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Full text of "History of western Iowa, its settlement and growth. A comprehensive compilation of progressive events concerning the counties, cities, towns, and villages--biographical sketches of the pioneers and business men, with an authentic history of the state of Iowa"

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1590179 



GENEALOGY CCL-L.ECT10N 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 01080 9058 



HISTORY 



ESTERN IOWA 



Its Settlement and Growth, 



A COMPREHENSIVE COMPILATION OF PROGRESSIVE EVENTS CONCERNING 
THE COUNTIES, CITIES, TOWNS AND VILLAGES — BIOGRAPH- 
ICAL SKETCHES OF THE PIONEERS AND BUSI- 
NESS MEN, WITH AN AUTHENTIC 

/H^l^ HISTORY OF THE STATE OF IOWA. 



SIOUX CITY: 
Western Publishing Company. 

1882. 



I 

Daily Journal Steam Print, t>«^ 
^^ Sioux City, Iowa. ®r 



1590179 

PREFACE, 



;^T^EW entei'prises are more liable to misunderstanding than a work of this char 
plj^ acter. The main trouble arises from confounding it with books in general. 
^^TH) A large, elegantly-bound volume— maybe a History of the World, or of 
some particular Nation, or embracing a scope of interest to a very consideraljle 
portion of mankind, in the gathering of material for which the continuous time 
and labor of but one person have been employed, and the sales of which are 
equally extensive and continuous with the vei-y. general and comprehensive na- 
ture of the whole — such a volume,-we say, finds purchasers at so low a price as 
to make that asked for a work of the kind herewith presented seem dispropor- 
tionately large. 

Perhaps it is a work of fiction that is offered the purchasing public. Very 
well; the "Novel" is sumptuously bound, artistically illustrated, and contains a 
great number of closely printed pages; yet its price per copy is even less than 
that for which the Publishers offer their History of Western Iowa. Hence, 
not infrequently individuals leap untliinkingly to inadequate and necessarily 
hasty conclusions, such as, that the price asked is exorbitant, and so on, for 
quantity. Such a mode of overleaping reasonableness naturally leads to de- 
preciation of the enterprise, and per consequence, many highly creditable works, 
having begun their career with a "damning by faint praise," have ended it m 
unthinking condemnation. 

Now, it is not the intention to argue or philosophize. We herewith present 
the results of half a year's diligent labor, which has occupied the entire time and at- 
tention of a number of competent men — labor not of the most inviting kind, but 
of a sort akin to drudgery. And not only time and work, but money also to a 
not inconsiderable amount, has been expended. The Publishers ask you to re- 
member that the History of Western Iowa has been compiled for ijou; that 
its sales are limited almost wholly to that portion of country the facts concern- 
ing which it recounts ; that, were it possible to send the books broadcast over 
the country, and sell them in every city, village and hamlet, the selling price 
could, and would, be proportionately reduced. The work is intended mainly for 
home consumption; the expense is large, the sales disproportionately small. In 
presenting this work to the citizens of Western Iowa, we do so at the very low- 
est possible margin of profit, and that, even, problematic. 

With these remarks, we trust we have established relations of friendly un- 
derstanding with every candid patron. The nature and plan of the work were 
fully ex A.iined in the Prospectus, to the promises of which we have endeav- 
ored strictly to adhere. There are errors, 'of course; no book was ever published 



6 PKEFACE. 

that did not contain errors. These are most likely, in this instance, to occur in 
the Biographical Departments of the work. The persons approached by a mem- 
ber of the Publishing Staff in many instances themselves unintentionally give 
incorrect information; the historian has no other means of knowing, and so, 
trusting to the accuracy of the informant — especially as the matter sought is of 
personal concern to the informant himself— he "makes a note" of it, and trans- 
cribes it for the History. Hence, patrons should judge leniently concerning 
such errors as may appear; for, in both the matter ot compiling and printing, . 
no pains have been spai'ed to insure the strictest accuracy. 

It goes without the saying, that it is not to the interest of either the Pub- 
lishers or their employes to pervert the facts in any case to the help or hurt of 
any one. 

And so, asking only a recognition of the difficulties, risk and unavoidable 
obstacles in the way of such an undertaking, we launch the History of West- 
ern Iowa upon the sea of popular favor, confident that it will meet with a 
reception in some degree commensurate to its merits. 

Very RespectfaUy, 

THE PUBLISHERS. 
March, 1882. 



CONTENTS. 



Wage. 

Early History of Iowa 9 

Indian Wars 23 

Indian Purchases, Reserves 

and Treaties 32 

Territorial History 49 

State Orp^anization 59 

Agricultural College 66 

State University 67 

State Historical Society 72 

Penal Institutions 73 

Insane Asylum 74 

BUnd Asylums 75 

Deaf and Dumb Institute 76 

Soldiers' Orphans' Homes 77 

State Normal School 78 

Asylum for Feeble-Minded 79 

Reform School 80 

Fish Hatchery 81 

Public Lands 82 

School System 99 

Political Record 104 

War Record 110 

Abstracts of Iowa Laws 117 

Rules for Everyday Use 149 

Population of Iowa 156 

Population of United States 158 

Geological and Physical Features . 159 

Woodbury County 175 

Sioux City 181 

Sloan 214 

Sioux City Biographies 217 

Sloan Biographies 241 

Monona County 243 

Onawa 248 

Mapleton 252 

Whiting 255 



Page. 

Onawa Biographies 255 

Mapleton Biographies 257 

Whiting Biographies 259 

Cherokee County 260 

Cherokee 267 

Marcus 274 

Cherokee Biographies 276 

Marcus Biographies 283 

Harrison County 285 

Mondamin 290 

River Sioux 293 

Woodbine 295 

Modale 298 

Dunlap 301 

Little Sioux 306 

Missouri Valley 

Logan 314 

County Details 319 

Missouri Valley Biographies. 322 

Logan Biographies 328 

Mondamin Biographies. ...337 

Modale Biographies 339 

Little Sioux Biograpiiies 340 

Woodbine Biographies 343 

Dunlap Biographies 347 

Magnolia Biographies 354 

River Sioux Biographies 355 

O'Brien County 856 

Primghar 357 

Sheldon 859 

Sanborn 863 

Hartley 365 

Sheldon Biographies 366 

Primghar Biographies 869 

Hartley Biographies 372 

Sanborn Biographies 373 



C0NTEKT8. 



Page 

Osceola County 377 

Sibley 378 

Ashtx)n 382 

Sibley Biographies 382 

Plymouth County 387 

LeMars 388 

LeMars Biographies 395 

Shelby County 403 

Harlan 405 

Harlan Biographies 414 

. Clay County 430 

Spencer 431 

Spencer Biographies 436 

BuENA Vista County 440 

Storm Lake..., 442 

Sioux Rapids 448 

Alta 450 

Newell 452 

Storm Lake Biographies 454 

Alta Biogi-aphies 460 

Newell Biographies 461 

Crawford County 465 

Denison 470 

Vail 476 

West Side 480. 

Dow City 483 



Page 

Denison Biographies 487 

Vail Biographies 492 

West Side Biographies 496 

Dow City Biographies 497 

Carroll County 499 

Carroll City 503 

Arcadia 508 

Glidden 512 

Carroll City Biographies 514 

Arcadia Biographies 518 

Glidden Biographies 519 

Sac County 522 

Sac City 528 

Odebolt 531 

Wall Lake 534 

Fletcher 536 

Sac City Biographies 538 

Odebolt Biographies 547 

Wall Lake Biographies 553 

Fletcher Biographies 655 

1 DA County 557 

Ida Grove 558 

Battle Creek 663 

Ida Grove Biographies 565 

Battle Creek Biographies . . . 568 



History of Iowa. 



DISCOVERY AND OCCUPATION. 

The name Iowa is said to signify "The Beautiful Land," and 
was applied to this magnificent and fruitful region by its ancient 
owners, to expjfess their appreciation of its superiority of climate^ 
soil and location. Prior to 1803, the Mississippi River was the 
extreme western boundary of the United States. All the great 
empire lying west of the " Father of Waters," from the Gulf of 
Mexico on the south to British America on the north^ and west- 
ward to the Pacific Ocean, was a Spanish province. A brief 
historical sketch of the discovery and occupation of this great 
empire by the Spanish and French governments will be a fitting 
introduction to the history of the young and thriving State of 
Iowa, which, until the commencement of the present century, was 
a part of the Spanish possessions in America. 

Early in the Spring of 1542, Ferdinand DeSoto discovered the 
mouth of the Mississippi River at the mouth of the Washita. 
After the sudden death of DeSoto, in May of the same year, his 
followers built a small vessel, and in July, 1543, descended the 
great river to the Gulf of Mexico. 

In accordance with the usage of nations, under which title to 
the soil was claimed by right of discovery, Spain, having con- 
quered Florida and discovered the Mississippi, claimed all the 
territory bordering on that river and the Gulf of Mexico. But it 
was also held by the European nations that, while discovery gave 
title, that title must be perfected by actual possession and occupation. 
Although Spain claimed the territory by right of first discovery, 
she made no efi'ort to occupy it; by no permanent settlement had 
she perfected and held her title, and therefore had forfeited it 
when, at a later period, the Lower Mississippi Valley was re- 
discovered and occupied by France. 

The labors of the zealous French Jesuits of Canada in penetrat- 
ing the unknown region of the West, commencing in 1611, form 
a history of no ordinary interest, but have no particular connec- 
tion with the scope of the present work, until in the Fall of 1665. 
Pierre Claude Allouez, who had entered Lake Superior in Septem- 
ber, and sailed along the southern coast in search of copper, had 
arrived at the great village of the Chippewtis at Chegoincegon. 
Here a grand council of some ten or twelve of the principal Indian 
nations was held. The Pottawatomies of Lake Michigan, the 
Sacs and Foxes of the West, the Hurons froii the North, the 



10 HIS TORY OF IOWA. 

Illinois from the South, and the Sioux from the land of the 
prairie and wild rice, were all assembled there. The Illinois told 
the story of their ancient glory and about the noble river on the 
banks of which they dwelt. The Sioux also told their white 
brother of the same great river, and AUouez promised to the 
assembled tribes the protection of the French nation against all 
their enemies, native or foreign. 

The purpose of discovering the great river about which the 
Indian nations had given such glowing accounts, appears to have 
originated with Marquette, in 1669. In the year previous, he and 
Claude Dablon had established the Mission of St. Mary's, the oldest 
white settlement within the present limits of -the State of 
Michigan. Marquette was delayed in the execution of his great 
undertaking, and spent the interval in studying the language and 
habits of the Illinois Indians, amoQg whom he expected to travel. 

About this time the French Government had determined to 
extend the Dominion of France to the extreme western borders of 
Canada. Nicholas Perrot was sent as the agent of the govern- 
ment, to propose a grand council of the Indian nations, at St. 
Mary's. 

When Perrot reached Green Bay, he extended the invitation far 
and near; and, escorted by Pottawatomies, repaired on a mission 
of peace and friendship to the Miamis, who occupied the region 
about the present location of Chicago. 

In May 1671, a great council of Indians gathered at the Falls 
of St. Mary, from all parts of the northwest, from the head waters 
of the St. Lawrence, from the valley of the Mississippi and from 
the Red River of the North. Perrot met with them, and after 
grave consultation, formally announced to the assembled nations 
that their good French Father felt an abiding interest in their 
welfare, and had placed them all under the powerful protection of 
the French Government. 

Marquette, during that same year, had gathered at Point St. 
Ignace the remnants of one branch-of the Hurons. This station, for 
a long series of years, was considered the key to the unknown West. 

The time was now auspicious for the consummation of Mar- 
quette's grand project. The successful termination of Perrot's 
mission, and the general friendliness of the native tribes, rendered 
the contemplated expedition much less perilous. But it was not 
until 1673 that the intrepid and enthusiastic priest was finally 
ready to depart on his daring and perilous journey to lanis never 
trod by white men. Having implored the blessing of God upon 
his undertaking, on the 13th day of May, 1673, with Joliet and 
five Canadian-French voyageurs, or boatmen, he left the mission 
on his daring journey. Ascending Green Bay and Fox River, 
these bold and enthusiastic pioneers of religion and discovery pro- 
ceeded until they reached a Miami and Kickapoo village, where 
Marquette was delighted to find " a beautiful cross planted in the 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 11 

middle of the town, ornamented Avitli white skins, red girdles and 
bows and arrows, which these good people had offered to the Great 
Manitou, or God, to thank Him for the pity He had bestowed on 
them during the winter,in having given them abundant chase." This 
was the extreme point beyond which the explorations of the 
French missionaries had not then extended. He called together 
the principal men of the village, and informed them that his com- 
panion, Joliet, had been sent by the French Governor of Canada to 
discover new countries, to be added to the dominion of France; 
but that he, himself, had been sent by the Most High God, to carry 
the glorious religion of the Cross; and assured his wondering 
hearers that on this mission he had no fear of death, to which he 
knew he would be exposed on his perilous journeys. 

Obtaining the services of two Miami guides, to conduct his 
little band to the Wisconsin River, he left the hospitable Indians 
on the 10th of June. Conducting them across the portage, their 
Indian guides returned to their village, and the little party descended 
the Wisconsin, to the great river which had so long been so 
anxiously looked for, and boldly floated down its unknown waters. 

On the 25th of June, the explorers discovered indications of 
Indians on the west bank of the river, and landed a little above 
the mouth of the river now known as Des Moines, and for the first 
time Europeans trod the soil of Iowa. Leaving the Canadians to 
guard the canoes, Marquette and Joliet boldly followed the trail 
into the interior for fourteen miles (some authorities say six), to 
an Indian village situated on the banks of a river, and discovered 
two other villages, on the rising ground about half a league dis- 
tant. Their visit, while it created much astonishment, did not 
seem to be entirely unexpected, for there was a tradition or 
prophecy among the Indians that white visitors were to come to 
them. They were, therefore, received with great respect and 
hospitality, and were cordially tendered the calumet or pipe of 
peace. They were informed that this band was a part of the Illini 
nation, and that their village was called Monin-gou-ma or 
Moingona, which was the name of the river on which it stood. 
This, from its similarity of sound, Marquette corrupted into Des 
Moines (Monk's River), its present name. 

Here the voyagers remained six days, learning much of the 
manners and customs of their new friends. The new religion 
they boldly preached, and the authority of the King of France they 
proclaimed were received without hostility or remonstrance by their 
savage entertainers. On their departure, they were accompanied 
to their canoes by the chiefs and hundreds of warriors. Mar- 
quette received from them the sacred calumet, the emblem of 
peace and safeguard among the nations, and re-embarked for the 
rest of his journey. 

In 1682, LaSalle descended the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico 
and in the name of the King of France took formal possession 



12 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

of all the immense region watered by the great river and its 
tributaries from its source to its mouth, and named it Louisiana, 
in honor of his master, Louis XIV. At the close of the seven- 
teenth century, France claimed, by right of discovery and occu- 
pancy, the whole valley of the Mississippi and its tributaries, in- 
cluding Texas, as far as the Rio del Norte. 

In 1719, Phillipe Francis Renault arrived in Illinois with twa 
hundred miners and artisans. The war between France and Spain 
at this time rendered it extremely probable that the Mississippi 
Valley might become the theater of Spanish hostilities against the 
French settlements; to prevent this, as well as to extend French 
claims, a chain of forts was begun, to keep open the connection 
between the mouth and the sources of the Mississippi. Fort Or- 
leans, high up the Mississippi River, was erected as an outpost in 
1720. 

The Mississippi scheme was at the zenith of its power and glory 
in January, 1720, but the gigantic bubble collapsed more suddenly 
than it had been inflated, and the Company was declared hopelessly 
bankrupt in May following. France was impoverished by it, both 
private and public credit were overthrown, capitalists suddenly found 
themselves paupers, and labor was left without employment. The 
effect on the colony of Louisiana was disastrous. 

While this was going on in Lower Louisiana the region about 
the lakes Avas the theater of Indian hosti]ities,rendering the passage 
from Canada to Louisiana extremely dangerous for many years. The 
Englishhad not only extended their Indian trade into the vicinity o«f 
the French settlements, but through their friends, the Iroquois, had 
gained a marked ascendancy over the Foxes, a fierce and powerful 
tribe, of Iroquois descent, whom they incited to hostilities against 
the French. The Foxes began their hostilities with the siege of 
Detroit in 1712, a siege which continued for nineteen consecutive 
days, and although the expedition resulted in diminishing their num- 
bers and humbling their pride, yet it was not until after several suc- 
cessive campaigns, embodying the best military resources of New 
France, had been directed against them, that they were finally de- 
feated at the great battles of Butte des Morts, and on the Wiscon- 
sin River, and driven west in 1746. 

The Company, having found that the cost of defending Louisi- 
ana exceeded the returns from its commerce, solicited leave to sur- 
render the Mississippi wilderness to the home government. Ac- 
cordingly, on the 10th of April, 1732, the jurisdiction and control 
over the commerce reverted to the Crown of France. The Com- 
pany had held possession of Louisiana fourteen years. In 1735, 
Bienville returned to assume command for the King. 

A glance at a few of the old French settlements will show the 
progress made in portions of Louisiana during the early part of 
the eighteenth century. As early as 1705, traders and hunters had 
penetrated the fertile regions of the Wabash, and from this region, 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 13 

at that early date, fifteen thousand hides and skins had been col- 
lected and sent to Mobile for the European market. 

In the year 1716, the French pojiulation on the Wabash kept up 
a lucrative commerce with Mobile by means of traders and voyag- 
eurs. The Ohio river was comparatively unknown. 

In 171:6, agriculture on the Wabash had attained to greater pros- 
perity than in any of the French settlements besides, and in that 
year six hundred barrels of flour were manufactured and shipped to 
New Orleans, together with considerable quantities of hide, peltry, 
tallow and beeswax. 

In the Illinois country, also, considerable settlements had been 
made, so that, in 1730, they embraced one hundred and forty French 
families, about six hundred "converted Indians," and many trad- 
ers and voyageurs. 

In 1753, the first actual conflict arose between Louisiana and the 
Atlantic colonies. From the earliest advent of the Jesuit fathers, 
up to the period of which we speak, the great ambition of the 
French had been, not alone to preserve their possessions in the 
West, but by every possible means to prevent the slightest attempt 
of the English, east of the mountains, to extend their settlements 
toward the Mississippi. France was resolved on retaining posses- 
sion of the great territory which her missionaries had discovered 
and revealed to the world, French commandants had avowed their 
intention of seizing every Englishman within the Ohio Valley. 

The colonies of Pennsylvania, New York and Virginia were most 
affected by the encroachments of France in the extension of her 
dominion; and particularly in the great scheme of uniting Canada 
with Louisiana. To carry out this purpose the French had taken 
possession of a tract of country claimed by Virginia, and had com- 
menced a line of forts extending from the lakes to the Ohio River. 
Virginia was not only alive to her own interests, but attentive to 
the vast importance of an immediate and effectual resistance on the 
part of all the English colonies to the actual and contemplated en- 
croachments of the French. 

In 1753, Governor Dinwiddle, of Virginia, sent George Wash- 
ington, then a young man just twenty-one, to demand of the French 
commandant "a reason for invading British dominions while a solid 
peace subsisted.'" Washington met the French commandant, 
Gardeur de St. Pierre, on the head waters of the Alleghany, and 
having communicated to him the object of his journey, received the 
insolent answer that the French would not discuss the matter of 
right, but would make prisoners of every Englishman found trading 
on the Ohio and its waters. The country, he said belonged to the 
French, by virtue of the discoveries of La Salle, and they would 
not withdraw from it. 

In January, 1754, Washington returned to Virginia, and made 
his report to the Governor and Council. Forces were at once raised 
and Washington, as Lieutenant Colonel, was dispatched at the 



14 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

head of a hundred and fifty men, to the forks of the Ohio, with or- 
ders to "finish the fort already begun there by the Ohio Company, 
and to make prisoners, kill or destroy all who interrupted the; Eng- 
lish settlements/' 

On his march through the forests of Western Pennsylvania, 
Washington, through the aid of friendly Indians, discovered the 
French concealed among the rocks, and as they ran to seize their 
arms, ordered his men to ffre upon them, at the same time, with 
his own musket, setting the example. An action lasting about a 
quarter of an hour ensued; ten of the Frenchmen were killed, 
among them Jumonville, the commander of the party, and twenty- 
one were made prisoners. The dead were scalped by the Indians, 
and the chief, bearing a tomahawk and a scalp, visited all the tribes 
of the Miamis, urging them to join the Six Nations and English 
against the French. The French, however, were soon re-enforced 
and Col. Washington was compelled to return to Fort Necessity. 
Here, on the 3d day of July, De Villiers invested the fort with 600 
French troops and 100 Indians. On the 4th, Washington accept- 
ed terms of capitulation and the English garrison withdrew from 
the valley of the Ohio. 

This attack of Washington upon Jumonville aroused the indig- 
nation of France, and war was formally declared m May, 1756, and 
the " French and Indian War" devastated the colonies for severaj 
years. Montreal, Detroit and all Canada were surrendered to thg 
English, and on the 10th of February, 1763, by the treaty of Pay_ 
is — which had been signed, though not formally ratified by the j.g_ 
spective governments, on the 3d of November, 1762 — France ^^_ 
linquished to Great Britain all that portion of the province of L 
isiana lying on the east side of the Mississippi, except the is7and 
and town of New Orleans. On the same day that the treaty of 
Paris was signed France, by a secret treaty, ceded to Spain all her 
possessions on the west side of the Mississippi, including the whole 
country to the head waters of the Great River, and west to the 
Rocky Mountains, and the jurisdiction of France in America, which 
had lasted nearly a century, was ended. 

At the close of the Revolutionary war, by the treaty of peace 
between Great Britain and the United States, the English Govern- 
ment ceded to the latter all the territory on the east side of the 
Mississippi River and north of the thirty-first parallel of north 
latitude. At the same time. Great Britain ceded to Spain all the 
Floridas, comprising all the territory east of the Mississippi and 
south of the southern limits of the United States. 

At this time, therefore, the present State of Iowa was apart of 
the Spanish possessions in North America, as all the territory west 
of the Mississippi River was under the dominion of Spain. That 
government also possessed all the territory of the Floridas east of 
the gi eat river and south of the thirty-first parallel of north lati- 
tude. The Mississippi, therefore, so essential to the prosperity of 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 15 

the western portion of the United States, for the hist three hun- 
dred miles of it.-' course flowed wholly within the Spanish domin- 
ions, and that i^av^erument claimed the exclusive right to use and 
control it below the southern boundary of the United States. 

The free navigation of the Mississippi was a very important 
question daring all the time that Louisana remained a dependency 
of the Spanish Crown, and as the final settlement intimately af- 
fected the status of the then future State of Iowa, it will be in- 
teresting to trace its progress. 

The people of the United States occupied and exercised juris- 
diction over the entire eastern valley of the Mississippi, embracing 
all the country drained by its eastern tributaries; they had a nat- 
ural right, according to the accepted international law, to follow 
these rivers to the sea, and to the use of the Mississippi River ac- 
cordingly, as the great natural channel of commerce. The river 
was not only necessary but absolutely indispensable to the pros- 
perity and growth of the western settlements then rapidly rising 
into commercial and political importance. They were situated in 
the heart of the great valley, and with wonderful expansive ener- 
gies and accumulating resources, it was very evident that no power 
on earth could deprive them of the free use of the river below 
them, only while their numbers were insufficient to enable them 
to maintain their right by force. Inevitably, therefore, immedia- 
tely after the ratification of the treaty of 1785, the Western peo- 
ple began to demand the free navigation of the Mississippi — not 
as a favor, but as a right. In 1786, both banks of the river, below 
the mouth of the Ohio, were occupied by Spain, and military posts 
on the east bank enforced her power to exact heavy duties on all 
imports by way of the river for the Ohio region. Every boat de- 
cendingthe river was forced to land and submit to the arbitrary 
revenue exactions of the Spanish authorities. Under the admin- 
istration of Governor Miro. these rigorous exactions were some- 
what relaxed from 1787 to 1790: but Spain held it as her right to 
make them. Taking advantage of the claim of the American peo- 
ple, that the Mississippi should be opened to them, in 1791, the 
Spanish Government concocted a scheme for the dismembership 
of the Union. The plan was to induce the Western people to sep- 
arate from the Eastern States by liberal land grants and extraor- 
dinary commercial privileges. 

Spanish emissaries, among the people of Ohio and Kentucky, in- 
formed them that the S])anish Government would grant them fa- 
vorable commercial privileges, provided they would secede from 
the Federal Government east of the mountains. The Spanish 
Minister to the United States plainly declared to his confidential 
correspondent that, unless the Western people would declare their 
independence and refuse to remain in the Union, Spain was deter- 
mined never to grant the free navigation of the Mississippi. 



16 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

By the treaty of Madrid, October 20, 1795, however, Spain form- 
ally stipulated that the Mississippi River, from its source to the 
Gulf, for its entire width, should be free to American trade and 
commerce, and that the people of the United States should be per- 
mitted for three years, to use the port of New Orleans as a port of 
deposit for their merchandize and produce, duty free. 

In November, 1801, the United States Government received, 
through Rufus King, its Minister at the Court of St. James, a 
copy of the treaty between Spain and France, signed at Madrid, 
March 21, 1801, by which the session of Louisiana to France, 
made the previous autumn, was confirmed. 

The change offered a favorable opportunity to secure the just 
rights of the United States, in relation to the free navigation of 
the Mississippi, and ended the attempt to dismember the Union 
by an effort to secure an independent government west of the Al- 
leghany Mountains. On the 7th day of January, 1803, the Amer- 
ican House of Representatives adopted a resolution declaring their 
"unalterable determination to maintain the boundaries and the 
rights of navigation and commerce through the River Mississippi, 
as established by existing treaties." 

In the same month, President Jefferson nominated and the Sen- 
ate confirmed Robert R. Livingston and James Monroe as Envoys 
Plenipotentiary to the Court of France, and Charles Pinckney and 
James Monroe to the Court of Spain, with plenary power to ne- 
gotiate treaties to effect the object enunciated by the popular 
branch of the National Legislature. These envoys were instructed 
to secure, if possible, the cession of Florida and New Orleans, but 
it does not appear that Mr. Jefferson and his cabinet had any idea 
of purchasing that part of Louisiana lying on the west side of the 
Mississippi. In fact, on the 2d of March following, the instruc- 
tions were sent to our Ministers, containing a plan which express- 
ly left to France "all her territory on the west side of the Mississ- 
ippi." Had these instructions been followed, it might have been 
that there would not have been any State of Iowa or any other 
member of the glorious Union of States west of the '"Father of 
Waters." 

In obedience to his instructions, however, Mr. Livingston 
broached this plan to M. Talleyrand, Napoleon's Prime Minister, 
when that courtly diplomatist quietly suggested to the American 
Minister that France nikjJd be willing to cede the ivhole French 
domain in North America to the United States, and asked how 
much the Federal Government would be willing to give for it. 
Livingston intimated that twenty millicns of francs might be a 
fair price. Talleyrand thought that not enough, but asked the 
Americans to "think of it.'' A few days later, Napoleon, in an 
interview with Mr. Livingston, in effect informed the American 
Envoy that he had secured Louisiana in a contract with Spain for 
the purpose of turning it over to the United States for a mere 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 17 

nominal sura. He had been compelled to provide for the safety 
of that province by the treaty, and he was "anxious to give the 
United States a magnificent Ijargain for a msre trifle." The price 
proposed was one hundred and twenty-five million francs. This 
was subsequently modified to fifteen million dollars, and on this 
basis a treaty was negotiated, and was signed on the 30th day of 
April, 1803. 

This treaty was ratified by the Federal Government, and by act 
of Congress, approved October 31. 1803, the President of the 
United States was authorized to take possession of the territory 
and provide for it a temporary government. Accordingly, on the 
20th day of Saptember following, on behalf of the President, 
Gov. Clairborne and Gen. Wilkinson took possession of the Louis- 
iana purchase, and raised the American flag over the newly ac- 
quired domain, at New Orleans. Spain, although it had by treaty 
ceded the province to France in 1801, still held quasi possession 
and at first objected to the transfer, but withdrew her opposition 
early in 1801. 

By this treaty, thus successfully consummated, and the peace- 
able withdrawal of Spain, the then infant nation of the New 
World extended its dominion west of the Mississippi to the Pacific 
Ocean, and north from the Gulf of Mexico tc British America. 

If the original design of Jefferson's administration had been 
accomplished, the United States would have accquired only that 
portion of the French territory lying east of the Mississippi River, 
and while the American people would thus have acquired the free 
navigation of that great river, all of the vast and fertile empire on 
the west, so rich in its agricultural and inexhaustible mineral 
resources, would have remained under the dominion of a foreign 
power. To Napoleon's desire to sell the whole of his North 
American possessions, and Livingston's act transcending his in- 
structions, which was acquiesced in after it was done, does Iowa 
owe her position as a part of the United States by the Louisiana 
purchase. 

By authority of an act of Congress, approved March 26, 1801, 
the newly acquired territory was, on the 1st day of October follow- 
ing, divided: that part lying south of the 33d parallel of north 
latitute was called the Territory of Orleans, and all north of that 
parallel the District of Louisiana, which was placed under the 
authority of the officers of Indiana Territory, until July 4, 1805, 
when it was organized with territorial government of its own, and 
so remained until 1812, when the Territory of Orleans became the 
State of Louisiana, and the name of the Territory of Louisiana 
was changed to Missouri. On the 1th of July, 1811, that part of 
Missouri Territory comprising the present State of Arkansas, and 
the country to the westward, was organized into the Arkansas 
Territory. 



18 HISTcRiT OF IOWA. 

On the 2d of March, 1821, the State of Missouri, heing a part 
of the territory of that name, was admitted to the Union. June 
28, 1834, the territory west of the Mississippi River and north of 
Missouri, was made apart of the Territory of Michigan; but two 
years later, on the 4th of July, 1836, Wisconsin Territory was 
erected, embracing wibhin its limits the present States of Iowa, 
Wisconsin and Minnesota. 

By act of Congress, approved June 12, 1838, the 

TERKITORT OF IOWA 

was erected, comprising, in addition to the present State, much the 
larger part of Minnesota, and extending north to the boundary of 
the British possessions. 

THE ORIGIN"AL OWNERS. 

Having traced the early history of the great empire lying west 
of the Mississippi, of which the State of Iowa constitutes a part, 
from the earliest discovery to the organization of the Territory of 
Iowa, it becomes necessary to give some history of the Indians of 
Iowa. 

According to the policy of the European nations, possession 
perfected title to any territory. W^e have seen that the country 
west of the Mississippi was hrst discovered by the Spaniards, but 
afterward, was visited and occupied by the French. It was ceded 
by France to Spain, and by Spain back to France again, and then 
was purchased and occupied by the United States. During all that 
time, it does not appear to have entered into the heads or hearts of 
the high contracting parties that the country they bought, sold and 
gave away was in the possession of a race of men who, although 
savage, owned the vast domain before Columbus first crossed the 
Atlantic. Having purchased the territory, the United States 
found it still in the possession of its original owners, who had 
never been dispossessed; and it became necessary to purchase 
again what had already been bought before, or forcibly eject the 
occupants; therefore, the history of the Indian nations who occu- 
pied Iowa prior to and during its early settlement by the whites, 
becomes an important chapter in the history of the State, that 
cannot be omitted. 

For more than one hundred years after Marquette and Joliet 
trod the virgin soil of Iowa, not a single settlement had been made 
or attempted; not even a trading post had been established. The 
whole country remained in the undisputed possession of the native 
tribes, who roamed at will over her beautiful and fertile pmiries, 
hunted in her woods, lished in her streams, and often poured out 
their life-blood in obstinately contested contests for supremacy. 
That this State so aptly styled " The Beautiful Land,'' had been 
the theater of numerous, fierce and bloody struggles between rival 
nations, for possession of the favored region, long before its settle- 
ment by civilized man, there is no room for doubt. In these 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 19 

savage wars, the weaker party, whether aggressive or defensive, was 
either exterminated or driven from their ancient hunting grounds. 

In 1673, when Marquette discovered Iowa, thelUini were a very 
powerful people, occupying a large portion of the State; but when 
the country was again visited by the whites, not a remnant of that 
once powerful tribe remained on the west side of the Mississippi, 
and Iowa was principally in the possession of the Sacs and Foxes, 
a war-like tribe which, originally two distinct nations, residing in 
New York and on the waters of the St. Lawrence, had gradually 
fought their way westward, and united, probably, after the Foxes 
had been driven out of the Fox River country, in 1816, and crossed 
the Mississippi. The death of Pontiac, a famous Sac chieftain, 
was made the pretext for war against the Illini, and a fierce and 
bloody struggle ensued, which continued until the Illinois were 
nearly destroyed and their hunting grounds possessed by their 
victorious foes. The lowas also occupied a portion of the State 
for a time, in common with the Sacs, but they, too, were nearly 
destroyed by the Sacs and Foxes, and, in ''The Beautiful Land," 
these natives met their equally warlike foes, the Northern Sioux, 
with whom they maintained a constant warfare for the possession 
of the country for many years. 

When the United States came in possession of the great valley 
of the Mississippi, by the Louisiana purchase, the Sacs and Foxes 
and lowas possessed the entire territory now comprising the State 
of Iowa. The Sacs and Foxes, also, occupied the most of the 
State of Illinois. 

The Sacs had four principal villages, where most of them 
resided, viz: Their largest and most important town — if an 
Indian village may be called such — and from which emanated 
most of the obstacles and difficulties encountered by the Govern- 
ment in the extinguishment of Indian titles to land in this region, 
was on Rock River, near Rock Island; another was on the east 
bank of the Mississippi, near the mouth of Henderson River; the 
third was at the head of the Des Moines Rapids, near the present 
site of Montrose, and the fourth was near the mouth of the Upper 
Iowa. 

The Foxes had three principal villages, viz: One on the west 
side of the Mississippi, six miles above the rapids of Rock River; 
another about twelve miles from the river, in the rear of the 
Dubuque lead mines, and the third on Turkey River. 

The lowas, at one time identified with the Sacs, of Rock River, 
had withdrawn from them and become a separate tribe. Their 
principal village was on the Des Moines River, in Van Buren 
County, on the site where lowaville now stands. Here the last 
great battle between the Sacs and Foxes and the lowas was fought, 
in which Black Hawk, then a young man, commanded one division 
of the attacking forces. 



20 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

The Sacs and Foxes, prior to the settlement of their village on 
Kock River, had a fierce conflict with the Winnebagoes, subdued 
them and took possession of their lands. Their village on Rock 
River, at one time, contained upward of sixty lodges, and was 
among the largest Indian villages on the continent. In 1825, the 
Secretary of War estimated the entire number of the Sacs and 
Foxes at 4,600 souls. Their village was situated in the immediate 
vicinity of the upper rapids of the Mississippi, where the beautiful 
and flourishing towns of Rock Island and Davenport are now situ- 
ated. The beautiful scenery of the island, the extensive prairies, 
dotted over with groves; the picturesque bluffs along the river 
banks, the rich and fertile soil, producing large crops of corn, 
squash and other vegetables, with little labor; the abundance of 
wild fruit, game, fish, and almost everything calculated to make it 
a delightful spot for an Indian village, which was found there, had 
made this place a favorite home of the Sacs, and secured for it the 
strong attachment and veneration of the whole nation. 

North of the hunting grounds of the Sacs and Foxes, were those 
of the Sioux, a fierce and warlike nation, who often disputed pos- 
session with their rivals in savage'and bloody warfare. The pos- 
sessions of these tribes were mostly located in Minnesota, but 
extended over a portion of Northern and Western Iowa to the Mis- 
souri River. Their descent from the north upon the hunting 
grounds of Iowa frequently brought them into collision with the 
Sacs and Foxes; and after many a conflict and bloody struggle, a 
boundary line was established between them by the Government 
of the United States, in a treaty held at Prairie du Chien, in 1825. 
But this, instead of settling the difficulties, caused them to quarrel 
all the more, in consequence of alleged trespasses upon each other's 
side of the line. These contests were kept up and became so unre- 
lenting that, in 1830, Government bought of the respective tribes 
of the Sacs and Foxes, and the Sioux, a strip of land twenty miles 
in width, on both sides of the line, and thus throwing them forty 
miles apart by creating between them a "neutral ground," com- 
manded them to cease their hostilities. Both the Sacs and Foxes 
and the Sioux, however, were allowed to fish and hunt on this 
ground unmolested, provided they did not interfere with each other 
on United States territory. The Sacs and Foxes and the Sioux 
were deadly enemies, and neither let an opportunity to punish the 
other pass unimproved. 

In April, 1852, a fight occurred between the Musquaka band of 
Sacs and Foxes and a band of Sioux, about six miles above Algona, 
in Kossuth County, on the west side of the Des Moines River. 
The Sacs and Foxes were under the leadership of Ko-ko-wah, a 
subordinate chief, and had gone up from their home in Tama 
County, by way of Clear Lake, to what was then the ''neutral 
ground." At Clear Lake, Ko-ko-wah was informed that a party of 
Sioux were encamped on the west side of the East Fork of the Des 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 21 

Moines, and he determined to attack them. With sixty of his 
warriors, he started and arrived at a point on the east side of the 
river, about a mile above the Sioux encampment, in the night, and 
concealed themselves in a grove, where they were able to discover 
the position and strength of their hereditary foes. The next morn- 
ing, after many of the Sioux braves had left their camp on hunting 
tours, the vindictive Sacs and Foxes crossed the river and suddenly 
attacked the camp. The conflict was desperate for a short time, 
but the advantage was with the assailants, and the Sioux were 
routed. Sixteen of them, including some of their women and 
children, were killed, and a boy 14 years old was captured. One 
of the Musquakas was shot in the breast by a squaw as they were 
rushing into the Sioux's camp. He started to run awa}^ when the 
same brave squaw shot him through the body, at a distance of 
twenty rods, and he fell dead. Three other Sac braves were killed. 
But few of the Sioux escaped. The victorious party hurriedly 
buried their own dead, leaving the dead Sioux above ground, and 
made their way home, with their captive, with all possible expedition. 

pike's EXPEDITI0]Sr. 

Very soon after the acquisition of Louisiana the United States 
Government adopted measures for the exploration of the new ter- 
ritory, having in view the conciliation of the numerous tribes of 
Indians by whom it was possessed, and, also, the selection of proper 
sites for the establishment of military posts and trading stations. 
The Army of the West, Gen. James Wilkinson commanding, had 
its headquarters at St. Louis. From this post. Captains Lewis and 
Clarke, with a sufficient force, were detailed to explore the unknown 
sources of the Missouri, and Lieut. Zebulon M. Pike, to ascend to 
the head waters of the Mississippi, Lieut. Pike, Avith one Ser- 
geant, two Corporals and seventeen privates, left the military camp, 
near St. Louis^ in a keel-boat, with four month's rations, on the 
9th day of August, 1805, On the 20th of the same month, the ex- 
pedition arrived within the present limit of Iowa, at the foot of 
the Des Moines Rapids, where Pike met William Ewing, who had 
just been appointed Indian agent at this point, a French interpreter 
and four chiefs and fifteen Sac and Fox warriors. 

At the head of the rapids, where Montrose is now situated. Pike 
held a council with the Indians, in which he addressed them sub- 
stantially as follows: "Your great Father, the President of the 
United States wished to be more intimately acquainted with the 
situation and wants of the difierent nations of red people in our 
newly acquired territory of Louisiana, and has ordered the General 
to send a number of his warriors in different directions to take 
them by the hand and make such inquiries as might afford the sat- 
isfaction required." At the close of the council he presented the 
red men with some knives, whisky and tobacco. 

Pursuing his way up the river, he arrived, on the 23d of August, 
at what is supposed, from his description,to be the site of thepres* 



22 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

ent city of Burlington, which he selected as the location of a mili- 
tary post. He describes the place as being "on a hill, about forty 
miles above the River de Moyne Rapids, on the west side of the 
river in latitude about 41 degrees 21 minutes north. The channel 
of the river runs on that shore; the hill in front is about sixty feet 
perpendicular; nearly level on top; four hundred yards in the rear 
is a small prairie fit for gardening, and immediately under the hill 
is a limestone spring, sufficient for the consumption of a whole reg- 
iment." In addition to this description, which corresponds to Bur- 
lington, the spot is laid down on his map at a bend in the river a 
short distance below the mouth of the Henderson, which pours its 
waters into the Mississippi from Hlinois. The fort was built at 
Fort Madison, but from the distance, latitude, description and map 
furnished by Pike, it could not have been the place selected by him 
while all the circumstances corroborate the opinion that the place 
he selected was the spot where Burlington is now located, called by 
the early voyagers on the Mississippi, " Flint Hills." 

On the 24th, with one of his men, he went on shore on a hunt- 
ing expedition, and following a stream which they supposed to be 
a part of the Mississippi, they were led away from their course. 
Owing to the intense heat ahd tall grass, his two favorite dogs, 
which he had taken with him, became exhausted and he left them 
on the prairie, supposing that they would follow him as soon as 
they should get rested, and went on to overtake his boat. Reach- 
ing the river, he waited some time for his canine friends, but they 
did not come, and as he deemed it inexpedient to detain the boat 
longer, two of his men volunteered to go in pursuit of them, and 
he continued on his way up the river, expecting that the two men 
would soon overtake him. They lost their way, however, and for 
six days were without food, except a few morsels gathered from the 
stream, and might have perished had they not accidentally met a 
trader from St. Louis, who induced two Indians to take them up 
the river, and they overtook the boat at Dubuque. 

At Dubuque Pike was cordislly received by Julien Dubuque, a 
Frenchman, who held a mining claim under a grant from Spain. 
Dubuque had an old field piece and fired a salute in honor of the 
advent of the first Americans who had visited that part of the Ter- 
ritory. Dubuque, however, was not disposed to publish the wealth 
of his mines, and the young and apparently inquisitive officer could 
obtain but little information from him. 

After leaving this place. Pike pursued his way up the river, 
but as he passed beyond the limits of the present State of Iowa, a 
detailed history of his explorations on the upper waters of the Mis- 
sissippi more properly belongs to the history of another State. 

It is sufficient to say that on the site of Fort Snelling, Minneso- 
ta, at the mouth of the Minnesota River, Pike held a council with 
the Sioux, September 23, and obtained from them a grant of one 
hundred thousand acres of land. On the 8t"h of January 1806, 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 23 

Pike arrived at a trading post belonging to the Northwest Com- 
pany, on Lake De Sable in latitude 47 ° . At this time the then 
posrerfal Northwest Company carried on their immense operations 
from Hudson's Bay to the St. Lawrence; up that river on both 
sides, along the Great Lakes to the head of Lake Superior, thence 
to the sources of the Red River of the North, and west to the Rocky 
Mountains, embracing within the scope of their operations the en- 
tire Territory of Iowa. After successfully accomplishing his mis- 
sion, and performing a valuable service to Iowa and the whole 
Northwest, Pike returned to St. Louis, arriving there on the 30th 
of April, 1806. 

INDIAN WARS, 

The Territory of Iowa, although it had been purchased by the 
United States, and was ostensibly in the possession of the Gov- 
ernment, was still occupied by the Indians, who claimed title to 
the soil by right of ownership and possession. Before it could be 
open to settlement by the whites, it was indispensible that the 
Indian title should be extinguished and the original owners re- 
moved. The accomplishment of this purpose required the expen- 
diture of large sums of money and blood, and for a long series of 
years the frontier was disturbed by Indian wars, terminated re- 
peatedly by treaty, only to be renewed by some act of oppression 
on the part of the whites or some violation of treaty stipulation. 

As previously shown, at the time w^hen the United States as- 
sumed the control of the country by virtue of the Louisiana pur- 
chase, nearly the whole State was in possession of the Sacs and 
Foxes, a powerful and warlike nation, who were not disposed to 
submit without a struggle to what they considered the encroach- 
ments of the pale faces. 

Among the most noted chiefs, and one whose reitlessness and 
hatred of the Americans occasioned more trouble to the Govern- 
ment than any others of his tribe, Avas Black Hawk, who was born 
at the Sac village, on Rock River, in 1767. He was simply the 
chief of his own band of Sac warriors, but by his energy and am- 
bition he became the leading spirit of the united nation of Sacs 
and Foxes, and one of the prominent figures in the history of the 
country from 1804 until his death. In early manhood he attained 
some destinction as a fighting chief, having led campaigns against 
the Osages, and other neighboring tribes. About the beginning 
of the present century he began to appear prominent in attairs on 
the Mississippi. Some historians have added to the statement that 
" it does not appear that he was ever a great general, or possessed 
any of the qualifications of a successful leader." If this was so, 
his life was a marvel. How any man who had none of the quali- 
fications of a leader became so prominent as such, as he did, indi- 
cates either that he had some ability, or that his cotemporaries, 
both Indian and Anglo-Saxon, had less than he. He is said to 



24 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

have been the " victim of a narrow prejudice and bitter ill-will 
against the Americans," but the impartial historian must admit 
that if he was the enemy of the Americans, it was certainly not 
without some reason. 

It will be remembered that Spain did not give up possession of 
the country to France on its cession to the latter power, in 1801, 
but retained possession of it, and, by the authority of France, 
transferred it to the United States, in 3804. Black Hawk and his 
band were in St. Louis at the time, and were invited to be present 
and witness the ceremonies of the transfer, but he refused the invi- 
tation, and it is but just to say that this refusal was caused proba- 
bly more from regret that the Indians were to be transferred from 
the jurisdiction of the Spanish authorities than from any special 
hatred toward the Americans. In his life he says: ''I found many 
sad and gloomy faces because the United States were about to take 
possession of the town and country. Soon after the Americans 
came, I took my band and went to take leave of our Spanish father. 
The Americans came to see him also. Seeing them approach, we 
passed out of one door as they entered another, and immediately 
started in our canoes for our village, on Rock River, not liking the 
change any more than our friends appeared to at St. Louis. On 
arriving at our village, we gave the news that strange people had 
arrived at St, Louis, and that we should never see our Spanish 
father again. The information made all our people sorry." 

On the 3d day of November, 1804, a treaty was concluded 
between William Henry Harrison, then Grovernor of Indiana Terri- 
rory, on behalf of the United States, and five chiefs of the Sac and 
Fox nation, by which the latter, in consideration of two thousand 
two hundred and thirty-four dollars' worth of goods then delivered, 
and a 3"early annuity of one thousand dollars to be paid in goods at 
just cost, ceded to the United States all that laud on the east side 
of the Mississippi, extending from a point opposite the Jefferson, 
in Missouri, to the Wisconsin River, embracing an area of over 
fifty-one millions of acres. 

To this treaty Black Hawk always objected and always refused 
to consider it binding upon his people. He asserted that the chiefs 
or braves who made it had no authority to relinquish the title of 
the nation to any of the lands they held or occupied; and, more- 
over, that they had been sent to St. Louis on quite a different 
errand, namely, to get one of their people released, who had been 
imprisoned at St. Louis for killing a white man. 

The year following this treaty (1805), Lieutenant Zebulon M. 
Pike came up the river for the purpose of holding friendly coun- 
cils with the Indians and selecting sites for forts within the terri- 
tory recently acquired from France by the United States. Lieu- 
tenant Pike seems to have been the first American whom Black 
Hawk ever met or had a personal interview with; ana he was very 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 25 

much prepossessed in Pike's favor. He gives the following account 
of his visit to Rock Island: 

''A boat came up the river with a young American chief and a 
small party of soldiers. We heard of them soon after they passed 
Salt River. Some of our young braves watched them every day, 
to see what sort of people he had on board. The boat at length 
arrived at Rock River, and the young chief came on shore with his 
interpreter, and made a speech and gave us some presents. We in 
turn presented them with meat and such other provisions as we 
had to spare. We were weU pleased with the young chief. He 
gave us good advice, and said our American father would treat us 
well.^' 

The events which soon followed Pike's expedition were the erec- 
tion of Fort Edwards, at what is now Warsaw, Illinois, and Fort 
Madison, on the site of the present town of that name, the latter 
being the first fort erected in Iowa. These movements occasioned 
great uneasiness among the Indians. When work was commenced 
on Fort Edwards, a delegation from their nation, hoded b}' some 
of their chiefs, went down to see what the Americans were doing, 
and had an interview with the commander; after which they 
returned home apparently satisfied. In like manner, when Fort 
Madison was being erected, they sent down another delegation 
from a council of the nation held at Rock River. According to 
Black Hawk's account, the American chief told them that he was 
building a house for a trader who was coming to sell them goods 
cheap, and that the soldiers were coming to keep him company — ■ 
a statement which Black Hawk says they distrusted at the time, 
believing that the fort was an encroachment upon their rights, and 
designed to aid in getting their lands away from them. 

It has been held by good American authorities, that the erection 
of Fort Madison at the point where it was located iras a violation 
of the treaty of 1804. By the eleventh article of that treaty, the 
United States had a right to build a fort near the mouth of the 
Wisconsin River; by article six they had bound themselves "that 
if any citizen of the United States or any other white persons 
should form a settlement upon their lands, such intruders should 
forthwith be removed." Probably the authorities of the United 
States did not regard the establishment of military posts as coming 
properly within the meaning of the term ''settlement," as used in 
the treaty. At all events, they erected Fort Madison within the 
territory reserved to the Indians, who became very indignant. Not 
long after the fort was built, a party led by Black Hawk attempted 
its destruction. They sent spies to watch the movements of the 
garrison, who ascertained that the soldiers were in the habit of 
marching out of the fort every morning and evening for parade, 
and the plan of the party was to conceal themselves near the fort, 
and attack and surprise them when they were outside. On the 
morning of the proposed day of attack, five soldiers came out and 



^Zt> HISTOEY OJ IOWA. 

were fired upon by the Indians, two of them being killed. The 
Indians were too hasty in their movement, for the regular drill had 
not yet commenced. However, they kept up the attack for sev- 
eral days, attempting the old Fox strategy of setting fire to the 
fort with blazing arrows; but finding their efforts unavailing, they 
soon gave up and returned to Rock River. 

When war was declared between the United States and Great 
Britain, in 1812, Black Hawk and his band allied themselves with 
the British^ partly because he was dazzled by their specious prom- 
ises, and more probably because they had been deceived by the 
Americans. Black Hawk himself declared that they were "forced 
into the war by being deceived." He narrates the circumstances 
as follows: "Several of the chiefs and head men of the Sacs and 
Foxes were called upon to go to Washington to see their Great 
Father. On their return, they related what had been said and 
done. They said the Great Father wished them, in the event of a 
war taking place with England, not to interfere on either side, but 
to remain neutral. He did not want our help, but wished us to 
hunt and support our families, and live in peace. He said that 
British traders would not be permitted to come on the Mississippi 
to furnish us with goods, but that we should be supplied with an 
American trader. Our chiefs then told him that the British trad- 
ers always gave them credit in the fall for guns, powder and goods, 
to enable us to hunt and clothe our families. He repeated that 
the. traders at Fort Madisou would have plenty of goods; that we 
should go there in the fall and he would supply us on credit, as 
the British traders had done." 

Black Hawk seems to have accepted of this proposition, and he 
and his people were very much pleased. Acting in good faith, 
they fitted out for their winter's hunt, and went to Fort Madison 
in high spirits to receive from the trader their outfit of supplies. 
But, aft^r waiting some time, they were told by the trader 
that he would not trust them. It was in vain that they pleaded the 
promise of their great father at Washington. Tlit trader was inex- 
orable; and, disappointed and crestfallen, they turned sadly toward 
their own village. "Few of us," says Black Hawk, ''slept that night; 
all was gloom and discontent. In the morning a canoe was seen 
ascending the river; it soon arrived, bearing an express, who 
brought intelligence that a British trader had landed at Rock 
Island with two boats loaded with goods, and requested us to come 
up immediately, because he had good news for us, and a variety of 
presents. The express presented us with tobacco, pipes and 
wampum. The news ran through our camp like fire on a prairie. 
Our lodges were soon taken down, and all started for Rock Island. 
Here ended all hopes of our remaining at peace, having been 
forced into the war by being deceived." 

He joined the British, who flattered him, styled him "General 
Black Hawk," decked him with medals, excited his jealousies 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 27 

against the Americans, and armed his band; but he met with de- 
feat and disappointment, and soon abandoned the service and came 
home. 

With all his skill and courage. Black Hawk was unable to lead 
all the Sacs and Foxes into hostilities to the United States. A 
portion of them, at the head of whom was Keokuk (''the Watch- 
ful Fox "), were disposed to abide by the treaty of 1804, and to 
cultivate friendly relations with the American people. Therefore, 
when Black Hawk and his band joined the fortunes of Great 
Britain, the rest of the nation remained neutral, and, for protec- 
tion, organized, with Keokuk for their chief. This divided the 
nation into the '' War and the Peace Party." 

Black Hawk says he was informed, after he had gone to the 
war, that the nation, which had been reduced to so small a body 
of fighting men, were unable to defend themselves in case the 
Americans should attack them, and having all the old men and 
women and children belonging to the warriors who had joined the 
British on their hands to provide for, a council was held, and it 
was agreed that Quash-qua-me (the Lance) and other chiefs, to- 
gether with the old men, women and children, and such others as 
chose to accompany them, should go to St. Louis and place them- 
selves under the American chief stationed there. They according- 
ly went down, and were received as the " friendly band " of the 
Sacs and Foxes, and were provided for and sent up the Missouri 
River. On Black Hawk's return from the British army, he says 
Keokuk was introduced to him as the war chief of the braves then in 
the village. He inquired how he had become chief, and was in- 
formed that their spies had seen a large armed force going toward 
Peoria, and fears Avere entertained of an attack uj)on the village; 
whereupon a council was held, which concluded to leave the village 
and cross over to the west side of the Mississippi. Keokuk had 
been standing at the door of the lodge where the council was held, 
not being allowed to enter on account of never having killed an 
enemy, where he remained until Wa-co-me came out. Keokuk 
asked permission to speak in the council, which Wa-co-me obtained 
for him. Keokuk then addressed the chiefs; he remonstrated 
against the desertion of their village, their own homes and the 
graves of their fathers, and offered to defend the village. The 
council consented that he should be their war chief. He marshaled 
his braves, sent out spies, and advanced on the trail leading to 
Peoria, but returned without seeing the enemy. The Americans 
did not disturb the village, and all were satisfied with the appoint- 
ment of Keokuk. 

Keokuk, like Black Hawk, was a descendant of the Sac branch 
of the nation, and was born on Rock River, 'in 1780. He was of 
a pacific disposition, but possessed the elements of true courage, 
and could fight, when occasion required, with a cool judgment and 
heroic energy. In his first battle, he encountered and killed a 



28 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

Sioux, which placed him in the rank of warriors, and he was 
honored with a public feast by his tribe in commemoration of the 
event. 

Keokuk has been described as an orator, entitled to rank with 
the most gifted of his race. In person, he was tall and of portly 
bearing; in his public speeches, he displayed a commanding atti- 
tude and graceful gestures; he spoke rapidly, but his enunciation 
was clear, distinct and forcible; he culled his figures from the 
.stores of nature, and based his arguments on skillful logic. Un- 
fortunately for the reputation of Keokuk as an orator, among 
white people, he was never able to obtain an interpreter who could 
claim even a slight acquaintance with philosophy. With one ex- 
ception only, his interpreters were unacquainted with the elements 
of their mother-tongue. Of this serious hindrance to his fame, 
Keokuk was well aware, and retained Frank Labershure, who had 
received a rudimental education in the French and English 
languages, until the latter broke down by dissipation and died. 
But during the meridian of his career among the white people, he 
was compelled to submit his speeches for translation to uneducated 
men, whose range of thought fell below the flights of a gifted 
mind, and the fine imagery drawn from nature was beyond their 
power of reproduction. He had sufficient knowledge of the 
English language to make him sensible of this bad rendering of 
his thoughts, and often a feeling of mortification at the bungling 
efforts was depicted on his countenance while speaking. The 
proper place to form a correct estimate of his ability as an orator 
was in the Indian council, where he addressed himself exclusively 
to those who understood his language, and witness the electrical 
effect of his eloquence upon his audience. 

Keokuk seems to have possessed a more sober judgment, and to 
have had a more intelligent view of the great strength and re- 
sources of the United States, than his noted and restless cotempor- 
ary. Black Hawk. He knew from the first that the reckless war 
which Black Hawk and his band had determined to carry on could 
result in nothing but defeat and disaster, and used every argument 
against it. The large number of warriors whom he had dissuaded 
from following Black Hawk became, however, greatly excited with 
the war spirit after Stillman's defeat, and but for the signal tact 
displayed by Keokuk on that occasion, would have forced him to 
submit to their wishes in joining the rest of the warriors in the 
field. A war-dance was held, and Keokuk took part in it, seeming 
to be moved with the current of the rising storm, When the 
dance was over, he called the council to prepare for war. He made 
a speech, in which he admitted the justice of their complaints 
against the Americans. To seek redress was a noble aspiration of 
their nature. The blood of their brethren had been shed by the 
white man, and the spirits of their braves, slain in battle, called 
loudly for vengeance. " I am your chief," he said, " and it is my 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 29 

duty to lead you to battle, if, after fully considering the matter, 
you are determined to go. But before you decide on taking this 
important step, it is wise to inquire into the chances of success." 
He then portrayed to them the great power of the United States, 
against whom they would have to contend, that their chances of 
success was utterly hopeless. "But," said he, "if you do determine 
to go upon the war-path, I will agree to lead you, on one condition, 
viz: that before we go, we will kill all our old men and our wives 
and children, to save them from a lingering death of starvation, 
and that every one of us determine to leave our homes on the 
other side of the Mississippi. 

This was a strong but truthful picture of the prospect before 
them, and was presented in such a forcible light as to cool their 
ardor, and cause them to abandon the rash undertaking. 

But during the war of 1832, it is now considered certain that 
small bands of Indians, from the west side of the Mississippi, made 
incursions into the white settlements, in the lead mining region, 
and committed some murders and depredations. 

When peace was declared between the United States and Eng- 
land, Black Hawk was required to make peace with the former, 
and entered into a treaty at Portage des Sioux, September 14, 
1815, but did not "touch the goose-quill to it until May 13, 1816, 
when he smoked the pipe of peace with the great white chief," at 
St. Louis. This treaty was a renewal of the treaty of 1804, but 
Black Hawk declared he had been deceived; that he did not know 
that by signing the treaty he was giving away -his village. This 
weighed upon his mind, already soured by previous disappointment 
and the irresistible encroachments of the whites; and when a few 
years later, he and his people were driven from their possessions 
by the military, he determined to return to the home of his 
fathers. 

It is also to be remarked that in 1816, by treaty with various 
tribes, the United States relinquished to the Indians all the lauds 
lying north of a line drawn from a southerraost point of Lake 
Michigan west to the Mississippi, except a reservation five leagues 
square, on the Mississippi River, supposed then to be sufficient to 
include all the mineral lands on and adjacent to Fever River, and 
one league square at the mouth of the Wisconsin River. 

THE BLACK HAWK WAR. 

The immediate cause of the Indian outbreak in 1830 was the 
occupation of Black Hawk's village, on the Rock River, by the 
whites, during the absence of the chief and his braves on a hunt- 
ing expedition, on the west side of the Mississippi. When they 
returned they found their wigwams occupied by white families, 
and their own women and children were shelterless on the banks 
of the river. The Indians were indignant, and determined to re- 
possess their village at all hazards, and early in the spring of 1831 



30 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

recrossed the Mississippi and menacingly took possession of their 
own cornfields and cabins. It may be well to remark here that 
it was expressly stipulated in the treaty of 1804, to which they at- 
tributed all their troubles, that the Indians should not be obliged 
to leave their lands until they were sold by the United States, and 
it does not appear that they occupied any lands other than those 
owned by the Grovernment. If this was true, the Indians had good 
cause for indignation and complaint. But the whites, driven out 
in turn by the returning Indians, became so clamorous against what 
they termed the encroachments of the natives, that Gov. Reynolds, 
of Illinois, ordered Gen. Gaines to Rock Island with a military 
force to drive the Indians again from their homes to the west side 
of the Mississippi. Black Hawk says he did not intend to be pro- 
voked into war by anything less than the blood of some of his own 
people; in other words, that there would be no war unless it should 
be commenced by the pale faces. But it was said and probably 
thought by the military commanders along the frontier, that the 
Indians intended to unite in a general war against the whites, 
from Rock River to the Mexican borders. But it does not appear 
that the hardy frontiersmen themselves had any fears, for their 
experience had been that, when well treated, their Indian neigh- 
bors were not dangerous. Black Hawk and his band had done no 
more than to attempt to repossess the old homes of Avhich they had 
been deprived in their absence. No blood had been shed. Black 
Hawk and his chiefs sent a flag of truce, and a new treaty was 
made, by which Black Hawk and his band agreed to remain for- 
ever on the Iowa side and never recross the river without the per- 
mission of the President or the Governor of Illinois. Whether 
the Indians clearly understood the terms of this treaty is uncer- 
tain. As was usual, the Indian traders had dictated terms on 
their behalf, and they had received a large amount of provisions, 
etc., from the Government, but it may well be doubted whether 
the Indians comprehended that they could never revisit the graves 
of their fathers without violating their treaty. They undoubtedly 
thought that they had agreed never to recross the Mississippi with 
hostile intent. However this may be, on the 6th day of April, 
1832, Black Hawk and his entire band, with their women and chil- 
dren, again recrossed the Mississippi in plain vieAv of the garrison 
of Fort Armstrong, and went up Rock River. Although this act 
was construed into an act of hostility by the militpry authorities, 
who declared that Black Hawk intended to recover his village, or 
the site where it stood, by force; yet it does not appear that he 
made any such attempt, nor did his appearance create any special 
alarm among the settlers. They knew that the Indians never 
went on the war path encumbered with the old men, their women 
and their children. 

The Galen/an, printed in Galena, of May 2d, 1832, says that 
Black Hawk was invited by the Prophet and had taken possession 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 31 

of a tract about forty miles up Rock River; but that he did 
not remain there long, but commenced his search up Rock 
River. Captain W. B. Green, who served in Captain Ste- 
venson's company of mounted rangers, says that "Black 
Hawk and his band crossed the river with no hostile in- 
tent, but that his band had had bad luck in hunting during the 
previous winter, were actually in a starving condition, and had 
come over to spend the summer with a friendly tribe on the head 
waters of the Rock and Illinois Rivers, by invitation from their 
chief. Other old settlers who all agree that Black Hawk had no 
idea of fighting, say that he came back to the west side expecting 
to negotiate another treaty, and get a new supply of provisions. 
The most reasonable explanation of this movement, which resulted 
so disastrously to Black Hawk and his starving people, is that, 
during the fall and winter of 1831-2, his people became deeply in- 
debted to their favorite trader at Fort Armstrong (Rock Island), 
they had not been fortunate in hunting, and he was likely to lose 
heavily, as an Indian debt was outlawed in one year. If, therefore, 
the Indians could be induced to come over, and the fears of the 
military could be sufficiently aroused to pursue them, another 
treaty could be negotiated, and from the payments from the Gov- 
ernment the shrewd trader could get his pay. Just a week after 
Black Hawk crossed the river, on the 13th of April, lb32, George 
Davenport wrote to Gen. Atkinson: "I am informed that the 
British band of Sac Indians are determined to make war on the 
frontier settlements. * ^i^ * Prom every information 
that I have received, I am of the opinion that the intention of the 
British band of Sac Indians is to commit depredations on the in- 
habitants of the frontier." And yet, from the 6th day of April, 
nntil after Stillman's men commenced war by firing on a flag of 
truce from Black Hawk, no murders nor depredations were com- 
mitted by the British band of Sac Indians. 

It is not the purpose of this sketch to detail the incidents of the 
Black Hawk war of 1832, as it pertains rather to the history of 
the State of Illinois. It is sufficient to say that, after the dis- 
graceful affiiir at Stillman's Run, Black Hawk, concluding that the 
whites, refusing to treat with him, were determined to extermin- 
ate his people, determined to return to the Iowa side of the Missis- 
sippi. He could not return by the way he came, for the army was 
behind him, an army, too, that would sternly refuse to recognize 
the white flag of peace. His only course was to make his way 
northward and reach the Mississippi, if possible, before the troops 
could overtake him, and this he did; but, before he could get his 
women and children across the Wisconsin, he Avas overtaken, and 
a battle ensued. Here, again, he sued for peace, and, through 
his trusty Lieutenant, "the Prophet," the whites were plainly in- 
formed that the starving Indians did not wish to fight, but would 
return to the west side of the Mississippi, peaceably, if they could 



32 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

be permitted to do so. No attention was paid to this second effort 
to negotiate peace, and, as soon as supplies could be obtained, the 
pursuit was resumed, the flying Indians were overtaken again eight 
miles before they reached the mouth of the Bad Axe, and the 
slaughter (it should not be dignified by the name of battle) com- 
menced. Here, overcome by starvation and the victorious whites, 
his band was scattered, on the 2d day of August, 1832. Black 
Hawk escaped, but was brought into camp at Prairie du Chien by 
three Winnebagoes. He was confined in Jefferson Barracks until 
the spring of 1833, when he was sent to Washington, arriving 
there April 22. On the 26th of April, they were taken to Fortress 
Monroe, where they remained till the Ith of June, 1833, when 
orders were given for them to be liberated and returned to their own 
country. By order of the President, he was brought back to Iowa 
through the principal Eastern cities. Crowds flocked to see him 
all along his route, and he was very much flattered by the atten- 
tions he received. He lived among his people on the Iowa River 
till that reservation was sold, in 1836, when, with the rest of the 
Sacs and Foxes, he removed to the Des Moines Reservation, where 
he remained till hi^ death, which occurred on the 3d of October, 
1838. 

INDIAN" PURCHASES, RESERVES AND TREATIES. 

At the close of the Black Hawk War, in 1832, a treaty was made 
at a council held on the west bank of the Mississippi, where now 
stands the thriving city of Davenport, on grounds now occupied by 
the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific railroad company, on the 21st 
day of September, 1832. At this council, the United States were 
represented by Gen. Winfield Scott and Gov. Reynolds, of Illinois. 
Keokuk, Pash-a-pa-ho and some thirty other chiefs and warriors of 
the Sac and Fox nation were present. By this treaty, the Sacs and 
Foxes ceded to the United States a strip of land on the eastern 
border of Iowa, fifty miles wide, from the northern boundary of 
Missouri to the mouth of the Upper Iowa River, containing about 
six million acres. The western line of the purchase was parallel 
with the Mississippi. In consideration of this cession, the United 
States Government stipulated to pay annually to the confederated 
tribes, for thirty consecutive years, twenty thousand dollars in 
specie, and to pay the debts of the Indians at Rock Island, which 
had been accumulating for seventeen years, and amounted to fifty 
thousand dollars, due to Davenport & Farnham, Indian traders. 
The Government also generously donated to the Sac and Fox 
women and children, whose husbands and fathers had fallen in the 
Black Hawk war, thirty-five beef cattle, twelve bushels of salt, 
thirty barrels of pork, fifty barrels of flour and six thousand 
bushels of corn. 

This territory is known as the " Black Hawk Purchase," 
Although it was not the first portion of Iowa ceded to the United 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 33 

States by the Sacs and Foxes, it was the first opened to actual 
settlement by the tide of emigration that flowed across the Mis- 
sissippi as soon as the Indian title was extinguished. The treaty 
was ratified February 13, 1833, and took effect on the 1st of June 
following, when the Indians quietly removed from the ceded ter- 
ritory, and this fertile and beautiful region was opened to white 
settlers. 

By the terms of the treaty, out of the Black Hawk Purchase 
was reserved for the Sacs and Foxes 400 square miles of land 
situated on the Iowa River, and including within its limits Keo- 
kuk's village, on the right bank of that river. This tract was 
known as '• Keokuk's Reserve," and was occupied by tlie Indians 
until 1836, when, by a treaty made in September between them 
and Grov. Dodge, of Wisconsin Territory, it was ceded to the 
United States. The council was held on the banks of the Mis- 
sissippi, above Davenport, and was the largest assemblage of the 
kind ever held by the Sacs and Foxes to treat for the sale of lands. 
About one thousand of their chiefs and braves were present, and 
Keokuk was their leading spirit and principal speaker on the occa- 
sion. By the terms of the treaty, the Sacs and Foxes were re- 
moved to another reservation on the Des Moines River, where an 
agency was established for them at what is now the town of 
Agency City. 

Besides the Keokuk Reserve, the Government gave out of the 
Black Hawk Purchase to Antoine Le Claire, interpreter, in fee 
simple, one section of land opposite Rock Island, and another at 
the head of the first rapids above the island, on the Iowa side. 
This was the first land title granted by the United States to an in- 
dividual in Iowa. 

Soon after the removal of the Sacs and Foxes to their new 
reservation on the Des Moines River, Gen. Joseph M. Street was 
transferred from the agency of the Winnebagoes, at Prairie du 
Chien, to establish an agency among them. A farm was selected, 
on which the necessary buildings .were erected, including a com- 
fortable farm house for the agent and his family, at the expense of 
the Indian Fund. A salaried agent was employed to superintend 
the farm and dispose of the crops. Two mills were erected, one 
on Soap Creek, and the other on Sugar Creek. The latter was 
soon swept away by a flood, but the former remained and did good 
service for many years. Connected with the agency were Joseph 
Smart and John Goodell, interpreters. The latter was interpre- 
ter for Hard Fish's band. Three of the Indian chiefs, Keokuk, 
Wapello and Appanoose, had each a large field improved, the two 
former on the right bank of the Des Moines, back from the river, 
in what is now " Keokuk's Prairie," and the latter on the present 
site of the city of Ottumwa. Among the traders connected with 
the agency were the Messrs. Ewing, from Ohio, and Phelps & Co., 



34 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

from Illinois, and also Mr. ,J. P. Eddy, who established his post at 
what is now the sit 3 of Eddyviile. 

The Indians at this agency beCame idle and listless in the 
absence of their natural and wonted excitements, and many of 
them plunged into dissipation. Keokuk himself became dissjpated 
in the latter years of his life, and it has been reported that he 
died of delirium tremens after his removal with his tribe to Kansas. 

In May, 1843, most of the Indians were removed up the Des 
Moines River, above the temporary line of Red Rock, having ceded 
the remnant of their lands in Iowa to the United States on the 
21st of September, 1837, and on the 11th of October, 1842. By 
the terms of the latter treaty, they held possession of the "New 
Purchase" till the Autumn of 1845, when the most of them were 
removed to their reservation in Kansas, the balance being removed 
in the Spring of 1846. 

1. Treaty ivith the .^/oftx— Made July 19, 1815; ratified December 16, 1815. 
This treaty was made at Portage des Sioux, between the Sioux of Minnesota 
and Upper Iowa and the United States, by WiUiam Clark and Ninian Edwards. 
Commissioners, and was merely a treaty of peace and friendship on the part of 
those Indians toward the United States at the close of the war of 1812. 

2. Treaty with the Sacs. — A similar treaty of peace was made at Portage 
des Sioux, between the United States and the Sacs, by William Clark, Ninian 
Edwards and Auguste Choteau, on the 13th of September, 1815, and ratified at 
the same date as the above. In this, the treaty of 1804 was re-affirmed, and 
the Sacs here represented promis-.ed for themselves and their bands to keep en- 
tirely separate from the Sacs of Rock River, who, under Black Hawk, had joined 
the British m the war just then closed. 

3. Treaty with the Foxes. — A separate treaty of peace was made with the 
Foxes at Portage des Sioux, by the same Commissioners, on the 14th of Septem- 
ber, 1815, and ratified the same as the above, wherein the Foxes re-affirmed the 
treaty of St. Louis, of November 3, 1804, and agreed to deliver up all their pris- 
oners to the officer in command at Fort Clark, now Peoria, Illinois. 

4. Treaty tvith the lowas. — A treaty of peace and mutual good will was 
made between the United States and the Iowa tribe of Indians, at Portage des 
Sioux, by the same Commissioners as above, on the 16tli of September, 1815, at 
the close of the war with Great Britain, and ratified at the same date as the 
others. . * . 

5. Treaty with the Sacs of Rock River — Made at St. Louis on the 13th of 
May, 1816, between the United States and the Sacs of Rock River, by the Com- 
missioners, William Clark, Ninian Edwards and Auguste Choteau, and ratified 
December 30th, 1816. In this treaty, that of 1804 was re-established and con- 
firmed by twenty-two chiefs and head men of the Sacs of Rock River, and Black 
Hawk himself attached to it his signature, or, as he said, "touched the goose 
quiU. " 

6. Treaty of 1824. — On the 4th of August, 1824, a treaty was made between 
the United States and the Sacs and Foxes, in the city of Washington, by 

William Clark, Commissioner, wherein the Sac and Fox nation relinquished 
their title to all lands in Missouri and that portion of the southeast corner of 
Iowa known as the "Half-Breed Tract" was set off and reserved for the use of 
the half-breeds of the Sacs and Foxes, they holding title in the same manner as 

Indians. Ratified January 18, 1825. 

7. Treaty of August 19, 1825. — At this date a treaty was made by William 
Clark and Lewis Cass, at Prairie du Chien, between the United States and the 
Chippewas, Sacs and Foxes, Menomonees, Winnebagoes and a portion of the 
Ottawas and Pottawatomies. In this treaty, in order to make peace oetween 
the contending tribes as to the limits of tlieir respective hunting grounds in 



1590179 

HISTORY OF IOWA. 35 

Towa, it was agreed that the Unite:! States Government should run a boundaiy 
lir>e between the Sioux, on the north, and the Sacs and Foxes, on the south, as 
follows: 

Commencing' at the mouth of the Upper Iowa River, on the west bank of the 
Mississippi, and asc3nding said low i River to its west fork; thence up the fork 
to its source; thence crossing the fork of Red Cedar River in a direct line to the 
seconl or uppir fork of the Des iM )ines River; thence in a direct line to the 
lower fork of the Calumet River, and down that river to its janction with the 
Missouri River. 

8. Treaty of 1830.— On the 15th of July, 1830, the confederate tribes of the 
Sacs and Foxes ceded to the United States a strip of country lying south of the 
above line, twenty miles in width, and extending along the line aforesaid from 
the Mississippi to the Des Moines River. The Sioux also, whose possessions 
were north of the line, ceded to the (jovernment, in the same treaty, a like strip 
on the north side of the boundary. Thus the United States, at the ratification 
of this treaty, February 24, 1831, came into possession of a portion of Iowa forty 
miles wide, extending along the Clark and Cass line of 1825, from the Missis- 
sippi to the Des Moines River. This territory was known as the "Neutral 
Ground," and the tribes on either side of the line were allowed to fish and hunt 
on it unmolested till it was made a Winnebago reservation, and the Winneba- 
goes were removed to it in 1841. 

9. Treatij with the Sacs and Foxes and other Tribes. — At the same time of 
the above treaty re^p3cting the '"Neutral Ground" (July 15, 1830), the Sacs and 
Foxe?, We^t3rn Sioix, Omxha?, lowas and Missouris cedsd to the United States 
a portion of the west3rn slope of Iowa, the boundaries of which were defined as 
follows: Beginning at the upper fork of the Des Moines River, and passing the 
sources of the Little Sioux and Floyd Rivers, to the fork of the first creek that 
falls into the Big Sioux, or Calumet, on the east side; thence down said creek 
an 1 the Calum3t River to the Missouri River; thence down said Missouri River 
to the Missouri State line above the Kansas; thence along said line to the north- 
west corner of said State; thence to the high lands between the waters falling 
into the Missauriand Des Moines, pas^iing to said high lands along the dividing 
ridge between the forks of the Grand River; thence along said high lands or 
ridge separating the waters of the Missouri from those of the Des Moines, to a 
point opposite the source of the Boyer River, and thence in a direct line to the 
upper fork of the Des Moines, the place of beginning. 

It was understood that the lands ceded and relinquished by this treaty were 
to be assigned and allotted, under the direction of the President of the United 
States, to the tribes then living thereon, or to such other tribes as the President 
might locate thereon for huntmg and other pui-poses. In consideration of three 
tracts of land ceded in this treaty, the United States agreed to pay to the Sacs 
three thousand dollars; to the Foxes, three thousand dollars; to the Sioux, two 
thousand dollars; to the Yankton and Santee bands of Sioux, three thousand 
dollars; to the Omahas, two thousand five hundred dollars; and to the Ottoes 
and Missouris, two thousand five hundred dollars — to be paid annually for ten 
successive years. In addition to these annuities, the Government agreed to fur- 
nish some of the tribes with blacksmiths and agricultural nuplements to the 
amount of two hundred dollars, at the expense of the United States, and to set 
apai't three thousand dollars annually for the education of the children of these 
tribes. It does not appear that any fort was erected in this territory prior to the 
erection of Fort Atkmson on the Neutral Ground, in 1840-1. 

This treaty was made by William Clark, Superintendent of Indian affairs, and 
Col. WilloughViy Morgan, of the United States First Infantry, and came into 
effect by proclamation, February 24, 1831. 

10. Treatfj with tlir W iinnhtiiiocs. — Made at Fort Armstrong, Rock Island, 
September 15, 1832, bv ( ini, \\inticl(l Scott and Hon. John Reynolds, (Jovcrnor 
of Illinois. In this tn-iity the Winncbagoes ceded to the United States all their 
land lying on the east side of the Mississippi, and in part consideration therefor 
the United States granted to the Winnebagoes, to be held as other Imliau lands 
are held, that portion of Iowa known as the Neutral Ground. The exchange of 



36 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

the two tracts of country was to take place on or before the 1st day of June, 1833. 
In addition to the Neutral Ground, it was stipulated that the United States 
should give the Winnebagoes, bsginning in September, 1883, and continuing for 
twenty-seven successive years, ten thousand dollars in specie, and establish a 
school among them, with a farm and garden, and provide other facilities for the 
education of their children, not to exceed in cost three thousand dollars a year, 
and to continue the same for twenty-seven successive years. Six agriculturists, 
tvs^elve yoke of oxen and plows and other farming tools were to be supplied by 
the Government. 

11. Treaty of 1832 with the Sacs and Foxes. — Already mentioned as the 
Black Hawk purchase. 

12. Treat)) of 1836, with the Sacs and Foxes, ceding Keokuk's Reserve to 
the United States; for which the Government stipulated to pay thirty thousand 
dollars, and an annuity of ten thousand dollars for ten successive years, together 
vfith other sums and debts of the Indians to various parties. 

_ 13. Treat!) of 1837. —On the 21st of October. 1837, a treaty was made at the 
city of Washington, between Carey A. Harris, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 
and the confederate tribes of Sacs and Foxes, ratified February 21, 1838, wherein 
another slice of the soil of Iowa was obtained, described in the treaty as follows: 
"A tract ot country containing 1,250,000 acres, lying west and adjoining the 
the tract conveyed by them to the United States in the treaty of September 21, 
1832. It is understood that the points of termination for the present cession 
shall be the northern and southern points of said tract as fixed by the survey 
made under the authority of the United States, and that a line shall be drawn 
between them so as to intersect a line extended westwardly from the angle of 
said tract nearly opposite to Eock Island, as laid down in the above survey, so 
far as may be necessary to include the numljer of acres hereby ceded, which last 
mentioned line, it is estimated, will be about twenty-five miles." 

This piece of land was twenty-five miles wide in the middle, and ran off to a 
point at both ends, lymg directly back of the Black Hawk Purchase, and of 
the same length. 

14. Treati/ of Relinquishment. — At the same date as the above treaty, in 
the city of Washington, Carey A. Harris, Commissioner, the Sacs and Foxes 
ceded to the United States all their right and interest in the country lying south 
of the boundary line between the Sacs and Foxes and Sioux, as described in the 
treaty of August 19, 1825, and between the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, the 
United States paying for the same one hundred and sixty thousand dollars. The 
Indians also gave up all claims and interests under the treaties previously made 
with them, for the satisfaction of which no appropriations had been made. 

15. Treat/) of 1842. — The last treaty was made with the Sacs and Foxes Oc- 
tober 11, 1842; ratified March 23, 1843. It was made at the Sac and Fox 
agency (Agency City), by John Chambers, Commissioner on behalf of the United 
States. In this treaty the Sac and Fox Indians "ceded to the United States all 
their lands west of the Mississippi to which they had any clami or title." By 
the terms of this treaty they were to be removed from the country at the expi- 
ration of three years, and all who remained after that were to move at their 
own expense. Part of them were removed to Kansas in the Fall of 1845, and 
the rest the Spring following. 

SPANISH GRANTS. 

While the territory now embraced in the State o£ Iowa was un- 
der Spanish rule as a part ol: its province of Louisiana, cer- 
tain claims to and grants of land were made by the Spanish 
authorities, Avith which, in addition to the extinguishment of In- 
dian titles, the United States had to deal. It is proper that these 
should be briefly reviewed. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 37 

Dubuque — on the 22d day of September, 1788, Julien Dubuque, 
a Frenchman, from Prairie du Chien, obtained from the Foxes a ces- 
sion or lease of lands on the Mississippi River for mining purposes, 
on the site of the present city of Dubuque. Lead had been dis- 
covered here eight years before, in 1780, by the wife of Peosta Fox, 
a warrior, and Dubuque's claim embraced nearly all the lead bear- 
ing lands in that vicinity. He immediately took possession of his 
claim and commenced mining, at the same time making a settle- 
ment. The place became known as the " Spanish Miners," or, 
more commonly, '' Dubuque's Lead Mines." 

In 1796, Dubuque filed a petition with Baron de Carondelet, the 
Spanish Governor of Louisiana, asking that the tract ceded to him 
by the Indians might be granted to him by patent from the Span- 
ish Government. In this petition Dubuque rather indefinitely set 
forth the boundaries of his claim as ''about seven leagues along 
the Missippi River, and three leagues in width from the river," in- 
tending to include, as is supposed, the river front between the Lit- 
tle Maquoketa and the Tete des Mertz Rivers, embracing more than 
twenty thousand acres. Carondelet granted the prayer of the pe- 
tition, and the grant was subsequently confirmed by the Board of 
Land Commissioners of Louisiana. 

In (Jctober 1804, Dubuque transferred the larger part of his 
claim to Auguste Choteau, of St. Louis, and on the 17th of May, 
1805, he and Choteau jointly filed their claims with the Board of 
Commissioners. On the 20th of September, 1806, the Board de- 
cided in their favor, pronouncing the claim to be a regular Spanish 
grant, made and completed prior to the 1st day of October, 1800, 
only one member, J. B. C. Lucas, dissenting. 

Dubuque died march 24, 1810. The Indians, understanding that 
the claim of Dubuque under their former act of cession was only 
a permit to occupy the tract and work the mines during his life, 
and that at his death they reverted to them, took possession and 
continued mining operations, and were sustained by the military 
authority of the United States, notwithstanding the decision of the 
Commissioners. When the Black Hawk purchase was consummated 
the Dubuque claim thus held by the Indians was absorbed by the 
United States, as the Sacs and Foxes made no reservation of it in 
the treaty of 1832. 

The heirs of Choteau, however, were not disposed to relinquish 
their claim without a struggle. Late in 1832, they employed an 
agent to look after their interests, and authorized him to lease the 
right to dig lead on the lands. The miners who commenced work 
under this agent were compelled by the military to abandon their 
operations, and one of the claimants went to Galena to institute 
legal proceedings, but found no court of competent jurisdiction, 
although he did bring an action for the recovery of a quantity of 
lead dug at Dubuque, for the purpose of testing the title. Being 
unable to identify the lead, however, he was non-suited. 



do HISTORY OF IOWA, 

By act of Congress, approved July 2, 1836, the town of Dubuque 
was surveyed and platted. After lots had been sold and occupied 
by the purchasers, Henry Choteau brought an action of ejectment 
against Patrick Malony, who held land in Dubuque under a patent 
from the United States, for the recovery of seven undivided eighth 
parts of the Dubuque claim, as purchased by Auguste Choteau in 
1804. The case was tried in the District Court of the United 
States for the District of Iowa, and was decided adversely to the 
plaintiff. The case was carried to the Supreme Court of the United 
States on a writ of error, when it was heard at the December term, 
1853, and the decision of the lower court was affirmed, the court 
holding that the permit from Carondolet was merely a lease, or 
permit to work the mines; that Dubuque asked, and the Governor 
of Louisiana granted, nothing more than the ''peaceable posses- 
sion" of certain lands obtained from the Indians; that Carondolet 
had no legal authority to make such a grant as claimed, and that, 
even if he had, this was but an "inchoate and imperfect title." 

Girard. — In 1795, the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Louisiana 
granted to Basil Girard five thousand eight hundred and sixty acres 
of land, in what is now Clayton County, known as the " Girard 
Tract." He occupied the land during the time that Iowa passed 
from Spain to France, and from France to the United States, in 
consideration of which the Federal Government granted a patent 
of the same to Girard in his own right. His heirs sold the whole 
tract to James H. Lockwood and Thomas P. Burnett, of Prairie du 
Chien, for three hundred dollars. 

Honor L — March 30, 1799, Zenon Trudeau, acting Lieutenant 
Governor of Upper Louisiana, granted to Louis Honori a tract of 
land on the site of the present town of Montrose, as follows: " It 
is permitted to Mr. Louis (Fresson) Honori, or Louis Honore Fes- 
son, to establish himself at the head of the rapids of the River Des 
Moines, and his establishment once formed, notice of it shall be 
given to the Governor General, in order to obtain for him a com- 
mission of a space sufficient to give value to such establishment, 
and at the same time to render it useful to the commerce of the 
peltries of this country, to watch the Indians and keep them in the 
fidelity which they owe to His Majesty." 

Honori took immediate possession of his claim, which he retained 
until 1805. While trading with the natives he became indebted to 
Joseph Robedoux^ who obtained an execution on which the prop- 
erty was sold May 13, 1803, and was purchased by the creditor. 
In these proceedings the property was described as being " about 
six leagues above the River Des Moines." Robedoux died soon 
after he purchased the property. Auguste Choteau. his executor, 
disposed of the Honori tract to Thomas F. Reddeck, in April, 1805, 
up to which time Honori continued to occupy it. The grant, as 
made by the Spanish Government, was a league square, but only 
one mile square was confirmed by the United States, After the 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 39 

half-breeds sold their lands, in which the Houori grant was includ- 
ed, various claimants resorted to litigation in attempts to invalidate 
the title of the Reddeck heirs, but it was finally confirmed by a 
decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in 1839, and 
is the oldest legal title to any land in the State of Iowa. 

THE HALF-BREED TRACT. 

Before any permanent settlement had been made in the Territo- 
ry of Iowa, white adventurers, trappers and traders, many of whom 
were scattered along the Mississippi and its tributaries, as agents 
and employes of the American Fur Company, intermarried with 
the females of the Sac and Fox Indians, producing a race of half- 
breeds, whose number was never definitely ascertained. There 
were some respectable and excellent people among them, children 
of men of some refinement and education. For instance: Dr. 
Muir, a gentlemen educated at Edinburgh, Scotland, a surgeon in 
the United States Army, stationed at a military post located on the 
present site of Warsaw, married an Indian woman, and reared his 
family of three daughters in the city of Keokuk. Other examples 
might be cited, but they are probably exceptions to the general 
rule, and the race is now nearly or quite extinct in Iowa. 

A treaty was made at Washington, August 4, 1824, between the 
Sacs and Foxes and the United States, by which that portion of 
Lee County was reserved to the half-breeds of those tribes, and 
which was afterward known as "The Half-Breed Tract." This 
reservation is the triangular piece of land, containing about 119,- 
000 acres, lying between the Mississippi and Des Moines Rivers. 
It is bounded on the north by the prolongation of the northern 
line of Missouri. This line was intended to be a straight one, 
running due east, which would have caused it to strike tlie Miss- 
issippi River at or below Montrose; but the surveyor who run it 
took no notice of the change in the variation of the needle as he 
proceeded eastward, and, in consequence, the line he run was bent, 
deviating more and more to the northward of a direct line as he 
approached the Mississippi, so that it struck that river at the lower 
edge of the town of Fort Madison. ''This erroneous line." says 
Judge Mason, "has been acquiesced in as well infixing the north- 
ern limit of the Half-Breed Tract as in determining the northern 
boundary line of the State of Missouri." The line thus run in- 
cluded in the reservation a portion of the lower part of the city of 
Fort Madison, and all of the present townships of Van Buren, 
Charleston, Jeft'erson, Des Moines, Montrose and Jackson. 

Under the treaty of 1824, the half-breeds had the right to oc- 
cupy the soil but could not convey it, the reversion being reserved 
to the United States. But on the oOth day of January, 1834, by 
act of Congress, this reversionary riglit was relinquished, and the 
half-breeds acquired the lands in fee simple. This was no sooner 



40 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

done, than a horde of speculators rushed in to buy land of the half- 
breed owners, and, in many instances, a gun, a blanket, a pony or 
a few quarts of whisky was sufficient for the purchase of large 
estates. Tliere was a deal of sharp practice on both sides; Indians 
would often claim ownership of land by virtue of being half-breeds 
and had no difficulty in proving their mixed blood by the li.dians, 
and they would then cheat the speculators by selling land to which 
they had no rightful title. On the other hand, speculators often 
claimed laud in which they had no ownership. It was diamond cut 
diamond, until at last things became badly mixed. There was no 
authorized surveys, and no boundry lines to claims, and, as a nat- 
ural result, numerous conflicts and quarrels ensued. 

To settle these difficulties^ to decide the validity of claims or sell 
them for the benefit of the real owners, by act of the Legislature 
of Wisconsin Territory, approved January 16, 1838, Edward John- 
stone, Thomas S. Wilson and David Brigham were appointed 
Commissioners, and clothed with power to effect these objects. 
The act provided that these Commissioners should be paid six dol- 
lars a day each. The commission entered upon its duties and con- 
tinued until the next session of the Legislature, when the act cre- 
ating it was repealed, invalidating all that had been done and de- 
priving the Commissioners of their pay. The repealing act, how- 
ever, authorized the Commissioners to commence action against 
the owners of the Half-Breed Tract, to receive pay for their servi- 
ces, in the District Court of Lee County. Two judgments were 
obtained, and on execution the whole of the tract was sold to 
Hugh T. Reid, the Sheriff" executing the deed. Mr. Reidsold por- 
tions of it to various parties, but his own title was questioned and 
he became involved in litigation. Decisions in favor of Reid and 
those holding under him were made by both District and Supreme 
Courts, but in December, 1850 these decisions were finally reversed 
by the Supreme Court of the United States in the case of Joseph 
Webster, plantiff" in error, vs. Hugh T. Reid, and the judgment 
titles failed. About nine j^ears before the ''judgment titles" were 
finally abrogated as a above, another class of titles were brought 
into competition with them, and in the conflict between the two, 
the final decision was obtained. These were the titles based on 
the "decree of partition" issued by the United States District 
Court for the Territory of Iowa, on the 8th of May, 1841, and 
certified to by the Clerk on the 2d day of June of that year. Ed- 
ward Johnstone and Hugh T. Reid, then law partners at Fort 
Madison, filed the petition for the decree in behalf of the St. Louis 
claimants of half-breed lands. Francis S. Key, author of the Star 
Spangled Banner, who was then attorney for the new York Land 
Company, which held heavy interest in these lands, took a leading 
part in the measure, and drew up the document in which it was 
presented to the court. Judge Charles Mason, of Burlington, pre- 
sided. The plan of partition divided the tract into one hundred 



HISTORY OF lOAVA. 41 

and one shares, and arranged that each claimant should draw his 
proportion by lot, and should abide the result, whatever it might 
be. The arrangement was entered into, the lots drawn, and the 
plat of the same filed in the Recorder's office, October 6, 1841. 
Upon this basis the titles to land in the Half-Breed Tract are now 
held. 

EARLY iSETTLEMENTS. 

The first permanent settlement by the whites within the limits 
of Iowa was made by Julien Dubuque, in 1788, when with a small 
party of miners, he settled on the site of the city that now bears 
his name, where he lived until his death, in 1810. Louis Honori 
settled on the site of the present town of Montrose, probably in 
1799, and resided there until 1805, when his property passed into 
other hands. Of the Girard settlement, opposite Prairie du Chien, 
little is known except that it was occupied by some parties prior to 
the commencement of the present century and contained three 
cabins in 1805. Indian traders, although not strictly to be con- 
sidered settlers had established themselves at various points at an 
early date. A Mr. Johnson, Agent of the American Fur Com- 
pany, had a trading post below Burlington, where he carried on 
traffic with the Indians some time before the United States possessed 
the country. In 1820, Le Moliese, a French trader, had a sta- 
tion at what is now Sandusky, six miles above Keokuk, in Lee 
County. In 1829, Dr. Isaac Gallaud made a settlement on the 
Lower Rapids, at what is now Nashville. 

The first settlement in Lee County was made in 1820, by Dr. 
Samuel C. Muir, a surgeon in the United States army, who had 
been stationed at Fort Edwards, now Warsaw, 111., and who built 
a cabin where the city of Keokuk now stands. 

Messrs. Reynolds & Culver, who had leased Dr. Muir's claim at 
Keokuk, subsequently employed as their agent Mr. Moses Still- 
well, who arrived with his family in 1828, and took possession of 
Muir's cabin. His brothers-in-law, Amos and Valencourt Van 
Ansdal, came with him and settled near. 

His daughter, Margaret Stillwell (afterward Mrs. Ford) was 
born in 1831, at the foot of the rapids, called by the Indians Puch- 
a-she-tuck, where Keokuk now stands. She was probably the first 
white American child born in [owa. 

Jn 1831, Mr. Johnson, agent of the American Fur Company, 
who had a station at the foot of the rapids, removed to another 
location, and. Dr. Muir having returned from Galena, he and 
Isaac R. Campbell took the place and buildings vacated by the 
Company, and carried on trade with the Indians and half-breeds. 
Campbell, who had first visited and traveled through the southern 
part of Iowa, in 1821, was an enterprising settler, and besides 
trading with the natives, carried on a farm and kept a tavern. 

Dr. Muir died of cholera in 1832. 



42 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

In 1830, James L. and Lucius H. Langwortli}^, brothers and na- 
tives of Vermont, visited the Territory for tlie purpose of work- 
ing the lead mines at Dubuque. They had been engaged in lead 
mining at Galena, Illinois, the former as early as 1824. The lead 
mines in the Dubuque region were an object of great interest to 
the miners about Galena, for they were known to be rich in lead 
ore. To explore these mines and to obtain permission to work 
them was therefore eminently desirable. 

In 1829, James L. Langworthy resolved to visit the Dubuque, 
mines. Crossing the Mississippi at a point now known as Dunleith 
in a canoe, and swimming his horse by his side, he landed on the 
spot now known as Jones Street Levee. Before him spread out a 
beautiful prairie, on which the city of Dubuque now stands. Two 
miles south, at the mouth of Catfish Creek, was a village of Sacs 
and Foxes. Thither Mr. Langworthy proceeded, and was well re- 
ceived by the natives. He endeavored to obtain permission from 
them to mine in their hills, but this they refused. He, however, 
succeeded in gaining the confidence of the chief to such an extent 
as to be allowed to travel in the interior for three weeks and ex- 
plore the country. He employed two young Indians as guides, 
and traversed in different directions the whole region lying be- 
tween the Maquoketa and Turkey Rivers. He returned to the 
village, secured the good will of the Indians, and, returning to 
Galena, formed plans for future operations, to be executed as soon 
circumstances would permit. 

In 1830, with his brother, Lucius H., and others, having ob- 
tained the consent of the Indians, Mr. Langworthy crossed the 
Mississippi and commenced mining in the vicinity around Du- 
buque. 

At this time, the lands were not in the actual possession of the 
United States. Although they had been purchased from France, 
the Indian title had not been extinguished, and these adventurous 
persons were beyond the limits of any State or Territorial govern- 
ment. The first settlers were therefore obliged to be their own 
law-makers, and to agree to such regulations as the exigencies of 
the case demanded. The first act resembling civil legislation 
within the limits of the present State of Iowa was done by the 
miners at this point, in June, 1830. They met on the bank of the 
river, by the side of an old cottonwood drift log, at what is now 
the Jones Street Levee, Dubuque, and elected a committee, con- 
sisting of J. L. Langworthy, H. F. Lander, James McPhetres, 
Samuel Scales, and E. M. Wren. This may be called the first 
Legislature in Iowa, the members of which gathered around that 
old cottonwood log, and agreed to and reported the following, 
written by Mr. Langworth, on a half-sheet of coarse, unruled 
paper, the old log being the writing desk: 

We, a Committee having been chosen to draft certain rules and regulations 
(laws) by which we as miners, will be governed, and having duly considered 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 43 

the subject, do unanimously agree that we will be governed by the regulations 
on the east side of the Mississippi River,* with the following exceptions, to-wit: 

Article I. That each and every man shall hold 200 yards square of ground 
by working said ground one day in six. 

Article II. We further agree that there shall be chosen, by the majority 
of the miners present, a person who shall hold this article, and who shall grant 
letters of arbitration on application having been made, and that said letters of 
arbitration shall be obligatory on the parties so applying. 

The report was accepted by the miners present, who elected Dr. 
Jarote, in accordance with Article 2. Here, then, we have, in 
1830, a primitive Legislature elected by the people, the law drafted 
by it being submitted to the people for approval, and under it Dr. 
Jarote was elected first Governor within the limits of the present 
State of Iowa. And it is to be said that the laws thus enacted 
were as promptly obeyed, and the acts of the executive officer thus 
elected as duly respected, as any have been since. 

The miners who had thus erected an independent government 
of their own on the west side of the Mississippi River, continued 
to work successfully for a long time, and the new settlement 
attracted considerable attention. But the west side of the Mis- 
sissippi belonged to the Sac and Fox Indians, and the Government 
in order to preserve peace on the frontier, as well as to protect the 
Indians in their rights under the treaty, ordered the settlers not 
only to stop mining, but to remove from the Indian territory. 
They were simply intruders. The execution of this order was en- 
trusted to Col. Zachary Taylor, then in command of the military 
post at Prairie d\\ Chien, who, early in July, sent an officer to the 
miners with orders to forbid settlement, and to command the 
miners to remove within ten days to the east side of the Missis- 
sippi, or they would be driven off by armed force. The miners, 
however, were reluctant about leaving the rich " leads "" they had 
already discovered and opened, and were not disposed to obey the 
order to remove with any considerable degree of alacrity. In due 
time, Col. Taylor dispatched a detachment of troops to enforce his 
order. The miners, anticipating their arrival, had, excepting three, 
recrossed the river, and from the east bank saw the troops land on 
the western shore. The three who had lingered a little too long 
were, however, permitted to make their escape unmolested. From 
this time, a military force was stationed at Dubuque to prevent 
the settlers from returning, until June, 1832. The Indians re- 
turned, and were encouraged to operate the rich mines opened by 
the late white occupants. 

In June, 1832, the troops were ordered to the east side to assist 
in the annihilation of the very Indians whose rights they had been 
protecting on the west side. Immediately after tlie close of the 
Black Hawk war, and the negotiations of the treaty in September, 
1832, by which the Sacs and Foxes ceded to the United States the 



^Established by the Superintendent of U. S. Lead Mines at Fever River. 



4:i HISTOEY OF IOWA. 

tract known as the "Black Hawk Purchase," the settlers, suppos- 
ing that now they had a right to re-enter the territory, returned 
and took possession of their claims, built cabins, erected furnaces 
and prepared large quantities of lead for market. Dubuque was 
becoming a noted place on the river, but the prospects of the hardy 
and enterprising settlers and miners were again ruthlessly inter- 
fered with by the Government, on the ground that the treaty with 
the Indians would not go into force until June 1, 1833, although 
they had withdrawn from the vicinity of the settlement. Col Tay- 
lor was again ordered by the War Department to remove the min- 
ers, and in January, 1833, troops were again sent from Prairie du 
Chien to Dubuque for that purpose. This was a serious and per- 
haps unnecessary hardship imposed upon the settlers. They were 
compelled to abandon their cabins and homes in midwinter. It 
must be now said, simply that " red tape " should be respected. 
The purchase had been made, the treaty ratified, or was sure to be; 
the Indians had retired, and, after the lapse of nearly fifty years, 
no very satisfactory reason for this rigorous action of the Grovern- 
ment can be given. 

But the orders had been given, and there was no alternative but 
to obey. Many of the settlers recrossed the river, and did not re- 
turn; a few, however, removed to an island near the east bank of 
the river, built rude cabins of poles, in which to store their lead 
until spring, when they could float the fruits of their labor to St. 
Louis for sale, and where they could remain until the treaty went 
into force, when they could return. Among these were James L. 
Langworthy, and his brother Lucius, who had on hand about three 
hundred thousand pounds of lead. 

Lieut. Covington, who had been placed in command at Dubuque 
by Col. Taylor, ordered some of the cabins of the settlers to be torn 
down, and wagons and other property to be destroyed. This wan- 
ton and inexcusable action on the part of a subordinate clothed with 
a little brief authority was sternly rebuked by Col. Taylor, and Cov- 
ington was superseded by Lieut. Geo, Wilson, who pursued a just 
and friendly course with the pioneers, who were only waiting for 
the time when they could repossess their claims. 

June 1, 1833, the treaty formally went into effect, the troops 
were withdrawn and the Langworthy brothers and a few others at 
once returned and resumed possession of their home claims and 
mineral prospects, and from this time the first permanent settle- 
ment of this portion of Iowa must date. Mr. John P. Sheldon 
was appointed Superintendent of the mines by the Government, 
and a system of permits to miners and licenses to smelters was 
adopted, similar to that which had been in operation at Galena, 
since 1825, under Lieut. Martin Thomas, and Capt. Thomas C. Le- 
gate. Substantially the primitive law enacted by the miners assem- 
bled around that old Cottonwood drift log in 1830 was adopted and 
enforced by the United States Government,except that miners were 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 45 

required to sell their mineral to licensed smelters and the smelter 
was required to give bonds for the payment of six per cent, of all 
lead manufactured to the Government. This was the same rule 
adopted in the United States mines on Fever River in Illinois, 
except that, until 1830, the Illinois miners were compelled to pay 
ten per cent. tax. This tax upon the miners created much dissatis- 
faction among the miners on the west side as it had on the east side 
of the Mississippi. They thought they had suffered hardships and 
privationsenough in opening the way for civilization, without be- 
ing subjected to the imposition of an odious Government tax upon 
their means of subsistence, when the Federal Government could 
better afford to aid than to extort from them. The measure soon 
became unpopular. It was difficult to collect the taxes, and the 
whole system was abolished in about ten years. 

During 1833, after the Indian title was fully extinguished, about 
five hundred people arrived at the mining district, about one hun- 
dred and fifty of them from Galena. 

In the same year Mr. Langworthy assisted in building the first 
school house in Iowa, and thus was formed the nucleus of the now 
populous and thriving city of Dubuque. Mr. Langworthy lived to 
see the naked prairie on which he first landed become the site of a 
city of fifteen thousand inhabitants, the small school house which 
he aided in constructing replaced by three substantial edifices, 
wherein two thousand children were being trained, churches erect- 
ed in every part of the city, and railroads connecting the wilder- 
ness which he first explored with all the eastern world. He died 
suddenly on the 13th of March, 1865, while on a trip over the Du- 
buque & Southwestern Railroad, at Monticello, and the evening 
train brought news of his death and his remains. 

Lucius H. Langworthy, his brother, was one of the most worthy, 
gifted and influential of the old settlers of this section of Iowa. 
He died, greatly lamented by many friends, in June, 1865. 

The name Dubuque was given to the settlement by miners at a 
meeting held in 1834. 

In 1832 Captain James White made a claim on the present site 
of Montrose. In 1834 a military post was established at this point 
and a garrison of cavaly was stationed here, under the command of 
Col. Stephen W. Kearney. The soldiers were removed from this 
post to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, in 1837. 

During the same year, 1832, soon after the close of the Black 
Hawk War, Zachariah Hawkins, Benjamin Jennings, Aaron White, 
Augustine Horton, Samuel Gooch, Daniel Thompson and Peter 
Williams made claims at Fort Madison. In 1833, these claims were 
purchased by John and Nathaniel Knapp, upon which, in 1835, 
they laid out the town. The next summer, lots were sold. The 
town was subsequently re-surveyed and platted by the United States 
Government. 



46 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

At the close of the Black Hawk War, parties who had been im- 
patiently looking across upon " Flint Hills," now Burlington, came 
over from Illinois and made claims. The first was Samuel S.White, 
in the fall of 1832. who erected a cabin on the site of the city 
of Burlington. About the same time, David Tothero made a 
claim on the prairie about three miles back from the river, at a 
place since known as the farm of Judge Morgan. In the winter of 
that year, they were driven off by the military from Rock Island, 
as intruders upon the rights of the Indians, and White's cabin was 
burnt by the soldiers. He retired to Illinois, where he spent the 
winter, and in the summer, as soon as the Indian title was extin- 
guished, returned and rebuilt his cabin. White was joined by his 
brother-in-law, Doolittle, and they laid out the original town of 
Burlington, in 1834. 

All along the river borders of the Black Hawk Purchase settlers 
were flocking into Iowa. Immediately after the treaty with the 
Sacs and Foxes, in September, 1832, Col. George Davenport made 
the first claim on the spot where the thriving city of Davenport 
now stands. As early as 1827, Col. Davenport had established a 
flatboat ferry, which ran between the island and the main shore of 
Iowa, by which he carried on a trade with the Indians west of the 
Mississippi. In 1833, Capt. Benja-min W. Clark moved across from 
Illinois, and laid the foundation of the town of Buffalo, in Scott 
county, which was the first actual settlement within the limits of 
that county. Among other early settlers in this part of the Ter- 
ritory were Adrian H. Davenport, Col. John Sullivan, Mulligan 
and Franklin Easly, Capt. John Coleman, J. M. Camp, William 
White, H. W. Higgins, Cornelius Harrold, Richard Harrison, E. 
H. Shepherd and Dr. E. S. Barrows. 

The first settlers of Davenport were Antoine LeClaire, Col. 
George Davenport, Major Thomas Smith, Major William Gordon, 
Philip Hambaugh, Alexander W. McGregor, Levi S. Colton, Capt. 
James May and others. Of Antoine LeClaire, as the representa- 
tive of the two races of men who, at this time occupied Iowa, Hon. 
C. C. Nourse, in his admirable Centennial Address, says: ''Antoine 
LeClaire was born in St. Joseph, Michigan, in 1797. His father 
was French, his mother a granddaughter of a Pottawattamie chief . 
In 1818, he acted as official interpreter to Col. Davenport, at Fort 
Armstrong (now Rock Island). He was well acquainted with a 
dozen Indian dialects, and was a man of strict integrity and great 
energy. In 1820 he married the granddaughter of a Sac chief. 
The Sac and Fox Indians reserved for him and his wife two sec- 
tions of land in the treaty of 1833, one at the town of LeClaire 
and 'One at Davenport. The Pottawattamies, in the treaty at 
Prairie du Chien, also reserved for him two sections of land, at the 
present site of Moline, 111. He received the appointment of Post- 
master and Justice of the Peace in the Black Hawk Purchase, at 
an early day. In 1833, he bought for $100 a claim on the land 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 47 

upon which the original town of Davenport was surveyed and 
platted in 1836. In 1836, LeClaire built the hotel, known since, 
with its valuable addition, as the LeClaire House. He died Sep- 
tember 25, 1861." 

In Clayton county, the first settlement was made in the Spring 
of 1832, on Turkey River, by Robert Hatfield and William W. 
Wayman. No further settlements were made in this part of the 
State till the beginning of 1836. 

In that portion now known as Muscatine county, settlements 
were made in 1834, by Benjamin Nye, John Vanater and G. W. 
Kasey, who were the first settlers. E. E. Fay, William St. John, 
N. Fullington H. Reece, Jona. Pettibone, R. P. Lowe, Stephen 
Whicher, Abijah Whiting, J. E. Fletcher, W. D. Abernethy and 
Alexis Smith were early settlers of Muscatine. 

During the summer of 1835, William Bennett and his family, 
from Galena, built the first cabin within the present limits of 
Delaware county, in some timber since known as Eads' Grove. 

The first postoffice in Iowa was established at Dubuque in 1833. 
Milo H. Prentice was appointed postmaster. 

The first Justice of the Peace was Antoine LeClaire, appointed 
in 1833, as "a very suitable person to adjust the difiiculties be- 
tween the white settlers and the Indians still remaining there." 

The first Methodist Society in the Territory was formed at Du- 
buque on the 18th of May, 1834, and the first class meeting was 
held June 1st of that year. 

The first church bell brought into Iowa was in March, 1834. . 

The first mass of the Roman Catholic Church in the Territory 
was celebrated at Dubuque, in the house of Patrick Quiglev, in the 
fall of 1833. 

The first school house in the Territory was erected by the Du- 
buque miners in 1833. 

The first Sabbath school was organized at Dubuque early in the 
Summer of 1834. 

The first woman who came to this part of the Territory with a 
view to permanent residence, was Mrs. Noble F. Dean, in the Fall 
of 1832. 

The first family that lived in this part of Iowa was that of 
Hosea T. Camp, in 1832. 

The first meeting house was built by the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, at Dubuque, in 1834. 

The first newspaper in Iowa was the Dubuque Visitor, issued 
May 11th, 1836. John King, afterward Judge King, was editor, 
and William C. Jones, printer. 

The pioneers of Iowa, as a class, were brave, hardy, intelligent 
and enterprising people. 

As early as 1824, a French trader named Hart had established a 
trading post, and built a cabin on the bluffs above the large spring 
now known as "Mynster Spring," within the limits of the pres- 



48 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

ent city of Council Bluffs, and had probably been there some time, 
as the post was known to the employes of the American Fur 
Company as Lacote de Hart, or ''Hart's Bluif." In 1827, an 
agent of the American Fur Company, Francis Guittar, with others, 
encamped in the timber at the foot of the bluffs, about on the 
present location of Broadway, and afterward settled there. In 
1839, a block house was built on the bluff in the east part of the 
city. The Pottawattamie Indians occupied this part of the State 
until 1846-7, when they relinquished the territory and removed to 
Kansas. Billy Caldwell was then principal chief. There were no 
white settlers in that part of the State, except Indian traders, 
until the arrival of the Mormons under the lead of Brigham 
Young. These people, on their way westward, halted for the 
Winter of 1846-7 on the west bank of the Missouri River, about 
five mile above Omaha, at a now place called Florence. Some of 
them had reached the eastern bank of the river the Spring before, 
in season to plant a crop. In the Spring of 1847, Young and a 
portion of the colony pursued their journey to Salt Lake, but a 
large portion of them returned to the Iowa side and settled mainly 
within the limits of Pottawattamie County. The principal settle- 
ment of this strange community was at a place called " Miller's 
Hollow," on Indian Creek, and afterward named Kanesville, in 
honor of Col. Kane, of Pennsylvania, who visited them soon after- 
ward. The Mormon settlement extended over the county and into 
neighboring counties, wherever timber and water furnished 
desirable locations. Orson Hyde, priest, lawyer and editor, was 
installed as President of the Quorum of Twelve, and all that part 
of the State remained under Mormon control for several years. 
In 1846, they raised a battalion, numbering some five hundred men, 
for the Mexican w\ar. In 1848, Hyde started a paper called the 
Fro7itier Guardian., at Kanesville. In 1849, after many of the 
faithful had left to join Brigham Young at Salt Lake, the Mor- 
mons in this section of Iowa numbered 6,552, and in 1850, 7^828, 
but they were not all within the limits of Pottawattamie County. 
This county was organized in 1848, all the first officials being Mor- 
mons. In 1852, the order was promulgated that all the true be- 
lievers should gather together at Salt Lake. Gentiles flocked in, 
and in a few years nearly all the first settlers were gone. 

May 9, 1843, Captain James Allen, with a small detachment of 
troops on board the steamer lone, arrived at the present site of the 
capital of the State, Des Moines. The lone was the first steamer 
to ascend the Des Moines River to this point. The troops and 
stores were landed at what is now the foot of Court avenue, Des 
Moines, and Capt. Allen returned in the steamer to Fort Sanford 
to arrange for bringing up more soldiers and supplies. In due 
time they, too, arrived, and a fort was built near the mouth of 
Raccoon Fork, at its confluence with the Des Moines, and named 
Fort Des Moines. Soon after the arrival of the troops, a trading 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 49 

post was established on the east side of the river, by two noted 
Indian traders named Ewing, from Ohio. 

Among the first settlers in this part of Iowa were Benjamin 
Bryant, J. B. Scott, James Drake (gunsmith), John Sturtevant, 
Robert Kinzie, Alexander Turner, Peter Newcomer, and others. 

The Western States have been settled by many of the best and 
most enterprising men of the older States, and a large immigra- 
tion of the best blood of the Old World, who, removing to an 
arena of larger opportunities, in a more fertile soil and con- 
genial climate, have developed a spirit and an energy peculiarly 
Western. In no country on the globe have enterprises of all 
kinds been pushed forward with such rapidity, or has there been 
such independence and freedom of competition. Among those 
who have pioneered the civilization of the West, and been the 
founders of great States, none have ranked higher in the scale of 
intelligence and moral worth than the pioneers of Iowa, who came 
to the territory when it was an Indian country, and through 
hardship, privation and suffering, laid the foundations of the popu- 
lous and prosperous commonwealth which to-day dispenses its bless- 
ings to a million and a quarter of people. From her first settle- 
ment and from the first organization as a territory to the present 
day, Iowa has had able men to manage her affairs, wise statesmen 
to shape her destiny and frame her laws, and intelligent and impar- 
tial jurists to administer justice to her citizens; her bar^ pulpit and 
press have been able and widely influential; and in all the profes- 
sions, arts, enterprises and industries which go to make up a great 
and prosperous commonwealth, she has taken and holds a front 
rank among her sister States of the West. 

TERRITORIAL HISTORY. ' 

By act of Congress, approved October 31, 1803, the President of 
the United States was authorized to take possession of the terri- 
tory included in the Louisiana purchase, and provided for a tem- 
porary government. By another act of the same session, approved 
March 26, 1804, the newly acquire 1 country was divided. October 
1st, 1804, into the Territory of Orleans, south of the thirty-third 
parallel of north latitude, and the district of Louisiana, which lat- 
ter was placed under the authority of the officers of Indian Terri- 
tory. 

In 1802, the district of Louisana was organized as a Territory, 
with a government of its own. In 1807, Iowa was included in the 
Territory of Illinois, and in 1812 in the Territory of Missouri. 
When Missouri was admitted as a State, Marth 2, 1821, "Iowa," 
says Hon. C. C. Nourse, ''was left a political orphan," until by act 
of Congress, approved June 28, 1834, the Black Hawk purchase 
having been made, all the territory west of the Mississippi and 
north of the northern bojndary of Missouri, was made a part of 



50 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

Michigan Territory. Up to this time there had been no county 
or other organization in what is now the State of Iowa, although 
one or two Justices of tlie Peace iiad been appointed and a post- 
office was established at Dubuque in 1833. In September, 1834, 
however, the Territorial Legislature of Michigan created two coun- 
ties on the west side of the Mississippi River, viz: Dubuque and 
Des Moines, separated by a line drawn westward from the foot of 
Rock Island. These counties were partially organized. John 
King was appointed Chief Justice of Dubuque County, and Isaac 
Leffler, of Burlington, of Des Moines County. Two Associate 
Justices in each county, were appointed by the Governor. 

On the first Monday in October, 1835, Gen. Geo. W, Jones, now 
a citizen of Dubuque, was elected a Delegate to Congress from this 
part of Michigan Territory. On the 20th of April, 1836, through 
the efforts of Gen. Jones, Congress passed a bill creating the Ter- 
ritory of Wisconsin, which went into operation, July 4, 1836, and 
Iowa was then included in. 

THE TEERITORY OF WISCONSIN, 

of which Gen Henry Dodge was appointed Governor; John S. 
Horner, Secretary of the Territory; Charles Dunn, Chief Justice; 
David Irwin and Wm. C. Frazer, Associate Justices. 

September 9, 1836, Gov. Dodge ordered the census of the new 
territory to be taken. This consus resulted in showing a popu- 
lation of 10,531 in the counties of Dubuque and Des Moines. Un- 
der the apportionment, these two counties were entitled to six 
members of the Council and thirteen of the House of Representa- 
tives. The Governor issued his proclamation for an election to be 
held on the first Monday of October, 1836, on which day the fol- 
lowing members of the First Territorial Legislature of Wisconsin 
were elected from the two counties in the Black Hawk purchase: 

Dubuque Count ij. — Council: John Fally, Thomas McKnight, 
Thomas McCarney. House: Loring Wheeler, Hardin Nowlan, 
Peter Hill Engle, Patrick Cuigley, HoseaT. Camp. 

Des Moines Count i/. — Council: Jeremiah Smith, Jr., Joseph 
R. Teas, Arthur B. Inghram. House: Isaac Leffler, Thomas Blair, 
Warren L. Jenkins, John Box, George W. Teas, Eli Reynolds, 
David R. Chance. 

The first Legislature assembled at Belmont, in the present State 
of Wisconsin, on the 25th day of October, 1836, and was organ- 
ized by electing Henry T. Baird President of the Council, and 
Peter Hill Engle, of Dubuque, Speaker of the House. It adjourn- 
ed December 9, 1836. 

The second Legislature assembled at Burlington, November, 10, 
1837. Adjourned January 20, 1838. The third session was at 
Burlington; commenced June 1st, and adjourned June 12, 1838. 

During the first session of the Wisconsin Territorial Legislature 
i n 1836, the County of Des Moines Avas divided into Des Moines 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 51 

Lee, Van Buren, Henry, Muscatine and Cook (the latter being sub- 
sequently changed to Scott) and defined their boundaries. During 
the second session, out of the territory embraced in Dubuque 
County, were created the counties of Dubuque, Clayton, Fayette, 
Delaware, Buchanan, Jackson, Jones, Linn, Clinton and Cedar, 
and their boundaries defined, but the most of them were not or- 
ganized until several years afterward, under the authority of the 
Territorial Legislature of Iowa. 

The question of a separate territorial organization for Iowa, 
which was then a part of Wisconsin Territory, began to be agitated 
early in the autumn of 1837. The wishes of the people found ex- 
pression in a convention held at Burlington on the 1st of Novem- 
ber, which memorialized Congress to organize a Territory west of 
the Mississippi, and to settle the boundary line between Wisconsin 
Territory and Missouri. The Territorial Legislature of Wisconsin, 
then in session at Burlington, joined in the petition. Gen. Geo. 
W. Jones, of Dubuque, then residing at Sinsinawa Mound, in what 
is now Wisconsin, was Delegate to Congress from Wisconsin Ter- 
ritory, and labored so earnestly and successfully, that "An act to 
divide the Territory of Wisconsin, and to establish the Territorial 
Government of Iowa," was approved June 12, 1838, to take effect, 
and be in force on and after July 3, 1838. The new Territory em- 
braced "all that part of the present Territory of Wisconsin which 
lies west of the Mississippi River, and west of a line drawn due 
north from the head water or sources of the Mississippi to the 
territorial line." The organic act provided for a Governor, whose 
term of office should be three years, and for a Secretary, Chief Jus- 
tice, two Associate Justices, and Attorney and Marshal, who 
should serve four years, to be appointed by the President, by and 
with the advice and consent of the Senate. The act also provided 
for the election, by the white male inhabitants, citizens of the 
United States, over twenty-one years of age, of a House of Rep- 
resentatives, consisting of twenty-six members, and a Coun- 
cil, to consist of thirteen members. It also appropriated $5,000 
for a public library, and $20,000 for the erection of public 
buildings. 

President Van Buren appointed Ex-Governor Robert Lucas, of 
Ohio, to be the first Governor of the new Territory. William B. 
Conway, of Pittsburgh, was appointed Secretary of the Territory; 
Charles Mason, of Burlington. Chief Justice, and Thomas S. Wil- 
son, of Dubuque, and Joseph Williams, of Pennsylvania, Associate 
Judges of the Supreme and District Courts; Mr. Van Allen, of 
New York, Attorney; Francis Gehon, of Dubuque, Marshal; Au- 
gustus C. Dodge, Register of the Land Office at Burlington, and 
Thomas McKnight, Receiver of the Land Office at Dubuque. Mr. 
Van Allen, the District Attorney, died at Rockingham, soon after 
his appointment, and Col. Charles Weston was appointed to fill his 
vacancy. Mr. Conway, the Secretary, also die! at Burlington, 



52 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

during the second session of the Legislature, and James Clarke, 
editor of the Gazette., was appointed to succeed him. 

Immediately after his arrival. Governor Lucas issued a proclama- 
tion for the election of members of the first Territorial Legislature, 
to be held on the 10th of September, dividing the Territory into 
election districts for that purpose, and appointing the 12th day of 
November for meeting of the Legislature to be elected, at Bur- 
lington. 

The first Territorial Legislature was elected in September and 
assembled at Burlington on the 12th of November, and consisted 
of the following members: 

Council.— Jesse B. Brown, J. Keith, E. A. M. Swazy, Arthur 
Ingram, Robert Ralston, Greorge Hepner, Jesse J. Payne, D. B. 
Hughes, James M. Clark, Charles Whittlesey, Jonathan W. Par- 
ker, Warner Lewis, Stephen Hempstead. 

House. — William Patterson, Hawkins Taylor, Calvin J, Price, 
James Brierly, James Hall, Gideon S. Bailey, Samuel Parker, James 
W. Grimes, George Temple, Van B. Delashmutt, Thomas Blair, 
George H. Beeler,* William G. Coop, William H. Wallace, Asbury 
B. Porter, John Frierson, William L. Toole, Levi Thornton, S. C. 
Hastings, Robert G. Roberts, Laurel Summers,! Jabez A. Burch- 
ard, Jr., Chauncey Swan, Andrew Bankson, Thomas Cox and Har- 
din Nowlin. 

Notwithstanding a large majority of the members of both branches 
of the Legislature were Democrats, yet Gen. Jesse B. Browne 
(Whig), of Lee County, was elected President of the Council, and 
Hon. William H. Wallace (Whig), of Henry County, Speaker of 
the House of Representatives — the former unanimously and the 
latter with but little opposition. At that time, national politics 
were little heeded by the people of the new Territory, but in 1840, 
during the Presidential campaign, party lines were strongly drawn. 

At the election in September, 1838. for members of the Legisla- 
ture, a Congressional Delegate was also elected. There were four 
candidates, viz: William W. Chapman and David Rohrer, of Des 
Moines County; B. F. Wallace, of Henry County, and P. H. 
Engle, of Dubuque County. Chapman was elected, receiving a 
majority of thirty-six over Engle. 

The first session of the Iowa Territorial Legislature was a stormy 
and exciting one. By the organic law, the Governor was clothed 
with almost unlimited veto power. Governor Lucas seemed dis- 
posed to make free use of it, and the independent Hawkeyes could 
not quietly submit to arbitrary and absolute rule, and the result 
was an unpleasant controversy between the Executive and Legisla- 
tive departments. Congress, however, by act approved March 3, 

♦Cyrus S. Jacobs, who was elected for Des Moines County, was killed in an unfortu- 
nate encounter at Burlington before the meeting of the Legislature, and Mr. Beeler 
was elected to fill the vacancy. 

tSamuel R. Murray was returned as elected from Clinton Oounty, but his seat was 
successfully contested by Burchard. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 53 

1839, amended the organic law by restricting the veto power of 
the Governor to the two-thirds rule, and took from him the power 
to appoint Sheriffs and Magistrates. 

Among the first important matters demanding attention was the 
location of the seat of government and provision for the erection 
of public buildings, for which Congress had appropriated 820,000. 
Governor Lucas, in his message, had recommended the appointment 
of Commissioners, with a view to making a central location. The 
extent of the future State of Iowa was not known or thought of. 
Only on a strip of land fifty miles wide, bordering on the Missis- 
sippi River, was the Indian title extinguished, and a central loca- 
tion meant some central point in the Black Hawk Purchase. The 
friends of a central location supported the Governor's suggestion. 
The southern members were divided between Burlington and 
Mount Pleasant, but finally united on the latter as the proper loca- 
tion for the seat of government. The central and southern parties 
were very nearly equal, and, in consequence, much excitement pre- 
vailed. The central party at last triumphed, and on the 21st day 
of January, 1839, an act was passed, appointing Chauncey Swan, 
of Dubuque County; John Ronalds, of Louisa County, and Robert 
Ralston, of Des Moines County, Commissioners, to select a site for 
a permanent seat of Government within the limits of Johnson 
County. 

Johnson County had been created by act of the Territorial Leg- 
islature of Wisconsin, approved December 21, 1837, and organized 
by act passed at the special session at Burlington in June, 1838, 
the organization to date from July 4th, following. Napoleon, on 
the Iowa River, a few miles below the future Iowa City, was des- 
ignated as the county seat, temporarily. 

Then there existed good reason for locating the capital in the 
county. The Territory of Iowa was bounded on the north by the 
British Possessions; east, by the Mississippi River to its source; 
thence by a line drawn due north to the northern boundary of the 
United States; south, by the State of Missouri, and west, by the 
Missouri and White Earth Rivers. But this immense territory 
was in undisputed possession of the Indians, except a strip on the 
Mississippi, known as the Black Hawk Purchase. Johnson County 
was, from north to south, in the geographical center of this pur- 
chase, and as near the east and west geographical center of the 
future State of Iowa as could then be made, as the boundary line 
between the'lands of the United States and the Indians, estab- 
lished by the treaty of October 21, 1837, was immediately west of 
the county limits. 

The Commissioners, after selecting the site, were directed to lay 
out 640 acres into a town, to be called Iowa City, and to proceed to 
sell lots and erect public buildings thereon. Congress having 
granted a section of land to be select el by the Territory for this 
purpose. The Commissioners met at Napoleon, Johnson County^ 



5i HISTORY OF IOWA. 

May 1, 1839, selected for a site Section 10^ in Township 79 North 
of Range 6, West of the Fifth Principal Meridian, and immedi- 
ately surveyed it and laid off the town. The first sale of lots took 
place August 16, 1839. The site selected for the public buildings 
was a little west of the geographical center of the section, where 
a square of ten acres on the elevated grounds overlooking the river 
was reserved for the purpose. The capitol is located in the center 
of this square. The second Territorial Legislature, which assem- 
bled in November, 1839, passed an act requiring the Commis- 
sioners to adopt such plan for the building that the aggregate cost 
when complete, shovld not exceed $51,000, and if they had already 
adopted a plan involving a greater expenditure, they were directed 
to abandon it. Plans for the building were designed and drawn 
by Mr. John F. Eague, of Springfield, 111., and on the 4th day of 
July, 1840, the corner stone of the edifice was laid with appro- 
priate ceremonies. Samuel C. Trowbridge was Marshal of the 
day, and Gov. Lucas delivered the address on that occasion. 

When the Legislature assembled at Burlington in special session 
July 13, 1840, Gov. Lucas announced that on the 4th of that 
month he had visited Iowa City, and found the basement of the 
capitol nearly completed. A bill authorizing a loan of $20,000 
for the building was passed, January 15, 1841, the unsold lots of 
Iowa City being the security offered, but only $5,500 was obtained 
under the act. 

THE BOUNDARY QUESTION. 

The boundary line between the Territory of Iowa and the State 
of Missouri was a difficult question to settle in 1838, in conse- 
quence of claims arising from taxes and titles, and at one time 
civil war was imminent. In defining the boundaries of the coun- 
ties bordering on Missouri, the Iowa authorities had fixed a line 
that has since been established as the boundary between Iowa and 
Missouri. The Constitution of Missouri defines her northern 
boundary to be the parallel of the latitude which passes through 
the rapids of the Des Moines River. The lower rapids of the 
Mississippi immediately above the mouth of the Des Moines River 
had always been known as the Des Moines Rapids, or "^the rapids 
of the Des Moines River." The Missourians (evidently not well 
versed in history or geography) insisted on running the northern 
boundary line from the rapids in the Des Moines Rivet, just below 
Keosauqua, thus taking from Iowa a strip of territory eight or ten 
miles wide. Assuming this as her northern boundary line, Mis- 
souri attempted to exercise jurisdiction over the disputed territory 
by assessing taxes, and sending her Sheriffs to collect them by dis- 
training the personal property of the settlers. The lowans, how- 
ever, were not disposed to submit, and the Missouri officials were 
arrested by the Sheriffs of Davis and Van Buren Counties and 



mSTORY OF IOWA. 55 

confined in jail. Gov. Boggs, of Missouri, called out his militia to 
enforce the claim and sustain the officers of Missouri. Gov. Lucas 
called out the militia of Iowa, and both parties made active prep- 
arations for war. In Iowa, about 1,200 men were enlisted, and 
500 were actually armed and encamped in Van Buren County, 
ready to defend the integrity of the Territory. Subsequently, 
Gen. A. C. Dodge, of Burlington, Gen. Churchman, of Dubuque, 
and Dr. Clark, of Fort Madison, were sent to Missouri as envoys 
plenipotentiary, to effect, if possible, a peaceable adjustment of the 
difficulty. Upon their arrival, they found that the County Com- 
missioners of Clarke County, Missouri, had rescinded their order 
for the collection of the taxes, and that Gov. Boggs had despatched 
messengers to the Governor of Iowa proposing to submit an 
agreed case to the Supreme Court of the United States for the 
final settlement of the boundary question. This proposition was 
declined, but afterward Congress authorized a suit to settle the 
controversy, which was instituted, and which resulted in a judg- 
ment for Iowa. Under this decision, William G. Miner, of Mis- 
souri, and Henry B. Hendershott were appointed Commissioners 
to survey and establish the boundary. Mr. Nourse remarks that 
''the expenses of the war on the part of Iowa were never paid, 
either by the United States or the Territorial Government. The 
patriots wko furnished supplies to the troops had to bear the cost 
and charges of the struggle." 

The first legislative assembly laid the broad foundation of civil 
equality, on which has been constructed one of the most liberal 
governments in the Union. Its first act was to recognize the 
equality of woman with man before the law, by providing that 
'' no action commenced by a single woman, who intermarries 
duriug the pendency thereof, shall abate on account of such mar- 
riage." This principle has been adopted by all subsequent legisla- 
tion in Iowa, and to-day woman has full and equal civil rights with 
man, except only the right of the ballot. 

Keligious toleration was also secured to all, personal liberty 
strictly guarded, the rights and privileges of citizenship extended 
to all white persons, and the purity of elections secured by heavy 
penalties against bribery and corruption. The judiciary power was 
vested in a Supreme Court, District Court, Probate Court, and 
Justices of the Peace. Real estate was made divisible by will, and 
intestate property divided equitably among heirs. Murder was 
made punishable by death, and proportionate penalties fixed for 
lesser crimes. A system of free schools, open for every class of 
white citizens, was established. Provision was made for a system 
of roads and highways. Thus, under the territorial organization, 
the country began to emerge from a savage wilderness, and take 
on the forms of civil government. 

By act of Congress of June 12, 1838, the lands which had been 
purchased of the Indians were brought into market, and land 



56 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

offices opened in Dubuque and Burlington. Congress provided for 
military roads and bridges, which greatly aided the settlers, who 
were now coming in by thousands, to make their homes on the 
fertile prairies of Iowa — " the Beautiful Land." The fame of the 
country had spread far and wide; even before the Indian title was 
extinguished, many were crowding the borders, impatient to cross, 
over and stake out their claims on the choicest spots they could 
find in the new Territory. As soon as the country was open for 
settlement, the borders, the Black Hawk Purchase, all along the 
Mississippi, and up the principal rivers and streams, and out over 
the broad rolling prairies, began to be thronged with eager land 
hunters and immigrants, seeking homes in Iowa. It was a sight 
to delight the eyes of all comers from every land — its noble streams, 
beautiful and picturesque hills and valleys, broad and fertile 
prairies extending as far as the eye could reach, with a soil surpass- 
ing in richness anything which they had ever seen. It is not to 
be wondered at that immigration into Iowa was rapid, and that 
within less than a decade from the organization of the Territory it 
contained a hundred and fifty thousand people. 

As rapidly as the Indian titles were extinguished and the or- 
iginal owners removed, the resistless tide of emigration flowed 
westward. The following extract from Judge Nourse's Centennial 
Address shows how the immigrants gathered on the Indian 
boundary, ready for the removal of the barrier: 

In obedience tc our progressive and aggressive spirit, the Government of the 
United States made another treaty with the Sac and Fox Indians, on the 11th 
day of August, 1842; for the remaining portion of their land in Iowa. The treaty 
provided that the Indians should retain possession of all the lands thus ceded 
until May 1, 1843, and should occupy that portion of the ceded territory west of 
a line running north and south through Bedrock, until October 11, 1845. These 
tribes, at this time, had their principal village at Ot-tum-wa-no, now called Ot- 
tumwa. As soon as it became known that the treaty had been concluded, there 
was a rush of immigration to Iowa, and a great number of temporai-y settle- 
ments were made near the Indian boundary, waiting for the 1st day of May. 
As the day approached, hundreds of families encamped along the line, and their 
tents and wagons gave the scene the appearance of a military expedition. The 
country beyond had been thoroughly explored, but the United States military 
authorities had prevented any settlement or even the making out of claims by 
any monuments whatever. 

To aid them in making out their claims when the hour should arrive, the set- 
tlers had placed piles of dry wood on the rising ground, at convenient distances, 
and a short time before twelve o'clock on the night of the 30th of April, these 
were lighted, and when the midnight hour arrived it was announced by the dis- 
charge of firearms. The night was dark, but this army of occupation pressed 
forward, torch in hand, with axe and hatchet, blazing lines with all manner of 
curves and angles. When daylight came and revealed the confusion of these 
wonderful surveys, numerous disputes arose, settled generally by compromise, 
but sometimes by violence. Between midnight of the 30th of April and sundown 
of the Ist of May, over one thousand families had settled on their new purchas e. 

While this scene was transpiring, the retreating Indians were enacting one 
more impressive and melancholy. The winter of 18^2-43 was one of unusual 
severity, and the Indian prophet, who had disapproved of the treaty, attributed 
theseverity of the winter to the anger of the Great Spirit, because they had sold 
their country. Many religious rites were performed to atone for the crime. 



HISTORY OF 10 V,- A. 57 

When the time for leaving Ot-tum-wa-no arrived, a solemn silence pervaded the 
Indian camp, and the laces of their stoutest men were bathed in tears ; and when 
their cavalcade was put in motion, toward the setting- sun, there was a sponta- 
neous outburst of frantic grief from the entire procession. 

The Indians remained the appointed time beyond the line running north and 
south through Redrock. The Government estabhshed a trading post and mili- 
tary encampment at the Raccoon Fork of the Des Moines River, then and for 
many years known as Fort Des Moines. Here the red man lingered until the 
11th of (!)ctober, 1845, when the same scene that we have before described was 
re-enacted, and the wave of immigration swept over the remainder of the " New 
Purchase." The lands thus occupied and claimed by the settlers still belonged 
in fee to the General Government. The surveys were not completed until some 
time after the Indian title was extinguished. After their survey, the lands 
were puVilicly proclaimed or advertised for sale at public auction. Under the 
laws of the United States, a pre-emption or exclusive right to purchase public 
lands could not be acquired until after the lands had thus been publicly oft'ered 
and not sold for want of bidders. Then, and not until then, an occupant mak- 
ing improvements in good faith might accjuire a right over others to enter the 
land at the minimum price of $1.25 per acre. The "claim laws" were un- 
known to the United States statutes. Th6y origmated in the "eternal fitness 
of things," and were enforced, probably, as belonging to that class of natural 
rights not enumerated in the constitution, and not impaired f r tlispaiaged by 
its enumeration. 

The settlers organized in every settlement prior to the public land sales, 
appointed officers, and adopted their own rules and regulations. Each man's 
claim was duly ascertamed and recorded by the Secretary. It was the duty of 
all to attend the sales. The Secretary bid off the lands of each settler at $1.25 
per acre. The others were there to see, first, that he did his duty and bid in the 
land, and, secondly, to see that no one else hid. This, of course, sometimes led 
to trouble, but it saved the excitement of competition, and gave a formality and 
degree of order and regularity to the proceedings they would not otherwise have 
attained. As far as practicable, the Territorial Legislature recognized the valid- 
ity of these " claims " upon the public lands, and in 1839 passed an act legal- 
izing their sale and making their transfer a valid consideration to support a 
promise to pay for the same. (Acts of 1843, p. 456). The Supreme Territorial 
Court held this law to be valid. (See Hill v. Smith, 1st Morris Rep. 70). The 
opinion not only contains a decision of the question involved, but also contains 
much valuable erudition upon that "spirit of Anglo-Saxon liberty" which the 
Iowa settlers unquestionably inherited in a direct line of descent from the said 
"Anglo-Saxons." But the early settler was not always able to pay even this 
dollar antl twenty-five cents per acre for his land. 

Many of the settlers had nothing to begin with, save their hands, 
health and courage and their family jewels, "the pledges of love/' 
and the " consumers of bread." It was not so easy to accumulate 
money in the early days of the State, and the " beautiful prairies," 
the " noble streams," and all that sort of poetic imagery, did not 
prevent the early settlers from becoming discouraged. 

An old settler, in speaking of the privations and trials of those 
early days, says: 

Well do the "old settlers " of Iowa remember the days from the first settle- 
ment to 1840. Those were days of sadness and ehstress. The endearments of 
home in another land had been broken up; and all that was hallowed on earth, 
the home of childhood, and the scenes of youth, were severed ; and we sat down by 
the gentle waters of our noble river, and often ' "hung our harps on the willows. ' ' 

Another, from another part of the state testifies: 

There was no such thing as gettuig money for any kind ot labor. I laid brick 
at $3.00 per thousand, and took my pay in anything 1 could eat or wear. I 



58 H [STORY OF IOWA. 

built the first Methodist Church at Keokuk, 42x60 feet, of brick, for $600, and 
took my pay in a subscription paper, part of which I never collected, and upon 
which I only received $00.00 in money. Wheat was hauled 100 miles from 
the interior, and sold for 37 J ^ cents per bushel. 

Another old settler, speaking of a later period, 184:3, says: 
Land and everything had gone down in value to almost nominal prices. Corn 
and oats could be bought for six or ten cents a bushel; pork, $1.00 per hundred 
and the best horse a man could raise sold for $50.00. Nearly all were in debt 
and the Sheriff and Constable, with legal processes, wei-e common visitors at 
almost every man's door. These were indeed "the times that tried men's souls." 

"A few," says Mr. Nourse, " who were not equal to the trial, re- 
turned to their old homes, but such as had courage and faith to be 
the worthy founders of a great State remained, to more than realize 
the fruition of their hopes, and the reward of their self-denial." 

On Monday, December 6, 1841, the fourth Legislative Assembly 
met, at the new capital, Iowa City, but the capitol building could 
not be used, and the Legislature occupied a temporary frame house, 
that had been erected for that purpose, during the session of 1841-2. 
At this session, the Superintendent of Public Buildings (who, with 
the Territorial Agent, had superseded the Commissioners first ap- 
pointed), estimated the expense of completing the building at 
$33,330, and that rooms for the use of the Legislature could be 
completed for $15,600. 

During 1842, the Superintendent commenced obtaining stone 
from a new^ quarry, about ten miles northeast of the city. This is 
now known as the 'Old Captain Quarry," and contains, it is thought, 
an immense quantity of excellent building stone. Here all the 
stone for completing the building was obtained, and it was so far 
completed that on the 5th day of December, 1842, the Legislature 
assembled in the new capitol. At this session, the Superintendent 
estimated that it would cost $39,143 to finish the building. This 
was nearly $6,000 higher than the estimate of the previous year, 
notwithstanding a large sum Jiad been expended in the meantime. 
This rather discouraging discrepancy was accounted for by the fact 
that the officers in charge of the work were constantly short of 
funds. Except the Congressional appropriation of $20,000 and the 
loan of $5,500, obtained from the Miners' Bank, of Dubuque, all the 
funds for the prosecution of the work were derived from the sale of 
the city lots (which did not sell very rapidly)^ from certificates of 
indebtedness, and from scrip, based upon unsold lots, which was to 
be received in payment for such lots when they were sold. At one 
time the Suporintendent made a requisition for bills of iron and 
glass, which could not be obtained nearer than St. Louis. To meet 
this, the Agent sold some lots for a draft, payable at Pittsburgh, 
Pa., for which he was compelled to pay twenty-five per cent, ex- 
change. This draft, amounting to $507, that officer reported to be 
more than one-half the cash actually handled by him during the 
entire season, when the disbursement amounted to very nearly 
$24,000. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. * 09 

With such uncertainty, it coukl not be expected that estimates 
could be very accurate. With all these disadvantages, however, the 
work appears to have been prudently prosecuted, and as rapidly as 
circumstances would permit. 

Iowa remained a Territory from 1838 to 1846, during which the 
office of Governor was held by Robert Lucas, John Chambers and 
James Clarke. 

STATE ORGANIZATION. 

By an act of the Territorial Legislature of Iowa, approved Feb- 
ruary 12, 1841, the question of the formation of a State Constitu- 
tion and providing for the election of Delegates to a convention to 
be convened for that purpose was submitted to the people, to be 
voted upon at their township elections in April following. The 
vote was largely in favor of the measure, and the Delegates elected 
assembled in convention at Iowa City, on the 7th of October, 1844. 
On the first day of November following, the convention completed 
its work and adopted the first State Constitution. 

The President of the convention, Hon. Shepherd Leffler, was in- 
structed to transmit a certified copy of this Constitution to the 
Delegate in Congress, to be by him submitted to that body at the 
earliest practicable day. It was also provided that it should be 
submitted, together with any conditions or changes that might be 
made by Congress^ to the people of the Territory, for their approval 
or rejection, at the township election in April, 1845. 

The boundaries of the State, as defined by this Constitution, 
were as follows: 

Beginning in the middle of the channel of the Mississippi River, opposite 
mouth of the Des Moines River, thence up the said river Des Moines, in the 
middle ot the main channel thereof, to a point where it is intersected by the 
Old Indian Boundary line, or line run by John C. Sullivan, in the year 1816; 
thence westwardly along said line to the "old" northwest corner of Missouri; 
thence due west to the middleof the main channel of the Missouri River; tiience 
up in the middle of the main channel of the river last mentioned to the mouth 
of the Sioux or Calumet River; thence in a direct line to the middle of the main 
channel of the St. Peters River, where the Watonwan River — according to Nic- 
ollet's map— enters the same; thence down the middle of the main channel of 
said I'iver to the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi River; thence 
down the middle of the main channel of said river to the place of beginning. 

These boundaries were rejected by Congress, but by act approved 
March 3, 1845, a State called Iowa was admitted into the Union, 
provided the people accepted the act, bounded as follows: 

Beginning at the mouth of the Des Moines River, at the middle of the Mis- 
sissippi, thence by the middle of the channel of that river to a parallel of lati- 
tude passing through the mouth of the Mankato or Blue Earth River; thence 
west, along said parallel of latitude, to a point where it is intersected by a me- 
ridian line seventeen degrees and thirty minutes west of the meridian ot Wash- 
ington City; thence due south, to the northern boundary line of the State of 
Missouri; thence eastwardly, following that boundary to the point at which the 
same intersects the Des Moines River; thence by the midtUe of the channel of 
that river to the place of beginning. 



60 ' HISTORY OF IOWA. 

These boundaries, had they been accepted, would have placed 
the northern boundary of the State about thirty miles north of its 
present location, and would have deprived it of the Missouri slope 
and the boundary of that river. The western boundary would 
have been near the west line of what is now Kossuth County. 
But it was not so to be. In consequence of this radical and un- 
welcome change in the boundaries, the people refused to accept the 
act of Congress and rejected the Constitution at the election, held 
August 4, 1845, by a vote of 7,656 to 7,235. 

A second Constitutional Convention assembled at Iowa City on 
the 4th day of May, 1846, and on the 18th of the same month an- 
other Constitution for the new State with the present boundaries, 
was adopted and submitted to the people for ratification on the 3d 
day of August following, when it was accepted; 9,492 votes were 
cast "for the Constitution," and 9,036 "against the Constitution." 
The Constitution was approved by Congress, and by act of Con- 
gress approved December 28, 1846, Iowa was admitted as a sover- 
eign State in the American Union. 

Prior to this action of Congress, however, the people of the new 
State held an election under the new Constitution on the 26th day 
of October, and elected Oresel Briggs, Governor; Elisha Cutler, 
Jr., Secretary of State; Joseph T. Fales, Auditor; Morgan Reno, 
Treasurer; and members of the Senate and House of Represent- 
atives. 

At this time there Avere twenty-seven organized counties in the 
State, with a population of nearly 100,000, and the frontier settle- 
ments were rapidly pushing toward the Missouri River. The Mor- 
mons had already reached there. 

The first General Assembly of the State of Iowa was composed 
of nineteen Senators and forty Representatives. It assembled at 
Iowa City, November 30, 1846, about a month before the State was 
admitted into the Union. 

At the first session of the State Legislature, the Treasurer of State 
reported that the capitol building was in a very exposed condition, 
liable to injury from storms, and expressed the hope that some pro- 
vision would be made to complete it, at least sufficiently to protect 
it from the weather. The General Assembly responded by appropri- 
ating 12,500 for the completion of the public buildings. At the 
first session also arose the question of the re-location of the capi- 
tal. The Avestern boundary of the State, as now determined, left 
Iowa City too far toward the eastern and southern boundary of 
the State; this was conceded. Congress had appropriated five sec- 
tions of land for the erection of public buildings, and toward the 
close of the session a bill was introduced providing for the re-loca- 
tion of the seat of government, involving to some extent the loca- 
tion of the State University, which had already been discussed. 
This bill gave rise to a deal of discussion and parliamentary ma- 
neuvering, almost purely sectional in its character. It provided 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 61 

for the appoiutmeut of three Commissioners, who were authorized 
to make a location as near the geographical center of the State as 
a healthy and eligible site could be obtained; to select the five sec- 
tions of land donated by Congress; to survey and plat into town 
lots not exceeding one section of the land so selected; to sell lots 
at public sale, not to exceed two in each block. Having done this, 
they were then required to suspend farther operations, and make a 
report of their proceedings to the Governor. The bill passed both 
Houses by decisive votes, received the signature of the Governor, 
and became a law. Soon after, by ''An act to locate and establish 
a State University,'' approved February 25, 1847, the unfinished 
public buildings at Iowa City, together with the ten acres of land 
on which they were situated, were granted for the use of the Uni- 
versity, reserving their use, however, by the general Assembly and 
the State officers, until other provisions were made by law. 

The Commissioners forthwith entered upon their duties, and se- 
lected four sections and two half sections in Jasper County. Two 
of these sections are in what is now Des Moines Township, and 
the others in Fairview Township, in the southern part of that 
county. These lands are situated between Prairie City and Mon- 
roe, on the Keokuk & Des Moines Railroad, which runs diagonally 
through them. Here a town was platted, called Monroe City, and 
a sale of lots took place. Four hundred and fifteen lots were sold, 
at prices that were not considered remarkabl7 remunerative. The 
cash payments (one-fourth) amounted to $1,797.43, while the ex- 
penses of the sale and the claims of the Commissioners for services 
amounted to $2,206.57. The Commissioners made a report of their 
proceedings to the Governor, as required by law, but the location 
was generally condemned. 

When the report of the Commissioners, showing this brilliant 
financial operation, had been read in the House of Representatives, 
at the next session, and while it was under consideration, an in- 
dignant member, afterward known as the eccentric Judge McFar- 
land, moved to refer the report to a select Committee of Five, 
with instructions to report ''how much of said city of Monroe was 
under water and how much was burned." The report was re- 
ferred, without the instructions, however, but Monroe City never 
became the seat of government. By an act approved January 16, 
1849, the law by which the location had been made was repealed 
and the new town was vacated, the mouey paid by purchasers of 
lots being refunded to them. This, of course, retained the seat 
of government at Iowa City, and precluded, for the time, the occu- 
pation of the building and grounds by the tlniversity. 

At the same session, $3,000 more were appropriated for complet- 
ing the State building at Iowa City. In 1852, the further sum of 
$5,000, and in 1854 $4,000 more were approj)riated for the same 
purpose, making the whole cost $123,000, paid partly by the Gen- 



62 • HISTORY OF IOWA. 

eral Government and partly by the State, but principally from the 
proceeds of the sale of lots in Iowa City. 

But the question of the permanent location of the seat of gov- 
ernment was not settled, and in 1851 bills were introduced for the 
removal of the capital to Pella and to Fort Des Moines. The lat- 
ter appeared to have the support of the majority, but was finally 
lost in the House on the question of ordering it to its third read- 

At the next session, in 1853, a bill was introduced in the Senate 
for the removal of the seat of Government to Fort Des Moines, and, 
on final vote, was just barely defeated. At the next session, how- 
ever, the effort was more successful, and on the 15th day of Jan- 
uary, 1855, a bill re-locating the capital within two miles of the 
Raccoon Fork of the Des Moines, and for the appointment of Com- 
missioners, was approved by Gov. Grimes. The site was selected 
in 1856, in accordance with the provisions of this act, the land be- 
ing donated to the State by citizens and property-holders of Des 
Moines. An association of citizens erected a building for a tempo- 
rary capitol, and leased it to the State at a nominal rent. 

The third Constitutional Convention to revise the Constitution 
of the State assembled at Iowa City, January 19, 1857. The new 
Constitution framed by this convention was submitted to the peo- 
ple at an election held August 3, 1857, when it was approved and 
adopted by a vote of 40,311 "for" to 38,681 "against," and on the 
3d day of September following was declared by a|proclamation of the 
Governor to be the Supreme law of the State of Iowa. 

Advised of the completion of the temporary State House of Des 
Moines, on the lOtli of October following. Governor Grimes issued 
another proclamation, declaring the city of Des Moines to be the 
capital of the State of Iowa. 

The removal of the archives and offices was commenced at once 
and continued through the fall. It was an undertaking of no 
small magnitude; there was not a mile of railroad to facilitate the 
work, and the season was unusually disagreeable. Rain, snow and 
other accompaniments increased the difficulties,' and it was not 
until Dacember that the last of the effects — the safe of the State 
Treasurer, loaded on two large "bob-sleds" — drawn by ten yoke of 
oxen was deposited in the new capitol. It is not imprudent now 
to remark that, during this passage over hills and prairies, across 
rivers, through bottom lands and timber, the safes belonging to 
the several departments contained large sums of money, mostly 
individual funds, however. Thus, Iowa City ceased to be the 
capital of the State, after four Territorial Legislatures, six State 
Legislatures and three Constitutional Conventions had held their 
sessions there. By the exchange, the old capitol at Iowa City, 
became the seat of the University, and exceptthe rooms occupied by 
the United States District Court, passed under the immediate and 
direct control of the Trustees of that institution. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 63 

Des Moines was now the permament seat of government, made 
so by the fundamental hiw of the State, and on the 11th day of 
January, 1858, the seventh General Assembly convened at the 
new capital. The buildings used for governmental purposes was 
purchased in 1864. It soon became inadequate for the purposes 
for which it was designed, and it became apparent that a new, 
large and permanent State House must be erected. In 1870, the 
General Assembly made an appropriation and provided, for the ap- 
pointment of a Board of Commissioners to commence the work. 
The board consisted of Gov. Samuel Merrill, ex-officio. President; 
Grenville M. Dodge, Council Bluffs; James F. Wilson, Fairfield; 
James Dawson, Washington; Simon G. Stein, Muscatine; James 
0. Crosbv, Gainsville; Charles Dudley, Agency City; John N. 
Dewey, Des Moines; William L. Joy, Sioux City; Alexander R. 
Fulton, Des Moines, Secretary, 

The act of 1870 provided that the building should be constructed 
of the best material and should be fire proof, to be heated and ven- 
tilated in the most approved manner; should c6ntain suitable leg- 
islative halls, rooms for State ofiicers, the judiciary, library, com- 
mittees, archieves and the collections of the State Agricultural 
Society, and for all purposes of State Government, and should be 
erected on grounds held by the State for that purpose. The 
sum first appropriated was ^150,000; and the law provided that no 
contract should be made, either for constructing or furnishing 
the building, which should bind the State for larger sums than 
those at the time appropriated. A design was drawn and plans and 
specifications furnished by Cochrane & Piquenard, architects, which 
were accepted by the board, and on the 23d of November, 1871, 
the corner stone was laid with appropriate ceremonies. The esti- 
mated cost and present value of the capitol is fixed at 12,000,000, 

From 1858 to 1860, the Sioux became troublesome in the north- 
western part of the State. These warlike Indians made frequent 
plundering raids upon the settlers, and murdered several families. 
In 1861. several companies of militia were ordered to that portion 
of the State to hunt down and punish the murderous thieves. No 
battles were fought, however, for the Indians fled when they as- 
certained that systematic and adequate measures had been adopted 
to protect the settlers. 

"The year 1856 marked a new era in the history of Iowa. In 
1854, the Chicago & Rock Island Railroad had been completed to 
the east bank of the Mississippi River, opposite Davenport. In 
1054, the corner stone of a railroad bridge, that was to be the first 
to span the 'Father of Waters,' was laid with appropriate cere- 
monies at this point. St. Louis had resolved that the enterprise 
was unconstitutional, and by writs of injunction made an unsuc- 
cessful effort to prevent its completion. Twenty years later in her 
history, St. Louis repented her folly, and made atonement for her 
sin by imitating our example. On the first day of January, 1856, 



64 HISTOEY OF IOWA. 

this railroad was completed to Iowa City. In the meantime, two 
other railroads had reached the east bank of the Mississippi — one 
opposite Burlington, and one opposite Dubuque — and these were 
being extended into the interior of the State. Indeed, four lines 
of railroad had been projected across the State from the Mississippi 
to the Missouri, having eastern connections. On the 15th of May, 
1856, the Congress of the United States passed an act granting to 
the State, to aid in the construction of railroads, the public lands 
in alternate sections, six miles on either side of the proposed line. 
An extra session of the General Assembly was called in July of 
this year, that disposed of the grant to the several companies that 
proposed to complete these enterprises. The population of our 
State at this time had increased to 500,000. Public attention had 
been called t(.« the necessity of a railroad across the continent. The 
position of luwa, in the very heart and center of the Republic, on 
the route of this great highway across the continent, began to at- 
tract attention. Cities and towns sprang up through the State as 
if by magic. Capital began to pour into the State, and had it been 
employed in developing our vast coal measures and establishing 
manufactories among us, or if it had been expended in improving 
our lands, and building houses and barns, it would have been well. 
But all were in haste to get rich, and the spirit of speculation 
ruled the hour. 

" In the meantime every effort was made to help the speedy com- 
pletion of the railroads. Nearly every county and city on the Mis- 
sissippi, and many in the interior, voted large corporate subscrip- 
tions to the stock of the railroad companies, and issued their ne- 
gotiable bonds for the amount.'" Thus enormous county and city 
debts were incurred, the payment of which these municipalities 
tried to avoid upon the plea that they had exceeded the constitu- 
tional limitation of their powers. The Supreme Court of the 
United States held these bonds to be valid; and the courts by man- 
damus compelled the city and county authorities to levy taxes to 
pay the judgments. These debts are not all paid even yet, but 
the worst is over and ultimately the burden will be entirely re- 
moved. 

The first railroad across the State was completed to Council Bluffs 
in January, 1871. The others were completed soon after. In 1854 
there was not a mile of railroad in the State. In 1874, twenty 
years after, there were 3,765 miles in successful operation." 

GROWTH AND PROGRESS. 

When Wisconsin Territory was organized, in 1836, the entire 
population of that portion of the Territory now embraced in the 
State of Iowa was 10,531. The Territory then embraced two coun- 
ties; Dubuque and Des Moines, erected by the Territory of Michi- 
gan, in 1834. From 1836 to 1838, the territorial Legislature of 
Wisconsin increased the number of counties to sixteen, and the 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 65 

population had increased to 22,859. Since then the counties have 
increased to ninety-nine, and the population, in 1875, was 1,366,- 
000. The following table will show the population at different 
periods, since the erection of Iowa Territory: 

Yea)-. Population. \Y ear. Population . 
1838 22,589 1859 6:38,775 



1840 43,115 

1844 75,152 

1846 97,588 

1847 116,651 

1849 152,988 

1850 191,982 

1851 204,774 

1852 2:30.713 

1854 326,013 

1856 519,055 



1860 674,91:3 

1863 701,7:32 

1865... 754,699 

1867 902,040 

1869 1,040,819 

1870 1,191,727 

1878 1.251,333 

1875 1,:366,000 

1880 1,624,463 



The most populous county in the State is Dubuque. Not only 
in population, but in everything contributing to the growth and 
greatness of a State has Iowa made rapid progress. In a little more 
than thirty years, its wild but beautiful prairies have advanced 
from the home of the savage to a highly civilized commonwealth, 
embracing all the elements of progress which characterize the 
older States. 

Thriving cities and towns dot its fair surface; an iron net-work 
of thousands of miles of railroads is woven over its broad acres; ten 
thousand school houses, in which more than five hundred thou- 
sand children are being taught the rudiments of education, testify 
to the culture and liberality of the people; high schools, colleges 
and universities are generously endowed by the State; manufacto- 
ries spring up on all hef water courses, and in most of her cities 
and towns. 

Whether measured from the date of her first settlement, her 
organization as a Territory, or admission as a State, Iowa has thus 
far shown a growth unsurpassed, in a similar period, by any com- 
monwealth on the face of the earth; and, with her vast extent of 
fertile soil, with her inexhaustible treasures of mineral wealth, 
with a healthful, invigorating climate; an intelligent, liberty-lov- 
ing people; with equal, just and liberal laws, and her free schools, 
the future of Iowa may be expected to surpass the most hopeful 
anticipations of her present citizens. 

Looking upon Iowa as she is to-day — populous, prosperous and 
happy — it is hard to realize the wonderful changes that have oc- 
curred since the first white settlements were made within her bor- 
ders. When the number of States was only twenty-six, and their 
total population about twenty millions, our republican form of gov- 
ernment was hardly more than an experiment, just fairly put up- 
on trial. The development of our agricultural resources and inex- 
haustible mineral wealth had hardly commenced. Westward the 
'' Star of Empire " had scarcely started on its way. West of the 



66 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

great Mississippi was a mighty empire, but almost unknown, and 
marked on the maps of the period as " The Great American Des- 
ert." 

Now, thirty-eight stars glitter on our national escutcheon, and 
forty-five millions of people, who know their rights and dare main- 
tain them, tread American soil, and the grand sisterhood of States 
extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Canadian border, and 
from the rocky coast of the Atlantic to the golden shores of the 
Pacific. 

THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE AND FARM. 

Ames, Story Countij. 

The Iowa State Agricultural College and Farm were established 
by an act of the^General Assembly, approved March 22d, 1858. 
A Board of Trustees was appointed, consisting of Governor R. P. 
Lowe, John D. Wright, William Duane Wilson, M. W. Robinson, 
Timothy Day, Richard Gaines, John Pattee, G. W. F. Sherwin, 
Suel Foster,'S. W. Henderson, Clement Coffin and E. G. Day; the 
Governors of the State and President of the College being ex-officio 
members. Subsepuently the number of Trustees was reduced to 
five. The Board met in June, 1859, and received propositions for 
the location of the College and Farm from Hardin, Polk, Story and 
Boone, Marshall, Jefferson and Tama Counties. In July, the 
proposition of Story County and some of its citizens and by the 
citizens of Boone County was accepted, and the farm and the 
site for the buildings were located, In 1860-61, the farm-house and 
barn were erected. In 1862, Congress granted to the State 240,- 
000 acres of land for the endowment of schools of agriculture and 
the mechanical arts, and 195,000 acres were located by Peter Mel- 
endy. Commissioner, in 1862-63. In 1861, the General Assembly 
appropriated $20,000 for the erection of the college building. 

In June of that year, the Building Committee proceeded to let 
the contract. The $20,000 appropriated by the General Assembly 
were expended in putting in the foundations and making the brick 
for the structure. An additional appropriation of $91,000 was 
made in 1866, and the building was completed in 1868. 

Tuition in this college is made by law forever free to pupils from 
the State over sixteen years of age, who have been resident of the 
State six months previous to their admission. Each county in the 
State has a prior right of tuition for three scholars from each 
county; the remainder, equal to the capacity of the college, are by 
the trustees distributed among the counties in proportion to the 
population, and subject to the above rule. All sale of ardent 
spirits, wine or beer, are prohibited by law within a distance of 
three miles from the college, except for sacramental, mechanical 
or medical purposes. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 67 

The course of instruction in the Agricultural College embraces 
the following branches: Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, Botany, 
Horticulture, Fruit Growing, Forestry, Animal and Vegetable 
Anatomy, Geology, Mineralogy, Meteorology, Entomology, 
Zoology, the Veterinary Art, Plane Mensuration, Leveling, Sur- 
veying, Bookkeeping, and such Mechanical Arts as are directly 
connected with agriculture; also such other studies as the Trustees 
may, from time to time, prescribe, not inconsistent with the pur- 
poses of the institution. The funds arising from the lease and 
sale of lands, and interest on investments are sufficient for the 
support of the institution. 

The Board of Trustees, in 1881, was composed of Charles W. 
Tenney, Plymouth; George H. VV^right, Sioux City; Henry G. 
Little, Grinnell; William McClintock, West Union; John N. 
Dixon, Oskaloosa. A. S. Welch, President of the Faculty; W. 
D. Lucas, Treasurer; E. W. Stanton, Secretary. 

The Trustees are elected by the General Assembly, in Joint 
Convention, for lour years, three being elected at one session and 
two the next. 

THE STATE UNIVERSITY. 

Iowa City^ Johnson Countij. 

In the famous Ordinance of 1787, enacted by Congress before 
the Territory of the United States extended beyond the Missis- 
sippi River, it was declared that in all the territory northwest of 
the Ohio River; "Schools and the means of education shall for- 
ever be encouraged." By act of Congress, approved July 20, 1810, 
the Secretary of the Treasury was authorized ''to set apart and re- 
serve from sale, out of any of the public lands within the Terri- 
tory of Iowa, to which the Indian title has been or may be ex- 
tinguished, and not otherwise appropriated, a quantity of land, not 
exceeding the entire townships, for the use and support of a uni- 
versity within said Territory when it becomes a State, and for no 
other use or purpose whatever; to be located in tracts of not less 
than an entire section, corresponding with any of the large divis- 
ions into which the public land are authorized to be surveyed." 

William W. Dodge, of Scott County, was appointed by the 
Secretary of the Treasury to make the selections. He selected 
Section 5, in Township 78, north of Range 3, east of the Fifth 
Principal Meridian, and then removed from the Territory. No 
more land were selected until 1816, when, at the request of the 
Assembly, John M. Whitaker, of Van Buren County, was appoint- 
ed,who selected the remainder of the grant except about 122 acres. 

In the first Constitution, under which Iowa was admitted to the 
Union, the people directed the disposition of the proceeds of this 
munificent grant in accordance with its terms, and instructed the 



bo HISTORY OF IOWA. 

General Assembly to provide, as soon as may be, effectual means 
for the improvement and permanent security of the funds of the 
university derived from the lands. 

The first General Assembly, by act approved February 25, 1847, 
established the "State University of low^a" at Iowa City, then 
the Capital of the State, "with such other branches as public con- 
venience may hereafter require." The " public buildinojs at 
Iowa City, together with the ten acres of land in which they are 
situated, were granted for the use of said university j^^'Oi'ided, 
however, that the sessions of the Legislature and State offices 
should be held in the capitol until otherwise provided by law. The 
control and management of the University were committed to a 
Board of fifteen Trustees, to be appointed hj the Legislature, five 
of whom were to be chosen bienially. The Superintendent of 
Public Instruction was made President of this Board. Provisions 
were made for the disposal of the two townships of land, and for 
the investment of the funds arising therefrom. The act further 
provides that the University shall never be under the exclusive 
control of any religious denomination whatever, and as soon as 
the revenue for the grant and donations amounts to §?2,000 a year, 
the University should commence and continue the instruction, 
free of charge, of fifty students annually. The General Assembly 
retained full supervision over the University, its officers and the 
grants and donations made and to be made to it by the State. 

The organization of the University at Iowa City was impractic- 
able, however, so long as the seat of government was retained there. 

In January, 1849, two branches of the University and three 
Normal Schools were established. The branches were located — 
one at Fairfield, and the other at Dubuque, and were placed upon 
an equal footing, in respect to funds and all other matters, with 
the University established at Iowa City. " This act," says Col. 
Benton, " created three State Universities, with equal rights a.nd 
powers, instead of a 'University with such branches as public con- 
venience ?»ai/ hereafter demand,'' as provided bv the Constitution." 

The Board of Directors of the Fairfield Branch consisted of 
Barnet Ristine, Christian W. Slagle, Daniel Rider, Horace Gay- 
lord, Bernhart Henn and Samuel S. Bayard. At the first meeting 
of the Board Mr. Henn was elected President, Mr. Slagle Secretary, 
and Mr. Gaylord Treasurer. Twenty acres of land were purchased, 
and a building erected thereon, costing |2,500. This building was 
nearly destroyed by a liurricane, in 1850, but was rebuilt more 
substantially, all by contributions of the citizens of Fairfield. This 
branch never received any aid from the State or from the Univer- 
sity Fund, and by act approved January 24, 1853, at the request of 
the Board, the General Assembly terminated its relation to the State. 

The branch at Dubuque was placed under the control of the Su- 
perintendent of Public Instruction. The Trustees never organ- 
ized, and its existence was only nominal. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 09 

The Normal Schools were located at Andrew, Oskaloosa and 
Mount Pleasant, respectively. Each was to be governed by a board 
of seven Trustees, to be appointed by the Trustees of the Univer- 
sity. Each was to receive $500 annually from the income of the 
University fund, upon condition that they should educate eight 
common school teachers, free of charge for tuition, and that the 
citizens should contribute an equal sum for the erection of the 
recj[uisite buildings. The several Boards of Trustees were appointed. 
At Andrew, the school was organized November 21, 1849. A 
building was commenced and over $1,000 expended on it, but it 
was never completed. At Oskaloosa, the Trustees organized in 
April, 1852. This school was opened in the Court House, Septem- 
ber 13, 1852. A two-story brick building Avas completed in 1853, 
costing 12,473. The school at Mount Pleasant was never organ- 
ized. Neither of these schools received any aid from the Univer- 
sity Fund, but in 1857 the Legislature appropriated $1,000 each 
for those at Oskaloosa and Andrew, and repealed the law author- 
izing the payment of money to them from the University Fund. 
From that time they made no further effort to continue in ope- 
ration. 

At a special meeting of the Board of Trustees, held February 
21, 1850, the "College of Physicians and Surgeons of the Upper 
Mississippi," established at Davenport, was recognized as the "Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons of the State University of Iowa," 
expressly stipulating, however, that such recognition should not 
render the University liable for any pecuniary aid, nor was the 
Board to have any control over the property or management of the 
Medical Association. Soon after, this College was removed to Ke- 
okuk, its second session being opened there in November, 1850. 
In 1851, the General Assembly confirmed the action of the Board, 
and by act approved January 22, 1855, placed the Medical College 
under the supervision of the Board of Trustees of the University, 
and it continued in operation until this arrangement was termin- 
ated by the new Constitution, September 3, 1857. 

From 1817 to 1855, the Board of Trustees was kept full by reg- 
ular elections by the Legislature^ and the Trustees held frequent 
meetings, but there av as no effectual organization of the University. 
In March, 1855, it was partially opened for a term of sixteen weeks, , 
July 16, 1855, Amos Dean, of Albany, N. Y., was elected Presi- 
dent, but he never entered fully upon its duties. The University 
was again opened in September, 1855, and continued in operation 
until June, 1856, under Professors Johnson, Welton, Van Valken- 
burg and Guffin. 

In the Spring of 1856, the capital of the State was located at 
Des Moines; but there were no buildings there, and the capitol at 
Iowa City was not vacated by the State until December, 1857. 

In June, 1856, the faculty was re-organized, with some changes, 
and the University was again opened on the third Wednesday of 



70 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

September, 185H. There were one hundred and twenty-four stu- 
dents — eighty-three males and forty-one females in attendance 
during the year 1856-7, and the first regular catalogue was pub- 
lished. 

Article IX, Section 11, of the new State Constitution, which 
went into force September 3, 1857, provided as follows: 

The State University shall be established at one place, without branches at 
any other place; and the University fand shall be applied to that institution, 
and no other. 

Article XI, Section 8, provided that 

The seat of Government is hereby permanently establislied, as now fixed by 
law. at the city of Ues Moines, in the county of Polk; and the State University 
at Iowa City, in the county of .Johnson. 

The new Constitution created the Board of Education, consist- 
ing of the Lieutenant Grovernor, who was ex officio President, and 
one member to be elected from each judicial district in the State. 
This Board was endowed with "full power and authority to legis- 
late and make all needful rules and regulations in relation to com- 
mon schools and other educational institutions," subject to altera- 
tion, amendment or repeal by the General Assembly, which was 
vested with authority to abolish or re-organize the Board at any 
time after 1863. 

In December, 1857, the old capitol building, now known as Cen- 
tral Hall of the University, except the rooms occupied by the 
United States District Court, and the property, with that excep- 
tion, passed under the control of the Trustees, and became the seat 
of the University. The old building had had hard usage, and its 
arrangement was illy adapted for University purposes. Extensive 
repairs and changes were necessary, but the Board was without 
funds for these purposes. 

The last meeting of the Board, under the old law, was held in 
January, 1858. At this meeting, a resolution was introduced, and 
seriously considered, to exclude females from the University; but 
it finally failed. 

March 12, 1858, the first Legislature under the new Constitution 
enacted a new law in relation to the University, but it was not 
materially different from the former. March 11, 1858, the Leg- 
islature appropriated $3,000 for the repair and modification of 
the old capitol building, and 110,000 for the erection of a boarding 
bouse, now known as South Hall. 

The Board of Trustees created by the new law met and duly or- 
ganized April 27, 1858, and determined to close the University 
until the income from its fund should be adequate to meet the cur- 
rent expenses, and the buildings should be ready for occupation. 
Until this term, the building known as the ''Mechanics' Academy" 
had been used for the school. The Faculty, except the Chancellor 
(Dean), was dismissed, and all further instruction suspended, from 
the close of the term then in progress until September, 1859. At 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 71 

this meeting, a resolution was adopted excluding females from the 
University after the close of the existing term; but this was after- 
ward, in August, modified, so as to admit them to the Normal De- 
partment. 

An "Act for the Government and Regulation of the State Uni- 
versity of Iowa," approved December 25, 1858, was mainly a re-en- 
actment of the law of March 12, 1858, except that changes were 
made in the Board of Trustees, and manner of their appointment. 
This law provided that both sexes were to be admitted on equal 
terms to all departments of the institution, leaving the Board no 
discretion in the matter. 

At the annual meeting, June 28, 1860, a full Faculty was ap- 
pointed, and the University re-opened, under this new organiza- 
tion, September 19, 1860 (third Wednesday); and at this date the 
actual existence of the University may be said to commence. 

August 19, 1862, Dr. Totten having resigned. Prof. Oliver M. 
Spencer was elected President and the honorary degree of Doctor 
of Laws was conferred upon Judge Samuel F, Miller, of Keokuk. 

At the commencement, in June, 1863, was the first class of 
graduates in the Collegiate Department. 

The Board of Education was abolished March 19, 1864, and the 
office of Superintendent of Public Instruction was restored ; the 
General Assembly resumed control of the subject of education, 
and on March 21, an act was approved for the goverment of the 
Universit3^ It was substantially the same as the former law, but 
provided that the Governor should be ex-officio President of the 
Board of Trustees. Until 1858, the Superintendent of Public In- 
struction had been ex-ofiicio President. During the period of the 
Board of Education, the University Trustees were elected by it, 
and elected their own President. 

The North Hall was completed late in 1866. 

The Law Department was established in June, 1868, and, in 
September following au arrangement was perfected with the Iowa 
Law School, at Des Moines, which had been in successful opera- 
tion for three years, by which that institution was transferred to 
Iowa City and merged in the Law Department of the University. 

At a special meeting of the Board, on the ITth of September, 
1868, a committee was appointed to consider the expediency of 
establishing a Medical Department. This Committee reported at 
once in favor of the proposition, the Faculty to consist of the 
President of the University and seven Professors, and recom- 
mended that, if practicable, the new department should be opened 
at the commencement of the University year, in 1869-70. 

By an act of the General Assembly, approved April 11, 1870, 
the "Board of Regents" was instituted as the governing power of 
the University, and since that time it has been the fundamental 
law of the institution. The Board of Regents held its first meet- 
ing June 28, 1870. 



72 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

The South Hall having been fitted up for the purpose, the first 
terra of the Medical Department was opened October 24_, 1870, and 
continued until March, 1871. 

In June, 1874, the "Chair of Military Instruction" was estab- 
lished, and the President of the United States was requested to 
detail an officer to perform its duties. At the annual meeting, in 

1876, a Department of Homceopathy was established. In March, 

1877, a resolution was adopted, affiliating the High Schools of the 
State with the University. 

In 1872, the ex-officio membership of the Superintendent of 
Public Instruction was abolished; but it was restored in 1876. 

The Board of Regents, in 1881, was composed as follows: 
John H. Gear, Grovernor, ex-officio. President; Carl W. vonCoelln, 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, ex-officio; J. L. Pickard, 
President of the University, ex-officio; C. W. Slagle, Fairfield, 
First District; D. N.Richardson, Davenport, Second District; H. 
C. Bulls, Decorah, Third District; A. T. Reeve, Hampton, Fourth 
District; J. N. W. Rumple, Marengo, Fifth District; W. 0. 
Crosby, Centerville, Sixth District; T. S. Parr, Indianola, Seventh 
District; Horace Everett, Council Bluffs, Eighth District; J, F. 
Duncombe, Fort Dodge, Ninth District. John N. Coldren, Iowa 
City, Treasurer; W. J. Haddock, Iowa City, Secretary. 

The Regents are elected by the General Assembly, in Joint 
Convention, for six years, one-third being elected at each regular 
session, one member to be chosen from each Congressional 
District. 

The present educational corps of the University consists of the 
President, nine Professors in the Collegiate Department, one Pro- 
fessor and six Instructors in Military Science: Chancellor, three 
Professors and four Lecturers in the Law Department; eight 
Professor Demonstrators of Anatomy; Prosector of Surgery and 
two Lecturers in the Medical Department, and two Professors in 
the HomcBopathic Medical Department. 

STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

By act of the General Assembly, approved January 28, 1857, a 
State Historical Society was provided for in connection with the 
University. At the commencement, an appropriation of $250 was 
made, to i3e expended in collecting, embodying, and preserving in 
an authentic form, a library of books, pamphlets, charts, maps, 
manuscripts, papers, paintings, statuary, and other materials illus- 
trative of the history of Iowa; and with the further object to 
rescue from oblivion the memory of the early pioneers; to obtain 
and preserve various accounts of their exploits, perils and hardy 
adventures; to secure facts and statements relative to the history 
and genius, and progress and decay of the Indian tribes of Iowa, 
to exhibit faithfully the antiquities and past and present resources 



i 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 73 

of the state; to aid in the publication of such collections of the 
Society as shall, from time to time be deemed of value and inter- 
est; to aid in binding its books, pamphlets, manuscripts and papers, 
and in defraying other necessary incidental expenses of the So- 
ciety. 

There was appropriated by law to this institution, till the Gen- 
eral Assembly shall otherwise direct, the sum of $500 per annum. 
The Society is under the management of a Board of Curators, 
consisting of eighteen persons, nine of whom are appointed by the 
Grovernor, and nine elected by the members of the Society. The 
Curators receive no compensation for their services. The annual 
meeting is provided for by law, to be held at Iowa City on Mon- 
day preceding the last Wednesday in June of each year. 

The State Historical Society has published a series of very 
valuable collections, including history, biography, sketches, remin- 
iscences, etc., with quite a large number of finely engraved por- 
traits of prominent and early settlers, under the title of "Annals 
of Iowa." 

THE PENITENTIARY. 

Located at Fort Madison, Lee County. 

The first act of the Territorial Legislature, relating to a Peni- 
tentiary in Iowa, was approved January 25, 1839, the fifth section 
of which authorized the Grovernor to draw the sum of |20,000 
appropriated by an act of Congress approved July 7, 1838, for 
public buildings in the Territory of Iowa. It provided for a 
Board of Directors of three persons elected by the Legislature, 
who should direct the building of the Penitentiary, which should 
be located within one mile of the public square, in the town of 
Fort Madison, Lee County, provided Fort Madison should deed to 
the Directors a tract of land suitable for a site, and assign them, 
by contract, a spring or stream of water for the use of the Peni- 
tentiary. To the Directors was also given the power of appoint- 
ing the Warden; the latter to appoint his own assistants. 

The first Directors appointed were John S. David and John 
Claypole. They made their first report to the Legislative Council 
November 9, 1839. The citizens of the town of Fort Madison 
had executed a deed conveying ten acres of land for the building 
site. Amos Ladd was appointed Superintendent of the building 
June 5, 1839. The building was designed of sufficient capacity to 
contain one hundred and thirty-eight convicts, and estimated to 
cost $55,933.90. It was begun on the 9th of July, 1839; the 
main building and Warden's house were completed in theFall of 
1811. Other additions were made from time to time till the build- 
ing and arrangements were all complete according to the plan of 
the Directors. It has answered the purpose of the State as a 



74 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

Penitentiary for more tlian thirty years, and during that period 
many items of practical experience in prison management have 
been gained. 

ADDITIONAL PENITENTIARY. 

Located at Anaiiiosa, Jones County. 

By an Act of the Fourteenth General Assejnbly, approved April 

23, 1872, William Ure, Foster L. Downing and Martin Heisey 
were constituted Commissioners to locate and provide for the erec- 
tion and control of an additional Penitentiary for the State of 
Iowa. These Commissioners met on the 4th of the following 
June, at Anamosa, Jones County, and selected a site donated by 
the citizens, within the limits of the city. L. W. Foster & Co., 
architects, of Des Moines, furnished the plan, drawings and sjieci- 
fications, and work was commenced on the building on the 28th 
day of September, 1872. May 13, 1873, twenty convicts were 
transferred to Anamosa from the Fort Madison Penitentiary. 
The entire enclosure includes fifteen acres, with a frontage of 663 
feet. 

IOWA HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE. 

Mount Pleasant, Henry County. 

By an act of the General Assembly of Iowa, approved January 

24, 1855, $4,425 were appropriated for the purchase of a site, and 
$50,000 for building an Insane Hospital, and the Governor 
(Grimes), Edward Johnston, of Lee County, and Charles S. Blake, 
of Henry County, were appointed to locate the institution and 
Superintend the erection of the building. These Commissioners 
located the institution at Mt. Pleasant, Henry County. A plan 
for a building designed to accommodate 300 patients was accepted, 
and in October work was commenced. Up to February 25, 1858, 
and including an appropriation made on that date, the Legislature 
had appropriated $258,555.67 to this institution, but the building 
was not finished ready for occupancy by patients until March 1, 
1861. April 18, 1876, a portion of the hospital building was de- 
stroyed by fire. 

Trustees, :ZS8^ /—Timothy Whiting, Mt. Pleasant; J. H. Kulp, 
Davenport; Denison A. Hurst, Oskaloosa; John Conaway, Brook- 
lyn; L. E. Fellows, Lansing. Mark Ranney, M. D., Mt. Pleasant, 
is the Medical Superintendent; C. V. Arnold, Mt. Pleasant, Treas- 
urer. 

HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE 

Independence., Buchanan County. 

In the winter of 1867-8 a bill providing for an additional Hos- 
pital for the insane was passed by the Legislature, and an appro- 
priation of $125,000 was made for that purpose. Maturin L. 



HISTORY 0? IOWA. 75 

Fisher, o£ Clayton County; E, G. Morgan, of Webster County, and 
Albert Clark, of Buchanan County, were appointed Commissioners 
to locate and supervise the erection of the building. 

The Commissioners met and commenced their labors on the 8th 
day of June, 1868, at Independence. The act under which they 
were appointed required them to select the most eligible and de- 
sirable location, of not less than 320 acres, within two miles of 
the City of Independence, that might be offered by the citizens 
free of charge to the State. Several such tracts were offered, but 
the Commissioners finally selected the south half of southwest 
quarter of Section 5; the north half of northeast quarter of Sec- 
tion 7; the north half of northwest quarter of Section 8, and the 
north half of northeast quarter of Section 8, all in Township 88 
north. Range 9 west of the Fifth Principal Meridian. This loca- 
tion is on the west side of the Wapsipinicon River, and about a 
mile from its banks, and about the same distance from Indepen- 
dence. 

The contract for erecting the building was awarded for $88,114. 
The contract was signed November 7^ 1868, and work was at once 
commenced. The main buildings were constructed of dressed 
limestone, from the quarries at Anamosa and Farley. The base- 
ments are of the local granite worked from the immense boulders 
found in large quantities in this portion of the State. 

In 1872, the building was so far completed that the Commis- 
sioners called the first meeting of the Trustees, on the 10th day of 
July of that year. The building was ready for occupancy April 
21, '1873. 

In 1877, the south wing was built, but was not completed ready 
for occupancy until the Spring or Summer of 1878. 

Trustees, 1881: — Erastus G. Morgan, Fort Dodge, President; 
Jed. Lake, Independence; Mrs. Jennie C. McKinney, Decorah; 
Lewis H. Smith, Algona; David Hammer, McGregor; A. Reynolds, 
M. D., Independence, Medical Superintendent; W. G. Donnan, In- 
dependence, Treasurer. 

IOWA COLLEGE FOR THE BLIND. 

Vinton, Benton County. 

In August, 1852, Prof, Samuel Bacon, himself blind, estab- 
lished an Institution for the Instruction of the blind of Iowa, at 
Keokuk. 

By act of the General Assembly, entitled, " An act to establish 
an Asylum for the Blind," approved January 18, 1853, the institu- 
tion was adopted by the State, removed to Iowa City, February 3d, 
und opened for the reception of pupils April 4, 1853, free to all 
the blind in the State. 



76 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

The Board of Trustees appointed Prof . Samuel Bacon, Principal; 
T. J. McGittigen, Teacher of Music, and Mrs. Sarah K. Bacon, 
Matron. Twenty-three pupils were admitted during the first term. 

In his first report, made in 1854, Prof. Bacon suggested that the 
name should be changed from "Asylum for the Blind," to that 
of ''Institution for the Instruction of the Blind." This was done 
in 1855, when the General Assembly made an annual appropriation 
for the College of $55 per quarter for each pupil. This was subse- 
cpently changed to $3,000 per annum, and a charge of $25 as an 
admission fee for each pupil, which sum, with the amounts real- 
ized from the sale of articles manufactured by the blind pupils, 
proved sufficient for the expenses of the institution during Mr. 
Bacon's administration. 

On the 8th of May, 1858, the Trustees met at Vinton, and made 
arrangements for securing the donation of $5,000 made by the cit- 
izens of that town. 

In June of that year a quarter section of land was donated for 
the College, by John W. 0. Webb and others, and the Trustees 
adopted a plan for the erection of a suitable building. In 1860, 
the plan was modified, and the contract for enclosing let for 
$10,420. 

In August, 1862, the building was so far completed that the goods 
and furniture of the institution were removed from Iowa City to 
Vinton, and early in October the School was opened there with 
twenty-four pupils. 

Trustees, 1881:— GXmion 0. Harrington, Vinton; S. H. Watson, 
Vinton, Treasurer; J . F. White, Sidney; M. H. Westerbrook, Lyons; 
W. H. Leavitt, Waterloo; Jacob Springer. Watkins; Rev. Robert 
Carothers, Principal of the Institution, and Secretary of the Board. 

INSTITUTION FOR THE DEAF AND DUMB. 

Council Bluffs, Poftawattatnie Cotmfi/. 

The Iowa Institution for the Deaf and Dumb was established 
at Iowa City by an act of the General Assembly, approved January 
24,1855. The number of deaf mutes then in the State was 301; 
the number attending the Institution, 50. 

A strong effort was made, in 1866, to. remove this important in- 
stitution to Des Moines, but it was located permanently at Council 
Bluffs, and a building rented for its use. In 1868, Commissioners 
were appointed to locate a site for, and to superintend the erection 
of a new building, for which the Legislature appropriated $125,- 
000 to commence the work of construction. The Commissioners 
selected ninety acres of land about two miles south of the city of 
Council Bluffs. The main building and one wing were completed 
October 1, 1870, and immediately occupied by the Institution. 
February 25, 1877, the main building and east wing were des- 
troyed by fire; and August 6th, following, the roof of the new 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 77 

west wing was blown off and the walls partially demolished 
by a tornado. At the time of the fire, about one hun- 
dred and fifty pupils were in attendance. After the fire, half the 
classes were dismissed and the number of scholars reduced to 
about seventy, and in a week or two the school was in running 
order. 

Trustees, 1881 .•— B. F. Clayton, Macedonia, President; J. H. 
Stubenrauch, Pella, Treasurer; Louis Weinstein, Burlington. Rev. 

A. Rogers, Superintendent. 

SOLDIERS' ORPHANS' HOMES. 

Davenport, Cedar Falls, Glenwood. 

The movement which culminated in the establishment of this 
beneficient institution was originated by Mrs. Annie Wittenmeyer, 
during the civil war of 1861-65. This noble and patriotic lady 
called a convention at Muscatine, on the 7th of October, 1863, 
for the purpose of devising measures for the support and educa- 
tion of the orphan children of the brave sons of Iowa, who had 
fallen in defense of national honor and integrity. So great was 
the public interest in the movement that there was a large repre- 
sentation from all parts of the State on the day named, and an 
association was organized called the Iowa State Orphan Asylum. 

The first meeting of the Trustees was held February 14, 1864, 
in the Representative Hall, at Des Moines. Committees from 
both branches of the General Assembly were present and were in- 
vited to participate in their deliberations. Arrangements were 
made for raising funds. 

At the next meeting, in Davenport, in March, 1864, the Trus- 
tees decided to commence operations at once, and a committee was 
appointed to lease a suitable building, solicit donations, and pro- 
cure suitable furniture. This committee secured a large brick 
building in Lawrence, Van Buren County, and engaged Mr. 
Fuller, of Mt. Pleasant, as Steward. 

At the annual meeting, in Des Moines, in June, 1864, Mrs. C. 

B. Baldwin, Mrs. G. G. Wright, Mrs. Dr. Horton, Miss Mary E. 
Shelton and Mr. George Sherman, were appointed a committee to 
furnish the building and take all necessary steps for opening the 
" Home," and notice was given that at the next meeting of the 
Association, a motion would be made to change the name of the 
Institution to Iowa Orphans' Home. 

The work of preparation was conducted so vigorously that on 
the 13th day of July following, the Executive Committee an- 
nounced that they were ready to receive the children. In three 
weeks twenty-one were admitted, and the number constantly in- 
creased, so that, in a little more than six months from the time 



78 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

of opening, there were seventy children admitted, and twenty 
more applications, which the Committee had not acted upon — all 
Orphans of Soldiers. 

The " Home" was sustained by the voluntary contributions of 
the people, until 1866, when it was assumed by the State, In that 
year, the General Assembly provided for the location of several 
such "Homes" in the different counties, and tvhich were estab- 
lished at Davenport, Scott County; Cedar Falls, Black Hawk 
County, and at Glenwood, Mills County. 

The Board of Trustees, elected by the General Assembly, had 
the oversight and management of the Soldiers' Orphans' Homes 
of the State, and consisted of one person from each county in 
which such Home was located, and one for the State at large, who 
held their offices two years, or until their successors were elected 
and qualified. An appropriation of $10 per month for each 
orphan actually supported was made by the General Assembly. 

The Home in Cedar Falls was organized in 1865, and an old 
hotel building was fitted up for it. January, 1866, there were 
ninety-six inmates. 

October 12, 1869, the Home was removed to a large brick build- 
ing, about two miles west of Cedar Falls, and was very prosperous 
for several years, but in 1876, the General Assembly established a 
State Normal School at Cedar Falls, and appropriated the build- 
ings and grounds for that purpose. 

By "An act to provide for the organization and support of an 
asylum at Glenwood, in Mills County, for feeble minded children," 
approved March 17, 1876, the buildings and grounds used by the 
Soldiers' Orphans' Home at that place were appropriated for this 
purpose. By another act, approved March 15, 1876, the soldiers' 
orphans, then at the Homes at Glenwood and Cedar Falls, were to 
be removed to the Home at Davenport within ninety days there- 
after, and the Board of Trustees of the Home were authorized to 
receive other indigent children into that institution, and provide 
for their education in industrial pursuits. 

Trustees 1881.— C. M. Holton, Iowa City; Seth P. Bryant, Da- 
venport; C. C. Horton, Muscatine. S. W. Pierce, Davenport, Su- 
perintendent. 

STATE NORMAL SCHOOL. 

Cedar Falls, Black Hawk County. 

Chapter 129 of the laws of the Sixteenth General Assembly, in. 
1876, established a State Normal School at Cedar Falls, Black 
Hawk County, and required the Trustees of the Soldiers' Orphans' 
Home to turn over the property in their charge to the Directors 
of the new institution. 

The Board of Directors met at Cedar Falls June 7, 1876, and 
duly organized. The Board of Trustees of the Soldiers' Orphans' 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 79 

Home met at the same time for the purpose of turning over to the 
Directors the property of th?t institution, which was satisfactorily 
done and properly receipted for as required by law. 

On the 12th of July, 1876, the Board again met, when executive 
and teachers' committees were appointed and their duties assigned. 
A Steward and a Matron were elected, and their respective duties 
defined. 

The buildings and grounds were repaired and fitted up as well as 
the appropriation would admit, and the first term of school opened 
September 6, 1876, commencing with twenty-seven and closing 
with eighty-seven students. 

Directors, 1881:— C. C. Cory, Pella; E. H. Thayer, Clinton; G. 
S. Robinson, Storm Lake; N. W. Boyes, Dubuque; L. D. Le wel- 
ling, Mitchellville; J. J. Tollerton, Cedar Falls; E. Townsend, 
Cedar Falls, Treasurer. 



ASYLUM FOR FEEBLE MINDED CHILDREN. 

Glenwood, Mills County. 

Chapter 152 of the laws of the Sixteenth General Assembly, ap- 
proved March 17, 1876, provided for the establishment of an asy- 
lum for feeble minded children at Glenwood, Mills County, and the 
buildings and the grounds of the Soldiers' Orphans' Home at that 
place were to be used for that purpose. The asylum was placed 
under the management of three Trustees, one at least of whom 
should be a resident of Mills County. Children between the ages 
of 7 and IS years are admitted. Ten dollars per month for each 
child actually supported by the State was appropriated by the act, 
and $2,000 for salaries of officers and teachers for two years. 

Hon. J. ^N. Cattell, of Folk County; A. J. Russell, of Mills 
County, and W. S. Robertson, were appointed Trustees, who held 
their first meeting at Glenwood, April 26, 1876. The Trustees 
found the house and farm which had been turned over to them in 
a shamefully dilapidated condition. The fences were broken down 
and the lumber destroyed or carried away; the windows broken, 
doors off" their hinges, floors broken and filthy in the extreme, cel- 
lars reeking with offensive odors from decayed vegetables, ajd 
every conceivable variety of filth and garbage; drains obstructed, 
cisterns broken, pump demoralized, wind-mill broken, roof leaky, 
and the whole property in the worst possible condition. It was 
the first work of the Trustees to make the house tenable. 

The Institution was opened September 1, 1876; the first pupil 
admitted September 4, and the school was organized September 10. 

Trustees, 1881:— Vred. O'Donnell, Dubuque; S. B. Thrall, Ot- 
tumwa; E. R. S. Woodrow, Glenwood; 0. W. Archibald, M. 1)., 
Medical Superintendent. 



80 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

THE REFORM SCHOOL. 

Eldora, Hardin County. 

By "An act to establish and organize a State Reform School for 
Juvenile Offenders," approved March 31, 1868, the General Assem- 
bly established a State Reform School at Salem, Lee (Henry) 
County; provided for a Board of Trustees, to consist of one person 
from each Congressional District. For the purpose of immediately 
opening the school, the Trustees were directed to accept the prop- 
osition of the Trustees of White's Iowa Manual Labor Institute, at 
Salem, and lease, for not more than ten years, the lands, buildings, 
etc., of the Institute, and at once proceed to prepare for and open 
a reform school as a temporary establishment. 

The contract for fitting up the buildings was let September 21, 
1868, and on the 7th of October following, the first inmate was 
received from Jasper County. The law provided for the admission 
of children of both sexes under 18 years of age. In 1S76, this was 
amended, so that they are now received at ages over 7 and under 
16 years. 

April 19, 1872, the Trustees were directed to make a permanent 
location for the school, and S15,000 was appropriated for the erec- 
tion of the necessary buildings. The Trustees were further di- 
rected, as soon as practicable, to organize a school for girls in the 
buildings where the boys were then kept. 

The Trustees located the school at Eldora, Hardin County, and 
in the code of 1873, it is permanently located there by law. 

The institution is managed by five Trustees, who are paid mile- 
age, but no compensation for their vservices. 

The object is the reformation of children of both sexes, under 
the age of 16 and over 7 years of age; and the law requires that 
the Trustees shall require the boys and girls under their charge to 
be instructed in piety and morality, and in such branches of useful 
knowledge as are adapted to their age and capacity, and in some 
regular course of labor, either mechanical, manufacturing or agri- 
cultural, as is best suited to their age, strength, disposition and 
capacity, and as may seem best adapted to secure the reformation 
and future benefit of the boys and girls. 

A boy or girl committed to the State Reform School is there 
kept, disciplined, instructed, employed and governed, under the di- 
rection of the Trustees, until he or she arrives at the age of major- 
ity, or is bound out, reformed or legally discharged. The binding 
out or discharge of a boy or girl as reformed, or having arrived at the 
age of majority, is a complete release from all penalties incurred by 
conviction of the crime for which he or she is committed. 

Trustees, 1881: — J. A. Parvin, Muscatine, President; W. J. 
Moir, Eldorado, Treasurar; W. G. Stewart, Dubuque: J. T. Moor- 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 81 

head, Ely; T. E. Corkhill, Mount Pleasant; B. J. Miles, Eldora, 
Superintendent, L. D. Lewelling is Superintendent of the Girl's 
Department, at Mitchellville, Polk County. 

. FISH HATCHING ESTABLISHMENT. 

Near Anamosa, Jones County. 

The Fifteenth General Assembly, in 1874, passed " An act to 
provide for the appointment of a Board of Fish Commissioners for 
the con-^truction of Fishways for the protection and propagation 
of Fish," also, " an act to provide for furnishing the rivers, and 
lakes with fish and fish spawn." _This act appropriated $3,000 for 
the purpose. In accordance with the provisions of the first act 
above mentioned, on the 9th of April, 1874, S. B. Evans of Ot- 
tumwa, Wapello County; B. F. Shaw of Jones County, and Charles 
A. Haines, of Black Hawk County, were ai)pointed to be Fish Com- 
missioners by the Governor. These Commissioners met at Des 
Moines, May 10, 1874, and organized by the election of Mr. Evans, 
President; Mr. Shaw, Secretary and Superintendent, and Mr. 
Haines, Treasurer. 

The State was partitioned into three districts or divisions to en- 
able the Commissioners to better superintend the construction of 
fishways as required by law. At this meeting, the Superintend- 
ent was authorized to build a State Hatching House; to procure the 
spawn of valuable fish adapted to the waters of Iowa; hatch and 
prepare the young fish for distribution, and assist in putting them 
into the waters of the State. 

In compliance with these instructions, Mr. Shaw at once com- 
menced work, and in the summer of 1874^ erected a" State Hatch- 
ing House " near Anamosa, 20x40 feet, two stories; the second story 
being designed for a tenement; the first story being the "hatching 
room." The hatching troughs are supplied with water from a 
magnificent spring, four feet deep and about ten feet in diameter, 
aff'ording an abundant and unfailing supply of pure running water. 
During the first year, from May 10, 1874, to Mav 10, 1875, the Com- 
missioners distributed within the State 100!|000 Shad, 300,000 
California Salmon, 10,000 Bass, 80,000 Penobscot (Maine) Salmon, 
5,000 land-locked Salmon, 20,000 of other species. 

By act approved March 10, 1876, the law was amerided so that 
there should be one instead of three Fish Commissioners, and B. F. 
Shaw was appointed, and the Commissioner was authorized to pur- 
chase twenty acres of land, on which the State Hatching House 
was located near Anamosa. 

In the fiiU of 1876, Commissioner Shaw gathered from the 
sloughs of the Mississippi, where they would have been destroyed, 
over a million and a half of small fish, which were distributed in 
the various rivers of the State and turned into the Mississippi. 



82 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

In 1875-6, 533,000 California Salmon, and in 1877, 303,500 Lake 
Trout were distributed in various rivers and lakes in the State. 
The experiment of stocking the small streams with brook trout is 
being tried, and 81,000 of the speckled beauties were distributed 
in 1877. In 1876, 100,000 young eels were distributed. These 
came from New York, and they are increasing rapidly. 

A. A, Mosier, of Spirit Lake, was appointed Assistant Fish Com- 
missioner, by the Governor, under Chapter 156, Laws of 1880. 

THE PUBLIC LANDS. 

The grants of public lands made in the State of Iowa, for vari- 
ous purposes^ areas follows: 

1. The 500,000 Acre Grant. 

2. The 16th Section Grant. 

3. The Mortgag-e School Lands. 
, •- 4. The University Grant 

5. The Saline Grant. 

6. The Des Moines River Grant. 

7. The Des Moines River School J^ands. 

8. The Swamp Land Grant. 

9. The Railroad Grant. 

10. The Agricultural College Grant. 

I. THE FIYE HUNDRED THOUSAND ACRE GRANT. 

When the State was admitted into the Union, she became en- 
titled to 500,000 acres of land by virtue of an act of Congress, ap- 
proved September 4, 1811, which granted to each State therein 
specified 500,000 acres of public land for internal improvements; 
to each State admitted subsequently to the passage of the act, an 
amount of land which, with the amount that might have been 
granted to her as a Territory, would amount to 500,000 acres. All 
these lands were required to be selected within the limits of the 
State to which they were granted. 

The Constitution of Iowa declares that the proceeds of this grant, 
together with all lands then granted or to be granted by Congress 
for the benefit of schools, shall constitute a perpetual fund for the 
support of schools throughout the State. By an act approved Jan- 
uary 15, 1849, the Legislature established a Board of School Fund 
Commissioners, and to that Board was confided the selection, care 
and sale of these lands for the benefit of the School Fund. Until 
1855, these Commissioners were subordinate to the Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, but on the 15th of January of that year, 
they were clothed with exclusive authority in the management and 
sale of school lands. The ofiice of School Fund Commissioner was 
abolished March 23, 1858, and that officer in each county was re- 
quired to transfer all papers to and make full settlement with the 
County Judge. By this act, County Judges and Township Trus- 
tees were made the agents of the State to control and sell the six- 



HISTOKY OF IOWA. Od 

teenth sections; but no further provision was made for the sale of 
the 500,000 acre grant until April 3d, 1860, when the entire manage- 
ment of the school lands was committed to the Boards of Super- 
visors of the several counties. 

II. THE SIXTEENTH SECTIONS. 

By the provisions of the act of Congress admitting Iowa to the 
Union, there was granted to the new State the sixteenth section 
in every township, or where that section had been sold, other 
lands of like amount for the use of schools. The Constitution of 
the State provides that the proceeds arising from the sale of these 
sections shall constitute a part of the permanent school fund. The 
control and sale of these lands were vested in the School Fund 
Commissioners of the several counties until March 23, 1858, when 
they were transferred to the County Judges and Township Trus- 
tees, and were finally placed under the supervision of the County 
Boards of Supervisors in January, 1861. 

III. THE MORTGAGE SCHOOL LANDS. 

These do not belong to any of the grants of land proper. They 
are lands that have been mortgaged to the school fund, and became 
school lands when bid off by the State by virtue of a law passed in 
1862. Under the provisions of the law regulating the manage- 
ment and investment of the permanent school fund, persons de- 
siring loans from that fund are required to secure the payment 
thereof with interest at ten per cent, per annum, by promissory 
notes endorsed by two good sureties and by mortgage on unincum- 
bered real estate, which must be situated in the county where the 
loan is made, and which must be valued by three appraisers. Mak- 
ing these loans and taking the required securities was made the 
duty of the County Auditor, who was required to report to the 
Board of Supervisors at each meeting thereof, all notes, mortgages 
and abstracts of title connected with the school fund, for examina- 
tion. 

When default was made of payment of money so secured by 
mortgage, and no arrangement made for extension of time as the 
law provides, the Board of Supervisors were authorized to bring 
suit and prosecute it with diligence to secure said fund; and in ac- 
tion in favor of the county for the use of the school fund, an in- 
junction may issue without bonds, and in any such action, when 
service is made by publication, default and judgment may be en- 
tered and enforced without bonds. In case of sale of land on exe- 
cution founded on any such mortgage, the attorney of the board, 
or other person duly authorized, shall, on behalf of the State or 
county for the use of said fund, bid such sum as the interests of 
said fund may require, rnd if struck off to the State the land shall 
be held and disposed of as the other lands belonging to the fund. 



84 HISTOEY OF IOWA, 

These lands are known as the Mortgage School Lands, and reports 
of them, including description and amount, are required to be 
made to the State Land Office. 

lY. UNIVEilSITY LANDS. 

By act of Congress, July 20, 1840, a quantity of land, not ex- 
ceeding two entire townships, was reserved in the Territory of 
Iowa for the use and support of a university within said Territory 
when it should become a State. This land was to be located in 
tracts of not less than an entire section, and could be used for no 
other purpose than that designated in the grant. In an act sup- 
j)lemental to that for the admission of Iowa, March 3, 1845, the 
grant was renewed, and it was provided that the lands should be 
used "solely for the purpose of such university, in such manner as 
the Legislature may prescribe." 

Under this grant there were set apart and approved by the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury, for the use of the State, the following 
lands. 

ACKES. 

In the Iowa City Land District, Feb. 29, 1849 20,150.49 

In the Fairfield Land District, Oct. 17, 1849 9,685.20 

In the Iowa City Land District, Jan. 28, 1850 2,571.81 

In the Fairfield Land District, Sept. 10, 1850 .3,198.20 

In the Dubuque Land District, May 19, 1852 10,552.24 

Total 45,957.94 

These lands were certified to the State November 19, 1859. The 
Universit}^ lands are placed by law under the control and manage- 
ment of the Board of Trustees of the Iowa State University. Prior 
to 1865, there had been selected and located under 282 patents, 
22,892 acres in sixteen counties, and 23,036 acres unpatented, 
making: a total of 45,928 acres. 



V. SALINE LANDS. 

By act of Congress, approved March 3, 1845, the State of Iowa 
was granted the use of the salt springs within her limits, not ex- 
ceeding twelve. By a subsequent act, approved May 27, 1852, 
Congress granted the springs to the State in fee simple, together 
with six sections of land contiguous to each, to be disposed of as 
the Legislature might direct. In 1861, the proceeds of these lands 
then to be sold were constitutued a fund for founding and sup- 
porting a lunatic asylum, but no sales were made. In 1856, the 
proceeds of the saline lands were appropriated to the Insane 
Asylum, repealed in 1858. In 1860, the saline lands and funds 
were made a part of the permanent fund of the State University. 
These lands were located in Appanoose, Davis, Decatur, Lucas, 
Monroe, Van Buren and Wayne Counties. 



HISTOEY OF IOWA. 85 

VI. THE DES MOINES RIVER GRANT. 

By act of Congress, approved August 8, 1846, a grant of land 
was made for the improvement of the navigation of Des Moines 
River, as follows: 

Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the- United 
States of America in Congress assembled. That there be, and hereby is, grant- 
ed to said Territory of Iowa, for the purpose of aiding said Territory to improve 
the navigation of tlie Des Moines River from its mouth to the Raccoon Fork (so 
called) in said Territory, one equal moiety, in alternate sections, of the publio 
lands (remaining unsold and not otherwise disposed of, incumbered or appro- 
priated), in a strip five miles in width on each side of said river, to be selected 
within said Territory by an agent or agents to be appointed by the Governor 
thereof, subject to the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury of the United 
States. 

Sec. 2. And he it further enacted, That the lands hereby granted shall not 
be conveyed or disposed of by said Territory, nor by any State to be formed out 
of the same, except as said improvement shall progress; that is, the said Terri- 
tory or State may sell so much of said lands as shall produce the sum of thirty 
thousand dollars, and then the sales shall cease until the Governor of said Ter- 
ritory or State shall certify the fact to the President of the United States that 
one-half of said sum has been expended upon said improvements, when the 
said Territory or State may sell and convey a quantity of the residue of said 
lands sufficient to replace the amount expended, and thus the sales shall pro- 
gress as the proceeds thereof shall be expended, and the fact of such expendi- 
ture shall be certified as aforesaid. 

Sec. 8. And he it further enacted. That the said River Des Moines shall 
be and forever remain a public highway for the use of the Government of 
the United States, free from any toll or other charge whatever, for any proper- 
ty of the United States or persons in then- service passing through or along 
the same; Provided alwai/s. That it shall not be competent for the said Terri- 
tory or future State of Iowa to dispose of said lands, or any of them, at a price 
lower than, for the time being, shall be the minimum price of other public 
lands. 

Sec. 4. And he it further enacted. That whenever the Temtory of Iowa 
shall be admitted into the Union as a State, the lands hereby granted for the 
above purpose shall be and become the property of said State for the purpose 
contemplated in this act, and for no other: Provided, the Legislature of" the 
State of Iowa shall accept the said grant for the said purpose." Approved 
August 8, 1846. 

By joint resolution of the General Assembly of Iowa, approved 
January 9^ 1847, the grant was accepted for the purpose specified. 
By another act, approved February 24, 1847, entitled "An act 
creating the Board of Public Works, and providing for the im- 
provement of the Des Moines River," the Legislature provided for 
a Board consisting of a President, Secretary and Treasurer, to be 
elected by the people. This Board was elected August 2, 1847, 
and was organized on the 22d of September following. The same 
act defined the nature of the improvement to be made, and pro- 
vided that the work should be paid for from the funds to be derived 
from the sale of lands to be sold by the Board. 

Agents appointed by the Governor selected the sections desig- 
nated by "odd numbers" throughout the whole extent of the 
grant, and this selection was approved by the Secretary of the 
Treasury. But there was a conflict of opinion as to the extent of 



86 HISTOEY OF IOWA. 

the o^rant. It was held by some thab it extended from the mouth 
of the Des Moines River only to the Raccoon Forks; others held, 
as the agents to make selection evidently did, that it extended 
from the mouth to the headwaters of the river. Richard M. 
Young, Commissioner of the General Land Office, on the 23d of 
February, 1848, construed the grant to mean that "the State is 
entitled to the alternate sections within five miles of the Des 
Moines River, throughout the whole extent of that river within 
the limits of Iowa.'' Under this construction, the alternate sec- 
tibns above the Raccoon Forks would, of course, belong to the 
State; but on the 19th of June, 1848, some of these lands were, 
by proclamation, thrown into market. On the 18th of September, 
the Board of Public Works filed a remonstrance with the Com- 
missioner of the General Land Office. The Board also sent in a 
protest to the State Land Office, at which the sale was ordered to 
take place. On the 8th of January, 1849, the Senators and Repre- 
sentatives in Congress from Iowa also protested against the sale, 
in a communication to Hon. Robert J. Walker, Secretary of the 
Treasury, to which the Secretary replied, concurring in the opin- 
ion that the grant extended the whole length of the Des Moines 
River in Iowa. 

On the 1st of June, 1849, the Commissioner of the General 
Land Office directed the Register and Receiver of the Land Office 
at Iowa City "to withhold from sale all lands situated in the odd 
numbered sections within five miles on each side of the Des 
Moines River, above the Raccoon Forks." March 13, 1850, the 
Commissioner of the General Land Office submitted to the Secre- 
tary of the Interior a list "showing the tracts falling within the 
limits of the Des Moines River grant, above the Raccoon Forks, 
etc., under the decision of the Secretary of the Treasury, of March 
2, 1849," and on the 6th of April following, Mr. Ewing, then 
Secretary of the Interior, reversed the decision of Secretary 
Walker, but ordered the lands to be withheld from sale until Con- 
gress could have an opportunity to pass an explanatory act. The 
Iowa authorities appealed from this decision to the President 
(Taylor), who referred the matter to the Attorney General (Mr. 
Johnson). On the 19th of July, Mr. Johnson submitted as his 
opinion, that by the terms of the grant itself , it extended to the 
very source of the Des Moines, but before his opinion was pub- 
lished President Taylor died. When Mr. Tyler's cabinet was 
formed, the question was submitted to the new Attorney General 
(Mr. Crittenden), who, on the 30th of June, 1851, reported that in 
his opinion the grant did not extend above the Raccoon Forks. Mr. 
Stewart, Secretary of the Interior, concurred with Mr. Crittenden 
at first, but subsequently consented to lay the whole subject be- 
fore the President and Cabinet, who decided in favor of the State. 

October 29, 1851, Mr. Stewart directed the Commissioner of the 
General Land Office to "submit for his approval such lists as had 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 87 

been prepared, and to proceed to report for like approval lists of 
the alternate sections claimed by the State of Iowa above the 
Raccoon Forks, as far as the surveys have progressed, or may here- 
after be completed and returned." And on the following day, 
three lists of these lands were prepared in the General Land Office. 
The lands approved and certified to the State of Iowa under this 
grant, and all lying above the Raccoon Forks, are as follows: 

By Secretary Stewart, Oct. 30, 1851 81,707.93 acres. 

March 10, 1852 143,908.37 " 

By Secretary McLellan, Dec. 17, 1853 33,142.43 " 

Dec. 30, 1853 12,813.51 " 

Total 271,572.24 acres. 

The Commissioners and Register of the Des Moines River Im- 
provement, in their report to the Governor, November 30, 1852, 
estimate the total amount of lands then available for the work, 
including those in possession of the State and those to be surveyed 
and approved, at nearly a million acres. The indebtedness then 
standing against the fund was about $108,000, and the Commis- 
sioners estimated the work to be done would cost about $1,200,000, 

January 19, 1853, the Legislature authorized the Commissioners 
to sell "any or all the lands which have or may hereafter be 
granted, for not less than $1,300,000." 

On the 24th of January, 1853, the General Assembly provided 
for the election of a Commissioner by the people, and appointed 
two Assistant Commissioners, with authority to make a contract, 
selling the lands of the Improvement for $1,300,000. This new 
Board made a contract, June 9, 1855, with the Des Moines Navi- 
gation & Railroad Company, agreeing to sell all the lands donated 
to the State by Act of Congress of August 8, 1846, which the 
State had not sold prior to December 23, 1853, for $1,300,000, to 
be expended on the improvement of the river, and in paying the 
indebtedness then due. This contract was duly reported to the 
Governor and General Assembly. 

By an act approved January 25, 1855, the Commissioner and 
Register of the Des Moines River Improvement were authorized 
to negotiate with the Des Moines Navigation & Railroad Company 
for the purchase of lands in Webster County, which had been sold 
by the School Fund Commissioner as school lands, but which had 
been certified to the State as Des Moines River lands, and had, 
therefore, become the property of the Company, under the provis- 
ions of its contract with the State. 

March 21, 1856, the old question of the extent of the grant was 
again raised, and the Commissioner of the General Land Office 
decided that it was limited to the Raccoon Fork. Appeal was made 
to the Secretary of the Interior, and by him the matter was re- 
ferred to the Attorney General, who decided that the grant ex- 



88 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

tended to the northern boundary of the State; the State relin- 
quished its claim to the lands lying along the river in Minnesota, 
and the vexed question was supposed to be finally settled. 

The land which had been certified, as well as those extending to 
the northern boundary within the limits of the grant, were reserved 
from pre-emption and sale by the General Land Commissioner, to 
satisfy the grant of August 8, 1846, and they were treated as hav- 
ing passed to the State, which from time to time sold portions of 
them prior to their final transfer to the Des Moines Navigation & 
Railroad Company, applying the proceeds thereof to the improve- 
ment of the river in compliance with the terras of the grant. 
Prior to the final sale to the Company, June 9, 1854, the State had 
sold about 327,000 acres, of which amount 58,830 acres were lo- 
cated above the Raccoon Fork. The last certificate of the General 
Land Office bears date December 30, 1853. 

After June 9th, 1854, the Des Moines Navigation & Railroad 
Company carried on the work . under its contract with the State. 
As the improvement progressed, the State, from time to time, by 
its authorized officers, issued to the Company, in payment for said 
work, certificates for lands. But the General Land Office ceased 
to certify lands under the grant of 1846. The State had made no 
other provision for paying for the improvements, and disagree- 
ments and misunderstanding arose between the State authorities 
and the Company. 

March 22, 1858, a joint resolution was passed by the Legislature 
submitting a proposition for final settlement to the Company, 
which was accepted. The Company paid to the State |20,000 in 
cash, and released and conveyed the dredge boat and materials 
named in the resolution; and the State, on the 3d day of May, 
1858, executed to the Des Moines Navigation & Railroad Company 
fourteen deeds or patents to the lands, amounting to 256,703.64 
acres. These deeds were intended to convey all the lands of this 
grant certified to the State by the General Government not pre- 
viously sold; but, as if for the purpose of covering any tract or 
parcel that might have been omitted, the State made another deed 
of conveyance on the 18th day of May, 1858. These fifteen deeds, 
it is claimed, by the Compaily, convey 266,108 acres, of which 
about 53,367 are below the Raccoon Fork, and the balance, 212,741 
acres, are above that point. 

Besides the lands deeded to the Company, the State had deeded 
to individual purchasers 58,830 acres above the Raccoon Fork, 
making an aggregate of 271,571 acres, deeded above the Fork, all 
of which had been certified to the State by the Federal Government. 

By act approved March 28, 1858, the Legislature donated the re- 
mainder of the grant to the Keokuk, Fort Des Moines & Minne- 
sota Railroad Company, upon condition that said Company assumed 
all liabilities resulting from the Des Moines River improvement 
operations, reserving 50,000 acres of the land in security for the 



HISTORY OF TOWA. 89 

payment thereof, and for the completion of the locks and dams at 
Bentonsport, Croton, Keosauqua and Plymouth. For every three 
thousand dollars' worth of work done on the locks and dams, and 
for every three thousand dollars paid by the Company of the lia- 
bilities above mentioned, the Register of the State Land Office was 
instructed to certify to the Company 1.000 acres of the 50,000 acres 
reserved for these purposes. Up to 1865, there had been presented 
by the Company, under the provisions of the act of 1858, and al- 
lowed, claiuis amounting to §109,579.37, about seventy-five per 
cent, of which had been settled. 

After the passage of the Act above noticed, the question of the 
extent of the original grant was again mooted, and at the Decem- 
ber Term of the Supreme Court of the United States, in 1859-60, 
a decision was rendered declaring that the grant did not extend 
above Raccoon Fork, and that all certificates of land above the Fork 
had been issued without authority of law and were, therefore, void 
(see 23 How., m). 

The State of Iowa had disposed of a large amount of land with- 
out authority, according to this decision, and appeal was made to 
Congress for relief, which was granted on the 3d day of March, 

1861, in a joint resolution relinquishing to the State all the title 
which the United States then still retained in the tracts of land 
along the Des Moines River above Raccoon Fork, that had been 
improperly certified to the State by the Department of the Interior, 
and which is now held by bona fide purchasers under the State of 
Iowa. 

In confirmation of this relinquishment, by act approved July 12, 

1862, Congress enacted: 

That the grant of lands to the then Territory of Iowa for the improvement of the 
Des Moines Kiver, made by the act of August 8, 1816, is hereby extended so as 
include the alternate sections (designated by odd numbers) lying within five 
miles of said river, between the Raccoon Fork and the northern boundary of 
said State; such lands are to be held and applied in accordance with the provis- 
ions of the original grant, except that the consent of Congress is hereby given to 
the application of a portion thereof to aid in the construction of the Keolcuk, 
Fort Des Moines & Minnesota Railroad, in accordance with the provisions of the 
act of the General Assembly of the State of Iowa approved March 22, 1858. 
And if any of the said lands shall have been sold or otherwise disposed of by 
the Un til States bafore the passag3 of this act, except those released by the 
United States to the grantejs of the State of Iowa, under joint resolution of 
March 8, 1861, the Secretary of the Interior is hereby directed to set apart an 
equal amount of lands within said State to becertitied in lieu thereof; Provided, 
that if the State shall have sold and conveyed any portion of the lands lying 
within the limits of the grant the title of which has proved invalid, any lands 
which shall be certified to said State in lieu thereof by virtue of the provisions 
of this act, shall inure to and be held as a trust fund for the benefit of the per- 
son, or persons, respectively, whose titles shall have failed as aforesaid. 

The grant of lands by the above act of Congress was accepted by a 
joint resolution of the General Assembly, Sept. 11, 1862, in extra ses- 
sion. On the same day, the Goveruor was authorized to appoint one 
or more Commissioners to select the lands in accordance with the 



90 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

grant. These Commissioners were instructed to report their selec- 
tions to the Registrar of the State Land Office. The lands so se- 
lected were to be held for the purposes of the grant, and were not 
to be disposed of until further legislation should be had. D. W. 
Kilburne, of Lee County, was appointed Commissioner, and, on the 
25tli day of April, 1864, the General Land Officer authorized the 
selection of 300,000 acres from the vacant public lands as a part of 
the grant of July 12, 1862, and the selections were made in the 
Fort Dodge and Sioux City Land Districts. 

Many difficulties, controversies and conflicts, in relation to claims 
and titles, grew out of this grant, and these difficulties were en- 
hanced by the uncertainty of its limits until the act of Congress of 
July, 1862. But the General Assembly sought, by wise and ap- 
propriate legislation, to protect the integrity of titles derived from 
the State. Especially was it the determination to protect the actual 
settlers, who had paid their money and made improvements prior 
to the final settlement of the limits of the grant by Congress. 

YII. — THE DES MOINES RIVEE SCHOOL LANDS. 

These lands constituted a part of the 500,000 acre grant made 
by Congress in 1811; including 28,378.46 acres in Webster County, 
selected by the Agent of the State under that grant, and approved 
by the Commissioner of the General Land Office February 20, 1851. 
They were ordered into the market June 6, 1853, by the Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, who authorized John Tolman, 
School Fund Commissioner for Webster County, to sell them as 
school lands. Subsequently, when the act of 1846 was construed 
to extend the Des Moines River grant above Raccoon Fork, it was 
held that the odd numbered sections of these lands within five 
miles of the river were appropriated by that act. and on the 30th 
day of December, 1853, 12,813.51 acres were set apart and ap- 
proved to the State by the Secretary of the Interior, as a part of 
the Des Moines River grant. January 6, 1854, the Commissioner 
of the General Land Office transmitted to the Superintendent of 
Public Instruction a certified copy of the lists of these lands, in- 
dorsed by the Secretary of the Interior. Prior to this action of 
the Department, however, Mr. Tolman had sold to individual pur- 
chasers 3,194.28 acres as school lands, and their titles were, of 
course, killed. For their relief, an act, approved April 2, 1860, 
provided that, upon application and proper showing, these purchas- 
ers should be entitled to draw from the State Treasury the amount 
they had paid, with 10 per cent, interest, on the contract to pur- 
chase made with Mr. Tolman. Under this act, five applications 
were made prior to 1864, and the applicants received, in the aggre- 
gate, $949.53. 

By an act approved April 7, 1862, the Governor was forbidden 
to issue to the Dubuque & Sioux City Railroad Company any cer- 
tificate of the completion of any part of said road, or any convey- 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 91 

auce of lauds, until the company should execute and file, in the 
State Land office, a release of its claim — first to certain swamp 
lands; second, to the Des Moines River Lands sold by Tolman; 
third, to certain other river lands. That act provided that "the 
said company shall transfer their interests in those tracts of land 
in Webster and Hamilton Counties heretofore sold by John Tol- 
man, School Fund Commissioner, to the Register of the State 
Land Office in trust, to enable said Register to carry out and per- 
form said contracts in all cases when he is called upon by the 
parties interested to do so, before the 1st day of January, A. D., 
1864. 

The company filed its release to the Tolman lands, in the Land 
Office, February 27, 1861, at the same time entered its protest that 
it had no claim upon them, never had pretended to have, and had 
never sought to claim them. The Register of the State Land Of- 
fice, under the advice of the Attorney Greneral, decided that pat- 
ents would be issued to the Tolman purchasers in all cases where 
contracts had been made prior to December 23, 1853, and remain- 
ing uncancelled under the act of 1860. But before any were issued, 
on the 27th of August, 1861, the Des Moines Navigation & Rail- 
road Company commenced a suit in Chancery, in the District 
Court of Polk County, to enjoin the issue of such patents. On 
the 30th of August, an ex parte injunction was issued. In Janu- 
ary, 1868, Mr. J. A. Harvey, Register of the Land Office, filed in 
the court an elaborate answer to plaintifis' petition, denying that 
the company had any right to or title in the lands. Mr. Harvey's 
successor, Mr. C. C. Carpenter, filed a still more exhaustive answer 
February 10, 1868. August 3, 1868, the District Court dissolved 
the injunction. The company appealed to the Supreme Court, 
where the decision of the lower court was affirmed in December, 
1869. 

VIII. SWAMP LAND GRANT. 

An act of Congress, approved March 28, 1850, to enable Ar- 
kansas and other States to reclaim swampy lands within their lim- 
its, granted all the swamp and overflowed lands remaining unsold 
within their respective limits to the several States. Although the 
total amount claimed by Iowa under this act does not exceed 
4,000,000 acres, it has, like the Des Moines River and some of the 
land grants, cost the State considerable trouble and expense, and 
required a deal of legislation. The State expended large sums of 
money in making the selections, securing proofs, etc., but the 
General Government appeared to be laboring under the impression 
that Iowa was not acting in good faith; that she had selected a 
large amount of lands under the swamp land grant, transferred her 
interest to counties, and counties to private speculators, and the 
General Land Office permitted contests as to the character of the 
lands already selected by the Agents of the State as "swamp lands." 



92 HISTORY OF ICWA. 

Congress, by joint resolution Dec. 18, 1856, and by act March 3, 
1857, saved the State from the fatal result of this ruinous policy. 
Many of these lands were selected in 1854 and 1855, immediately 
after several remarkably wet seasons, and it was but natural that 
some portions of the selections would not appear swampy after a 
few dry seasons. Some time after these first selections were made 
persons desired to enter parcels of the so-called swamp lands and 
offering to prove them to be dry. In such cases the General Land 
Office ordered hearing before the local land officers, and if they 
decided the land to be dry, it was permitted to be entered and the 
claim of the State rejected. Speculators took advantage of this. 
Affidavits were bought of irresponsible and reckless men, who, 
for a few dollars, would confidently testify to the character of lands 
they never saw. These applications multiplied until they covered 
3,000,000 acres. It was necessary that Congress should confirm 
all these selections to the State, that this gigantic scheme of fraud 
and plunder might be stopped. The act of Congress of March 3, 
1857, was designed to accomplish this purpose. I3ut the Commis- 
sioner of the General Land Office held that it was only a qualified 
confirmation, and under this construction sought to sustain the 
action of the Department in rejecting the claim of the State, and 
certifying them under act of May 15, 1856, under which the rail- 
road companies claimed all swamp land in odd numbered sections 
within the limits of their respective roads. This action led to 
serious complications. When the railroad grant was made, it was 
not intended, nor was it understood that it included any of the 
swamp lands. These were already disposed of by previous grant. 
Nor did the companies expect to receive any of them, but under 
the decision of the Department adverse to the State the way was 
opened, and they were not slow to enter their claims. March 4, 
1862, the Attorney General of the State submitted to the General 
Assembly an opinion that the raih'oad companies were not entitled 
even to contest the right of the State to these lands, under the 
swamp land grant. A letter from the Acting Commissioner of 
the General Land Office expressed the same opinion, and the Gen- 
eral Assembly by joint resolution, approved April 7, 1862, expressly 
repudiated the acts of the railroad companies, and disclaimed any 
intention to claim these lands under any other than the act of 
Congress of September 28. 1850. A great deal of legislation has 
been found necessary in relation to these swamp lands. 

IX. THE RAILROAD GRAKT. 

One of the most important grants of public lands to Iowa for 
purposes of internal improvement was that known as the "Railroad 
Grant," by act of Congress, approved May 15, 1856. This act 
granted to the State of Iowa, for the purpose of aiding in the con- 
struction of railroads from Burlington, on the Mississippi River, 
to a point on the Missouri River, near the mouth of Platte River; 



HISTORY OF IOWA. VO 

from the city of Davenport, via Iowa City and Fort Des Moines to 
Council Bluffs; from Lyons City northwesterly toapoint of inter- 
section with the main line of the Iowa Central Air Line Railroad, 
near Maquoketa; thence on said main line, running as near as 
practicable to the Forty-second Parallel; across the said State of 
Iowa to the Missouri River; from the city of Dubuque to a point 
on the Missouri River near Sioux City, with a branch from 
the mouth of the Tete des Morts, to the nearest point 
on said road, to be completed as soon as the main road 
is completed to that point, every alternate section of land, 
designated by odd numbers, for six sections in width, on 
each side of said roads. It was also provided that if it should 
appear, when the lines of those roads were definitely fixed, that 
the United States had sold, or right of pre-emption had attached 
to any portion of said land, the State was authorized to select a 
quantity equal thereto, in alternate sections, or parts of sections, 
within fifteen miles of the lines so located. The lands remaining to the 
United States within six miles on each side of said roads were not 
to be sold for less than the double minimum price of the public 
lands when sold, nor were any of said lands to become subject to 
private entry until they had been first offered at public sale at the 
increased price. 

Section 4 of the act provided that the lands granted to said State 
shall be disposed of by said State only in the manner following, 
that is to say: "That a quantity of landnot exceeding one hundred 
and twenty sections for each of said roads, and included within a 
continuous length of twenty miles of each of said roads, may be 
sold; and when the Governor of said State shall certify to the Sec- 
retary of the Interior that any twenty continuous miles of any of 
said roads is completed, then another quantity of land hereby 
granted, not to exceed one hundred and twenty sections for each 
of said roads having twenty continuous miles completed as afore- 
said, and included within a continuous length of twenty miles of 
each of such roads, may be sold; and so from time to time until said 
roads are completed, and if any of said roads are not completed 
within ten years, no further sale shall be made, and the lands un- 
sold shall revert to the United States." 

At a special session of the General Assembly of Iowa, by act ap- 
proved July 14:, 1856, the grant was accepted and the lands were 
granted by the State to the several railroad companies named, pro- 
vided that the lines of their respective roads should be definitely 
fixed and located before April 1, 1857; and provided further, that 
if either of said companies should fail to have seventy-five 
miles of road completed and equipped by the 1st day of December, 
1859, and its entire road completed by December 1, 1865, it should 
be competent for the State of Iowa to resume all riglits to lands 
remaining undisposed of by the company so failing. 



94 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

The railroad companies, with the single exception of the Iowa 
Central Air Line, accepted the several grants in accordance with 
the provisions of the above act, located their respective roads and 
and selected their lands. The grant to the Iowa Central was again 
granted to the Cedar Rapids and Missouri River Railroad Company, 
which accepted it. 

By act, approved April 7, 1862, the Dubuciue & Cioux City Rail- 
road Company was required to execute a release to the State of cer- 
tain swamp and school lands, included within the limits of its grant, 
in compensation for an extension of the time fixed for the comple- 
tion of its road. 

A careful examination of the act of Congress does not reveal 
any special reference to railroad companies. The lands were granted 
to the State^ and the act evidently contemplated the sale of them 
by the State, and the appropriation of the proceeds to aid in the 
construction of certain lines of railroad within its limits. Section 
4 of the act clearly defines the authority of the State in disposing 
of the lands. 

Lists of all the lauds embraced by the grant were made, and cer- 
tified to the State by the proper authorities. Under an act of Con- 
gress approved August 3, 1864, entitled, ^'' An act to vest in the 
several States and Territories the title in fee of the lands which have 
been or may he ccrtijied to them,'^ thcvse certified lists, the originals 
of which are filed in the General Land Ofiice, conveyed to the 
State " the fee simple title to all the lands embraced in such lists 
that are of the character contemplated " by the terms of the act 
making the grant, and '' intended to be granted thereby; but where 
lands embraced in such lists are not of the character embraced by 
such act of Congress, and were not intended to be granted thereby, 
said lists, so far as these lands are concerned, shall be perfectly null 
and void; and no right, title, claim or interest shall be conveyed 
thereby." Those certified lists made under the act of May 15, 1856, 
were forty-three in number, viz: For the Burlington & Missouri 
River Railroad, nine; for the Mississippi & Missouri Railroad, eleven ; 
for the Iowa Central Air line, thirteen; and for the Dubuque & 
Sioux City Railroad^ ten. The lands thus approved to the State 
were as folic ws: 

Bm-lin^tun & Missomi River E R 287,095.34 acres. 

Mississippi & Missouri River R R 774,674.36 " 

Cedar Rapids & Missouri River R R 775.454.19 " 

Dubuque & Sioux City R R 1,226,558.32 " 

A portion of these had been selected as swamp lands by the 
State, under the act of September 28, 1850, and these, by the terms 
of the act of August 3, 1854, could not be turned over to the rail- 
roads unless the claim of the State to them as swamp was first re- 
jected. It was not possible to determine from the records of the 
State Land Ofiicethe extent of the conflicting claims arising un- 
der the two grants, as copies of the swamp land selections in some 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 95 

of the counties were not filed of record. The Commissioner of the 
General Land Office, however, prepared lists of the lands claimed 
by the State as swamp under act of September 28, 1850, and 
also claimed by the railroad companies under act of May 15, 1856, 
amounting to 553,293.33 acres, the claim to which as swamp had 
been rejected by the Department. These were consequently cer- 
tified the State as railroad lands. There was no mode other than 
the act of July, 1856, prescribed for transferring the title to these 
lands from the State to the companies. The courts had d-^cided 
that, for the purposes of the grant, the lands belonged io the 
State, and to her the companies should look for their titles. It was 
generally accepted that the act of the Legislature of July, 1856, 
was all that was necessary to complete the transfer of title. It was 
assumed that all the rights and powers conferred upon the State by 
the act of Congress of May 14, 1856, were by the act of the Gen- 
eral Assembly transferred to the companies; in other words, that 
it was designed to put the companies in the place of the State as 
the grantees from Congress — and, therefore, that which perfected 
the title thereto to the State perfected the title to the companies 
by virtue of the act of July, 1856. One of the companies, how- 
ever, the Burlington & Missouri River Railroad Company, was not 
entirely satisfied with this construction. Its managers thought 
that some further and specific action of the State authorities in ad- 
dition to the act of the Legislature was necessary to complete their 
title. This induced Gov. Lowe to attach to the certified lists his 
official certificate, under the broad seal of the State. On the 9tli 
of November, 1859, the Governor thus certified to them (commenc- 
ing at the Missouri River) 187,207.41: acres, and December 27th, 
43,775.70 acres, an aggregate of 231,073.14 acres. These were 
the only lands under the grant that were certified by the State au- 
thorities with any design of perfecting the title already vested in 
the company by the act of July, 1856. The lists which were after- 
ward furnished to the company were simply certified by the Gov- 
ernor as being correct copies of the lists received by the State from 
the United States General Land Office. These subsequent lists em- 
braced lands that had been claimed by the State under the Swamp 
Land Grant. 

It was urged against the claim of the Companies that the efi'ect 
of the act of the Legislature was simply to substitute them for the 
State as parties to the grant. 1st. That the lands were granted 
to the State to be held in trust for the accomplishment of a specific 
purpose, and therefore the State could not part with the title until 
that purpose should have been accomplished. 2d. That it was 
not the intention of the act of July 14, 1856, to deprive the State 
of the control of the lands, but on the contrary that she should 
retain supervision of them and the right to withdraw all rights 
and powers and resume the title conditionally conferred by that act 
upon the companies in the event of their failure to complete their 



96 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

part of the contract. 3d. That the certified lists from the Gen- 
eral Land Office vested the title in the State only by virtue of the 
act of Congress approved August 3, 1854. The State Land Office 
held that the proper construction of the act of July 14, 1856, when 
accepted by the companies, was that it hecame a. conditional contract 
that might ripen into a positive sale of the lands as from time to 
time the Avork should progress, and as the State thereby became 
authorized by the express terms of the grant to sell them. 

This appears to have been the correct construction of the act, 
but by a subsequent act of Congress, approved June 2, 1864, 
amending the act of 1856, the terms of the grant were changed, 
and numerous controversies arose between the companies and the 
State. 

The ostensible purpose of this additional act was to allow the 
Davenport & Council Bluffs Railroad "to modify or change the 
location of the uncompleted portion of its line," to run through 
the town of Newton, Jasper County, or as nearly as practicable to 
that point. The original grant had been made to the State to aid 
in the construction of railroads within its limits, and not to the 
companies, but Congress, in 1864, appears to have been utterly 
ignorant of w^iat had been done under the act of 1856, or, if not, 
to have utterly disregarded it. The State had accepted the origin- 
al grant. The Secretary of the Interior had already certified to 
the State all the lands intended to be included in the grant within 
fifteen miles of the lines of the several railroads. It will be re- 
membered that Section 4, of the act of May 15, 1856, specifies the 
manner of sale of these lands from time to time as work on the 
railroads should progress, and also provided that "if any of said 
roads are not completed within ten years, no farther sale shall be 
m^de, and the lands tmsoJd shall revert to the United States." 
Having vested the title to these lands in trust, in the State of Iowa, 
it is plain that until the expiration of the ten years there could be 
no reversion, and the State, not the United States, must control 
tliem until the grant should expire by limitation. The United 
Stat( s authorities could not rightfully requn-e the Secretary of the 
Interior to certify directly to the companies any portion of the 
lands already certified to the State. And yet Congress, by its act 
of June 2, 1864. provided that whenever the Davenport & Council 
Bluff's Railroad Company should file in the General Land Office, at 
Washington, a map definitely showing such new location, the 
Secretary of the Interior should cause to be certified and con- 
veyed to said Company, from time to time, as the road progressed, 
out of any of the lands belonging to the United States, not sold, 
reserved, or otherwise disposed of, or to which a pre-emption claim 
or right of homestead had not attached, and on which a bona Jide 
settlement and improvement had not been made under color of 
title derived from the United States, or from the State of Iowa, 
within six miles of such newly located line, an amount of land 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 97 

per mile equal to that originally authorized to be granted to aid in 
the construction of said road by the act to which this was an 
amendment. 

The term '^ out of any lands heJongincj to the United States,^ not 
sold, reserved or otherwise disposed of, etc.," would seem to indi- 
cate that Congress did intend to grant lands already granted, but 
when it declared that the Company should have an amount per 
mile equal to that originally authorized to be granted, it is plain 
that the fraraers of the bill were ignorant of the real terms of the 
original grant, or that they designed that the United States should 
resume the title it had already parted Avith two years before the 
lands could revert to the United States under the original act, 
which was not repealed. 

A similar change was made in relation to the Cedar Rapids & 
Missouri Railroad, and dictated the conveyance of lands in a 
similar manner. 

Like provision was made for the Dubuque & Sioux City Rail- 
road, and the Company was permitted to change the location of 
its line between Fort Dodge and Sicux City, so as to secure the 
best route between those points; but this change of location was 
not to impair the right to the land granted in the original act, 
nor did it change the location of those lands. 

By the same act, the Mississippi & Missouri Railroad Company 
was authorized to transfer and assign all or any part of the grant 
to any other company or person, '"if, in the opinion of said Com- 
pany, the construction of said railroad across the State of Iowa 
would be thereby sooner and more satisfactorily completed; but 
such assignee should not in any case be released from the liabili- 
ties and conditions accompanying this grant, nor acquire perfect 
title in any other manner than the same would have been ac- 
quired by the original grantee." 

Still further, the Burlington & Missouri River Railroad was not 
forgotten, and was, by the same act, empowered to receive an 
amount of land per mile equal to that mentioned in the original 
act, and if that could not be found Avithin the limits of six miles 
from the line of said road, then such selection might be made 
along such line within twenty miles thereof out of any public 
lands belonging to the United States, not sold, reserved or other- 
wise disposed of , or to which a pre-emption claim or right of 
homestead had not attached. 

Those acts of Congress, which evidently originated in the 
"lobby," occasioned much controversy and trouble. The Depart- 
ment of the Interior, however, recognizing the fact that when the 
Secretary had certified the lands to the State, under the act of 
1856, that act divested the United States of title, under the vest- 
ing act of August, 1854, refused to review its action, a'nd also re- 
fused to order any and all investigations for establishing adverse 
claims (except in prf-emption cases), on the ground that the 



98 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

United States had parted with the title, and, therefore, could ex- 
ercise no control over the land. 

May 12, 186-1, before the passage of the amendatory act above 
described, Congress granted to the State of Iowa, to aid in the 
construction of a railroad from McGregor to Sioux City, and for 
the benefit of the McGregor Western Kailroad Company, every 
alternate section of land, designated by odd numbers, for ten 
sections in width on each side of the proposed road, reserving the 
right to substitute other lands, whenever it was found that the 
grant infringed upon pre-empted lands, or on lands that had been 
reserved or disposed of for any other purpose. In such cases, the 
Secretary of the Interior was instructed to select, in lieu, lands 
belonging to the United States lying nearest to the limits specified, 

X. AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE AND FARM LAND. 

An Agricultural College and Model Farm was established by act 
of the General Assembly, approved March 22, 1858. By the elev- 
enth section of the act, the proceeds of the five-section grant 
made for the purpose of aiding in the erection of public buildings 
was appropriated, subject to the approval of Congress, together 
with all lands that Congress might thereafter grant to the State 
for the purpose for the benifit of the institution. On the 23d of 
March, by joint resolution, the Legislature asked the consent of 
Congress to the proposed transfer. By act approved July 11, 1862, 
Congress removed the restrictions imposed in the ''five-section 
grant," and authorized the General Assembly to make such disposi- 
tion of the lands as should be deemed best for the interests of the 
State. By these several acts, the five sections of land in Jasper 
County certified to the State to aid m the erection of public buildings 
under the act of March 3, 1845, entitled: "An act supple- 
mental to the act for the admission of the States of Iowa and 
Florida into the Union," were fully appropriated for the ben- 
efit of the Iowa Agricultural College and Farm. The institu- 
tion is located in Story County. Seven hundred and twenty-one 
acres in that and two hundred in Boone County were donated to 
it by individuals interested in the success of the enterprise. 

By act of Congress approved July 2, 1822, an appropriation was 
made to each State and Territory of 30,000 acres for each Senator 
and Representative in Congress, to which, by the apportionment 
under the census of 1850, they were respectively entitled. This 
grant was made for the purpose of endowing colleges of agricul- 
ture and mechanic arts. 

Iowa accepted this grant by an act passed at an extra session of 
its Legislature, approved September 11, 1862, entitled "An act to 
accept of the grant, and carry into execution the trust conferred upon 
the State of Iowa by an act of Congress entitled 'An act granting 
public lands to the several States and Territories which may pro- 
vide colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts,' 



HISTORY OF IOWA. d\) 

approved July 2, 1862. ■" This act made it the duty of the Govern- 
or to appoint an agent to select and locate the lands, and provided 
that none should be selected that were claimed by any county as 
swamp lands. The agent was required to make report of his doings 
to the Governor, who was instructed to submit the list of selections 
to the Board of Trustees of the Agricultural College for their ap- 
proval. One thousand dollars were appropriated to carry the law 
into effect. The State, having two Senators and six Representa- 
tives in Congress, was entitled to 240,000 acres of land uuder this 
grant, for the purpose of establishing and maintaining an Agricul- 
tural College. Peter Melendy, Esq., of Black Hawk County, was 
appointed to make the selections, and during August, Septem- 
ber and December, 1863, located them in the Fort Dodge, Des 
Moines and Sioux City Land Districts. December 8, 1861, these 
selections were certified by the Commissioner of the General Land 
Office, and were approved to the State by the Secretary of the In- 
terior December 13, 1864. The title to these lands was vested in 
the State in fee simple, and conflicted with no other claims under 
other grants. 

The agricultural lands were approved to the State as 240,000.96 
acres; but 35,691.66 acres were located within railroad limits, which 
were computed at the rate of two acres for one, the actual amount 
of land approved to the State under this grant was only 204,309.30 
acres, located as follows: 

In Des Moines Land District 6,804.96 acres. 

In 8ioux City Land District 59,025.;i7 " 

In Fort Dodge Land District 138,478.97 " 

By act of the General Assembly, approved March 29, 1864, en- 
titled, "An act authorizing the Trustees of the Iowa State Agri- 
cultural College and Farm, to sell all lands acquired, granted, do- 
nated or appropriated for the benefit of said College, and to make 
an investment of the proceeds thereof," all these lands were granted 
to the Agricultural College and Farm, and the Trustees were au- 
thorized to take possession and sell or lease them. They were then 
under the control of the Trustees, lands as follows: 

Under the act of July 2, 1852 304,;309.30 acres. 

Of the five-section grant 3,200.00 '' 

Lands donated in Story County 721.00 " 

Lands donated in Boone County 200.00 " 

Total 208,430.30 acres. 

The Trustees opened an office at Fort Dodge, and appointed Hon. 
G. W. Bassett their agent for the sale of these lands. 

THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

The germ of the free public schcol system of Iowa, which now 
ranks second to none in the United States, was planted by the first 
settlers. They had migrated to the " Beautiful Land "' from other 



100 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

and older States, where the common school system had been tested 
by many years' experience, bringing with them some knowledge of 
its advantages, which they determined should be enjoyed by the 
children of the land of their adoption. The system thus planted 
was expanded and improved in the broad fields of the West, until 
now it is justly considered one of the most complete, comprehen- 
sive and liberal in the country. 

Nor is this to be wondered at when it is remembered humble log 
school houses were built almost as soon as the log cabin of the ear- 
liest settlers were occupied by their brave builders. In the lead 
mining regions of the State, the first to be occupied by the white 
race, the hardy pioneers provided the means for the education of 
their children even before they had comfortable dwellings for their 
families. School teachers were among the first immigrants to 
Iowa. Wherever a little settlement was made, the school house 
was the first united public act of the settlers; and the rude, primi- 
tive structures of the early time only disappeared when the com- 
munities had increased in population and wealth, and were able to 
replace them with more commodious and comfortable buildings. 
Perhaps in no single instance has the magnificent progress of the 
State of Iowa been more marked and rapid than in her common 
school system and in her school houses, which, long since, super- 
seded the log cabins of the first settlers. To-day, the school houses 
which everywhere dot the broad and fertile prairies of Iowa are 
unsurpassed by those of any other State in the great Union. More 
especially is this true in all her cities and villages, where liberal 
and lavish appropriations have been voted, by a generous people, 
for the erection of large, commodious and elegant buildings, fur- 
nished with all the modern improvements, and costing from $10,000 
to $60,000 each. The people of the State have expended more 
than $10,000,000 for the erection of public school buildings. 

The first house erected in Iowa was a log cabin at Dubuque, 
built by James L. Langworthy and a few other miners, in the 
Autumn of 1833. 

Mrs. Caroline Dexter commenced teaching in Dubuque in March, 
1836. She was the first female teacher there, aud probably the 
first in Iowa. The first tax for the support of schools at Dubuque 
was levied in 1840. 

Among the first buildings erected at Burlington was a commodi- 
ous log school house in 1834, in which Mr. Johnson Pierson taught 
the first school in the Winter of 1834-5. 

The first school in Muscatine County was taught by George 
Bumgardner, in the Spring of 183T, and in 1839, a log school 
house was erected in Muscatine, which served for a long time for 
school house, church and public hall. The first school in Daven- 
port was taught in 1838. In Fairfield Miss Clarissa Sawyer, 
James F. Chambers and Mrs. Reed taught school in 1839. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 101 

When the site of Iowa City was selected as the capital of the 
Territory of Iowa, in May, 1839, it was a perfect wilderness. The 
first sale of lots took place Anpjust 18, 183'J, and before January 
1, 1840, about twenty families had settled within the limits of the 
town; and during the same year, Mr. Jesse Berry opened a school in 
a small frame building he had erected, on what is now College street. 

The first settlement in Monroe County was made in 1843, by 
Mr. John R. Gray, about two miles from the present site of Eddy- 
ville; and in the Summer of 1844, a log school house was built, 
and the first school was opened. About a year after the first cabin 
was built at Oskaloosa, a log school house was built. 

At Fort Des Moines, now the Capital of the State, the first 
school was taught in the Winter of 1846-7. 

The first school in Pottawattamie County was opened at Council 
Point, prior to 1849. 

The first school in Decorah was taught in 1853. In Osceola, 
the first school was opened by Mr. U. W. Scoville. The first 
school at Fort Dodge was taught in 1S55, by Cyrus C. Carpenter, 
since Governor of the State. In Crawford County, the first school 
house was built in Mason's Grove, in 1856, and Morris McHenry 
first occupied it as teacher. 

During the first twenty years of the history of Iowa, the log 
school houses prevailed, and in 1861, there were 893 of these 
primitive structures in use for school purposes in the State. Since 
that time they have been gradually disappearing. In 1865, there 
were 796; in '1870, 336; and in 1875, 121. 

Iowa Territory was created July 3, 1838. January 1, 1839, the 
Territorial Legislature passed an act providing that ''there shall 
be establisked a common school, or schools, in each of the counties 
in this Territory, which shall be open and free for every class of 
white citizens between the ages of five and twenty-one years." 
The second section of the act provided that "the County Board 
shall, from time to time, form such districts in their respective 
counties whenever a petition may be presented for the purpose by 
a majority of the voters resident within such contemplated dis- 
trict." These districts were governed by boards of trustees, 
usually of three persons; each district was required to maintain 
school at least three mouths in every year; and later, laws were 
enacted providing for county school taxes for the payment of 
teachers, and that whatever additional sura might be required 
should be assessed upon the parents sending, in proportion to the 
length of time sent. 

When Iowa Territory became a State, in 1846, with a popula- 
tion of 100,000, and with 20,000 pupils within its limits, about 
four hundred school districts had been organized. In 1850, there 
were 1,200, and in 1857, the number had increased to 3,265. 

In March, 1858, the Seventh General Assembly enacted that 
''each civil township is declared a school district,' and provided 



102 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

that these should be divided into sub-districts. This law went into 
force March 20, 1858, and reduced the number of school districts 
from about 3,500 to less than 900. 

This change of school organization resulted in a very material 
reduction of the expenditures for the compensation of District 
Secretaries and Treasurers. An effort was made for several years, 
from 1867 to 1872, to abolish the sub-district system. The Legis- 
lature of 1870, provided for the formation of independent districts 
from the sub-districts of district townships. The system of 
graded schools was inaugurated in 1849; and new schools, in which 
more than one teacher is employed, are universally graded. 

The first official mention of Teachers' Institutes in the educa- 
tional records of Iowa, occurs in the annual report of Hon. Thomas 
H. Benton, Jr., made December 2, 1850. 

In March, 1858, an act was passed authorizing the holding of 
Teachers' Institutes for periods not less than six working days, 
whenever not less than thirty teachers should desire. The Super- 
intendent was authorized to expend not exceeding ^100 for any one 
Institute, to be paid out by the County Superintendent as the In- 
stitute might direst for teachers and lecturers, and one thousand 
dollars was appropriated to defray the expenses of these Institutes. 

The Board of Education at its first session, commencing Decem- 
ber 6, 1858, enacted a code of school laws which retained the ex- 
isting provisions for Teachers' Institutes. In March, 1860, the 
General Assembly amended the act of the Board by appropriating 
"a sum not exceeding fifty dollars annually for one such Institute, 
held as provided by law in each county." 

By act approved March 19, 1874, Normal Institutes were estab- 
lished in each county, to be held annually by the County Superin- 
tendent, and in 1876 the Sixteenth General Assembly established 
the first permanent State Normal School at Cedar Falls, Black Hawk 
County, appropriating the building and property of the Soldiers' 
Orphans' Home at that place for that purpose. 

The public school system of Iowa is admirably organized, and if 
the various officers who are entrusted with the educational interests 
of the commonwealth are faithful and competent, should and will 
constantly improve. 

"The public schools are supported by funds arising from several 
sources. The sixteenth section of every Congressional Township 
was set apart by the General Government for school purposes, be- 
ing one-thirty-sixth part of all the lands of the State. The mini- 
mum price of these lands was fixed at one dollar and twenty-five 
cents per acre. Congress also made an alditional donation to the 
State of five hundred thousand acres, and an appropriation of five 
per cent, on all the sales of public lands to the school fund. The 
State gives to this fund the proceeds of the sales of all lands which 
escheat to it; the proceeds of all fines for the violation of the 
liquor and criminal laws. The money derived from these sources 



inSTOEY OF IOWA. 103 

constitutes the permanent school fund of the State, which cannot 
be diverted to any other purpose. The penalties collected by the 
courts for fines and forfeits go to the school fund in the counties 
where collected. The proceeds of the sale of lauds and the five 
per cent, fund go into the State Treasury, and. the State distrib- 
utes these proceeds to the several counties according to their re- 
quest, and the counties loan the money to individuals for long 
terms at eight per cent, interest, on security of land valued at three 
times the amount of the loan, exclusive of all buildings and im- 
provements thereon. The interest on these loans is paid into the 
State Treasury, and becomes the available school fund of the State. 
The counties are responsible to the State for all money so loaned, 
and the State is likewise responsible to the school fund for all 
moneys transferred to the counties. The interest on these loans 
is apportioned by the State Auditor semi-annually to the several 
counties of the State, in proportion to the number of persons 
between the ages of five and twenty-one years. The counties also 
levy an annual tax for school purposes, which is apportioned to 
the several district townships in the same way. A district tax 
is also levied for the same purpose. The money arising from these 
several sources constitutes the support of the public schools, and 
is sufficient to enable every sub-district in the State to afford from 
six to nine months' school each year." 

The taxes levied for the support of schools are self-imposed. 
Under the admirable school laws of the State, no taxes can be le- 
gally assessed or collected for the erection of school houses until 
they have been ordered by the election of the district at a school 
meeting legally called. The scliool houses of Iowa are the pride 
of the State and an honor to the people. If they have been some- 
times built at a prodigal expense, the tax payers have no one to 
blame but themselves. The teachers' and contingent funds are 
determined by the Directors, under certain legal restrictions. 
These boards are elected annually, except in the independent dis- 
tricts, in which the board may be entirely changed every three 
years. The only exception to this mode of levying taxes for sup- 
port of schools is the county school tax, which is determined by 
the County Board of Supervisors. The tax is from one to three 
mills on the dollar; usually, however, but one. 

In his admirable message to the General Assembly, just previous 
to retiring from the Gubernatorial chair, Gov. Gear has the follow- 
ing to say concerning the public schools of Iowa: 

''The number of school children reported is 594,750. Of this 
number 384,192 are, by approximation, between the ages of six 
and sixteen years. The number of all ages enrolled m the schools is 
431,513, which shows that much the greater proportion of chil- 
dren of school age avail themselves of the benefits of our educa- 
tional system. The average attendance is 254,088. The schools 
of the State have been in session, on an average, 148 days. 



104 HISTOEY OF IOWA. 

"There is, doubtless, quite a percentage of children who attend 
schools other than those of a public character. Yet the figures I 
have quoted show clearly that very many children, through the 
negligence or unwillingness of parents, do not attend school at all, 
but are in a fair way to grow up in ignorance. I, therefore, earn- 
estly suggest that you consider the expediency of enacting a com- 
pulsory educational law, which should require attendance upon 
schools of some kind, either public or private. To me it does 
seem as if the State shall not have done her full duty by the chil- 
dren, until she shall have completed her educational system by 
some such enactment. 

"The interest in the normal institutes is maintained, and, beyond 
doubt, they render great aid in training the teachers who attend 
them. 

"The receipts for all school purposes throughout the State were 
15,006,023.60, and the expenditures ^5,129,279.49; but of these re- 
ceipts and expenditures about $400,000 was of money borrowed to 
refund outstanding bonds at lower rates of interest. 

"The amount on hand aggregated, at the end of the fiscal year, 
$2,653,356.55. This sum is, in my judgment, much larger than 
the necessities of the schools require, and it would be well to im- 
pose some check to prevent an excessive or unnecessary levy of 
taxes for school purposes." 

The significance of such facts as these is unmistakable. Such 
lavish expenditures can only be accounted for by the liberality 
and public spirit of the people, all of whom manifest their love of 
popular education and their faith in the public schools by the an- 
nual dedication to their support of more than one per cent, of their 
entire ttp;able property; this too, uninterruptedly through a series 
of years, commencing in the midst of a war which taxed their en- 
ergies and resources to the extreme, and continuing through years 
of general depression in business — years of moderate yield of pro- 
duce, of discouragingly low prices, and even amid the scanty sur- 
roundings and privations of pioneer life. Few human enterprises 
have a grander significance or give evidence of a more noble pur- 
pose than the generous contributions from the scanty resources of 
the pioneer for the purposes of public education. 

POLITICAL RECORD. 

TERRITOKIAL OFFICERS. 

Governors — Robert Lucas, 1838-41; John Chambers, 1841-45; 
James Clarke, 1845. 

Secretaries — William B. Conway, 1838, died 1839; James Clarke, 
1839; 0. H. W. Stull, 1841; Samuel J. Burr, 1843; Jesse Wil- 
liams, 1845. 

Auditors— ie^^Q Williams, 1840; Wm. L. Gilbert, 1843; Robert 
M. Secrest, 1845. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 105 

Treasurers — Thornton Bayliss, 1839; Morgan Reno, 1840. 

Judf/es — Charles Mason, Chief Justice, 1838; Joseph Williams, 
1838, "Thomas S. Wilson, 1838. 

Presidents of Council — Jesse B, Browne, 1838-9 ; Stephen 
Hempstead, 1839^0; M. Bainridge, 1840-1; Jonathan W. Parker, 
1841-2; John D.Elbert, 1842-3; Thomas Cox, 1843-4; S.Clinton 
Hastings, 1845; Stephen Hempstead, 1845-6. 

Speakers of the i/o//s^— William H. Wallace, 1838-9; Edward 
Johnston, 1839-40; Thomas Cox, 1840-1; Warner Lewis, 1841-2; 
James M. Morgan, 1842-3; James P. Carleton, 1843-4; James 
M. Morgan, 1845; George W. McCleary, 1845-6. 

First Constitutional Convention^ 1844 — Shepherd Leffler, Presi- 
dent; Geo. S. Hampton, Secretary. 

Second Constitutional Convention, 1846 — Enos Lowe, President; 
William Thompson, Secretary. 

OFFICERS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT. 

Governors — Ansel Briggs, 1846 to 1850; Stephen Hempstead, 
1850 to 1854; James W. Grimes, 1854 to 1858; Ralph P. Lowe, 
1858 to 1860; Samuel J. Kirkwood, 1860 to 1864; William M. 
Stone, 1864 to 1808; Samuel Morrill, lc68 to 1872; Cyrus C. Car- 
penter, 1872 to 1876; Samuel J. Kirkwood, 1876 to 1877; Joshua 
G. Newbold, Acting, 1877 to 1878; John H. Gear, 1878 to 1882; 
Buren R. Sherman, 1882 to . 

Lieutenant Governors — Office created by the new Constitution 
September 3, 1857— Oran FaviUe, 1858-9; Nicholas J. Rusch, 
1860-1; John R. Needhara, 1862-3; Enoch W. Eastman, 1864-5; 
Benjamin F. Gue, 1866-7; John Scott, 1868-9; M. M. Walden, 
1870-1; H. C. Bulls, 1872-3; Joseph Dysart, 1874-5; Joshua G. 
Newbold, 1876-7; Frank T. Campbell, 1878-82; 0. H. Manning, 
1882 to . 

Secretaries of State — Elisha Cutler, Jr., Dec. 5, 1846. to Dec. 4, 
1848; Josiah H. Bonney, Dec. 4, 1848, to Dec. 2, 1850; George W. 
McCleary, Dec. 2. 1850, to Dec. 1,1856; Elijah Sells. Dec. 1, 1856. 
to Jan. 5, 1863; James Wright, Jan. 5, 1863, to Jan. 7, 1867; Ed. 
Wright, Jan. 7, 1867, to Jan. 6, 1873; Josiah T. Young, Jan. 6, 
1873, to 1879; J. A. T. Hull, 1879 to ." 

Auditors of State— .lose^h T. Fales, Dec. 5, 1846, to Dec. 2, 1850; 
William Pattee, Dec. 2, 1850, to Dec. 4, 1854; Andrew J. Stevens, 
Dec. 4, 1854, resigned in 1855; John Pattee, Sept. 22, 1855, to 
Jan. 3, 1859; Jonathan W. Cattell, 1859, to 1865; John A. Elliot, 
1865 to 1871; John Rassell, 1871 to 1875; Buren R.'Sherman, 
1875 to 1881; W. V. Lucas, 1881 to . 

Treasurers of State — Morgan Reno, Dec. 18, 1846, to Dec. 2, 
1850: Israel Kister, Dec. 2, 1850, to Dec. 4, 1852, Martin L. Mor- 
ris, Dec. 4, 1852, to Jan. 2, 1859; John W. Jones, 1859 to 1863; 
William H. Holmes, 1863 to 1867; Samuel E. Rankin, 1867 to 



106 IIISTOEY OF I(5\VA. 

1873; William Christy, 1878 to 1877; George W. Berais, 1877 to 
1881; Edwin G. Conger, 1881 to ■ -. 

Superintendents of Public Instruction — Office created in 1847 — 
James Harlan, June 5, 1845 (Supreme Court decided election void); 
Thomas H. Benton, Jr., May 23, 1844, to June 7, 1854; James D. 
Eads, 1854-7; Joseph C. Stone, March to June, 1857; Maturin L. 
Fisher, 1857 to Dec. 1858, when the office was abolished and the 
duties of the office devolved upon the Secretary of the Board of 
Education. 

Secretaries of the Board of Education — Thomas H. Benton, Jr., 
1859-1863; Oran Faville, Jan. 1, 1864. Board abolished March 
23, 1864. 

Superintendents of Public Instruction — Office re-created March 
23, 1864— Oran Faville, March 28, 1864, resigned March 1, 1867; 
D. Franklin Wells, March 4, 1867, to Jan., 1870; A. S. Kissell, 
1870 to 1872; Alonzo Abernethy, 1872 to 1877; Carl W. von 
Coelln, 1877 to 1882; J. W. Akers, 1882 to . 

State Binders — Office created February 21, 1855 — Williajn M. 
Coles, May 1, 1855, to May 1, 1859; Frank M. Mills, 1859 to 1867; 
James S. Carter, 1867 to 1870; J. J. Smart, 1870 to 1874; H. A. 
Perkins, 1874 to 1878; Matt Parrott, 1878 to . 

Registers of the State Land Office — Anson Hart, May 5, 1855, to 
Mav'l3, 1857; Theodore S. Parvin, May 13,1857, to Jan. 3, 1859; 
Anios B. Miller, Jan. 3, 1859, to October, 1862; Edwin Mitchell, 
Oct. 31, 1862, to Jan. 5, 1863; Josiah A. Harvey, Jan. 5, 1863, to 
Jan. 7, 1867; Cyrus C. Carpenter, Jan. 7, 1867, to January, 1871; 
Aaron Brown, January, 1871, to January, 1875; David Secor. Jan- 
uary, 1875, to 1879; J. K. Powers, 1879 to . 

State Printers — Office created Jan. 3, 1840 — Garrett D. Palmer 
and George Paul, 1849; William H. Merritt, 1851 to 1853; Wil- 
liam A. Hornish, 1853 (resigned Mav 16, 1853); Mahoney & Dorr, 
1853 to 1855; Peter Moriarty, 1855 'to 1857; John Teesdale, 1857 
to 1861; Francis W. Palmer, 1861 to 1869; Frank M. Mills, 1869 
to 1870; G. W. Edwards, 1870 to 1872; R. P. Clarkson, 1872 to 
1878; Frank M. Mills, 1878 to . 

Adjutants General — Daniel S. Lee, 1851-5; Geo. W. McCleary, 
1855-7; Elijah Sells, 1857; Jesse Bowen, 1857-61; Nathaniel Ba- 
ker, 1861 to 1877; John H. Looby, 1877 to 1879; W. L. Alexan- 
der, 1879 to . 

Attornei/s General — -David C. Cloud, 1853-56: Samuel A. Rice, 
1856-60; Charles C. Nourse, 1861-4; Isaac L. Allen, 1865 (resigned 
January, 1866); Frederick E. Bissell, 1866 (died June 12, 1867); 
Henry O'Connor, 1867-72; Marsena E. Cutts, 1872-6; John F. 
McJunkin, 1877 to 1881; Smith McPherson, 1881 to . 

Presidents of the Senate — Thomas Baker, 1846-7; Thomas 
Hughes, 1848; John J . Selman, 1848-9: Enos Lowe, 1850-1; Wil- 
liam E. Leffingwell, 1852-3; Maturin L. Fisher, 1854-5; William 



HISTOKY OF 10 V,- A. ]07 

W, Hamilton, lSo6-7. Under the Kevv Constitution, the Lieuten- 
ant Governor is President of the Senate. 

Sjieakers of the House — Jesse B. Brown, 1847-8; Smiley H. 
Bonhan, 1849-50; George Temple, 1851-2; James Grant, 1853-4; 
Reuben Noble, 1855-6; Samuel McFarland, 1856-7; Stephen B. 
Sheledy, 1858-9; John Edwards. 1860-1 ; Rush Clark, 1862-8; Ja- 
cob Butler, 1864-5; Ed. Wright, 1866-7; John Russell, 1868-9; 
Aylett R. Cotton, 1870-1; James Wilson, 1872-3; John H. Gear, 
1874-7; John Y. Stone, 1878-9; Lore Alford, 1880-1; G. R. Stru- 
ble, 1882 to . 

New Constitutional Convention^ 1S59 — Francis Springer, Presi- 
dent; Thos. J. Saunders, Secretary. 

STATE OFFICERS, 1882. 

Buren R. Sherman, Governor; 0. H. Manning, Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor; John A. T. Hull, Secretary of State; William V. Lucas, Au- 
ditor of State; Edwin H. Conger, Treasurer of State: James K. 
Powers, Register of State Land Office; W. L. Alexaudnr. Adjutant 
General: Smith McPherson, Attorney General; Edward J. Holmes, 
Clerk of the Supreme Court; Jno. S. Runnells, Reporter Supreme 
Court; J. W. Akers, Superintendent of Public Instruction; Frank 
M. Mills, State Printer; Matt. Parrott, State Binder; Prof. Nathan 
R. Leonard, Superintendent of Weights and Measures; Mrs. S. B. 
Maxwell, State Librarian. 

THE JUDICIARY. 

SUPREME COURT OF IOWA, 1882. 

Chief Justice, Austin Adams, Dubuque; Associate Judges, Wil- 
liam H. Seevers, Oskaloosa; James G. Dav, Sidney; James H. Roth- 
rock, Tipton; Joseph M. Beck, Fort Madison. 

DISTRICT COURTS, 1882. 

First Judicial District, Abraham H. Stutsman, Burlington; Sec- 
ond Judicial District, Edward L. Burton, Ottumwa; Third Judicial 
District, R. C. Henry, Mount Ayr; Fourth Judicial District, Charles 
H. Lewis, Cherokee: Fifth Judicial District, William H. McHenry, 
Des Moines; Sixth Judicial District, John C. Cook, Newton; Sev- 
enth Judicial District, Walter I. Hayes, Clinton; Eighth Judicial 
District, John Shane, Vinton; Ninth Judicial District, Sylvester 
Bagg, Waterloo; Tenth Judicial District, Ezekiel E. Cooley, De- 
corah; Eleventh Judicial District. James W. McKenzie, Hampton; 
Twelfth Judicial District, Geo. W. Ruddick, Waverly; Thirteenth 
Judicial District, Joseph R. Reed, Council Blufls; Fourteenth Ju- 
dicial District, Ed. R. Duffie, Sac City. 

CIRCUIT COURTS, 1882. 

First Judicial Circuit, First District, William J. Jeliries, Mt. 
Pleasant; Second Judicial Circuit, First District, Charles Phelps, 



108 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

Burlington; Second Judicial Circuit, H. C. Traverse, Bloomfield; 
Third Judicial Circuit, D. D. Gregory, Afton; Fourth Judicial 
Circuit, J. R. Zuver, Sioux City; First Judicial Circuit, Fifth 
District, Josiah Griven, Des Moines; Second Judicial Circuit, 
Fifth District, Stephen A. Callvert, Adel; Sixth Judicial Circuit. 
W. R. Lewis, Montezuma; First Judicial Circuit, Seventh District, 
Charles W. Chase, Clinton; Second Judicial Circuit, Seventh Dis- 
trict, DeWitt C. Richman, Muscatine; Eighth Judicial Circuit, 
Christian Hedges, Marengo; Ninth Judicial Circuit, Benjamin W. 
Lacy, Dubuque; Tenth Judicial Circuit, Charles T. Granger, Wau- 
kon; Eleventh Judicial Circuit, D. D. Miracle, Webster City; 
Twelfth Judicial Circuit, Robert G. Reineger, Charles City; Thir- 
teenth Judicial Circuit, C. F'. Loofbourrow, Atlantic; Fourteenth 
Judicial Circuit, John N. Weaver, Algona. 

CONGRESSIONAL REPRESENTATION. 

UN'ITED STATES SENATORS. 

(The first General Assembly failed to elect Senators.) 
George W. Jones, Dubuque, Dec. 7, 1848-1858; Augustus C. 
Dodge, Burlington. Dec. 7,1848-1855; James Harlan, Mt. Pleas- 
ant, Jan. 6, 1855 1865; James W. Grimes, Burlington, Jan. 26, 
1858-died 1870; Samuel J. Kirk wood, Iowa City, elected Jan. 13, 
1866, to fill vacancy caused by resignation of James Harlan; James 
Harlan, Mt. Pleasant, March 4, 1866-1872; James B. Howell, 
Keokuk, elected Jan. 20, 1870, to fill vacancy caused by the death of 
J. W. Grimes — term expired March 3d; George G. Wright, Des 
Moines, March 4, 1871-1877; William B. Allison, Dubuque, 
March 4, 1872: Samuel J. Kirkwood, March 4, 1877; James W. 
MeDill, appointed to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of S. 
J. Kirkwood, in 1881, and elected Jan. 1882, to fill the unexpired 
term; James F. Wilson, elected Jan. 1882, for the full term, be- 
ginning March 4, 1883. 

MEMBERS OF HOUSE OF REPRESE;N^TATIYES. 

Tirenfi/-ninth Congress— ISiQ to 1847. — S. Clinton Hastings; 
Shepherd Lefller. 

Thirtieth Congress— 1S4:7 to 1849.— First District, William 
Thompson; Second District, Shepherd Leffier. 

Thirty-first Congress— l^id to 1851.— First District, First Ses- 
sion, Wm. Thompson; unseated by the House of Representatives 
on a contest, and election remanded to the people. First District, 
Second Session, Daniel F. Miller. Second District, Shepherd 
Leffler. 

Thirtg-second Congress — 1851 to 1853, — First District, Bern- 
hart Henn. Second District, Lincoln Clark. 

Tlnrty-third Congress — 1853 to 1855. — First District, Bernhart 
Henn. Second District, John P. Cook. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 109 

Thirtif-fourth Congress— 1S55 to 1857. — First District, Augustus 
Hall. Second District, James Thorington. 

Thirtif-Jifth Congress — 1857 to 1859. — First District, Samuel 
R. Curtis. Second District, Timothy Davis. 

Thirtii-sixth Congress — 1859 to 1861. — First District, Samuel 
R. Curtis. Second District, William Vandever. 

Thirty-serenth Congress — 1861 to 1863. — First District, First 
Session, Samuel R. Curtis.* First District, Second and Third Ses- 
sions, James F. Wilson. Second District, William Vandever. 

Thirty-eighth Congress — 1863 to 1865. — First District, James 
F. Wilson. Second District, Hiram Price; Third District, William 
B. Allison; Fourth District, Josiah B. Grinnell; Fifth District, 
John A. Kasson; Sixth District, Asahel W. Hubbard. 

Thirty-ninth Congress — 1865 to 1867. — First District, James 
F. Wilson; Second District, Hiram Price; Third District, William 
B.Allison; Fourth District, Josiah B. Grrinnell, Fifth District, 
John A. Kasson; Sixth District, Asahel W. Hubbard. 

Fortieth Congress— 1S67 to 1869.— First District, James F. 
Wilson; Second District, Hiram Price; Third District, William B. 
Allison; Fourth District, William Loughridge; Fifth District, 
Grenville M. Dodge; Sixth District, Asahel W.Hubbard. 

Forty-first Congress — 1869 to 1871. — First District, George W. 
McCrary; Second District, William Smyth; Third District, 
William B. Allison; Fourth District, William Loughridge; Fifth 
District, Frank W. Palmer; Sixth District, Charles Pomeroy. 

Forty-second Congress — 1871 to 1873. — First District, George 
W. McCrary; Second District, Aylett R. Cotton; Third District, 
W. G. Donnan; Fourth District, Madison M. Waldon; Fifth Dis- 
trict, Frank W. Palmer; Sixth District, Jackson Orr. 

Forty-third Congress — 1873 to 1875. — First District, George W. 
McCrary; Second District, Aylett R. Cotton; Third District, 
William G. Donnan; Fourth District. Henry 0. Pratt; Fifth Dis- 
trict, James Wilson; Sixth District, William Loughridge; Seventh 
District, John A. Kasson; Eighth District, James W. McDill; 
Ninth District, Jackson Orr. 

Forty-fourth Congress — 1875 to 1877. — First District, George 
W. McCrary; Second District, John Q. Tufts; Third District, L. 
L. Ainsworth; Fourth District, Henry 0. Pratt; Fifth District, 
James Wilson; Sixth District, Ezekiel S. Sampson; Seventh Dis- 
trict, John A. Kasson; Eighth District, James W. McDill; Ninth 
District, Addison Oliver. 

Forty-fifth Congress— 1877 to 1879.— First District, J. C. 
Stone; Second District, Hiram Price; Third District, T. W. Bur- 
dick; Fourth District, H. C. Deering; Fifth District, Rush Clark; 
Sixth District, E. S. Sampson; Seventh District, H. J. B. Cum- 
mings; Eighth District, W. F. Sapp; Ninth District, A. Oliver. 

^Vacated seat by acceptance of commission as Brigadier General, and J F. Wil-on 
chosen his successor. 



110 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

Forty-sixth Congress. — 1879 to 1881. — First District, Moses A. 
McCoid; Second District, Hiram Price; Third District, Thomas 
Updegraff ; Fourth District, Nathaniel C. Deering; Firth District, 
W. G. Thompson; Sixth District, James B. Weaver; Seventh Dis- 
tiict, Edward H. Gillette; Eighth District, William F. Sapp; 
Ninth District, Cyrus C. Carpenter, 

Forty-Seventh Congress— ISSl to 1883.— First District, Moses 
A. McCoid; Second District, Sewall S. Farwell; Third District, 
Thomas Updegraff; Fourth District, Nathaniel C. Deering; Fifth 
District, W. G. Thompson; Sixth District, Madison E. Cutts; 
Seventh District, John A. Kasson; Eighth District, William P. 
Hepburn; Ninth District, Cyrus C. Carpenter. 

WAR RECORD. 

The State of Iowa may well be proud of her record daring the 
War of the Rebellion, from 1861 to 1865. The following brief 
but comprehensive sketch of the history she made during that try- 
ing period, is largely from the pen of Col. A. P. Wood, of Du- 
buque, the author of "The History of Iowa and the War," one of 
the best works of the kind yet written. 

"Whether in the promptitude of her responses to the calls made 
on her by the General Government, in the courage and constancy 
of her soldiery in the field, or in the wisdom and efficiency with 
which her civil administration was conducted during the trying 
period covered by the War of the Rebellion, Iowa proved herself 
the peer of any loyal State. The proclamation of her Governor, 
responsive to that of the President, calling for volunteers to com- 
pose her First Regiment, was issued on the fourth day after the 
fall of Sumter. At the end of only a single week, men enough 
were reported to be in quarters (mostly in the vicinity of their 
own homes) to fill the regiment. These, however, were hardly 
more than a tithe of the number who had been offered by com- 
pany commanders for acceptance under the President's call. So 
urgent were these offers that the Governor requested (on the 24th 
of April) permission to organize an additional regiment. While 
awaiting an answer to this request, he conditionally accepted a 
sufficient number of companies to compose two additional regi- 
ments. In a short time, he was notified that both of these would 
be accepted. Soon after the completion of the Second and Third 
Regiments (which was near the close of May), the Adjutant Gen- 
eral of the State reported that upwards of one hundred and seventy 
companies had been tendered to the Governor to serve against the 
enemies of the Union. 

"Much difficulty and considerable delay occurred in fitting the 5e 
regiments for the field. For the First Infantry a complete outfit 
(not uniform) of clothing was extemporized — principally by the 
volunteered labor of loyal Jwomen in the different towns — from 



HISTORY OF IOWA. Ill 

material of various colors and qualities, obtained within the limits 
of the State. The same was done in part for the Second Infantry. 
Meantime, an extra session of the General Assembly had been 
called by the Governor, to convene on the 15th of May. With 
but little delay, that body authorized a loan of $800,000, to meet 
the extraordinary expenses incurred, and to be incurred, by the 
Executive Department, in consequence of the new emergency. A 
wealthy merchant of the State (Ex-Governor Merrill, then a resi- 
dent of McGregor) immediately took from the Governor a con- 
tract to supply a complete outfit of clothing for the three regi- 
ments organized, agreeing to receive, should the Governor so elect, 
his pay therefor in State bonds at par. This contract he executed 
to the letter, and a portion of the clothing (which was manufac- 
tured in Boston, to his order) was delivered at Keokuk, the place 
at which the troops had rendezvoused, in exactly one month from 
the day on which the contract had been entered into. The re- 
mainder arrived only a few days later. This clothing was deliver- 
ed to the regiment, but was subsequently condemned by the Gov- 
ernment, for the reason that its color was gray, and blue had been 
adopted as the color to be worn by the national troops." 

Other States also clothed their troops, sent forward under the 
first call of President Lincoln, with gray uniforms, but it was soon 
found that the Confederate forces were also clothed in gray, and 
that color was at once abandoned by the Union troops. If both 
armies were clothed alike, annoying if not fatal mistakes were 
liable to be made. 

But while engaged in these efforts to discharge her whole duty, 
in common with all the other Union-loving States in the great 
emergency, Iowa was compelled to make immediate and ample pro- 
vision for the protection of her own borders, from threatened inva- 
sion on the south by the Secessionists of Missouri, and from 
incursions from the west and northwest by bands of hostile Indians, 
who were freed from the usual restraint imposed upon them by 
the presence of regular troops stationed at the frontier posts. 
These troops were withdrawn to meet the greater and more press- 
ing danger threatening the life of the nation at its very heart. 

To provide for the adequate defense of her borders from the 
ravages of both rebels in arms against the Government, and of 
the more irresistible foes from the Western plains, the Governor 
of the State was authorized to raise and equip two regiments of 
infantry, a squadron of cavalry (not less than five companies) and 
a battalion of artillery (not less than three companies). Only 
cavalry were enlisted for home defense, however, ''but," says Col. 
Wood, " in times of special danger, or when calls were made by 
the Unionists of Northern Missouri for assistance against their 
disloyal enemies, large numbers of militia on foot often turned out, 
and remained in the field until the necessitv for their services had 



112 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

'^ The first order for the Iowa volunteers to move to the field 
was received on the 13th of June. It was issued by Gren. Lj^on, 
then commanding the United States forces in Missouri. The 
First and Second Infantry immediately embarked in steamboats, 
and moved to Hannibal. Some two weeks later, the Third In- 
fantry was ordered to the same point. These three, together with 
many other of the earlier organized Iowa regiments, rendered their 
first field service in Missouri. The First Infantry formed a part 
of the little army with which Gen. Lyon moved on Springfield, 
and fought the bloody battle of Wilson's Creek. It received un- 
qualified praise for its gallant bearing on the field. In the follow- 
ing month (September), the Third Iowa, with but very slight sup- 
port, fought with honor the sanguinary engagement of Blue 
Mills Landing; and in November, the Seventh Iowa, as a part of 
a force commanded by Gen. Grant, greatly distinguished itself in 
the battle of Belmont, where it poured out its blood like water — 
losing more than half of the men it took into action. 

" The initial operations in which the battles referred to took 
place, were followed by the more important movements led by 
Gen. Grant, Gen, Curtis, of this State, and other commanders, 
which resulted in defeating the armies defending the chief 
strategic lines held by the Confederates in Kentucky, Tennessee, 
Missouri and Arkansas, and compelling their withdrawal from 
much of the territory previously controlled by them in those 
States. In these and other movements, down to the grand culmin- 
ating campaign by which Vicksburg was captured and the Con- 
federacy permanently severed on the line of the Mississippi River, 
Iowa troops took part in steadily increasing numbers. In the in- 
vestment and siege of V'^icksburg, the State was represented by 
thirty regiment and two batteries, in addition to which, eight 
regiments and one battery were employed on the outposts of the 
besieging array. The brilliancy of their exploits on the many 
fields where they served, won for them the highest meed of praise, 
both in military and civil circles. Multipled were the terms in 
which expression was given to this sentiment, but these words of 
one of the journals of a neighboring State, 'The Iowa troops have 
been heroes among heroes,' embody the spirit of all. 

''In the veteran re -enlistments that distinguished the closing 
months of 1863, above all other periods in the history of re-enlist- 
ments for the national armies, the Iowa three years' men (who 
were relatively more numerous than those of any other State) 
were prompt to set the example of volunteering for another term 
of equal length, thereby adding many thousands to the great 
army of those who gave this renewed and practical assurance that 
the cause of the Union should not be left without defenders. 

"In all the important movements of 1864-65, by which the 
Confederacy Avas penetrated in every quarter, and its niilitary power 
finally overthrown, the Iowa troops took part. Their drum-beat 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 113 

was heard on the bauks of every great river of the South, from 
the Potomac to the Rio Grande, and everywhere they rendered 
the same faithful and devoted service, maintaining on all occasions 
their wonted reputation for valor in the field and endurance on the 
march. 

''Two Iowa three-year cavalry regiments were employed during 
the whole term of service in the operations that were in progress 
from 1863 to 1866 against the hostile Indians of the western 
plains. A portion of these men were among the last of the vol- 
unteer troops to be mustered out of service. The State also sup- 
plied a considerable number of men to the navy, who took part in 
most of the naval operations prosecuted against the Confederate 
power on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, and the rivers of the 
West. 

''The people of Iowa were early and constant workers in the san- 
itary field, and by their liberal gifts and personal efforts for the 
benefit of the soldiery, placed their State in froat rank of those 
who became distinguished for their exhibition of patriotic benevo- 
lence during the period covered by the war. Agents appointed 
by the Governor were stationed at points convenient for rendering 
assistance to the sick and needy soldiers of the State, while others 
were employed in visiting, from time to time, hospitals, camps and 
armies in the field, and doing whatever the circumstances rendered 
possible for the health and comfort of such of the Iowa soldiers as 
might be found there. 

"Some of the benevolent people of the State early conceived the 
idea of establishing a Home for such of the children of deceased 
soldiers as might be left in destitute circumstances. This idea 
first took form in 1863, and in the following year a Home was 
opened at Farmington, Van Buren County, in a building leased 
for that purpose, and which soon became filled to its utmost ca- 
pacity. The institution received liberal donations from the gen- 
eral public, and also from the soldiers in the field. In 1865 it be- 
came necessary to provide increased accommodations for the large 
number of children who were seeking the benefits of its care. 
This was done by establishing a branch at Cedar Falls, in Black 
Hawk County, and by securing, during the same year, for the 
use of the parent Home, Camp Kinsman, near the city of Daven- 
port. This property was soon afterward donated to the institu- 
tion by act of Congress. 

'•In 1866, in pursuance of a law enacted for that purpose, the 
Soldiers' Orphans' Home (which then contained about four hun- 
dred and fifty inmates) became a State institution, and thereafter 
the sums necessary for its support were appi'opriated from the 
State treasury. A second branch was established at Glenwood, 
Mills County. Convenient tracts were secured, and valuable im- 
provements made at the different points. Schools Avere also estab- 
lished, and employments provided for such of the children as were 



114 HISTOEY OF IOWA. 

of suitable age. In all ways the provision made for these wards 
of the State has been such as to challenge the approval of every 
benevolent mind. The number of children who have been in- 
mates of the Home from its foundation to the present time is con- 
siderably more than two thousand. 

''At the beginning of the war, the population of Iowa included 
about one hundred and fifty thousand men, presumably liable to 
render military service. The State raised, for general service, 
thirty-nine regiments of infantry; nine regiments of cavalry, and 
four companies of artillery, composed of three years' men; one 
regiment of Infantry, composed of three months' men; and four 
regiments and one battallion of infantry composed of one hundred 
days' men. The original enlistments in these various organiza- 
tions, including seventeen hundred and twenty-seven men raised 
by draft, numbered a little more than sixty-nine thousand. The 
re-enlistments, including upward of seven thousand veterans, 
numbered very nearly eight thousand. The enlistments in the 
regular army and navv, and organizations of other States, will, if 
added, raise the total to upward of eighty thousand. The number 
of men who, under special enlistments, and as militia, took part at 
different times in the operations on the exposed borders of the 
State, was probably as many as five thousand. 

"Iowa paid no bounty on account of the men she placed in the 
field. In some instances, toward the close of the war, bounty to a 
comparatively small amount was paid by cities and towns. On 
only one occasion — that of the call of July 18, 1861 — was a draft 
made in Iowa. This did not occur on account of her proper liabil- 
ity, as established by previous rulings of the War Department, to 
supply men under that call, but grew out of the great necessity 
that there existed for raising men. The Government insisted on 
temporarily setting aside, in part, the former rule of settlements, 
and enforcing a draft in all cases where sub-districts in any of the 
States should be found deficient in their supply of men. In no 
instance was Iowa, as a whole, found to be indebted to the General 
Government for men, on a settlement of her quota accounts." 

It is to be said to the honor and credit of Iowa, that while many 
of the loyal States, older and larger in population and wealth, in- 
curred heavy State debts for the purpose of fulfilling their obli- 
gations to the General Government, Iowa, while she was foremost 
in duty, while she promptly discharged all her obligations to her 
sister States and the Union, found herself at the close of the war 
without any material addition to her pecuniary liabilities incurred 
before the war commenced. Upon final settlement after the res- 
toration of peace, her claims upon the Federal Government were 
found to be fully equal to the amount of her bonds issued and sold 
during the war to provide the means for raising and equipping her 
troops sent into the field, and to meet the inevitable demands upon 
her treasury in consequence of the war. 



HISTORY OF IOWA 



115 



STATEMENT sJiowing the number of men funiished and casualties in lowi 
regiments during the War of the Rehellion. 



Regiments. 



1st Battery 

2d Battery 

3cl Battery 

4th Battery 

1st Cavalry 

2d Cavalry 

3d Cavalry 

4th Cavalry 

5th Cavalry 

6th Cavalry 

7th Cavalry 

8th Cavalry 

9th Cavalry 

Sioux City Cavalry 

Co. A, nth Penn. Cavalry. . 

1st Infantry ,. 

2d Infantry 

3d Infantry 

2d and 3d Inf. Consolidated. 
4th Infantry 



5th Infantry 

6th Infantry 

7th Infantry 

8th Infantry 

9th Infantiy 

10th Infantry 

11th Infantry 

12th Infantry 

13th Infantry 

14th Infantry 

14th Inf. Res. Batt. 

15th Infantry 

16th Infantry 

17th Infantry 

18th Infantiy 

19th Infantry 

20th Infantry 

21st Infantry 

22d Infantry 

23d Infantry 

24th Infantry 

25th Infantry 

26th Infantry 

2?th Infantry 

28th Infantry 

29th Infantiy 

30th Infantry 

31st Infantry 

32d Infantry 

33d Infantry 

34th Infantiy 




116 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



Statement of Nidiiher of Men, Casualties, etc. — continued. 



Regiments. 



34th Consolidated 

35th Infantry 

36th Infantiy 

37th Infantiy 

38th Infantry 

39th Infantry 

40th Infantry 

41st Infantiy 

44th Infantry 

45th Infantry 

46th Infantry 

47th Infantry 

48th Infantiy 

let African Infantiy 

Totals 



984 
986 
914 
910 
933 
900 
294 
867 
912 
892 
884 
346 
903 



56,-364 



o 



72 

510 

619 

503 

431 

406 

361 

17 

15 

22 

28 

47 

4 

383 



30,394 



w5^ 



3,139 



QQ 



13 

182 

226 

141 

310 

119 

179 

2 

14 

17 

23 

45 

4 

331 



8,695 




HISTORY OF IOWA. 117 



ABSTRACT OF IOWA STATE LAWS. 



BILLS OF EXCHANGE AND PROMISSORY NOTES. 

Upon negotiable bills, and notes payable in this State, grace shall 
be allowed according to the law merchant. All the above men- 
tionea paper falling due on Sunday, New Year's Day, the Fourth 
of July, Christmas, or any day appointed or recommended by the 
President of the United States or the Governor of the State, as a 
day of fast or thanksgiving, shall be deemed as due on the day pre- 
vious. No defense can be made against a negotiable instrument 
(assigned before due) in the hands of the assignee without notice, 
except fraud was used in obtaining the same. To hold an indors- 
er, due diligence must be used by suit against the maker or his rep- 
resentative. Notes payable to persons named or to order, in order 
to absolutely transfer title, must be indorsed by the payee. Notes 
payable to bearer may be transferred by delivery, and when so pay- 
able, every indorser thereon is held as a guarantor of payment, un- 
less otherwise expressed. 

In computing interest or discount on negotiable instruments, a 
month shall be considered a calendar month or twelfth of a year, and 
for less than a month, a day shall be considered a thirtieth part of 
a month. Notes only bear interest when so expressed; but after 
due, they draw the legal interest, even if not stated. 

INTEREST. 

The legal rate of^interest is six per cent. Parties may agree, in 
writing, on a rate not exceeding ten per cent. If a rate of inter- 
est greater than ten per cent, is contracted for, it works a forfeit- 
ure of ten per cent, to the school fund, and only the principal sum 
can be recovered. 

DESCENT. 

The personal property of the deceased (except (1) that necessary 
for payment of debts and expenses of administration; (2) property 
set apart, to widow, as exempt from execution; (3) allowance by 
court, if necessary, of twelve month's support to widow, and to 
children under fifteen years of age), including life insurance, de- 
scends as does real estate. 

One-third in value (absolutely) of all estates in real property, 
possessed by husband at any time during marriage, which have not 



118 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

been sold on execution or other judicial sale, and to which the wife 
has made no relinquishment of her right, shall be set apart as her 
property, in fee simple, if she survive him. 

The same share shall be set apart to the surviving husband of a 
deceased wife. 

The widow's share cannot be affected by any will of her hus- 
band's, unless she consents, in writing thereto, within six months 
after notice to her of provisions of the will. 

The provisions of the statutes of descent apply alike to surviving 
husband or surviving wife. 

Subject to the above, the remaining estate of which the deced- 
ent died seized, shall in absence of other arrangements by will, de- 
scend; 

First. To his or her children and their descendants in equal 
parts; the descendants of the deceased child or grandchild taking 
the share of their deceased parents in equal shares among them. 

Second. Where there is no child, nor descendant of such child, 
and no widow or surviving husband, then to the parents of the 
deceased in equal parts; the surviving parent, if either be dead, tak- 
ing the whole; and if there is no parent living, then to the broth- 
ers and sisters of the intestate and their descendants, 

Third. When there is a widow or surviving husband, and no 
child or children, or descendants of the same, then one-half of the 
estate shall descend to such widow or surviving husband, absolutely; 
and the other half of the estate shall descend as in other cases 
where there is no widow or surviving husband, or child or children 
or descendants of the same. 

Fourth. If there is no child, parent, brother or sister, or des- 
cendants of either of them, then to wife of intestate, or to her heirs, 
if dead, according to like rules. 

Fifth. If any intestate leaves no child, parent, brother or sister 
or descendant of either of them, and no widow or surviving hus- 
band, and no child, parent, brother or sister (or descendant of 
either of them) of such widow or surviving husband, it shall escheat 
to the State. 

WILLS AND ESTATES OF DECEASED PERSONS. 

r No'^exact'form of words are necessary in order to make a will 
good at law' Every male person of the age of twenty-one years, 
and every female of the age of eighteen years, of sound mind and 
memory, can make a valid will; it must be in writing, signed by 
the testator, or by some one in his or her presence, and by his or 
her express direction, and attested by two or more competent wit- 
nesses. Care should be taken that the witnesses are not interested 
in the will. Inventory to be made by the executor or adminstrator 
within fifteen days from date of letters testamentary or of admin- 
istration. Executors' and administrators' compensation on amount 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 119 

of personal estate distributed, and for proceeds of sale of real es- 
tate, five per cent, for first one thousand dollars, two and one-half 
per cent, on overplus up to five thousand dollars, and one per cent. 
on overplus above five thousand dollars, with such additional allow- 
ance as shall be reasonable for extra services. 

Within ten days aftes the receipt of letters of administration, 
the executor or administrator shall give such notice of appointment 
as the court or clerk shall direct. 

Claims (other than preferred) must be filed iv it! an oyie year there- 
after^ are forever barred, unless the claim is pencUng in the District 
or Supreme Court, or unless peculiar circumstances entitle the claim- 
ant to equitable relief. 

Claims are classed wadi payable in the following order: 

1. Expenses of administration. 

2. Expenses of last sickness and funeral. 

3. Allowance to widow and children, if made by the court. 

4. Debts preferred under laws of the United States, 

5. Public rates and taxes. 

6. Claim filed within six months after the first publication of 
the notice given by the executors of their appointment. 

7. All other debts. 

8. Legacies. 

The awards or property which must be set apart to the widow in 
her own rights by the executor, includes all personal property which,, 
in the hands of the deceased, as head of a family, would have been 
exempt from execution. 

TAXES. 

The owners of personal property, on the first day of January of 
each year, and the owners of real property on the first day of No- 
vember of each year, are liable fc>r the taxes thereon. 
The following property is exempt from taxation, viz.: 
1. The property of the United States and of this State, includ- 
ing university, agricultural college and school lands and all prop- 
erty leased to the State; property of a county, toAvnship, city, in- 
corporated town or school district when devoted entirely to the 
public use and not held for pecuniary profit; public grounds, in- 
cluding all places for the burial of the dead; fire engines and all 
implements for extinguishing fires, with the grounds used exclu- 
sively for their buildings and for the meetings of the fire compan- 
ies; all public libraries, grounds and buildings of literary, scientific, 
benevolent, agricultural and religious institutions, and societies de- 
voted solely to the appropriate objects of these institutions, not ex- 
ceeding 610 acres in extent, and not leased or otherwise used with 
a view of pecuniary profit; and all property leased to agricultural, 
charitable institutions and benevolent societies, and so devoted dur- 
ing the term of such lease; ^)ror/(/^(/, that all deeds, by which such 



120 HISTOEY OF IOWA. 

property is held, shall be duly filed for record before the property 
therein described shall be omitted from the assessment. 

2. The books, papers and apparatus belonging to the above in- 
stitutions; used solely for the purposes above contemplated, and the 
like property of students in any such institution, used for their ed- 
ucation. 

3. Money and credits belonging exclusively to such institutions 
and devoted solely to sustaining them, but not exceeding in amount 
or income the sum prescribed by their charter. 

4. Animals not hereafter specified, the wool shorn from sheep, 
belonging to the person giving the list, his farm produce harvested 
within one year previous to the listing; private libraries not exceed- 
ing three hundred dollars in value; family pictures, kitchen furni- 
ture, beds and bedding requisite for each family; all wearing ap- 
parel in actual use, and all food provided for the family; but no 
person from whom a compensation for board or lodging is received 
or expected, is to be considered a member of the family within the 
intent of this clause. 

5. The polls or estates or both of persons who, by reason of age 
or infirmity, may, in the opinion of the Assessor, be unable to con- 
tribute to the public revenue; such opinion and the fact upon which 
it is based being in all cases reported to the Board of Equalization 
by the Assessor or any other person, and subject to reversal by 
them. 

6. The farming utensils of any person who makes his livelihood 
by farming^ and the tools of any mechanic, not in either case to ex- 
ceed three hundred dollars in value. 

7. Government lands entered or located,or lands purchased from 
this State, should not be taxed for the year in which the entry, lo- 
cation or purchase is made. 

There is also a suitable exemption, in amount, for planting fruit 
trees or forest trees or hedges. 

Where buildings are destroyed by fire, tornado, or other unavoid- 
able casualty, after being assessed for the year, the Board of Super- 
visors may rebate taxes for that year on the property destroyed, if 
same has not been sold for taxes, and if said taxes have not been delin- 
quent for thirty days at the time of destruction of property, and the 
rebate shall be allowed for such loss only as is not covered by insur- 
ance. 

All other property is subject to taxation. Every inhabitant of 
full age and sound mind shall assist the Assessor in listing all tax- 
able property of which he is the owner, or which he controls or man- 
ages, either as agent, guardian, father, husband, trustee, executor, 
accounting ofiicer, partner, mortgagor or lessor, mortgagee or 
lessee. 

Road beds of railway corporations shall not be assessed to owners 
of adjacent propert}^ but shall be considered the property of the 
companies for purposes of taxation; nor shall real estate u.?ei as a 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 121 

public highway be assessed and taxed as part o£ adjacent lands 
whence the same was taken for such public purpose. 

The property of railway, telegraph and express conipanies shall 
be listed and assessed for taxation as the property of an individual 
would be listed and assessed for taxation. Collection of taxes made 
as in the case of an individual. 

The Township Board of Equalization shall meet first Monday in 
April of each year. Appeal lies to the Circuit Court. 

The County Board of Equalization (the Board of Supervisors) 
meet at their regular session in June of each year. Appeal lies to 
the Circuit Court. 

Taxes become delinquent February 1st of each year, payable 
without interest or penalty, at any time before March 1st of each 
year. 

Tax sale is held on first Monday in October of each year. 

Redemption may be made at any time within three years after 
date of sale, by paying to the County Auditor the amount of sale, 
and twenty per centnm of such amount immediately added as pe7i- 
altij ivith ten per cent, interest per annum on the whole amount 
thus made from the day of sale, and also subsequent taxes, interest 
and costs paid by purchaser after March 1st of each year, and a sim- 
ilar penalty of twenty per centum added as before, with ten per 
cent, interest as before. 

If notice has been given, by purchaser, of the date at which the 
redemption is limited, the cost of same is added to the redemption 
money. Ninety days notice is required, by the statute, to be pub- 
lished by the purchaser or holder of certificate, to terminate the 
right of redemption. 

JURISDICTION OF COURTS. 

DISTRICT COURTS 

have jurisdiction, general and original, both civil and criminal, ex- 
cept in such cases where Circuit Courts have exclusive jurisdiction. 
District Courts have exclusive supervision over courts of Justices 
of the Peace and Magistrates, in criminal matters, on appeal and 
writs of error. 

CIRCUIT COURTS 

have jurisdiction, general and original, with the District Courts, 
in all civil actions and special proceedings, and exclusive jurisdic- 
tion in all appeals and writs of error from inferior courts, in civil 
matters. And exclusive jurisdiction in matters of estates and 
general probate business. 

JUSTICES OF THE PEACE 

havd jurisdiction in civil matters where $100 or less is involved. 
By consent of parlies, the jurisdiction [may be extended to an 



122 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

amount not exceeding $300. Tney have jurisdiction to try and 
determine all public offense less than felony, committed within 
their respective counties, in which tlie fine^ by law, does not ex- 
ceed $100 or the imprisonment thirty days. 

LIMITATION OF ACTIONS. 

Action for injuries to the person or reputation; for a statute 
penalty, and to enforce a mechanics' lien, must be brought in two 
(2) years. 

Those against a public officer within three (3) years. 

Those founded on unwritten contracts; for injuries to property; 
for relief on the ground of fraud; and all other actions not other- 
wise provided for, within five (5) years. 

Those founded on written contracts; on judgments of any court 
(except those provided for in next section), and for the recovery of 
real property, within ten (10) years. 

Those founded on judgment of any court of record in the 
United States, within twenty (20) years. 

All above limits, except those for penalties and forfeitures, are 
extended in favor of minors and insane persons, until one year 
after the disability is removed — time during which defendant is a 
non-resident of the State shall not be included in computing any 
of the above periods. 

Actions for the recovery of real property, sold for non-payment 
of taxes, must be brought within five years after the Treasurer's 
Deed is executed and recorded, except where a minor or convict or 
insane person is the owner, and they shall be allowed five years 
after disability is removed, in which to bring action. 

JURORS. 

All qualified electors of tho State, of good moral character, 
sound judgment, and in full possession of the senses of hearing 
and seeing, are competent jurors in their respective counties. 

United States officers, practicing attorneys, physicians and 
clergymen, acting professors or teachers in institutions of learning 
and persons disabled by bodily infirmity or over sixty-five years of 
age, are exempt from liability to act as jurors. 

Any person may be excused from serving on a jury when his 
own interests or the public's will be materially injured by his at- 
tendance, or when the state of his health, or the death, or sick- 
ness of his family re'quires his absence. 

CAPITAL PUNISHMENT 

was restored by the Seventeenth General Assembly, making it 
optional with the jury to inflict it or not. 



HISTORY OF IOWj*. 123 

A MARRIED WOMAN 

may convey or incumber real estate, or interest therein, belonging 
to her; may control the same or contract with reference thereto, 
as other persons may convey, incumber, control or contract. 

She may own, acquire, hold, convey and devise property, as her 
husband may. 

Her husband is not liable for civil injuries committed by her. 

She may convey property to her husband, and he may convey 
to her. 

She may constitute her husband her attorney in fact. 

EXEMPTIONS FROM EXECUTION. 

A resident of the State and head of a family may hold the fol- 
lowing property exempt from execution: All wearing apparel of 
himself and family kept for actaal use and suitable to the condi- 
tion, and the trunks or other receptacles necessary to contain the 
same, one musket or rifle and shot-gun; all private libraries, 
family Bibles, portraits, pictures, musical instruments, and paint- 
ings not kept for the purpose of sale; a seat or pew occupied by 
the debtor or his family in any house of public worship; an inter- 
est in a public or private burying ground not exceeding one acre; 
two cows and a calf; one horse, unless a horse is exempt as herein- 
after provided; fifty sheep and the wool therefrom, and the ma- 
terials manufactured from said wool; six stands of bees; five hogs 
and all pigs under six months; the necessary food for exempted 
animals for six months; all flax raised from one acre of ground, 
and manufactures therefrom; one bedstead and necessary bedding 
for every two in the family; all cloth manufactured by the de- 
fendant not exceeding one hundred yards; household and kitchen 
furniture not exceeding ^200 in value; all spinning wheels and 
looms; one sewing machine and other instruments of domestic 
labor kept for actual use; the necessary provisions and fuel for 
the use of the family for six months; the proper tools, instru- 
ments, or books of the debtor, if a farmer, mechanic, surveyor, 
clergyman, lawyer, physician, teacher or professor; the horse or 
the team, consisting of not more than two horses or mules, or two 
yokes of cattle, and the wagon or other vehicle, with the proper 
harness or tackle, by the use of which the debtor, if a physician, 
public officer, farmer, teamster or other laborer, habitually earns 
his living; and to the debtor, if a printer,. there shall also be ex- 
empt a printing press and the types, furniture and material neces- 
sary for the use of such printins: press, and a newspaper office to 
the value of twelve hundred dollars: the earnings of such debtor, 
or those of his family, at any time within ninety days next pre- 
ceding the levy. 

Persons unmarried and not the head of a family, and non- 
residents, have exempt their own ordinary wearing apparel ajul 
trunks to contain the same. 



124 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

There is also exempt, to a head of a family, a homestead, not 
exceeding forty acres; or, if inside city limits, one-half acre with 
improvements, value not limited. The homestead is liable for all 
debts contracted prior to its acquisition as such, and is subject to 
mechanics' hen for work or material furnished for the same. 

An article, otherwise exempt; is liable, on execution, for the pur- 
chase money thereof. 

Where a debtor, if a head of a family, has started to leave the 
State, he shall have exempt only the ordinary wearing apparel of 
himself and family, and other property in addition, as he may se- 
lect, in all not exceeding seventy-five dollars in value. 

A policy of life insurance shall inure to the separate use of the 
husband or wife and children, entirely independent of his or her 
creditors. 

ESTRAYS. 

An unbroken animal shall not be taken up as an estray between 
May 1st and November 1st, of each year, unless the same be found 
within the lawful enclosure of a householder who alone can take 
up such animal, unless some other person gives him notice of the 
fact of such animal coming on his place; and if he fails, within 
five days thereafter, to take up such estray, any other householder 
of the township may take up such estray and proceed with it as if 
taken on his own premises, provided he shall prove to the Justice 
of the Peace such notice, and shall make affidavit where such estray 
was taken up. 

Any swine, sheep, goat, horse, neat cattle or other animal dis- 
trained (for damage done to one's enclosure), when the owner is 
not known, shall be treated as an estray. 

Within five days after taking up an estray, notice, containing a 
full description thereof, shall be posted up in three of the most 
public places in the township; and in ten days, the person takiug 
up such estray shall go before a Justice of the Peace in the town- 
ship and make oath as to where such estray was taken up, and that 
the marks or brands have not been altered, to his knowledge. The 
estray shall then be appraised, by order of the Justice, and the ap- 
praisment, description of the size, age, color, sex, marks and brands 
of the estray shall be entered by the Justice in a book kept for that 
purpose, and he shall, within ten days thereafter, send a certified 
copy thereof to the County Auditor, 

When the appraised value of an estray does not exceed five dol- 
lars, the Justice need not proceed further than to enter the descrip- 
tion of the estray on his book, and if no owner appears within six 
months, the property shall vest in the finder, if he has complied 
with the law and paid all costs. 

Where appraised value of estray exceeds five and is less than ten 
dollars, if no owner appears in nine months, the finder has the 
proj^erty, if he has complied with the law and paid costs. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 125 

An estray, legally taken up, may be used or worked with care 
and moderation. 

If any person unlawfully take up an estray, or take up an estray 
and fail to comply with the law regarding estrays, or use or work 
it contrary to above, or work it before having it appraised, or keep 
such estray out of the county more than five days at one time, be- 
fore acquiring ownership, such offender shall forfeit to the county 
twenty dollars, and the owner may recover double damages with 
costs. 

If the owner of any estate fail to claim and prove his title for one 
year after the taking up, and the finder shall have complied with 
the law, a complete title vests in the finder. 

But if the owner appear within eighteen months from the tak- 
ing up, prove his ownership and pay all costs and expenses, the 
finder shall pay him the appraised value of such estray, or may, at 
his option, deliver up the estray. 

WOLF SCALPS. 

A bounty of one dollar is paid for wolf scalps. 

MARKS AND BRANDS. 

Any person may adopt his own mark or brand for his domestic 
animals, and have a description thereof recorded by the Township 
Clerk. 

No person shall adopt the recorded mark or brand of any other 
person residing in his township. 

DAMAGES FROM TRESPASS. 

When any person's lands are enclosed by a laivful fence, the 
owner of any domestic animal injuring said lands is liable for the 
damages, and the damages may be recovered by suit against the 
owner, or may be made by distraining the animals doing the dam- 
age; and if the party injured elects to recover by action against the 
owner, no appraisement need be made by the Trustees, as in case of 
distraint. 

When trespassing animals are distrained, within twenty-four 
hours, Sunday not included, the party injured shall notify the own- 
er of said animals, if known; and if the owner fails to satisfy the 
party within twenty-four hours thereafter, the party shall have the 
township Trustees assess the damage, and notice shall be posted 
up in three conspicuous places in the township, that the stock or part 
thereof, shall, on the tenth day after jMsting the notice, between the 
hours of 1 and 3 P. M., be sold to the highest bidder, to satisfy 
said damages, with costs. 

Appeal lies, within twenty days, from the action of the Trustees, 
to the Circuit Court. 



126 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

Where stock is retained, by police regulation, or by law, from 
running at large, any person injured in his improved or cultivated 
lands by any domestic animal, may, by action against the owner 
of such animal, or by distraining such animal, recover his damages, 
whether the lands whereon the injury was done were inclosed by 
a lawful fence or not. 

FENCES. 

A lawful fence is fifty-four inches high, made of rails, wire or 
boards, with posts not more than ten feet apart where rails are 
used, and eight feet where boards are used; substantially built and 
kept in good repair; or any other fence which, in the opinion of the 
Fence Viewers, shall be declared a lawful fence — provided the low- 
er rail, wire or board be not more than twenty nor less than sixteen 
inches from the ground. 

The respective owners of lands enclosed with fences shall main- 
tain partition fences between their own and next adjoining enclos- 
ure so long as they improve them in equal shares, unless otherwise 
agreed between them. 

If any party neglect to maintain such partition fence as he should 
maintain, the Fence Viewers (the township Trustees), upoj com- 
plaint of aggrieved party, may, upon due notioe to both parties, ex- 
amine the fence, and, if found insufficient, notify the delinquent 
party, in writing, to repair or re-build the same within such time 
as they judge reasonable. 

If the fence be not repaired or rebuilt accordingly, the complain- 
ant may do so, and the same being adjudged sufficient by the Fence 
Viewers, and the value thereof, with their fees, being ascertained 
and certified under their hands, the complainant may demand of 
the delinquent the sum so ascertained, and if the same be not paid 
in one month after demand, may recover it with one per cent a 
month interest, by action. 

In case of disputes, the Fence Viewers may decide as to who 
shall erect or maintain partition fences, and in what time the same 
shall be done; and in case any party neglect to maintain or erect 
such part as may be assigned to him, the aggrieved party may erect 
and maintain the same, and recover double damages. 

No person, not wishing his land inclosed, and not using it oth- 
erwise than in common, shall be compelled to maintain any parti- 
tion fence; but when he uses or incloses his land otherwise than 
in common, he shall contribute to the partition fences. 

Where parties have had their lands inclosed in common, and one 
of the owners desires to occupy his separate and apart from the 
other, and the other refuses to divide the line or build a sufficient 
fence on the line when divided, the Fence Fiewers may divide and 
assign, and upon neglect of the other to build as ordered by the 
Viewers, the one may build the other's part and recover as above. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 127 

And when one incloses land which has lain uninclosed, he must 
pay for one-half of each partition fence between himself and his 
neighbors. 

Where one desires to lay not less than twenty feet of his lands, 
adjoining his neighbor, out to the public to be used in common, he 
must give his neighbor six months' notice thereof. 

Where a fence has been built on the land of another through 
mistake, the owner may enter upon such premises and remove his 
fence and material within six months after the division line has 
been ascertained. Where the material to build such a fence has 
been taken from the land on which it was built, then, before it can 
be removed, the person claiming must first pay for such material to 
the owner of the land from which it was taken, nor shall such a 
fence be removed at a time when the removal will throw open or 
expose the crops of the other party; a reasonable time must be 
given beyond the six months to remove crops. 

MECHANICS' LIENS. 

Every mechanic, or other pei'son who shall do any labor upon, 
or furnish any materials, machinery or fixtures for any building, 
erection or other improvement upon land, including those engaged 
in the construction or repair of any work of internal improvement, 
by virtue of any contract with the owner, his agent, trustee, con- 
tractor, or sub-contractor, shall have a lien, on complying with the 
forms of law, upon the building or other improvement for his labor 
done or materials furnished. 

It would take too large a space to detail the manner in which a 
sub-contractor secures his lien. He should file, within thirty days 
after the last of the labor was performed, or the last of the mate- 
rial shall have been furnished, with the Clerk of the District Court 
a true account of the amount due him, after allowing all credits, 
setting fort the time when such material was furnished or labor 
performed, and when completed, and containing a correct descrip- 
tion of the property sought to be charged with the lien, and the 
whole verified by afiidavit. 

A principal contractor must file such an afiidavit within ninety 
days, as above. 

Ordinarily, there are so many points to be examined in order to 
secure a mechanics' lien, that it is much better, unless one is ac- 
customed to managing such liens, to consult at once with an at- 
torney. 

Remember that the proper time to file the claim is ninety days 
for a principal contractor, thirty days for a sub-contractor, as 
above; and that actions to enforce these liens must be commenced 
within two years, and the rest can much better better be done with 
an attorn ev. 



1^8 HISTORY OF IOWA. 



ROADS AND BRIDGES. 



Perseus meeting each other on the public highways, shall give 
one-half of the same by turning to the right. All persons failing 
to observe this rule shall be liable to pay all damages resulting 
therefrom, together with a fine, not exceeding five dollars. 

The prosecution must be instituted on the complaint of the per- 
son wronged. 

Any person guilty of racing horses, or driving upon the public 
highway, in a manner likely to endanger the persons or the lives 
of others, shall, on conviction, be fined not exceeding one hundred 
dollars or imprisoned not exceeding thirty days. 

It is a misdemeanor, without authority from the proper Road 
Supervisor, to break upon, plow or dig within the boundary lines of 
any public highway. 

The money tax levied upon the property in each road district in 
each township (except the general Township Fund, set apart for 
purchasing tools, machinery and guide boards), whether collected 
by the Road Supervisor or County Treasurer, shall be expended for 
highway purposes in that district, and no part thereof shall be paid 
out or expended for the benefit of another district. 

The Road Supervisor of each district, is bound to keep the roads 
and bridges therein, in as good condition as the funds at his dis- 
posal will permit; to put guide boards at cross roads and forks of 
highways in his district; and when notified in writing that any 
portion of the public highway, or any bridge is unsafe, must in a 
reasonable time repair the same, and for this purpose may call out 
any or all the able bodied men in the district, but not more than 
two days at one time, without their consent. 

Also, when notified in writing, of the growth of any Canada 
thistles upon vacant or non-resident lands or lots, within his dis- 
trict, the owner, lessee or agent thereof being unknown, shall cause 
the same to be destroyed. 

Bridges when erected or maintained by the public, are parts of 
the highway, and must not be less than sixteen feet wide. 

A penalty is imposed upon any one who rides or drives faster 
than a walk across any such bridge. 

The manner of establishing, vacating or altering roads, etc., is so 
well known to all township officers, that it is sujfficient here to say 
that the first step is by petition, filed in the Auditor's office, ad- 
dressed in substance as follows: 

The Board of Supervisors of County: The undersigned 

asks that a highway, commencing at and running thence 

and terminating at — -, be established, vacated or al- 
tered (as the case may be). 

When the petition is filed, all necessary and succeeding steps will 
be shown and explained to the petitioners by the Auditor. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 129 

ADOPTION OF CHILDREN. 

Any person competent to make a will can adopt as his own the 
minor child of another. The consent of both parents, if living 
and not divorced or separated, and if divorced or separated, or if 
unmarried, the consent of the parent lawfully having the custody 
of the child; or if either parent is dead, then the consent of the 
survivor, or if both parents be dead, or the child have been and 
remain abandoned by them, then the consent of the Mayor of the 
city where the child is living,or if not in the city, then of the Clerk 
of the Circuit Court of the county shall be given to such adoption 
by an instrument in writing, signed by the party or parties consent- 
ing, and stating the names of the parties, if known, the name of the 
child, if known, the name of the person adopting such child, and 
the residence of all, if known, and declaring the name by which 
the child is hereafter to be called and known, and stating, also, that 
such child is given to the person adopting, for the purpose^of 
adoption as his own child. 

The person adopting shall also sign said instrument, and all the 
parties shall acknowledge the same in the manner that deeds con- 
veying lands shall be acknowledged. 

The instrument shall be recorded in the office of the County 
Recorder. 

SURVEYORS AND SURVEYS. 

There is in every county elected a Surveyor known as County 
Surveyor, who has power to appoint deputies, for whose official 
acts he is responsible. It is the duty of the County Surveyor, 
either by himself or his Deputy, to make all surveys that he may 
be called upon to make within his county as soon as may be after 
application is made. The necessary chainmen and other assistance 
must be employed by the person requiring the same to be done, 
and to be by him paid, unless otherwise agreed: but the chainmen 
must be disinterested persons and approved by the Surveyor and 
sworn by him to measure justly and impartially. Previous to any 
survey, he shall furnish himself with a copy of the field notes of 
the original survey of the same land, if there be any in the office 
of the County Auditor, and his survey shall be made in accord- 
ance therewith. 

Their fees are three dollars per day. For certified copies of field 
notes, twenty-five cents. 

SUPPORT OF POOR. 

The father, mother and children of any poor person who has 
applied for aid, and who is unable to maintain himself by work, 
shall, jointly or severally, maintain such poor person in such man- 
ner as may be approved by the Township Trustees. 



130 * HISTORY OF IOWA. 

In the absence or inability of nearer relatives, the same liability 
shall extend to the grandparents, if of ability without personal 
labor, and to the male grandchildren who are of ability, by personal 
labor or otherwise. 

The Township Trustees may, upon the failure of such relative 
to maintain a poor person, who has made application for relief^ 
apply to the Circuit. Court for an order to compel the same. 

Upon ten days' notice, in writing, to the parties sought to be 
charged, a hearing may be had, and an order made for entire or 
partial support of the poor person. 

Appeal may be taken from such judgment as from other judg- 
ments of the Circuit Court. 

When any person, having any estate, abandons either children, 
wife or husband, leaving them chargeable^ or likely to become 
chargeable, upon the public for support, upon proof of above fact, 
an order may be had from the Clerk of the Circuit Court, or Judge, 
authorizing the Trustees or the Sheriff to take into possession such 
estate. 

The Court may direct such personal estate to be sold, to be ap- 
plied, as well as the rents and profits of the real estate, if any, to 
the support of children; wife or husband. 

If the party against whom the order is issued return and sap- 
port the person abandoned, or give security for the same, the order 
shall be discharged, and the property taken returned. 

The mode of relief for the poor, through the action of the 
Township Trustees, or the action of the Board of Supervisors, is 
so well known to every township officer, and the circumstances 
attending application for relief are so varied, that it need now only 
be said that it is the duty of each county to provide for its poor, 
no matter at what place they may be. 

LANDLORD AND TENANT. 

A tenant giving notice to quit demised premises at a time named, 
and afterward. holding over, and a tenant or his assignee willfully 
holding over the premises after the term, and after notice to quit, 
shall pay double rent. 

Any person in possession of real property, with the assent of 
the owner, is presumed to be a tenant at will until the contrary is 
shown. 

Thirty days' notice, in writing, is necessary to be given by either 
party before he can terminate a tenancy at will; but when, in any 
case, a rent is reserved payable at intervals of less than thirty 
days, the length of notice need not be greater than such interval 
between the days of payment. In case of tenants occupying and 
cultivating" farms, the notice must fix the termination of the 
tenancy to take place on the 1st day of March, except in cases of 
field tenants or croppers, whose leases shall be held to expire when 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 131 

the crop is harvested; provided, that in case of a crop o£ corn, it 
shall not be later than the 1st day of December, unless otherwise 
agreed upon. But when an express agreement is made, whether 
the same has been reduced to writing or not, the tenancy shall 
cease at the time agreed upon, without notice. 

If such tenant cannot be found in the county, the notices above 
required maybe given to any sub-tenanbor other person in posses- 
sion of the premises; or, if the premises be vacant, by affixing the 
notice to the principal door of the building or in some conspicuous 
position on the land, if there be no building. 

The landlord shall have a lien for his rent upon all the crops 
growii on the premises, and upon any other personal property of 
the tenant used on the premises during the term, and not exempt 
from execution, for the period of one yepr after a year's rent or 
the rent of a shorter period claimed falls due; but such lien shall 
not continue more than six months after the expiration of the 
term. 

The lien may be effected by the commencement of an action, 
within the period above described, for the rent alone; d 
the landlord is entitled to a writ of attachment, upon filing 
an affidavit that the action is commenced to recover rent accrued 
within one year previous thereto upon the premises described in 
the affidavit. 

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

Whenever any of the following articles shall be contracted for, 
or sold or delivered, and no special contract or agreement shall be 
made to the contrary, the weight per bushel shall be as follows, 
to-wit: 

Apples, Peaches or Quinces 48 Sand 130 

Cherries, Grapes, Currants or Goose- Sorghum Seed 30 

berries 40 Broom Corn Seed 30 

Strawberries, Raspberries or Black- Buckwheat 52 

berries .32 Salt 50 

Osage Orange Seed 32 Barley - 48 

Millet Seed 45 Corn Meal 48 

Stone Coal 80 Castor Beans 46 

Lime 80 Timothy Seed 45 

Corn in the ear 70 Hemp Seed 44 

Wheat 60 Dried Peaches 33 

Potatoes 60 Oats 38 

Beans 60 Dried Apples 24 

Clover Seed 60 Bran 20 

Onions ')7 Blue Grass Seed 14 

Shelled Com 56 Hungarian Grass Seed 45 

Rye .56 Flax Seed 56 

Sweet Potatoes 46 

Penalty for giving less than above standard is treble damages 
and costs and five dollars addition thereto as a fine. 



132 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

DEFINITION OF COMMERCIAL TERMS. 

$ means dollars, being a contraction of U. S., which was for- 
merly placed before any denomination of money, and meant, as it 
means now. United States Currency. 

£ means pounds^ English money. 

@ stands for at or to; ft) ior pounds, and bbl. for barrels', ^ for 
per or hij the. Thus, Butter sells at 20(a.30c ^ ft), and Flour at 
|8@.$12 f bbl. 

May 1. Wheat sells at Sl.20@$1.25, "seller June." Seller June 
means that the person who sells the wheat has the privilege of de- 
livering it at any time during the month of June. 

Selling short, is contracting to deliver a certain amount of grain 
or stock, at a fixed price, within a certain length of time, when the 
seller has not the stock on hand. It is for the interest of the per- 
son selling "short" to depress the market as much as possible, in 
order that he may buy and fill his contract at a profit. Hence the 
"shorts'' are termed "bears." 

Buying long, is to contract to purchase a certain amount of grain 
or shares of stock at a fixed price, deliverable within a stipulated 
time, expecting to make a profit by the rise in prices. The "longs" 
are termed "bulls," as it is for their interest to "operate" so as to 
"toss" the prices upward as much as possible. 

NOTES. 

Form of note is legal, worded in the simplest way, so that the 
amount and time of payment are mentioned: 

$100. Chicago, 111., Sept. 15. 1876. 

Sixty days from date I promise to pay to E. F. Brown or order, 
one hundred dollars, for value received. L. D. Lowrt. 

A note to be payable in anything else than money needs only 
the facts substituted for money in the above form. 

ORDERS. 

Orders should be worded simply, thus: 
Mr. F. H. Coats: Chicago, Sept. 15, 1876. 

Please pay to H. Birdsall twenty-five dollars, and charge to 

F. D. Silva. 

RECEIPTS. 

Receipts should always state when received and what for, thus: 
$100. _ Chicago, Sept. 15, 1876. 

Received of J. W. Davis, one hundred dollars, for ser- 
vices rendered in grading his lot in Fort Madison, on account. 

Thomas Brady. 
If receipt is in full, it should be so stated. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 133 

BILLS OF PURCHASE. 

W. N. MASO>f, Salem, Illiuois, Sept. 18, 1876. 

Bought of A. A. Graham. 

4 Bushels of Seed Wheat at $1.50 $6 00 

2 seamless Sacks " 30 60 



Received payment, ${] 60 

A. A. Graham. 

CONFESSION OF JUDGMENT. 

$ . , Iowa, , 18 — . 

after date — promises to pay to the order of , 

dollars, at , for value received, with interest at ten per cent. 

per annum after until paid. Interest payable , and on 

interest not paid when due, interest at same rate and conditions. 

A failure to pay said interest, or any part thereof, within 20 days after due, 
shall cause the whole note to become due and collectible at once. 

If this note is sued, or judgment is confessed hereon, $ shall ba allowed 

as attorney fees. 

No. — . P. 0. , . 

CONFESSION OF JUDGMENT. 

— vs. — . In Court of County, Iowa, , of 

County, Iowa, do hereby confess that justly indebted 



to , in the sum of dollars, and the further sum of 

$ as attorney fees, with interest thereon at ten per cent, from 

, and — hereby confess judgment against as defend- 
ant in favor of said , for said sum of ^ , and $ as 

attorney fees, hereby authorizing the Clerk of the Court of 

said county to enter up judgment for said sum against with 

costs, and interest at 10 per cent, from , the interest to be 

paid . 

Said debt and judgment being for , 

It is especially agreed, however. That if this judgment is paid 
within twenty days after due, no attorney fees need be paid. And 

hereby sell, convey and release all right of homestead we now 

occupy in favor of said • so far as this judgment is concerned, 

and agree that it shall be liable on execution for this judgment. 

Dated , 18—. 



The State of Iowa, ) 
County. \ 



being duly sworn according to law, depose and say that 

the foregoing statement and Confession of Judgment was read 
over to , and that — understood the contents thereof, and 



134 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

that the statements contained therein are true, and that the sums 
therein mentioned are justly to become due said as afore- 
said. 



Sworn to and subscribed before me and in may presence by the 

said this day of , 18—. 

, Notary Public. 

ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT. 

An agreement is where one party promises to another to do a 
certain thing in a certain time for a stipulated sum. Good busi- 
ness men always reduce an agreement to writing, which nearly 
always saves misunderstandings and trouble. No particular form 
is necessary, but the facts must be clearly and explicitly stated, 
and there must, to make it valid, be a reasonable consideration. 

GENERAL FORM OF AGREEMENT. 

This Agreement, made the second day of June, 1878, between 
John Jones, of Keokuk, County of Lee, State of Iowa, of the first 
part, and Thomas Whiteside, of the same place, of the second 
part — 

WITNESSETH, That the said John Jones, in consideration of the 
agreement of the party of the second part, hereinafter contained, 
contracts and agrees to and with the said Thomas Whiteside, that 
he will deliver in good and marketable condition, at the Village 
of Melrose, Iowa, during the month of November, of this year; 
One Hundred Tons of Prairie Hay, in the following lots, and at 
the following specified terms; namely, twenty-five tons by the 
seventh of November, twenty-five tons additional by the foor- 
teenth of the month, twenty-five tons more by the twenty-first, 
and the entire one hundred tons to be all dehvered by the thirtieth 
of November. 

And the said Thomas Whiteside, in consideration of the prompt 
fulfillment of this contract, on the part of the party of the first 
part, contracts to and agrees with the said John Jones, to pay for 
said hay five dollars per ton, for each ton as soon as delivered. 

In case of failure of agreement by either of the parties hereto, 
it is hereby stipulated and agreed that the party so failing shall 
pay to the other One Hundred dollars, as fixed and settled damages. 

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands the day 
and vear first above written. John Jones, 

Thomas Whiteside. 

agreement with clerk for services. 

This Agreement, made the first day of May, one thousand 
eio-ht hundred and seventy-eight, between Reuben Stone, of Du- 
buque, County of Dubuque, State of Iowa, party of the first part, 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 135 

and Graorge Barclay, of McGregor, County of Clayton, State of 
Iowa, party of the second part^ 

WiTJSTESSETH, that Said George Barclay agrees faithfully and 
diligently to work as clerk and salesman for the said Reuben 
Stone, for and during the space of one year from the date thereof, 
should both live such length of time, without absenting himself 
from his occupation; during which time he, the said Barclay, in 
the store of said Stone, of Dubuque, will carefully and honestly 
attend, doing and performing all duties as clerk and salesman 
aforesaid, in accordance and in all respects as directed and desired 
by the said Stone. 

In consideration of which services, so to be rendered by the 
said Barclay, the said Stone agrees to pay to said Barclay the 
annual sum of one thousand dollars, payable in twelve "equal 
monthly payments, each upon the last day of each month; pro- 
vided that all dues for days of absence from business by said Bar- 
clay, shall be deducted from the sum otherwise by the agreement 
due and payable by the said Stone to the said Barclay. 

Witness our hands. Reuben Stone. 

George Barclay. 

BILLS OF SALE. 

A bill of sale is a written agreement to another party, for a 
consideration to convey his right and interest in the personal pro- 
perty. The purchaser must take actual possession of the property^ 
or the bill of sale must he acknowledged and recorded. 

COMMOISr FORM OF BILL OF SALE. 

Know all Men by this instrument, that I, Louis Clay, of 
Burlington, Iowa, of the first part, for and in consideration of 
Five Hundred and Ten Dollars, to me paid by John Floyd, of the 
same place, of the second part, the receipt whereof is hereby 
acknowledged, have sold, and by this instrument do convey unto 
the said Floyd, party of the second part, his executors, adminis- 
trators and assigns, my undivided half of ten acres of corn, now 
growing on the farm of Thomas Tyrell, in the town above men- 
tioned; one pair of horses; sixteen sheep, and five cows, belonging 
to me and in my possession at the farm aforesaid; to have and to 
hold the same unto the party of the second part, his executors and 
assigns forever. And I do, for myself and legal representatives, 
agree with the said party of the second part, and his legal repre- 
sentatives, to warrant and defend the sale of the afore-mentioned 
property and chattels unto the said party of the second part, 
and his legal representatives, against all and every person whatso- 
ever. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto affixed my hand, this tenth 
day of October, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-six. 

Louis Clay. 



136 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

NOTICE TO QUIT. 

To John Wontpat: 

You are hereby notified to quit the possession of the premises 
you now occupy to wit: 

^Insert Description.^ 
on or before thirty days from the date of this notice. 
Dated January 1, 1878. Landlord, 

[^Beverse for Notice to Landlord.^ 

GENERAL FORM OF WILL FOR REAL AND PERSONAL 
PROPERTY. 

1, Charles Mansfield, of the town of Bellevue, County of Jackson, 
State of Iowa, being aware of the uncertainty of life, and in fail- 
ing health, but of sound mind and memory, do make and declare 
this to be my last will and testament, in manner following, to- 
wit: 

First. I give, devise and bequeath unto my eldest son, Sidney H. 
Mansfield, the sum of Two Thousand Dollars of bank stock, now in 
the Third National Bank, of Cincinnati, Ohio, and the farm owned 
by myself , in the Township of Iowa, consisting of one hundred and 
sixty acres, with all the houses, tenements and improvements 
thereunto belonging; to have and to hold unto my said son, his 
heirs and assigns, forever. 

Second, I give, devise and bequeath to each of my two daugh- 
ters, Anna Louise Mansfield and Ida Clara Mansfield, each Two 
Thousand Dollars in bank stock in the Third National Bank of 
Cincinnati, Ohio; and also, each one quarter section of land, owned 
by myself, situated in the Township of Fairfield, and recorded in 
my name in the Recorder's office, in the county where such land is 
located. The north one hundred and sixty acres of said half sec- 
tion is devised to my eldest daughter, Anna Louise. 

Third. I give, devise and bequeath to my son Frank Alfred 
Mansfield, five shares of railroad stock in the Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad, and my one hundred and sixty acres of land, and saw-mill 
thereon, situated in Manistee, Michigan, with all the improve- 
ments and appurtenances thereunto belonging, which said real es- 
tate is recorded in my name, in the county where situated. 

Fourth. I give to my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, all 
my household furniture, goods, chattels and personal yiroperty, 
about my home, not hitherto disposed of, including Eight Thous- 
and Dollars of bank stock in the Third National Bank of Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, fifteen shares in the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, and 
the free and unrestricted use, possession and benefit of the home 
farm so long as she may live, in lieu of dower, to which she is en- 
titled by law — said farm being my present place of residence. 

Fifth. I bequeath to my invalid father, Elijah H. Mansfield 
the income from rents of my store building at 115 Jackson street 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 137 

Chicago, Illinois, during the term of his natural life. Said build- 
ing and land therewith to revert to my said sons and daughters in 
equal proportion, upon the demise of ray said father. 

Sixth. It is also my will and desire that, at the death of my 
wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, or at any time when she may 
arrange to relinquish her life interest in the above mentioned 
homestead, the same may revert to my above named children, or to 
the lawful heirs of each. 

And lastly. I nominate and appoint as the executors of this, 
my last will and testament, my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield 
and my eldest son, Sidney H. Mansfield. 

I further direct that my debts and necessary funeral expenses 
shall be paid from moneys now on deposit in the Savings Bank of 
Bellevue, the residue of such moneys to revert to my wife, Vic- 
toria Elizabeth Mansfield, for her use forever. 
&: In witness whereof, I Charles Mansfield, to this my last will and 
testament, have hereunto set my hand and seal, this fourth day of 
April, eighteen hundred and seventy-two. 

Charles Mansfield. 
r Signed and declared by Charles Mansfield, as and for his last will 
and testament, in the presence of us, who, at his request, and in 
his presence, and in the presence of each other, have subscribed our 
names hereunto as witness thereof. 

Peter A. ScHENCK,Dubuque, Iowa. 
Frank E. Dent, Bellevue, Iowa. 

CODICIL. 

Whereas I, Charles Mansfield, did, on the fourth day of April, 
one thousand eight hundred and seventy-two, make my last will 
and testament, I do now, by this writing, add this codicil to my 
said will, to be taken as a part thereof. 

Whereas, by the dispensation of Providence, my daughter, Anna 
Louise, has deceased, Movember fifth, eighteen hundred and 
seventy-three, and whereas a son has been born to me, which son 
is now christened Richard Albert Mansfield, I give and bequeath 
unto him my gold watch, and all right, interest and title in lands 
and bank stock and chattels bequeathed to my deceased daughter, 
Anna Louise, in the body of this will. 

In witness whereof, I hereunto placed my hand an^. seal, this 
tenth day of March, eighteen hundred and seventy-five. 

Charles Mansfield. 

Signed, sealed, published and declared to us by the testator, 
Charles Mansfield, as and for a codicil to be annexed to "his last 
will and testament. And we, at his request, and in his presence, 
and in the presence of each other, have subscribed our mimes as 
witnesses thereto, at the date hereof. 

Frank E. Dent, Bellevue, Iowa. 
John C. Shay, Bellevue, Iowa. 



138 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

(Form No. 1.) 

SATISFACTION OF MORTGAGE. 
State of Iowa, 



; County, \^^' 

I, , of the County of. ... , State of Iowa, do hereby ac- 
knowledge that a certain Indenture of , bearing date the 

.... day of . . . . , A. D. 18 . . , made and executed by and 

his wife, to said on the following described Real Estate, in 

the County of . . . ., and State of Iowa, to-wit: (here insert descrip- 
tion) and filed for record in the office of the Recorder of the County 

of , and State of Iowa, on the day of , A. D. 18 . . , 

at .... o'clock .M.; and recorded in Book of Mortgage 

Records, on page . . . . , is redeemed, paid oif, satisfied and discharged 

in full, [seal.] 

State of Iow^a, \ 
. . . .County, \ 

Be it Remembered, That, on this. . . . day of , A. D. 18. ., 

before me the undersigned, a in and for said county, per- 
sonally appeared . . . . , to me personally known to be the identical 
person who executed the above (satisfaction of mortgage) as grant- 
or, and acknowledged .... signature thereto to be vol- 
untary act and deed. 

Witness my hand and seal, the day and year last 

above written. 

ONE FORM OF REAL ESTATE MORTGAGE. 

Know all Men by these Presents: That , of 

County, and State of , in consideration of dollars, in 

hand paid by of .... County ,'and State of . . . . , do hereby 

sell and convey unto the said the following described prem- 
ises, situated in the County of , and State of . . . . , to-wit: 

(here insert description) and do hereby covenant with the 

said that .... lawfully seized of said premises, that they 

are free from incumbrance, that have good right and lawful 

authority to sell and convey the same; and .... do hereby cove- 
nant to warrant and defend the same against the lawful claims of 
all persons whomsoever. To be void upon condition that the said 

shall pay the full amount of principal and interest at the 

time therein specified, of .... certain promissory note for the 
sum of .... dollars. 

One note for $. . . , due , 18 . . , with interest annually at . . . 

per cent. 
One note for $. . . , due , 18 . . , with interest annually at . . . 

per cent. 
One note for | ... , due , 18 • • , with interest annually at . . . 

per cent. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. J 39 

One note for $. . ., due , 18. ., with interest annually' at . . . 

per cent. 
And the said Mortgapfor agrees to pay all taxes that may be levied 
upon the above described premises. It is also agreed by the Mort- 
gagor that if it becomes necessary to foreclose this mortgage, a 
reasonable amount shall be allowed as an attorney's fee for fore- 
closing. And the said hereby relinquishes all her right of 

dower and homestead in and to the above described premises. 

Signed the .... day of . . . . , A. D. 18 . . . 



[Acknowledge as in Form No. 1.] 

SECOND FORM OF REAL ESTATE MORTGAGE. 

This Indenture, made and executed .... by and between 

of the county of and State of. ... , part of the first part, and 

of the county of .... and State of .... party of the sec- 
ond part, IVifnessef/i, that the said part of the first part, for and 
in consideration of the sum of .... dollars, paid by the said party 
of the second part, the receipt of which is hereby acknowledged, 
have granted and sold, and do by these presents, grant, bargain, 
sell, convey and confirm, unto the said party of the second part, 

heirs and assigns forever, the certain tract or parcel of real 

estate situated in the county of .... and State of . . . . , described 
as follows, to-wit: 

{Here insert description.) 

The said part of the first part represent to and covenant with 
the part of the second part, that Le have good right to sell and 
convey said premises, that they are free from encumbrance and 
that he will warrant and defend them against the lawful claims 
of all persons whomsoever, and do expressly hereby release all 
rights of dower in and to said premises, and relinquish and convey 
all rights of homestead therein. 

This Instrument is made, executed and delivered upon the fol- 
lowing conditions, to-wit: 

First, Said first part agree to pay said .... or order 

Second. Said first part further agree as is stipulated in said 
note, that if he shall fail to pay any of said interest when due, 
it shall bear interest at the rate of ten per cent, per annum, from 
the time the same becomes due, and this mortgage shall stand as 
security for the same. 

Third. Said first part further agree that he will pay all 
taxes and assessments levied upon said real estate before they be- 
come delinquent, and if not paid the holder of this mortgage may 
declare the whole sum of money herein secured due and collectible 
at once, or he may elect to pay such taxes or assessments, and be 



140 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

entitled to interest on the same at the rate of ten per cent, per an- 
num, and this mortgage shall stand as security for the amount so 
paid. 

Fourth. Said first part further agree that if he fail to pay- 
any of said money, either principal or interest, within .... days 
after the same becomes due, or fail to conform or comply with 
any of the foregoing conditions or agreements, the whole sum 
herein secured shall become due and payable at once, and this 
mortgage may thereupon be foreclosed immediately for the whole 
of said money, interest and costs. 

Fiftli. Said first part further agree thatin the event of the non- 
payment of either principal, interest or taxes when due, and upon 
the filing of a bill of foreclosure of this mortgage, an attorney's 
fee of .... dollars shall become due and payable, and shall be by 
the court taxed, and this mortgage shall stand as security therefor, 
and the same shall be included in the decree of foreclosure and 
shall be made by the Sheriff on general or special execution with 
the other money, interest and costs, and the conti-act embodied in 
this mortgage and the note described herein, shall in all respects 

be governed, constructed and adjudged by the laws of , where 

the same is made. The foregoing conditions being performed, this 
conveyance to be void, otherwise in full force and virtue. 



[Acknowledge as in form No. 1.] 

FORM OF LEASE. 

This Article of Agree:ment, Made and entered into on this 

.... day of . . . . , A. D. 187. , bj and between , of the 

county of and State of Iowa, of the first part, and 

of the county of , and State of Iowa, of the second part, 

witnesseth, that the said party of the first part has this day leased 
unto the party of the second part the following described prem- 
ises, to-wit: 

Here insert Description. 

for the term of from and after the . . day of . . . . , A. 

D. 187. ., at the (rent) of dollars, to be paid as 



follows, to-wit: 



Here insert Terms. 



And it is further agreed that if any rent shall be due and un- 
paid, or if default be made in any of the covenants herein con- 
tained, it shall then be lawful for the said party of the first part 
to re-enter the said premises, or to destrain for such rent; or he 
may recover possession thereof, by action of forcible entry and de- 



HISTOKY OF IOWA, 141 

tainer, notwithstanding the provision of Section 8,612 of the 
Code of 1873; or lie may use any or all of said remedies. 

And the said party of the second part agrees to pay to the party 
of the first part the rent as above stated, except when said premises 
are untenantable by reason of tire, or from any other cause than 

the carelessness of the party of the second part, or persons 

family, or in .... employ, or by superior force and inevitable ne- 
cessity. And the said party of the second part covenants that 
.... will use the said premises as a . . . ., and for no other purpose 
whatever; and that .... especially will not use said premises, or 
permit the same to be used, for any unlawful business or purpose 
whatever; that .... will not sell, assign, underlet or relinquish 
said premises without the written consent of the lessor, under 

penalty of a forfeiture of all rights under this lease, at the 

election of the party of the first part; and that .... will use all 
due care and diligence in guarding said property, with the build- 
ings, gates, fences, trees, vines, shrubbery, etc., from damage by 
hre, and the depredations of animals; that .... will keep build- 
ings, gates, fences, etc., in as good repair as they now are, or may 
at any time be placed by the lessor, damages by superior force, in- 
evitable necessity, or fire from any other cause than from the 
carelessness of the lessee, or persons of .... family, or in ... . 
employ, excepted; and that at the expiration of this lease, or upon 
a breach by said lessee of any of the said covenants herein con- 
tained, will, without further notice of any kind, quit and 

surrender the possession and occupancy of said premises in as good 
condition as reasonable use, natural wear and decay thereof will 
permit, damages by fire as aforesaid, superior force, or inevitable 
necessity, only excepted. 

In witness whereof, the said parties have subscribed their names 
on the date first above written. 

In presence of 



FORM OF NOTE. 

$.•.. ,18v, 

On or before the .. day of ...., 18.., for value received, I 
promise to pay or order, dollars, with inter- 
est from date until paid, at ten per cent, per annum, payable annu- 
ally, at Unpaid interest shall bear interest at ten per 

cent, per annum. On failure to pay interest within .... days 
after due, the Avhole sum, principal and interest, shall become due 
at once. 

[ 

CHATTEL MORTGAGE. 

Know all Men by these Presents: That of 

County, and State of .... in consideration of .... doUars, in hand 



142 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

paid by , of . . . . County and State of ... . do hereby sell 

and convey unto the said the following described per- 
sonal property, now in the possession of in the County 

.... and State of . . . . , to-wit : 

Here insert Description. 
And .... do hereby warrant the title of said property, and that it 
is free from any incumbrance or lien. The only right or interest 
retained by grantor in and to said property being the right of re- 
demption as herein provided. This conveyance to be void upon 
condition that the said grantor shall pay to said grantee, or his 
assigns, the full amount of principal and interest at the time there- 
in specified, of .... certain promissory notes of even date here- 
with, for the sum of .... dollars, 

One note for $ , clue , 18 . . , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for f , due , 18. . , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ , due , 18 . . , with interest annually at .... per cent. 

One note for $ , due , 18. . , with interest annually at .... per cent. 

The grantor to pay all taxes on said property, and if at any time 
any part or portion of said notes should be due and unpaid, said 
grantee may proceed by sale or foreclosure, to collect and pay him- 
self the unpaid balance of said notes, whether due or not, the 
grantor to pay all necessary expenses of such foreclosure, includ- 
ing $. . . . Attorney's fees, and whatever remains after paying off 
said notes and expenses, to be paid over to said grantor. 

Signed the .... day of , 18 . . . 

[Acknowledged as in form No. 1.] 

WARRANTY DEED. 

Know all Men by these Presents : That of 

County, and State of . . . . , in consideration of the sum of 

Dollars, in hand paid by of .... County and State of 

. . . . , do hereby sell and convey unto the said .... and to .... 
heirs and assigns, the following described premises, situated in the 
County of . . . ., State of Iowa, to-wit: 

Here insert Description. 

And I do hereby covenant with the said that . . lawfully 

seized in fee simple, of said premises, that they are free from in- 
cumbrance; that . . ha good right and lawful authority to sell 
the same, and . . do hereby covenant to warrant and defend the 
said premises and appurtenances thereto belonging, against the 

lawful claims of all persons whomsoever; and the said 

hereby relinquishes all her right of dower and of homestead in 
and to the above described premises. 

Signed the .... day of , A. D. 18 . . . 

IN PRESENCE OF 



[Acknowledged as in Form No. 1.] 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 143 

QUIT CLAIM DEED. 

Know all Men by these Presents: That of 

County, State of . . . . , in consideration of the sura of .... dollars 
to .... in hand paid by . . . . , of .... County, State of . . . . , the 
receipt whereof ... do hereby acknowledge, have bargained, sold 
and quit-claimed, and by these presents do bargain, sell and quit- 
claim unto the said .... and to . . heirs and assigns forever, all . . 
right, title, interest, estate, claim and demand, both at law and in 
equity, and as well in possession as in expectancy, of, in and to the 
following described premises, to wit: [here insert description] with 
all and singular the hereditaments and appurtenances thereto be- 
longing. 

Signed this . . . day of . . . ., A. D., 18. .. 

Signed in Presence of 



[Acknowledged as in form No. 1.] 

BOND FOR DEED. 

Know all Men by these Presents: That of 

County, and State of .... am lield and firmly bound unto 

of .... County, and State of . . . . , in the sum of Dollars, 

to be paid to the said , his executors or assigns, for which 

payment well and truly to be made, I bind myself firmly by these 
presents. Signed the .... day of A. D. 18. - . 

The coniition of this obligition is such, that if said obligee shall 
pay to said obligor, or his assigns, the full amount of principal and 
interest at the time therein specified, of . . certain promissory note, 
of even date herewith, for the sum of Dollars, 

One note for $...., due ....... 18 .. , with interest annually at . . 

per cent. 
One note for $...., due , 18 . . , with interest annually at . . 

per cent. 
One note for $...., due , 18 • • , with interest annually at . . 

per cent. 

and pay all taxes accruing upon the lands herein described, then 
said obligor shall convey to the said obligee, or his assigns, that 
certain tract or parcel of real estate, situated in tin; County of .... 
and State of Iowa, described as follows, to wit: [here insert descrip- 
tion] by a Warranty Deed, with the usual covenants, duly execut- 
ed and acknowledged. 

If said obligee should fail to make the payments as above stipu- 
lated, or any part thereof, as the same becomes due, said obligor 
may at his option, by notice to the obligee terminate his liability 
under the bond and resume the possession and absolute control of 
said premises, time being the essence of this agreement. 



144 HISTORY OF IOWA'. 

On the fulfillment of the above conditions this obligation to be- 
come void, otherwise to remain in full force and virtue; unless ter- 
minated by the obligor as above stipulated. 

[Acknowledged as in form No, 1] 

CHARITABLE, SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS ASSOCIA- 
TIONS. 

Any three or more persons of full age, citizens of the United 
States, a majority of whom shall be citizens of this State, who de- 
sire to associate themselves for benevolent, charitable, scientific, 
religious or missionary purposes, may make, sign and acknowledge 
before any officer authorized to take acknowledgements of deeds in 
this State, and have recorded in the office of the Recorder of the 
county in which the business of such society is to be conducted, a 
certificate in writing, in which shall be stated the name or title by 
which such society shall be known, the particular business and ob- 
jects of such society, the number of Trustees, Directors or Manag- 
ers to conduct the same, and the names of the Trustees, Directors 
or Managers of such society for the first year of its existence. 

Upon filing for record the certificate, as aforesaid, the persons 
who shall have signed and acknowledged such certificate, and their 
associates and successors, shall, by virtue hereof, be a body politic 
and corporate by the name stated in such certificate, and that they 
and their successors shall and may have succession, and shall be 
persons capable of suing and being sued, and may have and use a 
common seal, which they may alter or change at pleasure; and 
they and their successors, by their corporate name, shall be capable 
of taking, receiving, purchasing and holding real and personal estate 
and of making by-laws for the management of its affiiirs, not in- 
consistent with law. 

The society so incorporated may, annually or of tener, elect from 
its members its Trustees, Directors or Managers at such time and 
place, and in such manner as may be s})ecified in its by-laws, who 
shall have the control and management of the afi'airs and funds of 
the society, a majority of Avhom shall be a quorum for the transac- 
tion of business, and whenever any vacancy shall happen among 
such Trustees, Directors or Managers, by death, resignation 
or neglect to serve, such vacancy shall be filled in such manner as 
shall be provided by the by-laws of such society. When the body 
corporate consists of the Trustees, Directors or Managers of any 
benevolent, charitable, literary, scientific, religious or missionary 
institution, which is or may be established in the State, and which 
is or may be under the patronage, control, direction or supervision 
of any synod, conference, association or other ecclesiastical body in 
such State, established agreeably to the laws thereof, such eccles- 
iastical body may nominate and appoint such Trustees, Directors or 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 145 

Managers, according to usages of the appointing body, and may 
fill any vacancy which may occur amoug such Trustees, Directors 
or Managers; and when any such institution may be under the pat- 
ronage, control, direction or supervision of two or more of such sy- 
nods, conferences, associations or other ecclesiastical bodies, such 
bodies may severally nominate and appoint such proportion of such 
Trustees, Directors or Managers as shall be agreed upon by those 
bodies immediately concerned. And any vacancy occurring among 
such appointees last named, shall be filled by the synod, confer- 
ence, association or body having appointed the last incumbent. 

In case any election of Trustees, Directors or Managers shall not 
be made on the day designated by the by-laws, said society for that 
cause shall not be dissolved, but such election may take place on 
any other day selected by such by-laws. 

Any corporation formed under this chapter shall be capable of 
taking, holding or receiving property by virtue of any devise or be- 
quest contained in any last will or testament of any person what- 
soever; but no person leaving a wife, child or parent, shall devise 
or bequeath to such institution or corporation more than one-fourth 
of his estate after the payment of his debts, and such devise or be- 
quest shall be valid only to the extent of such one-fourth. 

Any corporation in this State of an academical character, the 
membership of which shall consist of lay members and pastors of 
churches, delegates to any synod, conference or council holding 
its annual meetings alternately in this and one or more adjoining 
States, may hold its annual meeting for the election of officers and 
the transaction of business in any adjoining State to this, at such 
place therein as the said synod, conference or council shall hold its 
annual meetings; and the elections so held and business so trans- 
acted shall be as legal and binding as if held and transacted at the 
place of business of the corporation in this State. 

I'he provisions of this chapter shall not extend or apply to any 
association or individual who shall, in the certificate filed with the 
Recorder, use or specify a name or style the same as that of any 
previously existing incorporated society in the county. 

The Trustees, Directors or stockholders of any existing benevo- 
lent, charitable, scientific, missionary or religious corporation may, 
by conforming to the requirements of Section 1,095 of this chap- 
ter, re-incorporate themselves or continue their existing corporate 
powers, and all the property and effects of such existing corpora- 
tion shall vest in and belong to the corporation so re-incorporated 
or continued. 

INTOXICATING LIQUORS. 

No intoxicating liquors (alcohol, spirituous and vinous liquors), 
except wine manufactured from grapes, currants or other fruit 
grown in the State, shall be manufactured or sold, except for me- 



146 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

chanical, medicinal, culinary or sacramental purposes; and even 
such sale is limited as follows: 

Any citizen of the State, except hotel keepers, keepers of saloons, 
eating houses, grocery keepers and confectioners, is permitted to 
buy and sell, within the county of his residence, such liquors for 
such mechanical, etc., purposes only, provided he shall obtain the 
consent of the Board of Supervisors. In order to get that consent 
he must get a certificate from a majority of the electors of the 
town or township or ward in which he desires to sell, that he is of 
good moral character, and a proper person to sell such liquors. 

If the Board of Supervisors grant him permission to sell such 
liquors, he must give bonds, and shall not sell such liquors at a 
greater profit than thirty-three per cent, on the cost of the same. 
Any person having a permit to sell, shall make, on the last Satur- 
day of every month, a return in writing to the Auditor of the 
county, showing the kind and quantity of the liquors purchased by 
him since the date of his last report, the price paid and the amount 
of freights paid on the same; also the kind and quantity of liquors 
sold by him since the date of his last report, to whom sold, for 
what purpose and at what price, also the kind and quantity of 
liquors on hand; which report shall be sworn to by the person 
having the permit, and shall be kept by the Auditor, subject at all 
times to the inspection of the public. 

No person shall sell or give away any intoxicating liquors, in- 
cluding wine or beer, to any minor, for any purpose whatever, ex- 
cept upon v/ritten order of parent, guardian or family physician; or 
sell the same to an intoxicated person or a person in the hal)it of 
becoming intoxicated. 

Any person who shall mix any intoxicating liquor with any 
beer, wine or cider, by him sold, and shall sell or keep for sale, as 
a beverage, such mixture, shall be punished as for sale of intoxi- 
cating liquor. 

But nothing in the chapter containing the laws governing the 
sale, or prohibiting the sale of intoxicating liquors, shall be con- 
strued to forbid the sale by the importer thereof of foreign intox- 
icating liquor, imported under the authority of the laws of the 
United States, regarding the importation of such liquors, and in 
accordance with such laws; provided that such liquor, at the time 
of the sale by the importer, remains in the original casks or pack- 
ages in which it was by him imported, and in quantities not less 
than the quantities in which the laws of the United States require 
such liquors to be imported, and is sold by him in such original 
casks or packages, and in said quantities only. 

All payment or compensation for intoxicating liquor sold in vio- 
lation of the laws of this State, whether such payments or com- 
pensation be in money, goods, lands, labor, or anything else what- 
soever, shall be held to have been received in violation of law and 
equity and good conscience, and to have been received upon a 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 147 

valid promise and agreement of the receiver, in consideration of 
the receipt thereof, to pay on demand to the person furnishing 
such consideration, the amount of the money on the just value of 
the goods or other things. 

All sales, transfers, conveyances, mortgages, liens, attachments, 
pledges and securities of every kind, which, either in whole or in 
part; shall have been made on account of intoxicating liquors sold 
contrary to law, shall be utterly null and void. 

Negotiable paper in the hands of holders thereof, in good faith, 
for valuable consideration, without notice of any illegality in its 
inception or transfer, however, shall not be affected by the above 
provisions. Neither shall the holder of land or other property 
who may have taken the same in good faith, without notice of any 
defect in the title of the person from whom the same was taken, 
growing out of a violation of the liquor law, be affected by the 
above provision. 

Every wife, child, parent, guardian, employer, or other person, 
who shall be injured in person or property or means of support, 
by an intoxicated person, or in consequence of the intoxication, 
has a right of action against any person Avho shall, by selling in- 
toxicating liquors, cause the intoxication of such person, for all 
damages actually sustained as well as exemplary damages. 

For any damages recovered, the person and real property (except 
homestead, as now provided) of the person against whom the dam- 
ages are recovered, as well as the premises or property, personal or 
real, occupied and used by him, with consent and knowledge of 
owner, either for manufacturing or selling intoxicating liquors 
contrary to law, shall be liable. 

The only other exemption, besides the homestead, from this 
sweeping liability, is that the defendant may have enough for the 
support of his family for six months, to be determined by the 
Township Trustee. 

No ale, wine, beer or other malt or vinous liquors shall be sold 
within two miles of the corporate limits of any municipal corpora- 
tion, except at wholesale, for the purpose of shipment to places 
outside of such corporation and such two mile limits. The power 
of the corporation to prohibit or license sale of liquors not prohib- 
ited by law is extended over the two miles. 

No ale, wine beer or other malt or vinous liquors shall be sold 
on the day on which any election is held under the laws of this 
State, within two miles of the place where said election is held; 
except only that any person holding a permit may sell upon the 
prescription of a practicing physician. 



M8 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

SUGGESTIONS TO THOSE PURCHASING BOOKS BY 
SUBSCRIPTION. 

The business of publishinr/ hooks hy subscription, having so often 
been brought into disrepnte by agents making representations and 
declarations not authorised by the publisher, in order to prevent 
that as much as possible, and that there may be more general 
knowledge of the relation such agents bear to their principal, and 
the law governing such cases, the following statement is made: 

A subscription is in the nature of a contract of mutual prom- 
ises, by which the subscriber agrees to 2^^fl/ <? certain sum for the 
work described; ihe consideration is cowc?^rrg»^ that the publisher 
shall publish the hook named, and deliver the same, for which the 
subscriber is to pay the price named. The nature and character 
of the icork is described by the prospectus and sample shown. 
These should be carefully examined before subscribing, as they 
are the basis and consideration of the promise to pay, and not the 
too often exaggerated statements of the agent, who is merely employed 
to solicit subscriptions, for which he is -a^woWY paid * commission 
for each subscriber, and has no authority to change or alter ih.e 
conditions upon which the subscriptions are authorized to be made 
by the publisher. Should the agent assume to agree to make the 
subscription conditional or modify or change the agreement of the 
publisher, as set out by the prospectus and sample, in order to 
hi ml the principal, the subscriber should see that such condition or 
changes are stated oyer or iw fOWwec^/oH with his signature, so that 
the publisher may have notice of the same. 

All persons making contracts in reference to matters of this 
kind, or any other business, should remember that the law as 
written is, that they can 7iot be altered, varied or rescinded ver- 
bally, but if done at all, must be done in writing. It is therefore 
important that all persons contemplating subscribing should dis- 
tinctly understand that all talk before or after the subscription is 
made, is not admissible as evidence, and is no part of the contract. 

Persons employed to solicit subscriptions are known to the trade 
as canvassers. They are agents appointed to do a particular 
business in a prescribed mode, and have no authority to do it in any 
other way to the prejudice of their principal, nor can they bind 
their principal in any other matter. They can not collect money 
or agree that payment may be made in anything else but money. 
They cannot extend the time of payment beyond the time of de- 
livery, nor bind their principal for the payment of expenses in- 
curred in their business. 

It would save a great deal of trouble, and often serious loss, if 
persons, before signing their names to any subscription book, or any 
written instrument, would examine carefully what it is; if they 
can not read themselves, call on some one disinterested who can. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 149 



Practical Rules for Every Day Use, 



Hovi to find the gain or loss per cent, when the cost and selling price 
are given. 

Rule. — Find the difference between the cost and selling price, 
which will be the gain or loss. 

Annex two ciphers to the gain or loss, and divide it by the cost 
price; the result will be the gain or loss per cent. 

How to change gold into currency. 

Rule. — Multiply the given sura of gold by the price of gold. 

How to change currency into gold. 

Rule. — Divide the amount in currency by the price of gold. 

How to find each partner s share of the gain or loss in a copartner- 
ship business. 

Rule. — Divide the whole gain or loss by the entire stock the 
quotient Avill be the gain or loss per cent. 

Multiply each partner's stock by this per cent., the result will 
be each one's share of the gain or loss. 

How to find gross and net weight and price of hogs. 

A short and simple method for finding the net weight, or price of 
hogs, when the gross weight or price is given, and vice versa. 

Note.— It is genorally assumed that the gross weight of Hog-s dliiilnl««lied by 15 
or 3) per cent, ot itself gives the net weight, and the net weight increased by li or 25 
per cent, uf itself equals the gross weight. 

To find the net weight or gross price. 

Multiply the given number by .08 (tenths). 

To find the gross weight or net price. 

Divide the given number by .08 (tenths). 

How to find the capacity of a granary, bin or wagon-bed. 

Rule. — Multiply \ by short method) the number of cubic feet by 
6,308, and point off one decimal place — the result will be the 
correct answer in bushels and tenths of a bushel. 

For only an approximate answer, multiply the cubic feet by 8, 
and point off one decimal place. 

How to find the contents of a corn-erib. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of cubic feet by 54, short method, 
or by 4^ ordinary method, and point off one decimal place — the 
result will be the answer in bushels. 

Note —In estimating corn in the ear, the quality and the time It lias been 

cribbed must be taken into consideration, since corn will shrink considcrabl.v during 
winter and spring. This rule generally holds good for corn measured at the time it is 
cribbed, provided it is sound and clean. 

How to find the contents of a cistern or tank. 

Rule. — Multij)ly the square of the mean diameter by the depth 
(all in feet) and this product by 5,681 (short method), and point off 



150 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

ON^E decimal place — the result will be the contents in barrels of 
31^ gallons. 

How to find the contents of a barrel or cask. 

Rule. — Under the square of the mean diameter, write the length 
(all in inches) in reversed order, so that its uxits will fall under 
the tens; multiply by short method, and this product again by 
430; point off one decimal place, and the result will be the answer 
in wine gallons. 

How to measure hoards. 

Rule. — Multiply the length (in feet) by the width (in inches) 
and divide the product by 12 — the result will be the contents in 
square feet. 

How to measure scantlings, joists, planks, sills, etc. 

Rule. — Multiply the width, the thickness, and the length to- 
gether (the width and thickness in inches, and the length in feet), 
and divide the product by 12 — the result will be square feet. 

How to find the number of acres in a body of land. 

Rule. — Multiply the length by the width (in rods), and divide 
the product by 160 (carrying the division to 2 decimal places if 
there is a remainder); the result will be the answer in acres and 
hundredths. 

When the opposite sides of a piece of land are of unequal length, 
add them together and take one-iialf for the mean length or width. 

How to find the number of square yards in a floor or wall. 

Rule. — Multiply the length by the width or height (in feet), 
an 1 divide the product by 9, the result will be square yards. 

How to find the number of bricks required in a building. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of cubic feet by 22|. 

The number of cubic feet is found by multiplying the length, 
height and thickness (in feet) together.' 

Bricks are usually made 8 inches long, 4 inches wide, and two 
inches thick; hence, it requires 27 bricks to make a cubic foot 
without mortar, but it is generally assumed that the mortar fills 
1-6 of the space. 

How to find the number of shingles required in a roof. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of square feet in the roof by 8, if 
the shingles are exposed 4^ inches, or by 7 1-5 if exposed 5 inches. 

To find the number of square feet, multiply the length of the 
roof by twice the length of the rafters. 

To find the length of the rafters, at one-fourth pitch, multiply 
the width of the building by .56 (hundredths); at one-third pitch 
by .6 (tenths); at two-fifths pitch, by .64 (hundredths); at one- 
half pitch, by .71 (hundredths). This gives the length of the 
rafters from the apex to the end of the wall, and whatever they 
are to project must be taken into consideration. 

Note.— By ^i or }^ pitch is meant that the apex or comb of the roof is to be U or H 
the width of the building- lilgber than the walls or base of the rafters. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 151 

How to reckon the cost of hay. 

Rule. — MultijDly th(3 uumber of pounds by half the price per 
ton, and remove the decimal point thres places to the left. 

How to measure grain. 

Rule. — Level the grain, ascertain the space it occapies in cubic 

feet; multiply the number of cubic feet by 8, and point off one 

place to the left. 

Note.— Exactness requires the ad Jiti in to every three hundred bushels of one 
extra bushel. 

The foregoing rule may be used for finding the number of gal- 
lons, by multiplying the number of bushels by 8. 

If the corn in the box is in the ear, divide the answer by 2, to 
find the number of bushels of shelled corn, because it re:j[uires 2 
bushels of ear corn to make 1 of shelled corn. 

Rapid rules for measuring land without instruments. 

In measuring land, the first thing to ascertain is the contents of 
any given plot in square yards; then, given the number of yards, 
find out the number of rods and acres. 

The most ancient and simplest measure of distance is a step. 
Now, an ordinary-sized man can train himself to cover one vard 
at a stride, on the average, with sufficient accuracy for ordinary 
purposes. 

To make use of this means of measuring distances, it is essential 
to walk in a straight line; to do this, fix the eye on two objects in 
a line straight ahead, one comparatively near, the other remote, 
and, in walking, keep these objects constantly in line. 

Farmers and others by adopting the following simple and ingenious 
contrivance, may always carry with them the scale to construct a cor- 
rect yard measure. 

Take a foot rule, and commencing at the base of the little finger 
of the left hand, mark the quarters of the foot on the outer borders 
of the left arm, pricking in the marks wath indelible ink. 

To find how many rods in length will make an acre, the width being 
given. 

Rule. — Divide 160 by the width, and the quotient will be the 
answer. 

How to find the number of acres in any plot of land, the number of 
rods being given. 

Rule. — Divide the number of rods by 8, multiply the quotient 
by 5, and remove the decimal point two places to the left. 

The diameter being given, to find the circumference. 

RuLE.^Multiply the diameter by 3 1-7. 

To find the diameter, when the circumference is given. 

Rule. — Divide the circumference by 3 1-7. 

To find how many solid feet a round stick of timber of the same thick- 
ness throughout will contain when squared 

Rule. — Square half the diameter in inches, multiply by 2, mul- 
tiply by the length in feet, and divide the product by 144. 



152 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

General rule for measuring timber, to find the solid contents in feet. 

Rule. — Multiply the depth in inches by the breadth in inches, 
and then multiply by the length in feet, and divide by 144. 

To find the number of feet of timber in trees with the bark on. 

Rule. — Multiply the square of one-fifth of the circumference in 
inches, by twice the length, in feet, and divide by 144. Deduct 
1-10 to 1-15 according to the thickness of the bark. 

Howard's new rule for computing interest. 

Rule. — The reciprocal of the rate is the time for which the in- 
terest on any sum of money will be shown by simply removing the 
decimal point two places to the left; for ten times that time, re- 
move the point one place to the left; for 1-10 of the same time, 
remove the point three places to the left. 

Increase or diminish the results to suit the time given. 

Note —The reciprocal of the rate is found by inverting the rate; thus 3 per cent, 
per nnoiith, inverted, becomes ?,i of a month, or 10 days 

When the rate is expressed by one figure, always write it thus: 
3-1, three ones. 

Rule for converting English into American currency. 

Multiply the pounds, with the shillings and pence stated in dec- 
imals, by 400 plus the premium in fourths, and divide the product 
by 90. 

U. S. GOVERNMENT LAND MEASURE. 

A township — 36 sections each a mile square. 

A section — 640 acres. 

A quarter section, half a mile square — 160 acres. 

An eighth section, half a mile long, north and south, and a 
quarter of a mile wide — 80 acres. 

A sixteenth section, a cjuarter of a mile square — 40 acres. 

The sections are all numbered 1 to 36, commencing at the north- 
east corner. 

The sections are divided into quarters, which are named by the 
cardinal points. The quarters are divided in the same way. The 
description of a forty-acre lot would read: The south half of the 
west half of the south-west quarter of section 1 in township 24, 
north of range 7 west, or as the case might be; and sometimes will 
fall short and sometimes overrun the number of acres it is sup- 
posed to contain. 

The nautical mile is 795 4-5 feet longer than the common mile. 

SURVEYORS' MEASURE. 

7 92-100 inches make 1 link. 

25 links •' 1 rod. 

4 rods " 1 chain. 

80 chains " 1 mile. 

Note. — A chain is 100 links, equal to 4 rods or 66 feet, 



HISTORY OF lOVVA. 



153 



Shoemakers formerly used a subdivision of the iuch called a bar- 
leycorn; three of which made an inch. 

Horses are measured directly over the fore feet, and the stand- 
ard of measure is four inches — called a hand. 

In Biblical and other old measurements, the term span is some- 
times used, which is a length of nine inches. 

The sacred cubit of the Jews was 21.02-i inches in length. 

The common cubit of the Jews was 21.70i inches in length. 

A pace is equal to a yard or 36 inches. 

A fathom is equal to 6 feet. 

A league is three miles, but its length is variable, for it is, strictly 
speaking, a nautical term, and should be three geographical miles, 
equal to 3.45 statute miles, but when used on land, three statute 
miles are said to be a league. 

In cloth measure an aune is equal to 1-^ yards, or 45 inches. 

An Amsterdam ell is equal to 20.796 inches. 

A Trieste ell is equal to 25.284 inches. 

A Brabant ell is ecjual to 27.116 inches. 

MISCELLANEOUS TABLE. 

12 units, or things, 1 Dozen. 196 pounds, 1 Barrel of Flour. 

12 dozen, 1 Gross. 200 pounds, 1 Barrel of Pork. 

20 things, 1 Score. 56 pounds, 1 Firkin of Butter. 

24 sheets of paper, 1 Quire. 20 quires paper, 1 Ream. 

4 ft. wide, 4 It. high, and 8 feet long, 1 Cord Wood. 

HOW TO KEEP ACCOUNTS. 

Every farmer and mechanic, whether he does much or little bus- 
iness, should keep a record of his transactions in a clear and sys- 
tematic manner. For the benefit of those who have not had the 
opportunity of acquiring a primary knowledge of the principles of 
book-keeping, we here present a simple form of keeping accounts- 
which is easily comprehended, and well adapted to record the busi- 
ness transactions of farmers, mechanics and laborers. 

1882. A. H. JACKSON. Dr. Cr, 



Jan. 


10 




17 


Feb. 


4 


" 


4 


March 


8 




8 


•' 


i:^ 


" 


17 


April 


9 


" 


9 


May 


6 


" 


24 


•July 


4 



To 7 bushels Wheat 

By shoeing span of horses . . 

To 14 bushel>^Oats 

To 5 ft Butter 

By new Harrow 

By sharpening 2 Plows . . . 

By new Double-Tree 

To Cow and Calf 

To half ton of Hav 

By Cash \ 

By repairing Corn-Planter. . , 

To one Sow with Pigs 

By Cash, to balance account 



.at $1.25 



at$ A'. 
at 2: 



48 



_35 

$88 



50 



154 



HISTOKY OF IOWA. 



1882. 



CASSA MASON. 



Dr. Cr. 



March 


21 


" 


21 


" 


28 


May 


1 




1 


June 


19 


" 


26 


July 


10 


" 


29 


Aug. 


12 


Sept. 


1 



by 3 days' labor at |1.25 

To 2 Shoats at 3.00 

To 18 Bushels Com at .45 

By 1 month's Labor 

To Cash 

Ry 8 day's Mowing at $1.50 

To 50 ft Flour 

To 27 It, Meat at $ .10 

By 9 Days Harvestuig at 2.00 

By 6 days' Labor at 1 .50 

To Cash 

To Cash to balance account 







13 


$6 


00 




8 


10 


25 


10 


oo' 


12 


2 


75 




2 


70 


'I 


20 


00 




lb 


20 




•167 


75 


$67 



75 



00 



INTEREST TABLE. 

A Simple Rule for Accurately Computikg Interest at Any Given 
Per Cent for any Length of Tijie. 

Multiply the2J»'*"Cijt)rt/ (amount of money at interest) by the time reduced to 
days; then divide this product by {he quotient obtained bv dividing 360 (the num- 
ber of days in the interest year) by the^er cent, of interest, and the q uotient thus 
obtained will be the required interest. 



illustration. 

Require the interest of $462.50 for one month and 
eighteen days at 6 per cent. An interest month is 30 
days; one month and eighteen days equal 48 days. 
$462.50 multiphed by .48 gives $222.0000; 360 divided 
by 6 (the per cent, of interest) gives 60, and $222,0000 
divided by 60 will give you the exact interest, which 
is $3.70. If the rate of interest in the above example 
were 12 per cent., we would divide the $222.0000 by 30 
(because 360 divided by twelve gives 30); if 4 percent, 
we would divide by 90; it 8 per cent., by 45; and in 
like manner for any other per cent. 



Solution. 

$462.50 

.48 

370000 
6)3601 185000 

60 j $222.0000($3.70 
180 

420 

430 




AND THEIR 



NAMES OF THE STATES OF THE UNION, 
SIGNIFICATIONS. 

Virffinia — The oldest of the States, was so called in honor of 
Queen Elizabeth, the '• Virgin Queen," in whose reign Sir Walter 
Raleigh made his first attempt to colonize that region. 

Florida — Ponce deLeou landed on the coast of Florida on Easter 
Sunday, and called the country in commemoration of the day, which 
was the Pasqua Florida of the Spaniards, or "'Feast of Flowers." 

Louisiana was called after Louis the Fourteenth, who at one 
time owned that section of the country. 

Alabama was so named by the Indians, and signifies " Here we 
Rest." 

Mississippi is likewise an Indian name, meaning " Long 

T>* n ' » o 

River. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 155 

Arkansas^ from Kansas, the Indian word for '" Smoky Water." 
Its prefix was really arc, the French word for '' bow." 

The Carol inas were originally one tract, and were called "Caro- 
lina," after Charles the Ninth of France. 

Georgia owes its name to George the Second of England, who 
first established a colony there in 1732. 

Tennessee is the Indian name for the "River of the Bend," i. e., 
the Mississippi which forms its western boundary. 

Kentuchij is the Indian name for " at the head of the river." 

Ohio means " beautiful;" /o^ra, "the beautiful land;" Minnesota, 
" cloudy water," and Wisconsin, " wild-rushing channel." 

Illinois is derived from the Indian word iliini, men, and the 
French suffix ois, together signifying " tribe of men." 

Michigan was called by the name g\\ en i\\e\i\ke, fish-weir, which 
was so styled from its fancied resemblance to a fish trap. 

Missouri is from the Indian word " muddy," which more prop- 
erly applies to the river that flows through it. 

Oregon owes its Indian name to its principal river. 

Cortez named California. 

Massachusetts is the Indian name for " The country around the 
great hills." 

Connecticut, from the Indian Qaon-ch-ta-Cut, signifying "Long 
River. 

Maryland, after Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles the First, 
of England. 

New York was named by the Duke of York. 

Pennsglvania, means " Penn's Woods," and was so called after 
Wm. Penn, its owner. 

Delaware, after Lord De La Ware. 

New Jersey, so called in honor of Sir George Carteret, who was 
Governor of the Island of Jersey, in the British Channel. 

Maine was called after the province of Maine in France, in com- 
pliment of Queen Henrietta of England, who owned that province. 

Vermont, from the French word Vert Mont, signifying Green 
Mountain. 

New Hampshire, from Hampshire County in England. It was 
formerly called Laconia. 

The little State of Rhode Island owes its name to the Island of 
Rhodes in the Mediterranean, which domain it is said to greatly 
resemble. 

Texas is the American word for the Mexican name by which 
all that section of the country was called before it was ceded to the 
United States. 



]56 



HISTOKY OF IOWA. 



POPULATION OF THE SEVERAL COUNTIES OF IOWA, 1880 CENSUS. 



COUNTIES. 


r3 

•a 
s 

o 


COUNTT SEAT. 


Population 
in 1880. 


Adair . 


1854 
1853 
1849 
1846 
1855 
1846 
1853 
1849 
1853 
1847 
1858 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1853 
1836 
1855 

v:y6 

1853 
1851 

1858 
1838 
1840 
1855 
1847 
1814 
1850 
1840 
1834 
1857 
1834 
1859 
1850 
1854 
1855 
1849 
1854 
1856 
1851 
1857 
1858 
1853 
1853 
1836 
1855 
1857 
1858 
1845 
1838 
1846 


Greenfield 


11,199 


Adams . , 


Comino" 


11,888 


Allainakpe 


"Waukon 


19,791 


Appanoose 


Centerville . 


16,936 


Audubon 


Audubon 


7,448 






24,888 




Waterloo 


23,913 






20,838 






14,081 


Buchanan 


Independence 


18,547 


Bu8na Vista 


Storm Lake 


7,537 


Butler 


Butler Center 


14,293 


Calhoun 


Rr.ckwell City 


5,595 




Carroll 


12,351 






16,943 


Cedar. . ... 




18,937 






11,461 






8,240 


Chickasaw 


New Hampton 


14,534 


Clarke 


Osceola 


11,512 


Clay 


Spencer 


4,248 




Elkader 


28,829 


Clinton . . . 




36,764 




Denison 

Adel 


12,413 


Dallas 


18,746 


Davis 


Bloomfield 


16,468 


Decatur 


Leon 


15,336 


Dplnwrnrp 


Delhi 


17,952 






33,099 






1,901 






42,997 






1,550 


Fayette 


West Union 


22.258 


Floyd 


Charles City 


14,677 


Franlrlin 


H ampton 


10,248 




Sidney 


17,653 






12,725 






12,639 






14,863 


Hamilton 


Webster City 


11,252 


TTanrnrlr 


Concord « 


3,453 




Eldora 


17,808 






16,649 




Mt. Pleasant 


20,826 






10,837 




Dakota 


5,341 


Ida 


Ida Grove 


4,382 


Marengo 


19,221 


J y, ■ ■ 


Maquoketa 


23,771 




Newton 


25,962 


Jefferson 


1838 


Fairfield 


17,478 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 157 

POPULATION OF THE SEVERAL COUNTIES OF IOWA, 1880 CENSUS. 



o 



COUNTY SEATS. 



Johnson 

Jones 

Keokuk 

Kossuth 

Lee 

Linn 

Louisa 

Lucas 

Lyon 

Madison 

Mahaska ,. 

Marion 

Marshall 

Mills 

Mitchell 

Monona 

Monroe 

Montgomery . . , 

Muscatine 

O'Brien 

Osceola 

Page 

Palo Alto 

Plymouth 

Pocahontas 

Polk 

Pottawattamie . 

Poweshiek 

Binggold 

Sac 

Scott 

Shelby 

Sioux 

Story 

Tama 

Taylor 

Union 

Van Buren 

Wapello 

Warren 

Washmg'tou. . . 

Wayne 

Webster , 

Winnebago. . . . 

Winneshiek 

Woodbury 

Worth 

AVright 

Total 



1848 
1839 
1844 
1855 
1837 
1839 
1839 
1849 
1872 
1850 
1844 
1845 
1850 
1851 
1854 
1854 
1851 
1858 
1838 
1860 
1872 
1851 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1846 
1848 
1848 
1855 
1858 
1838 
1853 
1860 
1853 
1S54 
1851 
1853 
1837 
1844 
1839 
1849 
1851 
1853 
1857 
1851 
1853 
1857 
1855 



Iowa City 

Anamosa 

Sigourney 

Algona 

Ft. Madison 

Marion , 

Wapello 

Chariton 

Rock Rapids 

Winterset , 

Oskaloosa 

Knoxville 

Marshalltown 

Glen wood 

Osage 

Onawa 

Albia 

Red Oak 

Muscatine 

Primghar 

Sibley 

Clarinda 

Emmetsburg 

Le Mars 

Pocahontas Center. 

Des Moines 

Coimcil Bluffs 

Montezuma 

Mt. Ayr 

Sac City 

Davenport 

Harlan 

Orange City 

Nevada 

Toledo 

Bedford 

Afton 

Keosauqua 

Ottumwa 

Indianola 

Washington 

Corydon 

f'ort Dodge 

Forest City 

Decorah 

Sioux City 

Northwood 

Clarion 



158 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



The total footings for the State of Iowa, accordiilg to the census, are, males, 
848,235; females, 776,228; native, 1,363,015; foreign, 261,418; white, 1,614,- 
510; colored (including 47 Chinese and 464 Indians and half-breeds), 9,953, 
total, 1,624,463. 



POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES. 

The revised and corrected returns of the census bureau show the 
population of the several States and Territories of the country to 
be as follows: 



Alabama 1,262,505 

Arizona 40,440 

Arkansas 802,525 

Cahfomia 864,694 

Colorado 194,327 

Connecticut 622,700 

Dakota..... 135,177 

Delaware 146,608 

District of Columbia 177,624 

Florida 269,493 

Georgia 1,542,180 

Idaho 32,610 

Illinois 3,077,871 

Indiana 1,978,301 

Iowa '. 1,624,615 

Kansas 996,086 

Kentucky 1,648,690 

Louisiana 939,946 



Maine. 

Maryland 

Massachusetts. 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 



648,936 
9:34,942 
1,783,085 
1,636,937 
780,773 
1.131,597 
2,168,380 



Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada , 

New Hampshire. 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina. . 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina. . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia . . 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



Grand total 50,155,783 




HISTORY OF IOWA. 159 



Geological and Physical Features. 



Prof. J. F. Elsom. 

" The science of Geology illustrates many astonishing facts." 
Viewed in the light of authentic tests, the region of country over 
which this work extends, presents ample study for the Geologist 
and Antiquarian, for nowhere in the broad expanse of country 
traversed by the writer — excepting, perhaps, some sections of the 
country of mines — -is there such a fine field for the labor of the 
geologist. As we stood upon the high bluffs viewing the beauti- 
ful valleys below, or rowed over any of these streams — commercial 
arteries of this great country — and tried to peer up the steep sides 
of the overhanging bluffs, we often imagined ourself living away 
amid the dim cycles of the past; again we lived in the present, 
wondering what unseen agencies and gigantic forces had been em- 
ployed to transform what was evidently once a vast and almost 
boundless sea, into one of the finest sections of land — food pro- 
ducing land — between the two great oceans. Again, as the author 
examined with hammer and chisel, testing the chips by heat and 
cold, acid and alkali, subjecting the fused residuum to the diaphragm 
of the microscope, or the wonderful spectra of the spectroscope, 
he was often amazed at the broad expanse of time that must have 
elapsed to make this wonderful strata from that ungainly, shapeless 
mass,which, as Sacred History teaches,was this earth's original form. 
Furthermore, it seems almost incredible that little by little as these 
sands accumulate, that there could have elapsed sufficient time for 
these marine aggregations and changes. This, however, is merely 
prefaratory, and we must hasten on to the subject matter, accorded 
to this limited space, for to do the subject anything like justice, a 
book much larger than this entire history would be required. The 
reader will know by this why we have not gone more into detail 
in our discussion of this interesting and valuable portion of the 
work. 

To the geologist, among the first things to attract the attention 
in this section is the "VValled Lakes" of Northern Iowa, one of 
them in Wright County — where we first made a survey — is about 
three-eighths of a mile wide, with a wall or embankment from 2 to 
10 feet high surrounding it, formerly supposed to be the work of 
ancient races, a theory, however, now discountenanced, for practi- 
cal tests and observation go to prove that they are the results of 
natural causes, namely the periodical action of alternate heat and 
cold, aided to a limited extent by the action of the waves. These 
little lakes are very shallow, and during the ordinary winter freeze 
nearly solid, so that little or no water remains at the bottom, Init 



160 HISTOEY OF IOWA. 

a little will generally be found in the middle. As a consequence 
all loose substances at the bottom adhere to the ice below, and the 
expansive power of water when freezing — which must be immense 
in such a large body as some of these lakes — acts equally in all di- 
rections from the center to the circumference, and annually what- 
ever was on the bottom of the lake has by this means been carried 
to the shore. This process, imperceptible, perhaps , to the casual ob- 
server in a single season, has been going on from year to year, 
century after century, causing these embankments, formerly a great 
wonder to everyone, but perfectly simple to any and all, if the va- 
rious strata of the walls be carefully examined and compared with 
each other. 

The entire State contains very few what may be classed as large 
elevations, the highest point being but a trifle over twelve hundred 
feet higher than its lowest point as shown by barometrical surveys; 
there are two such points, and are nearly three hundred miles 
apart; then if we think for a moment, it will be seen the entire 
State is traversed by gently flowing rivers — rapids nearly unknown 
— hence we have the entire State resting entirely within, compris- 
ing a part of a vast plain, with no mountain or hill range within 
its limits, 

A further idea of the general uniformity which characterizes the 
State may be gleaned from the survey from point to point, and 
the following statement of the general slopes in feet per mile, in- 
straight lines across: 

From the NE corner to the SE corner 1 foot 1 inch per mile. 
From the NE corner to Spirit Lake 5 feet 5 inches per mile. 
From the NW corner to Spirit Lake 5 feet per mile. 
From the NW corner to the SW corner 2 feet per mile. 
From the SW corner to the highest ridge 4 feet 1 inch per mile. 
From the dividing ridge to the SE corner 5 feet 7 inches per mile. 
From the highest point in the State to the lowest 4 feet per mile. 

This statement shows a great uniformity, and a good degree of 
propriety in estimating the whole State as part of a great plain, 
the lowest point showing but 144 feet above sea level. This point, 
nearly at the mouth of Des Moines River, presents a geological 
formation of great interest, but being t^o far removed from the 
territory within the scope of the work we will not discuss it in 
this connection. Taking the highest point — near Spirit Lake — 
and the lowest point — near the mouth of the Des Moines — gives 
but a slight elevation and depression, ana a general average of the 
entire State of eight hundred feet above the level of the sea, 
though from the nearest point the State is over a thousand miles 
from the sea coast, a rather remarkable instance, and another proof 
of being a part of a vast plain. Of course, when we consider the 
slightly diversified surface of Western Iowa, the formation of small 
valleys out of the general level, which have been evolved by the 
action of streams, lakes, etc., during the dim cycles of the past, it 



HISTORY OF IOWA, 161 

may appear a trifle jejune, but will not alter the general and ac- 
cepted theory aforesaid. Especially is this true with reference to 
the northwestern portion, the seeming deviation being much more 
apparent in the northeastern portion of the State. 

It will be well enough to mention that the Missouri River, 
though washing as many or more miles of Iowa's shore than the 
Mississippi, drains but about one-third of its surface, going to par- 
tially prove that this plain of which we speak, extends away out 
in Nebraska, where we have unmistakable evidences of the Mis- 
souri having once threaded its course, the other side being the 
eastern border of the State, giving us once a vast ocean about one 
and two-thirds broader than the State. 

Thus much with reference to the surface indications. We will 
now go lower and see what can be found beneath this beautiful 
and somewhat phenomenal exterior. 

In our tests of the soil, we will make but three general divisions, 
which of themselves not only diifer in their physical character, but 
are widely separated in their ultimate origin. These will be 
classed as drift, bluff, and allurial, and belong respectively to the 
deposits bearing the same names, the first of which occupies 
over two-thirds the surface of the entire State. 

Every person who has paid the least atention to any of the ana- 
lytical sciences, so-called, knows that when we speak of soil, in the 
general acceptation of the term, that we mean disintegrated or 
powdered rock. 

The drift deposit of Iowa was derived, to a considerable extent, 
from the rocks of Minnesota; but the greater part of Iowa drift 
was derived from its own rocks, much of which has been trans- 
ported but a short distance. In general terms the constant compo- 
nent element of the drift soil is that portion which was transported 
from the north, while the inconstant elements are those portions 
which were derived from the adjacent or underlying strata. For 
example, in Western Iowa, w^ierever that cretaceous formation 
known as the Nishnabotany sandstone exists, the soil contains 
more sand than elsewhere. The same may be said of the soil of 
some parts of the State occupied by the lower coal measures, the 
sandstones and sandy shales of that formation furnishing the iraud. 

We find upon examination, however, that in the section of Iowa 
of which this work treats, the drift contains more sand and gravel 
than any other portion of the State. There is no question in my 
mind but this was derived from the cretaceous rocks that now do, 
or formerly did exist, and also in part from the conglomerate and 
pudding stone beds of the Sioux quartzite. 

The bluff soil, then, is that which rests upon, and constitutes 
part of the bluff deposit, and is found only in the western portion 
along the Missouri River. (Jhemical analysis shows but one per 
cent., generally less, of alumina, at the same time it contains other 
constituent elements which render it little, if any, inferior for ag- 



162 



HISTOKY OF IOWA. 



ricultural purposes; a very large portion of it is far out of reach of 
the highest floods, and must be very productive. 

We now come to the alluvial. This is that portion called the 
flood plains of the river bottoms or valleys. That portion period- 
ically flooded by the rivers, of course, is thereby rendered com- 
paratively valueless for agricultural purposes for apparent reasons; 
hut much of it, we might say by far the larger portion, is beyond 
the reach of floods, and is very rich in those elements which enter 
into plant life. 

Speaking more properly of the geology of this particular sec- 
tion of Iowa, we rind the rocks to range all along from the Azoic 
to the Merazoic inclusive. Taking the State as a whole, the sur- 
face is generally occupied by the evidences of the Palaszoic age. 
The following tabular statement gives each of these formations in 
the order in which they occur: 



SYSTEMS. 

AGES. 



Cretaceous 



Carboniferous . 



Devonian 

Upper Silurian. 



Lower Silurian. 
Azoic 



GROUPS. 

TERIODS. 



i Post Tertiary 

( Lo\ver Cretaceous ■ 

r 

I Coal Measures. 

1 

! Subcarboniferous. 

I 

I 

Hamilton 

Niagara 

Cincinnati 



Trenton. ( 



Primordial. ( 
Huronian 



FORMATIONS. 
EPOCHS. 



Drift 

I)wcerai)ious bed 

WoodhHn/ SdudstoHi', Shalei 

Nislnialiofani/ Sandstone 

Upper Coal Measures 

Middle Coal Measures 

Lower Coal Measures 

St. Louis Limestone 

Keokuk Limestone 

Burlington Limestone 

Kinderhook beds 

Hamilton Limestone and Shalet 

Niagara Limestone 

Maquoketa Shales 

Galena Limestone 

Trenton Limestone 

St. Peter's Sandstone 

Lower Magnesian Limestone. . 

Potsdam Sandstone 

Sioux Quartzite 



10to200 

50 

i:W 

100 

200 

'200 

200 

75 

90 

196 

175 

200 

350 

80 

250 

200 

80 

250 

300 

50 



We now arrive at what is known as the Azoic system. In this 
section it is known and recognized by the specific name of Sioux 
quartzite, and is found exposed in natural ledges, only in a few 
spots away up in the extreme northwestern part of the State, 
upon the banks of the Big Sioux River, which position doubtless 
gave it its local name. This rock is intensely hara, disintegrates 
in sort of splinters; its color varying according to locality from 
nearly a yellow to a deep red. One thing connected with this rock 
is its process of metamorphism, which has been so complete all 
through the entire formation wherever found. Whether exposed to 



HISTORY OF 10 Wa' 163 

« -* 

the surface or liidclen liundreJs of feet below the surface, the rock 
is found to be of almost uniform texture. As far as we have been 
able to examine, the dip is found to be from 4.75 to 5.20 degrees 
to the northward, but the trend of the outcrop is to the eastward 
and westward. In some rare cases the rock is profitably quarried,but 
generally speaking, it is very difficult to secure it in dry forms, 
except that into which it naturally cracks, and the tendency is 
into angular places. I have found the samples sent to be absolutely 
indestructible. 

There are many other systems, of themselves very interesting to 
the scientific reader and investigator, but our limited space stands 
as an insurmountable barrier; hence we will have to pass the Lower 
Silurian system in the Primordial group of the eastern part of the 
State; it, however, is valueless for building purposes, and contains 
few if any, fossils. Then we have the Lower Magnesian Limestone, 
found but little here, containing a few crinoids and smaller fossils. 
Following this in point of interest, is the St. Peter's Sandstone, 
which exists in uniform thickness throughout the State where 
found, which is beneath the drift. • 

Of the Trenton Group of the Upper and Lower Silurian age, 
but little of interest to anyone can be said, save that it contains a 
great variety of fossils, and it makes very ornamental stone for 
cap and window sills. In this section of the State the drift con- 
tains more silex and gravel than elsewhere, as before stated, but in 
those sections where fossils are found, they are new to all I have 
read of science, open new fields of thought and investigation, and 
are found peculiar to the Hawkeye State. 

Passing again the Galena Limestone of Dubuque, and other 
counties: This is always the upper formation of the Trenton 
Group. It seldom extends over twelve miles in width, though 
fully one hundred in length. In Dubuque County the greatest 
development of this limestone is exhibited. It is found to be 
merely a pure dolomite, with an occasional slight admixture of 
silicious matter. It is almost worthless for dressing; its princi- 
pal value consisting of its formation being the source of lead ore, 
but the lead region of Iowa is confined to an area of say fifteen 
miles square. The one occurs in vertical fissures, which traverse 
the rock at regular intervals from east to west; some, however, is 
found in those which have a north and south course. Very small 
quantities of what is known as carbonate are found in it; its 
principal being what assayers call sulphuret of lead. 

Probably one of the most important of all the geological forma- 
tions of the State is the Coal-Measure group. This is divided into 
three formations, viz., the lower, middle and upper coal measures, 
each having a vertical thickness of about two hundred feet. 

A line drawn upon the map of Iowa as follows, will represent 
the eastern and northern boundaries of the coal iields of the State: 
Commencing at the southeast corner of Van Buren County, carry 



164 HISTORY OF IOWA. * 

the line to the northeast corner of Jefferson County by a slight 
easterly curve through the western portions of Lee and Henry 
Counties. Produce this line until it reaches a point six or eight 
miles northward from the one last named, and then carry it 
northwestward, keeping it at about the same distance to the north- 
ward of Skunk River and its north branch that it had at first, un- 
til it reaches the southern boundary of Marshall County, a little 
west of its center. Then carry it to a point three or four miles 
northeast of Eldora. Hardin County; thence westward to a 
point a little north of Webster City, in Hamilton County; and 
thence further westward to a point a little north of Fort Dodge, 
in Webster County. 

In consequence of the recedence to the southward of the borders 
of the middle and upper coal measures, the lower coal measures 
alone exist to the eastward and northward of Des Moines River. 
They also occupy a large area westward and southward of that river, 
but their southerly dip passes them below the middle coal measures 
at no great distance from the river. 

No other formation in the whole State possesses the economic 
value of the lower coal measures. The clay that underlies almost 
every bed of coal furnishes a large amount of material for potters' 
use. The sandstone of these measures is usually soft and unfit, 
but in some places, as near Red Rock, in Marion County, blocks of 
large dimensions are obtained which make good building material, 
samples of which can be seen in th-e State Arsenal at Des Moines. 
On the whole, that portion of the State occupied by the lower coal 
measures, is not well supplied with stone. 

But few fossils have been found in any of the strata of the low- 
er coal measures, but such animal remains as have been found are 
without exception of marine origin. 

Of fossil plants found in these measures all probably belong to 
the class acrogens. Specimens of calamltes, and several species of 
ferns are found in all the coal measures, but the genus lipedaden- 
dron seems not to have existed later than the epoch of the middle 
coal measures. 

This formation within the State of Iowa occupies a narrow belt of 
territory in the southern central portion of the State, embracing a 
superficial area of about fourteen hundred square miles. The coun- 
ties more or less underlaid by this formation are Guthrie, Dallas, Polk, 
Madison, Warren, Clarke, Lucas, Monroe, Wayne and Appanoose. 

This formation is composed of alternating beds of clay, sandstone 
and limestone, the clays or shales constituting the bulk of the form- 
ation, the limestone occurring in their bands, the lithological pe- 
culiarities of which offer many contrasts to the limestones of the 
upper and lower coal measures. The formation is also character- 
ized by regular wave-like undulations, with a parallelism which in- 
dicates a widespread disturbance, though no dislocation of the strata 
has been discovered. 



HISTORY OF IOWA, 165 

Generally speaking, few species of fossils occur in these beds. 
Some of the shales and sandstone have afforded a few imperfeetly 
preserved land plants — three or four species of ferns, belonging to 
the genera. Some of the carboniferous shales afford beautiful 
specimens of what appear to have been sea-weeds. Radiates are 
represented by corals. The mollusks are most numerously repre- 
sented. Triiobites and ostracoids are the only remains known of 
articulates. Vertebrates are only known by the remains of sala- 
cJiians, or sharks, and ganoids. 

The area occupied by this formation in Iowa is very great, com- 
prising thirteen whole counties, in the southwestern part of the 
State. It adjoins by its northern and eastern boundaries the area 
occupied by the middle coal measures. 

The prominent lithological features of this formation are its 
limestones, yet it contains a considerable proportion of shales and 
sandstones. Although it is known by the name of upper coal 
measures, it contains but a single bed of coal, and that only about 
twenty inches in maximum thickness. 

The limestone exposed in this formation furnishes good material 
for building as in Madison and Fremont counties. The sandstones 
are quite worthless. No beds of clay for potters' use are found in 
the whole formation. 

The fossils in this formation are much more numerous than in 
either the middle or lower coal measures. The vertebrates are rep- 
resented by the fishes of the orders selachians and ganoids. The 
articulates are represented by the triiobites and ostracoids. Mol- 
lusks are represented bj the classes cephnlopoda^ gasteropoda^ lam- 
elli, branchiata, bracliiapoda pohjzoa. Radiates are more numer- 
ous than in the lower and middle coal measures. Protogoans are 
represented in the greatest abundance, some layers of limestone 
being almost entirely composed of tkeir small fusiform shells. 

There being no rocks, in Iowa, of permian, triassic or Jurassic 
age, the next strata in the geological series are of the cretaceous 
age. They are found in the western half of the State, and do not 
dip as do all the other formations upon which they rest, to the 
southward and westward, but have a general dip of their own to 
the north of westward, which, however, is very slight. Although 
the actual exposures of cretaceous rocks are few in Iowa, there is 
reason to believe that nearly all the western half of the State was 
originally occupied by them; but being very friable, they have been 
removed by drenundation, which has taken place at two separate 
periods. The first period was during its elevation from the creta- 
ceous sea, and during the long tertiary age that passed between the 
time of that elevation and the commencement of the glacial epoch. 
The second period was during the glacial epoch, when the ice pro- 
duced their entire removal over considerable areas. 

It is difficult to indicate the exact boundaries of these rocks; the 
following Avill approximate the outlines of the area: 



166 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

From the northeast corner to the southwest corner of Kossuth 
County; thence to the southeast corner o£ Guthrie County; thence 
to the southeast corner of Cass County; thence to the middle of the 
south boundary of Montgomery County; thence to the middle of 
the north boundary of Pottawattamie County; thence to the mid- 
dle of the south boundary of Woodbury Countv; thence to Ser- 
geant's Bluffs; up the Missouri and Big Sioux Rivers to the north- 
west corner of the State; eastward along the State line to the place 
of beginning. 

All the cretaceous rocks in Iowa are a part of the same deposits 
farther up the Missouri River, and in reality fron> their eastern 
boundary. 

Nislinahotany Sandstone. —rThis rock has the most easterly and 
southerly extent of the cretaceous deposits of Iowa, reaching the 
southeastern part of Guthrie County and the southern part of 
Montgomery County. To the northward, it passes beneath the 
Woodbury sandstones and shales, the latter passing beneath ino- 
ceramus, or chalky, beds. This sandstone is, with few exceptions, 
almost valueless for economic purposes. 

The only fossils found in this formation are a few fragments of 
angiospermous leaves. 

Woodhurij Sandstones and Shales. — These strata rest upon the 
Nishnabotany sandstone, and have not been observed outside of 
Woodbury County, hence their name. Their principal exposure is 
at Sergeant's Bluffs, seven miles below Sioux City. 

This rock has no value except for purposes of common ma- 
sonry. 

Fossil remains are rare. Detached scales of a lepidoginoid spe- 
cies have been detected, but no other vertebrate remains. Of re- 
mains of vegetation, leaves of salix meekii and sassafras cretaceum 
have been occassionall}^ found. 

Inoceramus beds. — These beds rest upon theWoodbury sandstones 
and shales. They have not been observed in Iowa, except in the 
Bluffs which border the Big Sioux River in Woodbury and Ply- 
mouth Counties. They are composed almost entirely of calcareous 
material, the upper portion of which is ex:tensively used for lime. 
No building material is to be obtained from these beds; and the only 
value they possess, except lime, are the marls, which at some time 
may be useful on the soil of the adjacent region. 

The only vertebrate remains found in the Cretaceous rocks are 
the fishes. Those in the inoceramus beds of Iowa are two species 
of squoloid selachians, or cestratront. and three genera of teliosts. 
MoUuscan remains are rare. 



HISTOEY or IOWA. 167 

Extensive beds of peat exist in Northern Middle Iowa, Avliich, it 
is estimated, contain the following areas: 

Counties. Acres. 

Cerro Gordo 1,500 

Worth 2 000 

Winnebago 2,000 

Hancock 1,500 

Wright 500 

Kossuth 700 

Dickinson 80 

Several other counties contain peat beds, but the character of the 
peat is inferior to that in the northern part of the State. The 
character of the peat named is equal to that of Ireland. The beds 
are of an average depth of four feet. It is estimated that each acre 
of these beds will furnish two hundred and fifty tons of dry fuel 
for each foot in depth. At present, owing to the sparseness of 
the population, this peat is not utilized; but, owing to its great dis- 
tance from coal fields and absence of timber, the time is coming 
when their value will be realized, and the fact demonstrated that 
Nature has abundantly compensated the deficiency of other fuel. 

GYPSUM. 

The only deposits of the sulphates of the alkaline earths of any 
economic value in Iowa are those of gypsum at^ and in the vicinity 
of Fort Dodge, in Webster County. All others are small and un- 
important. The deposit occupies a nearly central position in 
Webster County, the Des Moines River running nearly centrally 
through it, along the valley sides of which the gypsum is seen in 
the form of ordinary rock cliff and ledges, and also occurring abun- 
dantly in similar positions along both sides of the valleys of the 
smaller streams and of the numerous ravines coming into the river 
valley. 

The most northerly known limit of the deposit is at a point near 
the mouth of Lizard Creek, a tributary of the Des Moines River, 
and almost adjoining the town of Fort Dodge. The most southerly 
point at which it has been found exposed is about six miles, by 
way of the river, from this northerly point before mentioned. Our 
knowledge of the width of the area occupied by it is limited by the 
exposures seen in the valleys of the small streams and in the 
ravines which come into the valley within the distance mentioned. 
As one goes up these ravines and minor valleys, the gypsum be- 
comes lost beneath the overlying drift. There can be no doubt 
that the difi'erent parts of this deposit, now disconnected by the 
valleys and ravines having been cut through it, were originally 
connected as a continuous deposit, and there seems to be as little 
reason to doubt that the gypsum still extends to considerable dis- 
tance on each side of the valley of the river beneath the drift which 
covers the region to a depth of from twenty to sixty feet. 



16S HISTORY OF TOWA. 

The country round about this region has the prairie surface ap- 
proximating a general level which is so characteristic of the greater 
part of the State, and which exists irrespective of the character or 
geological age of the strata beneath, mainly because the drift is so 
deep and uniformly distributed that it frequently almost alone 
gives character to the surface. The valley sides of the Des 
Moines River, in the vicinity of Fort Dodge, are somewhat abrupt, 
having a depth there from the general level of the upland of about 
one hundred and seventy feet, and consequently presents some- 
what bold and interesting features in the landscape. 

As one walks up and down the creeks and ravines which come 
into the valley of the Des Moines River there, he sees the gypsum 
exposed on either side of them, jutting out from beneath the drift 
in the form of ledges and bold quarry fronts, having almost the 
exact appearance of ordinary limestone exposures, so horizontal 
and regular are its lines of stratification, and so similar in color is 
it to some_ varieties of that rock. The principal quarries now 
opened are on Two Mile Creek, a couple of miles below Fort 
Dodge. 

The reader will please bear in mind that the gypsum of this re- 
niark.ible deposit does not occur in "heaps" or "nests" as it does 
in most deposits of gypsum in the States farther eastward, but that 
it exists here in the form of a regularly stratified, continuous for- 
mation, as uniform in texture, color and quality throughout the 
whole region, and from top to bottom of the deposit as the granite 
of the Quincy c|uarries is. Its color is a uniform gray, resulting 
from alternating fine horizontal lines of nearly white, with similar 
lines of darker shade. The gypsum of the white lines is almost 
entirely pure, the darker lines containing the impurity. This is 
at intervals barely suflicient in amount to cause the separation of 
the mass upon those lines into beds or layers, thus facilitating the 
quarrying of it into desired shapes. These bedd,ing surfaces have 
occasionally a clayey feeling to the touch, but there is nowhere 
any intercalation of clay or other foreign substance in a separate 
form. The deposit is known to reach a thickness of thirty feet at 
the quarries referred to, but although it will probably be found to 
exceed this thickness at some other points, at the natural expo- 
sures, it is seldom seen to be more that from ten to tw^enty feet 
thick. 

Since the drift is usually seen to rest directly upon the gypsum, 
with nothing intervening, except at a few points where traces ap- 
pear of an overlying bed of clayey material without doubt of the 
same age as the gypsum, the latter probably lost soriething of its 
thickness by mechanical erosion during the glacial epoch; and it 
has, doubtless, also suffered some diminution of thickness since 
then by solution in the waters which constantly percolate through 
the drift from the surface. The drift of this region being some- 
what clayey, particularly in its lower part, it has doubtless served 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 169 

in some degree as a protection against the diminution of the 
gypsum by solution in consequence of its partial imperviousness to 
water. If the gypsum had been covered by a deposit of sand in- 
stead of the drift clays, it would have no doubt disappeared by be- 
ing dissolved in the water that would have constantly reached it 
from the surface. Water merely resting upon it would not dis- 
solve it away to any extent, but it rapidly disappears under the ac- 
tion of running water. Where little rills of water at the time of 
every rain run over the face of an unused quarry, from the surface 
above it, deep grooves are thereby cut into it, giving it somewhat 
the appearance of melting ice around a waterfall. The fact that 
gypsum is now suffering a constant, but, of course, very slight, 
diminution, is apparent in the fact the springs of the region con- 
tain more or less of it in solution in their waters. 

Besides the clayed beds that that are sometimes seen forest upon 
the gypsum, there are occasionally others seen beneath them that 
are also of the same age, and not of the age of the coal-measure 
strata upon which they rest. 

In neither the gypsum nor the associated clays has any trace of 
any fossil remains been found, nor has any other indication of its 
geological age been observed, except that which is afforded by its 
stratigraphical relations; and the most that can be said with cer- 
tainty is that it is nearer than the coal jueasures, and older than 
the drift. The indications afforded by the stratigraphical relations 
of the gypsum deposit of Fort Dodge are, however, of considerable 
value. 

As already shown, it rests in that region directly and uncon- 
formably upon the lower coal measures; but going southward from 
there, the whole series of coal-measure strata from the top of the 
subcarboniferous group to the uppe coal measures, inclusive, can 
be traced without break or unconformability. The strata of the 
latter also nuiy be traced in the same manner up into the Permian 
rocks of Kansas; and through this long series, there is no place or 
horizon which suggests that the gypsum deposit might belong 
there. 

Again, no Tertiary deposits are known to exist within or near 
the borders of Iowa to suggest that the gypsum might be of that 
age; nor are any of the paleozoic strata newer than the subcar- 
boniferous unconformable upon each other as the other gypsum is 
unconformable upon the strata beneath it. It therefore seems, in 
a measure, conclusive, that the gypsum is of Mesozoic age. perhaps 
older than the Cretaceous. 

LITHOLOGICAL ORIGIN. 

As little can be said with certainty concerning the lithological 
origin of this deposit as can be said concerning its geological age, 
for it seems to present itself in this relation, as in the former one 



170 HTSTOHY OF lO^VA. 

as an isolated fact. None of the associated strata show any traces 
of a double decomposition of pre-existing materials, such as some 
have supposed all deposits of g3q)sum to have resulted from. No 
considerable quantity of oxide of iron nor any trace of native sul- 
phur have been found in connection with it; nor has any salt been 
found in the waters of the region. These substances are common 
in association with other gypsum deposits, and are regarded by some 
persons as indicative of the method of or resulting from their origin 
as such. Throughout the whole region, the Fort Dodge gypsum 
has the exact appearance of a sedimentary deposit. It is arranged 
in layers like the regular layers of limestone, and the whole mass, 
from top to bottom, is traced with fine horizontal laminte of alter- 
nating white and gray gypsum, parallel with the bedding surface 
of the layers, but the whole so intimately blended as to form a solid 
mass. The darker lines contain almost all the impurity there is 
in the gypsum, and that impurity is evidently sedimentary in its 
character. From these facts, and also from the further one that 
no trace of fossil remains has been detected in the gypsum, it seems 
not unreasonable to entertain the opinion that the gypsum of Fort 
Dodge originated as a chemical precipitation in comparatively still 
waters, which were saturated with sulphate of lime and destitute 
of life; its stratification and impurities being deposited at the same 
time as clayey impurities which had been held suspended in the 
same waters. 

Much has already been said of the physical properties or charac- 
ter of this gypsum, but as it is so different in some respects from 
that of other deposits, there are yet other matters worthy of men- 
tion in connection with those. According to the results of a com- 
plete and exhaustive analysis by Prof. Emery, the ordinary gray 
gypsum contains only about eight per cent, of impurity; and it is 
possible that the average impurit}^ for the whole deposit will not 
exceed that proportion , so uniform in quality is it from top to bot- 
tom, and from one end of the region to the other. 

When it is remembered that plaster for agricultural purposes is 
sometimes prepared from gypsum that contains as much as thirty 
per cent, of impurity, it will be seen that ours is a very superior 
article for such purposes. The impurities are also of such a char- 
acter that they do not in anyway interfere with its value for use 
in the arts. Although the gypsum rock has a gray color, it be- 
comes quite white by grinding, and still whiter by the calcining 
process necessary in the preparation of plaster of Paris. These 
tests have all been practically made in the rooms of the Geological 
Survey, and the quality of the plaster of Paris still further tested 
by actual use and experiment. No hesitation, therefore, is felt in 
stating that the Fort Dodge gypsum is of as good a quality as any 
in the country, even for the finest uses. 

In view of the bounteousness of the primitive fertility of our 
Iowa soils, many persons forget that a time may come when Na- 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 171 

ture will refuse to respond so generously to our demand as she does 
now, without an adequate return. Such are apt to say that this 
vast deposit of gypsum is valueless to our commonwealth, except 
to the small extent that it maybe used in the arts. This is un- 
doubtedly a short-sighted view of the subject, for the time is even 
now rapidly passing away when a man may purchase a new farm 
for less money than he can re-fertilize and restore the partially 
wasted primitive fertility of the one he now occupies. There are 
farms even now in a large part cf the older settled portions of the 
State that would be greatly benefited by the proper application of 
plaster, and such eras will continue to increase until it will be 
difficult to estimate the value of the deposit of gypsum at Fort 
Dodge. It should be remembered, also, that the inhabitants of an 
extent of country adjoining our State more than three times as great 
as its cwn area, will find it more convenient to obtain their sujiplies 
from Fort Dodge than from any other source. 

For want of direct railroad communication between this region 
and other parts of the State, the only use yet made of the gj^psum 
by the inhabitants is for the purpose of ordinary building stone. 
It is so compact that it is found to be comparatively unaftected by 
the frost, and its ordinary situation in walls of houses is such that 
it is protected from the dissolving action of water, which can at 
most reach it only from occasional rains, and the effect of these is 
too slight to be perceived after the lapse of several years. 

One of the citizens of Fort Dodge, Hon. John F. Duncombe, 
built a large, fine residence of it, in 1861, the walls of which 
appear as unaffected by the exposure and as beautiful as they were 
when first erected. It has been so long and successfully used for 
building stone by the inhabitants that they now prefer it to the 
limestone of good quality, which also exists in the immediate 
vicinity. This preference is due to the cheapness of the gypsum, 
as compared with the stone. The cheapness of the former is 
largely due to the facility with which it is quarried and wrought. 
Several other houses have been constructed of it in Fort 
Dodge, including the depot building of the Dubuque & Sioux City 
Railroad. The company have also constructed a large culvert of 
the same material to span a creek near the town, limestone only 
being used for the lower courses, which come in contact Avitli the 
water. It is a fine arch, each stone of gypsum being nicely hcAvn, 
and it will doubtless prove a very durable one. Many of the side- 
walks in the town are made of the slabs or flags or gypsum which 
occur m some of the quarries in the form of thin layers. They 
are more durable than their softness would lead one to suppose. 
They also possess an advantage over stone in not becoming slip- 
pery when worn. 

The method adopted in quarrying and dressing the blocks of 
gypsum is peculiar, and quite unlike that adopted in similar treat- 
ment of ordinary stone. Taking a stout auger-bit of an ordi- 



172 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

uary brace, such as is used by carpenters, and filing the cutting 
parts of it into a peculiar form, the quarryraan bores his holes 
into the gypsum quarry for blasting, in the same manner and 
with as great facility as a carpenter would bore hard wood. The 
pieces being loosened by blasting, they are broken up with sledges 
into convenient sizes, or hewn into the desired shape by means of 
hatchets or ordinary chopping axes, or cut by means by means of 
ordinary wood-saws. So little grit does the gypsum contain that 
these tools, made for working wood, are found to be better adapted 
for working the former substance than those tools are which are 
universally used for working stone. 

MINCE DEPOSITS OF SULPHATE OF LIME. 

Besides the great gypsum deposit of Fort Dodge, sulphate of 
lime in the various forms of fibrous gypsum, selenite, and small, 
amorphous masses, has also been discover'^d in various formations 
in different parts of the State, including the coal-measure shales 
near Fort Dodge, where it exists in small quantities quite inde- 
pendently of the great gypsum deposit there. The quantity o^ 
gypsum in these minor deposits is always too small to be of any 
practical value, and frequently minute. They usually occur in 
shales and shaly clays associated with strata that contain more or less 
sulphuret of iron (iron pyrites). Gypsum has thus been detected in 
the coal measures, the St. Louis limestone, the cretaceous strata, 
and also in the lead caves of Dubuque. In most of these cases it 
is evidently the result of double decomposition of iron pyrites and 
carbonate of lime, previously existing there; in which cases the 
gypsum is of course not an original deposit as the great one at 
Fort Dodge is supposed to be. 

The existence of these comparatively minute quantities of gyp- 
sum in the shales of the coal measures and the subcarboniferous 
limestone which are exposed within the region of and occupy a 
stratigraphical position beneath the great gypsum deposits, sug- 
gest the possibility that the former may have originated as a pre- 
cipitate from percolating waters, holding gypsum in solution 
whicli they had derived from that deposit in passing over or 
through it. Since, however, the same substance is found in simi- 
lar small quantities and under similar conditions in regions where 
they could have had no possible connection with that deposit, it is 
believed that none of those mentioned have necessarily originated 
from it, not even those that are found in close proximity to it. 

The gypsum found in the leai caves is usually in the form of 
efflorescent fibers, and is always in small quantity. In the lower 
coal-measure shale near Fort Dodge, a small mass Avas found in the 
form of an intercolated layer, which had a distinct fibrous struc- 
ture, the fibers being perpendicular to the plane of the layer. The 
same mass had also distinct, horizontal planes of cleavage at right 
angles with the perpendicular fibers. Thus, being more or less 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 173 

transparent, the mass combined the characters of both fibrous 
gypsum and selenite. No anhydrous sulphate of lime {anhydrite) 
has been found in connection with the great gypsum deposit, nor 
elsewhere in Iowa, so far as yet known. 

SULPHATE OF STRONTIA. 

{Celestine.) 

The only locality at which this interesting mineral has yet 
been found in Iowa, or, so far as is known, in the great valley of 
the Mississippi, is at Fort Dodge. It occurs there in very small 
quantity in both the shales of the lower coal measures and in the 
clays that overlie the gypsum deposit, and which are regarded as 
of the same age with it. The first is just below the city, near 
Rees' coal bank, and occurs as a layer intercolated among the coal 
measure shales, amounting in quantity to only a few hundred 
pounds' weight. The mineral is fibrous and crystaline, the fibers 
being perpendicular to the plane of the layer. Breaking also with 
more or less distinct horizontal planes of cleavage, it resembles, 
in physical character, the layer of fibro-crystaline gypsum before 
mentioned. Its color is light blue, is transparent and shows crys- 
taline facets upon both the upper and under surfaces of the layer; 
those of the upper surface being smallest and most numerous. It 
breaks up readily into small masses along the lines of the perpen- 
dicular fibers or columns. The layer is probably not more than a rod 
in extent in any direction and about three inches in maximum 
thickness. Apparent lines of stratification occur in it, correspond- 
ing with those of the shales which imbed it. 

The other deposit was still smaller in amount, and occurred as a 
mass of crystals imbedded in the clays that overlie the gypsum at 
Cummins' quarry in the valley of Soldier Creek. Here the mineral 
is nearly without color, and were it not for the form of the sepa- 
ate crystals would closely resemble a mass of impure chloride. 
These crystals are so closely aggregated that they enclose but little 
impurity in the mass, but in nearly every case brought to my no- 
tice their fundamental forms are obscured. The mineral of itself 
is of no practical value, and its occurrence is only interesting as a 
mineralogical fact. 

Epsomite, or native epsom salts, having been discovered near 
Burlington, we have thus recognized in Iowa all the sulphates of 
the alkaline earths of natural origin; all of them, except the sul- 
phate of lime, being iii very small quantity. Even if the sulphate 
of magnesia were produced in nature, in large quantities, it is so 
very soluble that it can accumulate only in such positions as afford 
it complete shelter from the rains or running water. The epso- 
mite mentioned was found beneath the overhanging clitf of Bur- 
lington limestone, near Starr's mill. 



17i 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



It occurs in the form of efflorescent encrustations upon the surface 
of stones and in similar small fragile masses among the fine debris 
that has fallen down beneath the overhanging cliff. The projec- 
tion of the cliff over the perpendicular face of the strata beneath 
amounts to near twenty feet at the point where epsomite was 
found. Consequently the rains never reach far beneath it from 
any quarter. The rock upon which the epsomite accumulates is 
an impure limestone, containing also some carbonate of magnesia, 
together with a small proportion of iron pyrites in a finely divided 
condition. It is doubtless by double decomposition of these that 
the epsomite results. By experiments with this native salt in the 
office of the Survey, a fine article of epsom salts was produced, 
but the quantity that might be annually obtained there would 
amount to only a few pounds, and of course is of no practical 
value whatever, on account of its cheapness in the market. 




HISTORY OF IOWA. 175 



WOODBURY COUNTY, 



Woodbury County is situated on the western border of the State, 
in the third tier from the north line. It is twenty-four miles north 
and south, by from thirty to thirty-six miles east and west, em- 
bracing a superficial area of about 832 scjuare miles, or 432,480 
acres. About 146,000 acres of this land is Missouri River bottom, 
of great fertility, and unsurpassed for agricultural and grazing pur- 
poses. This bottom is from six to ten miles in width and mostly 
above high water mark in the Missouri River. Although appar- 
ently nearly level, it is dry and susceptible of easy tillage. The 
soil is a deep loam, with a sufficient proportion of silicious material 
to render it retentive of moisture, while it seldom remains for any 
length of time so wet as to prevent the farmer from giving atten- 
tion to his crops. Immediately adjacent to the valleys are the 
bluffs, forming a narrow belt, usually too much broken for cultiva- 
tion, but a short distance back the land becomes gently rolling, 
and is well adapted to farming purposes. The Missouri, one of the 
great rivers of the continent, forms the western boundary of the 
county as far up as the mouth of the Big Sioux River. Thence, 
to the northwest corner, a distance of about five miles, the latter 
stream marks the western boundary. The principal streams flow- 
ing through the interior are Floyd, east and west forks of the Lit- 
tle Sioux, and Maple Rivers. Perry Creek is also a stream of con- 
siderable size. All these streams flow through rich and beautiful 
valleys, and receive many small affluents that completely drain the 
entire surface. The Little Sioux and Floyd Rivers furnish water 
power for machinery. There is a deficiency of native timber in 
this, as in other counties of this part of the State. There are some 
groves of valuable timber, however, bordering on the Missouri and 
along the Big and Little Sioux Rivers. The varieties common are 
Cottonwood, hickory^ oak, walnut, elm, and maple — the first named 
largely predominating along the Missouri River. It has been 
found that many kinds of timber may be easily propagated, and 
when planted on the prairies make a rapid growth. 

The geological formation is such as to allow but few exposures 
of rock in the county, or indeed, in this portion of Iowa. The en- 
tire surface is covered by the peculiar formation known by the 
name of "bluff deposit," extending to the depth of many feet. 
The bed of the Missouri River at Sioux City is 340 feet above that 
of the Mississippi at Dubucpie, in the same latitude. There are at 
Sioux City, and one or two other places, exposures of a sandstone 
formation of the cretaceous age, with a stratum of soft, chalky 



176 HISTORY OF IOWA, 

limestone overlying it. This is too soft for masonry, but is used 
for making quicklime. The sandstone is quarried for ordinary 
building purposes. The same formation appears on Big Sioux 
River about two miles above the month, and extends, with occa- 
sional exposures, to the northwest corner of the county. The sur- 
face of the "bluff deposit" is used for making brick. The clays in 
the cretaceous deposit furnish an excellent material for making 
j3ottery. Woodbury, however, must rely chiefly on its fertile prai- 
ries for its development into a prosperous and wealthy county. 

On the 14th of May, 1801, Captains Lewis and Clarke, with for- 
ty-two men, under the direction of the War Department of the 
Cxovernment, started from their encampment at the mouth of 
Wood River, in what is now the State of Illinois, to explore the 
Missouri River and the unknown regions of the Northwest, After 
many strange adventures, and the accomplishment of a thousand 
miles of their jouriaey, on the 18th of August they landed on the 
Nebraska side of the river, nearly opposite the southwest corner of 
the present County of Woodbury, where they held a council with 
a party of Ottoe and Missouri Indian Chiefs. On the morning of 
the 26th. the Indians mounted their horses and left, having re- 
ceived some presents from the whites. On the 19th, in camp at 
the place where the council was held. Sergeant Charles Floyd, of 
the expedition, became very sick and remained so all night. The 
next morning, however, which was Monday, August 20, the party 
set out on their journey up the river. Having a "fine wind and 
fine weather," they made thirteen miles, and at two o'clock landed 
for dinner on the Iowa side of the river. Here Sergeant Floyd 
died. About one mile farther up the river, on the summit of a 
high bluff, his body was buried with the honors due to a brave sol- 
dier. His comrades marked the place with a cedar post, on which 
were inscribed his name and the date of his death. About one 
mile above, a small river flows into the Missouri, and here the party 
encamped until the next day. Captains Lewis and Clarke gave 
this stream the name of Floyd's River, to perpetuate the memory 
of the first man who had fallen in their expedition. The next day 
they set out early, passed the bluffs, now within the limits of Sioux 
City, which are mentioned in the journal of Patrick Grass, a mem- 
ber of the expedition, as "handsome, pale colored bluffs." Willow 
Creek and Big Sioux River, the latter just above where Sioux City 
now stands, are also mentioned. During a great freshet in the 
Spring of 1857, the turbalent Missouri washcl away a portion of 
the bluff, so as to expose the remains of Sergeant Floyd. The 
citizens of Siojx City and vicinity collected the remains and re-in- 
terred them some distance back from the river on the same bluff. 

The title of the Indians to the land in this portion of Iowa be- 
came extinct in 1847, and in the summer of 1848, forty-four years 
after the burial of Sergeant Floyd, a single pioneer, named Wil- 
liam Thompson, settled at Floyd's Bluff — the first white man who 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 177 

became a permanent settler o£ the county. In the autumn of the 
same year his brother Charles and another man followed and spent 
the winter there, being, at that time the only white men in the 
county. Anticipating- an immense immigration, he laid out a town 
here and named it in honor of himself — Thompsoutowji. Like 
other western towns, this for a while was supposed to be tlie point. 
To give it an air of business, and aid in its development, he erected 
here his cabin, and, on the organization of the county, in 1853, 
this was made the county seat. It was a sort of post for Indian 
traders for some years, but the city lots were too steep for cultiva- 
tion, or for building, and, unfortunately, there was no place for a 
landing on the bank of the river, and the stakes are all that now 
remain to mark the progress of the town. 

In may, 1849, Theophile Brughier, a native of Canada, but of 
French descent, settled at the mouth of the Big Sioux River, about 
two miles above where Sioux City now stands. Three years before 
he had visited the spot and made selection of the location. In 1835, 
at the age of twenty, Brughier left Canada and went to St. Louis, 
where he had an uncle who was a member of the American Fur 
Company. Under the advice of his uncle he engaged in the ser- 
vice of the company, but remained in their employ only a short 
time, when he joined the Yankton Sioux Indians and married a 
daughter of the somewhat distinguished chief, Hu-ijan-e-ka (War 
Eagle). He became a prominent man in the tribe, and had acquired 
great influence among them. After remaining with the Indians, 
and sharing the fortunes of the tribe for some ten years, he con- 
cluded to change his manner of life, and notified the tribe of his 
intentions. Accordingly, with his faithful Indian wife and chil- 
dren, he left the post of the American Fur Company and came 
down the river and settled, as above stated, at the mouth of Big 
SioQx River. War Eagle, the Indian father-in-law of Brughier, 
died in his house in the fall of 1851, aged about sixty-five years. 
He was a noted warrior among the Sioux, but always a friend of the 
whites. He was first recognized as a Chief of the Yankton Sioux 
by Major Pilcher, the Indian agent. About the year 1830 he was 
for some time employed as a pilot on the Upper Mississippi. His 
remains, with those of his two daughters, one of them the deceased 
wife of Mr. Brughier, now repose on the summit of a lofty bluff 
on the Iowa side of the Big Sioux River, just above its mouth. 
Here are also the graves of several other Indians, as well as whites 
— eight or ten in all. From this romantic spot may be seen for 
many miles the broad winding Missouri, with its noble valley, the 
far off Blackbird Hills in Nebraska, with the intervening plains, 
islands and groves, and a portion of the rich bottom lands of Da- 
kota, stretching as far as the eye can reach between the two rivers 
toward the northwest. 

In the fall of 1S19, Robert Perry, a man of somewhat eccentric 
character, but of fine education, removed from Washington. I). C, 



1<0 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

and settled on the small creek wliichmeanders through Sioux City, 
where he remained two years, and then removed elsewhere. The 
creek now bears his name. The next year Paul Pacquette located 
at the crossing of Big Sioux River, about two miles above the 
mouth. 

In the spring of 1852, Mr. Brughier sold a portion of his culti- 
A'ated land, including what is now a part of Sioux City, to a French- 
man named Joseph Lionais, for one thousand dollars. About this 
time some difficulty occurred with the Indians at Fort Vermillion, 
and a small number of French descended the river and made a tem- 
porary settlement in the same vicinity. After this no further perma- 
nent improvement was made until the spring of 1854, when Doctor 
John K. Cook, who had a government contract for surveying, ar- 
rived with his party. Being impressed with the eligibility of the 
place for the location of a town, and the romantic beauty of its 
surroundings, he and his party immmediately located claims. 
Among those who selected and located claims at an early day in 
the vicinity of Sioux City, was the brave General Lyon, who fell 
at Wilson's Creek. 

At the mouth of the Floyd River, Dr. Cook found encamped 
the red men of the forest, with Smutty Bear, their Chief, 
who ordered him to desist from his work under penalty of being 
driven from the place by his wariors, whom Smutty Bear would 
summon from the upper country. The belligerent Doctor boldly 
replied, through the interpreter, that he would go at once, if nec- 
essary, for a sufficient force to exterminate Smutty Bear and his 
band. Dr. Cook plainly told him that he had come there to make 
a survey, and he meant to complete his undertaking. The savages, 
impressed with the determination evinced by Dr. Cook, and intim- 
idated by his well-timed threatenings, struck their tepees and de- 
parted, leaving him to complete his labors uninterrupted. 

In the Winter of 1851-5, the town of Sioux City was laid out. 
Among the settlers at that time were the following: Hiram Nel- 
son, Marshall Townsley, Franklin Wixon, G. W. Chamberlain, 
and Francis Chappel. About this time the Indians became trouble- 
some, and began to steal horses, cattle and other property. Ex- 
peditions were fitted out against them, none of which, however, were 
attended with bloodshed. In the spring of 1855, Joseph Lionais 
sold his land for three thousand dollars, and on this an addition to 
Sioux City was laid out. It then contained two log cabins, but now 
comprises the principal business portion of the city. The first 
stage and mail arrived in Sioux City about the first week in Septem- 
ber of this year, a postoffice having first been established. This 
event was hailed by the settlers as the beginning of the era of 
civilization. By Christmas Day there were seven log houses, two 
of them being hotels — the "Sioux City House," and the "Western 
Exchange." Two stores were opened, one of which was kept in a 
tent, and the other in a log cabin. Late in the season settlers 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 179 

came in rapidly, and many avIio could not obtain houses were 
obliged to camjD out. In the Spring of 1856 the population had 
reached about 150. The land office had been opened here for pre- 
emptions, October 22, 1855, but the public lands were not offered 
for sale until May 4, 1857. 

By an act of the Legislature the county seat had, 1853, been lo- 
cated at Floyd's Bluff'. In the Spring of 1856 it was removed to 
Sioux City by a vote of the citizens of the county, the majority in 
favor of removal being fourte(n. The county was organized in 
1853. 

The first steamboat freighted for Sioux City was the ''Omaha," 
and arrived in June, 1856. Her freight consisted of ready framed 
houses and provisions. In July of this yepr a steam saw mill was 
erected. Mrs. S. H. Casady and Mrs. J. R. Myers were the first 
women who spent a Winter in Sioux City. Both came in the 
Summer of 1855. The first white child born in the place was a 
daughter of S. H. Casady and wife, in 1856. 

Among transcriptions from the earliest records, we find the fol- 
lowing: 

Sergeant's Bluffs. Woodbuky County, State of Iowa: 

To the orfjanizing Sherift' of said County: We have fixed upon the southeast 
quarter of section 1, township 88, rang:e4s, west of the Fifth Principal Meridian, 
as the point for the seat of justice for the aforesaid county of Woodbury, and 
set a stake on the avenue, coming east and west between lots 131 and 97, as 
laid down in Thompson's plat of Floyd's Bluffs, in said County, and recorded 
in the Recorder's Office of Pottawattamie County, Iowa, this 18th day of July, 
1853. Thomas L. Griffey, 

Ira Peryier, 

Commissioners. 

This appears to be a copy from the Pottawattamie County 
records. The next entry bears date of January 2, 1854, and men- 
tions. that Thomas L. Griffey is allowed for services as Locating 
Commissioner f!18.50, the same being Order No. 1. It would seem 
that men were scarce; for Order No. 3 is also to Thomas L. Griffey 
for services as Locating Sheriff. July 16th, 1854, Ray Harvey is 
allowed $2 for hauling a box of books from Council Bluffs City. 
These were doubtless the first permanent records kept by the 
county. By a warrant — or bond, it is called in the record, — issued 
August 10, 1854, it appears that Leonard Bates had acted as Clerk 
of Elections, aud that R. E. Knox acted as the first District Clerk, 
probably Clerk of Election. 

August 12th, 1854, is the first entry bearing date of Sergeant's 
Bluffs, which appears to have been written there. This entry 
mentions that L. Bates is allowed ^16.65 for services as Treasurer 
and Recorder, and is signed by M. Townsley, County Judge. On 
the same day. Lewis Cunningham is allowed ^10.50 for services 
rendered as Assessor. 

The officials mentioned appear to have been appointed to hold 
until the first election: for on August 16th of the year following. 



180 HISTOEY OF IOWA. 

John K. Cook gives liis'bond as County Judge; Samuel H. Casady 
as Treasurer; M. F. Moore, Prosecuting Attorney. 

October 15tli this entry appears: "John R. Myers was this day 
appointed District Clerk for this county, in place of Theophile 
Brughier, suspended by the District Judge at the last term of 
District Court." The proceedings, as appears by this record, are 
mixed as to dates, as if some were original entries and others were 
copied from an older book. 

August 1, 1853, Thomas L. Griffey as Organizing Sheriff, ap- 
pointed OrinB. Smith Prosecuting Attorney and Eli Lee, Coroner. 
On the 30th of the same month, Hiram Nelson gives his bonds as 
Treasurer and Recorder. 

A petition is on record, asking Orin B. Smith, County Judge, to 
call an election on the first Monday of April, 1855, to decide 
whether the county seat shall not be removed from Sergeant's 
Bluffs to Sergeant's Bluffs City. The petition is signed by twenty- 
six persons. The first seat of justice was half way between Sioux 
City and the present station of Sergeant's Bluffs. It is called on 
the records indifferently. Sergeant's Bluffs, Thompsontown and 
Floyd's Bluffs. ^ • 

The election removed the county capital to Sergeant's Bluffs 
City, now Sergeant's Bluffs Station, on the Sioux City & Pacific 
road, where it remained until March 3d. Here let the record un- 
der this date tell the story. 

March term of County Court of Woodbury County : — Met at Sioux City, there 
being no place at the county seat for holding said court, first Monday of 
March. 

Petition of S. P. Yeomans and G eorge Weare and others — forty-nine others — 
praying for the removal of the county seat from its present location to Sioux 
City. 

Eemonstrance presented by F. E. Clark, J. D. M. Crockwell and others, 
against the removal of the county seat. 

F. Chapel, Sheritf, sworn; that the notices of the presentation of the petition 
for the removal of the county seat were duly posted, according to law. 

This is all that is disclosed by the records about the locating of 
the county seat at Sioux City. When it is remembered that the 
County Judge before whom the petition for removal came, was 
John K. Cook, the founder of Sioux City, no further record is 
needed to indicate what disposition was made of the petition for 
removal. 

April 15th, 1859, Bernhard Henn, Jesse Williams, A. C. Dodge, 
and others, petition the County Judge, John K. Cook, to enter for 
them the west one-half of section 28, township 89, range 47, as a 
town-site in trust for the lot owners. This town-site in the petition 
is called East Sioux City, now part of Sioux City east addition, 
and now comprises the principal business and residence parts of 
the town. 

The present officers of Woodbury County are: J. R. Zuver, 
Circuit Judge, Fourth Judicial District; C. H. Lewis, Districli 
Judge, Fourth Judicial District; S. M. Marsh, District Attorney; 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 181 

Auditor, M. L. Sloan; Treasurer, John P. Allison; Clerk of Courts, 
J. H. Bolton; Recorder, Phil Carlin: Sheriff, D. McDonald; Coro- 
ner, Dr. W. 0. Davis; Superintendent of Schools, N. E. Palmer; 
Surveyor, G. W. Oberholtzer; Attorney, G. W. Wakefield; Insane 
Commissioners, J. H. Bolton, Isaac Pendleton, Dr. J. M. Knott; 
Supervisors, P. C. Eberley, J. S. Horton, John Nairn, A. J. 
Weeks, D. T. Gilman. 

SIOUX CITY. 

While other cities may owe their location to some accident, the 
whim of an officer locating a military post, the ambition of a pio- 
neer to have a townsite on his pre-emption, or the chance settle- 
ment of a trader, Sioux City's location was a matter of foresight 
and design by men worthy to be the founders of such a city. 

When, in the summer of 1853, John K. Cook came into this part 
of Northwestern Iowa to survey the land for the Government, he 
had instructions from an association of capitalists and politicians to 
choose for them a site for a city, to be the metropolis of this part 
of the northwest. The principal men of the association were Gen. 
G. W. Jones and A. C. Dodge, Iowa's first Senators, Bernhard 
Henn, of Fairfield, also a Congressman; his partner in the banking 
business, Jesse Williams; Daniel Rider, also of Fairfield, and Wm. 
Montgomery, a Congressman from Pennsylvania, the author of the 
famous Montgomery Compromise: John K. Cook, Avho surveyed 
the land for the Government; and S. P. Yeomans, afterwards Reg- 
ister of the Government Land Office at Sioux City. 

This land office was secured for the infant metropolis by the in- 
fluence of the men who founded the city, and this and the business 
and settlement it brought, forced the town rapidly ahead of its 
many competitors. 

Thompsontown, once the county seat, dwindled to a single farm 
house; Sergeant Bluffs, at first the most formidable rival, was soon 
outstripped, and the county seat that had been moved to that vil- 
lage from Thompsontown, was again moved to Sioux City. 

Omadi, on the Nebraska side, once thought to be the coming 
town in this part of the northwest, has been swallowed up by the 
river, and the main channel is now where the main street was; of 
St. John, another Nebraska city of the future, only two or three 
farm houses remain on the town site, that covered one thousand 
acres; Dakota City and Covington, once formidable rivals of Sioux 
City, still exist, but only as villages. Sioux City has grown and 
prospered from the first. The securing of the Government Land 
Office was followed by the city securing the headquarters for the 
government expeditions against the hostile Sioux, and afterwards 
by its becoming the terminus of railroads created by land grant 
bills. 



182 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

First its founders, and afterwards the leading men of the town, 
have been tireless in their efforts to advance the interests of the 
city. To this, even more than to its superior location, is the 
present prosperity of the city indebted. 

The population of the city has more than doubled since 1870. 
According to the official figures of the federal census taken in 
June, 1880, the population was 7,367. But to-day we can easily cal- 
culate upon 10,000 being the correct figures, for not a single busi- 
ness-house is unoccupied, and although building boomed as never 
before last season, this winter sees many begging for houses to rent 
or quarters of some kind in which to locate. The demand for ten- 
ement houses is greater than the supply, and in many cases fami- 
lies are crowded into one room, not being able to secure more avail- 
able quarters. 

The population of the county, according to the census, exclud- 
ing Sioux City, was 7,626, the whole county exceeding the town by 
259. The county is divided into twenty-two townships, and the 
population of the whole county, including Sionx City, according to 
census figures, is given as follows: 

Sioux City— First Ward 1,707 

Second Ward 2,074 

Third Ward 1,786 

Fourth Ward 1,800 

Sioux City township 480 

Arlington township 137 

Concord township 340 

Banner township 64 

Floyd township 194 

Grange township 118 

Grant Township 460 

Kedron township 316 

Little Sioux township 876 

Liberty township 721 

Liston township 408 

Lakeport township 436 

Union township 597 

Moville township 117 

Willow township 242 

Rock township 250 

Rutland township 197 

Sloan township ? 312 

Wolk Creek township 418 

Morgan township 63 

West Fork township 286 

Woodbury township 594 

Total 14,993 

What has been said in regard to the city's population holds 
equally true of the county, outside of the city. Since the census 
enumeration many families have bought farms and settled in the 
county. In fact, the tide of immigration to Woodbury, which has 
never been greater than during the last year, did not set in until 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 183 

after June, and continued until cold weather set in. It is safe, 
therefore, to estimate the present population of the city and 
county at 19,000, at least. 

SIOUX city's railroad interests. 

The founders of Sioux City had not got fairly settled on their 
townsite before they began to agitate the question of secur- 
ing railroads. The location of the town seemed made by na- 
ture for a railroad center, supposing that nature contemplated 
railroads when this section of the world was made. The great 
Missouri, coming down through its wide valley, flows in a general 
easterly course and here makes an abrupt bend to the south, the 
first great change in course above Kansas City. The Big Sioux 
comes down from the north, and at its head the Ked River starts 
on its course north, the valleys of the two streams forming a nat- 
ural route for a railroad from Sioux City to the British Possessions. 
The Niobrara coming from the west flows straight toward Sioux 
City until it joins the Missouri at the first great bend above the 
city. The Floyd coming from the northeast invited a road from 
the Minnesota lumber country, and alforded a route into the young 
metropolis for a road across the State, while the rock bluff that 
crops out above the town suggests a bridge site and lines beyond the 
Missouri. All these ideas were urged by the more progressive of 
the founders of the city, and, though visionary then to a common- 
place mind, have been either made realities, or are in a fair Avay 
to become realities. 

Sioux City was fortunate in having as a member of Congress, 
during the years in which land grants were being given to rail- 
roads, a citizen active, far-sighted and tireless, the late Judge Hub- 
bard. It was this gentleman who secured the insertion of a clause 
in the original land grant bill of the Union Pacific providing for 
a branch of this road to Sioux City, who secured the change of the 
land grant from the bankrupt Dubuque & Missouri River road to 
the Iowa Falls & Sioux City, and finally, in 1864, by the help of 
the Minnesota Congressmen, procured the passage of a bill grant- 
ing lands to the amount of 10 sections per mile to the Sioux City 
& St. Paul road. But in spite of the tempting offers of lands, and 
in the case of the Sioux City branch of the Union Pacific, of guaran- 
teed government bonds as well, nothing was done toward building 
these roads until late in 1867. 

Sioux City cC- Pacific. — John I. Blair, even then a veteran railroad 
man, in that year agreed to build the Sioux City branch of the 
Union Pacific if a modification of the line could be secured. 
What he wanted, and got, was permission to build from Missouri 
Valley north to Sioux City, a distance of 77 miles, and to build 
from Missouri Valley west, across the Missouri River to Frenu;)iit, 
a distance of 37 miles. The original bill did not contemplate any 
such line, but one crossing the River at Sioux City, and running 



184 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

southwest to a junction with the Union Pacific at Columbus, Mr, 
Blair having secured the change m the route askedj proceeded to 
build the road. Besides the land grant and government bonds, the 
wily railroader secured from Sioux City a tract of land amounting 
to about 14 acres near the business center of the town, and several 
thousand acres of swamp land from the county of Woodbury, 

The road, under the name of the Sioux City & Pacific, was finished 
so as to allow the first passenger train to run from Missouri Val- 
ley to Sioux City on March 9, 1868. The citizens were wild with 
enthusiasm, and the newspapers flamed with head lines over this 
connection with the railroad world. The year following the com- 
pletion of the Sioux City road, the Blair cut-ofi", between Missouri 
Valley, on the jSTorthwestern, and Fremont, on the Union Pacific, 
was built. This gave a connection with the Union Pacific, of 
which great things were expected; but the bridging of the Mis- 
souri at Omaha sent most of the business that way, instead of 
across the river at Blair, where a transfer boat was used. From 
Blair a branch was started up the Elkhorn Valley, that has grown 
from year to year, until, at the close of 1881, it rested at Long 
Pine, 250 miles northwest of Blair. Surveys have been made for 
an extension from Long Pine west to the Wyoming line, and the 
line seems likely to become in reality, what it is name, a Sioux 
City and Pacific road. 

Illinois Central. — The general joy over securing the first rail- 
road, took the very practical form of a move to secure other rail- 
roads. In the Spring of 1869, Mr. Blair and his associates began 
building from Sioux City east, and from Iowa Falls west, to secure 
the land grant of the Iowa Falls & Sioux City road. That year 
the west section Avas built to Cherokee, and from the east as far as 
Fort Dodge. Early in the summer of 1870 the road was finished. 
It was leased to the Illinois Central, a company that has since 
operated it. The rental paid is 35 per cent, of the gross earnings. 

Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis and Omaha. — Fast following 
on this road came the Sioux City & St, Paul. As has been men- 
tioned. Judge Hubbard, in 1864, when, iu Congress, procured a 
land grant for this project, but no work was done until 1872, 
when the franchises having passed to the St. Paul & Sioux City 
company, the road was built from the Minnesota State line to Le 
Mars. There connection was made with the Illinois Central, and 
the right to run trains over that company's track to Sioux City 
secured. The year following Sioux City voted the company ^20,- 
000 in consideration of establishing repair shops in the town. 
Extensive shops were built, and these have since been enlarged 
until, during the past summer, over 200 men were employed there. 
In the Spring of 1881, the St. Paul & Sioux City road was con- 
solidated with various Wisconsin roads and now forms a part of 
the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha railway. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 185 

The necessity of developing a system of roads in Nebraska di- 
verging from this city, was early apparent to the public-spirited 
men who made the town the railroad center that it is. In this, as 
in most other railroad enterprises of the town, the late Judge 
Hubbard took a leading a part. 

After much preliminary surveying and agitation, work was be- 
gun on a line from Covington to Ponca in the fall of 1876. The 
road, a narrow guage, was finished to Ponca early in 1877. Grad- 
ing was done beyond that town into Cedar county, but the com- 
pany became involved in litigation on account of the bonds issued 
by the Nebraska counties in aid of the road, and the line passed 
into the hands of a receiver. 

At the time the Ponca line was building some little grading 
was done on a line which was projected between this city and Co- 
lumbus on the Union Pacific road. This project rested with the 
resting of the Ponca line, and nothing more was done in the way 
of work on the Nebraska lines until the St. Paul & Sioux City 
acquired possession of the different interests in the Nebraska 
roads in the fall of 1879. 

The winter following material was crossed for extensive work on 
the newly acquired road, and on the roads projected, and the next 
spring business began in earnest. The twenty-six miles of narrow 
gauge track between Covington, on the Nebraska shore opposite 
this city, and Ponca, was widened to standard gauge, and substan- 
tially rebuilt. Surveys have been made west of Ponca looking to 
an extension of this branch to Niobrara. This extension will be 
built in 1882, if a tax asked by the company be voted in Cedar 
County, which now seems probable. 

In 1880 a track was built from Coburn Junction, on the Ponca 
line, to the south 52 miles, where the end of a track extending from 
Oakland to Omaha was met. This track had previously been 
bought by the St. Paul & Sioux City Company. This line gives a 
new connection between the lumber country of Minnesota and 
Wisconsin, and the Union Pacific road. In the winter of 1881-2 
the 47 miles of track from Emerson Junction, on the Omaha line, 
was completed to Norfolk, the railroad center of Northern Ne- 
braska. A bill recently introduced in Congress during the session 
of 1881-2, to revive the charter of the Sioux City branch of the 
Union Pacific, indicates that this line is to be extended from Nor- 
folk west to some point on the Union Pacific. 

The building of these numerous lines by the company in Ne- 
braska will, at an early day, make necessary a bridge at this city. 
Soundings were made as early as 18G9, and bed rock suitable for 
the foundation of bridge piers was found at depths ranging from 
30 to 50 feet below low water mark. The range of bluffs that 
comes to the river edge in the west part of the city, forms a con- 
venient approach on one side, which is all that any bridge site on 
the Missouri offers. The building 



186 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

delayed for more than a year or two, will do much to fix the busi- 
ness of Northern Nebraska at this city. During 1881, the com- 
pany has, in a measure, prepared for an increase in the Nebraska 
business by building nearly four miles of side track in the city, 
and by the purchase of depot grounds, at an expense of $20,000 
near the business center of the town. A survey has been partially 
made between LeMars, where the company's track joins that of 
the Illinois Central, to this city, and there is good assurance that 
the company will build this track in 1882. 

Right here it may be in order to speak of the company's land grant, 
some 20,000 acres of which, lying in this county and in Plymouth 
count}^ is in dispute, unfortunately, and so cannot be sold to set- 
tlers until the question between the State and the company is 
settled. The company has built 57^ miles of road in Iowa, which 
fact has been duly certified by the Governor to the General Gov- 
ernment, and the land at the rate often sections per mile has been 
turned crver to the State in trust for the railroad company. The 
State has, in turn, certified the land grant of 50 miles of road to 
the company. The lands for the other 7| miles the State holds, 
claiming that the road was entitled to it only as sections of ten 
miles of road were completed, and the showing of trie Railroad 
company was that the last section lacked 2-J- miles of being ten 
miles long. The company holds that as the General Goverment 
has waived the ten-mile point, and certified the lands to the State 
for the use and benefit of the company the State should certify 
the lands for the 7-i- miles of road built to the company. Meantime 
the State holds the lands in abeyance, and settlement is kept out. It 
would require only a part of the land thus held by the State to give 
the company the ten sections per mile for the 71 miles built and un- 
subsidized. There is also a question between the St. Paul and the 
Milwaukee companies as to the ownership of about 185,000 acres of 
land in the vicinity of the crossing point of the two roads. This 
land is now being sold, and both companies join in giving title, 
and agree that the company that wins in the courts shall have the 
money for the disputed lands sold. If this dispute is settled in 
favor of the Milwaukee Company, it will take all the lands in dis- 
pute between the State and the St. Paul Company to make good 
the land grant of that Company. 

Chicago^ Milivaukee & St. Paul. — The first spike on the track 
leading from Sioux City to Yankton was driven in this city Aug. 
12, 1872, and the track was finished to Yankton on the 28th of 
January following. This road is noticeable as the first built in this 
part of the west without a land grant. The construction com- 
pany. Wicker & Meckling, of Chicago, obtained a tax from Sioux 
City, voted the Sioux City & Pembina road, and it was under 
this name that the road was built as far as the Rig Sioux bridge. 
They also obtained ^200,000 in bonds from Yankton County, and 
a lesser amount from stations along the route. This was the first 



HISTOKY OF IOWA. 187 

track in Dakota, south of the Northern Pacific, except a few miles 
built across the line near where Watertown now is, but abandoned 
after the land ^nint was secured. Jt had long been a favorite 
plan of the public spirited men of this city to build a road north, 
up the Big Sioux Valley, and the Sioux City & Pembina was or- 
ganized in 1871 for this purpose. The leading spirit, as in most 
other railroad projects in these parts, was Judge Hubbard. The 
year following the organization, taxes were voted in aid of the road 
by Sioux City township and by the townships in the west part of 
Plymouth County, and some grading was done. But the financial 
crisis of 1873 coming on, work was suspended. In 1875 the 
owners of the track between Sioux City and Yankton began work 
at Davis Junction on a road up the Big Sioux Valley, and 
that year completed sixteen miles to Portlandville. In 1878 the 
road was finished to Beloit, and in December, 1879, the track was 
laid into Sioux Falls. It was in the spring of this year, 1879, that 
John 1. Blair reappeared on the railroad stage, after several years 
absence, and bought what he supposed was a contr.lling interest 
in the Yankton and Sioux Falls lines. At his suggestion the two 
were consolidated into the Sioux City & Dakota Railway. In the 
summer of 1880 the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Com- 
pany bought Mr. Wicker's interest in the Sioux City & Dakota 
road, and after a tedious litigation Mr. Blair sold his interest to 
the same company. The addition of a third road to Chicago by 
this purchase was hailed with enthusiasm by our business men. 
The connection, opening up as it does to the trade of the city, the 
best part of Southeastern Dakota and Northern Iowa, has been a 
great advantage, Avhile as an eastern connection the new line has 
done much to bring the freight rate down to a point that enabled 
our wholesale dealers to compete with those of Omaha and St. 
Paul. During the past year, 1881, the company has completed 
its line up the Big Sioux Valley, from Sioux Falls to Flandrau, 
Avhere connection is made with the company's Southern Minnesota 
division, and has partly graded a line from Yankton to Scotland, 
which when ironed, will give our dealers a direct line to the lower 
Jim River Valley. But the work that promised to be of most ad- 
vantage to the city is the line surveyed southeast, ninety miles, to 
a connection with the company's new main line, that during 1881 
was nearly completed between Marion and Council Bluffs. This 
line when built, as it is likely to be in 1882, will not only open up 
a new section to the trade of our city, but will give a shorter track 
between Sioux City and Chicago. Some steps have been taken to- 
ward securing shops of this company at this city, but nothing de- 
finite has as yet been assured. 

Railroad Frobabilities.— These are the railroad lines to which 
Sioux City owes her importance as a commercial center. There 
are besides several roads to get, which may be briefly mentioned: 
The Iowa Railroad Land Company, the owners of the Maple Val- 



188 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

ley branch of the Chicago & Northwestern, put a party of engi- 
neers in the field in December, 1881, to make a survey for a line 
between Sac City, the terminus of a spur of the branch mentioned, 
to Sioux City. There is good assurance that a part of this line, 
at least, will be built in 1882, and that the line will eventually be 
extended to a connection with the company's system of roads in 
Dakota. The Wabash, in the Summer of 1881, leased the Des 
Moines & Northwestern, a narrow gauge road running north- 
west from Des Moines. Late in the year the company secured an 
old roadbed and right of way from Rockwell City to Sac City, and 
there is the authority of the President of the Narrow Gauge Road 
for saying that it is to be extended either to Sioux City or Sioux 
Falls. The branch of the St. Paul Road that now extends down 
the Rock River to Doon, it is hoped, will be extended south to 
Sioux City, and an effort is being made to have the 20,000 acres of 
disputed land grant mentioned diverted to the aid of this extension. 
The St. Paul and the Sioux City & Pacific, together, have planned 
to extend from Fremont to Lincoln, and this Nebraska line, of the 
greatest usefulness to Sioux City, is likely to be built during 1882. 
Most important of all the expected lines, is the Central Pacific. 
Durins: 1881, this company had a preliminary survey made between 
Corinne, near its eastern terminus, to the mouth of the Niobrara 
River. The short and natural route for a road coming down the 
Niobrara Valley, seeking a Chicago connection, is to cross the Mis- 
souri River at Sioux City, A letter Avritten by Vice President 
Huntington of this road to one of our citizens says, that the Cen- 
tral Pacific will be extended from Corinne to some point on the 
Missouri River not yet determined on. As Sioux City presents 
a good bridge site, and is on the most direct route, there is a rea- 
sonable certainty that she will secure this prize. With the roads 
already built into this city, neither the Central Pacific, nor any 
other road, can afford to come within reaching distance of Sioux 
City and not send in a line. 

BOATING BUSINESS. 

The first steamboat came up the Missouri to Sioux City in the 
Spring of 1856. The river route was then the only one open for 
the bringing in of heavy freight; and the material for a number 
of residences and business houses, and several stocks of goods came 
in on this first boat. With the settlement of the country around 
the city, came a demand from the military posts and mining camps 
farther up the river, for any surplus produce marketed in the city, 
and orders for goods began to be sent down to Sioux City. The 
up-river business of the city grew steadily, and new boats were 
added every year to the carrying trade. The opening of the rich 
mines in the Black Hills greatly increased this business, and there 
has been a steady increase in the amount of grain, pork and mer- 
chandise sent from the city to points further up the Missouri. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 189 

Sioux City is the headquarters of the Peck line of boats, which 
line comprises the steamers C. K. Peck, Nellie Peck, Terry, Peui- 
nah, Meade, and Far West. The Benton line, Coulson line and 
Kountz line of boats also find much profitable freight at this city. 
Costly experience has proved to the satisfaction of river men that 
the winter harbor here is the safest on the upper river, and num- 
bers of the river steamers are put on the ways at this city for re- 
pair every winter. 

Many of Sioux City's business men are interested in stock rais- 
ing, mining, the fur trade, and other up-river enterprises, and their 
connection with the "up-country" forms a bond of union of great 
help to the trade of the city. Several hundred thousand bushels 
of corn and oats are sent every summer to points further up the 
Missouri, and more than half the immense out-put of the pork 
packing establishment finds a market in the same quarter, while 
the growth of the wholesale trade of our merchants in these parts 
has kept steady pace with the growth of this newest portion of the 
new Northwest. 

Daring the winter of 1878, Congress made an appropriation for 
the improvement of the river, and the protection of the levee at 
Sioux City, and has, each subsequent winter, made further appro- 
priations for carrying on the work. The first systematic attempt 
to prevent the encroachment of the river on our levee was made 
during the Summer of 1879, by Major Yonge, of the United States 
Engineer Corps. The work has been carried on every season since 
with results, on the whole, satisfactory. The banks on either side 
now appear to be permanently fixed, and much valuable data has 
been obtained that will be of use when the improvement of the en- 
tire river below Sioux City is attempted, by government, as it evi- 
dently will be in the near future. 

THE NEWSPAPERS. 

The press of Sioux City has been an important factor in the up- 
building of the city, and no other single agency has contributed 
more to make the city what it is. It has ever been said, that a 
town may be judged by the character of its newspapers. If this 
be true, Sioux City can make an excellent showing, as no city in the 
State of its size has as many or as good newspapers as are published 
here. To-day, it has one morning, two evening and three weekly 
journals, all well supported. 

The pioneer newspaper of Sioux City, as well as of Woodbury 
County, was called the Sioux Cifi/ Eagle, and the first number was 
issued July 4th, 1857, with S. W. Swiggett as editor and proprie- 
tor. It was independent in politics, and for those days, a sprightly, 
well conducted sheet. Its publication was continued for nearly 
three years, when it passed out of existence. 

The next newspaper venture was made by F. M. Ziebach. 
The August previous, he, in conjunction Avith J. N. Cum- 



190 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

niings, under the firm name of Cummings & Ziebach, began the 
publication of the Western Inde^jendent — independent in politics — 
at Sergeant's Bluffs, eight miles south of Sioux City. It was reg- 
ularly published until the following July, when Mr, Ziebach pur- 
chased his partner's interest in the paper, and removed the mate- 
rial to Sioux City, which, even then, gave promise of being the 
metropolis of the Northwest; and on July 22d, 1858, gave to Sioux 
City its second weekly newspaper, the Sioux City Register. With 
the change of name also came a change in politics, the Register 
being the first to champion Democracy in Northwestern Iowa. 

In 1859 William Freney purchased an interest in the paper, and 
the year following it was consolidated with the Eagle. The Regis- 
ter was continued under the management of Ziebach & Freney un- 
til 1862,when Mr. Ziebach withdrew, leaving Mr. Freney to continue 
it alone, which he did until 1871, when its publication was suspended. 

Shortly after the consolidation of the Register and Eagle, in 
1860, Pendleton & Swiggett started the Sioux City Times — Re- 
publican in politics. It survived only a few mouths. 

Three years later, another attempt was made, by J. C. Stillman, 
to establish a Republican paper, Tlie Sioux City Journal, but it 
ceased to exist befcre the publication of a dozen numbers. August 
29th, 1861:, it was resuscitated, under the editorial management of 
J. V. Baugh, and its publication has been continued uninter- 
ruptedly ever since, though it has passed through many trying 
ordeals, with several changes in its management. 

In October of the same year, S. T. Davis, then Register of the 
Land Office, succeeded Mr. Baugh as editor, but only remained in 
charge until the close of the Presidential campaign in 1861, when 
the paper passed into the hands of Mahlon Gore, a brilliant writer 
and an accomplished journalist. In 1868, B. L. Northrup' pur- 
chased an interest in the paper, but retired in a short time, leaving 
Mr. Gore to continue it alone, which he did until May 1st, 1869, 
when he disposed of it to George D. Perkins, who has been its 
editor ever since. 

The following January, H. A. Perkins bought an interest in the 
paper, and the firm of Perkins Brothers was formed, and con- 
tinued until July, 1875, when H. A. Perkins retired; but after an 
absence of nearly two years, he returned; the firm name of Per- 
kins Brothers was restored, and continues to the present time. 

In 1870 a morning edition was issued from the office, and has 
appeared regularly ever since. The Dailij Journal has grown and 
strengthened with its years, until to-day it ranks with the fore- 
most papers of the State. It is a handsome, nine-column folio, 
printed on a press of the latest pattern, and has a large and in- 
creasing circulation. The mechanical execution is in the highest 
style of the art. Its editor, George D. Perkins, is a polished, con- 
scientious and able writer, and a gentleman who has a high ideal 
of journalism. 



HISTOEY OF IOWA. 191 

The Journal building is a fine establishment, and the whole 
enterprise is an illustration of what may be accomplished by 
talent and energy, directed by sound financial ability and good 
management. Fcav papers have achieved a more decided and per- 
manent success, than The Sioux City. Journal, in the hands of its 
present proprietors, and, it may be added, none are more deserving 
of the grand success they have won, as they have built up an in- 
stitution of which Sioux City may well feel proud. 

In May, 1869, a stock company began the publication of the 
Daily and Weekly Times, a journal neutral in politics, with 
Charles Collins as the editor. In a short time Mr. Collins became 
sole proprietor, changing the publication from a morning to an 
evening paper. In 1872, the daily edition was discontinued, but 
the weekly was maintained until 1874, when it was purchased by 
Warner & Gore, made Democratic in politics, and the name changed 
to the Sioux City Tribune, under which name it has been con- 
tinued until the present time, though many changes have occurred 
in its management. At the close of the Presidential campaign, in 
1876, Mr. Warner retired, being succeeded by C. II. Smead, the 
style of the firm becoming Gore & Smead. August, 1877, Mr. 
Gore left the paper, because of ill health, Mr. Smead continuing 
its publication until December 6th of the same year, when Albert 
Watkins purchased an interest, and assumed editorial manage- 
ment. May 1st, 1879, Mr. Watkins bought his partner's interest, 
and continued the publication of the paper alone until July 1st, 
1880, when he disposed of it to John C. Kelley, its present editor 
and proprietor. The Tribune is a six-column quarto, well printed, 
ably edited, and is on a solid financial footing, with a rapidly in- 
creasing business. It is an unfaltering advocate of Democracy, 
and the recognized organ of the party in the Northwest. 

There is also issued from the Tribune ofiice the Anpao, a monthly 
journal, in the Sioux dialect, in the interests of the Niobrara Mis- 
sion. It is edited by Rev. Joseph W. Cook, and Rev. J. W. Cleve- 
land, and published under the management of James R. Fraser. 

The only German paper ever published here is the Sioux City 
Weekly Courier, which made its first appearance in 1870, under 
the management of Wetter & Danquard. After a short time, Mr. 
Wetter purchased his partner's interest and continued it alone for 
a few months, when he disposed of it to Dr. C. J. Krejci. Subse- 
quently the paper passed into the hands of Chas. F. Schroeder, 
who, however, sold it to Herman Schorning. Mr. Schorning con- 
tinued it until it became the property of its present publisher, Fred- 
erick Barth, in November, 1877. The Courier is Democratic in 
politics, under its present management, is well conducted, the only 
German paper in this section, and has a wide circulation. 

The Cosmopolite, a sixteen-page monthly, was established by D. 
H. Talbot July 1st, 187'J, and continued for two years. It was is- 



192 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

sued mainly in the interest of private enterprises, but contained 
much matter of general interest. 

In August, 1881, Charles Collins commenced the S/'oux City Daily 
Times, an evening sheet, independent in politics. The Times is a 
sprightly six-column folio, devoted to local news, and rapidly estab- 
lishing itself on a firm footing. Its editor and proprietor, Mr. 
Charles Collins, is a veteran journalist and a ready and forcible 
writer. 

Two weeks after the first issue of the Daily Times, another can- 
didate for public favor made its appearance, the Sioux City Daily 
Netps, published by Watkins & Jay. Like its contemporary, The 
Times, it is a six-column folio, independent in politics, but with 
Democratic tendencies. 

The Sioux City Grocer, established in 1881, is a handsome 
monthly, published by E. C. Palmer & Co., and issued in the in- 
terest of the grocery trade. 

In August, 1877, Alex. Macready began the publication of the 
Industrial Press, a weekly newspaper, advocating the Greenback 
doctrine. It was continued about a year, when it ceased to exist. 

The Sioux City Gazette was commenced by R. Goldie & Son., 
December 1st, 1877, but after a few issues suspended publication. 

PORK PACKING. 

Pork packing was begun, in a small Avay, in Sioux City, in the 
winter of 1872-3. The building occupied was a small wooden affair 
on Water street above Fifth. That season H. D. Booge & Co. 
killed 5,000 hogs. The experiment was a success, and the follow- 
ing summer a large brick building was put up on the site of the 
frame one, where the business first started. Additions to this 
building were made from year to year, until its capacity was in- 
creased to 500 hogs per day, and there was no room for further ex- 
tensions. In the spring of 1881, work was begun on the pork 
house now occupied in the east part of the city. The site is all 
that could be wished. The Floyd furnishes drainage, and the 
nearness to railroads allows the cars of the different lines center- 
ing at the city to deliver hogs directly into the yards beside the 
packmg house, and to load the manufactured product directly from 
the storage rooms into the cars. There is plently of ground, 
some fourteen acres of city lots having been bought. The new 
building cost over $100,000, and more than a million and a half 
of brick were used in its building. It is pronounced by competent 
judges the most complete structure of the kind in the State. The 
ice is run directly from the Flo^^d River into the great 6,000 ton 
ice house. For summer packing this ice in skidded from the ice 
house into the refrigerator that occupies an entire story of the 
main building. A steam elevator connects the different fioors. 
In the fertilizer room, the parts that Avould otherwise go to Avaste, 
are worked over into an odorless powder that is in demand for 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 193 

enriching the worn-out fields of the east. Every part of the de- 
funct porker is utilized, from the tough terminus of the snout, to 
the brush of bristles that beautifies the tip of the tail. The house 
has a capacity of 1,000 hogs per day, the capacity being measured 
by the hanging capacity. This has been found insufficient for the 
hogs offered, and the coming season an addition will be built that 
Avill increase the capacity about 50 per cent. 

The firm conducting the business of Jas. E. Booge & Co., consists 
of Jas. E. Booge, of Sioux City, and John L. Merriam, A. H. 
Wilder and Wm. R. Merriam, of St. Paul. The first named gen- 
tleman has been connected with the business from the first, and 
the three others for several years. As appears from the report 
made to the Board of Trade, the pork house had, during the two 
months ending January 1st, 1882, killed 37^000 hogs, and paid for 
these 1580,000. The labor bills during this time footed up 814,000 
and the pay roll showed 188 men employed. 

No other business in Sioux City does so much to advertise the 
name of the town. The hams made can be found on hotel tables 
from Chicago to San Francisco. The side meat goes mostly to the 
south, Memphis, New Orleans and Mobile being the principal 
points of sale. The lard goes to Chicago and the bacon finds a 
ready market all over the west, the heaviest demand coming from 
the mining camps and military posts of the Upper Missouri. The 
Sioux City Pork house has a practical monopoly of supplying hog 
products to the military posts in the northwest, having, during 
the past year, secured more than eighty per cent, of the contracts 
let. The position of the town as a railroad center, in the midst of 
one of the best corn growing sections of the Union, makes the 
steady supply of swine certain, and the exceptional advantages for 
the distribution of the product, allows prices to be paid that while 
renumerative to the hog grower, leaves a fair margin of profit to 
the packer. 

THE CITY LIBEARY. 

There is nothing perhaps that speaks higher for the culture and 
enterprise of the city, than its valuable Public Library and Read- 
ing Room. Both are well patronized and supported. About two 
thousand well selected volumes are on the shelves, and mostly all 
the popular magazines and leading newspapers of the country, re- 
ligious and secular, are kept on file. The Library is a large and 
pleasant room, situated in the City Hall, on one of the leading 
business streets. Miss Helen Smith is at present, and has been 
for some years past, the Librarian. 

FOUNDRY AND MACHINE " SHOPS. 

The Sioux City Foundry and Machine Shop, is the pioneer 
manufacturing establishment of the city. Started in 1871, in a 
small way, and doing work only of the simplest kind, it has grown 



194 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

with the city, until now its buildings extend over several acres of 
ground, and its manufactures embrace everything in the different 
branches of the business, from the plain castings in iron and brass, 
to the building of heavy machinery for steamboats, saw mills, 
quartz mills, planing mills, etc. As the growth of the city and 
the wants of the trade demanded, new buildings with the required 
machinery, have been added, from time to time, until the works 
are now undoubtedly the largest and most complete of the kind in 
the West. The main building is of brick, two stories high, with 
a frontage of 120 feet. There is also an extensive boiler shop, de- 
tached from the main building, 70 by 80 feet. The works give 
employment to 40 men, and their trade extends throughout the 
Northwest, even reaching to the Black Hills. The establishment 
is in every way creditable to Sioux City, as well as to the country 
tributary. 

Ploiv Worhs. — The broad and liberal policy of the citizens of 
Sioux City towards manufacturing enterprises of merit, is in strik- 
ing contrast with the narrow, selfish course of many western cities. 
At all times they have been ready and willing to extend a helping 
hand to any enterprise that would add to the material wealth 
and advance the interests of the city, and the many manufacturing 
industries that have located here of late demonstrate, beyond ques- 
tion, that the policy which has been pursued is the only true one, 
and one that will ultimately place Sioux City in the front rank of 
the manufacturing towns of the State. 

The Board of Trade, of which appropriate mention is made else- 
where, has performed an important part in attracting many desir- 
able manufacturers hither, and among the first brought here, 
through its influence, was the Sioux City Plow Company, an insti- 
tution of which the city feels justly proud. In May, 1880, a stock 
company of practical mechanics was organized under the above 
name, and commenced the erection of a suitable building for the 
manufacture of plows, and in the following September the first 
plow was turned out. The next season, their goods were placed 
upon the market and immediately sprang into public favor; and 
though the works have a capacity of fifty finished plows per day, 
so great has become the demand that the company has not been 
able to fully meet the requirements of its trade, and an increase in 
the building capacity of the works has become an imperative ne- 
cessity. The Sioux City Plow is made with special reference to its 
adaptability to the peculiar soil of this section, and possesses many 
points of superiority over those of Eastern manufacture. The 
works of the company, situated in the southeastern part of the 
city, are substantial, two-story brick buildings, supplied with all 
the necessary machinery for the turning out of first class work. 

THE GAS WORKS. 

Long before Sioux City had a population of five thousand souls 
her streets were lighted with gas. Through the untiring energy 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 195 

aud public spirit of a few of her leading citizens, in February, 1872, 
the Sioux City Gas Light Company was incorporated with an 
authorized capital of $100,000. D. T. Hedges was President, 
George Weare, Treasurer, and John P. Allison, Secretary. A sub- 
stantial brick building was soon erected, and on the evening of 
March 17th, 1873, the city was illuminated by gas, the event being 
duly celebrated. It was not expected by the projectors of the en- 
terprise, that the works in a town like Sioux City then was, would 
be self-sustaining; but they had an abiding faith in its future. 
Time has demonstrated that their confidence was not misplaced. 
The hazardous venture of ten years ago, is now a paying in- 
vestment. The city has always lent the company a helping hand, 
and encouraged and fostered it with its patronage, oftentimes when 
its finances would hardly justify the outlay. The works are now 
operated by private parties, under a lease from the incorporators 
of the company. About three million feet of gas is made annually, 
of which the city is a large consumer, all the leading thorough- 
fares being lighted by gas, 

SIOUX CITY BOARD OF TRADE. 

During the autumn of 1872, the first Citizens' Association, for 
the general advancement of the business and manufacturing in- 
terests of the city was formed. The first meeting for the forma- 
tion of this association was held November 21st, 1872, at the 
court room, which was at that time in the Hubbard block, on 
Fourth street. It was called by the Mayor, G. W. Kingsnorth. 
Hon. A. W. Hubbard introduced the following resolution, which 
was unanimously adopted: 

''^Resolved, That this meeting' is in favor of organizing an association, the 
object of which shall be to induce manufactures to come to this place." 

A provisional board was appointed; also committees to draft a 
constitution, by-laws, and for procuring members. 

December 9th the committee reported a constitution, which was 
adopted; and that they had secured 221 names for membership. 
The name this association adopted was '' The Sioux City Cham- 
ber of Commerce." 

January i;3th, 1878, the following officers were elected for the 
year: President, J. C. Flint; First Vice-President, A. W. Hub- 
bard; Second Vice-President, S. T. Davis; Directors, J. H. Swan, 
M. C. Bogue, J. J. Saville, L. C. Sanborn, C. E. Hedges, A. Gronin- 
ger, J. P. Dennis, E. W. Skinner, A. R. Wright, H. L. Warner. 
Board of Arbitration, J. C. C. Hoskins, W. L. Joy, L. Wynn, J. 
E. Booge, L. McCarty; Secretary, F. C. Thompson. Treasurer, 
J. M. I'inckney. 

During the year the organization secured the location of Joseph 
Trudell's wagon shop; entertained the St. Paul Chamber of Com- 
merce on its visit to Sioux City, September 10th; published a 



196 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

twenty-four page pamphlet, containing statistics and desci'iption 
of the city, and did a good deal of miscellaneous work toward se- 
curing railroads, Government improvement of river, etc. 

In January, 1874, the following officers were elected for the 
year: President, J. C. C. Hoskins; First Vice-President, J. H. 
Swan; Second Vice-Presulent, L. C, Sanborn; Directors, James E. 
Booge, Thomas J. Stone, William R. Smith, Joseph Schulien, L. 
McCarty, James M. Bacon, E. B. Crawford, George W. Kings- 
north, E. E. Lewis, C. J. Kathrens. Committee on Arbitration, 
W. S. Joy, H. L. Warner, D. T. Hedges, J. C. Flint, A. W. 
Hubbard. F. C. Thompson was re-elected Secretary, and J. M. 
Pinckney, Treasurer. 

This organization — The Chamber of Commerce — was quite ac- 
tive during the year in working up the material interests of the 
city; but a quorum of members did not respond to the call for the 
annual meeting of 1875, and the officers previously elected held 
over. 

In October, 1877, the merchants of Sioux City met and formed 
the Merchants Exchange, and the following officers were elected 
for the year: President, J. M. Bacon; Vice President, L. C. San- 
born; Secretary, E. H. Bucknam; Treasurer, A. C. Davis; Direc- 
tors, H. L. Warner, H, A. Jandt, E. W. Rice, F. L. Goewey, 

During the year, the subject of cheap ferriage to Covington, the 
adjusting of railroad freights and the commercial interests of Sioux 
City in general, had the attention of the Exchange with marked 
success. They raised by voluntary subscriptions $1, 929.60 during 
the year, and paid to secure cheap ferriage, ^1,500. 

In October, 1878, the following officers were elected for the 
year: President, J. M. Bacon; Vice President, E. C. Tompkins: 
Secretary, E. W. Bucknam; Directors, H. L. Warner, H. A. Jandt, 
M. W. Murphy. S. Schulein, F. L. Goewey. 

In October, 1879, the following officers were elected: President, 
H. A. Jandt; Vice President, M. W. Murphy, Secretary, E. G. 
Burkam, Jr.; Treasurer, A. C. Davis; Directors, J. M. Bacon, 
William Tackaberry, F. L. Goewey, W. H. Livingston, G. H. 
Howell. 

During the year, the Exchange, in addition to other important 
work, raised quite a boom for the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
Railroad towards the purchase of depot grounds. 

The officers elected October, 1879, held over until July, 1881, 
when the exchange was reorganized, the name changed to the 
Sioux City Board of Trade, its scope extended so as to include as 
eligible to membership all citizens of Sioux City and to embrace 
in its work the securing of manufactories. The following officers 
were elected for the balance of the year: President, H. A. Jandt; 
Vice President, John Hornick; Treasurer, A. S, Garretson; Secre- 
tary, E. W. Skinner; Directors, F. H. Peavev, H. A. Perkins, W. 
H. Beck, F. L. Goewey,E. C. Palmer, Geo. H.Howell, J. P. Dennis. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 197 

In November, 1881, the following officers were elected: Presi- 
dent, F. H. Peavey; Vice President, John Hornick; Treasurer, A. 
S. Garretson; Secretary, E. W. Skinner; Directors, H. A. Jaudt, F. 
L. Goewey, E. C. Palmer, W. H. Livingston, W. H. Beck, H. A. 
Perkins, R. S. Van Keuren. 

During the first six months of the new organization, the Board 
of Trade has aided in securing for the city several important ad- 
ditions to its industrial and mercantile institutions, among Avhich 
may be mentioned, a button factory, a chemical paint and color 
works, a branch of R. G. Dun & (Jo's Commercial agency, Cum- 
mings, Smith & Co.'s large wholesale boot and shoe house, a branch of 
the Consolidated Oil Tank Line Company; a United States Express 
Company's office, an iron pump factory, chemical works, increased 
telegraph facilities, and has in prospect a paper mill, a flax, twine 
and bagging mill, and several other industries. 

The subject of railroad extensions, and increased rail facilities, 
and the improvement of the Missouri River by the Government, 
have also had consideration. 

• BUSINESS TfiANSACTEr. 

The folloAving extracts are taken from the JouruaVs last annual 
review of the city's business acchievements: 

"During the year 1881, Sioux City merchants and dealers sold 
goods to the value of $0,427,626, giving employment to 412 per- 
sons, who received for salaries $197,425. These figures can be ac- 
cepted as being as nearly correct as it is possible to give them, and 
if they err at all, it is in being too small, and that they are too 
small is clearly indicated by the amount of exchange sold by our 
three banks during the past year, as per figures furnished the 
Board of Trade, which was $1 0, 256.12 7.U2. 

'Tt may also be stated that several dealers refused to state the 
amount of their business, and as no estimated figures are given, it 
must be evident to all that the total of $6,427,626 falls far short 
of naming the full volume of business. It would probably not be 
an exaggeration to place Sioux City's merchandise sales in 1881 
at fully $8,000,000. 

MANUFACTURING. 

''This branch of industry is yet in its infancy in Sioux City, and 
yet, a very flattering showing is made, the value of manufactured 
articles in 1881 reaching a value of $1,189,050, in the production 
of which 555 persons found employment, and who received for 
wages $237,410. In these figures are not included the business of 
the St. Paul machine sliops. which give employment to hundreds 
of men, and pay out many thousands of dollars for wages. Nor 
do they include the immense transactions at the new pork-house, 
which, during the two months it has been in operation, has killed 
37,000 hogs, bought at a cost of $580,000, and which, during the 



198 HISTORY OF IOWA, 

time, has also paid out $36,000 for packing material, which includes 
cooperage, etc., and $14,000 for wages. This establishment has 
188 men now on its pay-roll. Several new manufacturing enter- 
prises have been started here this fall, others are projected with a 
certainty of their being put in operation, and another year Sioux 
City can make a much larger showing in this direction. 

THE BUILDING RECORD. 

''The opening of a late spring found Sioux City almost destitute 
of building material. The wrecking of the railroads by the spring 
floods delayed its arrival, so that it was nearly the middle of May 
before much progress was made in building. When this material 
did arrive, our contractors took hold of the work with a will. 

"Our building record this year, in its sum total, very largely ex- 
ceeds that of any previous year since the present writer has made 
his compilations. The amount expended is nearly $400,000 greater 
than in 1879, and $300,000 greater than in 1880'. The number of 
buildings built is 308 greater than in 1879, and 265 greater than 
in 1880. , 

''In the erection of buildings for manufacturing purposes, the 
showing is still more gratifying, as the increase is over six fold. 
Our great pork-packing establishment, the butter and egg house, 
and the button factory, are valuable additions, not only in them- 
selves, but from the fact that they give employment permanently 
to a great many men. and necessitate the building of many new 
homes, and very largely increase our population. 

"Our tables again show, that Sioux City workingmen are build- 
ing their own homes, and the vast majority of them are neat, warm 
and comfortable. 

"The increased cost of building has not been as great as expected, 
and will not average over 15 per cent, above the amounts paid for 
similar work in the two previous years. This increase is not greater 
than the increase in the earnings, and profits of almost any busi- 
ness in the city, and ought not to deter anyone from building. 

"We ought not to lose sight of the fact, that all of these new 
houses are full of people, and the smaller the house, the more peo- 
ple it seems to hold, and that our tables show the completion of 
nine large hotels and boarding-houses, all of which have all of the 
rooms that they can spare from transient guests let to permanent 
boarders. There can be no reason to doubt that the population of 
the school district of Sioux City, which takes in all of the town, 
is now fully 11,000 people." 

CITY GOVERNMENT. 

Mayor, W. R. Smith; Treasurer. G. R. Gilbert; City Solicitor, 
J. M. Cleland: Clerk, F. Barth: Marshal, J. R. Thompson; Dep- 
uty Marshal, John Colvin; Street Commissioner, James Scollard; 
Night Police, Thomas Budworth and Mike Ahern; Engineer, G. 



HISTORY OF IOWA, 199 

W. Oberholtzer: Engineer of Steamer, H. A. Lyon; Chief of Fire 
Department, Jas. P. Wall; Health Officer, Dr. J. W. Frazey; 
Weighmaster, James Shanley; Librarian, Miss Helen Smith. 

Councilmen. — First Ward, D, Dineen, R. G. Grady; Second 
Ward, D. A. Magee, H. S. Harmon; Third Ward, N. Tiedeman, 
R. S. Van Keuren; Fourth Ward, L. Humbert^ E. C. Tompkins. 

FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

The fire department of the city is a volunteer organization, 
composed of ninety members, fifty-five of whom are active, and 
thirty-five exempt. The organization was first effected in 187i, 
with E. R. Kirk, Chief of the Department. The fire apparatus 
belonging to the city consists of one steamer, three hose carts, 
2,500 feet of hose, and a hook and ladder truck, fully equipped. 
The engine house is a substantial two-story brick building, located 
in the central part of the city. The members of the company, 
with the exception of the Chief andEngineer, render their services 
gratuitously. James P. Wall is the present Chief, and the de- 
partment is an able and efficient one. 

THE TELEPHONE EXCHANGE. 

The Sioux City Telephone Exchange was incorporated August 
7th, 1880. and the construction of lines was soon after commenced. 
December 10th, of the same year, the first telephone connection 
was made, but only a few instruments were put in. The practic- 
ability of this new and novel means of communication was soon 
demonstrated, and the telephone rapidly grew in public favor, the 
success of the Exchange being thereby assured. Lines were soon 
extended all over the city, and communication established between 
nearly every business house, as well as with many private resi- 
dences. Over one hundred telephones are now in use' in the city, 
and new ones are constantly being put in. In December, 1881, a 
line was extended to Sergeant's Bluffs, eight miles distant, and as 
it is found to be entirely practicable, it is more than probable that 
a few years will see Sioux City connected by telephone with all the 
towns within a radius of twenty-five miles, thus bringing them all 
into closer commercial relations with Sioux City as the head center: 

THE POSTOFFICE. 

The first postoffice was located in an unostentatious log building, 
the private residence of the Postmaster, Dr. John K. Cook, who, 
received his commission from President Pierce, by the first mail 
that arrived in the place, July 20th, 1855. The arrival of the 
first mail sack was an occasion of no small consequence to the 
little sturdy band of settlers who had cast their fortunes in the 
great unknown West, as the contents brought them tidings of 
^heir Eastern friends, and seemed to link them once more with the 
civilization from which they had been so long cut off. Though 



200 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

the revenue derived, by the Postmaster from the office, was but a 
small sum, it is related that the Doctor discharged his onorous 
duties with such scrupulous care and fidelity, that he remained in 
his position; undisturbed by place-hunting politicians, until re- 
lieved at his own request. The mail service, thus early established, 
in 1855, though then only arriving weekly, via Council Bluffs, has 
continued uninterrupted. As the place grew in size and commer- 
cial importance, semi-weekly, then tri-weekly, and finally, in 1861, 
daily mails were established, and the postoffice was removed to 
more commodious quarters in the "corner grocery." Previous to 
the removal of the office. Dr. Cook was succeeded as Postmaster 
by Charles K. Smith, who retained the position until the close of 
James Buchanan's administration. On Lincoln's accession to the 
Presidency, A. R, Appleton, was appointed Postmaster, who, in 
turn, was succeeded by J. C. C. Hoskins, who was continued in 
office until March, 1878, when E. R. Kirk, the present incumbent, 
was appointed. Until the appointment of Mr. Kirk, the office 
Avas located according to the fancy of the official in charge, which 
not infrequently resulted in great inconvenience to the public. 

The growth of the city to a place of several thousand inhabi- 
tants, with a dozen mails arriving and departing daily, rendered 
more commodious quarters necessary, and in 1879 the office was 
removed to its present central location, where a building had been 
specially erected for it. It is conveniently arranged, both for the 
benefit of the public and the rapid handling of the mails. The 
business of the office at present requires the services of five clerks, 
and is rapidly increasing. 

However uninteresting statistics may be to the general reader, 
they are very significant to those who wish to trace the progress, 
determine the results, or estimate the future of a growing city, and 
as nothing affords a better index of the business of a place than 
the value of the business done at its postoffice, we append the fol- 
lowing detailed exhibit of the Sioux Citv i)Ost office during the 
year 1881: 

GENERAL ACCOUNT. 

Receipts. 

Stamps sold $10,759.51 

Envelopes sold 3,395.56 

Postal cards sold. 1,662.57 

Paper and Periodical Stamps sold 750.18 

Postage due stamps sold 259.02 

Box Rent 1,669.50 

Total $18,446.31 

Expenses. 

General Expense Accomit $3,069.49 

Postmaster's Salary .' 2,800.00 

$5,869.49 

Net income $12,576.85 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 201 

MONEY ORDER BUSINESS. 

Receipts. 

4,524 Domestic orders issued $57,570.75 

Fees on same 550.65 

43 Canadian orders issued 1,307.05 

Fees on same 20.85 

73 British orders issued 1,031.13 

Fees on same. 30.45 

50 (German orders issued 813.19 

Fees on same 14.10 

4 690 'lotal orders and fees on same $ 61,338.17 

2',610 Remittances received 294,989.29 

Balance on hand Jan. 1, 1881 2,082.98 

Disbursements. $358,410.44 

4,733 Domestic orders paid •$ 86,432.57 

43 Canadian orders paid 1,620.58 

39 British orders paid 824.76 

61 German orders paid 2.104.05 

4,876 Total money orders paid $90,981.96 

31 Domestic orders repaid 373.44 

Money order expense account 504 06 

Remitted to Omaha 364,650.00 

Balance on hand Jan. 1, 1882 1,900.98 

$358,410.44 

MAILING DEPARTMENT. 

Letters 603,148 

Postal Cards 155,220 

Transient printed matter 258,232 

Merchandise packages 5,512 

Total 1,022,112 

REGISTRY DEPA.': . WENT. 

Number of Letters received 6,808 

Number of Letters dispatched, originating at Sioux City 2,211 

Number of packages in transit 18,394 

Total 27,413 

SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS. 

Masonic. — Landmark Lodge No. 103, A. F. & A. M., was char- 
tered June 2d, 1857. It is iu a flourishing condition, and has a 
membership, at present, of about 140. Meetings are held the sec- 
ond Monday of each month. 

Sioux City Chapter, R. A. M., No. 26, was organized April 9th, 
1860, and has a membership of ninety-five. Meetings are held the 
third Tuesday of each month. 

Columbia Commandery No. 18, K. T., holds stated conclaves on 
the first and third Fridays of each month. The present member- 
ship is forty-three. 

/. 0. O.F.— The Lulepondent Order of Odd Fellows has a hall 
in Hedges' Block, corner of Fourth and Douglas streets. 

14 



202 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

Sioux City Lodge No. 164 was organized October 22d, 1868. 
Meetings are held regularly Monday night of each week. The 
membership is ninety-live. 

Western Star Lodge No. 282 meets every Tuesday night. It 
was organized October 22d, 1874, and has a present membership 
of fifty-four. 

Sioux City Encampment No. 44 meets regularly the second ai^d 
fourth Thursdays of eacli month. It was organized October 20th, 
1869, and has how fifty-five members. 

KnigJds of Pythias. — Columbia Lodge No. 13 was organized 
July 10th, 1872, and has a membership of sixty-five. This society 
has no hall of its own, and meetings are heh^ every Wednesday 
night in Odd Fellows' hall. 

Endowment Section No. 302 also meets every Wednesday night. 

Ancient Order of United Workmen: membership 100; meeting 
place Odd Fellows' hall. Officers: T. R. Galbraith, M. W.; Jas. 
Hutchins, F.; J. T. Orr, 0.; Maris Peirce, S.; M. L. Sloan. F.; 
A. F. Nash, R.: H. A. Lyon, P. M. W., and delegate to State 
Lodge. 

The Sioux City Medical Society was organized November 4th, 
1872, and has for its object the mutual improvement of members. 
Meetings are held quarterly. 

The Womans' Christian Temperance Union was organized in 
1875, and has a membership of sixty-five. This is a most active 
organization, and has for its object the suppression of intemper- 
ance. The club has inviting and pleasant rooms in Hedges' Block, 
and meetings are held every Tuesday afternoon. 

Tlie ^Vontan's CJiristiati Association, was organized in 1875, by 
the christian ladies of the city. It has a large and increasing 
membership, and regular meetings are held quarterly. 

The Maennerchor is a social and musical organization with forty- 
five members. Meetings are held the first Sunday in each month, 
in the society's hall on Fourth street. 

Society of United Irishmen. — This society was organized Septem- 
ber 1st, 1880, and has forty members. Meetings are held every 
Sunday afternoon. 

Q. E. D. Club. — This is a gentleman's social club, organized 
November 20th, 1878. The membership is limited to twenty-one. 

B. Neque D. Club. — A gentleman's social club, with rooms in 
Hedges' Block. It was organized September 1st, 1880, with a lim- 
ited membership of twenty-five. 

There are in addition several musical, literary and social organi- 
zations holding meetings. 

THE ST. PAUL SHOPS. 

The year following the completion of the Sioux City & St. Paul 
road, the city voted a tax of $20,000 to secure the location of the 
company's repair shops at this city, and work was immediately be- 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 203 

gun on the extensive buildings now occupied by the company's 
machine shops. These shops have been enlarged from time to 
time, and, during the summer of 1881, had been increased to a ca- 
pacity of 200 men, whose monthly pay-roll amounted to more than 
$10,000. In these shops a specialty is made of repair work. All 
the most improved machinery has been put in for this line. Be- 
sides the repair work, a great number of new freight cars have 
been built. But the point in which the shops excel, is the re- 
building of passenger cars, and the best trains now run by the 
company are of cars that have been practically rebuilt in the shops 
at Sioux City. The increased mileage of the road has, and will, 
make necessary further enlargements of the shops, and this will 
keep the St. Paul Railroad Machine Shops, what they have ever 
been, one of the leading industrial establishments in the West. 

SIOUX CITY WATER COMPANY. 

The need of an adequate sjpply of water for the city for (ire, 
domestic and manufacturing purposes has long been apparent, and 
various organizations have been started to give the city a water 
supply; but it was not until the Spring of 1881 that anything tan- 
gible was done. Then the Sioux City Water Company was organ- 
ized, with David Magee as President. The plan of the company 
was to secure a supply of water from an artesian well. Work on 
this well was begun in October following, and by New Year's a 
depth of 1,290 feet was reached, where the drill entered a rotten 
sand-rock that promises, when it is curbed, to give a sufficient sup- 
ply of water. The company, soon after the formation, secured a 
fair franchise from the city for furnishing water for fire purposes. 
Lots have been bought on Prospect Hill, a bluff rising 183 feet 
above the level of the principal street, on which to build a reser- 
voir, and the purpose of the company is to pump water from the 
Missouri River, which flows at the foot of this bluff, to supply the 
the reservoir in case the artesian well should fail to give a suffi- 
cient supply. 

th:e courts. 

The first term of the Woodbury County Court was held at Sioux 
City in March, 1855, John K. Cook acting as Judge. The first 
term of District Court began September 3d, of that year, with 
Samuel H. Riddle as Judge. In the early days of the city, court 
was held in the now dilapidated brick building, yet standing on 
lower Fourth street, near Virginia. A-fterwards, the county built 
the house now called the "old jail," on Virginia street, near 
Seventh. This was used as a jail, and occasionally for court. pur- 
poses, until the fall of 1876, when the commodious and imposing 
edifice, which had been begun the previous sjiring, was completed. 
Woodbury County points with pride to this Court House. No 
other county in the State has one of more architectural beauty, 



204 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

and few are larger and more convenient. The contractors were 
Sioux City men, C. E. & D. T. Hedges, and tlie building cost (com- 
plete) $100,000. The present Judiciary are: C. E. Lewis, of 
Cherokee, District Judge, and J. R. Zuver, of Sioux City, Circuit 
Judge. S. M. Marsh is District Attorney. A bill has been in- 
troduced in Congress, which, if it becomes a law, as now seems 
likely, will give Sioux City terms of the United States Court. 

THE BUTTON" FACTORY. 

The Sioux City Button Manufacturing Company was incorporated 
October 15th, 1881, with a paid-up capital of $10,000. Its manu- 
factory is located on the West Side, and is a substantial three-story 
brick building, well supplied with all necessary machinery. The 
works were set in operation in January, 1882, and the first finished 
buttons were turned out on the 26th of the same month. The 
factory, at present, is exclusively devoted to the manufacturing of 
buttons from horn, and when run to its full capacity, will afford 
employment for seventy operatives. The advantages enjoyed by 
the company in obtaining the raw material for its products, enable 
them to successfully compete with eastern manufacturejrs for 
trade in the East, while the freights that the latter have to pay, 
on the raw material and manufactured articles, will preclude the 
possibility of their entering western markets as competitors of 
this home manufactory. All grades of buttons will be made, and 
it is the intention of the company to handle their goods through 
jobbers only. The company is composed entirely of Sioux City 
men, and the machinery, excepting the lathes and presses, are 
nearly all of Sioux City make. 

THE CHURCHES. 

The moral and religious wants of the community are well sup- 
plied in this city. The church records run back as far as 1856. 
In 1857, Rev. Mr. Chessington, a Presbyterian missionary, organ- 
ized a congregation of his deuoraination in the then frontier vil- 
lage, and the first church edifice built was by that society, the 
building being still standing on lower Fourth street, and now does 
duty as a grocery store. The churches now in this city are: 

First Presbyterian, — Established in 1857; membership 193; 
church, corner Sixth and Nebraska streets. 

Congregational, — Established 1857; membership, 184; church, 
on Douglas street, between Fifth and Sixth streets. 

First Methodist Episcopal. — Established in 1857; membership, 
175;- church, corner of Sixth and Pierce streets. 

St. TJionins Episcopal. — Established in 1859; membership, 
eighty-three; church, corner of Nebraska and Seventh streets. 

First Baptist. — Established in 1860; membership, 155; church, 
corner Fifth and Nebraska streets. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 205 

St. Mary's {Catholic). — Established ia 1856; membership, 130 
families; church, corner Sixth and Pierce streets. 

Germa7i Lutheran.- — Established in 1877; membership thirty- 
three; church, on Jackson street, above Sixth street. 

Swedish Evangelical Lutheran. — Established in 1875; member- 
ship, 160; church, corner of Virginia and Fifth streets. 

Norwegian Lutheran. — Established in 1875; membership, sev- 
enty-three; church on Third street between Jones and Jennings 
streets. 

Trefoldigheclsl-irken. — Established in 1875; membership, forty- 
three; church on Sixth street. West Side. 

Norwegian Methodist. — Established 1880; membership, sixty- 
two; church, on Court street, near Seventh street. 

Swedish Baptist. — Established in 1881; membership, fifty-seven; 
church, on Wall street near Sixth street. 

In connection with all these churches, flourishing Sunday 
Schools are maintained ; the scholars in nearly every church out- 
numbering the membership. It shows a satisfactory growth in 
religious matters, that during 1881, three new churches, the Bap- 
tist, Swedish Baptist, and Norwegian Methodist, have been built 
or begun, and that a fourth, the First Methodist, took the prelim- 
inary steps for re-building and enlarging their place of worship. 

WOODBURY COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The Woodbury County Agricultural Society was organized in 
1870, and the present handsome fair grounds, located one and a 
half miles northwest of the city, were laid out soon after. Though 
the organization has met with many discouraging reverses, it has 
done much to advance the interests of farming, and created a 
laudable ambition to excel among the agriculturists of the county. 
Exhibitions have been held annually, with the exception of one 
or two seasons, when bad weather made it inexpedient to attempt 
it. Within the past two years unusual interest has been taken in 
the Society by the farming and stock-raising community, and the 
organization has been placed in a prosperous condition and on a 
solid financial footing. Men, identified with the pursuits, whose 
interests are represented by an association of this kind, have as- 
sumed the management, and made the Society in every way 
creditable to the county. The benefits arising from these annual 
exhibitions of the agricultural, mechanical, and manufacturing 
products of the country, are being recognized, and the hearty co- 
operation of all classes is accorded them. The grounds belonging 
to the Society have recently been improved by the planting of 
shade trees, and new buildings erected for the convenience of ex- 
hibitors. The officers of the association are: G. W. Kingsnorth 
President; Craig L. Wright, Vice-President; J. M. Cleland, Sec- 
retary; G. W. Wakefield, Treasurer; R. Hall, W. B. Tredway, 
R. A. Broadbent,J.M. Cleland,G. H. Wright, G. W. Wakefield, 



206 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



G. W. Kinojsnorth, C. L. Wright, W. P. Holman, B. P. Yeo- 
mans, Directors. The fair for 1882 is to be hekl September 12th, 
13th and 14th. 



MISCELLANEOUS MANUFACTORIES. 



Among the manufacturing interests of the city, which can only 
be mentioned without giving any detailed account are: C. F. Hoyt's 
Vinegar Works, employing live men; John Beck's planing mill, 
fifteen men; A. J. Millard's wood working shop,* four men; Barker 
& Petty, barrel and butter tub factory, fourteen men; R. Selzer's 
brewery, eleven men; Franz & Go's brewery, thirteen men; City 
flouring mills steam, ten men ; the Floyd flouring mills, water power, 
eight men; the brick yards of J. Rocliele, Thomas Green and C. 
B. Woodley, the two latter having steam power, and altogether 
employing ninety men during the season; John Griffin's candy 
factory, three men; and the wagon shops of Trudell Bros., Dineen 
Bros., and Reeve & Trudell, and Brown Bros., together employing 
forty-three men; and the cigar factories of Amsler & RadclilF, 
George Mauer, and A. M. Ashley, which furnish employment to 
twenty-four workmen. The following table, showing the business 
of these, and numerous smaller manufactories, during 1881, will 
give the reader some idea of the importance of these industries: 





i 




cc 




>-. 


■-3 
















P. 














a 




s 




W 


^ 


§ 




o 


C3 


< 



Iron anrlwood articles 


106 
79 
24 
24 
34 

124 

90 

66 

8 


$ 44,950 


$ 167,400 


Eatables 


37,780 
10,300 
21,000 
13,500 
46,280 
18,000 
41,100 
4,500 


457,-350 


Cigars 


69 000 


Beer . . . 


110 000 




79^200 




167,200 


Brick 


43,400 




81,500 


Marble 


14,000 






Totals 


555 


% 237,410 


^1,189,050 









This table does not include the output of the pork house, nor of 
the St. Paul shops. Owing, mostly, to the active exertions of the 
Board of Trade, several other manufacturing enterprises are either 
assured or in prospect. Among these are chemical jvorks, for 
which part of the apparatus has arrived at this writing; a pump 
foundry, for which ground has been leased; clay pipe works, a. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 207 

large distillery, a, flax mill, and numerous others yet too vague to 
take position as historical facts. 

THE SCITOOLS OF SIOUX CITY. 

Rapid and substantial as we have seen the growth of Sioux City 
to have been, in population and commercial importance, intellec- 
tual progress has been maintained in a degree fully equal to its 
material progress; and, to-day, it is the acknowledged educational 
center of the great Northwest. Fortunately, from the birth of 
the city to the present time, her school interests have been con- 
fided to earnest, active, representative men, with broad and liberal 
views of education, brought with them from their New England 
homes, where the advantages of common schools had been tested 
by experience, and under whose administration and fostering care 
a system of graded schools has been established which affords edu- 
cational advantages unsurpassed by any city in the State. Her 
citizens have been liberal — even lavish — in the expenditure of 
money for the erection of elegant and commodious school build- 
ings, and their equipments, with all the modern improvements cal- 
culated to facilitate the acquisition of a common school education. 

The public schools of the city are embraced in what is known as 
the Independent School District of Sionx City, Avhich was organ- 
ized in July, 1869. The first Board of Directors was composed of 
six members, consisting of A. M. Hunt, President; William L. 
Joy, W. R. Smith, John Cleghorn, F. J. Lambert, and George 
Falkenhainer. John P. Allison was Treasurer and P. M. Ziebach, 
Secretary. The present Board of Directors consists of John P. 
Allison. President; William L. Joy, J. C. C. Hoskins,L. McCarty, C. 
R. Marks and A. Groninger, two of whom are elected every two 
years for a term of three years. During the first year after the 
organization of the district into an independent one, the first 
school house of any now in use was built. At present there are 
eleven school houses in use, of which three are rented, and the 
others belong to the district. Additional buildings are in contem- 
plation to meet the growing wants of the district. The schools 
are all graded, as primary, secondary and intermediate, culminat- 
ing in the High School, Vhich latter, though few in its number 
of pupils, has attained a high degree of efficiency as a factor in the 
educational system of the city. The schools are under the man- 
agement of A. Armstrong, Superintendent, with a corps of thirty- 
two able teachers. Instructors only of acknowledged ability and 
ripe experience are employed, who are emulous of attaining the 
the high standard of excellence for which Iowa, as a State, has be- 
come justly renowned. Of these, three are males, at an average 
salary of ^90 per month, and twenty-nine females, at an average 
salary of S40 per month. The Superintendent, has general charge 
of all the schools, and receives a salary of $1,250 per annum. The 
last annual report of the County Superintendent gives the number 



208 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

of school age in the district, as 2,185, while the actual attendance 
upon school, as appears by the City Superintendent's report, is 
1,329. School is in session ten months of the year, and the aver- 
age cost per pupil is $1.27. The value of the school buildings is 
estimated at about $75,000. The grounds in most cases, are sur- 
rounded by substantial fences and adorned with shade and orna- 
mental trees. 

A CITY OF HOMES. 

To give some idea, though necessarily an inadequate one, of the 
rapid growth and present prosperity of the city, the following fig- 
ures are given, showing the number of new buildings and the cost 
of improvements made during the past three years: 

KO. COST. 

1879 103 1157,445 

1880 146 257,085 

1881 411 558,210 

While many of these buildings were substantial business blocks, 
solid manufactories, and palatial residences, by far the greater 
number were the modest homes of mechanics, small tradesmen, 
and laborers. Sioux City is emphatically a city of homes. The 
possibility of securing a home of one's own, owing to the moder- 
ate price at which residence lots have been held, the prosperity of 
all classes, and the assistance given by loan and building associa- 
tions, has been improved, and these have combined to make the 
city the Philadelphia of the West. 

LAND INTERESTS. 

As well as being a center of wealth and business for a large sec- 
tion of country, Sioux City is the center of a large land interest 
and business. The location of a government la)id office at this 
city, one of the first prizes secured by the founders of the infant 
metropolis, has naturally been followed by the centering of a large 
landed business at the city. The fertile acres in this part of Iowa 
were open to entry at $1.25 per acre for several years after being 
surveyed, and during the flush of times of 1856-7 hundreds of 
thousands of acres were entered by speculators in this part of the 
State. Then came the era of land grants to railroads, and these 
lands, as well as those of private speculators, were placed in the 
hands of Sioux City agents for sale. Among the resident proprie- 
tors of large landed estates may be mentioned T. J. Stone, Weare 
& Allison, D. T. Gilman, G. W. W^akefield, John Pierce and N. A. 
McPaul. The two latter, beside the lands which they own, are 
agents for non-resident and railroad lands, the former in selling 
the lands granted railroads in this part of Iowa, and the latter rep- 
resenting the Burlington and Missouri grant in Nebraska. The 
sales of these two firms alone amounted to several hundred thou- 
sand dollars during 1881. 

It would be an error to suppose from the active demand for real 
estate that the country was becoming crowded. A careful study 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 



209 



of the plats in the office of any Sioux City land dealer will show 
that not more than one-sixth part of the land in Woodbury County 
has yet passed into the hands of actual occupants. The county is 
capable of sustaining a population equal to that now scattered out 
over the entire northwest quarter of the State. 

AS A DISTRIBUTING POINT. 

Sioux City, situated as it is, on the convex side of the Missouri 
River, on its first great bend north of Kansas City, the waters of 
that great river flow toward it from an almost due westerly course 
for 150 miles, when they turn southward, while smaller streams 
flow toward it from the north and east. Its location thus seems 
to have been designed by nature as the natural spot for the great 
metropolis of the Upper Missouri, and the commerce of this rapid- 
ly growing empire flows as naturally toward this point as the 
waters have for ages. The natural advantages of this location 
for a commercial center, were seen and fully appreciated by the en- 
terprising, intelligent men who selected it for a city, and they not 
not only laid it out on a grand scale for substantial business blocks 
and stately residences, but they worked to bring to the aid of its 
natural resources all the helps that the artificial arteries of com- 
merce can command. 

Its commanding geographical position, coupled with its eight 
lines of railroad and mighty river, has made it the distributing 
•point for Dakota and Nebraska. All the supplies for the vast ter- 
ritory to the north and westward are necessarily handled by the 
railroads centering here, and the business thus brought to her very 
doors has contributed not a little to the upbuilding of the city, as 
it necessitated the erection of warehouses and the investment of 
capital in the wholesale and distributing business. The following 
table, prepared by the Secretary of the Board of Trade, Avill give 
some idea of the extent and character of this business during the 
year 1881: 





i 

3 
d 


'S 

1 


s 


General Merchandise 


320 

18 
10 
16 
28 
25 


$ 148,225 

15,500 

6,000 

5,000 

12,400 

30 


$4,541,304 


Grain . . . 


549,322 




654,000 




188,000 




375,000 




170,000 






Total 


412 


$ 197,425 


16,477,626 







210 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

These figures can be accepted as being as nearly correct as it is 
possible to give them, and if the yerr at all it is in being too small, 
and that they are too small is clearly indicated by the amount of 
exchange sold b}^ our three banks during the past year, as per 
figures furnished, which was ^10,256,127.02. 

Especially is this true of grain, as one firm, during the period 
covered by this table, purchased 600.000 bushels of wheat alone, 
and the shipments of corn and oats to the up-river military posts 
amounted to 15.000,000 pounds. The general merchandise sales 
of the city during the same year reached the gratifying total 
of 4,500 "000 of dollars. Of this amount ^1,456,000 was 
sold by the three wholesale dry goods houses, and about $100,- 
000 in rouud numbers by the two wholesale grocery establish- 
ments. Of the other lines of trade engaged in the distribution 
business, of the magnitude of whose operations no definite figures 
can be given, may be mentioned: 

The Standard Oil Company has put in tanks and a warehouse, 
whence illuminating and lubricating oil is distributed all over this 
part of the northwest. 

The firms of F. H. Peavey & Co., H. G. Wyckoff", Booge Bros., 
and Knud Sunde send out coal, lime and plaster by the ton, car- 
load or single barrel. 

Two wholesale grocery houses, E. C. Palmer & Co. and Tacka- 
berry, Van Keuren & Floyd, represent their line. One of the firms 
stated that its business in 1881 amounted to over |500,000, and^ 
the other refused to give figures. 

The wholesale drug business is carried on by John Horuick and 
F. Hansen. 

Liquors are sold in job lots by John Hornick, E. Ressegieu and 
Joseph Marks. 

The cracker factory of Goodwin & Mosseau employs seven men, 
and has a trade extending throughout the Northwest. 

In the wholesale saddlery hardware line there are J. M. McCon- 
nell & Co. and L. Humbert. 

Dry goods and notions are wholesaled by Tootle, Livingston & 
Co. and by Jandt & Tompkins. 

The jobbing of hardware is conducted by Peavey Bros, and 
Geowey & Co., the former firm selling only at wholesale. 

Agricultural implements are sold in lots to dealers by Peavey 
Bros., W. L. Wilkins and Cottrell, Bruce & Co. 

The shipping of grain is the specialty of F. H. Peavey & Co. 
and Davis & Wann, and is one of the lines of John H. Charles and 
Jas. E. Booge & Co. 

The northwestern distributing point is at Sioux City for the 
Singer Sewing Machmes, for which A. P. Provost is agent; the 
American Sewing Machines, represented by W. W. Griggs, and 
for KimbalTs musical instruments, for which Arthur Hubbard is 
general agent. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 211 

During 1881, Smith & Farr, built an extensive butter and egg 
packing establishment, costing ii>20,000, which the growth of the 
trade in this produce impei'atively demanded. 

Oberne, Hosick & Co., of Chicago, have a branch house estab- 
lished here, which makes a specialty of hides and wool, and whose 
operations extend to the British Possessions. 

Pinckney & Co., beside their retail book and stationery business, 
keep several men on the road selling their wares. 

Cummings, Smith & Co. are exclusively engaged in the whole- 
sale boot and shoe trade. 

J. K. Prugh, in connection with his retail crockery and queen's- 
ware trade, devotes some attention to the wholesale line of his 
business. 

Beside these, three banks, two of which are national banks, two 
express offices and the postoffice handle the currency used in the 
business of a wide extent of country. Numerous firms and indi- 
viduals who do not figure before the public as being in the whole- 
sale trade, are, by force of circumstances compelled to sell goods 
in job lots to out-of-town customers. Thus a number of our cloth- 
ing merchants supply surrounding country stores, grocers send out 
shipments to dealers all the way between the city and Deadwood, 
and lumber dealers ship small lots and entire car lots to small 
dealers out of the city. By numberless channels the goods brought 
in bulk to this city are distributed, and the produce of the country 
collected and forwarded. Much of this business has not been cul- 
tivated, but has come to the city unasked. The need of more 
wholesale houses is the crying need of the city. The field is large, 
and the harvest is plenteous, but the laborers comparatively few. 

INDIAN" ANTIQUITIES. 

When Lewis and Clark's expedition ascended the Missouri River, 
they found the Sioux in possession of the country on the north 
side of the river above the Big Sioux, and on both sides from the 
mouth of the Niobrara up to near where Ft. Buford now is. 
On the west side of the river, at the Blackbird Hills, was the 
Omaha village. This tribe, whose present village is about thirty 
miles southwest of Sioux City, had occupied the neighborhood of 
their present village from a time to which Indian tradition fixes 
no limit. Their peaceful ways had fixed the tribe not only in lo- 
cality, but in numbers, and from the best acccunts attainable they 
have never varied much in the the latter, from 1,200 souls. On 
account of this Chinese-like fixedness, this tribe has always been 
considered one of the most interesting by students. At this writ- 
ing a cultured young lady of Boston, Miss A. C. Fletcher, is living 
with the tribe as a member, to study their religion and traditions. 
Though in the early treaties the government a|)pears to recognize 
the title of the Omahas to the country about this cit}^ it was the 



212 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

The Sioux are, as a tribe, the opposite of the Omahas. While 
the Omahas have remained stationary, the Sioux have .grown. 
From the time of Lewis and Clark's expedition to the time the first 
lot was staked at Sioux City, the tribe had almost annihilated the 
once formidable Rees and Mandans, reduced the Poncas to a petty 
band, and extended their dominion to the south as far as the Platte, 
north to the Saskatchawan. Indian tradition says that the Sioux 
are not an old tribe, but the descendants of a baud of young braves 
from different tribes that banded themselves together to form a 
new tribe, and started from somewhere near the head of the south 
Saskatchawan. These Romans of the North subdued other tribes 
and incorporated them with themselves, taking such wives as they 
wanted from the conquered. The name used by the tribe in speak- 
ing of themselves, Dacota — friends or allies — comes from this as- 
sociation of young men, rather than from the subsequent proceed- 
ings had. 

The human bones disinterred in excavating for the foundations 
of buildings in Sioux City, indicate that the Omahas, or some 
other of the older tribes, occupied the country before the Sioux 
came, for the Omahas bury their dead, while the Sioux expose the 
bodies of their deceased friends on scaffolds. Dr. Yeomans, one 
of the first settlers of Sioux City, mentions in a letter recently 
written to a resident, that, when he first saw the townsite, in the 
fall of 1855, the trees on the east slope of Prospect Hill were orna- 
mented with scaffolds, on which were the bones of Indians. The 
dead had been wrapped in their robes and blankets, and left there 
to decay. 

Bat before either the Omahas or the Sioux occupied the country 
about Sioux City, it was the home of another and more civilized 
people, of whom, unfortunately, but little can now be known. 
Their principal city was on the Broken Kettle Creek, about seven 
miles northwest of Sioux City. There a circular elevation, 
several acres in extent, rises to the height of from six to ten feet 
above the level of the bottom land. But few explorations of this 
village mound have been made, and the most that is known of it 
comes from observations taken of the side where the Broken Ket- 
tle Creek has cut into the mound. The soil of which the mouud is 
made appears to be different from that of either the neighboring 
bluffs, or of the bottom land, from which it rises; nor is there any 
depression near the mound to show from whence came the mater- 
ials of which it is made. In places, and at some little distance be- 
low the surface, are ashes and bones of some animals, as if the 
mound had been built higher since it was first the site of a village. 
Some human bones have been found, but scattered and broken, as 
the animal bones were, and this gives rise to the horrid theory that 
the villagers feasted on elk, man and buffalo flesh with equal en- 
joyment. The few parts of skeletons found on the higher part of 
this and neighboring mounds (for there are several mounds in the 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 213 

same section) are supposed to be the result of Indian interments 
made lonj^ subsequent to the age when these mounds were the sites 
of populous towns. The peculiar feature of the mounds, and the 
one from which the creek takes its name, Broken Kettle, is the 
numerous remains of pottery found. These vessels, from the 
fragments found, (for no complete specimens have yet been dis- 
covered) appear to have been for all kinds of domestic use. They 
were made of clay found in the bluff not far off', and appear to 
have been moulded by hand, not turned on a wheel, before being 
baked. Some of them display considerable rude taste in ornamen- 
tation and design, and much patience in their making. A mound 
somewhat similar to those on the Broken Kettle, is reported to 
have been found on the Little Sioux, north of Correctionville, but 
with this exception the Broken Kettle mounds are unique, as is 
their pottery. It is to be regretted that these interesting remains 
have not been more fully explored, and it is to be hoped that at 
an early day some one actuated by a pure lo^ e of knowledge will 
investigate these relics of an earlier civilization. 

THE INDIAN WAR. 

In 1861, the beginning of the war of the Rebellion, fired the 
hearts of the pioneer patriots of Sioux City to such an extent that 
a company of cavalry was formed under the State law, with Capt. 
Tripp in command. This organization disbanded during the 
winter, and the following summer a company was enlisted under 
the name of the Sioux City Cavalry, under which name it was 
mustered into the government serv^ice, with A. J. Millard as Cap- 
tain. During the Indian troubles following the massacres at New 
Ulm and Spirit Lake, this company did much to give confidence 
and courage to the frontier. It was the presence of this company 
that checked the stampede of settlers that came out of Dakota in 
the summer of 1862, and when Cordua and Roberts were killed 
by straggling Indians in Bacon's Hollow, three miles east of this 
city, the Sioux City Cavalry followed the trail of the murderers 
for several days, but without overtaking them. About the same 
time Sioux Fulls was burned, and several murders committed by 
the Sioux in Union and Clay counties, in Dakota. 

In the winter of 1862-3, General John Cook began the organ- 
ization of a campaign against the Sioux, with Sioux City as a base 
of operations. The Sioux City Cavalry, as a company, went into 
the Seventh Iowa Cavalry, a part of which regiment, and all of 
the Sixth Iowa Cavalry, composed the force of which General 
Sully took command in the spring of 1863, when he relieved Gen- 
eral Cook. After the campaign of that year, the expedition re- 
turned to spend the winter of 1863-4 at Sioux City, and the sum- 
mer following went out on the campaign, which resulted in driving 
the hostile Sioux beyond the Missouri. 



214 HISTORY OF IOWA. 



SLOAN. 



This prosperous and enterprising little place is situated on the 
Sioux City & Pacific Railway, twenty-one miles below Sioux City, 
and four miles from the Missouri River. It possesses no corporate 
powers in itself, but is a part of Sloan Township, which was 
formerly a portion of Lakeport Township, but which, in January, 
1876, was organized as a separate township, the first officers of 
which were: F. 0. Hunting, President; G. R. Beall, J. R. Coe, 
Trustees, and Ed. Haakinson, Clerk. The present township officers 
are: W. J. Wray, President; F. 0. Hunting, George W. Lee, 
Trustees, and W. G. Williamson, Clerk. The connection of town- 
ship affairs with those of the village has been so close that it is 
scarcely possible to do justice to one without giving something of 
the other's history. 

This place, although older than many other towns in Western 
Iowa, is still in its infancy, and though for several years it seemed to 
make but little progress, it is now rapidly building up, and bids 
fair to become an important point. 

The date of the first permanent settlement in this section is not 
definitely known, but it is believed that Rufus Beall, now deceased, 
is entitled to that honor, as he first came here in 1856, and 
although he did not make his home in Sloan until 1865, he was a 
very large landholder in the vicinity as early as the first date given, 
and made several lengthy stays. George R. Beall, a nephew of 
Rufus Beall, is at present the oldest settler in the township, he 
having made it his place of residence as early as 1868. Another 
settler, who came the same year, was Andrew Fee. 

Sloan proper was platted in 1870 by John I. Blair, at that time 
President of the Sioux City & Pacific Railway Company, and all 
deeds were made in his name. Blair received the land as a gift 
from one of the enterprising citizens of this place. Previous to 
the platting of the town, there was a store on the site which had 
been erected in 1868 by J. B. Johnston. There was also a post- 
office, Avhich was known as Hamlin Postoffice; but the real place 
commenced, in a measure, its existence with the platting of the 
town. Among the settlers who came about or just before this 
time, were John Tully, now dead, R. C. Barnard, Fred. T. Evans, 
Ed. Haakinson, and others. 

The population of the village is variously estimated at from 200 
to 225, and it is probable that the latter figure is not too great. 
The nationalities represented are various, though the native Ameri- 
can element is in the majority, many of the latter being from the 
State of New York. On the outskirts of the village is a strong 
Scandinavian representation. Taken in combination, the people 
of Sloan are as good citizens as could be wished for, and they 
would be Avelcomed with open arms to any locality. 



HISTORY OF JOW\. 215 

A movement is on foot to secure incorporation, and the desired 
object will no doubt become an accomplished fact at an early day. 
The prevailing sentiment at present, however, seems to be that 
the population is hardly, as yet, up to the required standard, but 
as that drawback is fast being remedied, it will probably not prove 
an obstacle for any very extended period. 

Sloan is well represented in the various lines of business neces- 
sary to a properly balanced village, and all show signs of pros- 
perity. 

The following are the various establishments: Three general 
merchandise stores, one grocery store and meat shop, a butcher 
shop, saloon, drug store, hardware store, blacksmith shop, black- 
smith and wagon shop, hotel, restaurant, barber shop, livery and 
sale stable, furniture store, photograph gallery, lumber-yard, stock 
and grain dealer. In addition to these, the learned professions are 
represented by one clergyman, as elsewhere noticed, and one 
physician. The bar has no representative here. The postoffice is 
a money order office. The railroad shipments, which are rapidly 
increasing, will average two car-loads or more per day of stock and 
other products of the country. 

CHURCHES, SCHOOLS AND SOCIETIES. 

M. E. Chufcli Sociefi/. — The first sermon preached in Sloan, 
subsequent to missionary work, was delivered by the Rev. Mr. 
Crane, of Dakota, a representative pioneer preacher, who held ser- 
vices with a congregation of seventeen, in a room over Beall & Ev- 
ans' store. This was in October, 1870, and from that date, the 
Methodist Society of Sloan began its growth. Subsequent meet- 
ings were held in the school-house, Mr. Crane acting as supply 
preacher, and continuing in that capacity for several years. Mr. 
Crane was succeeded in his ministrations by various other itiner- 
ant clergymen, prominent among whom were Kevs. Keister, Bil- 
lings, Fawcett, Drake and Cuthbert. The society which started 
Avith two members, now has a membership of forty, and has a reg- 
ular pastor. Rev. William Thomas, who has continued in that ca- 
pacity since October, 1881. The Society is no longer in need of 
securing public buildings for the holding of its meetings, but has 
an excellent church edifice, Avith dimensions of 85x50 feet, which 
was dedicated in June, 1881, and which is a credit to the community. 

Congregational Church Societij. — The Congregational Church 
Society was organized in the Spring of 1879, by the Rev. A. M. 
Beeman, now of Spencer, who relinquished his charge in Septem- 
ber, 1881, since which time the church, which has a membership 
of thirty-five, has depended upon supply preachers. The society 
has no building of its own, as yet, but a subscription has been 
startei for the erection of one next season, upon the completion 
of which a resident pastor will l)e secured. 



2L6 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

Sloan Lodge, I. 0. G. T. — This is the only organization in the 
nature of a secret society in Sloan, and it, though the charter is 
still retained, does not hold regular meetings. It started with a 
small membership a year or so ago. 

The organization of a Masonic Lodge in the village has been 
contemplated, but as yet nothing has been done in the way of 
work to that end. 

Debating Societies. — Sloan has also a debating Society, but as 
yet it is small and in an embryo stage of life. The meetings are 
held in the school house. 

Public Schools. — The public schools of the city consist of a 
primary and a higher school, the latter presided over by F. E. 
Chapin, and the former by Mrs. F. E. Chapin. The number of 
pupils in attendance is seventy. The school building was erected 
in 1881, and is a two-story, frame structure, with dimensions of 
28x4:0 feet. Its interior arrangements consist of two large class- 
rooms, and a smaller recitation room. A smaller brick building 
had supplied the needs of the place for several years prior to the 
erection of the present school house. The School Board for this 
year consists of J. B. Crawford, President; F. 0. Hunting and 
W. J. Wray. The school system of the place has been almost co- 
existent with itself, and reflects great credit on the community. 

The people of Sloan are confident of a prosperous future, and 
deliberate observation by an unprejudiced observer would seem to 
confirm the belief. The country around is a grand one, and it 
would seem that nothing stands in the way of an ultimately large 
growth. 

OTHER TOWNS IN WOODBURY COUNTY. 

Smitliland. — One of the early settlements in the county was 
Smithland, on the Little Sioux River, about thirty-five miles south- 
east of Sioux City. At this place in January, 1857, began, between 
the whites and Indians, the troubles immediately preceding the 
Spirit Lake massacre. The Indians made some threats against the 
whites, Avhich caused the settlers to arrest and disarm some of Ink- 
pa-du-tah's band. The Indians stole other arms, and passing up 
the valley of Little Sioux River into Cherokee and Clay Counties, 
committed further depredations. When they arrived in Dickinson 
County, they committed the outrages which form so painful a^ 
chapter in the history of the State. 

Correctionville — Lies in a bend of the Little Sioux River, near 
the line of Ida County. It Avas settled years ago, when Sioux City 
was little more than an Indian camping ground, and per force of 
circumstances still remains a village, though its situation and nat- 
ural resources would warrant it in becoming a town. A pioneer 
by the name of Shook came into what is now Kedron Township 
in Section 1, in 1853. R. Candreau, C. Bacon, and M. Kellogg 
came the next year. Shook sold out to Bacon, who was the first 
permanent settler. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 217 

Woodhurif. — This village was formerly called Sergeant's Bluff 
City. The railroad station here is still called Sergeant's Bluff'. It 
is situated on the Missouri bottom, six miles south of Sioux City. 
It was located in 1856, by Doctor J. D. M. Crockwell and Doctor 
Wright, of Independence, Iowa. In 1857-8 a newspaper was pub- 
lished here, of which mention has been made. In 1862 the manu- 
facture of pottery was commenced at Woodbury, and the business 
has been lively and remunerative ever since. 

Danbury, Salix, and Oto are other minor settlements in Wood- 
bury County. 



WOODBURY COUNTY BIOGRAPHIES. 



SIOUX CITY. 



D. D. Adams, of the firm of Devore & Adams, auctioneers and 
commission merchants — who established business at Sioux City in 
1869 — was born in 1818; served in the U. S. A. one and one-half 
years under Colonel La Grange, in Co. B., 1st W. C. He lost a 
brother at Helena, Ark., who was captain of the company. Previ- 
ous to coming to this place, the subject of this sketch was engaged 
in business three years in Wis. 

A. Akin, of the firm of Akin & Shulson, dealers in staple and 
fancy groceries, confectionery, etc., < hicago House, 4th St., Sioux 
City, la., was born in Otsego countv, N. Y., March 8th, 1810. 
In 1827, he moved to Penn.; removed to Belvidere, 111., in 1844; 
thence to Elgin, and from there to Chicago in 1852, where he 
served as justice of the peace and police magistrate for seven years, 
and also practiced law. He received a commission from President 
Lincoln to recruit. In 1864, he moved to Kansas, where he was 
for several years register in the U. S. land office, in Augusta and 
Wichita; was postmaster for several years, and prosecuting attor- 
ney for Morris county. He then moved back to Chicago, and re- 
mained two years, after which he came to Sioux City, in 1878, and 
located permanently. 

Abel Anderson, dealer in groceries and provisions, corner of 4th 
and Jackson Sts., was born in Sweden in 1856; came to America 
in 1874, and settled in Sioux City. He is now one of the leading 
grocers of the city; his sales average ^25,000 per year. 

C. M. Anderson, photographer, was born in Sweden in 1849, 
came to America in 1852, and located in Chicago. "In 1871, he 
moved to Rock Island, 111. While there he took charge of a gal- 



218 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

lery, and learned the art of photography. He came to Sioux City 
in 1878; married Bertha Jorgenson, of Manitowoc, Wis. They 
have two children — Emineretta and John E. 

John Anderson, of the firm of Anderson & Olson, dealers in 
boots, shoes, rubbers, etc., opposite High School building, was 
born in Sweden in 18±3; came to America in 1869, and settled in 
Sioux City; married Anna Anderson. They have four children — 
Mary, Albert, Carrie and Oscar. 

L. B. Atwood, liveryman, established business in 1866; was 
born in Livermore, Maine; came west and settled in Sioux 
Falls, Dakota, in 1858; and the same year came to Sioux City, 
which makes him one of the pioneers of this place. He has been 
a member of the city council, and held other minor offices. He is 
one of Sioux City's representative citizens. 

F. W. Anthon, of the firm of Tiedeman & Anthon, dealers in 
staple and fancy groceries, cig irs, tobacco, etc., established busi- 
ness in 1875. He was born in Germany in 1836; came to Ameri- 
ca m 1857, and settled in Davenport, la.; removed to Sioux City 
in 1870, and was for three years in charge of the Chicago Hotel. 

Frank X. Babue, of the firm of Payette & Babue — shop oppo- 
site High School building — was born in Montreal, Canada in 1812; 
came to the U. S. in 1851, and settled in N. Y. He moved to 
Mass.; thence to Connecticut; thence to Vermont, and in 1875, he 
came to Sioux City. He married Medrise Delier, of Canada. 
They have five sons — Albert, Frank, Willie, Alphouso and Ed- 
mund. 

John Beck, proprietor of the Sioux City planing mills. This 
mill was established Aug. 22nd, 1871. In this year the building 
was enlarged, and machinery added, by Mr. B. and partner. In 
1881, Mr. B. became sole proprietor. The amount of business 
transacted by the establishment, is about ^12,000 per annum. Mr. 
Beck was born in Somerset county, Penn., in 1833; came west in 
1857, and settled in Sioux City, and is therefore one of the oldest 
settlers of Sioux City. He was engaged in contracting and build- 
ing for eighteen years; has served as city alderman two years. He 
married Nancy Culbertson, and has four children — Irene, Mag- 
gie, Eva and William E. 

M. E. Bedford, of the firm of Bedford Brother., dentists, be- 
gan the practice of dentistry in Grand Rapids, Mich., in 1866; in 
1872, located in Worthington, Minn., and engaged in the practice 
in Sioux City in 1876, with his brother, L. N. Bedford, who, Avith 
his assistant, R. F. Merrick, travels in Southern Minn., Northern 
Iowa, Southeastern Dakota and Eastern Neb., in the practice of 
dentistry in all its branches. 



HISTORY OF TOWA. 210 

A. D, Bedford, M. D., was born in Pa., in 1848; o-raduated from 
Alleghany College in 1873; studied two terms at Tubingen, Ger- 
many, in 1874 and 1875. He was a teacher in the military school 
at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., during the year 1876; and in 1877. gradu- 
ated from the Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia. Came to 
Iowa, and practiced medicine in Waterloo two years, and came to 
Sioux City in 1879; was married in June, 1880, to R. McNeil, of 
Waterloo. 

Geo. W. Beggs, M. D., is the son of the Rev. S. R. Beggs, the 
author of "Early Methodism in the West." He was born m HI., 
in 1837, graduated from Evanston College in the literary depart- 
ment, and received the degree of A. M., and from the Rush Med- 
ical College, Chicago, in 1862, where he received the degree of D. 
D. During the late war, he was surgeon of the 105th 111. regi- 
ment, and was with Gen. Sherman in his famous march to the sea. 
He came to Sioux City in 1866, and was married in 1865 to Lillian 
A, Sims. They have three daughters — Lizzie, Bertha and May. 

A. L. Bennetts, proprietor of the New York Fruit Store — estab- 
lished business in 1879 — was born in N. Y., in 1826; came west to 
Wis. in 1818, and, after traveling about, finally located at Fort 
Winnebago. He afterwards moved to Minnesota; from there to 
Saginaw, Mich.; thence to 0.; then back to Mich.; from there to 
Chicago, and then to this city. He served in the late war two 
years under Gen. Burnside, in the 9th army corps. He has held 
various town offices. He married Grace Brigham, of Wis. They 
have three children. 

Hon. J. H. Bolton, clerk of the circuit and district courts of 
Woodbury county, was born in Cleveland, 0., in Jan., 1846; grad- 
uated at Harvard college in 1868. In 1869, he came to Sioux City, 
and engaged in the practice of law, which he continued until 1873, 
when he retired from business. He was elected to the 17tli Gen- 
eral Assembly, and in 1879, was elected to his present office. He 
married Sarah Thornton — now deceased — who Avas the daughter of 
James Thornton, the present consul to Aspinwall. 

James E. Booge, of the firm of J. E. Booge & Co., pork packers, 
was born in Pittsford, Rutland county, Vt.; came to Sioux City in 
1858, and has been engaged in his present business since 1869. 
This firm sell their hams for the north and west; mess pork to the 
north, and the government; their sides for the local trade and the 
south, and their lard to Chicago. Capital required in operating 
the business, about 11^500,000. During the year, 1881, they erected 
extensive buildings of brick and stone, five stories high, at a cost 
of $100,000. The works cover an area of five acres. They have 
every modern appliance, fertilizing Avorks, etc., and employ in the 
busiest season, about 300 men, ami run both winter and summer 
seasons, with a capacity, respectively, of 1,500 daily in winter, and 



220 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

500 in summer. J. E. Booge, Esq., who founded the establish- 
ment, is resident partner and entire manager. , The works have 
ample side-tracks connecting with every road in the city. 

C. Borman, proprietor of Columbia House, on the corner of 
Fourth and Water streets, established business in 1870. He 
has good stabling accommodations connected with the premises. 
Mr. B. was born in Germany in 1826. He was in the German 
military service six years; came to America in 1854, and settled in 
Alleghany City, Ta. He removed to Johnston, Pa.; thence to 
Omaha; thence to Sioux City, in 1868. In 1879, he was township 
trustee for this town. He married Federika Keller. They have 
five children — ^Lena, Mina, Elizabeth, Charles and Oscar. 

John Brennan, attorney-at-law; commercial collections, a spec- 
ialty. 

Napoleon Brouillette, dealer in groceries and provisions, was 
born in Montreal, Canada, Aug. 15th, 1852; came to the U. S. in 
1869, and settled in Sioux City. He entered the employ of H. D. 
Booge & Co., where he remained three years; was then employed 
in the store of Joe. Marks three years; then was with Geo. W. 
Felt, and after that, with J. B. Barringer two and one-half years. 
He married Jennie Irwin, of this place. They have three children 
— Maud, Henry and William. 

R. A. Broadbent, proprietor of livery stable, on Douglas street, 
between 4th and 5th streets; established business in 1869. He 
was born in 111., in 1844. He moved to Fayette county, Iowa, and 
came to Sioux City in 1868. He served in the late war two years 
in Co. F, 9th I. I., under Captain Guinn. 

N. C. Brunk, proprietor of grocery store and restaurant, was 
born in Virginia in 1852; served as postmaster in Va. four years. 
In Oct., 1881, came west, and settled in Sioux City. He was sta- 
tion agent for the B. & 0. R. R., for some time. He married Car- 
rie Hite, of Middletown, Va.. 

E. H. Bucknam, of the firm of J. P. Dennis & Co., was born in 
Washington Co., Maine, in 1843; moved to Toledo, 0., in 1866; 
thence to Chicago, where he remained until 1868, when he came 
to this place, and entered the above firm. 

Phil. Carlin, County Recorder, is a native of 111.; came to Iowa 
in 1860, and settled in Clinton Co.; removed to Woodbury Co., in 
1871, and located at Union; was elected to his present ofiice in 
1880, and removed to Sioux City the same year. 

H. B. Clingan, of the firm of H. B. & C. E. Clingan, physi- 
cians and surgeons, was born in 0., in 1822; is a graduate of the 
Cleveland Medical College. He practiced in 0., from 1848 to 1855; 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 221 

then moved to Benton Co., Iowa, and practiced there until 1877, 
when he came to Sioux City and opened his present office with 
his son C, E, Clingan. 

Willis G. Clark, attorney at law and justice of the peace, was 
born in Penobscot Co., Maine, in 1853. He came to Minn., with 
his parents in 1857, and settled in Dakota Co. He is a graduate 
of Browns University, of Providence, R. I. He came to Sioux 
City in 1878, and was elected justice of the peace in 1880. Mr. 
C. has been actively engaged in local politics, and is a rising young 
attorney. 

M. A. Comeau, carpenter and joiner, — shop opposite High 
School building — was born in the Province of Quebec, Canada; 
came to the U. S., and settled in Mass., in 1863. He removed to 
this place in 1879, and engaged in his present business. He mar- 
ried Mary Gelines, of Canada. They have four children^ — Malvi- 
nas, Edwin, Emma and Charles. 

T. H. ConnifF. Jr., attorney at law and jnstice of the peace, is 
a son of T. H. Conniff, of Houston, Minn., who has represented 
that state in the legislature, and was district attorney for 
several years. The subject of this sketch settled in Sioux City in 
1869, is a graduate of the State University, and was admitted to 
the bar at Des Moines. 

W. H. Corrigan, proprietor of sample room, No. 26 Pearl St.. 
was born in Ozaukee Co., Wis., in 1850; come to this place in 1874, 
and entered the employ of the proprietor of the Washington 
House. He married Emma Shiable, of Sioux City. They have 
one child — Willie. 

A. H. Crowell, of the firm of Crowell & Martin, commission 
merchants and wholesale dealers in foreign and domestic goods, 
green and dried fruits, confectionery, etc., corner of 3rd and Pearl 
streets, was born in Mass. in 1838; followed sailing eleven years; 
has visited almost every foreign clime, and is a man of wide ex- 
perience. During the late war he was on a government transport. 
He located in Benton Harbor, Mich., where he engaged in the dry 
goods business. In April, 1880, he came to this place, where he 
embarked in his present business, under the firm name of Crowell 
& Co.; afterwards, Geo. N. Martin became a partner. The firm 
name was changed to its present name. This is the only exclusive 
commission house in the city. 

Warren H. Cottrell was born in Renssellaer Co., N. Y., in 1852; 
removed to Waterloo, la.; graduated from the State University at 
Iowa City in the class of '79, and came to Sioux City, Nov. loth, 
1880. He is now a member of one of the leading agricultural 
implement firms of this place. 



222 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

Jesse M. Cunningham, the leading hatter of the city, was born 
in N. Y. in 1858; came to Sioux City in 1869, and engaged in 
business with his father, until in April, 1881, he entered his pres- 
ent business. 

C. W. Cutler, M. D., was born in Winneshiek Co.,- la., in 1858; 
moved with his parents in 1871 to Osage: graduated from Cedar 
Valley Seminary in 1877, and from Rush Medical College, Chicago, 
in 1880; practiced medicine in Osage one year, and in 1881, 
located in Sionx City. Although his arrival is of comparatively 
recent date, he is already in the enjoyment of a lucrative practice. 

John Davelaar, of the firm of Davelaar Brothers, house, sign 
and ornamental painters — shop on Douglas street, between 3rd 
and 4th streets — established in 1879. He was born in Holland in 
1838, came to America in 1848, and settled in Pittsburg, Pa.; 
moved to Wis., and in 1875, came to Sioux City, where he was en- 
gaged ill the car shops several years. He served in the Union 
Army four and one-half years in the 1st Missouri L. A., was order- 
ly sergeant, and has been county commissioner of Armstrong 
county^ Dak. Bart Davelaar, of the above firm, was born in 
Holland in 1831; came to America in 1848, and settled in Pa.; 
removed to Wis., and in 1873 came to this place; was in the employ 
of Dineen Bros. 

George Douglass, M. D., was born in Canada in 1843; graduated 
in 1868 from the Eclectic Medical College of Ohio; came to Iowa 
in 1870, and settled in Iowa county. He removed to Sioux City 
in 1872, where he is now in the practice of his profession. He 
held the office of county ph3'^sician for several years, and in 1871, 
he married Sarah Tufts, daughter of John Tufts, of Grinnell, 
Iowa. They have one son — Bruce. 

A. DePee, proprietor of the National House, corner of 3d and 
Nebraska streets, has lately remodeled and refurnished this hotel, 
and made it one of the best ^1.00 per day houses in the city; has 
no bar connected with the house. He was born in lud., in June, 
1836, and removed in 1856 to Wis.; came to Iowa in Ajoril, 1869, 
and settled on a homestead in Woodbury county, where he farmed 
six and one-half years. He served in the U. S. A. one year, in Co. 
H, 46th W. V. I., under Captain Hoskins and Colonel Lovell. 

Hon. S. T. Davis, attorney at law and dealer in real estate, was 
born in Pa. in 1828; was educated at Alleghany College, at Mead- 
ville, Pa.; came to Sioux City in 1856, and has been identified with 
many leading enterprises for the benefit of his adopted city. He 
was the founder of the Sioux City Journal, and with others organ- 
ized the S. C. & St. P. R. R., and has taken an active interest in 
the construction of other roads leading into the city. He was ap- 
pointed by President Lincoln register of the U. S. land office, which 
position he held eighteen months. He was elected to the state 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 223 

senate to fill a vacancy made by the resignation of Judge Oliver. 
Mr. D. was mayor of the city in 1871, and was prosecuting attor- 
ney for several years. He owns large landed property and busi- 
ness property in the city. 

M. B. Davis, attorney at law, was born in Grafton county, N. 
H., in 1837: enlisted iii the late war in 1861 in Co. I, 1st R: I. C; 
served in that regiment two years, and then enlisted in Co. I, 1st 
N. H. C, and served from March, 1863, to August 1865; enlisted 
as a private, and came out a commissioned officer. He was taken 
prisoner at Paris, Va., and exchanged at the end of four weeks, 
and again taken prisoner at Winchester," Va., and escaped and 
reached the Union army at Harper's Ferry. He was again taken 
prisoner by Wade Hampton's troops, and taken to Richmond, and 
removed to Castle Thunder; thence to Salisbury, N. C, and was 
paroled in the spring of 1865 at Wilmington, N. C. He was en- 
gaged as a cavalry scout most of the time during his service. He 
came to Fort Madison, la., in 1866, where he practiced law until 
1875, when he came to this city and opened an office. 

M. C. Davis, one of the proprietors of city mill and elevator, was 
born in Pittsford, Rutland county, Vt., in 1835. He has been en- 
gaged in the milling business since 1855; came to Sioux City in 
1869 and erected the elevator in 1870. The elevator has a capacity 
of 70,000 bushels; the mill was built in 1871, has a capacity of 
125 barrels of flour per aay, and employs 15 men. 

George Devore, auctioneer, was born in Bedford county, Pa., in 
1834; came to Sioux City in 1869, prior to which he was in busi- 
ness in 111. He was justice of the peace twelve years, and has held 
other town offices; he has followed his present business since 1865. 

Demiug & Hatch, dentists, are former residents of Vt. They 
came to this city in Nov., 1880, and opened their present office 
Their practice is extensive and remunerative. 

J. P. Dennis, of the firm of Dennis & Co., was born in Somerset 
county, Maine, in 1832, removed to N. Y. in 1851; thence to Du- 
buque, la., in 1853, and to this city in 1867. He served his coun- 
try in the late war from 1862 until 1863 in Co. G, 40th 1. I. 

Thomas Dorman, baJcer a.id confectioner — No. 56. Pearl St. — 
was born in England in 1841; came to America m 1863, and set- 
tled in Chicago; removed to Omaha, Neb., 1867. During the late 
war he served two years under Gen. Mvers. He married Amelia 
Gibbons, and has two children — Aunie and Arthur. 

Christ. Doss, proprietor of the Milwarkee House — located near 
depot — was born in Mccklingburg, Germany, in 1836; came to 
America in 1854, and settled in 0., where he learned^ carpentry. 
Thence he removed to Dubuque, la.; came to this city in 1857, 
and was one of its pioneers. He married Mary Sohl,of Ger!»uiny. 
They have five children — one son and four daughters. 



224 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

L. H. Drumm, proprietor of the Washington meat market, which 
is one of the finest markets in the west, with all of the appurten- 
ances that would do credit to an eastern city — was born in t3avaria 
in 1839; came to America in 1861 and settled in Cincinnati, 0.; 
removed to Lyons, la.; thence to New Frankfort, Mo., and from 
there came to Sioux City. He married Helena Bitteghaifer, and 
has two children — Nellie H. and Eddie L. 

J. W. Denton, of the late firm of Flinn & Denton, of the Cen- 
tral meat market, was born in Keokuk, la., in 1856; moved to 
Neb. in 1859, and in 1872 to Council Bluffs; came to this city in 
1879. 

D. Elliott, dealer in crockery, glass, wood and willow ware, 
house, hotel and steamboat furnishing goods, established this busi- 
ness in 1870; his establishment was destroyed by fire Dec. 5th, 
1875; reopened Dec. 7th, of the same year. The building has two 
stories and basement, all of which he occupies, carrying one of the 
largest stocks of goods of this description west of Chicago. He 
was born in Pa.; has been in la. twenty years; was formerly in 
business in Iowa City. H. E. Sawyers, head salesman, for the above 
firm, has been connected with this house for more than twelve 
years. He was born in Davis county, la., in 1856; came to this 
city with his parents in 1857, where he has made his home ever 
since. 

Rev. Fr. Eisenbe'ss, pastor of the First German Lutheran church, 
was born in Germany in 1851; came to America in 1870, and 
located at Fort Wayne, Ind., where he founded Concordia College. 
He then attended St. Louis college three years. He removed to 
Dixon county. Neb., by special call of the newly formed congre- 
gation, to do missionary work for this denomination; came to this 
city in 1878, and founded a church with fourteen members, which 
was mcorporated in Jan., 1879. He married D. Steinmeyer, of St. 
Louis, and has two children — Dorothy and Ludmilla. 

J. D. Farr, of the firm of Smith & Farr, wholesale dealers in 
butter and eggs, was born in Lewis county, N. Y., in 1843; 
came west in 1876; started in business with a small capital, and 
now does a business of one-half a million per annum. 

S. S. Fessendeu is the proprietor of the China Hall. This busi- 
ness was established in 1863; purchased 1871 by J. H. Fessenden, 
and by its present owner in 1877. Mrs. F. is a native of Cincin- 
nati, 0. J. H. Fessenden is a native of Concord, N. H., and is at 
present extensively engaged in mining in Col. 

M. L. Flinn, of the ^irm of Flinn & Lessenich, proprietors of the 
Central meat market, (business was established in 1881), was born 
in Woodstock, 111., in 1852; moved to Chicago, where he lived eight 
years, and came to this city in 1868. He was chief clerk in the 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 225 

St, P. R. R. shops for nine years, and worked three years on the 
S. C. & P. R. R. He married Mary M. Wilkins, and has three 
children — Grace M., Frank M. and an infant. 

Wm. S. Follis, dealer in real estate and insurance agent, does a 
general fire and marine insurance business. 

P. Follis, proprietor of the Sioux City House, was born in Ire- 
land in 1817; came to America in 1843, and settled in Fall River, 
Mass. He removed to Dubuque, la., Sept. loth, 1815, and from 
there to this city in 18G8. He has served as school director and 
in other town official capacities. He married Margaret Conway. 
They have four children— William S.,Mary, Michael E. and Ellen. 

J. W. Frazey, of the firm of Frazey & Bedford, physicians, was 
born in Pa., in 1833; studied medicine at Cleveland, 0., and also at 
Ann Harbor, Mich., and graduated from Chicago Medical College; 
has been in the practice of his profession since 1853; was married 
to Rebecca Shertzer in 1853, and Las one child — Ada, now the wife 
of Dr. C. E. Clingan. 

J. Franz & Co., brewers. The business of this firm is conducted 
by Mrs. M. Franz and Mrs. Kate Hensler, the widows of the 
former proprietors, both of whom died in the spring of 1881. The 
brewery was built in 1868, is 150x10 ft., has a capacity of 10,000 
brls. per year, and has bottling works connected with it, whose 
capacity is about 250,000 bottles per year. The foreman, John 
Arensdorf, is a practical brewer, having learned the business at Sedan 
France, and is in every respect well fitted for the position whi 'h 
he now holds. The financial affairs are under the charge of C. F. 
Hoyt and J. R. White. The firm employ about fifteen men about 
the establishment. 

P. F. Gerard, proprietor of the sam^ile room, newly fitted up and 
opened — Pearl st., between 3rd and 4th sts. — was born in 0. in 
1845; came to Iowa in 1855, and settled ten miles west of Marengo; 
removed to this city in 1870. He served in the late war about one 
year in Co. B, 9th 111. C. 

G. M. Gilbert, merchant tailor, was born in Brattleboro, Yt., in 
1844, where he lived until 1862, when he enlisted in Co. B, 16th 
V. V. His term of enlistment expired a few days before the battle 
of Gettysburg, but his regiment took an active part in the engage- 
ment, and but few returned. He came to 111. in 1864, and re- 
moved to this city in 1870. Mr. Gilbert established his business 
in Sioux City in 1873, and as the fruits of his proficiency and 
ability to please the purchasing public, has acquired a very exten- 
sive patronage of the most desirable kind, embracing, in addition 
to the Iowa trade, portions of Dakota, Nebraska, Minnesota and 
Missouri. 

S. 0. Gibbs, proprietor of American House — Jennings St., be- 
tween 3rd and 4th Sts. — nas newly refitted and refurnished his 



226 HISTORY OF lOAVA. 

hotel with a view to accommodating the traveling public, farmers 
and boarders at reasonable rates. He was born in N. Y. in 1825; 
removed to Wis., in 1869. The same year he came to this city, 
where he worked at carpentering, and next opened a meat market. 
He served in the U. S. A., at Leavenworth, Kan., was treasurer of 
Concord township four vears. In 18S0 he visited Salt Lake City, 
Utah. 

P. P. Gibbs, proprietor of the St. Elmo Hotel, between 5th and 
6th streets, was born in Pittsfield, Vt., in 1821; moved thence to 
Brandon, where he served eighteen years as a magistrate, and held 
many municipal and other offices of public trust. He was mar- 
ried in 1873 to Adeliza Sargent, of Pittsford, Vt., and has one 
child — Irving. In June, 1881, Mr. Gibbs located in Sioux City, 
and assumed the proprietorship of the hotel above mentioned, 
which he has ever since continued to conduct to the satisfaction 
of an increasing public patronage. 

G. W. Goodwin is of the firm of Goodwin & Mousseau, proprie- 
tors of the steam bakery. They are manufactures of crackers, and 
jobbers in confectionery — capacity, 60 bbls. per day — and the in- 
ventors of the cracker factory machine-made bread, which they 
find a ready sale for tiiroughout this western country. He was 
born in Pa., in 1833; removed to 111., in 1853, and settled at Dix- 
on; then removed to Vinton, la., where he Avas engaged in the 
bakery business, under the name of Goodwin Bros. He served in 
the U. S. A. three years in Battery F, 1st 111. L. A., under Maj. T. 
Cheney. He was a corporal while in the service; came to this city 
in 1877, and is one of its substantial business men. 

John H. Griffin, proprietor of candy factory— Fourth street — 
established business in 1871). He was born in Chicago, III., in 
1857; came to this city in 1873, and was engage! as a compositor 
in The Journal office five years. 

B. A. Guyton, M. D., is a graduate from the University of 
Maryland in the class of '69. He settled in Sioux City in 1870, 
and engaged in the practice of his profession. 

John Haner, dealer in hardware — -lower Fourth street — estab- 
lished business in 1881. He came to Sioux City in 1861; was em- 
ployed as clerk in the Groninger hardware store. He enlisted in 
this city in the 14th I., under Col. Pattee, and served in the U. S. 
A. all through the rebellion; was commissary sergeant most of 
the time, also clerk in Jthe commissary department. He married 
Julia Reinke, and has five children — Lena, Tillie, Willie, Otto and 
Emma. 

F. S. Hansen, blacksmith, established business in 1878; was 
born in Germany in 1819, and came to America in 1869, and set- 
tled in Sioux City. He removed to Missouri Valley; thence among 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 227 

the Indians at Fort Berthold; thence to Plymouth coimiy, la., 
and back to this city. He married Minnie F. Krouse, of this 
place, and has one child — George. 

Capt. James Hayden, proprietor of the Central House — cor. of 
3rd and Jackson sts. — has newly opened and furnished the house. 
He was born in Dublin in 1S35; followed sailing from 1816 to 
1875; and was the owner of several vessels during that time. He 
served in the navy during the late war, and was quartermaster 
a part of the time. 

J. M. Heberling, express agent, was born in Pa. in 1816; came 
to Jackson county, la., in 1856, and moved to Cedar Rapids in 1878, 
where he was messenger of the C, N. W. R. R. between Cedar 
Rapids and Council Bluffs. He came to this city in Aug., 1881. 
He married Lizzie Todd, of Milwaukee, Wis. 

L. A. Heckman, dealer in groceries, confectionery, etc.- — 1th st, 
— was born in Cleveland, 0, in 1857; came to this city in 1877, 
and was in the employ of D. H. Talbot, in the Land Title office 
until 1879, when he engaged in his present business. 

H. Hilgers, dealer in staple and fancy groceries, provisions, 
flour, etc. — 7th st., west side — was born in Germany in 1832, 
came to America in 1852, and settled in Galena, 111.; removed to 
this city and engaged in farming for thirteen years, when his 
health failing him for that pursuit, he engaged in his present 
business. He has served as school director. 

F. C. Hills, of the firm of Hills & McKercher, successors to 
Groninger, dealers in hardware, stoves, tiuAvare, Avagon stock, 
barbed wire, etc., sole agents for Adams & Westlake's non-ex- 
plosive coal oil stoves, also agents for rubber paint, galvanized iron 
cornice work a specialty — numbers 33 and 35, Pearl st. — -was born 
in England in 1843, came to America in 1849, and settled in 
Oneida county, N. Y.; removed to Iowa in 1868, in the interest of 
the S. C. P. R. R. Co., and located in this city in March of that 
year. He was general traffic manager for the above road, and the 
first railroad agent in Sioux City. He served as 2nd sergeant in 
the late war in Co. E, 117th N. Y. I., under Col. Wm. R. Pease. 
Mr. McKercher, of the above firm, was born in Flint, Mich., and 
was for some times traveling salesman for a Chicago house. He 
came to this city in the winter of 1872—3. 

John Hittle, retail grocer — cor. 4th and Douglas sts — established 
business in 1873, He was born in Ohio in 1835; moved to Ind., 
and in 1855 removed to Des Moines, la. He came to Sioux City 
in 1856, and in the fall of that year went to Sioux Falls, where he 
built a cabin for a Dubuque town company, returning to this place 
before winter. He was a fur trader for some years, and then en- 
tered the employ of H. D. Booge & Co., where he remained for 
fifteen years. 



228 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

John Hopkins, proprietor of sample room — Pearl street, between 
5th and 6th — was born in 1862; came to Sioux City in 1867; was 
in the employ of E, J. Ressegieu for some time. He married 
Jennie Pickett. 

C. W. Hopkins, carriage and sign painter and grainer — cor. 
Douglas and 5th sts. — was born in Pa., in 1830; moved to Wis., in 
1840, and in 1850 removed to Cal.; thence to Australia; thence to 
London, Eng.; thence to Canada; thence to Wis.; thence to Mis- 
souri Valley Junction, la., where he had charge of the R. R. paint 
shop five years, moving thence to this city. 

C. F. Hoyt, proprietor of Sioux City Vinegar works, was born 
in 111., in 1812; removed to Idaho in 1864, and engaged in mining 
for two years; located in this city in 1869 and went into the farm 
machinery business; established his present business in 1875. 

B. S. Holmes, dealer in boots and shoes, clothing and gent's fur- 
nishing goods, was born in Norway in 1853; came to America in 
1870, and settled in (Chicago; came to this city in 1872 and en- 
gaged in the mercantile business; engaged in the boot and shoe 
business in 1880, and the 1st of Sept., 1881, he engaged in his 
present business. 

J. C. C. Hoskins was born in N. H. in 1820; graduated at Dart- 
mouth college in the class of '41; was engaged in teaching 
shool five years, and afterward followed his profession, that 
of civil engineering. He was employed by the Cochituate 
Water works, and afterAvard by the B. & 0. R. R. Co., un- 
til the spring of 1857, when he came to this city. In 1863^ 
he was appointed postmaster of Sioux City, and served in that 
capacity until June 30th, 1878. He was city engineer from 1858 
to 1871; has been mayor of the city, and was justice of the peace 
twelve years; has served on the school board several terms. He 
was the first engineer for the S. C. & St. P. R. R., and made pre- 
liminary surveys, etc. Mr. Hoskins was a director of the Sioux 
City Savings bank, which was subsequently changed to the Sioux 
National bank, of which he continues to be a director. 

Hon. E. H. Hubbard, attorney at law, was born in Rush county, 
Ind., in 1849; graduated from Yale College in the class of 1872, 
and was admitted to the bar in Sioux City, in 1874. He has rep- 
resented Woodbury county in the state legislature. 

W. B. Humphrey, proprietor of the Central book store, dealer in 
books, pictures, frames, paintings, wall paper, notions, periodicals, 
etc.. No. 66,4th street; came into possession of this business Nov. 
22d, 1881. He was born in Maine in 1855; removed to Minneap- 
olis, Minn., in 1870; thence to Sibley, where he was engaged in 
buying grain. From Siblev he came to this city. He was in the 
employ of the S. C. & St. P. R. R. company ten years, part of that 
time as station asent. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 229 

C. P. lbs, proprietor of Eastern meat market, established busi- 
ness in 1871; owns the buildings that he occupies, and in 1874 fit- 
ted up his place of business with all the late improvements at a 
cost of ^1,500. He was born in Germany in 1813; came to Amer- 
ica in 1870, and located in this city. He learned his trade in Ger- 
many, where he was employed for a number of years in a market. 

S. B. Jackson, ex-sheriff of Woodbury county, was born in Pa. 
in 1815; removed to Linn county, la., in 1864; thence to this city 
and engaged in the real estate business. He was elected mayor in 
1877, and served three terms; was elected sheriff in 1879; his term 
expiring with the beginning of the present year; Mr. Jackson 
served two years in the late war in Co. B, 17th Pa. I. 

Hon. Wm. L. Joy, president of the Sioux national bank of Sioux 
City, and member of the law firm of Joy & Wright, was born in 
Townshend, Windham county, Vt.: came to this city in 1855, and 
engaged in the practice of his profession with N. E. Hudson; he 
entered the present partnership in 1868. Mr. Joy was elected to 
the State legislature in 1864, and again in 1866. 

James Junk, wholesale dealer in liquors and cigars, was born in 
N. Y. city; removed to Iowa City, la., in 1861, and enlisted in Co. 
A, 41st la. I., was transferred to the 7th la. C, and served in the 
U. S. A. until 1866, under Gen. Sully, on the frontier. He estab- 
lished his present business in 1868. 

M. J. Kearney, dealer in groceries, provisions, etc. — established 
business in 1877. He was born in Ireland in 1856; came to Ameri- 
ca in Oct., 1875, and settled in New Haven, Conn.; removed to 
this city in 1876, where he has resided ever since, except one year 
spent in the Black Hills. He married Mary A. Toohey, of Sioux 
City, and had one child — Alice, now deceased. 

E. R. Kirk, postmaster, was born in Ottawa county, 0., in 1834; 
came to Sioux City in 1856, and in the following year engaged in 
the mercantile business, which business he continued until 1873; 
then held the office of deputy county treasurer; was appointed 
deputy collector of internal revenue in 1876, and was appointed 
postmaster in 1878. Mr. Kirk was married in 1859 to Mary P. 
Sawyers, and has five children — W. A., E. L., Charles, Frank and 
Mamie. W. A. Kirk, is deputy P. M., and E. L. Kirk is delivery 
clerk. 

Frank Klepsch, proprietor of the Iowa House, (formerly owner 
of the Milwaukee House), has newly furnished and opened this 
hotel, and solicits patronage. He was born in Germany in 1838; 
came to America in 1867, and located at La Crosse, Wis.; removed 
to this city in 1869. 

B. Kuhlman, proprietor of the Madison Hotel^between Pearl and 
Water sts. — was born in Germany in 1829; came to America in 



230 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

1859, settled in Chicago, and engaged in the grocery business. In 
1876 he removed to this city, and took charge of the Merchants' 
Hotel. He married Barbara Masath, of Germany. Mr. K. was in 
the military service in his native country during three years. 

Samuel Krummann, proprietor of a fine dairy farm, (situated on 
■Horse Shoe Lake, one and one-half miles from this city, and con- 
tains 45 acres) has in his dairy 36 milch cows, and owns a stock 
farm of 240 acres, situated four miles northeast of this city, on 
which he has 37 head of fine stock cattle, and nine head of 
horses. Mr. K. was born in Switzerland in 1830; came to America 
in 1852, and settled in Iowa in 1856. He was married in 1858 
to C. Hacker, of Germany, and has five children — John, Samuel, 
Louis, Harry and Annie. 

J. P. Langdon handles goods on commission and buys and sells 
second-hand goods; clothing a specialty. He was born in Green 
county. Mo., inl847; removed to Kansas City in 1871, and engaged 
in the wall paper business; came to this city in 1876, and was en- 
gaged in painting until 1880, when he established his present busi- 
ness. He married Emily Jane Pierce, of Canada. 

Alex. Larson, dealer in dry goods, notions and fancy goods, es- 
tablished business in 1881. He was born in Sweden, in 1847; 
came to America in 1869, and settled in Henry county. 111.; re- 
moved to Mount Pleasant, la., in 1871; thence came to this city, 
and engaged in his present business. He was married to Huld 
Appelgreu, of Sweden, and has tAvo children — Gustave G., and 
Fredrick E. Mr. L. is now a naturalized citizen of the U. S. 

Arthur G. Lascelles was born near Chester, Chester county, 
Eng., July 31st, 1855; came to America in 1880, and settled in 
Sioux City. He intends soon to erect a brick livery barn on the 
corner of 6th and Douglas sts. — 50x150 ft. in dimensions. 

Charles Lambert, dealer in harness, saddles, whips, etc. — corner 
of 4th and Nebraska sts. — was born in this city in 1858. He 
learned his trade with L. Humbert of this city, and engaged in his 
present business in 1879. 

A. C. Larson, proprietor of the Oriental Steam laundry — cor. of 
Pearl and 3rd sts., — was born in Denmark in 1857; came to 
America in 1870, and settled in Iowa; came to this city in 1880. 
He married LydiaOIeson. 

William Lerch, proprietor of billiard hall, was born in Germa- 
ny in 1841; came to America in 1864. He has built several of the 
business blocks in this city, and engaged in his present business in 
1870. 

John Lessenich, proprietor of the Chicago House, erected in 1881 
at a cost of $12,000, and newly furnished throughout— cor. 4th 
and Jones sts. — was born in Prussia in 1826; came to America in 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 231 

1854; removed to Chicago; from there to Sioux City in 1867, and 
built a hotel which burned in Feb., 1S81. He has served as alder- 
man, and also as township trustee. 

P. L. Lindholm, dealer in furniture, established business in 1881. 
He was born in Sweden, in 1812; came to Auierica in 1857, and 
settled in Boone, la.; removed to this city; thence to Yankton, 
Dak., and back to Sioux City in April, 1881. He married Ellen 
Ericson. of Sweden. They have five children — Annie, Albert, 
Emil, Henry and Frank, 

E. "W . Loft, of the firm of Corry & Loft, architects, was born in 
Dubuque, la., in 1855, and came to Sioux City in 1881. 

G. W. Lower, former proprietor of Depot Hotel, was born in 
Onandaigua county, N. Y., in 1826; removed to Walworth count}^ 
AYis., in 1815; thence to Cedar Rapids, la., and to this city in 1868. 

Wm. Lubert, tailor, established business in 1850. He was born 
in Mecklingburg, Schmern, Germany, in 1815; came to America 
in 1851, and settled in Cleveland, 0. He removed to Belief ontaine; 
thence to 111.; thence to this city. He married Henrietta 
Coner, and has four children — Gustavus, Jennie, Amelia and 
Carrie. 

B. Luce, proprietor of a fine stock farm (situated eight miles 
northeast of Sioux City, in Woodbury county, and contains 240 
acres), was born in Franklin county, Me., in 1838; came to this 
city in 1856, and engaged in blacksmithing until moving on to his 
farm. He married Louisa Meguier in 1855, and has six children 
— Harry, Fred, George, Jennie, Willie and Bartlett Louis. 

Walter W. Lynch is of the firm of W. W. Lynch & Co., uji- 
holsterers and repairers of all kinds of furniture, manufacturers of 
the self-adjusting spring bed, and agents for the American bird 
call, for which articles agents are wanted. The firm are also 
agents for a number of periodicals. Mr. Lynch was born in N. 
Y. in 1850; came west and engaged in railroading until he came 
to this city in 1881. He married Mary A. Montgomery. 

H. A. Lyon, dealer in breech and muzzle loading guns, and all 
kinds of sporting goods and hunter's supplies. His machine shop 
is equipped with all kinds of machinery for repairing guns, and 
machinery of any kind. He also makes a specialt}^ of safe 
work, such as opening safes whose locks have become un- 
manageable. In all, he has one of the finest gun establish- 
menes in the northwest. Mr. L. was born in Mass. in 1832; re- 
moved to Janesville, Wis., in 1851, and came to Sioux City in 1868; 
is now engineer for the fire steamer here. 

A. Macready, was born in Scotland in 1821; was raised and edu- 
cated in Glasgow, where he graduated in 1842; came to America in 
1846, and located at Patterson, N. J., where he took ihe numage= 



232 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

ment of two spinning mills. Afterwards he was connected with 
the banking house of John Thompson, now Thompson Bros. He 
was then sent to Kentucky as agent of the Breckenridge coal and 
coal oil companies, which made the first coal oil ever made. Mr. 
M. sold the first two barrels of oil ever sold in America, in the 
autumn of 1855. In 1856, became to this city, where he brought 
a stock of goods, which he disposed of at Sergeant's Bluffs, where 
he built the first business house erected in Woodbury county, out- 
side of Sioux City. He was appointed by President Lincoln agent 
of the Omaha Agency; was the first postmaster of Dakota City, and 
was appointed receiver in the land office at that place. He opened 
the first stage route from Fort Randall to Fort Dodge. In 1871, 
he retired from business. 

D. A. Magee, of the firm of Hattenbach & Magee, grocers and 
wholesale dealers in cigars and tobacco, was born in Pa., in 1849; 
removed in 1855 to Davenport, la., and from there to Omaha in 
1856, and engaged in milling. He came to this city in 1869, and 
took charge of the city mill and elevator until 1877, when he en- 
gaged in his present business. He is now serving his third term 
in the city council and is president of the Sioux City water works. 
He married Adelia Hattenbach in 1876, and has one child — Oli- 
ver G. 

John Malmquist, of the firm of M.C. Carlstrom, & Co., dealers in 
foreign and American marble — Douglas st., opposite Journal office — 
was born in Sweden 1836; came to America in 1871, and settled 
in Vt.; removed to Mich.; thence to Chicago, where he remained 
four years, and came to this city in 1880. He married Julia Brown. 
They have three children — Harry, Edwin and Nathaniel. 

Geo. Maurer, manufacturer of cigars and dealer in pipes and all 
smoking materials — 4th. st.-— was born in Austria in 1838; come to 
America in 1865, and settled in Cincinnati, 0.; in the spring of 
1869 he came to this city, where in 1873 he established the aljove 
business. While in Austria he served in the military five years 
and three months. He married Philomena Brunner, and has six 
children — Theresa, George, Anna, Flora, Minna and . 

Constant R. Marks, of the firm of Marks & Blood, attorneys at 
law, was born in Durham, Green county, N. Y., in 1841; graduated 
from the Albany law school, and in 1868 came to this city and 
opened his present office; in 1879 he was elected to the twelfth 
general assembly, and is at present a member of the school board. 
He served three months in the late war m Co. K, 8th Mass. V. 

T. S. & J. P. Martin, dealers in dry goods and notions, came to 
this city from Galena, 111., m 1867, and in April, 1879, established 
the above business, and have one of the best stores of the kind in 
the city. T. S. Martin was in the wholesale grocery business in 
the Black Hills from 1877 to 1879. 



HISTOKY OF IOWA. 233 

F. P. Mattocks, of the firm of Mattocks & Pape, proprietors of 
the London meat market, and wholesale dealers in fish, was born 
in Pa., in 1852; came west with parents and settled in northeastern 
la. in 1858. He came to this city in 1809andenga£jedin farming; 
has served as constable in Concord township one term. He mar- 
ried Lillian Gibbs, and has two children — Samuel 0. and Walter F. 

L. McCarty, dealer in groceries, provisions, produce and live 
stock — corner 6th and Pearl sts — established business in 1867. 
He was born in Ireland in 1838; came to America in 1857, and 
settled in Dubuque, la.; removed to Manchester, where he re- 
mained four years, and came to this city in 1867. In The Sioux 
City Register, of 1868, Mr. M's. advertisement appears, there then 
being only one other similar advertisement in that paper, from 
this place. He has served as city treasurer, and was director of the 
Sioux City Savings bank — now National bank — and has served ten 
years as a member of the board of education. He married Eliza 
Clinton, of Manchester, in 1863. They have ten children — 
Thomas, Mary, Kate, Emma, Lizzie, Alice, Grace, Lawrence, 
Loretta and Helen. 

Daniel McDonald, sheriff of Woodbury county, was born in 
Livingston county, N. Y., in 1844; removed to Wis. with his 
parents in 1849, and lived there until August 15th, 1862, when he 
enlisted in Co. B, 28th Wis. V.; served until 1865, and participated 
in a number of noted battles, among them being Helena, 
Little Rock, Pine Bluff and Spanish Fort battles. He came to 
this city in 1867, and engaged in the livery business; was deputy 
sheriff eight years, under John M. McDonald, and was elected 
to his present ofiice in Oct., 1881. 

G. R. McDougall, dealer in musical instruments, sewing ma- 
chines, sheet music, music books, and all musical supplies. No. 71 
Douglas street, established business in 1872. He was born in Ft. 
Edwards, N. Y., in 1824; removed to this city in 1856, and is one 
of the pioneers. He engaged in building, and the first year of his 
residence, he with others erected about thirty buildings. He next 
engaged in the furniture business. He has served as treasurer of 
this place, and was the first city marshal of Sioux City; has been 
an alderman and school treasurer several terms. He married Mary 
Macready, of this city, and has one child — Jennie Bell. 

H. J. Merrill, proprietor of the Blue Front livery barn, (keeps 
first class turnouts), was born in Otsego county, N. Y., in 1838; 
removed to DeKalb county, 111., in 1861, and thence to Sioux City. 
He served in the U. S. A. as sergeant of his brigade in Co. C, 105th 
111., under Captain Warner. 

Captain A. J. Millard, undertaker, corner Dth and Douglas 
streets, was born in Saratoga Springs, N. Y.; came west in 1856, 
and in November of that year located in Sioux City, where he en- 



234 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

^aged in building operations under the firm name of McDougall & 
Millard, and continued in the business twenty-two years. In 1861 
he raised a company of one hundred men, by a special order of the 
war department. The company was called the Sioux City cavalry, 
and was engaged against the Indians. He served with that 
company three years, six months of the time in an official capacity, 
by appointment of Gen. Sully. In 1863, he accompanied Gen. S. 
on an expedition as body-guard. 

E. Morley, book-keeper in Sanborn & Follett's lumber office, was 
born in Chenango county, N. Y., in 1835; was engaged in various 
pursuits until 1867, when he came to this city and engaged as 
book-keeper. 

S. Mosher, M. D., was born in N. Y. in 1835; removed to Chi- 
cago, and was engaged there in the practice of his profession. He 
came to this city in 1871; his wife is also a practicing physician. 
They treat all diseases, acute and chronic. Mrs. M. treats all dis- 
eases peculiar to ladies and children. Dr. M. gained quite a noto- 
riety at one time by being held a prisoner by the bank robbers, 
Frank and Jesse James, who were escaping from Minn. Meeting 
the Dr., who was on his way into the country, east of this city, to 
make a professional visit, and thinking he was a detective, they 
held him prisoner for several hours, and then taking his horse, re- 
leased him. 

F. Munchrath, dealer in fancy goods, toys, books, stationery, 
etc., was born in Prussia in 1832; came to America in 1852, and 
located in Chicago, 111.; removed to Sioux City in 1858, and built 
the first brick building in the city. He engaged in his present 
business in 1873. He married Gertrude Krudwig, and has seven 
children living. 

Geo. W. Oberholtzer, civil engineer and county surveyor, was 
born in Chester county, Pa., in 1847; graduated at the Pennsyl- 
vania Polytechnic college in 1871; came to this city in 1872. The 
following year he was elected to his present office, and has been 
re-elected each successive year. He has been township trustee one 
term, and has, in his line of business, been connected with the 
railroads of this city, 

Andrew G. Oleson, of the firm of Anderson & Oleson, dealers in 
boots, shoe, rubbers, etc — opposite High School building — was 
born in Sweden in 18 M; came to America in 1873, and located in 
Mass.; removed to this city, and was engaged in the boot and shoe 
store of F. P. Dean. 

Henry Page, carpenter and contractor, was born in Lancaster 
county. Pa., in 1820; removed to northern 111. in 1855, and came 
to this city in 1870, where he was for a time engaged in building 
for Sharp & Beck, 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 235 

J. N. Palmer, book keeper at City Mill and elevator, was born 
in Pittsford, Rutland county, Vt., in 1833. He was in the mer- 
cantile business, until he came to this city in 1873, and engaojed 
in his present occupation. 

Rev. Ira N. Pardee was born in Kingston, N. Y., in 1810; re- 
ceived his education at Armenia Seminary. He united with the 
church in 1857; his first pastoral charge was at Great Barring- 
ton, Mass., where he remained the full term; in 1861 he was 
transferred to the Wyoming conference, and was two years on the 
Ararat circuit; in 1862 he was removed to the Tallmanville, Pa., 
circuit, and in 1864, to the Newton, Pa., circuit. He was placed 
in charge of the Plymouth church in Wyoming Valley. In 1869 
he was appointed to Great Bend station; to the Oneonta district 
in N. Y., in 1872, and in 1875 he was transferred to the Neb. con- 
ference and stationed in Omaha. In 1877 he was again trans- 
ferred to the Northwestern Iowa conference, and stationed . ^An-t 
Dodge. He came to this city in 1880. For seven yearb 1\'^ was 
prominent in Sunday School work in New York, and for the past 
two years he has managed the conference, held annually at Clear 
Lake, la. 

J. K. Prugh, dealer in queensware, glassware, brackets, chandel- 
iers, etc. — No. 57 Pearl st. — established business in April, 1881. 
Before coming to this place, he was engaged in the same line of 
business at Ottumwa, la. He has been in this business eighteen 
years. 

A. P. Provost, manager of the Singer Sewing Machine Com- 
pany, is a native of N. J.; removed to 111., in 1860, and engaged in 
manufacturing carriages. He enlisted in the late war in the 73rd 
111., V. in 1864, and was discharged in June, 1865. He returned 
to his former occupation, which he continued until he took charge 
of this company's business at Council Bluffs; settled in this city in 
Feb., 1880. 

James Puck, proprietor of the Davenport House, which was 
erected in 1881 at a cost of $5,000. This house is a brick structure, 
and newly furnished; has a barn in connection — 4th. st., between 
V'rginia and Court sts. Mr. Puck was born in Germany in 1835; 
came to America in 1853, and settled in Davenport, la. In 1869 he 
came to Sioux City and engaged in farming; then became one of 
the proprietors of the Chicago House, where he remained three 
years. 

S. J. Quincy & W. D. Buckley, attorneys at law, were born in 
Otsego county, N. Y.; located in Sioux City in 1881. S. J. Quin- 
cy was admitted to the bar in N. Y., in 1879, and W. D. Buckley 
in Des Moines, la., the same year. They do a general law busi- 
ness. 



236 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

A. J. Redericb, dentist, was boru in N. Y. City in 1842; re- 
moved to 111., in 1853, and came to this city in 1870; graduated 
from a dental surgery college in Philadelphia in 1869, and opened 
his present office in 1870. He was married in Gralena, 111., to Al- 
ice Collins. They have three children — Mary, John, and Elmore. 

Wm, T. Reeve, manufacturer of buggies, wagons, etc., also re- 
pairer and horsesboer, established business in 1872. He was born 
in Stockholm, St. Lawrence county, N. Y., in 1847; removed to 
Wis., in 1858; thence to Minn., in 1871, and came to this city tlie 
following year. He served in the U. S. A., two years in the 193rd 
N. Y. regiment, under Col. Van Patten. He was fife-major. In 
1871 he married Laura J. Damron, of Minn. They have one 
child— Zenia M. 

E. J. Ressegieu, wholesale dealer in liquors, 2d street, estaldished 
business in 1873. He was born in N. Y. in 1849; removed to this 
city in 1867. He has just completed an addition to his place of 
business, 18 by 36 feet, which gives him a building 34 by 36 feet. 

John Reinhart, tailor and proprietor of cleaning establishment, 
3d street, between Pearl and Water streets, was born in Germany 
in 1839; came to America in 1856, and settled in Cincinnati, 0.; 
removed to Sioux Cily in 1870. He served in the war of the re- 
bellion three years in the 28th 0. I. as sergeant, also served in the 
regular army three years as corporal. 

Wm. Ring, barber. Pearl street under Dorman's bakery, was 
born in Germany in 1831; came to America in 1851: removed to 
St. Joe, Mo.; thence to Council Bluffs, and to Sioux City in 1867. 

L. M. Rogers, dealer in flour and feed, lower 4th street, was 
born in 111. in 1833; removed to Hardin county, la., where he was 
engaged in teaching school; thence to Cerro Gordo county; thence 
to Winnebago county. In 1858 he started for Pike's Peak, and 
that same year came to Sioux City. He was engaged in the rev- 
enue service here from 1868 to 1874. He has been deputy mar- 
shal of Woodbury county, and acted as special deputy U. S. mar- 
shal under Clark and Melendy. He served in the U. S. A. three 
years and four months under Capt. Millard, of this city; they were 
an independent company, but were afterwards attached to the 7th 
Iowa cavalry. 

C. C. Rounsevell, dealer in second-hand goods, was born in 1853; 
came to Sac county, la., in the spring of 1869; removed to Osceola 
county in 1874; thence to this city in 1881. He married Adrienne 
Cook, of St. Gilman, la. 

Hon. William Remsen Smith, Mayor of Sioux City, was boru 
atBarnegat, Ocean county. New Jersey, December 30th, 1828. At 
sixteen, he went to New York City, whence he removed to Macon, 
Mich. Returning to New York City, he studied medicine, after 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 237 

which he again located at Macon, where he practiced three years 
in partnersliip with Dr. Joseph HowelL In 1856 Dr. Smith re- 
moved to Sioux City. Here he practiced medicine for eleven years. 
In the spring of 1861, he was a first lieutenant of the Sioux City 
cavalry. About this time he was appointed government surgeon, 
holding that position until 1863. In March, 1863, he was elected 
Mayor of Sioux City. For several years after the rebellion closed, 
he acted as examining surgeon for the pension bureau. He was 
appointed receiver of the U. S. land office in 1865, and was one 
of the incorporators of the First National Bank of Sioux City, 
and of the Sioux City & St. P. and S. C. and Pembina railroads. 
Dr. Smith has held a numberof minor responsible public positions. 
He was one of the honorary commissioners of Iowa to the Paris 
exposition of 1878, traveled extensively through Europe, and while 
in England was made a member of the famous Cobden Club. He 
is now a correspondent of the leading agricultural journals of 
England. He was elected to his present office in 1881. In July, 
1859, he was married to Rebecca Osborne, of Macon, Mich. 

L. C. Sanborn, of the firm of Sanborn & Follett, proprietors of 
lumber yard and sawmill, (also own one-half interest in city mill 
and elevator), established business in 1856. The machinery for 
the saw mill was shipped on the first boat that landed at Sioux 
City. At that time there Avas but one store in this city. Mr. 
Sanborn was born in Chester, N. H., April 28th, 1827. In Jan., 
1856, he came west, and in Feb. of the same year he located at this 
place. He voted for the first city mayor, and was a member of the 
city council many years; also has served as a member of the school 
board several terms. 

Wm. Schudell, gunsmith, was born in Switzerland in 1851; 
came to America in 1872, and settled in N. Y., removed to this 
city in 1874. He married Phoebe Hoffler, of Germany. They had 
one child — William, now deceased. 

Rudolph Selzer, brewer, was born in Germany in 1828; came to 
America in 1853, and settled in Omaha,' Neb., where he built a 
brewery; removed to this city in 1860, and built the first brewery 
in Woodbury county. He Avas married in 1853 to Theresa Wasser, 
and has five children — Charles, Emma, Otto, Lewis and Fritz. 
Charles is foreman of the Avorks, and LcAvis is book-keeper and 
clerk. 

Daniel Shannon, proprietor of Shannon's meat market, estab- 
lished business in 1879. He was born in Philadelphia, Pa., in 
1846; removed to Ogle county. 111., in 1858; thence to Nebraska 
City in 1873; thence to Chicago, 111., in 1874; and came to this 
city in 1875. He has served as town clerk one term. He married 
Helen V. Utley, of Syracuse, Neb. 



'■Ada HISTORY OF IOWA. 

Frank L. Sharp, proprietor of Criterion sample room and billiard 
hall — corner 3d and Douglas sts. — was born in Ind. in 1853; re- 
moved to Sioux City in 185G. 

Andrew Shulson was born in Norway in 1855; came to America 
in 1867, and settled in Canton, Dak., and engaged in farming, 
until he moved to Sioux City, where he entered the employ of the 
firm of E. C. Palmer & Co., and remained until 1881. He mar- 
ried Laura Lawson, of Canton, Dak. 

E. W. Skinner, land, loan, and insurance agent, was born in 
Pa.; removed to Wis. in 1847, and located at Milwaukee; thence 
to Madison, and engaged in the manufacture of farm machinery 
and agricultural implements; also published the Wisconsin Farmer 
for several years. He came to Sioux City in 1872, and is secretary 
of the board of trade. 

Mr. C. D. Shreeve, dealer in groceries, confectionery, dry goods, 
notions, etc.^ — corner of 4th and Iowa sts. Mr. C. D. Shreeve 
was born in La Porte county, Ind., in 1844; removed to Des 
Moines, la., in 1867; thence to Sioux City in 1881, and is superin- 
tendent of the city gas works. He served in the late Avar three 
years in the 4th Ind. cavalry. In Aug., 1881, he married Marie C. 
Raybuck, of Washington county, Penn. He has two children by 
a former marriage — Carl C. and Ora A. 

M. L. Sloan, county auditor of Woodbury county, was born in 
Harrison county, 0., in 1848; removed to la. in 1866, and to Sioux 
City in 1870, and was employed in the auditor's ofiice as clerk. In 
1877 was elected to his present office. He was married in 1875 to 
Ida M. Hill, and has two children — Isabella P. and Alice M. 

F. M. Smith, of the firm of Smith & Farr, butter dealers, was 
born in Otsego county, N. Y., in 1835; removed to Sioux City in 
1876, and engaged in his present business. 

Thomas J. Stone, founder and cashier of the First National 
bank of Sioux City, was born in Niagara county, N. Y., in 1825; 
lived for several years on a farm near Mt. Vernon, 0., and removed 
to Marion, la., in 1851. He came to this city in 1855, and en- 
gaged in banking and land business. He founded the First Na- 
tional bank in 1871, and is the largest stockholder in the bank; 
was elected county treasurer in 1871, and held the office until 1878. 
Mr. Stone's son, E. H., is a graduate of Yale College, and at pres- 
ent assistant cashier in the bank. He also has a daughter, Alice E. 

Wm. Storey, proprietor of the North Star meat market, was 
born in England in 1848; came to America in 1866, and settled 
in Sioux City, where, for some time he was in the employ of J. 
Tucker and N. L. Witcher. He married Eveline Fenton. They 
have four children — Jane E., Emma M., Eveline M., and James E. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 239 

James Storey, proprietor of meat market, on Pearl street, was 
born in England in ISttO; came to America in 1869, and settled in 
Sioux City. He is largely engaged in buying stock. 

G. N. Swan, secretary and treasurer of Sioux City plow works, 
was born in Sweden in 1856; came to America in 1870, and settled 
in Lucas county, la.; removed to this city in 1880, and became a 
partner in his present business in the spring of 1881. The plow 
works were incorporated in May, 1880, with authorized capital of 
$100,000. A noteworthy feature of this establishment is the fact 
that the stockholders are all skilled mechanics, and all Avork in 
the different departments of the establishment. The buildings are 
of brick and situated within a few feet of the main track of the I. 
C. R. R., and have switching conveniences to the S. C. & P., and 
the C, St. P., M. & 0. R. R's. They are now making a full line 
of walking plows, and will commence soon to include every variety 
of plows used in the west, also cultivators, harrows, and other 
agricultural implements. 

Capt. J. H. Swan, attorney at law, was born in Canada in 1833; 
moved to Ohio at an early age, with his parents; thence to St. Paul, 
Minn., in 1851; spent some time among the Sioux Indians in west- 
tern Minn.; removed to Le Sueur in 1854, and engaged in the 
study of the law; was admitted to the bar in 1857, and practiced 
until the beginning of the war of the rebellion, when he enlisted 
in Co. I, 3rd Minn. Vol., as first lieutenant. He w-as promoted 
to captain and served until 1865, and then went to Little Rock, 
Ark.; thence back to Le Sueur, where he remained until 1871, when 
he removed to Sioux City, and has been engaged as attorney for 
the C, M., St. P, & 0. R. R. His son, C. M., is in partnership with 
him. They do a general law business. 

William Z. Swarts, proprietor of the Red Front auction store, 
was born in Carlisle, Cumberland county, Pa., in 1840; removed to 
Wooster, 0., in 1844. He enlisted in Co. I, 16th 0. regiment, 
and remained in the army until Jan. 28th, 1866, when he was mus- 
tered out; served in the official capacity of orderly sergeant. He 
moved to Iowa City, la., in 1866; thence to Chicago in 1871, 
where he was engaged v\ auctioneering; thence to Sioux City in 
1873. 

C. R. Tappan, of the firm of Tappan Bros., dealers in carriage 
and buggy horses, (Teams matched and horses bought and sold. 
They make a speciality of breaking vicious and wicked horses. Any 
horse that they can not manage they agree to send bi'ck to the 
owner and pay charges both ways. They also stand in readiness 
to drive races, and train horses for the track.) C. R. Tappan was 
born in ^. Y. in 1855; removed to Neb., in April, 1879; thence to 
Sioux City in Oct.. 1881. B. M. Tappan was born in Onandaigua 
county, N. Y., in 1857; in Sept,, 1881, he came to this city, and 



240 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

engaged in his present business. Tliey are thorough horsemen, 
and have had long experience in handling horses, 

F. C. Thompson, dealer in real estate, and insurance agent, was 
born in Whitby, Upper Canada; removed with his parents to Erie 
county, N. Y.; thence to Ottuniwa, la., in 1867, and engaged in 
the real estate and insurance business with C. C. Blake; thence to 
Sioux City in 1869. 

N. Tiedeman, of the firm of Tiedeman & Anthon, dealers in 
staple and fancy groceries, cigars, tobacco, etc., was born in Prus- 
sia in 1812; came to America in the spring of 1866, located in Dav- 
enport, la., and engaged in farming; removed to Sioux City the 
same year; is now an alderman of the city. 

Hugh Toohey, of the firm of Bussing & Toohey, proprietors of 
restaurant, corner of 6th and Pearl streets, established business in 
1881. He was born in Canada in 1859; came to Sioux City in 
1870, and Avas engaged for a time as clerk in St. Elmo hotel; was 
also employed at the Hubbard house. 

Joseph Trudell, manufacturer of carriages, buggies, etc., corner 
Pearl and 2d streets, is the patentee of the famous Trudell bolster 
plate, which is acknowledged to be the best thing of the kind ever 
invented. He was born in Montreal, Canada, in 1820; removed to 
St. Lawrence county, N. Y., in 1828; thence back to Canada, 
where he married Sophia Maynavd. He next removed to Elgin, 
111.; thence to Dubuque, la., where he lived twenty-five years; 
thence in 1873 to Sioux City. He has five sons and one daughter. 

John Tucker, proprietor of the Globe meat market, Peirce street, 
Hubbard house block, established business in 1867. In 1881 he 
refitted his place of business at a cost of $2,000, and has now all 
the modern improvements, his establishment being a credit to the 
city. He was born in England in 1838; came to America in 1858, 
and settled in Va. He removed to Sioux City in 1867. 

Geo. W. Wakefield, attoi-ney at law, was born in DeWitt county, 
111., in 1839. He enlisted in Co. F, 41st 111. Vol., and served three 
years; was wounded at Jackson, Miss., and returned to 111. He 
was admitted to the bar in De Witt county in 1867; came to Sioux 
City in 1868, and was elected county auditor in 1869, serving three 
years, after Avhich he resumed the practice of the law. 

Rev. D. R. Watson was born in Scotland in 1841; came to 
America in 1852; received his early education at White Star sem- 
inary, N. Y. He graduated in the nine years' course at Madison 
University in 1868, and at Rochester Theological Seminary in 1871, 
with the title of A. M. His first pastoral charge was at Lowville^ 
N. Y. He next went to Brandon, Vt.,- where he spent five years, 
and then to Wyoming Ter., Avhere he remained five months. He 
came to Sioux City in 1881. In 1876 he married Carlie E. Cope- 
ley, and has two children — John R. and Robinson D. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 241 

W. L. Wilkins, dealer in agricultural implements, came to Sioux 
City in 1870, and soon afterwards engaged in business, under the 
firm name of Davis & Wilkins; next as Wilkins Bros.; subse- 
quently W. L. Wilkins becaine sole proprietor. He has one of the 
leading establishments of the kind in the city. He handles all 
first class machinery, such as McCormick's, N. C. Thompson's and 
J. I. Case's various machinery, Harrison and Whitewater wagons, 
Eacine wagon and carriage company's goods, windmills, barbed 
wire, and is also a dealer in grain. 

A. C. Woodcock, dealer in groceries, produce, flour, etc., No • 
116, 4th street, was born in Westmoreland county. Pa.; removed 
to West Va.; thence to 0.; thence to Keokuk, la., where he wa 
employed in iron moulding; thence to this city. He served in the 
U. S. A. from Aug. 11th, 1862, to July, 1865, in Co. D, W. Va. 
Cav., under Gen. Custer, in the third division of Sheridan's corps; 
was first lieutenant, and acted as brigade commissary. He was at 
the final surrender at Appomattox. The night before the surren- 
der, their division captured thirty-six pieces of artillery at Appo- 
mattox depot. His company was the last company fired upon in 
the war of the rebellion. He married Emma Van Kuren, of Me- 
dina, N. y. 

SLOAN. 

R. C. Barnard, station agent and telegraph operator, was born 
in the District of Columbia in 1829; removed to Neb. in 1857. He 
platted the townsite of Grand Island; removed to Omaha in 1863, 
where he was city engineer for several years; in 1868 removed to 
Council Bluff's, and engaged in the dry goods business, and in 1870 
came to Sloan and engaged in the mercantile business with Beal & 
Evans. In 1873 he took charge of his present office. 

Joseph Gravel, farmer and stock dealer, was born in Canada in 
1843; came to the U. S. in 1850, and the next year located in Sioux 
City, where he was engaged in mercantile business for three years; 
then removed to Sergeant's Bluffs, and in 1870 removed to a farm 
near Sloan, and was the original owner of the town site of that 
place. He was appointed postmaster in 1866, and held the oifice 
two years, when he resigned. He is now engaged in stock raising 
on a farm of about one thousand acres. 

Edwin Haakinson, shipper and dealer in live stock, was born in 
Norway in 1844; came to America in 1861, and settled in Winne- 
bago county. Wis. In 1862 he enlisted in Co. C, 1st AVis. Heavy 
Art.; served three years, and was soon after the battle of Lookout 
Mountain taken sick with the small pox, and taken to the foot of 
the mt., and left to die; was there alone six days, survived and 
returned to the company, and was detailed to Gen. Lester's head- 
buarters as orderly, for six months; then was appointed mail car- 



242 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

rier between Knoxville and Greenville, Tenn. When discharged 
he returned to Wis., and engaged in ship-building. In 1869 he 
removed to Sloan, and engaged in mercantile business until lc78, 
when he engaged in his present business. He owns 180 acres of 
land near this place, and about $30,000 worth of business property 
in Sioux City. He married Carrie Hansen, in 1869, and has three 
children — Emil H., Carl, and Herbert W. Has lost one child by 
death. 

C. A. L. Olsen, dealer in general merchandise, was born in Nor- 
way, Dec. 1st, 1838; came to America in 1860, and settled in Mil- 
waukee, Wis.; was employed on the lakes as a sailor, seven years; 
came to Iowa in 1869, and settled on a farm near Sloan, and en- 
gaged in his present business in 1881. In 1867 he married Al- 
vildo Resmusen, and has seven children. 

W. M. Parker, proprieter of the Parker House, was born in Os- 
wego county, N. Y.; in 1837 removed to Adams county, Wis.; 
thence to Montana and engaged in mining; thence in 1867 went 
to Sioux City; thence in 1869 to Sergeant's Bluffs and to Sloan in 
1880 and engaged in hoteling. He married Silpha Ladd in 1859, 
they have two children. 

J. H. Scroggin, of the firm of J. H. Scroggin & Son, hardware 
dealers, was born in Tenn. in 1821; removed during childhood to 
111.; thence to Wis. in 1850; thence to Cass county, la. in 1872 
and the next year to Sloan and bought a farm near the town and 
engaged in farming until he entered his present business, in Mar. 
1881. He was married in 1848, and had ten children. The part- 
ner of the firm W. F., owns a farm near his father's; was married 
in 1877 and has two children. 




HISTOKY OF IOWA. 243 

MONONA COUNTY. 



This county lies on the Missouri River, and is in the fifth tier 
from the northern and southern boundaries of the State. It is 
twenty-four miles north and south, by an average of nearly thirty 
miles east and west, in extent, and comprises sixteen full congres- 
sional townships, and some four or five that are fractional, embrac- 
ing in all an area of about six hundred and eighty square miles. 
The Missouri River, which is the western boundary, runs in a 
southeasterly direction, making the southern boundary line some 
twelve miles shorter than the northern. 

A considerable area of the county is of bottom, or valley lands, 
upwards of one hundred and sixty-five thousand acres being in- 
cluded in the great Missouri River bottom, through the western 
portion of the county. The ascent of these bottoms to the north 
is more rapid than that of the Missouri River, thus leaving a small 
portion of these valuable lands subject to overflows in high water 
seasons, and rendering them sufficiently dry and well drained for 
easy and successful cultivation. 

The eastern portion of the county is a high and rolling prairie, 
well watered and drained by Willow Creek, Soldier and Maple Riv- 
ers, and their affluents, all of which are surrounded by wide, beau- 
tiful and exceedingly fertile valleys. The uplands abut abruptly 
on the bottoms along the east side of the Little Sioux, presenting 
the varied and peculiar features characteristic of the bluffs along 
the Missouri bottoms throughout their extent in the State. These 
bluffs are unusually uniform in elevation, the highest point being 
not less than three hundred feet above the sea level. The uplands 
in the immediate vicinity of the bluffs, are too broken and uneven 
to be practically adapted to agricultural uses, and are cut up with 
wooded ravines, while the valleys of the smaller streams, a few 
miles inland, are bordered by gentle acclivities which ascend from 
the sloping bottoms to the well rounded and gentle divides which 
intervene between the water courses. 

Most of the streams in the eastern part of the county are 
bordered by beautiful bottom lands, varying from one-half to two 
miles in width, while the streams themselves are margined by 
grassy banks, with beds composed of mire and quicksand. The 
Little Sioux River, with several other streams, afibrds some good 
water powers for machinery, on which several mills have been 
established, while numerous other eligible locations still remain- 
ing will yet be properly and simiharly utilized. Wells of excel- 
lent water are easily obtained in the valleys at depths varying from 
ten to twenty feet, while in the uplands it is often found neces- 
sary to sink through the bluff deposit to a depth of over one hun- 



24i HISTORY OF IOWA. 

dred feet before a permanent supply of water can be reached. 
Springs are found at frequent intervals issuing from the bluffs, 
and with the brooklets that are fed by them, as also with the 
larger streams, afford plenty of water for stock, which find excel- 
lent grazing on the uplands, while on the low-lands several varie- 
ties of native grasses furnish very nutritious hay. Several lakes 
of considerable size are found in the Missouri Valley, which are 
clear and inhabited with a variety of excellent fisli. Some of 
these lakes have the appearance of having once formed a portion 
of the channel of the Missouri, which is now, however, several 
miles distant, with heavy cottonwood groves intervening. 

The soil in the valleys is usually a deep black mold or fine loam, 
it is from six to fifteen feet in depth, and produces exceptionally 
large crops of corn, and other grains, and vegetables indigenous to 
the western slope. In the Missouri bottoais, low, sandy ridges are 
frequently met with, which are the remains of bars formed by the 
currents, when the river occupied the whole -width of the valley 
from bluff to bluff on either side. The bottom deposits are quite 
variable in the character of their component parts, though the 
fine, dark loam constitutes by far the greater proportion of the 
surface soil. This is generally underlaid by sand and gravel, and 
sometimes by a deposit of clay containing large quantities of par- 
tially decayed wood, and other vegetable matter, which are frequent- 
ly met with in sinking wells. Most of the upland is covered with 
a heavy coating of dark humus-charged loam, with subsoil of the 
light mulatto-colored bluff deposit. No sterile Inad is found in 
• the county, for even that which is broken in the vicinity of the 
bluffs, is very fertile, and produces excellent crops of wheat, oats 
and other cereals, and in its native state produces very fine pas- 
turage for stock. 

The largest bodies of timber are the extensive groves of cotton- 
wood, which border the banks of the Missouri, while more or less 
extensive groves of this and other kinds of timber are found on 
the Little Sioux, and many of the deep ravines running further 
back into the county are densely shaded with luxuriant forest 
growths. Like most of the counties on the Missouri slope in Iowa, 
Monona County has no stone or coal, while the bluff deposit fur- 
nishes an abundance of material for the manufacture of brick, 
which must be depended upon for the future supply of building 
material. The local supply of fuel, which all comes from the for- 
ests, though ample for the present wants, must become scarce in 
time, unless the future demand is anticipated by the cultivation of 
artificial groves. 

So far as can be ascertained, the first white man to spend the 
winter in Monona County was Aaron Cook, who with some asso- 
ciates, passed the winter of 1851 here, engaged in herding cattle. 
The first permanent settler was Isaac Ashton, who, in 1852, lo- 
cated about two miles north of the present town of Onawa, where, 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 245 

in 1855, he laid out the town of Ashton. Philip Ashton, who was 
frozen to death in the winter of 1852, was the first white person 
to die in Monona County. Other settlers came in the summer of 
1853, in which year Josiah Sumner located in the vicinity of On- 
awa, and Aaron Cook at (Jook's Landing, on the Missouri River, 
seven miles southwest of Onawa. Among others who cam-e prior 
to 1855, were C. E. Whiting, Robert Lindley, Timothy Elliott, J. 
E. Morrison, J. B. P. Day, and B. D. Holbrook. Several of the 
early settlers came from the eastern part of Iowa, while others 
were from Illinois and the Eastern States. 

Among the early settlers of the county was Charles B. Thomp- 
son, a Mormon leader, who, with a number of followers, located 
on the Soldier River, in what is now called Spring Valley Town- 
ship, about fifteen miles southwest of the present town of Onawa. 

They commenced their settlement in 1854. Thompson called 
the place Preparation, as he designed here to prepare his apostles 
for the "good time coming." As Thompson was an important 
man in the early history of Monona county, some account of him, 
and of the enterprise in which he was a leader, will be of interest. 
He had been a follower and disciple of Joe Smith at Nauvoo, but 
went to St. Louis in 1852, and organized a church. In the sum- 
mer of 1853, he sent some of his followers as commissioners to 
look for and select a location for his people in Iowa. They selected 
the valley of the Soldier in the south part of Monona county, all 
the land at that time being vacant. 

In 1854 he brought some fifty or sixty families, and pre-empted 
several thousand acres of the best land to be found in the region.. 
Some of the land he subsecpiently entered. Thompson regulated 
and controlled all the affairs of the colony, both temporal and spir- 
itual, pretending that he had authority to do so under the direc- 
tion of a spirit which he called Baneemy. Among other assump- 
tions, he pretended that he was the veritable Ephraim of the 
Scriptures, and directed his people to call him Father Ephraim. A 
strict compliance with his teachings divested his followers of all 
worldly care, and prepared them for the further essential doctrine 
of his religion, that in order to obtain the Kingdom, they must 
sacrifice all their earthly possessions. They accordingly conveyed 
to him all their lands and other property, including even their 
wearing apparel, and the right to their services. 

Under this arrangement, ''Father Ephraim" and Baueemyism 
progressed swimmingly, until the autumn of 1855, when a little 
rebellion occurred under the leadership of an Elder named Hugh 
Lytle, who, with some twenty of them, began a suit in the courts 
for the recovery of their ])roperty; but they failed, and the matter 
was subsequently compromised by the Lytle party receiving some 
of their property and withdrawing from the society. 

The remainder adhered to Thompson without serious difficulty 
until the autumn of 1858. During the summer of that year, most 



246 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

of the male adults of the society were absent in other States, 
preaching the doctrines of Baneeniyism to the Gentiles. Thomp- 
son, who arrogated to himself the title of "Chief Steward of the 
Lord," took advantage of their absence to convey all the realty to 
his wife, Catharine Thompson, and to one Guy C. Barnum, reserv- 
ing only forty acres as a homestead for himself. His disciples, 
hearing of this transaction, returned and immediately called on 
''Father Ephraim" for restitution. Being unable to obtain a sat- 
isfactory adjustment of the matter, they notified him that on a 
stated day he would be expected to meet them in Preparation to 
make settlement. 

The " Chief Steward of the Lord,'' and "Assistant Steward of 
the Lord " Barnum, had not sufficient courage to " face the 
music," however, and postponed their visit to Preparation until 
the day after the one appointed, doubtless thinking that the 
angry crowd would have become dispersed by that time. On the 
way they were met, about a mile from the village, by a young wo- 
man who had not yet lost confidence in "Father Ephraim" and 
Baneeniyism, and who informed them that the people were still con- 
gregated at Preparation, and would hang him on sight; which in- 
formation had the effect on "Father Ephraim" it Avas well calcu- 
lated to have, especially as at about that moment of time, men on 
horseback were observed coming from Preparation at full speed, 
and heading in a!l earnestness in the direction of the Chief Steward 
and Assistant. Springing from the wagon in which they were seated, 
and unharnessing their horses, the two Stewards hurriedly sprang 
upon the backs of the animals, and the chase, which ensued, was 
of an exciting and highly interesting character. After a lively 
race of fifteen miles, across prairies and over creeks and ravines, 
the "Father" and the "Assistant Father," arrived safely in 
Onawa. where they were given protection by the citizens. 

Thompson went from Onawa to St. Louis, and Barnum remained 
in Onawa until the following spring, removing thence to Nebraska, 
where he, in course of time, became a prominent citizen. Thomp- 
son subsequently attempted to found another similar religious 
society, but was unsuccessful, and next turned his attention to 
publishing a book on the "Origin of the Black and Mixed Races," 
which book he pretended to translate largely from the Hebrew 
and Greek languages, which, it is said, he in reality knew nothing 
about. The last heard of him by his former followers in Monona, 
was to the effect that he was in Philadelphia in destitute circum- 
stances. After his flight from Preparation, his family was sent 
to him at Onawa, his followers (?) dividing the personal property 
among themselves, each taking such of his own property as he 
could identify. An action in chancery was immediately begun to 
set aside the conveyances of real estate, which litigation lingered 
in the courts for eight years, or until December, 1866, when the 
conveyances were all declared to be fraudulent, and were set aside, 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 247 

the Supreme Court of Iowa holding that Thompson held the 
property only as a trustee. The property was sold under an order 
of the court, and the proceeds were divided among the original 
contributors in ratio to the amount contributed by each. Of the 
sixty families brought to Monona by Thompson — to the settle- 
ment at Preparation — only three or four remain — to such an in- 
glorious termination was Baneenyism destined to attain. 

The proper name by which this peculiar sect sought to be known 
is said to have been the ''Congregation of Jehovah's Presbytery of 
Zion," which was contracted to ''Con-je-pre-zion," and hence the 
members came to be known as the "Conjeprezionites." Prepara- 
tion was also familiarly known as Baneemy Town. 

Monona county was organized in 1854. At the time of its or- 
ganization, it had a population of 222; its population in 1860 was 
832; in 1865 the population was 1,056; in 1870 it had reached 3,654, 
which was increased to 5,967 in 1875, and to 9,055 in 1880. 
Thirty-two votes were cast for Governor in the county in 1854; 
134 votes were cast in 1857, and in 1859, Samuel J. Kirkwood and 
A. C. Dodge, Gubernatorial candidates, each received 105 votes in 
the county. 

Charles B. Thompson was appointed the first County Judge. 
This was before the location of the county seat, so that the first 
county business was transacted at Preparation. In the autumn of 
1854, the county seat was located by the commissioners appointed 
by the Legislature. They gave the place selected the name of 
Bloomfield, but there being another town of that name in the 
State, it was changed to Ashton. The county seat remained there 
until the spring of 1858, when it was removed to Onawa by a 
vote of the people. The following were the first county officers: 
Charles B. Thompson, County Judge; Guy C. Barnum, Treasurer; 
Hugh Lytle, Clerk; Homer C. Hoyt, Sherifi". 

Monona county then embraced what is now the west range of 
townships of Crawford county, but the change was made in accoixl- 
ance with the votes of both counties in 1865. In 1860 a vote was 
taken on the question of the removal of the county seat from 
Onawa to Belvidere, and another vote was taken in 1862, on the 
removal to Areola; both of which attempts, however, failed, and 
the location of the Sioux City & Pacific Railroad may be said to 
have, in all probability, finally settled the question. 

The first newspaper was published by "Father Ephraim" Thomp- 
son at Preparation, and was called Zion Harhitujer and WeeJcbj 
Messenger. Thompson also published a monthly periodical. Dur- 
ing the continuance of this paper, it flourished under several dif- 
ferent names, such as the Weekly Neivs and Messenger and the 
Democratic Messenger. This paper was started in 1854; in 1855, 
Thompson published a paper called the Onawa Adventure. In 
November, 1860, a paper was commenced at Onawa, by A. Dim- 
mick and D. W. Butts, called the Monona Cordon. The next pa- 



2iS HISTORY OF IOWA. 

per, the West Iowa Gazette, was started by Mr. Butts about the be- 
ginning of 1863, and was succeeded in 1865 by the Monona 
Count}) Gazette, the first number of which was issued December 
2d, 1865, F. M. Howdendobler and C. H. Aldridge being the pub- 
lishers. The People's Press made its first appearance in Onawa 
in 1870. 

The first frame house erected in the county was built at Prep- 
aration in the summer of 1853, of materials brought from Potta- 
wattamie county. Thomas Lewis taught the first school in the 
county at Preparation in the same year. In 1851: the first lumber 
was sawed at Preparation. Amos Chase, at the same settlement, 
was the pioneer blacksmith. John S. Blackburn began the mak- 
ing of that very palatable article, corn meal, in 1857. In 1857, a 
frame school house was erected at Ashton. 

The first ofiicers of Ashton Township were: Lorenzo D. Driggs, 
J. B. Gard, Justices of the Peace; Josiah Sumner, Isaac Ashton, 
J. B. Gard, Trustees; Aaron Cook, Clerk; Lorenzo Driggs, Asses- 
sor; J. Sumner, M. Owens, Constables. 

The present county ofiicers of Monona county are: C. H. 
Aldridge, Clerk; James Walker, Sherifi"; John K. McCasky, 
Auditor; G. H. 13ryant, Treasurer; M. W. Bacon, Recorder; J. B. 
P. Day, Surveyor; J. G. Iddings, Superintendent of Schools; G'. 
M. Scott, E. Wilber, Fred. McClausland, Board of Supervisors. 

The Sioux City & Pacific Railroad traverses the county from 
north to south, along its western border. A branch of the Chicago 
& Northwestern enters Monona County at the northeast corner, 
and terminates at Mapleton Station. This line is, it is presumed 
to be built through the county, touching Onawa, and extended 
into Nebraska, crossing the Missouri at Decatur. Another line, 
running from a point in the western part of Crawford county, 
through Monona County, and passing on to Sioux City, is looked 
forward to. This line is expected to be built by the W. & St, P. 
company, and will pass about ten miles ea'^t of the county seat. 

The towns of Monona County are: Whiting, situated in the ' 
northwestern part, on the Sioux City & Pacific; Mapleton, to the 
northwest; Soldier, to the southeast, and Onawa in the western 
part of the county. 

ONAWA. 

The prosperous and progressive town of Onawa, the county seat 
of Monona County, is located near the middle line of the county, 
north and south, and about eight miles east of the Missouri River, 
but only about four miles from the nearest point on the river to 
the southwest. The Monona Land Company laid out Onawa in 
1857, including in its area about six hundred acres, with about six 
hundred additional acres of out-lots. The principal streets run 
cast and west, and are one hundred and fifty feet in width, the 



HISTOKY OF IOWA. 249 

other streets being eighty feet wide, with uUeys sixteen feet wide. 
Two blocks were reserved in the northern part of the town for 
public parks. 

S. S. Pearse built the first house in Onawa July 2d, 1857; the 
Onawa House was raised on the 4th of the same month, by J. E. 
Morrison. Among the first settlers were Judge C. E. Whiting, J. 
E. Morrison, Timothy Elliott, R. G. Fairchild and S. S. Pearse. 

Surrounded by an excellent farming country, with plenty of 
timber within two or three miles, Onawa is certain to develop into 
a point of considerable importance. Since its incorporation, and 
the completion of the railroad, the population of the town has 
steadily increased. Onawa is thirty-seven miles from Sioux City, 
about sixty-five miles from Council Bluffs, and thirty-eight miles 
from Missouri Valley Junction. 

Up to 1868, Onawa remained a sub-district of Franklin township 
district. A petition was presented in that year, praying for a spec- 
ial election to vote upon the question of the organization of an in- 
dependent school district. This petition was granted, and the or- 
ganization was eifected February 22d, 1808. The membei'S of the 
Board, for the first year, were: Charles Atkins, President; James 
Armstrong, Vice-President; F, M. Snow, Secretary; N. A. Whit- 
ing, Treasurer; R. G. Fairchild, L. D. Sittle and J. E. Selleck, Di- 
rectors, The first school taught in the town was taught by A. R. 
Wright, now of Sioux City, in a little log school house, now on 
Main street, about the year 1857. There was a brick school house — 
28x50 feet in dimensions, and one-story high, erected subse- 
quently, which was successfully utilized until the building of the 
present edifice in 1874. The present public school building is a 
fine brick structure, 48x85 feet, and three-stories high. It con- 
tains six rooms. The building cost in the neighborhood of §20,- 
000. The present school officers are: Board of Education — J. K. 
McCaskey, President; S. B. Martin, Secretary; C. H. Holbrook, 
Treasurer: N. A. Whiting, B. D. Holbrook, G. E. Warner, J. E. 
Selleck, M. Vincent, members of the Board. The corps of teach- 
ers as composed at this writing, is as follows: W. H. Dempster^ 
Principal; Belle M. Gilcrest, Assistant Principal; W. J. Maugh- 
lin, Annie C. Gillette, D. E. Smith, Flora J. Maughlin, Bessie 
Gray, teachers. Present enrollment, about 300. The school build- 
ing is a model of architectural beauty and finish, the rooms are 
large, heated by means of furnaces, ventilated in accordance with 
the Ruttan system, and furnished with single and combination 
desks. 

The Court House at Onawa was built by the Monona Land 
Company in 1858, and donated to the county. The building cost 
about $7,000. 

A summarized history of Monona county's newspapers has been 
given hitherto. Room — or rather want of room — only suffices 
here to say that the Monona Counfif Gazette was taken charge of 



250 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

in 1879 by W. A. Green alone, who ran the paper until 1870, 
when it subsequently passed into the ownership of the Gazette 
Publishing Company, with Mr. J. D. Ains worth as the editor. In 
1875, Ainsworth became sole proprietor, and has continued to hold 
the fort in a most commendable way. The Gazette is an eight- 
column folio, and has a circulation in excess of 800 copies. 

The first railroad was completed to Onawa in November, 1867. 
The town gave the company the right of way, and lots, and cash 
to the amount of $8,000, besides donating twenty acres of land 
for depot grounds. Onawa has a reasonable prospect for a rail- 
road from Mapleton during the present year. 

The date of the platting of Onawa was the year 1857. The 
following persons composed the Monona Land Company: T. 
Elliott, J. E. Morrison, J. L. Merritt, C. E. Whiting, E,. G. Fair- 
child, S. S. Pearse, A. B. Gard, W. S. Phillips, A. Dimmick; 
Judge Whiting being the President; T. Elliott, Treasurer; S. S. 
Pearse, Secretary. 

The first Mayor of Onawa was Dr. R. Stebbins. Present 
municipal officers: H. E. Morrison, Mayor; T. P. Noble, Record- 
er; J. C. Pike, D. B. Kenyon, John Cleghorn. J. R. Thurston, 
T. C. Walton, Council. 

The business interests of Onawa may be classiHed, with reason- 
able accuracy, as follows : 

General stores, four; groceries, three; drugstores, two; millinery, 
ihree; harness, two; hardware, two; meat markets two; clothing, 
one; Jewelry, one; agricultural implements, two; flour and feed, 
one; bank, one; barber shop, one; hotels, three; blacksmith shops, 
three; furniture, one; boots and shoes, two; livery, two; lumber, 
one; flouring mill, one; fancy goods, one; saloons, two. 

CHURCHES AND SOCIETIES. 

Congregational Church Society. — The Congregational Society 
was organized June 27th, 1858, by Rev. G. G. Rice, of Council 
Bluffs, and Rev. Reuben Gaylord, of Omaha. The first-named 
gentleman was the society's first pastor, and he was succeeded by 
the Rev. George L. Woodhull, who died October 1st, 1870, aged 
28 years. Mr. Woodhull's successor was the present pastor, Rev. 
Charles N. Lyman, who assumed the charge January 1, 1871. The 
church edifice was erected in 1870, and was dedicated in Decem- 
ber of that year. The cost was ^6,000, Prior to the erection of 
this building, the society held its services in the Court House. The 
present membership of the society is fifty-five. A Sabbath School, 
with an average attendance of seventy-five pupils, is connected 
with the church. The superintendent of the school is the Rev. 
Charles N. Lyman. 

^Methodist Episcopal Church Society . — The Methodist Episcopal 
Society was organized October 9th, 1870, by Rev. J. F. Walker, 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 251 

who was the first pastor. The successive pastors were: Revs. L. 
H. Woodworth, A. L. Mattisoii, 0. S. Bryan,. J. B. Starkey, J. 
Warner, H. W. Jones, S. W. Owen, C. E. Chase, F. A. Burdick 
and A. J. Beebe, the latter being the present pastor. The edifice 
now in use was built in L878, at a cost of ^2,000. The society had 
previously held services in the public school house. The present 
membership is forty-three. The society has a parsonage, which 
was built in 1873. during Rev. Starkey's pastoral term. There is 
also a Sabbath School with about seventy-five pupils, the superin- 
tenaent of which is Miss D. E. Smith. The present Trustees of 
the society are: M. W. Bacon, S. W. Grow, L. D. Sittle, W. C. 
Marr andT. C. Walton. 

Roman Catholic Church Society. — The Catholic Church Society 
at Onawa may be considered to date its existence from the build- 
ing of its church edifice in the latter part of 1872. Mass had been 
celebrated there occasionally, as far back as 1866, and in 1867, 
when Bishop Hennessy assumed charge of the w^estern part of 
the State, which, during the government of his predecessor, 
Bishop Smythe, had been administered by the late Bishop O'Gor- 
man, of Omaha. Mass was celebrated prior to 1866, by priests 
of the Diocese of Nebraska, and particularly by Father Tracy, 
of old St. John's, who had charge from the Yellowstone to the 
Platte. Rev. B. C. Lenehan is the present pastor. 

Monona Lodge No. 880, I. 0. 0. F. — This Lodge was organ- 
ized June 7th, 1878, by Grand Master A. J. Morrison. The 
charter members were: E. W. Holbrook,. H. W. Cady. L. H. 
Belknap, John Douglas, C. M. Ross, J. S. Baggs, D. L. Utterback, 
James Carmody, R. Horning and J. K. McCaskey. The first 
officers were: J. K. McCaskey, N. G.; J. Carmody, V. G.; J. 
Douglas, S.; E. W. Holbrook, T. The membership of the Lodge 
is twenty-eight. Present officers: P. T. Noble, N. G.; Geo. W. 
Penn, V. G.; L. D. Sittle, S.; W. M. Bacon, T. The meetings 
of the Lodge are held on every Saturday night of each week in 
the hall of the society over the bank. 

Vesjjer Lodge No. 223, A. F. and A. M. — A dispensation was 
granted to this Lodge August 28th, 1867. The first officers were: 

F. W. Snow, W. M.: James Butts, S. W.; Truman Pierce, J. W.; 
Charles Atkins, S.; Fred McCouslan, T.; W. A. Grow, S. D.; M. 
A. Treeland, J. D.; John Baggs, Tyler. Acharter was granted the 
Lodge June 3d, 1868. The charter members were F. VV. Snow, 
James Butts, Truman Pierce and other wortny gentlemen. The 
present officers are: James Walker. AV. M.; H. Douglas, S. W.; 

G. E. Warner, J. W.; J. D. Ainsworth, S.; R. Stebbins, F. S.; B. D. 
Holbrook, S. D.; D. Handle, J. D.; J. D. Giddings, S. S.; 0. D. 
Bishop, J. S.; F. W. Snow, Tyler. The Lodge meets every 
Wednesday, on or after each full moon, in the hall over the bank. 
The membership of this society is thirty-eight, and it is in a flour- 
ishing condition. 



252 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

Monona County Agricultural Association. — This association was 
organized in the spring of 1871, as a stock company. The first of- 
ficial board of directors was composed of the following-named gen- 
tlemen: C. E. Whiting, Fred McCausland, J. E. Morrison, M. A. 
Freeland, W. G. Kennedy, A. Dimmick and E. Peak. The first 
officers were: C. E. Whiting, President; M. A. Freeland, Vice- 
President; James Walker, Secretary; B. D. Hoi brook. Treasurer. 
The association owns thirty-five acres of land situated about one 
mile north of Onawa, which land is enclosed with a good, substan- 
tial fence. Inside the enclosure is Floral Hall, an excellent build- 
ing, with dimensions of 20x40 feet, as well as an additional ''L," of 
24x60 feet. There are also a fine Amphitheatre and good stables 
and cattle-sheds. A half-mile race-track is another improvement. 
All these are in good condition. The present board of directors is 
composed of W. T. Boyd, A. Oliver, J. D. Woodward, J. B. P. 
Day, R. G. Fairchild, C. E. Whiting and G. E. Warner. The 
present officers are: A. Oliver, President; J. B. P. Day, Vice- 
President; J. D. Ainsworth, Secretary; B.D. Holbrook, Treasurer. 
The society is in a very prosperous condition. Its last annual 
fair, the ninth, was held in September, 1881. 

Monona County Old Settlers' Association. — This association 
was organized in August, 1879, by C. E. Whiting, R. Stebbins, 
T. R. Carratt, J. E. Morrison, Judge Oliver, F. H. Day and others. 
The first officers were: F, H. Day, President; C. E. "Whiting, C. 
M. Scott, W. L. Ring, Vice-Presidents; James Walker, Secretary, 
R. Stebbens, T. R. Carratt, John Heisler, James Robinson, J. D. 
Woodward. Executive Committee. Present Officers: W. L. 
Ring, President; F. F. Roe, T. Elliott, G. M. Scott, Vice-Presi- 
dents; James Walker, Secretary and Treasurer; J. B. P. Day. C. 
E. Whiting, Judge Oliver, J. Cleghorn, Executive Committee. 
The present membership of the association is about 275. 

MAPLETON. 

This growing town was platted in the autumn of 1877, by the 
railroad company. The first hotel was built by A. P. Kennedy in 
1877. The Maple River branch of the Chicago & Northwestern 
Railroad, was completed from Maple River Junction, the first 
train arriving in October, 1877. A branch of the C, M. & St. P. 
R. R. from Sioux City to Mapleton is now graded, and will ere 
long be placed in running order. 

In September, 1877, J. Garrison built the first store in Maple- 
ton. It was 10x12 feet in dimensions. The Messrs. Scott soon 
afterwards built the store they now occupy. 

The first settlers in the village were: J. Garrison, W. F. Scott 
and brothers, W. F. McHenry and B. Whiting, who settled here 
in the autumn of 1877. The town was incorporated in 1878, with 
J. F. Scott as Mayor. The population is about 600. 



HISTORY OF IOWA, 253 

The Mapleton Bank was organized October 3d, 1878, with B. 
Whiting, President; N. H. Bliss, Cashier, and with abundance of 
capital. It is a flourishing and substantial institution. At pres- 
ent, B. Whiting is the President, C. I. Whiting, Cashier. 

The schools of Mapleton are graded, and in excellent condition. 
A handsome structure was erected in 1880-81, at a cost of |3,500. 
J. A. Wakefield is the Principal. About 100 pupils are enrolled. 

An order of Odd Fellowship was organized Sept 11th, 1879, with 
five charter members. J. Hutton was the first N. G. The Lodge 
now has twenty-five members. 

A Masonic order was organized in July, 1880, with ten charter 
members. The present membership is fifteen. J. D. Rice Avas 
the first Master of this Lodge. 

The Presbyterian Church Society was organized July 31st,' 1881, 
by Rev. A. K. Baird, assisted by Rev. J. C. Gilkerson, thejpresent 
pastor, with a membership of seventeen. The church officers are 
one Elder and thi-ee Trustees. 

The M.E. Church Society of Mapleton was organized by Rev. 
Thomas Cuthburt, during the year of 1880. The church edifice, a 
neat and durable brick building of^the Gothic style, 32x50 feet in 
dimensions, was erected during the same year, at a cost of §2,300, 
and the ^following Trustees were appointed: W. E. Roberts, 
President; B. Whiting, Treasurer; George Adams, Secretary; A. 
W. Cobland, G. A. Smith, Trustees. The Society is small, but grow- 
ing, was organized with a membership of six, and now numbers 
twenty. During the year, 1881, the Society built a parsonage at a 
cost of §800, the building being in every way highly creditable to 
the organization. There is, in this connection a Sabbath School, 
with an average attendance of eighty. W. E. Roberts is the 
Superintendent. Rev. H. P. Dudley is the present pastor. 

The Baptist Church Society was organized in' March, 1866, by 
Rev. George Scott. Its membership is thirty-eight. Rev. W. H. 
Dorward is the present pastor. 

The Mapleton cornet band was organized in 1880, with ten 
members. A. I. Lanterman is the leader. 

Mapleton's business and professional establishments are repre- 
sented as follows: Four general stores, one [newspaper — the 
Mapleton Press — one bank, four hotels, two livery stables, two 
hardware stores, three saloons, two blacksmiths, one boot and 
shoe store, one grocery, one millinery store, one harness shop, four 
physicians, two grain dealers, two lumber yards, one wagon factory, 
one furiiiture store, one farm machinery establishment, two meat 
markets, four dealers in live stock. - 

An article with the captivating caption, "Society in' Mapleton," 
says: "Mapleton will com])are favorably with older towns east 
or west as regards[ social privileges. Although a town of only 
eighteen months' -growth, Ave here find manv advantages that 
Avould be'prij-ed^by those seeking homes in the AVost. 



254 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

"Our people are mostly from the Eastern States, and are well 
informed, public spirited and up with the times. As yet we are 
without an organized church, hut union services and Sunday school 
are regularly held in the public hall, and there is a prospect that 
either a Presbyterian or Congregational society will soon be 
formed. The Methodist Episcopal church contemplate building a 
house of worship the coming summer. 

''The 'Blue Ribbon' movement has reached Mapleton, and up- 
ward of 200 have signed the pledge. It is to be hoped that efforts 
that have been made in this direction will not be in vain. 

"A literary society has been sustained during the past winter 
with considerable interest. Lectures, readings, concerts and other 
entertainments have not been wanting to afford amusement for 
the winter evenings. The many demands for money incident to 
carrying on the enterprise of a new town are met with cheerful- 
ness and a ready response by our citizens and no laudable undertak- 
ing has 3^et failed for the lack of means. 

"A tax has been levied in Maple Township and partly collected 
for the purpose of erecting a substantial school building, that will 
be the pride of our city. A mayor, six alderman, and other effi- 
cient officers manage municipal affairs; quiet and good order uni- 
versally prevail in our midst. 

"People looking for homes in Western Iowa should visit Maple- 
ton before deciding on a permanent location." 

The following is taken from editorial correspondence to the 
Carroll (la.) Herald : " Western Iowa is constantly furnishing 
examples of the sudden rise and rapid growth of new towns. The 
wild prairie of yesterday is frequently transformed into the busy 
and bustling center of trade to-day. One of the most notable of 
these instances is found in the history of Mapleton, from which 
place I write. Theto^vn was platted in the fall of 1877, and is 
consequently less than a year and a half old. The Maple River 
branch of the Northwestern road reached here about the middle 
of October, 1877. At that time there was no settlement worth 
mentioning. Now the town numbers five hundred inhabitants, 
and is growing steadily. The railroad, which leaves the main line 
sixty miles southeast, terminates at Mapleton. By virtue of this 
fact, the place enjoys exceptional advantages over other towns on 
the line. It is located near the beautiful Maple River in the far- 
famed Maple Valley, long noted as comprising within its limits 
the finest farming land in the west, but until recently not accessi- 
ble by railroad. It will doubtless remain the terminal station for 
years to come, and its present prosperity cannot but increase in 
the future. Although Mapleton is young, it has none of the 
characteristics of a mushroom town. The buildings are ex- 
tremely creditable and calculated for permanency. Many of 
the residences are handsome and attractive. The location of the 
town is excellent. It lies on high, but nearly level ground. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 255 

sloping just enonojli to afford good drainage. The residence lots 
are all superior, and there is ample room for a large city. The 
land surrounding it is unexcelled for agricultural purposes, nearly 
every acre being tillable. The Maple River furnishes numerous 
water powers, there being three grist mills within five miles of 
the town." 

WHITING. 

Although comparatively young, in respect to many other 
Western Iowa towns, Whiting has made rapid strides since its 
first settlement. A complete representation of its more enter- 
prising business establishments will be found among the bio- 
graphical data hereunto appended. 



MONONA COUNTY BIOGRAPHIES 



ONAWA. 



James Butts, M. D., was born in Genesee county, N. Y., in 
1822; remained at home until twenty-one years of age; then began 
the study of medicine. He moved to Wis. in 1856, and engaged 
in the practice of medicine; was also postmaster while in that 
State. He removed to Kans. in 1860, traveled extensively through 
the west, settled at Onawa in 1866, and has practiced medicine 
there ever since. He cpened a drug store in 1873, and after four 
years, sold it. He has been twice married; the first time in 18-14, 
and to Lucy L. Crawford, in 1880. 

I. Cummings, dealer in groceries and provisions, was born in N. 
Y. in 1844; removed to Fremont county, la., in 1855; thence to 
Chicago, 111., in 1871, where he remained five years, and located in 
Onawa, la., in 1877. In 1881, engaged in the present business, by 
buying out J. R. Thurston. 

John Douglas, jeweler and music dealer, was born in Scotland 
in 1851; came to America in 1872, and settled in Neb.; moved to 
Onawa in 1876, and engaged in his present business. He was 
married in 1876, and has two children — Mary, and an infant 
daughter. 

W. J. Eva, harness manufacturer, Avas born in Wis. in 1847; 
removed to Worthington, Nobles county, Minn., in 1872; thence 
to Onawa, la., in 1876, and engaged in his present business in 
1878. He was married in 1875 to Lucy Manning, and has three 
children. 



256 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

B. D. & Clias. Holbrook; proprietors of the bank at Onawa, came 
from Pa. to this city in 1857, and engaged in the law, loan and real 
estate business, until 1865, when they opened the bank. H. E. 
Morrison is cashier of the bank. 

A. G. Hurst, farmer and stock dealer, was born in lud. in 1832; 
removed with parents in 1836 to 111.; thence to Newton, la. In 
1855 came to Ashtou, near Onawa. He enlisted in March, 1862, 
in Co. K., 17th la., and] re-enlisted as a veteran in the same com- 
pany. He was taken prisoner with the rest of the regiment and 
confined at Anderson ville one hundred and eighty-five days; was 
discharged at Davenport, la., June 16th, 1865, and returned to 
Mofloua county, and engaged in farming and dealing in stock. He 
was married in 1859, to Julia Brink, and has ten children. 

W. H. Kelsev was born in N. Y. in 1841. He enlisted in Co. B, 
64th N. Y. Vol., in 1861, was discharged in 1862; re-enlisted in the 
13th N. Y. Heavy Art. as a veteran, and was again discharged in 
1865. He was one of five brothers, who enlisted; two were killed 
and the others disabled in the service. He came to Onawa in 1865. 
He was married|in 1877. 

D. B. Kenyon, miller and grain dealer, was born in N. Y. in 
1845; removed to Wis. in 1856, and from thereto Onawa in 1872, 
and engaged in his present business. He was married in 1869 to 
N. F. Freeland. They have one son and two daughters. 

C. G. Perkins, postmaster, and dealer in general merchandise, 
was born in Rockingham county, N. Y., in 1830; removed to M'^is. 
in 1855, and engaged in farming. He enlisted in 1862 in Co. 
G, 19th Wis., and was discharged in 1865; then came to Onawa, 
and engaged in farming four years. He was then elected county 
recorder; resigned in 1872. He was a member of the 14th assem- 
bly in 1872-3; engaged in his present business in 1873. He was 
married in 1853 to R. S. Stearns, and has three children — C. W., 
Mary W. and Addie M. 

P. Sawyer, proprietor of city blacksmith shop, was born in Ox- 
ford county. Me., in 1846. He enlisted in 1862, in Co. D. 28th 
Me. Vol.; was discharged in 1863, and went to Concord, Mass.; 
thence to Onawa in 1865. He was married in 1867, to M. T. Cun- 
ningham. They have four children — Edwin E., Altha M., Earl, 
and Margie, 

John W. Somers, druggist, was born in N. C. in 1834; removed 
to Champaign county, 111., in 1843 and was clerk of the courts for 
several years. He enlisted in 1862 in the 76th 111. Vol. as a pri- 
vate; was promoted to commissary sergeant, then to first lieuten- 
ant, and regimental quarter-master; left the army in 1865, and re- 
turned to 111. He engaged in the drug business in 1867 at Urbana, 
and in 1879 removed to Onawa, and again engaged in the drug 
business. He was married in 1858 to Sarah J. Fitzgerald. They 
have one son and one daughter. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 257 

Richard Stebbins, M. D., and druggist, was born in Springfield, 
Mass., in 1824. He was educated JPor a physician; removed to 
Council Bluffs in 1857, and engaged in the practice of medicine; 
remained there six months; removed to Onawa, and continued the 
practice of his profession, and engaged in the drug business in 
1864. He was married in 1859 to Mary J. Billings, and has a son 
and a daughter. 

J. R. Thurston, proprietor of the Onawa House, was born in 
Herkimer county, N. Y., in 1833; removed to Cass county^ la., in 
1856; thence to Onawa in 1860, and engaged in farming, until 
1877, when he engaged in the mercantile business, Avhich he sold 
in 1881, and engaged in his present businees. He was married in 
1855, and has five children. 

T. C. Walton, proprietor of the Walton House, was born in 
Somerset county, Me., in 1829; removed to Wis., in 1854, and re- 
mained two years and returned to Me. In 1864 he again removed 
to Wis., settling in St. Croix county, and engaged in the drug 
business. In 1869 he came to Onawa, la., and in 1871 built the 
hotel he now occupies. He has been twice married, and has four 
children — Lona, Ida, Geo. and William. 

Maj. George E. Warner, dealer in general merchandise, was 
born in Sullivan county, N. H., in 1843. He went to Boston, 
Mass., at the age of twelve to learn the dry goods business. In 
1862 he enlisted in the 6th Mass. battery, and at the end of six 
monthi^, entered the lOtli U. S. colored corps as first lieutenant; 
was promoted to Major, and discharged in that rank in 1867; came 
to Onawa, la., and engaged in his present business. He was mar- 
ried in 1868 to Mollie E. Morrison, of Onawa, and has one child, 
a daughter. 

N. A. Whiting, dealer in general hardware, was born in N. Y., 
in 1823; lived on a farm until eighteen years of age; then learned 
carriage making, in which business he was engaged for fifteen 
years in 0. and Ala. He came to Onawa, la., in 1857, and the 
following year engaged in his present business. He was married 
in 1853, and has three children — Eva, Charles and Estella. Chas. 
is engaged in the banking business at Mapleton, la. 

W. G. Woods, dealer in grain, enlisted in 1864 in Co. E, 4Sth 
Wis., and was discharged in 1865. He was married in 1 873, to Ma- 
tilda Barber, and has one son and one daughter — Arthur and Zellie. 

MAPLETON. 

J. Q. Adams, i)roprietor of the Mapleton dray line, was born in 
Franklin county. Me., in .1837; moved to Iowa in 1854. He 
moved to Onawa in 1858, and engaged in farming. He engaged 
in his present business in Mapleton, Jan. 25tb. 1881. 



258 HISTORY OF lOAVA. 

G, H. Butler, of the firm of G. H. Butler & Co., furniture deal- 
ers, was born in Ind. ; moved to la. in 1856, and engaged in mill- 
ing. He moved to Monona county, la., in 1865, and engaged in 
farming, and in 1878, engaged in his present business. 

J. R. Cameron, dealer in general merchandise and grain, is a 
native of Ohio; came to la. in 1852, and engaged in the land busi- 
ness. He came to Monona county in 1878, and engaged in the 
grain and land business, and, in 1880, added the mercantile busi- 
ness. He was agent for the railroad company for three years. 

J. R. Chapman, dealer in lumber, coal and builders' supplies, is 
a native of N. Y.; moved to Ohio when young, and to Scott 
county, la., in 1860. He came to Mapleton, in 1877, and engaged 
in his present business. 

J. Garrison, hardware dealer, was born in 111.; moved to Iowa in 
1873, and located in Calhoun county, and engaged in farming. He 
moved to Dunlap, and engaged in the mercantile business; thence 
to Mapleton, in the autumn of 1877, and built the first store in the 
place, and entered the mercantile business. 

Porter Hamilton, of the firm of Hamilton Bros., dealers in farm 
machinery and lumber, was born in 111.; moved to Cedar Rapids, 
la., in 1872; thence to Mapleton in the autumn of 1877. and en- 
gaged in his present business. During 1881, his sales of farm ma- 
chinery amounted to |25,000. 

Samuel Holliday, proprietor of the City billiard hall, was born 
in Muscatine county, la., in 1812, and engaged in farming, until 
entering his present business in 1880. 

T. Martin, proprietor of blacksmith and wagon shop, is a native 
of 111.; moved to la. in 1880, and engaged in his present business. 

M. Morgan, of the firm of Butler & Morgan, grocers, was born 
in Scott county, la., in 1816. He enlisted in May, 1861, in the 
44th la. regiment, and was discharged in autumn of the same 
year. He re-enlisted in Jan., 1865, in the 20th, la., Co. G; was 
transferred to the 29th la. regiment, and in Sept., 1865, returned 
to Iowa, and engaged in farming. He located at Mapleton in 
1879, and entered his present business in Jan., 1881. 

J. D. Rice, attorney at law; is a native of N. Y.; moved to 
Marshall, la., in 1874; thence to Mapleton in 1878, and engaged 
in the practice of the law. He is a member of the school board. 

W. E. Roberts, agent for the C. & N. W. R. R., is a native of 
England; came to America when quite young, with parents, and 
settled in Wis.; moved to Tama county, la., in 1868. He after- 
wards moved to Battle Creek, as agent for the railroad company; 
thence to Mapleton in Nov., 1880. 

W. F. Scott, of the firm of Scott Bros., dealers in general mer- 
chandise, is a native of W. Va.; moved to Clinton county, la., in 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 259 

1864, and to Denison in 1871, and engaged in the mereantile busi- 
ness. He came to Mapleton in 1877, erected a large store building, 
and engaged in his present business. He was appointed postmaster 
in Dec, 1881, and is also express agent. 

B. B. Snyder, proprietor of the Stowell House, is a native of 
Pa.; came to Logan, la., in 1876, and engaged in the hotel busi- 
ness. He erected one of the first hotels in Mapleton, and opened 
his present house in 1881, which is in charge of his son, James S. 
Snyder. 

WHITING. 

Cassady & Whiting, dealers in general merchandise, located in 
W^hiting in June, 1880. Mr. Cassady is a native of 0.; moved to 
la. in 1867, and settled near this place. W. C, Whiting is a native 
of Monona county, and has always resided in it. 

Koon & Dimmick, dealers in general hardware, established busi- 
ness in Dec, ISSl. Mr. Koon came to Mills county, la., in 1868, 
from 111.; thence to Monona county in 1873. Mr. Dimmick is a 
native of Pa.; moved to Ashton, la., in 1856; thence to Whiting in 

1881. 

D. Rust, M. D., of the firm of Rust & Morley, druggists, was 
born in 111.; moved to Fremont county, la., in 1876. He estab- 
lished his present business in Whiting in 1879, and in 1880 L. A. 
Morley became a partner. They do a general drag business, and 
deal in paints, oils, etc. 

Lyman Whittier, the pioneer merchant of Whiting, was born 
in Essex county, Mass.; came to la. in 1870, and located at Mis- 
souri Valley and engaged in the mercantile business; removed to 
Whiting in 1873, and built the first store and started his present 
business. He enlisted in Oct., 1862, in the 1st battery of Mass. 
heavy artillery, and served until June 1865. Mr. W. traveled ex- 
tensively through Europe during the year 1879. He was appointed 
postmaster of Whiting in 1873, and has held the ofiice ever since. 

A. G. Wight, dealer in general merchandise, was born in Ohio; 
moved to la. in 18G5, and settled in Monona county in 1867. In 
1875 he moved to Whiting and engaged in the hotel and livery 
business which he still continues, and in 187(3 engaged in the mer- 
cantile business. 



260 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 



CHEROKEE COUNTY, 



If there is any one class of men who deserve more than another 
to have their names perpetuated in history, it is, perhaps, the hardy 
pioneers who k^ft their homes of comfort and luxury in the old 
Eastern States, and, voluntarily abandoning all the comforts of 
home ani civilized life, plunged boldly into the unknown and lim- 
itless prairies that spread out beyond the great Father of Waters, 
to explore the mysteries of this mighty region, and to open up new 
fields of industry for themselves and their posterity. To the his- 
torian, no more delightful task presents itself, than to recount 
their deeds of daring, to chronicle their persistent self-sacrificing 
efl'orts, to recite their marvelous achievements, to tell of the in- 
domitable pluck, energy and determination that characterized their 
movements, and then to make the wonderful transformation all 
this has effected in one of the grandest countries the sun ever 
shown down upon. To the individual who visits this section to- 
day, these recitals seem like fairy tales. He cannot comprehend, 
as he sits in his elegant palace coach, and is whirled from one city 
and village to another, almost with the speed -of the wind, or skims 
along the iron track through waving fields of the richest grain, 
that a few short years ago this section was tenanted only by wild 
animals and the equally wild and savage red-man; and his wonder 
is still further increased^ as he notes, on every hand, the commo- 
dious and even elegant farm buildings, and sees the innumerable 
herds of fine cattle grazing on the nutritious grasses. The transi- 
tion has indeed been wonderful, but probably nowhere more marked 
than in Cherokee. County, where, a trifle over thirty-six years ago, 
no sign of civilization could meet the eye throughout its entire 
length and breadth. But a country of such surpassing beauty and 
unequal-led richness could not always be given over to painted sav- 
ages, albeit they alone had enjoyed its fair skies and beautiful scen- 
ery for so many years. 

Cherokee County was formed in January, 1851, at which time 
most of her sister counties were located and their boundaries de- 
fined. In January, 1853, it was attached to the county of Wah- 
kan^now Woodbury — for revenue, election and judicial purposes. 
At this time, however, it was a county in nothing but name; for 
its fertile prairies, beautiful rivers and clear, sparkling brooks had 
as yet failed to attract the attention of the '^vanguard of civiliza- 
tion." Finally, in the Spring of 185G, Robert Ferry, a hardy pio- 
neer from the eastern part of the State, visited this section and 
stopped for a short time near what is now known as the city of 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 261 

Cherokee. The solitude proved altogether too unattractive, and 
he soon took his departure for another and more thickly settled 
portion of the State. 

In the early part of the same year, a number of hard-working, 
intelligent men in Milford, in the old commonwealth of Massachu- 
setts, became fired with a desire to visit this wonderful Eldorado, 
about which they had heard so much, and if possible, to secure for 
themselves homes here. Under the leadership of Dr. Russell, a 
prominent citizen of Milford, a joint stock company, known as the 
"Milford Emigration Society,'"" was formed, consisting of fifty-five 
members, twenty-four of whom were heads of families, the design 
being to find homes somewhere in Western Iowa. Just prior to 
the formation of this company, Carlton Corbett and Lemuel Park- 
hurst, both stalwart, daring young men, had been sent out by the 
citizens of Milford to explore this portion of the country, and se- 
lect a suitable location for colonists. Twenty persons, under the 
auspices of the Milford Emigration Society, started on February 
11th, 1856, for northwestern Iowa, intending to meet Corbett and 
Parkhurst at Sioux City, that being the objective point of the col- 
ony at that time. 

On arriving at the mouth of the Big Sioux River, Messrs. Cor- 
bett and Parkhurst discovered, much to their disappointment, that 
others were in advance of them. Mr. Parkhurst remained here, 
but Mr. Corbett pushed on up the country for a distance of fifty 
miles above Sioux City. Not finding what he considered a desir- 
able location, he again turned south with the determination of ex- 
ploring Cherokee County, of which he had heard very favorable 
reports from Mr. Perl-y, who was then located at Sioux City. A 
thorough exploration of the county convinced Mr. Corbett that it 
was altogether the finest section of country he had yet visited. 
Hastening to Correctionville, he met the Milford colony, and had 
but little difficulty in inducing that party to locate here. They 
proceeded up tlie Little Sioux River, until they reached Cherokee 
County, where all were amazed at the magnificent panorama na- 
ture had spread out, seemingly for their benefit. The weary com- 
pany arrived at a point on the Sioux, near the present site of Cher- 
okee, on a beautiful May morning. The river danced and sparkled 
in the sunlight, as it dashed along its pebbly bed; the birds sang 
sweetly as they flitted from bough to bough, throiigh the thick 
growth of timber that then skirted the high river banks at this 
point; the view on either hand was the most enchanting mortal 
eyes ever beheld, and to the weary wanderers, many hundred miles 
from home, and over one hundred miles from any settlement, it 
seemed that all nature was bidding them "welcome" to the peerless 
county of Cherokee. 

On every side were moderately high bluffs, beyond which, stretch- 
ing away for miles upon miles, was the rich rolling prairie-land, of 
which they had so long been in search. The entire company con 



262 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

sisted of twenty persons, some of whom are still living in the county. 

The colonists, among whom were Gr. W. Lebourveau, Carlton 
Corbett, B. W. Sawtell, Lysander Sawtell, Robert Hammond, Al- 
bert Simonds, Asa Slay ton, were undaunted by the fact that there 
was no friendly roof to afford them shelter, and believing that a 
bright and prosperous future awaited them if only the necessary 
pluck and muscle were exercised, they immediately commenced the 
construction of a log house, 17 by 18 feet, near the present site of 
Mill Creek Mill, and for some time this small building, the first 
ever erected in Cherokee County, afforded shelter and a home to 
the entire colony. The two teams belonging to the colony were 
immediately put to work, and 150 acres were broken for a crop, of 
which about thirty acres were planted with corn. They also raised 
200 bushels of excellent potatoes and a large quantity of small 
vegetables. During the season four more houses were built, one 
by G. W. Lebourveau, one by the Sawtell brothers, one by L. Park- 
hurst and one by William Holden, the two latter and Albert 
Phipps having joined the settlers later in the season. The post- 
office and the nearest trading point were sixty miles from the set- 
tlement, and nearly all merchandise had to be hauled from Council 
Bluffs, 130 miles distant. 

During the Summer, a village was planned; 320 acres were sur- 
veyed into town lots, and all the land adjoining the village plat 
was made into twenty-acre lots, though a few contained as many 
as sixty. The lands selected were principally west of the Little 
Sioux "River, and south of Mill Creek, and located near the center 
of the county. An unusually severe winter followed, the snow at 
one time lying three feet deep on the level prairie, and the colo- 
nists suffered not a little. 

On the 18th day of June, 1856, another colony from Hardin 
county, Iowa, consisting of G. W, Banister, John Banister, John 
Moore, Charles Moore, Alfred Moore, Jacob Miller, T. Lane, Mar- 
vin Alison and Martin Burns, arrived at this place, and immedi- 
ately started a settlement seven miles below the Milford colony. 
Enoch Taylor and three others met with poor success in attempt- 
ing to start another settlement in the northern part of the county. 
Cold weather was now coming on, and Mr. Corbett and L. Sawtell 
made a trip to Council Bluffs, with ox teams, to procure winter 
provisions for the colony. 

Thus far the Cherokee colony had been favored with uninter- 
rupted prosperity, but an Indian out-break in February, 1857, 
threatened for a time to overthrow all the bright hopes of the set- 
tlers. In this month a party of Sioux Indians passed down the 
river, but as they appeared very friendly to the Cherokee settlers, 
no uneasiness was felt. At Smithland, the whites took the arms 
away from the Indians, which so enraged the latter that they 
started back up the stream, vowing vengeance on all the whites 
they should meet. They entered every house on their way back, 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 263 

appropriating evervtbing in the way of fire-arms they could lay 
their hands on. With the arms thus obtained they arrived at 
Cherokee, and scattered the settlers and captured their arms, pro- 
visions and other articles. Cattle were stolen, provisions seized, 
and the unfortunate settlers forced to cook them at the muzzle of 
a gun in the hands of an Indian who seemed more anxious to shoot 
than otherwise. The savages remained three days, during which 
there existed a regular reign of terror. On the night of the third 
day, Messrs. Lebourveau and Parkhurst returned from a trip to 
Sac City, and the Indians, thinking they had come from Smith- 
land, and that the armed citizens of that place would follow, left 
the next morning in great haste. Hurrying to Spirit Lake, they 
massacred the entire colony, men, women and children. 

When the horrible tale of the Spirit Lake massacre reached the 
Cherokee settlers, they became thoroughly alarmed, and by the ad- 
vice of friends in other settlements, they abandoned their settle- 
ment entirely in the latter part of February, some going to Ash- 
land, some to Smithland and others to Onawa. 

As no further outbreak took place, the fears of the settlers grad- 
ually subsided, and in the following May most of the settlers re- 
turned and put in their crops. 

The first school was taught during the summer in the old log 
house called the Cherokee House, by Mrs. Parkhurst, the funds for 
its support being sent from Milford, Massachusetts. Among those 
who attended that school, are Clara, George and Thomas Brown; 
John, Frank and Addie Phipps, all of whom were long residents 
of this county. Miss Phipps afterwards taught school herself in 
this county, and was considered one of the most successful teach- 
ers in the county. 

Up to this time, Cherokee had remained attached to Woodbury 
County for judicial, election and revenue purposes. Sergeant's 
Bluffs was then the county seat of Woodbury County, and as all 
business for Cherokee County had to be transacted at that place, 
and as the distance was great, the inconvenience became so serious, 
that, in August, 1857, the county was completely organized, and 
its independent political life fully inaugurated by a special elec- 
tion. Twenty-three votes were cast, and the following officers 
elected: County Judge, A. P. Thayer; District Clerk, B. W. Saw- 
tell; Prosecuting Attorney, C. Corbett; Recorder and Treasurer, 
G. W. Lebourveau; County Sheriff, S. W. Haynes; Coroner, G. 
W. Banister. 

Early in 1858, the first tax was levied, amounting to twelve and 
a half mills on the dollar. The total valuation of property was 
$97,820. The first county warrant ever issued in Cherokee County 
was drawn October 2d, 1858, for $4.30, payable to D. N. Stoddard, 
on account of services as chainman on lioad No. 1, to Plymouth 
County line, and is signed by A. P. Thayer, County Judge. The 



26i HISTORY OF IOWA. 

first bridge over the Sioux was built by Mr. Blair, he receiviug there- 
for $1/300. To pay this, the people voted a seven-mill tax, four- 
teen votes being east for the tax and one against it. 

In the fall of 1857, a number of the colonists left, carrying with 
them dismal stories of the rigorous Avinters and terrible Indians, 
and from the year 1858 to the year 1863, there was but little 
cheering in the history of Cherokee County. 

Isolated from all the privileges, comforts and conveniences of 
old communities, Cherokee County became a little world of its 
own, albeit a rather gloomy one. A land grant, made in 1856, 
had led the settlers to hope for an early completion of the Du- 
buque & Sioux City Railroad, but as time passed on without other 
prospects of the road being built, the hopes of the settlers were 
extinguished, and a general feeling of despondency took possession 
of all. 

In the month of November, 1859, occurred the first marriage in 
the county, that of Carlton Corbett, and Miss Rosabella Cummings. 

For three succeeding years but little occurred in the county 
worthy of record. In 1860, the population of the county was fifty- 
eight, but in 1863, this had decreased to fifteen. In 1862, the In- 
dian outbreaks assumed such formidable proportions that the set- 
tlers were once more compelled to flee from their homes and seek 
safety at other and better protected places. Mr. Corbett returned 
in the fall, and he was followed by 0. S. Wight, J. A. Brown, and 
Robert Perry, all of whom were accompanied by their families. 

During the civil war, Cherokee County furnished more soldiers 
in proportion to her population than any other county in the Un- 
ion. Among those who enlisted from this county were G. W. 
Lebourveau, Silas Parkhrrst, Joel Davenport, and Albert Phipps. 
Eight in all entered the army for the Union, leaving but five men 
in the entire county. 

In 1863, a court house was built at the cost of |1,900, and this 
building is yet being used by the county. In 1865, the first saw 
mill was erected on the site now occupied by the Bliss mill. This 
year the population of the county was but sixty-four, and the cen- 
sus of 1865 returned nine residents, with a population of fifty-two, 
twenty-nine males and twenty-three females. There were twenty- 
one horses and ninety-eight cattle, and only eighteen acres of spring 
wheat were sown, twenty-three acres of oats, seven of barley, and 
thirty-eight of potatoes. 

For some years, prior to 1866, the settlement had a monthly 
mail, which was carried between Cherokee and Sioux City. Dur- 
ing the year 1860, a weekly mail was established, which was con- 
sidered a wonderful step in advance, and then for the first time the 
settlers began to realize that they were really a part and parcel of 
the civilized world. Early in this year, G. W. Lebourveau, G. W. 
Banister and Silas Parkhurst, three of the original settlers, re- 
turned to Cherokee county. The developments of the county from 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 265 

this time until the year 1869, was very slow, and but little worthy 
of record transpired. In 1868, the population numbered 227. The 
general election was held in the fall of this year, at which sixty- 
four votes were polled. Hon. Eli Johnson, of Cherokee, was 
elected to the State Legislature by a handsome majority. Mr. 
Johnson is at present a resident of Cherokee, where he is publish- 
ing a paper, the Cherol-ee Free Press. During this session of the 
Legislature, the preliminary survey for the Dubuque and Sioux 
City Railroad was run through Cherokee county, and the line es- 
tablished. The work of building the road was immediately com- 
menced, and pushed forward with all possible vigor. In the Spring 
of 1869, immigration commenced to pour into the county, and it 
seemed, indeed, that an era of prosperity had at last been inaugu- 
rated. About this time a store was opened in the old village by a 
Mr. Foskett. He was soon followed by Mr. Van Eps. A saw mill 
was also erected in Pilot Township by Mr. Rodgers. 

Daring the year work on the railroad progressed with great 
vigor, and in May, 1870, the road was completed, so ;is to admit of 
through trains, but as the road left the village of Cherokee about 
a mile to the east, an effectual stop was put to its growth. As 
soon as it was known exactly where the road would run, it was de- 
cided to establish a new town site, and in March, of this year, 
Carlton Corbett and G. W. Lebourveau laid out the new town of 
Cherokee in the immediate vicinity of the site selected for the de- 
pot. The citizens of the old town immediately removed their 
buildings to the new site, where all was bustle, life and activity. 
The spring was one of remarkable activity; immigrants flocked in 
by the hundreds, and busy industry soon converted the bleak prai- 
rie into a thriving, prosperous village; and, by December, there 
were at least ninety new buildings in the town. In June, of this 
year, there were in the county 1,244 cattle, 444 horses, thirty-six 
mules, thirty-nine sheep, and seventy swine. The entire valua- 
tion of all personal property was $79,979.55. 

At the opening of the year 1871, the prospects for Cherokee 
County were brighter than ever before in her history. The many 
struggles of fifteen years to obtain a foot-hold had at last brought 
forth their legitimate fruit,and from this time forward, unparalleled 
prosperity has been the portion of Cherokee County. 

New villages sprang into existence as if by magic, and the rich 
prairie land was soon dotted over with well tilled farms and good 
farm buildings. In 1870 the foundations were laid for the first 
building in Hazard, and in 1871 , the first house was erected in 
Marcus, and Aurelia was started in 1877. 

We have thus sketched in brief the more important points iu 
the history of Cherokee County; have seen it transferred from a 
wild, unbroken prairie into one of the richest and most thickly 
settled countries in all the great Northwest; have noted the almost 
superhuman exertion necessary to accomplish this task; have 



mo HISTORY OF IOWA. 

chronicled the repeated failures, the renewed efforts and the final 
triumph. It is now proper to describe this, one of the most fertile 
and picturesque sections in all the great State of Iowa. 

Cherokee County is situated in the third tier of counties south 
of the Minnesota line, and the second west of the Dakota line, 
lying between Plymouth and Buena Vista counties; is twenty- 
four miles square, and contains 368,640 acres of rich and fertile 
land. It is well watered by innumerable clear, sparkling brooks, 
springs and dashing rivers, the largest river, the Little Sioux, 
passing diagonally through the county, making its exit near the 
southwest corner. Every township in the county has a stream 
running through it, and all of these streams abound with fine fish. 
The Maple has its headwaters on the northeastern border of the 
county. Along the banks of the Little Sioux considerable timber 
is to be found. The general surface of the country is rolling; 
there are but few acres of the land too broken to be tilled, 
and Cherokee ranks among the best agriultural counties in the 
State. Its numerous valleys, formed by clear, running streams, 
have a soil especially adapted to the cultivation of cereals. For 
stock raising it is superior to most counties in the northwest, as 
its numerous running streams afford an abundance of pure water, 
and the nutritious grasses, which grow so luxuriantly, afford an 
excellent pasturage, and stock can be kept in good condition the 
entire year with but little trouble or expense. The climate is 
very similar to that of other counties in Northwestern Iowa — 
healthy and invigorating; extremes of heat and cold are the ex- 
ception, and not the rule, mild weather generally characterizing 
the entire year. The air is dry and bracing, and lung diseases are 
almost unknown. The soil is a drift deposit, covered with a deep, 
rich vegetable mould. Along the streams, it is alluvial, and every 
where capable of producing the most luxuriant vegetation. Chero- 
kee County has 1,085 acres of natural timber, and 1,275 of artificial. 
The inhabitants embrace all nationalities, though the original 
stock from Massachusetts and other Eastern states is largely in the 
ascendancy. 

In 1874, the population was estimated at 5,000, while in the same 
year 80,000 acres were under crop. In this year about 1,100 cars 
of wheat were shipped from the county, while the total assessa- 
ble value of the property of the county footed up in round num- 
bers to $1,600,000. In this year there were 1,200 farms in the 
county with an average cultivation of sixty-six acres, located in all 
the townships in the county. During the same year there were 
sixty-four schools in the county, the total value of the school 
houses being $32,241. Though statistics are unquestionably rather 
dry reading, in this case, at least, they show conclusively the rapid 
strides Cherokee County is making towards supremacy. 

If the figures given above afford occasion for congratulation, 
those for 1881 are still more satisfactory. The taxable real estate 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 287 

of this county this year amounts in round numbers to $1,800,000; 
personal property, $375,000, based as near as possible on one-third 
their actual values. The bonded indebtedness of the county is^iS,- 
300. 

The educational interests, the criterion of a county's pros- 
perity, are in a very flattering condition. There are ninety-two 
frame school buildings in the county, valued at about $50,000, 
while the value of the school apparatus is in round numbers $3,- 
000. One hundred and sixty-nine teachers are employed, and 3,- 
200 children are enrolled, the averaged attendance being 2,110. Of 
the general funds on hand, the last report has the following: 
School house fund, $4,500; contingent fund, $5,500; teachers' 
fund, nearly $12,000. 

The present officials of the county are: Hon. H. C. Lewis, Dis- 
trict Judge; Hon. J. R. Zuver, of Sioux City, Circuit Judge; R.L. 
Robie, Auditor; Eli Eshleman, Treasurer; E. Miller, Recorder: W. 
C. Bundy, Clerk of Courts; R. J. Smythe, Sheriff; Miss Ella M. 
Slater, Superintendent of Public Schools, and J. H. Davenport, 
Surveyor, 

With all the advantages we have cited, land can be purchased in 
this county at from $5 to $15 per acre, according to location. As 
a general rule, the farmers of the county are devoting unusual at- 
tention to stock raising, not because grain cannot be grown suc- 
cessfully, but because stock pays better. 

CHEROKEE. 

The county seat of Cherokee county, much of whose history ne- 
cessarily appears in the above detailed county history, is in every 
respect a handsome, substantial and growing city. It is located 
nearly midway between Fort Dodge and Sioux City, in the midst 
of a prosperous and fertile county. . As a writer in a former simi- 
lar work expresses it, "Cherokee has a surprisingly beautiful site, 
skirted on all sides by gentle bluffs, that swell just enough to 
shield it from the blasts of winter, yet not to impair the beauty of 
the landscape. Through the vale and to the south of the village 
the Sioux River winds its devious way in search of the great Mis- 
souri, where her crystalline waters are swallowed up in the current 
of mud. The banks of the Sioux are lined with timber, the first 
of any consequence that greets the eye of the traveler after leaving 
Fort Dodge. This greatly adds to the picturesqueness of the 
scene, and preposseses the traveler in its favor. 

Cherokee was located in August, 1870, a small number of build- 
ings having been erected prior to that date, however, but of a 
character which admitted of their being moved to the future coun- 
ty seat. The facts as to the settlement upon the permanent loca- 
tion of the town appear elsewhere. The residence of E. Cowles 
is stated to be the first building moved from the "old town," in 



268 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

March, 1870, and was the first dwelling in the new village; but 
the farm residence of G. W. Lebourveau, adjoining the village, 
was erected prior to that date. The growth of Cherokee has been 
rapid and healthy, and to-day it is deservedly ranked among the 
most substantially prosperous of Iowa's many prosperous villages. 

The following as to the natural features of Cherokee and vicinity 
will prove of interest : 

"Cherokee county lies wholly in one large valley, the highest 
point on its eastern border being 908 feet, and on its western bor- 
der 877 feet; the city of Cherokee being the center of the depres- 
sion is' only 565 feet. Through the center of this valley from 
northeast to southwest floAvs the Little Sioux. This peculiarity, 
nowhere else found in the west, gives the surface of the country a 
slightly rolling appearance, and with gentle slopes to the riverbed 
underlying the prairie proper about 100 feet. The valleys formed 
by the river being particularly rich, are very desirable. The soil 
is very loose and mellow, and never 'bakes,' and is much easier 
cultivated than the soil of the eastern states. -It is what is parti- 
cularly known as the 'bluff deposit,' varying in depth from two to 
three feet. Being slightly tinctured with sand, it matures crops 
rapidly. Read what eminent geologists say of it. Prof. Owen, in 
his Geological Survey, says: 'It is a silicious marl closely resemb- 
ling the 'loess' deposit in the valley of the Rhine, famous the 
world over for its richness.' As far as known this deposit covers 
an area of nearly two hundred miles drained by the Missouri. 
Prof. White, in his Geological Survey of the State, says: 'The 
fortunate admixture of soil materials gives a warmth and mellow- 
ness to the soil, which is so favorable to the growth of crops that 
thev are usually matured as early as they are upon more clayey 
soils of the southern part of the state, although the latter are more 
than 200 miles to the southward.' Impassable roads are never 
known. A few hours of sunshine after the most severe storm, 
make a road dry and passable for loads. The drainage is so good 
that 'muddy' roads are impossible. The county has a most perfect 
water system. Through the center of the county flows the Little 
Sioux; on the west Rock Creek and Willow Creek; on the north 
Mill Creek and Gray Creek, and on the east the Maple, while on 
the south is Silver Creek. All of these having more or less tribu- 
taries, give bountiful supplies of water for stock-raising and other 
purposes. In fact there is hardly a section of land but what there 
exists upon it flowing streams or living springs. Pure, healthy 
water is obtained everywhere at a depth of fifteen to thirty feet." 

Not the least of the attractions which Cherokee aff"ords, is her 
famous 

MAGNETIC SPRING, 

one of the most remarkable curiosities in nature, the essential par- 
ticulars concerning which are as follows: 



HISTOKY OF IOWA. 269 

This spring was discovered in 1879, while prospecting for coal; 
when the depth of 200 feet was reached, a stream of crystalline 
water two inches in diameter flowed to the surface with a force 
that projected it several feet above the level of the ground. 

The stream was so great that the prospector had to abandon his 
work. Unaware that he had tapped a spring superior in curative 
properties to any other in America, he felt disappointed and dis- 
pirited. Several weeks afterwards, in fastening an iron rod a 
quarter of an inch thick and ten feet long to a cord, with the in- 
tention of sinking the rod to the bottom in order to raise the sedi- 
ment which had accumulated in the tube, to his astonishment the 
rod fastened itself to the iron piping, and so far from sinking it re- 
quired considerable strength to detach it and bring it up. 

This accidental discovery paved the way for future experiments, 
which resulted in demonstrating that the water of this spring was 
heavily charged with magnetism, so much so that by immersing a 
steel instrument in the waters it shortly becomes a perfect magnet, 
capable of suspending needles, nails, watch keys and iron sub- 
stances of greater weight. 

The sceptical at first said the magnetism was in the iron tubing, 
and that it had been charged artificially, but as the pipes were 
those purchased to conduct water by. a hydraulic ram and re-pur- 
chased from a neighbor who knew nothing about the spring, the 
doubters had to give that theory up. It was next charged that 
any iron tube sunk in the earth to a great depth becomes charged 
with magnetism; that the magnetism was not in the water. This 
was disproven by scientific tests, viz: taking the water from the 
spring and immersing in it steel bars, tested by a galvanometer 
and pronounced free from electricity; after a short interval of time 
these were found charged with magnetism, capable of suspending 
other bodies of iron. The mechanical action of the water 
upon the iron, is too obvious to be denied, and so manifest 
that the most illiterate can readily see it. It requires no theoretic 
demonstration to convince the observer that it must have an 
effect upon living tissue which is well known to be an electrical 
€onductor. 

Invalids began drinking the water, and the results were at once 
of a highly favorable character. Dyspeptics were greatly benefited 
by their use, they afforded relief to every form of constipation, and 
their derated qualities proved an antidote to acidity and distention 
of the stomach. A demand for bathing facilities was made on the 
proprietors, and the fame of these wonderful healing waters spread 
to every State of the Union. Letters of inquiry poured in, and 
the water became a standard article of export to hundreds of towns 
and cities. 

Thus far the well had, by its inherent virtues, forced itself on 
the public, and the public in return, by their urgent demands, in 
a manner compelled the proprietors to fit up a bathing establish- 



270 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

ment, which they have added to from time to time, until it now 
has a sufficient capacity to meet all ordinary demands, while the 
surroundings have been improved and beautified so as to make it a 
really interesting spot. 

Like most other institutions, it had to encounter opposition. 
This mainly sprang from the jealousy of the profession, since the 
many remarkable cures, and general improvement of chronic 
sufferers, wholly due to a continued use of these waters, seemed a 
rebuke to the ordinary methods of treatment, but opposition was 
silenced by the voices of the many who drank health from this 
magnetic fountain. Physicians found the waters had intrinsic, 
health-giving qualities, and soon learned to recognize them among 
the potent agencies in the cure of a long train of diseases. 

For a considerable time the proprietors were reluctant to make a 
heavy outlay for the benefit of invalids and health-seekers, as such 
a course was entirely foreign to their original purpose — that of 
finding coal — but the representations of the public were so con- 
tinued and earnest, that all objections on this score were waived, 
and the large investments made have been warmly seconded by an 
appreciative public, whose liberal patronage is the safest guarantee 
that the outlay has been wisely made. 

The Bathing House is a commodious and well finished structure, 
one story and a half high, with waiting rooms and ladies' parlor. 
The bath rooms are neat and comfortable, and the baths are con- 
structed on the most recent and approved plan, and heated by steam. 
The ladies' rooms are reserved exclusively for their use, and are in 
charge of polite and attentive female waiters. The ladies' and 
gentlemen's bathing departments are separated by a suite of rooms 
insuring the most perfect guarantee that nothing need offend the 
instincts of the most delicate. 

The flow of Avater from the Spring is so great that an artificial 
lake of over six acres in extent has been made, the waters of 
which average four feet deep, and are almost transparent as the 
air above them. One side of this lake Avashes the southern porch 
of the bath house, and flocks of wild ducks have, for the past 
year, been continually about the lake in their season; they have 
become so tame that persons may approach them within a few 
feet. 

The grounds surrounding the Spring comprise sixty acres, have 
been laid out by a skilled arborist and gardner, with a view to pro- 
ducing the best aesthetic effect, and have been planted with native 
and ornamental trees and shrubbery, the lake being skirted by 
choice varieties. Time alone is required to make this park one of 
the handsomest and most interesting in the western states. 

Another, and not the least interesting feature of this charming 
spot, is a one-half mile race course, sixty feet wide, and as level as 
a lake, one side bounded by the river bank, the other by the lake. 
A better race-course or a prettier is not easily found. The pro- 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 271 

prietors have sp.ared no expense to improve and beautify the 
grounds, which have already earned the reputation of being the 
most inviting known at any western watering place. In addition 
to the new park, the proprietors have purchased an island in the 
Sioux river of about one hundred acres in extent, heavily wooded 
Avith timber of large and small growth. A little work could make 
this as romantic a retreat as river and forest can afford. 

The waters of the Spring are so pure and free from inorganic 
matter that they keep perfectly sweet and pure for two or three 
weeks after being drawn. Those who have had them shipped for 
hundreds of miles have been astonished to find that even after 
being kept for a month, no sign of putrefaction was discernible, 
and that to the taste they were as pleasant as when drawn. This 
quality is of incalculable advantage for shipping purposes. Those 
who, from weakness, or any other cause, are unable to come to the 
Spring, can have the water shipped to them at reasonable rates, 
with the assurance that it will remain sweet and pure for a 
long time. 

The boarding facilities at Cherokee are quite equal to those of 
any other city of sixteen hundred inhabitants. There are four 
good hotels, and several good boarding houses in the city. Fruits 
and every delicacy in its season may be had here abundantly. No 
one need have any hesitancy in coming to Cherokee on the ground 
of insufficient accommodation. The city has two excellent livery 
stables, with horses and vehicles in abundance, so that with driv- 
ing, shooting and fishing the most pleasing and invigorating 
recreation may be had at all times and seasons. In fact the city 
of Cherokee is sufficiently metropolitan to afford an ample variety 
of sports, I'omforts and recreations. 

There are in Cherokee Congregational, Presbyterian, Catholic, 
Methodist, Baptist, Advent, Episcopalian and Universalist church 
organizations. The first six have houses of worship. The church 
property of the county is in valuation perhaps not less than $20,- 
000. The officers of the Congregational church are: Pastor, J. 
B. Chase; Deacons, J. W. Coombs, J. P. Dickey, H. C, Kellogg; 
Clerk, W. C. Bundy; Treasurer, J. P. Dickey; Trustees, J. A. Ris- 
ley, F. E. Whitmore, Richard Opie; Ushers, Richard Opie, E. F. 
Coombs; Sexton, Fred Boddy. 

The Presbyterian church society was organized in 1870. Rev. 
Alexander M. Darley was the first pastor. The Union Sabbath 
School of Cherokee has a flourishing membership of more than 
sixty members. The Children of Zion church organization was 
perfected in the summer of 1880 by Bishop D. D. Patterson, of 
Grand Rapids, and hold regular services, with a flourishing Sun- 
day School. The Baptist society dates its organization from the 
autumn of 1870. Services were first held in the old brick school 
house. Rev. A. W. Hilton was the first pjistor. The church 
building was erected in 1873, and is 30x40 feet in dimensions. 



272 



HISTOEY OF IOWA. 



Among the pastors at different times have been Revs, E. N. 
Jencks, W. H. Irwin, J. P. Cuffman, John Edminister, George H. 
Brown. An addition, 14x22, was made to the church edifice in 
1881. The first sermon preached in Cherokee was delivered by 
Rev. Alexander Darley. of the Presbyterian denomination, in the 
store of H. A. Fife, in 1870. 

On the 14th day of November in the same year, the first mar- 
riage license in the county was granted to C. Corbett and Rosabella 
Cummings. A school was taught during the summer in the old 
school house, by Mrs. Parkhurst, the funds to defray the necessary 
expenses being sent from Massachusetts. 

For a young city, having by the recent census only 1,522 popu- 
lation; Cherokee has a large local trade, and does an extensive 
shipping business in grain and stock. Its magnitude may be in- 
ferred from the following: 

BUSINESS SUMMARY. 



Abstracts 3 

Agrl. Implements 4 

Attorneys (firms) 7 

Bakeries 3 

Banks 3 

Barbers 2 

Blacksmiths 6 

Books and stationery 3 

Boots and shoes (excl.) 3 

Boot and shoemakers 4 

Brickyards 1 

Carriages 2 

Clothing, etc., (excl.) 2 

Contractors and builders 4 

Creameries 1 

Coal and wood 5 

Dentists 1 

Drugs 3 

Dry goods 1 

Elevators 4 

Feed mills 1 

Flouring mills 1 

Fumitiire 1 

General merchandise 

Grain 4 

Cherokee Lodge No. 322, I. 0. Gr. T., was organized November 
17th, 1879, with seventeen charter members. Its first officers were: 
W. E. Hitchcock. W. C; A. C. Hobart, W. V. C; Rev. R. C. Glass, 
Chaplain; H. H. Henry, Secretary; W. H. Hall, F. S.; J. Boles, 
Treasurer; David Lynn, M.; W. Stebbins, L G.; E. N. Corbett, 0. 
G.;C. P. Hobart, P. W.C. T. 

The Masonic Lodge of Cherokee was instituted in 1871. Cher- 
okee Lodge No. 188, I. 0. 0. F., was organized in February, 1870, 
with five charter members. Its present membership is forty-four. 
Its first officers were: C. E. Schofield, N. G.; G. W. McCoun, V. 
G.; J. C. Hubbard, Secretary; Z. P. Herrick, Treasurer. The fol- 
lowing are the present officers: Thomas McCulla, N. G.; R. H. 
i, V. G.; D. W. Ben way, Secretary; R. J. Smyth, Treasurer. 



Groceries 6 

Hardware 3 

Harness makers 2 

Hotels 4 

Insurance agencies 15 

Jewelers 2 

Livery stables 3 

Lumber 4 

Manuf . carrg's, wgn's, etc 1 

Manuf. of sash, doors, blinds, etc... 1 

Meat markets 2 

Merchant tailors 1 

Music 1 

Milliners 2 

News depots 2 

Newspapers 3 

Ph()t(.!,M-a]iliers 1 

Physicians 6 

Printers (jdb) 2 

Produce 1 

Eeal estate and loans 7 

Kestaurants 3 

Hewing machines 3 

Stock 6 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 273 

The Advent Church Society was organized in 1873, in Aftou 
Township, with a membership of ten, and was moved to the town 
in the following year: In the summer of 1875, a very successful 
series of revival meetings was held, and the membership steadily 
increased, until the Society numbers nearly fifty. A church was 
provided in the autumn of 1875, and Elder J. Ridley was secured 
as regular pastor. 

T. S. Steele & Son, bankers, of Cherokee, organized their busi- 
ness in 1874, starting in a small wooden building. Their present 
building was erected in 1879, is 24x40 feet, and two stories high. 
T. H. Steele is cashier, and is ably assisted by D. T. Steele. 

Scribner, Burroughs & Co.'s bank was organized in 1871, under 
the firm name of Fulton & Scribner. Mr. Burroughs became in- 
terested June 12th, 1872, the business having been started in a 
small and unpretentious building. The present building was 
erected in 1875, The bank's surplus capital is now ^100,000, its 
business having increased proportionately to its capital. Mr. 
Burroughs came to Cherokee from Adrian, Mich., locating per- 
manently m Cherokee, after having successively lived at Salt 
Lake and other sections of the western country. Mr. Scribner is 
a native of Plattsburg, N. Y., and came to Cherokee in 1871. 
Mr. B. has a stock farm of 660 acres adjoining town, and keeps 
an average of about seven hundred cattle on his lands. 

In 1874, Mr. Satterlee began the sinking of a coal shaft, and in 
the Spring of 1879, on Mr. Burrough's land, a depth of one hun- 
dred feet was reached, when, on penetrating a rocky stratum, flow- 
ing water, strongly impregnated with sulphur, was reached. At a 
further depth of fifty feet, another stratum containing magnesia 
was found, and at two hundred feet the magnetic Avater, which is 
fully described above was discovered. It is impossible to over- 
state the importance of this discovery to Cherokee. 

March 22d, 1879, Kellogg & Herrick organized the Cherokee 
Butter and Cheese manufacturing Company. The building is 
24x50 feet in dimensions, with an addition twenty feet square. 
The firm buys cream from about 1,000 cows. This industry bids 
fair to become a very important one. 

The Cherokee Times was established October 21st, 1870, and is 
consequently now in its twelfth year. It is in every sense a highly 
creditable publication. Robert Buchanan is the editor and pro- 
prietor. 

The Iowa Free Press, like the Times, is an eight-column folio, 
Robert Johnson and Will P. Goldie, editors and projirietors; both 
papers are well sustained, of good typographical appearance, and 
newsy. 

The population of Cherokee may be set down as very nearly, if 
not quite, two thousand. Its educational advantages are excep- 
tionally good. The public schools are on an unusually good foot- 



27J: HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

ing, aucl a college is in contemplation, the opportunities for such 
an institution in Cherokee being apparent. 

The future prospects of Cherokee as to railroads are good. Al- 
ready two different companies are surveying through the southern 
part of the county, and strong talk of a road running northeast 
and southwest, following the Little Sioux river, connecting Omaha 
with St. Paul and Minneapolis by a more direct route, and giving 
the vast lumber regions a new and more direct outlet to the South- 
west; also a new railroad is ^^rojected through Cherokee from Des 
Moines to the wheat fields of Dakota. These roads secured will 
make Cherokee a town of 10,000 inhabitants, and an excellent 
manufacturing point. 

MARCUS. 

The town of Marcus is a substantial place, whose personal inter- 
ests will be found to be well represented in the biographies here- 
unto attached. The first building was erected in 1871. I. M. 
Jackson and A. H. Dwight were the first settlers. The first school 
was begun in 1873, and the first sermon in Marcus was preached 
in 1875, by Rev. W. F. Rose, Congregational minister. The 
church societies are well represented by the Catholic, Lutheran and 
Methodist denominations. 

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows, which has a flourishing 
lodge in Marcus, had for its charter members L Cask, S. W. Wea- 
ver, W. H. Skinner, M. I. Ames and R. W. Heath. Its active 
members are eleven. The lodge meets at S. W. Weaver's. A 
Masonic lodge is also one of the prominent features in this con- 
nection. 

The Good Templars' Society has fifty-nine members, and holds 
its meetings in the school house. C. P. Kilbnrn is W. C; Mrs. J. 
H. Sheldon, \V. V. C; T. W. P. Clough, P. W.C; J. H. Sheldon, 
S.;MissN. Cleglow, F. S. 

The Presbyterian Church Society was organized during the past 
season, by Rev. George Knox, of Cherokee. 

The population of Marcus is about 450, and is composed of a 
sturdy mixture of nationalities, German, English, Swedish, Scotch, 
etc. 

The depot was built in the winter of 1869-70, and is 30x79 feet 
in dimensions. A grist mill with three run of stone, two elevators, 
warehouses and two hotels are among the important acquisitions 
to the town. The first white man to settle in the township is 
stated to have been H. Bowman, a native of Vermont. Mrs. Bow- 
man is still living in Marcus. The first female settler was Mrs. 
W. E. Rose, who came in 1871. The first house was erected on 
section. 36, by Mr. Bow^mau, in 1869, the first soil in the township 
being broken that year. 

In 1874, the first regular election occurred, the depot building 
being used as a voting place. Fourteen votes were cast, that being 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 275 

the entire vote of tlie township. The first officers elected were as 
follows: R. Wilmot, J. M. Sheldon, E. Prunty, Trustees; W. E. 
Kose, Clerk; I. Bowman, Supervisor; A. H. Dwight, Eliou Prunty, 
Justices of the Peace; E. Gearon, Constable; I. M. Jackson, As- 
sessor. The first assessment was made in 1875, the number of 
families being fourteen; population forty-four; number pf houses, 
nineteen; cattle, fifty; hogs, thirty-nine; acres improved, 620. The 
first person to locate in business in Marcus was I. M. Jackson. 
C. Parkin built his grain house in 1873. A store was opened by 
J. Hyndman in September, 1873. R. Wilmot opened the first 
hotel in July, 1874. The school house was built in the same year. 
The first car of stock was received by J. Clarkson in February, 
1877. 

Clarkson & Metcalf have a warehouse with a capacity of 15,000 
bushels; L. Gund, of a capacity of 10,000 bushels. 

The village of Marcus has doubled in population in the past 
year. The receipts at the depot for the twelve months just prior 
to this writing were $3(3,400. Five hundred and fifty-six cars 
were sent out from the town during the same time. 

A public hall 22x50 feet, with ceiling twelve feet high, adds 
greatly to the convenience and advancement of the community. 
There is also a half-mile circular track in excellent condition. The 
population of the county is closely estimated at 10,000. 

Among the noteworthy farms of this section is that of Theo. 
Groff, about a mile northeast of Marcus. Mr. Groff came to this 
part of the country about four years ago. 

The first school in Marcus was taught in 1873-4, Miss Nina Shel- 
don being the teacher. Nine pupils were enrolled. 

The first birth was that of Elsie Bowman in April, 1874; the 
first death, a brother of John Bird, Sr., in 1875; the first marriage, 
George Paactier and Miss Nina Sheldon, in 1878; the first grain 
brought to market, by I. Gorner in September, 1873; the first car 
of grain shipped, was in. September, 1873, by C, Parkin. 

There are more than one hundred pupils enrolled in the public 
schools of Marcus. There are three lumber yards in the town, 
each one of which is doing a thriving business. H. D, Dwightis 
the postmaster, and the office is very satisfactorily and systemati- 
cally conducted. The business of the office has doubled within 
the last year. 



276 HISTORY OF IOWA. 



CHEROKEE COUNTY BIOGRAPHIES, 



CHEROKEE. 



James Archer, dealer in lumber, grain and coal, established 
business July 12th, 1869; was born in Scotland in 1828; came to 
America in 1842, and located in Rockford, 111.; from there he re- 
moved to Fayette county, Iowa; thence to Waverly, Iowa, where 
he was engaged in the lumber business three years. In 1869, he 
removed to Cherokee, and engaged in business as above. He has 
been a member of the town council, and has served several terms 
on the school board. 

S. B. Allen, proprietor City Hotel, was born in Washington 
county, New York, in 1832; came west in 1868, and located in 
Buchanan county, Iowa, where he remained until the spring of 
1881, when he removed to Cherokee and engaged in business as 
above. 

C. Allison, senior member of the firm of Allison Brothers, dealers 
in dry goods, notions, boots and shoes, was born in Wisconsin in 
1846; received his education at Madison, Wisconsin. He went to 
Nevada; where he was foreman of the Opher mine for several 
years; thence came back to Eldora, la., and in 1873 he came to 
Cherokee and established his present business. 

H. Allison, junior member of the above firm, was born in W is. 
in 1857. In 1869 he went to California, where he remained until 
he came to Cherokee. These gentlemen intend to erect a brick 
building, 30x100 feet, the coming spring. 

N. T. Burroughs, of the firm of Scribner, Burroughs & Co., 
bankers, was born in Michigan in 1840; moved to la. in 1869, and 
engaged in the real estate business. In 1872 he entered business 
as above; is also extensively engaged in the raising of fine stock. 
Married Addie H. Phipps in 1873. 

Thomas S. Brown, blacksmith, was born in Massachusetts in 
1852; when he was four years of age he came to Cherokee, where 
he has since resided. 

E. S. Block, dealer in clothing, hats, caps, and gent's furnishing 
goods, trunks, valises, etc., etc., was born in Bohemia in 1848; 
came to America, and engaged in the clothing business in New 
York City; from there he went to Arkansas; thence to Nebraska 
City, and after traveling throughout the west, he, in 1876, located 
in Cherokee, and eu gaged in business as above. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 277 

D. W. Benway, dealer in furniture of all kinds, established busi- 
ness in June, 1881. He was born in Massachusetts in 1849; from 
there he removed to Wisconsin; thence to Independence, Iowa. 
In 1877 he came to Cherokee, and for a time was proprietor of the 
City Hotel. In June, 1881, he engaged in business as above. 

Charles Blaesser, barber, also dealer in tobacco and cigars, was 
born in Germany in 1845; came to America in 1866, and located at 
Milwaukee, Wis. In 1874 he removed to Cherokee and engaged 
in business as above. He married Regina Schmidt, of Wis. They 
have two children — Walter A. and Charles H. 

Carlton Corbett, of the firm of Corbett & Whitmore, dealers in 
real estate, was born in Massachusetts, August 12th, 1831. In 
January, 1856, he came west and located in Cherokee; has held 
the office of county recorder and treasurer, and is one of the pio- 
neers of Cherokee county. 

John Collins, of the firm of Collins & Minor, was born in Ken- 
tucky in 1852; came to Clayton county, Iowa, when quite young, 
where he lived until 1875, when he came to Cherokee, and for a 
time was engaged in farming. He married Fannie F. Pearson. 
They have three daughters. 

W. B. Chick, dealer in groceries, fruits and provisions, estab- 
lished business in 1872; was born in Maine in 1848; came to Mich- 
igan in 1868, and two years later he came to Cherokee. He enlist- 
ed in the first Maine light artillery, and served two years and three 
months. He has been three terms county auditor of Cherokee 
county. 

J. H. Davenport, county surveyor of Cherokee county, was born 
in New York in 1838; came to Michigan in 1856, thence to this 
state, and in 1860 located at Cherokee. He was elected to his pre- 
sent office in 1866, and has held the ofiice almost continuously 
since; has also been superintendent of schools of this county and 
served three years in the U. S. army in the Indian department. 

Eli Eshleman, county treasurer of Cherokee county, was born 
in Pa. in 1829; came west in 1856, and settled, in Ills., where he 
lived seventeen years; in 1872 he came to Cherokee and engaged 
in farming; Avas elected to his present position in 1879 and re- 
elected in the autumn of 1881. He married Amanda Fry, of Lan- 
caster county, Pa. They have ten children — five sons and five 
daughters. 

0. C. Ford, wholesale and retail grocer, and dealer in queens- 
ware, established business in 187G; was born in New York in 1841; 
came to Wisconsin in 1849, and in 1871 removed to Cherokee; for 
a time engaged in the insurance business, and was then employed 
as clerk in a hardware store, which he continued until he engaged 
in his present business. 



278 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

J. S. Green, dealer in grain, groceries, queensware, fruits, etc., 
establislied business in 1879. Was born in St. Louis, Mo., ia 1847, 
for fourteen years he traveled for Chicago and St. Louis wholesale 
houses. In 1879 he settled at Cherokee and engaged in business 
as above. 

Robert Gick, dealer in stoves, hardware and farming tools of all 
kinds, 'established business in 1880. Was born on the Isle of Man, 
in 1845; came to America in 1870, and settled in Warren, county, 
111, ; thence to Jasper county, Iowa, and in 1872 removed to Cherokee, 
where he has since resided. 

W. S. Heymer, of the firm of Heymer Brothers, liverymen, was 
born in Essex county. New York, in 1847. He came west in 1878, 
and settled in Cherokee, and entered the employ of F. D. Yaw, in 
the livery business. He married Julia Canfield of this State. 
They have one son^ — Frank. 

Thomas Heymer, of the firm of Heymer Bros., was born in N. 
Y. in 1846; his first location was in Dubuque county, la.; thence 
to Jackson county; thence to Cherokee. He served three years in 
the army in Co. I, Iowa volunteers. 

George W. Hodgins, liveryman, established business in 1870. 
Was born in Vermont in 1826, his first location in Iowa was in 
Hardin county, thence to Marshalltown; thence to Bedford, and 
in 1870 he came to Cherokee and engaged in business as above. 
His son, Eugene D. Hodgins, was born in Missouri in 1859, and is 
now a partner in the above business. 

Edwin Hughes, harness maker, established business October, 
1881. Was born in Wales in 1852; came to America in 1870, and 
his first location was at Portland, Maine. From there he went to 
New York; thence to Ohio, and after making a trip to the Black 
Hills, returned to Cherokee and engaged in business as above. He 
married Sarah Mills, a native of England. They have one son 
and two daughters. 

Robert Hall, of the firm of Robert Hall & Son, dealers in farm 
machinery and grain, was born in N. Y. in 1822; came to Ills, in 
1857, and in 1871 he removed to Cherokee and engaged in busi- 
ness as above. 

Jas. Henderson, dealer in real estate, established business in 1871; 
was born in Scotland in 1818, came to America in 1848 and settled in 
Clayton county, Iowa, and was engaged in farming. In 1868 he 
removed to Cherokee. He has been twice elected to the position 
of county treasurer; has also been a member of the city council. 

C. E.P. Hobart, of the firm of Hobart & Snyder, dealers in grain 
and coal, was born in Vermont in 1819; from Vermont he went to 
Oshkosh, Wis.; and in 1870 he came to Cherokee and engaged in 
the lumber business. The following year he engaged in business 
as above. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 279 

William Jones, merchant tailor and dealer in ready-made cloth- 
ing and gents' furnishing goods, was born in Wales in 181J:; came- 
to America in March, 1870, and located in Cherokee and engaged 
in business as above. Mr. Jones makes a specialty of making suits 
to order; he employs none but experienced workmen, and he has a 
reputation second to none in western Iowa. 

George A. Johnson, dealer in general merchaj^lise, established 
business in March, 1874; was born in Canada in 1812; he came to 
Michigan in 1861. In 1867 he returned to Canada, and in 1871 
he came to Cherokee, la., and was employed as clerk until 1871, 
when he engaged in business as above. He married Eliza Head, 
of Canada. They have four children. 

H. Kennedy, of the firm of H. Kennedy & Co., dealers in gen- 
eral merchandise, established business in 1875; also have a branch 
store in Peterson, Clay count3^ He was born in Ohio in 1850; 
came to Iowa with his parents in 1855. He next moved to Chero- 
kee and engaged in business as above. 

A. B. Knox, of the firm of Knox & Nicholson, proprietors of 
the N. Y. store, established in 1872, was born in Pa. in 1855; came 
to Cherokee, la., in 1879, and engaged in business. He married 
Lizzie Goheen, a native of Pa. 

George W. Lebourveau was born in New Hampshire in 1828. 
In 1857 he came to Cherokee, and is one of the pioneers of this 
county; was the first treasurer and first recorder of this county, 
was also the first mayor of Cherokee, which position he held two 
terms. He is one of the original town proprietors. He enlisted 
in Co. I, 7th la. cavalry, and served three and a half years. 

David Lynn, of the firm of Lynn & Bryant, proprietors of meat 
market, established business in 1881. He was born in Ohio in 
1844; came to Jasper county, Iowa, in 1859; thence to Winne- 
shiek county; thence to Jackson county. Ills.; thence to Cherokee. 
He served m Co. A, 2nd regiment, U. S. A., three years; married 
Annie E. Underbill. They have one daughter — Mary F. 

E. R. Little, jeweler (repairing a specialty), established business 
in 1880. He was born in Ohio, November 4th, 1858, and received 
his education in Ohio, where he also learned the jewelry business. 
He moved to Grand Rapids, Mich., in 1879, and the following 
year removed to Cherokee and engaged in business as above. 

George L. Moore, manufacturer and dealer in harness and saddles, 
established business in 1881; was born in Aurora, 111., in 1857. 
He came to Cherokee in 1872, and engaged in the same business. 

Arthur Molyneux, of the firm of Molyneux Bros., law and 
collecting agents, was born in Sullivan county, Penn., in 1856; 
graduated at Iowa City law school in the class of '81, and soon 
after located in Cherokee, and engaged in business as above. 



2S0 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

R. D. Minor, of the firm o£ Collins & Minor, was born in 
Waukesha county, AVis,, in 1853; came to Cherokee in 1871^ and 
engaged in farming until he engaged in his present business. 

E. Miller, county recorder, was born in Pa. in 1850; removed to 
Cedar county, la., in 1852, and to Cherokee in 1872, and engaged 
in farming; was elected to his present office in November, 1880; 
has served as town clerk, also assessor. He married Belle Stone, 
of Ohio. They have two children — Gretas and Orville. 

Thomas McCulla, attorney at law, was born in Hamilton, 
Canada, in 1856; came to the United States when quite young, 
and located in N. Y.; afterwards moved to Muscatine, la., and 
there attended school; then entered the Baptist Institute at Wilton, 
after which he entered the university at Iowa City, graduating 
from the law department in the class of '79; came to Cherokee 
and opened office; makes a specialty of collections. 

Chas, Nicholson, of the firm of Knox & Nicholson, was born in 
Sweden in 1855; came to America in 1871; settled in Mich.; then 
moved to Hampton, la.; thence to Cherokee, and became a part- 
ner in the above business, which was established in 1872, and is 
one of the largest mercantile houses in the city. 

L. W. Newell, dealer in boots and shoes, was born in 111. in 
1855, and when seven years of age moved to Muscatine, la. He 
traveled for a Cincinnati house for two and one-half years, and in 
June, 1881, moved to Cherokee, and established his present busi- 
ness in Aug. of same year. 

H. A. Olmsted, stat'on agent for the I. C. R'y. company, was 
born in Mass: in 1818. He was appointed to his present office in 
1871. He married Cornelia Jones, of Neb. They have three 
children. 

E. L. Olmsted, was born in Mass. in 1851; came to Delaware 
county, la., in 1858. He was for *ive years in the employ of the 
C, & N. W. R. R. Co., as station agent and operator. 

0. R. Olmstead & Son, are dealers in boots^ shoes, overshoes, 
gaiters, etc. R. S. Olmstead, was bornin Wayne county. Pa., in 
1854, and the same year moved with his parents to Wis. He en- 
tered the employ of J, P. Dickey & Co., in 1876. He married 
Frances Brown, of Woodman, Wis. 

Dr. W. H. Palmer, dentist, was born in N. Y. in 1855; was en- 
gaged in dentistry in Syracuse, N. Y., and in 1881 moved to 
Cherokee, la., and opened office the same year. He married Fran- 
ces Campbell, of N. Y., in 1880. 

T. Patton, of the firm of Robertson & Patton, dealers in lumber, 
grain, sash, doors, blinds, etc., was born in Ireland in 1844; came 
to America in 1864, and settled in Dubuque county, la.; thence 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 281 

to Delaware county, and in the autumn of 1870 came to Cherokee, 
and was one of the first settlers; was for some time in the employ 
of the railroad company; established his present business in 1876. 

Joseph Reed, proprietor of the bakery and restaurant, was born 
in Pa. in 1829; removed to 111. in 1864; thence to la. in 1875; lo- 
cated at Cherokee in 1881. He married Mary Tallmau, a native of 
Pa. They have three sons and two daughters. 

J. G. Reigel, blacksmith^ repairer and manufacturer, was born 
in Germany in 1849; came to America in 1854, and located in But- 
ler county. Pa.; removed to Hardin county, la.; thence to Mis- 
souri, and in 1876 came to Cherokee, la., and established his pres- 
ent business. He married Ellen L. Kenyon, and has one child — 
Effie M. 

James Robertson, of the firm of Robertson & Patton, was born 
in Scotland in 1833; came to America in 1856. and settled in Can- 
ada; removed to Cedar county, la., in 1868; thence in the follow- 
ing year to Cherokee, and engaged in buying grain. His present 
business was established in 1876. He married Catherine Comrie, a 
native of Scotland, and, has two sons and three daughters. 

R. L. Robie, county auditor, was born in Vt. in 1850; removed 
to Tama county, la., in 1868; thence to Cherokee, and engaged in 
farming. He taught the grammar department of the public schools 
here one term; was appointed county superintendent of schools, 
and served during 1876, and was then appointed deputy clerk 
and treasurer. He was elected to his present office in 1881. 
He married Ella-L. Fairfield, of Fond du Lac, Wis. 

A. B. Ross, dealer in staple and fancy groceries, tobacco, cigars, 
crockery, glassware, queensware, etc.^ was born in Nova Scotia in 
1843. He came to Cherokee, la., in 1.870, and engaged in the 
above business in 1874. 

S. F. Russell, manager of the Fountain House, was born in Ve- 
nango county. Pa., in 1839; removed to Story county, la., in 1867, 
and two years later came to Cherokee and engaged in farming. In 
1878 he took charge of a hotel at Meriden, where he continued 
two years; then engaged in his present position. He served in 
the army four and one-half years in Co. A, 10th 111. Cav.; was 
promoted step by step until he reached first lieutenancy; received 
his discharge at San Antonio, Tex. 

W. A. Sanford, cashier of Scribner, Burroughs & Co.'s bank, 
born in Norwich, N. Y., in 1854; removed with parents in 1860 to 
Decorah, la.; thence to Cherokee in 1875, and engaged in business 
as above. 

Dr. Sherman, of the firm of Butler & Sherman, physicians and 
surgeons, was born in Pa. in 1846; moved west in 1862; graduated 
from the Keokuk medical college in the class of '73, and began the 



282 HISTOEY OF IOWA, 

practice of medicine in Cherokee the same year. He is also sur- 
geon for the 111. C. Ry. He married Nellie Terry, and has one 
■ child — Annie. 

E. B. Smith, of the firm of E. B. Smith & Co.^, furniture dealers 
and undertakers, was born in Canada in 1851; came to the U. S. 
in 1871, and located in Cherokee, la.; was engaged in various oc- 
cupations for a time; then engaged in the above business, which 
was established in 1870. He married Ida Brown, of Syracuse, N. 
Y., and has two children — Homer and Frank. 

A. H. Smith, jeweler and dealer in fine watches and jewelry, 
(business established in 1872), was born in Canada in 1849; re- 
moved to 111. in 1859, and located in DeKalb county; thence moved 
to Callaoun county, la., and in June, 1869, moved to Marcus, and 
the following year to Cherokee. He engaged in business in part- 
nership with G. S. Brown, and afterwards became sole proprietor. 

R. M. Smith, of the firm of H. Assman & Co., dealers in staple 
and fancy groceries, was born in Pa. in 1838; removed to Sioux 
City, la., in 1868; thence to Cherokee in 1872, and engaged in 
farming until engaging in above business, which was established 
in 1870. He served in the army in the 78th Pa. Inft.; was pro- 
moted to captain, major and the lieutenant colonel; received his 
discharge at Nashville, Tenn. He married Maggie Stephens, of 
Pa., and has four children — Leota, Leona, Roy and Meda. 

M. Wakefield, attorney at law, will practice in all courts in the 
state. He was born in 111. in 1842; moved to Sioux City, la., in 
1870, and the following year located in Cherokee; received his edu- 
cation at the 111. State Normal University, from which he gradu- 
ated in 1865; read law at Bloomington, 111., and was admitted to 
practice by the supreme court, Jan. 18th, 1869. He is mayor of 
Cherokee, and has held minor offices in the city. 

Walbridge & Moore, attorneys at law, land, loan and real|estate 
office. They have fifty thousand acres of wild land for sale, rang-' 
ing in price from three to ten dollars per acre; also improved farms 
for sale. Business was establiehed in 1879. 

Z. A. Wellman, postmaster, was born in N. Y. in 1826; studied 
law and was admitted to the bar in 1849; came to Delaware county, 
la., and engaged in the practice of his profession, which he con- 
tinued for twenty years. Duiing President Fillmore's adminis- 
tration, he was appointed postmaster, but his health failing him, 
he engaged in farming, and in 1870 removed to Cherokee from 
Benton county, and engaged in the drug business. In 1872 he 
was appointed postmaster of this city, and has held the office ever 
since. 

L. M. White, of the firm of White Bros., proprietors of restau- 
rant and bakery, and dealers in staple and fancy groceries, was born 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 283 

in Bloomsburgh, Columbia county, Pa., in 1859; received his eau- 
cation at the State Normal School, at Bloomsburgh; removed to 
^Cherokee in 1881, and established the above business in June of 
the same year. 

J. C. Wilson, photographer, (copying and enlarging a specialty), 
was born in Ottawa, Canada, in 1848; moved to Ogdensburg, N. 
Y., in 18G2, and came to Cherokee, la., in 1870, being one oi its 
earliest settlers; has served as a member of the city council two 
years. He married Carrie L. Bates, of Durand, 111., and has one 
child— Bessie M. 

Ed. Williams, dealer in all kinds of grain, took charge of this 
business in 1879; was born in 0.,in 1847; moved to Cedar Falls, 
la., in 1854, and engaged in buying grain near that place. He 
married Carrie Maxwell, of la. 

F. D. Yaw, liveryman, was born in N. Y. in 1836; removed to 
Delaware county, la., in 1861, and to Cherokee in 1870, and estab- 
lished his present business; has a large barn and can furnish good 
rigs at reasonable rates; also buys and sells horses on commission. 

Geo. W. Young, of the firm of Geo. W. Young & Co., proprie- 
tors of the Washington House, was born in N. H.^ and was for- 
merly connected with the Gulf City House, at Mobile, Ala. He 
perfectly understands the hotel business, keeps a house that is first- 
class in every particular, and will spare no pains to make it pleas- 
ant and comfortable for the ti-aveling public. 'Bus to and from 
trains. The house is going to be remodeled soon, another story 
added, and also an addition 30x50 feet, and all modern improve- 
ments, bath rooms, etc. 

MARCUS. 

Joseph Beck, dealer in general hardware, established business 
in 1877. He was born in Germany in 1838; came to America in 
1864, and engaged in wagon making and the hardware business in 
Jackson county, la., in 1872; removed to Marcus in 1877. He at; 
present is town trustee of that place. He married Margaret Smith 
of Germany, in 1867. They have five children — Joseph, Kate, 
Bennie, Laura and George. 

C. F. Collier, of the firm of C. F. Collier & Son, deiders in dry 
goods, groceries, clothing and furniture, (business established in 
1876), was born in Mass. in 1830; moved to Vt. in 1839; thence to 
Illinois in 1853; thence to Dubuque, la., in 1862, and engaged in 
railroading. He married Lydia Dow in 1854, and has two children 
— Fred F. and Luther D. F. F. C. was bcrn in 111., in 1856; moved 
to Marcus in 1876, and engaged in the above business. He was 
elected city marshal in 1880. 

John Ernster, of the firm of Erneter & Oleson, dealers in boots, 
hoes, clocks, jewelry and sewing machines, was born in Germany 



284 • HISTORY OF IOWA. 

in 1851; came to America in 1861. He engaged in the boot and 
shoe business in Marcus in 1875, and in his present business and 
partnership in 1881. 

J. H. Grey, of the firm of J. H. Grey & Co., real estate, loan and 
insurance office, dealers in lands in Cherokee, Plymouth, O'Brien 
and Sioux counties. Business was established in May, 1881. He 
was born in Darlington, Wis., in 1853; was engaged for a time in 
the real estate business in Neb.; removed to Iowa in 1881. 

Louis Gund, president of the Marcus Bank, established business 
in 1881, with a cash capital of $15,000. He is also proprietor of a 
large grain elevator in Marcus. He was born in Germany in 1843; 
came to iVmerica in 1847 and settled in HI.; moved to la. in 1867 
and for a time was engaged in the hotel business; then engaged in 
the agricultural business at Blairtown, and came to this city in 
1876. He married Margaret Schall, of la., in 1869, and has three 
children — Minnie C, Cora, and Wm. Louis. 

P. J. Hiltgen, cashier of tlie Marcus Bank, was born in Germany 
in 1849; came to America in 1861 and settled in Minu.: moved to 
la. in 1877, and engaged in the mercantile business; was elected 
town clerk in 1878 and justice of the peace in 1879. He married 
Therisa Barud of N. Y., in 1874, and has one child — Lucy. 

John Hyndman, dealer in dry goods, groceries, notions, boots, 
shoes and coal, is the pioneer merchant of Marcus; established 
business in 1873. He was born in Ireland in 1838; came to Amer- 
ica and settled in Canada in 1853; began teaching school the same 
year, and continued in that occupation for more than ten years. 
He came to Iowa, and was elected secretary of the school board of 
Marcus, which office he held for two years. 

J. Jungers, proprietor of the Marcus Hotel, was born in Belgium 
in 1832; came to America in 1853, and settled in Marcus in 1856, 
and engaged in the hotel business. He married Annie Pool, of 
Belgium. They have nine children — John, Lucy, Josephus, Bar- 
bara, Mary, Kate, Frank, Lena and Jeiuie. 

John Metcalf, of the firm of Clarkson & Metcalf, land agents 
and dealers in grain and live stoek, established business in 1875; 
was formerly engag'^d in the live stock business in Eldora; then 
in the millinery and live stock business in Alden; then came to 
Marcus. Mr. Clarkson is from Aurelia, where he was engaged in 
the mercantile business. 

C. B. Oldfield, of the firm of J. H. Gray & Co., real estate deal- 
ers, was born in Worcestershire, Eng., in 1859; came to America 
in 1881, and located at Marcus. 

Ole Oleson, of the firm of Ernester & Oleson, dealers in boots, 
shoes, clocks, jewelry and sewing machines, established business ill 
1881. He was born in Norway in 1856; came to America in 1877, 
and settled in Iowa county, Wis.; came to Iowa in 1880. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 285 



HARRISON COUNTY, 



This county is one of the most populous, popular, and, at the 
same time, conservative counties of Iowa. It is rich, without 
being aggressive; secure, without being assertive; in other words, 
a iine body of land, owned by a fine class of people, Harrison 
county has a right to be proud of herself. 

Lying on the Missouri River, in the fourth tier from the south- 
ern boundary, Harrison is one of the western border counties of 
the state; is twenty-four miles north and south by an average of 
about twenty-seven east and west, and contains a superficial area 
of nearly six hundred and sixty square miles. 

Like most of the counties in Iowa bordering the Missouri River, 
Harrison county presents a greater variety of surface configuration 
than is found in the inland counties to the eastward. A number 
of streams, that are more or less fully described in the histories of 
adjoining counties, gain the Missouri bottoms within the limits of 
this county, issuing from the uplands through the bluffs, causing 
them to assume those strikingly picturesque and peculiar shapes 
characteristic of the scenery of the valley of the middle Missouri. 
Nearly every portion of the county is well watered and drained by 
clear, sparkling streams and brooklets, which flow diagonally across 
its territory in a general southwest direction. The principal of 
these water-courses are the Boyer, Soldier and Little Sioux Rivers, 
and Wilson, Pigeon and Mosquito Creeks, several of which are of 
considerable size, and afford along their course in this county a 
number of excellent mill sites, only a portion of which have been 
improved. The valley of the Boyer is a beautiful tract of alluvial 
land, from one-half to two miles in width, bounded on either hand 
by gently ascending slopes until it nears the Missouri bottoms, 
where the surroundings become more abrupt and bold. The course 
of the Little Sioux in this county is mostly through the bottoms, 
though where it merges from the uplands it is marked by bluffs of 
peculiar interest, whose tops are conical peaks, flanked by sharp- 
crested, spur-like ridges. One of the most beautiful valleys of 
this slope is that of the Soldier River, which is bordered by bluffs 
which are unrivaled in the variety and picturesque beauty of their 
scenery. The bottoms slope gently from the foot of the bluffs to- 
ward the river, and form well-defined terraces, which afford beau- 
tiful rural situations. The valleys of Pigeon and Mosquito Creeks, 
in the southeast, are margined by high sloping upland, and their 
beds occupied by tracts of rich alhivial lands, which are unsur- 
passed for beauty and fertility. The current of the Missouri 
River, which bounds this county on the west, is very rapid, with a 
deep; constantly changing channel, often cutting ott' whole sections 



286 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

of land in one season. These bottoms are vast level plains, vary- 
ing in width from four to ten miles, and are bordered on the east 
by beautiful rounded bluffs, rising from one to three hundred feet 
above the river level. They are traversed by low benches or un- 
dulations, which, running more or less parallel to the river, are in- 
tervened by low grounds that afford natural drainage channels, 
that receive and confine within bounds much of the surplus waters 
of the Missouri in seasons of freshets, which would otherwise flood 
extensive tracts of the best land for agricultural purposes in the 
West. A belt of cottonwood timber extends through the county 
up and down the river, from one-half to six miles in width, inter- 
spersed with elm, mulberry, walnut, willow, ash, etc. The cotton- 
wood grows very large and tall. In passing over the bottoms 
through the timber, a person will observe a streak of very heavy 
cottonwood timber, and then of tall willow trees from a foot to, 
three and four feet each in circumference. The willow follows 
the old bed of the river, and as soon as the channel changes and 
leaves the bed dry it springs up rapidly, and when the bed of the 
river is raised to a certain height, then cottonwood crowds in, and a 
dense forest is soon made. The soil in the bottom is very rich and 
deep, producing every kind of grain and vegetables in the greatest 
abundance. Corn grows very large. The grass is said to be so 
rich and luxuriant that cattle will keep fat on it even in winter 
Avithout cutting or curing. Many farmers in mild winters have 
let their cattle range in the bottoms without any feed, pasturing 
them on the grass and keeping them in good order. Water un- 
derlies the soil of the bottoms at the depth of fourteen feet, and 
wherever you find water there you find quicksand. It is supposed 
that the whole bottom, from the bluffs of the Nebraska side to the 
bluffs in Iowa, has been one vast lake, and the Missouri River 
running through it has filled it up and formed the bottom lands. 
There is every indication of it. Every few rods along the bottoms 
you will see evidence of where once lias flowed the channel of the 
river. The settlers on the bottoms say they are getting drier every 
year, and less subject to inundation. The agent who located 
swamp lands in 1857 relates that he rode for miles through water 
where there is now fine, high and dry farming lands. The low 
places along the bottoms are fast filling up, and where once were 
ponds and marshes is now dry land with good farms upon them. 
The Missouri bottoms will be at no distant day covered with the 
finest farms in the Union. 

There are quite a chain of lakelets commencing near the mouth 
of the Little Sioux River and continuing along the bottoms. Some 
of them are near the bluffis, others out in the bottoms and near the 
river, while all have at one day been in the channel of the river or 
are the old bed of the Missouri. Many of these little lakes have 
fish in them; and are beautiful and nice little sheets of water. The 
channels of the streams in the bottoms are, or have been, chang- 



HISTOKY OF IOWA. 287 

ing. The month of the Soldier River is one mile from where it 
was twelve years ago, and the Missouri also, at this point, is over a 
mile from where it was in 1855. The land in the old channel is 
as high as that of the surrounding country; no more subject to in- 
undations, and is covered with a heavy growth of cotton wood. The 
lakelets, it is said, are fast filling up, andperhaps when the country 
becomes settled and cultivated will entirely dissapear. Persons 
digging wells frequently find logs, driftwood, bark, etc., several 
feet below the surface. A farmer digging a well recently, near 
what is known as Soldier's Lake, found a large pocket knife four- 
teen feet below the surface. 

The soil in the uplands consist of the light colored deposits of 
the bluff" formation, which does not differ materially from that in 
the bottoms, except that the silicious material of which it is largely 
composed is more finely comminuted, and has a less amount of 
vegetable matter or humus. As the soil of the uplands and bot- 
toms was derived from the same source, it only difters in degree, 
that in the former reaching a depth of sixty or one hundred feet 
below the surface. It is said that dirt taken out of wells sixty feet 
deep seems to produce as well as that on the surface. The soil is 
easily cultivated, and produces all the grains and vegetables common 
to this latitude in great abundance. It does not cave; wells do not 
have to be walled, except for a few feet down from tbe top and at 
the waters' edge. The soil never bakes, but can be plowed with- 
out injury in wet weather. It stands both wet and dry weather 
remarkably. A failure of crops has never been knov/n. The soil 
in the bottoms is more of a clay nature, and in wet weather is very 
sticky. 

Harrison contains more timber than any other county on the 
Missouri slope, yet it is limited in extent, its distribution being 
governed by circumstances favorable to its preservation, and is 
consequently found in the deep shaded ravines that crowd up into 
the bluffs, and along the small streams which are confined to nar- 
row valleys hemmed in by steep bluff ascents. But, as observation 
has repeatedly shown in all parts of the state, forests are not neces- 
sarily confined to the valleys and moister localities, and thrive 
as well in one location as anothet, when the devastation of the 
prairie fires are checked for a period of sufficient duration to allow 
the young trees a few years of unretarded growth. Hundreds of 
acres of prairie have been overgrown with thrifty groves of vig- 
orous young timber within the memory of early settlers, which 
period extends back scarce a score of years. These tracts of young 
forests add a pleasing feature to the landscape in these beautiful 
undulating divides, as that near Magnolia, and Harris' grove south 
of Logan, attests. Fine groves are met with in the valleys of the 
Soldier and Little Sioux Rivers, while the banks of the Mis>ouri 
throughout its course in this county are lined with a belt of fine 
forest growth. 



288 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

Numerous orchards have been set out in the county, and apples, 
pears, quinces and grapes grow in abundance, and of excellent 
quality. Some peaches have been raised, while in the bottom 
lands the finest quality of wild grapes are found in great profusion. 
In 1867 over five hundred barrels of wine were made from these 
grapes and shipped to Chicago, besides large quantities which was 
used at home. 

Limestone is found, the best and most extensive quarries being 
found near Logan, from which a considerable amount is annually 
shipped to Council Bluifs and other points. There are also two 
or three other quarries which have been worked to some extent in 
other parts of tlie county. 

As a stock-raising and producing county, Harrison has had quite 
a reputation, the native grasses being very nutritious and affording 
excellent pasturage at nearly all seasons of the year. Fat cattle 
from this county have for years been famous in Chicago markets 
and command the highest prices. 

Daniel Brown was the first white man who settled in the county, 
locating where the village of Calhoun now is, April 3, 18i8. His 
nearest neighbor was twelve miles distant, his nearest mill twenty- 
two miles, and nearest post office Council Bluffs, twenty-five miles. 
He had to go to St. Joseph, Missouri, one hundred and fifty miles 
for provisions that season, and while he was gone the Indians came 
and robbed his family of provisions and all the necessary articles 
of comfort. When he returned he found his family destitute of 
food and clothing. Soon after his return the Indians stole all his 
horses, and all those of the other settlers in the county. He and 
his son followed them for several miles, trying to recapture them, 
but were unsuccessful. They fired a number of shots at the Indi- 
ans. The Indians frequently killed his cattle and annoyed him a 
great deal during the first few years of his residence in the county. 
The following were also among the first settlers, Silas Condit, two 
brothers by the name of Chase, Charles Lepenta, James Hardy, 
Dr. Robert McGovern, Andrew Allen and Jacob Patee. 

The county was organized in 1853, when Stephen King 
elected County Judge; P. G. Cooper, District Court Clerk; Ches- 
ter Hamilton, Sheriff; William Cooper, Treasurer and Recorder; 
George White, Surveyor; and Jacob Huffman, Coroner. The first 
county court was held August 5, 1853, by Stephen King, Judge. 
First road petition presented was for the establishment of a road, 
commencing at the south line of the county, running thence to 
the residence of Daniel Brown, and thence to Magnolia. The first 
mortgage on record was made by Samuel Jack to James Jack, ac- 
knowledged by Frank Street, County Judge of Pottawattamie 
County. First deed on record was made by Ezra and Catharine 
Vincent, to Walter Barrenger, conveying the northeast of the 
southeast of section 8. township 79, range 48. The first wedding- 
was celebrated June 9, 1853, Stephen King, County Judge, uniting 



HISTOKY OF IOWA. 280 

ill the holy bonds of wedlock, John Jones and Miss Elizabeth 
Outhouse. The second occurred on the 16th of the following 
August, when the same judge united Samuel McGaven and Miss 
Mary M. Harden. The total number of marriages since the or- 
ganization up to January 1, 1868, was four hundred and ninety. 

The first district court was held by Honorable S. H. Riddle in 
May, 1855, at which time the first cause on the docket was Wil- 
liam Kennedy vs. D. Pate, Avhile the total number were four civil 
and one criminal. The first grand jury were: Creed Saunders, 
James Garnett, John Conger, Chester Staley, H. Locklin, T, Mea- 
dus, P. R. Sharp, Thomas Sellers, S. A. Seaman, Solomon Barnett, 
John Deal, I. H. Holton, D, E. Brainard, Silas Rue and Solomon 
Garnett. D. E. Brainard was appointed foreman. John Jeffary 
was the first person naturalized, and Thomas Thompson the sec- 
ond. The number of cases since the organization of the county 
up to November 25, 1867, were, civil, 749, and ninety-one criminal. 

In the Fall of 1853 a party of Indians camped on Willow Creek. 
The settlers were afraid that they would commit some depreda- 
tions, organized a company and went to drive them off. Among 
the number was a gentleman from Virginia, who had been a 
captain in the Virginia militia, and had brought his broad sword 
and regimentals with him, and was "decked out" in full dress, 
and took command. He boasted of his bravery and would show 
the bloody red skins a I rick or two." The company set out on 
horseback, marching in gallant style, led by their brave and daring 
officer — in his own imagination. The bloody spvages were to be 
exterminated, a brilliant victory to be obtained, and the troopers 
were to return home covered all over with glory. While march- 
ing along to the scene of conflict, they discovered the Indian en- 
campment about a mile ahead across Willow Creek. They halted, 
commenced firing, and continued it for some time. The Indians 
hearing it, some half a dozen warriors got on their ponies and 
rode towards the troopers to see what was the matter. The latter 
seeing the warriors approaching, suddenly imagined that they 
would be surrounded, overpowered, slaughtered, and scalped, broke 
for their homes as fast as their horses could carry them. Many of 
the troopers were so badly scared that they did not know their 
own houses, but went on past them. The warriors seeing the 
fleeing troopers, raised a big laugh, and rode back to their en- 
campment in safety. 

For several years the Indians annoyed the settlers a great deal 
by stealing or begging. Companies were frequently organized to 
drive them off, and some times there would be some shooting, but 
no one was ever hurt. Mr. Brown states that in .185;3 there Avas 
a large party of Indians encamped on the Boyer; he with twenty- 
six others went out to drive them off. They came near the en- 
campment and formed in battle line. The chief and a half-breed 
got on their ponies and rode out to them. The chief proposed to 



290 niSTOKY OF IOWA. 

make a treaty with the whites, and it was made with the condi- 
tion that the Indians should leave the county. There were 120 
warriors with their women and children. The Indians left the 
county. "" 

In the Fall of 1853 quite a large party of Ottoe Indians were 
encamped within eight miles of Magnolia. One evening the 
settlers informed them that they had better leave or the Sioux 
would attack them before morning. In the night a firing was 
heard by the settlers. They went upon a high bluff to see what 
was the matter, and sure enough the Sioux were pouring a heavy 
fire into the encampment of the Ottoes. The latter were scream- 
ing and yelling with all vengeance, and fled into the Missouri 
bottoms. The next day the settlers attacked them and drove 
them across the Missouri River. They swam the river on their 
ponies. Harrison County seemed to have been a hunting ground 
for the Indians, as no tribe resided in the county. 

On Willow Creek, about six miles from Magnolia, there are old 
ruins of some kind of a house that has the appearance of having 
been built out of burnt brick. 

MONDAMIN. 

Mondamin, one of the heavy shipping points of the Lower Mis- 
souri Valley, is situated thirty-eight miles north of Council Bluffs 
on the Sioux City & Pacific Railway. The oldest settlers on the 
town-site is Capt. John Noyes, who with Clarke Ruffcorn, his son- 
in-law, came'here from the east and settled in the township in the 
fall of 1856. The township at that time was a fraction of Raglan 
township. It was subsequently named Morgan, which name it 
still bears. Although Capt. Noyes is the oldest settler in Monda- 
min, he preceded Mr. E. J. Hagerman, the present postmaster, 
but a few weeks. The former gentleman arrived by boat, while 
Mr. Hagerman came by team. Both started from the same place 
together and, but the difference in the time required for the jour- 
ney intervened between their arrivals. Previous to the arrival of 
Messrs. Noyes and Ruffcorn, there were but four settlers in the 
township. Mr. David W. Fletcher, although there was no thought 
of a town being located in the vicinity at that time, had just pre- 
vious to the advent of the gentleman named established a general 
merchandise store, and shortly after the arrival of Mr. Hagerman, 
the two formed a partnership. With one exception, no other busi- 
ness house was erected in the place prior to its platting, in the 
winter of 1867-8, when the railway was first laid through the town. 
The exception noted was a general store erected by Capt. John 
Noyes, some months after. 

The postoffice was established in Mondamin in the summer of 
the year 1868, and the D. W. Fletcher before-mentioned was 
commissioned as postmaster. Mr. Fletcher held the position less 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 291 

than a year, when he was succeeded by the present postmaster, Mr. 
Hagerraan. As the salary attached to the office amounted to but 
twelve dollars per year there was not a great deal of wrangling 
over the appointment. The office at present, though having con- 
siderable business, is not a money-order office. 

The town was platted in the winter of 1867-8 by John I. Blair 
and others of the Iowa Land Company. At first, when the rail- 
road was built, no town was plaited, the calculation being to lo- 
cate the town some distance north of the present site. Measures 
to this end were actually taken, on account of the unwillingness 
of settlers to part with the required land. iSome of the settlers, 
however, reconsidered matters, and the town was eventually lo- 
cated where it now stands. The site comprises 160 acres, though 
it is not all platted. Eighty acres of this land was sold to the 
owners of the town-site by Capt. Koyes, and the remainder by 
Messrs. Fletcher and George Morgareidge, in the fall and winter 
of 1868. Previous to the building of the railroad, no thought of 
a town in this particular locality was had. 

The oldest building now on the town-site is the residence of Dr. 
T. H. Allison. This structure was erected in the fall of 1868. 

Although the vicinity of Mondamin is not, strictly speaking, 
a wheat country, it has other resources of magnitude, and its trade 
in corn is not second to that of any town on the line of the Sioux 
City & Pacific railway, north of Missouri Valley Junction. This 
promises to continue, as a twenty-five-year resident of the county 
gave the assurance that in the time specified, there had never been 
a failure, and but few small crops. Mondamin has cribbing capac- 
ity for 100,000 bushels of this grain, and the number of bushels 
handled by dealers during the year closed was 200,000. The com- 
ing year promises an increase. 

In addition to corn, cattle, hogs, Avood and other country pro- 
ducts, are exported in large quantities. One dealer of Mondamin 
paid nearly fifty thousand dollars last year for hogs alone. 

Mondamin having reach about two hundred population, her en- 
terprising citizens took measures at the October, 1881, term of the 
Circuit Court to file articles of incorporation, with a view of 
securing a village charter. In sequence thereto, an election to 
secure ratification by the citizens was had, and a mayor, clerk and 
five trustees were elected. Subsequently it was discovered that in 
accordance with the revised statutes, a sixth trustee would be neces- 
sary to give legality to the incorporation, and another election was 
held. The second election resulted in the re-election of the officers 
firstchosen, and F.M. Dupray as an additional trustee. The full 
board was: E. J. Hagerman, Mayor; A. Spooner, Clerk; Byron 
Strode, Thomas Reagan, Z. T. Noyes, E. Jones, P. C. Spooner, F. M. 
Dupray, trustees. The first meeting of the board was held Novem- 
ber 26th, 1881. 



292 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

One of the most potential influences in the incorporation of the 
place, was The Mondamin Independent, a neat little six-column 
folio newspaper published weekly, the first number of which was 
issued August 13th. 1881, by W. H. Wonder, who, a year before, 
had established in Mondamin The Musical Banner, a four-page 
musical journal. Besides conducting these journals, the publisher 
practices his profession of teaching and publishing music, organ- 
izing musical conventions, etc. The results of the incorporation 
are beginning to make themselves apparent in the shape of new 
sidewalks, etc. 

The general business of Mondamin, classified, is as follows: 
Three dry goods and grocery stores, two grocery and notion stores, 
one drug store, jewelry store, hotel, restaurant, two hardware and 
tin-shops, furniture store, blacksmith shop, wagon shop, two 
livery stables, shoe shop, stock shipper, three grain dealers, meat 
market, billiard hall and saloon, agricultural implement dealer, 
lumber yard, harness shop, carpenter shop, dealer in music books 
and sheet music. There is also a notary public and insurance 
agent. The bar has one representative here, and medicine three. 

CHURCHES, SCHOOLS AND SOCIETIES. 

Mondamin Congregational Church Society.- — This society was 
organized with about thirty members, in the early part of 1876, 
by Rev. C. N. Lyman, of Onawa. Mr. Lyman still ministers to 
the spiritual wants of the congregation, and holds services in the 
school house once in two weeks. Although somewhat at a dis- 
advantage for the present regarding a place of meeting, arrange" 
ments have been made for the erection of a suitable house of wor- 
ship the coming spring, and over $700 have already been sub- 
scribed for the purpose. The society, owing to the departure 
from the vicinity of a number of its original members, is now not 
quite as large as it was at the outset, and at present has but about 
twenty-five members. The society has also a Sabbath school in 
connection therewith, of which P. C. Spooner is superintendent. 
The average attendance is about forty-five, and services are held 
every Sunday morning in the school house. 

Methodist. — Although there is no organized Methodist society, 
of any branch, in Mondamin, there are a number of adherents 
to the doctrines of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and for their 
benefit services are held in the school house once in two weeks by 
Rev. H. J. Smith, of Little Sioux, 

Other Religions Sects. — Although there are numerous representa- 
tives of other religious sects in this vicinity, particularly Univer- 
salists, there is no other organized society beyond the one men- 
tioned. The sect particularized has occasionally been preached to 
by various itinerant brethren of their belief. 

Mondamin Public Schools. — Although the town is incorporated, 
Mondamin, as yet, has not been made an independent school dis- 



HISTORY OF TOWA. 293 

trict, but the limits within the jurisdiction of the town school is 
known as Sub-District No. 1 of Morgan Township. It is believed, 
however, by those in a position to know, that the sub-district has 
sufficient population to warrant its admission as an independent 
district, and that this consummation will soon be attained. There 
are 100 pupils in the sub-district. The sub-district erected a one- 
room building, 30x40 feet in dimensions, in the fall of 1871, when 
the sub-district was first organized, but the increased attendance 
has necessitated the renting of another room. This difficulty, 
however, is soon to be met by a larger public edifice. The first 
sub-director was E. M. Harvey. The present one is E. J. Hager- 
man. 

Mondamin Lodge No. 392, I. 0. 0. F. — This lodge was organ- 
ized May 22d, 1879, with charter members as follows: F. M. Du- 
pray, N. G.; E. Jones, V. G.; J. A. Yost, S.; A. W. Garrison, P. 
S.; F. W. Brooks, C. M. Gilmore, Byron Strode, Thomas Byers, 
B. J. Faylor, members. Six other members were also initiated the 
same evening, and of these several were immediately placed in 
officers' vacant chairs. The lodge was organized by D. G. M. 
J. C Miliman, of Logan. The lodge at present contains thirty- 
four members, with the following oiiicers: B. J. Faylor, N. G.; 
Benjamin Morrow, V. G.; J. A. Yost, S.; R. B. Hall," T.; F. M. 
Dupray,W.;B. Strode, C; T. Morrow, R. S. N. G.; T. C. F. 
Brenneman, L. S. N. G.; C. Gilmore, 0. G.; William Griffith, I. 
G.; A. Forrester, R. S. V. G.; E. Jones, L. S. V. G.; Anton Uhrig, 
R. S. S.; Z. T. Noyes, L. S. S. The lodge which is in a flourish- 
ing condition; meets in Noyes' hall every Saturday evening. 

Mo)idamiH Lyceum. — This society has just been organized with 
thirty members, and its history is yet to be made. The object is 
intellectual and social development. B. Strode is the President, 
and the Society holds its meetings in the schoolhouse on Friday 
night of each week. 

Mondamin Chorus Choir. — Thi=! society consists of about fifteen 
members, and it is non-sectarian in character. The object is musi- 
cal cultivation . The choir meets every w^eek in the schoolhouse. 

RIVER SIOUX. 

This thriving place is located on the Sioux City & Pacific Rail- 
way, at or very near the junction of the Missouri and Little Sioux 
Rivers, on the south side of the latter stream. It contains a pop- 
ulation of 225. The town, although unincorporated and small, is 
delightfully situated in the midst of heavy timber, of various kinds, 
and is one of the most progressive business places in the county. 
The town owes its origin to the advent of the Sioux City & Pacific 
Railroad, the authorities of which platted it in October, 1868. 
The original town site was a few hundred yards north of the pres- 
ent one, on the north side of the Little Sioux River. This loca- 
tion, however, was found to be too low for a town site, as it was 



294 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

subject to inundation, and the town was accordingly removed to 
its present location. This transfer was made in the summer of 
1876. The ^lew location showed the wisdom of those who chose 
it, as it is the highest point of land on the railway south of Ser- 
geant's Bluffs. On the original town site there were but three 
settlers, Reuben Newton, depot agent, S. Chase, who lived there 
prior to the advent of the railroad, and E. J. Davis. 

The land to which the town site was finally transferred was 
owned by Henry Herring, E. J. Davis and James Crabb and the 
undivided half of eighty acres, was by them given to the railway 
company with the understanding that the town should be removed 
thereto. 

As before stated, the business of Little Sioux, in proportion to 
population and number of establishments, is quite large. The fol- 
lowing are the various kinds of business, ennumerated : Two gen- 
eral merchandise stores, drug and grocery store, drug store, hard- 
ware store, three saloons, hotel, lumber yard, two saw-mills, black- 
smith and wagon shop, grain and stock dealer, butcher shop. 

The professions are represented in River Sioux by two physi- 
cians, two lawyers and one civil engineer. 

As River Sioux is situated in the midst of a productive country, 
which is rapi-lly increasing in population, the stiipments of ^arious 
kinds of produce are necessarily quite large, and they are rapidly 
increasing in amount and value. At present they will aggregate 
from two to three car loads per day. The business of the station 
is ably handled by the agent, R. Newton, who is at present the 
oldest settler on the town site, he having removed thereto with the 
transfer of the town site. Although River Sioux cannot properly 
be described as a port of call for Missouri River steamers, vessels 
of this description have in previous years come up the Sioux as far 
as the town, and it is thought that a systematic course of dredging 
and widening of the channel would make it possible for this de- 
scription of craft to come up at all stages of water. In justice to 
dissenting opinion, however, it must be stated that there are those 
who regard such a scheme as chimerical to the highest degree. 

CHUKCHES, SCHOOLS AND SOCIETIES. 

Methodist Episcopal Church Society.- — This society has no church 
building, but is composed of about thirty members. The congrega- 
tion meets in the town hall. The society has been in existence 
only since the organization of the Little Sioux Circuit in 1876, and 
has no resident pastor, and it is now one of the appointments 
of the Little Sioux Circuit, of which Rev. H. J. Smith, of Lit- 
tle Sioux, is the minister. The erection of a church at no distant 
future is being discussed. Outside of the members of the society, 
there is a good attendance of non-members, and there is more than 
a probability that the society will soon see a church of its own. Be- 



HTSTORT OF IOWA. 295 

sides this society, there is no other organized religious body in River 
Sioux, although occasional services have been held in the place by 
the clergymen of other denominations. 

Odd FeUoivH. — There is a lodge of Odd Fellows at River Sioux. 
The lodge contains twenty-three members, and was organized in 
January, 1879. The following is the list of elective officers first 
installed: N. G., J. Simmons; V. G., J. Bowie; S., C. A. Demun; 
T., S. Demmon. The present elective officers are; John Whiting, 
N. G.; Henry Herring, V. G.; James Harmon, S.; John Henry, W. 

Good Templars. — Although there is no temperance organization 
in River Sioux, an effort is making looking towards the organiza- 
tion of a subordinate lodge of the Independent Order of Good 
Templars. 

Public Schools. — The school district, of which Sub-District No- 
6 (River Sioux) is a part, is Little Sioux Township District, which 
was organized in April, 1857. Sub-District No. 6 was organized 
September 21, 1874, and Charles McEvers was elected the following 
spring as sub-director. The present officers of the school town- 
ship are: Samuel Ellis, President; Samuel Dewell, Secretary; 
Charles Smith, Gilbert Smith, S. A. Page, Samuel Taylor and 
George W. Rock. Sub-District No. 6, has at present a neat little 
school-house 26x40 feet in dimensions, but as there are ninety 
children of school age in the Sub-District, the space is inadequate 
to its wants, and the coming season a larger structure will be 
erected at a'cost of $3,000. The school is under the supervision 
of E. A. Baldwin, of Little Sioux, and is in a flourishing condition. 
Although containing but one room, two departments have been 
maintained until recently, but lack of space necessitated the dis- 
continuance of one department. This state of afl'airs is to be 
remedied hereafter. tJpon the completion of the new school- 
house, the District will be made Independent. 

WOODBINE. 

The first permanent settler in the vicinity of Woodbine was 
Richard Musgrave, who arrived in 1852, from Council Bluff's. Mr. 
Musgrave settled in the Twelve-mile Grove, two miles south of 
town, where he still resides, engaged in farming. Mr. Musgrave 
was one of a number of monogamous Mormons who came to west- 
ern Iowa and located at the time of the migration of the original 
church from Illinois and Missouri. 

L. D. Butler was the second permanent settler in the vicinity. 
He has never resided in the town proper, but has been in business 
there most of the time since his arrival. Mr. Butler came to 
Council Bluffs in 1849. At that jime, this portion of Harrison 
County was a wilderness, inhabited only by wild deer, elk, wolves, 
etc. The only settlements that had been made anywhere near 
were by the Mormons aforesaid, of whom Mr. Butler was one at 



296 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

the time. In a stray excursion northward, Mr. Butler was struck 
by the beauty and fertility of the land in the neighborhood of 
what is now Woodbine, and in 1853 he came here and located near 
the town-site, occupying one of a number of abandoned Mormon 
dwellings until he could erect a suitable building. The building 
he put up was situated about one and one-half miles east of the 
present town. He then commenced farming. Mr. Butler built a 
grist and saw-mill at the point mentioned in the year 1855, This 
was the first mill erected in Harrison County. 

Among other old settlers are Jacob Harshbarger, David Selleck, 
Dr. Cole, Henry Hushaw, G. W. Pugsley, John Jeffries, Matthew 
Hall and others whose names could not be reaaily obtained. These 
came between the years 1853-5. 

The town was platted in the fall of 1866, by the Blair Town Lot 
and Land Company. This was the year of the completion of the 
Chicago and Northwestern Railway to this point. The Land 
Company purchased 1,200 acres of land for the use of the town, 
though but a comparatwely small portion of it has been platted. 
The parties selling this tract to the Land Company were Matthew 
Winters, David E. Barnum, Hiram Wisener, W. F. Clark, Gr. M. 
Brown, I. McAfee, John Johnson and M. Kiger. 

The town was incorporated in the latter part of 1877, and the 
first meeting of the town council was held on December 7th, 1877. 
The following was the composition of the first council: A. W. 
Curtiss, Mayor; C. C. Matter, Recorder; Joseph Clizbe, J. W. 
Vinacke, G.'H. Kibler, C. W. Jeffries, C. D. Stevens, Trustees. 
The present officers are: J. V. Mallery, Mayor; Frank Folts, Re- 
corder; Frank A. Butler, T. L, Canfield, J. C. McLain, H. B. 
Kling, S. L. Winter, 0. D. Smith Trustees. 

The money-order postoffice at Woodbine is a legitimate successor 
of an office established in 1858, eight years before the town was 
platted. The original office was located at the grist-mill of Mr. 
Butler, previously mentioned, some distance from the town-site. 
The intention of the settlers was to name the office Harrison City 
Postoffice; but the department at Washington did not care to is- 
sue papers with that name as there were already several Harrisons 
in Iowa, and it was tnought an additional one would lead to confu- 
sion. The name Woodbine was finally suggested by Mrs. Butler, 
and it was accepted. The name was taken from the cottage in 
which Mrs. Butler resided, as a girl, in England. The first post- 
master was Mr. Butler, who held the office for about ten years and 
for some time after its removal to its present site. The present 
postmaster is Lysander Crane, who has been in office about a year. 
The postoffice name was applied to the town by the platters of the 
same. 

The first building erected on the town-site was Gallagher & Bros. 
saloon, which was built just before the railroad was graded to this 
point. The first residence was put up in 1866, by William A. Jones. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 297 

The next building erected was in 186Gbv J. P. Moore, The house, 
the Woodbine House, is still standing, with additions, and was the 
first hotel in the place. Among other buildings erected about 
this time, were the residence and the hardware store of A. Cad- 
well, Sleight & Williams' agricultural implement warehouse, CD. 
Stevens' grocery store, L. D. Battler's general merchandise store, 
(the first in the place), McAtee's grocery store, Dr. Cole's drug 
store and several other smaller concerns. 

Woodbine Lodge, No. 405, I. 0. 0. F., was instituted in April, 
1880. Charter members: F. J. Porter, S. L.. Winter, W. J. 
Callender, A. P. Lathrop, W. C. Sampson, George Musgrave, and 
others. First officers: F. J. Porter, N. G.: S. L. Winter, V. G.; 
W. J. Callender, Secretary; W. C. Sampson, Treasurer. Present 
officers: A. P. Lithrop, N. G.; George Musgrave, V. G.; H. B. 
Kling, R. S.; J. V. Mallory, P. S.; S. L. Winters, Treasurer. The 
Lodge has about forty members. Meetings are held in Odd Fel- 
lows' Hall Wednesday evenings of each week. The Lodge is in 
excellent working condition, and its membership is of as equally 
excellent a standard. 

The LVlasonic fraternity is as well represented by men of stand- 
ing and thorough-going qualities. Charter Oak Lodge, No. 401, 
A. P. & A. M., was instituted in 1880. Its charter members were: 
R. Yeislev, H. C. Harshbarger, F. J. Porter. J. R. Burkholder, C. 
D. Stevens, W. H. DeCou, Lvsander Crane, P. A. DeCou, R. 
J.icobson, L. D. Butler, L A. DeCou, J. S.Hall,G. Smith Stanton. 
First officers: Reuben Yeisley, W. M.; H. C. Harshbarger, S. 
W.; F.J. Porter, J. W.; G. Smith Stanton, Secretary. C. D. 
Stevens, Treasurer. Present Officers: Reuben Yeisley, W. M.; 
F. J. Porter, S. W.; H. H. Rathbun, J. W.; H. C. Harshbarger, 
Secretary; C. D. Stevens, Treasurer; J. R. Burkholder, S. D.; C. 
W. Mendenhall, J. D.; N. E. Cowles, Tyler. The membersliip is 
twenty-five. Meetings are held Saturday evenings on or before the 
foil moon. 

Woodbine has a circulating library of about 800 volumes. This 
library is owned and conducted by Geo. Musgrave, proprietor of 
the Tiviner, at his office. 

There are three church buildings, the Presbyterian, Methodist, 
Episcopal and Baptist. The religious interests of Woodbine are 
zealously cared for. 

There is every advantage offered in an educational way. The 
school building is a handsome and roomv structure of four depart- 
ments. C. C. Matter is the principal; Miss Hester Hillas teaches 
the Intermediate Department; Miss Etta Boies, the Second Prim- 
ary; Miss Harriet Elkins, the First Primary. One hundred and 
fifty pupils are enrolled. The building was built in 1880, is of 
brick, two stories in hight, and cost about $5,000. 



298 HISTORY OF IOWA. 



MODALE. 



The location of this place is on the Sioux City & Pacific Rail- 
way, sixty-five miles south of Sioux City, and a li.tle less than 
thirty-two miles north of Council Bluffs. Modale contains about 
200 inhabitants, most of whom are native Americans. The village 
is not incorporated. 

Modale was laid off by Benjamin Martin in 1ST2, under the 
the name of Martinsville, which is still the legal name of the 
place, in all deeds of town property it being thus designated. The 
name Modale, however, is the older name, and seems to be prefer- 
red by the citizens. The name had a somewhat singular origin. 
In the year 1858, the few settlers then living in the vicinity were 
desirous of securing a postoffice, and a petition was drawn up and 
sent to Washington asking that one be established. T. A. Den- 
nis, who forwarded the document, also sent recommendations as 
to name and location. The name suggested was ''Missouri Dale;" 
but the writing being somewhat illegible and the word "Missouii" 
being abbreviated to ''Mo.." the postoffice authorities could make 
nothing of it but "Modale" and with that name the papers were 
filled out. This postoffice was located two miles and a half north- 
west of the present town. The postmaster was Stephen Hester. 
The office was shifted according to population several times before 
it reached its present location. The last move was in 1873. C. J. 
Cutler, the present postmaster, the oldest living settler on the 
town-site was the first postmaster. Tiie name Modale was further 
fixed by the building of an addition called "Modale addition" after 
the town was platted, and by the railway company's giving the 
station the name of Modale. 

At the time of the building of the railway through here, in the 
fall of 1868, the intention of the company was to make no regular 
station, but simply a station. This idea was carried out, and it 
was a number of years after before any but flagged trains stopped 
at Modale. But in course of time, as population and products in- 
creased, a station was found necessary and one was made, the en- 
terprise of Mr. Martin and others providing the town site. The 
original plat, as laid out by Mr. Martin, contained but ten acres, 
but a year afterward thirty acres more were platted by that gen- 
tleman. About the same time Alonzo Beebe platted the Modale 
addition of six acres, which made the total number of acres in 
the town site forty-six. No more additions have been made since. 

The oldest building on the town site is the old school house, 
which though still standing, is deserted and dilapidated. This 
building, size 26x30 feet, was the second school house in the dis- 
trict, and was erected in 1866. The first building erected after the 
town site was platted was the residence of A. M. Snyder, which 
was erected in 1874, and in which Mr. Snyder still lives. A num- 
ber of other small residences were erected shortly afterward. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 299 

Among the early settlers of Module are C. J. Cutler, before 
mentioned; B. F. Martin, son of the founder of the town, and A. 
M. iSnyder, also previously mentioned. These all came about the 
time tiie town was platted. There were others, some of whom are 
dead, who were also early settlers of the immediate vicinity. 
Among the extreme old settlers of the vicinity, though not a resi- 
dent of the town proper, is J. J. Anderson. He, however, is sepa- 
rated from the town by but a narrow lane. His house had been 
built for many years prior to the platting of the town. Mr. An- 
derson came to the township some time in the early '50's. Other 
old settlers in the township are Joseph Haskins and Joseph Bross, 
who both came to Taylor Township nearly thirty years ago. The 
priority of settlement was not ascertained. 

The business of Modale, though not varied, is large in propor- 
tion to its population, and is constantly improving. The exports 
consist principally of corn, hogs, cattle and wood. The latter, 
regarding which no exact figures could be obtained, is shipped 
across the river into Nebraska. Modale has a large corn-cribbing 
capacity — at least 100,000 bushels, but double that amount of this 
cereal was shipped during 18"!. Besides, a large quantity was 
purchased for home consumption. The shipments of cattle and 
hogs amounted to several hundred car loads of each, but as the 
cars in which the animals were shipped were sometimes partially 
filled at towns above before reaching Modale, it is not possible to 
give the exact number. 

The situation of Modale is a beautiful one, and it was high 
enough to escape the heavy overflow of the Missouri in 1881. 
There is heavy timber near the town, and a number of citizens 
find profitable employment in clearing it. The people, like most 
of the people on the valley, are wholesouled and generous, and the 
vicinity presents many advantages to prospective settlers. The 
merchants carry stocks of goods far heavier than the town would 
at first sight seem to warrant, yet all seem to be thriving and do- 
ing good business. 

Modale is not yet incorporated, though the subject of incorpora- 
has received considerable attention. 

The business of Modale, classified, is as follows: Two general 
merchandise stores, grocery store, hardware store, furniture store, 
millinery store, drug store, saloon, two hotels, butcher shop, two 
blacksmith shops, carpenter and wagon shop, weigh scales, two 
stock dealers, lumber and agricultural implement dealer, wood 
yard, lumber yard, harness and shoe-maker, and livery stable. 
Two physicians comprise the practicing professional men of the 
place. 

CHURCHES, SCHOOLS AND SOCIETIES. 

With these Modale is but moderately well supplied — in fact, of 
secret societies she has none, though there are a number of members 
of various orders in the vicinity. She has no -church building be- 



100 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

yond a Union church, built by a stock compan}^ at five dollars per 
share, and in this the societies which exist in Modale hold their servi- 
ces. It is open to all denominations. Tnis church was built in 1875 
and it is 28x46 feet in dimensions. The cost was $1,200. Below 
are given the church and other societies of Modale: 

Methodist Church Society. — This society was organized in 1866, 
by Rev. A. J. Andres, the society at that time containing but six 
or eight members. The first services were held in the school 
house. The society now numbers nearly fifty members, and the 
services are held every other week in the ifnion Church. The 
pastor is Rev. H. J. Smith, of the Little Sioux Circuit. This church 
has a Sabbath School of sixty members, of which W. W. Morton is 
the Superintendent. The school was established in 1876. 

Christian Church. Societfj. — This society has had a number of 
ups and downs. It was first organized in 1861 by Rev. D. R, Dun 
can, with twelve or fifteen members; but since then it has several 
times fallen into a condition of decay, and has as many times been 
reorganized. It now has between thirty and forty members and 
seems to be in a flourishing condition. The services are held in 
the Union Church. The present pastor is Rev. D. Gr, Mullis. 

Modale Public School. — This school is not independent, but is 
the school of Sub-District No. 3, Taylor Township. As elsewhere 
announced, it was organized twenty y* ars ago, when there (vere 
but four families in the district. The first sub-director was 
James Mackintosh. The growing demands of the community 
have caused larger buildings to be erected twice, and the present 
building is the third one erected by the Sub-District. The present 
building was erected in the summer of 1881. It is a two-story 
frame structure, 30x50 feet, and has two rooms, each of which 
constitutes a department. The higher department is taught by 
J. A. Bradley, and the lower by Miss Clara Vanderhoof. There 
are 104 pupils in the Sub-District. Several unsuccessful moves 
have been made in the direction of rendering the Sub-District in- 
dependent. 

Modale Band of Hope. — This is an independent body, which 
was organized November 6th, 1881. Arrangements are now in 
progress to secure for it a charter from the State Band of Hope^ 
thereby making it a subordinate band of that institution. The of- 
ficers are: J. A. Bradley, Superintendent; W. VV. Morton, Assis- 
tant Superintendent; Eva Martin, Secretary; Bessie Silsby, Treas- 
urer; Eva Martin, Chorister; Pamelia Taylor, Organist. The band 
meets every Sunday at 3 p. m. There are seventy members. 

Modale Literary Society.— This society has just been organized 
with J. A. Bradley as President, Meetings are to be held weekly 
in the school-house. There are but a few members as yet. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 301 

DUNLAP. 

The settlement of Dunlap began in the summer of 1867, the 
prior settlement, which was virtually its beginning, however, be- 
ing the town of Ohnstead, to which reference has been made 
hitherto. The Olmstead settlement was known as the Yankee 
settlement, as its founders and population — if the latter word is 
not too comprehensive for so small a town — were from New Eng- 
land. 

Of this Olmstead settlement it may be said that Henry Olmstead, 
H. B. Lyman, Edward Brace, and Calvin Nay, came together in 
the autumn of 1855 from Connecticut; J. L. Roberts came in 
November of the same year. The same autumn witnessed the 
arrival of James Welch, who settled on what is known as the Sam, 
Ettinger farm, about thirteen miles south of Dunlap. During the 
same autumn E. P. Brown bjilt a log house about one-half mile 
west of Galland's Grove, in Harrison Township. A man named 
Riley, a native of Connecticut, came the same autumn in search of 
health. 

About the last of November, 1855, Olmstead, Riley and Roberts 
assembled on the townsite of Olmstead, and voted a township 
organization. Olmstead was Chairman of the meeting, Riley was 
the Clerk, an I Roberts sustained the important role of "voter." 
Both Riley and Olmstead are now dead. Riley died in Connecticut; 
Olmstead was killed by a runaway team. The latter was the first 
County Supervisor for Harrison Township, L. Kellogg, the next, 
and was succeeded by Roberts, whose term of office included the 
year during which the settlement of Dunlap was begun. 

Like the ''paper towns" in Iowa and elsewhere, Olmstead was 
not doomed to anything but a transitory existence. The establish- 
ment of the line of the C. & N. W. Railroad elsewhere than had 
been expected terminated the existence of a number of towns, and 
Olmstead was among the number, 

Dunlap is located on section 3, township 81, range 41, and was 
platted by the Cedar Rapids Land Company in 18(37. The town 
was incorporated in the spring of 1871. Its first officers were: L, 
G,Tubbs, Mayor; Frank Griffin, Recorder; S. M. Williams, W, C, 
Chapman, B,'F. Carpenter, W, P, Webster, J. R. Wheeler, Trus- 
tees; Samuel Baird, Marshal; S.J. Patterson, Treasurer; William 
Magden, Solicitor; William Sears, Street Commissioner; H. W. 
Cotton, Assessor. 

The following are the present town officers: F. W. Olmstead, 
Mayor; D. T. Stubbs, Recorder; 0. P. Simmons, G. W. Chamber- 
lin, John Noonan, Charles Gager, G. P. Moorhead, E. R. Cadwell, 
Couju-il; E. K. Burch, Solicitor; ,1. B. Patterson, Treasurer; W. 
Van Slyke, Marshal. Board of Education: S. J. Patterson, Pres- 
ident; R. R. Bahard, Secretary; J, A, Nay, M, Barrett, M, Rob- 
erts, H, W. Gleason, W. C. Chapman, J. Van Scoy. 



302 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

Dimlap Bank, a prosperous and substantial institution, was or- 
ganized in 1871, the firm at first being Clark, Kellogg & Thomp- 
son, and afterwards Kellogg, Morehead & Thompson. The present 
firm are Kellogg, Morehead, Satterlee & Patterson. L. Kellogg is 
president, S. L. Amsden Ciifshier, David Stubbs Assistant Cashier. 
The bank building, a handsome brick structure, was erected in 1879. 

The town was named by the Railroad Company in honor of one 
of its officials. Its population, according to the census of 1880, is 
1,418; its present population is fully 1,500. 

Among the leading industries may be mentioned I. Scholfi eld's 
flouring mill, wdiich was erected in the summer of 1871. This 
mill is about five-eighths of a mile west of Dunlap, is 32xG6 feet in 
dimensions, and three stories high, has four run of stones, and a 
capacity of sixty barrels per day. This mill has all the machinery 
for making the patent flour; but is mainly employed in doing cus- 
tom work, a very large amount of which comes to it. Mr. Schol- 
field also owns a grain elevator at Denison. 

His mill office and residence are connected by telephone. Mr. 
S. has a farm of three hundred acres connected with the mill, and 
is exte.isively engaged in hog raising. He is also the owner and 
editor of the Dunlap Reporter. This paper was started in 1871 by 
Geo. R. Brainerd, who was succeeded by G. W. Thompson. Mr. 
Thompson ran the paper about two years, part of the time in con- 
nection with James Ainsworth. Thompson sold to L. F. Cook, 
who ran it until May, 1880, when Mr. Scholfield purchased a half- 
interest. In May, 1881, Mr. Scholfield purchased Cook's interesb 
and assumed entire control. He has changed the paper from an 
eight-column folio to a five-column quarto, and greatly enlarged 
its scope, paying very particular att-^ntion to the wants of the 
farming community, as well as to those of the home circle and the 
fireside. In this undertaking he is meeting with success. L. 
Ballon is the local editor. 

There are three brickyards, of which James Van Scoy, Aaron 
Van Scoy, and Joseph Wood are proprietors. These yards fur- 
nish brick of the first quality at very low prices. 

The business of' the town in general may be classified as follows: 
Hotels, 3; general merchandise, 4; groceries, 5; hardware and farm 
implements, 3; bakery, 1; drug and bookstores, 3; livery stables, 
2; clothing, 1; furniture. 2; jewelers, 2; wagon and blacksmith 
shops, 2; blacksmith, 2; harness, 2; boot and shoe store, 1; meat 
markets. 2; confectioners, 3; barber shops, 2; grain elevators, 2; 
lumber yards, 2, agricultural implements and machinery, 1; art 
gallery, 1; cigar factory, 1; billiard rooms, 2; attorneys, 5; physi- 
cians, G. 

The Railway Eating House and Hotel, leased and conducted by 
Chapman & Castle, is liberally patronized by the traveling public. 
The building is large and roomy, and the accommodations ^excel- 
lent in every respect. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 303 

The postoffice of Duiilap was established in 1867, a Mr. Willard 
being the first postmaster. He was succeeded by B. F. Carpenter, 
and he in turn by Dr. D. Satterlee. The office was made a money 
order office July 17th, 1S72. Dr. Satterlee is the proprietor (in con- 
nection with his office) of a well conducted and arranged book and 
drug establishment. 

All in all. Dunlap is not only a thriving town^ but, to the un- 
prejudiced observer, a town destined to grow steadily in import- 
ance. It has, moreover, a substantial and beautiful appearance, 
situated as it is, on a " bench " overlooking the rich and fertile 
Boyer Valley, and ecjuipped, as it is, with many handsome and sub- 
stantial buildings. 

CHURCHES, SCHOOLS AND SOCIETIES. 

The Baptist Church Soeieti/. — Organized in August, 1872, by 
Rev. E. Gr. 0. Groat. F. W. Foster was the pastor' in April, 1880, 
and was succeeded by Eev. A. G. Delano, the present pastor, in 
Deceniber, 1881. The church building was erected in 1878, and 
cost 81,800. The membership is twenty-five. Wm. H. Garrett is the 
Sabbath School Superintendent. Present officers: G. W. 
Chamberliu, J. N. Chapman, Deacons; J. M. Baber, Clerk; J.N. 
Chapman, W. H. Garrett, Col. Brown, Trustees. 

The Catholic Society of Dunlap. — First held services in 1871, un- 
der the charge of Rev. Father McMahon, of Council Bluffs. The 
building of the church was begun in 1872, and completed in 1878. 
The edifice is of brick and about 46 feet by 70 feet in dimensions. 
There is also a brick parsonage attached, which latter was inished 
in 1881, Rev. Father Lynch is the present pastor, and took 
charge of the society in 1876. There are between 200 and 300 
communicants. The parish includes Missouri Valley, Magnolia, 
Logan and Woodbine. The church was dedicated in 1880, and is 
called St. Patrick's Church. 

Congregational Society. — Rev. H. S. Mills is the present pastor 
of this flourishing society. Among the first members who par- 
ticipated in the organization are L. Kellogg and wife, Theodore 
Kellogg and wife, H. B. Lyman and wife, and J. L. Roberts and 
wife. A church building Avas erected in 1876, in which services 
are at present held. Previous to that time services were held for a 
number of years in an old building, on what is known as "Gospel 
Hill.'' The present church edifice was erected at an expense of 
$4,000, and is among the finest in the city. There is a parsonage 
near the church building. The present membership is over 100. 
M, P. Brace is Superintendent of the Sabbath School, which has 
an attendance of 100 pupils. 

M. E. Church Society. — Rev. Fletcher Brown is the present 
pastor. The society was organized in 1869, and has now a mem- 
bership of about 100. The church edifice was erected at an ex- 



304 HISTORY OF IOWA, 

nense of $5,000. Z. T. Dunham is President of the Board of 
Trustees, and M. S. Bowman, Secretary and Treasurer. R. N. 
Blair is Superintendent of the Sabbath School, Avhich is in a flour- 
ishing condition, and has an attendance of 115 pupils. 

Da Ilia p Lodge, loira Legon of Honor, No. 117. — Meetings are 
held on the first and third Wednesday evenings of each month. 
This Lodge was instituted in August, 18S1, with fifteen charter 
members. Its first officers were Charles Reiher, President pro 
tern; Dr. A. H. Hazlette, V. P.; L. A. Sherman, T. S.; Dr. S. J. 
Patterson, Treasurer; L. Ballou, Secretary. The present officers tre 
T. B. Beach, President; T. E. Miller, V. P.; the remaining officers 
same as above. The present membership is about twenty-five^ 
and meetings are held in Odd Fellows Hall. 

Hospitable Lodge No. 244, A. F. and A. M. — Instituted under 
dispensation in August, 1868. Charter members and first officers: 
Dr. D. Satterlee, W. M.; Daniel Smith, S. W.; A. N. Warren, J. 
W.— E. VV, Davis, Charles M, Robins, Thomas Rue and C, H. 
Wing. Present officers: Dr. D. Satterlee, W. M.; J. A. May, S. 
W.; 0, Colburn, J. W.; A, D, Jones, Treasurer; W, J, Williams, 
Secretary; A, M, Warren. S. D.; I. Colborn, J. D. The present 
membership is about fifty. Meetings are held in Masonic Hall, 
Tuesday evenings on or before the full moon of each month. 

Golden Ihde No. 178 J. 0. 0. i^^— Instituted Sept. 4th, 1869. 
Charter members: G. W. Thompson, W, W. Granville, P. Soules, 
E. W. Holbrook and Fred Kemp. First officers: G. VV. Thompson, 
N. G.; P. Soules, V. G.: H. W. CoUon, Secretary; W. W. Gran- 
ville, Treasurer. Present officers: J.H. Read, N. G,; P, W, Tyler, 
V. G,: W, T. Howard, R. S.; S. R. Lindsey, P. S.; Z. W, Pease, 
Treasurer. Membership eighty-five. Meetings are held in Odd 
Fellows Hall in Commercial block Thursday evenings of each 
week. 

The Band of Hope. — Organized in 1877. Present officers: Mrs. 
L, A, Nay, President; L, G, Tyler, Secretary; Miss Edith Pike, 
Treasurer; Miss Eva Waitley, Assistant Secretary. This organiza- 
tion is an anti-tobacco, profanity ana liquor association, and has a 
membership of about seventy-five. Meetings are held the first 
Tuesday evenings of each month. Entertainments are given 
weekly, and consist of music, speaking, etc. Every third Sunday 
in each month regular exercises are held. They are non-sectarion 
in their character, and are held Fridays in the Congregational 
Church alternating on Sunday between the M. E. and Baptist 
Churches. This Society is in a flourishing condition. 

Tlie Ladies' Christian Temperance Union, is also one of the 
effective means for the promotion of its object in Dunlap. 

The Young Peoples' Lihrarg Association. — This society was or- 
ganized in 1879 and began with five or six members. It has now 
about seventy members. The present afficers are: Frank Miers, 
President; Mrs. H. M. Mills, V. P.; Charles Strong. Secretary; 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 305 

Chcas. Waitley, Librarian. Tlie prayer room of the Congregational 
church is used for library purposes. There are already about 200 
well selected volumes in the library. The membership fee is fifty 
cents, with ten cents dues per month thereafter. No one can be- 
come a member of this organization but those between the ages of 
16 and 30 years. 

Gidding Star Encampmetit No. 68,1. 0.0. F. — Instituted Feb'y 
26th, 1874. Charter members: C. H. Tyler, G. W. Chamberlain, 
H. W. Colton, L. G. Tubbs. Hugh Ballard, Wm. Spendlove, A. K. 
Grow, R. B. Hillas, Z. W. Pease, G. W. Thompson. First officers: 
G. W. Thompson, C. P.; C. H. Tyler, H. P.; G. W. Chamberlain, 
S. W.; A. K. Grow, J. W.; Wm. Spendlove, S.: Z. W. Pease, 
Treasurer. Present officers: W. T. Hall, C. P.; Wm. Spendlove, 
H. P.: Samuel Ballard, Sec; L. R. Lindsey, J. W.; J. Reed, S.; 
Z. H. Pease, Treasurer. Membership, about fifty. Meetings are 
held in Odd Fellows' Hall on the second and fourth Mondays of 
each month. 

Knights of^Pijtltias. — An order of this society is being organized 
with encouraging prospects for success. 

A. 0. H.., Division Xo. i, was organized in September 1880. 
Charter members: J. T. Noonpn, M. J. Duggan, Ed. Lehan, Will. 
H. Page, W. Cavanagh, Peter Wall, James Malone, John Doherty, 
Richard Doherty. First officers: M. J. Duggan, County Dele- 
gate; J. T. Noonan, President; John Doherty, V. P.; W. Cavan- 
agh, R. S.; W. H. Page, F. S.; Peter Wall, S. at A.; Thomas 
Noonan, Marshal. Present officers: S. T. Noonan, County Dele- 
gate; John Doherty, President; Jno. Brady, V. P.; W. Cavanagh, 
R. S.; Richard Doherty, F. S.; Michael Duggan, S. at A.; Thos. 
Noonan, Marshal. Membership, thirty-two. Meetings are held 
in Lahman's Hall on the first Sunday of each month. 

Dunlap Cornet Band. — ^Organized in 1879, and has 10 mem- 
bers. A. S. Read is President, Henry Holden Secretary, H. W. 
Gleason Treasurer and Leader. The organization is a highly cred- 
itable one. 

The Fire Department of the city was organized in the winter of 
1879 and 1880, and has a chemical engine. There are about thirty 
active members, composing a most effective organization. J. A. 
Phillips is Chief, and B. W. Philbrook, Foreman. 

ScJiools. — The first school taught was in 1857, by Louisa Cole, 
in an old building at the Olmstead settlement. There were but 
three pupils in attendance during the first term. The first school 
taught in the new Dunlap settlement was in 1868, in a buildini? 
now occupied by J. L. Roberts as a residence. Mr. and Mrs. J. A. 
Ostrom were the teachers. Mrs. Ostroniis still living, and is yet a 
resident of Dunlap. Harris McKenney, of Harris' Grove, was the 
next teacher, and he, in turn, was again succeeded by Mr. Ostrom, 
who conducted the school, which was a private one, for several 
years. The first public school was taught by Mr. McKenney in 



306 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

1868. The first school house was erected in 1870. It is a two 
story frame, and cost between $2,000 and |3,000. The present 
structure, an ele^^ant and commodious brick building, was erected 
in 1880, at a cost of $13,000. It has six departments, presided over 
by the following corps of teachers: I. A. Sabin, Principal; J. G. 
Thompson, Higher Intermediate; Miss Jennie Barrett, Interme- 
diate; Mrs. Sarah Kebler, Lower Intermediate; Miss R. M. Childs, 
First Primary; Miss Stella Bang, Second Primary. 

LITTLE SIOUX. 

This town, which has as handsome a location as any on the 
Missouri River bottom, or, in fact, in the State, is situated on the 
south side of the Little Sioux River, about one mile east of River 
Sioux and the Sioux City & Pacific Railway. The town dates back 
to the year 1855, when forty acres of the present site were laid off 
by S. W. Condit and T. B. Neeley. A short time afterward, 
Messrs. Condit and Martin laid off fortv acres more. Another 
forty-acre tract was again platted in the year 1857. The parties 
making the last addition were Joseph Jenks and Jasper Bonnly. 
D. M. Garnet, merchant of Little Sioux, now the oldest settler on 
the town site, — recorded the first plat. Mr. Gamet was at that 
time Treasurer and Recorder at Magnolia, then the county seat; 
but he shortly afterwards moved to Little Sioux, where he has 
since remained. Mr. Gamet established the first general mer- 
chandise store in Little Sioux in 1857. He was also engaged in 
the hotel business, his hotel being headquarters for the stages be- 
longing to the line between Sioux City and Council Bluffs. 
Although Mr. Gamet is at present the oldest settler on the town 
site proper, and settled in Western Iowa in 1816, there were others 
who made Little Sioux their place of residence prior to his advent. 
Among these latter may be mentioned the Messrs. S. W. Condit, 
T. B. Neeley, and Gabriel Cotton, the first and the last of whom 
are deceased, and J. L. Perkins, whose reputation is international 
in connection Avith the propagation of potatoes. Mr. Perkins, 
who was born a pioneer, came here in the year 1853. He resides 
at present but a few yards beyond the town limits. Moses Ger- 
man, now living outside the town limits, came in 1854. The S. 
W. Condit. before mentioned, came in 1849. Jasper Bonnly came 
here in 1856, and still farms near town. Avery Barber, now of 
Nebraska, also came here about the same time. There are also 
other old settlers residing in the neighborhood who came but a 
short time subsecpiently. At the time Messrs. Condit, Neeley and 
Cotton settled within the limits of what is now Little Sioux Town- 
ship, Harrison County, though named, was not organized. 

Though Little Sioux has been established for a long time, it 
made no mark d growth till within the past half-dozen years, and 
most of the buildings are of recent erection. Notwithstanding 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 307 

this fact, it would be difficult to find a handsomer or more enter- 
prising town ot the same size in any portion of Iowa. This in 
spite of the fact that through a misapprehension in regard to mat- 
ters, the Sioux City & Pacific Railway left the town a mile distant 
from its track, and makes it dependent upon the station of River 
Sioux for its transportation facilities. Nevertlieless, the citizens 
of Little Sioux are hopeful of a direct east and west line's running 
through the town at no far distant day. In case this hope should 
be realized, the 400 population of Little Sioux will be doubled 
within a very short time thereafter. The citizens are enterprising 
in the abstract, and though they missed one chance in securing a rail- 
road, they have in everything else been up to the times. One 
mark of this trait of character is the erection of a large iron bridge 
across the Little Sioux River at this point. This bridge was built 
ten or twelve years ago at an expenditure of about three thousand 
five hundred dollars. The bridge is 200 feet in length and consists 
of three spans. 

The various business lines of Little Sioux, classified, are as fol- 
lows: Three general merchandise stores, two grocery stores^ jew- 
elry and miscellaneous store, grocery and stationery store, shoema- 
ker shop, drug and grocery store, drug store, barber shop, hotel, 
two restaurants, livery stable, boot and shoe store, two furniture 
stores, meat market, blacksmith shop, blacksmith and wagon shop, 
grain and stock dealer, lumber and hardware dealer, agricultural 
implements, warehouse, saw and grist mill and milliner shop. 

The professional men are two clergymen, one lawyer, and three 
physicians. The postotfice, which was established in the early his- 
tory of the place, is presided over by T. J. Lanyon. It is like that of 
River Sioux, not a money-order office. In addition to the branches 
of business already given, several insurance companies are repre- 
sented by local agents. 

The exact shipments of grain and other ])roduce from this point, 
cannot well be definitely ascertained, but they are quite considera- 
ble, and are constantly increasing. 

The stocks of goods carried by the merchants of Little Sioux 
are quite large, and in several cases would be creditable to a town 
of 1,500 inhabitants. 

CHURCHES, SCHOOLS AND SOCIETIES. 

Reorganized Chureh of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. — This 
sect, monagamous Mormons, is in point of numbers, better repre- 
sented than any other church in Little Sioux, and many of the 
leading business men of the place are connected therewith. This 
congregation represents a section of that portion of the Mormon 
Church which separated from the original Mormon Society under 
the leadership of Brigham Young. Joseph Smith, Jr., son of the 
founder of the Mormon Churches, is at the head of the reorganized 
branch, which numbers some 15,000 adherents. The headquarters 



808 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

of this branch are at Lamoni, Decatur county. The society has 
had an existence in Little iSioux for twenty years, and the congre- 
gation at jiresent numbers about 140. The society has a church 
which was erected in 187G, at a cost of several thousand dollars. 
The size of the structure is 24x50 feet. The presiding Elder for 
this branch is D. M. Garnet, who holds services every habbath. 

Romnn CatJio/ic Church Sociefij. — The Catholics of the neigh- 
borhood have hitherto been without either church building or 
church society, and have been compelled to go elsewhere to enjoy 
the benefits of their form of worship. Although still lacking a 
society, the Catholics of the neighborhood have just finished a 
church building 26x40 feet in dimensions, and a society is in pro- 
cess of formation. The only Catholic service, as far as is known, 
ever held in Little Sioux proper, was on the Sunday preceding the 
opening of the church, January 29, 1882. This service was held 
in the house of M. Murray, and conducted by Rev. Father 
Michtel Lynch, Avho will preside over the new church in addition 
to the previous charges of Dunlap, Missouri Valley, and Magnolia. 
The congregation of the new church consists of about twenty fami- 
lies, or 100 people, and services will be held once in four weeks. 

Methodist Episcopal ChurcJt Societi/. — The first sermon preach- 
ed in Harrison County under the auspices of this society, perhaps 
of any society, was in June, 1852, at Harris' Grove, by Rev. 
William Simpson; but the first sermon preached in the immediate 
vicinity of Little Sioux, was in 1865, by Rev. J. M. Rusk, who, 
when the county was divided into two circuits in 1857, assumed 
charge of the Western Circuit, and continued as its pastor for two 
years. The first class formed in Little Sioux was in March, 1864, 
from which time the society began its growth. The first regular 
preacher, who officiated at Little Sioux, was Rev. J. W. Adair. 
The Little Sioux Circuit was detached from the Magnolia Circuit 
in 1876, and as it now stands it consists of Little Sioux, Soldier 
Valley, River Sioux and Mondamin. The present pastor, who 
resides in Little Sioux, is Rev. H. J. Smith. The Little Sioux 
Society owns a building about thirty feet in dimensions. There 
are twenty-four members, and a good attendance of non-members. 
Services are held once in two weeks. 

Universalist Church Societi/. — This society was organized in 
the latter part of 1870, by Rev. E. Vedder, of Dunlap. Mr. 
Vedder held the position of pastor but a short time, when he was 
forced to resign on account of ill-health. He was succeded by 
Rev. James Hoyt, of Belle Plaine, who continues to hold services 
once in four weeks. The society has no church buildings, and its 
meetings are held in the public hall. A movement has been in- 
augurated, however, for the erection of a church edifice. The 
membership is from thirty to thirty-five. 

Union Sabbath School. — Although there is no denominational 
Sabbath School in Little Sioux, there was organized some time ago 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 309 

a Union Sabbath School with an attendance of thirty-five. R. C. 
West is the present Superintendent. 

Liiile Sioux Lodqe.A. F.d- A. Ji.-This bodv was organized in 1878 
with the foliowino- officers: H. M. Huff", W. M.; F. B. Terry, S. 
W.; A. Gleason, J. W.; B. F. Croasdule, S.; S. J. Smith, Tr."'; G. 
F. Straight, S. D.; E. A. Baklwin, J. D.; N. F. Hillard, T. The 
present officers are: N. F. HiUard, W. M.; F. C. Scofield, S. W.; 
C. Ellis, J. W.; B. F. Croasdale. S.; S. J. Smith, Tr.; W. L. 
Woodward, S. D.; Isaac Hunt. J. D.; T. J. Lanyon, T. 

Public School. — The public school of Little Sioux is a graded 
one, and comprises three departments, grammar, intermediate and 
primary. The Principal, Thomas Macfarlane, has charge of the 
first named department; the Intermediate is under the care of Miss 
Alice Smith, and Mrs. C. Donaldson is teacher of the Lower depart- 
ment. The school district is the Independent District of Little 
Sioux. It was organized from Township District No. 1, July 31st, 
1879. The first school officers for the district were Michael Mur- 
ray, President; L. S. G. Sillsbee, Secretary; A.M. Ellis, Treasurer. 
The present officers are: Michael Murray, President; I. W. Bas- 
sett. Secretary; (J. E. Cobb, Treasurer. There are 175 pupils in 
the district. The school house is a two-story structure, 30x65 feet, 
with four rooms, though but three of the rooms are in use. An- 
other teacher, however, is to be engaged the coming year. 

Little SioH.r Home Literary Society. — This society is devoted to 
intellectual and social improvement. It has been in existence but 
a short time, and as yet is not very firmly established. The soci- 
ety meets every other Friday, in the public hall. 

MISSOURI VALLEY. 

Missouri Valley, as do others of Harrison County's more im- 
portant towns, dates its beginning from the first appearance of the 
iron horse. The town is located at the junction of the Boyer 
Valley with the Missouri Valley in the southern part of Harrison 
county, at the base of the high bluffs on the north, and on the 
margin of the Boyer Valley on the south, extending some two 
miles, and of the Missouri bottoms on the west, some seven miles 
wide, to the Missouri river, thus giving a large and extended plain 
on the south, which, for beauty and fertility, is unsurpassed by 
any part of Iowa. The town was located by the Chicago & North- 
western R. R. Co. January 16th, 1868, an election was held to 
determine whether Missouri Valley should, or should not be in- 
corporated. This important question was this time decided in the 
negative by an adverse vote of 21. Missouri Valley is the junc- 
tion of the Chicago & Northwestern, Sioux City & Pacific, and the 
Nebraska Division of the Sioux City & Pacific railroads. The 
shops and general offices of the latter company are located here, 
and the officers of the company, who have their offices in this city 
are as follows: 



310 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

J. S. Wattles, Superintendent; C. F. McCoy, Assistant Super- 
intendent; J. E. Ainsworth. Chief Engineer; K. C. Morehouse, 
General Freight Agent; J. R. Buchanan, General Passenger Agent; 
P. E. Robinson, Assistant Passenger Agent; P. C. Hills, Traffic 
Auditor; A. T. Potter, Train Master; B. F'. Hageman, Train 
Dispatcher; T. B. Seeley, Train Dispatcher; Chas. Foster, Master 
Mechanic; Wm. Wells, jr., General Agent; F. M. Marsh, Road- 
Master; P. W. Brown, Store Keeper. 

There are also located here the general repair shops, locorootive, 
car, paint and boiler shops of this road. The repair shops were 
started in 1868, and now give employment to about one hundred 
men. The general office building was erected in 1878 and affords 
room for all the above named offices. It is two stories high and 
is 32 ft. by 68 ft. in dimensions. The Sioux City & Pacific and 
Chicago & Northwestern companies, have, in connection with each 
other a freight house 24 ft. by 60 ft. in dimensions. 

There is also an eating house, owned jointly by the two compa- 
nies, which is leased and operated by John F. Cheney & Co., of 
Sioux City. All the offices of the S. C. & P. are connected by tel- 
ephone and speaking tubes and furnished with elevators. 

The town takes its name from the fact that it is the point of inter- 
section of the Boyer and Missouri river valleys, the valleys of which 
at this point expand into a broad plain, several miles in width, and 
which comprises one of the finest agricultural districts in Western 
Iowa. It is one of the most important towns in Harrison county, 
and is provided with direct communication with Omaha and Coun- 
cil Bluffs on the west, Sioux City on the north, St. Louis and Kan- 
sas City on the south, and with the east by the great railways termin- 
ating on the Missouri River. The general character of the country 
surrounding this enterprising and progressive town is undulating 
or rolling, but not to so great a degree as to impair its utility for 
agricultural purposes. The soil is rich and fertile and produces an 
abundance of cereals. The raising of live stock is a very impor- 
tant feature of this township's industries. 

Missouri Valley claims a population of 2,000, but it is also said 
that the census of 1880 was inadequately taken, and that the pop- 
ulation given by that census 1,407, was much below the mark. 
The town is located at the base of the bluffs that skirt the valley 
of the Missouri River, from the summits of which a grand land- 
scape is presented to the view. The dark bluffs dwarfed by dis- 
tance that form the margin of the Nebraska shore can be seen for 
miles up and down, and compose a scene Avorthy of the contempla- 
tion of an artist's eye, and, with the added picture of the prosper- 
ous town in the distance, forms a spectacle, which, not only pleases 
the senses, but delights the practical eye. 

Missouri Valley was finally incorporated in 1869, and is located 
upon Section 15, Township 78, Range 44. The Chicago & North- 
western Railroad was built to the present site of the town in the 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 311 

autumn of 1867, and the building of the town was commenced al- 
most immediately afterwards, the town-site being platted by the 
railroad company during the winter of 1807-8. Among the first 
settlers may be mentioned Henry Warner, and Smith & Cogswell, 
who opened a business establishment during that winter, W. C. 
Ellis, who came during the spring of 1868 and started a general 
merchandise store. 

The old town of St. Johns, two miles south of Missouri Valley 
on the other side of the Boyer river, was abandoned in consequence 
of the location of the latter place, and nearly all the residents of 
St. John removed to the new town that winter and the following 
spring, among them, John B. Lahman, who established a harness 
shop, Harris & McGavren, who established a hardware store and 
Ellis &Bro. who engaged in general merchandising. The American 
House, now the well known Commercial Hotel, was built in the 
spring and summer of 1868. The old town of St. Johns 
dates its settlement from the year 1857, when the town was 
laid out and platted by Geo. H. Cotton. The company which 
planned the town was composed of Dr. McMahon, J. C. Purple, 
C. Vorhees, Dr. Robt. McGavren, G. H, McGavren, John Deal 
and E. W. Bennett. There were several good business establish- 
ments, hotels, etc., and the town of St. Johns was prosperous up 
to the establishment of Missouri Valley. Dr. G. H. McGavren 
moved from St. Johns to the Valley in the summer of 1869. By 
that time St. Johns was nearly deserted, and Missouri Valley, its 
successor, was just entering upon a vigorous and substantial 
growth. Shortly after Dr. McGavren's removal to the new town, 
he opened a drug store. 

Several newspaper experiments have been essayed in the Vallev 
from time to time, with variable success, and ultimate failure, 
save in the case of the JSlissouri Vallei/ Tiuies^ formely the Har- 
risonian, and founded by Judge D. M. Harris, who, with his son, 
Robert H., continues to publish this prosperous and excellent paper; 

The business houses of Missouri Valley, briefly classified, are as 
follows: 

Physicians, 3; newspaper office, 1; drug stores, 2; bakery, 1; 
harness and saddlery store, 2; boots and shoes, 2; tailors, 2; gro ser- 
ies, 5; hardware, 2; saloons, 5; cigar stores, 1; gun store, 1; gen- 
eral merchandise, 6; hotels, 3; barber shops, 2; livery barns, 3; bil- 
liard parlors, 1; furniture, 1; bank, 1; wagon factory, 1: carpenter 
shops, 3; grain offices, 2; attorneys, 3. 

CHURCHES, SCHOOLS AND SOCIETIES. 

Missouri Valley has five church societies and three church edi- 
fices. An alditional church edifice will be erected during the com- 
ing spring. These, with her excellent schools and other societies 
calculated to advance her interests, combine to make a co:nmun- 
ity affording exceptional religious, intellectual and social advantages. 



312 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church building was erected in 1869. 
The membership is hirge and increasing, and the society in a con- 
dition of encouraging prosperity. These remarks apply equally to 
the other church organizations of the Valley. Kev. W. W. Car- 
hart is the pastor of the Methodist Episcopal Society. The 
Presbyterian Society erected their building in 1868. Rev. 0. C. 
Weller is the pastor. Rev. Father Lynch is pastor of the Catholic 
Society, whose place of worship was erected in 1869. At the date 
of present writing, the liaptist Society is not supplied by a regular 
pastor. This society, however, has suitable grounds already pur- 
chased, upon which an appropriate editice will be erected during 
the approaching spring. Rev. Mr. Hoyt is in charge of the Uni- 
versalist Society, whose services are held in the Town Hall. C. 
W. Harris is Superintendent of the Methodist Sunday school; 
W. H. Campbell, Superintendent of the Presbyterian Sunday 

A short distance up the bluffs, overlooking the town, stands the 
Public School building, an imposing brick structure, in the 
modern style of architecture, provided with all the improvements 
which the later spirit of educational progress can suggest, and 
affording unusual advantages. This costly structure is, indeed, a 
gieat credit to the community, and is, in itself, a sufficient com- 
mentary upon the enlightened liberality of Missouri Valley's en- 
terprising citizens. The corner stone was laid, with appropriate 
public ceremonies, on the 17th day of August, 1871. Nearly four 
hundred pupils are enrolled. There are six departments, the fol- 
lowing being the efficient corps of teachers: E. N. Coleman, 
Principal; Miss L. A. Ferguson, Assistant; W. R. Kirkham, 
Grammar School; Miss Annie Legan, Intermediate; Miss Hattie 
N. Legan, First Primary ; Miss Estella Mattox, Second Primary. 
The members the Board of Education are: F. M. Marsh, A. 
Edgecomb, W. W. Hume, W. H. Ramsyer, Joseph Harker. D. 
M. Harris is President of the Board, F. M. Dance, Secretary, 
and M. Holbrook, Treasurer. 

YoUini Lodge No. 232, A. F. d- A. il/.— Instituted in 1868. 
First officers: Robert McGavren, W. M.; W. C. Ellis, S. W.; P. 
D. Mickel, J. W. The Lodge has about ninety members. Meet- 
ings were first held in the second story of Fatchman's restaurant, 
and after several changes, the Lodge permanently located in the 
second story of Bump & Smith's brick building, corner of Fifth 
and Erie streets, in a handsomely furnished hall, w^hich is also 
used as a place of meeting by the other lodges of the town. Val- 
ley Lodge is in a prosperous and flourishing condition, a statement 
which may as appropriately be made with reference to the other 
lodges of Missouri Valley. The following are the present officers: 
F. M. Dance, W. M.; C. J. Carlisle, S. W.; G. H. Carleton, J. W.; 
Thomas Weston, S. D.; George Barnes, J. D.; C. S. Hoar, Secre- 
tary; J. H. Crowder, Treasurer. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 313 

Valley Chajjfer Ko. 20, 0. E. 6'.- -Instituted July 8th, 1878. 
Charter members: Mary E. Boies, M. M. Harris, Annie Davis, 
Ella Davis, Carrie Todd, Jennie Manchester, Mary M. Chapman, 
Belle Ransom, J. J. Legan, Louisa Miller, Laura A. Mann, Annie 
Schultz, Martha Pelan, Effie Mickel, Mollie Mathews, Viola Pal- 
mer, Annie Janes, Hattie N. Legan, Lizzie Butler, First officers: 
E. J. Chapman, W. P.; Mary E. Boies, W. M.; C. C. Lahman, A. 
M. Present officers: Mrs. C. C. Lahman, W. M.; D. M. Harris, 
W. P.; Mrs. Carrie Todd, Treasurer; Mrs. D. Burgess, Secretary; 
Mrs. J. W. Axtell, W. A. M. The membership is forty-six. 

Triune Chajjfer No. 81, 11. A. M. — This Chapter was organized 
under dispensation granted March 27th, 1876; its charter was 
granted October 4th, 1876. The petitioners for the charter were: 
William Pelan, H. P.; Robert McGavren, K.; E. J. Chapman, S.; 
C. W. Turton, Secretary; Theodore Mann, C. H.; T. W. Merritt 
P. S.; J. T. Sharp, R. A. C. 

Missouri Valleij Lodge No. 170, I. 0. 0. F. — Instituted October 
21st, 1869. First officers: D. M. Harris, N. G.; William Comp- 
ton, V. G.; T. E. Dubois, Secretary; James Laughery, Treasurer. 
Present officers: G. W. Burbank, N. G.; A. Edgecomb, V. G.; 
G. T. Hopkins, Secretary: D. M. Harris, P. S.; James Laughery, 
Treasurer. The membership is fifty-two. 

Lilian Lodge No. 20, Daughters of Rehekah. — Instituted October 
20th, 1875. Charter members: Robert McGavren, J. K. McGav- 
ren, F. M. Dance, William Compton, John S. Goss, James Laugh- 
ery, James Ferrill, Reuben Palmer, D. M. Harris, G. W. McGav- 
ren, A. M, Cross, E. A. Boies, E. R. McGavren, Mary E. Boies, 
Martha Compton, Mary S. Goss, Rhoda Ferrill, Lizzie Laughery, 
Martha M. Harris, Ellen Cross. Present officers: G. W. Bur- 
bank, N. G.; Mary Ilk Boies, V. G.; G. T. Hopkins, Secretary; 
Mrs. William Compton, Treasurer. 

Anchor Lodqe No. 66, K. of P. — Instituted December 19th, 
1881, by A. E.'Menuez, D. D. G. C. Charter members: D. J. 
Adlum, M. I. Bailev, F. Carlisle, W. M. Carlisle, T. 0. Carlisle, 
E. N. Coleman, E. C. Connors, W. W. Cook, N. S. Dahl, F. Dod- 
son, W. H. Fensler, 0. B. Fredericks, W. M. Harmon, G. F. Hop- 
kins, F. Johnson, A. S.B. King, C. W. McGavren, Neil McLeod, 
J. E. Marsh, T. P. Oden, AV. R. O'Neal, W. H. Ramsyer, W. H. 
Ransom. L. Shauble, H. N. Warren. First and present officers: 
C. W. McGavren, P. C; L. Shauble, C. C; A. S. B. King, V. C; 
G. T. Hopkins, P.; J. £. Marsh, K. of R. & S.; E. N. Coleman, M. 
of F.; W. H. Ramsyer, M. of E.; H. N. Warren, M. at A.; N. S. 
Dahl, I. G.; T. B. Oden, 0. G. W. R. O'Neal, T. 0. Carlisle and 
W. M. Harmon are Trustees. 

Missouri Valley Lodge, No. 175, L O. G. T. — Instituted in 
1869. This Lodge has had a somewhat varied existence, liaving 
been re-organized at several different times. There are at present 
about fiftv members. Meetings are held in the Town Hall. The 



314 HISTORY OF rowA. 

present officers are: Mrs. Annie Schultz, W. C. T.; Miss Jennie 
Gump, R. H. S.; Miss Emma E. Harris, L. H. S.; Miss Estella 
Mattox, W . V. T.; Chas. B. Wilson, K. S.; C. S. Hoar, F. S.; Miss 
L. A. Ferguson, W. T.; Miss Donna Goltrj, W. C; Harry 
Stonesifpr, W. M.; Miss Tennie Harris, W. D. M.; John Kane. W. 
I.G.; AVid Lucas. W. 0. G.; Miss Kittie E. Clark, Organist. 

lVomen''s Christian Temperance Union. — Organized in 1880. 
Present officers: Mrs. S. C. Hileman, President; Mrs. E. J. 
Ferguson, Mrs. H. C. Warner, Mrs. S. L. Berkley, Mrs. S. A. 
Rogers, Mrs. D. Fenner, Vice-Presidents; Mrs. G. E. Wilson, 
Treasurer; Mrs. E. A. Livingston, Secretary. 

Piihlic Lihrary. — The Missouri Valley Public Library Associa- 
tion was organized in September, 1881, and has established already 
a library of about one thousand volumes, which number is con- 
stantly increasing. The library is located on the corner of Erie 
and Sixth streets. Mrs. Anna Schultz is the President; Mrs. C. 
H. Foster, Treasurer; D. M. Harris and M. Holbrook, Finance 
(,'ommittee. 

Building and Loan Association. — The Missouri Valley Build- 
ing and Loan Association was organized in October, 18S0. About 
^5,000 of capital was loaned the first year. D. M. Harris, is Presi- 
dent: G. H. Carleton, Vice President; W. H. Bradley, Secretary; 
M. Holbrook, Treasurer. 

Harrison County Agricultural Society. — Organized in 1858, and 
held their twenty-third annual fair at Missouri Valley, October 
-Ith, 5th, and 6th, 1881. The present officers of the Society are: 
Phineas Cadwell, President; H. B. Cox, Vice President; J. K. 
McGavren, Secretary; F. M. Dance, Treasurer. The fair grounds 
are located about one-half mile west of town, and contain forty 
acres finely set out in growing trees. There is a good one-mile 
track and substantial buildings have been erected; the grounds are 
fenced in, and advantageously situated, with reference to stock and 
other shipments, immediately on the line of the railroads, and also 
upon the bank of Willow Creek, thus insuring a good water sup- 
ply. Six thousand pepole are estimated to have visited the fair of 
1881 in a single day. 

LOGAN. 

The county seat of Harrison County, is in every respect creditable 
to the popular will which elected it to that position of official dis- 
tinction and importance • Loga.i is located on the east bank of 
the Boyer River, and occupies about one hundred and sixty acres 
of land on a '' bench,'' about seventy-five feet above the bed of the 
Boyer. After leaving the "bench," the elevated land is timbered 
for from one-quarter to one-half a mile, and gradually opens to a 
section of prairie country of beautiful aspect, and dotted with im- 
proved and well cultivated farms . There is also a good and well 
improved section of farming country to the east. 



HISTORY OF IOWA, 315 

The town, as did Missouri Valley, Woodbine and Dimlap, ^rew 
out of the location of the line of the Chicago & Northwestern 
Railroad, and began its existence in the summer of 18G7. It is 
located on section 19, township 79, range 42, and section 24, town- 
ship 79, range 43. The Court House is upon, or very nearly upon, 
the division line of these two ranges . 

A Avord here is in order as to the original town proprietor, 
Henry Keel, or "Uncle Henry Reel," as he is termed by his fellow 
townsmen. Mr. Reel was born in Montgomery County, Va., in 
1803 . Although stricken in years, he still retains considerable vital- 
ity, and is mentally as keen as in his younger days . From Vir- 
ginia he moved to Ohio, and about the year 1824, he again moved 
to Putnam County, Indiana, where for forty years he resided. In 
1853, he came to Harrison County, to where Logan now stands . 
At one time he had more than 1,040 acres of land in a body, in 
and around the present town-site of Logan . The coming of the 
railroad was what caused the location of Logan . It was the only 
available station between Missouri Valley and Woodbine, and al- 
though Mr. Reel was at first opposed to the location of a town 
upon his premises, he finally yielded to the march of events, and, 
with an engineer in the employ of the railroad company, laid out 
the future county seat. Subsequently a company bought an ad- 
dition, and laid out the remainder of the town. The members of 

this company were: T. M. C Logan, P. J. Rudasill, ■ Mc- 

Curley, A . L . Harvey aud G . S . Bacon . John Reed and Cutler 
Williamson are largely interested in town property. 

Among the earliest settlers were: Judge Davis, George White, 

C. C. Cole, P. J. Rudasill, and A. W. Clyde, who came in 1867. 
There were others, whose names the writer did not obtain. 

C. C. Cole established the first dr}'- goods store, and was followed 
next in the mercantile business by P. J. Rudasill. George White 
built the hrst hotel. G. F. Waterman established the first drug store. 

Logan was incorporated in 1876. The first town officers were: 
John V. Evans, Mayor and Treasurer; E. R. Cadwell, Recorder; 
George Musgrave, Marshal; J. A. Lusk, N. Palmer, Simon Mills, 
A. J. Norman, Lewis Walters, Councilmen. The present officers 
of Logan are: William Cadwell, Mayor; D. M. Hardy, Recorder; 

D. Kerkendall, Marshal; G. B. See'kel, J. W. Stocker, George 
Guilford, J. W. Reed, G. B. Cadwell, Fred, Kimpel, Councilmen, 

The Logan Postoffice was established in December, 1867. John 
Reel was the first Postmaster. He was succeeded by C. C. Cole. 
William Giddings, the present Postmaster, was appointed May 
12th, 1875. The office was made a money-order office July 1st, 1877. 

The Huron Countij Flag, the first paper published in Harnson 
County, was published at Calhoun, Isaac Parrish being the editor 
— in 1858. Within less than a year it was taken to Magnolia, and 
Capt. William M. Hill became the editor. The Flag was subse- 
quently removed to Missouri. 



316 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

The Magnolia BepuhJican was started in 1858, Geo. R. Brai- 
nard being the editor and proprietor. Brainard was succeeded by 
Henry Ford, and the latter by W. F. Benjamin. The Repuhlican 
was continued until 1865, when it was changed to the Western 
Star by Hon. Joe H. Smith. The Star continued until 1871, the 
various editors being Hon. Joe. H. Smith, H. C. Cutler, Musgrave 
& Cook, G. F. Waterman, George Musgrave. The paper was then 
removed to Logan, where it was published for more than two 
years, when it was moved to Harlan. 

The Huron County Courier was moved to Magnolia in 1875, 
from Canton, 111., by Alpheus Davison, and from Magnolia to Lo- 
gan in 1876. In August, 1880, Henry Reel purchased the Co?«-/er. 
A. J. Hard was the editor and manager for one year, when D. S. 
P. Michael succeeded him. Mr. Michael is both manager and 
editor, Mr. Reel still being the proprietor. The Courier is a hand- 
somely printed eight-column folio, and well deserves the favor 
which is bestowed upon it by tne public. 

One of the valuable features of Logan is the stone quarry be- 
longing to Mr . James McCoid, and located just across the Boyer 
River from town . This quarry was discovered about nine years 
ago. The upper stratum is about nine feet and eight inches be- 
low the surface. The stone is limestope, and is of excellent 
quality for building purposes. Beneath this are eighteen inches 
of yellow clay; then eighteen inches of black slate. Under that 
is large, blue rock, eighteen inches in thickness, which has been 
used as material for foundations, but which, however, Mr. McCoid 
states, is not durable. Beneath this are eighteen inches of yellow 
clay, under which there is layer after layer of a rock which very 
closely resembles granite, and is from six to eighteen inches thick- 
Numerous shipments of rock are made from this quarry to other 
points . It is stated to be the only paying quarry in Harrison 
county. 

There is a public square of from three to four acres, planted in 
trees, and located between Fourth and Fifth Avenues and Sixth 
and Seventh streets . 

A Driving Park Association is about to be organized, the grounds 
to be located on the farm of A . Whyte, adjoining town. 

J. A. Lusk built a portion of the Lusk House in 1869. Addi- 
tions have been made, until now it is one of the most commodious, 
as well best managed hotels in Western Iowa. 

The town is well supplied with lawyers and physicians, has two 
banks — the Harrison County Bank and P . Cadwell & Go's . ^a 
flouring mill, two hotels, and quite a number of first-class business 
establishments. 

Brick-making is carried on quite extensively at Logan . Large 
shipments are made to other points, the brick being of the best 
quality. 



HISTORY OF TOWA, 317 

The population of Logan is perhaps about 1,000, and is steadily- 
increasing. The town has a durable appearance, is neat and at- 
tractive, and is keeping in every respect even pace with the rapid 
strides that are being made by her sister towns of Western Iowa. 

CHURCHES, SCHOOLS AND SOCIETIES. 

Lo(j((n Baptist Church Socictij. — Organized in 1868, by Rev. 
George Scott, of New York, at that time living at Denison. The 
pastors in order have been: Rev. George Scott, J. E. Rockwood, 
E. G. 0. Groat, B. F. Goldsby, J. E. Rockwood, Geo. Scott, J. E. 
Saunders, E. G. 0. Groat, which latter is the present pastor. The 
membership is seventy-five. The church building was erected in 
1809 at a cost of about ^2,000, and has a seating capacity of two 
hundred. The parsonage was erected in 1876. There is a good 
Sabbath school, with about fifty pupils. J. E. Massy is the Super- 
intendent. From this church soil other similar societies have 
grown. This was the first Baptist Society organized in Harrison 
County, holding meetings at Magnolia, Woodbine and Logan al- 
ternately. Meetings at Logan were first held over Rudasill, Wood 
& Low's store. P. J. Rudasill was a prime mover in the organi- 
zation of the Baptist Society, and was indefatigable in promoting 
its interests. Rev. Mr. Groat has charge of the society at Magno- 
lia, which has sixteen members. 

First Presbijterian Sociefij. — Organized August 29th, 1809, by 
Rev. George K. Carroll, of Council Bluffs, Synodical Missionary. 
The first pastor was Rev. T. K. Hedges, who was succeeded by Rev. 
J. B. Welty. Rev. Carroll is the present pastor. The erection of 
the church building was begun in the autumn of 1877, and the 
building was completed in the summer of 1878, at a total cost of 
$4,000. It will seat three hundred people, and is a very handsome 
structure. Rev. T. H. Cleland, of Council Bluffs, preached the 
dedicatory sermon, and was assisted by Rev. T. K. Hedges. The 
membership is about seventy. There is also a Sabbath School with 
an attendance of seventy. C. N. Cad well is the Superintendent, 

There is a Universalist Society presided over by Rev. J. M. 
Hoyt, of Belle Plaine. Services are held once in every two weeks 
in the church building owned by Henry Reel's. 

The Adventists also have a society, the particulars concerning 
which are at this writing inaccessible. 

Henry Reel erected a church building in 1878, in which services 
are held by the Old Regular — or as this sect is commonly known, 
the "Hardshell" — Baptists. Services are held regularly once a 
month. There is no regular pastor and no organized society. 

The members of the Board of Education are: John V. Evans, 
G. B. Seekel, President; J. W. Barnhart, D. S. P. Michel, James 
Sorrey, A. K. Grow. George W. Wilson is the Secretary, and J. 
W. Reed, Treasurer. The school building, which was erected sev- 
eral years ago, is a very handsome and costly brick structure, and 



318 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

contains five departments. Prof. S. G. Rogers is the Principal; 
Sarah Grallagber, Grammar Department; Belle Wood, Intermedi- 
ate; Clara Hedges, First Primary; Clara M. Evans, Second Prim- 
ary. The enrollment is about three hundred pupils. 

Boiier Valleij Lodge No. 149, A. 0. U. W. — Instituted Janu- 
ary 31st. 1878. Charter members: John V. Evans, A. L. Har- 
vey, J. B. McArthur, Fred. Kimpel, C. N. Hull, E. R. Cadwell, 
John H. Smith, C. L. Hyde, J. N. Young, S. I. King, W. W. 
Smith, A. J. Miller, E. P. Cadwell, W. H. Moore. First officers: 
Jno. V. Evans, P. M. W.; C. N. Hull, M. W.; Fred. Kimpel, 
Foreman; E. R. Cadwell, Overseer; J. B. McArthur, Recorder; C. 
L. Hyde, Financier; A. L. Harvey, Receiver; J. N. Young, 
Guide; John H. Smith, I. W.;E. R. Cadwell, 0. W. ; John Y. 
Evans, J. W- Rudd, E- R. Cadwell. Trustees. Present officers: 
R. G. Brown, P. M. W.; D. Stewart, M. W.; James Ervin, 
Foreman; William Burnett, Overseer; George Kelly, Recorder; 
Fred. Kimpel. Financier; D. M. Harvey, Receiver: C L. Hyde, 
Guide; J. B. McArthur, I. W.; John V. Evans, 0. W. J. B. 
McArthur is Representative to the Grand Codge for 1882; John 
V. Evans, D. D. G. M. W. for the Fourth Judicial District o£ 
Iowa, and has held the office ever since the organization of the 
Lodge. The Lodge's condition is a prosperous one. It was the 
first Lodge of A . . U . W . organized in the Fourth Judicial Dis- 
trict of Iowa. Meetings are held every Tuesday evening in Odd 
Fellows' Hall. 

Logan Lodge No. 219, I. 0. G. T. — Instituted November 
14th, 1877, with thirty-five charter members. First Officers: 
Frank Rugg, W. C. T.; Mary E. Wilson, W. V. T.; Belle Cleven- 
ger, C: J. H. Giddings, S.; Adelia Fuller, A. S.; L. Harrington, F. S.; 
James Harrington, Treasurer; A. B. Rosrers, W. M.; James Cope- 
land, D. M.; Nancy M. Wilson, I. G.; 0. J. McKenney, 0. G.; 
Wells R. Wheeler, R. H. S.; Lottie Noyes, L. H. S.; Isaac P. Hill, 
P.W. C. T. Present officers: Frank Stearns. W. C. T.; Mrs. 
K. Berry, W. V. T.; Lottie Cadwell. S.; Ben Wade Stearns, A. S.; 
C. A. Harvey, F. S. ; Myra Grow, W. T. ; Mrs. W. C Cadwell, 
W. C.;F. 11. Laporte, W. M.; Fannie Barnhart, I. G.; Willis 
Clevenger, . G . ; W . C . Cadwell, P . W . C . T. ; Tillie Grow, Lodge 
Deputy. The membership is about fifty. Meetings are held 
every Wednesday evening in the hall over Stockwell's grocery. 

There is also a Woman's Christian Temperance Union . 

Chrysolite Lodge, A. F. d' A. M. — Working under dispensa- 
tion. Organized November 30th, 1881. Its officers are: 
Stephen King, W^ M.; A. W^ Ford, S. W. ; A. L. Harvey, J. 
W.;J. W. Barnhart, Secretary; William Giddings, Treasurer; 
S. I. King, S. D.; J. V. Evans, J. D.; J. W. Stocker, S. S.; 
A. B. Milliman, J. S.; J. W. Stewart. Tyler. The member- 
ship is about twenty-five . 



HISTORY OF IOWA, 319 

Logan Lod<je No. 355, I. 0.0. F. — Instituted in June, 1876, 
Charter members: T. M. C Logan, J. C. Milliman, Fred. 
Kimpel, J. N- Young, W. H. Eaton, J. E. Townsend. First 
officers: J. C Milliman, N. G.; Fred. Kimpel, V. G.; W. H. 
Eaton, Secretary; T. M. C Logan, Treasurer. Present officers: 
W. C. Cadwell, N. G.; J. V. Evans, V. G.; C. L. Hyde, Sec- 
retary; J. E. Massey, p. S.;T. J. Roberts, Treasurer. Mem- 
bership, twenty-two. 

Coliniibia Encampment No. 101, I. 0. 0. F. — Instituted in 
1880. Charter members: T. M. C. Logan, A. K. Grow, J. 
C. Milliman, Almor Stern, L. D. Parker, G. W. Smith, J. V. 
Evans, J.N. Young, Fred. Kimpel, C L. Hyde. First officers: 
A. K. Grow, C. P.;T. M. C. Logan,H. P.'; J. Y. Evans, S. 
W.;J. C. Milliman, J. W. ; Almor Stern, Scribe; C L. Hyde, 
Treasurer. Present officers: J. V. Evans, C P. ; A. Stern, H. 
P.; J. W. Barnhart, S. W.; C L. Hyde, J. W.; W. C Cad- 
well, Scribe; J. N. Y^oung, Treasurer. Membership, about 
thirty . 

MISCELLANEOUS COUNTY DETAILS. 

There was a considerable settlement in 1855, which was largely 
added to in 1857, and still more largely in 1860, Amos Chase 
came in 1851, as did also S. W. Condit, both of whom are now 
deceased. These, with H. M. Huff and C. W. Oden, were among 
the earliest settlers near Little Sioux. A pioneer settler in the 
same locality was also T. B. Neeley (the first representative to the 
State Legislature). Mr. Neely was a well-informed man of sterl- 
ing and peculiar qualities, and, it is said, walked to Iowa City, at 
that time the State Capitol, carrying his shoes slung over a staff 
upon his shoulder. 

Of Jacob Pate, who settled near Sandy Point, on the Missouri 
bottoms, on the western side, it is related that his particular char- 
acteristic was a steady determination to ''keep ahead of the keers." 
He said he always had kept ahead of the cars, and he always 
meant to do so. But railroads finally came in upon Jacob from 
both the East and the West, and the Old man had to succumb to 
the inevitable. He died a few years ago. 

In Harris Grove and vicinity there were the McKinneys (Michael 
and John). Michael died about the year 1860, and John in the 
winter of 1880, the latter at Logan. Both had large families and 
considerable property. William Dakan came to Harris Grove at a 
very early day. He settled first near St. Johns, and soon after- 
wards moved to Harris Grove, where he is still living. Pearson 
Vore came to Harris Grove in 1856, and has been a continuous res- 
ident of that locality ever since. He is now about 81 years of age, 
and has had the misfortune in the later years of his useful life to 
lose his sight. James B. McCurley came to Harris Grove about 
the year 1853, moved to Logan about the time the town was organ- 



330 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

ized, and is still living there. Judge Dow and family, who came 
in 1853, moved subsequently from Harris Grove to about eight 
miles below Denison, to what is now called in honor of the Judge, 
Dow City, John Rogers, with his family, came to Harris Grove 
in 1856. His grandson. Prof. S. G. Rogers, is now Principal of 
the Logan Public Schools. J. T. Stern, a venerable and sagacious 
settler, whom it was the historian's misfortune to be unable to see, 
settled at Harris Grove in 1857. He has residtd on the same farm 
from that date continuously to the present time, and is 67 years of 
age. Almor Stern, son of J. T. Stern, came to Logan in 1878, and 
was elected Auditor of Harrison County in that year, to fill the 
vacancy caused by the death of W. H. Eaton, who had been Aud- 
itor for eight years prior to that time, and who was the first per- 
son elected to that office in the county. 

There are thirty and thirty-three one-hundredths miles of the 
Chicago & Northwestern Railroad in Harrison County; thirty-two 
and forty-eight hundreths of the Sioux City & Pacific, and about 
one-half mile of the Milwaukee road in the southeast corner. The C. 
& N. W. came down the Boyer Valley in 1860; the Sioux City & 
Pacific was built about the same time, and commenced running in 
1807. From that time forward there was a steady growth. The 
population at that time was 7,000; now it is nearly, if not quite 
20,000. The census of 1870 gave only about 8,000, the population 
having nearly tripled within the past ten years. 

Among the pioneers of Union Grove are: Samuel Wood, who 
came in about the year 1852, and has lived there ever since; Sam- 
uel Dibbles who first came about twenty-four years ago; Father 
Smith, now Postmaster of Union Grove, who came nearly twenty 
years ago; Jason Whitinger, William Cox, and the Smith family, 
who have lived there for twenty-five years. The Dobson family 
were also old settlers, but subsequently moved to Crawford County. 

A full list of the first county officers, with the exception of the 
Board of Supervisors, is as follows: D. M. Gamet, Recorder; W. 
V. Cooper, Clerk of the Courts; Stephen King, County Judge; H. 
C. Harshbarger, Auditor (appointed in 1868); J. Z. Hunt, Surveyor; 
J. H. Smith, County Superintendent; C. M. Hamilton, Sheriff. 

The present county officers are; L P. Hill, Treasurer; A. K. 
Grow, Recorder; C. L. Hyde, Clerk of the Courts; Wiley Middle- 
ton, Sheriff'; J. D. Hornby, County Superintendent; A. J. Miller, 
County Superintendent elect; Logan Crawford, Surveyor; Almor 
Stern, Auditor; J. K. McGavren, Thomas Morrow, Allen Stoker, 
Board of Supervisors. 

The settlement at Twelve-Mile Grove had for its pioneers 
Richard Musgrave, who came in 1852; the Meftbrds, in 1851. 
Robert Meffbrd was the head of the Mefford family. Matthew 
Hall and L. D. Butler are also old settlers. The latter now lives 
at Woodbine. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 321 

Col. Asher Service, a man of native force of character, and who 
was at one time a political power in the county, settled at Six-Mile 
Grove about the year 1850; Owen Thorp in 1852. James McCoid 
ran a store there twenty-two years ago. 

The Avell known Olmstead settlement in Harrison Township 
will be found to be treated of in that part of the county's history 
devoted more particularly to the town of Dunlap. By many, 
Harrison Township is considered the banner township of the 
county, in respect to the surface of the land, which is there more 
level. Mill Creek enters the Hoyer in that township, giving it an 
exceptional "lay of land.'" There is, indeed, a fine southern 
view from Dunlap down through that section of country. 

A grist mill was built on Allen's Creek west of Magnolia in 
1853 or '5-t. It was never operated, but was afterwards moved 
away. The first mill on the Willow Creek, about one mile east of 
Magnolia, was built in 1854 by a Mr. Chatburn. Jacob Huffman 
also built a mill on the Willow about two miles below Chatburn's. 
E. T. Hardin built a saw mill at Calhoun on the Willow, about 
two miles below the Huifman mill. The first flouring mill in the 
county was built by Henry Reel on the Boyer in sight of the 
present town of Logan — in July, 1855. This mill began opera- 
tions October 1st, 1850. The next mill was started at Wood- 
bine by L. D. Butler, and in 1858, Butler and Grow put up their 
flouring mill. All these pioneer mills were run by water power. 
A. K. Grow built a mill in 1807 on section 31, in Harrison town- 
ship, about half-way between Woodbine and Dunlap. This mill 
was very rudely constructed, its exterior being anything but hand- 
some in appearance, but the excellent Cjuality of its flour was un- 
doubted, and built up for its owner quite a reputation. This mill 
was subsequently washed away. 

The mills in the county now are: I. Schofield's flouring mill 
at Dunlap; Dalley & Noyes' mill at Woodbine; Alfred Longman's 
mill at Logan; a steam mill at Missouri Valley; also one at Magno- 
lia; one at Calhoun, at the place where Hardin put up his saw 
mill; one on the Soldier River, by Theodore Mahoney, and Scho- 
field's at Little Sioux. 

About six miles northwest of Logan, in Magnolia Township, is 
the town of Magnolia, on the southeast quarter of section 32, 
township 80, range -iS. The county seat of Harrison County was 
located at Magnolia by A. D. Jones and A. Fletcher, on the l-4th 
of March, 1853. G. H. White was the Surveyor. The report of 
the Commissioners and Surveyor was approved by P. G. Cooper, 
County Judge, December 13, 1853, his acknowledgment being 
taken before E. Todd, Justice of the Peace. The election which 
resulted in changing the county seat from Magnolia to Logan, 
was held in the autumn of 1875. The tussle for the prize was pe- 
culiarly interesting, protracted and exciting, but provoked so 



322 HISTOEY OF IOWA. 

many animosities, that, it -would hardly be possible for the matter to 
be treated of at length here in what all would admit to be a strictly 
impartial manner. 

Lots were first sold in Magnolia in November, 1853. Ex-Judge 
P. (j. Cooper is still living, in Blair, Nebraska. Among other 
early settlers of Magnolia township were Judges Hardy and Brain- 
ard. The removing of the county seat has had a depressing effect 
upon Magnolia, which has since that time, to say the least, failed 
to make encouraging headway. 

It will be noted that Harrison County, like many other Western 
communities, has had her full share of "paper towns." 

Upon the removal of the county records to Logan, the old Logan 
House was rented, in which to keep them. As an inducement to 
•secure the county seat, the citizens of Logan contributed |6,000, 
depositing this sum in bank before the election. The election was 
carried, however, by a very small majority. The Court House was 
built in Logan in 1876, aiid cost about Sil,000. 

The following is a list of Representatives to the State Legisla- 
ture from Harrison County. The Representative for 1863 resided 
without the present limits of the county. The years of their elec- 
tion are given: 

T. B. Neely, 1855; D. M. Harris, 1857; W. W. Fuller, 18G1; 

, 1863; L. R. Bolter, 1865; Jos. H. Smith, 1867; Stephen 

King, 1869; Geo. H. McGavren, 1871; P. Cadwell, 1873; L. R. 
Bolter, 1875; H. B. Lyman. 1877; Geo. Ritchison, 1879; L. R. 
Bolter, 1881. 



HARRISON COUNTY BIOGRAPHIES, 



MISSOURI VALLEY. 

S. Altshuler, dealer in dry goods and clothing", came to la. in 
1864, and located at Council Bluffs; established his present busi- 
ness in Missouri Valley in 1867. He has a fine store on the cor- 
ner of Fourth and Erie streets, and carries a large stock of goods. 

M.I. Bailey, attorney at law, established business in 1875. He 
was born in Delaware county, N. Y., in 1847; removed to Missouri 
Valley, la., in 1875, and engaged in the practice of law. He 
married C. L. Ames, a native of N. Y. Mr. B. is the present 
mayor of this city. 

J. H. Ball, proprietor of billiard parlor — cor. 6th and Huron 
sts — is a native of Ind.; moved to Knoxville, Marion county, la., 
with parents in 1851. In 1862 he engaged in freighting in com- 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 323 

J. T. Baldwin, foreman of the boiler shops at Missouri Valley, 
was born in Md. He was employed in the navy yards at Wash- 
ington, D. C, until 1808, when he moved to Omaha. Neb., and 
Avas in the employ of theU. P. R. R.; came to this city in 1870, 
and assumed his present position. 

pany with J. B. Beard, which he continued until 1805. He then 
traveled through the territories until he settled in Council Bluffs 
in 1869; moved to Missouri Valley in 1878, and engaged in his 
present business. 

C. H. Barber, proprietor of the Palace billiard parlor, is a native 
of N. Y.; removed to Clinton, la., in 1878, and was in the em- 
ploy of the Union Iron Works; thence to Missouri Valley in 1879, 
and was in the employ of the railroad companies until 1881, when he 
established his present business. 

J. M. Berry, proprietor of the city livery, is a native of Ind,; 
came with parents to Harrison county, la., in 1855, was engaged in 
farming until 1879, when he came to Missouri Valley and engaged 
in his present business. 

T. N. Berry, of the firm of Morgan & Berry, grocers, was born in 
Pcttawattamie county, la., in 1855; moved with his parents to 
Harrison county in 1850. He located in Missouri Valley in 1879, 
and was engaged in the livery business until 1881, when he entered 
the above firm. 

.7.L. Berkley, of the firm of Grigsby & Berkley, dealers in gen- 
eral merchandise, is a native of Va.; moved to Magnolia, Harrison 
county, la., in 1872; thence to Missouri Valley in 1876, and en- 
gaged in milling until Oct., 1881, when he engaged in his present 
business, with W. E. Grigsby, a wealthy farmer of Harrison 
county. 

E. A. Boies, dealer in general hardware, is a native of 0.; moved 
to Magnolia, Harrison county, la., in 1867, and to Missouri Valley 
in 1869 and was employed as salesman and journeyman tinner in 
the hardware business. He engaged in the business for himself in 
1877, sold out after two vears, and resumed business again in May, 
1881. 

Mrs. A. E. Bresee, dealer in millinery and fancy goods, located 
in Crawford county, la. in 1877, and moved to Missouri Valley in 
1879, and engaged in present business; carries a large and complete 
stock of goods, and does all branches of milliner}^ work. 

W. H. Bradley, jr., of the firm of Walker & Bradley, dealers in 
general merchandise, is a native of Canada; came to the U. S. in 
1869, and located at Missouri Valley, la. He was employed as 
salesman in the mercantile business, until he entered his present 

business in 1878. 



324 HISTOEY OF IOWA. 

L. Brown, attorney at law, was born in Jackson county, 0., in 
1845; removed to Appanoose county, la., where he lived until he 
moved to Missouri Valley. He is a graduate of the Iowa State 
University. He married Fanny G. Manning, a native of Iowa. 

W. P. Bump, of the firm of Bump & Smith, dealers in general 
merchandise, was born in Addison county, Vt., in 1811; moved to 
western N. Y. in 1831, and in 1836 he engaged in the mercantile 
business; continued there until 1856, when he removed to Rochelle, 
111.; thence to Missouri Valley in 1869, and engaged in his present 
business. 

D. Burgess, proprietor of billiard parlor, was born in Courtland 
county, N. Y. He was employed for several years as conductor on 
the S. B. & N. Y.Ry., also was telegraph operator for same road. 
He moved to Neb. in 1875, and engaged in the stock business; re- 
moved to Missouri Valley in 1877 and engaged in his present 
business, on the corner of Fifth and Erie sts. 

C. J., T. C. & W. M. Carlisle, of the firm of Carlisle Bros., 
wholesale and retail dealers in hardware, wagon stocks, pumps, 
agricultural implements, and sewing machines, are natives of 0.; 
came to Missouri Valley, la., in 1872, and engaged in their present 
business. 

W. M. Chenoweth, manufacturer of cigars, is a native of Pa.; 
came to Missouri Valley in 1879, and engaged in his present busi- 
ness. He employs five men in the busy season. 

J. C. Caley, dealer in boots and shoes, was born in Cleveland, 
Ohio. He enlisted in Co. I, 29th 0. Vol., served one year, and in 
the spring of 1863 went to Montana; returned to Ohio in 1864, 
and two years later came to Missouri Valley, and built the first 
building in the town, excepting a few R. R. buildings. He is the 
pioneer boot and shoe dealer of the city. 

Wm, Conner, engineer for the S. C. & P. transfer company, was 
born in Va. in 1842; moved to 111. in 1849, and in 1859 engaged 
in steamboating on the Mississippi river. In J 866 he went to 
Quincy, 111., and took charge of the machine shops for two years; 
then came to Missouri Valley and was employed in liis present posi- 
tion. He has been absent one year since coming to this city, 
traveling on the Pacific coast. 

Maj. J. F. Cheney, senior proprietor of the Merchants and Depot 
Hotels at Sioux City, la., also of a Hotel at Blair, Neb., and the 
Union Hotel at Missouri Valley, was born in Grafton county, N. 
H. In 1861 he enlisted in the 1st 111. Light Art. as a private, was 
soon promoted to first lieutenant, then to captain, then to major 
and when discharged at the close of the war was lieutenant colonel. 
He then opened the Nachusa house at Dixon, 111., also a summer 
resort at Spring Lake, Mich., called the Spring Lake house. He 



HISTORY OF IOWA. . 325 

moved to Sioux City and opened the Merchants Hotel, in 1880, 
and his other hotel soon after. Major C. is one of the oldest hotel 
men in the country, and all of his hotels will be found to be first 
class. 

G. W. Coit, M. D., was born in N. J., in 1837; was assistant 
surgeon during the latter part of the war of the rebellion. . He 
graduated from the Bellevue Hospital, M. Y. in March 1866, and 
came to Harrison county in Nov. of the same year, and located at 
St. Johns; the following February, removed to Missouri Valley. 
He has been government examining surgeon for Western Iowa 
ten years. 

J. H. Crowder, postmaster, also dealer in books, jewelry and fan- 
cy goods, is a native of Ind.; removed to Harrison county in 1866. 
He enlisted in the Avar of the reLellion, in the 18th la. Reg.; was 
a member of the band. He was appointed postmaster in 1871, 
which office he has since held. 

N. S. Dahl, jeweler, is a native of Denmark; came to America 
in 1873, and settled in Chicago. He engaged in the jewelry busi- 
ness in various parts of the west, until 1879, when he located in 
Missouri Valley and opened his present business. 

F. L. Davis, insurance agent, was born in Western N. Y. He 
enlisted in 1801 in Co. E, 5th N. Y. Cav., was discharged in 1862 
and returned to N. Y., and soon after was appointed deputy sherifT 
of Cattaraugus county. He came to Iowa in 1870 and located at 
River Sioux; in 1872 moved to Missouri Valley and engaged in 
the livery business; was also deputy sheriff for several years. In 
1878 he engaged in his present business. 

C. H. Davis, was born in Penobscot county. Me., in 1839; moved 
to Mass. in 1852 and went to sea as a cabin boy. At the breaking 
out of the war in 1861 he enlisted in the navy in Com. Farragut's 
fleet; was transferred to Com. Dahlgren's fleet in 1864. He left 
the navy at the close of the war and in 1866 moved to Council 
Bluffs, la., and was engaged as engineer on the Missouri river, un- 
til coming to Missouri Valley; is here employed by the S. C. & P. 
R. R. company. 

F. M. Dance, attorney at law, was born in Wis. in 1838; moved 
to Missouri Valley, la., in 1868 and engaged in general law and 
real estate business. He graduated from the law department of 
the Ann Arbor University, in 1867. 

C. H. Deur, lumber dealer, was born in N. Y.; moved with his 
parents in 1860 to Pottawattamie county, la.; thence to Missouri 
Valley in 1877 and engaged in his present business. He has al- 
ways a good supply of hard and soft coal, builders' supplies, lime, 
hair, cement, etc. 

M. S. Frick, of the firm of Frick & Snyder, dealers in general 
merchandise, is a native of Pa.; moved to la. in 1865 and to Harri- 



326 ■ HISTORY OF IOWA, 

son county in 1868, was engaged in contracting and building, then 
dealing in furniture, previous to engaging in his present business 
in the spring of 1881. 

Geo. S. Green, of the firm of G. !S. Green & Co., proprietors of 
the Commercial House, is a native of N. Y.; moved to Vinton, la. 
in 1860; thence to Missouri Valley in 1875 and was engaged in vari- 
ous business houses, also in thepostoffice, until Nov., 1881, when he 
purchased the hotel and engaged in his present business. 

L. Harker, dealer in stock, is one of the pioneers of Harrison 
county, la., came to this county in 1807 and located at St. Johns, 
and engaged in the grocery business. He moved to Missouri Val- 
ley the same year and continued the grocery business; is now buy- 
ing and selling stock. 

J. J. Hancock, tobacco dealer, was born in England in 1830; 
came to America in 1851, and located at London, Canada; removed 
to Buffalo, N. Y., in 1853, and engaged in the boot and shoe busi- 
ness. He removed to Dubuque, la., in 1858; thence to Sioux Falls, 
Dak., in 1871, where he resumed the boot and shoe business. In 

1878 he was in the employ of the American Express Compan}^ In 

1879 he located in Missouri Valley. 

Hon. D.M. Harris, senior member of the firm of Harris & Son, 
editors and proprietors of the Missouri Valley Times, was born in 
Dayton, Montgomery county, 0., in 1821, and moved with parents 
to Ind. in 1821; thence to Maury county, Tenn. In 1851, he came 
to Audubon county, la., and engaged in farming and the real 
estate business, and there served three terms as county judge. He 
represented the 26th Iowa district during two sessions of the leg- 
islature. He next removed to Panora, Guthrie county, and en- 
gaged in the practice of law, also editing and publishing the 
Guthrie County Ledger. In 1868 he first came to Missouri Valley 
and established the Harrisonian, which he sold in 1872, the name 
of the paper being changed to the Missouri Valley Times. In the 
the same year he moved to Independence, Kas., and published the 
Kansas Democrat, returned to Missouri Valley in 1873, engaging 
in the mercantile business. His establishment was shortly after- 
wards destroyed by fire, and he located at Exira, which town he 
had previously '"laid out," and began the publication of the 
Audubon County Defender. Soon afterwards he published the 
Cap-Sheaf, at Atlantic, Cass county, which he conducted until 
1876, when he resumed the publication of the Times at Missouri 
Valley. He was married in 1812 to Martha M. White, of Tenn.; 
has six sons and four daughters. Mr. Harris was the democratic 
candidate for lieutenant governor of la., in 1866, and was twice a 
candidate for county representative from Harrison county. He 
has held a number of minor offices, hobert H. Harris is a son of 
Judge Harris, and junior member of the firm. He was born in 
Tenn., in 1851, and in 1874 was married to Frances Chapman, of 
Exira, la. Thev have two sons. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 327 

E. F. James, dealer in agricultural implements, pumps, wind- 
mills, etc., is a native of Pa., lived during 3^outh in 111.; moved to 
Missouri Valley, la., in 1868. He engaged in railroading, until 
1873, Avhen he engaged in his present business; is also proprietor 
of the James line of drays and express wagons. 

J. B. Lucas, attorney at law. was born in Lucas county, la., in 
1858; removed to Missouri Valley in 1875. He was admitted to 
the bar in Harrison count}", and established office in Oct., 1881. 

F. L. Mandevill, druggist, was born near Rochester, N. Y., in 
1835; moved to Milwaukee, Wis., in 1812; thence to Missouri 
Valley in 1871 and engaged in his present business; carries a com- 
plete stock in the drug line. 

Hon. G. H. McGavren, M. D., is a native of Pa.; came to Har- 
rison county in 1851 and first located at St. Johns; removed to 
Missouri Valley in 1868. He was elected to the legislature in 1870, 
and is engaged in the practice of medicine with his son, Charles, 
who is a graduate of the Rush Medical College, at Chicago, 111. 

S. H. Morgan, of the firm of Morgan & Berry, grocei-s, was born 
in Ind.; moved to Lucas county, Iowa, in 1859. He enlisted in 
1861, in Co. C, 13fch la. Vol.; served until Sept., 18(32; then returned 
to Lucas county and engaged in farming; removed to Harrison 
county in 1801 and settled in St. Johns and engaged in the drug 
business; removed to Missouri in 1868, and came back to Harrison 
county in 1877 and located at Missoari Valley and engaged in his 
present business. 

Hans Newman was born in Sweden; came to America in 1870 
and was in the employ of the S. C. & P. L'y., at Sioux City, until 
1879 when he was appointed passenger conductor on the Nebraska 
division. 

W. H. Ramseyer, superintendent of the car shops at Missouri 
Valley, was born in N. Y.; moved to Neb. in 1867 and engaged in 
the furniture business, and in 1869 came to this city and was em- 
ployed by the S. C. & P. R. R. company as pattern maker. He 
was appointed superintendent in 1871. 

A. H. Rockwell, contractor and builder, was born in Otsego 
county, N.^ Y.; moved to Missouri Valley, la., in May 1873. He 
has built most of the brick blocks and fine residences in the place. 

L. Shaubel, foreman of the S. C. & P. R. R. company's paint 
shop, at Missouri Valley, was born in Pa.; moved to Chicago, 111., 
in 1851 with parents, and Avas employed in the C. & N. W. R. R. 
paint shops, until, coming to this city in 1877 and accepting 
his present position. 

S. B. Shields, dealer in general merchandise, was born in N. J. 
He came west in 1870, settled in Missouri Valley in 1872, and 
present business. 



32S HISTORY OF IOWA. 

S. B. Smith, proprietor of the City barber shop, is a native of 
Ark.; removed to Polk county, la., in 1862 and to Harrison county 
in 1881, and established his present business at Missouri Valley. 

A. L. Tamisiea, harness maker and dealer, was born in Dubuque, 
la., in 1855; removed with parents in 1850 to Harrison county, la. 
He came to Missouri Valley in 1875, and engaged in the confec- 
tionery business. He engaged in his present business in 1879. 

J. D. Tamisiea, dealer in groceries and provisions, is a native of 
N. Y.; moved to Dubuque, la., in 1853; thence to Harrison county 
in 185(3; moved to Missouri Valley in 1877, and engaged in his 
present business. 

S. A. Teal, manager of the railroad machine shops, at Missouri 
Valley, la., was born in Albany county, N. Y., in 1831. He was 
for a time engaged in the iron business at Zanesville, 0.; moved 
to Chicago in 1853 and Avas employed as engineer for the C, B. & 
Q. R. R.; remained there four years; then came to Cass county, la.; 
thence to Council Blufi's, in 18(31, and was engaged as manager of 
the iron works at that place; thence to this city in 187(3 and en- 
gaged as manager of machine shops. 

C. Williams, of the firm of Williams & Blenkiron, proprietors of 
meat market, was born in England in 1855; came to America 
in 1861 and settled with his parents in Cherokee, la.; removed to 
Missouri Valley in 187(3 and engaged in his present business. 

Horace N. W^arren, dentist, was born in Council Bluffs, la., 
Aug. 24th, 1858; he studied dentistry with Dr. H. N. Urnuy. 
He located permanently in Missouri Valley in 1880; makes profes- 
sional visits to Logan every two months, and three times a year at 
Little Sioux and Magnolia. Although comparatively a newcomer, 
he has by his careful and skillful practice, established a very lucra- 
tive business. 

LOGAN. 

B. C. Adams, of the firm of Adams Bros., stock raisers and deal- 
ers, (farms in Jefferson township, three miles north of Logan), was 
born in Asthabula county, 0.; moved to 111.; thence to Wis., and 
in 1854 came to Harrison county, la. He was in the government 
service during the late war, as deputy provost marshal and enroll- 
ing officer. Was married in Denison, la., in 1858, to Almira P. 
Carrico, and has five children — three sons and two daughters, 

John W. Barnhart, attorney at law, was born in Northumber- 
land county. Pa.. Nov. 30th, 1837; moved to Mich, in 1849. He 
graduated from Michigan University, at Ann Arbor, in 1864; read 
law with H. T. Severns, and was admitted to the bar in 1865; 
came to Iowa and located at Boonsboro, Boone count}^ and opened an 
office. He was mayor of that place three terms. In Feb., 1878, 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 329 

he removed to Logan; has been mayor of this city one term. He 
was married in Mich, to Susan M. Hicks, of Saratoga, N. Y., July 
nth, 1865. They have four children — two sons and two daughters. 

John A. Berry, attorney at law, was born in Md. He was a stu- 
dent of the Agricultural College in the senior class of '71; came 
west in 1S74, aud after spending some time in Montana, located at 
Logan. He engaged in teaching school and in various pursuits, 
until 1880, when he was admitted to the bar, and engaged in the 
practice of the law. Hie ofUce is known as the Harrison County 
Collection Agency. He married Martha Burnett, of Mount Ver- 
noii, la., Nov. 7th, 1880, and has one child, a daughter. 

Hon. L. R. Bolter represents Harrison county in the state leg- 
islature. He was born in 0. in 1835; moved to Logan in 1863, 
and engaged in the practice of the law. He was elected to the 
legislature in 1865, '73, '75 and '81 on the democratic ticket. He 
was temporary speaker of the house in 1874, In 1855 he married 
Caroline J. Rhinehart, of Cass county, Mich. They have two sons 
and one daughter. 

T. J, Buchanan; furniture dealer and undertaker, was born in 
Boone county. 111., March 10th, 1856; removed to Rockford; thence 
to Harrison county, la., and engaged in farming three years in 
Union township. In Feb., 1881, he bought his present i)usiness 
of Rudd & Soper, and carries an elegant stock of goods. He mar- 
ried Alice A. t3rownell, at Rockford, 111., April 14th, 1876, and has 
one child, a daughter. 

S. A. Broadwell,land and loan office, was born in Cincinnati, 0., 
March 21st, 1848. In 1862, he joined the 34th 0. Zouaves; was 
afterwards courier and messenger, a id in 1864 returned to Cincin- 
nati. He was employed by Tyler, Davidson & Co. until 1866, when 
he was appointed sutler of Jefferson Barracks, Mo., where he re- 
mained two years; then wenb to New Orleans, and ran a trading 
boat for about a year, and then engaged in the wholesale boot and 
shoe business in Nev,' Orleans. He then removed to Mobile, Ala., 
and engaged in the same business, and through sickness was 
obliged to discontinue and travel for a time. He next engaged in 
the land and loan brsiness in Champaign, 111., remaining there five 
years; removed thence to Logan, and opened his present office. 
He is a very popular man, and does an extensive business, owning 
and controlling four thousand acres and more of well i3'jj)roved 
lands, besides a large amount of stock. He is one of the leading 
members of the Masonic order in la., being Grand \A'arden of the 
Crand Commandery of the State of Iowa. 

Hon. Phineas^Cadwell, president of the Cadwell bank, was born 
in Madison county, N. Y., April 17th, 1824; moved to Racine, 
Wis., and engaged in farming; thence to Harrison county, la., in 
Aug., 1854; engaged in farming, until 1875, when he established 



330 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

his present business. He also deals in real estate, loans, and insu- 
rance. He was elected to the legislature in 1871, on the republi- 
can ticket. He has been president of the county agricultural 
society twenty years, and on the state agricultural board as one of 
its directors eighteen years, and served four years as trustee of the 
state agricultural college at Ames, la. He married Harriet N. 
Fisk, Oct. 7th, 1845, and has three sons and two daughters. 

E. P. Cad well, of the firm of King & Cadwell, attorneys at law, 
land, loan and insurance office, was born in Racine, Wis., Dec. 
21st, 1854; moved with his parents to Independence, la. Entered 
the Ames Agricultural College in 1871, graduated in 1875, was 
admitted to the bar in 1877, under Judge Bradley, of Marshall- 
town, la., and soon after opened an office in Logan. In the 
fall of 1877 he formed a partnership with Mr. Barnhart, and in 
Nov., 1881, with Mr. King. He owns a fine stock farm in Jeffer- 
son township, of 840 acres, well fitted with buildings and im- 
provements, where he keeps about 400 head of cattle, besides horses 
hogs, etc., and has 440 acres of pasture land in Monona county. 
He married Hannah P. Lyman, of Messapotamia, 0., in the 
autumn of 1877. They have one child, a daughter. 

S. H. Cochran, attorney at law, was born in Carmine, Ills., in 
1852; in 1874 he graduated at the Iowa State Law School, and 
engaged in the practice of law at Missouri Valley; removed to 
Logan in the fall of 1881; attends exclusively to trial business. 
In 1880 he was engaged in the prosecution of the Western Millers' 
Association cases, involving the constitutionality of the "Iowa 
Fish Way Laws," in which a decree was obtained, holding them 
void, and he was also successful in obtaining a decree annulling 
section 3,058 of the code as unconstitutional. In 1880 he was 
appointed one of the committee of examiners cf the law class at 
Iowa City; was the youngest lawyer on the committee. In 1877 
he was married to Mary E. Shimmins, a native of Wis., although 
of English parentage. 

Oscar Coffey, of the firm of Cofiey & George, proprietors of 
bakery, restaurant and grocery, was born in Pottawattamie county, 
la.; was engaged in farming until locating here in Aug., 1881, 
when he established present thriving business. 

A. W. Clyde, of the firm of Smith & Clyde, attorneys at law, 
was born in Otsego county, N. Y.; moved to Mitchell county, la., 
in 1855, and was proprietor of the Mitchell County News, for five 
years. He then moved to Logan, and engaged in the practice of 
the law. He was married at Madison, Wis., in 1877, to Bessie 
Johnson, and has one child, a son. 

Logan Crawford, county surveyor, was born Jan. 13th, 1822, in 
Union, Conn.; moved to Mayville, Wis., in the spring of 1847, and 
was employed on the Fond du Lac & Watertown R. R. He sur- 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 331 

veyed in 1851, and in the summer of 1852 was again em- 
ployed by the Railroad Company as surveyor, under J. 
B. Sewell, engineer. Mr. S. was transferred to the C. & N. 
W. K. K. on the 111. division, and sent for Mr. C. to assist. 
In 1854 he settled in Harrison county, and bought land near 
Calhoun; has suffered large losses from prairie fire. He enlisted 
in lb61 in the 5th la. Infantry; enlisted as a private: was pro- 
moted in 1863 to lieutenant; was engaged in the battle of Pitts- 
burg Landing; was wounded at Corinth, Oct. Cth, 1863, and again 
at Atlanta, Ga.; was severely wounded by musket shot through 
the chest, and reported dead; was taken prisoner in that condition, 
and put in the hospital at Macon, Ga.; was transferred to Charles- 
town, S. C, and exchanged in December in 1864. He was elected 
surveyor in 1879, on the republican ticket, and re-elected in 1881; 
has been justice of the peace of Calhoun township two terms. He 
married Helen M. Rising, at Maysville, Wis. They have four 
children living. 

Dr. P. li. Crosswait, of the firm of P. R. Crosswait & Co., deal- 
ers in dry goods, clothing, groceries and general merchandise, was 
born in Fulton county. 111., July 12th, 1853; removed to Cass 
county, la., in 185G, and engaged in school teaching until the be- 
ginning of the late war, when he enlisted in the 1st la. Cav.; served 
three years west of the Missouri river; was in the battle of Prairie 
Grove and the taking of Little Rock, Ark. In Sept., 1864, he was 
mustered out of the service, and went to Rush Medical College, 
Chicago, and in 1865 settled in Harrison county, where he practiced 
twelve years; then went to Miami College, at Cincinnati, and 
graduated in the spring of 1877; then returned to this county and 
practiced two years in Logan, when he engaged in his present 
business. He is a member of the I. 0. 0. F. lodge and encamp- 
ment, also of the A. 0. U. W. lodge. He married Mary Murphy, 
of Magnolia, la. 

William Elliott, farmer, La Grange township, owns 305 acres of 
land all fenced and a well improved stock farm. He was born in 
Durham, Eng.; came to America in 1846 and located in Pa.; re- 
moved to la. in 1862 and located on his present farm and has a fine 
herd of cattle. He married Anna Phillips, in Pa., in 1853. They 
have seven children. He is a member of the I. 0. 0. F. 

John V. Evans, attorney at law, was born in Genesee county, N. 
Y., Jan. 8th, 1847; removed to Clinton county, la., in 1863; 
studied law with Geo. B. Young of De Witt, and was admitted to 
the bar in Clinton, Dec. 7th, 1870. He removed to Magnolia, Harri- 
son county; thence to Logan at the time it became the county 
seat. He was county attorrey two years and mayor of Logan the 
first two terms; is a member of the 1. 0. 0. F. lodge and encnmp- 
ment and a blue lodge mason. He married Clara M. King, June 
16th, 1875. They have one child, a son. 



332 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

Wm. Giddings, P. M. and druggist, also dealer in stationery, 
toys, etc., was born in McHenry county. 111., Aug. 26th, 1845; re- 
moved to Council Bluffs in 1868 and was with DeHaven & Giddings, 
druggists. In 1869, came to Magnolia, Harrison county, and in 
1872 came to Logan and engaged in his present business. In June, 
1875, was appointed postmaster of Logan. He married Helen N. 
Nelson in Beloit, Wis. They have one child, a son. 

W. B. Goodenough, shoemaker, was born in Lewis county, N. 
Y., May 17th, 1862; moved with parents in Nov., 1867, to Logan, 
la., and is engaged in the above business, with his father M. H. 
Goodenough, who was born in Lewis County, N. Y., and was en- 
gaged in shoe making, until he came to Logan, wJiere he resumed 
same business. He served from 1863 to the close of the war, in 20th 
N. Y. Cav. He married Aug. 17th, 1856, to Emeline Dodge. They 
have three sons and two daughters. 

A. K. Grow, county recorder, was born in Courtlandt county, 
N. Y., in 1862; removed to Washington county. Neb., in 1857; 
thence to Harrison county, la., in Nov., 1858, and settled in Boyer 
township and engaged in milling for three years; then built a mill 
which he ran until 1875, and sold to John & Wilson Williams. Was 
elected to his present office in 1876 on republican ticket. He mar- 
ried Eliza J. Baskin, a native of Pa. They have one son and six 
daughters. 

G. W. Guilford, proprietor of meat market, was born in Orleans 
county, Vt.. 1843; moved to Tama county, la., in 1860. He en- 
listed in 1861 in the 10th la. Vol. Inft., and served four years 
and two mouths; was in twenty-seven engagements; was wounded 
at the battle of Champion Hill, Miss.; was at the seige of Corinth 
and New Madrid, at the battle of Missouri Ridge and wounded 
twice. Was with Sherman in the march to the sea; discharged 
in 1865. Came to Harrison county in 1867; resided in Dunlap 
thirteen years; while there, was a member of the city council four 
years. Has lived in Logan two years; is now a member of tlie city 
council of that place. He married Mrs. Campbell, of Harlan, la. 
They have two sons and three daughters. He is a member of the 
G. A. R. post at this place. 

A. L. Harvey, of the firm of Harvey & Ford, proprietors of the 
Harrison County Bank, was born in Madison county, N. Y., in 
July, 1826; removed to Rockland county in 1853; thence to Jas- 
per county, la., in 1856, and the following year located at Mag- 
nolia, Harrison county. In 1860 he was elected county treasurer 
and recorder, the two offices being consolidated; was re-elected in 
1862. He opened a land and loan office in 1864, and when Logan 
became the county seat removed there; in 1876 established the 
bank with J. C. Milliman, who sold his share in 1878 to Mr. 
Ford. Mr. H. was the first land agent and first notary public in 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 333 

the county, has sold about 25,000 acres of land during the last 
year (1881), owns a fine farm of 436 acres, four and one-half miles 
from Woodbine, besides about 200 acres in other parts of the 
county. Has been internal revenue assessor three vears. Is a 
member of the A. F. and A. M. lodge, also of the I. 0. 0. F. 

D. M. Hardy, deputy treasurer, was born in Glenwood, la., in 
IS,")!; removed with his parents to Harrison county, is son of 
Judge Hardy, one of the oldest settlers of this county and the first 
county judge. He is an extensive farmer, and one of the pro- 
prietors of VVillow mill, the oldest mill in the county. Mr. Hardy 
is a member of the A. 0. U. W. lodge, also of the 1. 0. 
0. F. He 2narried MissSeverins, of Wis., in 1872. They have 
two sons and two daughters. 

C. L. Hyde, clerk of the courts, was born in Otsego county, N. 
Y., in 1813; came to la. inlSoG, and first located at Little Sioux, 
Harrison county; has been a resident of the county ever since. He 
was elected to his present office in 1876 on the republican ticket. 
He enlisted in 1862 in the 20th Wis. Inft.; was discharged after 
seven months, and then joined the 41st Wis. Inft. He married 
Mary Russell, and has three sons. 

G. T. Kelley, attorney at law, was born in Johnson county, HI., 
in 1846; moved to Mills* county, la., in 1854, and to Harrison coun- 
ty in 1867. He graduated and was admitted to the bar at the 
Iowa State University, June 10th, 1876, and soon after opened 
a law office at Logan. He married Maria Allen, in Harrison coun- 
ty, in 1870, and has two children, a son and daughter. 

Fred Kimpel, jeweler and barber, was born Mar. 16th, 1847, in 
Bavaria, Ger.; came to America in Sept., 1864; learned the barber 
trade in N. Y. In 1866 he removed to Scranton, Pa., and engaged 
in the barber business; removed to Dunlap, la., in 1869; thence in 
1876, to Logan, and engaged in his present business; owns con- 
siderable real estate in this city. He is a member of the A. 0. U. 
W., L 0. 0. F., and A. F. & A. M. lodges. He married Mary 
Fisher, in Scranton, Pa. They have one sou and three daughters. 

S. I. King, of the firm of King & Cadwell, attorneys at law, was 
born Sept. 8th, 1848, in Saratoga county, N. Y.; came to Harrison 
county with his ])arents in 1852 and located at Six Mile Grove. 
He is the son of Judge S. King,who was one of the first settlers of 
this county and one of the commissioners who located the county 
seat at Magnolia, in 1854. Mr. King removed to Boyer Valley, 
and was engaged in teaching most of the time, from the age of 
fifteen until 1S67, when he attended the State University, of Iowa 
City. He left in graduating year on account of serious illness. 
Again engaged in teaching school; in 1870 taught the high school 
of Magnolia. Then traveled for the wholesale dry goods house of 
Smith & Crittenden, Council Blufis. He attended the Law School 



334 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

at Des Moines in 1875, graduated and was admitted to the bar in 
1876, and opened an oflBce in Logan; at the end of two months he 
removed to Magnolia and opened an oifice there; came back to 
Logan in 1879 and formed a partnership with E. P. Cadwell in 
Nov., 1881. He is a member of the A. F. & A. M., and A. 0. TI. W. 
lodges. He is also chairman of the republican central committee. 
He was married in 1871: to Abbie M. Mark, of Fredonia, N. Y. 

Hon. Thomas M. C. Logan, senator elect of 31th district, was 
born iu Rush county, Ind., Feb. 13th, 1830; moved to Richland 
county, 111., in April 1857; thence to Cedar Rapids, Linn county; 
and from there to Harrison county. He has been engaged most of 
his life in farming and dealing in stock. He resides on his fine 
farm adjoining Logan. He was married Feb. 17th, 1851, to Char- 
lotte Snodgrass, in La Forte, Ind., who died in Jan. 1867, leaving a 
son and daughter. He afterwards married at Cedar Rapids, Har- 
riet Herbert. They have four sons and three daughters. 

A. Longman, Jr., proprietor of the Logan Flouring Mills, was 
born in Derby, Eng., in 1818; came to America with his parents in 
1851 and located in Holt county, Mo.; removed to Harris Grove, 
Harrison county, la., in 1852. The subject of this sketch grad- 
uated from Oskaloosa Cc liege in 1874. The mill was built in the 
winter of 1855-6 by Henry Reel, who sold it to Mr. McCoid, of 
whom Mr. L. purchased it in Sept., 1880, and has established an 
extensive business. He M^as married in Wis., to Miss Whitcomb, 
in 1877, who died leaving one child, a daughter. 

James A. Lusk, proprietor of the Lusk House and livery and feed 
stable, established business in 1869. He was born in Morris county, 
N. Y., in 1824; removed to Mills county, la., in 1855; thence to 
Harrison county in 1863; was engaged in farming until he engaged 
in the hotel business. He married Minerva Roberts (deceased) in 
1846, and afterwards Lydia B. Kelsey. They have four sons and one 
daughter. 

Horace C. McCleary, M. D., was born in Warren county, la., in 
July 1859; received his education at the Simpson Centenary Col- 
lege, at Indianola, la., studied medicine in the medi al department 
of the State University, at Iowa City, and graduated in 1881 from 
Rush Medical College, Chicago. He located in Logan. July 20th, 
1881, succeeding Dr. Giddings. Although a new-comer he is al- 
ready in the possession of a lucrative and increasing practice. He 
is a member of the I. 0. 0. F. Lodge. 

Allen Middleton, deputy sheriff, was born in Washington coun- 
ty, la., in 1855; came to Harrison county in 1867. 

Wiley Middleton, sheriff, was born in 0.; removed to Washing- 
ton county, la.; thence to Harrison county in 1867. He was 
elected to his present office in 1879. He married Julia A. Lock- 
ling, and has three sons and one daughter. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 335 

Wm. Palmer, farmer, was born in London, Ontario, Canada, in 
Oct., 1833; came to Whiteside county, 111., with his parents in 
1851, where he remained two years; then removed to Walworth 
county, Wis., where he remained seven years; then came to Har- 
rison county. He has been married three times; his present wife 
was Sarah Streeter; were married in 1880. He has three sons and 
three daughters. 

J. W. Reed, dealer in general merchandise, was born in Va. in 
1847; moved to Harrison county, la., in 186$, and engaged in pres- 
ent business with P. J. Rudisell in 1875; became sole proprietor 
in 1877. He has been a member of the town council several years. 
During the war of the rebellion he served in the 43rd West Va. 
Bat., Mosby's command. He was married in 1874 to Miss Low, of 
Atchinson county. Mo., who died in 1876, leaving one child, a 
daughter. He was again married in 1878 to Miss Williams, of 
Boone county, la. They have two children, daughters. 

H. H. Roadifer, of the firm of Evans & Roadifer, attorneys at 
law, was admitted to the bar in La Salle county. 111., June 4th, 
1875, before the supreme court. He came to Logan in 1878, and 
engaged in the practice of law with Mr. Evans; has been Mayor of 
this city one term. 

J. W. Rudd, farmer in Union tp., was born in 1838, in Ya.; 
moved to Harrison county in 1870 with his father, Wm. T. Rudd, 
and located at Logan, where they engaged in furniture and 
undertaking business, which they continued eleven years; then sold 
to T. J. Buchanan. He was city councilman three years, and is a 
member of the A. 0. U. W., L 0. 0. F., and A. F. & A. M. lodges. 
He married Sarah C. Sprinkel. of Amsterdam, Va., and has two 
son?; and two daughters. 

Geo. B. Seekel, dealer in lumber, grain and agricultural imple- 
ments, was born in Taunton, Mass., in Sept., 1823; the most of 
his younger days were spent in Providence, li. I. In 1856 he 
moved to Madison, Wis., and engaged in the grain business; went 
south in 18()4 and remained two years, after which he engaged in 
the lumber trade in Chicago; after two years he went to St. Paul, 
Minn., having the management and general agency of the Singer 
sewing machine. In 1871 removed to Logan and engaged in his 
present business; has been a member of the city council, and 
president of the school board several years. He is a member of 
the I. 0. O. F. and A. F. & A. M. lodges. He was married in Dec, 
1847, to Martha M. Williams, of N. Y., and has one daughter. 

Geo. Soper, dealer in hardware, was born in Rome, N. Y., July 
I4th, 1853; moved with parents to Clinton, Lx., in 1857, and came 
to Logan in July, 1878, and engaged in present business. He is a 
member of the I. 0. 0. F. lodge. He was married Aug. 26th, 
1878, to Lena Dodson, of Stanwood. Ta. They have one child, a son. 



336 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

Hon. Joseph H. Smith, of the firm of Smitli & Clyde, attorneys 
at law, was born in Beaver Cv^unty, Pa.; moved to Harrison county, 
la. in 1857, and engaged in the practice of law; formed a partner- 
ship with A. W. Clyde in 1879. He enlisted in 1862 in Co. C. 29th 
la. Inft.; was second lieutenant. He was elected a member of the 
legislature one term. He married Julia A. Warrick, a native of 
Pa., and has five sons and one daughter. 

Daniel Stewart, wagon maker, was born in Little Falls, Hei'ki- 
mer county, N. Y., Oct. 31st, 1833; moved to Logan in 1872 and 
engaged m his present business. He served during the rebellion 
in tlie 121st IS. Y. Vol.; was in a number of important battles; 
was wounded Oct. 19th, 1861, and in hospital at Balti- 
more; was discharged May. 16th, 1865. He is a member of the A. 
0. Q. W. and Gr". A. R. orders. He married Margaret M. Clarke, of 
Herkimer county, N. Y., in July, 1861, and has one child a son. 

John W. Stocker, grocer and dealer in corn and stock, was born 
in Caledonia county, Vt., June 2nd, 1835; moved with parents to 
Lowell, Mass., in 1843; thence to McHenry county. 111., in 1854 
and engaged in farming; thence to Henry county, la., and en- 
gaged in setting up woolen mills; thence to Buchanan county in 
1857 and engaged in farming one year; then moved to Little Sioux. 
He enlisted in Co. C, 29th la. Inft.; was in a number of important 
battles; was regimental quartermaster and commanded his com 
paay the last year and a half of his service; was some time in Rio 
Grande, Tex., and returned home Sept. 2nd, 1865; moved to Wood- 
bine and bought an interest in the woolen mill there; after six 
months sold out and removed to Magnolia, then the county seat, 
and was elected clerk of the courts in 1806 and re-elected in 1868. 
In 187G he located in Logan and engaged in the stock and grain 
buying business and added the grocery business in 1879. He is a 
member of the Masonic, I. 0. 0. F, and I. 0. G. T. orders. He 
married Susan B. Bonney, in 1862. They have three daughters. 

J. T. Stern, farmer, was born in Chester county. Pa., in 1814; 
moved to la. in 1857 and settled on his present farm, in La Grange 
township, Harrison county, of 200 acres of well improved land, 
forty acres of it good timber. He was reporter for the Govern- 
ment Signal Service, Washington, D. C, for twenty years. He 
married Millicent B. Fletcher, of Lincolnshire, Eng., and has two 
sons and one daughter. His son Aim or is county auditor. 

Almor Stern, county auditor, was born in Chester county, Pa., 
in 1854; came to Harrison with his parents in 1857; was employed 
in farming, until he engaged as clerk in auditor's office; was elected 
to his present office in 1878. He married Laura Mann, of Harri- 
son county in 1880. They have one child, a son. 

Thomas TurnbuU, dealer in grain and farm machinery, was born 
in Greene county, ()., June 20th, 1841, was engaged in farming and 



HISTOEY OF IOWA. 337 

stock raising there until 1874, when he came to Des Moines, la., 
and engaged in pork packing and curing with Fayette Meek; re- 
moved to Harrison county in Nov., 1876, and engaged in his pres- 
ent business. He owns a well improved farm in Jefferson twp., of 
120 acres. He was married June 25th, 1865, to Susan B. Thomp- 
son, in Greene county, 0. They have four sons and three daughters. 

E. G. Tyler, land, loan and abstract office, was born in Chitten- 
den county, Vt., Feb. 15th, 1856; in 1866 moved to Hastings, 
Minn.; thence to Dunlap, la., in 1867. He graduated in 1878 
from the Iowa Agricultural College, at Ames, la. In 1879 he 
opened the office in Logan. He is a member of the I. 0. 0. F. 

J. L. Witt, M. D., wa? born March 4th, 1855, in Galesburg, Knox 
county. 111. He graduated from the medical department of the 
State LTniversity, at Iowa City in 1878, and located in Logan the 
same year and engaged in the practice of his profession. He was 
married in Logan Nov. 30th, 1881, to Millie Vanderhoof. 

John Williams was born in Fayette county, 0., in 1827; moved 
with his parents to Noble county, Ind.; thence to Mason county, 
111.; thence to Jefferson twp., Harrison county, la., where he now 
resides. He owns a well improved farm of 650 acres. He makes 
a specialty of raising fine stock. He has some very fine horses and 
one thorough-bred stallion Avhich was imported from France at a 
cost of ^2,500. In fact we may say that Mr. Williams has one of 
the finest stock farms in Western Iowa. He was married in 1849 
to Sarah Anderson, of Noble county, Ind. They have three sons 
and five daughters. 

MONDAMIN. 

Thomas H. Allison, M. D., was born in Fa.; began the practice 
of medicine in 1849; removed to Missouri in 1857; thence to Mills 
county, Iowa; thence to Florence, Neb., and in 1864 located at 
Council Bluffs, Ta. In 1881 he came to Moudamin, and openedan 
office. 

Charles Burrows, agent for the S. C. & P. R. li. at Mondamin, 
is a native of Cincinnati, 0. At the age of nineteen vears, he re- 
moved to Danville, 111. In 1862 he enlisted in Co. C, 124th 111. 
Vol.; served until Sept.. 1865, then returned to 111. and engaged 
in telegraphy at Springfield; has been in the employ of several of 
the principal railroad companies in the states of 111., Mo., Neb. and 
la. He was appointed agent at Mondamin in Dec, 1880; is also 
express agent and attorney at law. 

John T. Coffman, farmer, was born in Greene county, Tenn., in 
1828; removed with parents to Johnson county. Mo.; thence to 
that part of Lee count3\ la., then known as the Spanish land grant; 
thence located in the edge of Putnam county, Mo., which in 1888 



338 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

became Appanoose county, la. He removed to Lewis, Cass county, 
in 1863, and in the spring of the year following went to Virginia 
City, Montana; returned in the autumn, and in the spring of 1865 
moved to his present farm in Raglan toAvnship, Harrison county. 
He owns one thousand acres of land, and pays especial attention to 
stock raising. He is a member of the A. F. & A. M, lodge. In 
1852 he was married to Matilda J. Croft, who died in 1851, leaving 
two children. In 1856 he married Susan Croft, and has seven 
children. 

Frederick M. Dupray, proprietor of hotel and blacksmith shop, 
was born in Ohio in 1831; moved to Mich, in 1843, and the next 
year to Jackson county, la. In 1852 he removed to Minn., and 
resided at St. Peter until 1857, when he returned to la. He located 
at Mondamin in 1876, and engaged in his present business. He 
was elected justice of the peace in 1879. 

Charles Gilmore, farmer, is a native of 0.; came to Harrison 
county, la., in 1850; his family followed the next year. He owns 
a farm of 1,200 acres, near Mondamin. He is one of the oldest 
settlers of this county. 

B. Johnston, M. D., came from 0. to Harrison county, la., in 
1855; returned to 0. in 1861, and enlisted in Co. G, 53rd 0. Vol. 
as assistant surgeon; was discharged in 1862, for physical disabil- 
ity; returned to 0., where he remained until 1869, when he re- 
turned to Harrison county, la., and engaged in the practice of 
medicine at Mondamin. 

L. Maunhart, harness maker, was born in Algiers, Germany, in 
1853; came to America in 1873, and located at Joliet, 111. He 
came to Mondamin, la., in 1878, and engaged in his present busi- 
ness; deals in all kinds of harness, saddles, and horse furnishings 
found in first-class shops. 

L. H. Noyes, grain dealer, is a native of 0., moved to Harrison 
county, la., in 1867, and engaged in farming. In 1875 he en- 
gaged in his present business. 

James Noyes, grocer, a native of 0. ; settled in Harrison county, 
la., in 1866, and engaged in his present business at Mondamin in 
Dec, 1881, on the corner of Maple and Main streets. 

Z. T. Noyes, dealer in general merchandise, was born in 0. in 
1849; moved to Harrison county in 1856, with his parents, and 
settled near the present site of Mondamin; moved into the town 
in 1869, and was for four years employed in his father's store, 
previous to engaging in his present business. 

Thomas Regan, dealer in general merchandise, was horn in Cork 
county, Ireland; came to America in 1854, and settled in Conn.; 
removed to Chicago, III., in 1865. In 1868 he removed to Jones 
county, la.; thence to Mondamin, Harrison county, in 1870, and 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 339 

engaged in wagon making, which be followed until 1879, and then 
engaged in his present business. His wife is the pioneer milliner 
of Mondamin, having established business in 1870. Theirdaugh- 
ter Mary, was the first child born in the place. 

L. Snyder, hardware deah r, was born in Strausberg, Germany, 
in 1838; came to America iu 1871, and located at Joliet, 111.; 
moved to Mondamin, la., in 1880, and engaged in his present 
business. 

P. G. Spooner, hardware dealer, was born in Vt.; moved to N. 
Y. at an early age and engaged in milling. In 1871 he came to 
Mondamin, la., and engaged in the grain and hardware business, 
A. Spooner, manager of the above house, came to Mondamin in 
1871, from Omaha, Neb., and is township clerk and city recorder. 

James D. Stuart, druggi=it, was born in Council Bluffs, la., in 
1860. He graduated from the State Pharmacy in 1880, and in 
April of the same year engaged in his present business at Mon- 
damin . 

Byron Strode, jeweler, was born in 0. in 1850; moved to Jones 
county, la., in 1875, and the following year came to Mondamin, 
Harrison county, and engaged in his present business. 

MODALE. 

E. Brandriff, farmer, is a native of N. Y.; moved to la. in 1859 
and located near Council Bluffs, and was engaged in freighting to 
Denver, Col., until 1864, when he moved to Harrison county, and 
engaged in farming near Modale. 

W. W. Broadhead, proprietor of billiard hall, is a native of 0.; 
moved to Modale, la., in 1877 and engaged in farming. In 1881 
he engaged in his present business. 

Levi Crouch, dealer in groceries, is a native of Mo.; moved to 
Mills county, Li., in 1851; thence to Harrison county in 1867. He 
engaged in his present business in 1878. 

R. Christian, M. D., was born in N. Y.; moved to Jefferson, 
Greene county, la., in 1807; graduated from the Hahnaman Med- 
ical College, of Chicago, III., in 1S74, located at Modale in 1879 
and engaged in the practice of medicine. 

C. J. Cutler, merchant and postmaster, is a native of Pa.; moved 
to Neb., in 1856. He enlisted in 1862, in. Co. H, 2d Neb. Cav., 
and was with Gen. Sully fourteen months, on the plains: returned 
to Neb. and engaged in freighting. In 1866 he removed to Coun- 
cil liluffs, la., and engaged in the grocery business. The same 
year he came to Modale, and in 1874: established his present busi- 
ness; was appointed postmaster the following year. 



340 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

J. W. Huff, M. D. and druggist, Aras born in Harrison county, 
in 1857; graduated from the Rush Medical College, of Chicago, 
111., in 1881. He located at Modale, and engaged in his present 
business in April, 1880. 

F. H. Ludwig, farmer, is a native of Pa.; moved to 0. in 1855; 
thence to Modale, la., in 1869. He built the first grain house at 
that place. 

Job Ross, stock and grain dealer, was bom in 111., in 1831; 
moved to Harrison count3\ la., in 1854, and engaged in farming. 
In 1876 he moved to Modale and established the first hardware 
store in the place. In 1880 he engaged in his present business. 

W. A. Sharpnack, dealer in general merchandise, is a native of 
W. Va., and a son of Henry Sharpnack, who was one of the first 
settlers of Harrison county. He came to this county in 1857 and 
engaged in farming, until 1878, when he engaged in his present 
business. He also deals in grain. 

W. M. Sharpnack, dealer in hardware, is a native of Va.; came 
with his father, John Sharpnack, to Washington county, la., in 
1850, and four years later came to Harrison county, and engaged 
in farming until 1880, when he moved to Modale and engaged in 
his present business. 

LITTLE SIOUX. 

J. W. Alton, dealer in general groceries, is a native of 111.; came 
to Iowa in 1875 and engaged in farming near Little Sioux, and in 
1877 he engaged in his present business. He enlisted in the war 
of the rebellion in 1862 in Co. A, 118th 111. Vol., and was dis- 
charged at the close of the war. 

H. H. Bonney, proprietor of hotel and livery stable at Little 
Sioux, is a native of Pa.; removed to this place in 1865, and en- 
gaged in the grocery business. He erected the hotel in 1878, 
which is a first class house in all its appointments. 

Colonel A. Cochran, was born in Va.; located at Little Sioux in 
1854; went to Denver and Central City, Col., in 1861, and engaged 
in mining and mercantile business, and after four years engaged 
in the land business at Council Bluffs, la. He owns large landed 
property near Little Sioux, Harrison county. 

C. E. Cobb, dealer in hardware and lumber, is a native of N. Y.; 
moved to Iowa in 1856 and engaged in farming, near Little Sioux, 
Harrison county. In 1874 he engaged in his present business. 

B. F. Croasdale, dealer in general merchandise, was born in Pa. 
in 1839; moved to Council Bluffs, Iowa, in 1864, and was employed 
as salesman in a mercantile house until 1866, when he came to 
Little Sioux and engaged in his present business. 



HISTORY OF lOAVA. 341 

C. David, dealer in furniture, was born near Montreal, Canada, 
in 1856; came to Little Sioux, Iowa, in 1879 with but ten cents, 
to start with; is now doing a good business, and is the owner of 
considerable fine real estate. 

Clark Ellis, druggist, was born in Ohio, in 1843, and with his 
widowed mother, moved to Harrison county, Iowa, in 1853. He 
enlisted in 1862, in Co. C, 29th la. Lift.; returned to this county 
at the close of the war, and engaged for a time in farming, after 
which he established his present business. He graduated from the 
Iowa State Pharmacy in 1880, A. M. Ellis, an older brother, now 
engaged in the stock business at this place, is also an old settler 
of this county. He enlisted in Co, H, 15th la, 

D, M. Gamet, dealer in general merchandise, was born in Otsego 
county, N, Y., in 1811; moved to 111. in 1837; thence in 1846 to 
Council Bluffs: remained there two years, and then removed to 
Glenwood, Mills county, of which place he was one of the pro- 
prietors. In 1852 he settled at Magnolia, Harrison county, and 
was the first recorder and treasurer of the county. Five years 
later he removed to Little Sioux and engaged in his present busi- 
ness. 

Geo, T. Hope, of the firm of Hope Bros,, photographers and 
dealers in drugs and furniture, is a native of Green county, N. Y.; 
moved to 111, in 1851, and with his brother Wm, H., engaged in 
farming. In 1870 they moved to Little Sioux, la., and engaged in 
the mercantile business. They established their present business 
in 1879, 

M, Johnson, wine and liquor dealer, is a native of Pottawattamie 
county, la.; moved to Harrison county in 1854 and engaged in 
farming. In 1874 he went to Idaho and Montana, where he spent 
four years; returned and engaged in his present business at Little 
Sioux. 

Thomas J, Lanyon, postmaster at Little Sioux, was born in Pq, 
in 1848; moved with his parents to Monona county, la., in 1858; 
thence to this place in 1865. In 1870 he was appointed postmaster, 
and about the same time engaged in the fancy grocery business, 

Mrs, S. J. Long, milliner, was born in Ohio, moved to 111,, and 
in 1864 to Salt Lake City, where she remained two years, and then 
settled in Little Sioux, Her husband, P, R, Long, is a native of 
N, Y,, and is engaged in bridge and house building at this place. 

M, Murray, banker, stock raiser and dealer in general merchan- 
dise, was born in Scotland in 1840; came to America at the age of 
seventeen years, located at Little Sioux, and was in the employ of 
the mail service at fifteen dollars per month until 18(52, when he 
removed to Denver, Col,, and engaged in tlie stock and freight 
business. Six years later he returnad to this place and engaged in 



342 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

his present business. He owns a fine stock farm of several hun- 
dred acres near town, on which still stands the little old log house 
that he arrived at in 1857, a penniless Scotch lad. It was the 
first building used for a store in Harrison county. 

C. W. Oden, manager of the banking and mercantile business of 
M. Murray, was born in Ross county, 0., in 1831; moved to la. in 
1858, and platted the town of Harlan, Shelby county; remained 
there until 1862, when he enlisted in Co. C, 29th la. Vol. He 
was promoted quarter-master, which office he held until the close 
of the war. In 1866 he located at Little Sioux and engaged in 
farming; was secretary of the Harrison Co. Agricultural society 
for fourteen years; accepted his present position in 1876. 

J. L. Perkins, farmer, was born inC, in 1834; moved to Jack- 
son county, la., in 1844; thence to Harrison county in 1850, and 
three years later located at Little Sioux. He devotes his special at- 
tention to the raising of fine varieties of potatoes. He raised over 
three hundred kinds in 1876. Bliss Si Sons, of N. Y., offered a 
premium of one hundred dollars to the one raising the most pota- 
toes from one pound of seed. Mr. P. raised 1,6G6| lbs. from 
one lb., winning the first and also the second premiums. As the 
offer was open to the world, therefore Mr. Perkins is universally 
pronounced the Potato King. One hundred of his potatoes aver- 
aged two pounds apiece . 

Jeff. Smith, harness maker, was born in HI.; moved to la. in 
1868, and located at Sioux City. In 1874 he removed to Little 
Sioux and engaged in his present business. He deals in all kinds 
of single and double harness, saddles, robes, whips, etc 

J. A. Stockwell, blacksmith, is a native of Ind. ; moved to la. 
in 1855, and settled in Harrison county; was one of the original 
proprietors of California Junction . He moved to Little Sioux in 
1877, and engaged in his present business • 

Reuben Wallace, M. D., was born in Mass. in 1812. He be- 
gan the practice of medicine in 1845, at North Adams, Mass. In 
1849 removed to St . Lawrence county, N . Y . , where he remained 
until 1857, when he came west. At the close of the war he 
settled in Harrison county, and engaged in the practice of his 
profession . 

J . S . Whiting, proprietor of billiard parlor, is a native of Mass . ; 
moved to W^is. in 1854; thence in 1859 to Colorado, where he en- 
gaged in mining; from there he went back to Oregon and Idaho, 
and then back to Mass. , where he remained one year, and in 1866 
came to la. In 1875 he removed to Salt Lake City, Utah., and 
engaged in the bottling business . A year later he settled at Little 
Sioux, and engaged in his present business . 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 3i3 

WOODBINE. 

L. D. Butler, lumber dealer and fanner, was born in Ky. in 
1826; removed to Clay county. Mo,, in 1837 with par,;nts. In 
1846 was sent to England as a Mormon missionary, was gone two 
years, and in 1849 located at Council Bluffs; removed to Harrison 
county in 1853 and engaged in farming. He built the first grist 
mill in the county, Avhich he sold to Dally & Clark. He engaged 
in the mercantile business in 1856, near the mill; moved the busi- 
ness to Woodbine in 1807 and was burned out the same year. He en- 
gaged in the lumber business in the spring of 1881. He owns a 
fiirm in Lincoln township of 880 acres, 100 acres in Douglas town- 
ship and 200 acres in Boyer township. He has been Postmaster 
in Harrison county twenty years. He severed connection with 
the Mormon church twenty-five years ago. He was married in 
1849 at Birmingham, Eng., to Anna Binnall, and has ten child- 
ren. 

Orrin DeWitt Cole, druggist, was born near Woodbine in 1859. 
His parents came to this county in 1850, and engaged in farming. 
The business was established in 1870, under firm name of J. S. 
Cole & Son, his father since retiring from the business. 

N. L. Cole, furniture dealer and undertaker, was born in Indian- 
apolis, Ind., in 1841; came to Harrison county with parents. He 
enlisted in the 0th la. Cav.; was engaged against the Indians in 
Neb. and Dak.; was injured while building a fort at Sioux Falls, 
Dak., Aug. 13th, 1865, and discharged in Oct. of the same year. 
He was married in Sept. 1807, to Libbie Irne. He was engaged 
in farming until May, 1881; bought furniture stock and building 
of W. Cantield. John S. Cole, father of the subject of this sketch 
was one of the first settlers of this county. He was a practicing 
physician. He was also a member of the county board five terms. 
Died Aug. 2nd, 1881. 

L.H. Crane, deputy postmaster and grocer, was born in Roches- 
ter, Minn., in April, 1860; removed with parents to Jeddo, Har- 
rison county, la., in 1862; the next year they moved to a farm two 
miles from Woodbine. He is a graduate of Miller's Mercantile 
College, of Keokuk, la. In 1879 he moved to Woodbine and 
engaged in business with his father, who was appointed postmaster 
in March, 1881. 

W . D . Cromie, dealer in general merchandise, clothing and 
grain; was born June 29th, 1851, in Cecil county, Md.; moved 
with parents to Harrison county, la., in 1867. He graduated 
from Bailey's Commercial College, at Keokuk, la., in Feb., 1874. 
In 1875 located at Woodbine; held the ofl&ce of postmaster for 
six years. He was married in 1877 to Florence Daly, and has one 
child, a son. 



344 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

Joseph W . Dally, of the firm of Dally & Noyes, proprietors of 
the Woodbine flouring mills, was born in 0. in 1829. He went 
toCal. in 1852, and in 1855 settled in Hara'lton county, la. He 
removed to Harrison county in 1859, and engaged in rriercantile 
business at Magnolia. He built the Woodbine woolen mills near 
this place, which he ran six years, and in 1871 built the flouring 
mills. He is a member of the I. 0. 0. F., and A. F. & A. M. orders. 
In 1855 he was married to Miss Goodrich, of Indianapolis, Ind., 
who died in 1865. He afterwards married Nancy La Ferre, in 
Harrison county, and has four sons and six daughters. 

J. H. Farnsworth, farmer, was born in 0. in 1834; moved to 
Council Bluffs, la., in 1854; thence to Harrison county the same 
year and engaged in farming, near Woodbine. In 18(34 he estab- 
lished the Woodbine nursery, which he recently sold to Pugsley 
Bros. He was married in 1855 to Olive A. Howorth. They have 
seven children. 

George Garner, proprietor of Woodbine barber shop and tem- 
perance billiard hall, was born near Council Bluff's, la., in April, 
1855. In 1861 removed with parents to Raglan Tp., Harrison 
county, and in Dec, 1881, he bought out the fixtures of 0. Elkins, 
and keeps a strictly temperance hall, with lunch bar in connection. 

H. C. Harshbarger, dealer in groceries, was born in Spencer 
county, Ind., in 1840; removed with parents to Mahaska county, 
la., in 1848, and to Harrison county in 1856, locating near pres- 
ent town of Woodbine, In 1861 he enlisted in Co. I, Neb. Inft.; 
was in several prominent battles, and in 1865 was discharged and 
returned to Flarrison county. In 1865, he was elected county 
auditor, and county recorder in 1866, and in 1870 engaged in the 
mercantile business, which he continued for three years; then 
engaged in farming for six years, and in 1881 sold his farm and 
engaged in his present business. He still owns 240 acres of good 
farming land in the county. He was postmaster of this city 
three and one-half years, is a member of A. F. & A. M. order. He 
was married to Emily Mui:dy, in 1865, who died in 1870, and in 
1872 he was married to Nettie Edgerton. 

Svlvester B. Kibler, senior member of the firm of Kibler Bros. 
& Winter, dealers in general merchandise, was born in Portage 
county. 0., in 1846; moved to Harrison county, la., with parents 
in 1853. He engaged in present business with his brother G. H. 
and in Aug., 1880, they took into the firm Mr. Winter. They have 
one of the finest buildings in the county, built in 1878. and carry 
a very large and complete stock of goods; are also agents for the 
Mason & Hamlin organs and the American sewing machine. S. 
B. Kibler was married in 1873, to Caroline Ellison. 

A. P. Lathrop, harnessmaker, was born in Hastings, Ontario, 
Canada, in 1849; removed to 111. in 1856 and learned his trade at 



I 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 3J:5 

Morrison. He was in business in S3'racuse, Otto county, Neb., 
tAYO years; moved to Dunlap, la. in 1874, and was engaged in busi- 
ness \vith Mr. Howard of that place, four years, and removed to 
AVoodbine in 1878. He was marshal of Dunlap two years; is mem- 
ber of encampment, I. 0. 0. F., and A. F. & A. M. orders. He was 
married in Shelby county, to Flora McGarvey, and has one child. 
Charles F. Luce, land, loan, and collecting agent, was 
born in Wis. in 1860. He graduated from the Morgan Park Mili- 
tary Academy, in 1877; came to Harrison county, la., in same year 
locating at Woodbine engaging in lumber and grain business 
which he continued two years, and then engaged in stock business, 
which he still carries on in connection with the agency, which he 
established in 1881. Office in the new Boyer Bank building. He 
is a member of the I. 0. 0. F., order. In"^1879 and 1880 he was 
deputy sheriff and jailor of Woodbine. 

Capt. Wm. M. Magden, attorney at law, was born in Genesee 
county, N. Y., in 1818; he removed to Wayne county, Mich., and 
engaged in the manufacture of agricultural implements; after- 
wards studied law in the office of Morgan & Joslin, at Elgin, 111., 
and with Gen. Baker, at Clinton, la., two years, and admitted to 
the bar in Clinton county, in Dec, 1859, Judge Dillon presid- 
ing. He practiced in that county until 1862 and enlisted in the 
20th la. Inft., served three years, and was promoted to captain. 
He Avas in a number of prominent battles and was wounded in the 
right arm by a ball, in the right side by a bursting shell, and lost 
the ends of two fingers of the left hand. He was discharged in 
1864, and returned to Clinton county; removed to Dunlap, Harri- 
son county, in 1870, and soon after opened an office at Woodbine. 
He is a member of the A. F. & A. M. order. In 1855, he was mar- 
ried to Elizabeth Gates, at Elgin, 111., and has ten children. 

Geo. A. Mathews, of the firm of Mathews & Kling, dealers in 
lumber, grain and machinery, was born in Troy, Walworth county, 
Wis., in 1843. He was for twelve years engaged in the manufac- 
ture of brooms, at Stoughton, Wis. In 1877 became to Woodbine, 
la., and engaged in present business, with L. M. Kellogg and Mr. 
Kling. The former sold his interest in the fall of 1881. Mr. M. 
was married in Troy, Wis., in 1867, to Mary E. Kling. They have 
tAvo sons and one daughter. 

John Mann, Jr., farmer, OAvns 240 acres in Allen township. 
He Avas born in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1853; came with parents to 
Woodbine, la., in 1871. His farm is well improved, and he makes 
stock raising his main object, and AA^e may aacU say, has one of the 
finest stock farms in the county. He is a member of the I. 0. 0. 
F. lodge. He Avas married in April, 1881, to Candace L. Imley, of 
Magnolia, la. 

E. P. Mendenhall, land, loan, tax-paying and insurance agent, 
Avas born in Guilford connty, N. C, Oct. 28th, 1826; moAed with 



346 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

parents to Miami county, Ind., and in May, 1856, came to Harri- 
son county, la., and engaged in farming on two hundred acres, 
one mile from the present town of Woodbine. He opened pres- 
ent land office in 1879. He was married in Miami county, Ind., 
to Mrs. Elizabeth Hunt, daughter of Captain Rector. They have 
two children. 

Geo. Musgrave, publisher of the Woodbine Twiner, the county 
official paper, was born in Kendall, Westmoreland county, 
Eng., in 1837; came to America with parents in 1848; and settled 
in Harrison county, la., in 1851. He first began the printing 
business in St. Louis, afterwards at Council Bluffs, and then en- 
gaged in publishing the Western Star, at Magnolia, it being 
Harrison county's first paper; was republican in politics. In 1878 
he moved his office to Logan, where he remained three years; and 
then sold to Geo. Ross, of Harlan, Shelby county, to which place 
the office was removed. Mr. Musgrave's next venture was at 
Tekamah, Neb., where he published the Nebraska Advocate; 
finally sold out and located at Woodbine and established the 
Twiner, which has a subscription list of about nine hundred, and 
an office fitted in first-class manner. 

W. C. Samson, M. D., was born in Batemantown, Knox county, 
0.; removed with parents to Licking county, 0. In 1863 he en- 
listed in the 76th 0. Vet. Vol., was through Gen. Sherman's cam- 
paign, march to the sea, etc., and a large number of the promi- 
nent battles; was discharged in July, 1865; returned to "Ohio, and 
after visiting home, came to la., again returning to 0. to attend 
the Medical College, at Cincinnati, from which he graduated in 
1875. He then came to Cedar Rapids, la., and engaged in the 
practice of medicine with Dr. Yarnell, of that city. In the spring 
of 1876, removed to Woodbine and is now recognized as one of the 
leading physicians in the county. He was married April 4th, 
1878, to Laura A. Pugsley, at Woodbine. They have one child. 
Dr. S. has been a member of the city council several years; is a 
charter member of the I. 0. 0. F. lodge. 

Comstock Willey, farmer, was born in Asthabula count}^ 0., in 
1821; removed to Harrison county, la., in 1867, and located on 
present farm, in Boyer township; owns 170 acres of good farming 
land, Avell improved, with bearing vineyard of two hundred vines, 
and good young orchard. He lias been justice of the peace five 
years; is a member of the A. F. & A. M. order. He was married in 
Asthabula county, 0., to RosannaBell, and has four children. 

Irving C. Wood, M. D., was born in 1857, in Franklin county, 
N. Y., attended the Delaware Institute, at Franklin, graduating in 
the literary course in 1875. He attended the Medical Department, 
of University, at N. Y. City, also Jefferson Medical College, at 
Philadelphia. Pa., where he received degree in 1880; the following 



HISTORY OF IOWA . ?47 

sprin<^ took a practical course in operative surgery at the Philadel- 
phia School of Anatomy, and was assistant surgeon at the Pa. hos- 
pital in out-patient surgical department one year. In July, ISSl, 
he located at Woodbine, la.: office at Mr. Giddings' drug store. 
Dr. Wood, is already enjoying a lucrative practice. He is a mem- 
ber of the A. F. & A. M. order. 

M. M. Vining, proprietor of Temperance billiard hall, was born 
in 1800, in Harrison county, la. He is a son of Richard Vining, 
one of the oldest settlers of the county. He established business 
in Dec, 1881; keeps for sale confectionery and cigars, but no in- 
toxicants of any kind. 

Reuben Yeisley, architect, contractor, and builder, was born in 
Pa. in 1836; located in Harrison county in 1858, settled at Little 
Sioux and worked at his trade; in 1862 was elected drainage com- 
missioner, and in the fall of 1803, was elected recorder and treas- 
urer of county, and at the expiration of the term, was employed 
by the railroad company buying rights of way and land for the 
company. In 1807 he engaged in mercantile business, at Magno- 
lia, and sold out in 1870, and engaged in manufacturing Avoolen 
goods, and milling, near Woodbine; sold to Noyes & Adams in 
1874, and engaged in his present business. He is a member of the 
A. F. & A. M. order. He was married in 1801, at Little Sioux to 
Effie H. Schoefield, and has one son and three daughters. 

DTINLAP. 

Samuel Baird, proprietor of Baird's livery stable, established in 
1809, was born in 1847; removed with parents to Pa.; thence to 
Cumberland, Md., and in 1861 to Galesburg, 111., when he engaged 
with his father and brother in the coal business. In 1803 he en- 
listed in the 139th 111. Inft., and afterwards enlisted in the 8th 
111. Cav.; was discharged in 1865, and returned to Galesburg, and 
was employed in the flouring mills until 1869, when he moved to 
Dunlap and engaged in his present business. He was elected jus- 
tice of the peace in 1877, which office he still holds; was mayor of 
Dunlap in 1877, and the first marshal of the city; is at present 
district deputy grand marshal of the Odd Fellows lodge. He was 
married in 1805, at Henderson, 111., to Miss Sears, and has one son 
and two daughters. 

Geo. D. Bryan, stock dealer and shipper, was born in Howard 
county, la., in 1857; moved with parents to Burritt, 111.; thence in 
186U to Dunlap, la. In 1875 he was employed in Jackson's hard- 
ware store; in 1877 engaged in the stock business with his brother, 
T. J., as partner. They bought and shipped from Col. and Wy- 
oming, as also in this vicinity. They also raised thoroughbred 
a ttle. In Dec, 1880, they shippea a car load to Chicago which 
cveraged 2,080 lbs. Geo. 1). B. is now sole proprietor of the busi- 
ess at Dunlap. He is a member of the L 0. 0. F. order. 



348 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

E. K. Burcli, attorney at law, was born in 1852, in Steuben 
county, Ind. ; removed with his parents to Hillsdale, Mich., where 
he attended the Hillsdale Baptist College for five years; graduated 
from the law department of the Union University of Albany. N. 
Y., in 1876, and the same year was admitted to the bar, at the gen- 
eral term of the supreme court. He commenced practice in Dnn- 
lap, la., in Jan., 1879. He was admitted to the circuit court in 
the fall of 1878. He is a member of the I. 0. 0. F. order. He 
was married in Sept., 1880, at Deuison, to M. S. Knhn. 

W. H. Bush, of the firm of Lowell & Bush, harness makers and 
dealers in all kinds of horse furnishings, was born in 1819, in Morris 
county, N. J.; moved to Des Moines, la., in 1869; there learned 
the mason's trade with Morris & Naphey, and moved to Denison, 
la., in 1873; worked at the trade until 1881, when he formed his 
present partnership. They keep two men employed, and in the 
spring of 1882 will move business to larger building. 

G. W. Chamberlain, of the firm of Chamberlain & Lyman, deal- 
ers in groceries and queensware, was born in Feb., 1838, at Grand 
Detour, 111. He enlisted in the 75th 111. Inft., and was discharged 
in 1863, on account of lung disease; returned to 111., and in 1868 
came to Dunlap, la., and opened a restaurant, which he sold in 
1874; remained out of business two years: then engaged in his 
present business with Geo. Baker, who sold to H. Gleason, and he 
to Mr. Lyman in 1881. He was town recorder two years, and mem- 
ber of the city council. He was married in Sterling, 111., to Mary 
Ellmaker, who engaged in the millinery business in 1869, which 
she still continues, carrying a large and complete stock of goods, 
at her location on Upper la. avenue. 

Thomas M. Clements, grain dealer, was born in Sheffield, 111., 
June 6th, 1865; moved with parents to Geneseo, 111.; thence to 
Greenwood. He attended the High school at Chicago two years; 
came to Dunlap, la., in 1879, and formed a partnership with F.E. 
Pike in the grain and agricultural implement business; sold his 
interest in agricultural implement business to Mr. Pike in Feb., 
1881; bought Mr. P.'s interest in the elevator in Dec, 1881, and 
now occupies what is known as the old Grange elevator. 

E. J. Croukleton, of the firm of Cronkleton & Warren, con- 
tractors and builders, was born in Delaware county, 0., in 1835; 
learned his trade at Columbus, and in 1856 moved to Lyons, la., 
and the next year moved to Davenport. In 1861 he enlisted in 
the 2nd la. Cav. He was in a number of important battles, and 
was taken prisoner at Ripley, Miss., in July, 1861, and imprisoned 
at Cahaba. Ala.; was released at the close of the war and discharged 
in 1865, at Davenport. In the spring of 1866 he went to Mon- 
tana; returned in the fall, and located at Fort Dodge; in the sum- 
mer of 1867 came to Dunlap and established his present business. 
He married Julia O'Hare at Boone, la., and has four children. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 349 

M. C. Dally, of the firm of Patterson, Dally c^ Co., dealers in 
jreneral merchandise, was born in Hamilton connty, la., in 1857; 
came to Harrison connty with parents in 1859. He was book- 
keeper for Mitchell & Lanb, for three and one-half years previous 
to engaging in his present business. 

Frank P. Eaton, painter and auctioneer, was born in Concord, 
N. H., in 184:4:-, removed with his parents to Cass county, Mich. 
In 1862 enlisted in Co. I, 4th Mich. Cav.; was in several important 
battles: was discharged in Sept., 1864, on account of injuries re- 
ceived from being thrown from a horse; returned to Mich, and be- 
came a member of the firm of Eaton Bros. & Co., carriage and 
Avagon manufacturers, at Dowagiac. In 1867, he engaged in 
traveling for a Chicago house, which he continued until 1871; 
then settled at Dunlap, la., and engaged in farming in Harrison 
township for three years, and in 1874 was appointed deputy sheriff, 
under J. J. Peck; was also constable, marshal and street commis- 
sioner of Dunlap. He is a member of J. G. Shattuck's detective 
association of Dubuque, la. He was married Dec. 17th, 1868, to 
Florence Thomas, at DoAvagiac, Mich. He is a member of the 
I. 0. 0. F. lodge. 

D. B. Erisman, Avholesale dealer and manufacturer of cigars 
and tobacco, factory No. 220; was born in Lancaster, Penn., in 
1844. He learned his trade there, and then established business in 
Lincoln. Neb., which he continued four and one-half years, and in 
July, 1881, established his present business in Dunlap, la. Keeps 
three men employed, and has a fine trade. 

S. D. Fox, of the firm of Fox & Dabelstein, dealers in an 1 manu- 
facturers of boots and shoes, was born in Manchester, Eng., in 
1847; learned his trade, and in 1869 came to America; located at 
Sylvania, O., where he engaged in boot and shoe making. In 
1874 he removed to Bolton City, Col., and engaged in business; 
the next year came to Dunlap, la., and engaged in his present 
business and partnership. In 1875 he Avas married at Grand 
Rapids, Mich.; to Miss Dabelstein, and has three children. 

A. H. Hazlett, M. D., Avas born in Richland county, 0.,in 1837; 
attended the Hayesville Academy, and in 1857 removed to Toledo, 
la., Avhere he studied medicine with Dr. Baldy. In 1801 he en- 
listed in the 14th la. Inft.; Avas in a number of important battles; 
Avas promoted to first lieutenant, and discharged in 1865; returned 
tola, and located in Johnson count3^ He resumed the study of 
medicine, and engaged in teaching school until 1872, when he went 
to loAva City and attended the medical department of the Iowa 
University, and the next year attended the Eclectic Medical In- 
stitute at Cincinnati, 0., from Avhich he graduated in 1874. He 
engaged in the practice of his profession at Grand Junction, la., 
until, 1878, Avhen he moved to Dunlap, where he has established 
a large practice. In Sept., 18G6, he Avas married to Miss Kibler. 
of Johnson countv. Iowa. 



350 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

R. B. Hillas, dealer in general merchandise, was born in Vt. in 
1836: moved to Detroit, Mich., at an early age. He enlisted in 
the 19th 111. Inft.; was with the Army of the Cumberland, under 
Gens. Sherman and Thomas; was discharged in 1865; went to Chi- 
cago and was engaged in the house of J. V. Farwell & Co.; in 1876 
removed to Dunlap, la., and engaged in his present business, which 
was the first business house established in the town. The estab- 
lishment was destroyed by fire in 1873. His present store build- 
ing was erected in 1878, is filled with a fine stock of goods, and 
has merchant tailoring in connection. He has been a member of 
the city council several years. 

W. T. Howard, saddler and harnessmaker, was born in Mercer 
county. Pa., in 1816; moved to Fayette county. la., locating near 
West Union, in 1855, with his parents, Avho engaged in farming. In 
1867 he removed to Kossuth county, and two years later to Deni- 
son, Crawford county; engaged for a time in teaching school at 
Dow City, and in 1870 removed to Dunlap, and engaged in his 
present business. He keeps three men employed, and does an ex- 
tensive business. He has been mayor of the city, and is a member 
of the I. 0. 0. F. lodge and encampment. He was married in 
1870, at Denison, to Mary E. Eaton, and has one child. 

Walter Kavanaugh, proprietor of billiard hall and saloon, in 
basement of Lehan's Opera Block; established in 1879; entrance 
on first street, dealer in wines, beer, and cigars, and has two fine 
Brunswick & Balke tables. 

E. W. Lyman, of the firm of Chamberlain & Lyman, dealers in 
groceries and queensware, was born in N. Y. in 1850; engaged in 
milling until 1870, when he removed to Dunlap, [a., and was in 
the employ of the C. and N. W. Ry. until 1881. when he engaged 
in his present business. He is a member of the I. 0, 0. F. order. 
In 1871 he was married in Dunlap to Miss Lowry. They have 
three children. 

Chas. Mackenzie, attorney at law, was born in N. Y. City in 
1845; removed with his parents to Dubuque, la., in 1849; gradu- 
ated from Beloit College, Wis., in 1862, and the same year enlist- 
ed in the 9th la. Vol. Inft.; was in several important battles, and 
was discharged in 1875. He was secretary of a government com- 
mission in New Mexico one year; returned to Dubuque and was 
engaged as principal of the public schools of that city for one and 
one-half years, and was associate editor of the Dubuque Times one 
year; studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1868; engaged in 
the practice of law, and in 1871 removed to Eldora; thence to 
Mason City, and in the spring of 1875 located at Sioux City and 
engaged in the practice of law with M. B. Davis, where he remained 
until Jan., 1881, when he removed to Dunlap. 

C. D. Mitchell, of the firm of Mitchell & Thompson, dealers in 
general merchandise, was born in Athens, 0., in 1842. In 1862 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 351 

he enlisted in the 7th 0. Cav.; was in a number of important en- 
gagements, and was promoted to captain and assistant, adjutant 
general; was discharged July 4th, 1865. and returned to 0., and 
in May, 186G, came to Harrison county and engaged in stock 
raising; in July, 1867, established his present business with H. C. 
Laub, of Denison; afterwards, Mr. L. retiring, he carried on the 
business alone, until forming his present partnership in Sept., 
1879. They carry a large stock, occupying the three floors of 
their large store building. Mr. M. is a member of the A. F. & A. 
M. order. 

J. T. Noonau, proprietor of the Dunlap meat market, was born 
in Va. in 1851; removed to Tenn. with parents, and in 1861 to 
Ky.; thence to Gal way, Ireland; remained seven years; returned to 
America; lived in IS. Y., N. J., and Tenn., and finally, in 1872, 
settled at Dunlap, la., and for two years engaged in farming; then 
was employed in the meat market of Dunham & Guilford, and in 
1879 established his present business. He is a member of the city 
council; also the fire department; is president of the Ancient Order 
of Hibernians; was county delegate of that order in 1881, and is 
vice-president of the Dunlap land league. 

J. B. Patterson, of the firm of Patterson, Dally & Co., was born 
in Highland county, 0., in 1817; moved to Harrison county, la., 
1867; was engaged in clerking for R. B. Hillas two years, then for 
Mitchell & Laub eight and one-half years, and June 26th, 1879, 
formed his present partnership. He enlisted in the late rebellion 
in 1863, in the 18th 0. Inft.; was in several battles, and was dis- 
charged in the autumn of 1865. He was married in Oct., 1871, to 
Maggie Farren, and has three children. 

H. E. Pease, proprietor of Sheltered Twin livery barn, was born 
in Mich, in 1815: went to Chicago in 1860, and was employed as 
newsboy on the C. and N. W. Ky. for about eighteen months; 
then as brakeman in Tenn. during the war; then promoted to con- 
ductor, and at the close of the war, located at Jefferson, Green 
county, Ta., and was engaged in running dray, express, mail and 
delivery wagons until 1868, when he removed to Dunlap and en- 
gaged in his present business. He has been deputy sheriff two 
terms; also constable, street commissioner, and marshal of this 
city. He is a member of the Legion of Honor beneficiary insur- 
ance society. He was married in Dunlap in 1871 to Julia Ford, 
and has one child. 

Z. W. Pease, blacksmith and wagonmaker, was born in Bliss- 
field, Mich., in 1842; learned his trade at Adrian, and in 1870 
moved to Dunlap, la., and rented a shop and engaged in his present 
business, which has increased so that he bought the building 
in 1873, and in 1N81 moved it back and erected in front a large 
two story shop with three forges; keeps three men constantly em- 



352 HISIOKY OF IOWA. 

ployed. He is a member of the I. 0. 0. F. lodge and encampment. 
In 1868 he married Lizzie Francisco, at Blissfield, Mich. They 
have one son and two daughters. 

Dr. B. F. Philbrook, one of the oldest established dentists in the 
county, was born in Camden, Me., in 1853; removed with his 
parents to 0., and received his education at the Ohio Weslyan 
University, at Delaware; moved to la., and engaged in the practice 
of dentistry with T. E. Weeks, of Council Bluffs; remained eigh- 
teen months, and in April, 1879; located at Dunlap. He has one 
of the best fitted offices in the west, with Johnson's dental engine, 
extension instrument, bracket, surgeon's case of liquid nitrous 
oxide gas, for the painless extraction of teeth, the pedal lever chair, 
with which any position can be obtained for the ease of the patient 
and operator. He fills appointments at Logan the first Tuesday in 
each month, and remains three clays, and also goes to Woodbine 
one day each month. He is foreman of the fire department of 
Dunlap, and a member of the Royal Arcanum, beneficiary order. 
In Nov., 1879, he was married at Omaha, Neb., to Lucy Hartry. 

Frank E. Pike, dealer in agricultural implements, was born in 
Erie county, N. Y., in 1851; moved with parents to Sterling, 111., 
in 1856; thence removed to Boone, la., and was employed as 
brakeman on the C. & N. W. Ry., for nine months; then was 
promoted to conductor, in which position he continued until 1879, 
when he came to Dunlap and engaged in the grain and agricultural 
implement business in partnership with T. M. Clements. In Dec, 
1880, he purchased Mr. C's. interest in the machinery business, 
and a year later sold his interest in the grain business to Mr. C. 
Mr. Pike handles the best goods in his line that are made, and 
keeps constantly on hand a large stock. He is a member of the 
beneficiary insurance society. He Avas married at Carroll, la., Jan. 
1st, 1879, to Emma S. Town. 

J. H. Read, of the firm of J. H. Read & Co., bakers, grocers and 
confectioners, was born in Kendall county. 111., in May, 1855; re- 
moved with parents to Bureau county, and in 1868, came to la., 
and located in Cerro Gordo county; removed to Dunlap in 1878, 
and established his present business; has oyster and ice cream 
parlors in connection; has Vernon's patent steam coffee and pea- 
nut roaster, and keeps constantly on hand new-made candies. He 
is a member of the I. 0. 0. F., and A. F. & A. M. lodges. He was 
married at Dunlap in Aug., 1879, to Miss Zimmerman. 

Issacher Scholfield, miller and proprietor of the Dunlap mills, 
was born in Delaware county, 0., in 1833; moved with parents to 
Wis., and located near Milwaukee, where his father engaged in 
milling, mercantile business and farming, and he in attending the 
Quaker Acadamy in Belmont county, 0.; and in 1853 engaged in 
land speculating in Marshall county, la., which he continued for 
three years; then entered into partnership with his brother, and 



HISTORY OF TOWA. 353 

built a mill one autl one-Iialf miles north o£ Le Grand on the Iowa 
river; this he sold in 1866, and built a mill on Timber Creek in 
Marshall county, which he sold in 1809, and came to Harrison 
county, locating permanently in 1871, and commenced building 
his present mill on the Boycr river. He has a fine stock farm, ad- 
joining the mill, of two thousand acres, and one of the finest conser- 
vatories in the west. He is also proprietor of the Dunlap Reporter. 
He was married May 7th, 1857, at La Grange, la., to Mary H. 
Hanks, who is a cousin of Piesident Abraham Lincoln. She is edi- 
tress of that portion of the paper devoted to home decoration, by 
"Aunt Mary.'' 

C. H. Sears, proprietor of meat market, was born Jan. 6th, 
1852, in Knox county. 111.; removed to Dunlap in 1869; was in the 
employ of S. M. William's, and afterwards with Mitchell & Laub; 
then engaged in farming for six years, and m Dec, 1881, purchased 
his present market of B. J. Moore. In 1875, he was married in 
111. to Ida C. Hickman. They have three children. 

L. A. Sherman, dealer in groceries, queensware, boots and shoes, 
was born in Fairfield, Vt., in 1854; moved with his parents to 
Texas in 1860, and in 1870 they came to Dunlap, and his father, 
J. H. Sherman, established the present business; in 187G he be- 
came a partner with his father, and two years later bought him 
out; has been town treasurer one term, and is a member of the 
Iowa land league. In 1877, he was married at Elk Horn, Wis., to 
Fannie Sabine, and has one child, a daughter. 

D. P. Simmons, of the firm of Simmons & Co., dealers in hard- 
ware and agricultural implements, was born in Courtlandt county, 
N. Y., in 1849; removed with parents to Beloit, Wis., in 1854, 
where he attended the Beloit College; then traveled for Northwest- 
ern Paper Co., of Chicago; then for Booth & Hinman, of Beloit, 
and in 1873 engaged in the boot and shoe business. In 1879, he 
removed to Dunlap, la., and bought out the stock of Mr. Jackson, 
and with T. S. Simmons, engaged in his present business. They 
handle goods from the leading manufactories, and employ a first- 
class tinner. He is a member of tlie Morning Star lodge, number 
ten; also the A. F. & A, M. order. He is a member of the city 
council. In 1876 he was married at Rockford, 111., to Alice Early, 
and has one child. 

Geo. W. Thompson, of the firm of Mitchell & Thompson, was 
born Mar. 26th, 1842, in Whiteside county. 111. He enlisted in 
Aug., 1862, in the 8th 111. Cav.; was in several important battles, 
and in Dec, 1863, was transferred to the command of Co. C, U. S. 
colored troops; was discharged in Dec, 1865, and returned to Mor- 
rison, 111., and engaged in the study of law; was admitted to the 
bar in Nov., 1866, and practiced there until the spring of 1869, 
when he came to Dunlap, la., where he continued the practice of 
law. until the organization of the Dunlap bank in 1871, of which 



354 HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

he was a stockholder and cashier; remained in the banking busi- 
ness until kSept., 1879, when he formed his present partnership. 
He has been chairman of the county republican central committee, 
and a delegate to state conventions, and is well known as one of 
the county's leading republican politicians. He is a member of the 
A. F. & A'. M., I. 0. 0. F., K. of P., and G. A. R. orders. Dec. 21st, 
1865, he was married to Susan Forrer, and has five sous. 

J. R. Wheeler, dealer in lumber and coal, was born in N. Y. in 
1884; removed to Eau Claire, Wis., in 1854, and engaged in the 
lumber business. In 1861 he enlisted in the 16th Wis. Inft.; was 
wounded in the face by a bullet at Shiloh; carries two gun-shot 
wounds in his legs, and received injuries at Atlanta; was discharged 
in April, 1865; returned to Wis. and engaged in shipping lumber, 
and in Nov., 1866, established lumber yards at Denison and Wood- 
bine, and the next year established a yard at Dunlap. He sold the 
first lumber sold in Crawford and Harrison counties. He estab- 
lished a yard at Blair, Neb., in 1868. He has been a member of 
the city council of Dunlap for several years. In 1875 he was mar- 
ried in Fremont county, la., to N. E. Tyler, and has one child, a 
son. 

John Weed, contractor and builder, was born in 0. in 1825; 
learned his trade at Orrville, and moved to Mich. In 1850, went 
to Cal., and in 1853 returned to Allegan county, Mich., and worked 
at his trade five years; then moved to Kane county, 111.; engaged 
in farming until 1S61, when he enlisted in the 8th 111. Cav.; was 
in numerous engagements, and July 20th, 1865, was discharged, 
and returned to 111., and worked at his trade until 1866, when he 
moved to Dunlap, la., there being at the time only one house 
where the city now stands. He was married in May, 1870, at 
Woodbme, to Martha Willey, and has three children. 

Tilton & Weeks, proprietors of livery, feed and sale barn, have 
stable room for thirty horses; board private rigs, and keep fine rigs 
for hire. They cauie to Dunlap from Ogle county. 111., in 1878, 
and engaged in farming until entering their present business in 
the spring of 1881. 

MAGNOLIA. 

Capt. George S. Bacon, farmer, was born in Cayuga county, N- 
Y., in Sept., 1825. He moved to Washington, I). C, where he 
attended the Columbia College; graduated in the regular course in 
1849, and afterwards taught in the College. He moved to Fair- 
mont, W . Va. ; thence in 1856 to Harrison county, la. , and located 
on the farm of one hundred and forty acres, where he now resides. 
On this farm is an extensive orchard of fifteen hundred bearing 
apple trees. He enlisted in 1862. was first lieutenant of Co . C . , 29th 
la. Inft., until the death of Capt. Fuller, when he was appointed 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 355 

Capt. He was in a number of important battles, and was wounded at 
Jenkins' Ferry, Ark., left on the field for dead, captured and held 
in prison thirteen months. He was exchanged in May, 1865, and 
returned with the last lot of prisoners. He was discharged in 
August of the same year. He has been treasurer of Harrison 
county two terms. In 1850 he married Mrs. Caroline Murphy, 
at Magnolia. They have two daughters . 

RIVER SIOUX. 

B. F. Bonney, dealer in groceries, is a native of Pa.; moved 
to la., in 1857; settled in Harrison county, and engaged in farming. 
.He engaged in his present business in River Sioux in 1877. 

James Bowie, dealer in drugs and groceries, was born in Ire- 
land in 1821; came to America in 1810, and located in 0. He re- 
moved to Little Sioux, la., in 1865, and in 1879 engaged in his 
present business at River Sioux . 

Henry Herring, dealer in general merchandise, was born in 
Adams county, Pa. ; moved to la. in 1857, and engaged in farming. 
In 1878 he engaged in his present business at River Sioux. He 
is also a dealer in hardware and lumber. 

R. Newton, agent for the S. C & P. Ry. at River Sioux, is a 
native of N. Y. ; moved to Boone county, la.; in 1864; thence to 
Green county, and in 1868 settled in Harrison county. He was 
the first agent for this road, and billed the first freight on the road. 




356 HISTORY OF IOWA. 



O'BRIEN COUNTY, 



O'Brien Count}^ is the second from the west line and the second 
from the north line of the State, is twenty-four miles square, con- 
taining a superficial area of 57(3 square miles, and is divided 
into sixteen townships. 

The largest stream is the Little Sioux River, which crosses the 
southeast corner. Henry Creek rises in the northeastern part of 
the county, draining several townships, Avhile Waterman and Mill 
Creeks flow through the central and southern townships, and are 
all branches of the Little Sioux. Floyd River rises in several 
branches in the northwestern part of thf county, affording drain- 
age to several townships. The supply of timber is very limited, 
being mostly confined to groves on the Little Sioux, in the south- 
eastern corner of the county, and is chiefly oak, hickory, maple, 
elm and cotton wood. When protected from the fires timber 
grows rapidly, and many of the settlers have promising groves of 
planted trees. The soil of this region is exceedingly productive, 
and in its wild state produces luxuriant crops of native grass. 
which is excellent for pasturage or hay. The bottom or table lands 
along the streams, are composed of a deep, rich vegetable mold, on 
a sub-soil resembling clay mixed with gravel. The soil of the up- 
land prairies is the highly productive bluff deposit of this part of the 
State, with a vegetable coating, and produces in great perfection 
all kinds of grain and vegetables. The surface is generally undu- 
lating, and susceptible of easy cultivation. There are no exposures 
of rocks '"in place," or in quarries, in the county, the only stone 
being the boulders that are found scattered over the surface, and 
are mostly granite, red-quartzite, with a few magnesian limestone. 
The material of the bluff' formation is manufactured into very good 
bricks, and this, of course, is abundant. Excellent pure Avater is 
easily obtained in all places at a few feet below the surface. The 
great abundance of excellent wild grass and pure water renders this 
a fine region for stock-raising, especially where provision is made 
for winter shelter. In this, as well as other counties in this part 
of the State, settlers must plant trees to insure a future supply of 
fuel, and thus may soon obviate the necessity of depending upon 
coal shipped from other parts of the state. 

The first white settlers in O'Brien County were H. H. Water- 
man and family, who on the 11th day of July, 1856, located on 
the northeast quarter of section 26, township 91, range 39. They 
removed here from Bremer County, Iowa, but were formerly from 
the State of New York. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 357 

Tlie couuty was organized in 1860, the first election being held 
at the house of H. H. Waterman, where the following first county 
officers were chosen: J. C. Furber. County Judge; H. H. Water- 
man, Treasurer and Recorder; Archibald Murray, Clerk and County 
Surveyor. The first county seat was at a place called O'Brien, in 
the southeast corner of the county, where the principal settlement 
was made prior to the construction of the Sioux City & St. Paul 
Railroad. The first district court was held by Judge Henry Ford. 
The first religious meeting held in the county assembled at the 
home of pioneer Waterman, while Mrs. Waterman taught the first 
school at O'Brien. The first newspaper was the O'Brien Pioneer, 
commenced by B. F. McCormack and J. R. Pumphrey. 

At the general election of 1872 a vote was taken on the question 
of the permanent location of the county seat, which resulted in 
favor of the geographical center of the county. Accordingly a 
town was laid out at that point, to which the name of Primghar 
was given. At the time the surveyors were engaged in the work 
of laying off the town plat, the persons present were Messrs. Pum- 
phrey, Roberts, Ininan, McCormack, Green, Hays, Albright and 
Rerick. The initials of these names in the order given form the 
word Primghar, and hence it was agreed that this should be the 
name of the new town. The first house on the town site was 
erected by J. R. Pumphrey for county purposes. The next was a 
house of public entertainment, erected by C. F. Albright. 

Present County officers are: T. J. Alexander, Treasurer; J. L. 
E. Peck, Auditor; W. N. Strong, Clerk; H. Sprague, Recorder; D. 
Algyr, County Superintendent; W. C. Green, Sheriff; J. H. Smith, 
Surveyor; C. Longshore, Coroner. 

Population of O'Brien County according to the census of 1880 
was 4,156. Its population is now estimated at about 5,500. The 
towns in the County are: Primghar. situated in the center of the 
county; Sheldon, in the northwest corner; Sanborn, seven miles 
east of Sheldon, in the northern part of the county; Hartley, in 
the northeast part of the county, ^and O'Brien, in the southeast 
part of the county. 

The Sioux City & St. Paul Railroad passes through the north- 
eastern edge of the county, forming a junction at Sheldon with 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad, Avhich traverses the 
county east and west, passing through Sheldon, Sanborn and 
Hartley. 

PRIMGHAR. 

Primghar's closest railroad station is six miles, north, on the 
line of the C, M. & St. P., and its next nearest established station 
is Hosper, on the S. C. & St. P. R. R., some fourteen miles west. 

Primghar has been the county seat since 1872. It is located at 
the center of the county on a high and well drained prairie, twenty- 
five miles from Cherokee, twenty-eight from Spencer, and twenty- 



358 HISTOEY OF IOWA. 

eight from Sibley. The place is laid out with a public park, which 
has been planted with forest trees, and as it is surrounded by a re- 
gion of great fertility, will doubtless continue a steady and a healthy 
growth. The town is in Summit Township. 

The following humorous acrostic, descriptive of the origin of 
the name of the town, has been published heretofore: 

P iimphrey, the Treasurer, drives the first nail — 

R oberts, the donor, is quick on his trail, 

I nnian dips slily his first letter in, 

M cCormack adds M which makes the full Prim; 

G reen, thinking of groceries, gives them a CI, 

H ayes drops them an H, without asking a fee, 

A Ibright, the joker, with his jokes all at par, 

R erick brings up the rear, and crowns all Pkimghar. 

W. C. Green built the first store in Primghar in 1872. The 
first dwelling was built by A. H. Willets. The population is 
about 200. 

The present township officers are: J. Harris, T. G. Stewart, J. 
L. Rerick, Trustees; D. Algyr, Clerk; A. H. Willets, R. C. Tifft, 
Justices of the Peace; W. H. Willets, G. W. Ginger, Constables. 

Summit Township's first teacher was Clara Healy, who taught 
school in a building erected in Highland, and used as a store and 
postoffice by Mr. Paine. This building was moved to Primghar 
and used for a Court House. Afterwards it was used for a drug 
store; then as a printing office. This building has since been 
moved to Sanborn by A. H. Willets. 

The first paper printed in the county was conducted by L. B. 
Raymond & Co. 

A|school house was built in 1874, size 10x00 feet; two stories high, 
with two departments. It is a handsome and substantial building. 

The members of the first Board of Education were: A. J. Ed- 
wards, President; J. T. Stearns, A, H. Willets. Present Board: 
W. W. Johnson, President: J. A. Smith, W. N. Strong, D. .AV 
Inman, Treasurer; W. H. Willets, Secretary. 

The cost of the school building was ^3,200. S. Harris is the prin- 
cipal. Miss Ive Inman, Assistant. The total enrollment is 59 pupils. 

The Court House was (juilt in 1875, is 30x40 feet in dimensions 
with an addition, 10x14 feet; is two stories high, the upper part 
being used for the court room, and the first floor for offices. The 
cost was 15,000. The court yard is enclosed with a nice board 
fence, and the yard planted with a nice growth of soft maple trees. 

The Primghar Times is a weekly paper, Schee & Achorn, pro- 
prietors. The first issue was January 12th, 1882. It is a seven- 
column folio. Republican in politics, and has a circulation of 600. 
Mr. Bundy is the editor. 

There are in Primghar, a general store, hardware store, agricul- 
tural implement store, bank, meat market, lumberyard, newspaper, 
hotel, furniture store, drug store, blacksmith shop, grocery and 
saloon. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 359 

At the Methodist Episcopal Conference in Sioux City, held 
October, 1871, the Rock Rapids Mission was organized. This 
Mission took in the counties of Lyon, Sioux, Osceola and O'Brien. 
Rev. Ira Brashears was put in charge of this' mission. At that 
time there were two societies in O'Brien County, Avith a member- 
ship of about twenty people. The M. E. Society in Priraghar was 
organized in 1873. C. W. Clifton organized the first society in 
O'Brien County in 1871. Present officers of Primghar Society: 
T. J.Alexander, D. Bysom, Mr. Robinson, Trustees. Membership, 
twenty-four. The Sabbath School averages an attendance of sixty 
pupils. D. Bysom is the Superintendent. The church was built 
in 1880 at a cost of $1,300, is 26x50 feet in dimensions. There is 
also a parsonage. 

Ahiif Lodge No. 347, A. F. (C- A. M., was instituted in 1874. 
The charter was granted in 1875, Charter members: H. Day, 
A. H. Willets, Geo. W. Schee, D. H. Wheeler, E. C. Poskett, J. 
T. Stearns, J. C. Doling, W. Pursel, C. W. Inman, W. H. Brown, 
M. Dimon, A. B. Husted, S. J. Jordan. First officers: H. Day, 
W. M.; A. H. Willets, S. W.; G. W. Schee, J. W.; D. H. Wheel- 
er, Treasurer; E. C. Foskett, Secretary; J. T. Stearns, S. D.; J. C. 
Doling, J . D . Present officers: A. H. Willets, W. M.; S. Harris, 
S. W.; D. Algyr, J. W.; E. C. Foskett, Secretary; T. J. Alexander, 
Treasurer. Membership, twenty. Meetings are held every Sat- 
urday on or before the full moon, in the (Jourt House. 

SHELDON. 

This town was named after Israel Sheldon, who was a large 
stockholder in the Sioux City & St. Paul Railroad. Sheldon is 
240 miles from St. Paul and fifty-eight miles from Sioux City. 
The country around Sheldon was settled several years before the 
town started. The railroad reached Sheldon July 3d, 1872. The 
first building was erected by S. C. Highly, for a saloon, in July, 
1872; the second, by H. A, Fife, in the same year, and was used 
for a store. B, F. J3ushnell and D. A. W. Perkins erected build- 
ings the same year. 

There have been two additions to the town, namely: Islinville 
and Hicksville. The population of the town is 1,200. 

Sheldon is located at the crossing of the Iowa and Dakota Divi- 
sion of the C.,M. & St. Paul Railway and the Sioux City and St. 
Paul Railway, and in the northwest part of O'Brien county, fifteen 
miles northwest of Primghar. The Main street runs east and west. 
This street slopes both east and west from the center of the town. 

The depot was completed August 4th, 1872. The first dwelling 
was built by B. Jones in September, 1872; J. Wykott' followed in 
October of the same year. The first newspaper was the S/ieldoii 
Mail, by Raymond, January 1st, 1873. He was followed by Vcy- 
kins, who was succeeded by J. F. Glover, the paper finally passing 
into the hands of its present editor and proprietor, F. T. Piper. 



360 HISTORY OF lOAVA. 

The first school was taught bj Cohimbia Robiuson in L S 
Bradley's lumber office. This building was also used for church 
purposes. The first general store was opened by B. E. Bushnell- 
the -irst marriage was that of Mr. and Mrs. Thomas DeLono- in 
January, 1873, at the Sheldon Hotel, H. C. Lane, Justice of'the 
Peace, officiatmg; the first birth was a child born to Mrs James 
Wykoff; the first death, a child of Patrick Walsh; the first post- 
master was A. J. Buck; the first school house was built in 1873 
and was taught by J. M. Webb. ' 

Sheldon was laid out and platted by the Railroad Company in 
1872, The town was incorporated in 187G. First officers- HB 
Wyman, Mayor; L. F. Bennett, Recorder; J. M. Stephenson S 
W. Harrington, C. Allen, Geo. Boutelle, James Wykoff", Trustees- 
Geo. Hill, Marshal; E. F. Parkhurst, Assessor; H. C. Lane Treas- 
urer; R. Dodge, E. M. Brady, T. Holmes, G. Haskman. J. L. Ken- 
ney. Supervisors. 

Present officers: James Wykoff", Mayor; F. H. Nash, Recorder- 
W. L. Ayres, Treasurer; F. W. Houck, Assessor; D. McKay' 
Marshal; Geo. Hills, Street Commissioner; J. A Brown S c' 
Nash, J. Shinski, D. S. White, Jr., H. S. Islin, F. Frisbee, Coun- 
cilmen. 

The Sheldon Mail, previously mentioned, is a seven-column 
quarto; Republican; circulation, 960 copies. The Sheldon Neivs is 
a weekly paper, started in June, 1879, with B. F. McCormack as 
editor and proprietor; it then changed to the hands of A C 
Satterlee & F. M. McCormack; then to A. W. Sleeper & Bro. Sub- 
sequently it was purchased by J. F. Ford, its present editor and 
proprietor. The Neirs is a seven-column quarto; Republican; 
circulation, 700. While run by B. F. McCormack, the paper was 
independent m politics; under Satterlee it was Democratic, and 
under F. M. McCormack it was a Greenback organ. 

The Sheldon Flouring Mill was built in 1879, is a frame struc- 
ture, 60x iO feet, three stories high, and cost about $35,000; has 
SIX run of stone and four set of rollers; capacity. 200 barrels per 
day. The mill is furnished with the most modern machinery for 
manufacturing patent flour, and was built by J. H. Islin & Co. It 
is at present m the hands of Sleeper Bros. 

There are in Sheldon, three general stores, two hardware stores, 
two drugstores, two boot and shoe stores, one grocery,one clothino- 
store, two agricultural implement establishments, three black^ 
smith shops, two banks, three hotels, two meat markets, two 
saloons, two millinery stores, three grain elevators, one flouring 
mill three restaurants, one barber shop, one merchant tailor, one 
jewelry store, two furniture stores, two newspapers, three lumber 
yards, two harness shops, two livery barns, two flour and feed 
stores, and two dray lines. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 361 

CHURCHES, SCHOOLS AXD SOCIETIES. 

Episcopal Soci'efi/. — Organized in 1880 by J. H. and H. S. Islin 
and R. B. Arden. The first pastor was Rev. Hale Townsend. of 
Emmettsburg. First officers: D. C. Bothwell, H. S. Islin. and 
R. B. Arden. R. B. Arden is lay-leader. Services are held once 
each month. Lay-services are held three times each month, nnder 
charge of Bishop W. S. Perry, of Davenport. E, N. Toncey is 
Warden. There is a Ladies' Aid Society connected with this mis- 
sion. This society has a building in course of erection, which will 
be completed during the coming spring. The building will be 46x 
26 feet, and will have a steeple sixty feet high. The seating 
capacity will be ninety. The cost will be $2,000. This church is 
situated in Islinsville, one of the additions to the town. The lot 
was donated by the C, St. P., M. & 0. Railroad in 1881 . The member- 
ship is twenty. Services are at present held in the Congregational 
church. The present pastor is Rev. S. H. Johnston who came 
from England twenty-five years ago, and settled in Tennessee; 
then came to Sheldon, and took pastoral charge in 1881. Here- 
sides at Spencer, where he is in charge of ''The Church in the 
House." The subscriptions for building were furnished principally 
by Eastern parties, Sheldon giving generously according to her 
ability. 

Congregational Society. — Organized in 1874, by Rev. Mr. Covey. 
The first pastor was Rev. Mr. Wiard, who was followed by Rev. 
J. A. Palmer. The present pastor is Rev. E. Southworth, who 
took charge in April, 1878. Membership, about forty. There is 
a Sabbath School also, with an attendance of about forty pupils. 
0. F. Young is the Superintendent. The chur -h edifice was erect- 
ed in 1874, size 30x50 feet; seating capacitv, 160: plain frame 
building, cost over |2,000. First officers: H. P. Holyoke, M. G. 
McClellan, W. C. Butterfield, Trustees. Services were held in the 
school house previous to the building of the church. Present offi- 
cers: W. L. Ayres, M. J. McClellan, A. W. Husted. Trustees; 0. 
F. Young, Clerk; A. B. Nash, Treasurer. 

Methodist Episcopal Society. — Organized in 1874; first pastor, 
Rev. J. B, Starkey; then in order following, Revs. W. B.Hastings, 
C. W. Bryan, W. M. Edgar. Present pastor, Rev. J. W. Lothian. 
Membership, about forty-two. There is a Sabbath School with an 
attendance of sixty pupils. F. H. Zander is the Superintendent. 
The church edifice was built in 1881, and dedicated September 
4th, 1881. It is a very fine building, 40x00 feet, with a seating 
capacity of 275, and cost $4,500. The society held meetings in 
Husted's Hall previous to the erection of this building. Present 
officers: J. A. Brown, D. A. Elder. C, Hook, G. M. Grahnm, 
Trustees. There is a j)arsonage in connection. The Stewards are: 
F. Brown, D. W. Wellman, F. Potter. 



362 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

Caiholic Society. — Organized in the spring of 1880, byD. O'Don- 
nell, P. Gainther, Rev. J. Smith and J. Shinski. Rev. Father 
Lenehan, of Sioux City, first had charge of this Society; then Rev. 
Father P. Lynch. Rev. John Riley is the present pastor. F'irst 
officers: D. O'Dounell, P. Gninther, J. Shinski, Trustees. These 
Trustees procured a donation of three lots from the Sioux City & 
St. Paul Railroad Company in 1880. A building was erected in 
the winter of 1880 and 1881, 37x60 feet in dimensions. It is a 
frame building, seating 600 people. It has a gallery twenty feet 
wide extending across the south end of the building. The cost 
was $2,500. The society previously held services in the school 
house, also in the town hall. Membership, about sixty families. 
Present officers: W. Gavin, J. Shinski. P. Guinther, Trnstees. 

Independent School District. — Organized in 1876. It has a fine 
frame building, containing four departments, which cost $5,300. 
First Board of Education: C. Allen, J. C. Elliott, A. B. Nash, J. 
A. Brown. The first term of school in the independent district 
was held in 1877. The first teacher was G. S. Mann; Kate O'Don- 
nell. Assistant. The building is furnished with the latest improved 
seats and apparatus. J^resent Board of Education: J. Wykofi", 
President; S. H. Ladd, E. A. Ward, Mrs. A. Morton. Mrs.'O. E. 
Waggoner, Mrs. Geo. H. Boutelle, Directors; E. C. Brown, Treas- 
urer; F. E. Wyman, Secretary. The present teachers are: W. S. 
Wilson, Principal; Sarah Clark, Assistant; Mrs. F. C. Marcussen, 
Mrs. A. C. Green. The present school building was erected in 1879 
at a cost of building and furniture, of $5,300, is 40x00 feet in 
dimensions, two stories high, and has four rooms. The average 
attendance is 117. 

Northwestern Agricultural Association. — Organized in February, 
1880. First officers: Henry Hollenbeck. of Sioux County, Presi- 
dent; R. F. Andrews, of Osceola County, Vice President; H. Cook, 
of Lyon County, Secretary; J. I. Hartendower, of O'Brien County, 
Treasurer. This society extends over the four above aamed coun- 
ties. The first fair was held in September, 1880, at Sheldon. The 
fair grounds are located here. Present officers: J. S. Kenney, of 
O'Brien County, President; J. R. Cook, of Lyon County, Vice Pres- 
ident; C. F. Wyatt, of Osceola County, Secretary; H. Hollenbeck, 
of O'Brien County, Treasurer; D. S. White, of O'Brien County, 
Deputy Treasurer. A fair is held once each year. Forty acres of 
land have been leased for ten years, and are enclosed with a good 
board fence eight feet high. There are a half-mile track, floral 
hall, sheds, etc., etc. 

Mistletoe Lodge No 370, A. F. c(' A. il/.— Instituted June 26th, 
1876. Charter members: H. B. Wyman, E. M. Winslow, J. C. 
Elliot, J. A. Brown, S. W. Harrington, J. D. Bunce, E. A. Ward, 
J. A. Waggoner, R. Sturgeon, A. E. Frear, 0. A. Borden, C. J. 
Dunham, W. J. Newell, W. N. Strong. 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 363 

First officers: H. B. Wyman, W. M.; E. M. Winslow, S. W.; 
J. C. Elliot, J. W.; J. A. 'Brown, Treasurer; J. H. Greattrax, 
Secretary. Membership, thirty-three. Present officers: E. C. 
Brown, "W. M.; E. F. Parkhiirst, S. W.; E. M. Winslow, J. W.; 
B. Jones, Treasurer; A. M. Dougall, Secretary. 

Meetings are held once each month on the Saturday on or before 
the full moon, in Husted's Hail. The Society is in a flourishing 
condition. 

Locust Lodge No. 367, I. 0. 0. F. — Charter members: C. H. 
Cottell, J. Wykoff, W. C. Butterfield, D. Barmore, H. B. Wyman, 
0. E. Waggoner, Geo. Taylor, J. Morris, C. W. Green, G. Schee, 
J. H. Pumphrey, E. M. Brady. First officers: C. H. Cottell, N. 
G.; J. Wykofl", V. G.; H. Humphrey, U. S.; D. R. Barmore, 
Treasurer; W. C. Butterfield, P. S. Present officers: Geo. Berry, 
N. G.; L. S. Hackett, V. G.; James Wykoff. Treasurer; N. F. 
West, R. S.; W. C. Butterfield, P. S. Membership, thirty. 
Meetings are held Tuesday evenings of each week in Husted's 
Hall. The Lodge is in a prosperous condition. 

Sheldon Comet Band — Organized in 1876. F. C. Marcussen is 
the leader. 

SANBORN. 

The town of Sanborn was laid out and platted by the C, M. & 
St. P. Railway Company in 1878. The toAvn has made a very 
rapid growth, being now a town of 800 inhabitants. Quite a 
number of the settlers of Sanborn are former residents of Prim- 
ghar. The end of the division of the railroad is located here. Lo- 
cated here also are some of the best stock yards east of Milwaukee, 
as well as the railroad company's machine shops, employing quite 
a large number of men. There is also at Sanborn a large round 
house, with a vast amount of appurtenances. Thanksgiving Day 
of 1878, the workmen arrived, and commenced work on the depot, 
a building which is quite a credit to the town. 

The first house was built by Frank Teabout, and was used as a 
grain warehouse; the first store was opened by S. W. Clark in 
February, 1879; Teabout & Valleau opened a store about the same 
time. 

The postoffice was established in December, 1878, and was in 
operation early in January, 1870. The first and present Post- 
master is Ira Brashears. 

The town was incorporated in April, 1880. The first school 
house was built in May, 1879— size, 26x40 feet; cost, $800. The 
(irst teacher was Mrs. L. Crossan. The first Board of Education 
was: Ira Brashears, President; W. M. Woolworth, Thomas Burns, 
Directors; I. W. Daggett, Treasurer; J. H. Woods; Clerk. The 
present school house was built in 1881 — size, 40x60 feet, two 
stories high, and has four departments. It was built at a cost of 



?61: HISTOKY OF IOWA. 

$4,000, and is seated with the improved desks, &c. Sanborn be- 
came an independent district in 1881 . The present Board of Edu- 
cation is: M. D. Comes, D. L. Crowley, Wm. Barker. The 
present teachers are: Prof. C. E. Foote, Principal; Jennie 
Mayne and Miss G- Davis, Assistants. 

The M. E. Church was organized March 28th, 1879, by Rev. W. 
H. Drake, who was succeeded by Rev. J. A. Beebe, he by the pres- 
ent pastor. Rev. S. C. Bascom. During the year 1879, the build- 
ing was erected and was dedicated June 20th, 1880. First officers : 
I. W. Daggett, T. J. Alexander, C. Tiift, Ira Brashears and Daniel 
Bryson, Board of Trustees. The cost of the church was $1,400. 
Present membership, fifteen. The Sabbath School has an average 
attendance of fifty-five. J. H. Wolf is the Superintendent. The 
size of the building is 28x48 feet. The seating capacity is 200. 
The present officers are the same as given above. 

The Preshyterian Sociefi/ was organized January 30th, 1881, by 
Rev. W. S. Peterson, of Dakota. First officers: t). Miller, Elder; 
J. S. Grear, Trustee. The first pastor was Rev. J. M. McComb, 
who is also the present pastor. The membership is twenty. Pres- 
ent officers: D. Miller, R. E.; C. E. Foote, D. Miller, L. D. 
Thomas, Trustees; H. Day, Treasurer, and Mrs. C. E. Foote, Sec- 
retary. Services are held in the new school house. The present 
pastor took charge May 1st, 1881. The Sabbath School has an 
average attendance of forty. C. J. Everhard is the Superintendent. 
There is a parsonage in connection, which was built in November, 

1881. r . . ' 

Onyx Lodge, U. D., was instituted October 22d, 1881. First 
officers: Harley Day, W. M.; J. H. Douglas, S. W.; J. T. Parker, 
J. W.; A. G. Mittels, Secretarv. Charter members: D. R. 
Phelps, T.D. White, P. Miller, J." A. Stocum, C. E. Foote, E. M. 
Bradv, A. G. Willets, C. Broadstreet, W. H. Skinner, H. D. 
Chapln, Ira Brashears, J. E. Drake, C. P. Veilie, F. Teabout, N. 
L. F. Peck, A. E. Bates, J. Morrell. Membership, twenty-five. 
Meetings are held every Wednesday evening on or before the full 
moon. The Masons have a fine hall, which is also used by the I. 
0. 0. F. The internal arrangement of the hall is as fine as can 
be found anywhere in the West. The hall is furnished in modern 
style, carpeted and hung with emblematic tapestry, and supplied 
with furniture that would adorn a wealthy lodge of that order. 

IVie Order of the Eastern Star was instituted in January, 1882, 
Mrs. H. D. Perry is Worthy Matron, and Mrs. A. G. Willets, Sec- 
retary. The membership is about thirty. 

Sanborn LodgeNo.434, I. O. 0. F. — Instituted November, 29th, 
1881, by Hon. S. P. Leland, D. D. G. M., and a large delegation of 
the order from Sibley and Sheldon. First officers: H. D. Chapin, 
N. G.; W. C. Green, V. G.; E. R. Wood, Recording Secretary; J. 
R. Pumphrey, Permanent Secretary; W. H. Skinner, Treasurer. 
Charter members: H. D. Chapin, William Roberts, E. R. Wood, 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 365 

J. R. Pumphrev, W. H. Skinner, C. Tifft, H. Alo-yer, C. Green, R. 
Boyd, L.D. Thomas, T.White, A. H. Roden, J. Ckncy, F. A. 
Turner and Mr. Powell. The Lodge meets every Saturday even- 
ing in Masonic Hall. Membership, about thirty. 

Tlie Sanhoni Cornet Band was organized in the spring of 1881. 
Ed. Drake is the leader; has made various changes since its organ- 
ization. 

Tlte O'Brien Pioneer WeeMy^ was established in December, 1871, 
by L. B. Raymond & Co.; was afterwards run by A. H. Willets; then 
Willets & Inman: then in the order named: Willets & Pumphrey, 
A.H. Willets & Son, A. G. Willets, Walker & Willets— its present 
proprietors being Willets & Perkins. It has always been Repub- 
lican in politics. It is a six-column quarto; circulation, 750 copies. 
It is printed on a large steam power press in a good, commodious 
building. 

Sanborn can boast of having the best town hall in the county. 
It was erected by Messrs. Roden & Linden, at the corner of Main 
and First streets, in 1881. It is a frame structure, 32x70 feet, 
with a flat roof. The lower rooms are occupied by Henry Roden, 
as a restaurant and billiard hall. The hall up-stairs is arranged 
with a ticket-office at the entrance, and has a commodious and well 
adapted stage. The building and appurtenances cost about $6,000 

The Main street in Sanborn runs north and south, and is located 
on level ground. Sanborn is a good shipping point. The town 
has telephonic communication with Primghar. The business may 
be thus classified: General stores, 3; printing offices, 1; hardware, 
2; saloons, 3; groceries, 2; agricultural implements, 2; furniture, 
1; lumber, 3; jewelry, 1; blacksmiths, 2; drugs, 2; carpenters 4; 
bank, 1; land, loan and law, 4: flour and feed, 2; restaurant, 1; 
boot and shoe, 1; meat markets, 2; barbershop, 1; livery, 2; hotels, 3 

HARTLEY. 

Hartley is situated in the eastern part of O'Brien County, on 
the C, M. & St. Paul Railroad, eight miles from Sanborn and 
eighteen from Spencer. It was laid out and platted by J. S. Fin- 
ister in October, 1880. The first house in the toAvn was built by 
the Railroad Company, in 1879. The first store was built by J. S. 
Finister & W. S. Fuller in April, 1879. It was also used as adwel- 
ing. Then came A. H. Miller. J. K. McAndrew, M. G. Silver- 
thorn, and W. H. Eaton, all of whom built in the year 1879. H. 
E. Hoagland built in 1880. Hartley is a thriving town, and has a 
population of 185. 

The first school was held in Finister's store in 1879 and 1880. 
The first teacher was 0. M. Shonkwiler; first Board of Education: 
W. S. Fuller, W. H. Eaton, C. A. Feitkaw. The present school 
building was erected in the spring of 1880, is 26x36 in dimensions, 
and cost $1,200. The first teacher was Allen Crossan; first Board, 



366 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

the same as above. Present Board: C. A. Feitkaw, George Bowes. 
Present teacher: E. A. Thomas. Number of pupils enrolled, sixty- 
seven. 

The Baptist Societi/ was organized in December, 1880, by D. F. 
Johnson. Membership, about ten. This society is not sujDplied 
with any regular pastor, and has no building, but holds it prayer 
meetings in the school building occasionally. 

Metliodist Episcopal Church, Society Avas organized in 1881 by 
A. S. R. Groom, who was the first pastor. The first and present 
officers are: Allen Crossan, Class Leader and Steward; Mr. Whit- 
man and Mr. Dice, Trustees. R. Crosby is also at present a Trus- 
tee. Membership, about seventy-five. They have no church build- 
ing, but meet in the school building. This society built a parson- 
age in 1881, under the directions of Rev. Groom, at a cost of $300. 

Hartley Lodge, I. 0. G. T., was organized December 28th, 1881, 
by F. E. Anderson, of Algona. Charter members: J. K. McAn- 
drew, D. P. Johnston, Allen Crossan, D. M. Gano, E. A. Thomas, 
H. E. Finister, James Johnston, George Bowes, W. Bowes, T. 
Shoemaker. First officers: D. S. Johnston, W. C. T.; E. A. Thomas, 
W. V. T.; E. Finister, W. M.; Allen Crossan, Recording Secretary; 

D. M. Gano, Financial Secretary; Will. Bowes, Treasurer; Geo. 
Bowes, Chaplain. Present officers: E. A. Thomas, W. C. T.; M. 

E. Silverthorn, W. V. T.; J. Jones, R. S.; R. Makins, F. S.; D. M. 
Gano, Treasurer; Allen Crossan, Chaplain; W. Bcwes, W. M.; 
Mrs. D. F. Johnson. I. G.;Ed. Williams, 0. G. Membership, about 
thirty. Meetings are held Thursday evening of each week in the 
school building. 

The business houses of Hartley are classified as follows: Gen- 
eral stores, two; hardware, one; hotels, three; blacksmith shops, 
two; wagon shops, one; meat markets, two; lumber dealers, two; 
saloons, one; agricultural implement dealers, one; livery barns, one. 



O'BRIEN COUNTY BIOGRAPHIES. 



SHELDON. 

D. M. Baker, proprietor of the Leland House, was born in 0. in 
1849; moved with his parents to Iowa in 1850. He came to Shel- 
don in 1881 and to^k charge of the above named house. In 1870' 
he was married to Rachel M. Gilman, and has six children — Tena, 
Etta, Minnie, Arthur, Linda and Frank. 

J. A. Brown, proprietor, of the Sheldon House, was born in Or- 
ange county, Vt.; moved to Iowa in 1860. He enlisted in 1862 in 
Co. M, 3d 0. Cav., and was discharged at the close of the war. He 



HISTORY OF IOWA. 367 

then located in 111. and remained until 1867, when he Avent South 
and remained one year. He afterwards engaged in business in va- 
rious parts of Iowa, and in 1871 settled in O'Brien. He moved to 
Sheldon in 1873, and engaged as above. 

C. H. Bullis, of the firm of Barrett & Bullis, attorneys at law, 
was born near Rochester, N. Y., in 1817. He graduated from 
Yale CoHege, in the class of '69, and from the Columbia Law 
School in 1872. In 1873 he moved to Iowa, and located at Shel- 
don, in the autumn of 1881. 

Frank and Fred Frisbee, of. the firm of Frisbee Bros., proprie- 
tors of the livery stable, are natives of Wisconsin; came to Iowa 
in 1871, and settled in O'Brien county. They located at Sheldon 
in 1876 and engaged in the livery and express business. 

G. M. Graham, lumber dealer, came to Iowa in 1856. He en- 
listed in 1862 in Co. B, 28th la. Vol., and served until the clo^eof 
the war, after which ho went to Mich., and engaged in the lumber 
business. He returned to Iowa in the autumn of 1877, and lo- 
cated at Sheldon. 

A. W. Husted, hardware dealer, came to Sheldon in 1873, and 
was a member of the firm of Husted & Son, dealers in general 
merchandise, until 1871), when he engaged in his present business, 
with G. H. Boutelle. 

S. J. Hutchinson, boot and shoe dealer, was born in N. J. in 
1835. He enlisted in 1862 in Co. D, 100th 0. Vol.; was in sev- 
eral of the principal engagements, and was discharged in 1865. 
He came to Iowa and settled in Cedar county; thence to O'Brien 
county in 1871, where he engaged in farming until Oct., 1881, at 
which time he engaged as above. 

Jones, Parkhurst & Co., proprietors of the Sheldon Bank, which 
was established in 1872 by Messrs. Jones and Parkhurst. Mr. 
Brown became a partner in 187V). They are also dealers in all 
kinds of farm machinery. 

Henry Mandersheid, (saloon), was born in Germany in 1815; 
came to America when young, and settled in Jackson county, la. 
In 1872 he moved to LeMars; thence to Dakota. He returned to 
LeMars, where he lived until 1879. when he came to Sheldon and 
engaged in business as above. Mr. M. has been twice married. 
He was married to his second wife in Sept., 1881. She was Jennie 
Gusher. He has three children — Annie, Henry and John. 

D. McKay, farmer and marshal of Sheldon, is a native of Cana- 
da; moved to Cherokee, la., in 1870; thence to Sheldon in 1872. 

A. McDougall, freight and express agent, was born in Canadain 
1848; moved to Wis. in 1866; thence to la. in 1868. He has been 
in the employ of the C, M. & St. P. R.R. Co., for twelve years. 
He deals at wholesale in hard and soft coal. 



368 HISTORY OF IOWA. 

D. O'Doiinell was born in Ireland in 1831; came to America in 
1847 and settled in N. Y. He moved to Canada; thence to Wis., 
and in 1875 came to Iowa. Mr. O'D. started from Sheldon with 
an ox team for the Black Hills in 1877, and made the trip in forty- 
four days. He was married in 1850, and has nine children — John 
C, Kate, Maggie, Mary, Julia, Nellie, Edward, Annie and George. 

John C. O'Donnell, deputy sheriff of O'Brien county. He is 
engaged in blacksmithing. He was married in 1871 and has two 
children — Alice and Margaret. 

James Parden, proprietor of sample room and billiard hall, was 
born near Rochester, N. Y., in 18;i7; moved to Sheldon, la., in 
1875, He occupies for his business the first building erected in 
Sheldon. 

L. 0. Peterman, agent for the American Express Co., was born 
in Ind. in 1853; moved to Winona county, Minn.; thence to Shel- 
non in 1881. 

Joseph Shinski, dealer in general merchandise, was born in N. 
Y. in 1842. He is the pioneer merchant of Sheldon, having es- 
tablished business in 1873. He was married in 1875 to Ellen M. 
Kelley, of Sioux City. They have two daughters — Maud and 
Maggie. 

Henry Schultz, liquor dealer and proprietor of billiard hall, was 
born in Hanover, Ger., in 1846; came to America in 1866 and set- 
tled in Wis. He came to Iowa in 1870 and to Sheldon in 1876. 
He was married in 1876 to Katie Berbrein. 

Rev. E. South worth, pastor of the Congregational church, was 
born in Mich, in 1834. He attended the Hamilton College, N. Y., 
and the University of Mich., at Ann Arbor. In 1866 he graduat- 
ed from the Theological College, of N. Y., and the same year en- 
tered the ministry. In 1871 he moved to la., then back to Wis., 
where he remained four years, and in 1878 came to Sheldon, la., 
and took charge of the church as above. He married Sarah H. 
Humphrey, and has three children — Mary E., Edward P. and C. 
DeForest. 

W. H. Sleeper, banker, insurance and land agent, was born in 
N. J. in 1853. He was for a time engaged in the mercantile busi- 
ness at Mount Holley, in Philadelphia. In 1877 he came to 
Sheldon, la., and engaged in his present business, with his brother, 
A. W. Sleeper. 

Charles Stinson. of the firm of J. M. Comstock & Co., dealers in 
general merchandise, was born in N. Y.; moved to Algona, la., 
in 1871, and there engaged in the mercantile business with Mr. 
Comstock. They established business as above in Aug., 1880. 

S. M. Wagers, proprietor of the Citv restaurant, was born in 0. 
in 1838; moved to Wis. in 1856. He" enlisted in 1862 in Co. H, 



HISTOKY OF IOWA. 369 

7th Wis. Vol., and was discharged the same year, on account of 
physical disability. He came to la. in October. 1880. In 1863 he 
married Adelia Hayerman, and has two children — Edward and 
Mary. 

E. B. Wheeler, blacksmith, was born in Orleans county, Vt.; 
in 1868; moved to Cerro Gordo county, la.; in 1868. He was one 
of the first settlers of Clear Lake. He came to Sheldon in 1880. 
and engaged in business as above. 

D. S. White, Jr., dealer in general merchandise, was l)orn in N. 
J., in 1853; removed to Omaha, Neb., in 1871, and was employed 
under the SuperintendcDt of Indian affairs in Nebraska. In 1877 
he came to Sheldon, la., and engaged as above. He was elected a 
member of the city council in 1880. 

F. E. Wyman, proprietor of restaurant and dealer in fancy gro- 
ceries, is a native of Mass.; moved to Wabasha county, Minn., in 
1858. He enlisted in 1864 in Co. D, 140 111. Reg., and was dis- 
charged soon after. He came to Iowa in 1872. 

James WykofF, the pioneer lumber dealer of Sheldon, was born 
in Ontario county, N. Y., in 1843. He enlisted in Dec, 1863, in 
the 50th N. Y. Vol., and served until June, 1865. He moved to 
Minn, in 1866; thence to la. in 1868. He came to Sheldon in 
1872, and engaged in business as above. His daughter, Inez, was 
the first child born in the city. 

F. H. Zander, proprietor of the Chicago Clothing Store, came 
to Sheldon in Oct., 1880, from Chicago, where he had previously 
been engaged in business . This is the only exclusive clothing 
house in the city . 

PRIMGHAR. 

C. E. Achorn, of the firm of Schee & Achorn, bankers and land 
agents, was born in Me. in 1861; removed to Boston, Mass., with 
his parents in 1869; thence to Wis. in 1878, and the following 
year located at Primghar. He engaged in the above business with 
Geo. W. Schee, in 1881. He married Ada Alexander in Jan., 
1882. 

Charles F. Albright, farmer, was born in Pa. in 1839; removed 
to Muscatine county, la., in 1858; two years lattr he moved to 
Cedar county. He enlisted in the war of the rebellion, and served 
three years. He came to O'Brien county in 1871, and settled on 
homestead in the center of the county, adjoining what is now the 
town of Primghar. He erected the first hotel here in 1873. He 
was married in 1865, to Adah C Mackelvvain, and has two 
children . 

T.J. Alexander, treasurer of O'Brien count}-, was born in Ind. 
in 1845; moved with parents to Wis. the same year, and to Warren 
county, la., in 1859. He came to O'Brien county in 1S69. and 



370 HISTOEY OF IOWA. 

settled on a homestead in Liberty township. He was elected to 
his present office in 1878, and moved to Primghar; has been re- 
elected each term since. He was married in 1867, to Martha 
Brown, and has three children. 

David Algyer, county superintendent of schools, was born in 
Montgomery county, N. Y., in 1819: came to Clay county, la., in 
1871, and settled on a homestead. In 1873 moved to O'Brien 
county, and located at Primghar in 1880. He was elected to his 
present office in 1881. He married Marie S. Gowen in 1871. They 
have three children. 

Milt. H. Allen, attorney at law, was born in Winneshiek county, 
la., in 1859; removed with parents to Clay county in 1871. He 
came to O'Brien county in 1873, and engaged in the practice of 
law with 0. M. Barrett, in 1879. He opened an office in Primghar 
in 1881. 

J. Gr. Chrysler, of the firm of Pumphrey & Chrysler, dealers in 
gen