of 
their branches, at eacli renewal, until a certain period. 
Their flrst antlers appear in their seciond year and are 
straight, small, and simple, and are shed in the succeed- 
ing winter. Though the Indians were dependent 
chiefly upon the flesh of the deer for food, and on their 
skins for raiment, they were careful not to kill them 
wantonly or Avhen they were with young; consequently 
when the whites came into the county, they found the 
deer bounding over every hill or grazing in every 
grassy valley. They were as necessary to the subsist- 
ence of tlie whites as they had been to the Indians. 
Their flesh was not eaten when killed in the winter 
season, unless necessity compelled its use, for tlie ani- 
mal in hard winters fed upon the laurel which im- 
parted a poisonous principle to the meat. In view of 
this fact and to prevent a wanton destruction of tlie 
deer, an act was passed in 1760, making any person 


liable to the payment of a line of three pounds, who 
should kill or destroy any deer between the first day of 
January and the first day of August in envh. year, and 
the law was generally respected. Almost all the early 
settlers kept guns, many of them muskets of the old 
"Queen Anne's Arms," as they were called, which l)e- 
ing loaded with buck-shot when discharged were dan- 
gerous at both ends. All guns, muskets, and rifles had 
flint-locks until about fifty years ago, when they were 
superseded by percussion powder and caps. Hunting 
was followed, in order to procure necessary food. Some 
few men made it profitable, or pursued it fi*om an ac- 
quired passion for dangerous adventures. Some per- 
sons are doul)tful whether white deer w^ere ever found 
among our common fallow deer, but it is a fact. About 
fifty-five years ago a hunter in Sterling township, sold 
the skin of a white deer to William T. Noble, a mer- 
chant at Noble Hill. As the animal was a very large 
one, Mr. Noble regretted that he could not have had 
it as it was before it was skinned, so that it might have 
]>een stufPed and preserved, as it was a male and had 
huge antlers. The flesh of the deer, called venison, in 
the fall months was delicious. It was often dried or 
smoked mthout being salted, and called fresh junk. 
The skins were worth from fifty cents to one dollar. 
Deer often w^ent in flocks of twenty or thirty in num- 
ber. After rifles came into use, al)out 1810, the num- 
ber of deer l)egan to fail. For forty years they were 
hunted, trapped, and chased to ponds by dogs, where 
thev were assaulted and killed bv the hunters who 

THE ELK. 49 

overtook them ^v^tll canoes. From year to year de- 
clining in numbers, they have become so scarce that a 
hunter might rove a month without finding one. If 
not now extinct in this county, they surely Avill l)e in 
a few years. 


This noble animal, considerably larger than the 
common deer, which otherwise they very much resem- 
ble, never was very numerous ; still in early days they 
were found in some parts, especially in Canaan and 
Clinton, by reason of which a large tract of land in 
those townships containing 11,526 acres was named 
"Elk Forest." It is said that the elk sometimes at- 
tained the height of five feet, and that they did not 
attain their full growth until they were twelve years 
old. When full-grown their antlers are very large 
and spreading. Charles Stanton killed one in Canaan, 
the horns of which weighed twenty-five pounds and 
their length and spread was each four feet. Asa Stan- 
ton now has the horns, which are distinguished for the 
broad palmation of the antlers. By nature the elk is 
shy and timorous and scuds away at the sight of man. 
When brought to bay or standing in defense, however, 
like all the deer kind, he is a dangerous antagonist. 
His weapons are his horns and hoofs, and he strikes so 
forcil)ly with his feet that he can kill a wolf or dog with 
a single l)low. It is then that the hair on his neck bris- 
tles up like the mane of a lion, which gives him a wild 
and f(^rmidal)le appearance. In winter he lives by 
browsing upon the laurel and srnall l)oughs of trees, and 



in the summer upon the wild grass in the swamps. 
The usual pace of the elk is a high, shamhling trot, 
but when frightened he makes w^ondrous leaps and 
goes with a tremendous gallop. In passing through 
thick woods he carries his horns horizontally or thrown 
hack, to keep them from being entangled in the branch- 
es. He is an excellent swimmer, and in summer re- 
sorts to the lakes and ponds and stands in the water, to 
escape from the bites of the flies and mosquitoes. Asa 
Stanton, of Waymart, says that his father had seen 
twenty or more at one time standing in the Elk pond. 
What became of all the elk is not known. Probably 
they retired to the westward at the advance of the 
whites. Hunters did not boast of killing many of 
them. The meat of the animal is* delicious, and the 
skin very valuable. The elk is easily domesticated. 
It was the pride and glory of the hunter to kill them. 
The county of Elk was erected in 1843, at which time 
there were some found in the great forests, but they were 
soon all destroyed. Probably there are not ten men 
living in Wayne county who ever saw one in our for- 
ests. The last one heard of was killed fifty years ago. 


This animal challenged the Indian's veneration and 
the white man's admiration. They were found along 
most of the main streams, and especially along the 
Wallenpaupack, the Lackawaxen, and the head-waters 
of the Lehigh. Like the elephant they w^ere half-rea- 
soning animals, lived together in societies, and tenanted 


the ponds, rivers, and creeks. Where the creeks were 
not of sufficient depth, they built dams, to deepen the 
water beyond the power of frost. Asa Stanton, who 
understood them well, says : "They built houses of wil- 
lows, birch, and poplars, their aim seeming to be to 
have a dry place to sleep, lie, and, perhaps, eat in. 
Sometimes the houses had several compartments which 
had no communication with each other except by wa- 
ter, and when finished had a dome-like appearance." 
In building dams, or houses, they carry stones and 
mud under the throat, by the aid of their fore-paws. 
Their trowel-shaped tails are used as rudders and pro- 
pellers and not, as has been supposed, for the carrying 
of mud and for use as a trowel. They generally work 
in the night. Though they are classified with the Ro- 
dentia, or squirrels, yet their teeth are different; for 
such is the strength and sharpness of their teeth that 
they can lop off a bush as thick as a cane at one l)ite, 
and do it as smoothly as if cut with a knife. I have 
seen trees that had been gnawed down by them, six 
inches or more in diameter. It attains its full growth 
at, or before, its third year. It produces from two to 
six at a birth. The length of its head and body is 
about forty inches, and its tail one foot. They live 
upon the bark of the willow, birch, shaking asp, and 
other trees which they gnaw down, drag into the wa- 
ter, and, for winter use, cover up in the water below 
the reach of frost. The Indians attached great value 
to the skin of the beaver, and they had occasion to ex- 
ercise all their sagacity to capture them; the wliites, 


also, dulj appreciated the fur of the animal, from which 
hats of great value were manufactured. The guns and 
traps of the white men finally effected their extinction, 
and tradition has it that near the depot of the Erie 
railroad below Honesdale, was killed the last beaver 
ever seen in Wayne county. The last one that I ever 
saw, w^as caught in a trap by Edmund Nicholson, of 


This animal, generally called Pennant's marten, 
though never very abundant, was found in Wayne. 
They were carnivorous and l)elonged to the weasel 
tribe, living upon squirrels, mice, and birds. Their 
length was about thirty inches, and the tail about seven- 
teen inches. The fur was short on the head, l)ut in- 
creased in length tow^ards the tail. 


This animal is to be found about farms in the vi- 
cinity of forests. The body is about fifteen inches in 
length, the head about five inches, and the tail eight 
or ten inches, the latter being ornamented with several 
whitish rings. Tlie color of the back is a dark gray. 
The blacker the fur, the more valuable is the skin. 
The late Franklin Barnes in his time dressed and man- 
ufactured the skins into beautiful and valuable gloves. 
They are hibernating animals, that is, they burrow in 
the winter and lie in a torpid state, sometimes coming- 
out during a thaw. They go in very fat and come out 
very lean. They prey upon small animals, 1)irds. in- 


sects, and eggs, adding frnits and suecnlent vegetables 
to their diet, and especially ravaging the farmer's corn- 
fields. There is no difficulty in taming a raccoon, but 
they become too mischievons to be endured. The fur 
was once extensively used in the manufacture of hats. 


Called also the Maryland marmot, is too well 
known to need nuich description. He is a hibernating 
animal and lives upon clover, grass, and vegetables. 
When tamed he is harmless and fond of caresses. In 
tlie month of I^ovember, he goes into winter quarters, 
blocks up his door, and lies torpid, without eating, un- 
til spring. When he comes out, the severity of win- 
ter is past. He is of a grayish-brown color. Occa- 
sionally one may l)e found that is intensely black. The 
teeth of this animal show that he belongs to the Ro- 
dentia, or squirrel tribe. 


It is known by naturalists as the Urson, or Canadian 
porcupine, but it is altogether different from the Eu- 
ropean, or African porcupine. The hedgehog has but 
one kind of spines or quills, which are thickly set over 
all the superior parts of its body and covered by a 
coarse, long hair that almost conceals the quills, 
which are of different lengths, the longest not being- 
over two and a half inches. These, however, form a 
coat of armor which protects the animal against every 
enemy but man. When attacked they roll themselves 


up into a ball, and woe be to the animal that seizes 
them then. The hedgehog lives upon mice and frogs 
and upon vegetables and the bark of trees, and hiber- 
nates among rocks and in caves. It has been tamed 
and kept in a cage, but they cannot be honestly recom- 
mended as suitable pets for children. The Indians 
highly prized the animal both for its flesh and quills; 
with the latter they ornamented their pipes, moccasins, 
and dresses. 


This animal is almost black, with white stripes. It 
generally lives near a rocky forest, having its den in 
an excavation in the ground or under rocks, where it 
lies dormant most of the winter. It is a pest, as it 
makes nocturnal visits to the poultry-yard, eats the 
eggs of geese, ducks, and hens, and destroys their 
broods. From a sack it discharges a most fetid and 
disgusting fluid secretion, one drop of which is sufli- 
cient to make a garment unbearable for years. Not- 
withstanding all this it was the opinion of Dr. Budd, 
a noted physician of New Jersey, that the musk of the 
skunk will yet be recognized as the most effective 
remedy in materia medica, for the cure of phthisis oi- 
any cognate disease of the respiratory organs. 


This animal, in consequence of its amphibious na- 
ture, is nearly allied to the beaver, mink, and musk-rat. 
It is about Ave feet in length, including the tail, which 
is eighteen inches. The chin and throat are dusky 


white; the rest of the body is a histroiis brown. The 
fur is vahiable, so mucli so that the keeping and breed- 
ing of the otter, for the sake of their skins, has been 
made profitable. More than fifty years ago Miss Polly 
Wright, a daughter of Nathan Wright, had a tame 
otter. (The Wright family were noted for their skill 
in taming animals.) I saw the animal several times at 
the house of Egbert Woodbridge, where Miss Wright 
lived. This fellow went wiiere he pleased, and caught 
liis own food. He would go to the Paupack, a half 
mile distant, at all times of the year, and often bring 
home a fine trout, take it to a large spring near the 
house, play with it as a cat does with a mouse, and de- 
vour it when he had finished his gambols. No one 
could coax a fish away from him, although he w^as as 
playful and harmless as a kitten. His smooth, glossy 
skin was very beautiful. He had a winding hole un- 
der the house where he would lie, and where he seem- 
ed to take a roguish delight in biting the nose of every 
dog that attempted to interview him. After living 
several years in a state of domestication, he went away 
one summer and never returned. 


Old hunters used to (;all this animal a '' musquash." 
The head and body measure about fifteen inches : the 
tail nine inches. The fur is dark umber brown, chang- 
ing into a brownisli yelloAV on the under part of the 
l)ody. In Slimmer its food consists of roots, tender 
shoots, and leaves of aquatic plants, and, in the win- 


ter, of fresh-water clams. It is iioetiirnHl and not of- 
ten seen in tlie day-time, swims and dives well, and can 
remain a long time under water without breathing. It 
yearly builds a winter habitation out of mud and long 
grass, and lives about small, grassy ponds, nniddy, 
slow streams, or swamps. Many of the skins are year- 
ly exported. 


In its habits and appearance resembles the otter, 
being much smaller, however, as it is only about twen- 
ty inches in length. It lives al)out bog meadows, 
ponds, or sluggish streams, and feeds on frogs, tish, 
and clams, and will kill poultry in the winter if it can 
get at them. Its depredations are all nocturnal. Six- 
ty years ago the skin of a mink was worth only a 
York shillino'. A few vears ag-o it was worth several 
<lollars, l)ut since that time their value has greatly 


This animal with all its varieties is classified with 
the marten. They are cunning, silent, and cautious, 
and no animal exceeds them in agility. They can 
climb trees and follow the rat throuo:h all his wind- 
ings; having seized their victim, they never relax their 
hold, but, iixing upon the back of the head, drive their 
teeth through the skull. They hunt day and night 
and are accused of killing poultry and destroying their 
eggs. There are several varieties. The skin of the 
most common kind is brown on the back, and white 


on the belly and tliroat. The white kind is called the 
ermine weasel. The movements of all the varieties 
are singvdarly gi'acefnl. 


The black squirrel, never very abundant, is yet to 
l)e found in the vicinity of chestnut forests. In the 
winter its skin is of a fine, glossy black. In some 
years numbers of them are seen in the woods ; at other 
times they cannot be found. They are not as large as 
they appear to be ; their skins are of little or no value, 
and they are killed to gratify a morbid propensity to 
shed blood. The gray squirrels are larger and more 
numerous than the black kind, and remarkable for 
their beauty and activity. Like other squirrels it 
feeds upon all the nuts found in the woods and lays 
up a store of them for winter. It is easily tamed 
and is then cunning, playful, and mischievous. The 
common red squirrel is one of the boldest, most nimble, 
and thievish of all the rodents. He often lives in a 
liollow tree, and when he has a litter of young squir- 
rels on hand, he will run up and down his tree, and, 
with a rattling chatter, scold and threaten any crea- 
ture that approaches his home; for this cause he has 
been called a chickaree. He does not appear to dig 
up the planted corn, Ijut steals and carries it away in 
the fall. The Indians called these squirrels tree-plant- 
ers. A solitary (chestnut, hickory, or butternut tree 
is found a mile away from any of its kind. The In- 
dians believed that the seed of such isolated trees was 


c.arried and planted by the red squirrel. It may l)e 
that the animal is impelled by the impulsive power of 
instinct to plant trees for the future support of its 
race. This squirrel overmasters all the others, driv- 
ing them from their holes and consuming tlieir hoard- 
ed stores. When pursued it makes long leaps from tree 
to tree. Its tail is long and adds much to the beauty 
of this interesting, sylvan rover. When dnven by hun- 
ger, it will live on the bark of trees. Flying-squir- 
rels are scarce. The skin of their sides is extended 
from the fore to the hind legs, tlie expansion of whi(ih 
forms a sort of s:dl that enables them to descend from 
one ti*ee to another. They build their nests in hol- 
low trees, and are the smallest of all the squirrels. 
The upper parts are ash color and the under parts 
white. Their skins are soft and silken, eyes large, 
black, and prominent. The ground-squirrel, or (chip- 
munk, is the most abundant of all squirrels ; it lives in 
hollow trees or in holes in the ground, digs up corn in 
the spring, and steals it fi*om the ear in the fall. This 
is the laboring squirrel, ever busy and active; he 
lioards up abundance of nuts and gi^ain which other 
squirrels steal from him, whenever they can get at his 
garnered treasures. It is the way of the world; tlie 
laboring class are subject to have their acquisitions 
taken from them by the crafty and improvident. 


There are several varieties of tin's animal, one of 
which reseml)les the Canadian lynx, and among our 

THE FOX. 59 

liunters is called a catamount. It is larger than the 
wild cat and has longer ears and a shorter tail. Tlie 
whole tribe are carnivorous, living upon squirrels and 
mice. They are cowardly in disposition, but, when 
forced into a light, defend themselves with bloody 


This animal, noted in fable and in song and known 
in all the northern parts of Europe and Asia, as well 
as in all the northern portions of the American Con- 
tinent, consists of many varieties, all of whicli are cel- 
ebrated for cunning and rapacity. The variety most 
common in Northern Pennsylvania is the red fox. Its 
fur is long, fine, and brilliant. It is a great thief, 
troublesome to poultry keepers, and does not scruple 
to devour small lambs, if they are found in its way. 
They are caught in traps and hunted by hounds and 
men, yet there are some of them still left. There is 
another kind called the gray fox, whose fur is not of 
much value. The most rare and valuable variety is 
the black, or silver fox. This variety is sometimes 
found of a rich, deep, lustrous black, the end of the 
tail alone being wliite ; in general, however, the fur 
has a silver hue, tlie end of each of the long hairs be- 
ing white, and presenting a beautiful appearance. 
The hunters no sooner find out the haunts of one of 
this scarce variety than they use every art to catch 
liim, as the fur fetches six times the price of any oth- 
er kind. 



This is one of the most innocent and defenseless of 
all animals, and its only chance to escape from its ene- 
mies is l)y concealment or flight. It is remarkably 
swift, and when pni'sued is capable of making most 
astonishing leaps. It lives on the bark and buds of 
trees, in the winter, and upon tender herbage, in the 
summer, seeking its food in the night. From Decem- 
ber to May this animal is white, excepting the red- 
dish-brown of the ears. During the rest of the year 
the upper parts of the body are of a lead color. 
This hare has one peculiarity that has escaped the 
notice of zoologists. In the night, after some mild 
day in early spring, a strange sound is often heard in 
the woods, resembling the filing of a saw, which 
sound, it is generally believed, is made by a ])ird, 
which, consequently, has been named " saw-filer." Now 
this strange sound is not made by a bird, but l)y the 
male and female hare. This I know to be a fact, hav- 
ing stood, on a bright moonlight night, within two 
rods of the animal when the sound was made. Sam- 
uel Quick, of Blooming Grove, assured me that he 
had tamed the hare, and knew that they made such 


This animal closely resembles the hare in all its 
principal characteristics, size only excepted. It may, 
however, be at once recognized by the comparative 
shortness of the head and ears, as well as of the hinder 
limbs, and the absence of a reddish-brown tip on the 


ears, trnd by the brown color of the upper surface of 
the tail. In habits it is different from the hare. Its 
flesh, instead of l)eing dark and highly-flavored, is 
white, and, though delicate, is said to be insipid, es- 
pecially that of tlie tame l)reed. The animal is decid- 
edly gregarious, and makes extensive burrow^s, in 
wliich it dwells and rears its young. When alarmed 
it takes to its burrow and disappears as by magic. 
They produce three or four litters annually. The 
young, when first produced, are blind, naked, and 
helpless. The female forms a separate burrow, at the 
bottom of which she makes a bed of dried grass, lin- 
ing it wdth fur. There she deposits her young, care- 
fully covering them over every time she leaves them. 
It is not until the tentli or twelfth day that the young- 
are able to see. The ral)]nt is of a fulvous gray, and 
does not turn white. 





O part of nnimated nature is enlivened with any- 
thing more interesting than hirds. Their great 
diversity of forms, habits, and instincts ; their phimage 
always attractive, often gorgeous and rich with varied 
colors; their singular endowments by which they are 
enabled to navigate the air ; their ingenuity displayed in 
the construction of their nests ; their songs and chants, — 
all combine to throw a halo of enchantment around 
them, w^hich will ever iind place in our memories. 

Thomas Jefferson, in his "Notes on Virginia," upon 
many subjects is full and exhaustive; but when he 
comes to write about the birds, he merely gives us a 
catalogue of their Latin and English names, without 
any description of their plumage and peculiarities. 
This neglect his readers very much regret, when re- 
flecting upon the descriptive ability of the noted au- 
thor. Although destitute of the descriptive powers of 
that eminent writer, we shall attempt to give a general 
description, imperfect though it may be, of some of the 
])irds which have frequented, or, which do yet fre- 
quent, the flelds and forests of Wayne county. 

Birds are either carnivorous, insectivorous, graniv- 
orous, or onmivorous, and their digestive organs ;u'e 


modilied accordingly. Of the lirst kind are the eagle, 
hawk, kingfisher, owl, heron, and loon. 


That the eagle has been seen and killed in Wayne 
county may be a fact; but that it has ever made its 
aerie in our hills and mountains is questionable, as it 
ever l)uilds its nest upon precipitous cliffs, higher than 
any that exist in tlie county. 


Tlie great hen-hawk is well known to all farmers, 
as they are subject to have their domestic fowis de- 
stroyed by liim. When he can iind no other food he 
catches the garter-snake and sails about with it at a 
great lieight, sometimes letting the reptile fall, as if 
disgusted w^ith his prey. His sight is intensely acute; 
he spares no bird that he can catch, and is the terror 
of all the smaller tenants of the air, excepting the king- 
])ird and the purple martin, who drive him from the 
vicinity of their nests. The pigeon-hawk in habits is 
like the larger kind. 


Is found along the Delaware and other large streams. 
He has a loud, rattling voice. His sight is remarkably 
acute. From a tree near his frequented stream he will 
descend like a dart, seize upon a fish, carry it to his 
tree, and devour it, or convey it to his young. This 
bird sometimes lives in an excavation in some sand bank 


where its nest is made, to which it returns year after 


This bird, once very nnnierons, was found in all the 
dark solitudes of the deep woods, and in the night 
made such sounds as seemed s(?arcely to l)elong to this 
world. Attracted hy the dazzlini>: iire-li«:ht of the 
hunter, he would, from some near tree, utter a sudden 
and friglitful "waugh-0, waugh-(),'' sulhciently loud to 
alarm an army of men. In the same manner lie star- 
tled tlie belated traveler of the night. The Indian 
must have learned his terrific war-whoop from the owl. 
By way of variety, the wretch had otlier noctin-nal 
soh)s, which were like the screeches of a mortal in in- 
tolerable agony. Dr. Richardson, an English traveler, 
tells of the winter night of agony endured by a party 
of Scotch Highlanders who had encamped in the dark 
recesses of an American forest, and fed tlieir hre with 
a part of an Indian toml) which had been placed in a 
secluded spot. The startling notes of tJie great owl 
broke on their ears, and they at once concluded that a 
voice so unearthly, nnist be the moaning of tlie spirit 
<jf the departed, whose repose they supposed they had 
distm-])ed. The Indians dreaded the l)oding hoots 
of tlie owl and f<u*bade the mockery of his ominous, 
dismal, and almost supernatural cries. He is the sym- 
l)ol of gloom, solitude, and melancholy. He lives 
on all lesser birds and animals that he can surprise, and 
will destroy all poultry that he can reach. All his 
depredations are nocturna.l. He builds a great nest in 


some forked tree, lines it with grass and feathers, and 
raises three or four owlets at one brood. Occasionally 
one is heard in some large forest, bnt the most of them 
have been killed by hunters. There is a small kind 
called the screech-owl which is of habits like the one 
above descri]:)ed. 


Frequently called the night-heron, is peculiarly 
aquatic, has legs, wings, and neck longer than his body, 
and sometimes attains the height of Jive feet. He is 
both migratory and gregarious. He is a great lisner- 
man and seems satisfied with any kind of fish he 
can catch. He makes his nest of sticks upon the tall- 
est trees and when disturbed emits a loud, piercing 
cry. Sometimes he is improperly called a crane, which 
bird lives near the seashore. 


This bird, which is called the great diver, is scarcely 
noticed by any of our ornithologists. It is altogether 
aquatic and never seen upon land. Formerly it fre- 
quented our large ponds and was in the habit of pass- 
ing from one pond to another. Five or six of them 
would make their passage together, flying very high 
and emitting a distressing cry resembling that of a per- 
son shivering with cold. It can swim lifty rods under 
water, and so intensely acute is its sight, that it can, 
by diving, dodge the ball of a flint-lock rifle. Its food 
is flsh and frogs. Its nest is built of coarse grass on 
some bog about a pond. Its color is bluish on the 



])ack and wings, while the breast is nearly white. It 
is smaller than a goose and has a swan-like neck. Its 
feet l)eing webbed, its movements are very graceful in 
the water. 


This bird is occasionally found in the beech woods 
and in other parts of Pennsylvania. The beak is 
strong, decidedly toothed, and the upper mandible is 
curved and shuts over the under mandible, which is 
nearly straight. He feeds on grasshoppers, dragon- 
flies, and small birds. He takes his prey like the fly- 
catchers, by darting suddenly upon it from some post 
of observation, and, after satisfying his hunger, impales 
his remaining victims on thorns. When his supply of 
game is abundant, he leaves his stores to dry up and 
decay. He is bold and fearless, daring even to attack 
the eagle or hawk in defense of his young. In size he 
exceeds the kingbird. His tail is long and black, edg- 
ed with w^hite. The wings are black, and there are 
stripes of black running backward from his eyes. The 
rest of his plumage is of a lead color, the breast being 
paler than the back. 


This bird, watchful and cunning, is too well known 
to need much description. He is found everywhere 
and he understands his enemies just a1)out as well as 
they do him. He incurs the curses of the fanner for 
pulling up his corn in the spring, and for feasting upon 
the ripened ears in the fall. Great flocks of them meet 


together in the spring and autumn, and, at their conven- 
tions, seem to deliberate over their concerns with true 
legislative solemnities, intermingled with a liberal 
amount of parliamentary jabber and jaw. The character 
and plumage of the crow are both black, and it is an un- 
settled question among agriculturists whether he is a 
blessing or a curse, — w^hether he is more sinned against 
than sinning. It must be admitted that being omniv- 
orous he destroys the larvae of many injurious insects 
and beetles. 


These birds, never very numerous, were found in 
our original forests sixty or seventy years ago, and 
were shot by hunters or decoyed into pens made of 
poles and covered over on the top, a trail of wheat be- 
ing strewn upon the ground into the pen. The turkey, 
with his head down followed the trail into the trap, and 
upon raising his head endeavored to escape through the 
spaces between the poles, not lowering his head to see 
the opening at wdiich he entered. Many were caught in 
this way, and all in consequence of holding their heads 
too high. Finally upon the invasion of the forests by 
the ax of the white man, being of a shy and retiring 
nature, they left for the more undisturbed forests of 
western Pennsylvania. They are natives of America. 
Being easily domesticated they were introduced into 
Europe as early as 1525. The nature of the bird may 
be inferred from the domesticated kind, though it is 
claimed that the wild bird is much larger than the 
tame one, and tliat the flesh is of a more delicious flavor. 



This is the bird called a partridge, and is so liardj 
as to live in oiu- woods through our long, dreary win- 
ters, when, at times, it burrows in the snow. The 
food of the grouse consists of seeds, berries, ^^^ld 
grapes, and the buds of various trees. Their nest is 
made upon the ground, and they often rear a brood 
of twelve or fifteen chicks from one incubation. Up- 
on what the young are fed is unknown. The male is 
a noble looking bird, and while his mate is sitting, 
(and at other times,) he seeks out some secluded log, 
and, by the flapping of his wings, produces a very 
peculiar sound called "drumming." They are de- 
stroyed by hawks, owls, and foxes, but their most re- 
lentless foe is the hunter. The present law imposes a 
penalty of ten dollars upon any person who shall kill 
any ruffled grouse, between the tirst day of January 
and the first day of October in any year. 


Also called the Virginia partridge, is found through- 
out the Atlantic States. They live on grain and in- 
sects. In former times, when the farmers stacked out 
their hay and grain, they were quite numerous. The 
scarcity of food, combined with the severity of our 
winters, has made them very scarce. In some respects 
they resemble the ruffled grouse, in others they vary 
materially. The grouse roosts in trees, and is shy 
and untamable. The quail roosts or sits on the 
ground, and, if unmolested, will feed with domes- 


tic fowls, and it is believed that tliey might be domes- 
ticated. Any person killing the quail between the 
lirst day of January and the lifteenth day of October, 
in any year, is by law subject to a penalty of ten dol- 
lars. Why not interdict the killing of them at any 
time ? 

When calling his mate the male has a peculiar 
whistle. By some he is imagined to articulate the 
words, " no more wet ; " by others, the words, " ah 1 
Bob WJiite." What boy is there that has lieard his 
whistle who did not try to imitate it ? 

' ' The school-boy wandering in the wood, 
To pull the flowers so gay, 
Starts, his curious voice to hear, 
And imitates his lay." 


This l)ird resembles the English snipe, or woodcock, 
though it is less in size, and differently marked. In 
the day-time they keep in tlie woods and bushes, but, 
towards evening, seek wet and marshy ground, where 
they find their food. They seldom stir about until 
after sunset. It is then that this bird ascends spirally 
to a considera1)le height in the air, often uttering a 
quack, till, having attained his utmost height, he flies 
around in circles, making a gurgling sound, and in a 
few moments descends rapidly to the ground. If 
started up in the day-time, his flight at first is wal)- 
bling, then in a direct line, when he is shot by tlie 



There are so many varieties of this bird that it is 
difficult to determine what is the name of the kind 
that is found in our rivers and ponds, and whicli sixty 
years ago were found in large flocks, in the Little 
Equinunk pond, from which circumstance it was called 
" Duck Harbor." It is one of the largest ponds in 
the county, and old hunters used to say that the ducks 
often resorted there in immense numbers. Being 
shy and wary, as soon as they were annoyed by the 
hunters, the most of them left for safer quarters. Their 
peculiarities are like those of the tame kind. The 
wood-duck, however, is, in some respects, unlike all 
others. It formerly lived along the Middle creek, and 
perhaps in other parts of the county ; unlike other 
ducks, it builds its nest in hollow trees near the water, 
and if the young cannot reach the water with ease, 
the mother carries each one to it in her bill. Audu- 
bon called this kind the most ])eautiful duck in the 


The bro^vn thrush, or brown thrasher, as it is called 
in New England, is the largest of all the numerous 
kinds of thrushes. His morning song is loud, cheer- 
ful, and full of variety. His notes are spontaneous, 
not imitative. His back and wings are brown and his 
breast whitish, mottled wdth dark spots. His tail is 
long and fan-shaped. He flies low from one thicket 
to another- This bird has become very scarce, and 
may have left the county altogether. 



Is classified among the tlirushes, and is often called 
"robin-red-breast." But our robin is larger than the 
English robin-red-breast, and is unlike it in habits and 
plumage. Our robin builds a nest of mud and lines 
it warmly, locating it in an orchard or in some tree 
near the habitation of man, its four or live eggs being of 
a pale blue. During the incubation of the female, 
and, at other times, the male, sitting upon some chosen 
tree, pours forth his loud and long-continued notes of 
"cheer-up, cheer-up, cheer-up," producing an enliven- 
ing effect upon the most dejected heart. It is one of 
our earliest birds, and is among the last that departs 
for warmer climes. 


Is a solitary l)ird of the thrush order, never leaving 
the woods, and but little is known of them. Their 
notes are short and mournful, but not often repeated. 
Their plumage is of a light snuff color. All the thrush- 
es are chiefly insectivorous. 


Is also ranked among the thrushes. Their nests are 
built in low bushes, and, when holding their young, 
are ably defended against all intruders. Both sexes 
are of a uniform slate color. Upon coming near their 
nest, they emit a cry which resembles the mewing of 
a cat. The song of the male is loud, varied, and 



These, of all birds, are the most gregarious. They 
liv in flocks and build their nests near each other, many 
of them on the same tree, and thousands of them in 
the same forest. A tract of land called " The Pigeon 
Roost," in Berlin township, sixty years ago, was one 
of their favorite places of rendezvous. Then they 
overspread this region in immense flocks of thousands. 
They lived upon the beech-mast. Since that time they 
liave steadily decreased in numbers, until they have 
almost ceased their annual visits. Perhaps the great 
wheat flelds of the West have allured them thither. 
Their rapidity of flight and ability to remain unflag- 
gingly upon the wing for many consecutive hours, is 
wonderful. Pio-eons have l>een cauo-ht in Wavne coun- 
ty with undigested rice in their crops, Avhicli they must 
have eaten on the rice-flelds of the South. ^' 'Tis true, 
'tis strange; but stranger 'tis, 'tis true." Once they 
were caught in nets 1 )y hundreds, but now they are not 
caught at all. 


There are many kinds of these birds, the largest of 
which is the " high-hole, " so called from his ha])it of 
seeking a higli tree with a dead top, in which he makes 
a hole for his nest. His food consists of insects and 
gi'ubs, which he digs out of decayed timber. Like 
his whole tribe, he flies by alternate risings and fallings. 
He may be called the drummer among l)irds. In a 
still morning he beats a reveille upon some dead tree, 


wlii(*h can l^e heard far away for a mile or more ; then 
he claps his head close to the tree and listens for the 
movement of any grub or insect that he may have 
disturbed. The red-headed woodpecker is a gay, frol- 
icsome bird, living upon grubs, cherries, and green corn. 
Their nests are built in some hole made in dead trees. 
They are a match for any bird in a iiglit. There is a 
small woodpecker called a sap-sucker, which bores holes 
in apple-trees. The wliole race is diminishing in 


This bird is a favorite every- where. He is known to 
almost every child. His reappearance after his South- 
ern pilgrimage is li ailed as the herald of returning 
spring. " So early as the first of March," says Wilson, 
"if the weather be open, he usually makes his appear- 
ance about his old haunts, the barn, orchard, and fence 
posts. Storms and deep snows sometimes succeeding, 
he disappears for a time, but about the first of April 
is again seen, accompanied by his mate, visiting the box 
in the garden, or the hole in the old apple-tree, the 
cradle of some generations." The food of the bluebird 
is made up of insects, particularly large beetles, fruits, 
and seeds. Its song is short, but very cheerful, and is 
most frequently lieard in the calm, pleasant days of 


As the bluebird is the harbinger of spring, the swal- 
low is the harbinger of summer. The barn-swallow 



comes in May and immediately commences the build- 
ing of its nest in and about barns and sheds, which is 
made with mud and lined with tine grass, feathers, and 
hair. It is not unusual for twenty or thirty of them 
to build in and about the same barn ; and every opera- 
tion is carried on with great order. No appearance of 
discord is exhibited in this affectionate community. 
They have often two broods in a season, the female 
laying four eggs for each brood. The male cheers his 
mate with his sprightly twitter during her period of 
incubation. The activity of the male is unremitting. 
Almost constantly on the wing, he catches his prey in 
his flight, whicli consists wholly of winged in- 
sects. The flight of the barn-swallow is rapid, circuit- 
ous, and varied by tlie most intricate and zigzag evolu- 
tions. To show the kindly nature of the swallow, per- 
mit me to relate that I once knew two pair of swal- 
lows to commence their nests late in the season, in a 
place not fifty feet from my door. At first the nests 
increased slowly. One morning, hearing an uncom- 
mon amount of twittering, I found that they had got 
up a bee and that ten or a dozen w^ere at work upon 
said nests which w^ere quickly completed; a brood 
of young swallows w^as raised in each, in time to join 
the great convocation which took their departure in 
August for a Southern clime. Another variety of these 
birds is the chimney-swallow, which builds and breeds 
in chimneys. They fly very high in \\\e air. Their 
wings being very narrow are kept in a (constant flutter, 
and as they do not descend to the ground, they must 


feed on flies and insects which are beyond the reach of 
our vision. 


This bird is a particular favorite wherever he makes 
his home. He is more likely, than the common swal- 
low, to make his nest in a box; indeed something like 
a box is what he seeks to build in. At any rate the 
summer residence of this agreeable bird is always 
chosen near the liabitations of man, who, be he black 
or white, civilized or savage, is generally his friend 
and protector. In habits, this noble bii-d closely re- 
sembles the swallow, excepting that tlie martin is val- 
iant in flght. He is the terror and common enemy of 
crowds, hawks, and eagles, uniting with the kingbird in 
attacking them. It is astonishing with what spirit and 
audacity, this bird sweeps around his enemy and in- 
flicts painful blows with his poniard l)ill. He gives 
the kingbird a beating when he finds him in the vicinity 
of his premises. He is migratory and insectivorous. 


This bird is also called the tyrant fly-catcher. These 
names have been given to him on account of his l)e- 
havior in breeding time, and for the despotic authority 
he assumes over all other birds. His extreme attach- 
ment to his mate, nest, and young, makes him suspi- 
cious of every bird that comes near his chosen abode, 
so that he attacks every intruder without discrimina- 
tion. Hawks, crows, and even the eagle dread an en- 
countej* with him. He generally comes off conqueror. 


LTpon his return from a successful combat, he mounts 
a tree near his nest and commences rejoicing with a 
shrill, rapid, and hilarious twittering, to assure his mate 
that she is safe under his protection. The purple mar- 
tin is said to be, in a square fight, more than a match 
for him. TJie general color of tlie kingbird is a slaty 
ash, the throat and lower parts being white. He is 
migratory and insectivorous, and the orchard is his 
favorite resort. 


This noisy, chattering, restless, quarrelsome little 
bird chooses his summer abode near some farm-house 
or barn, and is not particular as to the place where his 
nest shall be made, but, when once made, the place is 
sacred to him. He is a bold, saucy, and aggressive 
bird, being jealous of every l)ird that builds near him, 
and is accused of tearing to pieces the nests of the 
bluebird and barn-swallow. If his nest is built in a 
crevice, he lays down a long trail of little sticks at each 
end of his nest. These telegraphic sticks convey intel- 
ligence of the approach of an intruder. The song of 
this little chatterer is lively and agreeable. Children 
always admire the little, sociable wren. He destroys an 
immense numl)er of flies and insects. 


This bird is seldom seen or heard in the beech or 
hemlock woods. They prefer high, dry ' lands, and 
frequent the Delaware and the open woods. They 
are noted for their staid and peculiar song, in wliicli 


they indulge during the cahn and warm niglits of 
June and July. This is the only l)ird that breaks 
the stillness of our summer nights, save the l)oding 
owl. They seem to articulate plainly the w^ords by 
which they are called. Their color, in the upper 
part, is a dark brownish gray, streaked and slightly 
sprinkled with brownish black; cheeks of a brow^n 
red; quill feathers, dark brown, spotted in bars, witli 
light brown ; tail feathers, white at the tips, under parts, 
paler than the upper, and mottled. The female lays 
her eggs on the bare ground, and when they are hatch- 
ed, she is extremely attentive to her young. 

The night-hawk, though resembling the whip-poor- 
will, is a different bird. The latter is altogether noc- 
turnal, while the night-hawk in cloudy weather is 
often abroad, in the day-time, chasing its insect prey, 
sometimes skimming over meadow and marsh, and 
making shrill, squeaking sounds as it dashes along. It 
lays its eggs on the ground. It is migratory and in- 


This bird, although larger than a cat-bird, some- 
what resembles it. Many call it the cuckoo, although 
its notes are altogether unlike those of the English 
cuckoo, which distinctly pronounces its name. But 
the notes of the bird that we are describing may be 
represented by the words "cow, cow, cow,"' quickly 
repeated, consequently it is called cow-bird in every 
part of the country. Wilson calls this bird the yel- 
low-billed cuckoo. Like tlie Eno^lish cucko(j, this bird 


deposits its eggs in the nests of other birds, which 
sometimes hatch and rear the alien impostors, to the 
sreat discomfort of their own hrood. The naturalist, 
Le Yaillant, from evidence collected b)" him, became 
convinced that the female cow-bird carries the eg^ in 
her mouth from her own nest to that of another bird. 
Perhaps she has a surplus of them, for it is a fact that 
the cow-bird l)uilds a simple, flat nest, composed of 
dry sticks and grass. They rear only one l)rood in a 
season. The young of the cow-bird have been found 
in the nests of the robin, blue-bird, and fly-catchers. 
The cooing of this bird is considered an indication of 
rain. The Pennsylvania Germans call it the rain- 

This bird, clad in blue varied witli purple and white, 
and barred on the wings and tail with black, when 
viewed without prejudice, is a beautiful tenant of the 
woods, and is distinguished as a kind of beau among 
the feathered tribes. He makes himself conspicuous 
by his loquacity, and the oddness of his tones and 
gestures. In early times, the jay gave notice by his 
screams and squalling to all the beasts that the hunter 
was approaching. We are glad to be excused from 
repeating the exact language that was sometimes used 
in imprecating vengeance upon this ''blue devil," as 
the hunters called him. If the hunter turned upon 
him, away he went with a vehement outcry, flying off 
and screaming with all his might. " A stranger," says 
Wilson, " might readily mistake his notes for the re- 


peated creakiDgs of an ungreased wheelbarrow." The 
jay builds a large nest, lining it with fibrous roots. 
The eggs, live in number, are of a dull olive color. 
He is omnivorous, living on nuts and Indian corn, 
then on caterpillars, and then, at other times, he plun- 
ders the nests of small birds of their eggs and young. 
He is becoming scarce, and no one will mourn over 
his extinction, 


Larger than the robin, is a shy, agreea})le bird, that 
comes up from its Southern home and stays from two 
to three months and returns. Its back and wings are 
marbled with brown and gray, and its breast is light 
olive, sprinkled with brown spots. The nest is made 
in tall grass and is so well concealed that it is seldom 
found. Its notes are pleasant, but without variety. 
Farmers consider it harmless and insectivorous. 


Is small and graceful with a soft, silken, dun-colored 
plumage. The feathers on the head are elevated into 
a beautiful crest of a bright, brownish gray. It is 
generally known as the cherry bird, and is sure to be 
on hand as soon as strawberries and cherries are ripe. 
It is a peculiarity of these birds to fly in close, compac-t 
flocks of twenty or tliirty in a flock, and for all to light 
upon the same tree. Where the red cedar is found, 
these birds feed upon its berries. About the 10th of 
June they disperse over the country in pairs to breed. 


and spread through tlie Middle and Western States. 
They utter nought but a lisping sound. 


Fifty years ago this bird was scarcely seen or known 
in the beech-woods. In consequence of the increasing 
heat of our summers it is multiplying in numbers. It 
derives its name from the brilliant orange and black 
colors of the coat of arms of Lord Baltimore, In 
former times it was called the hang-bird from the hang- 
ing and pensile position of its nest. This beautiful 
creature arrives among us about the first of June, and 
departs early in August. In plumage it somewhat re- 
sembles the dark-winged tanager, and like it is very 
sensitive to cold. It exhibits wonderful ingenuity in 
constructing its long, pouch-like nest in the forked ex- 
tremity of some high tree. To be justly admired, the 
nest must be seen. The position chosen by the oriole 
for its pensile nest is, no doubt, prompted by instinct 
as a means of security against squirrels, snakes, and 
other enemies. Besides insects it feeds on strawber- 
ries, cherries, and other fruits. Its notes are a clear, 
mellow, iiute-like wliistle repeated at short intervals in 
a plaintive tone, and are extremely musical. The late 
Mrs. II. G. Otis, some years ago, took to Boston an 
oriole's nest, which was constructed with magical skill, 
and sold it at a fair for live dollars. The nest was built 
in a liigli elm upon lier premises in Bethany. 

First appear al)out the twentieth of October in 


flocks of twenty or thirty, flying about very leisurely 
and searching for food. When deep snows cover the 
ground, they collect about barns, stables, and even 
about the farm-houses, and become almost tame, gath- 
ering up crumbs and appearing lively and grateful. 
They retire north w^ards in April. Dr. Kane speaks of 
them as being very abundant in high latitudes, where 
they make their nests upon the ground. Their length 
is five inches, and their general (;olor slate-gray, the 
lower part of the breast being nearly white. There is 
anotlier larger bird, called tlie snow^-bunting, which 
only appears in small flocks, in the depth of winter, 
commonly before a snow-storm. They frequent barn- 
yards and hay -stacks in search of hay-seed. The color 
of these birds is of a yellowish gray. They probably 
come from and return to the Arctic regions. They 
are timorous, suspicious birds. 


Is found almost every-where in the Northern States, 
among the large trees, in thick forests, but is seldom 
known or called by its proper name. It is a small 
bird about five or six inches in length, with a wdiite 
breast, the back and wings being rufous-brown and 
gray. It l)reeds in holes which it finds or makes in 
old trees, and lives upon beech-nuts, chestnuts, and 
hazel-nuts, wliich it can open with its strong pointed 
bill. Any man who has been much in the woods 
must have observed a bird that can run swiftly, head- 
foremost, down a tree. That bird was a nut-hatch. 



He must have noticed tliat the same bird was 
in the liahit of running in (drcles around a tree, 
searching in the seams of the hark for insects. 
Naturalists declare that this bird is of an untamable 
disposition and will not endure (-ontinement. It has 
been known to batter up its bill in its attempts to es- 
cape from a cage, and after days of painful struggles, 
to die wdth exhaustion and vexation. There is a variety 
of this bird called creeper. Among them is a very 
small one called the phelje-bird, which will some- 
times come and repeat its name from some tree near 
a dwelling-house. 

There is another creeper, called "cocheek," which 
is seldom seen, but is sometimes heard in the woods, 
most frequently in June, repeating in a very high, 
ioud key "cocheek, cocheek, cocheek," very rapidly 
for a dozen or more times, and the sounds can be 
lieard eighty rods away. Some have supposed that 
tlie noise is made by a squirrel, but I know to the 
contrary from my own observation. 


Tliis is the only species of the genus found in the 
original Thirteen States, though there are scores of dif- 
ferent kinds in America. It is found only on this con- 
tinent. It needs no lengthy description, as it cannot 
l)e mistaken for any other bird. It comes to the North 
only in the summer months. It is tlie smallest and 
one of the most brilliant of the feathered race. No 
1)ird excels its powers of flight. Its long and narrow 


wings are admirably adapted for aerial progression. 
Its flight from flower to flower resembles that of a bee, 
l)nt is much more rapid. It can suspend itself in one 
place for several seconds so steadily that its wdngs can 
scarcely be seen, while it thrusts its long l)ill into the 
flowers, to inhale their nectared sweets. When it 
alights, it prefers some small twig. The ground is 
never its resting place. It feeds not only upon the 
nectar of flowers but also on insects. In describing this 
bird, naturalists have exhausted all their skill. Buifon, 
the French ornithologist, obtained these birds at great 
expense and domesticated them, and his description 
of tliem is inimitable. 


This bird is a representative of the song flnches of 
the Northern States. It is the first singing bird in the 
spring, and is heard through the summer and autumn. 
It will sit upon the branches of a small tree and, per- 
haps, for a whole hour, repeat its short and enlivening 
notes. It builds its nest on the ground, in general, but, 
sometimes, strange to say, in trees five or six feet from 
the ground. Its eggs are of a cream-color, speckled 
with brown. The male and female are nearly alike in 
color. The upper part of the head is of an iron-rust 
hue, mixed with dark-brown; back gray, neck and 
breast spotted with brow^n, under parts white, tinged 
with gray. There are other familiar kinds of finches 
as the field, tree, w^hite-throated, and chipping-sparrow. 
The latter is a very small bird, which keeps about the 


kitchen yard unci tamely comes near the door-steps for 
gram or scattered crum])s. It builds its nest by the 
side of a stone, year after year, if not molested. It 
picks out the down}^ seed of the thistle, and destroys 
many worms, especially the cabbage-worm. Its notes 
are short but agreeable. The English sparrows which 
have been recently naturalized, wxre imported into New 
York and Philadelphia to destroy the worms and cat- 
erpillars that were destroying the foliage of the decor- 
ative trees in their public parks. They effected wdiat 
they were expected to do. These birds have increased 
wonderfully and spread into all our large cities and 
towns, and, though our climate is too cold for them, 
yet they contrive to live, for they are l)old, active, and 
full of light. They do not go into the farming dis- 
tricts, nor invade the forests, but confine themselves to 
towns and cities, where they work as petty scavengers 
in the streets. These birds did not come here of their 
own free-will, but, like the negroes, w^ere forced into 
the country. But a loud complaint is now made that 
these sparrows are saucy and aggressive and that they 
are dispossessing and driving out our native birds, and 
the inquiry is being made. How shall we get rid of 
them? The devilish proposition has been made to 
poison them all! It must be admitted that these birds 
partake of the nature of the people of the island from 
wdiich they came ; which people have, by their warlike 
craftiness and enterprise, by fair means and foul, con- 
quered, colonized, and taken possession of, by force of 
arms, large portions of the globe. It little becomes 


us, the descendants of men who drove out and destroy- 
ed the Aborigines, to bhime and persecute the little 
bii'ds for doing, in their line, what we excuse our fore- 
fathers for doing. 


This is the bird that every body knows by the name 
of chickadee. It ranges through the whole width of 
the American Continent from latitude sixty-five degrees 
to the Southern districts of the United States, being 
stationary throughout the year. "Small families of 
chickadees," says Nuttall, "are seen chattering and 
roving the woods, busily engaged in gleaning their 
multifarious food with the nut-hatchers and creepers, 
altogether forming a busy, active, and noisy group, 
whose manners, food, and habits, bring them together 
in a common pursuit. Their diet varies with the sea- 
son. In the month of September they leave the woods 
and assemble familiarly in our orchards and gardens, 
and even enter thronging cities in quest of that sup- 
port which their native forests now deny tliem." But 
what more than any thing else endears these little birds 
to us is the fact that when "winter spreads its, latest 
gloom, and reigns tremendous o'er the conquered year," 
the chickadees prove themselves no summer friends ; 
they stay with us, cheering ns by chanting their sweet 
notes, picking up crumbs near the houses, searching 
the weather-boards for spiders and the eggs of destruc- 
tive moths, especially those of the canker-worm, which 
they greedily eat in all stages of its existence. The lar- 


vae of no insect can escape their searching sight. AVhen 
the woodman, in the winter or spring, fells tlie forest 
timber, the chickadees will be there to cheer him with 
their presence and their song. They can hear the fall 
of the tree a great distance, and are very soon upon 
the spot, searching among the broken and decayed 
Avood for insects and the larvae of everj kind of ])eetle. 
In descril)ing the l)ird, suffice it to say, that the top of 
the head, the back of the neck, and the throat are vel- 
vet black ; the back is lead-colored with a little white 
on the front of the neck. They roost in the hollows 
of decayed trees, where they, also, liatch their young. 
After a brood is reared, the whole family continues to 
associate together tlirough the succeeding autumn and 
winter. Where is the man or woman reared in the 
country that does not remember how in childhood 
days he or she was captivated by the dress and song of 
the little chickadee ? 


There are several varieties of this bird, one of which 
is called the cardinal or smnmer red-bird. This kind 
is very shy and timorous, and he seems to realize that 
his dazzling, crimson plumage exposes him to scrutiny 
and observation. He, therefore, takes up his abode 
in the deep recesses of tangled forests, and very little 
is known about him. In Western Pennsylvania and 
Ohio this bird is quite common, often building its 
nest in large orchards, and visiting cherry-trees in 
search of fruit. The black-winged tanager is a l)ird 


oi still greater beauty. The whole body is of a deep 
crimson. The mngs are black and the tail is dark 
purple, excepting the ends of the feathers, which are 
tipped and dotted with white. The whole form of 
this l)ird is symmetrical and faultless. There are 
many persons who declare that they have seen this 
bird, but none, perhaps, that have seen him for many 
years. He is doubtless, so far as plumage and symme- 
try are concerned, the most beautiful bird that ever 
lived in our woods ; and no being less than an omnipo- 
tent God could have made a bird of such transcendent 


Also called goldlinch, very much resembles the 
domestic canary. In tlie spring they gathei* in flocks 
and bask and dress themselves in the sunshine. If 
there is any such thing as pure sublunary happiness, 
they appear to enjoy it. Their song is weak, but, 
when many of them join in concert, the mingling of 
their notes produces an agreeable harmony. They 
seem to take great delight in washing themselves by 
flying through any small column of falling water. 
Tlieir flight is not in a direct line, but in alternate ris- 
ings and sinkings. In the early part of June they 
associate in large flocks to feed upon the seeds of the 
sweet-scented vernal grass which seems to be their 
favorite food. Their nests are built in small trees, 
being constructed with great neatness and skill and 
lined with some soft, downy substance. This hand- 
some ])ird does not appear to be decreasing in mmi- 


hers. It is too small to invite the destructive cruelty 
of the huntsman. 

Tliere is anotlier l)ird which is called the summer- 
yellovv-bird, which is about live inches in length, with 
an upper plumage of greenish-yellow, the wings and 
tail deep brown, edged wdth yellow. Formerly this 
bird frequented gardens and orchards, built a cosy 
nest and lined it wdth down. Its plumage was showy, 
l)ut its song was short and weak. This bird has dis- 
appeared, being too sensitive to bear our cold, chilling 


This bird appears in every part of the connti'y at 
different times. Formerly they committed great havoc 
among the fields of midze. Less complaint has been 
made about them in late years. Transient flocks of 
them are seen every spring and fall. The walk of 
this bird is stately and dignified. The red-winged 
variety built its nest among alders, hatching out five 
or six at a brood. This latter kind was also very 
fond of Indian corn. They all have but one simple 
note which they often repeat and which sounds like 
the word " check." 


The bobolink is classified among the blackbirds, 
being mostly l)lack, i-elieved by a stripe of white. 
The song of the male, Avhich is loud, varied, and re- 
peated generally upon the wing, while he hovers over 
the field, where his mate is attending to the duties of 


incubation, has a gushing joyousness which the most 
skillful mimic cannot imitate. Tlie female is a little 
brown bird, with one simple note, and makes her nest 
in the grass. Tlieir stay at the North is very short; 
on leaving they go to Chesapeake bay and are there 
called reed-birds ; thence to the rice fields of the 
South, where they are called rice-birds, and, on 
becoming fat, are killed in great numbers. 


This is a timorous, high-stilted, little water-bird that 
in summer runs along the shores of our ponds, making 
a piping sound, and belongs to the order of sandpipers. 
He swdms and dives well and is very graceful in the 
water, but when on land is constantly rocking his body 
backw^ards and forwards, dipping his head downwards, 
from which motion he has been called the dipper. 
Although we have searched for the nest of this sliy 
bird, we never found one. 

There are probably some other birds that are tran- 
sient visitors among us, such as the flicker, the scrap- 
ing-thrush, and cross-bill. Even the mocking-bird has 
been seen in Lebanon township. The greater part of 
the l)irds that come among us in the summer months, 
stay just long enough to build their nests, hatch, and 
rear their young and then are away. They come, in 
all prol)ability, to escape from the snakes, squirrels, 
and l)h'ds of prey which are so abundant in Southern 
climes. The vivid, l)ewitching greenness of our forests 



lias, no (loiil)t, great attractions for tliem. Our En- 
gl i si i and Irish people assert, and, no donbt, truthfully, 
that in their native islands the hirds of song exceed 
ours in numbers and melody, but that the American 
birds surpass theirs in the beauty of their plumage. 

How delightful is the scene, when we can say: "The 
winter is past, the flowers appear upon the earth: the 
time of the singing of birds is come, and the voice of 
the turtle is heard in our land." 

Since writing the foregoing, we have had the pleas- 
ure of seeing an interesting collection of the skins of 
divers quadrupeds and birds prepared and preserved 
by that ingenious taxidermist, Lewis Day, Esq., of 
Dyberry. All the preparations have a life-like appear- 
ance. Among the quadrupeds are a bhick Maryland 
marmot, a large hedge-hog, and two martens; and 
among the l)irds are some rare and beautiful specimens, 
all killed in Wayne c<3unty , as follows : A large Amer- 
i(^an shrike, by some called the butcher-bird ; a cardi- 
nal gross-beak, a rare bird in this latitude; a strange, 
tall ])ird, with long legs and ^\it\i a longer neck, of a 
mottled gray, in slang language called a " shikepoke," 
Mud not very distin(;tly described by any of our orni- 
thologists, resembling in plumage and sliape the bird 
known in England as the l)ittern ; a black-winged taiia- 
ger ; a meadow-lark ; a bird of the sandpiper order, 
{jailed a "tip-up" ; a small black auk, which must have 
wandered from its ocean home. But strangest among 
them all is a white woodpecker, a hrsns naturoe. The 
liead of this bird is ornamented with a crest of long, 

FISH. 9 1 

slender featliers of a rich carmine color, and, were it 
not for its plumage, it would be at once recognized as 
an ivory-billed woodpecker. In Mr. Day's collection 
are many other rare specimens. Such is his love of 
the beautiful in nature, that we feel assured he will 
make further additions to his stock of rare curiosities. 

What we have written about birds has been done in 
part to incite our young people to study the nature and 
habits of these light tenants of tlie air, which we con- 
sider the most interesting creatures in animated nature. 

If there be any one that is indifferent to the songs 

of the birds, to that person, male or female, will apply 

the words of Shakespeare : 

"The man that hath no music in himself, 
Nor is not moved with concord of sweet sounds, 
Is fit for treasons, stratagems, and spoils ; 
The motions ol his spirit are dull as night, 
And his affections dark as Erebus ; 
Let no such man be trusted." 


THE Ush for which the settlers had the most reason 
to l)e thankful was the trout, which enlivened all 
the streams from the Paupack to the StarruccM, and 


wliicli, in the spring and summer months, afforded an 
abundance of cheap and wholesome food. The man 
that went fishing fifty or sixty years ago, if he had 
any skill or industry, did not throw^ away his time, if 
he attached any value to twelve or twenty pounds of 
the most l)eautiful fish. As a rule this fish was 
more abundant in the smaller than in the Ijigger 
streams, where they were larger in size, often attain- 
ing a weight of one or two pounds. The trout could 
ascend any water however swift and any falling col- 
unni of water which was not deflected or broken by 
falling on rocks. Hence they ascended the several 
falls of the Paupack. This the eels coidd not do, 
and, consequently, there were none above those falls. 
If there are any there now, they have been carried up 
within fifty years. Ephraim Killam, formerly of Pal- 
myra, Pike county, used to tell how he, standing in 
one place, had caught forty pounds of trout in one 
hour, from and above a large mass of drift-wood in 
the Paupack. But saw-dust from the saw-mills, the 
liquor from the tanneries, the droughts of our sum- 
mers, and the more destructive fish-hooks have almost 
effected the extinction of this beautiful and valuable 
fish. A few of them, small in size, and smaller in 
quantity, may yet be caught in small brooks and 
mill-ponds, early in the season. 

Before the introduction of pickerel into our ponds, 
thirty or forty years ago, perch were alnmdant, were 
easily caught, and the flesh was hard and of an 
agreeable flavor. In some of the ponds tliey yet 

FISH. 93 

abound; but, in general, tlieir numbers have been 
greatly diminished hj the voracity of the pickerel. 
Perch and sunlish are rarely found in running streams. 
Catfish are found in almost every pond, and, if the 
water is pure, are a good fish. Eels are found in all 
the large streams except the Paupack. Chubs, suck- 
ers, and mullet abound in some streams and ponds. 
Seventy-five years ago shad ascended the Delaware to 
Deposit, and were caught below there, at the mouth 
of Shadpond brook. Joseph Atkinson, Sen., used to 
tell of seeing them caught at Paupack Eddy, and 
Esquire Spangenberg, of seeing them, in spawning 
places, between the mouth of the Dyberry and the 
Henwood bridge. 

It is to be hoped that the enterprise and experi- 
ments of A. W. McKown, Esq., w^lio, at much trouble 
and expense, has introduced the northern black-bass 
into several of our large ponds, will succeed in and 
satisfy liis expe(!tations. Any fish that can hold their 
own against the voracity of the pickerel, will be a 
valuable addition. It is contended that the fecundity 
of the bass is wonderful, that its flesh is of an agreea- 
ble flavor, and that it is not so easily caught as to in- 
vite the unskillful to pursue it to extinction. These 
are, if true, very important recommendations. The 
pickerel in many of our ponds have eaten up all the 
other flsli and even de^'oured their own progeny, thus 
leaving the ponds destitute of all fish of any value. 



THE most dreaded and venomous of all tlie snakes 
in the Middle States is the rattlesnake. It is often 
ionnd along the high, dry, open woods of the Dela- 
, ware and Lackawaxen ri^'ers, and on the Moosic 
m'omitain ; but never in the beech, hemlock, and ash 
woods — at least we never found one in the interior of 
the beech woods. Popular belief assigns to the 
leaves of the ash-tree properties most repugnant 
and fatal to this snake. If the leaves of the ash 
have such an effect upon this reptile, the matter should 
]>e inquired into by scientific and medical men. Rye 
whiskey, applied externally and internally, is pro- 
nounced to be a sure antidote for the bite of tliis 
snake. The philosophy of the matter is, that the 
patient must take more poison than the snake had in 
him. The dose for an adult is one quart of pure 
whiskey, but, as this can seldom be found, one pint 
of adulterated whiskey will do. 

The black, water, green, and garter snakes, and spot- 
ted adder or milk snake are not venomous, and it is 
thought by many that they ought not to be killed 
wantonly, as they destroy many liurtful vermin. 




riIHE insects which abound in Wayne connty are 
J- tliose usually found in the Middle States, in the 
same latitude, and consist of bees, wasps, hornets, but- 
terflies, moths, ants, crickets, flies, grasshoppers, beetles, 
etc. These are so well known that no particular de- 
scription of them is necessary. The honey-bee is the 
only one of special interest, owing to the large amount 
of honey produced annually in the county and to its 
l)eing an important contribution to the resources of 
the people. 


Thomas Jefferson, in his ''Notes on Virginia," in- 
forms us tliat the early settlers at Jamestow^n brought 
over lioney-bees from England ; and that previous to 
tliat time, they were unknown in America. The bees, 
lie says, spread in advance of the English settlements 
with amazing rapidity. They were a great w^onder to 
the Indians, who called them "the white man's fly." 
There is a kind of stingless bee in Guatemala, in Cen- 
ti-al America, which lays up its honey in long, thick, 
opaque cells closed at both ends. But tlie honey lias 


not tlie flavor, nor the (^ells, the beauty of those pro- 
(hiced by the European honey-bee. The pioneers in 
Northern Pennsylvania fonnd tlie bees in advance of 
them. I have heard my father say that, in 1803, he 
found fourteen bee-trees which averaged eiglity pounds 
of honey to each tree. The hollow trees which the 
l)ees cleared out and iitted for tlieir abode, seem to be 
peculiarly iitted for them. Like tlie Indians they seem- 
ed to deliglit in the great, glorious, primitive forests. 
In early times at least one quarter of the settlers kept 
bees. But as the country was cleared up, and the maple 
and basswood were cut down they became less profita- 
ble and prolific, and were infested by a. white miller, 
that laid its eggs in and under the bottoms of the 
hives, whi(?h, in tlieir gnat or worm state surroimd 
themselves with a web and devour the young and the 
combs. The first settlers kept their bees in straw 
hives, which have been superseded by hives made of 
wood. The keeping of l>ees in Wayne county is 
made a speciality at the present time. Among the 
persons who are devoted to the business are Sydney 
Coons, of Lebanon, William Manaton, of Clinton, 
Mortimer E. Lavo, whose apiary is in Mount Pleas- 
ant, George Leonard, of Salem, Jacol) Sclioonover, of 
Dyberry, George Wild, of Paupack, and others. 
Some keep them merely to have h(mey for their own 

And here we are prompted to inquire, from 
whence does the honey-bee, including all its orders, 
derive its ability ;md wisdom wherewith to govern a 


community of thousands, directing some to gather 
bee-bread, others to build the cells, others to feed the 
young, and others to guard and ventilate the hive, 
all carried on without discord or confusion ? Is not 
the conviction forced upon us that they are under the 
impulsive teaching of a God-given instinct ? 


THE Penn family, during the Revolution, were ac- 
cused of l)eing adherents of the British Govern- 
ment, and of withholding from the cause of liberty 
that aid which they might have contributed thereto. 
Consequently the General Assembly of Pennsylvania, 
on the 27th day of November, 1779, passed " an act 
for vesting the Estates of the late Proprietaries of 
Pennsylvania, in this Commonw^ealth ; " in the pream- 
l)le wliereto it is set forth, " that the claims heretofore 
made by the late Proprietaries to the whole of the 
soil contained within the charter from Charles II. to 
William Perm, cainiot longer consist with the safety, 
liberty, and happiness of the good people of this 
Commonwealth, who, at the expense of- much blood 
and treasure, have bravely rescued themselves and 



their possessions from the tyrannv of Great Britain, 
and are now defending themselves from the inroads of 
tlie savages." The act did not eoniiscate the lands of 
tlie Proprietaries within the lines of manors, nor em- 
l)race the pnrchase-money dne for lands sold lying 
within surveyed manors. Tlie manors, in legal ac- 
ceptation, were lands surveyed and set apart as the 
private property of the Proprietaries. 

The titles to all lands sold and conveyed by William 
Penn or his descendants were confirmed and made 
valid. But the title to all lands in the Common- 
wealth, which had not heen surveyed and returned 
into the land-office, on or before tlie 4th of July, 1776, 
was by said act vested in the State. Said act pro- 
vided that the sum of one hundred and thirty thous- 
and pounds, sterling money, slioidd be paid out of the 
treasury of this State to the devisees and legatees of 
Thomas Penn, and Richard Penn, late Proprietaries, 
and to the widow and relict of said Thomas Penn, in 
such proportions as should thereafter, by the Legisla- 
ture, be deemed ecpiitable and just, upon a full inves- 
tigation of their respective claims. No part of said 
sum was to be paid within less than one year after 
the termination of the war with Great Britain ; and 
no more than twenty thousand pounds, nor less than 
fifteen thousand pounds should be payable in any one 
year. The land-office was begun by William Penn, 
and, although changes have been made, from time to 
time, in tlie method of accpnring title to vacant lands, 
yet many features of the office, as it was in his day, 
remain to the present time. 


A land-office by and under the act of 9tli of April, 
1781, was created under the Commonwealth, its offi- 
cers consisting of a secretary of the land-office, receiv- 
er-general, and surveyor-general. Many acts of As- 
sembly which were afterwards passed, enlarged, de- 
fined, or limited the powers and duties of these officers. 
By an act of the 29th of March, 1809, the office of 
receiver-general was abolished, and his duties were 
discliarged by the secretary of the land-office ; and by 
the act of the 17th of April, 1843, this latter-named 
office was discontinued, and the duties pertaining 
thereto were performed by the surveyor-general. By 
the Constitution of 1874, this office is noM' under the 
charge of the secretary of Internal Affairs. It would 
be impossible without much expense and research, to 
name all the lands in Wayne county that v*^ere grants 
under the Proprietaries. The following are admitted 
to belong among them, viz: The Proprietaries' Man- 
or, in Berlin, 1,001 acres; Safe Harbor, (Equinunk), 
2,222 acres ; Shehocking Manor, in Buckingham, 520 
acres; Elk Forest, in Old Canaan, 11,526 acres; on 
the Paupack, in Wayne and Pike counties, 12,150 
acres; in Lebanon, the Amsterdam and Rotterdam 
Manor, 2,770 acres; the Damascus Manor, 4,390 acres; 
the Jonas Seely tract in Berlin, of 8,373 acres, and 
many other tracts not embraced in said Manors. In 
short, all lands embraced in warrants issued, surveyed, 
and returned into the land-office, before the 4th day of 
July, 1776. 

An act for opening the land-office for granting and 


disposing of the unappropriated lands \Adtliin this State 
passed April 1st, 1784, provided, ''that the land-office 
shall be opened for the lands already purchased of the 
Indians on the 1st day of July next, at the rate of ten 
pounds for every hundred acres, with the usual fees of 
granting, surveying, and patenting, excepting such 
tracts as shall be surveyed westward of the Allegheny 
mountains, etc. Every applicant for lands shall pro- 
duce to tlie secretary of the land-office, a particular de- 
scription of the lands applied for, with a certificate 
from two justices of the peace of the proper county, 
specifying whether the said lands be improved or not, 
and if improved, how long since the said improvement 
was made, that interest may l)e charged accordingly. 
The quantity of land granted to any one person shall 
not exceed four hundred acres," etc. The prices of 
iniimproved land were different at various periods un- 
der the several purchases made of the Indians. From 
the 1st of July, 1784, to April 3d, 1792, the price of 
unimproved wild lands was $26.66| per hundred acres 
in Wayne, Pike, Susquehanna, and other counties. By 
act of April 3d, 1792, the price of unimproved lands 
was fixed at $6.66f per hundred acres. The latter- 
named act was repealed by act of 29th of March, 1809, 
since which time the price of lands in the above-nam- 
ed counties has been $26,66| per hundred acres. The 
laws passed relative to State lands were numerous. 
Under said laws the surveyor-general, or the officer 
acting in that capacity, was authorized to appoint a 
deputy-surveyor in each and every county. George 


Palmer, of Easton, was the depiitj-surveyor appointed 
for Wayne and Pike counties, and most of the State 
lands were surveyed and located by him in said coun- 
ties, and were made before there were any permanent 
settlements. As the greater part of the names of the 
eleven or twelve hundred persons named as warrantees 
on our county maps, are strange and unknown, it has 
been supposed that many of those names were fictitious, 
which supposition is erroneous. The persons named 
were those that made the original applications. Some 
of the lands were taken up by tlie early settlers. 
Witness the names of Evans, Skinner, Thomas, Little, 
Smith, Allen, Hays, Land, and others in Damascus, 
and of Seely, Torrey, Woodward, Brown, Bingham, 
Day, Brink, Ball, Scudder, Moore, Taylor, and many 
other well-known names, in other parts of the county. 
The law allowed the applicant to take up four liundred 
acres, with an allowance of six per cent, for roads, but 
in consequence of inaccuracies in surveys, the law or 
practice of the land-department, allowed ten per cent, 
surplusage. After the estal)lishment of the land-office 
under the auspices of the Commonwealth, many per- 
sons were deluded by the belief that it w^ould be profit- 
able for them to take up a tract of land for their 
own use, or for their children, or for the purpose of 
speculation. But lands taken up, from 1780 to 1800, 
were not in demand, and could not be sold at a profit ; 
and many, who, at the time when they took up tracts, 
designed to settle upon them, on a view of the hard- 
ships to be endured in a region destitute of roads, 


schools, and churches, were deterred from carrying 
then' original designs into execution, and at last sold 
out their wild possessions to the large land-holders, or 
suffered their lands to l)e sold for taxes. The land- 
department suffered applicants to take up lands with- 
out paying the purchase-money, or fees, or granted 
^varrants on which only a part was paid. Such lands 
])eing located, surveyed, and returned by the deputy- 
surveyor, were subject to taxation, and lia])le to be sold 
every other year for taxes. Hundreds of tracts were 
thus sold biennially. In the beginning and during the 
progressive settlement of the county, the greater part 
of the wild lands were held and sold bv laro:e land- 
owners. Jason Torrey w^as the agent of the following 
named persons and their executors, viz : Henry Drink- 
er, Thomas Shields, Edward Tilghman, Mark Wilcox, 
Samuel Baird, L. Hollingsworth, Wm. Bell, Heirs of 
James Hamilton, Thomas Stewardson, George Yaux, 
Thomas Cadwalader, Thomas Astley, and several othei* 
persons, not large owners. From well-authenticated 
evidence it appears that Jason Torrey, who was a na- 
tive of Willi amstown, Mass., came into Mount Pleas- 
ant, in 1793, when scarcely twenty years of age ; while 
working there for Jirah Mumford, Samuel Bidrd, of 
Fottstown, Pa., came to Kellogg's and at once appre- 
hending the natural ability of the young man, engaged 
him in assisting to survey some land on the Lackawax- 
en and some other parts of northern Pennsylvania. 
Samuel Baird was the deputy-surveyor of Luzerne 


From the experience tlins afforded him, Mr. Torrey 
became an expert and ready sm-veyor. Patronized by 
Mr. Baird, the above named land-holders committed 
the care and sale of their lands in Wayne and Pike 
counties to Mr. Torrey, they, however, in all cases, 
lixing the prices and the conditions under which their 
respective lands should be sold. The implicit confi- 
dence which they reposed in him was never withdrawn. 
He re-surveyed and re-marked the old tracts, and sub- 
divided them into lots to suit the convenience of pur- 
chasers. He made his siuweys with great care and ac- 
curacy, and though, as in duty bound, he looked well 
to the interests of his employers, yet he was ever just 
to the purcliaser, always giving him full measure, and 
taking pains to be well assured that the lands he sold 
had been duly patented, so that the purchaser should 
be in no danger of being involved in litigation about 
his title. Suffice it to say that Jason Torrey knew 
more about the titles and the location of lands in 
Wayne and Pike counties than any man then living, 
and he made more sales than all other agents combin- 
ed. He compiled and published a map showing by 
numbers the location and quantity of every warrantee 
in Wayne and Pike counties, which map has been of 
indispensable service to assessors, and to the commis- 
sioners of said counties, and to all persons desirous of 
knowing the location of unseated lands. In 1827, Ja- 
son Torrey gave up the agency of the greater part of 
the lands which had been committed to his care, and 
it was given to Henry P. Stilley, who was a relative 


of some of the large owTiers, and came from Philadel- 
phia, to obtain a knowledge of matters relative to the 
surveys and sales, and spent six years in the office of 
Jason Torrey, l)efore he became familiar with the 
manner in which the l>iisiness liad formerly been done. 
Mr. Stilley lived pretty fast, and found use for all the 
money that he obtained from the sale of lands, and 
(consequently paid nothing over to the owners. This 
led to his dismissal from all liis agencies, and in 1831, 
John D. Taylor, who had been a clerk in tlie office of 
G-eneral Thomas Cadwalader, of Philadelphia, was sent 
to Wayne county to take the agency for Cadwalader 
and several others. Mr. Taylor remained in the county 
some five or six years, attending to tlie duties connect- 
ed with his agencies, but, not finding \\\q business sat- 
isfactory, he gave it up and removed fi'om the county. 
As early as 1835 some of the owners placed their 
lands under the agency of Hon. John Torrey, of Hones- 
dale, and after the removal of Mr. Taylor, nearly all 
the unsold lands, which had been under Jason Torrey's 
care, were added to John Torrey's agency, without any 
solicitation from him or his father, and the justice and 
al^ility exercised by him as a land-agent, have never 
been disputed. 

The Shields lands, in Le])anon, Oregon, Berlin, and 
Damascus, and the Manor of Amsterdam and Rotter- 
dam were run north 10 degrees west or north, 12 J 
degrees west, while the lands in Salem, North Ster- 
ling, in most of South Canaan, and in part of Cherry 
Kidge were run nortli 50 degrees west, and in other 


parts of the county, in divers other directions. Sam- 
uel Baird may have laid a few warrants, but George 
Palmer, as l)efore said, originally surveyed and located 
most of the lands in Wayne county, and his work was 
well done. Anthony Crothers was his successor. It 
is contended that he never came into the county, and 
that all his pretended surveys were made ])y sub-dep- 
uties, or made by his own fireside, and were called 
"chamber surveys."" At any rate they were many of 
them found to be very inaccurate. The north assumed 
by the original surveyors was not the true polar north, 
but had a western declination therefrom, of about two 
and a half degrees. This, however, would have made 
but little difference, if they had always run their lines 
upon the same meridian, at all times, and in all parts 
of the county, for then the variation would have been 
nearly alike, upon every survey. That they did not 
always adopt tlie same meridian is well known to all 
surveyors, who find the variation upon some lines to 
be four and a quarter degrees, upon others to be three 
degrees, and then upon others to be only one and a 
half. The present declination of the needle is now, 
according to the finding of Lewis S. Collins, Esq., our 
county-surveyor, seven degrees west of the polar north. 
It was once, if it is not now, a common l^elief , that 
the large land-owners realized great fortunes from, the 
sale of their wild lands, which was not the case. If to 
the price paid for the lands, were added the yearly 
taxes for forty or fifty years, and the compensation 
made to agents for watching said lands, and finally 



surveying and selling them, the lands cost their own- 
ers more than they realized from them, and sometimes 
double. Hon. James Wilson, judge of the Supreme 
Court of the United States, owned more lands in 
Wayne county tlian any other man. He died in 
1798, and liis lands were sold under a mortgage, and 
liis heirs found his estate diminished, rather than en- 
larged, by his land investments. 

Judge Wilson's lands upon the Paupack were pur- 
chased by Samuel Sitgreaves, of Easton, Pennsylva- 
nia, who sold them to the settlers at a very low price. 
Other lands taken up by Wilson, in Sterling, Salem, 
Canaan, and other parts of the county, fell into the 
hands of Tliomas Cadwalader and Edward Tilghman, 
of Pliiladelpliia. Henry Dnnker, of the same city, 
owned tlie most oi the lands in Dyberry and many 
tracts in Manchester and Buckingham. It will be 
understood that the person who obtained a warrant 
was called tlie warrantee. Upon paying the State 
treasurer the legiil price of the land, and the office 
fees, 84.50, the w^arrant was sent to the county-sur- 
veyor, whose business it was to survey the land within 
six months, make a draft and description, and, upon 
being paid for his services, make a return to the land- 
department. Then the warrantee, upon paying $10 
to the land-department, would receive a patent for his 
land. Then, if he had the first warrant, the first sur- 
vey, and the first patent, the title was secure. The 
land-department, for many years past, has required 
the applicant for a warrant to make oath before a 


justice of the peace, of the proper county, touching 
the condition of the lands as to its improved or unim- 
proved state, and proving the same by a disinterested 
witness, on his oath made before two justices of the 
peace. The act of April, 1850, provided for the elec- 
tion in that year and every third year thereafter, of 
one competent person, being a practical surveyor, to 
act as county-surveyor. The ottice is now merely 

Samuel Meredith owned the Amsterdam and Kotter- 
dam Manor, in Lebanon, and many tracts in Mount 
Pleasant and Preston, wliich, upon his death, descend- 
ed to his heirs or devisees, and Thomas Meredith, his 
son, took charge of the lands. Calvely Freeman, 
Esq., was his surveyor. In 1830, Mr. Meredith mov- 
ed to Luzerne county, and Mr. Meylert, a French- 
man, took charge of the Meredith lands, and was suc- 
ceeded by Michael Meylert. 

The Elk Forest Tract, in Old Canaan, became the 
property of Joseph Fellows, of Greneva, N. Y., who 
made Hon. ]^. 13. Eldred his agent, who was suc- 
ceeded by Hon. Wm. H. Dimmick, Sen. Moses Kil- 
1am, Esq., divided the tract into one liundred or two 
hundred acre lots. In different parts of the county 
land lines were run without any general uniformity as 
to direction. In the greater part of Scott, North 
Lebanon, and Elk Forest, the lines were run upon a 
meridian assumed to be north and south ; in Mount 
Pleasant, north five or ten degrees west, with corres- 
ponding right angles ; in parts of Buckingham and 


Preston, north twentj-iive degrees west. Sometimes 
warrants were issued Avhicli were never delivered to 
the deputy county-surveyor. In other cases war- 
rants were hiid, but the warrantees, failing to pay the 
costs of surveying, no returns of the surveys were made 
to the land-office. Sometimes the surveyors made re- 
turns of surveys without going upon the land, by 
naming some well-known starting point and giving 
courses and distances. Tliese were called "chamber 
surveys," which often interfered with former or subse- 
quent actual surveys. Where the title to lands was 
in the Commonwealth, the sale of the lands for taxes 
of any kind gave the purchaser no title. The titles 
to the lands sold by the aforesaid land-holders or their 
agents, have never been successfully disturbed. 


UPON the erection of Wayne county, Thomas Mif- 
flin, governor of Pennsylvania, under the provisions 
of the Constitution of 1790, appointed four judges, viz : 
Samuel Preston, first associate judge; John Pyerson, 
second associate; Samuel C. Seely, third associate; and 
John Biddis, fourth associate judge. These held the 


first court at Milford, in the house of George Buchan- 
an, September 10th, 1798. At September sessions, 
1803, Richard Brodhead took the phice of Samuel 
Preston, resigned. At May sessions, 1804, the judges 
presiding were Richard Brodhead, John Biddis, and 
John Brink. The hitter had been appointed to supply 
the phice of Samuel C. Seely, resigned. At May ses- 
sions, 1806, John Spayd, the iirst president judge, of- 
ficiated, assisted by Richard Brodhead and John Brink, 
his associates. At April sessions, 1810, Robert Porter, 
president judge, took his seat upon the bench and pre- 
sided until and including August sessions, 1813. Jolm 
B. Gibson, as president judge, first presided at Novem- 
ber sessions, 1813, and continued until and including 
April sessions, 1816, and resigned. Thomas Burnside 
took his seat as president judge at August sessions, 
1816, and continued until April sessions, 1818, and 
resigned. The said John B. Gibson and Thomas Burn- 
side were sul)sequently judges of the Supreme Court 
of the State. 

David Scott, as president judge, first presided at 
August sessions, 1818, and continued to oliiciate until 
February sessions, 1838, when, in consequence of ap- 
proaching deafness, he resigned. His decisions were 
held in high respect by the people and the Bar, as be- 
ing the calm and honest convictions of a jurist who 
always intended to dispense impartial justice to all. 

William Jessup took his seat as president judge at 
April sessions, 1838, and continued as such until Feb- 
ruary sessions, 1849, when his commission expired un- 


der tlie Constitution adopted in 1838. He was a man 
of ability and discharged liis duties to the satisfaction 
of the public. 

Nathaniel B. Eldred, as president judge, commenc- 
ed his first judicial labors in Wayne county, at May 
sessions, 1849, and officiated until and including May 
sessions, 1853, when he resigned, haying received the 
appointment of naval collector of Philadelphia under 
President Pierce. Geo. R. Barrett was appointed in 
his place, and officiated as president judge, at Septem- 
])er sessions, 1853. James M. Porter was elected presi- 
dent judge in 1853, took his seat at December ses- 
sions, and served imtil and including February ses- 
sions, 1855, when, having been struck with paral- 
ysis, he resigned. His legal knowledge challenged the 
admiration of all jurists. His decisions and rulings 
were submitted to without cavil, dispute, or exceptions. 
Thomas S. Bell was appointed to supply the place of 
Judge Porter, and presided at May and September 
sessions, 1855. 

In 1855, Greorge E.. Barrett was elected president 
judge, and after a term of ten years' service was re- 
elected in 1865, and officiated until September ses- 
sions, 1871, having resigned in time to have a successor 
elected in that year. 

Samuel S. Dreher was elected president judge in 
1871, first presiding at December sessions, 1871, and 
continuing until and including December sessions, 
1874, wdien the district having been divided by an 
act of Legislature, he remained as president judge in 


that district in which he resided. His commission ex- 
pired mider the provisions of the Constitution of 
1874, so far as this county was concerned. 

C. P. Waller was elected in 1874, and was inducted 
into office as president judge of Wayne and Pike 
counties, January 1st, 1875, to serve for ten years. 

Under the Constitution of 1790, the judges of all 
the com-ts were appointed by the governor, wliich of- 
fices they could hold during good behavior, and from 
wliicli they could be removed only by impeachment or 
by the governor, on the address of two-thirds of each 
branch of the Legislature. Justices of the peace w^ere 
in like manner appointed to hold their offices during 
good behavior. 

The amended Constitution of 1 838 continued the ap- 
pointing power of the governor, subject to the consent 
of the Senate, and as to the Judiciary, providing that 
judges of the Supreme Court should hold their offices 
for the term of fifteen years. The president judges of 
the several courts were to hold their offices for the term 
of ten years, and the associate judges to hold theirs 
for five years, upon condition that all of said judges 
should, during their respective terms, behave them- 
selves w^ell, though subject to removal by impeachment 
or by the governor as aforesaid. In 1850, the Consti- 
tution w^as amended, and provided for the election of 
the judges by the people. 

Nathaniel B. Eldred was the first president judge 
elected by tlie people, 1851, and James Mumford and 



Thomas H. R. Tracy were the iirst associate jiulges 
then elected. 

John Brodhead served from May, 1810, to Aug., 1814. 

John Brink '' 

Samuel Stanton '' 

^ Al)isha Woodward " 

Moses Thomas " 

Isaac Dimmick " 

James Manning " 

Moses Tyler " 

Virgil Grenell " 

Oliver Hamlin " 

James Mnmford " 

Paul S. Preston '' 

John Torrey '^ 

Thos. H. R. Tracy '' 

Pliineas Howe " 

James R. Dickson '' 

Rodney Harmes " 

J3utler Hamlin " 

Wm. R. McLaury " 

Isaiah Snyder '' 

Phineas Arnold '' 

F. W. Farnham . '^ 

Otis Avery " 

John O'Neill 

Henry Wilson ' 

Giles Green ' 

Otis Averv re-elected 

May, 1810, to Aug., 1814. 
Dec, 1814, to Aug., 1815. 
Dec, 1814, to Jan., 1829. 
Nov., 1815, to Jan., 1840. 
Jan., 1830, to Aug., 1833. 
Nov., 1833, to Aug., 1841. 
Sept., 1840, to Sept., 1845. 
Nov., 1841, to Sept., 1846. 
Nov., 1846, to May, 1850. 
Dec, 1846,. to Sept., 1856. 
May, 1850, to Feb., 1851. 
May, 1851, to Sept., 1851. 
Dec, 1851, to Sept., 1856. 
Dec, 1856, to Sept., 1861. 

1856, to Dec, 1860. 

1861, to Sept., 1861. 

1861, to Sept., 1866. 

1861, to Sept., 1866. 
Dec, 1866, to Sept., 1871. 
Dec, 1866, to Sept., 1871. 
Feb., 1872, to Sept., 1872. 
Dec, 1872, to Sept., 1877. 
Dec, 1872, to Dec, 1875. 
Feb., 1876, to Sept., 1876. 
Feb., 1876, now serving. 
Dec, 1877, " " 




Tlie Constitution of Pennsylvania., adopted in 1790, 
provided that sheriffs and coroners, at the time of the 
election of Representatives, should l)e chosen by the 
citizens of each county, and that two persons should 
be chosen for each office, one of whom for each re- 
spectively should be appointed, by the governor, they 
to hold their offi(?es for three years and until a suc- 
cessor should l)e duly qualified, if they should so long 
behave themselves; but no person was to be twice 
chosen or appointed sheriff in any term of six years. 
The election of two persons for the office of sheriff 
was made void by the Constitution of 1838. 

Thomas Mifflin, governor, in 1798, appointed Rich- 
ard Brodhead sheriff, who served to 1801, after which 
time, the following-named persons were chosen: 

Daniel W. Dingman, 






Abraham Mulford, 





Abisha Woodward, 





Matthew Ridgway, 





Silas Kellogg, 





Salmon Jones, 





Solomon Moore, 





Oliver B. Brush, 





Joseph Miller, 





Paul S. Preston, 





Lucius Collins, 





Josepli Miller, 





Lucius Collins, 







Richard Lancaster, 






Jolm Mcintosh, 



William F. Wood, 



Oliver Stevenson 



Thomas E. Grier, 



James B. Eldred, 



Wm. Turner, 



Robert S. Dorin, 



Jeremiah F. Barnes 



Robert S. Dorin, 



John H. Ross, 



E. Mallory Spencer, 



Perry A. Clark, 


Joseph Atkinson, 





These officers, under the Constitution of 1790, were 
appointed by the governors to hold their offices for 
three years, but there was no constitutional restraint, 
preventing their reappointment. Generally one and 
the same person held all the offices, bnt that was op- 
tional witli the governor. Under the Constitution of 
1838, the said officers were elected l)y the people. 
Whenever vacancies should occur they were to be 
tilled ])y the governor, until another general election. 
John Brodhead was appointed prothonotary, clerk of 
the courts, and register and recorder, who, with John 
Coolbaugh, held the said offices until 1808, ten years. 
Eliphalet Kellogg,held said offices from 1808 to 1817. 
Thomas Meredith, " " 1817 to 1820. 


Sheldon Norton, held said offices from 1820 to 1823. 

/ John K. Woodward, " " 1823 to 1827. 

Solomon Moore, " " 1827 to 1831. 

George B. Wescott, " " 1831 to 1835. 

PaurS. Preston, " " 1835 to 1838. 

Leonard Graves, " " 1838 to 1841. 

Abram Swart, " " 1841 to 1845. 

P. G. Goodrich, " " 1845 to 1848. 

Kufus M. Grenell, " " 1848 to 1851. 

John Mcintosh, " " 1851 to 1857. 

William F. Wood, " " 1857 to 1860. 

John K. Jenkins, " " 1860 to 1863. 

J. W. Brown, " " 1863 to 1866. 

William H. Ham, " '' 1866 to 1869. 

J. J. Curtis, " " 1869 to 1875. 

Charles Menner, ^' " 1875 to 1878. 

Charles Menner, re-elected in 1878 for three years. 


Under the Constitution of 1790, the governors of 
the State saw lit to appoint and commission one per- 
son clerk of the several courts and register and recor- 
der, but some of tliem deviated from the practice. 
Hence Governor Shulze, in February, 1824, commis- 
sioned James Manning register of wills, and, in 1827, 
recommissioned him register and added thereto the 
office of recorder of deeds, etc., and, in 1830, Governor 
Wolf commissioned him as recorder. In January, 
1833, the last named governor commissioned Isaac 
P. Olmstead recorder, who held said office until 


the fall of 1885, when Governor Ritner con- 
ferred all of said offices upon Paul S. Preston, 
who held the same until 1838, when a new Con- 
stitution w^as adopted and David R. Porter elected 
governor. The amended Constitution provided for 
the triennial election , l)y the people, of prothonotaries, 
etc., and registers and recorders. By an act of Assem- 
]>ly, passed under the requirements of said Constitution, 
in October, 1839, one person was to he elected clerk 
of the several courts, and one person register and re- 
corder, for and in Wayne county. John Belknap was 
appointed register and recorder by Governor Porter, 
for one year, after which the following named persons 
were elected to hold said offices of register and recor- 
der for three years each: 

John Belknap in 1839. Wm. G. Arnold in 1860. 
Thos.R.Mumfordin 1842. Michael Eegan in 1863. 
H. B. Beardslee in 1845. Thos. Hawkey in 1866. 
James R. Keen in 1848. A. R. Howe in 1869. 
Curtis S. Stoddard in 1851. Charles Menner in 1872. 
" '' in 1854. Peter S. Barnes in 1875. 

Wm. G. Arnold in 1857. Francis West in 1878. 



THIS was one of the original townships established 
in 1798. It then included all of Lebanon, Oregon, 
and a part of both Dyberry and Berlin. It still re- 
mains the largest township in the county. Its history 
is interesting, for there the first settlement was made. 
It is bounded north by Manchester, east by the Dela- 
ware river, w^est by Berlin, Oregon, and Lebanon, and 
south by Berlin. It is as large as Dyberry, Lebanon, 
and Oregon townships combined. The main streams 
are Calkin's creek, which discharges into the DelaAvare, 
at Milanville; Cash's creek, which empties into said 
river, at Damascus village; and Hollister's creek in the 
north-eastern part of the township. The natural ponds 
are the Duck Harbor, (partly in Lebanon,) Laurel Lake, 
Cline, Swago, and Groram ponds, with some others of 
less size. The most of the land has a south-eastern 
declivity, is not broken by high hills, to any great ex- 
tent, and is of a good quality, excepting a part in the 
north-eastern portion (mlled Conklin hill, and a strip 
commencing below Milanville and extending down- 
ward back of the Delaware to Big Eddy. 

The information which can, at present, be ol)tained, 
relative to the first settlements made by tlie whites up- 


on the Delaware river, in Wayne county, llie exact 
date of their settlement, their conflicts with the In- 
dians, the time when their battle^ were fought, and the 
causes that occasioned the same, is limited and obscure, 
all the actors in these scenes liaving been dead many 
years. It is, therefore, impossible to make statements 
wholly free from errors, as history, tradition, and frag- 
mentary family-records are not withont their contra- 
dictions. Chapman, in his "Ilistory of Wyoming," 
says: "In the snnmier of 1757, the Delaware Com- 
pany commenced a settlement at Cushetnnk, on the 
Delaware river, which appears to ha\'e been the first 
settlement established within the limits of the Con- 
necticut charter, west of the province of New^ York; 
for, althongh there appears to have been a small fort 
bnilt at the Minisinks on the same river, in 1670, that 
same fort was soon afterwards abandoned, in conse- 
quence of some difficulties with the Indians who refused 
to sell the lands." The Minisinks was the Indian name 
applied to all the river lands between the Water Gap 
and Port Jervis, if not to the mouth of the Lackawax- 
€m; and the said abandoned fort was built near Strouds- 
burg, and sul)sequently called Fort Penn. 

By a manuscript written by Nathan Skinner, giving 
in part a history of the Skinner family, it appears that 
Joseph Skinner, (grandfather of Nathan Skinner,) 
came from Connecticut to Damascus in 1755. He 
had eight sons, viz : Daniel, Benjamin, Timotliy, John, 
Abner, Haggai, Calvin, and Joseph; and two daugh- 
ters, Martha and Huldah. Daniel Skinner was the 


father of the said Kathan Skinner, who proceeds with 
his narrative as follows: "At what exact time father 
came to Damascus, we are not at present able to say ; 
but we find bv a. certain writins:, that he was at the 
place where the late George Bush lived, on the 4:th 
of September, 1755, which place w^as called "Ack- 
liake." Joseph Skinner, Sen., was one of the tw^elve 
hundred Yankees that made the great Indian purchase, 
July 11th, 1754, under which purchase and another 
under a section of the colony of East New Jersey, the 
Skinner family came into the county to seek their 
fortunes and make settlements. Daniel Skinner, Sen., 
purchased of his father, twenty-five acres of the Ack- 
hake place, for five pounds, New York currency. He 
assisted in laying out a town, the centre of which was 
about six miles from the river, near the Conklin place, 
now^ owned by Stephen Pethick; and in selecting a 
location for a meeting-house and parsonage, William 
Reese was, I presume, the surveyor." From said man- 
uscript and other records, it appears that the other set- 
tlers, locating, about the same time, in the vicinity, 
were Simeon Calkin, Moses Thomas, Sen., Bezaleel 

V Tyler, Kobert Land, an Englishman, Nathan Mitchell, 
John Koss, John Smith, Irwin Evans, James Adams, 
Jesse Drake, and Nicholas Conklin, a German from 

\) Orange county, N. Y. The following named persons 
are mentioned in old records as having lived at an early 
day at Cushetunk, or Damascus, viz: F. Clark, Abra- 
liani Russ, Francis Little, Brandt Kane, an Irishman, 
Josiah Parks, William Monnington, Derrick Lukens, 


Jonathan Li]lie, and others. The most of the fore- 
going located on the west side of tlie Delaware. The 
narrativ^e continues: "Timothy Skiimer and Simeon 
Calkin ])uilt a saw-mill and grist-mill on Calkin's creek, 
nearly opposite the north end of Beach's tannery, at 
Milanville. Said Calkin and Moses Thomas, Sen., and 
their sons built a fort, or block-house, at the month of 
the creek," in 1755. In or about the year 1759, as 
nearly as can be as(*.ertained, Joseph Skinner, Sen., 
was shot in the head and killed at Taylor's Eddy, 
abont one mile above Cochecton l)ridge. It was sup- 
posed that he was killed l>y some lurking savage of 
the northern tribes, who were jealons of the encroach- 
ing whites. The murder was not charged to the Cushe- 
tunk Indians, who seemed to be well disposed toward 
the wliites. Chapman says, page 69 : "The settlement 
at Cushetunk continued to progress. In 1760, it con- 
tained tliirty dwelling-houses, three large log-houses, 
one grist-mill, one saw-mill, and one block-house." The 
extent of Cushetunk has not been very well detined. 
If it contained thirty dwelling-houses, it must have in- 
cbided all the settlers on both sides of tlie Delaware 
from Big Island to and near Calkin's creek. But to 
resume the history of Daniel Skinner: "After settling 
at Ai^khake, he went as a sailor to the West Indies 
and learned the value of pine timber for masts and 
spars for sliips. Having a quantity of good pine on 
his land, he pnt several sticks into the Delaware river 
to make a trial of floating them down to Philadelphia. 
He followed them with a canoe, but they soon ran 


aground on islands or stuck on rocks. He abandoned 
this method and tried a different one. He next put 
into the river six large ship-masts of equal length, 
through each end of which he cut a mortise of about 
four inches square, and into this lie put what lie called 
a spindle of white oak, to lit the mortise. In the ends 
of this he inserted a pin to keep them from slipping. 
The lumber thus put together he called a raft, and to 
each end of it he pinned a small log crosswise, and in 
the middle of this he fastened a pin, standing perpen- 
dicular, about ten inches above the cross-log, on which 
he hung an oar fore and aft. It being thus rigged, he 
hired a very tall Dutchman to go on the fore end, and 
with this raft arrived safely in Philadelphia, where 
he sold it at a good round price. This was the first 
raft ever constructed and run dowm the Delaware, 
which occurred in 1764. Shortly after he made a larg- 
er raft on w^hich Josiah Parks went as fore hand. 
Being allured by Skinner's suc(?ess, others soon em- 
liarked in the same business, and, after a time, rafting 
became general on the Delaware from the Cook House, 
(Deposit,) to Philadelphia. Daniel Skinner, having 
constructed and navigated the first raft, was styled 
" Lord Hiffh Admiral" of all the raftsmen on the Dela- 
ware, and Josiah Parks was named '^ Boatswain." These 
honorary titles they retained during their lives." 

It seems to have been well known to the Pennsyl- 
vania Proprietary claimants that Cuslietunk lay in the 
territory, in dispute between Connecticut and Pennsyl- 
vania, for we are assured ])y history, that William 



Allen, chief-justice of the province, by warrant dated 
June 4th, iTtU, commanded the sheriff of Northamp- 
ton county, to arrest Daniel Skinner, Timothy Skinner, Z- 
Simeon Calkin, John Smith, Jedediah Willis, James 
Adams, Ervin Evans, and others, for intruding upon 
the Indian lands al)out Cushetunk without leave. None 
of said intruders, liowever, were ever disturbed or ap- 
prehended. The lands in said warrant called Indian 
lands had been purchased July lltli, 1754, of the Six 
Nations, with the consent of the Cushetunks, by tlie 
Delaware Company. 

In the fall of 1763, after the Delaware Indians had 
broken up the settlement of the whites in the Wyom- 
ing Yalley, uneasy, straggling bands of savages, con- 
ceived the plan of driving away the settlers a]>out 
Cushetunk. The people along the Delaware learned 
of the sad fate of their brethren from some of the fugi- 
tives, and were warned to prepare for an attack. Be- 
ins thus forewarned, the women and children were 
placed in the block-house or fort, and the men made 
preparations to defend their fort and sustain a siege. 
The Indians delayed making an attack, Init were seen 
skulking a])out in the woods. Suddenly appearing 
before the fort, they surprised and killed Moses 
Thcmias, Sen., and Ililkiali Willis, who were outside 
of the fort. The daughters of said Thomas, one of 
which was only seven years old, took the places of the 
fallen men, and held their muskets in the loop-holes. 
The beseiged taunted the savages, telling them to do 
their worst, which they did by several attempts to burn 



the fort. Tlie whites f()iii2:ht with such resohition that 
they repulsed their invaders and left many of them 
dead in sight of the besieged. The Indians killed 
some cattle, burned the grist-mill, the saw-mill, and 
some dwelling-houses. The Cushetunk Indians con- 
demned this unprovoked attack upon the whites, and 
promised, in case of another invasion, to assist the set- 
tlers. Gleaning from Skinner's notes, we learn that 
Daniel Skinner, doubting the probability of holding- 
land under the Connecticut title, in May, 17T5, ob- 
tained a patent of Hichard Fenn for 140 acres, on 
which he built a house ; and he and Bezeleel Ross 
bought the Hollister place and built a saw-mill on Hol- 
lister creek. This creek was so named because two 
brothers by the name of Hollister settled in early days 
at or near the mouth of the stream. Having friends 
among the Wyoming settlers, they left and took an 
active part in the bloody struggles enacted in that Val- 
ley, and both found an early grave. 

In the spring of 1777, Mrs. Land, the wife of 
Robert Land, an Englishman, who was a justice 
of the peace under the colonial government, learn- 
ing that a scouting party was to come up the river, her 
husband being from home, took her infant child, then 
three months old, and, in company with her oldest 
son, aged nineteen, drove their cattle into the Avoods 
to keep them out of the way. She and her son did 
not return that night. The Indians came up on the 
east side of the Delaware in the night, crossed over 
and came to the house of Land early in the mornina" 


while the children, Abel, aged seventeen, Rebecca, 
aged about fifteen, Phebe, thirteen, and Robert, ten, 
were asleep. An Indian went to the bed wliere the 
girls slept and awoke them by tickling their feet with 
the point of a spear. A certain chief of the Tiisca- 
roras, known by the name of Captain John, had often 
been at their house, and seemed to be very 
friendly; the elder girl, Rebecca, supposing him 
to be the Captain, held out her hand and 
said, "How do you do, Captain John?" The Indian 
asked her if she knew Captain John. She told him 
she did, but that she saw she was mistaken. The in- 
genuous innocence of the girl touched the heart of the 
savage. He told her that they were Mohawks, and 
had come to drive her people from the country, and 
that she might put on her clothes and go as soon as 
possible and warn the people so that they might es- 
cape before they were all killed. She crossed the river 
in a canoe, went to Kane's, where she found them all 
dead, except one little girl, who w^as alive in a bunch 
of bushes, wallowing in her blood, she hav^ing been 
scalped. Seeing this she ran up the river to Nathan 
Mitchell's and gave the alarm, and then returned home. 
In the mean time the Indians had bound her brother 
Abel and taken him with them without doing any 
other mischief. They went up Calkin's creek and were 
met by a body of Cushetunk Indians, who were friends 
to the whites and to the cause of liberty. They used 
all their endeavors to bring Abel back with tliem, but 
not succeeding they left them, after learning that they 


had killed a very tall man, (Kane) and his wife and 
children. The Cushetunks hurried to the river to 
make report and arrived at Land's about the same 
time that Mrs. Land and her son John came out of the 
woods. John and these Lidians, together with what 
whites and other Indians they could muster, went in 
immediate pursuit and overtook the Mohawks at Ogh- 
quaga, where they found them drawn up in order of 
battle. At last the belligerents came to a parley, and 
the Mohawks agreed that after Abel, who had been 
very boisterous, had been punished by running the 
gauntlet, he might go back. Abel having submitted 
to that barbarity, he and his party returned to the 

The unprovoked murder of Brant Kane and his 
family, he being a quiet and worthy man who 
had come from Ireland to find a peaceful home, so 
shocked and alarmed many of the settlers, that they 
immediately crossed the river with tlieir families, took 
to the woods, and wandered in cold and hunger to the 
settled parts of Orange county, N. Y. Among these 
were Kathan Skinner and his eldest son, Garrett 
Smith and wife, the wife and child of Nathaniel 
Evans, and -others. Tradition says that Mrs. Evans, 
being belated, swam the Delaware river with her in- 
fant and joined the fugitives. In substance Skinner 
further says : "Joseph Ross, having been commission- 
ed by Col. Whooper to take charge of the Indians, 
whose chief was called 'Manoto," some of the whites, 
having^ the o-ood will of the Mohicans, concluded to 


stay and go on with their farming. But in the autumn 
of the same year, another scouting party, mostly com- 
posed of marauding whites, made a descent upon the 
people, took their crops, bm*nt down the new house 
built by Daniel Skinner, shot a man by the name of 
Handa, and took Nathan Mitchell prisoner." Skinner 
further says: "This party came up the Delaware on 
the east side, and from Ten Mile River upward, plun- 
dered all that came in their way without opposition 
until they came in sight of Big Island, where they dis- 
covered a party retreating before them, who continued 
their retreat to the upper end of Boss's where the set- 
tlers made a stand and sent word to their pursuers that 
they, the whites and friendly Indians, should retreat 
no further. The marauders came to a stand at Nathan 
Skinner's new^ house, which they plundered and burnt, 
and then retreated dow^n the river, on their way treach- 
erously capturing John Land and a man named Davis. 
Land was shamefully maltreated by his captors, and he 
and Davis were shackled and handcuffed and thrown 
into prison to answer to the charge of disloyalty, of 
which charge they w^ere afterwards acquitted. Nathan 
Mitchell escaped, but when or how, tradition saith not. 
This raid was made and participated in, it w^as said, 
by persons who professed to be ardently attached to 
the cause of liberty. This charge is made by Skinner 
in his narrative, but he is cautious in mentioning names. 
That there were bitter dissensions about the titles to 
lands in and about Damascus, like those that harrassed 
the settlers in Wyoming, scarcely admits of a doul)t. 


To determine who were the iiiiworthy and wicked 
parties that originated and perpetrated said enormities 
cannot now be done, but the raid gave rise to mutual 
charges and recriminations and to political antipathies 
which have descended down to the present day. 

After the massacre at Wyoming, in 1778, the dis- 
astrous result of which was speedily made known to 
those living about Cochecton, many of the settlers, sup- 
posing that their lives would be taken by the northern 
Indians, who were emboldened by their recent successes, 
sought safety in concealment or flight. Some, how- 
ever, determined that they would not leave the country ; 
among whom were the Tylers, Thomases, John Land, 
and Nathan Mitchell. The latter old veteran could 
never be frightened away, and many of the settlers 
came back in the spring of 1779. In this year the 
Indians became unusually aggressive, and a body of 
them from the north made a descent upon the settle- 
ments alono; the DelaAvare river about Minisink. A 
company of Pennsylvania militia marched to the Dela- 
ware for the protection of the settlements, and, on the 
22d day of July, 1779, was attacked by a body of 
one hundred and forty Indians on a hill nearly opposite 
the mouth of the Lackawaxen, and between forty and 
fifty of the militia were killed or taken prisoners, among 
whom were Captain Bezaleel Tyler and Moses Thomas, 
the father of the late Judge Thomas. About every 
man capal)le of bearing arms a])out Cochecton and 
upon the Lackawaxen and Paupac'k, participated in 
that battle. 


Tlie l)attle and massacre at Wyoming having pro- 
duced a great sensation among the Ameri(?an people, 
General Sullivan, witli an army of two thousand and 
five hundred men, was sent, in the summer of 1779, 
to drive the British and Indians from that Valley, and 
to lay waste the Indian country along the north-western 
frontier. He arrived in Wyoming on the 22d day of 
July, and from thence ascended the Susquehanna river, 
liaving his provisions and army baggage conveyed by 
one hundred and twenty boats and two thousand 
horses. General Sullivan found the enemy, of about 
one thousand men, collected near IS^ewton, on the Tioga 
river, strongly entrenched behind a breastwork. On 
the 29th of August, he attacked and drove them from 
their defences across the river, whence they precipitate- 
ly fled. He then marched into the Indian country and 
destroyed thirteen of their villages and all their crops 
and orchards as far as to the Genesee, and then return- 
ed by the way of Tioga Point to Wyoming, and thence 
to Easton. After the defeat of the militia at Lackawax- 
eTi, the few settlers remaining at Damascus expected 
that the Indians would visit them and destroy all their 
buildings and cattle, but they were happily disappoint- 
ed. A few were seen skulking about, but they did 
but little damage. They had learned of tlie impending 
expedition of Sullivan into their country, and they re- 
treated in fear and dismay. Tlie danger of Indian 
raids being now, in a great measure, removed, the in- 
hal)itants returned to their possessions at Cocheeton 
and Damascus, where the settlements again flourished. 


With unl)onnded delight thiy long-suffering people 
hailed the prospect of security and peace. For twenty- 
live years they had dwelt in the midst of alarms, sub- 
ject at all times to the torch, the hatchet, and the 
scalping knife of the Indians. 

The following named persons were actors in the 
foregoing history, or were subsequently distinguished 
in the annals of the township : 

Captain Bezaleel Tyler, who fell at the battle at Lack- 
awaxen, and was from New England. His sons were, 
1st, Bezaleel Tyler, father of Amos Tyler; 2nd, Sam- 
uel Tyler, father of Wni. Tyler, of Eock Run; 3rd, 
John Tyler, father of Judge Moses Tyler. This John 
Tyler married a Calkin, by whom he had twenty-one 
children. If I am rightly informed all the said sons of 
Captain Tyler were soldiers in the American Kevolu- 
tion. So numerous are the Tylers in and about Da- 
mascus that we have not time and space to enumerate 
them. They have ever been prominent in the entei*- 
prises and politics of the township. 

Simeon Calkin was one of the first settlers, who, 
witli Timothy Skinner, built a saw-mill and grist-mill 
near the mouth of Calkin's creek, in 1755, one hun- 
dred and twenty-five years ago. Oliver Calkin w^as, 
as I suppose, his son. Daniel Skinner, called the 
"Admiral," married Sarah Calkin, a daughter of Olive)' 
Calkin. It is a name much respected in Damascus 
and Cochecton. 

Natlian Mitchell lived at first on the east side of 
the Delaware. He, or a son of his, lived many years 



jifterward.s in Biickingliani. He was the father of 
xlbraliain Mitchell, who owned and cleared up the 
farm now owned by Samuel K. Yail, Esq., of Leba- 
non. In Damascus and elsewhere liis descendants are 
too numerous to mention with the particularity they 

Moses Thomas, Sen., was killed, as aforesaid, at tlie 
mouth of Calkin's creek, in 1763. He had a son who 
WTiS killed at the battle at Lackaw^axen, whose name 
was Moses; and the late Judge Thomas was a grand- 
son of the said Moses Thomas, Sen. We have tried 
to obtain more information concerning this family, 
hut have not succeeded. 

Robert Land was an Englishman and a justice of 
the peace under tlie colonial government, and a man 
of pluck and eiiterpi-ise, wliile his wife was a woman 
of unconnnon endui-ance and alulity. His son, John 
Land, married, lived, and died in tlie township. Ont^ 
r)f tlie daughters of the latter, l)y tlie name of Maxa- 
inilia, was the wife of John Burcher. 

Jesse Drake married the widow of Moses Thomas, 
who was killed at Lackawaxen. He had two sons, 
Jesse and Charles, and two daughters; one daughter, 
named Christiana, intermarried with Jonathan J^illie, 
and the other, Martha, intermarried with James 

Nicholas Conklin, of Dutch descent, from the North 
river, was one of the lirst settlers who located on the 
York State side. He had three sons, John, Elias, 
and William. Tlie latter lived and died at Big Island, 


but the others sokl out to Stephen Mitcliell and re- 
moved to Susqueh.anna county. 

Benjamin Conklin located on the Cochectoii and 
Great Bend turnpike road, six miles west of Damas- 
cus bridge, and kept a tav^ern and the turnpike gate, 
so that the place was known far and near as the 
" Gate Hovise." He had fifteen children, of whom 
only two now live in the county, Benjamin Conklin, 
at Four-story hill, and Sally, the wife of Amos T. 

Jonathan Lillie located on the Daniel Dexter place. 
Jesse and Calvin, his sons, are now living. Col. Cal- 
vin Skinner married a daughter of said Jonatlian 

Simeon Bush was an original settler, and liad three 
sons. He made an assessment of Damascus, in 1801, 
when there w^ere but thirty-seven taxables. George 
Bush, one of the sons, was a man of mark and was 
once a Member of Assembly. He married a daugh- 
ter of Reuben Skinner. The other sons were John 
and Eli, and all have gone to a better land, leaving 
families behind them. 

John Ross, better known as Captain John Ross, an 
old veteran soldier, had a son named John, who had a 
son named Bezaleel, he being the father of John R. 
Ross, deceased, who was elected sheriff in 1870. 

Daniel Skinner, known as "Admiral" Skinner, of 
whom much has been said, lived and died on the 
Judge Taylor place. The names of his children were 
Reuben, Daniel, Joseph, AVilliam, and Kathan. Dan- 


iel Skinner, Jr., had one son, Ini, who died leaving 
one son. Said Joseph Skinner died at Skinner's flats, 
leaving a family, and William Skinner died at the 
same place, leaving six sons. 

Reuben Skinner located upon or near his father's 
place. He married a widow from Long Island, whose 
maiden name was Mary Polly Chase. He organized 
the first Masonic Lodge in the county, at Ackhake, 
and named it St. Tammany's Lodge. In 1801 he was 
assessed as owning two honses, twenty acres of im- 
proved land, and 'ci slave, valued at fifty dollars, and as 
being a merchant, inn-keeper, and justice of the peace, 
all of which, including a span of horses and two cows, 
was valued at $552. He liad one son, Daniel (). Skin- 
ner, late of Honesdale, deceased, and three daughters 
— Anna, wife of George Bush, Huldah, wife of Jacol) 
B. Yerkes, and Nancy, wife of George Kinney. 

William Monnington,from Philadelphia, of Swedish 
descent, settled at an early day upon the north l>ranch 
of Calkin's creek. His sons were Israel, James, and Na- 
than, all worthy and industrious farmers. Judge Thom- 
as married the only daughter, Rebecca Monnington. 

Derrick Lukens emigrated from Germantown, near 
Philadelphia. His sons were John N., Daniel, Titus, and 
Derrick. He had several daughters, one of whom was 
the wife of the Rev. Isaac Brown. Her name was 
Mary, and another named Margaret was the wife of 
Col. Brush, who was the facetious and able sheriff of 
Wayne county ; after his death she married Stephen 
Mitcliell. John N. Lukens for many years kept 


a tavern on the turnpike between Damascus bridge and 
Tyler Hill. 

Da\dd Young first settled opposite Big Island in 
New York State. He was assessed in Damascus in 
1801 and in 1810, and afterwards kept a public house 
therein. He subsequently bought the Yerkes saw-mill, 
situated on Calkin's creek, at Milanville, where he was 
killed by the caving in of a bank. He was a man whose 
loss was widely regretted. He had four sons, George, 
Charles, Thomas, and Moses T. The latter-named, 
who lives in Damascus, is the only survivor. 

Kathan Skinner, as aforesaid, was a son of "Admiral'' 
Skinner, and was a man of good natural and acquired 
abilities. He was a surveyor and for many years a 
justice of the peace. His wife was a daughter of Oliver «^> 
Calkin. He wrote the account of Damascus from ' 

which we have quoted. His sons were Col. Calvin 
Skinner, Albro Skinner, (the surveyor), Oliver Skinner, 
Irvin Skinner, Charles C. Skinner, and Heli Skinner. 
Irvin Skinner lives in Indiana, and his daughter Zillah 
is the wife of Wm. Stephens, of Illinois. 

Thomas Sliields. At what time he removed from 
the city of Philadelphia to Damascus, it is difficult to 
ascertain ; but, by the old records, it appears that at 
December sessions, 1799, Thomas Sliields was indicted 
for assault and battery upon the body of William Skin- 
ner, of which charge he was acquitted. Let it be re- 
membered that the man who in tliose days was not in- 
dicted for selling liquor without a license or of assault 
and battery, was destitute of popularity. In 1801 he 


was assessed as owner of two houses, three mills, thirty- 
four acres of improved land, and 4,356 acres of unim- 
proved land, all valued at $938.00, his county tax be- 
ing only $9.38, and in 1803 as owner of 21,457 acres 
unimproved lands. He l)uilt two saw-mills and a grist- 
mill on Cash's creek, and as the Cochecton and Great 
Bend turnpike road was not then made, all the irons 
i-equired for said mills were l)rought up the Delaware 
river in Durham boats. In 1810 he built the iirst 
Baptist church in Damascus and left it to that denomi- 
nation. Being a man of wealth and enterprise, he 
largely contributed to the prosperity of the place. He 
went back to Philadelphia, but, at what date, we are 
unable to ascertain. He came into the county to dis- 
pose of his wild lands. 

Dr. Freeman Allen was the first physician and sur- 
geon in Damascus, and Dr. Calkin the first in Cochec- 

Dr. Luther Appley, who was from Philadelphia, 
studied medicine and surgery under Dr. Allen, and 
practiced many years with success. For his first wife 
he married Phebe Land, daughter of John Land. His 
second wife was Mary E. Effinger, a lady from Phila- 
delphia, who, as his widow, now resides in Honesdale. 
He left four sons, William S., Theron, Luther, and 
Mark Appley. Dr. William S. Appley became noted 
in his profession. He practiced far and near along the 
P]rie railroad. In consequence of liis temerity he lost 
a leg on said road. He is dead and Dr. Theron Appley 

is still practicing. Luther and Mark are farmers and 


Alexander Rutledge, a native of Ireland, settled, in 
1803, on the road leading from the Union settlement 
to the old gate house or Conklin place. His sons, who 
settled near him, were Alexander, Christopher, Ed- 
ward, and John. 

Charles Irvine, a patriot who fled from Ireland, at 
an early day settled in Damascus and married a daugli- 
ter of Oliver Calkin, of Cochecton. His son, Charles 
Irvine, was a long time a merchant at Damascus vil- 
lage, and is well known through tlie county as having 
been a jury commissioner. 

George Brown was assessed in 1806 as a farmer. 
If I am rightly informed he was the father of Isaac 
Brown, a Baptist clergyman, whose wife was a daugh- 
ter of Derrick Lukens. 

John Boyd was born in Philadelphia in 1794, and 
came to Wayne county in 1808, and finally settled on 
Damascus manor. He had seven children, two of 
whom are living: in A¥arren county, and two in Wa^aie. 
Thomas Y. Boyd, one of them, bought "The Tymer- 
son Mills" many years ago. He is a large manufac- 
turer and dealer in luml)er. He twice represented tlie 
county in the Legislature. 

The settlement of the northern part of the town 
took place later tlum the middle and southern part 
and was made by the Conklins, Tylers, Keeslers, 
Brighams, Sutliffs, Kellams, Rutledges, and others. 
At Galilee is a Methodist Episcopal church, a post- 
office, and several fine buildings, sufficient to form the 
nucleus of a village. Southward of Galilee, niauy 


years ago, Neal McCollnni bought lauds aud cleared 
up a valuable farui. Plis family produced some of 
the most valuable articles of douiestic manufacture 
ever exhil)ited at the fairs i)f the Wayne County Ag- 
i-icultural Society. Mr. McCollum and his wife, wh(> 
were most worthy people, died some years ago, since 
which tlieir ingenious and industrious daughters, Catli- 
eriue and Mary, have prematurely followed them. 

Jonathan Dexter was assessed, in 1802, as owning 
two hundred acres of wild land. The Dexters, it is 
said, were from New England. 

Branningville took its name from J. 1). Branning, 
who built up the place. W. I). Guinnip now resides 
there. It has a good school, with a thickly settled 
neighborhood about it. It is a very pleasant place. 

Darbytown takes its name from N. S. Darby, wdio 
built a tannery tliere. 

In 1801, Solomon Decker, Keuben Decker, and J(j- 
seph Decker were assessed as farmers that had made 
respectable improvements. Tliere were other early 
settlers wliose history we have failed to obtain, the 
family names being Dexter, Guinnip, Branning, Bm*- 
(^hers, Bol)erts, Noble, Perry, Yerkes, etc. 

fl;d)ez Stearns, a son of Joseph Stearns, one of the 
first settlers in Mount Pleasant, about 18 — took up 
land and made a farm on tlie nortli side of the nortli 
branch of Calkin's creek, at the Great Falls, where 
John Leonard erected a noted saw-mill, subsequently 
occupied l>y Wood, Boyd fSz Lovelass. Under great 
disadvantages he obt:dned a good education and 


took all the means in liis power to educate his chil- 
dren. He had six children, namely, David W., Polly, 
Harriet E., Lanrette, Irene, and Frances. The primi- 
tive settlers being mostly lumbermen located upon 
the alluvial lands along the river which they deemed 
the only kind of soil fit for cultivation ; hence, the 
progress of the town was for many years retarded. 
At length it was ascertained that the lands distant 
from the river, though difficult to clear, were, after a 
few years of cultivation, capable of producing larger 
crops than the river flats. This led to the taking up 
of the lands remote from the river, where were found 
some of the best lands in the county, in conlirmation of 
which, attention is directed to the farms of Asil Dann, 
William Hartwell, T. J. Crocker, and a score of others 
in the township. Several attempts have been made to 
divide the township, but the division, whenever un- 
dertaken, has been voted down. The old Cochecton 
and Great Bend turnpike road divides the township 
into about equal parts, but it does not suit the people 
as a division line. Having a descending navigation 
for lumber l)y the river, and access to the depots on 
the Erie railroad at Narrowsburgh and Cochecton, 
this township has facilities to market not exceeded by 
any of the river townships. The principal trading 
places are Damascus village, situated where the old 
turnpike road crosses the Delaware river over a splen- 
did toll-l)ridge, and Cochecton, a village located on 
the New York side, just opposite, and clustered along 
the Erie railroad, which road skirts the base of the 



liills, leaving a broad flat between it and the river. 
Cocliecton is one of the pleasantest villages on the Del- 
aware, and its early history is inseparably connected 
with that of Damascus. 

Damascus Village. Before the division of the 
towns! lip into two election districts, the elections w^erc 
held at Damascus village, where the physicians were 
located, the chief merchants traded, the most noted 
hotel afforded entertainment, and where the first 
academy in the county was started, and the first Bap- 
tist church built. Here Walter S. Yail and Charles 
Irvine, tlie most popular merchants in their day, lived 
and traded, and were succeeded by Philip O'Keilly, 
(once the urbane and favorite clerk of Capt. Murray, 
of Honesdale,) who, as one of the firm of T. & P. 
O'Heilly continues in the same pursuit at the present 
time. There are several other mercliants in the vil- 
lage. Here now^ is the old Baptist church and cemetery 
kept in excellent order, and a Methodist Episcopal 
church and parsonage. From the beautiful residences 
of Charles Irvine and Mark Appley, situated on the 
road leading to Milan ville, is one of the most enchant- 
ing views of the New^ York, Lake Erie and Western 
Railroad, and of the trains of cars passing up and down 
upon the road on tlie opposite side of the river, that 
can be seen in Wayne county. 

MiLANviLLE. This village was the chosen residence 
of Nathan Skinner, Esq., and his family, and is sitnatied 
near the mouth of Calkin's creek. Its locality is 
memorable in tlie early annals of the town as the place 


where the most desperate battle was fought with the 
Indians. Many years ago Eli Beach, Esq., built a large 
tannery there which greatly increased the population 
and importance of the place. Mr. Beach died some 
years since. At the time of his death he was one of 
the oldest and most noted tanners in the county, a man 
whose merits would have been appreciated and whose 
U)ss would have been deeply deplored in any com- 
munity. The tannery is now successfully carried on 
by Hon. J. Howard Beach, late Member of the As- 
sembly, and other sons of the late Eli Beach, deceased. 
About one hundred rods below the village are the 
Cochecton falls, which are the most dangerous obstruc- 
tion in the Delaware between Hancock and Lacka- 

Tyler Hill. This village owed its first importance 
to the enterprise of the late Israel Tyler. It has been 
much improved within a few years. Its shops and 
stores afford most of the conveniences needed in a vil- 
lage. The buildings display taste and neatness, and 
the private residences of David Fortnam and William 
A. Smith are very beautiful. 

Most of the timber having been removed from the 
forests of Damascus, the people have wisely turned 
their attention to agriculture. In 1878 there were 801 
taxables in the township ; the valuation of property for 
county purposes was $672,582, and the amount of coun- 
ty tax was $3,362.91. There are twenty -one common 
schools, one Baptist church, three M. E. churches, one 
Roman Catholic church, and one Union church. 


Precedence is given to Damascus because it lias a 
larger area than any other township, and from the fact 
that there the first settlement was made, the lirst In- 
dian battle fought, the first mills built, the first raft 
constructed, the first justices of the peace appointed, 
the first schools established, the first Masonic Lodge 
instituted, the first turnpike road made, the first store 
started, the first church and academy erected, and the 
first bridge built across the Delaware river in Wayne 


THIS township was taken oif from Damascus in 1819. 
It is bounded north by Buckingham and Manches- 
ter, east by Damascus, south by Oregon and Dyberry, 
and west by Mount Pleasant. The principal streams 
are the Dyberry, and its east and west branches, and 
Biff brook. These streams are lined on both sides bv 
steep hills, which are rough and rocky, and, excepting 
some flats, the land near the streams is uncultivatable. 
In the eastern part is a high, conical elevation, called 
''Hickory Hill," about which there is some good land. 
The north-eastern part of the town is composed of 


hilly and rocky land, and is unlit for cultivation. The 
chief ponds are the Upper and Lower Woods ponds, 
so called because John Wood owned tlie land about 
them; the Latourette pond; the Nilespond; the Rose 
pond, which was named after a man by the name of 
Rose, w^ho built a cabin near the pond, upon the now 
excellent and valuable farm of Sidney Coons; and 
Duck Harbor pond, about one-half of which is in this 
township. The greater part of the population is to be 
found along the old Cochecton and Great Bend turn- 
pike road, and on the roads leading from Riley ville to 
Dyberry, and along the road passing through Middle 

Beginning on said turnpike where the line on the 
east side of the township crosses the road and going 
west, the first old settled place is the farm of Samuel 
K. Vail. Adam Kniver commenced on the place where 
Walter S. Vail now li^^es, and Joseph Thomas on the 
farm of Samuel K. Yail. Kniver and Thomas left and 
John C. Riley kept tavern there awhile ; then Abram 
Mitchell bought the whole land of Thomas Meredith and 
lived there many years, when the farm was bought by 
Walter S. Yail, Sen., who sold it to his brother, Sam- 
uel K. Yail. Walter S. Yail, Sen., w^as a noted mer- 
chant at Damascus for many years, and a man much es- 
teemed for his probity and fair dealing. Kathaniel 
Yail, a brother of his, many years ago, represented us 
in the Legislature. Passing along, we come to the 
road which on the right leads to Equinunk. Here we 
find the store of Samuel K. Yail, the only one in the 


township, and a church, called the " Union church." 
In this store is kept the Rileyville post-office. Pass- 
ing onward sixty rods we come to the buildings erect- 
ed by John C. Kiley, consisting of a large tavern 
house, and a store, now unused. Riley commenced 
here about sixty-five years ago and cleared up a large 
farm amd kept a licensed tavern from 1819 to 1836, 
and sometimes kept a store running. This is Riley- 
ville. Riley was succeeded by William Handell. 
Then the whole place was purchased by Francis Blair, 
who sold it to Patrick Shanley, its present owner. 
The road from Dyberry intersects the turnpike at this 
place. A half mile onward is the Lebanon Presby- 
terian church. Next are tlie farm and premises for- 
merly occupied by John Lincoln, Esq., who w^as an 
early settler from New England. The premises are now 
owned by Hiram Wright, who married a daughter of 
John Lincoln. A house of entertainment and then a 
licensed tavern was kept by Mr. Lincoln or Wright 
for several years. It had the reputation of being the 
best-kept tavern on the road. Next is the farm taken 
up and improved by William Adams, who was orig- 
inally from Delaware county, N. Y. He was a supe- 
rior natural penman, and was the standing assessor 
of Lebanon, while he lived in the to\\Ti. He was the 
first assessor in Manchester township, after its erec- 
tion in 1828, soon after which, he settled upon his 
Lebanon farm. Being engaged in lumbering, he lost 
largely by an unusual flood in the Delaware. George 
W. Adams and Henry Adams, of Dyl^erry, are his 


sons, and Clayton Yale married his daughter. The 
farm is now occupied by the widow of Patrick 
Mc Guire. 

Seth Yale, a son of Esquire Yale, comes next. He 
married a daughter of John Douglas. All the im- 
provements on the farm were made by him. 

Next comes Shieldsboro', now owned by Elias Stan- 
ton. Kobert Shields, son of Thomas Shields, the 
great landholder in Wayne county and who in earlier 
days lived in Damascus, in or about 1835, (date un- 
certain) built a good dwelling-house and barn and 
erected a saw-mill at this place, and sent up his sons, 
Thomas M. and William J, Shields, from Philadeh 
phia to take charge of the premises, supplying them 
with costly musical instruments, a large library with 
globes and maps, and every needed convenience. But 
with all this they were not content. As desert-wan- 
dering Israel longed for the leeks, onions, and flesh- 
pots of Egypt, so did these men long for the crash, 
flash, and dash of the city from whence they came. 
After years of contention and discontent, they returned 
to their former home. Since that time the place has 
had a number of occupants. The next very old place 
was taken up by John Yale about 1810, but was paid 
for by his son, Seth Yale, who was always 
called Esquire Yale. His wife was a- daughter 
of James Bigelow, who was one of the first 
settlers in Mount Pleasant. She was an excellent, 
resolute, industrious woman. They had to battle 
with all the difiiculties and sufl^er all the perplexities 


incident to pioneer life in an unbroken wilderness, 
l)iit tliey nnflinchingly withstood them all. Their 
works were herculean and amazing. He had to pro- 
vide for a large and increasing family, and she to card, 
spin, and weave the fabrics, or procure it to be done, 
wherewith to (clothe her family. He, with his sons, 
cleared up a large farm and erected good buildings 
thereon. Prompted by necessity and a love of danger- 
ous and excitin": adventures, he became a o;reat hunter. 
Once, in early winter, upon a very cold day, he shot 
and killed an otter on the ice at tlie Lower Woods 
pond. Laying down his gun, he put on his mittens 
and went to get his game. Before reaching it he broke 
through the ice where the water was deep. He could 
not get upon the ice. Again and again his attempts 
were unavailing, as it would continue to break under 
him. He w^is so far from home that his calls for help 
could not be heard, and benumbed with cold his strength 
began to fail him. Finally he resolved to make his 
last final eifort to escape. Throwing his wet mittens 
upon the glare ice as far off as he could reach them 
in that dreadful condition, he waited until they froze 
fast, then, having something to take hold of, he drew 
himself out upon the ice, and then rolled over and over 
imtil lie reached the shore. But he would have that 
otter. He broke down small dead trees, made a bridge 
upon the ice, and went out and saved it. Once his 
faithful dog, which would have risked its life for the 
safety of its master, was missing, and the Esquire, mis- 
trusting that it had broken through the ice in that 


same pond, upon going tliitlier found it to \)Q a fact. 
With great difficulty he got the dog out, which was 
unable to go or stand. Though the day was cold, the 
Esquire took off his coat and wrapped it around tlie 
animal, which w^as a large one, and carried him home, 
a distance of a mile and a quarter, tlius saving 
its life. He was once a commissioner of the county 
and for many years a justice of the peace. It was al- 
ways his aim to promote peace. 

''Was there a variance? enter but his door, 
Balked were the courts, and contest was no more." 

Esquire Yale had six sons and three daughters. 
Norman and Clayton E. Yale lived in the homestead 
house on the north side of the road, and John E. and 
Ezra Yale in separate houses built by themselves on 
part of the old farm lying south of the road. Franklin 
removed to Susquehanna county. Seth has been men- 
tioned. Eliza is the wife of Gilbert P. Bass. Try- 
phena married Fanton Sherwood, and Mary died un- 
married. Esquire Yale died in Honesdale some years 
ago, and his wife survived him but a few^ years. 

On the west side of the road, on the hill above the 
Yale farm, lives Charles Bennett, son of Joseph Ben- 
nett, of New England descent. Originally Peter 
Latourette, a blacksmith, commenced on the place and 
then it fell into the hands of said Joseph Bennett, who 
lived and died there. On the north side of the road 
the land was taken up about 1817, by Hugh Gammell, 
the grandfather of Hon. A. B. Gannnell, of Bethany. 
Hugh, for a second wife, married a woman by the name 



of Gillett, and GMinmell and her brotlier, named Elijah 
Gillett, owned the plac^e too^ether. Gannnell died there 
and Mr. Gillett and Mrs. Gammell sold out their in- 
terest in the farm and she went and lived with Aaron 
Gillett, a relative of their's in Salem, and Elijah Gil- 
lett returned to Connecticut. Most of the place is now 
owned 1)y Hora(^e W. Gager, who, })eing an enterpris- 
ing farmer, has nnich enhanced its value. Going on- 
ward on the south side of the road extending westward 
for eighty oy ninety rods, lie the old farms of Edward 
Wheateraft, Jr., and of Edward Wheatcraft, Sen. 
Now both are owned by Gates Douglas. Edward 
Wheatcraft, Sen., was born in Frederick, Maryland. 
According to old records he Avas the first settler in 
West Lebanon, he having bought one hundred acres of 
land and Iniilt a (^abin in 1803. His land, cal)in, and 
four head of cattle, were valued that year at $95.00, 
and his tax was eighty-five and a half cents. He paid 
for his land in money realized mostly from the sale of 
maple sugar. His wife was a daughter of John S. 
Rogers. They had one son and three daughters. Mrs. 
John Latourette was one of the daughters. Then be- 
low^ and north of the old turnpike lies the George 
Parkinson farm, the f]"ont part of which is owned by 
C. H. S(nidder. Parkinson was taxed as owning eleven 
hundred acres of land. It is probaV)le that he began 
in 1804. He was an Englishman, and by trade a wea- 
ver, but turned his attention to <*arpenter and mill- 
Avright work. He is renieml)ered as having been m 
very ingenious workman, and was the chief architect 


employed by Judge Wilson to build a linen factory at 
the mouth of the Paupack. Finding that Wilson was 
likely to fail, he took his pay for his work in land. 
In 1810 he was licensed to keep a public house, and 
he or his son continued in the business many years. 
This house was known from Newburg to Itha(!:a as the 
Cold Spring Tavern. Parkinson, finding the town to 
he settling up rapidly, built a saw-mill and grist-mill 
on the outlet of the Lower Woods pond, below a fall 
about eighty rods from it. In a year or two both mills 
burnt down, No grist-mill has since been built in tlie 

Benajah Carr, in or about 1811, took up the farm 
south of the Parkinson place, cleared the same, and in 
1845 sold it to Charles H. Scudder and removed to 

The next place westward on the north side of the 
road was taken up about 1814 by David Gager, who 
was a native of Windham county. Conn. His wife's 
name was Polina Bingham. They had children, of 
whom Rufus H. Gager, of Mount Pleasant, Horace 
W. Gager, of Lebanon, and E. B. Gager, of Tanners 
Falls, are now living in the county. Mr. Gager and 
his sons cleared up a good farm, and he died on the 
place. It is now" owned by Robins Douglas. Mr. 
Gager used to tell of the hard times, l)efore the war 
closed in 1815; how that leather was hardly to be had 
at any price; that pork was twenty -five cents a pound, 
and that he had given four dollars for half a l)ushel 
of salt. 


The next settler on the west of David Gager was 
Joseph Bass, who came in with Gager from the same 
place. His wife was a sister of David Gager. There 
were fonr sons: Jason G., Thomas H., John W., and 
Gilbert P. Bass. The latter, wlio lives upon and owns 
the old homestead, is the only surviving meml)er of 
the family. There were three daugliters, one the wife 
of Charles Kennedy, one the wiie of Jolm Graham, 
and another the wife of John Spafford. 

The lands on the sonth side of the road opposite the 
said Gager and Bass farms were mostly taken np at 
an early day by John Lincoln and Elisha Lincoln, who 
sold tliem after a few years, since Avhich time they 
have changed owners several times. Fhilo Bass, Esq., 
son of Gilbert P. Bass, and postmaster, now owns the 
front part of the Elisha Lincoln lot. 

Silas Stevens, from Vermont, about 1810, took up 
the land north of the old turnpike, and in 1812 com- 
menced keeping tavern, Avhich business he continued 
the most of his life. The said lands on the north side 
of said road and one hundred acres on the south side 
thereof w^ere purchased by Bobins Douglas. Stevens 
had a large family, some of whom are dead and the 
others non-residents. 

John Douglas was a native of Vermont and settled 
on the south side of the road in or about 1810. Lie 
had one son, Bobins Douglas, and three daughters ; one 
was married to Jacol) Stalker, one to John Butledge, 
and the other, who is the only surviving meml:>er of 
the family, is the wife of Seth Yale. Bobins Douglas 


succeeded to the property of his father. He was an 
excellent farmer, and a man much esteemed by his 
neighbors. He left sev^en children, all residing in 
Le])anon excepting Mrs. Sally Holgate, of Damascus. 
Peter Latourette, a blacksmith from Orange county, 
N. Y., first began in the town, on the turnpike oppo- 
site Hugh Gammell's, and about 1887 removed ti> 
the farm now occupied by his grandson, George La- 
tourette, Avhere a small improvement had been made 
by one Perkins. Devoting the rest of his working 
days to farming, he cleared up much valuable land. 
He had three sons, Jacob, John, and Samuel : Jacob 
Latourette, a w^ealthy farmer in Orange county, N. 
Y., now deceased ; John Latourette, who took up land 
half a mile north of his father's, and, with his sons, 
cleared up a large and valuable farm, and built the 
best house in the town. Failing health induced him 
to sell his farm and buy a smaller place, and he and 
liis wife now live in the house formerly occupied by 
James Bolkcom, deceased, in East Lebanon. They 
liave four sons now living in the county, namely, 
Jackson, Nelson, Lorain, and Elijah. Samuel Latour- 
ette lives westward and adjoining the said John La- 
tourette's place, and lias demonstrated that farming- 
can be made remunerative in Wayne county by due 
tact and industry. For nearly one mile along and 
upon botli sides of the road from Tanners Falls to 
Cold Springs, the lands were cleared up and cultivated 
by the Latourettes, excepting tlie farm of James Get- 
tings that lies westward and partly adjoining the farm 


of Peter Latourette. It was known as the Latourette 

Galen Wilmartli l>e<2;an in early life upon lands sit- 
uated on the east side of the road leading from Cold 
Springs to Equinunk, about three-(piarters of a mile 
north of Cold Springs, where he cleared a farm and 
raised a family. His wife was a daughter of Peter 
Latourette. Finally he sold out to Michael Moran, 
who, for several years, carried on his trade there, as a 
cooper. The farm now belongs to Patrick Lestrange. 
Some of the family of Galen Wilmarth may be living, 
i)ut he and his son, John, have gone to a better land. 
On the same road northward, in 184^^, Thomas Moran 
]>egan in the woods upon a tract of good land, and 
cleared up a valuable farm. He was a strong, pow^er- 
ful man, but he died when l>ut little past the meridian 
of life. His son, Thomas, is now in possession of the 
farm. Patrick Rodgers and Patrick Mc Kenny live 
northward on the same I'oad. D. Murphy owns a 
good farm on the northern part of the old Parkinson 

Going southward from the old turnpike, on the 
Middle Lebanon road, we come to the farm once the 
property of Josiah Belknap, who began tliere proba- 
]>ly forty-five years ago; the property is now owned 
I)y some of his family. 

Jehiel Justin has occupied his farm, or a part of it, 
for forty years or more. When we first knew the 
place, a part of it was occupied by William Handell. 
Justin and his wife were from Connecticut. Their 


ingenuity in making and man nfactn ring for them- 
selves the chief necessities of life sufficiently attests 
their New England origin. Mrs. Justin is so skilled 
in the art of making sage cheeses that they are es- 
teemed as rare luxuries. Al)iel Brown also owns a 
part of the old Handell farm. The excellent farm of 
Jackson Latourette was taken up by George Mitchell 
and his brother. When they owned the place it pro- 
duced the best oats that we ever saw. The farm is 
still in good hands. 

James Robinson took up, probably forty years ago, 
the farm upon which liis son, Franklin, now lives. 
He was an Enoflishman of learniui!^ and culture. John 
K. Robinson was his son, and Matthias Ogden mar- 
ried one of his daughters, Martin Kimble one, and 
Nelson Latourette, the youngest. John R. Robinson 
lives upon the farm first taken up by William Pulis, 
who made some improvement upon it and then sold 
it and removed to the West. Rol)inson has made 
many improvements upon every part of the place, 
erected a good house, and Iniilt one of the largest and 
best barns in the county. His orchard is large and 
contains a great variety of choice fruit. Henry Brown 
was proba))ly the first settler in Middle Lebanon, be- 
tween fifty and sixty years ago. He was a soldier in the 
war of 1812. His first wife was a daughter of Rich- 
ard Nelson. He had three children, namely, Ezra, 
Sarah Ann, and Elizal)eth. Ezra Brown lived near 
by and died many years before his father. Alonzo 
Hubbard married Sarah Ann, and Frederick Hub])nrd 


married Elizabeth, wlio is now a widow and the only 
one of tlie family surviving. Henry Brown was a 
member of the Methodist Church, and during for- 
ty years of acquaintance Ave never lieard any one speak 
disparagingly of him. 

Abraham Bennett, a native of Orange county. N. Y., 
l)etween iifty and sixty years ago, purchased and 
cleared up a farm on the south side of the road upon 
which the farms of Milton Bolkcom, H. E. Gager, and 
Brice Blair are kx^ated. Industry, economy, and fair 
dealing were the prevailing traits of his character. 
Brice Blair, of Irish des(^ent, has a large farm lying 
east and northeast of the Bennett farm, and Henry E. 
Gager owns the farm formerly the property of James 
Blair. Milton Bolkcom lives upon and owns the farm 
on whicli he began when he was a young man. 

Lewis Sears lived many years upon the farm now 
owned by Stewart Lincoln. Lewis Sears, Jr., was his 
son, and tliere are several of his cliildren living in the 

Virgil Brooks, who owns a large farm upon which 
he l>egan when a young man, was a son of Capt. Homer 
Brooks, of I)y berry, in wliich town Yirgil was born. 
His wife was a daughter of Al)ram Mitc^hell. Many 
years ago Mr. Brooks liad the misfortune to lose his 
dwelling-house and all its contents by lire. At tliat 
time there were few if any tii-e insurance policies is- 
sued in tlie (jounty, consequently his property was 
not insured. 

The Bolkcom family. In <u' about 1815, William, 


James, and Daniel Bolkconi, brothers, from Massaelin- 
setts, took up lands contiguous to each other. Tlie 
A'ieinity in which they located has ever been known as 
tlie Bolkcom Settlement. Having an opportunity to 
select the best lands, they did not fail to do so. Wil- 
liam Bolkcom, who died many years ago, confined all 
his efforts to the clearing up and cultivation of his 
lands. One of liis daughters married Stephen M. 
Fulis, who now owns the old homestead. Daniel 
W. Bolkcom, son of William Bolkcom, owns the old 
farm Urst taken up by Conrad Pulis, upon the Dy- 
berry. D. W. M. Bolkcom, son of Daniel Bolkcom, 
owns the farm cleared up by his father and the farm 
once owned by James Bolkcom, excepting a lot and 
house purchased by John Latourette. James D. 
Bolkcom and Lafayette Bolkcom, sons of James 
Bolkcom, are still living in the county. Robins Doug- 
las married for his first wife Hannah Bolkcom, a sis- 
ter of these brothers. James Bolkcom, many years 
before his death, lost his dwelling-house and its con- 
tents by fire, w^ith no insurance. The loss bore heav- 
ily upon him, at his advanc^ed stage of life. The Bolk- 
com brothers were successful farmers and most excel- 
lent citizens. 

Ephraim Pulis, son of Conrad Pulis, of Dyberry, 
when a young man, took up the farm upon which his 
widow and son, Spencer, now live. He was a 
commissioner of the coimty, for many years a justice 
of the peace, and was active in promoting the cause 
of education and all projects which promised to bene- 



lit the coniinunity. He died of consumption, leavinij; 
a widow and three children. A. K. Bishop lives upon 
an old farm, formerly owned by Aner K. Treat. 
Bishop married a daughter of Oliver White, who lived 
on the south-west side of the First Factory pond. 
After the death of White, Bishop lived for a while 
upon tlie place and, upon his removal to Lebanon, 
sold the premises to John Blake. 

Osborn Mitchell lives upon a part of the property 
once owned bv Georoje W. Hamlin. Mitc-hell mar- 
ried Emily, the youngest daughter of Richard Nel- 
son, and was the son of Abram Mitchell. 

Fifty years ago Lester Spaiford was assessed as 
having tifty- three acres of land, John Spafford as hav- 
ing a like quantity, Seymour Spaiford as owning one 
hundred and six acres, and David Spaiford iifty. 
But they have all departed, there l)eing not one of the 
name left in the town. At that time there ^vere but 
forty-iive resident taxables, as we learn from an as- 
sessment, made by Stephen J. Partridge, one of them 
being John D. Graham, w^ho was assessed as having 
one liundred acres of land, being the Patrick Coffee 
place, east of Yale's. 

Li 1825 Lewis Payne was assessed as having two 
hundred and ninety acres of land. Had he taken up 
iifty acres he might have paid for them. It used to 
be his boast that he would die rich or very near it. 
William Ridd and others now o\y\\ the lands, excel- 
lent in quality, upon which Payne failed to get rich, 
as he had promised to do. 


Jacob Stalker, who was assessed in the same year 
as owning one hundred and twenty acres of land, mar- 
ried a daughter of John Douglas. His sons, Asa and 
David, and two daughters are still living. Jesse Bel- 
knap paid taxes on fifty-three acres of land ; Horace 
Belknap, on thirty-three acres; and David Belknap, 
on thirty-seven acres. All had houses, neat cattle, 
and other taxable property. These individuals have 
all passed away. 

Linus Hamlin, from New England, forty years ago 
])egan and cleared up a farm, which, upon his death, 
descended to his son, George W., who improved the 
land and erected new buildings and built a costly 
saw-mill upon Big brook and a circnlar saw-mill fur- 
ther up tlie stream. G. W. Hamlin linally failed and 
the most of his lands fell into the hands of Messrs. 
Weiss, Knapp, and Jenkins, of Honesdale. 

There are many other worthy residents in tlie town 
who have not ])een mentioned, as the design was to 
notice only the old and original settlers. Girdland 
will be noticed under Oregon tow^nship. 

For many long years the early settlers had to 
1 )attle with difficulties and to submit to grievous pri- 
vations, a recital of which will be found in another, 
part of this work. After the completion of the Co- 
checton and Great Bend turnpike road, in 1811, the 
Lebanon people had facilities for obtaining salt, leather, 
and other indispensable articles, which were not en- 
joyed by the people in other parts of the county. 

Most of the original settlers were from New Eng- 


land, and were a people who considered it their duty 
to educate their children to the best of their alnlity. 
When we take into consideration that they liad no 
high schools in Lebanon, it must be conceded that the 
families of Yale, Douglas, Gager, Bass, Lincoln, and 
others were as well educated as are tlie children of 
the present day in our common schools. Lebanon 
now has four schools and supports a part of a school 
in Girdland. There are no manufacturing estab- 
lishments. Agriculture, that preservative art of all 
arts, is the sole dependence of the people. There is 
yet much good land unimproved in the township, the 
most of which belongs to Coe F. Young, Esq., of 


UPON the separation of Pike from Wayne county, 
Palmyra was divided into two parts, the Wallen- 
paupack l)eing the dividing line. From the part of 
Palmyra left in Wayne county, Paupack has since been 
erected, leaving the township one of the smallest in 
the county. It is now bounded north-west by Cherry 
Ridge and Texas, north bv Berlin, south-east bv Pike 


coimty, and south-west by Paupaek or tlie old Milford 
and Owego turnpike road. 

Heuben Jones, Jasper Parish, Stephen Parish, and 
a son of Jacob KimlJe, Sen., were taken prisoners by 
the Mohawk Indians, near Panpack Eddy, after the 
battle of Wyoming. The young man named Stephen 
Kimble not being well was made to carry such heavy 
1)urdens by the Indians that he gave out and was tom- 
ahawked; so said Reuben Jones upon his return, but 
Stephen Parish said that he died a natural deatli. Jas- 
per Parish married an Indian wife, remained ^vith 
the Indians, and made his fortune. Stephen Parish, 
after peace was declared, returned to Paupaek and 
practiced as an Indian doctor, but finally went l)ack 
and died among the Indians. Reuben Jones, being a 
very large and powerful man, was considered as a re- 
markable trophy by the Indians, who looked upon him 
as one of the dread sons of Anak, and treated him witli 
the greatest respect, but w^atched him with the keenest 
vigilance. He was with them six or eight months. 
When a boy, about sixty-seven years ago, I heard him 
relate how he escaped from the Indians. Tlie boastful 
young braves would challenge him to run Mith them, 
and he was shrewd enough to let them l)arely beat 
him. Repeated trials were made with like results. 
Having secretly filled his tattered pockets with dried 
venison, Jones challenged one of the swiftest of the 
young Indians to make one decisive race. The chal- 
lenge was accepted, and said Jones : "After we had 
run a mile or so I never saw anything more of that 


Indian. I struck for the head-waters of the Delaware 
and thence to Panpack Eddy by the way of Bioj Eddy, 
and on my way ate nothing but that venison." Jones 
said he was captured through the duplicity of an Indian 
(tailed Canope, who professed to be friendly to the 
wliites. After peace was concluded, Canope was se- 
cretly murdered, and the killing was charged upon 
Benjamin Haines, who always denied it. It was be- 
lieved up in Paupack that Jones killed Canope, as he 
had great provocation so to do. After Jones came 
home, he, with his brothers Alpheus and Alexander, 
and a sister called Widow Cook, built a small house 
above the mouth of Middle creek, and Jones Eddy was 
named after them. About the same time Elisha Ames 
!)uilt and began on the David Bishop farm. They 
were the first settlers in and about Hawley, and were 
natives of Connecticut. Thomas Spangenberg found 
they had been there some time Avhen he came into the 
county in 1794. 

Coeval with the settlement of Jones was that of 
Benjamin Haines upon the present premises of George 
S. Atkinson. Haines w^as the noted Indian killer 
whose exploits have been the text for many a sensa- 
tional article in our country newspapers, which articles 
were never monotonous, no two of them ever reading 
alike. Haines had one son named Poger who lived in 
the upper part of the county. Jonathan Brink suc- 
ceeded to the place of Benjamin Haines, and, after 
living there many years, sold it to Joseph Atkinson, 
who divided it between his sons, George S. and Asher 


M., and the latter sold his part to Daniel Kimble, Jr. 
Daniel Kiml)le, Sen., located at White Mills. He 
married Jane Koss, a native of New Jersey, and they 
raised a large family. He was, for many years, a jus- 
tice of the peace, and was a noted man among the first 
settlers. A man by the name of George Neldin first 
commenced an improvement at Panpack Eddy, and 
built the first saw-mill in that region. Joseph Atkin- 
son, from New Jersey, when a young man, first came 
to the Narrows and worked in the mills built there l)y 
Robert L. Hooper, who committed said mills to the 
care of Esquire Snyder, a grandfather of Joseph At- 
kinson. This was about 1810. Atkinson soon left 
and went up to Paupack Eddy and engaged to work 
in Neldin's mill. After continuing in Neldin's 
employ several years, he bought out all of his posses- 
sions, married a daughter of Ephraim Kimble, at the 
Narrows, and continued to live there during his life. 
In middle life he lost his first wife, and afterwards 
married Fanny, a daughter of Benjamim Kimble, and 
cousin of his first wife. She is yet living at the old 
homestead at Paupack Eddy. Joseph Atkinson had 
sixteen children, most of whom are yet living. He 
was proud of his family and his wife, as he had good 
reason to be. About 1792, Judge James Wilson, then 
one of the Judges of the Supreme Court of the Unit- 
ed States, owned the lands upon the Wallenpaupack 
and was made to believe that they were peculiarly 
adapted for the raising of hemp and flax, and that the 
manufacture of the same could be made profitable, and 


ill or Mbout 1792, commenced tlie building of a factory 
for that purpose, at a point above the tannery of Judge 
Cromwell. The l)uilding was completed and well built, 
but of its size and cost nothing delinite can be learned. 
Its cost was estimated at from $8,000 to $12,000. Its 
size is supposed to have l)een from tliirty to forty feet 
square. It was put in operation and did some work, 
but failed for tlie want of material. About the same 
time. Judge Wilson failed. Tlie factory was sold to 
Benjamin Kimble, and some one else, who, after tak- 
ing out what was valuable, burnt it down to get the 
iron. Wliile said factory was building several houses 
were erected at Wilson ville, but the place soon de- 
clined, and in 1822 there was only a tavern-house, be- 
longing to Leonard Labar, who sold the premises to 
John and William Shouse, wlio disposed of the same 
to Frederick W. Farnham. It would be wrong to 
forget John R. Compton, who, with his family, lived 
])elow Samuel Kimble on the old Milford and Owego 
turnpike road. He was always constable or super- 
visor in Palmyra. David Compton lived below John 
R., and sold out his farm, in 1846, to John M. Ball, 
a Baptist minister from Orange county, N. Y., who 
built OY owned a saw-mill on Swamp pond creek. He 
had five children, all now living, three sons and two 
daughters. Henry Ball, proprietor of the Wayn(» 
County Hotel, in Honesdale, is the only one of the 
family living in tlie county. The Balls were of Eng- 
lish desc^ent. 

About sixty-live years ago Jason Torrey, Al)islia 


Woodward, and Moses Kellaiii bought the place after 
wards called the Daniels farm, built a frame house, call 
ed it "New Castle," and carried on lumbering on a 
large scale there for years, and then sold out the 
premises to Joseph Atkinson, who, in his turn, sold 
them to Kussell Daniels, from Connecticut. He be- 
came a noted lumberman, and for many years kept a 
public house. He had several sons, namely, Franklin, 
Ira, George, Martin, Edmund, and Dighton. The 
lumber manufactured at "New Castle" was always in 
demand at Philadelphia. 

In 1828, lifty-one years ago, Joseph Atkinson and 
David Bishop, with their families and workmen, made 
up the population of the present site of Hawley. The 
canal was not then built. Paupack Eddy, in time of 
freshets, was almost bridged across by rafts of sawed, 
hewn, and round white-pine timber, intermixed with 
cherry and ash, the sale of which brought a large 
amount of money into the county. At that time all 
the hills along the Lackawaxen which are now deso- 
late and treeless, were mostly covered with white pine. 
In that year Plenry Heermans and Zenas Nicholson, 
of Salem, built a saw-mill on the Pike county side of 
the Paupack, at wdiat was called the Sliding Fall, 
about one-third of a mile from the mouth. Hunting- 
ton Collins and myself are the only survivors of all 
who helped to build it. Inclining toward the Circling 
Eddy, at the foot of said Sliding Fall, were rocks, 
which were sometimes out of and sometimes under the 
water, in whicli the water, by revolving pebble-stones, 



had worn holes of uniform size to the depth of three 
or four feet. The holes have a circumference from 
two to three feet, and will at some time be shown a^ 
strange curiosities. The best of pine boards were 
then but nine dollars per thousand in Philadelphia. 
Heermans and Nicholson succeeded in their enter- 
prise and sold ont to Fuller & Co. In 1829 the Del- 
aware <fe Hudson Canal was completed and commenc- 
ed work ; then a turnpike and plank-road was built 
between Honesdale and Panpack Eddy ; and that part 
of the village of HaAvley east of the canal at once 
assumed the character of a hamlet with a church, 
several stores, and an excellent house of entertain- 
ment. About 1847, the Pennsylvania Coal Company's 
Road was built, and gave existence to Hawley. The 
length of said coal road from Hawley to Port Griffith 
is forty -seven miles. It is a gravity road, worked by 
stationary engines. In 1865, the locomotive railroad 
from Lackawaxen to Hawley, called the Hawley 
Branch of the Erie Kailroad, was built, length sixteen 
and nine-tenth miles. In 1868, this branch was ex- 
tended to Honesdale. For the convenience of the 
traveling pn}>lic, a passenger train has been for years 
run between Hawley and Dunmore. In 1829, a sur- 
vey was made to ascertain the most feasible route for 
a railroad, or canal, or both of them from the coal- 
fields of the Lackawaxen to Paupack Eddy. An act 
of Assembly was passed, Ttli of April, 1830, incoi-por- 
ating "The Wallenpaupack Improvement Company.'' 
Nathaniel B. Eldred, David Nol)le, Jeremiah Bennett, 


James M. Porter, and Evans Kees, very able men, 
were commissioners. H. G. Sargent, civil engineer, 
made a flattering report of the feasibility of making 
a double-track railroad from the coal mines to the 
forks of the Wallenpaupack, sixteen miles, thence by 
canal or slack-water navigation to Wilson ville falls, 
eighteen and one-half miles, thence again by railroad 
or by canal one mile and a half, down a declivity of 
three hundred and twenty-flve feet to the Delaware 
and Hudson Canal. The cost of constructing the 
w^hole was estimated at ^430,500. But the whole 
project failed for want of capital, and the Pennsylva- 
nia Coal Company afterwards chose a better route for 
descending from the head waters of the Wallenpau- 
pack to the Lackawaxen. The great fall of three hun- 
dred and twenty-five feet in the Wallenpaupack be- 
tween Wilsonville and the mouth of said stream, 
attests the astonishing amount of watei'-power afforded 
for the propulsion of machinery. Nothing of the 
kind of equal magnitude can be found in Northern 
Pennsylvania. If that power were all judiciously ap- 
plied, it would move more machinery than is used in 
the great manufacturing town of Lowell, in Massa- 

The first fall, which is of about seventy feet, is a 
few rods below the bridge across the Paupack, at 
Wilsonville. Here, in the last century. Judge AVilson 
greatly benefited the first settlers by building a grist- 
mill and saw-mill. The next fall is called the Sliding 
Fall; then there are two more where the water falls 


perpendicularly, about thirty feet at each, and the 

last is above Judge Cromwell's tannery, and is seen 

from the cars of the Honesdale Branch of the Erie 

R. Road. Below White Mills is an eddy called 

" Fish Pole Eddy," on the shore of which grew the 

lari>;est pine ever known to the lumbermen on the 

*' Lackawack." Charles Kimble put it into the eddy 

and ran it down the river to Philadelphia, for Mr. 

Hambleton. Ten or fifteen feet al)ove the ground it 

was forked, and had to be split in order to run it. At 

its stump it was eleven feet in diameter, and in jest it 

was called "The Fish Pole." The joke brings to 

mind the description of the enormous Norwegian 

fisherman : 

' ' A two-inch cable he took for a line, 
For a pole he cut a tall mountain pine ; 
He caught a sea-serpent and cut off his tail, 
Then sat on a rock and bobbed for a whale." 

The north-western and north-eastern parts of the 
township are sparsely settled, and, although the agri- 
cultural population is increasing, yet the township is 
better adapted for trade and manufacturing, and may 
thereby become one of the wealthiest townships in the 

The township has one weekly newspaper, the Haw- 
ley Times ; ten common schools, including the newly 
established graded school, which has an hnposing 
building; one Roman Catholic churc^h. Saint Pliilo- 
mena ; one Baptist ; one German Reformed ; one Pres- 
ley terian ; and one Methodist Episcopal church. 



THIS township was taken off of Palmyra in 1850. 
It is bounded north-west by Cherry Ilidge, north- 
east by Palmyra, south-east by the Wallenpaupack, and 
west by Salem and Lake. Most of the lands in the 
northern and eastern parts are unimprov-ed. The 
township is well watered, having the Goose pond in 
the middle of the southern part, and Long and Purdy's 
ponds in the w^estern part. The outlets of the latter- 
named ponds furnish good mill sites which are used ; 
Middle creek runs through the north-east section, and 
the Wallenpaupack furnishes one-third of the boundary 
of the towmship. So wide, deep, and slow-moving is 
the Wallenpaupack that a few years ago the Ledgedale 
Tannery Company ran a steamboat several summers 
on that stream between Wilsonville and Ledgedale, to 
carry up hides and take back leather. 

Silas Purdy, Sr., and family were the first settlers 
permanently located on the west side of the Wallen- 
paupack, about the year 1787. He was a farmer by 
occupation, and he had six sons and several daughters. 
His oldest son, Jacob, was the first blacksmith, and at 
the age of forty emigrated to the Lake country. 
Ephraim, the second son, built the first grist-mill, and 


was patronized l)y Salem, Canaan, and all along the 
Lackawaxen river. It was built on tlie outlet of the 
Hallock or Long pond creek, and its location is still 
known by the old decayed timbers." Amos and Isaac 
Purdy emigrated to Ohio. Peter Purdy fell heir to 
the old homestead ; he was a blacksmith and built the 
first saw-mill on a stream on his farm, A public house 
was kept there many years, for it was once looked 
upon as the most important business location in the 
township, as it was when the first road authorized by 
law was laid out from Milford by the way of Blooming 
Grove to Hezekiah Bingham's, thence passing through 
Purdyville, and thence onward to John II. Schenck's, 
and thence to Asa Stanton's on tlie north and soutli 
road. Among the papers of Judge Samuel Preston is 
found a petition to the Judges of Wayne county to 
convene at Milford, Dec. lOth, 1798, asking for the 
confirmation of said road, signed by Willliam Purdy, 
Jacob Purdy, Solomon Purdy, Reuben Purdy, William 
Purdy, Jr., Ebenezer Purdy, Ephraim Purdy, Silas 
Purdy, Amos Purdy, Jedediah Willis, Solomon AYillis, 
Henry Husted, Ilo])ert Hartford, Elias Hartford, and 
James Hartford. We remember them all excepting 
Solomon Willis. The road was confirmed and a branch 
therefrom laid through Rollisonville to the cross-roads 
at Salem Corners. This shows wdio were the real resi- 
dents at that time. But to resume the history of the 
Purdy families. Elder William Purdy came to this 
township from Nine Partners on the North river in 
the State of New York, in 1792, with a family of six 


sons and two daughters, and began two miles west of 
Silas Purdy, Sen. The lands were taken up two years 
before the family moved into the county. The minis- 
terial labors of Elder William Purdy, who was a Bap- 
tist clergyman extended through parts of Luzerne, 
Wayne, and Pike, from Wilkesbarre to Abington in 
Luzerne, and from Mount Pleasant to Paupack. He 
was one of the leading spirits in organizing the first 
Baptist church and the Abington Baptist Association. 
He died in 1824, aged seventy-five. Beuben Purdy, 
the eldest son of the Elder, located adjoining his father, 
and as a licentiate filled the pulpit in his father's place. 
He was many years a justice of the peace. He died 
in 1855, aged eighty-two. His son, PeubenR. Purdy, 
who was a popular commissioner of Wayne, and w^ho 
became the proprietor of his father's estate, died a few 
years since. Darius G. Purdy, his son, to whom we 
are indebted for much of the history of the Purdy 
family, is yet living at or near Purdyville. Solomon 
Purdy, the second son of Wm. Purdy, occupied lands 
adjoining his father on the north, w^as a prosperous 
farmer, and loved the sports that hunting and fishing 
afforded. He lived to the age of eighty years. James 
Purdy, the third son of Elder William Purdy, settled 
east of his father, and afterward purchased a farm on 
the Lackawaxen near Paupack Eddy, where he died, 
aged seventy. William Purdy, the fourth son, was a 
Baptist minister, living and preaching many years at 
Bethany, afterwards emigrating to the State of Ohio. 
Ebenezer, the fifth son, owned a farm nortli of his 


brother Solomon, and died in the prime of life. Abner, 
the yoimgest of the family, removed to Ohio, and in 
1876 was living at the age of eighty-six. We would 
not neglect to state that Silas Pnrdy, the first settler, 
died in 1814, and that Martial Pm'dy is yet living on 
the old homestead. The Purdys must have been of 
Puritanic origin, as they preached, prayed, and read in 
the sing-song tone of the old Puritans. Tliey were a 
quiet, peaceable, law-abiding, temperate people. They 
were more or less lumbermen, as the forests were then 
waving with the noblest of white pines. Simeon 
Ansley, a son of Major John Ansley, lived about two 
miles below Silas Purdy's, and there kept a hotel on 
the old Lake country road. Mifflin Ansley was his son. 
The Hartfords will be mentioned under Salem town- 

Ambrose Buckingham, from Saybrook, Connecticut, 
about 1825, began at or near the line between Salem 
and Paupack. He was a very industrious man and 
the father of Emma May Buckingham, the poetess, 
and the authoress of the works entitled, ''A Self-Made 
Woman," "Silver Chalice," "Pearl," etc. 

Uriah Williams, a lineal descendant of Roger Wil- 
liams, lived in Paupack many years; his Avife was a 
Hewitt. George Williams lives on the old homestead. 
John H. lives at Nobletown. He had other children 
whose residences are unknown. 

Paupack has one Methodist Episcopal church, and 
in 1878 had six public schools. 

At Hemlock Hollow is a post-office, and about that 


village seems to center the principal business of the 
town, and it is strange that it was not called Purdy- 
town, as it ought to have been. 

On or near the western border of this township 
was a dark, dreary sw^amp called "The Shades of 
Death." Chapman, in his history of Wyoming says, 
when describing the sequel of the massacre at Wyo- 
ming : "• The remainder of the inhabitants were driven 
from the valley and compelled to proceed on foot six- 
ty miles through the great swamp, almost without food 
or clothing. A number perished on the journey, 
principally women and children, some died of wounds, 
others wandered from the path in search of food and 
w^ere lost, and those wdio survived called the wilder- 
ness through which they passed, "The Shades of 
Death," an appellation which it has since retained." 
The settlers in Paupack, wdiose account is sustained 
by Miner, in his history of Wj^oming, asserted that 
there in that dread swamp a child died, and the fran- 
tic hunger of the sufferers led them to cook and eat 
it, the abstaining mother standing by and weeping. 
The next day they all crossed the Paupack, after 
which she w^ent back and drowned herself, to escape 
from the distracting memory of the tragic event. 




THIS was un original township, established soon 
after tlie erection of the county, in 1798. It then 
included Salem, which was set off in 1808, and a part 
of Cherry Hidge, since erected, leaving the township 
then bounded north by Mount Pleasant, east by Dy- 
berry, (now mostly by Cherry Ridge), and south by 
Salem, and west by Luzerne county. The northern 
part was taken off in 1834, to make up the township 
of Clinton, and in 1851, Waymart was scooped out of 
its northern part. Finally the territory remaining in 
1851 was divided by an order of (iourt, of Febniary 
sessions, 1852, into Canaan and South Canaan. To 
give with accuracy an account of the first settlers, it 
will be necessary to (consider the bounds of the town- 
ship, as it was after the excision of Salem township. 
The township is well watered by the Middle creek and 
its branches, and the streams running into and from 
the ponds, the chief of which are called Elk Forest, 
Stanton's, Keene's, Hoadley's, and Curtis's ponds. 
The Moosic mountain runs through tlie north-western 
part of the township. The rest of tlie land is not in- 
conveniently hilly, has a south-eastern or southern 
declivity, and produces excellent crops of hay, coi-n, 


rye, oats, and buckwheat. The old Easton and Bel- 
mont turnpike road, which was called the north and 
south road, was made and finished in 1819-i^O. Coach- 
es, carrying mails and passengers, ran daily upon it, 
and large numbers of cattle and sheep w^ere driven 
down and along it from Western New York to Easton 
and Philadelphia, for twenty-five or thirty years. It 
furnished what w^as then considered a convenient com- 
munication wdth Easton, from which the merchandise 
and goods used in the lower part of tlie county were 
transported in wagons. There w^as much travel upon 
the road. The Milford and Owego turpike was built 
or finished in 1815. Besides daily mail-coaches there 
was a constant stream of travel over it, it being then 
one of the roads lying in a direct line from the city 
of New York through New Jersey and Northern 
Pennsylvania to the western counties of New York, 
and many droves of sheep and cattle were driven year- 
ly in the fall months to market. The Honesdale and 
Clarkville turnpike, built in 1831, afforded the people 
of Canaan and parts adjacent easy access to the mar- 
kets at Honesdale. But the travel and business of 
the county having been diverted into other channels 
by the railroads, the said turnpikes, the making of 
which drew severely upon the resources of the people, 
have been thrown up, and, like paupers, are supported 
by the townships where they belong. 

We must now speak of the early settlement of the 
township. It has been stated in the former part 
of this work, that tlie object of the writer is to pre- 


sent a history of those who first settled and cleared up 
the country as it was when God made it, with all its 
hills and valleys, lakes and streams. Asa Stanton, 
Margaret Bryant, of Bethany, daughter of John Bur- 
leigli, and widow Sarah Keed, of Honesdale, daugliter 
of Otto Wagoner, deceased, all born in Canaan town- 
ship, furnished most of the following history: 
y John Shaffer, originally from Germany, moved 
from Orange county, N. Y., to Canaan, in 1783. He 
hought a tract of land, and first lived on Middle 
creek, below the old north and south road. His son, 
John Shaffer, was born in Orange county, N. Y. His 
second son, Moses Shaft'er, was the first child born in 
the town. His third son, Samuel Shaffer, was born 
in the same place. John Shaffer had five daughters, 
all born in Canaan, namely, Catherine, married to 
James McLean, (who was killed by a limb that fell 
from a tree), Susan, married to Joshua Burleigh, Ef- 
fie, married to Jacob Swingle, Betsey, married to 
Edward Doyle, of Buckingham, and Polly, married 
to Samuel Chumard. The said John Shaffer built an 
overshot mill, upon the Middle creek, at or near the 
place always thereafter called "Shaffer's Mill." This 
was the first mill of any worth. There had l)een one 
])uilt further up the creek, which had no bolter. The 
women sifted the ground corn and rye through sieves, 
Tnade of perforated buckskin, stretched over a hoop. 

Adam Wagoner. His granddaughter, Mrs. Reed, 
thinks he first came into the county in 1783, that he 
moved into a sugar house, built of logs and covered 


with bark, upon the farm now owned by Edgar Wells, 
and thence moved to the farm now owned l^y Jonatlian 
Swingle, where he died in 1793. He had two sons, 
Otto Wagoner, who died about eleven years ago, aged 
eighty-two years, and John Wagoner, who died long 
ago, and four daughters, one of whom, named Sally, 
the widow of Frederick Swingle, deceased, is yet liv- 
ing, aged eighty-nine years. Adam Wagoner was of 
Pennsylvania German descent. 

Hans Sura Swingle, from Germany, settled in this 
township in 1783. He had six sons, namely, Conrad, 
Jeremiah, Frederick, Jacob, John, and Henry, all of 
whom settled about him and were successful farmers. 
He had, also, four daughters, namely, Katy, married 
to Geo. Enslin; Morilla, married to Henry Curtis; 
Christina, wife of Silas W^oodward; and Mary, wife 
of Moses Shaffer, all of whom have gone to their rest. 
The descendants of the above named family are so 
numerous that to give their names would take more 
space than can be spared. Perhaps there is no fami- 
ly in the county tliat has so well kept up its name and 
numbers as the Swini>;le familv. 

/ Henry Curtis was a German. He came into the 
town about 1784, and settled on Middle creek. For 
four years he was in actual service as a soldier in Ger- 
many, and three years as such in the Revolutionary 
war. He had one son, Hans Curtis, who married 
Polly Wagoner, daughter of Adam Wagoner. 

George Enslin, a blacksmith from Ke\\^)ort, Pa., 
located at an early day. He had one son, Simeon 


Enslin. fie had other cliildreii, all of whom are 
dead, leaving children now resident in the town. 

John Bunting, a Quaker, made the first clearing 
between Col. Asa Stanton's and the Swingle Settle- 
ment, near the old Cortright tannery. He made an 
assessment of the town, in 1800, when there were only 
thirty-four taxables, including Salem, Sterling, part of 
Cherry Ridge, and part of Clinton. He assessed to 
himself 446 acres of land. In the year of 1802 he 
was appointed the first justice of the peace in Canaan. 
Daniel Bunting, his son, succeeded him as assessor, and 
served several years, and then removed and settled on 
the west branch of the Lackaw^axen below Aldenville, 
took up a large quantity of land, and there, for some 
years, kept a house of public entertainment. All the 
families afore-mentioned, save that of John Bunting, 
were Germans. Their neighborhood was always known 
as the "Dutch Settlement." They were industrious, 
hospitable, and honest. There were no sharpers or 
speculators among them. They took up the very best 
lands in South Canaan. 

The history of the Stantons is given by Asa Stan- 
ton as follows: " My father, Asa Stanton, was born 
in Preston, Conn. His wife, Zibah Kimble, was a 
cousin of Walter Kimble. He first moved into Pau- 
pack, lived there one year, and, in 1790, moved to 
Canaan and located on the old north and south State 
road, about where I now live. He had nine children, 
four of whom besides myself are now^ living, -iiamely, 
William Stanton, of Waymart ; Levi Stanton, of Mich- 


igan ; Louisa, who married Philander Bettis ; and Julia, 
who married Harrison Wentz. Samuel Stanton, a 
cousin of father's, settled in Mount Pleasant, twelve 
miles north of us, in 1791. Father built a large log- 
house and kept travelers and drovers. We had to 
learn how to do without everything that we could not 
raise or make for ourselves. Salt was brought from 
Newburg on pack-horses. The winter of 1792 was se- 
vere, and really terrible. According to father's account, 
the snow began on the 18th of November, and fell 
most of the time for two weeks. He had raised some 
corn that season, and he bought some rye, but it was 
not tit for food until it had been ground. So in the 
winter of 1793, Elijah Dix, Elder Elijah Peck, and he 
went to mill at Slocum Hollow, (now Scranton,) with 
three yoke of oxen and a span of horses, and, being 
snowed in, they were gone nine days. They fed out 
one-third of their grists to the teams. In the winter 
of 1791, father carried up provisions to Samuel Stan- 
ton's family in Mount Pleasant to keep them from 
starvation. Game and deer were plenty, or we should 
all have perished. He bought three hundred and twen- 
ty acres of land on the old State road, and three hun- 
dred acres around the Stanton pond, where he built 
a saw-mill. Father was deputy-sheriff of Pike county, 
under Abraham Mulf ord, and afterwards treasurer. He 
was elected colonel after the organization of the county. 
We sometimes went to mill at Slocum Hollow, some- 
times at Wilsonville, and sometimes at Ephraim 
Purdy's ; frecjuently we pounded our corn in a mortar. 


We made our sugar and sold some. Bees were abun- 
dant in the woods and the streams were alive with 
trout. Tlie first bolting grist-mill was built in South 
Canaan by John Shaffer. Before that a mill was built 
west of Lerch's for grinding corn. The first saw-mill 
was built by Amos Bronson and liis l^rother. Iron 
being scarce, they made the crank of a natural-crooked 
white oak. The first man that settled and made a 
clearing between us and the Shaffer Settlement was 
John Bunting. He ]>egan near the Cortright tannery. 
Daniel Stevenson, of Barnegat, N. J., was the first 
man that settled betw^een father's and Samuel Stanton's. 
Samuel Chmnard settled about one mile and a half 
above us, on the old road. He sold out to Hezekiah 
Leach. Samuel West, a Baptist clergyman, next be- 
gan north of us. His son, David S. West, who occu- 
pied his father's improvements, w^as a man of educa- 
tion and a noted surveyor. John Fobes, Esq., a justice 
of the peace, began at Canaan Corners in or about 1806, 
and Caleb Fobes settled on the widow Jonas Stanton 
place. Jonas Stanton lived on the flat called the New- 
man place, in 1811. Jacob Stanton, who settled and 
died at Little Meadows, in Salem, was a distant rela- 
tive of father. My parents, in 1817, went on a visit 
down East, and on their return in crossing the Dela- 
ware, a sudden storm arose and the boat filled with 
water. Father saved mother, but having on a heavy 
overcoat was carried down the stream and drowned. 
This was on the 12th day of November, 1817, at Co- 
(?hecton, N. Y. Seth Eaton settled at an early day 


oil the old road leading from Canaan to Bethany. 

I used to hunt considerably on the head waters of 
the Lehigh and Tobyhanna and trap beavers and mar- 
tens. There nsed to be many beavers caught in 
Canaan and I have seen their houses biult three stories 
high. Father killed a number of elk, and Charles 
Stanton killed one that had horns eacli four feet long 
and they weighed twenty-five pounds. I killed six 
deer in one day, and one Imndred and two in one 
year, besides several bears and foxes. I have the 
horns of the great elk killed by Charles Stanton. 

The winters were not as cold then as they are novs', 
but were longer and attended with more snow. On 
the last day of March, 1804, father sent me to Major 
Ansley's, in Palmyra, to get a horse shod. The snow^ 
fell three feet deep and I was gone three w^eeks. I 
was born in Canaan." 

Among the other settlers who commenced at an 
early date may be named James Carr. He had four 
sons, namely, John, Thomas, Erastus, and James. 
John A. Gustin married one of his daughters, and 
Randall Wilmot, fatlier of David Wilmot, married 
another. Mrs. Gustin is yet living in Honesdale. 
There are many descendants of James Carr, Sen., in 
the county. In 1805, Elias Yan Auken was assessed 
for two hundred and sixty-four acres of Lmd. He 
gave the name to the creek on which he lived. Geo. 
Rix was assessed with two hundred and ten acres, and 
Justus Cobb with four hundred acres. Each was 
assessed for a house and a few acres of impro^'ed 



land, the remainder of the hinds being in a wild state. 

Amos Bronson and his brother were from Schoharie, 
X. Y. The latter was an ingenious, self-taught mill- 
wright. In 1807, Daniel Jaggers was assessed with 
four lumdred acres, mostly wild land, lying east of 
the Shaifers. Wareham Day, fi*om Connecticut, mar- 
ried a daughter of Abraham Hoagley, a former 
justice of the peace, and was elected county commis- 
sioner. Vene Lee, of Connecticut, was a farmer and 
had two sons, Horace and John. Horace married 
Catherine Hamlin, and John married Eliza Chumard. 

William Griffin, from Connecticut, was a farmer aiid 
cabinet maker. He was also a Methodist local min- 
ister, who held meetings in barns in summer and in 
private dwellings in cold weather. 

Silas Hoadley, a farmer, settled above William 
Griffin's and was a man highly respected in his day. 
He had three sons : one, named Eli, was killed by a 
tree; one, named Oliver, died suddenly of heart dis- 
ease ; and the other, whose name w^as Luther, lived and 
died on the old place. Mrs. Mary Ann Sampson, late 
of Honesdale, deceased, the Avidow of Ward W. Samp- 
son, late of Canaan, deceased, was a (Uiughter of Silas 

Abraham Lloadley, who was no relative of the 
above family, settled on land north-east of George 
Enslin. He had two scms : one of them, John P. 
Hoadley, was the father of John K. Hoadley, Esq., 
of Cherry Jlidge. Miles Hoadley, the other son, left 


H large family. The Hoadleys were all from Connect- 

Abram Frisbie, a farmer, had three sons, namely, 
Solomon, Hiram, and Philemon. Solomon married 
Charlotte, the youngest daughter of Jesse Morgan. 
Hiram, yet li\dng, moved to Carbondale and kept 
boarders and wayfaring men in the first house ]>uilt in 
the place. It was excellently kept, as w^e well remem- 
ber. It is claimed that he took the first coal to mar- 
ket that was ever taken over the mountain to the 
Lackawaxen. Philemon moved from the county. 

Probably there are some persons living in Canaan 
who remember the widow Frisbie, whose peculiarities 
were such as to excite their recollection of them. Her 
clothing, which was. white, she manufactured from 
wool taken from living sheep. She had her shoes 
made from the hide of some animal that died a nat- 
ural death. She ate no animal food, and claimed that 
the command, ''Thou shalt not kill," forbade the tak- 
ing of the life of any living creature, and replied to 
the assertion that animal food is necessary to give 
men strength, that elephants, horses, camels, and oxen, 
which are the strongest of animals and have the 
greatest powers of endurance, live wliolly upon vegeta- 
ble food and refuse to eat flesh ; that the killing and 
eating of animals makes us gross, sensual, and cruel; 
and that the person who can wdth indifference see pain 
and anguish inflicted upon any of God's creatures, is 
but one remove above an idiot or a devil. To one 
who sought to convince her that lier belief was but a 


delusive vagary, she replied that she was not afraid of 
going to any part of God's universe where she should 
repent of having been merciful to all his creatures. 
Noble woman ! She was in advance of her age. She 
could say, in the words of Goldsmith's hermit: 

*'No beasts that range the forests free, to slaughter 
I condemn ; 
Taught by that power that pities me, I learn to 
pity them." 

Her countenance was radiant with benehcence and 
very attractive. She finally returned to Connecticut, 
from whence she came. 

/^Joseph Cobb was from Tunkhannock and married 
Abigail Stephens. He had several sons, namely, 
Jesse, Joseph, Lovell, Noah, John, and Ebenezer. 
Asa Cobb, a brotlier of the said Joseph, lived on the 
east side of the Moosic mountain, on the road leading 
from Salem to Providence. He married Sarah Stephens, 
a very noted woman in her day, as she rode far 
and near in the practice of obstetrics. Providence was 
always spoken of as belonging in Salem, although it 
was in Luzerne county. Asa Cobb kept a tavern dur- 
ing his life and was succeeded in the business by his 
son, John Cobb, who married a daughter of Conrad 
Swingle. Her fame was known far and near, as she, 
in a iierce battle, with nothing but a stake, killed a 
large wolf, that was chasing her sheep. According 
to Mrs. Bryant, each family had a Noah, John, and 
Ebenezer. Cyprian Cobb and Ebenezer Cobb, of 
Salem, were sons of Asa Cobb. 


Elislui Ames, wlio was an early settler near Pan- 
pack Eddy, is nientioned in an assessment of Palmyra 
made in 1801, as being in Canaan. He is supposed 
to be the progenitor of the Ames family. H. Ames, 
who lives on the old Milford and Owego turnpike, has 
been a resident in the town for many years. 

Matthias Keen, better known as Captain Keen, a 
native of Orange county, N. Y., first moved to Mil- 
ford, Pike county, and thence to Canaan, in 1815. 
He first lived on (3rchard hill, and made a dam at 
the mouth of Keen's pond, then called "Canoe pond," 
and built the frame for a grist-mill. About this timej 
in drawing a gun towards him in a canoe, it went oif 
and the ball was lodged in his hip. After he had suf- 
fered much. Dr. Mahony extracted the ball, but he 
was left a cripple for life. He erected the first carding- 
machine in that region of the country, and to it there 
was a wool-picker attached. Before this all the wool 
was picked and carded by liand, but the machine 
diminished much of tlie labor of the women, and Cap- 
tain Keen was complimented as a public benefactor. 
He built the first grist-mill in that part of the town, 
and Deacon Kufus Grenell was the mill-wright. In 
1834, that well-known mill-wright, Huntington Collins, 
put up a saw-mill for liim. Captain Keen, who was a 
prominent Freemason, was a man highly esteemed, and 
was at one time captain of a uniformed company in 
Orange county called the "Hepublican Blues." He 
died in 1835. He had a large family, most of w^hom 
are in the grave. The following named were his sons: 


George M. Keen, late of Prompton, deceased, who was 
a man of culture and of great moral excellence ; he 
has two sons, Spencer and Frederick, who reside in 
Honesdale, one named Mott, a resident of Prompton, 
and one daughter, who is the wife of William F. 
Wood, Esq., a former sheriff and prothonotary of the 
county. Matthias Keen, Jr., a farmer who lived and 
died in the county. eTames R. Keen, now living in 
Honesdale, aged ninety-one, who was many years a most 
elticient clerk of the commissioners of the county, and 
register and recorder. Ja(?ob L. Keen, once a popular 
commissioner of the county, is yet living in Canaan, 
near the Keen's mills, of which he is now owner. Eli 
C Keen, who settled near Keen's pond, was a soldier 
in the w^ar of 1812. James B. Keen is his son. 

Thomas Starkweather, generally known as Captain 
Starkweather, according to the remembrance of Asa 
Stanton, was an Eastern man and came into Canaan in 
1811. Being an industrious, energetic man, he bought 
and cleared up a valuable lot of land, and finally set- 
tled at Canaan Corners, at a point at the intersection 
of the Milford and Owego turnpike with the Belmont 
and Eastern turnpike road, which was afterwards called 
Wayneville. The travel upon said roads being great, 
Mr. Starkweather built there a larire hotel which he 
kept for many years to the satisfaction of all travelers 
and with credit to himself. He built, also, a large 
store-house, called the "Variety Store," kept by Stark- 
weather and Robert Love. The place once had the 
promise of becoming a prosperous village, but it was 


finally overshadowed hj Waymart. Wayneville, how- 
ever, was for many years a prominent place. George 
A. Starkweather, Esq., now living in Waymart, is a 
son of Captain Starkweather. Leonard Starkweather 
built the lirst tavern house in the vicinity of Waymart, 
about 1832, at or near the residence of Roswell F. 
Patterson, Esq., and the same was kept as a public 
house for many years. Previous to l)uilding there he 
was eisrht or ten years constal)le of Canaan. 

Tliomas Clark came from near Milford, Pa., and, 
in 1825, was licensed as a tavern-keeper, and rated as 
a merchant in South Canaan ; afterwards he removed 
to Canaan Corners and erected a tavern and a store 
which were attended by himself. After it became 
apparent that Waymart would be a place of impor- 
tance, Mr. Clark removed thither and built a public 
house, where he lived to the end of his days. He was 
an active politician, and once treasurer of the county. 
His wife was the daughter of Dr. Francis Smith, 
of Milford. The great celebrity of Clark's house was, 
no doubt, owing to the ability and taste of his wife. 
Said Thon:ias Fuller to Clark, whom he liked at once 
to flatter and to tease: "Tom, you do keep the best 
tavern and set the best table that can be found within 
my knowledge, or rather your loife does." 

Jolm Spangenberg, a brother of Thomas Spangen- 
l)erg, Esq., late of Bethany, while Canaan was covered 
with woods, began in the w^est part of the town, and 
many of his descendants are living in that vicinity. 


The Spaiigenbergs came from New Jersey, and were 
of German descent. 

George Morgan, who died recently, aged nearly 100 
years, was a son of Jesse Morgan, and moved from 
Salem. They came at lirst from Connecticnt. 

George E,ix located at the foot of the Moosic monn- 
tain, and the Milford and Owego tnrnpike was built 
past his liouse. In 1805 he was assessed as a farmer 
and owning 208 acres of land. He was always called 
Captain Rix, and w^as a prominent man in his day. 

Levi Sampson lived on the place afterwards owned 
by John B. Tntliill, Esq. There were three others of 
the family, viz : William, Elijah, and Ward W. Samp- 
son. They came from Connecticnt, but at what exact 
time (nmnot be stated. Some of the family lived on 
the Easton and Belmont tnrnpike road and kept the 
gate sonth of Canaan Corners for a long time. 

At a place called Millville, in the southern border 
of tlie township, is a thickly settled neighborhood or a 
scattered village which takes its name from the num- 
ber of ruills on Middle creek. The site of the old 
Shaffer mill is yet to be seen. 

Lerch's Corners, so called from the fact that P. W. 
Lerch, many years ago, commenced a store and tavern 
there, has all the coiiveniences of a village and is the 
only post-ofhce in Sonth Canaan. In and about this 
place is some very choice land. Near here, about forty 
years ago, a Protestant Methodist church was built, 
and twelve years ago a Methodist Episcopal churcli. 
[n the western part of the town is a Free Methodist 


cliiirch. 8()iit]» Canajin luis three liundred and thirty- 
tliree taxjibles, with nme coinnioii schools. Canaan 
lias one hnndred and ninety-one taxal)les with fiv<' 
cH)mnion schools. 

Way mart, as has been already stated, was incorpor- 
ated in 1851. It appears yonng to me who can remem- 
ber sixty or seventy years back ; it must appear so to our 
veneral)le friend, Asa Stanton. But though young, it 
lias acquired an excellent character. Without flattery 
it nmst he said that as a law-abiding people, of high 
intellectual culture and moral exellence, they occupy 
an envied position. We wish to be relieved from the 
task of describing them individually. It would be 
like taking a measure of wlieat and examining each 
grain separately and ending perhaps in not finding 
one false or snmtty kernel. C. \1. Rogers keeps the 
old Thomas Clark tavern, and is a popular landlord. 
There is one Presb^^terian and one Methodist Episco- 
pal church, and two common schools. Numbei* of 
taxables, one hundred and sixty -five. 




^piIIS was one of the fH'iginal townships, but poi*- 
J- tions were taken from it to form the townships of 
I)Yl)errv, Preston, and Chnton. But notwitlistand- 
ing all tliat luis heeii plundered from it, Damascus 
alone exceeds it in dimensions. It is 1)ounded north 
hy Preston, east \)\ Buckingham and Lebanon, south 
l)y Clinton and Dyberrv, and west l)y Snsqnehanna 
connty. 8ome ])art of tlie Moosic mountain on the 
^yestern verge of the township is nncultivatai)le. Tlie 
rest of tlie townsliip is hilly; still the most of the hills 
admit of tillage to their very summits. The various 
hills and valleys present some of the most enchanting 
scenery in the county. Mount Pleasaut may be call- 
ed the Switzerland of Northern Pennsylvania. In 
the summer months it is almost a paradise; in the win- 
ter it has the climate of Siberia, a condition which, 
with slight modifications, is incident to the whole 

The western branches of the Lackawaxen and I)y- 
l)erry and tlieir tributaries furnish al)U]idant water- 
power. The natui'al ponds are Rock lake, Bigelow 
lake, and Miller's pond. More turnpike roads w^ere 
made in tliis township than in any other. The Oo- 
checton and (ireat Bend tnrn])ikc road, passing 


tliroiigh tlie central part, was incorporated in 1804. 
The road was tinislied in 1811, and tlie travel on it 
was very great, it being the nearest route from New- 
burg to AVestern New York. Daily mail-coaches, 
drawn by two span of horses, ran upon tlie road for 
years. Numerous droves of cattle, sheep, and liogs 
were driven upon it towards New York market. Al- 
most half of the houses on the road were taverns. 
After the Erie canal was built the travel was less, l)ut 
it was not until the completion of the New York A: 
Erie Railroad tliat it was almost wholly suspended. 

The Bethany Jind Dingman's Choice turnpike was 
incorporated in 1811. It aiforded convenient means 
of getting to and from tlie county seat, and was kept 
in order for many years l)y moneys received for tolls. 
Its course w^as south-east from Pleasant Mount. Tlie 
Belmont and Easton turnpike was chartered in 1812. 
It passed through the western part of the township 
and opened up a direct communication with Easton 
and Philadelphia, and for many years attracted a con- 
stant stream of travel, with daily mail-coaches, and 
droves of all kinds of live stock. The State of Penn- 
sylvania appropriated $10,000 to aid in the construc- 
tion of the road. It was of great importance to that 
part of the county through which it extended. But 
the building of other roads, particularly of the Dela- 
ware it Hudson Canal and Railroad, and of the New 
York & Erie Railroad, diverted the travel into other 
channels, until this once celebrated road was almost 
abandoned by the traveling public. 


The Belmont and OglKjuaga turnpike, chartered in 
1817, owed its existence chiefly to the exertions of T. 
Meredith, Esq., wlio owned large tracts of land along 
the route of tlie road. The settlers in the western 
part of Preston were benefited by it and it was sus- 
tained many years by tlie tolls taken on the road ; hut 
the same (!anses that lessened travel on other turnpikes, 
operated ecpially unfavoral)le to this. The turnpike 
:ip the west brand i of the Lackawaxen, bnilt many 
years ago, although a very useful road, not being self- 
sustaining, has been thrown up, and all the above-- 
named turnpikes, ha\'ing served their day and geuera- 
tion, have reverted to the several townships througli 
which they extend, and are kept in repair by them, 
as necessary for public use. The road from Pleasant 
Mount to Stockport is an old one, and was laid out in 
or about 1799, and has been, and probably it always 
will be, one of the most indispensal)le thoroughfares 
in the connty. What has been tlie enterprise of the 
people of Mount Pleasant may l)e inferred from the 
amount of labor which they expended in the l)uilding 
of the above-described roads. The early liistory of 
this township is exceedingly interesting and worthy of 
historical preservation. 

The first settler was Sanmel Stanton, of Preston, 
Conn. He came in June, 1789, and bought or con- 
tracted for three thousand acres of land, and the next 
year built a house on it, and commenced a clearing. 
His cabin was a little east of the old Easton and Bel- 
mont turnpike, near the present residence of H. W. 


Muuiford. It was made of small logs and poles, cov- 
ered witli l»ark, liaving no partitions, and without 
windows. The iioor and dooi* were made of l)oards 
split out of logs. His houseliold furniture was scanty, 
and as homely as liis dwelling. He moved liis family 
into this cabin in the spring of 1791. Other settlers 
(iame in that year to commence clearing, hut they all 
left in the autumn, lea^dng Stanton and his family 
alone in that vast wilderness.* During the long and 
dreary winter they suffered from want of food and 
from sickness produced by destitution and, ^vhen on 
tlie very verge of starvation, a man from Canaan, hj 
the name of Church, came along, who shot an elk and 
gave the meat to Stanton, which relieved the wants 
of his family. At that time the snow was deep and 
the weather intensely cold and Stanton's nearest neigh- 
l)or, Asa Stanton, his cousin, lived twelve miles distant. 
Another hunter, named Frederick Coates, happened 
along, who, with said Church, went and procured 
other provisions for the relief of the family. In a few 
years, Stanton, l)y his industry, began to prosper. He 
kept, to the best of his ability, a puldic house. In a 
letter dated Oct. 5th, 1795, directed to Judge Preston, 
he wrote: "I had my house-frame raised last Thursday, 
and no one was hurt \)\ the timber. T will keep a 
civil house or none. Many judges, squires, and gen- 
tlemen have lately traveled this road to and from New 
York. I make more from people of tliis char^icter 
than I can hope to from a pack of drunken scoundrels. 

*See Whaley's History of Mount Pleasant. 


even if I did not ablior their practices/' Sucli was 
the first settler and innkeeper of Mount Pleasant. 

The next year, 1792, new settlers arrived, namely, 
Silas Kellogg, Elijah Dix, Jirah Muniford, John Tif- 
fany, and Joseph Stearns; and tlie next year Josepli 
Tanner and Amasa Geer, all from Connecticut, ex- 
cepting Kellogg, wdio was from the State of New 
York. He was tlie father of Azor Kellogg and Jirali 
Kellogg. Mary, his oldest daughter, was the wife of 
John K. Woodward, and motlier of the late Warren 
J. Woodward, deceased, and Jackson K. Woodward, 
late of Honesdale, deceased. Mrs. Woodward is still 
living, having outlived all her children. Silas Kel- 
loea* was elected sheriff of tlie countv in 1813. He 
died at Mount Pleasant at a very ad\'anced age. 

Jirah Mumford, from Connecticut, came into the 
town with Joseph Stearns, in 1792, but did not move 
his family until the next year. His sons were Thomas, 
Jirah, Jr., Minor, and John. His descendants are 
spread over the county. 

John Tiffany, of Massachusetts, in 1792, started with 
his wife and three children to go to Nine Partners, in 
Susquehanna county, but, coming to Mount Pleasant, 
concluded to stay and build a house on the Christopher 
farm. He was a useful man. 

Joseph Tanner, in 1795, built a frame house north 
of the present village of Pleasant Mount, and, in 
1806, in company with a man named Granger, opened 
the first store and built a public house near it. Clark 


Tanner was a brother of Joseph. He was a fariiiei* 
and brought up a family in the township. 

In 1795, John S. Kogers, a Qnaker from New Jer- 
sey, moved npon the farm since known as the Panl 
O'Neill place, and kept a tavern there during his life. 
He had eight (children. 

In tlie same year Joseph Stevenson, from New Jer- 
sey, bought near the stone school-house, a part of 
whicli is noAV the farm of Henry Gager. James and 
Isaiah Stevenson were liis sons. Oliver Stevenson, 
formerly sheriff of Wayne county, is a son of James 
Stevenson ; and Godfrey Stevenson, the present treas- 
urer of the county, and Arthur Stevenson, are sons of 
Isaiah Stevenson. 

In November, 1873, Jabez Stearns, then living in 
Damascus, l)ut since deceased, gave me the following 
account: "Joseph Stearns, my father, and Jirah 
Mnmford, came to Mount Pleasant from Tolland 
county, Connecticut, in the winter of 1792. They 
started from home on a snow-sled, each having a yoke 
of oxen, designing to go to a settlement called Nine 
Partners, in Susquehanna county. Finding that they 
'•ould buy land to suit them near Samuel Stanton's 
location, tliey concluded to go no further. In the fall 
fatliei' went back and the next spring brought mother 
and eight cliildren, and moved into a house that said 
Jirah Minnford had built, and lived there tlu^ first 
wintei'. h\ tlie spring he moved to a place near tlie 
residence of the late Hussell Spencer. I was l)orn there, 
June 18tli, 1798. Our folks brought clotliing for 


themselves .-iikI cliildreii with tliein. Luxuries and 
superfluities were not tliouglit of. Tlie struggle was 
to ol)tain the indispensal>le necessaries for sustaining 
life. To tell tlie trutli tliere were times when om* 
family sulfered for foocL Fatlier went on foot several 
times to Great Bend after flour and hi-ought it home 
on liis back. Wild meat was not always to l)e had, 
and otlier meat was out of the (juestion. When it 
seemed as if we should starve, a deer would come, to 
all appearances providentially, in tlie way and be kill- 
ed, which would afl^ord food f(jr awhile. The settlers 
a.ll suifered about alike. Those vvdio had kettles made 
their own sugar. Mother used to tell me that she once 
went i]ito the wf)ods to gather sap, laid me down in a 
sap trough by a log, and w^ent about her work. After 
a time, looking towards me, she saw a large black 
bear taking a look at me and standing on the log by 
which I was laid. In terror she screamed aloud, 
(taught up a club, and, her faithful dog running to hei', 
they together made for l)i*uin. He walked away very 
leisurely, looking back at them and seeming to say, 
"You make a great fuss about a very small matter.'' 
She did not, as has been told, faint away. She was 
not subject to that infirmity. It has been told that it 
was my l)rother Aslil)el that the bear inter^^ewed, but 
I tell it as mother told it to me. At another time my 
brother Otis was carrying me; another In-other, my 
mother, and that old dog Avere along; we went down 
to near Zeb Hut creek where a log lay across the path, 
and tliere a bear, large enough to have devoured the 


forty and two irreverent, prophet-insulting children of 
old, came and put his fore paws upon the log, and dis- 
puted our passage. Mother and my older brother, as- 
sisted by the old dog, made such a display of hostility 
that }>ruin abandoned his position and went his way. 
Sometimes, in those days, children were lost in the 
woods. Mrs. Jirah Mumf ord once sent her two daugh- 
ters, Deborah, aged six years, and Sally, aged four 
years, on an errand to a neighbor's. In returning 
homeward they mistook the patli and wandered off 
into the woods. It was soon found out that they were 
lost. The few settlers were notified and went in search 
of the children, but night came on and they were not 
found. The search w^as continued all night with 
torches and lanterns, and all the next day, but the 
search was unavailing. The poor mother was frantic 
with grief and anguish. On the third day the search 
was resumed with the utmost determination. At last, 
a hunter, who had been much at Mr. Mumf ord's, heard 
a little dog bark which went with the children. He 
iired off his gun to let the other searchers know that 
he had found the children. The little dog, when call- 
ed, ran to the hunter, but the girls hid in a clump of 
bushes. The company all came together and took the 
children to their home. Their mother, delirious with 
joy, clasped them in her arms and wept. The strong, 
hardy men of the forest c^ould not restrain their tear- 
ful transports of joy. The children said the iirst night 
they made themselves a bed of leaves by the side of a 
log, and that little Trip lay down l)y them, and that 



two big (logs (probably wolves) came and looked at 
them ; but little Trip growled and barked at them and 
they went away. The next day they looked for their 
home and found a few berries w^hieh they were very 
glad to find, as they were very hungry. They had 
heard their names called but were afraid to answer, 
having heard about Indians killing children. Had it 
not been for faithful little Trip— had he, in his hunger, 
left them and gone home — they miglit never have been 

In 1795, Seymour Allen, from Connecticut, bought 
of Amasa Geer the farm that he first took up ; then 
Allen sold it to Ichabod Starks, who lived on it the 
rest of his life. Jacob Van Meter moved that year 
from New Jersey to the place lately occupied by liis 
son, Charles Yan Meter. Abram Cramer moved the 
same year from the Acres place, so afterwards called, 
situated on the old north and south State road, which 
is twelve miles below where Captain Phineas Howe 
Jjept his celebrated tavern in Sterling township, and 
settled near the Thomas Slayton farm. He built his 
house of hewn logs, and some of it is standing to this 
day. He was the grandfather of Abram Cramer, Jr., 
and of iJavid Cramer. The latter, in middle-life, left 
his home of comfort and competence and went in pur- 
suit of fortune's slippery ball to California's golden 
shore, and from thence to Australia and back again to 
California, and then home. He afterwards made fi\e 
or six voyages to California, and finally came home 
exhausted and enervated by his lal)ors and sufferings. 


finding that bread is not always to the wise, nor riches 

to men of understanding, and feeling as if lu^ could 

address a lump of gold in the following strain : 

''For thee, for thee, vile yellow slave, 
I left kind hearts that loved me true ; 

I crossed the tedious ocean wave. 

To roam in climes unknown and new ; 

And now come home to find a grave, 
And all for thee, vile yellow slave. " 

x\bram Cramer, Jr., is still living in Salem township, 
and has a very large family of twenty-one children. 

About 1795, Benjamin King moved from Cherry 
Kidge and settled below the Benjamin Wheeler farm. 
He was a commissioner and for many years a justice 
of the peace. Robert and Benjamin King, of Star- 
rucca, were his sons. Charles King, a brother of 
Benjamin King, Sen., at the same time settled east of 
the Wheeler farm. The Kings were from Rhode Is- 

Elijah Peck moved in about 1795, from Connecti- 
(iut. He became a Baptist clergyman and was exten- 
sively known and honored as an ornament to his pro- 
fession. His oldest son, Elijah Peck, is living. Wil- 
liam Peck and Reuben Peck are deceased. Lewis 
Peck, Myra Peck, who married Jesse Dix, Joan- 
na W., widow of Giles Gaylord, late of Clinton, de- 
ceased, are all living. Elijah Peek, 2d, had nineteen 

From an assessment made by Joseph Tanner, in 
1801, there were thirty houses or huts and fifty -four 
feaxables in: the township. Among these taxables, not 


including the above named, were Daniel McMulleii, 
OaleV) Carr, Eliplmlet Kellogg, commissionerrt' elerk, 
Jacob Crater, who built a saw-mill and grist-mill on 
the west branch, David Kennedy, llo])ert Kennedy, 
Thomas Mumford, James Miller, ^Tathan Rude, Elihu 
Tallman, Sanniel Torrey, and Jason Torrey, surveyor. 

Daniel McMullen was a farmer assessed as havin<r 
one hundred acres of land. He and George McMullen 
were both Scotchmen and ijreat hunters. 

Eliphalet Kellogg is mentioned, as having been the 
clerk of the county commissioners from the erection 
of the county until he was appointed prothonotary l)y 
Governor Snyder. He took up land in Mount Pleasant, 
])uilt a house and improved some land, and removed 
to Bethany in 1810. He was a brother of Silas Kel- 

David Kennedy. It is evident that David Kennedy, 
Sen., and Robert Kennedy were in the township at an 
early date. In 1801 they had l)uilt comfortable houses, 
and David Kennedy had cleared up twenty acres of 
land and Robert Kennedy had cleared eighteen acres. 
David Kennedy, Sen., had a son named David Ken- 
nedy, Jr., and David L. Kennedy, of Honesdale, is a 
son of the latter. Mrs. Wilbur, now living in Wliite's 
Hollow with William Partridge, Esq., was a daughter 
of David Kennedy, Sen. She is about ninety-three 
years of age, and to a remarkable degree retains her 
physical and mental powers. Her husband, Jonathan 
Wilbur, was a blacksmith who located near Atwater's 
Corners on Johnson's creek. The Kennedy family 


liHve well kept up their name and numbers, ])ut to de- 
scribe all its numerous ])ranches would require too 
much time and space. 

James Miller was from the State of New York and 
took up seventy acres of land. Moses Miller took up 
two hundred acres of land. He was the father of 
Ephraim Miller, Marlin Miller, George "W. Miller, J. 
W. Miller, and Wesley Miller. Moses Miller was 
many years a justice of the peace. 

Jonathan Miller, of Pleasant Mount, also a justice 
of the peace, was from Luzerne county. His wife was 
a daughter of James Bigelow. He appears to have 
l.)een the first noted blacksmith in the town. His son, 
Jonathan, now residing in the village, follows the 
same trade. This family was not related to those of 
James and Moses Miller. 

Elihu Tallman will be mentioned under the head of 
Preston township, and Jason Torrey and Samuel Tor- 
rey under the head of Bethany. 

Nathan Rude lived on the north side of the rotwl 
beyond Benjamin Wheeler's. He had three sons, 
Nathan, Simeon, and Reuben, and was a man of orig- 
inal wit. Many anecdotes are told of his shrewdness 
and repartees. He was at first a Baptist preacher; 
afterward, he became a Restorationist. Being asked 
his profession in court, he replied, " I am a pulpit- 
drummer and a cushion-thumper." Sometimes he 
made poetry which was cute, pertinent, and laugha- 
ble. Riding by Joseph Tanner's tavern, lie was urg- 
ed by some loungers to stop. "No, no," said he. 


'* Well, then," said they, "make iis a \^ei\4e." Said 
he, "Tliere is a verse ah-eady made/' " Then, let us 
have it." " Well, listen, 1st Psalm, 1st verse, ' Blest 
is the man who shuns the place where sinners love to 
meet/ " A clergyman called on him and asked if he 
(H>uld do any good by preaching the gospel to his 
people. " You could do more good at something 
else," said Kude. "In what way?" said the preacher. 
" By coming and practicing it. I can preach some 
gospel myself, but I make stumbling work in practic- 
ing it." 

Samuel Meredith. We have received a full and 
interesting history of the Meredith family, from 1547, 
showing their extraction from the nobility of England 
and Ireland, whicth the want of space compels us to 
abridge. Reese Meredith, the father of Samuel Mer- 
edith, was born in Herefordshire, England. He grad- 
uated at Baliol College, Oxford, in 1728, and emi- 
grated to Philadelphia in 1730, and entered the count- 
ing-house of John Carpenter, a prominent merchant, 
married Martha, the youngest daughter of his employ- 
er, and was taken in as a partner, and succeeded his 
father-in-law in l)usiness. In 1766, Reese Meredith 
took in partnerhip his son, Samuel, and his son-in-law, 
George Clymer. He was one of the three hundred 
and fifty merchants and citizens of Philadelphia, who, 
in October, 1765, signed the celebrated Non-Importa- 
tion Resolutions. His son and son-in-law were also 
signers. During the darkest hours of the Revolution, 
his faith never wavered in the righteous (tause of the 


colonies. When the patriots were starving at Yalley: 
Forge, Reese Meredith gave $25,000, in silver, to bnji 
food and clothing for the suiferers. He devoted his 
time to business, and it is not known that he ever 
held any public office. He died November 17, 1778, 
aged seventy-one years, leaving three children, as fol- 
lows: Anne, wife of Henry Hill; Samuel, (the subject 
of this sketch); and Elizabeth, wife of George Cly- 
mer, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. 
Samuel Meredith was born in Philadelphia, in 1741, 
and was educated at the academy, at Chester. His 
fellow-student was Philemon Dickinson, afterwards 
his brothe]*-in-law^, as they married sisters. He mar- 
ried, in 1771, Margaret, youngest daughter of Dr. 
Thomas Cadwalder, of Philadelphia. Samuel Mere- 
dith several times represented Philadelphia county in 
the Colonial Assembly. In June, 1775, he was com- 
missioned mayor of the 3rd battalion of Pennsylvania 
militia, and was in the battles of Trenton and Prince- 
ton. Upon the occupation of Philadelphia, by the 
British, in 1777, he, wdth his family, w^as exiled. In 
October of that year, he received the commission of 
brigadier-general of Pennsylvania militia. In June, 
1780, Gen. Meredith and George Cl^^mer each pledg- 
ed his property and credit that each would pay to 
procure provisions for the army of the United States 
the sum of $25,000. From 1783 to 1786 Gen. Mere- 
dith was in the State Legislature, and from 1786 to: 
1788 in the Continental Congress, upon the organ- 
ization of the ^'overnment under tlie Constitution of 


the United States, adopted the 17th day of Septem- 
l)er, 1787. President George Washington, on tlie 
11th of Septenil)er, 1789, nominated Samuel Mere- 
dith as treasurer of the United States, which nomina- 
tion was readily eoniirmed by the Senate. He held 
the offi(?e through the administration of George Wash- 
ington and John Adams, for twelve years, when he 
resigned. Upon his accession to the office he was 
warmly congratulated by Alexander Hamilton, sec- 
retary of the Treasury, and, upon his retirement, 
Thomas Jefferson complimented him for his integrity 
and ability. In or about 1774, Meredith and Clymer 
purchased a large amount of wild lands in Western 
Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, in Delaware and Sulli- 
van counties, N, Y., and in all the north-eastern coun- 
ties of Pennsylvania, aggregating about 1,868,000 
acres, worth about ten cents per acre. The payment 
of the taxes on said lands drew heavily on their re- 
sources. Owning a large amount of land in Wayne 
and Susquehanna counties, Mr. Meredith, about 1796, 
commenced making improvements at a place in tlu^ 
township of Mount Pleasant, which place he after- 
wards named Belmont. In 1802, he was assessed as 
having sixty acres of improved land and a dwelling 
liouse valued at twenty dollars, but as a non-resident. 
Soon after this he removed to Belmont and built a 
dwelling-house wliich cost six thousand dollars. To 
this place he retired from the turmoil of public life, 
and spent the evening of his days in quietude and se- 
clusion, and there died, February 10, 1817, in the 


seventy-sixth year of his age. He had seven children. 
Noted among them were: first, Martha, mother of the 
late John M. Read, chief -justice of Pennsylvania ; 
second, Anna, mother of Philemon Dickinson, Esq., 
(who was for forty-live years president of the Trenton 
Banking Co.), and also of the late Col. Samuel 
Dickinson ; third, Tliomas ; fourth, Maria, who died 
in 1854. Thomas Meredith was born in Philadelphia, 
in 1779, and educated in the University of Pennsylva- 
nia, upon leaving which, lie made a voyage to India 
and China. He was admitted to the Philadelphia 
bar in 1805, to the Wayne county bar in 1810, and to 
the Luzerne county bar in 1816. He was prothono- 
tary and registei* and recorder of Wayne county, from 
1818 to 1821, and held other important positions. In 
1824, he opened the first coal mines below Carbon- 
dale, to which place he removed his family, about 
1830. He died at Trenton, N. J., in March, 1855, 
leaving one son, Samuel Reese Meredith, who was 
born in Wayne county in 1823. In or about the year 
1855, the latter was active in the formation of a com- 
pany called the Lackawanna Coal & Iron Co. The 
enterprise failed and he lost all his property, and bro- 
ken down and disheartened, he died in the Pennsvlva- 
nia Hospital, at Philadelphia, in the year 1865. 

Samuel Meredith, the first treasurer of the United 
States, was buried at Belmont, in Mount Pleasant, 
and it has been, if it is not yet, a matter of doubt ;is 
to the exact place of his interment. 

" So peaceful rests, without a stone, a uame 
That once had honor, titles, wealth, and fame." 



h is strange that his wealthy children neglected 
to erect a monument to the memory of their patriotic 
father. AVould it not become the United States to 
appropriate a few thousand dollars to perpetuate the 
memory of a man who, in our early days, gave 
$25,000 to feed and clothe our suffering soldiers, and 
whose father gave a like sum for a like purpose i 
Republics are accused of being ungrateful, and the 
neglect or refusal of Congress to make such an appro- 
priation is strong confirmation of the justice of the 

It would be unpardonable to neglect mentioning 
Mrs. Sarah Benjamin, who was born in Goshen, 
Orange county, N. Y., Nov. 17, 1745, and who died 
at Pleasant Mount, in 1859, aged over one hundred 
and thirteen years. Her maiden name was Sarah 
Matthews, and she was married three times. Her 
first husband was a soldier in the early struggles of the 
E-evolutionary war and died of a wound received in 
that war. Her second husband,. Aaron Osborne, of 
Goshen, N. Y., was in the same war and came out aliv^e. 
She went with him to the war, and once when he was 
failing with fatigue, she took an overcoat and gun and 
in the night stood sentinel for him. Washington, seeing 
something peculiar about her, asked, "Who put you 
here?" She answered, "They, sir, that had a right 
to." He undei*stood the situation and passed on. 
She was at tlie 1>attle of Yorktown, passing to and 
fro like an angel of mercy, attending to and relie^dng 
the wounded soldiers. Washington, seeing and ad- 


miring her courage and exposure, asked, " Young 
woman, are you not afraid of the bullets?" She jo- 
cosely replied, "The bullets will never cheat the gal- 
lows." At ^vhat time her second husband died I fail- 
ed to note down. She had five children, and outlived 
them all. Her third husband, John Benjamin, moved 
with her into Mount Pleasant, in 1822, and died in 
1826. She was well pensioned by the government, 
but for all that she was very industrious, carding, 
spinning, and making the linest of triple-threaded 
yarn, and knitting it into hose. A specimen of her 
work, done when she was one hundred years old, was 
on exhibition at the Crystal Palace in London. I saw 
her at the house of Jonathan Miller, Esq., at Pleasant 
Mount, when she was one hundred and ten years of 
age. I was surprised at her cheerfulness and vivacity. 
She said she had heard that Esquire Bushnell had some 
very fine merino wool and that she wished she could 
get some of it, for she wanted to make herself up 
some clothing before she should be too old to work. 
Beside what I liave written above she related many 
other interesting events of her life. Ko])le woman I 
It is a pleasure to remember her. 

If we step forward twenty-one years to 1822, we 
find that the taxables have increased to two hundred 
and seventeen, and see the names of many men who 
settled between 1801 and 1822. Time and space will 
permit us to name briefly only a few of them. Eldad 
Atwater, a merchant, and father of E. M. At water, of 
Mount Pleasant, and Heaton Atwater, innkeeper, lo- 


cated where Godfrey Stevenson, Esq., now lives, and 
(tarried on business there several years. 

James Bigelow was the father of John and Howe 
Bigelow. His daughters were noted women. Esquire 
Yale married one, Jonathan Miller, Esq., one. Deacon 
Tiffany one, and Clayton Eogers, wlio removed to the 
West, another. 

Buckley Beardslee's name appears in the assessment 
for Mount Pleasant for the year 1818, and is therein 
assessed as owning a house and farm. He afterward 
removed to Indian Orchard and bought the farm of 
AY alter Kimble. 

Jedekiah Bonham, the father of John Bonham, 
located in the township, in 1810, below White's Hol- 
low. His son, John Bonham, married Sarah, a daugh- 
ter of Harris Hamlin, of Salem. He has been dead 
many years, but she is yet living, aged ninety years, 
with her son, Hamlin Bonham. She has several children 
living. Mrs. Sarah Bonham tausiht a school in Salem 
in 1804, when she was only fourteen years of age. 
That was seventy-six years ago. Although she is very 
deaf, her memory and intellectual powers are unim- 
paired . 

William Stark and Luther, called Major Stark, Avere 
orothers from Vermont. David and Hiram were sons 
of Luther. He had a number of daugl iters; Munson 
Sherwood married Carissa; Colin Hayden, Terrissa; 
Horace White, Lorinda; Charles Stearns, Julia Ann; 
and William Adams also married one of the dauo-hters. 


Silas Freeman. Tlie following are the names of 


his children; Col. Calvely Freeman was a noted sur- 
veyor. In 1850 he represented the county in the State 
Legislature. He was the father of E. B. Freeman, of 
Honesdale. Sally, wife of Alvah W. Norton, Esq.; 
Silas, Jr., and Sidney, both deceased; Polina, wife of 
Warren W. Norton; Pamelia, wife of Franklin 
Wheeler; Fanny, wife of Earl Wheeler, Esq.; Rodney 
Freeman, who moved to Connecticut, and Margaret, 
wife of John B. Taylor. 

Ezra Bartholomew and Wooster Bartholomew 
came into the county together. Ralzamon Bartholo- 
mew was the only son of Ezra. His oldest daughter 
was the wife of Baxter Bic^knell; after the death of 
Bicknell she married James Bolkcom, of Lebanon 
township. After the death of Ezra Bartholomew his 
widow^ was married to Elder Chase, a Baptist preacher. 
The above mentioned three families came into the 
township in or about 1810 from Connecticut. 

Dr. Urial Wright settled in the town 'in ] 814. He 
came from Berkshire county, Massachusetts. His an- 
<*estors were people of note. Asa Wright, his grand- 
father, was an architect and planned and superintended 
the building of Dartmouth College, where his father. 
Dr. Asahel Wright, (the father of Urial Wright,) was 
afterwards educated, and who w^as appointed physician 
and surgeon in the Navy during the Revolutii^marj^ 
war. He had seven sons, all but one of whom became 
professional men. The oldest, Asahel, was a lawyer; 
Worthington, a Presl)yterian minister, who also studied 
medicine and practiced for a time. Dr. Erastus Wright 


settled in Salem and practiced there during his life. 
So that at one time there were the father and six sons 
all in the practice of medicine. There was not a fail- 
ure among them. Dr. TJrial Wright practiced through 
a wide extent of territory for fifty-two years, and died 
in September, 1866, aged seventy-six years. 

Dr. Rodney Harmes, as a physician and surgeon, 
located in the village of Pleasant Mount, in 1837. 
He was from Sullivan county, N. Y. He is the oldest 
practicing physician in the county, and is yet at his 
post. His reading has been extensive upon all sub- 
jects and his practice successful. He is not in danger 
of being outrivaled, except by his own sons. 

The first resident physician was Dr. Asa Parks, wlio, 
after practicing four years, removed to Montrose. The 
next was Dr. John P. Kennedy, who came in 1811 
and removed in 1815. Dr. Jonathan French came in 
with Dr. IJrial Wright. He stepped outside of his 
profession and engaged in lumbering, which he found 
unprofitable. After three years he returned to Mas- 
sachusetts. After 1834 Dr. Edwin Eldridge practiced 
a little for two years, and Dr. Frederick Tracy, after 
1851, about the same time. All the above physicians, 
excepting Wright and Harmes, lacked the gift of con- 
tinuance in well doing. 

The White family. Ezekiel White, from Massa- 
chusetts, a lineal descendant of Peregrine White, who 
was the first white child born at Plymouth Rock Col- 
lony, came to Mount Pleasant by the way of Cocliec- 
ton, in 1819, with his son, Ephraim Y. White, who at 


that time was sixteen years old. Ezekiel White had 
six sons, Molby White, Ephraim Y. White, Leonard 
White, Gerrison White, Philip White, E. Bates White, 
and six daughters. Ezekiel White made the first axes 
in Pleasant Mount. Then he worked in White's PIol- 
low. Ephraim Y. White married Elizabeth Mason, 
of Mount Pleasant. He moved to Dundaff and manu- 
factured axes and edge-tools there. Then he w^ent to 
Seelyville where Burke cfe Story were then running 
a shovel factory, and there for awhile he made axes 
and edge-tools. After this he erected a good house 
and built a substantial shop above No. 2, on the Dela- 
ware and Hudson railroad. The machinery was 
run by water, but the Delaware and Hudson canal 
needing the water, he removed to or near Tracyville 
and there built a large factory which was run by wa- 
ter-power, and there a large amount of business was 
done in the manufacture of axes, scythes, and edge- 
tools. The whole family of Whites were noted foi* 
their skill in the w^orking of iron and steel. Their 
axes and scythes were generally used in the county 
and were sought for abroad. Since the death of E. 
Y. White, in 1866, the factory at Tracyville has been 
under the direction of his son, Gilbert White, who 
sends to market fifty dozen of axes per week. There 
is a branch of the White family in the Lackaw^anna 
Yalley, wlio manufacture axes of a very superior 

David Hoi'ton began at the place now occupied by 
J. W. How^ell, and there kept public house during his 


life-time, mid liis widow, Cornelia Horton, continued 
the business many years. 

John and David Howell were both rated as farm- 
ers. Thomas Lillibridge married a daughter of Sam- 
uel Stanton. She was the first white child born in 
Mount Pleasant. He was an active lumberman and 
farmer, but finally removed to the West. Dr. Lilli- 
bridge was his son. 

x\ndrew Lester, of Revolutionary stock, and his 
^\dfe were both from Conn. He settled in the town 
in his youth. He died in September, 1869, aged 
ninety-two years, and his wife died soon after, n^Qi\ 
ninety years. They were the parents of Orrin Lester, 

David M. Mapes was assessed as a merchant; his 
occupation was valued at fiYe hundred dollars. He 
was the progenitor of the whole Mapes family in the 

Ebenezer and Thomas Slayton w ere assessed as own- 
ing the farm of O. Kelly, on the west branch, where 
Thomas used to keep a licensed tavern. 

Alpheus W. Stephens and Sylvanus Gates lived 
near Ezra Spencer^s, and w^ere the progenitors of the 
Grates family in that region. 

John Fletcher lived Avest of B. M. AVih-ox and was 
killed by the kick of a horse, LLis son, Philander 
Fletcher, has one of the most profitable orchards in 
the town. William and Benjamin Fletcher, farmei's, 
were twins, and brothers of John Fletcher. 

We find David Saunders assessed with a good prop- 


erty, and also Sliepard Saunders, but from whence 
they came and the exact time of their settlement we 
cannot ascertain. We lind there are many in the 
county by the name. 

John Sherwood was assessed with two hundred 
acres of land with improvements in 1818. lie w^as 
the father of John B. Sherwood. 

Solomon Sherwood was assessed in 1822 with one 
hundred and twenty-five acres and improvements. 
Years afterwards we meet with the names of John F, 
Sherwood, Nathan J. Sherwood, Munson Sherwood, 
and Amos O. Sherwood as prominent men in business 
and property. 

Benjamin Wheeler settled on that pleasant farm 
now owned by W. P. Kennedy. He w^as the father 
of Hiram J. Wheeler, of Clinton, and of Ambrose 
Wheeler, of Honesdale. He was a soldier of the 

Truman Wheeler was oi another family. He set- 
tled on the north and south road below Belmont. He 
was a man of education and for many years a justice 
of the peace. He removed to the West. 

Aaron G. Perliam was assessed in 1818 with one 
liundred and sixty acres of land, with buildings and 
appurtenances, situated south-east of the Bigelow 
lake. This is supposed to be the farm now owned by 
S. G. Peril am. 

The persons above named, whose places of nativity 
are not mentioned, were natives of the Eastern States. 
Joseph Monroe, a native of Connecticut, about 1820 



settled near where the Johnson's creek crosses the 
Stockport road. In 1822, lie was assessed as having- 
tifty-tive acres of hind. He was the fatlier of N. A. 
Monroe, and was an excellent mason. 

Patrick Connor, Panl Mc Avoy, Wilhani McAvoy, 
and John Fhinagan were the first Irishmen we lind 
assessed in the township. Before 1840 Philip Brady 
and Patrick McDermot settled near the Kock pond. 
Others settled on the road extending from Paul 
O'NeilFs to the Stockport road. The settlement was 
called Bangall, so named by Joseph Bass, of Lebanon, 
w^io, admiring the rnpid progress of the settlers, ex- 
(^laimed, "They bang all!" whence it took the name 
of Bangall. In a few years the sturdy yeomanry 
felled the forest and cleared up good farms, making 
the country to bud and blossom like the rose, and in a 
few years built the St. Juliana Roman Catholic 
(^hun^li, now in chai'ge of Rev. John J. Judge, as pas- 
tor. At South Pleasant Mountain is the St. Cecdlia 
Roman Catholic? church, attended once a month from 
Rock Lake. The post-olMce in Bangall is called Rock 
Lake post-officie. I^aul O'Neill, at an early day, settled 
on the old Jolm S. Rogers farm, at what exact time 
w^e cannot say, but he w^as there according to our re- 
meml)rance forty years ago. He was a good, genial, 
kind man. No one ever went hungry from his door. 
The O'Neills in the township, who are all prosperous 
farmers, are too numerous to be named. 

About 1840, the McGiverns settled on the west 
side of tlie Dyberi-y, bchnv Paul O^Neill's, and n(>w 


have good farms. About 1852, a settltMnent was be- 
gun bj the Fives, Haggertys, and others, west of the 
Dyberry, in the south-east corner of the township. 

The vilhige of Pleasant Mt. has all tlie conveniences 
of a village, with a numl)er of stores, shops, a black- 
smith-shop, two taverns, a Presbyterian, a Methodist, 
and an Episcopal church. 

The Pleasant Mount Academy within a few years 
past has acquired a high celebrity and is deserving of 
a liberal share of public patronage. 

Whites Yalley has a M. E. church, store, post-office, 
several shops, a saw-mill, and a good school building. 
Joseph L. Terrell, deceased, lived many years in this 
place as a merchant and a man of business. There 
are many agreeable associations connected with the 
past history of this village. 

Mount Pleasant produces good crops of corn, rye, 
oats, buckwheat, and potatoes; but the soil is best 
adapted for grazing, and for the production of apples, 
pears, and cherries. More attention is paid to dairy- 
ing than to any other branch of farming. 

Until about 1835, the most of the people were of 
New England origin, since wdiich time large acces- 
sions have been made by Irish settlers, wdio now com- 
pose nearly if not one-third of the population. There 
are a few Germans along the Clinton line, near which 
they have a German Lutheran church. 

Forty or fifty years ago, the Pages, Abbots, Fitzes, 
and other English emigrants settled at different times 
and in different places, and by tact and industry be- 


came the owners of good farms, among whom is Sam- 
uel Brooking, who has demonstrated that farming 
can be made highly remunerative in Mount Pleasant. 
The township has sixteen common scliools, including 
one independent district, and four hundred and nine- 
ty-one taxables. 

They only who felt and saw the suiferings and pri- 
vations of the first settlers, could justly descril)e their 
trials. They could not live without shelter, food, and 
raiment; to procure these required all their care and 
industry, and, after they had done their best, their 
sufferings were appalling. The howling wolf stood 
i>utside their folds ready to devour their flocks, while 
the gaunt wolf of want entered their huts and stared 
them in their faces, but they wavered not. They over- 
came almost insurmountable obstacles and forced na- 
ture to yield them a subsistence, for they were no ordi- 
nary men. There were no pigmies among them. The 
taper lingers of modern effeminacy could not per- 
form the wonders which they wrought. After the 
storm was passed they smiled and forgot its ravages. 
Hence Samuel Stanton Avrote some poetry, and, in 
1796, sent it to Judge Preston ; from its tone one 
might be led to suppose that there had never been 
mucli want in Stanton's neighborhood, but perhaps he 
claimed some poetic license. It is evident that he was 
not studying English grammar at the time. The caption 
of his poetry was ''The Golden Age of Mount Pleas- 
ant, from 1791 to 1796, while eighty-two miles from 
Easton, the seat of justice." 


[There was no law put in force but the law of forbearance. Having no 
law, the people were a law unto themselves.] 

Secluded here from noise and strife, 

We lead a quiet, peaceful life. 
No loungers here with poisonous breath, 

No doctors here to deal out death. 

No trainings here, nor such like trash. 
To waste our time and spend our cash ; 

Nor town-meetings to choose our masters, 
To make us slaves and breed disasters. 

No priest sends round his man for pay. 
Because that he did preach and pray ; 

For we believe that grace is free 
To all who wish to taste and see. 

No jockey merchants here prevail, 

To trust their goods, then send to jail ; 

Nor fiddling, strolling players dare 
Infest the place, our youth to snare. 

8ome slaves, to forms may now inquire, 
Have you no court-house, jail, or squire? 

While all are honest and sincere, 
What need of court or prison here ? 

Have we a cause to settle? then 

We leave it to judicious men 
To search the matter well, and we 

To their just judgments do agree. 

The noise of war, or the excise, 

Does neither vex our ears nor eyes ; 

For we are free from every tax. 

And stay at home and swing the ax . 

Our com we pound, our wheat we boil. 

Thus eat the product of our soil. 
Sweet Independence here does reign, 

And we've no reason to complain. 


Yet we, like others, still look on 

Till we shall get our mill to run ; 
Then we'll not jjound and boil again, 

But live in style like other men. 

From sheep we make our clothing warm, 
In which we face the wintry storm ; 

They likewise give us meat and light. 
To feast by day and see by night. 

Do we want wild meat, then we kill 
Elk, deer, or bear, and eat our fill. 

Sometimes we've fowl and sometimes fish, 
But rarely meet an empty dish. 

Here healing herbs and roots do grow. 
And sugar-jiiice from maples flow. 

Molasses, vinegar, and beer. 
Are made from sugar- orchards here. 

Sometimes we live on pork and peas, • 
Then milk and honey, butter, cheese; 

Plain food and exercise agree 

To make us happy while we're free. 

Saimiel Stanton, near the close of his life, removed 
from Mount Pleasant to reside in the western part of 
this State. He had l)een appointed a commissioner to 
construct a State road in that region. He left his 
family on the west l)ranch and went on business to 
Harrisburg. On his return lie came to Belief on te in 
Centre county and stopped with his friend, Judge 
Burnside, where he was taken sick and died, April 15th, 
1816. He assisted in organizing the first Baptist 
Church in Mount Pleasant. He is represented as hav- 
ing been a most worthy man. 



rpniS was one of the original townships, and once in- 
1 eluded Manchester, Scott, and part of Preston. In 
its present contracted limits it is bounded eastward by 
the Delaware river, south by Manchester, west l)y 
Mount Pleasant, Preston, and Scott, and terminating 
in its northern extremity upon Shrawder's creek. High 
ridges of hills, except where they are broken by the 
passage of streams, rise above the river alluvions. 
Westward of the hills are some good, arable lands, 
including Kingsbury Hill, Jericho, Brownsville, Wal- 
lersville, tlie southern part of tlie township, and the 
vicinity eastward and northward of the village of 
Como. Fork Mountain pond. Lizard lake. High lake, 
Preston lake, and Nabby's lake are tlie chief bodies 
of water. The main streams running into the Dela- 
ware are the Shehawken,* Big Equimmk, and Tock 
Pollock. The river flats were taken up and settled at 
an early day. It was many years before any clearings 

*This is the orthography used in okl records. In one in- 
stance it is spelled " Sliehocking. " But the word is now some- 
times spelled "Chohocking," which is neither Indian nor Eng- 



woi'o iiifule or any house built upon the uphmds. From 
an assessment made by Bhickall W. Ball, in 1806, it 
appears that there were in the township twenty-live 
houses, assessed to twenty-one persons, valued at 
5^6,229 ; N'aluation of personal property and seated 
lands in 180B, $11,454; valuation of same in 1878, 
$280,273; number of neat eattle in 1806, sixty; valu- 
ation of same, $635.00; number in 1878, one hundred 
and twenty-seven ; valuation of the same, $3,360. 

Copy of part of said assessment of 1806, showini*: 
the names of persons owning houses, mills, neat cat- 
tle, etc.: 

2- S 














in ; 


mackallW. Ball... 8 

John Bavriger 5 ...I 

Simon Peter Cole. . 2! ... 

Nathan Cole 5| ... 

Joseph Cole ' 2 255 ' 

Peter Cole 5 249, 

Abraham Dillon..., 12 328, 
Geo. W, Hubhell...! 4 ...; 

Adam Kniver j 40 560 

eTohn Knight • ...' 

Nathan Mitchell.. i ...| 
Thaddeus Newton, i 20 

Paul Newton j 5| ...j 

Benjamin Owen...! 30| ... 
Samuel Preston... 130 711 
Sylvester Roylston . . . i ... 
Benjamin Sands... 20 ...! 

Thomas Travis 20 470 

Benjamin Thomas 4 256 

Oliver Tyler ' ..., 445 j 

William White....' 4' ... 

Eleazer Ogden | ... ...| 

Ezra Newton i .,.! ...1 




2 '$ 



1 ! 
1 I 
1 i 

1 i 
1 i 

1 i 
1 i 

1 ! 
1 i 

1 I 

1 I 
4 ! 



! 2, 

s I > 

1 % 20 


$ 10 

1 < 80 
. . 75 

3 I '366 































The first man who commenced on the Delaware river 
in Buckingham, was Samuel Preston, Sen., a Quaker, 
born in Bucks county, Pennsylvania. He began to 
make an improvement as early as 1789. He had been 
all through Luzerne county and the northern part of 
Wayne county examining the country for the selection 
of a proper site for starting a village, under the patron- 
age of Henry Drinker, a wealthy Quaker of Phila- 
delphia, and a large land-holder. A place was selected 
upon tlie Susquehanna river, now in Susquehanna 
county. Pa., and called Harmony, which location suit- 
ed Drinker, but Preston preferred Stockport. He, 
however, assisted in laying out and building up Har- 
mony, from wdience men went to help Preston on wdtji 
his improvements, and a road was cut out from Stock- 
port to Harmony. Mr. Preston named his chosen 
location Stockport, and the township Buckingham — 
names well known in England from whence the Pres- 
ton family came in the days of William Penn. His 
correspondence was very extensive, the most of which 
he preserved. He was a man of genius and a good 
mathematician. He built the first mills in Bucking- 
ham, and in 1806 had cleared up one hundred and 
thirty acres of land. He greatly promoted the settle- 
ment of the town, every one being welcome. He made 
frequent journeys to Bucks county. He brought his 
iron and merchandise up the Delaware river in Dui-- 
ham boats, which were pushed up the river by setting- 
poles, except in ascending Foul Rift and other swift 
waters, w^here tlie boats were drawn upward by long 



ropes extending to the shore. In 1793, he was mar- 
ried in Bucks county to Mercy Jenkins, a Quakeress. 
Within a year he moved his wife to Stockport. He 
had many peculiarities, l)ut they were harmless.* For 
one lialf of the men that he knew he had nicknames, 
and many of them were laughal)ly appropriate. He 
was appointed the lirst associate judge of the county, 
and at December sessions, 1798, charged the first grand 
jury impaneled in the county. At a good old age he 
died peacefully at his residence at Stockport. 

Samuel Preston, Sen., left three sons and one daugh- 
ter. Paul S. Preston, the oldest of the sons, married 
Maria, a daughter of Samuel H. Mogridge, who came 
from England and settled in Mtmchester township. 
She was a cousin of the celebrated Matthias Mogridge, 
Esq., and, although older than her luisband, outlived 
liim several years. She was a remarkable woman, in- 
dustrious, frugal, hospitable, and never forgetful of 
the poor and needy. She brought up fifteen orplian 
children. Surely her memory is blessed. Having his 

*Once the Judge asked a man to dine with him who said he. 
was not at all hungry. Soon after the man said, "I guess I 
will take some dinner," and drew up to the table. The Judge 
reached over and took away the man's plate, knife, and fork. 
Supposing it to be a joke, the man asked Mrs. Preston for a 
new set. "Thee need not let him have any," said the Judge. 
Then addressing the man, he said, "Thee cannot now eat at 
my table. Thee said thee was not hungry. If thee is not hmi- 
gry, thee ought not to eat ; and if thee is hungry, then thee 
hast told a lie, and I tlo not wish to eat with a liar." The 
man left. 


father's assistance, Paul early acquired a good educa- 
tion, and in 1828 was elected sheriff of the county, 
and in 1835 was appointed, bv Gov. Ritner, clerk of 
tlie several courts of Wayne county, and register 
and recorder. He had a good library, was Avell ac- 
(juainted with all the English classics, and fully under- 
stood the history and Constitution of his own country. 
Having Quaker proclivities, he was conscientiously 
opposed to slavery. He was honest in all things and 
he never attempted to make the worse appear the l)et- 
ter reason. His professions were his convictions. As 
he advanced in life he was often heard to say that he 
had received his three sufficient warnings and that he 
hoped that his exit would be sudden. His prayer was 
Nouchsafed him. He died suddenly at Stockport sta- 
tion, in September, 1873, aged about seventy-seven 
years. " After life's fitful fever he sleeps well." 

Samuel Preston, Jr., Avas an excellent farmer, and 
while he was able to work, superintended the whole 
business upon the farm. He was an unwavering 
abolitionist. His hatred of slavery was intense. He 
was ever ready to contribute of liis means to aid the 
fugitive slave. His opposition to slaAcry arose from 
his hatred of all wrong, and lie could not bear to see 
pain unnecessarily inflicted upon any of God's crea- 
tures. '' Blessed are the merciful for they shall ohtain 
mercy." Samuel died at Stockport about three years 
before Paul. 

Warner M. Preston was a lumberman and spent 
much of his time in Philadelphia in selling the lumber 


that was yearly run from Stockport. He was a niatlie- 
matician and surveyor; quiet and unobtrusive, with a 
well-balanced mind. His views were never extreme 
upon any subject. He died in Philadelphia in 1872. 

Hannah, the only daughter of Judge Preston, mar- 
ried Benjamin Randall, an Englishman. She is yet 
living in the township and is the mother of Benjamin 
Randall, Jr., and Peter Randall, who are well-known 
lumbermen. J. A. Pitcher married a daughter of 
Mrs. Randall. Mrs. Pitclier was a great favorite with 
the Preston family. 

Mr. and Mrs. Preston bequeathed and devised their 
property to Ann, their only living daughter. They 
had one other daughter who married Allan Hoxie. 
She died many years ago. 

Stockport is almost a village of itself. Two dwell- 
ing-houses, with numerous barns and sheds, one store, 
a blacksmith sliop, a grist-mill, a steam circular saw- 
mill, and a school-house whicli was built by the Pres- 
tons, with about two hundred acres of improved land, 
make up the place. 

Knowing as I do the moral, social, and intellectual 
excellencies of the Preston family, and making all due 
allowance for the frailties of human nature, truth 
compels me to say, that I never shall look upon their 
like again. 

Before the building of the New York and Erie 
Railroad, long, capacious, and graceful canoes were 
numerous along the Delaware river, nearly all of 
which have disappeared. Warner P. Knight, of 


Stockport, 1ms one, which would have been admired 
in former times. Such is its capacity that he has con- 
veyed the burthen of a ton in it from Equinunk to 

The Knight family. In or about 1789, Capt. John 
Knight, then about eleven years old, came with Sam- 
uel Preston to the large flats on the east side of the 
river below Stockport, where Canope and another 
Indian lived. Being very hungry, they saw a cow 
that was eating a pumpkin, and they took it away from 
her, built up a fire, roasted and ate it. Capt. John 
Knight afterwards married Kebecca Jenkins, a sister 
of Judge Preston's wife. The sons of Captain John 
Knight were AVilliam, Daniel, John, and Richard. 
A¥illiam Knight, Sen., a brother of Captain John 
Knight, was born in Philadelphia, in 1775. In 1802 
he was appointed by Jefferson as sailing-master of the 
frigate Philadelphia, and was sent by Bainbridge to 
intercept a Tripolitan vessel. His vessel ran on a 
rock and he and the ship's crew of three hundred and 
eleven men were taken prisoners and kept about two 
years, when they were ransomed by the payment of 
$60,000 by the government. Pine lumber was cut at 
Stockport, ran down the river, and sold to the govern- 
ment wdiich shipped it to Tripoli and turned it in to 
pay a part of said ransom money. 

Abram Dillon, from Bucks county, began above 
Equinunk. John K. Dillon, deceased, William Dil- 
lon, deceased, and Hamilton Dillon, living in Han- 
cock township, Delaware county, Is . Y., were his sons. 


The old homestead is in the possession of tlie Dillon 

John Barrager was from near Albany, IS^. Y. One 
of his sons, Henry, Hves near Great Bend ; another, 
George, lives in the town, near the river; and John 
K. Barrager was killed in the late war. 

George W. Hnbbell, a Avheelwright, was the father 
of Hon. Thomas J. Hnbljell, who once represented 
the county in our Legislature. 

Jonathan Jones, once a commissioner of Wayne 
county, lived near the mouth of the Shehawken, where 
some of his family are now located. 

The names of Thaddeus Newton, Paul I^sewton, 
and Ezra [N^ewton are found among the oldest records 
of the township. Ezra ^N^ewton, Jr., now lives near 
the suspension bridge whicli spans the Delaware, near 

Benjamin Sands and Thomas Travis made import- 
anl: improvements at an early day. 

Blackall W. Ball lived below the mouth of Shraw- 
der's creek, and BalFs Eddy was named after him. 
From what we can learn al)out him he Avas a Quaker, 
from near Philadelphia. The fai'm Avas owned many 
years by James More, Esq. Previous to his purchase 
at Ball's Eddy, Mr. More lived in Preston township. 

Gideon, James, and Thomas Woodman see located 
on the road called the *' Stockport road," eastward of 
the Upper Twin pond; they having come from Connec- 
ticut. They were there in 1819, perliaps earlier. 
Gideon Woodmansee was the o-randfather of J. Man- 


uiiig, Jedediah, Samuel, Lvinan, and Horace Wood- 
mansee. Lyman Woodmansee was a carpenter ; the 
rest were farmers and lumbermen. 

Brownsville took its name from a man by the name 
of Brown, wlio built a tannery upon the outlet of 
High lake, which tannery is now owned by Mr. E-. 
H. Wales. There is a post-office at the place, and a 
large store. 

The first settler above BalFs Eddy was Peter Cole 
who died there and left his possessions to his son, 
John Cole, w^ho was known to every lumberman on 
the Delaware. 

Elias Kingsl)ury, from Connecticut, was the first 
settler at Kino^sburv Hill. He married Rachel, a 
daughter of Thomas Travis. He has two children 
yet living at the pi nee, namely, Thomas Kingsbury, 
and Rachel, wife of William Coddington. 

Abel Belknap, from Stillwater, N. Y., had a large 
family who settled in different parts of the county. 
George H. Belknap, and D. B. Belknap, Esq., are 
prominent citizens of the place. The latter was from 
Fnadilla, N. Y., and was of another family. 

Equinunk will be described under Manchester, be- 
ing mostly in that township. Buckingham has ten 
common schools. 



rpiIIS township is bounded north-west by Buekini;'- 
A ham, north-east and east by the Delaware river, 
and south by Damascus and Lebanon, and was taken 
from Buckingham and erected into a township, Aug. 
30th, 1826. For many years before its erection it 
was known as " The Union Settlement." It took that 
name from the following circumstances: Samuel 
Preston and John Hilborn, in tlie spring of 1790, 
made a quantity of maple-sugar and sent it to Henry 
Drinker. Tlie kettle in wliich tlie su2,ar was made 
was taken from Trenton to Stockport in a Durham 
boat. Miss Ann Preston says that the kettle is yet at 
Stockport. Mr. Drinker, in a letter to Mr. Preston, 
dated Philadelpliia, 1st, 7mo., 1790, wrote about tlie 
sugar as follows : " I sent a box of thy sugar to Rob- 
ert Morris, desiring it miglit be presented to the 
President of the United States, who was pleased to 
signify his satisfaction at the receipt thereof, in a let- 
ter directed to me, of which the following is a copy : 

*New York, June 18, 1790. 
Sir : — Mr. Morris lias presented me, in your name, with a 
box of maple- sugar, which I am much pleased to find of so 
good a quality. I request you to accept my thanks for this 


mark of attention ; and being persuaded that considerable ben- 
efit may be derived to our country, from a due prosecution 
of this promising object of industry, I wish every success to its 
cultivation, which the persons concerned in it can themselves 
desire. I am, Sir, your most obedient servant, 

George Washington.' 

So thee sees liow I am advanc^ed to a correspond- 
ence with the Kino; of America. Upon the whole, 
it is my opinion the subject deserves the countenance 
and encouragement, not only of one, but of all the 
great men of the United States. ") A good deal of 
time has been spent with J. Hilborn in forming di- 
rections for pursuing this business in the best way, 
and in describing the necessary utensils, &c. It has 
been concluded that to diffuse the same through the 
country where it may be useful, it would be best to 
print a small pamphlet, and in pursuance of this con- 
clusion, Joseph Jones and partner have committed 
part to tlie press." In those days the land-owners, 
having lands covei-ed with hard wood, imagined that 
upon burning the wood the ashes might be profitably 
made into potash. 

Stimulated by the ardor of Henry Drinker, who 
owned a large quantity of land in Manchester, a com- 
pany was formed in Philadelphia, 18th of September, 
1792, " To be called the Union Society, for promoting 
the manufacture of sugar from the maple-tree and fur- 
thering the interests of agriculture in Pennsylvania. 
The Society's attention to be primarily and principally 
confined to that purpose and to tlie manufacturing of 
pot and pearl ashes." The trustees were Henry Drink- 



er, Samuel Preston, Timothy Pickering, Samuel 
Ilodgdon, Samuel Pleasants, and Samuel M. Fox. 
The society l)ought of Henry Drinker eight tracts of 
land in the warrantee names of Thomas Stewardson, 
Benjamin Wilson, Mary Sandwith, Samuel Simpson, 
T. P. Cope, John Thomas, George Drinker, and John 
Drinker, making three thousand one hundred and 
thirty-three acres, called for convenience three thou- 
sand acres, divided into sixty shares at live pounds per 
share; total three hundred pounds, (probably Penn- 
sylvania currency, S2.66| to the pound.) One half 
was to be paid down. Thirty persons, mostly Quakers, 
took the shares. Besides the trustees there were other 
noted men among the sliare-holders, viz: Samuel 
Meredith, Thomas Stewardson, Dr. Benjamin Push, 
Judge James Wilson, Robert Smitli, John Nicholson, 
Pobert Morris, Jeremiah Warden, and others. The 
Society had a constitution and by-laws, dated August 
23d, 1792. In 1796 the property was inventoried. 
There were thirty-seven potash kettles. Some of them 
were brought up the Delaware in Durham boats, others 
of them vrere conveyed fifty miles overland from 
Esopus. They had two hundred pine and ash troughs, 
and one thousand made of bass-wood; they had cleared 
up tliirty-eight acres of land, built three houses and a 
saw-mill. The personal property was sold to Samuel 
Preston and Henry Drinker. From an exhibit made 
by Samuel Preston, the sli are-holders did not lose by 
the enterprise, but it probably did not prove as profi- 
table as tliey expected it w^ould. The business was 


discontinued in 1796. Afterwards Samuel Meredith 
undertook the manufacture of potash near Behnont 
and could not make it pay. An undertaking like 
that of the Union Society under like circumstances in 
the present day, on account of a better understanding 
of the business, could probably be made profitable. It 
is not probable that the motives of the Society were 
mercenary, but the land-holders were benefited by 
having their lands brought into notice. 

The main streams in the town are the Big Equinunk 
and its south branch, and Little Equinunk wdth its 
divers tributaries. Tlie main branch of this stream is 
the outlet of Duck Harbor lake. The chief ponds are 
Price's and Lord's. High steep hills crowd the Dela- 
ware. The south-western and south-eastern parts are 
thinly settled, while the central portion and the lands 
along the Little Equinunk are the most thickly peo- 
pled. There is yet much good land wliich lies in its 
primitive state, though it may have been stripped of 
its timber. 

According to the first triennial assessment made in 
1827, there were twenty-nine taxables with twenty-one 
houses valued at $410. Nathan Mitchell w^as assessed 
as living in this town in 1804 and called a mill-wright. 
James Lord, American born, though his father w^as an 
Englishman and his mother a Welsh woman, was as- 
sessed, in 1812, as owning four acres of plow^-land, 
and 439 acres of unimproved land, and one house, 
though it is claimed that he ])egan in 1810. He set;- 
tled on the farm now owned by the Taylors, one mile 


below Eqniimnk bridge, and, in or about 1836, sold 
out said lands and farm to William Weston, Esq., and 
removed and boviglit land about the pond Avhicli was 
named after him. "There are Lords many." James 
Lord was the progenitor of the Lords in Manchester, 
except the one called " Equinunk John," who lived at 
Lordville depot. 

The following names are found up(^n said assessment 
of 1827: Jonathan Adams, farmer; William Adams, 
single; James Carter, farmer; Isaac Cole, farmer; 
Emanuel Cole, farmer; Abraham Hoover, laborer; 
David Howell, mechanic ; Jolm Kellam, farmer; Jacob 
Kellam, farmer; George Kellam, single; Zepthah Kel- 
lam, single ; John Jenkins, farmer ; James Lord, farm- 
er; John Lord, Jr., farmer; Ricliard Lord, steersman; 
David Lay ton, farmer; Jacob Lord, single; Samuel K. 
Mogridge, farmer; Charles Mogridge, farmer; Mat- 
thias Mogridge, farmer; Anna Mitchell, widow; Sam- 
uel Price, blacksmith ; Jonathan Peirce, single ; Henry 
Peirce, single; Sabina Smeed, laborer; Thomas Todd, 
tailor; Nathaniel Tyler, farmer; Anson Tyler, single; 
Jacob W. Welsh, justice. 

John Kellam was taxed in 1818 as having eighteen 
acres of improved land and three hundred and fifty 
acres of unimproved, and in 1827 as having ninety 
acres of improved and three hundred and eighty acres 
of unimprov^ed land and one mill. Jacob Kellam, 
who was a farmer and lumberman extensively known, 
lived near the mouth of the Little Equinunk, and had 
sixty acres of improved and live hundred and sixty-nine 


acres of unimproved land. George Kellam, a mer- 
chant for many years at Pine Flats, had forty-six 
acres of improved and two hundred and ninety-four 
acres of unimproved land, and two houses assessed at 
one hundred dollars each. Jacob Kellam had a large 
number of sons of vigorous, powerful physiques, some 
of whom are yet residing in the neighborhood of Lit- 
tle Equinunk. Jacob W. Welsh was by trade in Lon- 
don a cabinet-maker, and came to this country about 
1813. He was taxed in 1827 as having seventy-five 
acres of improved and seventy-live acres of unimprov- 
ed land. He was an intelligent man and was for 
many years a justice of the peace. He had two sons, 
George and Henry. The latter is a practicing attor- 
ney in Hancock, N. Y. George is dead. William 
J., a son of Henry, is engaged in the practice of the 
law in partnei'ship with his father, and in 1877 repre- 
sented his district in the State Assembly. William 
Adams made said assessment; he w^as from Delaware 
Co., N. Y., and afterwards removed to Lebanon. 

Samuel K. Mogridge started for the United States 
in 1812, before the declaration of war by the United 
States against Great Britain, and the ship in which 
he and his family took passage was diverted from its 
intended destination and put into Quebec. It caused 
him much trouble, delay, and expense to make his 
way through the two armies to Manchester township, 
which was afterAvards named by him. But the noble 
old Englishman, inspired by that resolution which 
(characterized the early settlers of New England, never 


faltered, but settled in the very heart of Manchester, 
midst the dark and tangled forests, encircled at night by 
hooting owls and howling wolves. He was the nucleus 
around which many of his countrymen gathered, until it 
was called the Union English Settlement. The assess- 
ment aforesaid stated that he had thirty acres of improv- 
ed and seventy acres of unimproved land. Afterwards 
he acquired other lands. He was the father of Maria 
Mogridge, the wife of Paul S. Preston, that noble 
woman whose deeds of goodness and charity cannot 
be forgotten, and whose mantle, upon her departure, 
fell most gracefully upon Ann, hei* only surviving 
daughter. Matthias Mogridge was a nephew of Sam- 
uel R. Mogridge and, of course, was a cousin of Mrs. 
Paul S. Preston. To use the language of Mr. Mog- 
ridge, he says : " I was born in England, and sailed in 
a British frigate that fought Jackson at New Orleans 
under Packingham and Gibbs and took back to Eng- 
land what few the Yankees left alive. Then I went 
in the Nortliumberland, that conveyed Napoleon Bo- 
naparte to St. Helena. I was an officer's servant, or, in 
other words, a '' powder-monkey.''' I returned to Eng- 
land, was paid off, took my money, and shortly sailed 
to New York, in 1817. In 1820, I came to Wayne 
county, and have lived here ever since. After the 
organization of the township, I sat at the first election 
board, voted the first ticket, and had the first child 
born in the new township. I have now thirty-two 
grandchildren and nine great-grandchildren, and ex- 
pect more soon. One of my grandsons served three years 


in the late civil war. I am seventy-eight years old. 
When I first came into these woods I left my trunk 
and box of tools at Benjamin Conklin's tavern, on the 
Newburg turnpike, eight miles from uncle Samuel's 
house. I wanted uncle to let me take the oxen and 
sled and go for tliem. He said it was impossible as 
the road was full of trees turned up by the roots ; but 
at last I went. Some of the trees I cut out, some I 
drove over, some I went under, and some I drove 
around. It took me longer to make that trip than it 
would now to go to New York city and back." 

Mr. Mogridge had some peculiar gifts. He had a 
strong, sonorous, far-reaching voice. "If I had his 
voice," said the Hon. Geo. W. Woodward, " I could 
command or control any legislative body in the United 
States." Besides, he had an inexhaustible fund of 
wit, and in amplification was unrivaled. He could 
transform a minnow into a whale, enlarge an ant-hill 
into a mountain, and magnify a lightning-bug into jv 
thunder-storm. Mogridge, having been naturalized, 
was elected constable of the township, and afterwards 
elected justice of the peace, and, being in the central 
part of the township, was appointed postmaster. As 
the two offices cannot by law be held at once by the 
same person, some one, envious of his popularity, 
caused him to be indicted for holding two offices of 
profit and trust, one under the State and the other un- 
der the general government. Upon being asked 
whether he was guilty or not guilty, he assured the 
court that lie was wrongfully indicted for holding two 


offices of proiit and trust; he admitted that he held 
tlie two offic^es, l)iit declared tliat there was no proiit 
in either of them, and th*it they were purely ottices of 
trust, as lie trusted all his fees and all tlie postage. 
The judge was very much amused upon hearing Mat's 
plea, and in consequence of some flaw in the indictment, 
a nolle 2)>"ose(jui was entered. Mogridge went over to 
see the great exhibition at the Crystal Palace, at Lon- 
don. " Having been adopted as an American citizen," 
says he, " I passed myself off for a Yankee. I knew 
that I should not attract much attention as an Englisli- 
man, as they can see one there every day, and having 
hecomfe well acqnainted with Yankee slang, they gave 
me credit for heing a live American. I could out-talk 
the best of them. I told them that their island was a 
very neat, pretty place, and had been well looked af- 
ter, l)ut that it lacked size ; that their rivers were mere 
brooks, and their mountains small hills; that some of 
our rivers are so long that we never before strangers 
speak of their whole length at once; that onr moun- 
tains are so high that presumptuous persons in trying 
to reach their summits had either starved or frozen to 
death. That their cataracts (compared with our 
Niagara were only like a stream from the nozzle of a 
coffee-pot; that if some power (^ould steal away from 
our territories an area of land as large as all the British 
Isles, it would not be snd<lenly missed, but there would 
be a nuiss when the theft was found out. That you 
have produced great men in everything, we admit; we 
are proud of you as our relations, but when we swarm- 


ed and went to America, yon claimed our honey, we 
wonld not give it up, and yon stung and we stung 
back, until you concluded not to disturb our hives. If 
you could do such wonders on your little island, what 
could you expect that your sons could not do in the 
vast fields of America; and they caved." 

The reader who is not acquainted with Mogridge, 
should understand that he can outtaJk any Yankee 
living, and that he never gives up an argument, and, 
though vanquished, he can argue still. Being a great 
admirer of Horace Greeley, whom he resembles and 
whose paper he always took, and being in Kew York, 
he called on Greeley, introduced himself, told how he 
went to New Orleans, thence to St. Helena, Cape of 
Good Hope, and other places, told what he had seen 
in England, and what he had experienced in America. 
Then said he, "Now, Horace, you talk." "No," said 
Greeley, "Mr. Mogridge, I give up. I can write some, 
but, in rapidity of delivery, you exceed any man that I 
ever knew. I thank you for your visit, for I have 
been amused, surprised, and instructed." Shortly after, 
Greeley, in the Tribune^ gave an amusing account of 
his interview wdth Mr. Mogridge. 

Samuel Price, an Englishman, who was a black- 
smith, was an early settler. His wife was a very use- 
ful and excellent woman, who went far and near in 
the exercise of her obstetrical knowledge. A descrip- 
tion of her may be found in the 31st chapter of Pro- 
verbs, from the 10th to the 21st verse, inclusive. 

There were afterwards many settlers who deserve 



honorable mention, among whom were Gideon Chas^, 
who was of New England origin, and Anthony Lloyd, 
who settled on the south branch of the Eqiiinunk and 
built his house near the stream, which house Avas 
swept away in the night during a thunder-storm, him- 
self and family barely escaping with their lives. He 
afterwards sold out his property and lands and remov- 
ed to Equinunk village, where he kept a temperance 
tavern during his life. He was a self-taught, ingen- 
ious mechanic. The Teeple family were English. 
Phineas Teeple climbed every hill and crossed every 
stream in Manchester and adjoining townships as a 
hunter. He had the honor of killing the last wolf 
that ever howled in the county. Christopher Teeple 
was for many years the constable of the township. 
The Denny and Gifford families are old residents, and 
Moses Billings is well remembered as an old farmer. 
In or about the year 1830, Paul S. Preston sold the 
Equinunk Manor to Israel Chapman and Alexander 
Calder, who then began improveinents thereon. The 
mouth of the Big Equinunk has always been an im- 
portant rafting place. 

Tlie village of Equinunk was commen(ied soon after 
the bidlding of a tannery in the place by Isaiah Scud- 
der and brother. The large tannery now in the place, 
belongs to A¥illiani Holbert, Esq. The village is di- 
^dded by the creek. The western part is in Bucking- 
ham, where are situated the residence of the Hon. 
William M. Nelson, State Senator, the residences and 
stores of Knight & Gardiner, and of H. K. Farle.t, 


the M. E. Cliurcli, and other Iniildings. But the larg- 
er part of the village is on the east side of the creek. 
One-half mile helow the town is a bridge across the 
Delaware to the Lordville depot. Chapman and Cal- 
der divided their lands. Chapman took the upper 
flats and built a house and saw-mill. He was a man 
of perseverance and industry. Both lie and Calder 
were local Methodist preachers. Alexander Calder 
took the lower part of Equinunk. He was a lumber- 
man of great business capacity, and a man of merit 
and talent. He died at Equinunk, May 26th, 1879, 
aged eighty-one years. Equinunk is well situated for 
trade. The Delaware river road passes through the 
place. Here end the roads coming down the south 
branch, and from Preston and High Lake, and from Da- 
mascus, through the middle of Manchester. The great 
tannery at Little Equinunk is now owned by Hoyt & 
Brothers, of N. Y. There is a turnpike leading up 
the Little Equinunk from its mouth to the road lead- 
ing from the old '^gate house" to Big Equinunk. The 
number of taxables in the towaiship, in 1878, was 867. 
Number of common schools. 10. 



AT its erection, this township, in 1821, inchided a 
part of Preston. It is now bounded north by 
the State of I^ew York, east by the Delaware and 
Buckingham, south by Preston and Starrucca, and 
west by Starrucca and Susquehanna county. It is the 
fourth township in point of size. It is watered by the 
branches of the Shehawken, running south-east, 
Shrawder's creek, running north-east to the Dehiware, 
and by Hemlock creek, in the north-west, and which 
runs northward into New York State. The chief nat- 
ural reserv^oirs of water are Four Mile pond, in the south- 
ern part, and Island pond above Stanton Hill. The 
south-western and north-eastern parts, and the region 
about the Four Mile pond are sparsely inhabited. 
The river hills are precipitous and unfit for cultiva- 
tion. The land is high in the center of the township, 
from w^hich the streams descend in every direction. 
Thouo^h some of the lands are rous^h vet there are 
many good farms which produce as good crops as are 
raised in other parts of the county! The orchards are 
flourishing and productive. There is yet much un- 
cleared land of good quality, and it has been and is 
still a matter of surprise that the township is not 


more thickly populated as it has great advantages for 
reaching market, having the Jefferson Railroad at 
Starrncca, and the Erie Railroad near its eastern bor- 
ders. Within a few years an enterprising body of 
men have built up a village in the north part of the 
town, called Sherman, (alias New Baltimore,) estab- 
lished or built a tannery, manufacturing shops, stores, 
&c., and erected a fine building for religious purposes, 
called the Union church. 

Soon after the erection of Scott, in 1821, when it 
embraced one-half of Preston, there were only thirty- 
seven houses all valued at $250; seven mills all valued 
at $1,300; fifty-seven cows valued at $750. The whole 
number of taxables was forty-seven, the tax on all 
seated property being $53.18J-, according to a trienni- 
al assessment, made by Jolm Starbird, Jr., Esq., for 
the year 1823. Elihu Tallman, one of the first set- 
tlers, and Jirah Mumford, Jr., were each taxed for a 
mill, and so were Gershom Williams, 'Squire Sampson, 
Jacob Edick, Silas Crandall, and David Babcock.. 
Some of the other settlers, named as farmers, were 
Samuel Alexander, Abel Belknap, John and David 
Cole, George Cortright, Ezra Cargill, Beniah Jayne, 
of Maple Hill, Harvey Kingsbury, Elias Kingsbury, 
Uriah Smith, William Starbird, Jesse^ and 'Squire 
Whittaker, Michael and Townsend Weyant, Rev. 
Gershom Williams, father of Melancthon B., Calvin 
P., Philander K., and Hervey D, Williams. The said 
John Starbird, Jr., was justice of the peace at the time 
that he made said assessment. The Rev. Gershom 


Williams settled in the central part of the township at 
an early day. He was from the State of I*^ew Jersey. 
He bought at different times many tracts of land, and, 
being a man of means, contributed much to encourage 
the settlement of the township. In 1847 his second 
wife was murdered by a tramp, who called himself 
Harris Bell. (Upon his trial it came out that this 
was an assumed name.) The murderer was convicted 
and hung at Honesdale in 1848. Beniah Jayne, 
brother of the celebrated Dr. D. Jayne, of Philadel- 
phia, was one of the early settlers. 

Jirah Mumford, Elihu Tallman, and others, are men- 
tioned in the sketches of Mount Pleasant and Preston. 

Under the head of Preston w^ill be found a detailed 
account of the hardships and privations of the old pi- 
oneers in the northern townships. 

In December, 1774, David Rittenhouse, on the part 
of Pennsylvania, and Samuel Holland, on tlie part of 
Kew York, set a stone on a small island in the west- 
ern branch of the Delaware river, for the north-east 
corner of Pennsylvania. They marked the stone with 
the letters and figures, "New York, 1774," cut on the 
north side, and the letters and figures "Lat. 42 de- 
grees, var. 4 degrees 20 min.," cut on the top of the stone. 
The island is at Hale's Eddy, and the north-east cor- 
ner of Pennsylvania is the north-east corner of Scott 

In 1878 there were eleven public or common schools, 
and three hundred and tliirteen taxables in the town- 



THIS township was formed April 28tli, 1828, from 
parts of Mount Pleasant and Scott. It is the third 
township in size, and is bounded north hy Starrncca 
and Scott, east by Buckingham, south by Mount 
Pleasant, and west by Susquehanna county. With' 
great propriety it might have been called Lake town- 
ship, as it abounds with lakes or ponds of uncommon 
beauty, among which are the Shehawken, Como, 
Twin, Sly, Spruce, Seven Mile, Poyntell, Long, Big 
Hickory, Little Hickory, Five Mile, Bone, Long 
Spruce, Independence, Wrighter's and Coxtown 
ponds, and perhaps some others. These ponds are the 
head-waters of streams running in every direction. 
From Five Mile and Independence ponds starts the 
Lackaw^anna ; from the Wrighter, Coxtown, and Long 
Spruce ponds, the Starrucca; from the Shehawken, 
the creek of that name; and from Poyntell, Little 
Hickory and Big Hickory ponds, the Big Equinunk. 
Water-power is abundant and conveniently extended. 
Ararat and Sugar-loaf mountains are in this tow^nship. 
At the formation of the town it was proposed, as ap- 
pears from the records, to name it Ararat; but, as it 
was mostly taken from Scott, wliich was named after 


Judge David Scott, the Judge deemed it proper to 
name it Preston, in honor of Judge Samuel Preston, 
who was tlie first settler in Buckingham, to which 
township Scott and the most of Preston originally be- 
longed. By an assessment made by Peter C. Sher- 
man, in 1829, the number of taxables was sixty-nine; 
number in 1878, four hundred and fif t^^-eight ; num- 
ber of houses in 1829, thirty-nine; valuation of same, 
S488. Yaluation of neat cattle in 1829, $1,986, and 
of same in 1878, $13,160. 

Although some parts of the lands are hilly, yet 
they are not of such height as to interfere very ma- 
terially with cultivation. Good crops of rye, oats, 
corn, and buckwheat, are raised, and abundanc^e of po- 
tatoes. But the lands are more particularly litted for 
grass, and the township bids fair to be one of the 
most important butter-making districts in the county. 
A small section only of the township was benefited by 
the Oghquaga turnpike, and there were not roads to 
invite tlie taking up of lands at an early day. The 
lands lying near the road from Mount Pleasant to 
Stoc^kport were first bought, as a public road was laid 
out from Stockport through this township to Mount 
Pleasant in 1799. Among the early settlers were 
Peter Spencer and Ezra Spencer, who came from the 
State of Connecticut, in or about the year 1812. 
The first named commenced on the farm now ow^ned 
by Nathan A. Monroe. He bought about 3-10 acres 
of land, of one Poyntell, of Philadelphia, and gave 
his bond and mortgage for the purchase money. He 


was ejected from the land by Peter Gaskell, and took 
title under Gaskell. The heirs of Poyntell, after the 
death of Spencer, made vigorous efforts to collect the 
moneys due on the mortgage, but failed. Deacon 
Spencer was an ingenious mechani<?, an industri- 
ous farmer, and morally, without spot or blemish. 
Russell Spencer, late of Pleasant Mount, was his son. 
He had three daughters ; Dr. Urial Wright married 
the oldest one; Silas Freeman the second; and Wil- 
liam Labar the youngest. Ezra Spencer settled about 
a mile southward of his brother, paid for his land, 
and lived there during tlie rest of his life. His son, 
Ezra Spencer, now owns the old homestead. 

Joseph Dow moved from Deeriield, Massachusetts, 
a])out 1817, and settled in Dyberry township, on the 
place where John Hacker lived before the death of 
his father, cleared up some land, built a house and 
barn, made some payments, and lost the whole. As 
property depreciated in value lie could not keep up 
his payments, and he was left quite poor. After this 
he moved to Preston and ran the Shadigee mill for 
Manning, King, and Lillibridge. He and his wife 
were well educated and descended from very respecta- 
ble families. He was a relative of Lorenzo Dow, the 
great preacher. He died near Tallmanville, in 1852. 

Daniel Underwood removed from Connecticut, in 
1830, and settled upon tlie Stockport road, north-east 
of Amos O. Sherwood's. Lewis A. Underwood, Nel- 
son F. LTnderwood, present Representative of Wayne 
county in the Legislature, W. G. Underwood, an<i 



Prescott Underwood are sons of the said Daniel Un- 
derwood. Prescott Underwood removed to Kansas; 
the other sons are living in the eonnty. Said Daniel 
Underwood was a noted carpenter and huilt the Meth- 
odist church near Nathan Kennedy's, in Mt. Pleasant. 

John Stephens, an Englishman, began in the early 
settlement of the town upon the farm now occupied 
by Stanley H. Hine. The exact date of his settle- 
ment cannot be ascertained. In 1829, he was assess- 
ed as having two hundred and twenty-live acres of 
land, mucli of which w^as of superior quality. In 
1880, he was licensed to keep a public house, in which 
business he continued during his life. The farm ivS 
now in the possession of Perry Hine. 

All the Spencers in Mount Pleasant and Preston 
are lineal descendants of either Peter or Ezra Spen- 
cer. John and William Fletcher were from New 
England, and were early settlers and worthy and in- 
dustrious farmers. 

The Starbird family. John Starbird, Sen., was 
.born in tlie state of Maine, in 1754, and served in the 
Revolutionary war; then, after tea(;hing school in 
Trenton and in Easton, he came to Stroudsburg and 
taught one term, and, in 1783, was there married to 
Hannah Stroud. Their son, John Starbird, Jr., was 
born in 1786, and AVilliam Starbird in 1798. Said 
sons moved from their old homestead, in East Strouds- 
burg, into what is now Preston township, Marcli 20, 

1817. John Starbird, Jr., made his first clearing in 

1818. He made an assessment of wdiat then (1823) was 


Scott township, and no school-teacher of the present 
day wonld Ije ashamed if the handwriting should be 
imputed to him. He was, at that time, the only jus- 
tice of the peace in the township. In 1824, he built 
a saw-mill on Shehawken creek. William Starbird, 
now living, made his first clearing in 1822. He had 
thirteen children, all of whom grew up to manhood 
or womanhood. One of his sons, Alfred, was killed 
in the late civil war. In 1851, he rebuilt the saw- 
mill, erected by his brother John, doing all the work 
himself, excepting the ironwork, and raised it without 
tackles, with only two of his sons to help him. The 
timbers were very heavy; the plates were sixty feet 
long and twelve inches square. This mill was rebuilt 
by S. T. Wliittaker, last year. William Bortree, late 
of Sterling township, married a sister of William 

Abner Stone began at an early day upon the beau- 
tiful place now occupied by H. K. Stone, north of 
Samuel Brooking's, but business connected with the 
settlement of his father's estate, induced him to return 
to Connecticut. 

After the building of the Gghquaga turnpike 
road, Clark Grardner took up the farm now owned by 
W. H. Chamberlain, lived there several years, kept 
the toll-gate and tlien removed to Mount Pleas- 
ant. The toll-gate was removed to Hine's Corners, 
and continued there as long as toll was taken. Royal 
Hine and his father started and built up the place 
which has been improved and enlarged by the family. 


After tlie building of said Ogliqiiaga turnpike, Ira 
Cargill, from Connecticut, started a flourishing settle- 
ment on the public road leading from said turnpike t(.> 

Peter C. Sherman began at Preston Center. In 
1829, he assessed to himself ten acres of improved 
land, and four hundred and thirtj-six acres of unim- 
proved, and one house of the vahie of eight dollars. 
The township and general elections were held at this 
place, until a few years ago, when the township was 
divided into two election districts. The Sherman 
place fell into the hands of J. Carr, who disposed of it 
to C. B. Dibble, its present occupant. Merrill liine 
appears to have been a very early settler at Hines 
Corners, and Perry Hine settled in another part of 
the township. 

The following account is from manuscript furnished 
by C. P. Tallman, Esq., regarding the early settle- 
ment of Mount Pleasant, Preston, and Scott. AYant 
of space has obliged me reluctantly to abridge his 
contribution. What he herewith presents cannot fail 
to be interesting : 

"My father, Elihu Tallman, was born in T^ew Bed- 
ford, Mass., in 1780. Mj grandfather, William Tail- 
man, was a real estate and ship owner ; and as he took 
a iirm stand for the cause of Independence, much of 
his property was destroyed by the tories, which left 
him much reduced. My grandfather, (on my mother';^ 
side) Christopher Perkins, married a Palmer, in Ston- 
ington, Conn. They moved to what they called the 


far West, one horse carrying grandmother and all 
their movable goods, and grandfather going on foot. 
Tliey went to and settled at Saratoga, abont one 
mile from the Rock spring. There were several of 
the native Indians near them, and my mother has of- 
ten told me that her mother had snch an abhorrence 
and feai* of the Indians and tories, that she had sev- 
eral times taken her and her older brother, John, 
when her father was gone from home, and hid them 
away to lie and stay in the wilderness during the 
long, dismal nights. At an early age, my father was 
put on a coasting vessel as a cabin-boy and cook, and 
subsequently learned the shoe-making trade. He mov- 
ed to Saratoga, and was married on the iTtli of De- 
cember, 1799, and soon after came to Mount Pleasant 
to look up a new home. Samuel Stanton, the first 
prominent settler of that place, was my mother's half- 
uncle, which was their probable motive for (coming to 
that place. 

They commenced on a piece of new land north of 
where Pleasant Mount now stands on the rond then 
running east and west. Subsequently father bought 
on an adjoining lot about sixty rods east of where 
William Wright, Esq., now lives. I was born there 
in 1806. In that year father made one mile of the 
Oochecton and Great Bend turnpike road. Then lie 
l)Ought, about three-fourths of a mile northward, and 
cleared up a good-sized farm. In 1813 or 1814, he 
,sold this place to a Mr. Hall, of Connecticut, for $1400, 
.nnd bought the place where Godfrev Stevenson now 


lives, and, also, a carding-machine of Jacob Plum, who 
had run it one summer on the stream below where the 
Seth Kennedy mill now stands. This was the only place 
where wool was carded by macliinery in the region. 
Wool was brought from all parts of the country. The 
business was excellent. He also built and ran a saw- 
mill. In or about tlie winter of 1818, father sold said 
property to Heaton Atwater, and took in payment 
$1500 in patent-rights, and $1500 in an exhibition of 
wax-figures and paintings. These payments were a 
little better than $3000 lost. Tiie next spring he 
Ijought a property in Susquehanna county, and, liaving 
paid $750 down, lost that. These losses of $3750 left 
him with only his farming utensils and a few uncol- 
lected accounts." 

The following episode is designed to show what 
were the hardships of the tirst settlers. Mr. Tallman 
relates the following account which he had from his 
father : 

"About 1805 tlie neighborhood was entirely out of 
salt, and there was none nearer than Shehawken. 
Father had made a start so that he had a breeding mare, 
but had nothing wherewith to buy salt but some maple 
sugar, so he took enough of that to buy a half bushel 
of it, which would cost $2.00, put his sugar in a bag 
and started for Shehawken, (now Hancock, N. Y.,) 
twenty miles distant, on a road where only the under- 
brush was cut out. He exchanged his sugar for salt, 
and, putting it in his bag, he started liomeward on a 
cold, windy fall day, when tliere was nearly a freshet 


in the Dela-ware, rendering the fording of the same 
dangerous. Wlien about midway of the river, the old 
mare made a bhmder and down she went, throwing 
the rider and the salt clear from her. After swimming 
about twenty rods quartering down stream, loaded 
down with winter clothing, overcoat and boots, he 
readied shore, (the mare did the same,) but his salt 
and hat were gone, and he had no funds with which 
to buy more." 

How his father succeeded in getting along without 
the salt we are not told. But to resume the narrative: 

" Since my recollection our goods were teamed from 
Newburg, eighty-one miles distant, at a cost of $2.50 
per hundred pounds. Rock-salt was worth S-i per 
bushel, rye fifty cents, and oats tw^enty-five cents. The 
worst feature in the case was we had only rock and 
packing salt. All we used for butter and for the table 
was pounded in a hand mortar. I can recollect when 
we had no carding-machines or cloth-dressing mills. 
All our clothes made of flax, tow, cotton, or wool, 
were carded, spun, and woven at home, in which work 
our mothers and sisters were well skilled. Yery scanty 
were the means afforded for the education of children. 
I have heard father speak of Truman Wheeler as one 
of our first teachers. Eber Dimmick was my first 
teacher, and a Miss Bigelow the first female one. 

'^In 1819 real estate and personal property had be- 
come so depreciated in value that father despaired of 
paying for his farm in Susquehanna county, and, hav- 


iug more ambition than {)i-udence, determined to re- 
trieve liis fortune and made a dash into the luml)er- 
woods and bouglit the pine lot at Six Mile lake, (now 
Coino.) Samnel P. Green, of the east branch, had 
contracted for tlie lot and commenced a dam and saw- 
mill on the outlet of the lake. Father bouglit out 
Green, iinished the mill, and sawed out and liauled to 
Stockport a i-aft of pine boards to run in the spring of 
1820. Tliis was the first raft ever manufactured and 
hauled to the Stockport banks. At that time there 
was no road running north or south for many miles 
except the Mount Pleasant and Stockport road. The 
first road was what was called the Hannony road in 
Sus(]uehanna county. The lirst road east was the 
LTnion Woods road, which connected with the Oochec- 
ton and Great Bend turnpike at (Jonklin's Gate, six 
miles west of Cochecton. The old Stockport road had 
nothing but the small trees and Inrush cut out, and the 
large trees marked so as to enable any one to follow 
the course in deep snows. On our new farm was about 
half an acre partly (bleared, and two or three acres 
chopped. At this time there were very few settlers 
in Buckingham ex<iept on the river fiats. Three of 
the Kingsbury family, and two men by the name of 
Wlielpy, had commenced on Kingsbury Hill. Fred- 
erick Stid and Thomas Holmes had commenced about 
a mile up the Shehawken. Holmes ran a little tannery 
and ground all his bark with a stone, and tanned in 
(;old liquor. He also did some shoe-making. There 
were a few settlers in the Union Woods. Jirah Mum- 

TOWNSH f TON. 249 

ford and Ezekiel and I ■ ^on had commenced 

in Starnicca. 

There was a private roau ^uL jat by the way of 
Maple hill to Hale's Eddy. About this time Michael 
Weyant and Uriah Smith, from Long Island, settled 
on said road near the top of Maple hill. We had no 
communication with any of these families without go- 
ing a great way romid. Kobody lived at Equinunk 
until several years after our location at Six Mile lake. 
The families living on the Stockport road toward 
Mount Pleasant were John Tiffany, one of the pioneer 
settlers, John Stearns, Chandler Tiffany, (on the John 
Page place), Joseph Monroe, and Ashbel Stearns, near 
or on the Deacon Wilcox place. John Fletcher and 
William Fletcher lived near Peter Spencer, who 
located on the farm now owned by Nathan A. Monroe. 
Our nearest neighbor, south four miles, was Peter 
Spencer, and one mile north was E-ufus Geer. A lit- 
tle east of the Upper Twin pond, about three-fourths 
of a mile, were Gideon, James, and Thomas Wood- 
mansee. There were no other settlers until we reacls- 
ed Stockport. Abner Stone commenced w^here H. K . 
Stone now lives. Esaias Wilcox liad commenced on 
the lot adjoining said Stone. It was impossible to 
concentrate a sufficient number of children to mak(^ 
up a school between Mount Pleasant to one mile above 
Stockport on the New York side. During the four 
years that we lived at Six Mile lake, there was no 
school-house between Mount Pleasant and Stockport — 
sixteen miles — and no place where the preaching of tli<: 


250 HISTORY ■■ ' ■ -'NE COUNTY. 

gospel could be su the time of our sojourn 

at Six Mile lake, 1 . •pulation of what is now 

Preston consisted : ^ aight men, women, and 

children. Our family made up twelve of the number. 

In 1822, father purchased the large pine lot known 
as the Kryder tract. This was situated five miles 
northwestward of Six Mile lake, and four miles east- 
wardly from Starrucca. It was seven miles northward 
to the nearest inhabitants at Ball's and Hale's Eddy, 
and seven and one-half miles southward to Abner 
Stone's. There was no road in either of these direc- 
tions. There had been a road laid out from Mount. 
Pleasant to Hale's Eddy, nineteen and a half miles. 
Tliis road crossed the pine lot, but it was merely run 
through and marked so it was impossible to make a 
road on the route where it was laid that could be trav- 
eled, as the viewers paid no regard to hills, ledges, or 
swamps, only aiming, apparently, to get a line from 
one end to the other. Not the first blow had been 
made to open it, and when this was afterwards done, 
in many places it was made a mile from the survey. 
There had l^een a road laid out from Starrucca to 
Stockport, and in some places the underwood cut out, 
and, on other parts, the down timber had been cut up, 
but not cleared out. The marks for this road were 
a])out one mile from the said pine lot. In August, 
1822, my brother-in-law, David Balmock, my older 
brother, William, and myself, took an outfit and went 
to commence an improvement on said land." 

Omitting the interesting, and, no doubt, truthful ac- 


connt of tlie mMnner in which the said youthful ad- 
xenturers contrived to live in the wilderness until 
necessity compelled them to build a cabin, we resume 
the narrative: 

"The cold nights of November reminded us that a 
further improvement of our cabin was necessary. We 
now cut out a road, such as it was, and hauled in some 
half-inch boards for a roof and cutting and splitting 
some pine for floors, we built part of a chimney, and 
made up some bunks to sleep in; my brother-in-law 
moved his wife and child in and then we set up house- 
keeping on a different scale. When winter set in we 
moved back to Six Mile lake to lumber through the 
winter. In the spring of 1823 we moved the whole 
family to the Kryder lot, cleared up the fallow that 
we had chopped the fall before, built a saw-mill, cut 
another fallow, and commenced on a larger scale. In 
1824, my father hired a young woman for three 
months to teach four, and part of the time, fl\^e chil- 
dren, in the log-house that we first built. Her name 
was Sarah Jane Stoddard. The next summer a Miss 
Sally Kennedy taught the same children three months, 
and the summer thereafter Miss Miranda Chittenden 
taught them, making in all one year's private school. 
Each teacher was paid seventy-five cents per week. 
There was no other school in wdiat is now Preston 
township until the public schools in 1830. When 
about fifteen years old, while living at Six Mile lake, 
I became satisfied that if I e\^er obtained an education 
I sliould have to dig it out myself. I accordingly pre- 


pared some fat pine, a single stick of which made a 
l>eautiful light by which to study. I read such books 
as I could get; our common school-books were Web- 
ster's spelling-l)ook, Dilwortli's and Dai^oll's arithme- 
tics, Second and Third Part, English reader, Hale's His- 
tory of the United States, and the New Testament. 
We had no novels or newspapers. My father had an 
extra library, namely, two volumes of the life of Christ 
and his Apostles, a Bible, and Walker's dictionary. 

I occasionally borrowed such books as I could. In 
1825 I worked doing chores to pay my board, and 
went to school six weeks; I did the same again in 
1826, for about twelve weeks. Tliat was all the school- 
ing I had after I was twelve years old. From 1823 
to 1827, we engaged in pine lumbering and cleared up 
a large quantity of land. At this time the settlement 
at Starrucca sustained a public school, and had occa- 
sional preaching by Ezekiel Sampson, a Baptist. In 
the fall of 1823, we cut out the road from our place 
to Mount Pleasant. In the fall of that year, David 
Babcock settled on the place now owned by John 
Clark, and Luther Chafee on the lower part of my 
present farm ; John Stanton on the farm now occupied 
by D. W. Tallman; Peter C. Sherman on the present 
farm of C. B. Dibble, (at Preston Centre); and Wil- 
liam Tallman on the A. D. Reynold's farm. About 
\\\Q same time Joseph Dow settled on the flat now 
owned by Alplieus Dix, Joseph Dow, Jr., on the lot 
where Arnold Lloyd now lives, and Jeremiah Flynn 
on the farm now owned bv Kol)ert K. Iviuii:. We now 


l)egan to feel hs if we had gained a great victory, for 
the forest was fairly broken up, and we had neighbors. 

Rev. Gershom Williams began about 1823 or 1824 
at what is now called Scott Centre, built a saw-mill, 
and cut a road to the private road near Uriah Smith's. 
John Starbird commenced on the lot where Wm. P. 
Starbird now lives soon after we began on the pine lot. 

The order of our new settlement was as follows : 
[n 1820, Willet Carr commenced on the place where 
Amos O. Sherwood now lives. In 1822, Messrs. 
Henry and Yancott bought adjoining I. M. Ivellogg's 
farm and hired a piece chopped, only to grow up 
airain. About the same time James Moore, David 
Wooley, and Franklin Duval bought in w^hat is now 
called Little Yoi*k. The three last-named were from 
K. Y. city and paid for their land in advance. The 
next settler was a Joseph Marguerat, then Joseph 
Simpson, then James Simpson; began near the creek 
south of Sherwood's, and John Stanton, from Conn., 
settled on twenty-two acres of land north of the upper 
Sands pond, and George Hall on the south side there- 
of. About 1822, Daniel Kose commenced on a wild 
lot now owned by George Wainwright. Charles Case, 
of Gibson, Susquehanna county, and his son, Riley 
Case, began where Samuel Decker now lives. All of 
these new settlers, excepting those of Little York, 
and the Charles Case family, were in indigent circum- 
stances. The locality and position of their families 
were such as to preclude the possibility of sustaining 
a school or the preaching of the gospel among us. 


Some attempts were made for those purposes, but 
were necessarily abandoned, and as a natural conse- 
(_[uence, our Sabbaths were very loosely spent, and the 
ehildren left to grow up witli but little education or 

In 1826, I had become acquainted with a large 
scope of the wilderness, and had iixed on the piece of 
land on which to make a farm, and, though not of 
age, fearing that some one would get ahead of me, in 
October, carrying provision enough to last me to 
Philadelphia and part of the way back, I started on 
foot and bought nothing going but three nights' lodg- 
ing, at six cents a night. I found the man who own- 
ed the land and the timber about it. He wanted four 
dollars per acre for the land. I offered him two dol- 
lars. He finally agreed to my proposals, binding me 
to put a family on the land, clear up three acres a 
year, build a house and barn on it, and to pay for it 
in three years. This contract was dated in October, 
1826, and I obtained my deed on the 29th day of 
April, 1829. Tliis was the first piece of land paid for in 
this region of country. The man that sold me the land 
^vas so well pleased with my promptitude tliat he gave 
off the interest and made me a parchment deed for 
one hundred and seventy-five acres of land. I bought, 
also, three lots of timber, enough to last three years' 
lumbering. On the 20th of May, 1827, I was mar- 
ried to my first wife, Lucinda, daughter of Benjamin 
King, Esq., of Mount Pleasant. In the spring of 
1829 or 1830, we agreed to start a school and fixed 


on a site on tlie east side of my lot, where the ma- 
ple grove is now growing up, on the road as it then 
ran. I found nails, glass, and sash, costing four dol- 
lars and eighty-four cents, which the neighbors agreed 
shoidd be my share. This was the first money ever 
used, in what is now Preston township, for public im- 
provements and the first school-house erected. The 
first school therein was taught by a Miss Watrous, at 
one dollar per week. She was an old, experienced 
teacher, and some of the scholars came two and a half 
miles. Each parent paid in proportion to the num- 
ber of days that he sent his children. If any were 
too poor to school their children, on application to the 
assessor, return of the fact was made to the county 
commissioners, and the tuition of such children was 
paid by the county. Oar school-house was sixteen by 
twenty feet, built of logs, chimney in one end, and 
burned four-foot wood. The roof and floor were 
made of rough hemlock, and the door of the same 
with wooden hinges and a latch of our own make. 
Our benches were made of slabs, our writing-desks 
were a board fastened to a log across the back end of 
the house, which was chinked and mossed instead of 
being mudded. On the whole it had a very respecta- 
ble appearance for the times. After our first school, 
I think we never paid more than seventy-five cents a 
week for a woman teacher, and ten dollars per month 
for a male teacher. This house was a very worthy 
enterprise for the time. The summer following, n 
Sunday-school was organized by Sheldon Norton, who 


then lived on the phice now owned by his son, E. K. 
Norton. This school wiis made auxiliary to the Sun- 
day-school of the Methodist Episcopal church. I pur- 
chased of Mr. Norton a few Testaments, at ten cents a 
piece, and he left us a number of tracts and papers. 
We had a large school, and scholars came from near 
Como and Little York by marked trees and also from 
Shadigee and Flynn's. Quite a large number of 
them came from two to four miles and barefoot at 
that. Some began with the alphabet, others in spell- 
ing lessons of one or two sylables, and some of tlu> 
pupils wxre twenty years old. The next spring J 
bought of the Methodist Book Room ten dollars' 
worth of books, including some Testaments, and made 
a present of them to said school. Our school succeed- 
ed admirably and we ran it about six months in the 
year for several years with the most satisfactory success. 
At this time (1879) there are fourteen school-houses 
averaging in value 1^500 apiece, all well arranged 
and painted, which is an increase in lifty years from 
nothing to $7,000 in value. Sixty years ago we had 
six voters, now there are about four hundred. The 
first and oldest religious society between Mt. Pleasant 
and the Delaware river, was a close-communion 
Gliurch, started about 1820, at Starrucca, under Eze- 
kiel Sampson. The next was a class of Methodists, 
consisting of nine persons, at Tallmanville, in 1830. 
This society increased rapidly, till it numbered about 
forty members, and it originally (M)'\'ered the ground 
where there are now four societies. In the town now 


there ai-e six societies with two hundred and lifty 
members; three churches, one at Como, one at Tall- 
manville, and another at Hine's Corners, witli a good 
parsonage at Como. The close-communion Baptists 
have a very i^ood society at Preston Center, and a 
small society at East Preston. There are large and 
prosperous lodges of Good Templars at Como and 
Preston Center, with about two hundred and forty 
members. The Odd Fellows have a lodge at Como. 
There is no licensed tavern or beer saloon in the town. 
There are two stores, thirteen sawMnills, one small 
grist-mill, two turning-establishments, and three cabi- 
net-shops. Yery little timber remains to support 
lumbering, but the town will very soon l>e one of the 
best dairy districts in the county. Tw^enty-one natur- 
al ponds of clear water, well supplied with lish, are 
scattered over the town. A large number of fruit- 
trees has been obtained from the most approved nurser- 
ies, and they are thrifty and promising. There is very 
little waste land. The Erie Railroad on the east, and 
the Jeiferson Branch on the west afford convenient 
access to market." 

Mr. Tallman relates the following amusing hunting- 
story : 

"Wlien father moved back from Susquehanna 
county to Mount Pleasant, he had an old queen's-arni 
musket, a charge for whic^h was an ounce ball and 
nine buckshot, which made up nearly two ounces of 
lead. This load, if the game was near by, made dead- 
ly Avork and injured tlie skin badly. There were no 



rifles in those days. My father was not a great hunt- 
er but killed a large part of his own meat. On a cer- 
tain time he and his brother-in-law, Chandler Tiffany, 
concluded to hunt some larger game than deer, and, 
consequently, rigged out for a bear hunt. When 
they had advanced four or five miles into the woods, 
they saw a large bear which had not discovered them ; 
by concert they both shot at the same time, and doing 
so, down went the bear. They were so elated that 
they forgot to load their guns, and both ran their 
best, and, when in close proximity to their game, the 
bear discovered them and came to her feet and made 
battle, approaching them with her mouth wide open. 
Father made a lucky thrust and jammed his gun into 
her mouth. She seized it, crushing the stock and 
denting the barrel with her tushes, as she reared up 
on her haunches; he threw her nearly on her back, in 
reach of Tiffany, telling him to take his hatchet to 
her; he did so, but struck her with the head of it. 
She struck him on the breast with one paw and strip- 
ped him of every vestige of clothing as well as his 
moccasins and stockings. Father cried, "Strike her 
with, the edge ! " and tlie third blow was given edge 
first, square between her eyes, which checked her 
fury, and, the blows being promptly repeated, she was 
overcome. Father's nmsket was badly crushed and 
Tiffany half naked, and though they were lords of 
the forest by virtue of good luck, they estimated a 
bear hunt of less importance than before their adven- 


Starkucca. This borough was erected m 1853, and 
then called the borough of Wayne. It is three miles 
long on the Susquehanna line, and two miles wide. It 
was taken about equally from Scott and Preston town- 
ships. Benjamin T. West, Esq., lived in the place in 
1824. He was a son of Jones West, a blacksmith 
from Albany Co., N. Y. According to 'Squire West, 
Henry Sampson was one of the first settlers at Star- 
rucca. His children were Esquire . Sampson, John 
Sampson, Benjamin Sampson, Henry Sampson, Jr., 
Stephen Sampson, Hasadiah Sampson, and William 
Sampson. He had three daughters. Hasadiah Samp- 
son married a sister of Benj. T. West. Jirah Mum- 
ford, Jr., a son of Jirah Mumford, Sen., the progeni- 
tor of all the Mumfords, was one of the first if not 
the first settler of the place, and the father of Hon. 
James Mumford, deceased, who lost two sons in the 
Hebellion. E. C. Mumford, the present district-attor- 
ney of the county, is one of the Judge's sons, also, W. 
W., late Representative of Wayne, Clinton D., and 
Clarence G. Mumford. W. W., and Clinton D., have 
a manufactory of pyroligneous acid and naphtha, the 
only one in the county. David Spoor early lived at 
Starr ucca, and 'Squire Whitaker, who removed to 
Lizard Lake. Henry Sampson, Sen., built the first 
grist-mill. All the men were more or less engaged in 
lumbering pine which was taken to Hale's Eddy. El- 
der Peck was the first minister, and Elder Smitzer 
formed the first Baptist church in the place. Nelson 
M, Benedict lived in the place almost fifty -three years 


ago, and had eight children. One of his sons, Kelson 
M. Benedict, n(^)w living, is a justice of the peace. 
Dr. Thomas was the first physician, and Dr. J. P. 
81iaw has lived in the place twenty-two years. 

H. McMurray, a well-known and intelligent man, 
lives in the place. Wm. Graham and John McMnr- 
ray began the first tannery and were succeeded hy 
Mr. Cowan, then by Drake & Salisbury, and finally 
l)y Major E. P. Strung, who now owns one of the 
largest tanneries in the county. The Jefferson rail- 
road passes near the place. The village is kept very 
neat and tasteful. There is a Koman Catholic and a 
M. E. Church, and three common schools. There is 
also a Baptist society in the place, of whicli Rev. S. 
W. Cole is the pastor. 


THIS township was set off from Canaan, in 1808, 
that of Sterling was taken therefrom in 1815, and 
the Wallenpaupack was made the dividing line, leav- 
ing: it bounded north bv South Canaan and Chenw 
Ridge, east ])y Palmyra, south by Sterling, and west 


l)y Luzerne (now Lackawanna) county. The north 
part of Salem lias lately been erected into a new 
township, called Lake, but it is more convenient to de- 
scribe it as it was after the separation of Sterling, 
hi 1799, there were but four settlers in Salem at the 
most, namely, Moses Dolph, Edward London, Elisha 
Potter, and Joseph Wheatcraft. Soon after, how- 
ever, we find the names of William Dayton, Samuel 
Hartford, and James Hartford among old papers. 
Moses Dolph lived at Little Meadows. According to 
the accounts given by the old settlers in Paupack, a 
man, by the name of Strong, first built here, in 1770. 
Soon after the battle at Wyoming, he, with some 
others, had a desperate fight with the Lidians at this 
place. Strong and his family were all massacred, 
and Jacob Stanton was the only white man that 
escaped. He fled, and notified the settlers upon the 
Paupack of their danger. Late in the fall of 1779, 
Stanton came back to the place and found that the 
Indians had burned down the house. He dug a grave, 
and gathered up the bones of the wliites and Indians, 
and, placing them together, raised a mound over 
them. My father, Seth Goodrich, who afterwards 
owned the place, would never allow the moimd to be 
disturbed. There was a very old orchard there which 
must have been planted by the Indians, as Little 
Meadows had been a favorite rendezvous for their 
hunting parties. Jacob Stanton built a house and 
moved his wife and family to Little Meadows, in 1780, 
or in 1781, where, during his life, he kept a public- 


house, and was succeeded in the same business until 
1801, by his son-in-law, Moses Dolph, wlio then sold 
the possession to Dr. Lewds Collins. He, in his turn, 
in 1803, sold the same to Seth Goodrich, who lived 
on the place during his life. He kept a house of en- 
tertainment for many years, but he never took a 
license to sell intoxicating liquors. 

Edward London took up four hundred acres at Sa- 
lem cross-roads, now Hamlinton, and l)uilt a log-house 
near where Clearwater's tavern now stands, and, in 
1801, sold out his possessions to Charles Goodrich, 
Sen., who built a new log-house above a large spring, 
about twenty rods east of Salem Corners. The log- 
house, built by London, w^as some years afterwards 
used as a school-house, and a man, by the name of 
Benedict, was the teacher. Charles Goodrich, Sen., 
died at Salem Corners. Charles, Jabez, and Enos 
were his sons. His daughters were as follows : Anna, 
who married Gideon Curtis; Mary, who married Jas. 
Huttze; Lucy, who married Ellery Crandall; and 
Laura, who married Henry Matthews, all of whom 
are dead. Elisha Potter, who w^as a weaver by trade, 
settled on the old road from Paupack to Capouse, on 
a creek, which was named after him. He was really 
in Luzerne county, although for many years assessed 
in Salem. Joseph Wheatcraft settled near Hollister- 
ville. He was from Maryland, and late in life his 
family removed to Ohio. William Dayton located 
about a half a mile east of the Five Mile creek, on 
the right hand side of the road leading from Little 


Meadows to Piirdytown. He married Arsenetli 
Wright, and was the " Old Grimes," of his day. 

"His heart was open as the day, 
And all his feelings true, 
His hair was some inclined to gray. 
He wore it in a cue. " 

Samuel Hartford located about one mile east of 
Little Meadows. He had two daughters, Betsey, who 
married Aaron Gillet, Esq., and is yet living in the 
township, and Philena, who married a Methodist min- 
ister named Kendall, and has been dead many years. 
In or about 1825, Mr. Hartford started the first card- 
ing-mill in Salem, in the hollow east of Salem Corners. 
James Hartford, a brother of Samuel Hartford, al- 
though taxed in Palmyra, really lived in Salem on the 
north of the Purdytown road and half a mile from 
William Dayton. He used to make his scantily-clad 
children go to school every day a distance of three 
miles, but they were among the briglitest scholars in 
the town. 

Betwen 1799 and 1803, seventeen new^ settlers ar- 
rived and took up lands and built huts or houses ac- 
cording to their ability. They came from Connecticut 
via Newburg and Carpenter's Point, below Port Jer- 
vis, on to Milford, thence by the way of Shohola, 
Blooming Grove, and Palmyra, to Major Ansley's, and 
finally through the Seven Mile swamp to Little Mead- 
ows. In alphabetical order they were as follows : 

Ephraim Bidwell was a soldier during the Revolu- 
tionary war, was present at the battle at Monmouth, 


suffered at Oamptown, I^. J., and participated in tlie 
last ]>attle at Yorktown. He was an enthusiastic ad- 
mirer of AYatsliington, and denied the charge that the 
Greneral was (told and distant; on the contrary, "The 
Cireneral," he said, "often came among his soldiers, 
cordially sliook hands with them, and conversed freely 
with them about their sufferings and grievances/' 
Some of his grandsons fell in the late war, and others 
of liis grand(;hildren are living in tlie town. His sons 
were Luther, Jabez, William, Orrin, and Ashbel. His 
daughters were Prudence, Lucy, and Rachel. Pru- 
dence nuirried a man by tlie name of Samuel Pease. 
Being a great trapper he skinned a wolf that he found 
(lead in a trap and threw the skin around his neck, 
where were some sores which absorbed a deadly virus 
from the skin and he died w^ith the horrors of hydro- 

Josiah Curtis settled half a mile or more west of 
Salem Corners on the east and west I'oad. His sons 
were Gideon, Fitch H., and Edward. Gideon Curtis, 
a farmer, \vas for many years a noted supervisor of 
the town. Fitch H. Curtis and Edward Curtis were 
excellent workmen as carpenters and joiners. Lie had 
three daughters, one the wife of Edmund Nicholson, 
one the wife of Amasa Jones, and one named Morilla, 
who died unmarried and bequeathed the most of hei- 
property to the Presbyterian church in Salem. 

Harris Hamlin settled in 1802, tw^o miles west of 
the Corners. He w^as a lu'ickmaker by trade, and he 
built the tirst frame house in the town. His sons 


were as follows : 1st. Oliver Hamlin, who kept it 
store many years and a public house at Hamlin ton. 
From thence lie removed to Bethany and traded 
awhile, and then to Honesdale, and there continued as 
a merchant during his life; he was a county commis- 
sioner three years and associate judge five years; 2d, 
Harris Hamlin, Jr., a farmer, who is yet living near 
Hollisterville ; 3d, Ephraim W. Hamlin, who, in early 
life removed to Bethany, where he is yet living. He 
was many years county treasurer, then a State Repre- 
sentative and afterward State Senator. 4th, Butler 
Hamlin, who when a young man, commenced as a mer- 
chant at Salem Corners, (since called Hamlinton in 
honor of the family,) and by strict attention to busi- 
ness acquired a competence. In 1861 he was elected 
associate judge of the county and served out his time, 
since which he has rejected all proffered nominations 
for office. 

Harris Hamlin, Sen., had five daughters; of these, 

Sarah, now aged ninety years, married John Bonham, 
and Philena married Yolney Cortright, and both are 
living. Catharine, the wife of Horace Lee, Buey, 
wife of Daniel Baldwin, and Amanda, wife of John 

Andrews, are all dead. 

David Hale took up the place afterward owned by 
Abisha Peet. It was claimed that Hale's wife made 
fifty pounds of sugar one spring and boiled down all 

(^)f the sap in a tea-kettle and a frying-pan. 

Timothy Hollister settled on the road from Little 
Meadows to Jonestown, cleared up a good farm, sold 
it, and in his old age moved to Michigan, being a loser 



hy leaving his iirst home. He had two sons and two 

daiigliters, all of wiioni are dead. 

Asa Jones, generally called Deacon Jones, had a 

large family, all of whom are dead, excepting his 
daughter, widow Polly Hollister, who is the oldest of 
the family, and is now ninety-two years of age. His 
sons were Asa Jones, Jr., Amasa Jones, and Joel 
Jones. The family need no eulogy. 

Salmon Jones, a brother of the Deacon, was elected 
sheriff in 1816 and removed to Bethany. He had a 
respectable family, all of w^hich are gone to the grave. 
Jesse Morgan and George Morgan, his son, Iirst be- 
gan on Morgan Hill, but having some dilficulty about 
the land, tliey removed to Canaan township. George 
Morgan died in that township within the past year, 
aged ninety-seven years. 

Michael Mitchell began about 1802, and then re- 
moved to Providence, Luzerne (county, iinally return- 
ing to Salem. He ^\'as an ingenious mechanic, mason, 
carpenter, shoemaker, school-master, and music-teacher. 
In later years he taught all to sing that could learn the 
old minor-keved fuo-ue tunes. Gne of them was 
'' Whitestown," which his choir used to sing witli 
strong, natural voices to the appropriate words: 
* * Where nothing dwelt but beasts of prey, 
Or men as fierce and wild as they; 
He bids the oppressed and poor repair, 
And build them towns and cities there. 
They sow their fields, their trees they jDlant^ 
Whose yearly fruit supplies their want; 
Their race grows up from fruitful stocks, 
Their wealth increases with their Hocks. " 


Aside from his otlier qualifications, Mr. Mitcliell 
was an expert mathematician ; indeed he was no botch 
at anything he undertook. He died in elanuary, 1855, 
aged eighty years, and his wife died in February, 1867, 
in the ninety-second year of her age. They have three 
sons living, namely, Jairus Mitchell, living near Hol- 
listerville, well known as the manufacturer of Mitch- 
ell's rakes, John P. Mitchell, who lives on Potter's 
creek, above IloUisterville, and owns a valuable farm 
and saw-mill, and Shepherd Mitchell, who is unmar- 
ried and lives near his brothers. 

Elizur Miller settled north of Timothy Hollister on 
the Jonestown road. He was the father of Joseph, 
Jesse, Ashbel, and Hervey Miller. Joseph Miller 
built the court-house in Bethany in 1816, and was 
twice elected sheriff of the county. Jesse Miller lived 
and died near the old homestead. Ashbel Miller clear: 
ed up a farm near RoUisonville, then removed to Burnt 
Ridge, south of his first farm, lived there several years 
and cleared up a farm which he finally sold to Thomas 
Bortree and moved West. Hervey Miller settled in 

Francis Nicholson, a Revolutionary soldier, who 
located immediately west of Josiah Curtis, died soon af- 
ter he settled in the township. He left a widow and a 
lar^e familv of children, of whom were Jonathan 
Nicholson, who had seven sons in the late war, tmd 
Edmund Nicholson, who married a daughter of Josiah 
Curtis, and lived one mile south-west of Salem Cor- 
ners. One of his sons fell in the late war. 


Zenas Nicholson was a carpenter and mill-wriglit. 
He lived on the old homestead until about 1830, when 
he removed to Hamlinton. He died of epilepsy. He 
had six sons and three daughters. His sons were H. 
W. Nicholson and G. Byron Nicholson, late attorneys 
at law, deceased ; Lyman Nicholson, lieutenant in the 
late war and who was killed at Gettysburg; Seth G. 
Nicholson, farmer in Sterling ; Milton Nicholson, and 
Oscar Nicholson, of Luzerne county. 

Ambrose Nicholson, one of the original family, re- 
moved a few years ago to Nebraska. Henry Heermans 
married Fanny Nicholson, and Solomon Purdy also 
married one of the daughters. Jeremiah Osgood, who 
was a Revolutionary soldier and was afterwards pen- 
sioned by the government, took up land one mile north 
of Hamlinton. He died at the age of ninety-nine 
years. His sons were Jeremiah, Daniel, and Joseph. 
The latter is a physician yet practicing in the town, 
and is the only survivor of the family. Lydia, the 
only daughter, married Ebenezer Cobb. 

Theodore Woodl)ridge, about 1803, took up twelve 
hundred acres of land, moved his family into tlie town, 
and built a house of hewn logs one mile east of Ham- 
linton. He was the wealthiest man in the place. He 
v\'as a major in the Kevolutionary wai-, belonged to 
the order of "The Cincinnati," and was often visited 
])y othcers of disthiction. He built the first saw-mill 
in the town at the outlet of tlie Bidwell pond, which 
mill was soon afterwards burnt down ; he then built a. 
oirist-mill and saw-mill on a branch of the Faupack, 


Inilf a mile east of Salem Corners, as it was then call- 
ed. He was active in every good work tliat would 
l)enelit the community. He established a small library 
for the benefit of the young people, furnishing most 
of the books himself. He held several offices in the 
county, but was indifferent to the emoluments of office. 
He had two sons and two daughters. They were well 
educated before they came into the county. 

Ashbel Woodbridge was a good and competent 
school-teacher and taught several years in the school- 
house near his home. After many years he removed 
to Falls township, Luzerne county, and taught in their 
schools to a very advanced age. William Woodbridge 
married Almira, the only daughter of John Weston, 
and remained many years on the old homestead. 
Anna, the oldest daughter, was a noble woman; she 
married Clement Paine, a wealthy merchant of Tioga. 
Laura married a Presbyterian clergyman named Bas- 
com. Rev. William Woodbridge, Sen., a Presbyte- 
rian minister, a graduate of Yale College, the chief 
author of Woodbridge's geography, and who had 
passed most of his life as a teacher in high schools, 
came and lived three or four years with his nephew, 
William Woodbridge, after the death of his brother, 
Major Woodbridge, who died in or about 1815. Rev. 
AVilliam Woodbridge, while in Salem, passed his time 
in preaching and giving instruction in geography and 
astronomy to chisses of young people. He said that 
the Major came to the Beech woods because he had 
not the means of keeping up that style of living ex- 


pected of him in Connecticut. The old Woodl)ridge 
farm is now owned by T. J. Watson. Joseph Wood- 
bridge was a relative of Major Woodbridge. He 
took up four hundred acres of land. He liad a large 
familjy all of whom, excepting one son living on the 
old farm, are in the grave. He was a very competent 
man, had a good library of books, and was the first 
justice of the peace in the town. He died in the very 
meridian of life. 

Nathan Wright settled one mile south of Salem 
Corners about 1803. He came by the encouragement 
of Major Woodbridge, who, knowing him to be a good 
blacksmith, said tlie settlers must have a blacksmith, 
and could not do without one, as, in those days, the 
plowshares were all made out of wrought iron and' 
steel. Mr. Wright worked at his trade during his 
life-time. He had four sons, namely. Miles, a farmer 
who was never married; x\bel, who was married, 
died recently, leaving a family; Moses, who married, 
but left no family; and Sanford, who is unmarried 
and yet living. There were four of his daughters as 
follows: Anna, Lucina, and Kuth, were married in 
the towm; Polly, the oldest of the girls, died un- 

The settling of the sons of the pioneers above de- 
scribed added materially to the advance of the wealth 
and population of the town, but there was only a small 
incoming of new settlers between 1805 and 1825. 

John Weston. Though we remember him well, we 
are unable to state the exact time of his settlement, 


but it was near 1809. He married the widow of 
Francis Nicholson, deceased. His oldest son, Luther 
Weston, cleared up a large farm west of Joseph 
Woodbridge, Esq. He married Leury, a daughter of 
Deacon Asa Jones, and after her death widow Sally 
Hewitt. Altliough a lame man, he acquired a com- 
petency by farming. He removed to Hamlinton, 
where he lived many years, and there died, an honor- 
ed and worthy maii. Another son was Elijah Wes- 
ton, who married a daughter of Major Torrey. Both 
are dead. Their son, Edward Weston, Esq., a noted 
civil engineer in the employ of the Delaware & Hud- 
son Canal & Railroad Company, resides at Provi- 
dence, Pa. William Woodbridge married Almira, 
the only daughter of John Weston. 

Amos Polly, who lived in Jonestown in 1815, was 
the second justi(?e of the peace in the town, w^hicli of- 
fice he held until 1839. His wife was a sister of the 
late Joseph Headley, of Prompton. For many years 
Esquire Polly resided at Hamlinton, and Dr. Hiram 
Blois married Sophia, his daughter. 

Henry Avery, who was from near New London, 
Connecticut, came to the county about 1812. He 
had doubled Cape Horn eight times, and to escape 
the perils of the sea, (having on his last voyage been 
shipwrecked,) he came to the Beech woods. He was 
a man of reading and deep reflection, and, at the re- 
quest of his neighbors, held the ofiice of justice of the 
peace for many years. A few years since he died, 
aged ninety-five years. One daughter, widow Almira 


Wetlierit, his oldest child, now living in Salem, alone 
remains of his family. Others say that there are two 
i>f the family li^dng in the State of New York. 

Bethuel Jones, father of Ebenezer R. Jones, wlio 
was twice commissioner of the connty, took up land 
at one time occupied by Eliphalet Flint. Before Mr. 
Jones died, he and his son, El)enezer, had cleared up 
and improved an excellent farm. Many years ago 
one of the old gentleman's sons came from Connecti- 
cut, his father's native home, on a visit. Supposing 
that there would be ]*are sport in hunting deer, lie 
went with his bi'other, Ebenezer, to the w^oods, shot 
at a deer, which fell; he eagerly jumped upon the 
deer to cut its throat, but the struggling animal struck 
the knife with his hind foot, changing its direction, 
and causing the knife to sever the femoral artery of 
the young man's left leg. He fell over and died in a 
few minutes. 

John Andre w^s, about 1813, took up a farm east of 
Harris Hamlin's first farm. He had four sons; Adriel, 
the oldest, is living, aged ninety-two years; John, 
Charles, and David are dead. Anson Goodrich mar- 
ried Eunice, his only daughter, who was an excellent 
woman. She died, leaving a family of ten children, 
most of whom are living. 

Tlie following named persons settled before 1823: 

John Glossenden settled north-east of Anson Good- 
rich, took up one hundred and sixteen acres of land, 
cleared up a good farm, and lived there duiing his life. 
Robert Glossenden, a son of his, was born there. 


Aaron Gillett was from Connecticut, and first be- 
gan by teaching school in the town. He married a 
daughter of Samuel Hartford, and he and his wife are 
both living. 

Edmund Hartford lived on the north side of the 
Paupack below Luther Weston's, and owned a grist-mill, 
which was built by Ephraim Bidwell, Ashbel Wood- 
bridge, and William Hollister on the Sterling side of 
the creek. Hartford probably bought the mill of 
Hollister. Mr. Hartford was always considered honest, 
an excellent quality in a miller. 

Amasa Hollister, a ])lacksmith, began about 1815. 
His sons were Alpheus, Alanson, Amasa, Wesley, 
and John F. Alpheus and Alanson built a saw-mill 
and grist-mill and made many other improvements. 
John F. Hollister lives at Piano, Illinois. Amasa and 
Wesley went South. There were two daughters; 
Ursula, now a widow living in Illinois, married Mar- 
cus Stewart, and Daphne married Hiram Brown, who 
went West. 

Henry Heermans began first upon the place last 
owned by Harris Hamlin, Sen., and then he removed 
to Salem Corners, which place was in part built up by 
him. He was elected constable in the spring of 1818, 
and, at November sessions, 1818, he was licensed to 
keep a public house, which, with a store, he managed 
for several years. He was a stirring business man. 
In 1829 he disposed of his property at Salem Corners 
and removed to Providence, Pa. 

Samuel Morgan bought the farm first taken up by 



liis uncle, Jesse Morgan, and' called Morgan hill. He 
was a shrewd man and a good farmer. He so much 
resembled Ben. Butler that had they been dressed 
alike it would have been hard to tell them apart. His 
daughter, Mary Morgan, now owns the old home- 
stead. Halsey Morgan, one of his sons, remains in 
the town, but his other children have removed. 

Aaron Morgan, a brother of Samuel, bought and 
improved land north of his brother. Subsequently he 
bought of Charles Goodrich, Sen., the north-east sec- 
tion of the old London lot, at Hamlinton, containing 
one liundred and twenty acres, and exchanged his 
northern farm with Hammond Fowler for the George 
Lee farm lying east of his purchase of Charles Good- 
rich. Aaron Morgan's old farm is now owned by A. 
R. Jones, which farm adjoins the one of that ingen- 
ious orchardist and gardener, T. W. Quintin. Mr. 
Morgan built the large stone dwelling-house at Ham- 
linton and, upon his death, bequeathed all his property 
equally to his four daughters. 

Dr. Asa Hamlin, who originally was from Con- 
necticut, came to Salem about 1814. He was the 
first settled physician ; before his time Dr. Collins, of 
Cherry Bidge, or Dr. Mahony, of Bethany, was called 
in cases of great extremity. Dr. Hamlin bought or 
rented a tavern-stand of Henry Heermans and kept 
tavern several years at Hamlinton, and was succeeded 
by Jeffrey Wells. Dr. Hamlin had three sons and 
one daughter. He took great pains to educate his 
children. His oldest son, William E. Hamlin, mar- 


ried a daughter of David Noble and has been a promi- 
nent merchant at Nobletown from his youth up. The 
other sons removed to western Pennsylvania and have 
been popular men in the Legislature. The only daugh- 
ter, Eliza, married James Noble, of Nobletown, both 
of whom are living. 

John Roosa, Esq., bought the corner where Dr. 
Hamlin kept tavern, and was licensed at' April sessions, 
1826. He had previously kept a popular tavern in 
Damascus. No reasonable man could find any fault 
with the house kept by Mr. Roosa. After eight or 
ten years, he sold out to John Nash, and removed to 
Orange county. He was the father of Dr. Isaac 
Koosa, George D. Roosa, and, also, of Charles P. 
Roosa, who kept a store in Hamlinton several years. 
Catharine, the only daughter, married Anson Northum, 
a merchant. 

Jonathan B. Watrous came to Salem w^hen young. 
He was known to be the best boot and shoe maker to 
be found. He married a daughter of Joseph Moore, 
Sen. He is one of the oldest men in the town. 

Joseph Moore, Sen., was originally from Connecti- 
cut. He had three children by his first wife, namely, 
Joseph Moore, Jr., who married Rebecca, daughter of 
Seth Goodrich; Abigail, wife of George Goodrich; 
and Matilda, wife of J. B. Watrous. 

Edward Moore bought the farm first owned by Har- 
ris Hamlin. Dr. Joseph S. Moore, a son of Edward 
Moore, died many years ago. Horace Moore, anothei' 
son, lives in Jonestown and owns the best farm in the 


neighborhood. Walter Moore lives adjoining the old 
farm of his father, and Lucy Moore lives on the home- 

John Raymond, who married a daughter of Thomas 
Spangenberg, Esq., and who was a soldier in the war 
of 1812 and is now pensioned, lived and traded as a 
merchant several years in Hamlinton. He is now 
living in Scranton. 

John Buckingham, about 1818, settled on the farm 
now owned by John Pel ton, and then removed to 
South Canaan, where he lived the rest of his days. 
By trade he was a calker and worked much at Hones- 
dale u.pon canal-boats. Ambrose Buckingham, a 
brother, bought land and cleared up a good farm near 
the line between Salem and Paupack (really in Pau- 
pack). He was father of Emma May Buckingham, 
the authoress. Asa Johnson married a sister of said 
Buckingham; Harvey Miller married one, and Jas. 
Carr another. The family, as we have elsewhere sta- 
ted, were from Saybrook, Conn. The Peet family 
settled on the old Samuel Hartford farm. There 
were Charles, a shoemaker, and Daniel and Abisha, 
farmers. Moses Wright married one of the daugh- 
ters, and Albert Stocker another. Stocker lived on 
and owned the Isaac Hewitt place, east of Little 
Meadows, w^hich his family now own. 

Dr. Erastus Wright, from Massachusetts, com- 
menced the practice of medicine, at Hamlinton, about 
1823, and continued there during his life. He mar- 
ried Lydia, a daughter of Pliny Muzzy, of Clinton, 


and had two daughters, Mary and Frances. Mary 
married Rev. A. R. Raymond, and Frances, Mr. Cook. 

Salem is less broken by hills than any other town- 
ship. The soil produces good crops of corn, rye, oats, 
and buckwheat, but it is best adapted to the raising 
of grass. The Wallenpaupack and its tributaries af- 
ford abundant water-powxr. Jones pond is the larg- 
est sheet of water in the county, and the Bid well pond 
is also large. The Cobb pond is smaller, and the 
Marsh pond the most diminutive. The first settlers 
located on the old north and south and east and west 
roads. In 1821, there was not a house on the road 
from Little Meadows to the Paupack, a distance of 
seven miles. Fifty years ago the whole region east of 
the Five Mile creek, with little exception, was an un- 
broken wilderness. Rollisonville takes its name from 
John, Asa, and Nathaniel Rollison, who first began 

The Osborn family, also, contributed to enlarge the 
settlement. The post-office is Arlington. No. 19 is 
situated at the head of Jones pond, on the light track 
of the Peminsylvania Coal Co's Railroad, to which 
position it owes its importance. The village has all 
the buildings necessary for the convenience of a tliriv- 
ing population. The post-office is Ariel. Number 
12 is situated on the loaded track of said railroad, 
north of No. 19, and is fast increasing in all that is 
necessary to form a prosperous village. Hamlin ton 
has two stores, one tavern, a Methodist Episcopal 
church, a Presbyterian, and an Episcopal church. 


Hon. Butler Hamlin is postmaster. The situation of 
the place is very pleasant. Hollisterville, situated on 
Potter creek, has a post-office, two grist-mills, two 
saw-mills, two rake-factories, three stores, two black- 
smith-shops, two wheelwright-shops, one carding-mill, 
one Baptist church, and one Protestant Methodist 

Ledgedale, situated on the Wallenpaupack, owes its 
origin to the establishment of a tannery at the place 
by G. B. Morss. It contains a saw-mill, grist-mill, 
and store, witli all other conveniences appurtenant to 
a village. The population is Irish and German. The 
Saint Mary's Roman Catholic church is located near 
by in Pike county. Services are held monthly. There 
is a Methodist Episcopal church in Bidwelltown, and 
a Baptist church in Jonestown. The first store in Sa- 
lem was kept by George Harberger, in a part of Major 
Woodbridge's new house. He kept salt at five dollars 
per bushel, leather, paper, bohea tea, and pepper, and 
took in pay fox and deer-skins. Oliver Hamlin kept 
the next store at Hamlinton. Major Woodbridge 
was the first post-master and he was succeeded by 
his son, William. There were but two newspapers 
taken in the town up to 1815. Theodore Woodbridge 
and Seth Goodrich took one copy of the Hartford 
Coitrant, and Joseph Woodbridge and John Weston 
another. At that time John Searle carried the mail 
from Milford through Salem to Wilkesbarre every 
fortnight. When the papers came the men gathered 
in to hear and discuss the neW'S. It took four months 


for the news about the battle of Waterloo to reach 
the Beech Woods. Facts illustrative of the suffer- 
ings of the first settlers are given elsewhere. 

There are ten public schools in Salem, and the 
same number in Lake. Number of taxables in Salem 
in 1878, 455. Number in Lake, 371. 


STEELING, including what is now Dreher, was sep- 
arated from Salem, April 25th, 1815. It is bounded 
north by the west branch of the Wallenpaupack, east by 
the south branch thereof, south by Monroe county, and 
west by Lackawanna. Other streams of less note are 
Butternut and Mill creek. There are no lakes. The 
south-western part of the township, about the head- 
waters of the Lehigh, is sterile and unimproved. 
The lands about and westward of Nobletown and in 
the northern and eastern part, along the south branch, 
are of good quality and are well cultivated. Below 
and eastward of Captain Howe's location and between 
there and the old Bortree settlement, is a high hill of 
l)roken ground, worthless except for pasturage. 


Henry Stevens, a German, was the first settler on 
the old north and sonth State road, near Butternut 
creek. He had received a good education in his native 
country. In 1800 he was taxed as a laborer, and in 
1803 paid taxes on two hundred acres of land. He 
was the father of Valentine, George, Nicholas, and 
Henry, who were all farmers, and of Jane and Martha 

In 1805, Robert Bortree, Sen., Edward Cross, Jno. 
Clements, and James Simons, each paid taxes on four 
hundred acres of land, from which it appears that 
each one took np a wari*antee tract. These men 
bought their lands of Edward Evans, of Philadelphia, 
the deed of John Clements being dated in March, 
1804, that of Robert Bortree in May, 1805, and that 
of James Simons, in July, 1806. The lands of the 
above were described as located on the south branch 
of the Wallenpaupack. In the same year (1805) Jo- 
seph Simons and Abraham Simons paid taxation on 
two hundred acres each. The above named came up 
from Philadelphia and from Pocono by the old north 
and south State road, from which they marked out a 
route to their possessions. What few goods they had 
were brought in on pack-horses. With axes and au- 
gers they constructed their huts. Of so little value 
were they that the assessors neglected to assess them. 

Phineas Howe, Sen., or Captain Howe, a title 
which he acquired in Massacluisetts, began on the old 
north and south road and, in 1805, paid taxes on 
thirty acres of land, and subsequently on 2744 acres; 


consequently he paid the highest tax that was levied 
in the township. During his life he was a noted inn- 
keeper, and erected costly and convenient buildings 
which, in or about the year 1826, were consumed by 
tire. He lost all, as he had no insurance. He was 
the father of the late Hon. Phineas Howe, Jr., for- 
merly an associate judge of the county, and grand fa- 
liter of Hon. A. R. Howe, once register and recorder 
and Representative of the county. He had one other 
son, named S. Howe, now deceased ; some of his chil- 
dren are yet living in the township. Ezra Wall, Esq., 
a merchant of Nicholson, Luzerne county. Pa., married 
one of his daughters, and Capt. A. H. Avery, of Sa- 
lem, who removed to Illinois, married another. 

The resident taxables in the township, at the time 
of its erection, were Wm. Akers, Bartle Bartleson, 
John Bennett, Jeremiah Bennett, Nathaniel Bennett, 
Robert Bortree, Sen., Wm. Bortree, John Bortree, 
Thomas Bortree, Jr., John Burns, John Clements, 
Edward Cross, Andrew Cory, Richard Gilpin, Wm. 
Gilpin, Wm. Hollister, Phineas Howe, Jonathan Rich- 
ardson, and John Brown. We remember that in 
or about 1821, Edward Bortree, Thomas Bortree, Sen., 
Benjamin Beach, Robert Cross, George Dobell, Jas. 
Dobson, George Frazer, Dawson Lee, Thomas Lee, 
William Lancaster, Richard Lancaster, Amasa Megar- 
gle, Joseph Megargle, William McCabe, Edwin Mul- 
linsford, John Nevins, Heman Newton, David Reed, 
David Noble, John Simpson, Henry Trout, and Levi 
Webster, together with those aforementioned, and 



their children, with some others, were then residents 
of Sterlhig township. 

Prominent among the above named was Robert 
Bortree, Sen. He built the first grist-mill and saw- 
mill in the townsliip ; he did many other things for the 
benelit of the public, and was an open-handed and 
free-hearted Irishman. William Bortree, his oldest 
son, for several years a farmer and merchant, died a 
few years since, aged over ninety years. His other 
sons were John, Edward, Thomas, and Robert. Mucli 
to their credit, they settled near their old homestead. 
If rightly informed, Robert, who lives on the east side 
of the south branch of the Wallenpaupack, is the only 
survivor of the family. Thomas Bortree built an ex- 
cellent mill on the S(juth branch of the Wallenpau- 
pack, about one mile from the mill that his fathe]- 
constructed, and ran it many years with success. Then 
he bought a farm of Ashbel Miller, situated in the 
eastern part of Salem, on the old turnpike road, i\\ 
which place he died. His wife was a daughter of 
Rev. Benjamin Killam, of Palmyra. There was an- 
other Thomas Bortree, who was an older man and 
was eitliei- an uncle or a relative of the younger 
Thomas, who began at an early date on a farm on the 
eastern side of the road nortli of J^iobletown. 

William Gilpin was the first constable, and Jere- 
miah Bennett the first assessor. He was the son of 
John Bennett, and held the office of county commis- 
sioner and other offices, and was captain of a militia 
company. He was a generous and public-spirited 


man and wielded great political influence. He, for 
many years, kept a pul)lic-house in that part of the 
town called Newfoundland. Nathaniel Bennett, a man 
much esteemed in his day, was Jeremiah's brother. 

David Noble was the iirst merchant in the town. 
He bought a large tract of land and he and his sons 
commenced and built up the village of Nobletown, 
and, judging from the social and moral character of 
the people, the name of the place is very appropriate. 
William T. Noble, a brother of, David, was for many 
years a merchant in said village. 

William Hollister, from Connecticut, in early days, 
was interested in building the grist-mill always known 
as the Edmund Hartford mill. After clearing up a 
farm, he returned to his native place and remained a 
few years, then came back, and died at Salem. Asa 
Hollister, his only son, is living at Hollisterville. Three 
of his daughters are living. James Waite married 
one, Leonard Clearwater one, and A. B. Walker an- 
other. Mrs. Polly Hollister, his widow, is jet living, 
aged over ninety years. Mr. Hollister was an excel- 
lent man. He was in no way related to the families 
of Timothy Hollister and Amasa Hollister. 

Jonathan Ricliardson was from Philadclpliia, and 
was a man of capacity and education. 

Richard Lancaster was an Englishman and a silver- 
smith by trade. He used to work at his business of 
making silver spoons, and took them to Philadelphia 
for sale. He held the oltice of justice of tlie peace, 
and was elected treasurer and sheriff of the county, 


and discharged all tlie duties pertaining to these offices 
with fidelity. 

Dawson Lee and Thomas Lee lived near Thomas 
Bortree, Sen., on the Newfoundland turnpike. Daw- 
son Lee was a shrewd, witty man. They were Loth 
good farmers. Thomas Lee once had a number of 
iine shoats in a pen which one by one mysteriously dis- 
appeared. At last he set a trap and caught a large 
{)lack bear which thus fell a victim to his un Jewish 
appetite for pork. 

Amasa Megargle was a miller, and, for many years, 
was employed in the Honesdale inill. KW. the Me- 
i>:ar2:les were ino-enious mechanics. 

Levi Webster, in 1815, moved into Salem, and after 
a few years took up a farm in West Sterling, Avliere 
he remained the rest of his life. He was a man of 
quick wit and well read, particularly in natural histo- 
ry. He has three sons in the county, who are very 
much like what their father was. 

Such were the original settlers of Sterling, the 
foundation of the present excellent superstructure of 
its society. After the erection of the township, 
constant accessions of the same moral excellence were 
made to the population. Excepting Capt. Howe, Jer- 
emiah Bennet, and David Noble, the most of the first 
settlers were Irish. 

It is a surprising truth that notmthstanding the 
mingled nationalities of the people, no township in the 
county has had fewer criminal prosecutions and civil 
controversies in our courts than Sterling. Between 


thirty and forty years ago, a settlement was made in 
East Sterling, or Newfonndland, by a body of worthy 
and industrious Germans, who have greatly promoted 
tlie wealtli and advancement of the township. When 
the Bortree, Simons, Gilpin, Cross, and Clements 
families, fresh from the Emerald Isle, first marked 
their way into the woods and built their huts midst 
gloom and solitude, how desperate was their condition, 
contrasted with the enchanting scenes which they had 
left forever behind them ! They suffered, struggled, 
and agonized to live and provide homes for themselves 
and their children; and let it not be forgotten that 
they succeeded. After the German settlement began 
to ilourisli, a turnpilve was constructed from the old 
turnpike through Newfoundland, etc. It has since 
l)een thrown up. 

Since the plan for this history was adopted the 
town has been divided and the southern part erected 
into a new township and named Dreher, in honor of 
Hon. Samuel S. Dreher, late president judge of Wayne 
and Pike counties. In the south-western part of 
Dreher, the Delaware, Lackawaxen and Western rail- 
road crosses a narrow strip of the county at a place 
called Sand Cut, where there is a depot and a post- 
office. Though the village is small, the business is 

South Sterling is a small, thriving village with a 
post-office and a M. E. church. 

There is a post-office at Newfoundland and an 
Evangelical church. Nobletown has a post-office and 


H M. E. church. In 1878 Sterlmg had ten common 
schools, inchiding those in Dreher. The number of 
taxables in both was four hundred and ninety-one. 


rpmS township Avas formed from parts of Texas and 
A Canaan townships, at December sessions, 1843. 
It is bounded on the north and north-east by Tex- 
as, on the south-w^est by Palmyra and Paupack, 
south by Lake, and west by South Canaan and 
Canaan. The chief natural ponds are Sand and Cajaw. 
The Middle creek, Collins brook, Stryker, and Pond 
brooks are the chief streams. There are no very high 
hills, and the greater part of the land is cultivatable. 
There is much land in the township of superior quality, 
but the lands south of Middle creek are mostly rough 
and uninviting, excepting about the Sand pond and in 
the neighborhood of John R. Hoadley's. This town- 
ship was early benefited by the passage of the Milford 
and Owego turnpike road througli it, and at a later 
period l)y the Ilonesdale and Cherry Ridge turnpike, 
which was afterwards continued to East Sterling. A 


settlement was commenced in this township before the 
organization of the county, but at what exact time we 
cannot ascertain. By an assessment of Canaan town- 
ship, made, in 1799, by John Bunting, Esq,, it appears 
that En OS Woodward, John Woodward, Sihis Wood- 
ward, Asahel Woodward, and John H. Schenck had 
at that time made quite an opening in the woods. 
Enos Woodward had then more land cleared than any 
man in the township, excepting Moses Dolph; having 
iif ty acres of improved and one hundred and seventy- 
five acres of unimproved land. John Woodward had 
seventeen acres of cleared and three hundred and 
eighty-three acres of uncleared land; Silas Woodward 
and Asahel Woodward each had twenty acres of im- 
proved, and each three hundred and eighty acres of 
unimproved land; and Col. John H. Schenck had 
forty acres of improved and four hundred acres of un- 
improved land. About 1794, Benjamin King went 
from Paupack and began on the Schenck farm, and, 
in 1796, left it and went to Mount Pleasant. It is 
supposed that about this time Enos Woodward with 
his sons and Col. John fl. Schenck commenced and 
made the first permanent improvements. They were 
soon after joined by Daniel Davis and Abraham J. 

Enos Woodward was a native of Massachusetts. 
He was a soldier in the Pe volution ary war, and, while 
at home upon a furlough, mixed in an Indian fight on 
the Paupack. He was tall in stature, noble in bear- 
ing, and much reseml^led his grandson, Hon. George 


. W. Woodward, deceased. He had several sons, namely, 
John, that quiet and unobtrusive man wlio lived and 
died upon the great Woodward farm near the resi- 
dence of J. Jordan; Silas, who bought the farm of 
Phineas Coleman in Dyberry; EV)enezer, who owned 
the farm west of Clark's Corners ; and Abisha Wood- 
ward, whose history will l)e found under tlie head of 

Colonel John H. Schenck was from (3range connty, 
I*^. Y. Owning a good property in his native place, 
he mortgaged it to raise money to equip a regiment 
to serve in the Revolutionary war. Such was the pov- 
erty of the country in those days that he was poorly 
remunerated for his services, and, though made colonel 
of the regiment that he raised, he was not able to re- 
deem the farm that he mortgaged. He removed to 
Cherry Ridge and took up the land known as the 
Darling farm. He was finally pensioned by the gov- 
ernment and died at the house of Dr. Sweet in Canaan 
township. He was a patriot whose name deserves to 
be remembered. Some of his descendants are living 
in the township. Colonel Jacob Schenck was a son of 
Colonel John H. Schenck. Jacol) had the following 
sons: John J., who lived and traded many years at 
Clark's Corners, a most estimal)le man ; Apollos D., 
Henry, Caleb D., and Isaac, and, also, two daughters. 

Abraham J. Stryker ])ought a large quantity of 
land south of the Enos AVoodward farm, and made 
improvements thereon. In his old age he removed t«» 


Honesdale. His only son, Abraham A. Stryker, is 
living in Damascus. 

Daniel Davis located upon the farm now owned by 
H. L. Phillips. When there was much travel npon 
the turnpike, Mr. Davis kept a good public house for 
many years. Stephen Kimble, married Catharine, a 
daughter of Daniel Davis. 

Thomas Lindsley, for many years, kept a tavern in 
Cherry Ridge. 

Dr. Lewis Collins was born in Litchfield, Connecti- 
cut. He married a daughter of Hon. Oliver Hun- 
tington, of Lebanon, in that State. He removed his 
family to Salem, in 1801, and bought of Moses Dolph 
the old Jacob Stanton farm at Little Meadows. About 
this time the county seat was fixed at Bethany, and 
the doctor wishing to locate nearer the centre of the 
county, where he could have a larger field for his prac- 
tice, sold out to Seth Goodrich, removed to Cherry 
Ridge in 1803, and bought the possessions of Enos 
Woodward aforesaid. The farm that he purchased is 
now owned by his grandson, Lewis S. Collins, Esq. 
The practice of the doctor was very extensive and em- 
braced the whole circuit of the county. He had a sar- 
castic way of giving gratuitous advice to his patients, 
whicli, althougli salutary, was not always agreeable. 
He advised a woman who asked for medicine to re- 
store her appetite, to go without eating for eight and 
forty hours, and if that failed, to go without, eight and 
forty hours longer, and then to eat old bread and ap- 
ple-sauce. The following were the names of the chil- 



dren of Dr. Lewis Collins, viz : Aiigiistns, who owned 
and lived upon the farm now the property of Charles 
Gc. Reed in Dyberry ; Oristns, attorn ey-at-law, generally 
known as Judge Collins. He located at Wilkesbarre, 
and at times practiced at the Bar in Wayne county. 
He Avas ten years president judge of the several courts 
in Dauphin county, Fa. He is yet living with his son 
in Princeton, New Jersey; Abner, a farmer, died in 
Salem an aged man ; Lorenzo was a farmer and sawyer 
and died in Cherry Ridge, leaving no enemies. Decius, 
a farmer, removed to Salem and bought a farm there, 
at whi(;h place he died. Lucius was twice elected 
sheriff of the county; consequently he lived several 
years at Bethany and was known by almost every man 
in the county. He returned to the old farm of his 
father and has been dead but a few years. Alonzo, a 
farmer, bought a farm in Canaan and died there. He 
was a man of reading and culture. Huntington, who 
was a mill-wright, learned his trade of Zenas Nichol- 
son and Henry Heermans, and built more mills than 
any other man living or that ever lived in Wayne and 
Pike counties. Theron, a farmer, has been dead many 
years. Philena, the only daughter, married Yirgil 
Diboll, a physician, who removed to the Wyoming 

At the erection of the town there were many good 
farms, (which number has been largely increased since,) 
assessed to the following named persons : Samuel Bar- 
tron, E. H. Clark, Lucius Collins, Samuel S. Darling, 
John P. Darling, John Kirby, Jacob S. Kimble, 


David Kenner, Lewis Leonard, Wm. R. McLaury, 
Edward Murray, John G. Schenck, A. A. Stryker, 
and Isaac Y. Writer. The heavy track of the Penn- 
sylvania Coal Go's railroad runs through the southern 
part of this township, and it crosses the Middle creek 
above the most splendid fall on that stream. Here, in 
coming times, will be found a manufacturing village. 
Middle Valley owes its importance and develop- 
ment to the establishment there of the great tannery 
of L. A. Robertson &, Go. Ten years ago, it did the 
largest tannery business in the county. The com- 
pany, for the benefit of themselves and the region 
about them, cleared up a large quantity of land, and, 
by selling a portion to their workmen, were the means 
of causing several farms to be made. The place is 
conveniently located near the loaded track of the 
Pennsylvania Goal Go's railroad; it has a large store, 
a post-office, and a flourishing school. Tlie tannery 
is now run and controlled by William Gale, Esq. A 
daily mail passes through Middle Valley, running 
from Honesdale to Hamlinton. The post-office, call- 
ed Gherry Ridge, is located at the intersection of the 
Honesdale and Gherry Ridge turnpike with the old 
Milford and Owego turnpike road. The office was 
kept in the dwelling-house of the late E. H. Glark, 
Esq., deceased, until the house was burned down, a 
year or two ago. There is no licensed public house in 
the town. The people are made up of L*ish, German, 
English, and American-born citizens, the L-ish ele- 
ment probably predominating. The township of 


Cherry Hidge has one church, formerly called the 
Union church, but now the M. E. church, and iive 
common schools. The abundance of cherry-trees on 
the old Enos Woodward, John H. Schenck, and John 
Woodward lands gave name to the place long before it 
was erected into a township. 


THIS township was erected in 1805, and was the 
first one taken out of the original townships. It 
was taken from Damascus, Palmyra, and Canaan. 
The excision of Texas and Berlin greatly diminished 
its area. It is now bounded by Mount Pleasant and 
Lebanon on the north, on the east by Oregon, on the 
south by Texas, and west by Canaan and Clinton. 
The main streams are the Dyberry and its tributaries, 
and the Jennings creek. Part of the Sand pond is in 
the north-west part, and tliere are also the Third, Sec- 
ond, and First ponds ; from the last two most of the 
water is derived which supplies the borough of Hones- 
dale. There are no high, uncultivatable hills, except- 
ing in the upper north-eastern section. The soil is 


varied, but much of it is of superior quality. Accord- 
ing to Thomas Spangeuburg, Esq., he moved up from 
New Jersey, in February, 1798, with one ox, har- 
nessed like a horse, and moved into a hut which one 
Kizer had built, the year before, on the place where 
John Nelson now lives. There was nobody then in 
Bethany. Samuel Smith built on the other side of 
the George Yan Deusen place. The very night that 
Esquire Spangenberg arrived, Richard Nelson, and 
Conrad Pulis, a German, came. The latter began 
and cleared up a farm. So numerous were his sons 
that we may fail to mention them all, but among them 
were Abraham, Peter, Henry, William, and Ephraim. 
The farm of Conrad Pulis was below Day's bridge, 
on the Dyberry. 

Kichard Nelson bought against Big eddy, on the 
same stream. He had five sons, namely : Richard, Jr., 
deceased; John, who has been an honest, hard-work- 
ing farmer and lumberman, yet living near the old 
homestead; Charles, who is an expert steersman on 
the Lackawaxen and Delaware rivers ; Stephen, who 
located in Lebanon and died there ; and James, who 
first settled in Girdland and then removed to Nebras- 
ka. Henry Brown married one of the daughters of 
Richard Nelson, William Bolkcom one, and Osborn 
Mitchell another. 

About 1799, Jonathan Jennings began on the west- 
ern side of the Dyberry, near the junction of Thomas 
creek therewith, from which place he removed to and 
bought the farm now occupied by Hiram G. Chase, 


Esq. Jonathan Jennings was many years crier of the 
courts, and held important township offices. His son, 
Henry, exchanged farms with Mr. Chase, taking the 
one where he spent the remainder of his life. He 
was a justice of the peace, and two of his daughters 
now own his last residence. 

A man by the name of Dye first made some im- 
Drovement on or near the residence of Martin lviml)le. 
The property belonged to Sylvanus Seely, who sold it 
to Isaac Brink, from Brodhead's creek. After a while 
Brink sold it to Asa Kimble, who was a son of Eph- 
raim Kimble, Sen., of the Narrows, Pike Co., and 
brother of the first svife of Joseph Atkinson, deceased. 
Kimble married Abigail, a daughter of John Pellet, 
of Palmyra, Pike Co., and Mr. Kimble and his wife 
lived and died where his son, Martin, now lives. 
Their children are Ephraim B., Isaac P., George W., 
John P., William, and Martin, and Mrs. Nancy Ge- 
nung, widow of the late Ezra M. Genung, of Hones- 
dale, deceased. They are all living in the county and 
partake of the virtues of their parents, whose memory 
is blessed. 

Philip Thomas began before the year 1805, on the 
farm of Albert Butler, on the road from Bethany to 
Seelyville. None of his family are now living. 

Abraham Brink, from Mom*oe county. Pa., built a 
grist-mill on the outlet of the Eirst pond, upon the 
premises now owned by Thomas O'Neill. In the first as- 
sessment made in the township by Jonathan Jennings, 
in 1805, the mill was assessed at $640.00. It was a 


popular mill and of great advantage to the settlers. 
Pope Buslinell, Esq., says that it used facetiously to 
be said that the mill could grind wheat so that it was 
almost as good as rye. But let it be remembered that 
the millstones were made from a hard quartz rock 
found on the Moosic mountains. Brink, or somebody 
else, afterwards built a saw-mill below the grist-mill. 
The whole premises afterwards fell into the hands of 
Colonel William Greeley, the father of Willard 
Greeley, of Honesdale, and of Kobert Greeley, of 
Prompton, a brave soldier in the war of the Rebellion. 

In or about the year 1816, Stephen Day, from Chat- 
ham, New Jersey, settled on the east side of the 
Dyberry, where his son Lewis now lives. It is one of 
the pleasantest places on that stream. He died there 
aged ninety-six years. His wife was a daughter of 
Benjamin Bunnell. Jane, his oldest daughter, married 
Moses Ward, and was the mother of Rev. E. O. Ward, 
of Bethany. The rest of his children were as follows: 
Elias, moved to Ohio, thence to California, where he 
died recently, aged ninety-three years; Barney and 
Benjamin removed to Ohio; Mary, the wife of Levi 
Ketchum, has, with her husband, been dead many 
years; Damaris, now living, is the wife of Hon. E. W. 
Hamlin, of Bethany, and as a florist has a most deli- 
cate taste and an appreciation of the beautiful ; Edwin 
S., deceased, was the father of George and Theodore; 
Lewis lives upon the old homestead and is an expert 

Hon. Pope Buslmell, a son of Gideon Buslinell, was 


1>ori] in March, 1789, in Salisbury, Connecticut. He 
came into Dyberry in 1817. Joseph Dow, who was 
a brother of the widow of David Cramer, deceased, 
and of Mrs. Tallman, the wife of C. P. Tallman, Esq., 
lii'st began on his place; then Joseph Corbitt bought 
out Dow and sold his contract to Mr. Buslmell, who, by 
industry and economy paid for and cleared up the farm 
where he now lives. His worth was not unappreciated. 
He was appointed major of the first battalion of the 
Seventieth Regiment, in 1821, by Gov. Hiester, and 
was also appointed justice of the peace in 1824. He 
was the first county commissioner elected by the peo- 
ple. In 1847 he was chosen to represent the county 
in the Legislature. His pure life and abstemiousness 
have prolonged his life to a remarkable age, he being 
now in his ninety-second year. His wife, also living, 
was the daugliter of Gideon Hurlburt, and was one of 
three of his triplet daughters who were born in Goshen, 
Litchfield county, Connecticut, March 20th, 1788. 
The first daughter, Mrs. Susan Grenell, widow of 
Michael Grenell, of Brooklyn, Susquehanna county, 
was the mother of four children. She died, aged about 
eighty-eight years. Mrs. Sally Buslmell, now in hei* 
ninety-tiiird year, brought up six of her own cliildreii 
and four of other people's. Sidney X. Buslmell, Esq., 
is her only surviving (;hild. Mrs. Sibyl Ludington, 
widow of Theron Ludington, had but one child. She 
was a widow about seventy years, and died aged eigh- 
ty-eight years. 

Capt. Homer Brooks, came from Vermont in or 


about 1816, and settled on the place where widow 
Eliza Brooks now lives. His sons were Ezra Brooks, 
a farmer, who lives westw^ard of the old homestead ; 
Yirgil Brooks, farmer in Lebanon; Major E. Brooks, 
deceased; Horace D. Brooks, of Susquehanna county, 
farmer ; and Wm. D. Brooks. He had several daugh- 
ters. Lephe, the wife of Lyman Gleason, Esq., is the 
only one living in the county. Lucy, the widow of 
Barney Bunnell, lives in Newark, N. J. The others 
are dead or have removed elsewhere. 

Joseph Gleason began near where his son, Lyman 
Gleason, now lives. Alvin, one of his sons, was killed 
in the war of the Bebellion. Willard, another son, 
lives near the old homestead. 

Gideon Langdon began about 1815 on the Thomas 
Hacker farm. His son, Solomon, followed him, and 
Jonathan T., another son, lived in Bethany. They 
iinally removed to Montrose, Susquehanna county. 
The first wife of Lewis Day was a daughter of Gideon 

Philemon Ross, from Connecticut, in 1815, began 
where his son, David Boss, now lives. All the rest of 
the family have removed. Philemon married a daugh- 
ter of Pliny Muzzy, of Clinton. In 1817, Mr. Ross, 
who was one of the freeholders of the towTi, brought 
in a bill of $12.00 for warning twelve indigent persons 
who might need public aid, to leave the town with 
their families. There was no law to justify such in- 
human ostracism, but it had become a custom in some 
places, and it was claimed that custom made law. 



Pope Bushnell, Esq., being liiglily incensedj denounced 
the custom as a disgrace, and it was thereafter discon- 
tinued, and the said bill was never paid. 

Jonathan Arnold, from Connecticut, settled on the 
west branch in 1810. He was a pensioner, having 
been in some of the severest battles of the Revolution. 
He retained his faculties unimpaired to a very old age. 

He was assessor of the town when eighty-four years 
old. " His eye was not dim, nor hi& natural force 
abated." He had a large family who are mostly, if 
not all, dead. Hon. Phineas Arnold, late of Promp- 
ton, and once associate judge of the county, and David 
Arnold, once county treasurer, were his sons. He had 
twelve children. 

Isaac Dimmick came to Bethany about 1816. He 
bought the farm now owned by Edwin Webb. He was 
an associate jndge of the county four yeare. He sold 
out his farm to Robei't Webb, Sen., and removed to 
the West. He was a man of merit and ability, 

Hon. Abisha Woodward, who was sheriif in 1807, 
took up the Henry Webb farm, and then the place fell 
into the hands of Edmund L. Reed. The history of 
Judge Woodward will be found under Bethany. 

Phineas Coleman and Daniel Bunting were the iirst 
settlers upon the west branch; after them were Setb 
Hayden and Moses Hayden. 

Eliphalet Wood came from Dutchess Co., N. Y., 
and settled on the west branch of the Lackawaxen, in 
1816, on the farm now o^vned by Michael Moran. 
Mr. Wood bought out a man by tbe name of White. 


This was a very old place and is really in Clinton, al- 
though it was once said to be in Dyberrj. The fol- 
lowing are the names of most if not all of the Wood 
family, namely: Enos, Jesse, Luman, Charles, Eliph- 
alet, John N,, Ezekiel G., William F., Abigail, wife 
of Elias B. Stanton, Esq., Jane, wife of Hon. Phin- 
eas Arnold, both deceased, and Mary Wood, who 
died young. 

The farm, now owned by Oscar Bunnell, was once 
if not at first occupied by Stephen W. Genung, and 
then owned by John Leonard, who sold it to Z. M. 
Pike Bunnell, since deceased. O. H. Bunnell, of 
Honesdale, is a son of said decedent. One of his 
other sons, Ellery, was killed in the battle at Gettys- 

Spencer Blandin was the first settler upon the pres- 
ent farm of Patrick O'Neill, on which is the great 
spring above the road. Daniel Blandin, who, in his 
life-time, lived near Honesdale, was his son. The 
place has since had several owners. John C. Ham 
l)uilt new buildings upon the farm, and then sold it to 
O'l^^eill, and he, with his family, removed to Wauseon, 

Eli Henshaw settled upon the farm now owned by 
Joseph Arthur. At what particular time he and his 
brother, Increase Henshaw, were first in the county is 
uncertain, but we know that they were here in 1816, 
Increase was a painter and an ingenious man. Some- 
times he lived in Bethany and then in Dyberry. 
D wight Hensliaw is a son of Eli. 


V" Nathan Kellogg at first lived in Bethany ; he mar- 
I'ied Salinda, a daughter of Abisha Woodward. He 
was a relative of Silas Kellogg. He built a house on 
the farm of Francis Beere, Esq., and there for many 
years kept a licensed house. 

A man by the name of Freeman began on the Ethel 
Reed place, so called, and w^as succeeded by Ephraim 
Torrey, wdio sold to Ethel Reed, who w^as a son of 
Ethel Reed, Sen., of Salisbury, Conn. Pie came in 
with his brother William, about 1832, and was a 
wheelwright by trade. His only living children are 
the widow of Ezra Brown, deceased, and the wife of 
Dwdglit Henshaw. Wm. Reed, deceased, settled in 
Honesdale and was many years a noted merchant. 
Charles G. Reed and Edmund L. Reed were sons of 
Josiah Reed, of Salisbury, Conn. The former located 
in 1832, on the farm where he now lives. Dr. Dwight 
Reed, Dr. Wm. Reed, and Egbert Reed, druggist 
of Honesdale, are sons of the former. Edmund L. 
Reed w^as a graduate of Yale College, and kept for 
years the academy in Bethany, where he died. 

Jacob Hole, in 1817, settled on the Borchers place. 
He was the father of Lewis Hole. 

William Miller, of German descent, came from Lu- 
zerne county, about 1820, and settled on the place 
where he now lives. 

Barney Day began on the place near D. M. Kim- 
ble, then removed to the West, and was succeeded by 
Thomas Andrews. 

Jacob Schoonover, a son of William Schoonover, 


began on Ids farm when lie was a young man. He 
was a native of the county and has three sons. 

Jason Torrey built a saw-mill at Dyberry falls, 
about 1830. In 1857, Barnet Richtmyer built a tan- 
nery there, which now belongs to Coe F. Young, Esq. 
Wm. !N. Alberty is the general superintendent, and 
the business is ably conducted. There is, also, a large 
steam saw-mill. The water is used in and about the 
tannery. The village is now called Tanners Falls. It 
has a large store, a blacksmith shop and the usual 
conveniences of a village. There is a large amount 
of business done in the place. 

Dyberry village. E. B. Kimble keeps a store, tav- 
ern, and post-oftice at his residence. There is a 
wagon and ])lacksmith shop, while the grist-mill of 
Messrs. Bates adds much to the business of the place. 

There has been some dispute as to the origin of the 
name of Dyberry. It was said by Mrs. Isaac Brink, 
an early settler, that the earliest beginners told her 
that a man named Dyberry built a cabin on the east 
branch, and, being the first man that died in tlie town, 
the place was called after him. 

In 1816, C]u-istopher Faatz, Sen., Adam Greiner, 
Jacob nines, Christopher Hines, Nicholas Greiner, 
and Christian Faatz, all Germans, ("ommenced and 
built a factory for tlie making of window-glass, about 
one mile and a half west of Bethany and east of the 
First pond, north of the residence of Charles Faatz. 
The place selected w^as entirely surrounded by woods. 
The stones witli which to build arches were obtained 


from the Moosic mountain, and clay for pots wherein 
to melt the glass, was brought from Philadelphia hy 
wagons and sleighs. They made good glass which 
they, by like means, had to convey to Wilkesbarre, 
Xewburgli, and Philadelphia, from which places they 
obtained their goods. They finally failed. James 
Manning and Jacob Faatz ran the factory awhile and 
stopped. Then Jacob Faatz and William Greeley 
started it again in 1829. Augustus Greeley, a brother 
of William, furnished the capital. This firm ran ten 
years and failed and the works were sold. Then Sloan 
(Sz Stebbins ran them for two years, when the works 
were finally discontinued. The sand which was used 
was taken from the ponds in the town. The several 
firms from time to time employed from thirty to fifty 
men. The enterprise was beneficial as it led to the 
sale and clearing up of the lands. Hiram K. Mumf ord, 
son of Thomas Mumf ord, of Mount Pleasant, owns 
the house and buildings which were erected by Col. 
William Greeley, now deceased. Joseph Bodie and 
Jacob Bodie were blowers in the glass-house, and have 
good farms in the " Bodie Settlement." 

There are seven common schools, two hundred and 
eighty taxables, one Baptist church, and a Granger's 
hall in the town. The population is made up of 
Americans, Irish, Germans, and English. Of the lat- 
ter, within forty-five or fifty years past, the following 
persons have settled, viz : John Blake, John Y. Blake, 
John Bate, Francis Bate, James Pethick, Nicholas 
Cruse, Kichard Clift, Francis Beere, Joseph Dony, 


Richard Bryant, Henry and Joseph Arthur, Matthew 
Clemo, who are now living; also, Thomas Bryant, 
William Bryant, John Dony, Samuel Dony, Robert 
and Richard Webb, Thomas Crago, Mr. Reynolds, 
John Bethick, and Thomas Hacker, all of whom are 
deceased. The living are and the departed were the 
l)est of farmers, and with their families made up the 
greatest part of the population in the town. 


IT having been settled that Bethany was to be the 
county seat of Wayne, as stated by Judge Wood- 
ward, in the introductory chapter to this work, in 
1801, Jason Torrey, Esq., surveyed and set the stakes 
for the public square and court-house, to be erected 
upon the 999 acres which Henry Drinker, of Phila- 
delphia, donated to Wayne county, the proceeds of 
wdiich were to be used in constructing a court-house, 
&c. He immediately began the construction of a 
dwelling-house, and, while building it, he journeyed 
twelve miles daily to Mt. Pleasant and back, through 
the woods, to supply his workmen with provisions. 


Daniel Stevenson used to say that he cut out the road 
from Mt. Pleasant to Bethany, and that Jason Torrey 
paid him twelve dollars for doing the job. Dyberry 
tOMiiship was not then erected, and Bethany was in 
Damascus township. Mr. Torrey laid out the 999 
acres into town or building lots, or into out lots of 
about five acres each. Tlie Drinker land donated as 
aforesaid was called the "Town of Bethany." Mr. 
Torrey had not wholly finished his house, which was 
the second one built in the place, when the lirst court 
ever held in the place was convened in his unlinished 
house, on the 6th day of May, A. D. 1805, before the 
Hon. John Biddis, president judge, and Hon. John 
Brink, associate. The judges sat upon chairs placed 
upon a carpenter's bench and could have been very 
appropriately called tlie " Bench," while the jurors sat 
on board seats below. At that court a grand jury ap- 
peared and was sworn, who ignored three bills of in- 
dictment, and found one true bill for assault and bat- 

The first court-house was built upon the public 
square, and Avas thirty-six feet in front, and thirty-two 
feet deep. A large log-jail, disconnected from the 
other house, was built, in which were confined not 
only criminals but such persons as were unable to pay 
their del>ts, the law then allowing the plaintiff named 
in an execution, to sell all of a debtor's property, in- 
cluding his last knife and fork, and then to send him 
to jail, where the plaintiff, upon paying the sheriff 
fourteen c^nts per day, could keep the debtor until he 


could be released by a tedious and expensive applieti- 
tion for the benefit of the insolvent laws. The law, 
allow^ing imprisonment for debt, was repealed July 
12, 1842. After some years the log-jail was burned 
down, and the back part of a building called the re<l 
house, north of Judge Manning's, was fitted up and 
used in its place, until the building of a new court- 
house, in 1816, when a strong jail was built in tlie 
lower story. The old court-house was removed to the 
west side of Wayne street and is now used as a store 
by W. W. Weston & Brother. 

John Bunting, from Canaan, built the first house in 
Bethany, wdiich was the front house now belonging to 
John Henderson. It was built for a tavern, and at 
December sessions, 1805, license w^as granted to Jolin 
Bunting. That year the house was valued at $200. 
This was probably the first house begun in the place. 
The next was the dwelling-house of Major Torrey, in 
which the court was held as aforesaid. Major Torrey 
obtained license at May sessions, 1805, two terms be- 
fore Buntin^:, and liis house was licensed until 1813. 
When there w^ere houses enough to iiccommodate the 
public, he gave up keeping tavern. Jason Torrey 
next built a store on the south-west corner of the Otis 
place which he, in company with Solomon Moore, ran 
until Mr. Moore l)uilt upon the lot now owned hy 
Hon. E. O. Hamlin, and started a store for himself. 
About the time the red store, aforesaid, was built, the 
court-house and jail were put up, and Sally Gay 
built a small house below Dr. Scudder's. Simultane- 



oiisly, John Bishop erected a house on the Bunnell 
place, opposite the dwelling-house of Miss Jane Dil- 
lon. Then David Bunnell built at or near the dwell- 
ing-house of Wm. Stephens, Esq., and David Wilder 
built the red tavern in which he kept a public house, 
until he built the brick tavern. Jason Torrey built 
the Spangenburg house in 1815. 

The only written evidence as to the person who 
cleared up the first land is found in an old assessment 
made of Dyberry township, in 1805, whereby Jason 
Torrey was assessed as having five acres of improved 
land, one horse, one cow, and four oxen; David Wil- 
der, as having one acre of improved land, and one 
cow; John Bishop, Wm. Williams, and John Bunt- 
ing each one cow but no cleared land. Jason Torrey 
at that time had made the only important improve- 
ment on the lands. 

Jason Torrey was bom in Williamstown, Mass., and, 
when scarcely twenty years of age, in the spring of 
1793, came on foot into the township of Mt. Pleasant, 
where he found Elijah Dix, whom he knew in his na- 
tive place, and here he became acquainted with Sam'l 
Baird, of Pottstown, near Philadelphia. Mr. Baird 
was a noted surveyor and employed Mr. Torrey to as- 
sist him in making some surveys ; after he had trav- 
eled through different parts of New York and this 
State, he finally concluded to settle in Mt. Pleasant. 
Having selected his land, he began to make improve- 
ments upon it and built a log-house, and moved into 
it in February, 1798. He continued to improve his 


land in Mt. Pleasant nntil he removed to Bethany, in 
1802. He was endued witli a great capacity for busi- 
ness and was consulted about all the intricacies per- 
taining to county accounts. He removed to Hones- 
dale in 1826, and built the first house that was erected 
in the place, and, as it was finally used as a church, it 
was called the Old Tabernacle. Jason Torrey was 
generally called Major Torrey, the oftice of major 
having been conferred on him by an election in his 
earlier days. He had eleven children, namely: Will- 
iam, a Presbyterian clergyman, deceased; Ephraim, 
who was a very promising young man, but died at the 
age of twenty-four; l!^athaniel, who died young; John, 
living in Honesdale ; Asa, living in Bethany ; Ste- 
phen, Presbyterian clergyman, living; Charles, de- 
ceased ; James, who died young ; David, a Presbyte- 
rian clergyman, living ; Maria, who married Richard L. 
Seely, deceased; and Minerva, married Elijah Weston, 
deceased; both daughters are deceased. As to other 
matters relating to Jason Torrey, see under the chap- 
tera))out land-titles. 

Solomon Moore was from the State of New York. 
In connection with Jason Torrey he kept the first 
store, and was the first postmaster in Bethany. He 
built a house and store on the E. O. Hamlin corner. 
He was elected sheriff in 1820, and afterwards was 
appointed clerk of the several courts of the county, in 
which ofiice he died. He was a very competent man, 
and assorted and numbered the papers in the several 
courts and brought order out of chaos. Edward Wes- 


tc^ii, Esq., of Pj-ovi(lence, inmTied a (laughter of Solo- 
mon Moore. 

David Wilder was a native of New Hampshire, and 
came into Bethany and settled in 1803, and married 
Sophia, a daughter of Paul Tyler, of Damascus. They 
had one daughter, Charity B., who married the Hon. 
James Manning, deceased. Mrs. Manning and Asa 
Torrey are the only surviving persons in Bethany who 
were born therein of parents that first settled there, 
Mr. Wilder commenced keeping a licensed house in 
1811, and continued in the business the most of his 
life. He was tm honest innkeeper and a good farmer. 

William Williams was a Yankee, who built a hut 
below the church lot, but it was of such humble pre- 
tensions that the assessors failed to value it. He was 
in the Revolutionary war, and always carried his dis- 
charge with him upon the top of his head, where a 
ball had struck him and plowed a furrow through his 
scalp. He was pensioned. John Bishop is noticed 
under the head of Berlin, and John Bunting and Asa 
Stanton under that of Canaan, 

David Buimell came from Stroudsl)urg, and settled 
upon and cleared up the farm and l)nilt the house that 
is now owned by William Stephens, Esq., and was a 
justice of the peace for many years. He devoted the 
most of his time to farming, although he was a black- 
smith by trade. His wife was Parthenia Killam, of 
Palmyra, Pike Co. Their sons were Z. M. Pike, 
Henry, John P., and Charles; and daughters, Elea- 
nor, deceased, wife of Isaac P. Ohnstead ; Eunic^e, de- 


ceased, married to Brooks Lavo ; Sarali, tlie wife of 
Iie\'. Mr. Bailey ; and one daiigliter, Jane, who mar- 
ried and removed West. 

Eliplialet Kellogg. When the connty business was 
iirst transacted at Bethany, Mr. Kellogg was appoint- 
ed clerk to the commissioners of the county. He was 
a brother of Silas Kellogg, who moved into Mount 
Pleasant in 1791, and Eliplialet must have located 
there soon after, as in 1801 he was assessed there as 
owning a house and nine acres of improved land, and 
as then being a clerk. He kept a tavern many years in 
Bethany, being first licensed at February sessions, 
1813. He was appointed in 1809 register and recor- 
er, and clerk of the several courts of Wayne county, by 
Governor Snyder, and held said otHces during Snyder's 
three terms, making nine years. He died in Bethany 
at a very advanced age. He had five children, name- 
ly, Martin Kellogg, only son ; Mary, wife of Dr. Isaac 
Roosa; Sarali, wife of Benben B. Purdy; Abigail, 
wife of Dr. Halsey; and Eunice, wife of AVashington 
E. Cook. 

Thomas Spangenberg. Perhaps the history of this 
man could not l^e given in a more agreeable manner 
than as told to us, and taken down at his request, in 
the same 3^ear in which he died. "1 was born in Sus- 
sex county, in New Jersey. When I came into Wayne 
county, (or what is now Wayne county,) in 1794-, 1 
crossed at Monroe ferry, two miles below Milford. 
At the latter place there were but two or three houses. 
The first house west of Milford was an old stone tav- 


ern, built bj Andrew Bray; next, old Lot tavern; then 
seven miles to Shohola farms ; next'to Blooming Grove 
where Uriah Chapman, Esq., lived ; there I stopped a 
week to himt; then I came to the Narrows, where 
Ephraim Kimble, Sen., the fatlier of Asa Kimble, 
lived. There I found William Schoonover, the father 
of Daniel, Levi, Jacob, and Simon Schoonover. Levi 
Schoonover, born that year, was the first white child 
born on the Dyberry. I then came on to Wilsonville. 
Several men lived there who were at work on a factory 
at the mouth of Paupack eddy. The next place was 
Paupack eddy; there lived Beuben Jones, an enormous- 
ly large, tall man, and his brother Alpheus, and their 
sister. Widow Cook. Elisha Ames lived on the David 
Bishop farm. I next came to the Benjamin Haines 
place, since known as the Jonathan Brink place; then 
to the Walter Kimble farm, now owned by Buckley 
Beardslee; from there I came to Tracyville. There 
was a tub mill which had been built to grind corn in 
that had been deserted. Then I went over on the east 
side of L'ving's cliff, and came down to where Daniel 
Schoonover lives. This was in 1794 ; I moved up in 
1798. The sheriff took for jurors whom he pleased 
and they received no pay. I lirst settled on the John 
Nelson place. That year the county was organized 
into eight militia companies, and an election held at 
Wilsonville to choose officers. John H. Schenck was 
elected lieutenant-colonel, Ephraim Killam was elect- 
ed major for the first battalion; Samuel Stanton for 
the second battalion; William Chapman, captain of 


Palmyra; Ephraim Kimble, captain of Lackawaxen; 
Jesse Drake, captain of Damascus; Edward Doyle, 
captain of Buckingham; John Tiffany, captain of 
Mount Pleasant ; and Asa Stanton, captain of Canaan, 
etc. In 1799, I went to Elijah Dix's, in Mount 
Pleasant, to election. Two went from Cherry Ridge 
and three from Dyberry. There were but forty-five 
votes cast in the county. I killed in Bethany one elk, 
two wolves, four bears, and thirty-seven deer, and I 
killed all but the deer before 1800. My oldest daugh- 
ter, Betsey, was born on the Nelson place in 1799, and 
is the wife of John Raymond, Esq., of Scranton, Pa. 
In 1800 I moved upon and bought the land which is 
now the farm of widow Mary Stephens. My daugh- 
ter, Catharine, was born in 1803; my son, John S., in 
August, 1812 ; and Esther in December, 1820. I had 
other children, but the above named are all that are 
alive. My second daughter, Phebe, was burnt to death 
by the accidental and sudden destruction of my house 
in the night by fire. She was thirteen years old. I 
have neglected to say that I was married to Susan 
Headley, January 2d, 1798. I moved into Bethany 
in 1817, and kept a boarding-house for many years." 
It may be said truthfully that Esq. Spangenberg was 
a very temperate man and never used profane lan- 
guage. Being of German descent he could talk that 
language. He was commissioner and county treasurer, 
and was for fifty-three years a justice of the peace. 
He died April 8th, 1864, aged about eighty-nine years. 
He was a member of the M. E. church. 


Joseph Miller was a son of Eliznr Miller, of Salem, 
and, wlien a young man, eame to Betliany and took 
the the job, in 1816, of building the court-house, which, 
it used to be said, cost the enormous sum of $15,000, 
a sum, in those days, considered almost uncountable. 
He built, in 1811:, the house which has )>een overhaul- 
ed i\m\ rebuilt by Dr. Isaiah Scudder. He was twice 
elected sheriff of the county, and died in Bethany re- 
spected and regretted. He had one son, Joseph, who 
married a daughter of Judd Raymond, and they have 
gone to the mysterious realm; one daughter, Hannah, 
deceased ; and another daughter, Armenia, who is the 
widow of Enos Woodward, deceased, and is yet living. 

Nathaniel B. Eldred, son of Elislia and Maiy 
Eldred, was born in Dolsontown, Orange county, N. 
Y., in 1795. He studied law in the office of Daniel 
Dimmick and Edward Mott, in Milford, where he was 
admitted to tlie practice of hiw in 1816, and in that 
year ren:ioved to Bethany where he practiced in his 
profession for nearly twenty years. During some of 
said time he was in the mercantile business. He was 
elected to the State Legislature for four terms, and 
was county treasurer two years. In 1835 he was ap- 
pointed, l)y Gov. Wolf, president jndge of the eight- 
eenth judi(dal district, and served four yeai*s, and in 
1839, by Gov. Porter, president jndge of the sixth 
judicial district, in which position he served four years, 
and tlien he was appointed president judge of the 
twelfth district, (composed of the counties of Dauphin, 
Lel)anon, Schuylkill, et(%; whereupon he removed to 


Harrisburg and resided, until, in 1849, the twenty- 
second judicial district, composed of Wayne, Pike, 
Monroe, and Carbon, was erected, of which district he 
was appointed president judge by Gov. Johnston, and 
then returned to Bethany where he resided the re- 
mainder of his life. After the Constitution was 
amended making the judiciary elective, he was unani- 
mously elected president judge of the twenty-second 
district aforesaid. In Polk's administration he served 
four years as naval officer at the port of Philadelphia. 
Judge Eldred was often appointed to act in other posi- 
tions. He was a very straight-forward man. As a 
judge he was always desirous to reach the justice of a 
case and to put the law and facts in so clear and con- 
spicuous a light as to leave little room for mistake or 
misapprehension by a jury. He seldom or never took 
a case away from a jury and decided it himself, conse- 
quently he was highly esteemed for his impartiality. 
He died at his residence in Bethany in January, 1867. 
He had seven children, four of whom died young and 
unmarried. Mary, the first wife of Hon. E. O. Ham- 
lin, and Lucinda, the wdfe of Ara Bartlett, are dead. 
Charles, who removed toWarsaw,Wisconsin, and Carrie, 
the wife of Mr. Watson, of Warren county, are living. 
Isaac Dimmick, always in his latter days called 
Judge Dimmick, was from Orange county, E^. Y., 
and came into Bethany in 1805. He bought and 
cleared up the farm now owned by Edwin Webb. He 
was an associate judge of the county, and was often 
employed in the county offices. He married a daugh- 



ter of Hon. Abisha Woodward. He sold his farm to 
Robert Webb, Sen., and removed West. 

James Manning was born in Coventry, in Tolland 
county, Connecticut, in the year 1792. He came to 
Bethany in 1815, and began as a merchant, which 
business he successfully pursued for twenty years. He 
was a shrewd, enterprising business man. He married 
Charity B., the only child of David Wilder, and she 
is yet living in the mansion house, w^hich belonged to 
her husband at the time of his death. Mrs. Manning 
and Asa Torrey alone remain, and have continued to 
live in the place where their parents were original set- 
tlers. Mr. Manning w^as register and recorder, and 
for many years an associate judge. He was an am- 
bitious man, but his ambition benefited others. Born 
in a land where the school-house and spelling-book are 
considered indispensable, where every patriot deems it 
his duty to spread knowledge with a broad and boun- 
tiful cast, he at once recognized the newspaper as the 
most effectual agent in the diffusion of knowledge. 
Alone and unaided he bought a printing press and 
type and started the first newspaper in Wayne county, 
entitled the Wayne County I£irro7\ Its first number 
was dated in March, 1818. It was well conducted, 
and was in those days considered a ivonderful wonder. 

The Mirror gave way to the Republican Advocate^ 
which was published by Davis and Sasman. Manning 
furnished the printing-press and capital. Tlie concern 
gave notice that they would take tallow and maple 
sugar in payment. The first number was issued in 


November, 1822. Jacob S. Davis, having become 
mipopiilar, the paper took the name of the Wayne 
Enquirer, and was published by William S asm an, 
Manning furnishing the press. It was twenty by 
twelve and one-half inches in size and gave the home 
and foreign news. The second number, dated January 
6th, 1830, gives an account of the borough as it then 
was, as follows: "Bethany is the seat of justice for 
Wayne county. It is situated on a commanding emi- 
nence which declines on every side except the north, 
and overlooks the adjacent country. It contains forty 
dwelling-houses, a court-house, a county lire-proof 
building, a Presbyterian church, an academy, two tav- 
erns, four stores, a post-office, and several artisan and 
mechanical establishments. It is thirty-six miles from 
Milford, one hundred and ten miles from New York, 
and one hundred and twenty-three miles from Phila- 
delphia. The borough was incorporated March 31st, 
1821." Such, in 1830, was what is now the beautiful 
village of Bethany. 

Abisha Woodward, son of Enos Woodward, of 
Cherry Ridge, was elected sheriif of Wayne in 1807, 
and was for a long time an associate judge. He lost 
his left arm, l)ut for all that he bought and cleared up 
the farm now owned by Henry Webb, which lies 
westward one-half mile from the borough. He mar- 
ried Lucretia, a daughter of Jacob Kimble, Sen., of 
Palmyra, Penn. Among the children were, 1st, John 
K. Woodward, who married Mary, a daughter of Silas 
Kellogg, Esq.; their children were Warren J. Wood- 


ward, late jnclge of the Supreme Court of Pennsyl- 
vania; Jackson K. Woodward, attorney-at-law, late of 
Honesdale, deceased; and Densey, who married Dr. 
Johnson Olmstead, of Dundaff, Penn. 2d, Nathaniel 
Woodward, w^ho once represented the county in the 
Legislature and removed to the West. 3d, George W. 
Woodward, who held various important offices, and 
was once a member of Congress, and a judge of the 
Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. Hon. Isaac Dim- 
mick married the oldest daughter, and George Little, 
Esq., attorney-at-law, married the youngest. All the 
family above-named are dead. 

Capt. Charles Hole* was, according to old records, 
an early resident, as he or David Wilder was employed 
as supervisor of the roads, then considered the most 
important township office. He had a brick-yard where 
all the brick that were used in the town w^ere made. 
He built the house where George Hauser now lives. 
He had two sons; John, deceased, and Washington. 
The latter is now living in Lake township, and for a 
second wife married a daugliter of Amasa Jones, de- 
ceased. He had four daughters, namely, Louisa, first 
wife of Dr. Otis Avery; Martha, wife of Rezzia 
Woodw^ard; Joanna, wife of Ezekiel Birdsall; and 
Mary, wife of John J. Schenck, deceased. Mrs. 
Schenck is the sole survivor of the daughters. 

Charles Hole and Jacob Hole were twins. Jacob 
Hole settled in Dyberry. Lewis Hole was his son, and 

*The orthography of this name has been changed and is 
now spelled ' ' Hoel. " 


he liad a daughter named Phebe. Caleb Ho^^ 

the William Hensey farm and was the fath( 'r.u 

Elijah, and Cornelia Hole. Cornelia is not living. 

Randall Wilmot married a daughter of James Carr, 
of Canaan, and David Wihnot, of Wilmot Proviso 
■iiQtori,(^,t\% v^^as their son. John A. Gustin, a noted 
mechanic, also, married a daughter of James Carr. 
Gustin for many years was a merchant in Bethany, 
and removed to Honesdale and there was postmaster. 
His widow and some of his daughters are yet living. 
Randall built the house and store now occupied by 
Hon. A. B. Gammell. John A. Gustin was the main 
carpenter and workman in erecting it. 

Amzi Fuller, from Litchlield county. Conn., studied 
law in the office of Hon. Dan Dimmick, of Milford, 
and came to Bethany about 1816, from which time he 
practiced law, until the removal of the county seat to 
Honesdale, when he disposed of his property and re- 
moved to Wilkesbarre, Pa. He was not an easy, flu- 
ent speaker, but his opinion upon difficult and knotty 
questions in law was seldom controverted. He had 
but one son, Hon. Henry M. Fuller, who was a mem- 
ber of Congress, from Luzerne county, of acknowedg- 
ed ability, but who died in the meridian of life. 
Thomas Fuller studied law with his brother Amzi, 
and was not admitted to the Bar until many years 
afterward. He was argumentative and persuasive and 
a much better speaker than his brother. He never 
attempted to make the worse appear the better reason. 
He was too conscientious to take any unfair advantage 


of Kent's opponent. After the removal of the 

court to Honesdale, he took up his abode there, and 
ov^uii c.ioor died in the meridian of life. Hon. John 
Torrey married one of his sisters. Mr. Fuller left 
one son, William, who is now living in the house 
which his father built. His only daughter, Mary, 
married Dr. Kalph L. Briggs, who died in Wisconsin, 
[November 4, 1863. At the time of his death he was 
postmaster of Honesdale. 

Levi C. Judson lived some time in Bethany, and 
his son, who writes under the norti deplume of "Ned 
Buntline," was born in the village. 

By the assessment of 1825, Hon. E. W. Hamlin 
was mentioned as a single man. A full notice is giv- 
en of him in another part of this book. 

Besides the persons aforementioned, it appears by 
an assessment, made by Henry W. Stilley, 1825, that 
there were then other prominent men living in the 
borough, among whom were Daniel Baldwin, a hatter, 
who married Buey Hamlin, sister of E. W. Hamlin, 
and afterwards removed with his family to Minne- 
sota; Levi Ketchum, who was a tanner and shoe- 
maker, and, as a boot-maker, could not be excelled, 
his children being Lawrence, deceased, William, of 
Susquehanna, Pa., and Eliza, wife of Spencer Keen, 
of Honesdale; Osborn Olmstead, who came in about 
1819, from Connecticut. He was a shoe-maker and 
tanner. His children were as follows: Raymond, de- 
ceased; Isaac P., of New York city; Johnson C, 
physician, in Dundaff, Pa. ; Hawley Olmstead, de- 


ceased; Harriet, of Dnndaff; and Arnej, who married 
Wm. Y. R. Sloan, deceased. 

Judd Raymond was a carpenter, and the father of 
John Raymond, Esq., and Wm. Raymond. Philan- 
der K. Williams, Esq., married one of his daughters, 
and Joseph Miller, Jr., another. John Raymond is 
then noticed as being a carpenter and owTiing a good 

Moses Ward, who was a joiner by trade, was assess- 
ed in the borough, in 1825. He was from Chatham, 
N. J., and first settled or lived on the Dyberry. He 
was the father of Rev. E. O. Ward, and lived to 
be eighty-one years of age. The Rev. E. O. Ward, 
pastor of the Presbyterian Church, came from Dun- 
daif to Bethany, in 1851. In his ways he reminds us 
of the village preacher described in Goldsmith's "De- 
serted Village." 

The house, which is now the M. E. parsonage, was 
built by J. S. Davis, who was many years a commis- 
sioners' clerk and deputy county treasurer, and who 
proved to be a defaulter to the county for several 
thousands of dollars, the most of which was lost. 

The county seat was removed to Honesdale by act 
of Assembly, passed 1811. After the removal of the 
courts the court-house was used as an academy until 
the ITniversity of Northern Pennsylvania was char- 
tered, in 1848, when the old court-house w^as changed 
and enlarged for the use of said University, and a 
school opened therein in the fall of 1850. The next 
year. Professor John F. Stoddard was elected princi- 


pal of the institution. It was patronized by over two 
hundred students, and gave a most salutary impetus 
to the cause of education. Then for a time the insti- 
tution was managed by the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. Professor Stoddard linally purchased the 
whole building and grounds, and while under him at 
the time of its greatest prosperity, the building was 
burned on the night of the 19th of April, 1857. Mr. 
Stoddard generously gave the fire-proof building and 
public square to the borough for the use of the com- 
mon school. But the University was not the only 
institution of learning with which Bethany has been 
favored. In 1813, the Beech Woods Academy was 
chartered, and the State aided it by an appropriation 
of $1,000. A substantial brick building was erected, 
the best teachers that could be found were em- 
ployed, and here many young men were educated, 
among whom were Benjamin Dimock, Esq., Isaac P. 
Olmstead, Warren J. Woodward, late Judge of the 
Supreme Court of the State, and David Wilmot. In 
1853, the building, which is now the property of the 
Westons, was sold and the proceeds turned over to the 
University aforesaid. The Presbyterian church, which 
cost $5,000, was commenced in 1822, and was com- 
pleted in 1835. There is a Methodist Episcopal, and 
a Baptist church, one school, two stores, no licensed 
tavern, a lodge of Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
and a Good Templars' lodge. 

By request, we insert the following piece of poetry, 
written by Alonzo Collins, fifty years ago. It will 


probably apply to different latitudes and meridians: 

"Come, oh ! my muse, with heavenly fire, 

Assist my pen, and tune my lyre, 
That I may write with ease and grace 

While I describe a little place, 
A country town not far from here. 

Where people of all grades appear ; 
They are a wrangling, jangling crew. 

And disagree like Turk and Jew. 
Religion is contested here 

In terms most rigid and severe ; 
Each sect affirms its doctrines stout. 

And twists the Scriptures wrong-side out; 
The Baptists do afiirm and say 

Immersion is the only way. 
And if we will not dive like trout, 

From heaven we'll be blotted out ; 
Others declare it is no matter. 

How small the quantity of water ; 
That it's a type, designed to show 

Who're the church militant below. 
See gamblers, sharpers, speculators, 

And hypocrites, and Sabbath-breakers, 
And doctors, too, of wondrous skill, 

Who sometimes cure and sometimes kill ; 
The friendly clods their errors screen, 

And hide their faults from being seen. 
The ladies here in Bethany, 

Of different shades of dignity. 
Bring in their hats from Yankeetown, 

Of different shades, pink, white, and brown, 
Tipped off with artificial flowers. 

Which look like squash-blows after showers, 
Or bean-vines running up a pole ; 

They make me laugh, they look so droll. 
The office-holders here increase, 



Disturbers of the public peace ; 
Tliey hunt for oflSce as sincere, 

As hounds do hunt the weary deer; 
With public money strut about, 

While honest people go without. 
Dandies are here of every grade, 

Gallanting ladies is their trade ; 
They swell around with stiiffed cravata, 

And polislied boots and tippy hats ; 
They lug a lady on each side, 

As sficks upon a jackass ride. 
But I would have it understood, 

Many are virtuous, pure, and good ; 
And but for them the rest would sink. 

And go where sinners howl for drink. ' 


THIS tOAVBsliip was erected ISTovember iTtli, 1834, 
It is bounded north and north-east by Mt. Pleasant^ 
east by Dybeny and Prompton, south by Prompton 
and Canaan, and west by Lackawanna and Susquehan- 
na counties. More tlian one-quarter of the township 
is taken up by the acclivities and declivities of the 
Moosic mountain, and is sterile and unfit for tillage. 
In tlie western part, as the line extends over the Lack- 


awanna river, there is anthracite coal, the only por- 
tion of the county in which it has been found. The 
west branch of the Lackawaxen and its tributaries af- 
ford ample water-power for mills. As said before, 
the Lackawanna river runs over into this township for 
several miles and a short section of the Jefferson Rail- 
road, at a place called Forest City, where the D. & 
H. Company has a large saw-mill, crosses over into 
the township. The chief ponds are the Elk, Forest, 
and White Oak. The lands east of the mountain are 
good, are mostly susceptible of a high state of cultiva- 
tion, and produce good crops of grass, corn, rye, oats, 
buckwheat, and potatoes equal to any part of the 
county. There are some large orchards stocked with 
rare varieties of fruit. The Nortons and David S. 
West led the way in the selection and cultivation of 
good fruit, and their success stimulated others to fol- 
low their example. This may be called the Fomonia 
of the county. The old north and south state road, 
and the Easton and Belmont turnpike road, subse- 
quently following nearly the same route, afforded an 
early access to the tow^iship, and invited an enterpris- 
ing class of farmers. 

The following from Alva W. Norton is an accurate 
account as to who were the first settlers in the town- 
ship : 

" My father was born in Goshen, Litchfield county. 
Conn., May, 1759. In 1775, when in his sixteenth 
year, he went as a substitute for his older brother, 
Samuel, to defend New York. He enlisted under 


' Old Put' for five years, in the Light-horse, and it was 
tln'ee years before he saw home again. When he was 
discharged, he received what w^ere called pay certiii- 
cates for what was due him and, in the spring of 
1783, went into the township of Winchester, now 
called West Winsted, Conn., and pin-chased three hun- 
dred acres of land, paying for it at the reduced rate 
of sixpence on the pound. In 1784, he married Olive 
Wheeler and removed to his new purchase, where he 
continued to reside until 1812. His children were War- 
ren W., Alva W., Sheldon, Clarissa, and Samuel. In 
Sept., 1810, Levi Norton, David Graylord, Kufus 
Grinnell, S. E. North, and some others came to Penn- 
sylvania looking for a better country, where they 
could worship God according to the dictates of their 
own conscience. In pursuance of tliat purpose, they 
examined the wild land in Wayne and Susquehanna 
counties. After that examination, Levi Norton went 
to Philadelphia and purchased nine tracts of land, sit- 
uated in the north part of old Canaan, now Clinton 
Center. In December, 1811, he fitted out his second 
son, Alva, and started him for the wilderness, and 
this son came into Waj^ne county, Christmas day. At 
Mount Pleasant he found a young man who had been 
sent out with some sheep, and tlie two came down the 
old north and south road to the base of the mountain, 
opposite what is now the Clinton Center Baptist meet- 
ing-house, built a cabm ten by twelve, and split bass- 
wood poles for a puncheon floor. Here they tarried 
during the winter, but very little improvement could 


be made, as the snow was four feet deep. Some time 
in March, Warren W. Norton, with his wife and one 
child, and Benjamin Johnson, with his wife and five 
children, came. The first week in June, 1812, Levi 
Norton, his wife, and the balance of his family, Hor- 
ace G. Squire, and Michael Grinnell came ; they were 
followed in September by David Gaylord and wife, 
and D. S. West and wife. At the same time Amasa 
Gaylord and son, Myron, arrived and made arrange- 
ments to move the family the next year and, in No- 
vember, Ilufus Grinnell's wife and eight children 
came, which closed the colony for 1812. 

In May, 1813, Amasa Gaylord, wife, and family 
arrived. About the same time Capt. Wm. Bayley 
came and lived witli my father until he paid for one 
hundred and seventeen acres of land. In the fall of 
1813, John Griswold, Sen., and some of his family 
came from Torrey lake, and put up a log-cabin on 
land adjoining that of Rufus Grinnell, and, in Janu- 
ary following, moved his family down on an ox-sled. 
In 1814, S. E. North and wife, and Fisher Case and 
family came." 

Mr. Norton gives also the following account of a 
great wolf hunt: " In the fall of 1837, a pair of black 
wolves from the Rocky mountains" (or Canada,) 
"made their appearance in Wayne and Susquehanna 
counties. During the fall and early winter, in Her- 
rick township, Susquehanna county, and Mount Pleas- 
ant and (/linton townships, Wayne county, they de- 
stroyed over five hundred sheep. In Mount Pleasant 


and Clinton there were societies formed for the pur- 
pose of raising money to exterminate them and pay 
the bounty. The amount of premium raised was 
ninety dolhirs. In addition to this sum, Ahmson Til- 
den, of Herrick Center, Susquehanna county, and A. 
W. N^orton, collected forty dollars, making a total of 
one hundred and thirty dollars. My brother, Sheldon, 
offered one dollar extra for the scalp of the he-wolf. 
On the first of March, 1838, Merritt Hines, keeping 
the toll-gate on the Belmont and Ohquagua turnpike, 
near Sugar-loaf mountain, received information from 
a traveler going north, that south of the Pete Stevens 
place he saw two large black animals cross the road 
towards the Moosic mountain. He supposed them to 
be bears until he saw their brushes. Hines imme- 
diately equipped himself for the chase and followed 
on, sending a messenger to Col. Calvely Freeman at 
Belmont, to follow him. Col. Freeman equipped him- 
self, took the track, and followed Hines. These two 
men pursued the wolves eleven days and were in at 
the death. On the third day, having driven them 
south nearly opposite the Dimock settlement in Frost 
Hollow, about midday, Hines and Freeman called at 
a farm-house for refreshments and to replenish their 
knapsacks. The wolves, wanting their dinner, entered 
a farmer's yard and killed fifteen sheep. That was 
the only time that Hines and Freeman gave the wolves 
any time to satisfy their hunger, for they followed 
them so closely that when they lay down at night, the 
hunters could see by the place wherein the animals 


had lain that they never left it to procure anything to 

There are several persons named in Mr. Norton's 
sketch who deserve further notice. David S. West 
was spoken of under Canaan township. Alva W. 
Norton, Esq., now aged about eighty-eight years, 
taught school at Salem Corners, 1816, and afterwards 
in Bethany, He was considered a competent teacher, 
and was for more than forty years a practical surveyor. 
He was county commissioner for three years, and it is 
probable he was hi that office when those destructive 
wolves were killed, which made us state, in another 
place, that he was chiefly instrumental in their capture. 
He lives with his son, L. F. Norton, and to a remark- 
able degree retains his physical and mental capacities. 
Ira B. Stone, Esq., once a county commissioner and 
now a resident of the town, married a daughter of Mr. 
Norton. Sheldon Norton was for three years prothon- 
otary of the county. He was a very prominent man 
in the Baptist church. In 1815 he was assessed as 
owning forty-five acres of improved, and two hundred 
and fifteen acres of unimproved land. His son, E. K. 
Norton now owns the homestead which is considered 
one of the best farms in the town. 

Michael Grennell, Sen., who lived to be one hun- 
dred and two years old, settled about one-half mile 
west of the Baptist chm*ch, where Horace G. Squire 
once lived, and which is now owned by A. B. Squire. 
He was the father of Michael Grennell, Jr., who mar- 
ried a sister of Mrs. Pope Biishnell. He was also the 


father of Deacon liiifus Grennell. The sons of the 
latter were Yirgil, once associate judge, Homer, Ov^d, 
Jasper, Michael 3d, and Hufiis M., who was once pro- 

Amasa Gaylord settled on the north and south road. 
His sons were David, Carmi, and Giles, all of whom 
sleep with their fathers. Giles Gaylord married 
Joanna W., a daughter of Elder Elijah Peck, Sen., 
and she is still living. 

John Griswold, Sen., was the father of Francis 
Griswold, who for many years kept what was called 
the Cold Water tavern ; so called because it w^as near 
a stream of cold water that came rushing down from 
the mountain. Sumner was another son, and was a 
farmer. Horace was a son or grandson of John Gris- 
wold, Sen, 

Sylvester E. North, a farmer, is yet living. He 
and his family were noted for making the best butter 
and cheese to be found in the county. 

Fisher Case w^as the father of Ralph, Jerome B., 
and Robert Case. There are none of them living. 

There were many families that have not been 
mentioned which from time to time added materially 
to the wealth and importance of the towTi, among 
whom were Daniel Arnold, a mason ; Chester, Lewis, 
and Horace Buckland; David Bunting, Daniel Bunt- 
ing, Jr., and John Bunting, who lived on the west 
branch ; Bunting and Randall, who owTied a saw-mill 
and tannery; John Belknap, who lived and kept tav- 
ern on the Judson place ; Seth Hay den, and George 


Hopkins, on the west branch; Joseph Kingsbury, a 
farmer; Luther Ledyard, a farmer, who lived adjoin- 
ing Francis Griswold ; Pliny Muzzy, a farmer ; James 
and George Mc Mullen, farmers, of Scotch descent, 
famed as hunters; and Keuben, Cyrus, and Rufus Peck. 
These latter were the descendants of Elder Elijah 
Peck, of Mt. Pleasant, whose children were Elijah, 
Jr., William, Reuben, Lewis, Myra, and Joanna W. 
Elijah Peck, Jr., had nineteen children. The Sanders 
family were numerous. There were Samuel, David, 
Jonathan, Nathaniel C, David 2nd, Selma, and Shep- 
pard, who were all farmers. The following persons were 
all farmers : Ashbel Stearns, Levi, Levi, Jr., Jason, Ja- 
son D., Alfred, and Elisha Stanton; John Sears; John 
Sherwood, and William, his son; Charles L. Tenant, 
Sen., Charles L., Jr., and John A. Tenant; Washington 
Williams; [N'athan Wheeler, son of Benjamin Wheel- 
er; Jabez Welch, who was also a lumberman; and 
John .K. Davison, who lived first in Dyberry and then 
removed to and died on the fai'm now occupied by his 
son, Warren W. Davison. The farms in Clinton are 
well cultivated for the reason that very little attention 
was ever paid to lumbering. Almost the whole of the 
original settlers were of Puritanic origin. 

Aldenville was started by Pratt and Aid en, who 
built a tannery at the place, and the village was nam- 
ed in honor of Levi C. Alden, who took charge of 
and ran the tannery. The village is well-situated for 
business and has one store, a post-ofiice, a Baptist and 



a M. E. churcli. The tannery is kept running under 
the charge of Henry Alden. 

Clinton has six common schools and one school in 
the Independent District of " Mount Republic." There 
is a Baptist church in the Norton settlement. The 
number of taxables, in 1878, was two hundred and 


THIS borough was at iirst incorporated in 1845, 
but, in consequence of some irregularity^ or dis- 
satisfaction, it was reorganized and enlarged, at Sep- 
tember sessions, 1850. It was taken from Texas, Ca- 
naan, and Dyberry. The most of the village is situa- 
ted near the junction of the Yan Auken creek with the 
west branch, four miles west of Honesdale. William 
Jenkins made an assessment of the borough, in 1845; 
upon examining the same, we iind only two persons 
that we are sure resided there at that time. One is 
George Alvord, Esq., and the other is George W. 
Hall, then assessed as a bedstead-maker. At that 
time Phineas and David Arnold were there; Levi 


Bronsoii, wlio manufactured shovel-handles; Alexan- 
der Conyne, who was strangely killed l)y the spring- 
ing up of a pole upon which he had felled a tree; 
George Dimock, now living in Carbondale ; Foot and 
Tingley, merchants; E. E. Guild, clergyman; Simon 
Plum, removed ; Roswell Patterson, now of llerrick 
Centre, Pa.; E. K. Norton, merchant, now of Clin- 
ton; Sylvanus Osborn, now living at No. 19, Lake 
township; Hiram Plum, deceased; Henry Dart, inn- 
keeper, who removed to Honesdale and kept the 
Wayne County Hotel, and from thence went to Rock 
River, in Illinois; and Alonzo Tanner, deceased. 
Then all the Jenkins family were living, excepting 
Benjamin Jenkins, Sen. He Avas from Connecticut, 
and began there with his family before Honesdale was 
thought of. He bought, in 1813, a tract of land in 
the warrantee name of James (^lapinan. There was 
no road or settler near him, and there he lived and 
died, surrounded by his family. His sons were Ben- 
jamin Jenkins, Jr. ; Samuel Jenkins, lately deceased ; 
Asa Jenkins, the father of Wm. Jenkins, assessor, as 
aforesaid; Edward Jenkins, who was county treasurer 
when said assessment was taken ; and John Jenkins. 
Jacob S. Davis married one of his daughters, and 
Ralph Case another. His cliildren clustered around 
him, and there they peacefully dwelt, 

* ' Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife ; 
Theu' sober "wishes never learned to stray ; 
Along the cool sequestered vale of life, 
They kept the noiseless tenor of their way. " 
No nobler, purer family ever lived. We cannot 


l)e justly accused of flattery, for all of the family of 
Benjamin Jenkins, Sen., are in their graves. 

Joseph Headley in early life lived in Bethany. He 
married Mary, the oldest daughter of Kobert Bortree, 
Sen., of Sterling. More than sixty-live years ago, he 
bouo'ht two hundred acres of land in the south-east 
section of the Elk Forest tract. He was an industri- 
ous farmer. His sons, who are living, are John W., 
Robert, and William. He had, also, one daughter, 

named Eliza. 

Kockwell Bunnell, the oldest son of David Bunnell, 

Esq., lives within the bounds of the borough. Geo. 

Alvord, Esq., son of Zenas Alvord, an old settler in 

Dy berry, has been many years justice of the peace. 

George W. Hall & Son continue the manufacture of 

choice furniture. The Wayne County Normal School 

is located here. The village contains one store and 

two common schools. Number of taxables, in 1878, 

one hundred and twenty. 


THIS township was set oif from Dyberry, Novem- 
ber 28tli, 1826. It then included Oregon, and, by 
the first assessment made after its erection, by Andrew 


Davison, it contained but fifteen houses, all valued 
at $470. The house of John Smith was valued at 
$200, that of John Garrett, Sen., at $125, and that of 
Frederick Smith at $80, leaving twelve houses alto- 
gether valued at $65. Oregon has since been taken 
off from this towTiship, and it is now bounded nortli 
by Oregon and Damascus, south-east by Pike county, 
south by Palmyra, and south-west and west by Texas. 
The chief streams are the branches of the Mast Hope, 
Beardslee's creek and Holbert's brook. The Long, 
Beech, Adams, and Open Woods ponds are in the 
to\^mship, and a part of Catchall pond. There are no 
very high hills, but some of the lands southward, east- 
ward, and westward of the Adams pond are sterile. 

At the erection of the township the principal taxa- 
bles were Lester Adams, Stephen D. Bunnell, John 
Cressman, Samuel Camtield, Martin Kellogg, Andrew 
Davison, Jeremiah Garrett, eTohn Garrett, Sen., John 
Garrett, Jr., Hugh McCrannels, Henry Pulis, Peter 
Pulis, Samuel Smith, John Smith, Peter Smith, Wm. 
Charles Smith, and Frederick Smith. Ephraim Tor- 
rey and Moses Ward were taxed as non-residents. 
Samuel Camfield, one of the above-named is still living 
in the town. Ephraim Torrey was one of the first 
l)eginners at Beech Pond, and died there about 1829. 
Near that time Wm. Olver and Jonathan Tamblyn 
commenced this side of i\\e pond. Wm. Spry was the 
next settler and is yet living on his original location; 
then William Tamblyn bought west of him, and Ed- 
ward Marshal bou2:ht where his son Edward now lives. 


John Olver took up and bought land west of the Long 
pond where his widow and son now live. These set- 
tlers were from England. 

The opening of the Delaware and Hudson Canal 
gave a great impetus to the settlement of the country 
about Honesdale, and Berlin township was particular- 
ly benefited thereby. The Honesdale and Big Eddy 
turnpike was built, and subsequently a plank-road 
near the same, over which all the travel between 
Honesdale and New York via Narrowsburg passed 
until the building of the Honesdale branch of the Erie 
railroad. Before the building of this railroad so great 
we;*e the transportation and travel between Honesdale 
and the New York & Erie railroad, tliat a plank road 
was made from near the former residence of Buckley 
Beardslee, deceased, to Mast Hope, now called Pine 
Grove. But it failed to meet the expectations of its 
projectors, and is now a useful township road. Siim- 
uel Smith is reputed as having been the first settler in 
the township, on Smith Hill. Here is some of the 
best land for corn and grain in the county. It is call- 
ed red shale soil; it covers a large area in the north- 
western part of the town and extends northw^ard into 
Oregon township. The numerous descendants of 
Samuel and John Smith have mostly departed from 
Smith Hill, and their farms are owned and occupied 
by new-comers. 

Berlin Center, which owes its name to the intersec- 
tion of two township roads, is in the Smith Hill vicin- 
ity. Here, living with his son, John Seaman, is C. 

TO WNSI'Il\S--BEBLjy. 335 

B. Seaman, Esq., in his ninety-second year. His wife 
is aged about eighty-eight years. She was the daugh- 
ter of Jacob Kimble, of Paupack, Pike county ; and 
in the same house with them lives the widow of John 
Smith, deceased, a sister of Charles B. Seaman, aged 
about ninety years. The ages of the three average 
about ninety years. Where can the like be found in 
any house in the county ? Having within six months 
past visited this family, we w^ere delighted to see the 
kindness and respect with which these good people are 
treated by their children and grandchildren. It may 
be said unto them, " Yerily, ye shall in nowise lose 
your reward." 

Isaac Seaman removed from Haverstraw, N. Y., and 
settled in Damascus, where Chas, B. Seaman was born. 
From thence he removed to Dy berry and bought the 
farm now owned by Daniel M. Eno. Isaac Seaman 
sold the farm to Peter Smith who sold it to Deming 
& Eno. Charles B. Seaman removed to Pike county 
where he held the offices of sheriff and prothonotary 
and after returning to tliis county was elected county 

Henry Bishop lives in this township. His father, 
an old Revolutionary soldier, came from New Jersey, 
first settled at the Narrows in Pike coimty, from thence 
removed to Bethany and was accounted the first set- 
tler therein. He was a carpenter and built the first 
frame house for William Schoonover that was built in 
Dyberry. He carried the mail on foot for several 
years between Bethany and Stroudsburg. His sons 


were Jo] ' airy, David, Jacob, and 

Harvey. Henry Bishop, the sul)ject of this paragraph, 
is aged eighty-two years, and was a half-brother on his 
mother's side to Joseph Atkinson, deceased. He says 
that he has eaten bread that was made from flom* that 
his father brought np on his back from Minisink. 
Henry has one sister, widow Rachel Schoonover, now 
liviag at Forest Mills with her son. 

Beech Pond. This village is situated below the 
pond of the same name. Thomas Burke began a tan- 
nery there, did but little, and sold out the same to 
Henry W. Stone and Horace Drake, who carried on 
tanning successfully for several years, and established 
as appurtenant thereto a large store. Mr. Stone sold 
out to Messrs. Drake ik Sons, who continued in the bus- 
iness as long as the same could be made remunerative. 
Being situated in the midst of a good agricultural re- 
gion, the village is well kept up by the business arising 
therefrom. When Beech Pond began to flourish, Ste- 
phen W. Genung built a saw-mill upon the outlet of 
Adams pond, and for a time carried on lumbering; 
hence the place w^as called Genungtown, and it is 
about two miles south of Beech Pond. Wm. Hol- 
bert, now of Equinunk, came into the possession of 
the place, and pursued the lumbering business upon a 
large scale, built good and substantial buildings, clear- 
ed up and improved the lands, and made a good farm. 
He then sold out the same to J. Williams. The lum- 
ber from this mill was drawn down through the Catch- 
all settlement to the Delaware. 


Soon after the making of the turnpike road from 
Indian Orchard to Narrowsbm-g, Wm. Kockwell, from 
Connecticut, took up a large tract of land about one 
mile and a half westward of Beech Pond, cleared up 
a large farm of red-shale soil, built a convenient tavern 
house, and kept a licensed inn for many years. He 
had three children, two of whom, with himself, are in 
the grave. The farm is now owned by P. Staff. 

About one mile east of Beech Pond there is a road 
that starts off from near Lucius Keyes' house and runs 
south throuo-h the Henshaw and Mclntire settlement 
to intersect the Catchall road. There is much excel- 
lent land in this settlement. On the Catchall road is 
sufficient population to maintain a common school. 
Jacob W. Travis located and bought land about one 
mile east of Beech Pond, on the old turnpike road, 
about fifty years ago, and kept tavern for some years. 
He left two children who are yet living. 

In this township, six miles from Honesdale, is a 
poor-house, built on a large farm, which the overseers 
of the poor of Honesdale and Texas purchtised of 
Henry Bishop. The paupers are employed upon the 
farm for the purpose of utilizing their labor, and en- 
abling them to contribute in part to their own sup- 
port. The system has been in operation for many 
years, and long enough to test its utility. It is under 
the care of Joseph Dewitt, Esq., of Honesdale. 

A majority of the people in Berlin are of English 
descent, and there are also many Germans. The 
American element was from different States, though 



but few of them are of New England origin. In 1878 
there were two liundred and fifty dwelling-houses in 
the town, valued at about §39,000. There is one 
Baptist church near Berlin Center, one Methodist 
Episcopal, and also one Free Methodist church near 
Beech Fond. There are nine district schools, and the 
number of taxables is three hundred and sixty-three. 


THIS township w^as erected at December sessions, 
1846. It was taken from Berlin, which had been 
organized twenty years before. It is one of the 
smallest of the townships, ranking in size with Fal- 
myra, Texas, and Cherr}^ Kidge. It is bounded north 
by Lebanon, east by Damascus, south by Berlin, and 
west by Dyberry. The streams are Carley brook, 
which rises in the township, runs south-westward 
through it, and joins the Lackawaxen at Tracyville ; 
Big brook, a part of which nins through its western 
section ; and Holbert brook, in the south-eastern cor- 
ner. The ponds are the Day pond. Spruce, Huck, 
Mud, Lovelass, Smith, Lower Wilcox, and Upper 
Wilcox, or Yarnell pond, upon the northern side of 


wliich lives Capt. John Kellow, a distinguished sol- 
dier of the late war. Oregon, in Spanish, means 
marjoram. Can a sprig of that aromatic herb be 
found in the township ? 

Lester Adams and William Adams appear to have 
been early settlers. Exactly when they began, and 
from whence they came, we cannot find out. There are 
many of the Adams family whose pedigree is untrace- 
able. We find one named in a very old history, that 
first settled on the river Euphrates, and, being alone, 
he was called in the singular number "Adam." He 
had several children. There were Abel Adams, Cain 
Adams, Seth Adams, and some others not named. 
As the children increased, they were called the 
" Adams family." They spread over the whole world, 
and it is not strange that some of them found their 
way into Oregon, Manchester, and other parts of the 
county. We never heard of an}^ who preserved the 
original family name that were not respectable. Among 
these were John Adams, John Quincy Adams, and 
Charles Francis Adams ; but we have not time to trace 
their genealogy back to the old gentleman. 

Henry Pulis, a son of Conrad Pulis, began, in 1827, 
on the road leading from Dyberry to Rileyville, 
though the road was not then made. There was a 
road, when Bethany was fu-st started, laid out from 
the Dyberry through to the Cochecton and Great 
Bend tm-npike, and called the " Gate road." Hugh 
McCrunnels, a noble Irishman, settled on that road, 
about sixty years ago, distant al)out half a mile from 


the Dyberry post-offi(ie. A part of that old farm is 
now owned by Thomas Dunn, and near by is the farm 
that Lewis Hole cleared up, now owned by H. W. 
Adams. Most of the roads and improvements in the 
town have been made within thirty years past. 

There was a road laid out in this townsliip from 
Honesdale, after it began to prosper, through Smith 
Hill settlement, by the way of James Smitli's, to 
Eldred, and thence to the mouth of Calkin's creek. 
The most of the people on that road are English, and 
they have some very good farms. Near the Berlin 
line, on the same road, is a Methodist Episcopal 
church, and near William Boucher's is another. The 
road which runs from Girdland, diagonally through 
the township, was laid out in 1850, about which time 
Hard, Palmer & Gilbert built the tannery, now 
owned by Wefferling, Brunig & Co., upon Carley 
brook. After that, Wm. Penwarden, who was born 
in England, built a saw-mill upon said brook, one mile 
above the tannery, and, by strict attention to business, 
has become wealthy. He married a daughter of 
Thomas Depuy, of Madison, Pa. John E-eifler, coun- 
ty commissioner, owns a superior saw-mill, situated 
below Penwarden's; he is a German, and about one- 
quarter of the land-holders in the town are of the 
same nationality. 

Girdland is situated mostly on the old Gate road 
aforesaid, part of it being in this township and part 
in Lebanon. Soon after the settlement of Bethany, 
Jason Torrey bought a tract of land in the warrantee 


name of Abuer Skinner and caused the large trees to 
be girdled in order to kill tliem, as he designed to have 
a brother of his clear up a farm there, which, however, 
he did not do. Charles Torrej began and made a 
small clearing. Then Jonathan Brvant, a son of 
Thomas Bryant, bought the place, and, after many 
years, it fell into the hands of George Croy, who now 
lives upon the place. The settlement was called 
Girdland. The second settler was James Nelson, who 
took up a lot of excellent land; but, being remote 
from society, schools, and churches, he became dis- 
couraged, sold out his improvement, and went to 
Nebraska. After that, several Germans were attract- 
ed to the vicinity by the smoothness and fertility 
of the soil, and they have secured themselves with 
comfortable homes. There are many English families 
but the German element predominates. Jonathan 
Bryant, who did not lack the gift of continuance in 
well-doing, has acquired a competence which he most 
surely deserves. There is a post-office at Girdland, 
kept by J. Budd, Esq., who has a higher position, in 
that he is a good blacksmith. 

This township and Lel)anon jointly support a school, 
so that there are four and a half common schools in 
the township. The number of taxables is one hun- 
dred and eighty-two. 



AT November sessions, 1837, this township was 
taken off from Dyberry, and, in 1843, Cherry 
Kidge was set off from Texas, leaving it in shape like 
an awkwardly-made square-toed boot. It is now 
bounded north by Dyberry and Prompton, east by 
Berlin, south by Palmyra and Cherry Ridge, and w^est 
by Cherry Ridge, Canaan, and Prompton. The Lack- 
awaxen runs south-eastward nearly through the cen- 
tre of the township, and the stream is joined at Hones- 
dale by the Dyberry, which comes in from the north. 
The most easily cultivatable lands are the alluvions 
along the Lackawaxen and the Dyberry. 

WnrrE Mills. A saw-mill was built at this place 
by Daniel Parry & Co., which mill afterwards fell 
into the hands of A. H. Farnham & Co. Some of its 
owners having whitewashed the buildings, it was called 
"White Mills. At these mills an enormous amount of 
white pine was sawn, and from thence run to market. 
Christian Dorflinger, from Rochsteig, Alsace, in 
France, came to the United States in 1816. He 
learned his trade as a manufacturer of ornamental and 
enameled glass-ware, at St. Louis, in Loraine, France ; 
and after his arrival in this country, was first connect- 


ed with the flint-glass works at Greenpoint, Long Is- 
land, N. Y. In or about 1865, he selected a point on 
the eastern side of the Lackawaxen, near White Mills, 
upon which to build a glass factory. The works have 
been in operation eight or ten years, and, notwithstand- 
ing the monetary difficulties which have crippled or 
suspended many manufacturing establishments, Mr. 
Dorflinger has successfully continued his business. 
Between his works and the depot on the Honesdale 
branch of the Erie railroad is a substantial county 
bridge across the Lackawaxen and canal. There are 
from one hundred to one hundred and twenty men, 
women, and children employed in and about said fac- 
tory. The glass produced there combines every de- 
gree of excellence and ornamentation. Specimens of 
the perfection of the work were exhibited at the Cen- 
tennial Exposition at Philadelphia in 1876, and were 
not excelled b}^ the best work made at Pittsburg or 
elsewhere. There is one public house and a large 
store kept by E. A. Dorflinger. Here is the St. 
Joseph's Catholic church whicli is visited monthly 
from Hawley. Above the depot on the western side 
of the river is the residence of the Hon. Frederick W. 
Farnham, this being the place where Enos "Woodward 
once lived. The latter was a popular county commis- 
sioner in 1838. His wife, who survives him, was a 
daughter of Joseph Miller, Esq., and is living at 
White Haven on the Lehigh. 

The next place on the river is where Walter Kim- 
])le located after the Indian Avars on the Paupack. 


He was the fatliei* of Charles and Stephen, and was 
one of tlie most enterprising lumbermen on the Lack- 
awaxen. He sold out all his possessions to Buckley 
Beardslee and removed to the West. Mr. Beardslee 
held several offices, one being that of county commis- 
sioner. He married a daughter of Walter Kimble 
and she is yet living, but he has been dead several 
years. Their sons are all living, namely, Walter, a 
farmer; Howkin B., attorney; and Cliarles, a farmer. 
Hon. H. B. Beardslee, in 1845, w^as elected register 
and recorder of the county ; afterwards he edited the 
Wayne Comity Herald^ and was elected Representa- 
tive, and then to the State Senate. Finally, he dis- 
posed of his interest in the Herald^ and removed to 
Wilkesbarre and became the editor of the Luzerne 
ZTnion, a Democratic paper. He married a daughter 
of Wm. Clark, of Abington, Fa. According to his 
testimony there was a place on his father's farm 
where the Indians had paved a dancing-ground by 
laying down large, flat stones, where they gathered 
together like the ancient worshipers of Odin, in the 
Orkney islands, around the mossy stones of power. 
There the simple Indians performed their fantastic 
dances, and invoked the aid of the Great Spirit to as- 
sist them in their contemplated enterprises. Mrs. Fan- 
ny Atkinson, of Hawley, says that upon the flats at In- 
dian Orchard were formerly found flint arrows, an 
pestles and liatchets, made of stone. She thinks tha 
a man, by the name of Holbert, lived at the Beardt 
lee place before Walter Kimble l)egan on it. SIk 


also says that David Ford, one of the original 
settlers on the upper Paupack, first lived at Indian 
Orchard, and that her father, Benjamin Kimble, 
bonght Ford's possessions, and that Thomas Schoon- 
over, also, once lived on a part of the flats. Simeon 
Kimble is a son of Benjamin Kimble. Wm. Holbert, 
Jr., bought the Schoonover farm. 

The Holbert family. The first of the Holberts that 
came into Pennsylvania was William Holbert, Sen., 
from Connecticut. In 1776 he first settled in New 
Jersey, opposite Milford, Pa. He bought Mast Hope 
and Holbert Bend. At the latter place the Indians 
prevented his making a settlement, and he temporarily 
returned to New Jersey. His sons were Benjamin 
and Joseph. Benjamin settled at the Bend, where 
Frederick R. Holbert now lives. His sons were, 1st, 
William Holbert, Jr., who settled at Indian Orchard 
as aforesaid. 2d, Joseph G. Holbert, who was father 
of William Holbert, of Equinunk, county commission- 
er, and of Benjamin Franklin, Thomas J., and John 
Holbert. The latter owns a farm and mill on the 
Shehawken. Another of the sons, George Holbert, 
lives at the mouth of the "Lackawack," as it was al- 
ways called in former times. Joseph Holbert, Sen., 
located at Mast Hope. William Holbert, of Indian 
Orchard, married a daughter of Stephen Kimble. 

Leonardsville was named after John Leonard, who 
oegan there soon after the canal was finished. The 
place was selected for a boat-yard and many of the 



best mechanics and boat-biiilders gathered there. The 
business of the place lias declined. 

Jabez Rockwell. In the Methodist cemetery at 
Honesdale is the grave of Jabez Rockwell. He was 
born in Connecticut in November, 1762. When in 
his sixteenth year he enlisted in a company raised in 
that place, was nnistered into a regiment commanded 
by Benedict Arnold, was wounded at the battle of 
Saratoga, was afterwards transferred to the army fur- 
ther south, and was in the battles which culminated in 
the surrender of Cornwallis, at whicli event he was 
present. At the close of the war he settled in Mil- 
ford, Pike county, whic^h was then a wilderness. He 
was twice married. One of his sons by his first wife 
was Lewis Rockwell, formerly sheriif of Pike county, 
and who is now living a few miles from Tafton, in 
that county, being over ninety years of age. In Sep- 
tember, 1798, Jal)ez Rockwell was appointed crier of 
the courts of Wayne county, and in 1805 he was 
deputy sheriff under Abram Mulford, wliose daughter 
he married for his second wife. In 1 824 he was one 
of three Revolutionary soldiers that went from Pike 
county to New York to see General La Fayette, by 
whom they were warmly welcomed. Mr. Rockwell 
removed to Leonardsville in 1837, and there resided 
until the time of his death, in January, 1847. Being 
a Mason he w^as buried with the honors of that order, 
and with the honors of war, and the obsequies were 
solemn and imposing. He was a lifer, and one of his 
favorite airs, "The Masonic Adieu," was fifed in the 


funeral procession from Leonardsville to Honesdale, 
by the author of this work. He had been for many 
years preceding his death in receipt of a pension from 
the government. Charles F. Kockwell, Esq., ex-treas- 
urer of the county; Mrs. E. H. Mott, of Honesdale; 
and Mrs. Isaac Decker, of Leonardsville, are grand- 
children, and John B. Rockwell, of Prompton, is 
a great-grandchild of Jabez ilockwell, aforesaid. 
William Rockwell, a Connecticut man, who first settled 
in Berlin, on the Honesdale and Big Eddy turnpike 
road, and who died some years ago in Leonardsville, 
was of a different family. 

Tracyville is situated on the east side of the Lacka- 
waxen near the confluence of Carley brook tlierewith. 
Esquire Thomas Spangenberg tells us that when he 
first came into the county, in 1794, he found a tub- 
mill for grinding corn, at this place ; that it would not 
pay for tending, and every man went and ground for 
himself. Stephen Kimble built the first saw-mill that 
we ever knew at the place. In his later days Mr. 
Kimble moved to the west side of the river. The 
place was called Tracyville after Thomas H. R. Tracy 
who built a mill up the stream and encouraged some 
mechanics to found some shops in the village. About 
1842, Jacob Faatz started a factory for the making of 
window-glass, but for w^ant of capital he was obliged 
to abandon the l)usiness. James Brookfield succeeded 
him, but the dam of a reservoir belonging to the Del- 
aware & Hudson Canal Company, far up the stream, 
having broken away, during a great storm, carried the 


works of Mr. Brooklield into the river. In 1873, the 
Honesclale Ghiss Company started a factory for the 
making of hollow glass-ware, and their yearly manu- 
facture now amounts to about $100,000, and employs 
nearly one hundred men, women, and boys. An ax 
factory was started in the place by E. Y. White, in 
1842, and by him continued until his death in 1866, 
since which time his son, Gilbert Wliite, has continued 
the business, and he now makes fifty dozen axes per 
week. B. P\ Frailey, also, has been for some years 
engaged there in manufacturing hay -rakes. The steam 
grist-mill of John P. Kimble is between Tracyville 
and Honesdale. Benj. F. Kimble built the old mill 
near by. 

Seelyville. It is claimed that the lirst white man 
known to have set foot on the soil about Seelyville 
was the Kev. Jonathan Seely, a Methodist clergyman, 
who was led, in 1760, through the almost impenetra- 
ble forests to the place by a friendly Indian, and hj 
him was shown the falls at Seelyville, also those on 
the Middle creek, Dyberry, and Jennings brook. The 
warrant, by which this tract was held, was dated 6th of 
August, 1769, was surveyed the 23d of October, 1790, 
and patented to Sylvanus Seely, November 7t]i, 1820. 
Col. Sylvanus Seely first commenced improving the 
mill-site in 1802 by building a small saw-mill at the 
falls, and in putting up a small house, to which lu^ 
moved his family in 1805, cutting his road all the wav 
through the woods from Cherry Ridge settlement 
At that time the getting of hemlock would not pay. 


nor would it a long time afterwards, so that lumbering 
was confined to getting a few scattered pines, with 
curled maple and cherry, which was rafted in small 
rafts of seven or eight thousand feet each, and was 
rafted on the ground where Birdsalls' factory now 
stands. In the year 1808, Col. Sylvanus Seeiy built 
a small grist-mill immediately down stream from the 
saw-mill, and used one pair of mill-stones obtained on 
the top of Moosic mountain, which stones were used 
about twenty-five years. During the life-time of Col. 
S. Seely, who died in the year 1819, he lived by lum- 
bering and by his grist-mill, paying little attention to 
farming. In his latter days he became involved by 
endorsing for others, so that after his decease his 
whole real estate, including " Seely's mills," was sold. 
In 1824, Richard S. Seely came to this county on 
a visit, and, in 1825, returned wdth his father, John 
W. Seely, from Trumbull Co., Ohio, who then pur- 
chased the property, consisting of three hundred and 
thirty-six acres, for $900. On the 16tli of March, 1826, 
R. S. Seely arrived at Seelyville, on horseback, by 
the way of Cherry Ridge, with leather saddle-bags 
containing all his goods and money. A more forlorn, 
desolate, and uninviting place could not have been 
conceived. The only road was from Cherry Ridge to 
Bethany, and the only one to where Honesdale is was 
the bed of the creek. The woods hung all around the 
place. Having no knowledge of sawing or grinding, 
he took off his coat, put on a tow-frock, and went 
merrily to work, having for his aid and general ad- 


viser Jonathan D. Simpson. A new saw-mill was 
])uilt and the house and grist-mill repaired. Col. See- 
ly, by running from one mill to the other, kept them 
in operation, thus performing the work of two men 
under disadvantages that would have crushed the con- 
stitution of almost any man of the present day. In 
1827, the canal and railroad were located, infusing 
new life into business. In February, 1830, Baldwin 
(k Co. began the making of axes and edge-tools; their 
shop was afterwards torn down, rebuilt, and enlarged. 
In the same year a small foundry was started by Cas- 
per Hollenback, and John H. Bowers commenced 
building a small turning-shop. This was subseqently 
occupied by Gilbert and Robert Knapp, then enlarged 
and used by John H. G-ill as a machine-shop, and 
subsequently, by James Birdsall, as a woolen factory, 
until it was burned down, in 1849. In 1831, a facto- 
ry for manufacturing scoop-shovels was built and car- 
ried on business in the name of R. S. Seely & Co. It 
resulted in loss to the parties, three in number, of 
$1,000 each. This shop, after standing idle a year or 
two, was occupied by Burbank & Burk as an edge- 
tool shop, into which R. S. Seely was drawn and, up- 
on its failure, he was obliged to foot bills amounting 
to $2,000, which left him not worth a cent. Still re- 
taining a strong arm and a strong resolution, he per- 
severed and finally retrieved his fortune. In 1832, 
Col. Seely was made superintendent for building the 
turnpike from Honesdale to Waymart. Seelyville 
never witnessed a siffht so grand as the tirst four-horse 


stage wliicli was driven tlirough the village. In 1834, 
D. 0. & B. Payne commenced the manufacture of 
lead pipe, in the loft over the scoop-shovel shop, and 
closed in 1837. Ephraim Y. White afterwards made 
axes and edge-tools in the place. In 1850, Col. Seely 
built the woolen factory, now conducted by the Bird- 
sail Brothers. Their father rented it until his de- 
cease, in 1857. He used three thousand pounds of 
wool per year. They, from time to time, have en- 
larged and improved the premises. Last year they 
used one hundred thousand poimds of wool, one-half 
of which was raised in the county. They contem- 
plate using one hundred and fifty thousand pounds the 
present year, (1880) as the business is remunerative. 
Birdsall Brothers manufacture cassimeres, flannel of 
various descriptions, and stocking-yarn. They will em- 
ploy fifty liands this year* Christian Erk manufac- 
tures umbrella and parasol sticks and makes some 
doors, &c. He emplo3^s about twenty-five hands. 
Seelyville has one licensed tavern, a store, and a grad- 
ed school of a superior order. The village is one mile 
and a half west of Honesdale. 

In the spring of 1849, a large dwelling-house, built 
in the village by Col. Seely, and then occupied by 
Ezekiel Gr. Wood, was consumed Iw fire, of which 
lightning was supposed to be the cause. Col. Seely 
removed to Honesdale in 1848, and erected that fine 
mansion, now the residence of Hon. Coe F. Young, 
where he died, Nov. 8, 1863. Upon the organization 
of the Honesdale Bank, in 1836, lie was elected the 


President thereof, which post he occupied while he 
lived. He was, in all respects, a good and useful 
man. He left three sons. Col. Franklin A. Seely, of 
the United States Army; Henry M. Seely, Esq., attor- 
ney-at-law, in Honesdale; and George D. Seely, of 
Washington, D. C 

Tlie lands now occupied by Daniel M. Eno, and the 
lands adjacent, of one hundred and twenty acres, were, 
in 1805, assessed to Isaac Seaman, the father of Chas. 
W. Seaman. Isaac Seaman sold out to Peter Smith, 
wlio sold the same to Doming & Eno. 

All the lands which the late Daniel Schoonover 
owned were taken up and patented to his fatlier, Wm. 
Schoonover. The tract included all the upper part of 
Honesdale. Wm. Schoonover was one of the earliest 
settlers on tlie Dy berry. He was w^iere Daniel 
Schoonover lived as early as 1T94. He w^as the father 
of Daniel, Levi, (who was the iirst w^liite child bom 
on the Dy berry) Jacob, and Simon S<*Iioonover. 

Peter Cole, and his son, Josiah Cole, came into 
Dy berry township (now Texas) in the spring of 1813, 
and settled in the woods, on Cole's hill, one mile north- 
west of Honesdale, which was then, like the place at 
which they began, a dense wilderness. Josiah was 
then sixteen yea2*s of age. They built a log-cabin 
without wdndows, and hung up a bed-quilt for a door. 
Then Mr. Cole and his son went back to JS^ew Jersey, 
to assist in harvesting, and left Mrs. Cole alone in thai 
cabin, around which the wolves prowled and howled 
She had no company or defense except a faithful dog 


Peter Cole bought his land of Charles Kimble, who 
married a daughter of his. Benjamin Kimble, Sen., 
married Betsey, a sister of Peter Cole. She was tlie 
mother of widow Fanny Atkinson, of Paupack Eddy. 
Josiah Cole succeeded to the estate of his father. He 
had two sons ; one of them, Lewis R. Cole, was wound- 
ed at Fort Fisher, and died in a hospital, in 1865. 
His other son, P. J. Cole, rents and conducts the 
Honesdale Mill. He had tw^o daughters; one was 
the wife of Reynolds Case, and is not living ; and the 
other, named Eleanor, now living, is the wife of 
Charles H. Peck, of Preston. 

Robert Beardslee began adjoining Peter (^ole, about 
1812. He married a sister of Charles Kimble. Buck- 
ley was his brother. Lewis and David were Robert 
Beardslee's sons. The Beardslee family were from 
Litchfield Co., Conn. 

Texas township is divided into three election dis- 
tricts, and has fourteen common schools, besides the 
graded school, at Seely ville. The number of taxables, 
in 1878, was 1,083. 




FIFTY-FIVE years ago the borough of Ilonesdale, 
now so l>eautifiil and prosperous, was covered with 
liemloeks and laurels. Tlie wolf and the fox roamed 
there unmolested and unlimited. ''The thistle shook 
there its lonely head and the wild moss whistled to 
the wind." A small opening at the lower end of the 
boat-yard was made at an early day by one Andrew 
Showers, and the improvement was transferred from 
one to another until it Avas pur(diased by Samuel Kim- 
ble, now deceased. The density of the forest, and 
other considerations, prevented the lands from being 
tilled for agricultural purposes. The town owes its 
consequence to other causes. In 1769, Obadiah Gore, 
a blacksmith of Wilkesl)arre, discovered that stone- 
coal, as it was then called, was a good substitute for 
(*.harcoal in the working of iron, jind, in 1808, the 
greater discovery was made that it produced an excel- 
lent fire when burned in a grate. After long and 
varied experiments its value was generally conceded. 

Inexliaustible mines of this coal had been discover- 
ed in the valleys of the Lackawanna and Wyoming; 
l>ut it was valueless unless it could be conveyed to 
market where it would 1>e purchased and used. Many 


iittenipts were made to take coal to Philadelphia by 
drawing it across the mountain to the Lackawaxen and 
running it on rafts of lumber to the city, but the 
scheme was found to be impracticable and profitless. 

Maurice and William Wurtz, Quakers of Philadel- 
phia, men with far-seeing and prophetic vision, devised 
the plan of constructing a canal from the Lackawaxen, 
the site of Honesdale, to the Hudson river at Kings- 
ton, a distance of one hundred and eight miles; and 
of making a railroad with inclined planes from the 
Lackawanna to the Lackawaxen, a distance of sixteen 
miles, which railroad would ascend the Moosic moun- 
tain at an elevation of two thousand feet above tide- 
water. With a determination and perseverance equaled 
only by that of Field in the laying down of the Atlan- 
tic cables, Maurice and William Wurtz carried out 
their plans, being aided by many enterprising capital- 

The Delaware and Hudson Canal Company was or- 
ganized and the proposed canal and railroad made and 
put in operation in the year 1829. By way of experi- 
ment one or two boats were run up the canal in the 
autumn of 1828. Many difficulties, almost insur- 
mountable, were encountered in building the canal. 
At a point l)etween Paupack Eddy and tlie Narrows 
was a sharp bend in the Lackawaxen called " the pul- 
pit," where it was found indispensable to use the river 
for the canal, consequently a new channel was dug 
around "the pulpit" for the river to run in. A great 
flood in the spring of 1829 l)roke away the embank- 


ments between "the pulpit" and the new channel, and 
part of the river resumed its old course. The repairs 
were very costly and were not completed until mid- 
summer, and heavy damages were paid to lumbermen. 
This misfortune happening in the very commencement 
of the enterprise was very disheartening, and this was 
the most critical period in the existence of the Com- 
pany. James Archibald, then its general superinten- 
dent, counseled perseverance, and his salutary advice 
was heeded. When the canal was repaired there was 
but little coal to be found at Honesdale; none had 
been brought over by the railroad. Men had been 
employed the previous winter to haul coal from Car- 
bondale to Honesdale, but there was but little snow 
that season, and consequently but little coal was drawn, 
so that the Company delivered only seven hundred 
tons at Kondout in 1829. Since that time its advance 
has been steadily progressive with constant rapidity of 
advancing step until, wonderful to tell, in 1879, by 
said Delaware & Hudson Canal Company, there were 
mined and sold of coal shipped from Honesdale via 
canal and railroad one million, nine hundred and thirty- 
three thousand, eight hundred and seventy-four tons. 
The upper part of Honesdale was owned by Jason 
Torrey, and the lower part was bought by the Dela- 
ware and Hudson Canal Company of Samuel Kimble 
for a slight consideration. One of its chief patrons 
was Philip Hone, a wealthy merchant of the city of 
New York, and, out of respect to liim, the place at the 
head of canal navigation was named Honesdale. It 


was first laid out in 1826, and was incorporated as a 
borough January 26th, 1831. 

In the winter of 1841, through the active exertions 
of Ebenezer Kingsbury, Jr., of Honesdale, then State 
Senator, an act for the removal of the county seat 
from Bethany to Honesdale, was passed. A court- 
house was commenced in 1841, the pul)lic papers were 
removed from Bethany, and the first court held in 
Honesdale at August sessions, 1843. The Delaware 
and Hudson Canal Company were invested with bank- 
ing powers, and established a bank in the city of New 
York, called "The Bank of the Delaware and Hud- 
son Canal Company," which issued bills for a number 
of years. The money was always at par and furnished 
a most convenient and reliable currency. 

The Honesdale Bank was incorporated in 1836. 
Richard L. Seely was its president during his life, and 
John Neal was its first cashier. In 1864 it came un- 
der the banking law^ of the United States as a national 
bank. Tlien Zenas W. Russell was president, Stephen 
D. Ward cashier, Horace C. Hand teller, and Warren i 
K. Dimock clerk. Coe F. Young is now president of / 
the National Bank, and Edwin F. Torrey cashier. The 
Wayne County Savings Bank was chartered in 1870 
under the laws of Pennsylvania. W. W. Weston is 
now president, and H. C. Hand cashier. The nearest 
depot to Honesdale before 1865 was at Narrowsburg 
upon the New York and Lake Erie Railroad, sixteen 
miles distant. In that year a branch of said road was 
built from Lackawaxen to Hawley and in 1868 tlie 


Branch was extended to Honesdale, thereby affording 
direct raih-oad communication with the city of New 
York, distant one hundred and thirty-five miles. 

John Torrey, Stephen Torrey, John F. Roe, Ahxn- 
son Blood, Charles P. Clark, and Elkanah Batnior 
were among the first begiimers in Honesdale, and are 
yet, as such, the only surviving residents. Jason Tor- 
rey, owning the lands upon which the upper part of 
the town is situated, erected, upon the north side of 
the Lackawaxen, a short distance above its junction 
with the Dyberry, the first dwelling-house, and, as it 
was afterwards used as a place of public worship, it 
was called the "Tabernacle." Isaac P. Foster and 
Jason Torrey built tlie first store, and that was on the 
Avest bank of the Dyberry, near the Goodman bridge. 
Jason Torrey, having made the first improvements, it 
is to be presumed that his sons, John and Stephen, 
were among the primitive settlers. John F. Roe 
came from Long Island, JS^. Y., in 1827. He has 
been engaged, during his sojourn in the place, until a 
year or two ago, in the mercantile business. Mr. 
Roe's recollections of past events are very vivid and 
correct. According to him, Isaac P. Foster and him- 
self kept the second store in a house built by Mr. Fos- 
ter, on a corner opposite the Wayne County House, 
remo\dng the goods from the first store thereto, which 
first store is \Qi standing, it having been moved up to 
and adjoining the house of Dr. E. T. Losey. That 
store-house now belongs to B. B. Smith, Esq. The 
second store-house was, not long afterwards, rented l)y 


Foster to Humphrey tfe Coe, as a tavern, but they did 
not run it long. Foster & Roe, in 1831, built a store 
down town, where W. W. Weston is now located. 
The place has been burned over once or twice, and 
the street and the land since that time have been so 
much raised and tilled up, that what was the top of 
the ground, in 1831, is now the bottom of the cellars. 

The " Stourbridge Lion," the lii'st locomotive ever 
run in America, was placed upon the D. & H. Canal 
Company's Railroad, near where the old M. E. 
church now stands, on the 9th of August, 1829. The 
engine was built in England. It was run two or three 
miles, when it was found to be too heavy for the slen- 
der trestle-work upon which the rails of the road were 
laid. Its use was abandoned and stationary engines 
and inclined planes were substituted in its stead. 

Charles P. Clark, now a carpenter, was an early 
comer, and was one of the first school-teachers in 

Elkanali Patmor, Esq., came from (Jrange county, 
N. Y., in 1830. He has been, and is yet, a manufac- 
turer of and a dealer in all kinds of carriages and 
wao-ons. He has held the office of coroner of the 
county time out of mind. He also held the office of 
justice of the peace for many years. 

David Tarbox was the first justice of the peace. 
Then succeeded Stephen D. Brush, Ebenezer Kings- 
bury, Jr., Thomas J. Hubbell, John Scott, A. B. Bid- 
well, Simon G. Throop, and others. The present jus- 
tices of the peace are John Mcintosh, and James B. 


Eldred. Mr. Mcintosh was once an efficient sheriff 
of the connty, and for six years held the office of 
clerk of the several courts thereof; and Mr. Eldred 
was once a popular sheriff, which is proof positive 
that the Honesdale people have a due appreciation of 
the abilities of those that they choose for magistrates. 

Charles Forbes built and kept the first public house, 
which w^as erected in 1827. Divers persons kept it af- 
terwards, among whom was Henry Dart. The house, 
now the Wayne County Hotel, is owned, and is neat- 
ly and quietly kept by Henry Ball. 

The next public house in Honesdale was built near 
the present store of C^harles Petersen. It was kept 
l)y divers persons until it fell into the hands of Elia- 
kim Field, the prince of hotel keepers, who obtained 
license at January sessions, 1839. By his delicate, 
gossamer net of flattery, he entangled his customers. 
It was his to make the lean appear the fatter morsel: 
to make pork and beans superior to the delicious vi- 
ands w^hich Dyonisius sat before the infatuated Dam- 
ocles, and to make his guests believe that his vile corn- 
whiskey exceeded the nectar which Jupiter sipped on 
Mount Olympus. When a passenger alighted from 
the stage, he was gaily greeted by the complaisant 
host, who, rubbing his hands as if he were w^ashing 
them with invisible soap in imperceptible water, would 
exclaim, " I was afraid I should never see you again : 
walk right in. My wife was speaking about you last 
night; John, go and tell Mrs. Field that Mr. Brown 
lias come. Oh ! liow rejoiced she will be to see you." 


Public houses are now kept by Mrs. Betsey xilleu, 
widow of Samuel Allen, deceased, R. W, Kiple, Mi- 
chael Coyne, A. F. Yoigt, and Henry Ball, already 

The first merchants or retailers of foreign merchan- 
dise, in Honesdale, according to the court records, 
Nov. 1, 1828, were Foster & Roe, Zenas H. Russell, 
Northrup & Hayes. In April, 1830, there were Nor- 
thrup, Hayes ife Co. ; Russell <k Wilcox ; Isaac P. Fos- 
ter ; and Edward Mills. In 1831, there were Foster 
ife Roe; Thomas T. Hayes & Co.; Edward Mills; 
Russell Bronson ; Hastings Frisbie ; Russell & Wilcox ; 
P. S. Tyler ; Charles Kent ; and Humphrey & Co. 
In 1833, Edward Mills; Thomas T. Hayes & Co.; 
Hastings Frisbie ; Russell, Wilcox & Co. ; Hand & 
Kirtland; Roe & Co.; Phineas S. Tyler. In 1834, 
Hayes & Williams; Edward Mills; Hand & Kirtland; 
John F. Roe ; Hastings Frisbie ; Russell, Wilcox «% 
Co.; N. M. Bartlett; Delezenne & Beach; Isaac P. 
Foster; St. John & Perkins; Murray & Madigan ; E. 
T. Losey; Snyder & Stryker. Soon after this James 
Bassett and Cornelius Horn beck bought out the hrm 
of Hayes & Williams. John D. Delezenne, the father 
of Joseph Delezenne, of Honesdale, afterwards traded 
independently of Beach. The most of the aforesaid 
merchants must be w^ell remembered throughout tlie 
county for their fair and honoralJe dealing. John F. 
Roe, and Isaiah Snyder, of Honesdale, and A. J. 
Stryker, of Damascus, ai-e the only survivors of the 
merchants above named. How true it is that " life is 



but M ^'apor, that appeareth for a little time, and then 
vanisheth away." 

The Honesdale Mill was completed in 1840, and 
was built by John Torrey, E-ichard L. Seely, and Jer- 
emiah C. Giinn. Mr. Gunn came from or near the 
city of Geneva, N. Y. He was an experienced miller 
Avhen he came into the comity, and the business of the 
mill was conducted under his direction for many years. 
Afterwards the mill was run for some years by Chas. 
T. Weston and Jas. K. Dickson. It now belongs 
wholly to Hon. John Torrey, and is rented by Peter 
J. Cole, an experienced miller. 

The first physician was Samuel G. Dimmick, of 
Sullivan Co., N. Y., a brother of the first wife of 
Hon. Nathaniel B. Eldred, deceased, and a cousin of 
Hon. Wm. H. Dimmick, Sen. Almost coeval with 
him, in 1830, was Ebenezer T. Losey. Dr. Dimmick 
removed; Dr. Losey remained during his life-time. 
Dr. Adonijah Strong first located in Bethany, and, 
about 1838, removed to Honesdale. He was a clas- 
sical scholar and a most learned physician. In his 
latter days he compounded a medicine for the cure of 
diphthei'ia, and another as a curative for many diseas- 
es, which medicines are highly extolled by those who 
have tested their virtues. Dr. Edwin Graves came 
from Delaware Co., N. Y., to Bethany, then removed 
to Honesdale, where he died in 184:9. Dr. W. F. 
Denton, from Orange Co., N. Y., of the botanical 
school, a very successful physician, practiced in the 
days of Dr. Graves, and survived him many years. 


Next came Dr. W. W. Sanger, from Kew York city, 
whose stay was transient. Dr. C. King, from Otsego 
Co., N. Y., succeeded liim and remained all his life. 
About this time Dr. D wight Reed, a son of Charles 
G-. Reed, of Dyberry, and Dr. Wm. Reed, a son of 
the same, began their practice. Dr. Joseph Jones, 
homeopathist, who married a daughter of John A. 
Gustin, when he lirst came to Honesdale gave his at- 
tention to his profession. The present physicians and 
surgeons are Dr. C. M. Dusinberre, Dr. Dwight Reed, 
Dr. Wm. Reed, Dr. Reed Burns, Dr. H. G. Keefer, 
Dr. W. H. Cummings, Dr. R. W. Brady, who has 
been as much a druggist as a physician, and has com- 
pounded a medicine called "Dr. Brady's Mandrake 
Bitters," which is highly extolled for its medicinal vir- 
tues, and Dr. Fr. A. Friedman, (graduate of Vienna). 
We have not forgotten, nor would we fail to men- 
tion. Dr. Ralph L. Briggs, from Massachusetts, who 
practiced medicine some years in Honesdale. He was 
skillful in his profession, widely known, and highly 
esteemed throughout the county. He married Mary, 
the only daughter of Thomas Fuller. She is yet liv- 
ing in the borough. Upon the incoming of the ad- 
ministration of Abraham Lincoln, he was appointed 
postmaster. He died Dec. 4, 1863, aged thirty-seven 

Of the earlier postmasters were Thos. H. R. Tracy, 
John Scott, John A. Gustin, and John Y. Sherwood. 
Rol)ert A. Smith succeeded Dr. Briggs, has since 
held the office, and will probably continue to hold it 


until we have a cliaiio-e of administration in the gen- 
eral government. 

Knssell F. Lord was one of the original engineers 
and managers of the Canal (Company. His brother, 
Solomon Z. Lord, at Hawley, now in the Company's 
employ, was coeval with him. Thomas H. R. Tracy 
came to Honesdale in 1829. He was born in Frank- 
lin, Connecticut, in 1806, and was appointed superin- 
tendent of the Pennsylvania section of the D. c<: H. 
Canal Company, which position he held until his death. 
He was elected an associate judge of the county in 
1851, and died in the office. Miles L. Tracy, his son, 
is pay-master in the service of the Company. Hon. 
H. M. Seely married a daughter of Judge Tracy. 

John Kelly was one of tlie earliest comers to Hones- 
dale, where he arrived from Ireland, in 1828. He 
was in the service of the ('anal Company for thir- 
ty-two years, and died March 28, 1880, aged eighty- 
two years. 

There are six different Christian denominations in 
Honesdale, whose places of public worship are distin- 
guished as follows: First Presbyterian church, Chas. 
S. Dunning, D. D., pastor; First Methodist Episcopal, 
church, E-ev. Thos. Harroun, pastor, and Rev. H. Fox, 
assistant pastor; Grace Episcopal church. Rev. T. E. 
Caskey, rector; German Lutheran church, Rev. F. 
A. Hertzberger, pastor; St. John's Catholic church. 
Rev. J. J. Doherty, pastor; St. Magdalena Catholic 
church. Rev. G. Dassel, pastor. The Baptist church 
has no pastor at present. A new, massive structure of 


stone, sixty-live feet in front, and one hundred and 
four feet in depth, is being built on the Cherry Kidge 
road, near the borough limits, by the St. John's Cath- 
olic Church. 

There are about twenty -live families of Hebrews, or 
Jews, in Honesdale. Our readers probably know that 
they believe in the Old, or Hebrew Bible. They are 
thought to be a clannish, exclusive people. The truth 
of their history is stranger than fiction. They have 
been a proscribed, persecuted people in some coun- 
tries, having been denied the right of liolding lands or 
offices, and were placed under great civil disabilities. 
Germany relaxed her severities, and England, under 
the strong arguments of Lord Macaulay, was forced 
to suspend her rigors; but the United States, undei- 
the Constitution of AYashington, Jefferson, and other 
founders of true liberties, had nothing to suspend. 
Here every man could worship God according to the 
dictates of his own conscience. To this tolerating 
country the Jews were then attracted. They never 
take the name of God in vain, avoid intemperance, 
do not violate the injunction of the seventh com- 
mandment, have no cases of assault and battery, 
support their own poor, and never cite eacli other to 
the litigious bar. Their morality is worthy of gene- 
ral imitation. They have a synagogue on Third street, 
of which the Rev. Mr. Fass is Rabbi. Prominent 
among them is William Weiss, grocer, Avho came to 
this coimtry from Austria, in 1847, declared his inten- 
tion to ]>ecome a citizen in 1848, and was admitted as 


such in 1853, since which time he hfis l)een a jury 
commissioner, and auditor of the county, and has been 
for eighteen successive years a member of the Hones- 
dale Board of Education. 

The original stock of the Delaware & Hudson Canal 
Company was $1,500,000, which has been increased 
to $20,000,000. Over one million tons of coal can be 
shipped by the canal in an uninterrupted season. 
About one thousand boats constitute its carrying capac- 
ity. The boats are towed down the Hudson river from 
Rondout to the docks of the Company at Weehawken. 
As said before, there were shipped l)y the way of 
Honesdale, in 1879, one million, nine hundred and 
thirty-three thousand, eight hmidred and seventy-four 
tons of coal. Consequently a large amount of coal is 
transported by the Honesdale Branch of the Erie Rail- 
road. The laboring force of the Company is about 
twelve thousand men, and they mined and delivered 
at diiferent markets, in 1879, three million, fifty-four 
thousand, three hundred and ninety tons of coal. The 
progress and prosperity of Honesdale and the sur- 
rounding villages and townships, with all their divers 
l)ranches of industry, have been identified with and 
dependent upon the business and success of this Com- 
pany. The canal is supplied with water by flowing a 
number of ponds in different parts of the county, 
thereby forming reservoirs that can be drawn upon as 
needed. These are as follows: Belmont reservoir. 
Miller's pond, and Stevenson pond, in Mount Pleasant; 
Long pond and reservoir below on its outlet. White 


Oak pond, and Elk pond in Clinton ; Keen's pond in 
Canaan; Lower Woods pond in Lebanon; Yarnell pond 
in Oregon ; and Cajaw pond in Cherry Ridge. All 
the coal carried to market by the canal is brought over 
the Moosic mountain by the Gravity Railroad. This 
was the lirst railroad built for actual transportation in 
America. There are no locomotives used on the road. 
The road ascends an elevation of eight hundred and 
fifty feet to the summit of the mountain. At the 
head of each plane is a substantial stationary engine. 
An endless wire rope passes over a huge drum at the 
head and extends to the foot of the plane ; there the 
cars are attached to the rope, and, upon a given signal, 
the cars start up the plane, often at the rate of twelve 
miles an hour. The track between the head of one 
plane and the foot of the next is built on a decline of 
fifty feet to the mile and is called a " Level." There are 
eight of these planes between Honesdale and Carbon- 
dale, and from Carbondale to Honesdale there are 
eight planes up and four down the mountain. The 
cars, having been let down the mountain by four in- 
clined planes to Waymart, from thence run by theii- 
own gravity to Honesdale. The track from Honesdale 
to Carbondale is called the " Light " track because the 
cars return to the mines empty. The other is called the 
"Loaded" track as loaded cars use it only. The scene- 
ry along this mountain railroad is enchanting. This 
road has been several times relaid and has undergone 
important repairs, adding greatly to its strength and 
safety. ^ 


Passenger trains commeneed running npon it in 
1877 ; they are well conducted and safely run, and are 
a source of proiit to the company. They are exten- 
sively patronized by the votaries of pleasure and in- 
valids seeking pure air. The docks of the company 
at Honesdale are nearly a mile in length, along the 
western side of the village, and sometimes there are 
500,000 tons of coal stored there awaiting shipment ; 
at other times there is none. The present officers of 
the company are as follows : President, Thomas Dick- 
s(m, of Scranton, Pa.; Vice President, Robert M. 
Olyphant, New York city ; General Manager, Coe F. 
Young, Honesdale, Pa. ; Treasurer, Jas. G. Hartt, New 
York city; Seci'etary, George L. Ilaight, New York 
city; Sales Agent, Rodman G, Moulton, New York 
city; General Agent of Real Estate Department, E. 
W. Weston, Providence, Pa. ; Superintendent of Coal 
Department, A. H. Vandling, Providence, Pa.; Su- 
perintendent of Railroad Department, R. Manville, 
Carbondale, Pa.; Assistant Canal Superintendent, W. 
F. Wil])ur, of Plonesdale; Sales Agent, Southern and 
Western Department, Joseph J. Albright, of Scran- 
ton, P^ 

.^xTlie streets of Honesdale are l)road, and finely shad- 
ed by maples and other trees. The sidewalks are 
paved witli ilag-stones. Main street is tlie principal 
business part of the town ; Second and Third streets 
are mainly oc(nipied by private residences. Second 
street might with propriety be called Church street, as 
the Baptist, Metliodist Episcopal, Presbyterian, Episco- 


pal, German Lutheran, and German Catholic el lurches 
are situated upon it. There are tln-ee suhstantial iron 
hridges in the borough. In the central part of tlie 
town is a spacious park, in the center of which, 
through tlie enterprise of the ladies of tlie borougli, a 
fountain, sparkling with beauty, was erected in 1879. 
Soon after the late civil strife tlie patriotic ladies of 
flonesdale, assisted by others in the connty, erected 
in the park a costly monument to perpetuate the mem- 
ory of the Wayne county volunteers who fell in tli:!t 
wai-. This monument, of Quincy granite, is pedestri 
in form, and surmounted by a bronze figure, life size, 
of a U. S. soldier at parade rest. The monument, 
together with the statue, is about fonrteen feet in 
lieight, and is surrounded by a neat ii-on fence. Tlie 
inscription and names of the fallen soldiers ai*e ns 

follows : 







'*That Government of the people, by the people, and for the 

people, should not perish from the earth. " 

Capt. James L. Mumford. 

J. H. Bryant, J. Markle, D. Palmer, 

H. C. Pidis, W. Rix, G. Palmer, 

G. Scambler, E. Jordan, A. F. Elmeudorf, 

J. J. Thoi-p, D. Seibold, S. E. Elmendorl', 

E. Barhipht, J. G. Griggs, O. K. Stears, 

C. Thorp^ A. Graham, S. F. Davall, 




J. E. Chubb, 
I. Thomas, 
J. Wallace, 

C. N. Bagley, 

D. HoweU, 
O. Wolf, 
S. Gilcrist, 
S. H. Cross, 

J. H. Simpson, 
T. Nodclin, 
W. E. Martin, 
R. Martin, 
G. H. Hoover, 
J. Shiever^ 
B. Pell, 
G. Pell, 
J. Simpson, 
O. Gillett, 
S. Bidwell, . 
H. Bidwell, 

F. Bidwell, 

E. Bidwell, 
S. Peet, 
W. Brooks, 
O. BrcK>ks, 
J. Mann, 
a Hathrill, 
T. Bryant, 
W. Tamblyu, 
D. C. Lathrop, 
M. Stevens, 

G. H. Stevens, 

D. Maloney, 

E. W. De Reamer, 

E. M. Clark, 

F. Zahn, 

J. E. Bagley, 
Ew W. FaiTiham, 

C. Henwood, 
J. Baker, 

J. B, Karslake, 

D. B. Torrey, 
T. Benney, 

S. Strong, 
T. Clark, 
T. J. Firth, 
A. Little, 

F. Marshall, 
N. G. Hiird, 
H. Nye, 
W. Surplice, 
H. McKaue, 
M. Rollison, 
A. Rollison, 
W. Holdron, 
J. E. Reed, 

G. Compton, 
N. Warder, 

D. Freer, 
W. Kellum, 
N. G. Hand, 
J. Johnson, 
T. Bourke, 
N. Foy, 
R. Kirtz, 
M. Devitt, 
L. Cole, 

E. Haven, 
J. D. Simp»3n, 
P. Ennis, 
-J. Kranglian, 
J. McLaughlin, 
J. C. Anthony, 

D. Wall, 

H. Buchanan, 
I. Knapp, 
Z. N. Lee, 

Capt. James Ham. 

A. Broat, 
M. V. Tvler, 

B. Lord; 
J. Jones, 

E. Jones, 
J. Price, 

N. Tyler, Jr., 
J. Hauser, 
S. D. Ward, 

W. Brotzmau, 
H. Case, 
H. Kinney, 

C. H. Munroe, 
G. H. Palmer, 
N. J. Simpson, 
G. W. Simpson, 
A. C. Starbird, 
J. W. Smith, 

J. H. Worth, 
W. Short, 
J. Ogden, 
J. Ogden, 
J. Northcott, 
S. Hines, 
J. Keifer, 
J. H. Belknap, 

0. Chamberlain, 
T. C. Brigham, 
Y. D. Brigham, 
H. B. Wood, 
W. E. Dodge, 
J. Lukens, 

D. L. Brown, 
G. D. Parsons, 
C. T. Jackson, 
J. A. Dodge, 

J. W. Framptou, 

1. Frampton, 
G. Parsons, 
H. Conklin, 
J. Cole, 

J. M. Gavett, 
J. R. Garton. 

G. W. Haynes. 
G. D. Slocum,' 
G. Seely, 
J. T. Wliittaker, 
T. Sterling, 
R. Whitney, 
H. Keersey, 
C. H. Cole, 
J. Hardwick, 



A. K. Pruden, 
N. Thoi-p, 
W. Hunter, 
A. Benjamiu, 
W. W. Valentine, 
E. Taeubner, 

C. Neihart, 
r. Wilcox, 

A. S. Luclwig, 
r. Metzger, 
E. E. Fisher, 
G. Metz, 
H. Nelmes, 
W. F. Hurlbiu-t, 

D. Burton, 
D. S. Charles, 
W. Carney, 
G. Frace, 

G. M. Cole, 
H. Price, 
J. Brown, 
W. H. Gifford, 
L. Bailey, 
L. N. Purdy, 
C. Haines, 
H. West, 
H. Lynch, 
G. J. Price, 
J. Hathaway, 
A. B. Hathaway, 
J. E. Dart, 

W. T. Hall, 
G. Ortnung, 
J. Tobin, 
E. Dexter, 
E. J. Bunnell, 
H. J. Borchers, 

D. Avery, 

A. E. Gleason, 

A. Niles, 

W. J. Thomas, 

J. Best, 

J. D. Hamlin, 

E. Torpyn, 
I. Crago, 
R. Clift, 
W. Cory, 

J. Bronson, 
J. E. Taylor, 
G. A. Taylor, 
H. Whittaker, 

D. Reynolds, 

E. Lake, 

0. S. Hoffman, 
T. Newman, 
W. Surrine, 

S. H. Thomas, 
W. C. Thomas, 

1. Hill, 

S. W. Jayne, 
E. S. Hufteln, 
J. H. Wilds, 

D. Woodward, 
D. Darling, 
A. J. Dai'ling, 
J. Hull, 

C. M. Griffis, 
P. P. Knight, 
W. Randall, 
R. Humphrey, 

D. Martin, 
J. O'Niel, 

M. Kingsbury, 
A. B. Hall, 
T. Coddmgton, 
A. Martin, 
J. W. Waller, 
J. Elmer, 
H. C. Wright, 

F. O. R. Benjamin, 
I. J. Bradshaw, 

G. M. Grotevant, 

D. Howell, 

E. G. Belknap, 
G. W. Warner, 
E. W. Freeman, 
J. B. Hanser, 

A. L. Chittenden, 
J. B. Muzzy, 
O. Wilcox, 
J. J. Rude, 
A. D. Stark, 
J. McKeon. 


Lieut. H. F. Willis, 

D. Lake, 
D. McGowan, 
W. C. Bently, 
W. S. Hoffman, 
J. Jackson, 
G. W. Welton, 
M. Wood, 
J. Markle, 
B. Sherwood, 
W. Rhodes, 
J. Brigham, 

P. G. Griffin, 
H. Shaffer, 
S. H. Thomas, 
S. Dobson, 
H. T. Angel, 
E. O. Polly, 
H. Nicholson, 
D. Dickins, 
C. Dickins, 
G. W. Dickins, 
J. Dickins, 

Lieut. A. E. King, 

T. Kennedy, 
R. Harford, 
A. Colbath, 
E. S. Bayley. 
H. J. Wheeler, 
R. Bunnell, 
J. Emery, 
L. Slote, 
L. Bui'leigh, 
A, Mattison, 
D. Mattison, 



G. W. Marks, 

A. J. Marks, 
D. Siitliff, 
M. Hickney, 
W. Cole. 

J. G. Boss, 

D. Dibble, 

B. Boults, 
J. Bray, 
O. Tyler, 

W. H. Wilcox, 

C. Lees, 

J. S. Sutliff, 
J. F. Wright, 

E. O. Haines, 
A. Huffman, 
J. S. Marricle, 
J. G. Boss, 

D. Brazee, 
K. P. Knapp, 
N. T. Andrews, 
G. G. Andrews, 
A. J. Swingle, 

J. J. Cunimiskey, 
L,. Spangenberg, 

J. J. Monk, 

C. P. Andreas, 

A. L. Rowley, 
I). Carpenter, 
H. A. Thurston, 

B. S. Merwin, 
N. J. Van Orden, 
J. W. Cobb, 

J. M. Easby, 
J. N. Stevens, 
J. C. Rockwell, 

F. Baird, 
N. Wilbur, 

A. H. Stewart, 
L, Croue, 
A. Jordan, 
J. Elmor, 
M. L. Denslow, 

D. A. Denslow, 
J. F. Jackson, 
O. L. Bath, 

G. S. Brown, 
G. P. Euslin, 
J. S. Kennedy, 

E. Lake, 

A. Clock, 
W. Upright, 
J. F. Barnes, 
D. Swingle, ^ 

A. London, 
T. Woodward, 
J. Hehnes, 

B. Curtis, 
H. Brigliam, 
G. Foler, 

J. A. Adams, 

D. Catterson, 
P. Swartz, 

L. Applemau, 
J. Cauth, 
S. Shearer, 

E, Cramer, 
L. Jordan, 
J. Rollison, 

C. A. Weed, 
H. Harris, 

G. W. Brown, 

J. Tobee, 

J. Adams, 

J. H. Schoonmaker. 

The enterprise of Isaac P. Foster, in connection 
witli Jason Torrey and John F. Roe, in erecting the 
iirst 1 )uiklings, and in starting the first stores in Hones- 
dale has been mentioned. Mr. Foster was of New 
Enghmd descent, and, in 1827, (^ame from Montrose, 
Pa., at the instance of Major Torrey. Mr. Foster had 
l^een for some years engaged in the tanning bnsiness, 
and soon resolved to establisli a tannery near Hones- 
dale. Having chosen a site, one mile np the west 
branch, in company with Ezra Hand, Daniel P. Kirt- 
land, and John F. Roe, reliable Imsiness men, a tan- 
nery was bnilt and put in operation in ISoO. At an 
early day, Mr. Foster bought out the interest of his 


partners, finally associated his sons with him, and the 
tannery was run as long as hark could he ol)tained for 
its support. In connection with his mercantile husi- 
ness, his tanning estal)lishment proved to ]>e highly 
remunerative, and he acquired more than a compe- 
tence. It is claimed that Deacon Foster brought the 
lirst imported hides into the county, and sent out of 
the county the iirst leather manufactured therein. He 
was called Deacon Foster, from tlie fact of his having 
i»een for many years a deacon in the First Presl)yte- 
rian Church. He was an ardent abolitionist and was 
doubtless sincere in his professions. When the free- 
dom of the slaves was fully assured, lifting up liis 
hands, he exclaimed, " Lord, let now thy servant de- 
part in peace, for mine eyes have seen thy salvation." 
He was much more than an ordinary man, and died 
in Honesdale, Nov. 18, 1876. 

Henry W. Stone, now living in Honesdale, aged 
eighty-nine years, was born in Kew England, and, in 
1822, was assessed in Mount Pleasant as a single man 
and a merchant. Afterwards he traded awhile in 
Honesdale, and then, in company with Horace Drake, 
estal>lished a tannery and store at Beech Pond, which 
were successfully continued for many years, when Mr. 
Stone sold out to Drake c% Sons, and, with a compe- 
tence, retired from l)usiness. Being a temperate and 
unexcitable man, his l)odily and mental powers remain 
unimpaired by the ravages of time. Judge Cliarles 
P, Waller married his oldest, and E. F. Torrev anoth- 


er daughter. His only son, Henry William, is living 
in Honesdale. 

Among the attorneys of note who practiced in om' 
com'ts since they have been held in Honesdale were 
the following: 

Earl Wheeler, who was born in Hampden county, 
Mass., 1802. He was a son of Hansom Wheeler, and 
a cousin of the late Marvin Wheeler, a well known mer- 
chant of Hancock, N. Y. Earl Wheeler commenced the 
practice of law in Dundaff, from thence he removed 
to Bethany, and, upon the removal of the county seat, 
took up his abode in Honesdale. He was a well-read 
lawyer and very fond of mathematics. In his sixty- 
fourth year he was smitten with paralysis, which un- 
iltted him for practicing his profession. He died De- 
cember 30, 1875, at the residence of his brother-in- 
law, Hiram K. Mumford, in Dyberry township. 

William H. Dimmick, Sen., was a son of Dan Dim- 
mick, of Milf ord ; he studied law with N, B. Eldred, 
was admitted to the Bar in 1840, removed to Hones- 
dale, was elected to Congress in 1856, and died Au- 
gust 3, 1861. He was never married. 

Samuel E. Dimmick was born in Bloomingburg, 
Sullivan county, N. Y. He was a son of Alpheus 
Dimmick, and cousin of William H. Dimmick, Sen., 
with whom he commenced the study of law, in 1814. 
He was admitted to the Bar in 1846. Such was his 
celebrity as a lawyer that, in 1873, he was appointed 
l)y Gov. Hartranft, attorney-general of Pennsylvania, 
in which office he died, Oct. 11, 1875. 


Frederick M. Crane was born in Salisbury, Conn., 
in 1815. He came to Honesclale in 1844, and was 
then admitted to the Bar, and was twice elected as a 
member of the Legislature. His mental capacity was 
great, and his legal knowledge extensive. He died 
suddenly at Honesdale, January 8, 1877. 

Ebenezer Kingsbury, Jr., John I. Allen, Simon G. 
Throop, Jackson Woodward, and H. B. Beardslee 
were admitted to the Wayne County Bar, but busi- 
ness outside of the legal profession diverted their at- 
tention therefrom. 

Want of space compels us to contract our intended 
notice of the present members, of the Bench and Bar. 

Hon. Chas. P. Waller, president judge, was born 
in Wyoming Yalley, of which place his father was a 
native. His mother came from Connecticut, and his 
grandparents were from the same State. He studied 
law with Judge Collins, of Wilkesbarre, came to 
Honesdale in 1843, and was then admitted to the Bar. 

The senior members of the Bar are as follows: 
(Jharles S. Minor, who was born in Washington, Con- 
necticut, in 1817, graduated at Yale College in 1841, 
and at the law school in New Haven, in 1844, came 
to Honesdale, and was admitted to the Bar that year. 

G. G. Waller, who was born in Wyoming, studied 
law with Judge Collins, came to Wayne county, and 
was admitted to practice in 1849. 

E. O. Hamlin was born in Bethany, studied with 
Hon. Geo. W. Woodward, was admitted in 1852, and 
practiced two years in Wayne county. He then re- 


moved to Minnesota, was there president judge for 
several years, l)iit tinally returned, and took up liis 
permanent residence in Wayne eonnty, in 1873. 

Henry M. Seely was born in Wayne county, studied 
law in the city of New York, and was admitted to the 
Bar in 1859. 

William H. Dinnnick, son of Oliver 8. Dimmick, of 
Pike (bounty. Pa., studied law with Hon. S. E. Dim- 
mick, und was admitted to tlie Bar, in 1863. 

Greorge F. Bentley, sou of Judge Bentley, of Mon- 
trose, Pa., studied with C. P. <k G. G. Waller, and 
was admitted to \h^ Bar in 1866. 

The junior meml)ers of the Honesdale Bar are all 
natives of Wayne county, namely: P. P. Smith, Geo. 
8. Purdy, Wm. 11. Lee, E. C. Mmnford, D. H. Brown, 
Homer Green, and W. J. Tracy. They all studied 
law in Honesdale, and have been duly admitted to the 
Bar. Being studious and temperate men, they give 
promise of attaining eminence in their profession. E. 
Richardson, of Hawley, and L. G. Dimock, of Way- 
mart, are also members of the Honesdale Bar. 

The progress that Honestlale has made within the 
past twenty years may ]>e seen in the superior value 
and permanency of the buildings erected, and in otlier 
important improvements made. Tlie Keystone and 
Centennial bloi-ks below the canal bridge and manv 
other buildings in the town would not appear to dis- 
advantage in any city. Many dwelling-houses have 
^>een ei*ected on tlie nortli side of the Lackawaxen, 
above Park street, which althoua'h unlike in struc- 


ture, are ingenious specimens of architectural taste 
and beauty. Main street has been macadamized at 
great expense. The streets and the public and private 
l)uildings are lighted with gas. The town is abun- 
dantly supplied with water wliich is principally drawn 
from the First and Second ponds in Dyberry. The 
business of the canal and railroad affords so large a 
Held for labor that but little attention has been paid to 
manufacturing. Still that branch of industry has not 
l)een entirely neglected. The yearly manufacture of 
boots and shoes by Durland, Torrey & Co., amounts 
to $350,000. The Honesdale Iron & Agricultural 
Works, carried on by Gilbert Knapp, do a very large 
business. Tliere is also a foundry on Front street, 
conducted by Thomas Charlesworth, which does con- 
siderable business. P. Mc Kenna is largely engaged 
in the manufacture of butter Hrkins, churns, tubs, 
buckets, and many other articles all of superior qual- 
ity, thus supplying the county and adjoining sections. 
M. B. Yan Kirk tfe Co. have an umbrella-stick factory. 
John Brown manufactures cabinet-work. C. C. Jad- 
win manufactures a large amount of his " Subduing 
Liniment," for which there is an extensive demand. 
B. L. Wood & Co. manufacture lumber for building 

The cause of education has always been considered 
of the first importance by the people of Honesdale. 
The first school taught in the place was kept in a house 
located on liiver street, near John Brown's residence, 
and was taught by Lewis Pestana, in the winter of 



1828. The next winter he was succeeded by Charles 
P. Chirk, whose school was patronized by about fifty 
pupils. An academy was founded in 1838, and its 
first principal was Henry Seymour, A. B., of Amherst 
College. He Avas succeeded by B. B. Smith, A. M., 
of Honesdale, and it continued to flourish under his 
control until the State appropriation was withheld and 
it gave place to the Honesdale Graded School, in 1861. 
A classical course in the latter school includes the 
usual studies preparatory to college. Prof. J. M. 
Dolph became its principal in 1878. He succeeded 
Prof. L. H. Barnum, who was principal for the pre- 
vious six years. By the school report of 1878 there 
were eleven schools in Honesdale. The tax levied for 
all school purposes in that year amounted to $5,029.21. 

The contract for building the first court-house in 
Honesdale, was awarded to Charles Jameson. It was 
built of wood and cost $16,000. The first court was 
held therein at September Sessions, 1843. The fire- 
proof brick building in which the public records are 
now kept, was built in 1856, by Beers & Heath, and 
cost the county §11,500. The present jail was built 
in 1859, but the original cost is now unknowTi. The 
order of our judges for the erection of a new court- 
house was made after a report of the grand jury at 
February Sessions, 1876, and was as follows: 

"In view of the crowded state of the court room for the past 
year, and the manifest necessity for enlarged accommodation 
for the people of the county who have business in the courts, 
as lawyers, jurors, parties, and witnesses, and the very imper- 
fect ventilation of the present court room, we cordially approve 


the report of the grand jury on this subject, and recommend 
the county commissioners to carry out the same by at once 
maturing plans and erecting the foundation of a new buikling 
the coming season ; they can then distribute the expense 
through the years necessarily required for the erection and 
completion of a building which shall meet the wants of, and 
be a credit to, the county and not impose unnecessary burdens 
upon the taxpayers. Dated, Feb. 15th, 1876. 

( Chas. p. Waller, President Judge, 
Signed, •< Otis Avery, Associate Judge, 

(H. Wilson, 

To make way for the building of the new structure 
the old court-house was taken down in the summer of 
1877. The new court-house has been so far linished 
that the courts were held in it at May Sessions, 1880. 
What will be the final cost of the building is as yet 
unknown. There are so many questions about the 
matter that are in al^eyance, that want of time and 
space prevents our giving its tangled and disputed his- 
tory; we leave that lal)or to the coming historian. 
Who should be cannonaded and who should be canon- 
ized in the premises, it is not our province to decide. 

The first newspaper printed in the county was start- 
ed at Bethany, by James Manning, who bought a 
printing-press and type. It was entitled the Way7ie 
County Mirror. Manning edited it himself, and it 
was well conducted. Its first number was dated in 
March, 1818. The Mirror was followed by the Re- 
jntbliean Advocate, which was published l)y Davis 
and Sasman, Manning owning the press. It com- 
menced in November, 1822, but Davis became unpop- 
ular, and, in 1830, it took the name of the Bethany 


Inquirer^ with Wm. Sasmaii as editor. In 1832 the 
iirst number of the Way tie County Herald was issued 
in Honesdale by Peter C Ward. The Wayne Comity 
Free Press and Bethany and Honesdale Advertiser 
was established January 1, 1838, by Paul S. Preston, 
at Bethany. Piehard Nugent was editor and compos- 
itor. Ebenezer Kingsbury, Jr., was then editor of the 
Honesdale Herald. In 1840, The Free Press was re- 
moved to Honesdale, and, in 1842, took the name of 
The Beechivoodsrnan^ which was succeeded, in 1844, 
by The Honesdale Democrat^ and edited by F. B. 
Penniman, Esq., the veteran editor in Wayne county, 
now of Honesdale. The purity, propriety, and con- 
ciseness of his style attracted the notice of the emi- 
nent writers and politicians of that day, and he was 
pursuaded to accept the editorship of The Plttslnirg 
Cazette, then one of the most influential political jour- 
nals in the Commonwealth; but failing health forced 
liim to retire from the position. He has not, how- 
ever, lost his skill in the use of felicitous language. 
His ancestors were of Puritan origin. Upon the 
retirement of F. B. Penniman from the Democrat., it 
took the name of The Rejniblic., and was conducted by 
E. A. Penniman. In 1868 The Honesdale Citizen 
was estal>lished, which has ever since been published 
as the organ of the Republican party in the connty ; 
Hon. Henry Wilson and E. A. Penniman are its 
editors and publishers. The Wayne County Herald^ 
the organ of the Democratic party, has l)een owned 
and conducted, at different times, by John I. Allen, 


II, B. Beardslee, and Menner ife Ham. In 1865, it 
passed into the hands of Thomas J. Ham, who is 
its present editor and owner. Several other papers 
have been started from time to time, which were short 
lived. The Ilawley Free Press was succeeded by 
The Hawley Tkties, formerly edited by F. P. Wood- 
ward, a son of Daniel D. Woodward, Esq., of Cherry 
Ridge, but now edited by his brother, H. P. Wood- 
ward. 2' he Wayne In<le2)endent was established in 
1878 by Benjamin F. Haines. The initial number 
was issued in February of that year. It being a suc- 
cess, the paper was enlarged with the first number of 
the second volume, when Mr. Haines associated as 
copartner with him Miles Beardsley, of Kew York 
State, and it has since been conducted under the iirm 
name of Haines cfe Beardslej. It is independent in 


PAUPACK Settlement, as it was always known in 
former times, was situated on the eastern and 
8outh-eastern side of the Wallenpaupack. A man by 
the name of Carter and his familv were the first 


whites that ever lived on the Paupack. He built a house 
on the Pellet Flats, in 1758. During the French and 
Indian war the family were all murdered and the 
house burned by the Indians. The names of the first 
emigrants were Uriah Chapman, Esq., Capt. Zebidon 
Parrish, Capt. Eliab Varnum, Nathaniel Gates, Zadock 
Killam, Ephraim Killam, Jacob Kimble, Enos Wood- 
ward, Isaac Parrish, John Killam, Hezekiah Bingham, 
John Ansley, Elijah Winters, John Pellet, Sr., John 
Pellet, Jr., Abel Kimble, and Walter Kiml>le, all of 
w^hom returned to the settlement after the Revolution. 
But there were others who never returned. Joshua 
Yarnum was killed during the war. Silas Parks, Jr., 
was in Capt. Dethic Hewitt's company and was killed 
in the battle of Wyoming. Tliere was a nunil)er of 
others, who, after the Wyoming massacre, nevei* re- 
turned to Paupack. 

These settlers laid off two townships ; the one in 
which they were all included, was named Lackaway, 
and one further up the Paupack named Bozrah. 
When this people started from Connecticut they ex- 
pected to go on to Wyoming, but finding good land 
and fine timl^er on the Paupack, they stopped there, 
as they expected to hold the lands under Connecticut. 
They had friends in Wyoming with whom they were 
in perfect accord. They built a palisaded fort enclos- 
ing an acre of land on whicli was a good spring. 
Within the fort was built a block-house, on the top of 
which w^as a bullet-proof sentry-box. When trouble 
was anticipated with the Indians, the people with 


their families spent their nights in the fort. The men 
went in gangs to plant, hoe, and cultivate each other's 
iields, with their guns slung over their backs. Bands 
of vagabond scamps and outcasts of the Indian tribes, 
led on by Tories, often molested the settlers in 1777 
and 1778, with whom they had frequent skirmishes. 
The main object of the marauders w^as to steal the cat- 
tle of the settlers. Brandt, a half-blood chief with 
great authority, had given orders that the Paupack 
people, having been kind to the Indians, should not 
be disturbed. But Brandt could not control the 

A saw-mill was built about where Burnham Kimble 
afterwards lived, and was burnt down by the Indians 
in 1779. Capt. Eliab Yarnum had command of the 
troops of the colony ; Jonathan Haskell was lieutenant, 
and Elijah Winters, ensign. In 1777 a body of eight- 
een men was discovered by a daughter of Nathaniel 
Gates, (afterwards Mrs. Stephen Bennett.) She in- 
formed Lieut. Haskell of the fact who captured the 
whole body. They proved to be Tories and were con- 
veyed to Hartford, Conn., where they were punished. 
Some Tories disturbed the settlers on the 3d of July, 
1778, but were driven away, and in their retreat burn- 
ed a grist-mill at Wilson ville which was built by 
Joseph Washburn. Among these Tories was one 
Bryant Mclvean, who was afterwards arrested upon 
suspicion of conveying intelligence to the Indians, but 
he was not convicted. One of his neighbors who had 
been instrumental in his (McKean's) arrest, he never 


forgave, and, as a means of satisfying liis revengeful 
spirit, he agreed with tlie Indians to murder his neigh- 
l)or. Bnt the Indians mistook McKean's description 
of the house and nnirdei*ed MeKean's own family and 
l)urnt the house. This story is well authenticated. 
On the third of July, 1778, was the massacre at Wy- 
oming. The next day John Hannnond or Jacob Stan- 
ton carried the news to Paupack. Upon learning this, 
the inhabitants, taking their women, children, and 
sick, and driving their cattle before them, after hiding 
some of their goods in the woods, fled to Orange 
county, N. Y. Near the mouth of the Wallenpaupack, 
Zebulon and Jasper Parrish, Stephen Kimble, (who 
died a prisoner among the Indians,) Stephen Parrish 
and Reuben Jones were taken prisoners by the In- 
dians. In August, 1778, and in the spring of 1779, 
parties of young men ventured to return, but they 
barely escaped with their lives. All the property 
which the settlers left behind them, with their houses, 
had been destroyed. In 1783, after the close of the 
Revolution, the most of the original settlers returned. 
They suffered much as the season was unfavorable and 
the crops were poor. As they had no mill with which 
to gi-ind their corn, they were ol:)liged to pound it in 
mortars, and in some cases went to Milford on snow- 
shoes and brought home flour on their backs. But 
they withstood all hardships and afterwards became 
prosperous and happy. The original inhabitants were 
principally Presbyterians. They were industrious, 
hospitable, and honest. They were remarkable for 


their longevity. Hence Jacob Kimble died in 1826, 
aged ninety-one; Hezekiali Bingham in 1811, aged 
seventy-f om- ; Moses Killam, Sen., in 1831, aged seven- 
ty-two; John Pellett, Jr., in 1838, aged ninety; and 
Ephraim Killam in 1836, aged eighty-seven. 

The following were some of the settlers that return- 
ed after the close of the Revolutionary war, and 
others of their children and grandchildren : 

Hezekiah Bingham, Sen., had three sons : Hezekiah 
Bingham, Jr., a man of worth and intelligence; Ro- 
dolplms Bingham, a noted innkeeper and lumberman ; 
and Soloman Bingham. Moses Bingham, Esq., was a 
justice of the peace. The descendants and children 
of the Bingham family, although numerous and highly 
respected, have all removed from the place. 

Uriah Chapman settled at Blooming Grove and 
kept tavern. He had a numerous family, all of whom 
are gone. 

Ephraim Killam married a daughter of John Ans- 
ley. His family were very intelligent. He had but 
one son, Ira, who married a daughter of Roswell 
Chapman. Ephraim Killam was a man of reading 
and observation, and was well acquainted with the 
Indian character. He scouted the idea of civilizing 
them. " Why," he used to say, " an Indian is just as 
much a wild man as a wolf is a wild dog ; you cannot 
tame him." His brother, Moses Killam, Sen., was in 
the battle at the mouth of the Lackawaxen, and was 
slightly Avounded. He had two sons, Moses Killam, 
Esq., a very noted man as a farmer, lumberman, and 



citizen, and Benjamin Killam, a local Methodist min- 
ister, whose handwriting was a model of excellence. 
He married a daughter of Elijah Winters. She was 
the first child born in Faupack and died a few years 
ago, aged one hundred years. Marcus Killam, their 
son, lives upon the old homestead. 

Jacob Kimble, Sen., was a miller, farmer, and lum- 
berman. His sons were Abel, Jacob, Walter, Daniel, 
and Benjamin. Judge Abisha Woodward married a 
daughter of Jacob Kimble, Sen. She was the mother 
of G. W. Woodward. They have all passed aw^ay. 

John Pellet, Jr., was in most of the conflicts with the 
Indians on the Paupack. He married a noble woman, 
Nan(3y Bingham, a daughter of Hezekiah Bingham, 
Sen. They had eight sons and two daughters. Asa 
Kimble married Abigail, the oldest daughter. 

John Ansley, Sen., who was born in England, was 
a blacksmith, as was his son, John, Jr. Joseph Ans- 
ley, innkeeper, was one of his sons, and Simeon Ans- 
ley, another. David Lester and Orrin Lester, who 
were Revolutionary soldiers, lived some years in Pau- 

Upon the return of the settlers Stephen Bennett, 
then a young man from Massachusetts, a soldier under 
" Old Put," located and married a daughter of Nathan- 
iel Gates. He first lived back of Walter Kimble's. 
His sons were Pufus, Stephen, and Lebbeus. Stephen 
Bennett died at a very advanced age. Some of the 
children of Pufus Bennett are yet living in Wayne 


In doing justice to the memory of those old settlers 
we could write scores of pages. They and their chil- 
dren have passed over the river, and we, standing on 
its brink, aged seventy-six years, cannot but look back 
with admiration of that noble people. 


IT is no easy task, even for one who in early life 
was intimately acquainted with the hardships and 
struggles of the early settlers, to portray them fully 
and justly. Their necessities were alike in all parts 
of the county, and all were obliged to put up log- 
houses with large stone chimneys, and roofed at first 
with bark, and having floors and doors made of boards 
split from logs. The spaces between tlie logs were 
filled up with moss and clay, to repel the winter's flaw. 
Loff-barns were made for cattle and horses, when the 
settler had any, and almost every settler had one cow 
or more; in 1806, for instance, Canaan, including 
Salem, Sterling, and most of Cherry Ridge, then had 
ninety-one taxables, ninety-six cows, and thirty-five 
horses. Some of the settlers brought with them 
feather-beds, but the most slept well on straw. 


The lightest part of the forest was cut down and 
cleared np and sown with rye and wheat, or planted 
with potatoes and corn. After tlie grain was raised, 
by some it was carried to Wilsonville, to Damascus, 
or to Slocum Hollow, (now Scranton,) to l)e ground. 
The thoughtful Germans of Canaan, brought witli 
them hand-mills and ground the grain themselves ; 
others pounded or boiled it, and, in cases of extremity, 
lived on milk and boiled potatoes, which is not an un- 
savory dish to a hungry laboring man. The land 
yielded abundantly, and, after a few years, enough 
grain was raised to support the people. The woods 
were full of wild game, and the streams alive witli 
lish. But there were many things which they had not 
and could not do without. They needed axes, scythes, 
plows, chains, liarrows, lioes, salt, (which was live dol- 
lars a bushel,) leather, and clothing for themselves and 
their children. How were these indispensables to be 
obtained, and where was the money to come from 
wherewith to purchase them ? Some of tliese things 
they w^ent without. The skins of their domestic ani- 
mals they exchanged for salt and leather, often dis- 
pensing with dressed leather by weai-ing moccasins 
made of deer-skin, and sometimes they sold grain to 
the lumbermen for cash. The lumbermen along the 
Delaware and Lackawaxen did not have it quite so 
hard as the settlers who were remote from tlie rivers. 
But most of the latter sowed flax and dressed it, and 
the women (blessed l)e their memory,) carded, spun, 
and wove it into a variety of most excellent cl(.)ths. 


Then necessity required almost every farmer to keep 
slieep, the wool from which was carded, spmi, and 
woven by the women into all needful fabrics. 

In a few years saw-mills were erected in all the new 
settlements, so that the log-cabins could be made more 
and more comfortable. Go to a log-cabin in those 
days, and outside would be found two, three, or four 
shoats that lived mostly upon the mast found in the 
woods, and that had come home to see how tlie folks 
were. "Old Brindle" would be standing, reaching 
through the rails wliich enclosed a stack of wild hay. 
There was a wooden-shod sled made mostly for win- 
ter use, but used, nevertheless, at all seasons, as carts 
and wagons were scarce. It was not in the likeness 
of anything in the earth beneath, or in the water un- 
der the earth. There was a harrow made of a branch- 
ing tree which made one letter of the alphabet in the 
shape of a Y, with live iron teeth on a side and one 
in front. The plow was not at home, having been 
lent to a near neighbor only two -miles distant. Two 
or three acres had been cleared and planted, and a 
quarter of an acre sown with flax. Near by the cabin 
was a covered enclosure in which four or five sheep 
were nightly folded. The dog, "Tiger,'' glad to see 
any kind of a duplicate of his master, would laugli all 
over to see you. Dogs were not tlien taught to con- 
sider men as thieves or tramps. Knocking, you were 
l)id to come in, and, upon lifting the wooden latch, 
were cheerily and sincerely greeted and offered tlie 
l)est bench for a seat. The furniture in said cabin 


was rough and simple, and there were no carpets, 
table-cloths, or napkins. There was but one room in 
the calnn with but one bed and a trundle-ljed. A bed- 
room was then made by hanging up two blankets. A 
stranger who staid over night had to go up a ladder 
and sleep on a straw bed overhead. The most pleas- 
ins: of all was that there in that cabin were three or 
four cherubs, called children, bounding and playing in 
circles around that unadorned room, and who were 
like those of whom Christ said, '' Of such is the king- 
dom of heaven." 

You would perhaps stay to dinner, where everything 
would be sweet and savory, and it would coiisist of 
good johnny-cake and delicious fried trout, one or two 
of which would make a meal, and your neighbor 
would tell you that he had canght sixty of the like 
that day. You would have no tea, but good, unadul- 
terated coffee, made of burnt peas or browned rye 
flour, and sweetened with maple sugar. In those days 
a fox met a man and wondered if he was a new kind 
of Indian or something worse, and the owl hooted at 
him as an unnaturalized intruder. In such log-cab- 
ins lived, sixty, seventy, or eighty years ago, the first 
settlers of Wayne county, whether Yankees, Dutch, 
Irish, or English. In those log-huts might perhaps 
have been found some of the following books : The 
Bible, Watts' inimitable Psalms and Hymns, The Pil- 
grim's Progress, an Episcopal Prayer-book, a Catho- 
lic Catechism, or a New England Primer. There was 
an almanac found in every cabin. It told much of 


the past and foretold coming eclipses with certainty, 
and coming storms and calms with occasional nncer- 
tainty. It often quieted the fears of such as w^ere 
disturbed by strange and unaccountable phenomena. 
Some sons of Belial one night, out of pure wicked- 
ness, pushed some squibs under the door of an old 
couple's cabin. The squibs of wild-lire went whizzing 
and circling around their room to their great dismay 
and affright. The old man, at the suggestion of his 
wife, got up and looking in the almanac, he found 
against that day the strange word " apogee," which 
he spelled out, a-po, a-po, gee, a-po-gee, sounding the 
g hard, and accenting the last syllable. '' There," 
said he, " it's 'apogee' come, and if it ha d not been for 
the almanac I should never have found out what it 
meant, for it is not in the Bible. Probably it means 
a little devil just hatched out." * High up in the 
primitive chimneys, above the reach of fire, was a 
cross-pole from which descended trammels upon which 
were hung as needed, a pot, a dish-kettle, or tea-kettle ; 
these, with a frying-pan and griddle, made up all the 
culinary vessels used in preparing or cooking food, 
excepting that an oven was built in the stone chim- 
ney or out of doors for the baking of bread. After- 
wards came the tin oven which was open towards the 
fire ; the reflection of the heat from the shining tin 
assisted in baking the cakes, pies, or bread in the oven. 

* The word " apogee " has reference to the moon when it is 
at its greatest distance from the earth. 


Stoves were not in use mitil after 1820, and were not 
in general use until 1840. The blacksmith in those 
early dajs was, as he always will be, the most useful 
artisan. He made hoes, upset axes, made plowshares, 
and all the nails then used, also all the chains and 
hooks, drew teeth with an iron hawk's bill, and in his 
leisure time made musical instruments for the boys, 
called jews-harps. One old blacksmith made iisli- 
hooks and the iish l)it at them just to lind out what 
tliey were; but they were not very dangerous to the 
Iish. The roads were then merely cleared of the logs 
and bushes. Most of the transportation was made 
on horseback or manback. Tlie latter mode of re- 
moving a thing from one plac^ to another was called 
" soul (carting." Shoemakers went from house to house 
and made up the shoes that would be worn in a fam- 
ily for a year. Happy was the lad or the lass that 
could rely upon having one pair of shoes in a year. 
The most of the men, women, and children thought it 
no great hardship to go barefoot six months in the 
year. Most of the people were then poor, but pover- 
ty was not then considered a crime or a disgrace, but 
merely a discomfort. Because a man had naught, he 
was not called " naughty." As an example of tlie 
poverty of many people, it is a fact that the house of 
a (certain man in Salem with all its contents burned 
up and he (claimed tliat liis loss was forty dollars; but 
it is prol)able tliat there was as mucli happiness to be 
found in those lodges in the wilderness as can be found 
anywhere in this world. 


'•Contented toil and hospitable care, 
And kind connubial tenderness were there ; 
And piety, with wishes fixed above. 
And steady loyalty and faithful love." 

Few of the pioneers had the money to pay down 
for their hinds, and it took them many years before 
they w^ere al)le to make their payments. 

After providing shelter, food, and raiment for them- 
selves and families, and making necessary roads and 
l)ridges, the next great anxiety of the settlers w^as to 
establish schools for the edncation of tlieir children. 
The great mass of the original inhabitants of Wayne 
connty were from New" England, a people who were 
never forgetful of the cause of education, but whether 
they w^ere Yankee or Dutch, English or Irish, native 
or foreign, in this anxiety they w^ere unanimous. 
Scliool-houses w^ere built more comfortable than the 
common dwelling-houses, and the best teachers that 
could be found were employed. Some of them had 
made but little progress in ascending the hill of sci- 
ence, w^hile other young men, educated in the acade- 
mies and high schools of the Eastern States, came 
liither in search of employment. The principal branch- 
es taught w^ere orthography, reading, w^riting, arith- 
metic, English grammar, and geography. The first 
l)Ooks were as follows: Dihvorth's and Wel)sterV 
spelling-books ; for reading books, Webster's Elements 
of Useful Know^ledge, the Second and Tliird Fart, 
The American Freceptor, and the Columbian Orator, 
l)y Calel) Bingham, the Englisli Reader with its Intro- 
duction and Sequel; arithmetic — Daboll's and Fike's 



— Murray's English Grammar — Davies', Cummings' 
Morse's or Woodhridge's Geography ; Johnson's or 
Walker's Dictionary; and Robert Gibson's Treatise 
on Surveying. Hale's History of the United States 
had been introduced into some schools. These books, 
if not equal to those used at the present day, possess- 
ed many excellencies and were abreast of the times. 
It is not pretended that those teachers in olden days 
were equal in qualiiications to the teachers of the 
present day. The most of them never had access to 
academies and high schools, but they taught orthogra- 
phy, reading, and writing, well. The first schools 
were started by a few persons who generally hired a 
teacher, fixed his salary, requiring him to board round 
and collect his own school-bills, each patron of the 
school to pay pro rata. Tradition declares that there 
Avere good schools in the county seventy or eighty 
years ago, but it has preserved very little concerning 
them. A law of 1809 required the (county to pay 
for the schooling of the children of indigent persons. 
The law^ of 1834, authorizing the levy of taxes for the 
support of common schools, was amended in 1836, 
and by another amendment, in 1854, provided for the 
election of county superintendents triennially, by the 
school directors. The oftice was held as follows: By 
John F. Stoddard, one year; S. A. Terrel, five years; 
E. O. "Ward, seven years; J. E. Hawker, three years; 
D. G. Allen, nine years; H. B. Larrabee was elected 
in May, 1878, for three years. 

The schools which were in their day chartered, and 


the academies and high schools now sustained in dif- 
ferent parts of the county have been mentioned, ex- 
cepting the select school at Hollisterville, under the 
charge of Prof. M. H. Race. 

There is a graded school at Honesdale, one at See- 
lyville, and another at Hawley. By the School Re- 
port of 1878 there are two hundred and thirteen 
schools in the county; the number of male teachers, 
eiglity-two; females, one hundred and eighty-three; 
whole number of scholars, 8,939; total amount of 
tax levied for school and building purposes, $36,948.95. 

The Baptists, it appears, organized the iirst Church 
in the county in Paupack. Elder William Purdy was 
its pastor. One was organized in Mount Pleasant in 
1796, and Epaphras Thompson was its lirst minis- 
ter, and was succeeded by Elder Elijah Peck. The 
next Baptist Church was started in Damascus, then 
one in Salem, and afterwards one in Bethany and 
Clinton. There are ten churches or houses of public 
w^orship belonging to the Baptists in the county. 

The pioneer Presbyterian Church in the county was 
that of Salem and Palmyra, which was organized in 
August, 1805, by Rev. David Harrowar, Rev. Worth- 
ington Wright, from Massachusetts, was installed 
its pastor in 1813. A Congregational Church was 
also organized in Mount Pleasant, in January, 1814, 
by Rev. E. Kingsbury and Rev. W. Wright. A Pres- 
byterian Church was organized by the Rev. Phineas 
Camp, in Bethany, in 1818 ; the house was begun in 
1822, and finished in 1835. The Presbyterian Church 


in Honesdale was organized in 1829 ; the cost of the 
present building was |44,000. The Church hi Way- 
mart was organized in 1835, and the house built in 
181:6. Lebanon society or Church was organized in 
1848, and the house erected the same year. The so- 
ciety or Church of Prompton was organized in 1842, 
and the house built in 1849. The society or Church 
of Hawley was organized in 1849, and tlie house was 
built in 1851. There may be other societies which 
have no buildings erected for public worship. The 
Presbyterians were the descendants of the old Puri- 
tans, were generally well educated, and were rigid in 
tlie enforcement of the strictest morality. They wish- 
ed and meant to be riglit. 

The Episcopal Methodists were among the first in 
the missionary Held. Their preachers went every- 
where that a soul could be found. They had all the 
zeal of Ignatius Loyola. They generally held their 
meetings in the log school-houses, or in private dwell- 
ings, and in summer in barns or in the woods. They 
insisted upon great simplicity of dress, and in that re- 
spect were as rigid as the Quakers. No woman could 
then obtain admittance to their love-feasts whose dress 
abounded with flounces and furbelows, and even a rib- 
l)on gathered up into a Ijow upon her l>onnet would 
not be overlooked. A few old people may be found 
who remember some of their original preachers, such 
as Isaac Grant, Joshua Bil)]>ins, and George Peck, Sen. 
We heard the latter preach his tirst sermon in Salem 
in the West school-house. In or about the vear 1825 


the first Methodist Episcopal church was commenced 
west of Salem Corners, and in 1832 one was huilt at 
Mount Pleasant. The progress of the Church in tlie 
county has l)een uniform, until at the present time 
there are twenty-six churches or houses of pul)lic wor- 
ship, which may not include some societies that are 
without a church edifice. There are two camp-meet- 
ing groves used annually by the church, one at Salem 
and one at Tallmanville. 

There are in the county ten Roman Catholic 
churches which are all noticed under the several local- 
ities where they are situated, besides which there are 
several places which are visited that have no church 
edifices. The first of those churches was established 
in Honesdale in 1834, and the next in Mount Pleasant 
in 1835. 

There are four Episcopal, four Union, two Free 
Methodist, two Lutheran churches, and one German 
Reform church. 

It has been shown that the attempt of Judge James 
Wilson to commence the manufacture of flax and 
hemp at the mouth of the Paupack, even before the 
organization of the county, proved abortive. Saw- 
mills were early established along the Delaware and 
Lackawaxen for the manufacture of timber into 
l)oards, etc., thereby adding perhaps one-fourth to its 
market value. This kind of manufacturino^ has been 
carried on more or less for the past ninety years, and, 
vsince the establishment of tanneries in the county, has 
l>een a very large and extensive business. 


The first cardiug-macliine was set up on Johnson's 
creek, below tlie Seth Kennedy mill, in Mount Pleas- 
ant, by Jacob Plum, in 1813. These machines, al- 
though they did not manufacture, prepared the wool 
for spinning, and saved the women much hard work, 
Capt. Keen started one below Keen's pond, in Canaan, 
in 1820. Samuel Hartford, assisted by H. G. Chase, 
put up one east of Hamlinton in 1825, and Alpheus 
Hollister one at Hollisterville in 1827. Hiram G. 
Chase aforesaid moved into Dy]>erry township in 
1826. His father was from Taunton, Mass., but Hiram 
G. was from Delaware county, N. Y. He married a 
daughter of Ira Hurlburt, who was a brother of the 
remarkable twin sisters, of whom Pope Bushnell's 
wife was one. Mrs. Chase was a sister of Ezra Hurl- 
l)urt, of Honesdale, and of Frederick Hurlburt, of 
Canaan. Mr. Chase began mth Wm. B. Ogden, in 
1826, and started works for the fulling of cloth at the 
outlet of Jennings pond, in Dyberry, and the next 
year bought the carding-machine of Hartford. Ogden 
sold out to Wm. N. Fisher. Mr. Chase continued in 
the business ten years and then sold out to Henry Jen- 
niuirs.- Fisher continued in business most of his life. 
Mr. Chase and his wife are still living, and should 
have been noticed under Dyberry towmship. 

The Dyberry glass-factory was started in 1816, 
and, with short intermissions, was kept in operation 
for twenty-five yeters. 

The manufacture of axes and edge-tools by Ezekiel 
White was commenced in 1820, and was continued by 


Epliraiin Y. White at Seelyville and Tracyville during 
liis life-time. The business is now vigorously carried 
on by his son, Gilbert White, at Tracyville. 

James Hendrick, in the early days of Honesdale, 
carried on the making of scythes and axes, and the 
business was continued by others after him. 

Henry Kemmerer, in 1835, started a large powder- 
mill near Shaffer's. Mills, in South Canaan. The bus- 
iness was prosperous until the mill was blown up in 
the summer of 1837 and three persons were killed. 
The mill was not rebuilt. 

James Birdsall commenced the maufacture of wool- 
en cloths at Seelyville in 1846, and the business, hav- 
ing been continued and being constantly on the in- 
crease, has assumed a most respectable importance un- 
der Birdsall Brothers. This is one of the most useful 
of all branches of manufacture, and can be contin- 
ued from time to time, and from age to age, without 
any prospects of a discontinuation of its usefulness. 
Seelyville has ever been an attractive point for manu- 
facturing. Window-sashes, blinds, and doors were made 
here for some years by Messrs. Costins & Erk. Chris- 
tian Erk is now doing a large business in the manu- 
facture of umbrella and parasol sticks. 

John H. Gill has had a small foundry in operation 
a short distance above Seelyville for a number of 
years. It is now carried on by his son. 

George W. Hall, of Prompton, has been, for forty 
years, engaged in the manufacture from wood of all 
needed household furniture, and has not intermitted 


liis labors. Having associated Avitli him liis son, Ar- 
thur, as copartner, the business is now (conducted 
under the Urm name of G. AV. Hall tfe Son. 

The great glass-works of Christian Dorflinger, at 
AVhite Mills, established within the last twelve years, 
are the most colossal manufacturing works in the 
(^ountj. In 1842 Jacob Faatz started glass-works at 
Tracjville, but for want of capital they were discon- 
tinued, and they fell into the hands of James Brook- 
tield but were mostly destroyed by the l)reaking aw^ay 
of a dam at the mouth of a pond above. Tlie Hones- 
dale Glass Company, in 1873, commenced the making 
of hollow glass-ware in the same place, and are doing 
;i large and profitable business. 

The manufacturing done in Honesdale is by Dur- 
land, Torrey c% Co., in the boot and shoe l)usiness; 
Gilbert Knapp in the foundry business; B. L. Wood 
ife Co., prepared lumber; M. B. YanKirk, umbrella- 
stick factory; C. C. Jadwin and Dr. Brady, medicines; 
John Brown, furniture; V. McKenna, cooper; and P. 
J. Cole, flour and feed. Probably there are others not 

Under tlie patronal cliarge of Rev. J. J. Doherty, 
pastor of tlie St. John's Catholic church of Honesdale, 
an industrial school was established in 1879. Tlie 
manufacture of shirts is the only branch of business 
(iarried on at present, and employment is given to 
about twenty-live girls. The intention, however, is to 
add other branches of industry to the institution, the 
object of P^ither Dohei'ty being t(^ give to the youth, 


male and female, a practical education, and, also, give 
employment and bring up to liabits of industry and 
usefulness scores who are being reared in enforced 
idleness. The enterprise is in its infancy but is likely 
to grow into an important and beneiicent industry. 

Erastus Baker, of Mount Pleasant, more than forty- 
five years ago, established a carding-machine on the 
Lackawaxen in Mount Pleasant and dressed and dyed 
cloths during his life, and the works are carried on to 
this day. 

The manufacturing of chairs and other kinds of 
wood-work is carried on at Forest Mills, Lake town- 
ship, by Henry Silkman. 

One of the most important branches of industry in 
Wayne county has been the manufacture of leather, 
and has yielded a large amount of money. Its begin- 
nings were small. The first tannery that we remem- 
ber w^as run by Samuel Kogers, in Canaan, and was 
afterwards called the Cortright tannery. Asa Smith, 
in Mount Pleasant, Thomas S. Holmes, of Bucking- 
ham, and Levi Ketchum and Osborn Olmstead, of 
Bethany, carried on the business for several years on 
a small scale. About 1830 Isaac P. Foster establish- 
ed the first great tannery in the county, which, having 
been profitably run for many years, has been discon- 
tinued. The tanneries that are now in successful 
operation and doing a large business are owned l)y 
H. Beach & Brothers, at Milan ville; E. P. Strong, 
at Starrucca; Coe F. Young, at Tanners Falls; G. B. 
Morss, Ledgedale; Hoyt Bros., at Lake Como; R. H. 



Wales, at High Lake; Wm. Holbert, at Equiniink; 
Hoyt Bros., at Manchester. Those doing a moderate 
business are Wm. Gale, at Middle Yalley; L. H. Al- 
den & Co., at Aldenville; Brunig <k Co., at Oregon; 
E^ichols & Co., at Mt. Pleasant; and Samuel Saun- 
ders, at Texas. 

Several tanneries have been discontinued, and the 
Imsiness as to tlie amount of leather tanned is dimin- 
ishing. Ten or fifteen years ago the leather tanned 
in the county amounted to §2,200,000, or was sold for 
tliat amount yearly. Men well acquainted with the 
whole tanning interests throughout the county are 
cautious about making an estimate of the proceeds 
which have been received therefrom, admitting, how- 
ever, that they have been enormous. 

When we take into consideration the great amount 
of water-power in the county unused, it is to be re- 
gretted that we have no more manufacturing estab- 
lishments ^vithin its limits. It is, therefore, pleasant 
to be assured that a silk-factory is to be established 
on the Paupack at Hawley. If I am rightly inform- 
ed, the building will be built of stone, to he three hun- 
dred and sixty feet by forty-four feet, with an exten- 
sion of eighty feet by twenty-three feet, and to be 
three stories liigli witli a basement. A hub and spoke 
factory is also (carried on at Hawley by J. Gr. Diamond. 

The first settlers of Wayne county came hither for 
the purpose of taking up lands for cultivation. Along 
the rivers and streams they were to a great extent 
diverted from their original purpose ])y engaging in 


the cutting, preparing, and running of luml)er to mar- 
ket, which business as they considered it more immedi- 
ately hicrative, was followed by the settlers on the Del- 
aware and Lackawaxen rivers. But the townships of 
Canaan, Salem, Sterling, Clinton, and Mount Pleasant 
gave greater attention to the improvement of their 
lands. When the most valuable timber was removed 
from the river townships, they turned their attention 
to the cultivation of the soil, and they have made 
rapid progress. Such is the case in the townships of 
Damascus, Preston, Manchester, Scott, and Cherry 
Ridge. The timber in those townships is becoming 
scarce, and resort must be had to the cultivation of the 
soil, to the raising of cattle, and to the dairy business, 
for which our natural grasses are peculiarly adapted. 
What the county needs is a more ready market for 
the gross articles of production, such as fruit, potatoes, 
etc. Every branch of manufacturing interest should 
therefore be encouraged and promoted for the purpose 
of supplying a home market. Many farmers are also 
raising their own wheat, thereby saving much money. 
When the lands were first cleared up they were rich 
in Jiiiimis^ potash, and phospliates, which have been 
exhausted by cultivation. Fifty or sixty years ago 
three hundred bushels of potatoes, fifty bushels of 
oats, and thirty bushels of rye to the acre, were not 
unusual crops. By the use of clover and plaster, and 
the judicious application of lime, phospliates, and other 
fertilizers, our farmers are struggling to restore the 
former fertilitv of their lands. It must be conceded 


that niiicli greater crops of corn are now raised than 
were obtained in former times. Within a few years 
past the best stock has been l)rought into the county 
by the importation of the Aklerney and Jersey cattle. 
Anxious to avail themselves of every aid, our farmers 
have at different times organized agricultural societies. 
The present one was organized in 1862, and it owns 
the present pleasant fair-grounds upon the Dy berry, 
one and one-half miles north of Honesdale. By law 
the county pays from its treasury, yearly, $100 to the 
society. It is supposed that it exercises a salutary in- 
fluence upon the agricultural interest of the county. 

In describing Honesdale we were led to notice the 
Delaware & Hudson Canal and Railroad Company, 
as it Avas tlie prime agent in starting the town into ex- 
istence and the main artery which supplies it and the 
country around with the sustaining force of life. With 
equal propriety, the Pennsylvania Coal Company 
might have been described in connection witli Palmy- 
ra township. It is of sufficient importance to be sep- 
arately described. 

The company was organized in 1839, but the road 
was not completed until 1850. It is a gravity road 
w^orked by stationary engines for transportation of 
coal mined by the company. No locomotive power is 
used in operating it. The length of the main line 
from Hawley to Port Griffith is forty-seven miles. 
The gauge of the line is four feet three inches. In 
1879, the average number of persons regularly em- 
ployed by the company on its road and in its mines 


etc., including officials in Pennsylvania, amounted to 
4,100. This road took to market, in 1850, 111,014 
tons, and, in 1879, 1,372,759 tons of coal. Passen- 
ger cars are rnii dailj from Dunmore to Ilawlej and 
return. The coal is run from Hawlej by the Hawley 
Branch of the Erie Railway to Lackawaxen, distant 
lifteen and eighty-seven one-hundredth miles, and 
thence by the Erie Railroad to New York. This 
road is doing an immense amount of business. Its 
loaded and its light tracks widely diverge from each 
other. The building and operation of this road have 
l)een of great importance and value to Lake and Sa- 
lem townships. The capital stock amounts to $5,000,- 
000, and $600,000 dividends were paid the past year, 
or twelve per cent. The road is most admirably con- 
ducted. Its officers are George A. Hoyt, President, 
Stamford, Connecticut; William E. Street, Secretary, 
Darien, Connecticut ; Edwin H. Mead, Treasurer, 
South Orange, N. J. ; Charles F. Southmayd, General 
Solicitor, New York; John B. Smith, Chief Engineer, 
General Manager, General Superintendent, and Divis- 
ion Superintendent, Dunmore, Pa. 

The population of Wayne and Pike counties in 
1800 was 2,562 ; in 1810, 4,125. The population of 
Wayne county, alone, in 1820, was 4,127; in 1830, 
7,663; in 1840, 11,848; in 1850, 21,890; in 1860, 
32,239; 1870, 33,188. The greatest increase was be- 
tween 1820 and 1830, being eighty-five and six-tenths 
per cent, gain, while the gain between 1860 and 1870 
was scarcely three per cent. Although the late war was 


between the latter periods, yet it is not reasonable to 
suppose that it caused such a hiatus in tlie advance of 
population. The census of 1880 will settle the ques- 


THE Hon. George W. Woodward designed in his 
contemplated history of Wayne county to include 
the county of Pike. We should be pleased to do 
what he proposed if we had space and the necessary 
data wherewith to construct such a history. A long 
journey through the county would be necessary to 
gather up material for such a work, and a careful ex- 
amination of the public records required. Milford, 
the couuty seat of Pike county, should not be forgot- 
ten. It was the first place where the first courts were 
held, when Wayne and Pike were one. There Dan 
Dimmick, the father of Melancthon Dimmick, Oliver 
S. Dimmick, and William H. Dimmick, Sen., was first 
admitted to the Bar, and he was entrusted with one- 
half of the legal practice in the county for a long 
course of years. His cotemporaries in practice were 
Daniel Stroud, Job S. Halstead, John Ross, Thomas 


B. Dick, Hugh Ross, Daniel Grandin, and George 
Wolf, who was twice governor of the State. There 
afterwards lived Lewis Cornelius, the corpulent tavern- 
keeper, who at one time weighed six hundred -and six- 
ty-seven pounds. There was Dr. Francis A. Smith, 
by birth an Austrian, and who was the first man that 
was naturalized in the county, he being admitted a 
citizen September 12, 1799. He was the father of 
the two noted women, Mrs. Thomas Clark, and Mrs. 
Jeffrey Wells. Milford is beautifully situated upon 
the Delaware, has pure air and good w^ater, and is 
noted for its salubrity. The excellence of the roads 
up and down the river is widely known. We should 
be pleased to give sketches of the original inhabitants, 
some of whom were the Westbrooks, the YanAukens, 
the Ridgways, the Nyces, the Newmans, the Watsons, 
the Westfalls, the Motts, and many others. We should 
like to follow the route where the old pioneers " colum- 
bused " their way through the forests to Paupack and 
then onward to Lackawanna and Wyoming valleys ; 
and to contrast the present state of the country with 
what it w^as then. Sixty years ago we traveled 
that supposed old route. Beginning at Milford we 
went to Blooming Grove, w^here Solomon Westbrook, 
Esq., now keeps a hotel ; thence to Paupack Settle- 
ment, from which all the old settlers and their chil- 
dren have departed; thence through the Seven Mile 
Woods, then a dense wilderness, now dotted with 
houses and improvements, to Little Meadows; tlience 
to Salem Corners, where Oliver Hamlin kept a store. 


then onward through Salem township, which lias 
greatly improved since that time, to John Cobb's, at 
the foot of Moosic mountain ; thence, directly over 
the mountain to Pliilip Swart's tavern, which had 
been kept by Wm. Allsworth, the place being now in 
Dunmore ; thence, turning to the left and going down- 
ward, Ave came to Slocum Hollow, wliere were a saw^- 
mill, grist-mill, foundry, and, we believe, a distillery, 
now in the vicinity of the city of Scranton, which 
city seems to us to liave been built by enchantment, 
like the palace of the Princess Badroul Boudour. 
There lived in or about Lackawanna valley, in those 
days, the Slocums, Trips, Athertons, Coons, Griffins, 
Phillipses, and the Benedicts. The old road, above 
described, was the route taken ])y the original settlers 
to reach the Lackawanna and Wyoming valleys. By 
it they fled after the battle of Wyoming. The road 
in former times was always a very bad one except 
when frozen up in the winter, yet the travel upon it 
was immense. All the travel between Wilkesbarre 
and Milford on to Newburg was by or near that 
road. But we return to Milford and iind that it has 
been greatly improved and enlarged within sixty years 

In drawing this history to a close we would have it 
understood that we never entertained the idea of writ- 
ing it until we were past the age of three-score years 
and ten. We ask the reader to make due allowance 


for our failing memory and inability to present facts 
in an attractive dress. It wonld be very stranire if 
the work should be found without errors and contra- 
dictions. Many worthy persons and families, we are 
well aware, have not been mentioned ; their history did 
not come in our way. " One Cgesar lives, a thousand 
are forgot." No one has been purposely neglected ; 
\U) one spoken of disparagingly. Now, at the age of 
seventy-six years, standing on the shore of that vast 
ocean, over which we must soon sail, we bid our read- 
ers an affectionate farewell.