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All life and achievement is evolution ; present wisdom comes from past 
experience, and present commercial prosperity has come only from past exertion 
and suffering. The deeds and motives of the men that have gone before have 
been instrumental in shaping the destinies of later communities and states. The 
development of a new country was at once a task and a privilege. It required 
great courage, sacrifice and privation. Compare the present conditions of the 
residents of Whitley county, Indiana, with what they were one hundred years ago. 
From a trackless wilderness it has come to be a center of prosperity and civiliza- 
tion, with millions of wealth, with systems of intersecting railways, grand educa- 
tional institutions, marvelous industries and immense agricultural productions. 
Can any thinking person be insensible to the fascination of the study which dis- 
closes the incentives, hopes, aspirations and efforts of the early pioneers who so 
strongly laid the foundation upon which has been reared the magnificent prosperity 
of later days. To perpetuate the story of these people, and to trace and record the 
social, political and industrial progress of the community from. its first inception, is 
the function of the local historian. A sincere purpose to preserve facts and per- 
sonal memoirs that are deserving of preservation, and which unite the present to 
the past, is the motive for the present publication. The work has been in the hands 
of a corps of able writers, who have, after much patient study and research, pro- 
duced here the most complete history of Whitley county. Indiana, ever offered to 
the public. A specially valuable and interesting department is that one devoted 
to sketches of representative citizens of this county whose records deserve 
perpetuation because of their worth, effort and accomplishment. The publishers 
desire to extend their thanks to these gentlemen who have so faithfully labored 
to this end. Thanks are also due to the citizens of Whitley county, Indiana, for 
the uniform kindness with which they have regarded this undertaking and for 
their many services rendered in the gaining of necessary information. 

In placing the "History of Whitley County, Indiana," before the citizens, 
the publishers can conscientiously claim that they have carried out the plan 
as outlined in the prospectus. Every biographical sketch in the work has been 
submitted to the party interested for correction, and therefore any error of fact. 
if there be any, is solely due to the person for whom the sketch was prepared. 
Confident that our efforts to please will fully meet the approbation of the public, 
we are, 




Formative Period 17 

First Animals IS 

Oldest Known Rocks 19 

The Laurentian Rocks 19 

The Cambrian Era 19 

The Ordovician Age 20 

Trenton Rock 20 

The Silurian Age 21 

The Niagara Epoch 22 

The Devonian Age 24 

The Corniferous Epoch.... 24 

The Genesee Shale 25 

Knobstone Epoch 26 

The Mitchell Limestone... 27 

The Huron Limestone 27 

The Carboniferous Era.... 28 

Location, Size, Geology. ... 32 

Blue River Valley 37 

The Lakes of Whitley 

County 38 

The Drainage System 38 

Elevations 40 

Organization and Changes 
in County and Town- 
ships 41 

LaSalle, as a Trader 41 

Front enac Governor Gen- 
eral of Canada 41 

Marquette Discovered the 

Mississippi 41 

Sieur Courth em a n c h e ' s 

Diary of 16S1 42 

Governor Alexanders Spotts- 

wood in 1714 42 

Sir William Johnson 43 

First Attempt at White 
Man's Civil Local Gov- 
ernment 1788 44 

Governor William Henry 
Harrison's Establishment 
of Indian Territory, 1S00. 45 
The Entire Original Coun- 
ty of Whitley 46 

Government's Price of Land 47 

Col. William Whitley 4S 

Samuel Smith 48 

Robert Starkweather 48 

Otho W. Gandy 50 

The First Official Act 50 

Taxable Property 50 

Location of Columbia City.. ^54 

Minor Civil Divisions 56 

Indian History 63 

The First White Man 64 

The Domain of the Miamis 65 
The Origin of the Potta- 

wattamies 65 

Little Turtle 67 

Rev. Stephen Theodore 

Badin 67 

Captain Trent 68 

George Crogan 68 

Campaign of Gen. Harmar 

in 1790 69 

Coesse's Wife and Two 

Daughters 70 

Charles Seymour 71 75 

Little Turtle's House 72 

The Island 73 

The Burned Cabins 75 

Paige's Crossing 76 

Turtle and Turtle's Village 77 

Seek's Village 78 

The Portages or Trails 79 

Kilsoquah 79 

Me-tek-kah 81 

Chief John Owl SI 

Anthony Revarre, Jr., SI 

Tony Revarre or White 

Loon 82 

More's Farm S3 

LaBalme's Campaign S3 

Archaeology S5 

The Flora SS 

Political History 101 

Majorities 102 

Congressional 105 

Senators and Representa- 
tives 106 

Clerks of Court 10S 

County Auditors 10S 

County Recorders 109 

County Sheriffs 109 

County Treasurers 109 

County Coroners 110 

County Surveyors 110 

County Commissioners .... 110 

Probate Judges Ill 

Circuit Court Judges Ill 

Early Reminiscences 112 

Echo of Seventy Years Ago 114 
Comments by John R. An- 
derson 115 

Another Pioneer's Story... 116 

Old Settler's Story 118 

Forty Years Ago 120 

Canals and Railroads 123 

The Wabash Erie Canal 123 

The Pennsylvania Railroad 125 
Detroit, Eel River & Illinois 

Railroad 12S 

The Nickel Plate Railroad. 130 
The Fort Wayne & Wabash 
Valley Tra c t i o n Com- 
pany 130 

Public Buildings and Build- 
ers 131 

First Court House 135 

The First Jail 135 

The Present Jail 135 

Postoffices, Postmasters.... 136 

South Whitley 137 

Columbia City 138 

Coesse WO 

Summit (Larwill ) 141 

Hecla (Popano-Etna) 141 

Churubusco 142 

Collamer 143 

Loran (Later Lorane) . . . . 144 

Thorncreek 145 

Laud 145 

Washington Center 146 


Fuller's Corners 14(j 

Saturn 146 

South Cleveland 147 

Alma 147 

Collins 147 

Taylor 148 

Ormas 148 

Peabody 14s 

Dunfee 148 

Raber 149 

Tunker 149 

Cresco 149 

Luther (Sawdust Hill) 149 

Sells 149 

Wynkoop 150 

Columbia City 150 

Chimfbusco 150 

Larwill 150 

South Whitley 150 

The Newspapers 150 

Indian Incidents 155 

Chino 150 

John Turkey 150 

Sanford Mosher 150 

Joseph Pierce 156 

Allen Hamilton 157 

John Wauwaessa 15S 

Bambookoo 15S 

The Squaw Buck Trail 159 

Telephones 159 

The Midland Telephone 

Company 159 

Whitley County Telephone 

Company 160 

The Churubusco Company. 161 

The Luther Company 161 

The Farmers' Mutual Tele- 
phone Company 161 

The Old Settlers' Associa- 
tion and Historical So- 
ciety of Whitley County. 163 

Judge Adair's Address 164 

The Whitley County Offi- 
cials' Fraternal Associa- 
tion 169 

Medical Profession 175 

Whitley County Medical So- 
ciety 192 

Hell's Half Acre 193 

Roads 19S 

History of Education in 

Whitley County 203 

Military History 213 

Company E, 17th I. V. I 218 

Company E, 44th I. V. I.. 219 

Company B, 74th I. V. I 219 

Company K. 88th I. V. I... 220 
Company F, 100th I. V. I . . 221 
Company D, 129th I. V. I.. 221 
Company I, 152d I. V. I.... 222 
Fifth Indiana Battery (Ar- 
tillery) 222 

Company G, I. X. G 223 

Cost of the Civil War 225 

Banks and Banking 226 

National Banks 227 

Columbia City National 

Bank 22S 

First Depositors 229 

The New Building 229 

The First National Bank of 

Columbia City 230 

The South Whitley Bank 

(John Arnold & Co.) 232 

The Arnold Criminal Trial. 236 
The Bank of Churubusco.. 237 
O'Gandy & Co. Bank, South 

Whitley 239 

Foust, Remington & Com- 
pany 239 

The Provident Trust Com- 
pany 240 

Etna Township 241 

Whitley County Granges... 247 

Troy Township 249 

Recollections of Early Troy 253 

Columbia Township 255 

The Bench and Bar 259 

Early Courts 259 

Memorabilia 279 

Smith Township 2S0 

Reminiscences 290 

Collins 302 

Roll of Honor 303 

Keep a Pullin' 303 

Churubusco 304 

Ladies of the Maccabees of 

the World 311 

Modern Woodmen 312 

Cleveland Township 313 

Union Township 316 

Hazel Cot Castle 31S 

Washington Township 320 

Jefferson Township 334 

Raccoon Village 344 

Public Highways 345 

Saw Mills 346 

Postal Affairs 347 

Political Matters 349 

Educational Facilities .... 351 

Early Preachers 360 

The Barkdall Murder 363 

The Singer Murder 364 

Interesting Incidents 366 

The Village of Forest 367 

The Village of Raber 372 

The Village of Dunfee 372 

Richland Township 373 

Organizations and Elections 373 

First Settler 376 

Useful Occupations 3S5 

Summit 389 

Township School Library. . 39 4 

Safe Blowing 394 

Oil Wells 395 

Cady's Trial for Murder... 396 

Indian Graves 397 

Deaths by Accident or Sui- 
cide 397 

Some of the First Things. 399 

Local Names 40m 

Independent Order of Odd 

Fellows 401 

Modern Woodmen of Amer- 
ica 402 

Free and Accepted Masons 402 
Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic 403 

Patrons of Husbandry 404 

Methodist Episcopal Church 

at Larwill 405 

Union Christian Church... 406 
The Eel River Baptist 

Church 407 

The Wesleyan Methodist 

Church 4U8 

Larwill Baptist Church at 

Larwill 409 

The Gutcher Sanitarium... 413 

Reminiscence 414 

Pole Raising 416 

Thorncreek Township .... 417 
Manufacturing Interests . . . 424 
Agricultural Conditions . . . 420 

Lakes 426 

Education 428 

Religion 432 

Highways 433 

Officers 433 

A Day of Sport 434 

Hon. Joseph Wilson Adair. 437 

Samuel P. Kaler 442 

Matthias Slesman 444 

Burdette F. McNear 445 

Franklin Pierce Bridge.... 446 


Rosanna Crider . 447 

Col. Isaiah B. McDonald.. 44S 

Ferdinand F. Morsches 452 

Edward L. Gallagher 453 

Whitney & Luckenbill 454 

Otis W. Stair 455 

Gideon Wright Wilcox 456 

Jacob A. Ruch 457 

John T. Clapham 45S 

Cleon H. Foust 459 

John C. Miller 460 

Robert Hudson 460 

Stephen O. Bnggs 461 

William H. Magley 462 

William A. Clugston 463 

Robert F. Hood 463 

James S. Collins 464 

Eliza J. Collins 466 

Daniel Daniel 467 

Asher R. Clugston 46S 

Clinton Wilcox 469 

August Erdmann 470 

William Henry Hildebrand. 471 

John Hanson 472 

Joseph H. Ruch 473 

John W. Waterfall 474 

Oliver H. Diffendarfer 474 

John F. Lawrence 475 

Emil Doriot 476 

Benjamin Raupfer 477 

Samuel S. Miller 479 

Franklin H. Foust 4S0 

Isaac Mason Swigart 482 

James M. Harrison 483 

Frank Meitzler 485 

John D. Sherwood 4S6 

Heber A. Beeson 4S7 

Frank E. Kenner 487 

Thomas R. Marshall 4SS 

Arthur S. Nowels 491 

Benton Eli Gates 492 

John Edward North 492 

Joseph R. Harrison 494 

Rev. Anthony M. Ellering. . 495 

Henry McLallen 496 

Jesse A. Glassley 501 

Levi M. Meiser 502 

Henry D. McLallen 504 

Andrew A. Adams 505 

Vallorous Brown 506 

Frederick Magley 509 

Dorsey Jagger 510 

Daniel Pressler 511 

Simon J. Peabody 512 

Henry W. Miller 515 

Charles W. Hively 517 

George W. Miller 518 

Howard Simmon 519 

James M. Leaman 520 

Jonathan Monroe Hartman 521 

Henry Schrader 522 

Henry Vogely 523 

Samuel Hively 525 

Henry J. Pressler 526 

John E. Kates 527 

Alice B. Williams, M. D... 528 

Ambrose Gerkin 529 

Charles E. DeVine 530 

F. Marion Grable 531 

William R. Hively 532 

Elisha Swan 532 

Frederick Wolfangel 534 

Enos Goble 535 

Octavius Phelps 536 

J. W. Smith 537 

0. J. Crowel 539 

Andrew Kenner 540 

Beal F. Taylor 541 

James Compton 542 

Sylvester Wilkinson 542 

Washington Long 543 

David B. Clugston 544 

Thomas T. Pentecost 546 

William Snodgrass 547 

1. L. Merriman 548 

Urias Hosier 549 

Henry J. Gunder 550 

Francis Marion Wright. . . . 551 

Miles W. Bristow 552 

Alfred F. Evans 553 

Ira Crow 554 

John DeLano 555 

Jones L. Salts 556 

William Johnso-i McConnell 557 

John Born 558 

Charles C. Weimer 559 

David Goff Linvill 560 

Jesse Miller 563 

William C. Long 565 

Benjamin Franklin Cooper 566 

Isaac Wynkoop 567 

James P. Bills 568 

Wesley Staples 569 

Thomas Estlick 570 

John R. Watson 571 

Christopher Judd 572 

Fred N. Hunt 573 

Simon W. Hire 574 

Warren R. Wigent 575 

Richard H. Maring 576 

Thomas Gaff 578 

Moses M. Trumbull 579 

DeWitt Noble 579 

George L. Hanes 5S2 ' 

Caldwell W. Tuttle 583 

William F. King 585 

Bernard A. Widup 586 

Carl L. Souder 586 

Charles Lemuel DeVault... 5S7 

David August Walter 5SS 

Theodore Garty 589 

Adam E. Hively 591 

Martin L. Galbreath 592 

Robert R. Scott 592 

George Allen Pontius 594 

Lewis Hartman 596 

Rev. David A. Workman. . 598 

James L. Maloney 599 

John M. Smith 600 

Martin Kocher 601 

Ovin Boggs 602 

John A. Bryan 603 

Lavina Pence Richey 603 

James W. Burwell 604 

Jonn W. Claxton 605 

John W. Smith 606 

John M. Deem 607 

John A. Pressler 607 

George H. Tapy 608 

Francis M. Sonday 610 

George R. Hemmick 611 

Bri e'D. Hart 612 

Isaac Humbarger 612 

Louis Festus Metsker 613 

Augustus W. Jeffries 615 

^Samuel E. Geiger 615 

Benjamin F. Magley 616 

George W. Ott 617 

William Lewis Deem 618 

William R. Anderson 619 

James E. Witham 620 

Irving J. Krider 621 

Jacob E. Pence 621 

Rev. Charles S. Parker 623 

Frederick G. Binder 624 

James M. Crone 625 

Joseph J. Pence 626 

David L. Pence 627 

William A. Leech 628 

Daniel Zumbrun 629 

Albert A. Demoney 630 

George Sheckler 632 

George Judd 633 

Jacob Paulus 634 

Isaac Judd 635 


W. H. Carter 635 

Milo Harshbarger 636 

Charles Willard Reese 638 

William J. Sell 63S 

Hiram L. Foster 639 

Benjamin Franklin Shull.. 640 

David Miller 642 

Robert B. Boyd 642 

William H. Miner 643. 

John Henry Snyder 644 

John S. Snyder 645 

Samuel H. Flickinger 640 

John A. Hammer 647 

Henry Sievers 649 

Frank E. Miner 650 

Robert Jacob Emerson 651 

Thomas L. Hildebrand 652 

John W. Baker 653 

Logan Staples 654 

Henry Edson Baker 655 

Bayless Lower 655 

Francis Marion Magers 65li 

Elias Lantzer 0o i 

William J. Dunfee 658 

Edmund Jones 659 

William C. More 660 

Ambrose Kiester 661 

George H. Herrick 663 

Herbert B. Clugston 664 

John Henry Zumbrun 664 

James Garrison ooa 

William Henry Betzner.... 660 

Willis Rhodes 60S 

Wesley Kiser 66i> 

W. S. Smith 669 

I. R. Conner 670 

Thomas D. Watson 671 

Abraham Elder 672 

George F. Kisler 674 

Daniel Berry 675 

John Ummel 670 

Joshua N. Anderson 077 

William Brubaker 67S 

William E. Magley 679 

Elisha Lyman McLallen... 079 

Benjamin Hively 6S2 

Richard Herron 684 

David Hyre 685 

William Henry Coolman... 0S6 

John L. Miller 6S(j 

C. D. Stickler 6S7 

Wells Trader Gradless.... 6N,s 
William A. Hauptmeyer. . . 690 

Peter Chavey 691 

Thomas Emery '691 

August Licke 692 

George W. Cox 693 

Fred Dreyer 694 

Frank E. Cox 695 

George Kneller 695 

Rufus W. Burns 696 

William Sell 697 

Josiah Haynes 69S 

Virgil Hyre 699 

D. C. Fisher 700 

George W. Laird 701 

Dennis Walter 702 

Nathan Roberts 703 

Henry H. Lawrence 704 

Fletcher Goodrich 706 

William H. Hamilton 707 

Daniel Baker 70S 

Franklin Shilts 709 

William Marsh Bower 709 

James M. Smith 710 

Henry Huffman 711 

John A. Snyder 712 

William Adam Snyder 713 

Lewis Halterman 713 

R. B. Bolinger 714 

Gottlieb Kunberger 715 

Daniel Fisher 716 

John H. Shilts 717 

Thomas E. Adams 71S 

Harcanis C. Leaman 719 

Franklin P. Loudy 720 

Ernest S. Cotterly 721 

James Staples 722 

Alvin M. Hire 723 

Elmer J. Nei 724 

Michael Lawrence 725 

Ephraim Kyler Strong 726 

John W. Brand 727 

John H. Maxwell 729 

Daniel Stiles 730 

George W. Shroll 731 

George Bauer 732 

John Wilson Adams 733 

Cyrus Henry Keiser 735 

Isaiah W. Johnston 736 

William M. Hughes 737 

Richard M. Paige 73S 

Hugo Logan 739 

Isaac Brenneman 740 

William V. Hathaway 741 

Albert D. Webster 742 

A. L. Lancaster 743 

Henry Norris 744 

Newton F. Watson 745 

Isaac M. Harshbarger 746 

Thomas M. Hughes 747 

Benjamin Franklin Thomp- 
son 74N 

Asher D. Hathaway 749 

Alexander Goff 751 

John P. Jackson 752 

Aaron Mishler 753 

Lewis Mishler 754 

Robert T. Smith 755 

Charles E. Weybright 755 

Hon. John W. Orndorf 756 

Jonathan Ulrey 757 

Adam S. Warner 75S 

Henry Sickafoose 759 

H. H. Warner 760 

Martin H. Briggeman 761 

David Gable 763 

John W. Eastom 763 

Ozias Metz 764 

John Kreider 766 

Fred Harshbarger 767 

William S. Nickey 76S 

Perry M. Williamson 769 

Henry H. Williamson 

John Rose Anderson 

Wallace W. Williamson..., 

Walling Miller 

Chester Lotspiecn Cone..., 

Benjamin H. Domer 

David Schannep 778 

Lewis Huffman 779 

John Huffman 781 

Harry Kreider 780 

Owen M. Smith 782 

Nelson Keller 7S3 

Thomas Sheckler 784 

Lewis H. Keller 7s5 

L. E. Planner 786 

David Spohnhauer 787 

John F. Bentz 787 

Perry L. Bentz 78S 

Ruben F. Judy 7N9 

Francis M. King 790 

Webster Sickafoose 791 

George A. Bowers 792 

James Collett 794 

David V. Whiteleather. . . . 795 

Alexander More 796 

Charles E. Lancaster 798 

Carl Edward Lillicti 799 

Marcus Gillespie 800 

Sylv-auus Koontz 800 

David Swan Linvill 801 

George Boyd 802 

J. William C. Scott 803 


Franklin Hunt S04 

Albert B. Tucker S06 

William S. Lancaster 807 

Jesse Howard Briggs SOS 

Hiram B. Whittenberger. . S10 

George W. Kichler Sll 

Oscar C. Crowell Sll 

Merrit W. Crowell S12 

Peter V. Gruesbeck S13 

Simon Bennet Sll 

Daniel Redman S15 

John T. Fry 816 

Edward C. Schoenauer. . . . S17 
Rev. Daniel W. Sanders... SIS 

George Wilson Kelsey S19 

Jacob Kichler S20 

James B. Grawcock S21 

Franklin Stamets S21 

Leonard R. Schrader S22 

David N. Hart 822 

James Washburn S24 

Philemon H. Clugston S25 

George H. Fosler S27 

Samuel Frazier Trembley. . S2S 
Joseph Lawrence William- 
son S29 

Melvin Blain 830 

William I. Mowrey S31 

George Lee 832 

Charles Harrison Jones.... S33 

Abraham D. Green 834 

John Magley 835 

Charles F. Marchand 836 

John F. Mossman 837 

Eli L. Eberhard S39 

Monroe W. Webster 840 

David W. Nickey S41 

Benjamin Franklin Hull... 842 

George W. Lawrence 843 

Sylvanus H. Mowrey 844 

Albert Bush S45 

Louis W. Emerick 847 

Francis E. DePew 84S 

Edwin H. Click 849 

Jesse Selleck Oman S50 

Alfred Grace 851 

William Krider 852 

Martin D. Crabill 853 

Lewis W. Tennant S55 

David Rouch 856 

Charles P. Kime S57 

William H. Harsman 857 

Oscar Gandy 85S 

Elmer E. Stites 859 

I. N. Compton S60 





For millions, perhaps trillions of years, 
as time is estimated, this earth has been 
moving around its parent orb, the sun, pro- 
pelled by an unseen and uncontrollable 
force, always in the same pathway, while un- 
dergoing wonderful changes in bulk and 
form. ' At first a vast, irregular mass of 
burning gaseous matter thrown off from that 
sun, about which it ever has and now re- 
volves, this planet gradually cooled, con- 
densed and assumed a spheroidal form. Its 
gaseous elements rearranged themselves to 
form new compounds, at first liquid, then 
solid, until in time it came to be a solid 
globe, or at least one with a solid but uneven 
crust. The process of cooling and contrac- 
tion still continued. The ocean of vapor 
which formed a large portion of the atmos- 
phere about the planet, condensed and fell 
and formed an ocean of water which filled 
the depressions in its crust. Above the rim 
of this ocean there showed in places large 
areas of land, bare igneous rock, absolutely 
devoid of life, as for millions of years the 
temperature of both rock and ocean re- 
mained too high for living things. When 
the mean temperature of its oceanic waters, 
by continued and oft-repeated evaporation. 

cooling and condensation, was reduced to 
about 150 degrees F., there occurred the 
grandest event in the history of the planet. 
In some unknown, unknowable manner, life 
came to be. Within the waters of its ocean 
there was brought about a combination of 
matter, a living thing, which could take 
from the water and from the air above cer- 
tain elements, and by their aid increase in 
size and reproduce its kind. The first lowly 
parasites upon the face or surface of the 
planet were thus aquatic plants, algae, fungi 
and kindred forms. In the course of ages 
there evolved from them other and higher 
plants which could live on land, for the de- 
cay and erosion of the igneous rocks, added 
to the remains of the aquatic plants thrown 
upon the beaches of the ocean, produced a 
soil from which the higher land plants could 
derive a part of their nourishment. As the 
centuries and the aeons rolled by, the plants, 
true parasites that they were, found their 
way to every part of the planet's surface, on 
to the tops of the loftiest mountains, into the 
abysses of the deepest oceans, they made 
their way; their province being the conver- 
sion of inorganic matter, earth, air and wa- 
ter, into a form of food suitable to the needs 
of a higher type of parasite, which mean- 
while was coming into existence upon the 
planet's surface, for as the temperature of 


the ocean gradually decreased the era of an- 
imal life was ushered in. 

The first animals on the planet were also 
lowly aquatic forms, scarcely differing from 
the first plants, but possessing a freedom of 
motion which enabled them to procure a bet- 
ter supply of air and water. Then evolving 
into higher and more varied forms as they 
became adapted to new environments, they 
spread far and wide through ocean depths 
and over plain and mountain, until the whole 
surface of the planet was peopled by them. 
But. ever and always, from the time the first 
animal came to be upon the planet, until the 
last one finally disappears into the darkness 
of everlasting night, the growth of animal 
life will depend upon living food prepared 
by the plant, the motion of animal life upon 
energy stored within the cells of the plant. 
The sun, which in the beginning first cast off 
the matter of which the planet is formed, 
still controls it, still rules over it and its 
destinies with an iron will. Both plant and 
animal parasite must forever bow before its 
power. Of the vast floods of energy which 
stream forth from that sun's disk in the 
form of heat and light, an insignificant frac- 
tion falls upon the surface of its satellite. 
Of the minute portion that the planet thus 
arrests, an equally insignificant part is 
caught up by the plants and used directly in 
their growth. Yet, the entire productive 
force of the living portion of that planet 
turns on this insignificant fraction of an in- 
significant fraction. The vegetable cell is 
thus a store of power, a reservoir of force. 
It mediates between the sun, the sole foun- 
tain of energy, and the animal life on the 
planet. The animal can not use an iota of 
power that some time, either directly or in- 
directly, has not been stored in the plant 

cell. Thus of the two great groups of para- 
sites upon the surface of the planet, the plant 
must, per force, have preceded the animal. 
For thousands of centuries, each type of 
animal and plant parasite upon the planet 
was content if it could secure food enough 
to reach maturity and then a mate to repro- 
duce its kind. All the energies put forth, all 
the variations in organ and form, all the 
adaptations to modified environment, were 
but means toward the better accomplish- 
ment of these two ends. Sometimes a type 
would reach a culmination or highest point, 
beyond which it could not advance. Then 
a degeneration would occur along side lines, 
or, in many instances, even total extinction 
of the race or group. Finally, after the 
planet was hoary with age, a race of animal 
parasites evolved from the lower forms, 
whose variations were ever concentrated to- 
ward the head or cephalic region. During 
untold ages, their brains slowly but surely 
increased in size until, in time, they became 
possessed of the power of reason and of ab- 
stract thought. In that age the "Prince of 
the Parasites" was born. From then on he 
began to rule not only the other animal and 
plant parasites about him, but to discover 
and control the powerful forces of nature, 
heretofore wholly latent. As he grew in 
brain power, he grew in greed and in ego- 
tism. He came to think that the planet, on 
which he was but a parasite, was created for 
him alone; that all other plants and animals 
were put there for his special benefit, though 
many of them outdated him by millions of 
years. He began to modify the surface ol 
the planet in all ways possible, to change, 
as it were, its every aspect to conform to his 
ideas. He imagined, vain creature that he 
was, that he could improve on the works 



of nature. In time he divided up the entire 
land surface of the planet by using some- 
times imaginary lines and again natural 
boundaries. Acres and sections, townships 
and counties, kingdoms and empires, states 
and republics were the terms he used to de- 
note his subdivisions, and over all lands and 
seas he proclaimed himself chief ruler — for 
that planet is the earth — that prince of para- 
sites is man. To 36,350 square miles of 
the earth's surface, lying between the imagi- 
nary lines thirty-seven degrees and forty-one 
minutes and forty-one degrees and forty-six 
minutes north latitude, and between eighty- 
four degrees and forty-four minutes and 
eighty-eight degrees and six minutes west 
longitude, man, in time, gave the name "In- 
diana." How came this area to be where 
it is ? Of what kind of matter is its surface 
composed? What was its condition at the 
time of the advent of the white race ? These 
ought to be interesting questions to every 
resident of the Hoosier state. 

The oldest known rocks on the American 
continent are those of Archaean time, laid 
down during the Azoic or lifeless aeon of 
the earth. They are known as the Lau- 
rentian System of Rocks and consist mainly 
of coarse granites, thick bedded gneisses 
and syenites, serpentines, schists and beds of 
modified sandstones, limestones and clays. 
They were formed from the debris of other 
rocks still older than themselves; these in 
turn having been derived ages ago from 
those original igneous or primary rocks 
whose molten sands rose first above the boil- 
ing floods and cooled and crusted into a 
chaotic continent. For Archean Time 
comprised those millions of years which 
elapsed while the crust of the earth was cool- 
ing down to a point where life was possible. 

The Laurentian rocks are thus devoid of 
fossils or contain only the remains of the 
simplest aquatic forms. In North America, 
they comprise the surface of a vast "V" 
shaped area of 2,000,000 or more square 
miles which lies, filled with wild lakes, pine- 
clad, rugged, almost impassable, spread in 
savage sleep from Labrador to the Arctic 
ocean. This area embodies the general 
form of the North American continent, and 
was the nucleus of all the land which was 
afterward added to it. From these old 
Laurentian rocks, came the debris and sedi- 
ment which was laid down in the bed of a 
shallow ocean to form the rocks comprising 
the surface of what is now "Indiana." 

At the close of the Azoic or lifeless aeon, 
during which the Laurentian rocks were 
formed, the Paleozoic or Aeon of Ancient 
Life was ushered in. At its beginning the 
entire area of what is now known as In- 
diana was covered by a broad ocean which 
stretched far away to the south-west, while 
to the north and north-east it extended be- 
yond the present sites of the great lakes. 
This ocean is known to geologists as the In- 
terior Paleozoic Sea. Into it was carried 
the sediment derived from the erosion and 
destruction of the old Laurentian rocks by 
water and air, which agencies then, as now, 
were ever at work. The Potsdam sandstone 
of the Cambrian era, which probably under- 
lies the Trenton limestone of the Lower Si- 
lurian beneath the greater portion, if not 
all of Indiana, was one of the first strata 
to be laid down in this sea. But as none 
of the surface of Indiana is represented by 
the Potsdam stone, it will be passed with 
this mere mention. 

Following the Cambrian came the sec- 
ond grand subdivision of Paleozoic Time, 


the so-called Lower Silurian or Ordovician 
Age. At its beginning, the sea covering 
Indiana and the area to the north and east 
was of course more shallow, as 1,000 feet 
or more of Potsdam sandstone had been de- 
posited on its floor. This first great stratum 
of Ordovician rock to be laid down in this 
sea, which is of interest to us, was the Tren- 
ton limestone, which, during the past two 
decades, has become so noted in Indiana as 
the source of natural gas and crude petro- 
leum. It is a well known geological fact 
that most, if not all, limestones owe their 
origin to the presence of minute organisms 
in the water in which the limestone was 
formed. The animals from whose remains 
the Trenton limestone was, for the most 
part, derived, were" probably very low forms, 
the polypo and bryozoans of the ancient Si- 
lurian seas. In untold numbers they ex- 
isted, and the carbonate of lime, which 
makes up eighty per cent of the unmodified 
Trenton rocks, is largely the remains of their 
secretion and incrustations. Associated 
with these lower forms were myriads of 
higher ones, crinoids, brachiopods, trilo- 
bites, gastropods and even fishes. The pres- 
ence of such swarms of animal life made 
necessary the existence of an abundance of 
plants ; since the plant must ever precede the 
animal and gather for the latter the energy, 
and form for it the food, the living proto- 
plasm, necessary to its existence. These 
plants were mostly marine algae or sea weeds 
and fucoids, though doubtless many other 
forms existed of which no remains have been 
preserved in the rocks of that age. The 
Trenton limestones were evidently formed 
in rather clear waters, at moderate depths. 
Near the bottoms of these shallow seas great 

beds of calcareous sediment were gradually 
collected, and were swept to and fro by 
the tides and currents. Rivers from the 
older - Cambrian rocks brought down their 
eroded particles and added to the thickness 
of the ocean floor. Within these beds of 
sediment both plants and animals found a 
grave, their bodies in vast numbers being 
buried beneath the slowly accumulating de- 
posits of centuries. Once buried in such 
deposits, they did not decay, as do animals 
on land, because by the waters above and 
the calcareous ooze around them, they were 
shut off from free oxygen, which is the chief 
agent in decay. Gradually this ooze of fine 
sediment was, by the agency of the sea- 
water, cemented and consolidated into lime- 
stone. In this manner that great layer of 
Trenton rock which underlies all of Indiana 
at variable depths, was formed. From it 
has been derived, directly or indirectly, more 
wealth than from any other one formation, 
either underlying or forming a portion of 
the surface of the state. In time the waters 
of the ocean containing this vast stratum of 
Trenton limestone, with its enclosed accu- 
mulations of undecayed plants and animals, 
became turbid, and instead of calcareous 
sediment, deposited mud and clayey sedi- 
ment in thick beds on top of the limestone 
strata. These deposits of mud and silt were 
afterwards, by later deposits, compressed 
into the fine grained, impervious Utica shale, 
ioo to 300 feet in thickness, which thus 
effectually sealed the Trenton limestones and 
so retained within them the oil and gas 
derived from their enclosed organic remains. 
This oil, and its more volatile portion, the 
natural gas, was not formed in a short time, 
but is the result of a slow decomposition or 


■destructive distillation, carried on through 
thousands of centuries. Accumulating in 
vast reservoirs, the more porous portions of 
the Trenton limestone or mother rock, it 
there remained until man came with his iron 
drill and furnished a vent through which it 
could rise. Then by combustion he caused it 
to yield up the stored energy, conserved since 
the sun's rays fell on the plants of the old 
Silurian seas. 

After the Utica shale had been laid down 
as a thick, impervious cover above the Tren- 
ton limestone, there followed the Hudson 
River epoch, during which 200 to 600 feet 
of alternating beds of shale and limestone 
were deposited in the old sea bottom where 
now is Indiana'. These form the uppermost 
division of the lower Silurian age. During 
the myriads of years necessary to their depo- 
sition, marine forms were excessively 
abundant, and the advancement in the scale 
of animal life was correspondingly great. 
All the principal groups of marine inverte- 
brates which came into existence during the 
Trenton epoch were represented, but the 
species were widely different. In addition 
to life in the sea, there came also to be life 
on land. Acrogenous plants, forerunners 
of the ferns and mosses, harbingers of the 
vast forests of future centuries, came into 
being along the moist waterways of the 
growing continent, while insects, the first 
winged creatures, began to traverse the air. 
As yet, no part of Indiana was above old 
ocean's level, but at the close of the Ordovi- 
cian, after the Hudson River limestones and 
shales had been laid down, a great upheavel, 
caused by some subterranean force, brought 
above the sea a large island of Ordovician 
rock which ever since has been drv land. 

This upheaval was greatest over the point 
where Cincinnati, Ohio, is now located, and 
the "Cincinnati uplift" is the name given by 
geologists to the island and the broad belt 
of shallowly submerged land which extended 
from its northern shore in a north-westerly 
direction, diagonally across the area of the 
future Indiana. The main portion of that is- 
land comprised the south-western corner of 
what is now Ohio and a part of north-east- 
ern Kentucky. It also included a small part 
of what is now Indiana and formed the first 
and the oldest portion of the surface of our 
state. The area whose surface rocks be- 
long to this Hudson River formation com- 
prises part or all of Wayne, Union, Fayette, 
Franklin, Dearborn, Ripley, Ohio, Switzer- 
land and Jefferson counties. Over this area 
the exposed rocks are composed of a series 
of bluish, thinbedded limestones intercalated 
with bluish green limey shales, while at the 
top are massive sandy limestone beds of a 
brownish color. The shales are soft, easily 
weathered and very fossiliferous, while the 
bluish limestones are in places largely com- 
posed of fossils. 

Whitley county is included in that part 
of Indiana covered by Hudson river lime- 
stones and shales at the close of the Lower 
Silurian time. As a part of an island, there- 
fore, upheaval from the Ordovician seas, 
was the first born land of Indiana; and to 
that little corner all other portions of our 
noble state were added in their turn by the 
workings of nature's forces during after 

At the end of the Ordovician or begin- 
ning of the Upper Silurian age, the Interior 
Paleozoic Sea had greatly diminished in 
area. A broad belt of land had been added 


to the southern border of the old Laurentian 
crest, especially over what is now Wisconsin 
and a portion of northern Illinois; while, 
extending from what is now Labrador down 
to Georgia, was another broad belt, follow- 
ing the general trend of the present 
Alleghany mountains. By the raising of 
several large islands above its surface at the 
time of the Cincinnati Uplift, aided by the 
broad belt of shallowly submerged land al- 
ready noted, the area of the Interior Sea 
was still further diminished and to that por- 
tion covering what is now the north-eastern 
part of Indiana and. the greater part of Ohio, 
West Virginia, New York and Pennsyl- 
vania, the name of "Eastern Interior Sea" 
is given. This was simply a great bay or 
eastward extension of a greater "Central 
Interior Sea," which, at that period covered 
most of Indiana, southern Michigan, Illi- 
nois and a large portion of the present 
United States west of the Mississippi river. 
The most north-eastern limits of the Eastern 
Interior Sea were the present sites of Albany 
and Troy, New York. The rock-making 
material which was deposited on the floor 
of both it and the Central Interior Sea, was 
derived in part from the land along their 
borders, but mainly from the limey secre- 
tions of the life within their waters. The 
dry land draining into them was small in 
area and hence there were only small streams 
for the supply of sediments. Yet, in the 
course of countless years, sufficient material 
was deposited to form the thick layer of Ni- 
agara limestone which now forms the sur- 
face rock over much of northern and eastern 

The epochs of the Upper Silurian age, as 
represented in Indiana, are three in number, 

namely : the Clinton, the Niagara and the 
Water Lime, or Lower Helderberg. Each 
is represented by its characteristic rocks, 
bearing the peculiar fossils of its time. The 
' Clinton epoch is represented in the state by a 
close-grained, salmon-colored limestone, 
varying in thickness from a few inches only 
to about seven feet. It outcrops in a very 
narrow strip along the western edge of the 
area of the Hudson River limestone, already 
mentioned as the oldest rock in Indiana, and 
overlies that formation beneath the surface 
of at least the eastern third of the state. It 
it has no economic importance, and serves 
only as a line of demarkation separating the 
older Silurian rocks from those great beds of 
Niagara limestone which were afterward 
laid down in the Upper Silurian seas. 

At the beginning of the Niagara epoch, 
the waters of the Central and Eastern In- 
terior Seas were laden with sediment and 
beds of bluish-green shales, known as the 
Niagara shales, and varying in thickness 
from two to forty feet, were first laid down. 
Owing to the gradual changes in the level of 
the sea bottom, and a consequent shifting 
of its tides and currents a clearer, deeper 
water then resulted, within whose depths 
there existed life of great variety. Corals 
and bryozoans were especially represented, 
and from their remains and those of other 
marine forms were gradually constructed 
those beds of gray and buff Niagara lime- 
stone, varying in thickness from one hun- 
dred feet along the Ohio river to four hun- 
dred and forty feet in the northern and 
north-western portions of the state. 

Near the close of the Niagara epoch, a 
gradual uprising of a portion of the Eastern 
and Central Interior Seas took place. From 



their bottoms there emerged a long penin- 
sula-like strip of land, whose general trend 
was north-west and south-east. In the 
former direction it was imperfectly attached 
to those portions of Wisconsin and Illinois 
which had come into existence during the 
Ordovician era. At its lower extremity it 
merged with that old island of the Cincinnati 
Uplift which had formed the first land of 
our present state. The surface rocks of the 
north-western corner of Indiana, a narrow 
and probably interrupted strip extending' 
diagonally across the state, a wide area in 
the central third and a narrow southern 
prolongation along the western border of 
the pre-existing Hudson River group, were 
thus, for the first time, brought above the 
level of the sea. It appears that the force 
which caused this upraising of the Niagara 
sea floor was more pronounced at certain 
points than at others, and so caused a num- 
ber of dome-like ridges or crests resembling 
true upheavals in the Niagara beds. These 
domes are present in an area extending from 
the Illinois line in Newton county, through 
the Upper Wabash Valley nearly to the Ohio 
line, being especially prominent near Wa- 
bash, Delphi, Monon, Kentland and other 
points in the region mentioned. In them 
the Niagara strata, elsewhere nearly hori- 
zontal, are strongly tilted and show other 
evidence of a true upheaval. These domes 
were at first probably small islands whose 
crests remained permanently above the sur- 
rounding sea. They thus formed, for a 
long period, a more or less broken or inter- 
rupted connection between the larger area 
of the Niagara to the south-east and that 
area in north-western Indiana which was 
from now on a part of the continent proper. 

The Water Lime and Lower Helderberg 
are too closely related limestones of the 
Upper Silurian age which, in Indiana, so 
merge as to be difficult to distinguish. They 
represent an epoch between that of the Ni- 
agara limestone and the lowest or oldest 
rocks of the Devonian era. Their texture 
and composition show them to have been 
laid down in very shallow seas, close into 
the shores of the recently upraised Niagara 
limestone. The Water Lime is an impure 
magnesian hydraulic rock, ranging in thick- 
ness in Indiana from twenty to ninety feet. 
It out-crops near Kokomo where have been 
found numerous fine samples of its most 
characteristic fossils, gigantic crustaceans, 
two feet or more in length, closely related 
to the king crabs of the present seas. Over 
the extensive mud flats of the closing period 
of Upper Silurian time they were the un- 
doubted rulers, while in the nearby waters 
sported descendants of those mail clad fishes 
which first appeared in the Trenton period 
of the Lower Silurian era. 

The Lower Helderberg represents the 
final epoch of Upper Silurian time. In In- 
diana its rocks form a buff to gray cherty 
limestone twenty-five to 250 feet in thickness 
and often irregular and uneven in its bed- 
ding. It directly overlies the Niagara lime- 
stone where the water lime is absent. Out- 
crops occur at Logansport and other points 
to the north-west and drill holes sunk for oil 
and gas show that it probably forms a por- 
tion of the surface rock beneath the deep 
drift covered area of the northern third of 
the state. 

The advance in life during the Upper 
Silurian era was not proportionately as 
great as that of the preceding age. The 


earliest of Arachnids, the scorpion, came 
to be, their first remains being in the water 
lime, showing that they were neighbors of 
the giant Eurypterid crustaceans. Cock- 
roaches and progenitors of dragon flies were 
also present, but remains of other terrestrial 
forms are few or lacking. Among marine 
invertebrates, cephalopods reached the acme 
of their development, the gigantic ortho- 
ceratites of this group, whose remains are 
so common in the Niagara limestones of 
Wabash and adjoining counties, being 
worthy of special mention. 

We have seen that by the beginning of 
the Devonian Age or era, which succeeded 
that of the Upper Silurian, the waters of 
the great bay known as the Eastern In- 
terior Sea had become farther separated 
from those of the Central Interior Sea by 
the uprising of the Niagara limestone area 
of eastern Indiana and western Ohio, and 
also by the deposition along the margin of 
this formation of the sediment comprising 
the water lime and Lower Helderberg lime- 
stones. A probable connection still existed 
between the waters of these two basins across 
the broken or interrupted strip connecting 
the main body of Niagara limestone in east- 
ern Indiana with the main land area of the 
same formation in north-western Indiana 
and northern Illinois. 

The Devonian rocks of Indiana may be 
roughly classed as representing two great 
epochs, the Corniferous and the Genesee, 
the former being represented by beds of 
more or less pure limestone, ranging up to 
fifty-five feet in thickness; the latter by beds 
oi black or brownish bituminous shales, 
which reach a known maximum thickness 
"f 105 feel. The waters in which the ma- 

terials of the Corniferous limestones were 
deposited were clear and comparatively pure 
and in them sponges, corals, crinoids, trilo- 
bites and lower animal forms existed in 
great profusion. From the lime secreted 
by these marine forms, the upper and purer 
beds of the Corniferous rock are mainly 
composed. The great abundance of coral 
life during the period is grandly shown at 
the Falls of the Ohio, opposite Louisville, 
Kentucky, where the Corniferous beds have 
a notable outcrop. Here "the corals are 
crowded together in great numbers, some 
standing as they grew, others lying in frag- 
ments, as they were broken and heaped up 
by the waves ; branching forms of large and 
small size being mingled with massive kinds 
of hemispherical and other shapes. Some 
of the cup corals are six or seven inches 
across at the top, indicating a coral animal 
seven or eight inches in diameter. Hemis- 
pherical compound corals occur five or six 
feet in diameter. The various coral-polyps 
of the era had beyond doubt, bright and 
varied coloring like those of the existing 
tropics ; and the reefs formed therefore a 
brilliant and almost interminable flower 

Near the close of the Corniferous epoch 
deposits of silt, mud and sand began to be- 
cloud the clear waters and put an end to the 
life of many marine forms. The upper beds 
of rock then laid down, known as the Ham- 
ilton, contain in places quite a percentage of 
magnesia and clay, and embody those vast 
deposits of hydraulic limestone which, in 
southern Indiana, have been so extensively 
used in making natural rock cement. The 
Corniferous rock, when raised above the sur- 
face and added to the pre-existing land of 



the state, formed along the western margin 
of the latter an irregular strip five to forty 
miles in width, extending from the pres- 
ent bed of the Ohio river at Jeffersonville 
northward to the present site of Logansport 
and Monticello. North of the Wabash it 
has been found to be the surface rock in a 
number of the deep bores sunk for oil, but 
on account of the thick mantle of overlying 
drift, its exact limits are unknown. It is 
probable, however, that at the close of the 
Corniferous epoch a strip twenty miles or 
more in average width and extending nearly 
across the state was, in this region, raised 
above the floor of the old Devonian sea, 
to become a part of the permanent land of 
the future state. The south line of this strip 
ran through Whitley county from the east 
to the west in a north-westerly direction, 
putting all the county in the strip except a 
small part of Jefferson, a larger part of 
Washington and perhaps the half of Cleve 
land township, along the south side of the 

During the latter part of the Devonian 
Era those lowly acrogenous plants known as 
Rhizocarps flourished in vast numbers in the 
fresh waters and brackish marshes of the 
time, and their spores by countless millions 
of tons were carried out as sediment into the 
surrounding seas. Mingling with the mud 
and silt and sand, brought down by erosion 
from the rapidly increasing land surface, 
they formed those vast mud flats which 
have since, by age and pressure, been 
consolidated into the thick beds of brown 
and black, finely-laminated shales which 
form the rocks of the Genesee epoch 
in Indiana. At New Albany the outcrops 
•of this shale are 104 feet in thickness and 

especially prominent, so that the local name, 
"New Albany black shale," has been given 
it by geologists of the state. Along the 
western edge of the Corniferous limestone, 
this shale forms a continuous strip three to 
thirty-five miles in width, reaching from the 
present site of New Albany north and north- 
westerly to Delphi and Rensselaer. Over 
much of this strip it is covered by a thick 
mantle of drift, but everywhere within the 
area wells or the eroding streams have 
proven it to be the surface rock. The black 
shale has also, by deep bores, been found to 
be the rock immediately underlying the drift 
over much of the area embraced within the 
two northern tiers of counties in the state. 

The Genesee shale is rich in bitumens, de- 
rived from the spores of the ancient Rhizo- 
carps, which also give it color. When kin- 
dled, it will bum until they are consumed, 
and it is therefore, by the uninitiated, often 
mistaken for coal. These bitumens are, by 
natural processes, sometimes separated from 
the shale and in the form of gas or petro- 
leum are collected in reservoirs in it or in 
the underlying Corniferous limestone. 

During the thousands of centuries of 
the Devonian Period, a great advancement 
took place in the flora and fauna of the 
times, especially in the vegetation of the land 
and the development of the higher aquatic 
vertebrates. Among the acrogens growing 
on land, ground pines, tree ferns and equi- 
seta or horse-tails came into existence and 
flourished in vast numbers. Their remains 
are often found in the corniferous limestone, 
into the sediment of which they were drifted 
and preserved. The first Phanerogams, con- 
ifers of the yew and cycad families, were 
also evolved, their leaves and branches be- 



ing found in the upper or Hamilton beds 
of the Corniferous epoch. As the land 
plants increased in number and variety, in- 
sect life became more varied and numerous. 
Many Hies abounded and the first musicians 
of the earth appeared in the form of Or- 
thopterans which, by means of their shrilling 
organs, enlivened the solitudes of the strange 
old Devonian forests with their love calls 
and wooing notes. Among fishes, the Ga- 
noids and Selachians, of which our gar- 
pikes, sturgeons and sharks are degenerate 
descendants, reached the acme of their de- 
velopment ; while gigantic species of Dip- 
noans, or lung fishes, now only represented 
by the dog fish, or "John A. Grindle," 
abounded in the bays and bayous about the 
ancient Genesee flats. 

At the beginning of the Lower or Sub- 
Carboniferous Era, which followed the De- 
vonian in regular sequence, we find more 
than half of Indiana above the level of the 
sea. By the deposition and subsequent rais- 
ing of the rocks of the Corniferous and Gen- 
esee epochs, the gap between the large era 
of Niagara limestone in the eastern part 
of the state and the mainland to the north- 
westward had been filled, and that portion 
of the future Indiana became for the first 
time a part of the slowly growing North 
American continent. The rocks which were 
afterward added on its western side were 
deposited on the sloping floor of the Central 
Interior sea which stretched far away to 
the south-west, and they consequently have 
a notable dip in that direction. The lower- 
most stratum of the sub-carboniferous rocks 
in Indiana is a thin but very persistent bed of 
green i si i limestone, known as the Rock ford 
Goniatite limestone. It is but about two feet 

in thickness at its most notable outcrops, and 
hence forms but a very narrow area of the 
surface rocks of the state. It serves well, 
however, as a line of demarkation separating 
the Upper Devonian shales from the thick 
beds of Knobstone which represent one of 
the early and important epochs of Lower 
Carboniferous time. These Knobstone rocks 
consist at the base of a series of soft, bluish 
shale, which gradually become more arena- 
ceous or sandy, until toward their western 
horizon they merge into massive beds of im- 
pure grayish sandstone. The formation 
ranges in known thickness from 440 to 650 
feet. The name "Knobstone" was first 
given it by that eminent geologist, David 
Dale Owen, because its siliceous strata 
weather into those peculiar conical knobs or 
hills which are so prominent a feature of the 
topography in the southern unglaciated por- 
tion of its area. By the deposition and up- 
raising of the knobstone a strip of territory, 
three to thirty-eight miles in width, extend- 
ing from the Ohio river south-west to New 
Albany north and north-westerly to a point 
a few miles south of the present site of Rens- 
selaer, Jasper county, was added to the ex- 
isting land of the future state. Deep bores 
have also shown the knobstones to immedi- 
ately underlie the drift in a strip of varying 
width along the extreme northern border of 
the state. By its deposition and subsequent 
upraising over this area, all of the north- 
eastern portion of the state became for the 
first time dry land, and the waters of the 
Eastern Interior Sea were forever banished 
from the future Indiana. ( her much of the 
northern part of its main area in Indiana, the 
Knobstone is at present more or less covered 
by glacial debris, its strata being exposed 



only in the stream valleys. The shales of 
the basil or eastern third of its unglaciated 
portion are exceedingly adapted to the mak- 
ing of vitrified wares, as paving brick, sewer 
pipe, etc., as well as for the clay ingredient 
of Portland cement, though as yet their pos- 
sibilities of service for these products have 
been largely ignored. 

Following the Knobstone epoch came 
that of the Lower Carboniferous limestones. 
Four distinct horizons of these limestones 
are recognized in Indiana, namely : the Har- 
rodsburgh, Bedford, Mitchell and Huron, 
in the order named, each representing a dis- 
tinct period of deposition in the slowly re- 
treating Central Interior Sea. Their total 
thickness is nearly 600 feet, and together 
they form the surface rocks over an area 
forty miles wide on the Ohio river, but 
which gradually narrows northward until it 
disappears beneath the drift in the vicinity 
of Crawfordsville, Montgomery county. 

Of the four horizons, that of the Bed- 
ford is by far the most noted, since from it is 
obtained that famous Bedford or Indiana 
oolitic limestone which is now widely recog- 
nized as the finest building stone on the 
continent of America. It is mainly com- 
posed of the globular shells of microscopic 
foraminifera or Rhizopods, minute one- 
celled animal organisms, which must have 
swarmed in untold myriads in the sea waters 
of the time. The shells or cell walls of these 
animals were composed of a very pure car- 
bonate of lime, and when they died and sank 
on the old sea bottom these shells were ce- 
mented together by the same material. 
Under the lens they resemble a mass of fish 
eggs soldered together, hence the name 
oolitic, meaning like an egg. The Bedford 

stone is noted among architects for its 
strength and durability, and for the ease 
with which it may be sawed or carved into 
any desirable form. For many years it has 
ranked as one of the principal natural re- 
sources of the state. 

The Mitchell limestone overlying the 
oolitic is composed of a series of close- 
grained limestones, shales and cherts. Its 
outcrop, five to thirty miles in width, is a 
fairly level plateau which is pitted with a 
great number of sink holes, many of which 
form the openings into underground caverns 
and the beds of subterranean streams. The 
thick beds of Mitchell limestone taken in 
connection with the underlying Bedford and 
Harrodsburg limestones, afford a series of 
rocks which are more or less jointed, and 
therefore easily eroded- by underground 
waters. As a result, large caves, some of 
them possessing great vaulted rooms, deep 
pits, high water falls and streams of water 
large enough to allow the ready passage of 
a boat, are found throughout this area. All 
of these caves are due to the action of water, 
that greatest of nature's solvents and 
abraders, its work of a day, a year, a century 
upon the solid limestone not appreciable to 
the eye, yet by slow unceasing action 
through the ages which have elapsed since 
that limestone was raised above the sea, it 
has carved every room and passage, con- 
structed every pillar and stalagmite existing 
beneath the surface of southern Indiana. 

The Huron limestone or Huron group 
of rocks, represents in Indiana the latest 
epoch of the Lower Carboniferous Era. It 
is composed of three beds of limestone with 
two intervening beds of sandstone, their 
combined thickness being about 150 feet. 



The sandstones carry in places concretions 
of iron ore and thin beds of coal, the latter 
being the forerunners or harbingers of those 
vast veins of stored energy which, in south- 
ern Indiana, represent the Carboniferous 
and final era of Paleozoic time. 

The Carboniferous Era is noted as one 
of gentle oscillations in the surface of those 
shallow seas bordering the land, these caus- 
ing successive more or less wide emergen- 
cies and submergencies, the former favoring 
the growth of boundless forests and jungles, 
the latter burying the vegetable debris and 
other terrestrial accumulations beneath fresh 
water or marine deposits. During the era, 
that cryptogamous land vegetation which 
had sprung into existence in the Devonian 
Era. advanced with wonderful strides. The 
temperature was mild, the atmosphere moist 
and heavy laden with carbon dioxide. As 
a result, the vast lowland marshes were over- 
grown with great trees of Sigillaria, Lepi- 
dodendron and Calamites ; while at their 
base grew dense thickets of fern underbrush, 
inhabited only by insects and amphibians. 
For the first examples of the latter, evolved 
during this period from some mud-loving, 
fish-like creature, no flowering plant had as 
yet unfolded its petals, no bird had, as yet, 
winged its way through the buoyant air, no 
animal was, as yet, a denizen of earth or sea. 
rhose dim watery woodlands were flower- 
less, fruitless, songless, voiceless, unless the 
occasional shrill of a cricket or grasshopper 
could be called a song. Yet in the cells of 
the semi-aquatic plants and trees of those 
• ild forests, there was stored that heat which 
was destined in after ages to be freed by 
man and used in doing the work of the 
-world. The- rocks laid down during this 

era were alternating beds of sandstone, shale, 
clay and limestone with occasional beds of 
compressed vegetation which, during after 
centuries, has been changed into coal. The 
basal formation of the carboniferous era in 
Indiana, as generally elsewhere, is a bed of 
coarse-grained sandstone, known as the 
Mansfield sandstone or "Millstone Grit." It 
has a total thickness of 150 feet and forms 
the surface rock over a strip two to twenty- 
two miles in width, extending from the 
northern part of Warren county in an east 
of south direction to the Ohio river, a dis- 
tance of 175 miles. In Martin and Orange 
counties it occurs with an even, sharp grit, 
furnishing a most excellent material for 
whetstones and grindstones. 

Above this sandstone are the Productive 
and Barren Coal Measures, which comprise 
7,500 square miles of the land surface of 
the state. At the time of their deposition 
or formation, the area which they cover, as 
well as a large part of Illinois, was a great 
basin or depression, but little above the level 
of the sea and surrounded on every side ex- 
cept the southwestern by the higher lands 
of the older formations. By successive al- 
ternations of upheaval and subsidence, car- 
ried on through thousands of years, this de- 
pression was at times an area of the south- 
western sea, again a fresh water lake, and 
then, for a period, a vast swamp or marsh. 
When raised high enough to form a marsh, 
the luxuriant vegetation, above mentioned, 
sprang up from the ooze and mud at its bot- 
tom, flourished for centuries, the newer 
growths springing from between the fallen 
masses of the older, as in the peat bogs to- 
day, and so formed a mighty mass of car- 
bonaceous material. Bv subsidence, the 



level of the marsh was, in time, lowered until 
it became a lake into which rivers from the 
surrounding highlands flowed, bearing with 
them millions of tons of clayey sediment and 
disintegrated quartz, the remains of the 
older decayed rocks. This sediment was 
spread out over the mass of submerged vege- 
tation, compressing it into the hard, mineral 
coal ; the clayey sediment itself being in time 
compressed into vast beds of shale, and the 
particles of quartz into sandstone. In some 
places a more prolonged subsidence took 
place, sinking the floor of the lake below the 
level of the sea, and allowing the waters of 
the latter with their accompanying forms 
of marine life to flow in. In time beds of 
limestone were then formed over those of 
the shale or sandstone, but none of these 
cover an extensive area or are of great thick- 
ness. After each subsidence with its result- 
ing beds of coal, shale and sandstone or 
limestone, had taken place, an upheaval fol- 
lowed. The floor of sea or lake was again 
raised so near the surface that the semi- 
aquatic vegetation for a new coal seam 
could spring up and, in time, the processes 
above detailed were again undergone. Such, 
in brief, was the origin and formation of 
those five great veins of coal which form 
to-day the chief mineral wealth of our state, 
and of those vast beds of overlying shale 
which, in recent years, have come to be used 
for so many varied products. 

We have now traced the growth of the 
area comprising Indiana through Paleozoic 
time. We have seen how that area grad- 
ually appeared above old Ocean's rim. But 
it was not yet the Indiana of nature, the 
finished product of the ages ready for the 
advent of man. Centuries untold had yet to 

come and go before it was complete, centu- 
ries during which changes of momentous 
importance were to come and to pass, for as 
yet. no palm, no angiosperm or flowering 
plant with seeds, no osseous or common fish, 
no reptile, no bird, no mammal had come to 
be upon the surface of the earth. All these 
were evolved from pre-existing forms dur- 
ing the age or era immediately succeeding 
the carboniferous or final period of Paleozoic 
time. This age is known as that of the 
Mesozoic or Middle Time, represented by 
the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous eras. 
For our purpose there may be combined with 
these eras the Tertiary of Cenozoic or recent 

During the myriads of years ascribed to 
these eras, while vast changes were taking 
place in other parts of the American conti- 
nent, the surface of Indiana probably all 
remained above sea level. On it there grew 
the plants and over it there doubtless roamed, 
in their turn, the animals of each successive 
era, but as its surface was above the sea, 
they left no fossil bone or foot-print to tell 
us of their presence. All this time, however, 
the silent processes of nature were unceasing 
in their labor, and wrought great changes 
in the surface of the future state. Decay 
and erosion were in action then as they are 
to-day. Sunshine and rain, wind and frost, 
trickling rills and strong streams were ever 
at work, softening and sculpturing and wear- 
ing down the exposed rocks, forming clays 
and sand and gravel and bearing them away 
to lowel levels. At the close of the Tertiary 
Era, the entire surface of what is now In- 
diana resembled that of to-day in the drift- 
less area of its southern part, being cut up 
by erosion into a complex net work of 



valleys, ridges and isolated hills. In certain 
portions of the northern half great streams, 
of which there are now no surface indica- 
tion, had worn their channels a half mile in 
width, two hundred feet or more down into 
the solid Niagara limestone. The Ohio 
river valley, a trench from one to six miles 
wide and four hundred feet deep, was mainly 
eroded during this period, as was also the 
greater portion of the Wabash valley, from 
Columbia City to the mouth of the Wabash. 
Everywhere over the surface was a thin soil, 
formed from decaying rocks and vegetation, ■ 
poorer, perhaps, than much of that which 
at present covers the surface of the drift- 
less area, where the underlying limestones 
and shales have been the parent rock. In this 
soil grew the cedar and the sassafras, the 
willow and the maple, the oak and the beech, 
while over its surface spread many of the 
coarser grasses, sedges and mosses of the 
present day. 

During these long periods of erosion and 
decay, mild climate conditions had prevailed. 
But near the close of the Tertiary a change 
in these conditions came gradually to pass, a 
change which was most sweeping and far- 
reaching in its final results. For some, as 
vet unknown reason, the mean annual- tem- 
perature of the northern hemisphere became 
much lower. The climate of the regions 
to the east and south of Hudson Bay be- 
came similar to that of Greenland of to-day. 
or even colder, The snow, ever falling. 
never melting, accumulated during hundreds 
of centuries in one vast field of enormous 
thickness. Near the bottom of this mass a 
plastic, porous sort of ice was gradually 
formed from the snow by the pressure from 
above. This ice mass or glacier took upon 

itself a slow, almost imperceptible motion 
to the south or south-westward, until it cov- 
ered three-fourths or more of what is now 
Indiana. As it moved slowly southward, 
great masses of partly decayed rock and clay 
from hillsides and jutting cliffs rolled down 
upon it and were carried on and on until, 
by the melting of their icy steed, they were 
dropped hundreds of miles from the parent 
ledge. Large irregular masses of rock 
from the region in which the glacier was 
formed were either frozen into its nether 
portion or rolled along beneath it, and as 
the ice sheet moved they served as great 
stone drags, grinding down and smoothing 
off the hills and ridges and filling up the 
valleys, until the irregular, uneven surface 
of the old preglacial rocks was planed and 

From the strata formed by these im- 
prisoned boulders and from other evidence 
which it is difficult to otherwise explain, 
it is now believed that there were several 
distinct epochs in the glacial period. The 
great ice sheet, which was at first formed, 
several times advanced and as often, by an 
increase of the temperature of the region 
which it entered, melted and receded ; its 
retreat or recession being each time as grad- 
ual as its advance had been. Like a great 
army which has attempted the invasion of a 
country and has been compelled to withdraw, 
it would again assemble its forces and start 
in a slightly different direction. But, per- 
chance, before it had reached the limit of its 
former invasion, a force of circumstances 
would render a retreat necessary. Its ad- 
vancing margin was thus not in a straight 
line, but in lobes, or long, gradual curves. 

When the first ice sheet reached its great- 



est advance into the region now comprising 
Indiana, the ice was at least 500 or 600 feet 
deep over the present site of Terre Hante 
and nearly as deep over that of Indianapolis, 
and it thickened gradually northward, reach- 
ing .a depth of perhaps 700 feet over present 
Whitley county. If an observer could have 
stood on one of the hills in Brown county 
•at that time, he would have seen to the east 
of him the great wall of the ice front extend- 
ing south toward Kentucky, while toward 
the west it would have been seen in the dis- 
tance stretching away toward the south- 
west. For hundreds of miles to the east 
and west, and for 2,000 miles or more to 
the north, the glaring, white desert of snow- 
covered ice, like that seen in the interior of 
Greenland by Nansen and Peary, would 
have appeared, stretching away out of sight, 
with not a thing under the sun to relieve its 
cold monotony. 

By the incursions of the various ice 
sheets, all the so-called "drift soils" of north- 
ern and central Indiana were accumulated 
where thev lie. Derived, as they were, in 
part, from the various primary and igneous 
rocks in the far north, ground fine and thor- 
oughly mixed as they were by the onward 
moving force of a mighty glacier, they are 
unusually rich in all the necessary constitu- 
ents of plant food. Principally to them does 
Indiana owe her present high rank as an 
agricultural state. All the level and more 
fertile counties lie within this drift covered 
area, and its southern limit marks, practical- 
ly, the boundary of the great corn and wheat 
producing portion of the state. But few of 
the present inhabitants of Indiana realize 
how much they owe to this glacial invasion 
of our domain in the misty past. It not only 
determined the character of the soil, the 

contour of the country and the minor lines 
of drainage, but in manifold other ways had 
to do with the pleasure, the health and the 
general prosperity of the present popula- 

When the final ice sheet gradually re- 
ceded from the area now comprising In- 
diana, the surface of the glaciated portion 
was left covered with a sheet of drift or till 
composed mainly of clay, gravel and bould- 
ers, and varying in thickness from 100 to 
400 feet or more. Over the greater portion 
of this area the surface of the drift was 
comparatively level, but in the northern 
fourth of the state it was in numerous places 
heaped up in extensive ridges and hills, due 
to irregular dumping along the margins and 
between the lobes of the melting ice sheets. 
In the hollows or low places between those 
ridges and hills, the waters of the melting- 
ice accumulated and formed those hundreds 
of fresh water lakes which are to-day the 
most beautiful and expressive features of 
the landscape in the region wherein they 
abound. At first, all of those yet in exist- 
ence were much larger than now, while for 
everyone remaining a score have become 

A new vegetation soon sprang up over 
the land left desolate and barren by the 
retreating ice. The climate gradually be- 
came much warmer than it is to-day. The . 
great expanse of water in lakes and rivers, 
aided by the increase in temperature, gave 
rise to excessive moisture. Fostered by the 
rich soil and the mild, moist atmosphere, a 
vast forest of deciduous trees spread over 
the larger portion of the state. Through 
this forest and about the margins of the 
lakes and marshes, there wandered for cen- 
turies the mammoth and mastodon, the giant 



bison and the elk, the tapir and the peccary, 
the mighty sloth and that king of rodents. 
Castoroides ohioensis. Preying upon these 
and smaller mammals, were the great Amer- 
ican lion, and tigers and wolves of mam- 
moth size. The bones and teeth of all these 
species of extinct animals have been found 
buried beneath the surface of former bogs 
and marshes, in various portions of the 
state. It is not improbable that with them 
was also that higher mammal, man, in all 
the nakedness of his primitive existence. 
But over this phase in the evolution of the 
future Indiana, there came again a change, 
for nature knows no such thing as rest. 
The o-reat rivers which had borne south and 

south-westwardly the floods and debris of 
the melting glaciers, gradually diminished 
in size and filled but a small portion of their 
former valleys. Extensive shallow lakes in 
the north-western part of our present area 
gave way to marshes and these, in time, to- 
wet prairies, possessing a rich black soil 
derived largely from the decay of aquatic 
vegetation. The climate gradually grew 
less moist, more cool. The mammoth, mas- 
todon and contemporaneous mammals dis- 
appeared, and in their stead came countless 
thousands of buffaloes and deer. With them, 
came too, that son of nature, that descendant 
of the naked barbarians of centuries before, 
the noble red man. 


Whitley county originally comprised 
townships 30. 31, and 32 in each of the 
ranges 8. 9 and 10 east of the second prin- 
cipal meridian in Indiana, government sur- 
vey, or a territory eighteen miles square, 
containing nine congressional townships. 
each six miles square, a total area of 324 
square miles. To this was later added the 
south third of congressional township 33, 
range 8 (Washington civil township, No- 
ble county), making its present area 336 
square miles. This territory is entirely oc- 
cupied by the great Saginaw Erie interlobate 
moraine, two members of which are dis- 
tinguishable within its limits, the outer or 
third and fourth Erie moraines. The crest 
of this morainic system forming the water 
shed between the Tippecanoe and Eel rivers, 
passes through Troy and Thorncreek town- 
ships, thus leaving the greater part of the 

county upon the Erie side. Topographers 
locate the western line of the Maumee River 
Basin along Eel river, placing all of the 
county east of that stream within that great 
valley. This is not technically correct but 
is used for want of an accurate line laid 
down by engineers. The only recorded bor- 
ings of considerable depth into the earth 
are at Larwill and Columbia City, made 
about the year 1886; a later boring about 
the year 1904, at Larwill, confirms the 
former. These borings pass through about 
220 feet of drift, and its thickness can not 
be much less in any part of the county ex- 
cept in the south-east corner of the county 
where it touches the Wabash-Erie channel. 
Perhaps nowhere else in the whole north- 
west, within equal limits, does the surface 
of the drift present aspects so strongly 
marked and contrasted in character ; yet no- 



where else in the state is it more difficult to 
differentiate and correlate the various mem- 
bers of the morainic system. There are at 
least five distinct topographical types which 
agree only in strong features, limited area 
and confused arrangement. These will be 
described and afterward an attempt will be 
made to arrange them in accordance with 
the general plan of the morainic system of 
north-eastern Indiana. 

In the townships of Washington, Jeffer- 
son and the southern third of Union, the sur- 
face is best described by the word flat. It 
forms a part of the great level plain of 
east central Indiana, except that in the south- 
east corner of Jefferson township, near the 
old Wabash-Erie canal the surface is much 
broken, equal to the most rugged parts in 
the north and western part of the county, 
while generally in this flat part of the county 
the slopes are sufficient for drainage, they 
are usually imperceptible to the eye, and can 
be determined only by the general course 
of the streams. The surface resembles that 
of a sheet of paper which has been wet and 
dried, the depressions and elevations having 
very slight relief and no definite boundaries. 
The concavities are perceptible only because 
the water stands in them like puddles on a 
flat tin roof. The only relief from un- 
broken monotony is afforded by the chan- 
nels of the streams, which have been eroded 
to a considerable depth and which grow 
deeper as the stream descends towards its 
mouth. The marshes, now almost eradi- 
cated by drainage, are like a platter having 
only an insignificant depth and no definite 
margins. The soil contains very few bould- 
ers and requires understanding to realize 
its full fertility. It is a part of that enor- 


mous mass of fine mud, which, as the ice 
melted, settled quietly to the bottom of the 
glaciers and is known as ground moraine. 
From this region, several streams flow east 
and south and south-west, all toward the 
Wabash-Erie channel. Indian creek and 
Big Indian creek flow in parallel courses 
eastward to join the Aboite, just above its 
mouth in Allen county. Where they enter 
the Aboite valley, they are bordered by bluffs 
forty to fifty feet high. Along the southern 
boundary are the headwaters of Calf creek 
and Clear creek, which flow south through 
Huntington county to the Little Wabash, 
commonly known as Little river. Out of 
the marshes of northern Washington and 
north-west Jefferson townships. Sugar creek 
and Stony creek wind sluggishly westwardly 
to join Eel river. Both these streams have 
been opened up of late years by county 
ditches, adding untold wealth to the agri- 
culture of that region. The drainage of 
Sugar creek, with its numerous branches, 
caused a great deal of litigation, and the 
work was not systematically done, but was 
of untold value and increased the value of 
the real estate very much. The perfecting 
of this drainage is now being agitated, which 
will make it of more value than any other 
system of drainage in the county, not even 
considering the dredging of old Eel river. 

This whole region seems characterized 
chiefly by its want of character. A slight 
but perceptible ridge along the east tier of 
sections in Washington forms the water 
shed between the Indian and Calf creeks on 
the east and Clear creek and the Eel river 
tributaries on the west. In summing up the 
results of the survey, this ridge is found to 
possess more importance than its appearance 



seems to warrant. Passing west into the 
southern part of Cleveland township, a 
marked change is discernible. Here the sur- 
face is no longer Hat, but corrugated with 
gently sloping ridges which are elevated 
above the general level and extend north- 
east and south-west. These ridges grow 
successively higher to a summit two to four 
miles east of the west county line, whence 
they fall away more rapidly to the Eel river 
valley in Wabash county. Hurricane creek 
and other small streams cut across them 
almost at right angles and flow westward 
through deep channels. These ridges are 
also pitted with frequent kettle holes. 

At the west line of the county, the sandy 
and gently undulating valley of Eel river 
is encountered, here about one mile wide, 
the slopes on either side being gradual and 
without bluffs. In the four or five miles 
of its course, east of South Whitley, the 
river flows at the bottom of a much deeper 
and narrower valley. The hills upon either 
side rise to a greater height and have more 
abrupt slopes. In section i, township 30. 
range 8. two very curious depressions ex- 
tend back from the river into the hills. One 
is narrow and over a half mile long, the 
other smaller, but separated from the first 
by a narrow ridge like a canal tow-path. 
They are now occupied by swamps, but were 
originally lakes exactly similar to some of 
those in the northern part of the county. 
They are the southernmost specimens of 
morainic or kettle-hole lakes to be found 
upon the Erie side of the Saginaw-Erie sys- 
tem. The ridges of Cleveland township 
form a part of the Mississinewa or fourth 
Erie moraine, through which Eel river, fol- 
lowing the example of so many other 

streams in this region, here cuts transversely. 
In the north-west half of Columbia and 
the east half of Richland townships, the 
fourth moraine assumes a character which 
words are powerless to picture. The coun- 
try is entirely occupied by deep, irregular, 
elongated valleys with narrow sharp wind- 
ing ridges between, all in inextricable, in- 
describable and almost unmapable confusion. 
In a somewhat extensive study of the great 
morainic belts of North America, by per- 
sonal observation and published reports. 
Prof. Charles Dryer says he has never seen 
or found described anything nearly resem- 
bling this area. It covers in all about forty 
square miles and the greatest distance of 
level probably does not exceed 100 feet, yet 
this little patch of the earth's surface is 
unique. The roads through it were origi- 
nally very crooked to avoid the marshes and, 
though somewhat improved by drainage and 
good graveling, will always remain of the 
crooked type. In whatever direction one 
travels, it is one continuous succession of 
steep descents and ascents. The ridges are 
composed of rather barren clay and the val- 
leys occupied originally by marshes and tam- 
arack swamps. The relief might be imitated 
by taking a block of plastic clay and gouging 
it with some blunt instrument in the most 
irregular manner possible, somewhat as the 
ancient Babylonians did their bricks. It is 
one of nature's cuneiform inscriptions, and 
as difficult of interpretation as those of the 
Euphrates valley. This type of topography 
may he called chasmed. It is now impossi- 
ble to imagine with any definiteness of de- 
tail the process by which this little bit of 
the face of the earth was put in its present 
shape. Another strange peculiarity, is that 




a country which so abounds in depressions 
is almost devoid of lakes. This condition 
continues to and beyond the west line of 
Richland township to about the center, north 
and south, or the entire west side of town- 
ship 31, range 8. 

Black lake, section 27, and Wilson lake, 
section 35, township 32, range 8, lie upon 
the north-western border of this region. 
The former originally covered about forty 
acres, is shallow and almost free from vege- 
tation. An unusually high and precipitous 
ridge separates the two. From these lakes 
Spring creek flows southward through the 
chasms to Eel river near South Whitley. 
North of the middle of Richland township, 
the surface smoothes out, decidedly retain- 
ing similar features in a much milder form, 
and may be called gently sloping. This 
comparatively smooth interval extends west- 
ward nearly to the county line, and to the 
north occupies the greater part of Troy and 
Etna townships. Although the contrast be- 
tween the precipitous chasms on the east 
and the gentle undulations on the west is 
very strong, it is impossible to draw more 
than an approximate line. The village of 
Larwill is situated upon this boundary, 
which extends thence south-ward and south- 
west and toward the north-east, passing be- 
tween Loon and Crooked lakes. On the 
west side of the interval and in Kosciusko 
county, the surface becomes again tumbled 
and broken, assuming the usual characters 
of a moraine. This type of typography, 
which may be fitly designated as crumpled, 
touches Whitley county near Robinson lake, 
section 18, Troy township. This lake with 
an original area of about 150 acres has an 
average depth of thirty feet and a maximum 

of fifty-two feet near the south-west end. 
It is drained north-westward into the Tip- 
pecanoe. Etna township and the northern 
part of Troy have the appearance of an 
elevated tableland, a smooth plain, not level, 
but slightly inclined to the west. Ridges 
and gorges are wholly absent. It is a coun- 
try of long, gentle slopes and wide vistas, 
from which woods beyond fields may be seen 
stretching away to a horizon dim in the 
distance. It is remarkable that this com- 
paratively level interval should be found 
upon the very crest of the Saginaw-Erie 
interlobate moraine, the slopes on either side 
being much more rough and irregular. Like 
the valley of Upper Pigeon creek in Steuben 
county, and a portion of north-western De 
Ivalb county, it looks as though it once might 
have been a wide and deep valley, subse- 
quently filled by overwash from either side. 
This impression is made stronger by the fact 
that in both cases the interval is found to 
contain extensive sand streams. The one 
described as lying south of Fremont, Steuben 
county, is matched by the deposits of sand 
south and west of Loon lake, sections t and 
2, Troy. 

In Whitley county the interval contains 
several lakes. Cedar lake, sections 10 and 
11, Troy, originally of about 150 acres, has 
been lowered ten feet by a ditch and has a 
sand beach nearly all around it, in some 
places ten rods wide. The deepest place 
found is forty-five feet. Goose lake, in sec- 
tion 12, resembles Cedar, but is only about 
half as large. In this region also is Loon 
lake, one of the largest in the county. It 
occupies parts of sections 36, Etna ; 1, Troy ; 
and 6, Thorncreek; and about one-half its 
area is comprised in Noble county. It is 



broadly bottle-shaped, with a short neck 
to the north, one mile and a quarter long 
by a half mile wide. The shores are low 
but clean, without marsh except at the north 
and south ends. The water is so clear that 
the bottom can be distinctly seen at depths 
of thirty or forty feet. Between the south 
shore and a small island, depths of thirty- 
five or forty feet are found. From the island 
a gravel bar covered with small boulders 
extends westward. The main body of the 
lake has a depth varying but little from 
seventy feet. One sounding north-west of 
the island reached the very unusual figure of 
1 02 feet, thus placing Loon lake among the 
list of the deepest lakes in the state. Tribu- 
tary to Loon lake are Old lake and New 
lake, each of about eighty acres, the latter 
interesting from the fact that within a few 
years it has been drained and diminished to 
one-half its size. The wide beach of sand 
and shells are almost bare of vegetation, but 
the little lobelia Kalmii is rapidly taking 
possession, with only Lysiwachia ciliata and 
Cassia Marilandica for competitors. The 
country around these lakes is moderately 
uneven, but its irregularity is not at all com- 
parable with that of the regions on the east 
and west of it. The lake basins are great 
depressions in a surface otherwise compara- 
tively smooth. 

The remainder of Whitley county, in- 
cluding the townships of Thorncreek and 
Smith and the portions of Columbia and 
Union, present the usual features of 
crumpled moraine topography in moderate 
strength and great variety. It is divided 
diagonally from north-east to south-west by 
the valley of Blue river, which here serves 
to separate the third and fourth Erie mo- 

raines. The latter contains a group of lakes, 
which for beauty and general attractiveness- 
may challenge comparison with any of their 
Indiana rivals. Shriner, Cedar and Round 
in Thorncreek, are as pretty a trio of lakes 
as one can wish to see. They occupy paral- 
lel valleys separated by slight ridges. On 
these ridges are several cottages, and the 
whole is one of the most picturesque regions 
to be found anywhere. Shriner is a mile 
and a quarter long by a quarter wide. Its 
level was lowered many years ago by a ditch 
cut through the ridge to Round lake. The 
stream connecting the two rivals the most 
beautiful trout streams of the mountains. 
The cutting of this ditch was the occasion 
for one of the early cases of litigation in 
the county. The present shores of Shriner 
lake are remarkably clean and present many 
most beautiful landing places. The water 
from the shores deepens rapidly and is very 
clear. At either end the banks are low, at 
the east very sandy, at the west marshy, 
while along the central part on either side 
are beautiful high bluffs covered by native 
forest trees. The depth varies from forty- 
five to seventy feet. 

Cedar is much like Shriner but more ir- 
regular. The lower fourth is separated 
from the main body by narrows. Its level 
was raised by a dam at the same time Shrin- 
er's was lowered and the shallow space thus 
gained is entirely occupied by aquatic vege- 
tation, chiefly nuphar. These two lakes 
furnish an illustration of the law that lower- 
ing a lake leaves clean shores and raising it 
results in the formation of a marshy border. 
The depth of Cedar lake varies from forty- 
five to seventy-nine feet in the center of the 
upper basin. Round lake occupies an area 



of about 1 60 acres, lies at the same level as 
Cedar, connected by the strait or ditch 
already described. Its axis is at right angles 
with that of Cedar and its depth thirty-five 
to sixty feet. These lakes are drained 
through Thorncreek into Blue river. 

Separated from the west end of Cedar 
by a divide a quarter of a mile across and 
twenty-five or thirty feet high is Crooked 
lake, which empties westward into the Tippe- 
canoe river. Its axis continues the general 
direction of Shriner and Cedar, south-east 
and north-west, but it is nearly as large as 
the other two and much more irregular in 
outline and bottom. The upper basin is small 
and partially separated from the central by 
a narrow gravel ridge. The central basin 
is half a mile in diameter and near its center 
is found among the deepest soundings ever 
made in an Indiana lake: 107 feet. The 
lower end extends into Noble county. The 
shores are* clean and gravelly and the hills 
on either side probably form the highest 
ground in Whitley county. The group of 
lakes comprising Shriner's, Round, Cedar 
and Crooked, furnish five or six miles of 
boating and offer attractions for the camper, 
sportsman, fisherman and artist, such as are 
equaled by few places in the state. 

Blue River Valley contains one lake 
which is distinguished as being inter-mo- 
rainic rather than intra-morainic. Blue 
River lake, in sections 9, 10, 15 and 16, 
Smith, has a basin one-half mile by a mile 
and a half, with low shores and a very uni- 
form depth of forty to fifty-five feet. 
Aquatic vegetation in great variety and pro- 
fusion furnishes a botanist's paradise. The 
shores are nearly surrounded by a broad belt 
of plants arranged in distinct zones, accord- 

ing to the depth of the water. On ap- 
proaching the shore, the first zone appears 
at depths between six and eight feet and con- 
sists of Brasenia, Potamogeton, species with 
filiform leaves being very abundant, Utricu- 
laria and Myriophyllum. At a depth of 
four feet, Nuphar covers the water with its 
leaves, the spaces between being filled with 
a dense mass of Chara covered with a mantle 
of Lemna. Here navigation becomes diffi- 
cult. At a depth of three feet Pontederia 
appears with Polygonum Amphibium. At 
two feet the water passes gradually into a 
jungle of Decodon. Typha, Polygonum 
nodosum, Phragmites and Salix, passable 
only by birds and reptiles. This lake is the 
only locality in north-eastern Indiana where 
the splendid Nelumbo lutea occurs, and here 
it is as abundant as Nymphse. Flowers 
are difficult to procure because they are 
gathered by numerous visitors as fast as 
they open, but the leaves rolled up and rock- 
ing like a boat, or expanded into an orbicu- 
lar shield twenty to thirty inches in diameter 
and flapping in the wind, present an inter- 
esting and attractive sight. The water in 
mid-summer has the appearance of muddy 
coffee, and through the whole season teems 
with plant and animal life. Such a lake 
as this would repay a thorough and pro- 
longed biological examination and would 
furnish the naturalist with material enough 
for several years' study. Here also the 
artist finds a rich and unworked field. He 
would transfer to his sketch book the dark, 
glossy green, triangular leaves and showy 
purple spikes of the pickerel weed, the sym- 
metrical oval crimson shields of Brazenia, 
the boat-bell shaped saucers of the Nelumbo, 
the Victoria regia of the North, the grace- 



ful dignity of the reed grass, the swaying 
stems and densely whorled capillary leaves 
of the water milfoil and numberless forms 
of Chara, pond weed, and bladderwort, 
which would be new to decorative art, and 
in place of the conventional cat-tail and 
pond-lilly, would astonish and delight not 
only the natives but the world. 

The lakes of Whitley county are not nu- 
merous, but they include some of the bright- 
est gems of their class; delightful to the 
sportsman, the naturalist, the artist and the 
lover of nature in her most charming aspects. 

The surface of Smith township and the 
greater part of Union is greatly undulating, 
of a subdued morainic type. The long 
slopes, large fields and open forests, give to 
many portions of it the appearance of an 
English park. Around Coesse it is more ir- 
regular, with sharper ridges and numerous 
tamarack swamps. Southern Union, north- 
ern Jefferson and north-eastern Washington 
are very flat. Mud creek is very nearly 
the dividing line between the flat and the 
crumpled country. One feature of this re- 
gion, not in itself obtrusive, is of special 
significance to the geologist. A mild 
boulder belt can be traced from section 34, 
Smith, in a south-west direction to section 
32, Union, beyond which it is lost in the 
thickly wooded swamps. It is about seven 
miles long and from a half mile to a mile 
in width, with well defined edges and as un- 
mistakable as a highway. The boulders 
are chiefly granite, rounded and sub-angular, 
averaging two or three feet in diameter, and 
the largest twice that size. This belt bears 
directly toward the divide in sections 35 
and 36, Washington, where also boulders 
are large and numerous. This line extended 

southward would pass near the city of 
Huntington where the immense accumula- 
tion of boulders has long been a puzzle to 
geologists. W'hether a distinct boulder belt 
exists in northern Huntington county has 
not yet been determined. 

The drainage system of Whitley county 
does not conform, except in the most general 
way, to the chief topographical features. 
The great divide between the tributaries of 
Eel river and the Tippecanoe, in the north- 
western part of the county, is a compara- 
tively level table land; in fact an interval 
between the Saginaw moraine in Kosciusko 
county and the fourth or outer Erie moraine. 
Through the valleys and gorges of the latter 
flow the north-western tributaries of Blue 
and Eel rivers. The principal drainage line 
of the region of Blue river, which rises near 
Avilla, Noble county, and passes through 
a tortuous and varied course to its junction 
with the Eel, in section 23. Columbia. Most 
of the way it has occupied a channel much 
too big for it, bordered by a marsh a quarter 
of a mile wide, but in some portions, as at 
Columbia City, the valley is no wider than 
the stream. The dredging of this river 
through the north-eastern part of the county 
recently and the completion of the same at 
this writing, to its mouth, has left Blue river 
but a big ditch and much straightened. The 
wide parts of this valley are undoubted frag- 
ments of a once continuous glacial drainage 
channel, or system of channels, from one 
to another of which the present river has 
cut its way in past glacial times. In doing 
so, it has left here and there an old bayou 
at one side, the largest of which is the marsh 
extending from the bend of the river in 
section 17, Smith township, southward two 



miles. The valley of Blue river marks the 
interval between the third and fourth Erie 

Eel river rises in the interval between the 
second and third Erie moraines in north- 
western Allen county and flows across the 
third moraine to the mouth of the Blue. 
Thus far it is geologically a younger and less 
important stream than the latter. Three 
miles below their junction in section 32, 
Columbia, the united streams turn west- 
ward and cut directly through the fourth 
moraine, after passing which, they resume 
their original south-westerly direction. 

The following is from the seventeenth 
report of the Indiana state geologist : "The 
first and second Erie moraines have already 
been described in a previous report under 
the name of the St. Mary's and St. Joseph 
and Wabash-Aboit moraines. Since that 
report was submitted, two more morainic 
lines have been distinguished north of the 
Wabash river, as belonging to the Erie sys- 
tem and corresponding to similar lines south. 
of the Wabash. The existence of these 
moraines, and the general plan of the system, 
was indicated and outlined in the previous 
report (Sixteenth Report, P. 123-4). A 
private letter from Mr. Frank Leverett, of 
the United States geological survey, who is 
engaged upon an extensive examination of 
the drift of Illinois, Indiana and Ohio, con- 
firms and supplements the predictions there 
made in a very gratifying manner. The 
third or Salamonie moraine follows the right 
bank of the Salamonie river through the 
counties of Jay, Blackford and Wells into 
the south-eastern part of Huntington count}'. 
According to Leverett its features are weak, 
irregular and discontinuous. The fourth or 

Mississinewa moraine follows the right bank 
of the Mississinewa river through the coun- 
ties of Jay, Delaware, Blackford and Grant 
into the eastern part of Wabash, where ac- 
cording to the same authority it is very 
strong, crossing the Wabash river at Lagro 
and passing northward to the south-east cor- 
ner of Whitley county. The counties of 
Steuben, Lagrange. Noble. Dekalb, Whitley 
and Kosciusko have long been known to be 
occupied by a broad and strong-featured 
mass of drift, the joint product of a tongue 
of ice proceeding from Saginaw Bay and 
another thrust forward from Lake Erie and 
known as the Saginaw-Erie interlobate mo- 
raine. From this great mass it has been 
the privilege of the writer to distinguish 
and separate two morainic lines, forming 
continuations of the Salamonie and Missis- 
sinewa ridges. While the work of differ- 
entiation and correlation has been in some 
places difficult, in others it has been so easy 
as to leave no doubt in regard to the general 
conclusions. South of the Wabash river, 
the Erie moraines are separated by intervals 
of ten to fifteen miles, while north of that 
river, owing to the obstruction offered by 
the Saginaw glacier, they are so crowded 
together as to be almost contiguous. While 
it is thus rendered impossible to fix then- 
exact dividing lines throughout their whole 
extent, certain features here and there are so 
obvious and suggestive as to be unmistak- 
able. The third moraine extends from the 
north-eastern comer of the state through 
eastern Steuben and north-western Dekalb, 
the south-eastern corner of Noble, the north- 
western corner of Allen and the eastern part 
of Whitley counties. In the south-eastern 
part of the latter county, it ceases to be a 



prominent topographical feature, but is rep- 
resented by a mild boulder belt. The in- 
terval between the third and fourth moraines 
is, in Steuben county, from three to six- 
miles wide, but in Dekalb county the two 
moraines are contiguous and undistinguish- 
able. Tn Noble and Whitley counties they 
are very close together, but separated by the 
valley of Blue river. The fourth moraine 
is very strong in north central Steuben and 
the line of demarkation between the Erie and 
Saginaw drift is very distinct. In south- 
western Steuben and in Noble county, this 
line, if it exists, has not been determined. 
In Whitley county a level interval of three 
or four miles bounds the outer Erie moraine 
on the west. The present divide between 
the basins of Lake Erie and Lake Michigan 
lies in Steuben county, between the third and 
fourth moraines, in Dekalb and Noble coun- 
ties, along the crest of the fourth, while in 
Whitley county the divide between the Eel 
river and the Tippecanoe lies in the interval 
outside of the fourth. The following tables, 
gleaned from various sources, give a general 
idea of the elevations of these moraines : 

Elevations of the Salomonie or third 
Erie moraine: 

One mile north of Reading, Hillsdale 

county, Mich 1,220 

Ray (Michigan and Indiana line) . . . 1,073 

Fish Lake, Steuben county, Ind 887 

Summil Station, Dekalb county, Ind. 1,001 
Summit west of Corunna, Dekalb 

county, Ind 991 

Swan. Noble county, Ind 905 

Potter's, Noble and Allen counties, 

Ind 881 

Churubusco, Whitley county, Ind. . . 899 

Summit near Coesse, Whitley county, 

Ind 877 

Huntington, Huntington county, Ind. 741 

Plateau south of Huntington 813 

Keystone, Wells county, Ind 895 

Summit west of Portland, Jay county, 

Ind 955 

New Bremen, Mercer county, Ohio. . 1,038 

St. John's, Auglaize county, Ohio. . 1,063 

Elevations on the Mississinewa or 
fourth Erie moraine : 


Fremont, Steuben county M4 2 

Angola 1 ,052 

Summit, three miles south of Kendall- 

ville 1,017 

Columbia City 837 

South Whitley 805 

Divide between Eel and Wabash 

rivers, Wabash county 829 

La Gro, Wabash county 698 

A confusion of these elevations with 
those of the first and second Erie moraines 
given in the sixteenth report of the state 
geologist, pages 115 to 122, shows the same 
general descent in each, from the extremities 
toward the apex and a progressive eleva- 
tion of the extremities and a depression of 
the apices from the first to the fourth. The 
first and second are composed of the same 
material as the general ground moraine of 
the region, a stiff, gravelly clay, kettle holes, 
lakes, domes, peaks and the usual features 
of moraine topography being almost wholly 
absent. The third and fourth, north of the 
Wabash river, contain large masses of sand 
and gravel and present all the peculiar mo- 
rain ic characters in strong development. 



In north-eastern Indiana the story of the 
advance, the struggle and the retreat of the 
glaciers is .written in characters so plain 
that he who runs may read. 

The borings for gas or oil at Larwill 
and Columbia City are as follows : 

Columbia City.. 224 526 400 217 40 

Larwill 220 565 512 250 82 

No gas or oil were found in either. At 
Columbia City a strong flow of excellent 
water with a temperature of forty-five de- 
grees F. 




The early claims of European monarchs 
to large portions of the western continent 
were based upon first discoveries by their 
subjects, and were maintained upon very 
slender threads of fact interwoven with su- 
perstitious fancy. Boundaries were hardly 
approximately defined, and such terms as 
headwaters, portage, tide water, fort, Indian 
villages and residences of white or red 
men. were described in early records as 
monuments from which lines ran. Many of 
them were run by parallels' extending in- 
definitely into the undiscovered, unexplored 
and unknown. The country was so vast, wild 
and unknown, lakes, rivers and mountains 
so mythical and indefinite, that there were 
no facts upon which to base contentions and 
no one to raise dispute. It will never be 
known to a certainty when the foot of white 
man first pressed the soil of Whitley county, 
or who that white man was. 

La Salle established himself as a trader 
with the Indians in Canada, in 1669. As 
grew his business, so grew his ambitions as 
an explorer. He conceived the plan of 
seeking a northwest passage to the Pacific. 

that is, to a sea he felt must lie beyond the 
land, and he believed not far off. He sup- 
posed Lake Superior near that sea, if indeed 
not an arm of it extending into the land. 

Frontenac, governor-general of Canada, 
joined in the golden dream, and gave en- 
couragement to an exploring expedition to 
find the sea, but before it had gotten under 
way the west shore of Lake Michigan was 
discovered and explored as far as present 
Chicago. Marquette discovered the Missis- 
sippi and navigated it far to the south, re- 
turning by way of the east shore of Lake 
Michigan, in 1673. These things caused 
explorations to be made into the interior, 
and La Salle found and descended the Ohio, 
and we have reason to believe was in north- 
ern Indiana in 1671. Marquette ascer- 
tained by his voyage that the Mississippi 
emptied into the sea far beyond the claims 
of Spanish territory, and that it could be 
reached by way of Green Bay and the Wis- 
consin river by a short portage or by way 
of Lake Michigan and the Illinois river by 
way of the Chicago portage. La Salle 
learned also that it could be reached easily 



by the St. Joseph and Kankakee rivers, by 
means of a short portage at South Bend, 
and believed other streams could be found 
by way of the tributaries of the Ohio much 
farther east. He was dazzled with the hope 
of a vast and magnificent realm added to the 
French crown. His dream of empire was 
great, of federation of and control of Indian 
tribes, of wealth and honor, of a line of 
French military posts girdling this great 
area. There is no doubt that if indeed La 
Salle did not traverse this region in person, 
he did by his couriers and explorers, from 
1679 to 1683. In 1679, ne crossed the 
South Bend portage and descended the 
Kankakee to the Illinois, and some mem- 
bers of the party explored every river and 
stream that would carry a canoe, at least 
as far east as the Maumee. In the public 
archives at Paris is an ancient map, a copy 
of which may be seen in the public library 
at Detroit. It purports to have been made 
by d-Anville. in 1686, and to show La Salle's 
explorations. It represents remarkably well 
most of our Indiana streams. The inscrip- 
tion claims it was drawn under the personal 
direction of La Salle himself. The Wabash 
is given its true course, as is also the Tip- 
pecanoe and Kankakee. Almost as accu- 
rately as shown on our maps to-day, is the 
location of both Blue and Eel rivers, Blue 
river the largest and most prominent. This 
accords with the theory of geologists thai 
Blue river was originally the larger and 
most important of the two streams. A 
portage is drawn from the Maumee forks at 
Kekionga (Fort Wayne) to Blue River 
lake. Perhaps the first fort he established 
was Maumee City, on the Maumee river. 
in J 680, ami in the same year La Salle him- 

self gave personal direction to the building 
of the fort at the confluence of St. Mary's 
and St. Joseph's rivers, now Fort Wayne. 
Enterprising Frenchmen at once established 
themselves and carried on a large trade with 
the Indians, having a water route direct to 
Lake Erie. 

The earliest commandant was Sieur 
Courthemanche, and in his diary for 1681 
he speaks of the superior otter skins pur- 
chased from the Indian tribes living north 
and westward about thirty miles from the 
post, and remarks the hospitality with which 
the Indians received his men. There can 
be no doubt, therefore, that white man 
visited Whitley county in 1681. 

The story of La Salle's return to France, 
the royal favor and assistance, his return, his 
discouragements amid rising hopes and 
finally his death by violence in 1687, are not 
pertinent to this narrative. 

In 1 7 14, Gov. Alexander Spotswood, of 
the colony of Virginia, a man of energy 
and foresight, viewed with alarm the push- 
ing of the French into this undefined coun- 
try. He urged on the English king and 
ministry measures to reach into this country 
and take possession, as against France. The 
king and his advisers were slow to act, and 
the aggression first assumed shape through 
private capital and enterprise, and as early 
as 1716 they attempted to bribe the In- 
dians to their standard against the French, 
Naturally, the French used the same weap- 
ons, and thus white men encouraged and 
bribed the Indians into inhuman barbarism 
and treachery, and were the real cause of the 
trail of blood and savage warfare that per- 
vaded this country for more than a hundred 
vears. during the claim and counter-claim of 



these countries, kept up until after the ces- 
sion of the country to the colonies, indeed 
lingering until after the second war with 
England in 1812. 

In June, 1759, three hundred French 
militia and six hundred Indians marched 
from the Illinois country to the Mississippi, 
thence the}' went by canoes down that river, 
then by way of the Ohio and Wabash to 
its confluence with Eel river, thence up Eel 
river to a point near the headwaters of the 
Maumee (Fort Wayne), thence to Lake 
Erie. This great army came up Eel river 
to some point in Union township, Whitley 
county, and across to Fort Wayne on the 
trail already established by the traders. 

French dominion practically ceased over 
the territory in 1761, though peace was not 
concluded with England till the following 
year, but the state of affairs in this country 
practically remained the same, the French 
contending after the treaty of peace that they 
were to have possession of the Maumee, Eel 
and Wabash rivers. George Crogan, of 
Pennsylvania, Sir William Johnson's sub- 
commissioner, visited the country with an 
escort in 1765, traveling from Logansport 
along Eel river to the Union township port- 
age to Fort Wayne. He records of his 
trip through what is now Whitley county, 
as follows : "We traveled along Eel river, 
passing through fine clear woods and some 
good meadows, though not so large as some 
we passed a few days before. The country 
is more overgrown with woods, the soil is 
very fine and rich and well watered with 
springs. This stream runs through as fine 
country as the world affords." 

Throughout the English and French 
claim and occupancy of the territory, the 

missionary priest was an occasional visitor 
to Whitley county, traders from Fort 
Wayne and from the Elkhart country came 
and went, soldiers and adventurers passed 
through, but no record or monument is left 
of their doings. Within our limits was 
neither fort nor stockade, though we were 
not far from the protected ramparts of Fort 
Wayne. Even the once busy carrying place 
between Blue and Elkhart rivers, known to 
French records, is lost and will never be 
found, though used by white men, and a 
veritable highway for the Pottawottamies 
for perhaps centuries, and entirely aban- 
doned little more than a hundred years ago. 
Gathering the fragments of history relating 
to this once important thoroughfare, study- 
ing the topography of the country, giving 
importance to early tradition and evidences 
as late as 1840, we feel quite sure the route 
struck Whitley county at or about Cold 
Springs and followed the little stream to 
Loon lake and wound deviously among our 
chain of lakes by way of Shriner lake, then 
a place of importance among the Indians, 
and that from Round lake it led almost di- 
rectly to the north line of section 17, in 
Smith township. The proof is not suffi- 
ciently conclusive to positively state this 
was the route, but all evidence obtainable 
warrants the belief that it was. 

At the treaty of peace between England 
'and the colonies, the mother country insisted 
on fixing the western boundary of the L nited 
colonies at the Ohio, but unaware of the 
richness that lay between, tired of the long 
war and with humbled pride, finally agreed 
on the Mississippi. The treaties by which 
the Indians were divested of their title to this 
section, are all of record in the nation's 



archives, but would be too tiring and con- 
fusing if attempted to be followed here, 
many of the monuments having long ago 
perished. The most important and the one 
worth considering in a general historical 
article, is that of Greenville, Ohio, August 
3- 1795- 

The first attempt at white man's civil 
local government over this territory was in 
1778, during the war of the Revolution, 
when the English organized the county of 
Kent, Upper Canada, with seat of govern- 
ment at Niagara Falls. The north and east 
boundaries of this county were characteristic 
of the period ; understood by those who 
made them perhaps at that time, but now 
indefinable by anyone, but the southern 
boundary was the fortieth parallel and the 
western the ninetieth meridian, so that pres- 
ent Whitley county is surely within the lim- 
its of the original county of Kent, Upper 
Canada. An election was held, and Wil- 
liam Grant and William McComb were 
elected as members from Kent county to a 
legislature that soon after convened at Ni- 
agara Falls. There is scant record in exis- 
tence of the work of that legislative body, 
and nothing that in any way concerns us. 
It is likely they did but little than resolve 
fealty to the crown in the impending strug- 
gle. After Great Britain had relinquished 
her sovereignty over us, her subjects har- 
rassed the few settlers for many years, as- 
suming to control them in their helplessness. 
The colonies were thoroughly imbued with 
the fact that they were so many little sov- 
ereignties, independent of each other. They 
had fled from oppression of various forms 
in the old world. Their thoughts of govern- 
ment, religion and even family control. 

were widely divergent, and it required the 
best statesmen and patriots, with the blood 
of the Revolution yet upon their clothes, to 
secure among them that tranquillity for 
which they had fought so hard and endured 
so much. 

There were different colonial claims of 
ownership over the newly ceded territory 
not within the original limits of their re- 
spective colonies. Especially was this so 
in regard to this, the northwest territory, 
north of the Ohio river and west of Penn- 
sylvania. The question, after vexations, 
quarrels and delays, was finally settled by 
ceding all these claims to the general govern- 
ment, and the newly acquired domain be- 
came national. Massachusetts claimed this 
particular territory as against Virginia, but 
never attempted to exercise political con- 
trol, and ceded it to the general government, 
April 19, 1785. Virginia did exercise 
authority and control, and we were clearly 
a part of that sovereignty from the time 
British control lawfully ceased till the 
creation of the northwest territory with a 
territorial government. 

October, 1778, (Vol. IX, P. 557, Stat- 
utes at Large) the general assembly of Vir- 
ginia organized the territory west of the 
Ohio and adjacent to the Mississippi, into 
the county of Illinois, and appointed Col. 
John Todd commandant, who exercised un- 
disputed authority and therefore settled the 
title in Virginia. Todd transferred certain 
powers to a Mr. Le Gras and a court was 
held at Vincennes. Thus, in October. 1778, 
we were Illinois county, Virginia, or Kent 
county, Canada, as the fortunes of war 
might decree between England and America. 
English title extinguished and Virginia 



title ceded to the general government, July 
13, 1787, congress passed an ordinance for 
the government of the Northwest Territory. 
It provided for the appointment of a gov- 
ernor for three years unless sooner revoked. 
He must reside in the territory and own at 
least one thousand acres of land. A sec- 
retary was to be appointed for four years 
and must reside in the territory and own at 
least five hundred acres of land. A seal was 
also provided, a rude form of government 
established and recognized. The creation of 
a national territorial government over the 
Northwest Territory dissolved the county of 
Illinois, state of Virginia. 

On April 30, 1802, congress passed a law 
that when the territory within certain limits 
should adopt a constitution, it should be ad- 
mitted as the state of Ohio and thus Ohio 
became a state in the Federal Union in 1803, 
without ever having had a distinct territorial 
government. Ohio as it now is was never 
a territory except as originally a part of 
Northwest Territory. August 15, 1796, in 
the absence of Gov. St. Clair, Secretary 
Winthrob established Wayne county, and it 
was the third county in Northwest Terri- 
tory. This action caused some ill feeling 
between the governor and his secretary, the 
former believing such county government, 
so far away from the seat of territorial gov- 
ernment, might bring about a clash of 
authority, but the county was established 
with seat of government at Detroit and we 
became Wayne county, Northwest Terri- 
tory. The southern boundary began at the 
southernmost point on Lake Michigan and 
ran south-eastwardly to Fort Recovery, 
Ohio, passing through present Huntington 
county, taking in present Whitley county. 

but the line was quite near the south-west 
corner of Whitley county. From Fort Re- 
covery the line ran almost due east through 
Ohio to the western reserve. 

Upon the establishment of Indiana terri- 
tory, in 1800, Gov. William Henry Harrison 
thought best to define the line anew, and by 
proclamation, January 14, 1803, he declared 
all that part of Indiana territory lying north 
of a line drawn from the southernmost point 
of Lake Michigan to Fort Recovery, to be 
Wayne county, Indiana territory, and we 
were changed from Wayne county, North- 
west territory, to Wayne county, Indiana 
territory, the seat of government still being - 
at Detroit, that territory still being a part 
of Indiana territory. January 11, 1805. 
Michigan territory was cut off from In- 
diana territory with line as now between the 
states. There was no legislature in Indiana 
territory until after Michigan was taken 
off in 1805, but on the 7th day of March. 
1803, Governor Harrison, by proclamation 
and without warrant of law, and it was 
openly charged, for the purpose of further- 
ing some financial schemes of relatives, laid 
off the county of Dearborn, the line ex- 
tending from the Ohio river to the north 
line of the state, and at least far enough 
west of the east line to include all of Whit- 
ley county. The county seat was Lawrence- 
burg. In 1810, the legislature formed a 
county in the north-east part of the state and 
far enough south to include nearly, if not 
all of Huntington county, and to it was 
given again the historic name of Wayne, and 
we were included. In 1S18, the county of 
Randolph was created by legislative act and 
we fell within its limits. In 1823, the 
county of Allen was created and we became 

4 6 


a . part, with Fort Wayne as county seat. 
The only record in Allen county affecting 
this territory was the naming of all original 
Whitley county, Murray township, Allen 
county, and the survey of the Goshen road 
through present Smith township. In 1834, 
Huntington county was created, and by the 
same legislative act the original boundaries 
of Whitley county were defined, but the act 
recited that we were attached to Hunting- 
ton county for judicial purposes. 

The second record pertaining to Whit- 
ley county is in Huntington county. In 
1834, Whitley county was. by the legisla- 
ture, defined and described as nine congres- 
sional townships, and was attached to Hunt- 
ington county for judicial purposes. As 
there was no organization of any kind here, 
there was no reason for any jurisdiction be- 
ing extended over the few straggling settlers 
except to protect their persons and property 
with law, should any occasion present, but 
this jurisdiction carried the right to extend 
local government over the territory should 
necessity arise. Allen county, in 1830. had 
located the Fort Wayne and Goshen road 
across its territory and through this county 
over the trail and substantially as it runs 
to-day through Churubusco, but few of the 
monuments by which it was marked exist 
to-day and no surveyor could ascertain at 
this time just where it did run, there having 
since been many changes of record in both 

The entire original county of Whitley 
was surveyed in the years 1828 to and in- 
cluding 1840, and books for entry were 
opened at Fort Wayne in March, 1830. The 
survey began in the south-west corner of the 
county, and all that part of township 30, 

range 8 (now Cleveland township), south 
of Eel river, was surveyed in 1828, by Basil 
Bentley. In 1834, John Hendricks sur- 
veyed all of range 8, north of Eel river, 
being the remainder of Cleveland, all of 
Richland, Troy and Etna townships; the 
latter at that time was not a part of this 
county. Washington township was sur- 
veyed by Basil Bentley and William Brook- 
field in 1834. All of Columbia township, 
except the Reserve, was surveyed in 1834, 
by John Hendricks. The Reserve of four- 
teen sections, at Seeks Village, were sur- 
veyed in a whole tract, and report made and 
work concluded in October, 1827, by Chaun- 
cey Carter, and in 1840, the same man sur- 
veyed the reserve into sections to conform 
with adjoining lines. John Hendricks sur- 
veyed the whole of Thorncreek township in 
1834. Basil Bentley surveyed all of Jef- 
ferson township except the reserve, in 1828, 
and Chauncey Carter surveyed the reserve 
in 1840. John Hendricks surveyed all of 
Union township except the reserve in 1834, 
and as before stated, Chauncey Carter sur- 
veyed the reserve in 1840. David Hill sur- 
veyed all of Smith township in 1829. All 
the lands in the county were entered or sold 
by the government at the Fort Wayne land 
office, except that ceded by the general gov- 
ernment to the state as swamp lands, and 
these were disposed of by the state from the 
Indianapolis land office and ran through 
many years up to comparatively recent time. 
Much of these swamp lands, considered 
worthless, have become, through drainage, 
the very best in the county. In [833, Jesse 
W. Long entered one hundred and twenty 
acres, and George Slagle eighty acres, all in 
section 36, Smith township, and Absalom 


Hire forty acres in section 35, same town- Henry Swihart Inspector. 

ship, and this comprised all the entries of Palmer Cleveland, judge. 

that year. In 1834, the entries covered Samuel Obenchain, Judge. 

three thousand four hundred seventeen and Benjamin H. Cleveland, Clerk. 

five-tenths acres, all in Smith township, ex- David H. Cleveland, Clerk. 

cept the north-west quarter of section 13. in The above six persons cast their votes 
Cleveland township, entered by M. P. C. for Jesse Cleveland : there were no other 
Wood, and the north-west fractional quarter votes cast. This election was held at the 
of section 7. in same township, by Morse P. house of either Jesse or Benjamin Cleveland ; 
C. Wood, undoubtedly the same person. By the weight of evidence is that it was at 
the first of January, 1836, there were one Jesse Cleveland's home, which was also the 
hundred and twenty-one tracts entered in home of Benjamin H. At the time of hold- 
Cleveland township, sixty-six in Richland, ing this election, it was decided to name 
twenty in Washington, twenty-six in Colum- the congressional township 30, range 8, 
bia, fourteen in Thorncreek, ninety-six in Cleveland. Henry Swihart, many years 
Jefferson, thirteen in Union, fifty-five in after a resident of the county, proposed the 
Smith and none in Troy. name, which was seconded by Obenchain, 

The price at which the land was sold by and Swihart put the vote, himself and 
the government was one dollar and twenty- Obenchain voting aye, and no one voting 
five cents per acre, in, lots to suit purchaser nay. The four Clevelands refrained from 
of not less than forty acres, and first come voting. On January 2. 1837, Henry 
had first choice, but to us of to-day it would Swihart was allowed by the Huntington 
seem the early purchasers selected the county board three dollars for making re- 
poorest instead of the best lots. Such turn of the aforesaid election, 
change has clearing and drainage made, that On Monday morning, May 15, 1837, 
much of the first entries are the very poorest the Huntington justices, John F. Merril 
of our farms, and that so long rejected the and Leander Morrison, met to do business 
very best. as a county board, but Jesse Cleveland, from 

Whitley county being defined in bounds Whitley county, had not arrived. Partly 

and by congressional townships, but with j n pleasantry and also to show the exercise 

no record distinctly its own, the residents f authority, these officers ordered an at- 

of township 30, range 8, applied to the tachment to issue for Cleveland. At one 

commissioners of Huntington county at their o'clock he was present, and after making 

September term. 1836, for an order to hold f u ]] explanation, was purged of contempt, 
an election in said congressional township After reciting in their record that these 

for justice of the peace, which was granted, three were the only justices within the two 

The date of that election is not preserved, but counties, they elected Jesse Cleveland presi- 

return of same was made to Huntington, on dent of the board. They ratified the name 

November 3, 1836, as follows: of Cleveland for township 30. range 8, and 

Jesse Cleveland Candidate, as there were no other township organiza- 

4 8 


tions, ordered that Cleveland township, in 
Whitley county, embrace all that part of 
Huntington county known as \\ hitley 
county, and all of Whitley county became 
Cleveland township, Huntington county. 

Whitley county was named in honor of 
Col. William Whitley, who was killed at the 
battle of the Thames, in Canada, in the war 
of 1 812, and the legislature at its session in 
1833 and 1834 defined its boundaries. 

On June 10, 1834, Samuel Smith 
entered the south-east quarter of section 34, 
in township 32, range 10, and in October 
of the same year located on his land and 
lived on it till his death in 1863. The 
largest early settlement was in the south-east 
corner of Smith township, and the few set- 
tlers gathered at the home of Samuel Smith 
on the 20th day of August, 1837, and all 
signed a petition to the Huntington county 
board asking that the township be name:! 
in his honor. Therefore, at its September 
term, 1S37, it was ordered by the Hunting- 
ton county board that township 32 north, 
range 10 east, be organized and known by 
the name of Smith township, and that the 
remaining east half of Whitley county be 
added to Smith township and that the west 
half of Whitley county remain Cleveland 
township. An election was ordered to be 
held in said Smith township (east half 
Whitley county) on the last day of Novem- 
ber, 1837, to elect a justice of the peace. 
Richard Baughan was appointed inspector 
of said election and George Penn was ap- 
pointed road supervisor of said township. 
At this session it was ordered that all that 
part of the Fort Wayne and Goshen state 
road running through the north-east part of 
Whitley county comprise the first road dis- 

trict of Whitley county, and that all persons 
living in the aforesaid Smith township (east 
half Whitley county J be attached to said 
road district. 

Robert Starkweather, of Whitley county, 
was appointed commissioner to survey, re- 
locate and properly define said Fort Wayne 
and Goshen road through the county. 

During the month of October, 1837, Na- 
thaniel Gradeless wrote a petition asking the 
Huntington county board to organize town- 
ship 32, range 9, into a civil township and or- 
der an election for justice of the peace. This 
was signed by Benjamin F. Martin, Adam 
Egolf, Joseph Egolf, John H. Alexander, 
Martin Overly, Peter Shriner, Daniel Hive- 
ly, Jacob Shearer and Jacob Brumbaugh. 
Opposite each name was given the choice of 
name for the township by each subscriber. 
Five chose the name of Thorncreek, in honor 
of the little stream in the north-west corner 
of the township, already called by that name. 
Two chose the name of Lake; two others 
had no choice. Accordingly, on November 
6, 1837, the Huntington county board 
ordered that township 32, range 9, of Whit 
ley county, be organized and known and 
designated by the name of Thorncreek town- 
ship, and that Nathaniel Gradeless be ap- 
pointed inspector of an election to be held 
at his house on the first Monday of Decem- 
ber, to elect one justice of the peace. 

In view of the coming organization of theV 
county the few citizens of township 31, range 
8, began to bestir themselves for a township 
organization. The principal movers were 
William Rice and Edwin Cone. They per- 
sonally invited all the settlers to meet at the 
home of William Rice on the east half of the 
southwest quarter of section 5, on the 15th 



day of October, 1837, for the purpose of nam- 
ing" the township and asking for an organiza- 
tion. David Harden lived at the extreme 
north-west corner of the township. Just as 
he was entering the opening in front of the 
Rice cabin lie met William Corded and 
Zebulon Birch and they began an animated 
discussion of the richness of the soil. Each 
insisted he had the richest land. Arriving 
at the house, the discussion assumed a gen- 

first duty was to call, advertise and cause to 
be held, elections at such places as he would 
deem most easily of access for the voters, 
for the purpose of electing a county clerk, 
recorder, two associate judges and three 
county commissioners. There were but 
four organized townships, Cleveland, Smith, 
Richland and Thorncreek, and four places 
of voting in these townships were desig- 
nated as follows: One at the home of 

eral form, and several others, each with just Lewis Kinsey in Cleveland township; one 

pride, told of the richness of his own laud, at the house of Andrew Compton in Rich- 

Finally, Edwin Cone said he thought the land township; one at the house of Richard 

matter for which they came together was Baughan in Thorncreek township, and one 

already settled, that each man had very rich 
land, that was all rich and that they had 
already unconsciously named it Richland 
township. The remark was so timely that 
each good naturally passed the pet name he 
intended to insist upon and all acquiesced 
in a name that had not been thought of be- 
fore. Therefore, on November 6, 1837, 
(same day Thorncreek was named) it was 
ordered by the Huntington county board 
that township 31, range 8, he organized and 
known anddesignated by the name of Rich- 
land township, and an election was ordered 
at the home of Ezra Thompson on the second 
Monday in December, 1837, and William 
Rice was appointed inspector of said elec- 
tion. This election was held near the north- 

at the house of John X. More in Smith 
township. This election was held the first 
Monday in April, 1838. There was no fear of 
repeaters or illegal voters. Voters residing in 
organized townships were required to vote in 
such townships. Voters living in unorgan- 
ized townships were ordered to vote at Such 
designated places as might best suit their 
convenience. There were no newspapers in 
which to give notice, but notice was required 
to be posted at twenty-five conspicuous 
places in the county, at least one in each con- 
gressional township. They were placed on 
trees along Indian trails, and on the doors 
of settlers' cabins. A few days before the 
election, a caucus of convention was called 
at the home of Calvin Alexander, on the 

east corner of the northwest quarter of sec- creek in north-east quarter of section 33 
tion 9, and just west of the old family bury- 
ing ground of the Thompson family. 

The legislature of Indiana, at its session 
of 1837 and 1838, declared Whitley to be 
an independent county from and after the 
first day of April, 1838, and Governor Wal- 
" lace appointed Richard Baughan sheriff 
to serve until after the election. His 

in Thorncreek township, for the purpose of 
considering candidates for the offices. 
About twenty-five citizens attended. It was 
not like the latter day political caucus. All 
politics was eliminated and the settlers met 
to become acquainted, to discuss questions 
concerning the future of the new county 
and to select candidates fitted for the offices 



and vote with concert of action. Abraham 
Cuppy was selected for clerk, Joseph Par- 
rett.. Jr.. Nathaniel Gradless and Otho W. 
Gandy for commissioners. Benjamin F. 
Martin and Jacob A. Yanhonten for associ- 
ate judges. The election a few days after 
ratified this action. If there were any votes 
for any other persons, there is neither record 
or tradition of it. The place designated by 
the state precept for holding courts was the 
house of James Parrett. Jr.. but there being- 
no such person in the county Richard 
Baughan notified the persons elected to meet 
at the house of Joseph Parrett. Jr., on 
ground now covered by South Whitley, on 
the 7th day of May. In the presence of the 
officers elect and other citizens assembled. 
Baughan opened the election returns, de- 
clared the candidates duly elected and ad- 
ministered to them the oath of office on the 
7th day of May, 1838. The board of county 
commissioners organized by electing Otho 
W. Gandy as president of the board and 
adopting the eagle side of the dime as the 
seal of the board of commissioners of Whit- 
ley county. The present seal of the board of 
commissioners was adopted January 4. 1840. 
and the organization was completed. 

The first official act was to appoint 
Henry Pence assessor for the county for the 
year 1838; John Collins, treasurer: Benja- 
min H. Cleveland, three per cent, fund com- 
missioner, and Henry Swihart, county agent. 
The first tax duplicate, made in 1838, is still 
in perhaps as good state of preservation as 
when closed from active use and laid away 
in [839. It consists of the straw board 
covers of a well worn atlas by Thomas T. 
Smiley, teacher, and published by the author 
in Philadelphia in 1825. It is eight by 

eleven and one-half inches. It consists of 
eight leaves of a fairly good quality of 
foolscap paper, sewed in; only three (six 
pages) of which are used for names and 
taxes and the other five are scribbled over 
with figures, making - calculations no doubt, 
to insure tax-payers that no mistakes were 
made in their computation. The handwrit- 
ing is unquestionably that of Richard Col- 
lins, whose name is inseparably connected 
with the early history of the county. He 
was the deputy of his brother-in-law, Abra- 
ham Cuppy. Descriptions of lands are not 
given nor is there any way to designate what 
persons are the owners of realty and who 
owned personal property only. The amount 
of taxable property is given in one column, 
in another the amount of county tax to be 
collected, and in another the amount of state 
tax to be collected. The amount of county 
tax totals two hundred twenty-two dollars 
and sixty cents, and state tax eighty dollars. 
thirty-two and one-half cents. The follow- 
ing is the list : 


Amount Taxable Total 
Property Tax 

Collins. John 529.00 6.oSy 2 

Collins. Aaron M 70.00 2.05}^ 

Collins, Richard 70.00 2:0^/2 

Chapman. Charles 70.00 2.05J/2 

Chaplin, Stedman A.. 70.00 2.05^2 

Chaplin. Moores P. . . . 70.00 2.05^ 

Circle. Peter 70.00 2.05^ 

Creager, Samuel 34-QO 1 .64 

Creager. Peter 181.00 2. 08 ]/ 2 

Cleveland. B. H. &F... 65.00 3.24 

Creager, Adam 65.00 1.25 


o J 



Cunningham. John. . . . 65.00 

Hapner. William 65.00 

Kinsey, Lewis 84.00 

Lesley, Daniel 14.00 

McOuigg, Abnef T. . . 14.00 

Oliver, John 14.00 

Obenchain, Samuel . . . 288.00 

Parret, Elias 288.00 

Parret. William 20.00 

Parret. Joseph. Jr 515.00 

Parret, John 288.00 

Parret, David D 288.00 

Parret, Anderson D. . . 288.00 

Swihart, Henrv 1 10.00 


( Afterward named Washington township. ) 

Ecker, Joseph 21.00 24^ 


(Richland : and 32-8, afterwards Troy.) 

Anderson, John 288.00 1.25 

Cuppy, Abraham 120.00 2.63 

Burch, Zebulon 97.00 2.37 

Burns, John 97.00 1 .25 

Cordill, William 97.00 1.25 

Cone, Edwin 97.00 1,25 

Cone, David 18.00 .20^4 

Curtis, Levi 50.00 i.82>4 

Compton, Andrew.... 75-oo 2.11% 

Estlick, Thomas 52.00 185^2 

Hayden, David 88.00 2.26^ 

Hartsock, Samuel 158.00 3-o6^ 

Jones, John 18.00 1-4524 

Kistler. Jacob 94.00 1.09 

Kistler. Jacob, Jr 94.00 1.25 

Laing. Adam 94.00 1.25 

Martin. Stephen 114.00 1.31 

Perrin, Jesse S 17500 3-4 r /4 

Payne, David 250.00 

Rice. William 250.00 

Rine. Joel 1 10.00 

Snodgrass, John 169.00 

25 Thomson, Ezra 50.00 

25 Thomson, John 50.00 

56^4 Tinkham, Joseph 130.00 







Egolf. Adam 146.00 

Egolf. John 65.00 

Egolf. Henry 65.00 

Egolf. Joseph 81.00 

Alexander. John H. . . 81.00 

Boughan. Richard.... 405.00 

Gradeless. Nathaniel... 130.00 

Gradeless, Milo 130.00 

Grable, Benjamin 255.00 

Grable, John 255.00 

Hively. Jacob 18.00 

Hively, Daniel 58.00 

Johnson. James 70.00 

Marcell, Jacob 70.00 

Martin, Benjamin F. . . 200.00 

McDonald, William... 200.00 

Oberly. Thomas 200.00 

Oberly, Zachariah 200.00 

Suavely, Jacob 200.00 

Salts,. Frederick 200.00 

Shriner. Peter 140.00 

Neeper, James 140.00 

Shearer. Jacob 140.00 


(Smith Township.) 

Byran. John 

Brumbaugh, Jacob. . . . 1O0.00 

Briggs, Jesse 267.00 

Blair, William 267.00 



i8y 2 


9° 3 A 







05 V2 





1 25 



Braddock, John G 52.00 1.85 

Crow, Joseph 55-°o -63/4 

Crow, James 55-0° I - 2 5 

Comperit, Francis 1,920.00 23.08 

Dungan, Samuel 130.00 2.74*^ 

Davis, Isaac 130.00 1.25 

Ehnandorf, Jacob E. .. 20.00 1.48 

Fulk, Solomon 20.00 1.25 

Garrison, Zachariah. . . 79.00 2.16 

Garrison, Artimess. .. . 79.00 1.25 

Gordon, James 113.00 2.55 

Giger, Thomas 14.00 1.41 

Gandy, Otho W 150.00 2.97 

Godfrey, John B 132.00 1.52 

Harter, George 98.00 2.38 

Jones, Benjamin 92.00 1.06 

Jeffries, Wyatt 100.00 1.15 

Jones, James 100.00 1.25 

Kruzan, Benjamin.... 100.00 1.25 

Lucas, Seth 100.00 1.25 

Long, David E 100.00 2.48 

Long, Jesse W 300.00 4.70 

Long, C. W 50.00 1.82^ 

Miner, Byram D 50.00 1.25 

Miner, Samuel 324.00 3-72 ^ 

Mayo, John R 324.00 1.25 

Noble, Silas 1.25 

Nott, Thomas 324.00 1.25 

Pence, George C 238.00 3.99 

Pence, Henry 238.00 1.25 

Rousseau, James H. .. 238.00 1.25 

Sipe, William K 238.00 1.25 

Smith, Samuel 7S-°° .8634 

Spear, Jesse 75°° J - 2 5 

Sine, Jacob 250.00 4.123^ 

Tulley, Francis 127.00 2.70^4 

Turner, John 13500 2.80 

Vanhouten, Jacob A... 37-00 i-67>2 

Vanmeter, William. . . . 228.00 3.87 

Weller, Isaiah 210.00 2.41^2 

Wolf, David 236.00 3.96 ]/^ 

Wood, Philetus 210.00 1.25 

Zulman, James 210.00 1.25 

Zulman, John 210.00 1.25 

Roebuck, James 236.00 1.25 

More, John 165.00 3.15 

Miller, Daniel 16.00 M3H 

Nickey, Samuel 97.00 2.37 

Norris, John 97.00 1.25 


(Afterward named Columbia.) 
Shoemaker, Asa 65.00 1.25 


(Afterward Union township.) 

Bruce, George 1.25 

Cleveland, Horace.... 37-00 1.68 

Gardner, Benjamin.... 109.00 2.505/2 

Oman, George 109.00 1.25 

Perry, Talcott 117.00 2.59*% 

Pierce & Starkweather. 1,765.00 20.29^4 

Pierce, Joseph 1,765.00 1.25 

Starkweather, Robert. . 65.00 2.00 

Smith township was the most populous, 
Cleveland next, Richland next, and Thorn- 
creek close on the others. There was but 
one person assessed in Columbia township 
and one in Washington, but two in Troy. 
Martin and Perry, Jefferson being the only 
township in the county with no representa- 
tive on the tax list. Union had eight. The 
levies as recorded were one per. cent for 
county purposes and fifty cents per poll. 
For road purposes, seventy-five cents or one 
day's road work, for each one hundred dol- 
lars of valuation. For state purposes, fifty 



cents for each poll. On June 26, 1838, the 
board of commissioners established the com- 
missioners' districts, one, two and three of 
said county ; all of range 8 to be the first 
district ; all of range 9 to be the second 
district; all of range 10 to be the third dis- 
trict, each to have one county commissioner, 
all to be elected by the voters of the county 
at large. The fifth township to be organ- 
ized and the first organized after the Whit- 
ley county machine was put into operation 
was Troy. 

On the 3d day of April, 1839. Jesse S. 
Perrin and Stephen Martin met at the house 
of the latter to name congressional township 
32 in range 8. Perrin was the first settler 
and lived at the extreme south line of the 
township near present Larwill. and Martin 
at the extreme north line of the township. 
Martin said : "You are an older settler than 
I am and have honored me by having the 
meeting at my house. You may name the 
township." He named it Troy, after the 
township in the state of New York from 
which he came. A petition was drawn ac- 
cordingly and signed by these two men only, 
was presented to the board of commissioners 
of Whitley county at their regular session 
on June 6. 1839, and an order entered of 
record that township 32, range 8, should 
be organized as a separate township, to be 
known as Troy, and that Price Goodrich 
should be appointed inspector to hold the 
first election. Following directly, or the 
next day, came the record establishing 
Union township. Early in 1839, two peti- 
tions were circulated in township 31, range 
10, for the organization and naming of the 
township. One by George Oman, asking 
that the township be called Union, and the 

other by Talcott Perry, asking that it be 
named Adams, in honor of President John 
Adams. Quite a rivalry was manifested, 
but Oman secured the most signatures and 
asked that Perry be appointed inspector to 
hold the first election. Perry fearing that 
any opposition before the board of com- 
missioners might endanger the organization, 
withdrew his petition and on the 7th day of 
June, 1839, an order was entered organizing 
the township and naming it Union. 

Madison Switzer, David Bennett, Wil- 
liam H. Coombs and Daniel R. Bears were, 
by act of the state legislature of 1838, or- 
dered to proceed to Whitley county and lo- 
cate the county seat. They were to meet 
at the house of Joseph Parrett, Jr., on the 
first Monday in May, 1838. Switzer only 
appeared, and the board of commissioners 
adjourned till June 18th, at which time Swit- 
zer, Coombs and Bennett met, and after 
spending ten days examining sites and hear- 
ing arguments and offers, located the county 
seat on section 19, Union township, on lands 
now principally owned by William A. Clug- 
ston. The court house lot was to be near 
the center of the section about a half mile 
due east of the present Compton brick 
church. Lot Bayless, the owner of the lands, 
agreed to give the county $500, pay all ex- 
penses of surveying and location, and pur- 
chase a set of record books costing $100. 
The action of these special commissioners 
was very unsatisfactory, and the feeling was 
quite bitter. Corruption was charged 
against Bayless and others-. A petition was 
signed by four-fifths of the people of the 
county, protesting against the action and 
presented to the legislature in 1839. The 
protest was so strong that the report of the 



commissioners was set aside and Isaac Co- 
vert, Samuel Edsall, John Jackson and A. S. 
Ballard were appointed a new set of com- 
missioners. These men, after a week's ex- 
amination and three adjournments, on the 
1 6th day of October, 1839, made the follow- 
ing report, which was accepted by the people 
of Whitley county: 

"We, John Jackson, A. S. Ballard. Isaac 
Covert and Samuel Edsall. after being duly 
sworn, proceeded to the discharge of our 
duties assigned us by law. After examining 
the several sites presented by those wishing 
to offer donations, and after making exami- 
nation of the several sites, do hereby estab- 
lish the permanent seat of justice in and for 
said county on section 1 1 , town 3 1 , range 
9 east, as the best situation that can be had. 

"Given under our hands, this 16th day 
of October, A. D. 1839. 

(Signed.) "John Jackson, 

"Samuel Edsall. 
"Isaac Covert, 
"A. S. Ballard." 

And the county seat was located as it 
stands to-day. The lands on which it was 
located belonged to Elihu Chauncey, a resi- 
dent of Philadelphia. It was fractional sec- 
tion 1 r , containing 443 acres. He was to 
donate half of said lands to the county and 
build a saw mill within the limits, on Blue 
river, which he did. Chauncey's deed, ex- 
ecuted February 1. 1840. in Philadelphia, 
recites : 

"Whereas, Elihu Chauncey is the owner 
hi :i certain tract of land situate in Colum- 
bia township, Whitley county, Indiana, 
which has been selected by commissioners 
duly appointed, as the location of the county 
seat of Whitley county: and. 

"Whereas, Elihu Chauncey hath agreed 
to appropriate and convey to and for the 
use of said county, one-half of the lots into 
which the site of said town has been laid 
off; and, 

"Whereas, a plat or map of the said site 
has been made containing twenty-eight 
squares, each square being sub-divided into 
eight (8) lots, except squares twenty-one, 
twenty-two and twenty-eight, which are di- 
vided into four lots each, which map had 
been certified and acknowledged : 

"Now, in consideration of said premises 
and one dollar to him in hand paid, the said 
Elihu Chauncey releases and quit-claims to 
Richard Collins all the lots numbered 3. 4. 
7 and 8 in all the squares except 21, 22 and 
28, and in 21 and 22 lots 3 and 4, and in 
28, lots r and 2, to have and to hold the 
same forever to the use of Whitley county 
as and for the location of a county seat." 

Upon the first location of the county 
seat on the lands of Lot Bayless, he caused 
a survey and plat to be made by the surveyor 
of Huntington county, but the acts of the 
commissioners being set aside, it was never 
put mi record. He subsequently filed a bill 
against the county for $246, services of the 
commissioners, surveys and procuring of the 
reci >rd books. The commissioners allowed 
and paid him the hundred dollars for the 

1 ks and took and used them: also $102 

paid the locating commissioners, lint noth- 
ing For survey or other expenses, and he ac- 
cepted the allowance without appeal. At 
their regular term at Parrett's house in No- 
vember, 183c), the board of commissioners 
appointed Henry Swihart county agent, and 
agreed to meet on the site of the new town 
on November 2^th of the same vear. to 


adopt measures for laying off the new town. 
The board of commissioners. Clerk Cuppy 
and the sheriff appeared on time, but Henry 
Swihart not appearing. Richard Collins was 
appointed in his place. He being present, 
accepted and gave bond at the temporary 
county headquarters on outlot j6, on the 
west bank of Blue river, just north of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad and almost directly 
west of the Tuttle flouring mill. Asa Shoe- 
maker's house, more than two miles to the 
north-west, being the nearest place of habi- 
tation, the weather being cold and the 
ground covered with snow, the session oc- 
cupied but one day. Richard Collins was 
ordered at once to proceed with the survey 
and plat. The few straggling settlers who 
came in were invited to assist in naming the 
new town and it was done before adjourn- 
ment that day. Asa Shoemaker, whose wife 
was named Elizabeth, wanted it called 
Elizabethtown ; Richard Collins wanted it 
called Beaver in honor of the Indian Bvho 
once owned the nearby reserve; Little Tur- 
tle was also suggested. Finally at the sug- 
gestion of Abraham Cuppy, ably seconded 
by Vanhouten, the name Columbia was 
adopted and the new town was given that 
name of record on that 25th day of Novem- 
ber, 1839, and before any survey had begun, 
and the board adjourned. This was Thurs- 
day. On Friday, Collins began preparations 
for the survey, and on Saturday, under his 
direction, George Cromer, surveyor of La- 
Grange county, began work and prosecuted 
it vigorously. Just when it was concluded 
we do not know, but it was finished before 
the spring of 1840. This first survey in- 
cluded only the town site. The remainder 1 >f 
the section was surveyed bv the same man 

in January. 1841. the county and Elihu 
Chauncev each paying half the expense. 

David E. Long bought from Collins, 
county agent, in January. 1840, the lot on 
the north-west corner of Main and Van Bu- 
ren streets at a very low price, with the ver- 
bal agreement that he erect a building at 
once. He did put up a two-room frame 
building and had it open as a boarding house 
and hotel by the middle of May. 1840, the 
first house in the town. On the 7th day oi 
April. 1840. the commissioners held a spe- 
cial session at the house of Zebulon Birch 
ami ordered that the county agent be directed 
to advertise and sell or offer for sale as man) 
lots as he may deem advisable on the 25th 
day of May. This was the last session out- 
side the county seat. On the 4th day of 
May, 1840. the board met at the hotel of 
I >a\ id I-".. Long, in the town of Columbia, the 
county seat of said county of Whitley. On 
the following day it was ordered that con- 
gressional township 31, range 9. be organ- 
ized and called Columbia township, all 
other names having now disappeared. ( )n 
the 8th day of September. 1840, there was 
filed with the commissioners a petition con- 
taining seventeen names, asking that con- 
gressional township 30. range 9, be organ- 
ized as a civil township, to be called Wash- 
ington, and it was so ordered. Daniel Les- 
ley was appointed inspector to hold the firsi 
election at the house of Abraham Lesley, on 
Saturday, the sixth day of the month. Thus 
Washington township held her first election 
two days after being admitted to the sister- 
hood of townships. 

In the latter part of the year 1844. citi- 
zens of township 30. range 10, began cir- 
culating petitions asking an organization of 



the township. One asked that it be called 
Raccoon, another Jefferson, another Fair- 
field, and the fourth Polk. The competition 
became so animated that fears were enter- 
tained the commissioners would not author- 
ize organization. Finally, all names were 
withdrawn and a new petition circulated, 
leaving off the name and asking only for or- 
ganization, with the understanding that the 
supporters of the different names would ap- 
pear before the board and argue the cases. 
The petition was filed March 5, 1845, and 
the contestants agreed to appear the next 
da}'. Chauncy Hadley was the last to sign 
and endorsed on the back, Jefferson town- 
ship. On the day of filing, the commission- 

ers, having heard of the jangle, concluded to 
pass upon it at once. Daniel Rice, president 
of the board, made the order on the back of 
the petition calling it Jefferson and it was so 
entered of record on the 5th day of March, 
1845, an d an election was ordered held on 
the first Monday in April. Michael C. 
Crowell was appointed inspector and the 
organization of Whitley county and all its 
townships was completed. The population 
of the county was, in 1840, 1.237; 1850. 
5,190; i860, 10,730; 1870, 14,399; 1880. 
16,941; 1890. 17,768: 1900, 17,328. 

The following tabulated statement gives 
the population of minor subdivisions from 
t86o to 1900, the last census. 

Minor civil divisions. 1880. 

Cleveland township, including South Whitley town 2,295 

South Whitley town 408 

Columbia township, including Columbia City 3083 

Columbia City 2.244 

Ward 1 

Ward 2 

Ward 3 

Etna township 577 

Jefferson township L523 

Richland township l -9 l 7 

Smith township, including Churubusco town 1,892 

Churubusco town 720 

Thi Tiicreek township 1.488 

Troy township 924 

Union township 1 ,263 

Washington township 1-479 

Mim >r civil divisions. 


Cleveland 2,041 

Columbia (b) 1,271 

Columbia 1.663 

First Ward 355 


J, 400 























1 -045 









1 -043 

1. 513 

— 1860— 

White. Col'd. 







Second Ward 255 217 38 255 

Third Ward 240 213 27 240 

Fourth Ward 217 182 35 217 

Fifth Ward 213 168 45 213 

Sixth Ward 383 293 90 383 

Etna (d) 429 427 2 429 

Jefferson 1,263 M99 64 1,263 8/ 1 

Richland 1,723 1,659 64 1 >7 2 Z I - 2 57 

Smith 1,232 1,211 21 1,138 94 974 90 

Thorncreek 1.343 1,253 90 1,343 1.037 

Troy 894 886 8 893 1 1,140 

Union 1,294 1,204 9° : - 2 94 1.105 

Coesse 192 168 24 192 

Washington 1.244 1.138 108 1.246 974 

( b ) Exclusive of city of Columbia. 

(c) Also one Indian. 

(d) In September, i860, Etna organized from the township of Washington, in Noble 


We deem it worth the while of our read - many cases a distance had to be traveled 
ers to inquire into the causes that impelled two or three times that of an air line or see- 
the south one-third of Washington town- tion line, and roads almost impassable in 
ship. Noble county, to separate from that many places. The county was infested, nat- 
county and join its future with Whitley urally, from the condition of the surface, 
countv in 1859, Washington township being with thieves and robbers, who operated all 
the south-west corner of Noble county. over northern Indiana, north-western Ohio 

Noble county was organized in 1836, and southern Michigan. The Noble county 
two years prior to our organization. Sparta regulators, a combination of citizens for 
was its first county seat, but there is neither the purpose of protecting life and property 
record nor tradition of any court house or from these criminals, has a record of dar- 
other county buildings ever having been ing well worthy of historical preservation, 
built at that place. In 1843, the county seat. In one or two cases they did execute ob- 
or seat of justice, as it was called, was re- noxious outlaws. A county seat anywhere 
located at Augusta. Without an unkind located was almost inaccessible from other 
word for our neighbor, it is just to say No- parts of the county, and there was continu- 
ble county was almost covered with lakes ous agitation for changes that were not en- 
and swamps, especially the south and south- tirely settled until commissioners appointed 
west portion. A wild fastness, scarcely by the governor in 1886, appraised the prop- 
equaled by the jungles of the tropics, and erty at Albion and settled the matter for all 
to this day not entirely cleared away. Roads time.and the present court house was finished 
were run without regard to lines, and in in 1887 at a cost of $114,000. In March, 



1843. almost immediately after location at 
Augusta, the court house was burned by an 
incendiary. Again, in 1844. the county seat 
was located at Port Mitchell and a court 
house and other buildings erected at a cost 
of $1,350. This was unsatisfactory to all 
but the nearby residents, and finally the lo- 
cation was fixed by vote of the people at 
Albion, in August. 1847. ar >d on tne I ^th 
day of September. 1S47. tne county com- 
missioners ordered the records and offices 
removed from Port Mitchell to Albion and 
into a court house costing $4,045. A jail 
was also built costing $1,300. This court 
house was destroyed by an incendiary fire 
in [859 and all the records in the clerk's 
1 iffice were destroyed except one order book 
which Samuel E. Alvord, then clerk, had at 
his home. Also a very valuable law and 
miscellaneous library. Matters were fur- 
ther complicated by the building of the 
Lake Shore Railroad through the comity in 
1858, building up the rival towns of Ligo- 
nier and Kendallville, near the extreme east 
and west lines of the county, each clamoring 
for the county seat or some upheaval 
or change in count) boundaries that would 
make them county seats. From 1854 
until the final building of the Grand Rapids 
Railroad in 1873, north and south through 
the county, near the east line, there was an 
agitation for the voting of subsidies which 
was ver\ obnoxious to the people on the 
west side of the county. Preparations were 
being made for the building of a new court 
house at Albion, entailing a heav) tax; and 
it was buill in t86i, at a cost ol $t 1,000. 
The people were thoroughly disgusted with 
paying foi court houses and having to hunt 
a new one every time they paid their taxes. 

sometimes two or more days' travel among 
swamps and robbers, who were especially 
active at tax paying times. 

Columbia City, with her Pittsburg. Fort 
Wayne & Chicago Railway completed, was 
the natural trading point for the people of 
south and south-western Noble county; was 
nearer than isolated inland Albion, and a 
good road led to it from present Etna town- 
ship, almost air line. The route was well 
populated and travel over it safe. These 
and other questions were thoroughly dis- 
cussed, and an animated campaign began 
early in 1858 and continued through the win- 
ter. Petitions were circulated, speeches 
made and opponents to the change, mostly 
from other parts of the county, were almost 
driven out of the territory. A decided ma- 
jority of the voters signed the petition for 
the change, and petitions were filed in both 
counties in March. 1850. In Whitley 
county, the, exact date was March 9, 1859, 
and was laid over to the next term of the 
commissioners' court as the law directs. On 
June 10th. the board having heard all the 
proof and being satisfied the petition was 
signed b\ T a majority of all the qualified vot 
ers, and that the law had been complied with 
in both counties, ordered that the south third 
of Washington township, Noble county, be- 
come a part of Whitley county, namely: 
Sections 25 to 36, inclusive, in township 
33, range 8. The signers of the petition 
w ere : 

L. Lampson, 
William Graves, 
Silas Scott, 
Robert Blain, 
John Blain, 

Jonathan Trumbull, 
1). K. Chandler. 
I ). J. Bowman, 
Thomas Blain, 
lames Blain, 



Jacob Kile, 
D. S. Scott, 
Robert Scott, Sr., 
Simon Trumbull, 
Jacob P. Prickett, 
S. Trumbull, Jr., 
William A. Plain, 
S. Penton, 
Benjamin Poyer, 
Thomas Gaff, 
W. P. Cunningham, 
Samuel Pennet, 
Fielding Scott, 
J. C. Matthew, 
Abram Straight, 
Henry Myers, 
Eli R. Jones, 
John A. Miller, 
Alex McKendry, 
John W. Long, 
Lyman Robinson, 
M. C. Scott, 
Samuel Garrison, 
J- P. Long. 

Levi Kile, 
J. F. Cunningham, 
Abraham Straight, Sr. 
A. P. Gandy, 
John Kisler, 
Thomas Hartup, 
Aaron Pennet, 
Alanson Tucker, 
Washington Jones, 
Alex M. Plain, Jr., 
Franklin Hunt, 
Joseph Welker, 
Thomas Scott, 
F. Al. King. 
J. D. Goble, 
A. M. Plain, 
Isaac Sheafer, 
William Crow, 
James McKendry, 
Jacob Fashbaugh, 
John Long, 
John Pennet, 
Frederick Sheets, 
Francis Kind, 

This change met with great opposition 
from the board of commissioners of Noble 
county and every possible obstacle was 
thrown in the way to prevent it. James 
Long, one of the county commissioners, re- 
sided in the district, and it was only through 
the great friendship of one of the other com- 
missioners for him that he finally consented 
to vote with Long for the change. Prior to 
the change, Lafayette Lamson had laid out 
the little town of Etna, naming it after the 
town and township from which he came in 
Ohio. It was the wish of the citizens that 
the new township take this name. Accord- 
ingly, on the 1 2th day of September, i860. 

the commissioners entered of record an or- 
der that it be called Etna, and on the fol- 
lowing day they appointed A. W. Myers to 
draft the field notes from the records of No- 
ble county and to transcribe the names of the 
owners of land therein and place all on rec- 
ord in Whitley county with the valuations. 
Also to make copy of deed records of said 
lands and to secure from Noble county the 
part of Congressional school fund to which 
Etna township was entitled, all of which was 
promptly done. The county auditor did on 
the 19th day of September, i860, appoint 
T. P. Cunningham trustee of Etna town- 
ship, to serve until the ensuing general elec- 
tion. This change was followed by two 
other attempts soon after. 

On the 9th day of March, i860, Moses 
Trumbull. John P. Rowland, H. A. Adair. 
Leander Nicholas, James A. Nicholas, Rob- 
ert Bowlesby, Andrew S. Carill, C. B. 
Wood, Michael Bowman. Thomas Kern, J. 
Brown, Clayton Fisher, Charles Hanson, 
Noah Cripe, L. Makemson. J. S. Hindbaugh 
and John Ruggles. filed petitions in both No- 
ble and Whitley, representing that they 
were a majority of the voters in sections iu 
to 24, inclusive, in Washington township. 
Noble county, a strip one mile wide across 
the township adjoining that part set off the 
vear before as Etna township, and asking 
that they also be set off to Whitley county 
and made a part of Etna township. After 
due course of law, the board of commission- 
ers of Whitley county entered an order on 
the 9th day of June, i860, finding the mat- 
ters and things contained in the petition to 
be correct and solemnly declared the strip 
to be a part of Whitley county. It was to 
be expected that Noble county would not 



ratify the action, and as it did not the order 
of Whitley county became inoperative and 
no further action was taken. 

On March 10. i860, a petition was filed in 
both Allen and Whitley counties, by sun- 
dry citizens of Allen county, residing in 
the twelve most westerly sections of Lake 
township, Allen county, asking that two 
miles off the west side of that township be 
declared a part of Whitley county and made 
a part of Union township, as it lay adjacent 
to Union township. This was signed by — 

William Thorp, 
Luke Dugan, 
J. C. Springer, 
A. Hyre, 
Nathan Smith, 
AY. Raley, 
A. W. Ruby, 
J. G. Vandewater, 
W. G. Miner, 
John Owens, 
H. D. Vandewater, 
Patrick Roe, 
M. Bowerman, 
William Tracey, 
John Fry, 
Charles Crary, 
James Lawrence, 
C. Gearman, 
William Sternberry, 
Thomas Tracy, 
M. Waugh, 
Thomas Tracey, 
Dennis Gorman, 
William Brown, 
Thomas Larimore, 
John Thorp, 
John H. Gratcer, 

Edward Ruby, 
M. Smith, 
William McManus, 
A. M. Long, 
John W. Therbond, 
Jac. Diffendarfer, 
John Owen, 
G. Stahel. 
David Tawney, 

A. Vandewater, 
Samuel Nickey, 
M. Dugan, 
Patrick Leslie, 
E. Hyre. 

B. J. Upp, 
James Ralby, 
Basil Butts, 

M. R. Vandewater, 
Joseph Finch, 

C. Lemley, 
James Tucker, 
Octavius Baff, 
Robert Hanna, 
William Miller, 
William Stamboy, 
1 'atrick Donan, 
A. Ryan, 

Bernard McLaughlin, Dennis Gearing, 
William Thorp, Jr., Thomas Ouicksell, 
David Gorman, William McMahan, 

H. Diffendarfer, Wm. C. Vandewater. 

On the 9th day of June, i86o ; the board 
found that the legal provisions had been 
complied with, and ordered that said strip be 
attached to Whitley county and made a part 
of Union township. Counties are always loth 
to yield up any part of their territory, and 
under ordinary conditions never do so. Al- 
len county never granted the change, and 
therefore the action of our county was void. 
The line between original Cleveland and 
Richland townships was at the very north- 
ern part of South Whitley. The line be- 
tween the original Richland and Troy town- 
ships was directly through, the center of Lar- 
will. It will also be remembered that up 
to 1882 there was but a single voting place 
in a township. Consequently, about the 
close of the war, both the villages having 
grown to a pretentious size, residents on the 
north line of Cleveland township, practically 
in South Whitley, resented the idea of go- 
ing three miles north into the country to 
vote and several miles into the interior to do 
township and school business. On the north 
line ©f Richland the feeling was greater. 
More than half the voters of Larwill, then 
a larger town than South Whitley, were 
obliged to go three miles north and one and 
a half mile east to the center of Troy town- 
ship to vote, and anywhere to do local offi- 
cial business. Roads were bad at any season 
of the year, and by the time of October and 
November elections almost impassable. At 
both ends of Richland township there was 
desire for change. Cleveland would of 



course be gratified to have her territory in- 
creased by one-third its original size, and 
Richland perfectly contented to have the 
change made by gaining as much to the 
north as was lost at the south side. Troy 
only would be the loser of one-third its ter- 
ritory. At the September term, 1867, a pe- 
tition was presented to the board of com- 
missioners asking that a voting precinct be 
established in Larwill, at which place the 
voters residing in the south two-mile strip 
of Troy and north one-mile strip of Rich- 
land mig-ht vote. This was granted, but the 
privilege could only be available for general 
county and state elections and not for town- 
ship elections. Then this required the ex- 
pense of having a voting place additional in 
both Troy to the north and Richland to the 
south and created the names of New Rich- 
land Center and New Troy Center. This 
was an unsatisfactory makeshift. On the 
1 2th day of December, 1868, the people of 
Cleveland, Richland and southern Troy 
were almost unanimously in favor of at- 
taching' two miles across the south end of 
Richland to Cleveland, ' and two miles off 
the south end of Troy to Richland. The 
north two-thirds of Troy was appeased by 
joining Etna township to them, giving them 
again a full township six miles square. Ac- 
cordingly, all this was done by order of the 
board of commissioners on the 12th day of 
December, 1868. It was supposed the peo- 
ple of Etna township would be more than 
satisfied with the change, as they would be- 
long to a full-size township and expenses of 
township administration be lessened. As a 
concession also the town of Etna was des- 
ignated as the place of holding elections, 
which was much more convenient for the 

people of that township than those living in 

Albert Webster was trustee of Richland, 
William H. Liggett of Cleveland and Ben- 
jamin Wooden of Troy, and as the residence 
of each of these officers still remained in the 
townships as they stood before the change, 
it was ordered that they hold office, as offi- 
cers of the new townships, until their suc- 
cessors should be elected at the April elec- 
tions, 1869. With the abolishment of Etna 
township, her offices were declared vacated. 
The assessors of Troy and Cleveland resided 
in the new townships of same name, but 
James Runkle, assessor of Richland, now a 
resident of Cleveland, his office was vacated, 
until the new election of the next spring. 
The people of Etna township, however, re- 
sented the change. For what reason does 
not appear of record, but tradition says they 
were proud of their independence and de- 
sired to be left alone. The officers held their 
books and papers, and under protest ceased 
to perform the functions of their offices. No 
election was held for officers in April, 1869. 
The assessor of Troy reported to the com- 
missioners that nearly every resident of Etna 
township refused to list their property with 
him, whereupon the board ordered him to 
return, demand the listing of their property 
and advise them that any further refusal 
would put them in contempt of court and 
that they would be fined under the law pun- 
ishing persons for refusing to list their prop- 
erty. The case was acute. At the March 
term, 1869, the trustee of Etna township 
reported to the commissioners his levies for 
township and school purposes for the year, 
which the board refused to consider, but an 
order was finally entered admitting the 


levies, but that they should be vacated, and 
the auditor not to compute taxes on them 
unless the action making them a part of 
Troy should be rescinded and vacated, the 
people already having' taken action toward 
this aid. 

On June jo, 1869, the board found that 
it was the unanimous wish of the people in 
this strip that the functions of a township 
should be restored to them and it was given 
them and the township of Etna was restored. 
Since that time there has been agitation for 
the consolidation of the two townships, but 
it came more from people outside than with- 
in either of them. Some of this was polit- 
ical. Both townships are strongly Repub- 
lican, each having a trustee, and while poli- 
tics dominated the election of a county 
school superintendent, there was Democratic 
sentiment for consolidation and Republican 
sentiment against it. This is practically the 
only political advantage of the office of 
township trustee. This has so much abated 
under the superb management of the schools 
by the present superintendent. George H. 
Tapy, a Democrat, that with him as the issue 
at the November election 1904, only Troy 
and Etna townships elected Republican 
trustees, though President Roosevelt carried 
the county by seventy-eight, and each party 
elected part of its county ticket. 

At the loss of Etna township, the people 
of New Troy tell very much aggrieved over 
the final outcome of the boundary upheaval 
of [868. They had another serious and just 
cause of complaint. It was inserted in the 
order making the change, insidiously they 
believed, that each new township should as- 
sume all debts contracted by the township 
of that name before the change. This was 

m no way objectionable to Cleveland, for 
the two mile strip would help them pay all 
debts for improvements of which the people 
in the strip got no benefit. It was particu- 
larly pleasing to the people of Richland, be- 
cause old Troy township had built a new 
frame two-story school building in Larwill 
which was not yet paid for. Richland 
township and Larwill got the building and 
New Little Troy was obliged to pay for it. 
Troy lost her school building, but with loss 
of one-third her territory and at least half 
her taxable property she must pay for it. 
Everyone saw the rank injustice. If an at- 
tempt was made to enforce this order, the 
courts might annul the whole proceeding', 
and the change of territory being more de- 
sirable to the citizens of Richland than get- 
ting rid of their just share of debt, they were 
in a conciliatory mood. The county com- 
missioners therefore appointed Alexander S. 
McNagny on behalf of Richland township, 
and Ambrose M. Trumbull on behalf of 
Troy, to arbitrate and reach a satisfactory 
settlement. I. B. McDonald, county school 
examiner, was appointed the third member 
of the arbitration board and the commission- 
ers bound themselves to ratify any agree- 
ment reached by any two of the arbitrators. 
The arbitrators met at Larwill March 18, 
[869. McNagny and Trumbull agreed that 
McDonald should act as referee, president of 
the board, and manager of the proceedings. 
Henry McLallen. now president of the hirst 
National Bank of Columbia City, was se- 
lected as secretarv to the hoard of arbitra- 
tion. Mr. Mel. alien says that McDonald 
explained the situation so clearly and figured 
out a settlement so just, that it was accepted 
without even suggestion of a change. 


The debt due on school house was from the total debt on the school house, 

$695.43. There was special school funds would leave $329.43. This sum of $329.43 

in hands of county treasurer. $1,100. of was assumed by Richland township, but 

which amount one-third or about $366 Troy township paid Richland township 

equitably belonged to that part of the town- $34. And thus for the period of thirty-five 

ship now Richland, for they had paid in it as years there have been no changes made in 

residents of Troy. Deducting this $360 the civil subdivisions of Whitley county. 



Ages, perhaps centuries, before the era of 
Columbus, the interior of this vast country, 
especially along the streams and lakes, was 
densely populated. Research proves that it 
was inhabited long before the advent of the 
red man, by a people whose history is lost 
forever, and of whom we can never know 
but little beyond conjecture. We have 
reason to believe they had fixed habits and 
places of abode, in a degree surpassing their 
dusk\- successors. To this people has been 
given the name of Mound-Builders. North- 
ern Indiana has many proofs of the presence 
of this race, but not so extensive as found 
in some other regions. 

Some writers have sought to establish 
proofs of their works in Whitley county. 
but all these, on close analysis and investiga- 
tion, have proven to be the work of the In- 
dians beyond all question. If they were 
here and left evidences, they have since 

From out of that dark night which hangs 
forever over all we know or shall know of 
early America, came the Indian, a waif flung 
by the surge of time to these later ages of 
our own. With the advent of the red man. 

the Indiana of nature was complete, perfect. 
It possessed that primeval savage beauty of 
a world unmarred by man. Lakes, streams, 
forests, prairies, stored fuel, noble game, all 
here untouched. For centuries, the Indian 
lived in peace within its bounds. The forest 
yielded him deer and bear, the prairies buf- 
falo and wild fowl. On the higher ridges 
overlooking the larger streams and lakes, 
he had his principal village sites. Over 
their placid waters he paddled his dug-out 
and bark canoe. From their depths he se- 
cured with rude hook and spear fishes 
sufficient to supply his needs, while the skins 
of muskrats, otter and beaver which he 
trapped about their marshy margins, fur- 
nished him protection against the cold. 
Through the forest glades, when returning 
from the chase, his cries of triumph were 
echoed. Here, in a land of plenty, his wants 
were few and easily satisfied, his ambitions 
lowly, his hopes eternal. But to this, as to 
all things peaceful, there was an end. From 
across the seas came that "prince of para- 
sites," the white man, self-styled heir to all 
the ages, conqueror and civilizer, in reality 
the greatest devastator nature has ever 

6 4 


known. First, as a discoverer came he, then 
as a trapper and trader among the Indians, 
last as settler of the future state, always a 
despoiler of the land the natives loved so 
well. True, there were noble, self-sacrific- 
ing souls who came as early missionaries 
to befriend the natives, to point them the 
way of the Christian religion, to win them 
by the example of perfect self-sacrificing 
lives, but even this zeal was tinctured with 
the hope of the enlargement and aggrandize- 
ment of some particular creed. But little 
good or even history came from all this. 
except it leaves to us the story of the general 
disposition of these savages. Lives they 
lived of barbarian simplicity, gentleness and 
hospitality. Their later treachery, savage 
brutality and general devilishness, though 
latent in their uncivilized nature, were de- 
veloped by their contact with white men, and 
they were apt scholars. The intense hos- 
tility of the French and English governments 
toward each other, transmitted to their sub- 
jects in the new world, inspiring them with 
love of conquest and spoil, and later the 
hostility toward all white races who had 
become Americans, by both French and 
English; these things are principally re- 
sponsible for the final development of those 
characteristics of the Indian we have all 
learned to despise and which our earlier 
ancestors learned to fear. The history of 
the Indian from his discovery to his ex- 
tinction, covers but an infinitesimal portion 
of the world's history, but it sees this race, 
educated from uncivilized simplicity to sav- 
age brutality; and yet, withal, there were 
many notable characters who have left les- 
sons of faithfulness, devotion and self-sacri- 
fice* to the world, ever worthy of remem- 
brance and emulation. 

The first white man lived much as the 
natives ; their places of habitation, their food, 
their clothing and environment being neces- 
sarily the same. But from the larger 
streams and lakes, and the frontier he grad- 
ually pushed into the interior, until in less 
than two centuries, a mere second compared 
with those measureless eternities before he 
came, the white man has changed beyond 
recognition the face of the land. From its 
bounds he has driven forever the buffalo, 
bear, panther, elk, deer, wild turkey, ivory- 
billed woodpecker, paroquet and wild pigeon, 
and obliterated forever the picturesque trails 
and woodland paths. What the Indians 
were before Capt. John Smith met them in 
1607, or the Pilgrims found them that 
dreary winter of 1620, we know not and 
shall never know. When they occupied all 
this vast country and had never to do with 
white man, they had a history, but it is 
neither preserved or disclosed. We are sure 
they had federations, some rude kind of 
governmental management in their tribal 
lives, and exercised control or ownership 
over certain territory and defended it against 
their neighbors, as white men in all lands 
and all stages of civilization. That these 
tribes were at war with each other, proved 
them to be in the one respect, at least, equal 
to the christianized, enlightened and fore- 
most nations of white people with their 
centuries of intellectual growth. 

Misunderstanding and inevitable conflict 
must come with the co-mingling of races, 
causing prejudice, clannishness and event- 
ually a war of extinction. Intertribal com- 
munication, what we call news, was slow 
and uncertain, but was not liable to lose any 
of its intensity by transmission. A race by 
nature inclined to imagination, excitement 


and hyperbole, would not suffer a story of 
wrong to lose force on its journey, and the 
acts of a slowly but surely conquering race 
must raise a spirit of hostility and bitterness 
among the conquered whether black, red or 
white. And so, while the fight was going 
on along the Atlantic coast, the natives were 
gradually forced back and from their origi- 
nal territory there must come a mingling 
of tribes with race sympathy and growing 
hatred for the invaders. But the character- 
istics of the Indian and his history, during 
the two centuries of his extinction, have been 
fully set out in numberless histories, differ- 
ing in many essentials and seldom agreeing 
in detail, and we are only concerned with 
the history of the red man in Whitley county, 
going beyond this only as it may be neces- 
sary to make plain that local history. 

In at least the last half of the eighteenth 
century, this territory was occupied jointly 
by the Miamis and Pottawattamies, though 
the former made stout claim to all of it, 
and it must be considered that interwoven 
with these two great tribes were many 
smaller ones, such as the Weeas and Eel 
rivers, and these were mostly branches of 
the Miamis. 

The domain of the Miamis was de- 
scribed by Little Turtle at the treaty of 
Greenville, June 16. 1795, as follows: 
"My fathers first kindled the fires at Detroit 
and covered the territory to the headwaters 
of the Scioto, thence down the same to the 
Ohio, thence down that river to the mouth 
of the Wabash, and thence to Chicago on 
the south-west end of Lake Michigan, and 
from thence back to Detroit, and all within 
these boundaries is Miami territory." This 
bombastic speech, spoken by the leader of 

the federation, was no doubt inspired by the 
determination of himself, his people, and 
his federated allies, to make the best possi- 
ble terms with his white conquerors, and 
especially for himself and the Miamis to re- 
tain his capital. Fort Wayne, the very golden 
gate of the country ; and he must claim far 
beyond that to the westward, and not allow 
this much coveted place to fall in the out- 
posts on the extreme western portion of the 
frontier. To this General Wayne replied 
that the territory claimed practically covered 
all that claimed by all the tribes represented' 
in the convention and a few small ones not 
represented, intimating that Little Turtle 
was imbued with the doctrine asserted by 
statesmen and politicians uf our own time, 
"claim everything," and gave him little hope 
to expect the convention would recognize 
occupancy much to the west of Fort Wayne. 
The origin of the Pottawattamies and 
their first location on the continent have 
never been ascertained. They were known 
to the French in south-western Michigan. 
They were probably first known by white 
men about Lake Michigan, in Wisconsin 
and northern Illinois. They were described 
as a somewhat vagrant and unambitious 
tribe, with little or no organization, wander- 
ing almost aimlessly about, and were often 
destitute while and when other tribes reveled 
in savage luxury. They were driven east- 
ward by the more western tribes until they 
were practically confined to north and west- 
ern Indiana until they came among the Mi- 
amis, with whom they fraternized fairly well. 
Indeed we may say they met and overlapped 
the Miamis about and along Eel and Blue 
rivers in Whitley county. In the west part 
of our county and beyond, they occupied 



the territory practically ale me. In the east- 
ern part of Whitley county, practically east 
of the rivers, we find none but the Miamis, 
including a few Eel rivers and predatory 
bands of Weeas and others not definable. 

About 1790, the Miamis could muster 
1,500 warriors. They were at this time 
always at war with the whites until their 
disastrous defeat by Gen. Anthony Wayne 
in 1795. the year prior to the Greenville 
treaty. After that, they rapidly declined. 
By a series of treaties between that date 
and 1809, they ceded lands extending from 
the Wabash river to the Ohio state line. 
The annuities proved fatal to them, intro- 
ducing intoxicating liquors, resulting in in- 
dolence, dissipation and violence. 

In the war of 1812, they sided with 
England and being" defeated by General Har- 
rison sued for peace, and a treaty was made 
on September 15, 1815, and their war spirit 
was broken. War had broken up the prog- 
ress they had made in peaceful arts, and 
drunkenness and debauchery again over- 
whelmed, leading to internal rights in which 
nearly 500 of them perished in about fifteen 
vears. In [822, the census showed they 
numbered from 2.000 to 3,000 on three res- 
ervations. The Weea or Piankeshaw bands 
of them, numbering 384, removed themselves 
in 1833 and 1N35 to a reservation of 
160.000 acres in Kansas. 

The Pel river tribe were Miamis who 
had located near Eel river, perhaps about 
1760, about twelve miles from Logansport. 
wandering up and down that river into 
Whitley county. They were removed with 
-the Pottawattamies in 1837, by Col. Abel 
Pepper and Alexis Coquillard. Those in 
Whitley, northern Huntington and eastern 

Allen counties were loaded on canal boats at 
Raccoon Village, Whitley county, May 18, 
1837. The Miamis. then reduced to about 
1,100, sold to the government 117,000 acres 
in Indiana for $335,680, still retaining con- 
siderable land in reservations, but by treaties 
made in 1838 and 1840, ceded to the govern- 
ment practically all these reservations and 
were removed to near Leavenworth, Kansas. 
At this time, they had dwindled to a 
wretched, dissipated band of 250, each in- 
dividual being paid a life annuity of about 
$125. In 1873. they numbered about 150. 
and now that once powerful, boastful na- 
tion, dominating a great part of Ohio, In- 
diana and Michigan, is extinct as a tribe. 
Under the treaty stipulation made in 

1836, the Pottawattamies were in July, 

1837, removed to a tract of country on the 
Osage river, south-west of the Mississippi, 
under directions of Abel C. Pepper, United 
States commissioner. The}- had become 
much nearer civilized than the Miamis and 
had some good farms and mills and showed 
many signs of becoming citizens of tolera- 
tion, if not of usefulness. Record is made 
of all the incidents of their removal, and a 
most pathetic one it is. They were gathered 
from over the territory to Twin Lakes, 
Marshall county, and the present village of 
Kewanna, in Fulton count}-, where the prin- 
cipal settlements were. The day before 
their departure they visited the cemetery 
where reposed their dead, and their lamen- 
tations were indescribable. Turning their 
faces away from the hallowed spot forever, 
they did not look back. The}- complained 
bitterly of deceit in the treaty, but went 
peaceably. On the way, dry and hot, many 
of them perished and were buried beside the 


6 7 

trail. About two days on their journey 
they were overtaken by a priest who had 
spiritually administered to them, and he 
came as a glorious benediction. Their joy 
at having him with them on their journey, 
seemed to mitigate their sorrows and hard- 
ships as nothing else could. Nothing more 
pathetic is recorded in history than the re- 
moval of the Pottawattamies from northern 

In the contest at Greenville there met 
two diplomats who would have been able 
to cope with the most sagacious ministers 
of an European court. They were General 
Wayne, appearing for the government of 
the United States, the white man ; and Little 
Turtle, the representative in chief of the 
allied federation of the red men. To the 
learned wisdom of General Wayne Little 
Turtle was always ready with an answer full 
of argument and diplomacy. 

He was the leader who overthrew the 
Federal armies in 1790 and 1791, which 
struck with terror and dismay the white in- 
habitants on the exposed frontier. He 
planned and executed the work of destroy- 
ing the regulars and militia under Harmer 
and Armstrong, on the line between Whitley 
and Allen counties. At Greenville, he had 
the double task of competing with General 
Wayne and keeping the confidence of his sub- 
ordinate allied chiefs, who were ever dis- 
trustful of his ability and integrity in settling 
to the best advantage what were really the 
terms of capitulation of the year before, and 
its disaster to their cause. His final appear- 
ance in the field of diplomacy was at the 
convention held in Fort Wayne on June 1, 

About 1793 to 1795, Rev. Stephen Theo- 

dore Badin, said to be the first Catholic priest 
ordained in the United States, visited the 
Pottawattamies at Twin Lakes. Marshall 
county, established a church and built, for 
the age, a presumptuous log house of wor- 
ship. Here he, with two co-laborers, min- 
istered for some time to the spiritual want 
of the Indians and made many excursions 
over northern Indiana. To the records of 
these people, now resting in the archives 
of a monastery in France, we are indebted 
for much that is interesting. 

Describing one of his trips to the east- 
ward, giving description of various points 
and distance as he could measure it, with 
the topography of the country; leaves no 
doubt that in the summer of 1796 he visited 
a Pottawattamie village in Richland town- 
ship, Whitley county, near where now stands 
the village of Larwill. The lake commonly 
called Kerr's he locates accurately, and gives 
a good account of the surrounding hills and 
general topography of the region. The vil- 
lage he says was on the hills on the east bank 
of the lake. He found a village of some 
300 Indians, and labored with them about a 
fortnight and some of them professed great 
interest in the doctrines of Christianity, but 
his visit must have been barren of results 
as he does not tell of a second visit. He 
describes a well traveled pathway along the 
outlet of this lake to another small lake 
southeastward about two miles, meaning 
no doubt Souder lake, which is near the 
center of section 11. Along this little 
connection and about the lakes, he says 
many beaver, otter and other fur animals 
were taken. From these points he traveled 
northward about six miles where he had 
learned there was another village, but found 



it abandoned and most of the huts burned. 
The spot is not sufficiently defined to be 
located now, but was evidently in either 
Troy or Etna township. 

Father Badin's visit to Richland town- 
ship is confirmed by another account from 
an entirely different source. The com- 
mander of the fort at Fort Wayne, in his 
diary of a year or two earlier (Goodman 
historical papers) gives an account of a trip 
to the west and slightly north, a distance of 
about thirty miles, and the purchase of more 
than a hundred bear, otter and beaver skins, 
at a Pottawattamie village on the east bank 
of a small lake, and his topography and 
description of route traveled over confirms 
the place as before described. 

As early as 1771, the English com- 
mandant at Fort Wayne tells of a visit to 
the Miamis, distant westward about twenty 
or twenty-two miles to a point at the con- 
fluence of two rivers, one starting some fif- 
teen miles north-east in a large bayou, marsh 
or lake, evidently meaning Blue river, and 
the spot described is undoubtedly the point 
about two miles south of present Columbia 
City, where Blue river empties into Eel 
river, right on the line between Seek's Vil- 
lage and Beaver reservations. While at the 
place he witnessed a green corn dance 
(Papers of the Western Reserve Historical 
Society). Old residents say there were still 
evidences of such village as late as 1840. 

In the famous journal of Captain Trent, 
covering the year 1773, he speaks of an 
Indian mill, north-west of the fort at the 
headwaters of the Maumee, distance the 
journey of a day and a half. The mill was 
on a short neck of water connecting two 
lakes and another lake a short distance 

north-west and almost parallel with the 
higher of the two, which was the west one. 
In this mill the Indians ground corn ; quite 
a quantity was raised by them in the vicinity. 
He also describes a race track entirely 
around one of these lakes, with a log bridge 
covered with earth, over the marshy part at 
the west end. 

Mrs. David Plummer, of Richland town- 
ship, says that when her father settled near 
Shriner lake in Thorncreek township, a race 
track around that lake was still in a pretty 
fair state of existence. There can be no 
doubt in the mind of any person who has 
ever visited the three lakes in northern 
Thorncreek township, that this is the place, 
and that the mill was near the present sum- 
mer residences of Judge J. W. Adair and 
Col. I. B. Rush. Trent says farther, that 
the Indians gathered at this spot for many 
miles in the spring, and again in the fall, for 
a week's sport of pony racing and other 
games and amusements. There were foot 
races by both bucks and squaws, swimming 
matches, wrestling bouts, tests of endurance 
in many ways and contests which the captain 
would not attempt to describe. It was fa- 
mous all over north-eastern Indiana, and 
several hundred natives visited the place at 
each week's entertainment. There were 
both Miamis and Pottawattamies, but his 
record is silent as to which tribe owned or 
controlled the place, or what it was called, 
if it had a name. 

George Crogan on his trip up Eel river 
in 1765, of which an extended account is 
given elsewhere in this work, visited a vil- 
lage of Miami Eel river Indians on a stream 
flowing from the north-west into Eel river 
and about a mile from Eel river, and about 



twelve miles from the portage. This must 
have been on Spring- creek just east of 
where it is joined by Clear creek in Cleve- 
land township, perhaps half a mile north- 
east of present South Whitley. There were, 
as he estimated, about 300 Indians, and they 
were very hospitable and entertained his 
men with a good supply of parched corn, 
venison and wild turkey. He spent a half 
1 lay with them. 

The student of our country's history is 
familiar with the campaign of General 
Harmar in 1790, against Fort Wayne. 
October 14th Colonel Hardin was detached 
with one company of regulars and six hun- 
dred militia in advance of the main army, 
and being charged with the destruction of 
the Indian towns on the forks of the Mau- 
mee (Fort Wayne). On the arrival of this 
advance party, they found the towns aban- 
doned and the principal one burned. There 
were seven villages at the forks of the Mau- 
mee: the larger or Miami, being directly in 
the forks of the river, contained eighty 
houses. The army burned all the villages 
and destroyed about 20,000 bushels of corn. 
Appearances indicated the Indians had gone 
westward. General Harmar sent eighty 
militia and thirty regulars in pursuit, John 
Armstrong commanding the regulars and 
Colonel Trotter the militia. The following 
day Colonel Hardin assumed entire com- 
mand. This small army moved westward 
along Turtle's trail until they found them- 
selves near the enemy. The encampment 
was flanked on each side and in front by 
deep swamps. The front morass was 
promptly crossed by the soldiers under a 
galling fire from a body of savages. The 
militia broke and fled and could not be 

rallied. Fifty-two men were killed in a few 
minutes. The regulars bore the brunt of the 
battle, one sergeant and twenty-two privates 
being killed. While endeavoring to hold 
their position the same became more pre- 
carious by the fleeing militia breaking 
through their ranks and throwing away their 
guns without firing a shot. Armstrong es- 
timated the Indians at only about a hundred. 
This gallant officer broke through the band 
of pursuing Indians and plunged into the 
swamp, where he remained all night up to 
his chin in mud and water and concealed 
by a tussock of high grass. He was com- 
pelled to hear the nocturnal orgies of the 
savages, as they danced around the dead 
bodies of the soldiers. As day approached the 
Indians fell asleep, and he extricated him- 
self, retired to a ravine and built a fire by 
which he recovered the use of his limbs. 
He had with him his watch and tinder box. 
This battle was fought near where the Gosh- 
en road crosses Eel river and was partly in 
Whitley and partly in Allen counties. 

The different treaties were principally 
made with the Miamis and Pottawattamies. 
Indeed, the other smaller tribes were ad- 
mitted rather by the insistence of the general 
government than the request of the two 
powerful tribes. In 1826, the only Indian 
villages in Whitley county were a small 
one in section 4, Smith township, on what 
is now the Goshen road, then only a trail ; 
one on the Chapiene reservation in Union 
township ; one on the Beaver reservation in 
Columbia township ; two in central and west 
Columbia township; one at the raccoon res- 
ervation in the south-east corner of Jeffer- 
son township, and Seek's Village near the 
line between Chapiene and Seek's Village 



Reserve and one on Coesse's section, in all 
only about 300 Indians, men, women and 

By 1833, when the settlers began to 
arrive there were fewer than 200 Indians in 
the county, about seventy-five or eighty at 
Seek's Village, a small band at Blue River 
lake in Smith township, perhaps fifty at 
Raccoon Village, about sixty in west Colum- 
bia township, a small number in Beav- 
er's Reservation and a still smaller number in 
Coesse's section immediately south of Colum- 
bia City. Coesse died in 1854 and his only 
son died the year before. The son was 
buried at his home, now the Stoufr farm. 
Coesse died at Roanoke and lies in an un- 
marked grave in a field farmed over for 
many years. 

Coesse's wife and two daughters re- 
mained on the farm till the spring of 1868, 
when they sold it and removed to Roanoke, 
and from thence joined some of their 
kindred farther down the Wabash valley, 
and the Indian population was forever ex- 
tinct in Whitley county. 

Whitley county has a rich Indian his- 
tory, but it has been so long neglected that 
to gather the fragments of tradition, reports 
of discoverers, journals of traders, remem- 
brances of early settlers, surface evidence 
and information of a collateral character, 
and sift out the truth and arrange all in 
chronological order, leaves a small narrative 
for the perusal of future generations. 

Much more could be added to this chap- 
ter, if we were to set down as historical fact 
fanciful theories and romantic stories. Here, 
practically along the Eel river, came the 
great tribes of Miamis from the east and 
north, meeting the almost equally powerful 

Pottawattamies from the west and north- 
west; and intermingled among these, indi- 
vidual squads and larger bodies of other 
tribes, sometimes under the leadership of 
chiefs. Before there were white men with 
which to contend, there was war among the 
tribes, often to the point of extermination, 
or destruction of tribal relation, and the in- 
corporation of the remnants into other tribes 
and a commingling of individuals. It is 
needless to say that much, if not the greater, 
part of the mass of literature upon this sub- 
ject is very meagre in fact. 

As to-day, some portions of our country 
are much more densely populated than 
others, for reasons easily discernible, so in 
those days before the foot of white man 
pressed the soil, some portions of the coun- 
try were more thickly settled with Indians 
than others. If Whitley county to-day can- 
not boast of its fine and populous cities, 
dense population and metropolitan improve- 
ments, it can say its rich hunting grounds, 
small stretches of prairie, its streams and 
lakes, once made it a very important part 
of the red man's domain. 

Many pages have been written to prove 
when a fort was first erected at what is 
now Fort Wayne; but it is quite sure there 
was a French fort at that place long before 
1730. The establishment of the fort proves 
a previous discovery by white men, as well 
as a necessity for its erection. Money was 
not expended and lives risked without an 
object, and in this case the purpose is easily 
found. Its strategic and commercial im- 
portance, lying at the headwaters of the 
Maumee to the lake, and in the other direc- 
tion by a small portage to either Little river 
or Eel river, and a highway into the vast 


interior. The country was rich in what the 
natives had to barter or traffic. It was the 
largest and most central of all the villages 
or points in the Miami possessions. Capt. 
Vincennes visited it as early as 1740, and 
pronounced it "The Key of the West." Lit- 
tle Turtle named it the "glorious gate" 
through which all the good words of their 
chiefs had to pass from the north to the 
south and from the east to the west. 

Before the erection of that fort, the local 
historv of this region is unknown ; and for 
many years thereafter, we only know that 
the Indians of this region traded and bar- 
tered there, that they had portages or trails 
from Eel river to the fort, and that the 
portages and river through this county be- 
came what we would liken to-day to a trans- 
continental railroad; this county was trav- 
ersed by a great national highway. 

From the Great Lakes, over which for 
two centuries must come the advance guard 
of civilization, during the terrors of treach- 
ery and trails of blood, of French and Brit- 
ish claims, and until after the second war 
with Great Britain and the final breaking 
down of Indian prowess, through the Whit- 
ley county portages and Eel river must a 
great part of these hardy pioneers pass as 
though hemmed in by a barbed wire. 

On the 26th day of July, 1906, a small 
number of citizens of Whitley county set 
out with the avowed purpose of ascertain- 
ing all that could be obtained by personal ex- 
amination and evidence of witnesses of the 
Indian history of the county. They visited 
the Island, the spot of executions thereon, 
the battle ground of the two dominant tribes, 
Miamis and Pottawattamies, the spot of the 
"burned cabins," Indian cemeteries, the spot 

of the massacre at Page's Crossing, the 
bridge across Beaver run. Little Turtle's 
Village, Seek's Village, and the location of 
the homes of both these chiefs. The day was 
a summer ideal, and when they sat down to 
picnic on historic ground on Silas Briggs' 
farm, there were nearly 200 people. Some 
came to hear, others to tell, others because 
they felt interested, and many out of idle 
and listless curiosity, and these unconscious- 
ly assisted by inspiring those who came to 
add their testimony to their most vivid rec- 

Such an array of witnesses will never 
gather again. Even before these pages 
have reached the publishers, some of them 
have gone to take their places in their last 
narrow homes. As we inspected a place, 
each would come fonvard and relate what 
he himself had seen of or on this spot ; what 
father or mother or other friends had told 
him, and out of all this, corroborated from 
all possible sources, comes the following nar- 
rative, which may well take its place in the 
literature of Whitley county as authentic 
history : 

In that notable gathering were Charles 
Seymour, who lived on the island much 
more than half a century ago, and saw the 
things of which he spoke ; John F. Moss- 
man, to whom Indians were familiar, and 
who fed them in his father's house; George 
Aker. who as a boy played with Indian 
boys ; Sanford Mosher, whose recollection 
of Indians and their day is as vivid as 
though 'twere yesterday : Silas and Andrew 
Briggs, who came as the Indian sun was set- 
ting, and who carved beautiful, fertile farms 
out of the Indian wreckage, built magnifi- 
cent homes and reared large, intelligent fam- 


ilies on the spots of former Indian habita- 
tions, both in possession of all their facul- 
ties and able to speak intelligently of what 
was to be seen in former days, and of rapidly 
dissolving- evidence ; William and Alexander 
Ah ire. raised right here on Eel river on a 
spot hallowed by historic scenes, both have 
raised worthy families, who have gone forth 
to fill places of prominence in the world. All 
these men were yet fully able to tell of the 
stirring scenes of early days. These and 
many others gave evidence of incalculable 
historic value. Without overshadowing the 
value of the testimony of any of these, it is 
but truth to say that Alexander More was 
in position to give more information than 
any other; an intelligent citizen, possessing 
a beautiful home and some leisure, and being 
raised on the most interesting Indian ground 
in the county, and having made a study of 
local and historic conditions all his life, he 
is better able to speak than any other in the 
county. Mr. More has known from child- 
hood the exact habitations of Little Turtle 
and the route of the trails or portages, and 
is desirous of having them marked for per- 
petuation during his life. He had not for 
many years visited the spot of Little Tur- 
tle's house at the bend of the river, and yet 
his description of it. from his own recollec- 
tion and that left by his father, enabled every 
man in the party to walk directly to the spot. 

To the events of this 26th day of July, 
[906, and a few subsequent trips over the 
county by nearly the same people, are we 
mainly indebted for what follows: 

What is known as Little Turtle's trail 
or portage through the county will be here- 
after described. At this time, we shall only 
refer to it as going through the farm of 

Alexander More in the northeast corner 
of section 1 1 and the north-west corner of 
section 12, in Union township. Eel river 
at this point formerly cut almost a curve out 
of the corners of these two sections. Since 
dredging, the short curves are taken out, 
but are so small as not to be discernible on 
the map, or change the location of the places 
of interest with reference to the river. The 
trail coming from the west runs almost paral- 
lel with the river and about 200 feet from it. 
The road running north through More's 
land, coming from the Yellow river road, 
runs about sixty rods west of the east line 
of section 1 1 . and parallel with it until 
about seventy rods from the north line of 
the section, then, on account of the river, an- 
gles to the east. Perhaps ten rods south 
of the angle is More's house. Directly 
north and about the angle, stands his large 
barn. Directly north of the barn is the trail, 
in many places still plainly visible. About 
fifty feet north of the trail, almost where 
the bluff descends to the river, is the spot 
where stood Little Turtle's house. He had 
two houses, and of course it is not known 
whether he occupied both of them at one 
time or not. He had three wives, but, we 
are told, not "simultaneously;" so that it 
can hardly be that two families were domi- 
ciled at this place. The houses were about 
eighty feet apart. The first, supposed to be 
the larger, stood to the north and slightly 
west of the other. This was the last habita- 
tion of this famous chief in the county, from 
whence he went to Fort Wayne in the spring 
or early summer of 1812 and died in mid- 

The most remarkable feature of this 
place is the fortification. About fifty feet 



east of Turtle's cabin is the intrenchment be- 
ginning at the river on the east side, and al- 
most circular in form, except the west side 
is flattened before it again strikes the river. 
It is plainly visible, covered with the vegeta- 
tion of summer, and much more so in win- 
ter, though we are quite sure it was dug a 
century and a quarter ago. The distance 
around this intrenchment is 360 feet. At its 
farthest point from the river it is 120 feet, 
and has about 150 feet on river front. The 
river front all along here is quite a little 
bluff, but near the east line of this artificial 
ridge, is cut down a road to the river, by 
which horses coming across the river might 
come directly into the enclosure. Fifty years 
ag"o the embankment stood up fully four feet, 
and forty years ago the stations could be 
easily seen where each man stood to throw it 
up. and there were more than a hundred such 
stations. The large timber had been taken 
from within, and some distance outside the 
intrenchment, save one tree inside and an- 
other about fifty feet south and east of where 
the east line of the embankment strikes the 
river. The one outside is gone. There were 
marks on the outside showing that it had 
been struck in several places, presumably 
with axes. Mr. More himself cut to the 
inside scar and counted the growths, and had 
others do so, and they counted back to 1 780. 
The inside tree is dead, but still stands, a 
stub perhaps twenty feet high. It died fif- 
teen j-ears ago, and by count of the growths 
by different persons, to the interior scar, 
makes the time of the cutting into it either 
1780 or 1781. 

Across the river and extending some dis- 
tance to the east, were yet standing forty 
years ago, from fifty to a hundred trees, all 

burned on the side next to the river. Had 
these been burned by a fire running over the 
ground, or by any other means than by per- 
sons encamped along the river, they would 
not all have been burned on the one side next 
the river. 

At a point on the north line of section 12 
where the road strikes the section line, run- 
ning thence east a few rods on the line, there 
was noticed, but a few years ago. unmistak- 
able evidence of a great charnel house. 
Either it had been the scene of a battle or 
the pestilential ravage of disease. Bones of 
human beings could have been picked up by 
the barrel. Pigs turned on the ground 
plowed it all over with their noses, and 
crunched the bones for months. A buckle, 
bridle bit and spur were also plowed up. On 
this ground, Mr. More found a round ex- 
cavation about the size of a very large, old- 
fashioned dug well, walled with stones. In 
this was crowded endwise all the timber it 
would hold, and it was almost burned to 
charcoal. Mr. More dug it out, and it ex- 
tended down six to seven feet. 

At a point on the trail about sixty rods 
east of the fortification, about the same in- 
dications of a battle ground were found, 
and two large mounds, the outlines still to be 
seen, were quite plain but a few years ago. 
Mr. More opened them and took out quite 
a few human bones, and one entire skeleton. 


What was known to the Indians and the 
early settlers as "The Island," is that part 
of Columbia township between Eel river and 
Mud run, the latter emptying into the for- 
mer almost on the west line of Seek's Vil- 



lage reserve. The streams thus form the 
island, except the east side, which was a 
prairie or marsh, so wet that at most sea- 
sons of the year a canoe would readily float 
over it. The island was in area 300 or per- 
haps 400 acres. The road south from the 
city through the center of sections 14 and 
23, Seek's Village reserve, strikes the island 
as it crosses Eel river. The margin of this 
island along Eel river is high and bluffy di- 
rect to the river for a short distance east of 
the road. West of the road the bluff recedes 
some distance, but follows nearly the same 
lines as the river, leaving what was formerly 
a low, marshy, dense thicket ten or fifteen 
rods wide between bluff and river. Except 
along Eel river the island sloped gradually 
into marsh and stream scarcely distinguish- 
able. As the road from Columbia City 
south crosses the river and ascends to the 
bluff, it strikes the higher part of the island 
of perhaps eighty acres, that at no time ever 
witnessed an overflow. 

On the margin of Eel river, on each side, 
was a trail which the Indians had so con- 
structed with earth and timber that at low- 
water it was a well worn highway. East of 
the road some thirty rods, was a splendid 
spring, and near it the bluff was cut down by 
a trail or portage to the river, and a crossing 
was established for some fair-sized craft of 
the canoe variety. About midway between 
the road and the junction of the rivers was 
the trail, portage or crossing, so arranged 
with stones and timbers as to be passable 
except in high stages of water. This was 
the only regular rind well defined approach 
to the island. 

Anthony Seymour purchased the forty 
acres of the island directly south of the river 

and east of the road from James Compton ire 
1848, and moved upon it. His son, Charles 
Seymour, who spent much of his boyhood at 
this place, accompanied the expedition and 
gave the principal information. 

At that time information was readily ob- 
tained from Coesse's family, and other scat- 
tering Indians and early settlers. It was 
one of the principal strongholds of the Mi- 
amis on Eel river, and predatory bands of 
Indians or whites could reach it only at a 
great disadvantage to themselves. It was 
a natural fortification. 

There was a legend among the Indians 
of a white man on a white horse being on the 
island. This pale rider on his pale steed, 
kept concealed like a spirit, except when on 
a mission against the Indians or planning 
some harm to them. He could ride like the 
wind, and his sight was dreaded as a pesti- 
lence. When he appeared, they were sure 
some calamity was about to befall them by 
storm, fire or human foe. 

The island was a well kept Miami In- 
dian garrison up to 1812. and Little Turtle 
exercised supervision over it during his 

The island, when it came into the hands 
of the white man, was denuded of most of 
its heavy timber. There were scattering 
trees and unmistakable evidence of the red 
man's agriculture, but grown over with 
hazel brush. 

On the west side of what is now the road, 
some forty rods south of the river, were six 
oak trees standing near each other and alone. 
when the Seymours came. These showed 
marks on the west side of frequent burning 
against them, from the roots up to a little 
more than the height of a man. and there 



were many scars of tomahawk or hatchet. 
About the roots were many charred bones of 
human beings. Mrs. Seymour inquired and 
was told by Mrs. Coesse that it was the spot 
where the Miamis tortured and burned their 
prisoners, brought sometimes many miles, 
and she also told of witnessing the burning 
of some Pottawattamies there when she was 
a little girl. There were several trees over 
the island that were similarly burned, but 
this seemed to be the principal place. The 
expedition placed a red stake by the road- 
side forty rods south of the center of section 

23, township 31, range 9. The trees stood 
five rods north, forty-five degrees west from 
this stake. 

Charles Seymour related that while liv- 
ing here he knew Coesse's son Simon very 
well, and often played and hunted with him, 
but could never get to see old Coesse him- 
self. He says : "Once Simon came over to 
our patch and ate cucumbers until I thought 
he would kill himself, and told him so : and 
he replied, 'Nothing kill Indian." The next 
spring he took sick and died, but I guess 
the cucumbers did not kill him ; I took care 
of him a great deal, saw the autopsy per- 
formed and helped bury him. This was the 
spring of 1852. Once I went over to 
Coesse's when Simon and his mother were 
unloading poles off of a wagon ; he told me 
something to say to his mother, and I re- 
peated it ; she picked up a root and came at 
me so savage that I ran toward home like a 
deer; I afterward learned that I had said 
to her, 'Squaw can't run,' and she showed 
me that I was mistaken." 

Mr. Seymour led the expedition to a spot 
about sixty rods west of the center of section 

24, township 31, range 9. not far from the 

river, on the farm now owned by John W. 
Koch. He was sure it was the scene of a 
battle between the Miamis and Pottawat- 
tamies. He had tended a field of corn on 
the spot sixty years ago, and saw many- 
human bones and arrow heads. Coesse had 
told his father about the battle and of Little 
Turtle's ability as a warrior commanding the 
victorious Miamis, and that several Potta- 
wattamies were executed on the island. 

Mr. Seymour has always been familiar 
with the spot. There can be no doubt that 
this was the expedition of the Pottawatta- 
mies against the Miamis in 1801, mentioned 
in several histories. It came about by individ- 
ual depredations, back and forth between the 
tribes, aggravated into feuds between the 
two great bodies. Six of the Pottawattamies 
crossed the island one night and killed two 
squaws and took away three ponies. The 
Miamis retaliated in kind. Then came the 
Pottawattamies in legion to the island and 
ran them off to the east until Little Turtle 
rallied them and gained the day. No doubt 
the execution Mrs. Coesse witnessed was 
one of the Indians who killed the Miami 


On the line between Columbia and Union 
townships, on the west line of section 19. 
Union, and about forty rods north of the 
Reserve line, is Compton church, with cem- 
etery to the south. The roads at this point 
form five points, the brick church in the 

This place has been referred to by old 
settlers, from time immemorial, as the place 
of the burned cabins, because the ground 

7 6 


was covered with cabins partly burned when 
first seen by the new comers. There is tra- 
dition of buried treasure thereabouts. Even' 
possible source has been exhausted to ascer- 
tain the history of the place, resulting only 
in finding that an Indian village once occu- 
pied the grounds ; that there is an Indian 
burying ground on the bluff of the creek to 
the west. Who they were or what became 
of them, will never be ascertained. The evi- 
dence of Mrs. Revarre, elsewhere in this his- 
tory set out, is given for what it is worth. 
That she knew a family there and that they 
all died off naturally, does not account for 
the burned cabins. Were we to set down 
probability for history, we would say that 
Col. Simrall on his expedition, destroying 
Turtle Village September 17, 1812, de- 
scended this short distance farther and 
burned this village. 


To the northwest of Compton church is 
Paige's Crossing, where the road from Co- 
lumbia City, after crossing the river, 
branches in three directions. On the west 
bank of the river, north of the road, Mrs. 
Coesse was born. Mrs. Revarre's romantic 
story of the killing of Coesse's father at this 
point is corroborated by Henry N. Beeson, 
who says Coesse told him he always shud- 
dered when he thought of the battle at this 
point, and that he saw the river filled with 
dead, among whom was his own father. 
There is also a tradition, now but a rumor 
of tradition, that the white men came along 
to a point between Paige's Crossing and 
Compton church, and being repulsed bv the 
Indians, retired to the north, leaving a large 

quantity of whiskey. That the Indians got 
it, became dead drunk, and then were all 
slaughtered by the invaders. 

If Coesse saw this bloody massacre, then 
it must have been Simrall and his men. 
Coesse was too young to have seen any 
earlier expedition of this character, and 
there has been none since SimraH's. The 
further fact that neither Coesse nor Mrs. Re- 
varre mention the name of their illustrious 
grandfather. Little Turtle, in connection 
with this battle, indicates that he was dead. 
He died two months before Simrall's expedi- 
tion. If such battle occurred, it was un- 
doubtedly between Simrall and the Indians, 
and before burning their village at Compton 
church. Though history does not record 
it, there is nothing to indicate the contrary. 
In fact, it is highly probable. 

At this point, it may be well to observe 
that Seek's Village reserve was not Chief 
Seek's reserve. He and Turtle and others 
had individual reserves in Allen and Hunt- 
ington counties. Seek's Village reserve was 
given to the Indians at Seek's Village. Ad- 
joining Seek's Village reserve to the east 
is Chapiene reserve, a section a mile square 
being given to that chief. If he ever lived 
in the county, we do not know it. He was 
a characterless Indian, of whom history 
knows but little. He lived about Fort 
Wayne, and died unrecorded. It is said of 
him that he traded his reserve, one mile 
square of the finest land in Whitley county, 
to some Fort Wayne traders for an old white 
stallion and two barrels of whiskey. The 
stallion died on the commons soon after, but 
not before Chapiene and his friends had 
drank all the whiskey. 




The names Little Turtle and Turtle are 
interchangeable in this narrative. The 
chief's name was Little Turtle, and his vil- 
lage was properly called Turtle Village. It 
had some other name before he became 
prominent, but it being the place of his resi- 
dence, and he the greatest of all the Mi- 
amis, it took his name. 

Turtle Village was mostly on the south- 
west quarter of section 4, Union township, 
and north of the sharp curve or bend in the 
river. Turtle was born here; so were his 
sons and daughters, and likewise his father 
before him. It was the home of the family 
as far as Indian tradition could carry. 

Historians who have copied after each 
other without research, say he was born in 
1747. In fact, and beyond contradiction, 
he was born in 1751. Historians have also 
added, one after the other, that his mother 
was a Mohican, when in truth she was a 

He attained to the chieftainship at an 
early age. not by heredity, for heredity is in 
the maternal line, and his mother was not 
of a family of chiefs; but he arose to the 
position because of his superiority over his 
fellows in statecraft, military ability, sagac- 
ity, plainness and forcibility of speech, and 
ability to gain and hold the confidence of his 
people. His courage and sagacity became 
proverbial ; neighboring tribes shrank from 
him as an adversary, but drew courage and 
achieved success under his leadership. 

The campaign of Wayne in August. 
1794, was too much for him. He realized 
the foolishness of undertaking to keep up 
the warfare against the United States, as 

did Lee at Appomattox. He accepted the 
situation as meaning the extinction of the 
red man, either by war or peace, and he 
chose the latter. 

He returned to his village in Whitley 
county, and tried to teach his people the 
arts of peace. By act of congress, he was 
given about $1,000 in money to erect him- 
self a house. It has been said that he built 
a brick house, but that is not true. He was 
economical, and built but a log cabin on the 
bluff above the bend of the river, as above 

By the same act of congress, $1,200 was 
appropriated to clean off lands about his 
village for his people. This he expended, 
hiring his own people to do the work, and 
by 1801 had about 250 acres cleared and 
burned off about and around the village. 
His people were, however, not inclined to 
work, and it made fuel too far for the 
squaws to carry, and many of the tribe de- 
serted him and went above to Seek's Vil- 
lage, and others drifted to the villages far- 
ther down the river. He abandoned his vil- 
lage in 1802 and moved up the trail to the 
fort, now More's farm, as fully set out 
elsewhere in this work. 

The next year he went before the legis- 
lature of both Ohio and Kentucky, and made 
personal appeals against selling liquor to his 
people. He was the first to introduce vacci- 
nation among his people for the prevention 
of small-pox, which was so fatal among 
them. He learned to vaccinate from the fort 
surgeon at Fort Wayne, was himself vacci- 
nated there, and next performed it on his 
own children at Turtle Village. With his 
removal from the village, the place passed 
into history. 


Turtle went from his home at More's, 
in the spring of 1812, to Fort Wayne, to be 
treated by the fort physician. He died July 
14, 1812, of what was then called gout, be- 
cause of swelling in the feet, but of a dis- 
ease now termed Bright's disease by the pro- 
fession. He was buried with military hon- 
ors, about the center of the old orchard at 
Fort Wayne. He kept well informed as to 
the events leading up to the war of 1812, 
which was declared but a month before his 
death. Had he lived, and his counsel been 
followed, the disastrous campaign of Har- 
rison against his people had not taken place. 
Gen. Harrison reached Fort Wayne Sep- 
tember 12, 1812, the Indians beat a hasty 
retreat, and their villages were destroyed. 
On the 17th. Col. Simrall arrived with a reg- 
iment of 320 dragoons, and Col. Farrow 
with a company of mounted riflemen. The 
next day their combined force was sent to 
destroy Turtle Village, but with strict or- 
ders not to molest the dead warrior's home 
at More's. History only says they faith- 
fully performed their work and returned. 
Were the history given in detail, and cor- 
rectly, it would be about this way. It was 
the intention of Gen. Harrison to break the 
power of the Indians forever. Turtle's Vil- 
lage was supposed to be the only place 
worthy of destruction, when in fact it was 
practically deserted. They passed along the 
trail and the fort and Turtle's home at 
Mi ire's, burning all the cabins except Tur- 
tle's house, and followed this trail to his vil- 
lage, and perhaps burned it as stated. Find- 
ing they had performed a feeble work, what 
more natural than that they passed a little 
farther down and performed the work 
which has heretofore been set out as prob- 

ably occurring at Paige's Crossing and 
Compton church? 


Whatever slight history has been writ- 
ten of the Eel river country draws no dis- 
tinction between Turtle's and Seek's villages. 
The terms are interwoven together. The 
writers, knowing no difference, have sought 
to leave the matter as much unsettled in the 
minds of the reader as in their own. Our 
late investigation has not only settled the 
distinction, but has located each place and 
their connection with each other. 

Like Turtle's, no man knows when 
Seek's Village was first occupied by the red 
men, but as it existed long years after the 
destruction of the former, we know more 
about it. Of the 26th day of July expedi- 
tion, there were a number of living witnesses 
on the spot who could tell of it. They all 
agreed that it was on the north side of the 
river instead of the south, as shown on our 
government charts. At first there seemed 
confusion, as one witness pointed out a spot 
where the village stood, another a few rods 
away, and still another a short distance in 
another direction. Summing it all up, they 
were all correct. Seek's Village did not oc- 
cupy a spot ten rods square, but was scat- 
tered over perhaps a hundred acres on Silas 
Briggs' magnificent farm, at the very east- 
ern edge of Seek's Village reservation, and 
overlapping into Chapiene's. really the 
south-west quarter of section 3. Union town- 
ship. Tt was called Seek's Village, or In- 
dian Green, said all the witnesses The ex- 
act spot of Seek's home, the cemeteries and 
the trail hetween the two villages were lo- 



<cated. Old Seek is described as a big In- 
dian with a monstrous bull ring in his nose. 
The portage, or crossing of the river on the 
trail to Fort Wayne is yet plainly visible. 

Referring to Mrs. Revarre's story of the 
death of her husband, John Owl, Jr., at 
Seek's Village, Otis Miner and Rufus Hull 
were present and helped bun' him. Years 
afterward Miner told Briggs he had found 
an Indian in a ground hog hole, and they 
went to the place, and Miner pointed to the 
skeleton of John Owl, nearly uncovered by 
ground hogs. 

Referring to the Simrall expedition 
against the Eel river Indians, we found that 
a. white man's bridge over Beaver run about 
forty rods from the road running north and 
south between sections 9 and 10. Union 
township, lands now owned by James A. 
Mossman. had been dug up by the Mossman 
boys in 1850; another link to the chain of 
circumstantial evidence that Simrall. after 
destroying Turtle Village, passed to Paige's 
Crossing and Compton church, crossing on 
this particular bridge. 


In a country so densely populated as this 
was by Indians, there must necessarily be 
trails or roads through the forest every- 
where. They did not run by compass, nor 
were they permanent. They might change 
every month for many reasons, as, better and 
more solid ground, or to reach other places. 
An attempt to follow many of these has be- 
come so tiresome and confusing that we 
have entirely abandoned them. 

There are two exceptions : The great 
highway from Eel river to Fort Wayne — in 

fact, the connecting link from the Great 
Lakes to the great west. To Alexander 
Mure alone are our readers indebted for 
the location on the accompanying map of 
this great highway. No other man living 
could give it. Moore has kept trace of it 
all these years, noting and marking every 
change made by man to obliterate it. This 
is one of the most important things in this 
history. The trail or portage is from Tur- 
tle's Village through the county, after which 
it practically follows the Goshen road to 
Fort Wayne. Also the trail starting from 
Seek's Village, Briggs's farm, striking the 
other and crossing it, and moving toward 
Fort Wayne, practically on the Yellow river 


On August 3, 1906, M. L. Galbreath, 
John F. Mossman, Alexander More and 
myself drove to Roanoke to visit the only 
Indians living this side of Peru, Mrs. An- 
thony Revarre, and her son, Anthony Re- 
varre, Jr., now fifty-seven years old and 
quite an intelligent man with a high school 
education. Pie was married to a white wo- 
man, with whom he lived about ten years, 
when she died, childless. They lived peace- 
ably, amicably and happily together, say the 
neighbors. He now lives with his aged 
mother, who cannot possibly survive another 
year, says her family physician. The old 
lady does not speak English at all, but un- 
derstands quite a great deal. Her son acted 
as interpreter, speaking in an ordinary tone 
of voice, and she understood and answered 
very readily. In propounding questions to 
her, she would show by her expression that 



she understood much that was asked, and 
frequently replied without having the ques- 
tions asked in her language. 

The following was what was told by her : 
"My name is Kil-so-quah. In American 
language I am Mrs. Anthony Revarre. I 
was born near Markle, in Huntington 
county, in May, 1810. We did not keep ac- 
count of days, and I cannot give the day of 
the month. I am a granddaughter of Little 
Turtle, the greatest of the Miami chiefs, and 
the one most loved and respected by all our 
people. They always felt his counsels were 
safe and that they could not lose a battle 
when he commanded. My father said our 
people had occupied this country for ages, 
and Eel river and the Maumee and its trib- 
utaries were the heart of our possessions. 
The Pottawattamies and some others came 
among us, but the country was ours. Tur- 
tle's grandfather was a chief in the Eel river 
country. His father was a Frenchman 
about half blood, so that Turtle was but 
three-quarters Indian. Before my father 
died some one read to him in a history that 
his grandmother, that is, Little Turtle's 
mother, was a Mohican Indian. Father was 
much pained to hear this mistake, for he said 
he knew his mother was a pure Miami, as 
was his grandfather's first wife. No, Little 
Turtle's father was a half-blood Frenchman 
and his mother a pure Miami. I know my 
father could not be mistaken. He was an 
intelligent Indian and took great pride in his 
ancestry and often talked about it. 

"They tell me I saw my grandfather, 
Little Turtle, though I was only two years 
and two months old when he died. 

"Turtle had two wives, the first, my 
grandmother, was the sister of Mak-wah, 

who lived on St. Mary's river near Fort 
Wayne. Turtle then lived at Turtle Vil- 
lage at the bend in Eel river, where he was 
born and his father before him. She 
died, leaving two sons and one daughter, 
and he could not stay there after that, so 
he moved up on the trail to the Fort, and 
then married Mak-wah's daughter, niece of 
his first wife. I do not know of any chil- 
dren by the last wife, nor do I know about 
any of his first wife except my father Mak- 
e-sheu-e-quah, and Coesse's father Kat-e- 
mong-wah, and one daughter Ma-cute-mon- 
quah, who married the Great White Loon. 
Turtle's second wife was many years his 
junior, and after his death she married a 
Shawnee, and went to their reservation in 
the west, and was back once on a visit, when 
I saw her. 

"Turtle was much devoted to Mak-wah,. 
who was both brother-in-law and father-in- 
law to him, and stayed much at his house; 
but always lived on Eel river. His three 
children were born at Turtle Village, and my 
father went to the reservations on the Aboite 
and married and lived there; but he and his 
family often visited, and I was familiar with 
the Eel river country from childhood. My 
aunt married White Loon at Turtle Vil- 
lage, and they settled at his place of abode 
on the Aboite and always lived there. Uncle 
Kat-e-mong-wah always stayed about Eel 
river, and was killed in some battle. I do 
not know the place, but it was on Eel river, 
and near the spot where Coesse's second 
wife was born. I have often heard that 
Mrs. Coesse's father took the body and 
buried it on the bluff near their cabin, and 
an intimacy sprung up between the families, 
resulting in the marriage of the dead man's 


son to the daughter of the man who buried 
his body. 

"My cousin's name was Me-tek-kah, 
meaning 'burning the woods.' Coesse was 
a nickname given him when a child, and 
even the family came to call him by that 
name. He has told me he was born at 
Turtle Village at the bend of Eel river. He 
was married twice, the first time to 'White 
Loon's sister (but they had no children). 
He is buried here beside that first wife. 
After her death he married Me-tek-on-sac. 
and they had two daughters and one son. 
The oldest daughter was Chic-un-sac-wah, 
meaning 'stump cut off short,' but she was 
nicknamed Liz or Lizzie; the second was 
Pac-oc-u-sae-quah, meaning 'straight tree,' 
and she was nicknamed Louisa. There was 
one son, nicknamed Simon, who died at the 
age of sixteen. He died at their farm near 
Columbia City and was buried there. 
Coesse came to visit me here in the fall of 
1853, and the next day he fell sick of a 
fever. I wanted to get a doctor, but he 
would not have any and would take no medi- 
cine. He had some trouble in the family 
and said he did not care to live. He died 
delirious in less than two weeks, in the log 
house which stood where this one stands. 
He died on Sunday morning, and on Tues- 
day forenoon we buried him between his 
first wife and my husband on our farm. 
There were no services. Being very lonely 
here I took my two children and went up to 
Coesse's family and stayed there a year, 
after which I came back here again. Jacob 
Slessman came from Columbia City and 
moved me up; he also moved me back the 
next summer. Mrs. Coesse and family lived 
on the farm up at Columbia City about ten 


years after her husband's death, when they 
sold out and moved to Peru, and they are 
now all dead except an illegitimate son and 
half breed, George, who was born after 
Coesse's death. 

"Prior to 1820, Chief John Owl, his wife 
and one son, came to the Eel river country 
and stayed most of the time, building a cabin 
at Seek's Village. His wife died and was 
buried at the village. Chief Owl soon after 
went back to the Illinois country, leaving 
his son John Owl with Seek, and he raised 
him. On one of our visits up there I be- 
came acquainted with him, and afterwards 
he came down here, and we were married 
in 1826, and moved up and lived at Seek's 
Village. My husband was a good Indian 
and did not drink ; and as there was much 
dissatisfaction with Seek, there was talk of 
my husband taking his place as chief; but 
my husband took sick some months after 
we were married, lingered more than a year 
and died. We had no children. My hus- 
band was buried beside, or very near his 
mother at Seek's Village. After my hus- 
band's death, Seek was unkind to me and 
I came back to my father's; and in 1832, 
four years after my first husband's death, I 
married Shaw-pe-nom-quah, who was half 
Indian and half French. His American 
name was Anthony Revarre. Six children 
were born to us, four dying in infancy. 
My son, Anthony Revarre, Jr., who lives 
with me, is the youngest, and was born on 
Christmas day, 1849, J ust two months after 
his father's death. His Indian name is 
Wa-pe-mung-quah,. meaning White Loon, 
and he was named after Great White Loon. 
My daughter Wan-nog-quan-quah, meaning 
snow, mist or fog. nicknamed Mary, went to 



Oklahoma about twenty years ago and 
married there. Both Mary and Tony at- 
tended the common schools and the Roanoke 
Academy and have good English educations. 
Mary expected to teacli out there, but was 

"Indians name their children as white 
people, but an Indian does not have a family 
and given name : but one name : and as 
there would result great confusion in naming 
them after friends, no two names are alike. 
Thus, Anthony Revarre is named after 
Great White Loon, but he is only White 
Loon. If it is desired to name a child after 
Full Moon, it must be changed to Old Moon, 
or Half Moon. Names are most frequently 
taken from nature. American names are 
given to Indians by their associates, and are 
regarded only as nicknames. 

"Coesse. Revarre and a great number of 
other Indians are buried on what was 
formerly the Revarre farm but is now in the 
hands of strangers and covered by a 

We visited this spot with Tony Revarre, 
or White Loon, and lie is quite sure be 
knows "the exact spot where lay his father 
and Coesse. There is now some agitation 
in the neighborhood as to taking up the 
remains and placing them in some cemeterv. 
Mrs. Revarre is a devoted Catholic, but 
Tony is not religiously inclined in any di- 
rection. Being specially interrogated about 
some tbings in this county, she answered 
quite readily. The government charts lo- 
cate Seek's Village mi the south side of the 
river, while all the evidence we have, and 
which is perfectly conclusive, locates it on 
the north side. When asked in regard to 
this; she replied "on the north side" as 

readily as though she could not understand 
why any one should ask such a settled ques- 
tion. As to the fortifications at More's 
farm in Union township, she said it was a 
fort built under the direction of her grand- 
father. Little Turtle, by the Miamis for 
protection against hostile tribes as well as 
against white invaders. That it was posi- 
tively built by the Indians she knew, because 
her father had often told her all about it. 
She knew the place; it was just east of 
Chapienes' reserve and was the only place 
in all the country where there was a fort 
or fortification except at Fort Wayne, and 
that at this point was her grandfather's last 
residence. She knew of two fights at the 
place, both by other tribes besieging the 
Miamis; one was the Delawares, the other 
she could not name in English, and the 
Indian name was unintelligible to us. The 
Miamis were in each case victorious. Her 
father became enthusiastic in relating the 
success of his father. Little Turtle, in these 

Asked about the battle where the Aboite 
river crosses the canal, in Aboite township. 
Allen county, three quarters of a mile from 
the line of Jefferson township, Whitley 
county, she said they fought with white men 
from Marion. Wabash and all along the 
way clear up to Fort Wayne, but that the 
largest battle was the one above mentioned. 
This is the battle the histories speak of in 
connection with La Balme's expedition, 
which is incorrect. 

Asked as to the place called Burned 
Cabins, at Compton church, she readily re- 
membered and located the place, but did not 
think there was ever a battle there. A gen- 
eration lived and died there, and there was 



neither war not pestilence. The chief was 
Ok-o-los-she-mah, and his mother was half 
Pottawattamie. She also described the 
burying ground on the bank of the creek, 
and said it was about a mile south of Eel 

She said Seek was a usurper, and never 
was chief by right. He was half white and 
had no right to the chieftainship and never 
gave his people satisfaction ; that he was de- 
posed from the office and Coesse was chief. 

Asked by Mr. Mossman where Coesse 
got his uniform and trappings, he had seen 
him wear, she replied that Little Turtle took 
them from Seek and gave them to Coesse. 

Asked as to Frances Slocum, she said 
she had seen her and talked with her. She 
is much interested in the story, and they 
have the book in the house, from which 
Tony often reads and interprets to her. 
She said that about the same time another 
white girl, Becky, was also stolen, whose 
history is similar to that of Frances Slocum, 

The Revarres have many Indian relics, 
though the greatest store of them was 
burned when the cabin was burned nearly 
a half century ago. Among those preserved 
are several armlets, leggins, moccasins, dag- 
gers, a silver cross from Quebec, and above 
all, a pair of buckskin mittens that Little 
Turtle himself wore. 


L T p to this time, no historian has ever 
attempted to give an account of the affairs 
at More's farm. After months of research 
and examination of the records in the war 
department and congressional library at 
Washington, the Pennsylvania Historical 

Society at Philadelphia, and all available 
records in Indiana, we present to our readers 
a correct account. Every statement made 
herein is fully verified by record evidence of 
the highest character. 

In 1769, there were many French traders 
at Ke-ki-on-ga, Fort Wayne. The trade in 
this year amounted to 5,00x3 pounds sterling. 
The best of this trade came from the Eel river 
and about the headwaters of that stream. 
The trade gradually grew, and each year 
more traders came. As early as 1761, 
traders went into the country to secure skins 
from the Indians rather than wait for them 
to be brought in to a competitive market. 
In 1762, there was a sort of trading place 
established at this point where the traders 
met the Indians at stated periods. This 
place on the trails was in fact the head of 
canoe navigation, and the real point on Eel 
river where the portage began, or the place 
of overland travel between Eel river and 
Kekionga (Fort Wayne). It grew rapidly 
in importance, and in 1779 and the early 
part of 1780 the embankment was built by 
the Miami Indians for their protection 
against other tribes as well as from white 
invaders. By this time a large village had 
grown about the place, all under the chief- 
tainship of Aque-nac-que, the father of Little 
Turtle, who still had his place of residence 
at what is called Turtle Village. This trad- 
ing post was called by the French and Eng- 
lish, and is known in their records as "The 
Post on Eel River." There is no Indian 
name to be found for it. 

In midsummer of 1780 La Balme began 
his ill-fated campaign against Kekionga and 
Detroit. Historians who might have ascer- 
tained all the facts in relation to this expe- 


dition, have followed each other in giving 
short and inaccurate accounts of it. They 
say he came with a few followers and took 
Kekionga ; soon after, elated by his success, 
moved on and was overtaken and annihilated 
at the Aboite in Allen county where the 
Wabash & Erie canal crossed that river, 
about three-quarters of a mile nearly east of 
the south-east corner of Whitley county. 
The first historian placed the battle at this 
place without information further than his 
own imagination, never having been at the 
place and guessing that it was on a line 
with La Balme's march toward Detroit, in- 
stead of being more than ten miles in the 
rear. Other historians have blindly fol- 
lowed this mistake. 

La Balme was a Frenchman who came 
over with LaFayette. He held a commis- 
sion as colonel from the state of Virginia, 
and was with Colonel Clarke on his expedi- 
tion at Vincennes. Restless and impulsive, 
he could not endure the policy of Clarke, 
and first went to Kaskaskia and secured a 
few followers. From that point he went 
to Vincennes, and his force was augmented 
to about two hundred men, with whom he 
started for the conquest of Fort Wayne and 
Detroit. His motive was no doubt more 
mercenary and personal than patriotic, and 
his expedition was without authority, civil 
or military. He cautiously approached 
Kekionga, alarmed the garrison and Indians, 
and scattered than in all directions, and took 
the place without trouble about the first of 
October. After occupying it about ten days 
or two weeks, enjoying with his men the 
spoils, he started, fully elated, hoping to 
complete his expectations early in the winter. 
He left less than twenty men in possession 

of the Fort at Kekionga, and proceeded ore 
the 14th of October, out on the portage or 
trail to More's farm, expecting to take 
what valuables he could secure there and be 
guided by impulse as to what to do with 
the place. He had scarcely left Kekionga. 
when the traders and Indians having rallied, 
killed the guard left behind and followed 
up the command, overtaking them near the 
county line, and a running fire was kept 
up until La Balme and his men reached and 
entered the embankment or fortification. 
Here he remained for three days, while a 
large force of Indians gathered about. 
Finally, he was induced to abandon the place 
with all his spoil, on promise by the traders 
that he and his men might be allowed to 
leave the country divested of everything but 
the clothing they had on. They marched to 
point "E" on map, where they were to leave 
their arms. Arriving at that point, they 
found themselves surrounded by Indians so 
hostile they could not have been restrained 
by the traders had they desired to do so. 
Instead of delivering their arms, they at 
once prepared for battle, and the Indians 
fled to the fort. So matters remained for 
at least four months, or until some time in 
February, 1781 ; La Balme with about one 
hundred and eighty men fully armed, en- 
camped and awaiting they knew not what 
Small parties went out each day and secured 
game in abundance for their subsistence. 
Fires were kept burning against trees next 
the river night and day, that Indians might 
be discovered if they attempted an attack : 
these were the burned trees elsewhere 
described. There can be no doubt that the 
old well or excavation which has been re- 
ferred to, was a well planned heated place 



Tjy the officers of the expedition. Finally 
the Indians rallied, and early in February 
surrounded the camp and killed all but four 
men. Two finally reached Vincennes to tell 
the story, and the other two probably 
perished before reaching a place of safety. 
And thus ended in inglorious defeat the ex- 
pedition of La Balme in Whitley county. 

There were no doubt other engagements 
during the next thirty years at the place by 
the Indians. Mrs. Revarre says the Miamis 
were besieged by the Delawares and some 
other tribe, and that the besiegers were in 

each case unsuccessful, but there is no au- 
thentic account of such engagements. 

The bones and other articles found at 
point "E," More's farm, where the remains 
of La Balme and his men. 

The extinction of the Indians was rapid 
during the last quarter of the eighteenth 
century and the first two decades of the 
nineteenth. Turtle Village had almost dis- 
appeared by the year 1800, and the village 
at the fort was nearly in the same condi- 
tion when Turtle changed his residence to 
that spot in that year. 



Archaeology is a subject that is receiving 
much attention from devoted scientists at 
this time. The antiquities of man are 
receiving the attention which they deserve. 
Most states have their archaeological so- 
cieties with members all over their own and 
other states. Some counties have made it 
a part of their historical society. I am 
pleased that an interest is being manifested 
in this county to preserve the relics and land- 
marks of antiquity. Nothing would please 
me more and I believe would be of more 
interest to our people than to see a collec- 
tion of our county's prehistoric antiquities 
and the relics of the pioneer settlers of our 
present homes at one of our old people's 
future gatherings. We all know that the 
hand of vandalism is rapidly destroying the 
things used by our hardy pioneers, and many 
of our so-called Indian relics are fast dis- 
appearing by falling into the hands of per- 

sons who care nothing for them except to 
barter and sell them, and in this way they are 
getting away from us. They ought to be 
preserved and kept in our county with much 
pride and reverence for the people who made 
and used them. 

The existence and antiquity of man during 
prehistoric times here, as elsewhere, has been 
classified into the paleolithic or old stone 
age and the neolithic or new stone age. The 
old stone age is supposed to have antedated 
the ice age; all this is shown by the stone 
implements which have been and are still 
being found. I know from my own finds 
and specimens in my museum, that there 
were periods of advancement and progress 
during man's existence prior to historic 
times. The first implements were very rude, 
were chipped only, and hardly have the 
semblance of being made for any special 
purpose. Later on they were shaped into 


form by chipping and pecking ; but were not 
made smooth by rubbing and grinding. 
Following this advancement he began 
smoothing and polishing his implements by 
grinding and rubbing them until they were 
things of beauty. He then, too, began to 
make ornaments for his person. His pride 
for beautiful things increased with his ad- 
vancement and culture. 

That there was a prehistoric race in 
America is everywhere admitted and good 
evidence is everywhere at hand. The 
archaeologist finds these evidences in mounds 
and walls of earth thrown up for defense, 
for worship, for burial and for signal pur- 
poses ; in the many shell heaps of immense 
size found at various places ; in the numer- 
ous and curiously fashioned implements of 
stone, bone, shell and copper made for vari- 
ous uses and ceremonies. In some regions 
these archaeological treasures are abundant, 
while in others they are scarce, the latter 
fact being true of Whitley county. Nothing 
as yet has been published in the state publica- 
tions on the antiquities of our county, yet 
there is sufficient material to be of much 
interest to the interested collector of these 
precious heirlooms of an extinct but grand 
prehistoric people. 

The implements of these people are 
various, but consist chiefly of mortars and 
pestles, axes, celts, scrapers, arrow points, 
spear points, drills, perforators, hair fasten- 
ers, knives, saws, awls, pipes, hammers, 
mauls, or mallets, and many ornaments and 
ceremonial badges. Their mortars are not 
so common, and but very few have been 
found here. There was no necessity for 
mortars, as the people here lived chiefly upon 
the products of the chase. In localities 

where they depended on the grains and 
fruit for sustenance, mortars are very nu- 
merous, large and finely formed. The 
pestles are more plentiful here, and this fact 
makes me conclude that the aborigine used 
a cavity in some fallen tree, instead of a 
rock for his mortar. The pestles and mor- 
tars formed the mills of our ancestors. The 
general form of the pestle is cylindrical and 
varies very much in size. Those in my 
collection vary from four to twelve and a 
half inches in length and from two to two- 
and a half inches in diameter. 

Axes, celts, and flint implements are 
more numerous in our county and are found 
everywhere on our farms. These are the 
most interesting of all the relics we find, 
because they show great ingenuity in manu- 
facture. They are of various size and form. 
Some are rudely finished, while others are 
beautifully polished and finished without a 
mark to mar the marvelous beauty of the 
implement. The Indian must have felt 
proud of a fine axe as evidenced by the great 
amount of work it necessitated to make a 
fine one. The Indian's axe has a groove 
around the pole or upper part. This groove 
sometimes encircles the axe completely and 
again only partially. I have two specimens 
that have a groove up and over the poll 
connecting with the groove around the axe. 
This type is very rare. The grooved axes 
found in this locality do not differ materially 
from those found in other places only that 
they, in general, are not so large. The celt, 
commonly called a hatchet, or tomahawk, 
is as numerous as the axe and shows as- 
much workmanship and skill in its manu- 
facture as does the axe, only that it has no 
groove. Some of these were highly 



polished. Axes and celts were used for va- 
rious purposes but chiefly as weapons of 
warfare; a death blow being struck with 
either. The flint implements are found 
everywhere and nearly every person has 
found some of them. These consist of arrow 
and spear points, saws, knives, scrapers, hoes, 
perforators and drills. We find these from 
the tiniest of a half inch to eight inches long 
and made from all the varieties of flint and 
the very finest moss agate, quartz, obsidian, 
and jasper. In fact, they are made from 
all varieties of flint or stone that would chip 
or flake. These implements, like the axes 
and celts, are made in all grades from the 
very rude to the most finely wrought. 
Scientists have classified the arrow and spear 
points into leaf shaped with three sub classes, 
stemmed with three sub classes ; peculiar 
forms, with seven sub classes and triangular. 
Where all these were made and where the 
material was procured, is a matter of con- 
jecture. They may possibly have been 
transported long distances, in fact, we know 
that some have been brought from places 
far away. It is different with the axes, 
celts, hammers, pestles, and mortars, for 
these were made of stone and boulders like 
those which are scattered all over the sur- 
face of our farms. 

There is another class of objects, wide- 
ly different in form but which may be 
classed together. Different names have 
been given to them which may have been 
based upon their appearance or upon a 
theoretical idea of their purpose. I shall 
call them ornaments or ceremonial objects. 
Some have been called banner stones, some 
drilled ceremonial weapons, some pierced 
tablets, others gorgets, pendants, bird 

shaped objects, boat shaped objects, etc. 
Thomas Wilson in his work says: "The 
names thus given may or may not be correct, 
but are as good as others that have been 
suggested in their stead. They should be 
retained until something more correct can 
be given." All of these objects are found 
in Whitley county, although not in great 
numbers. They are well polished and 
symmetrically formed and made of slate 
often beautifully banded or striped. They 
all have holes drilled in them. I have speci- 
mens which are partly made and apparently 
were rejected or lost. These show that they 
have been shaped before drilling com- 
menced. Whatever the use of these various 
objects one fact is certain, the) - were never 
made for hard usage, but rather their pur- 
pose was to have been as an ornament of 
some kind, and their beautiful symmetry and 
fine finish entitles them to be classed as 
objects of fine art. 

It is admitted by all that prehistoric man 
appreciated the luxury of a pipe and en- 
joyed the effect of tobacco smoke. Smok- 
ing was probably his most pleasing occupa- 
tion. In the making of his smoking tube, 
he displayed the greatest care and ingenuity. 
They were made to represent almost every 
species of animal and bird. Even the hu- 
man form was outlined in his pipe. In must 
cases, however, he simply made a neat pipe 
which he could use and enjoy. The pipes 
and tubes found in our county are of the 
plain kind and nearly all are made of the 
red sandstone and slate. 1 have one pipe 
made of green stone. This was found on a 
farm adjoining mine and is a very rare pipe 
for this locality. 

Very little pottery is found in this 



county. I have some fragments of it found 
on the farm lately owned by D. N. Hart 
and know of one whole piece, a bowl, said 
to have been found near Round lake. This 
is now owned by a collector in an adjoining 

Our prehistoric ancestors also used cop- 
per and iron in making implements and 
utensils. There is not much to be found 
here made of these metals. I have a copper 
spear point which was found on the farm 
formerly owned by David Miller in Thorn- 
creek township, also four iron tomahawks 
picked up on farms in this county and one 
iron spear point, barbed on one side, which 
was dug up with a skeleton. 

1 know of no discoidals, plummets, sink- 
ers, shell implements or ornaments ever 
being found in this county ; neither do I 
know of any mounds or earth works exist- 
ing here, although it is claimed there are 
some in the county- I have not seen them. 
so I can neither verify nor disprove the state- 
ment at this time. Occasionally fire pits 

or ovens are found near the lakes and rivers. 
These are merely holes dug in the earth and 
walled up with stone. 

Remains of the ancient and long extinct 
animals have been found in this county. 
Bones of the mastodon have been found in 
several localities. The giants of the animal 
kingdom, while gathering grass from or 
near the swamps, mired their huge forms in 
the soft earth where their bones have lain 
for centuries. Remains of the smaller ani- 
mals are also found in the swamps which 
are being cleared and cultivated. Horns 
or antlers of the elk and deer are somewhat 
plenty on the water covered lowlands of our 

In conclusion, I will say that I have based 
my article upon material in my cabinet of 
antiquities, and would ask all those having 
any piece or small collection of relics or 
curios, to let me know: and now again, I 
appeal to the citizens of Whitley county 
not to let these things get out of the county. 
Keep them here for future generations. 



March and April. 

Trailing Arbutus, or Mayflower — An 
early pink flower of rare beauty and fra- 

Scilla or Squill — A pretty blue flower, 
a visitor from Siberia come to stay in this 
country. It is perfectly hardy. We have 
one native variety, the wild hyacinth, pale 
blue and very early. 

Skunk Cabbage — The earliest harbinger 

of spring is the skunk cabbage. It belongs 
to a class of carniverous plants and destroys 
many insects. It is related to the calla 
and Jack-in-the-pulpit. 

March Marigold — A familiar spring 
flower, sometimes called cowslip. It is re- 
lated to the buttercup. 

Liverwort — -One of our earliest spring 
flowers and perhaps one of the most 

Dog's Tooth Violet or Adder's Tongue 


— There is no reason why the adder's 
tongue should be called a violet ; it is really 
a lily. The blossom is usually russet yel- 
low, and the upright leaves spotted. It is 
an early flower; Sometimes called deer's 

Tulip — The tulip comes to us from Asia 
Minor but indirectly from Holland. The 
varieties are simply endless. They bloom 
successive through spring. It is a mem- 
ber of the lily family. 

Blood Root — The blood root is like a 
butterfly, it comes and goes in a day, like the 
poppy to which it is related. The blossom 
is lovely and white as a lily, and has a golden 

Spring Everlasting — This is an insignifi- 
cant, white, cottony-stemmed plant, which 
lacks beauty altogether, yet is common in 
meadows and pastures. 

Ethiopian Calla — The so-called calla lily 
is a beautiful white relative of Tack-in-the- 
pulpit. It comes from Africa, and blooms 
in the spring. 

April and May. 

Bellwort — A rather insignificant cream 
colored flower. The stem seems to pass 
through the base of the leaf. It blooms in 
April and May. 

Wood Anemone or Wind Flower — It 
really belongs in the half lit woods of spring 
but it is often found beside the road. The 
blossom is frail, with five or more white 
sepals, sometimes suffused with a delicate 
crimson pink. 

Rue Anemone — Bears flowers in clusters 
having six or more white sepals ; it is very 

Spring Beauty — The little pink spring 
beauty is a favorite with everyone who loves 
wild flowers. Like a great many other deli- 
cate wild flowers, it has a disappointing way 
of closing as soon as it is picked, but a 
tumbler of water and sunlight soon work 
a change in the shy flower, and we need not 
throw it away hopelessly withered. 

Dutchman's Breeches — This pretty little 
plant is common in thin woods where shade 
and sunlight are evenly distributed. In form 
it shows a relationship with the common 
bleeding heart of the garden. It blooms 
in April and May, and is a low-growing, 
ornamental leaved plant of a rather delicate 

Early Saxifrage — It flowers in April and 
May, is not a conspicuous plant. We find it 
nestling among the rocks in pastures and in 
shady places beside the wood. The leaves 
have a singular ornamental arrangement 
spreading around in an even circle like a 
rosette. The flowers are tiny white and 
rather insignificant. The name means "rock- 

Large White Trillium — This is consid- 
ered the finest of all the trilliums ; it is waxy 
white in color changing to a pinkish tint as 
it grows older. It is distinctively a wood- 
land lily, which keeps clear of the moderate 
sunshine of April. 

The Painted Trillium — It is not as large 
as the white, but is more beautiful. The 
edges of the petals are wavy, and the sharp 
V shaped, crimson color at the center of the 
flower is worth a close study under the 
magnifying glass. It blooms in April. 

Birthroot or Wake Robin — This Birth- 
root is one of those pretty aesthetic red 
flowers, whose color reminds one of certain 



chrysanthemums. Of the three trilliums 
mentioned, this seems least attractive; but is 
nevertheless a handsome wild flower. The 
trilliums are poisonous to taste. 

Star Flower — The tiny star flower is 
found in woods. It delights in moist places, 
beside the purple violet. It has a shiny, deli- 
cate looking leaf of a pale yellow-green 
color. The perfect, little star-like flowers 
are dainty to a fault. Must be seen under 
a glass to note its fairy-like beaut}'. 

Foam Flower or False Mitrewort — The 
foam flower grows beside the little star 
flower, and blooms about the same time, 
although there is nothing especially attract- 
ive in the flower, it is dainty and common 
enough in the wooded hills to command our 

Mitrewort or Bishop's Cap — This flower 
is apt to be found beside its false named 
relative. The star-like blossom of the true 
mitrewqrt is fringed in a remarkable manner, 
reminding one of the conventional rays sur- 
rounding the five pointed figure of a star. 

White Baneberry — The berries, which 
appear in late summer, are far more apt to 
attract notice than the flower. Thev are 
waxy white, with a purple-black spot, and 
oval in shape : the stems which bear the fruit 
are very thick and turn reel when the berries 
are fully ripe. 

Black Snakeroot or Bugbane — It means 
"to drive away hugs." Strange as it may 
seem, the plant has become useful in a far 
better way. It is used in medicine, for neu- 
ralgic rheumatism, and doctors prescribe an 
extract of the rout fur that purpose. 

W inter ( ireen or ( 'heckerberry — It is not 
common here. It is a plant that bears the 
berries from which oil of wintergreen is 

Flowering Wintergreen — A delicate lit- 
tle plant. It is no relative of the checker- 
berry. Has a conspicuous crimson pink 
blossom and blooms in May and June. 


Yellow Violet — The yellow violet grows 
on the edge of the wood where sunlight and 
shadow are mixed. The blossom is very 
small and springs up from between a pair of 
leaves which start from a bare stem about 
eight or nine inches tall. 

I 'tuple Violet — A common spring flower 
that grows best in a cool, shady dell where 
the soil is rich and where there is plentv of 
spring water. 

Bird-foot Violet — The bird-foot leaf is 
an astonishing contrast to the heart shaped 
leaves of the other violets. Nothing is more 
attractively symmetrical in plant form than 
this particular violet leaf; pressed flat 
on a piece of paper, its delicate outline is an 
interesting study for one who loves the 
decorative side of nature. The flower is 
rich in blue-purple color, and sometimes a 
violet purple. 

Sweet White Violet — This has the faint- 
est and most delicate perfume imaginable. 
The blossom is tiny, but extremely pretty. 

Solomon's Seal — Solomon's seal is easily 
identified, as it grows beside some woodland 
road in early May, by its light green leaves, 
and its long, gracefully curved stalks, from 
which depends on the under side a series 
of tiny, greenish or creamy-white flowers 
always arranged in pairs. The name had 
its origin in the pitted appearance of the root, 
which bears a round scar left by the broken 
off old stalk. 

False Solomon's Seal — The false Solo- 



mon's seal is in my estimation even more 
beautiful than the true. Its spike of fine 
white flowers and its bright green leaf with 
parallel veining is particularly graceful. 
There are several other false Solomon's seals 
but so rare as not to be strictly classed in 
our flora. 

Jack-in-the-pulpit or Indian Turnip — 
Jack-in-the-pulpit is a happy looking flower, 
(if a flower can be said to look happy) and 
its striped suit reminds one of the conven- 
tional funny circus clown. It is too bad to 
make such a comparison, but I must let it 
stand, because there are few other flowers 
which are so suggestively humorous. The 
pretty little brown club inside the spathe 
reminds one of a miniature bologna sausage. 
In the fall this bears a cluster of splendid 
scarlet berries. The root has a sharp, stingy 
taste, without any reminder of turnip 
about it. 

Pitcher Plant — The odd tubular shaped 
leaves of the pitcher plant deserve close at- 
tention. Inside of the leaves there is a sweet 
secretion which attracts insects. The flowers 
are oddly colored with green and brownish 
purple. The plant is always found in boggy 
places where the sunshine is partly obscured. 

May and June. 

Robin's Plantain — The robin's plantain 
is a deceptive-looking character; it is easily 
mistaken for an aster. It grows about a 
foot high and the lower leaves lie prone on 
the ground. There is a hairy look to stem 
and flower which is not altogether aster like. 

Bluets — Of all the dainty, tiny flowers 
that bloom in late spring, the little bluets 
are perhaps the daintiest. It is such an at- 
tractive little thing that Burpee, the seed 

man, has introduced it to the public as a 
cultivated garden flower. 

From the middle of May to the end of 
June the flower continues to bloom in sun- 
shine and shadow. It grows everywhere 
but in the dark forest. 

Blue-eyed-Grass — A flower almost as 
dainty as the bluets. Its color is a purplish 
ultramarine blue, darker towards the center, 
where there is a touch of pure gold. There 
is a curious notch in each one of the six 
divisions of the perianth, from which pro- 
trudes a little point in shape like a thorn. It 
is a relative of the iris. 

Yellow Star-grass — Star-grass is a pret- 
ty little yellow flower which blooms almost 
anywhere in meadows in May and June. 
The outside of the flower is greenish ; the 
leaves are grass-like and hairy. It is closely 
related to the narcissus. 

Cinquefoil — The very common cinque- 
foil is found beside the country highways 
and byways, and in pastures and meadows 
and woodland. It is often mistaken for a 
yellow flowered strawberry, but the cinque- 
foil has five divisions of the leaf while the 
strawberry has but three. It blooms from 
June to September. 

Wild Strawberry — Our wild strawberry 
is so well known that it scarcely needs men- 
tion here. 

Moss Pink — Sometimes planted in yards 
and cemeteries and runs over everything 
in the neighborhood where it is placed. It 
is not a desirable plant. 

Wild Columbine — The scarlet and yel- 
low columbine is one of our most beautiful 
wild flowers. It grows in rich, moist 
ground, and is a dainty graceful blossom. 
It is not numerous. 



Moccasin Flower or Venus's Slipper — 
The flower is very handsome, in fact it does 
not look like an ordinary wild flower but 
rather like an expensive cultivated orchid. 
The point of beauty in the flower is its crim- 
son-pink pouch or sack, and its purplish- 
brown and green sepals and petals. 

Yellow Lady's Slipper — The smaller yel- 
low lady's slipper, sister to the flower just 
described, is found in similar situations 
where the ground is moist, and has the 
addition of a slight perfume. 

Snake's Mouth — The snake's mouth is 
a pretty little orchid of a most delicate pure 
pink color, which may be found in swampy 
places if one does not mind getting the feet 
wet. It blooms in June. 

Purple Azalea or Pinxter Flower — Late 
in the spring the purple azalea will be found 
in swampy places and its lovely crimson pink 
color is a charming foil for the pale green 
tints of May. 

Great Laurel or Rhododendron — It 
grows luxuriantly in the softened light of 
the half-lit woods. As a cultivated plant 
it is grown in parks and public gardens. 

Cranberry, Large — The large cranberry 
grows in boggy places and may be found 
in bloom in early summer. The berry is 
ripe in early autumn. The finest berries 
come from the buggy district of Cape Cod, 
but many places grow cranberries. It is 
curious to find that such total different look- 
ing plants as the rhododendron and the cran- 
berry are relatives ; they belong t< i the heath 

May, June and July. 

Rattlesnake Plantain — The rattlesnake 
plaintain is a most interesting character. 

Its peculiar wavy edged, dark green leaves 
are covered with a net work of fine white 
lines. The flowers are small, white and 
waxy-looking and the leaves are circled be- 
low in a rosette figure. They are ever 
green. It flowers in July. 

Showy Orchis — Gray says this is the 
only true orchis we have. It is a pretty 
flower, the upper part purplish pink, and the 
lower, lip white; there are few blossoms on 
a stem, not more than three or four. The 
two leaves are not unlike the lily-of-the-val- 
ley. Its time of flowering is May and June. 

Golden Senecia or Ragwort — The gold- 
en senecia has a delightful bright color 
which illumines the meadows where the 
flower happens to grow with an amber light, 
such as may be seen in some of the paintings 
of the old master, Claud Lorraine. The 
flower resembles an aster in form, but the 
leaves have an individuality of their own, 
and are variable in type. 

Shin Leaf — The euphonious name "shin 
leaf" was tacked on the pretty Pyrola for a 
reason which one may readily guess ; the 
leaves were used as a cure for bruises and 
the old custom to call such a plaster shin 
plaster. It flowers in June and July. 

Pipsissews — This is a sweet scented little 
woodland flower, which is common in all 
dry sandy soil. It is interesting to examine 
the blossoms under a magnifying glass, 
where the beauty of the frosty pink flower 
with its purple anthers will prove quite a 

Yellow Wood Sorrel — The little yellow 
wood sorrel is extremely common in mead- 
ow, woodland and pastures, and the tiny 
clover-like leaf may be recognized anywhere 
snuggling in the grass from May to Octo- 



ber. The flower is rather insignificant and 
of a pale buttercup yellow. 

White Wood Sorrel — The crimson- 
veined white wood sorrel is quite a different 
character, and is altogether lovely. It likes 
damp woodland best. The flower stem, 
which grows about three inches high, bears 
but one blossom. 

Sheep Sorrel — Sheep sorrel is a wretch 
of a weed, which will flourish in sand or 
sterile soil and is the bane of the farmer who 
tries to .raise clover for his cattle. It be- 
longs to the buckwheat family and so can 
claim no relationship to the wood sorrel, 
which belongs to the geranium family. 

Blue Flag — The large blue flag grows 
in swamps or beside the sluggish stream, 
and shows its lovely variegated, blue violet 
flowers in June or July. Under the micro- 
scope its coloring" is marvelously beautiful. 

Arrow Head — The little water plant 
called arrow head blooms in summer beside 
streamlets and good sized rivers, where it 
chooses a locality of a secluded and muddy 
nature. It is well adapted to decorative 

Sabbatia — One of the most beautiful 
wild flowers. Its corolla is magenta pink 
and commonly has eight divisions. It fre- 
quents the edges of ponds and blooms in 

Sundrop or Evening Primrose — Pale 
yellow flower found beside the roadside in 

Evening Primrose — Is common beside 
the road and in pastures. The peculiarity 
of the flower is that it opens about sunset, 
gives out a faint perfume, and then when 
broad daylight returns, looks limp and 
withered. It blooms all summer. 

Wild Geranium — The wild geranium, 
which the English usually call wild cranes- 
bill, is a pale purple flower about as delicate 
as the evening primrose. The plant grows 
about fifteen inches high and is in its prime 
in June. 

Herb Robert — A variety of geranium, 
quite common. The flowers are nearly ma- 
genta color, that is a deep purple brownish 
crimson. The stem is rudy. 

Indian Poke, or False White Hellebore 
— About the end of May or the beginning 
of June large masses of light green, corru- 
gated leaves are seen in the hollows of the 
meadow, which have a tropical look. The 
plant is the Indian Poke and is poisonous. 
Sheep and pigs have been killed by eating 
the leaves. In late summer the whole plant 
withers, blackens and disappears. 

May, June, July and August. 

Bunch Berry — In early June the pretty 
little flower is quite interesting for several 
reasons ; what seems to be two white petals, 
two of which are smaller than the others, 
are not petals at all but involucre leaves. 
The flowers are tiny little greenish things 
with black dots in between. An examina- 
tion of the flowers under the microscope will 
at once make the tiny forms clear. The 
scarlet berries are quite insipid to the taste. 

Shepherd's Purse — The commonest kind 
of a weed. The small white flowers hardly 
deserve attention, but the seed pod is inter- 
esting on account of the triangular pouch- 
shape which gave rise to the common name. 
It blooms all summer. 

Wild Mustard — The wild mustard is a 
very annoying weed with small, pale, pure 



yellow flower. The plant is not interesting 
nor beautiful. 

Sheep Laurel— It grows in poor and 
rather low grounds and has a delicate crim- 
son pink flower. 

Candytuft — The cherry garden candy- 
tuft is a member of the common weed shep- 
herd's purse. It is a captivating little 
flower which is in constant bloom from June 
until October. All they ask is that their 
flowers should be picked, and a new supply 
takes the place of the old. 

Sweet Alyssum — A garden flower from 
Europe. Small, white. honey-scented 
flowers with an odor like that of buckwheat. 
It blooms all summer. 

Corn Flower, or Bachelor's Button — 
The bluest of all blue flowers, vies with 
the gentian which Bryant seems to consider 
a most perfect blue. But a flower of the 
true blue does not exist, it is only suggested 
by the forget-me-not. 

Mignonette — Our common garden 
mignonette comes from the Levant, and is 
an annual cultivated for the sweet scent of 
its tiny rusty and greenish white flowers. 
It blooms all summer. 

Phlox, Drummondii — Phlox is the 
Greek name for fire, and although all the 
phloxes are not fierv-hued, there are many 
of them brilliant and red enough to deserve 
the name. The range of color in the Drum- 
nioml phlox is extraordinarv. There are 
cream white, pale yellow, pale salmon, pink, 
deep pink, crimson pink, magenta, purple 
lilac, pure red, crimson and solferino. 

Caraway — The caraway has found its 
way into the fields and pastures from the 
kitchen garden and has really become a very 
familiar wild flower in many parts of the 

country. The plant grows about twenty 
inches high, and blooms about the middle of 
June. Its aromatic seeds are used plenti- 
fully to flavor the familiar New York New 
Year's cake. 

Wild Meadow Parsnip — The wild 
meadow parsnip is not as common as cara- 
way. The fine flowers, similar in appear- 
ance to the caraway, are pale golden yellow, 
and the leaves are twice compound. The 
stem of the plant is grooved, and the leaves, 
toothed at the edges, are dark green. 

Bush Honeysuckle — Common flower be- 
side the roadside and in hedges. It blooms 
in early summer and its flowers are small 
and honey yellow. 

Indian Pipe — Found in rich woods, 
smooth, waxy white all over, three to six 
inches high, with one rather large nodding 
flower of five petals and ten stamens. It 
grows on the root of other plants and may 
be found beside a decayed stump of some 
forest giant. 

Common Da)' Flower — It has light vio- 
let blue flowers, irregiilar in shape, and 
three-petaled. The flowers seem to grow 
out of an upper spathe like leaf, and the 
leaves are lance-shaped and contracted at 
the base. Tt is related to the spiderwort. 

Spider Wort — Ts an attractive little 
three-petaled purple blue flower with orange 
yellow anthers, which unfortunately has a 
very short life. The little blue clusters 
snuggled at the base of the narrow green 
leaves form a very pretty bit of color har- 
mony. Tt blooms in earlv summer. 

Buttercup — - The child's favorite wild 
flower. The leaf is one of the most charm- 
ing instances of symmetry in nature. There 
are not many flowers which can boast of 



such a beautiful leaf. Then the brilliant 
yellow of the corolla is almost beyond the 
power of pure water color to produce. 

Dandelion — The common dandelion, 
which stars the meadow in May and June 
with its radiant circles of gold, would be a 
garden favor were it less common. A big 
dandelion placed under a magnifying glass 
is one of the grandest studies in golden yel- 
low that can be imagined. 

Oxeye Daisy — The oxeye daisv, like the 
dandelion, was brought to this country by 
the white man. Its presence in the grass is 
so annoying to the farmer that it has been 
called the farmer's curse. 

Heliotrope — The beautiful sweet-scented 
heliotrope comes from Peru and Chili. It 
is a perennial, held in high esteem by all. 
The name comes from the Creek, and means 
turning to the sun. The essence of helio- 
trope is used as perfumery. 

Milkwort — Milkwort is a common weed 
which generally grows in wet, sandy 
ground and bears pinkish crimson flowers 
in a head somewhat similar to a clover, but 
smaller. It was thought that in pastures thev 
increased the milk of cows. Tt blooms all 

Seneca, Snakeroot — Seneca is used for 
medical purpose, and is often given in the 
form of a syrup for a cough. 

Indian Cucumber Root- — Named from 
the taste of the tuberous, horizontal and 
white root stalk. It flowers in early sum- 
mer, but the blossom is not attractive. Tn 
September the beautiful dark purple berries, 
three in a cluster, attract attention. 

Nasturtium, or Indian Cress— The nas- 
turtium is perhaps one of the most satisfac- 

tory of all the garden annuals. The flower 
comes to us from South America, chiefly 
from Peru and Chili. It can stand hot 
waves and drought better than any other 
denizen of the garden. What a glory of 
color it brings us! — golden yellow, palest 
straw color, rich maroon, burning scarlet, 
intense red, scarlet pink, delicate salmon, 
peach bloom pink, and a great list of varia- 
tion of these colors. The plant wants plenty 
of water, sunlight and sand to grow in. If 
the ground is too rich it grows leaves. 

Lady's Slipper — A close relative of the 
jewel weed, the garden balsam, or lady's 
slipper, bears a striking resemblance to the 
wild species. The balsam comes to us from 
India. It blooms in summer. 

Geranium — There are a great many vari- 
eties under cultivation, peppermint, rose- 
scented, pennyroyal, ivy leaved, horseshoe. 
As a rule all the mixed, showy flowered are 
called Lady Washington geraniums. Gera- 
niums come from Cape of Good Hope and 
are related to herb robert. sorrel, jewel weed, 
nasturtium, canary bird vine. All are at- 
tractive when in flower. 

Purslane or Pusley — A troublesome 
weed of the garden. Once a much relished 
dish of greens, which has since been dis- 
placed by spinach and young beet tops. 

Shrubby St. John's Wort — This plant 
can hardly be called beautiful, and it is con- 
sidered a great nuisance in farming lands. 
Has a superstitious name. 

Purple Flowering Raspberry — The pur- 
ple flowering raspberry is not purple at all. 
This is a popular name without any truth in 
it. The flowers are crimson-magenta in 
color and look something like a wild rose. 



The fruit is flat, weak red color. There are 
no thorns on the stem. It blooms in June 
and Jul}-. 

Yellow Field Lily — The yellow field lily 
begins to hang its golden yellow buds over 
the meadows in June and in July the pretty 
bells are in their prime. It has a pretty 
badly freckled face, which perhaps is the 
reason it hangs its head. 

Wild Red Lily — In my estimation the 
wild red lily, which always grows in shady 
places, is the most beautiful one of all the 
wild species. The stalk grows about two 
feet high and generally bears but one flower, 
orange yellow outside and vermilion inside, 
spotted with brown madder. 

Black-eyed Susan — The black-eyed Su- 
san, as the children call it. Gray says is a 
western flower. It was introduced into our 
meadows with clover seed. The plant grows 
about eighteen inches high, blooms in July. 
The flower rays are a rich golden yellow, 
and have a graceful reflex curve. 

Catch Fly — The catch fly is common in 
waste grounds and is easily identified by its 
two parted white petals. It is the most 
beautiful imaginable under the magnifying 
glass. The petals are not so remarkable, 
but the calyx is as delicate as though it were 
molded in spun glass. 

Field Mouse-ear Chickweed — It is one 
of the commonest weeds that grow by our 
roadside. It blooms from April to August. 
It has an Alpine origin and does not stand 
the hot weather well. It is named from the 
shape of its leaves which resemble a mouse's 

Common Chickweed — Common chick- 
weed is very common and troublesome in 
every garden. It likes damp ground best, 

and spreads its weak stems, covered with 
fine foliage, all over the garden beds. The 
tiny white flowers are very insignificant. 
They bloom through spring and summer. 

Verbena — Our charming garden ver- 
benas are many of them indigenous to this 
country. As a rule the flowers are purple. 
Other garden varieties are pink, red and 
white. They come from South America. 
The verbenas flower all summer. 

Blue Vervain — Blue vervain is a tall 
weed with tiny, homely flowers, that grow 
in waste places and beside the road. The 
plant begins to show its tiny blossoms in 
Jul\-. It is a relative of our beautiful gar- 
den verbenas. 

Water Arum — The water arum is simi- 
lar in appearance to the cultivated hot house 
flower called calla lily. It is common in 
boggy places. It flowers in early summer, 
and is pretty enough to deserve cultivation, 
but the calla is so much superior that the 
horticulturist takes no interest in the lesser 

Wild Sarsaparilla — The wild sarsapa- 
rilla. which must not be mistaken for the 
true sarsaparilla of soda water fame, is nev- 
ertheless often used as a substitute for the 
officinal article. Its long slender yellow 
roots are as aromatic as the mucilaginous 
twigs of the sassafras tree. 

Hedge Bindweed — In appearance the 
flower is exactly like a pink morning glorv, 
to which it is closely related. It is a South 
American plant. 

Dodder — That most distressing weed 
which goes by the name of dodder is a plague 
which, in its disintegrating power, can only 
be compared to sin. The little vine is para- 
sitic, and it saps the energy of everv plant 
it can fasten itself upon. 



Poison Ivy — Gray says it is a vile pest. 
It poisons some people dreadfully, its only 
redeeming trait being its berries and pretty 
red leaves in the fall. 

Clematis, or Virgin's Bower — The cle- 
matis is among the lovely vines which grow 
in your yards and gardens. Nothing is pret- 
tier than its graceful branches decorating a 
rustic fence. There are several varieties, 
one with handsome reddish flowers, one with 
yellow, another with blue. 

The Poppy — The poppy family is so 
large and so varied in tvpe that a garden 
filled with all the different varieties would 
present an astonishing picture of contrast- 
ing forms and colors from the first of June 
until the middle of October. All come from 
the old world. The poppy is an extraordi- 
narily beautiful flower : the variety known 
as Fairy bush excels. 

Pot Marigold — It is a common garden 
flower and blooms from July to November 
if protected from frost or all winter in the 
green house. To insure this, however, the 
flowers must be picked continually or thev 
cease to bloom. 

Gaillardia or Blanket Flower — In the 
Gaillanlia of our gardens we really have a 
cultivated Mower which is our own — a na- 
tive of our country. The lines are ileep red 
and pale yellow, gold, rich red and white. 

Summer Chrysanthemum — A charming 
annual held in high esteem by farmer's 
wives. The double flowers are splendid in 
golden yellow and yellowish white and the 
plant blooms with prodigal liberality. There 
are a great man}' varieties, single and 

Love in a Mist — A strange rather than 
a beautiful flower, old fashioned : from the 

June, July, August and September. 

Four-leaved Loosestrife — A pretty little 
golden yellow, star shaped flower. It grows 
in wet ground. 

Common Loosestrife — The common 
loosestrife grows in low, wet ground, and 
may easily be distinguished from the four- 
leaved variety by its branching habit and 
its flower clusters which terminate the stem. 
It is also more leafy. 

Turtle Head — It may l>e found in the 
same surroundings as the loosestrife or per- 
haps in lower ground. Its flowers are white 
or pinkish and it blooms in August. 

Tall Meadow Rue — The beautiful tall 
meadow rue Ijegins to show its plumes of 
feather)' white flowers in earl}' summer 
when the yellow field lily is in full bloom. 
It has ornamented blue green leaves. 

Earl}- Meadow Rue — Has unattractive 
brownish green flowers, that appear in late 

Thorn Apple — One of the rankest smell- 
ing weeds in existence. It is common in 
waste places and hog lots. 

Spreading Dogbane — The spreading 
dogbane is so common all over the country 
in thickets and woody dells that one cannot 
fail to find it without the aid of a regular 
search. The flowers are quite as beautiful 
as many small garden' favorites. 

Common Milkweed — The common milk- 
weed needs no introduction ; its prettv pods 
of white silk are familiar to every child. It 
blooms in the early part of summer. Its 
heavy perfume is cloying, as it is too sweet. 

Butterfly Weed — A variety of milk- 
weed, but does not exude a stickv "milk": 
the shape of the flower is like the milk-weed. 
It grows in drv. sandy places. 

9 8 


Harebell — The dainty harebell, which 
looks so frail that it seems as though a 
cold gust of wind might wither its trans- 
parent blue, is one of the hardiest of all 
our small wild flowers and derives its name 
from its leaf. 

Self-heal — All summer long this tireless 
little flower blossoms almost anywhere we 
may happen to look. The bumblebee is 
attracted by this flower. It must be studied 
under the microscope to see its full beauty. 

Common Meadow Sweet — A soft 
plumed plant not very common. It is culti- 
vated for ornament. 

Hardhach or Steeple Bush — Grows in 
low grounds. The flowers are pink, the 
plume sharp pointed. It is a very interest- 
ing flower under the microscope. 

Jewel-weed, or Touch-me-not — The 
jewel-weed is common everywhere. The 
flower is scentless and is only pretty in color, 
which is a spotty orange yellow. It is like 
the garden balsam and one is not surprised 
to learn that it is related to this favorite. 

Toadflax, or Butter and Eggs — A 
pretty wild flower which is common every- 
where. The children's name for it, butter 
and eggs, so far as colors are concerned, is 
remarkably appropriate. The flowers have 
a cherry look, like the flock of daffodils on 
the margin of the lake which Wordsworth 
sang about. They bloom from July to 

Wild Blue Toadflax— Not so pretty as 
its orange and yellow relative. Toadflax is a 
first cousin to the beautiful garden snap- 
dragon, which is purple, violet, blue and 

Common Yarrow — The commonest kind 
<il common weed whose flowers are unat- 

tractive. Blooms from July to October. It 
has a pleasant smell. 

Indian Tobacco — The Indian tobacco 
(from which is obtained a noted quack medi- 
cine) is one of the least interesting of our 
blue wild flowers. 

Cardinal Flower — -The magnificent red 
of the cardinal flower fully entitles it to its 
name, as there is no other wild flower which 
approaches it in color. 

Wild Sunflower — The plant grows about 
four feet high and has rather narrow, dark- 
green leaves which have a rough feeling. 
My impression of the general appearance 
of this wild sunflower is that it is prolific 
in green leaves and sparing in yellow 

Tansy — Tansy is the very common yel- 
low flower which looks like a thick cluster 
of ox-eye daisies with the white rays all 
picked out. It blooms and smells strong all 
summer and if dried lasts and smells stronger 
all winter. 

Wild Carrot — The wild carrot is a fa- 
miliar flower of every wayside and pasture. 
It was brought from Europe. The plant is 
related to the caraway. 

Mullein — A common troublesome weed. 
It is a native of the Old World. Nothing 
is softer or more delicate in color than the 
pale green leaves when they first appear 
above ground. The flowers bloom all 

Chicory — One of our prettiest blue 
flowers. It is blue enough to call it blue. 
Along road sides it becomes a noxious weed. 

Common Everlasting — Everlasting is so 
well known by everyone that it needs no 
description. The plant is conspicuous in 
every field by its cottony foliage which is 



pale sage green in color. It has medical 
properties of value. 

Bur Marigold, or Beggarticks — It is a 
wretched weed with rather pretty conven- 
tional leafage, but a pest. 

Bouncing Bet or Soapwort — An Eu- 
ropean plant but now growing wild here. 
The flowers are the most delicate crimson 
pink imaginable, almost pinkish white. 

Petunia — The garden annual petunia 
gets its name from petum, the aboriginal 
term for tobacco. It belongs to the night 
shade family and is a near relative of com- 
mon tobacco. The finest of all petunias are 
called Giants of California. 

Larkspur — The larkspur of our gardens 
comes variously from Europe, Siberia and 
China. It has a lovely spear of deep blue 
flowers which gracefully waves to and fro 
in every passing breeze. Larkspur is a 
member of the Crowfoot. 

Hollyhock — The old-fashioned holly- 
hock still holds its place in modern gardens. 
but the old single variety is being displaced 
by a new double one, which is as full as the 
fullest rose and quite as beautiful. The 
colors of these double flowers are rose, pink, 
salmon, white, lilac, magnetia, primrose, yel- 
low, deep red and maroon. 

Scarlet Rose Mallow — The most gor- 
geous of all the plants indigenous to the 
United States. A glorious red scarlet 
flower, and scarlet wild flowers are extreme- 
ly rare. The swamp rose mallow is a simi- 
lar flower with pale pink petals which grows 
in the north. It blooms in summer. 

Blazing Star — A beautiful common wild 

Monkshood — Much like the columbine, 
but its manner of growth is almost vine- 
like. It is not common. 

Gladiolus — The gladiolus is still a great 
favorite of the garden, but it has been so 
much improved that the old red and pink va- 
rieties are supplanted by an infinite number 
of brilliant hued flowers. It blooms in late 
summer and autumn. 

Tiger Flower — The charming tiger 
flower, which looks like a scarlet or yellow 
iris, comes to us from Mexico. It is a pity 
the blossoms are so frail ; they rarely last 
after midday. The center is spotted like 
an orchid. 

Spanish Bayonet — A southern plant, cul- 
tivated in the north ; cream-white color. 
Blooms in summer. 

July, August and September. 

Coreopsis or Calliopsis — Bright-eyed 
coreopsis is one of the cheeriest of our small- 
er garden flowers and it is another distinctly 
American character. It blooms all summer 
as late as September. 

Dahlia— The common garden dahlia 
comes from Mexico. Named from a Swed- 
ish botanist, Dahl. It blooms through the 
summer until October. 

Marigold — The marigold is an old gar- 
den favorite, but has been greatly improved. 
Plants originally came from South America 
and Mexico. It blooms from June to Oc- 
tober. The colors of the marigold are ex- 
traordinary; golden yellow, orange yellow. 
pure lemon yellow, russet red edged with 
gold, and golden yellow spotted with brown- 
ish claret color — these are all rendered in 
the purest tones. 

Zinnia — The garden zinnia has only one 
palpable fault: it is unmistakably stiff. It 
has an astonishing range of color,- which 
comprehends nearly the whole scale — white, 


cream, buff, pale yellow, deep yellow, lemon 
yellow, orange, light orange, scarlet crim- 
son, magenta, three pinks, lilac, dull purple, 
dull violet, maroon, and an intense deep 
red, jacquemont color. 

Morning Bride — A favorite of the old 
fashion gardens, but has of late been greatly 
improved. It belongs to the teasle family. 

Sunflower — The sunflower is distinctly 
American and comprises a large, varied, and 
interesting division of the composite family. 
It blooms in late summer and in September. 

Snow on the Mountain — Snow on the 
mountain, which is a beautiful plant, is rapid- 
ly coming into favor as a garden ornament. 

Fireweed, Great Willow Herb — The 
fireweed curiously enough flourishes on 
ground which at some time has been burned 
over. One may easily understand why it is 
called willow herb, as its leaf is exactly like 
that of the swamp willow. It is related to 
the veining primrose. 

Boneset — This is a favorite plant among 
the country folks, for whom it furnishes a 
popular medicine, once used for ague, "bone- 
set tea," — who likes it? 

Ladies' Tresses — Toward the end of 
summer and through September the sweet 
smelling tiny flowers called ladies' tresses 
may be found in swamps or wet meadows. 
This flower belongs to the orchis family, re- 
lated to the moccasin flower which blooms 
in the spring and summer. 

Goldenrod — The name goldenrod con- 
jures up the thought of an immense family 
of flowers thirty odd members of which a 
person with a fair knowledge of botany may 
easily identify. There are in all about sev- 
enty varieties. The goldenrod is certainly 
our representative American flower. 

Aster or Star Worth — There are be- 
tween forty and fifty species of wild asters in 
this country, so I can only draw attention 
to the commonest ones. Most of these have 
a distinct individuality, which will be im- 
possible for one to mistake who will closely 
follow the description. 

China Aster — There are so many va- 
rieties that I can only mention those of 
prominent type. The Victoria is an old 
favorite, then Truffant's, Betteridge's, 
Triumph, Comet, and the most beautiful 
new variety. 

September and November. 

Ironweed — Grows everywhere beside the 
road and along rivers. It blooms in August 
and September. 

Bitter Sweet — Bitter sweet is a beautiful 
climbing, twining shrub, with which every- 
one who sees the scarlet berries inside the 
open orange-colored pod, ought to be 

< iarget, or Pokeberry — The flowers are 
conspicuous, but the purple berries attract 
some attention. The juice has been used 
for coloring purposes but unsuccessfully, as 
it fades. 

Closed, or Bottle Gentian — Is an inhabi- 
tant of the northern woods. Its flowers 
are like tiny thick tenpins in shape and are 
often a very good blue. It is of the latest 
fall flowers. 

Fringed Gentian — Bryant's sky blue 
flower, by no means common. It is a low 
ground plant. The time to look for the 
flower is in October. 

Fall Dandelion — The fall dandelion is 
not nearly so beautiful as its spring rela- 


tive. The leaves are similar to the spring 
dandelion, but blunt toothed and very small, 
growing close to the ground. It blooms 
from July to November. 

Nightshade — The little purple flowers 
grow in small clusters, and appear in sum- 
mer. It is curious to learn that the night- 
shade is closely related to the potato, the 
egg plant, and the pretty ornamental shrub 
called Jerusalem cherry. 

Winter Berry or Black Alder — At the 
close of the season of flowers in autumn our 
attention will be attracted by the brilliant 
berries of the black alder, which dot its 
gray stems and cling to them long after 
its leaves have dropped. It is common in 
swamps, growing as a shrub. 

Chrysanthemum — The chrysanthemum 
is an oriental flower, which comes to us 
from Japan and China. There are some- 
thing like 400 varieties and ever increasing. 
but the florist's chrysanthemums are not 
hardy. They are mostly of the Japanese 
class ; it is the older Chinese varieties which 
stand the cold of our northern winters best. 
The chrysanthemum is indeed the last and 

most beautiful flower of all flora's train ; 
and whatever we may say of the rose we 
must acknowledge the lovely golden flower 
another queen, the queen of autumn. When 
the summer flowers are gone and the birds 
have flown southward ; when the chill winds 
come down from the icy regions of the north, 
when there are no leaves, no blue sky, then 
comes our autumn queen, and fills our laps 
with a wealth of bloom the like of which we 
never saw in June. 

Oliver Wendell Holmes sweetly sings 
about the golden flower as though she were 
an angel queen — 

"The fields are stripped, the groves are 

The frost flowers greet the icy moon — 
Then blooms the bright chrysanthemum. 
Thy smile the scowl of winter braves, 
Last of the bright robed flowery train, 
Soft sighing o'er the garden graves : 
'Farewell! Farewell! we meet again!' 
So may life's chill November bring 
Hope's golden flower, the last of all 
Before we hear the angels sing 
W r here blossoms never fade and fall!" 



When Whitley county began her polit- 
ical career in 1838 a convention was held 
for the first county ticket, ignoring politics 
and selecting competent men who would 
consent to serve the people in the various 
positions for the pittance they would receive 
from their fellow settlers. 

By 1840 the settlers, scattering as they 
were, lined up according, as the people of 
the entire nation were organizing into bitter 
partisan warfare that reached its noonday 
during and after the Civil war. Good roads, 
rural mail delivery, telephones, telegraphs 
and agencies of rapid transit have brought 


the people so near each other that, with the 
county seat so near the center, the people 
of the entire county mingle together each 
week as though a single neighborhood. A 
quarter of a century ago a journey from 
many parts of the county to Columbia City 
meant a day going and a day returning, and 
visiting was confined within small circles. 
The great changes have entirely done away 
with the school house orators, exaggeration 
and falsehood that formerly fanned polit- 
ical campaigns into veritable cyclones. 

The political parties have always been 
pretty evenly divided with a slight prepon- 
derance in favor of the democrats. In 1 840, 
Harrison (whig) received 98 votes and Van 
Buren (democrat) 91, a whig majority 
of 7, and not again until 1904, when Roose- 
velt carried the county by 78, was there a 
majority adverse to the democratic candi- 
date for president, and but twice in the sixty- 
eight years have the republicans elected their 
entire county ticket, but in sixteen of the 
thirty-five biennial elections they have 
elected part of their local ticket. 

Majorities by which county officers have 
been elected would average considerably be- 
low a hundred. Many have been elected 
by less than fifty and not a few by less than 
ten majority. In 1878 the democrats 
elected a county treasurer by four majority 
and a county commissioner by three. In 
1848 the two candidates for county treasurer 
were a tie. In 1890 the republicans 
elected a clerk by two, and in 1900 one 
democratic candidate for commissioner was 
defeated by four, while the candidate for 
county assessor was elected by one majority. 
The largest majority ever given a candidate 
on a straight party fight was 831, majority 

for Col. I. B. McDonald (democrat) for 
representative, in 1870 over Ambrose M. 
Trumbull (republican). McDonald carried 
every voting precinct in the county. The 
like never occurred before and is not likely 
to do so again. 

In 1844 James K. Polk, democratic can- 
didate for president, received 219 votes, as 
against Clay (whig) 216, a majority of 

In 1848 Cass received 355 votes as 
against 318 for Taylor, a democratic major- 
ity of thirty-seven. 

In 1852 Pierce received 568 and Scott 
497, a democratic majority of 71. 

In 1856 Buchanan received 851 and 
Fremont 797, a democratic majority of 54. 

In i860 Douglas received 1133 and Lin- 
coln 1067, a democratic majority of 66. 
There was also three votes for Breckenridge, 
southern democrat. 

In 1864 McClellan received 1337 and 
Lincoln 1074, a democratic majority of 263. 

In 1868 Seymour received 1628 and 
Grant 1372, a democratic majority of 256. 

In 1872 Greeley received 1650 and Grant 
1401, a democratic majority of 249. 

In 1876 Tilden received 2052 and Hayes 
1660, a democratic majority of 392. 

In t88o Hancock received 2229 and 
Garfield 1941, a democratic majority of 288. 

In 1884 Cleveland received 2365 and 
Blaine 2007, a democratic majority of 358. 

In 1888 Cleveland received 2325 and 
Harrison 2133, a democratic majority of 

In 1892 Cleveland received 2222 and 
Harrison 195 1 . a democratic majority of 

In 1896 Bryan received 2494 and Mc- 



Kinley 2242, a democratic majority of 252. 

In 1900 Bryan received 2361 and Mc- 
Kinley 2271, a democratic majority of 90. 

In 1904 Parker received 2281 and Roose- 
velt 2359, a republican majority of 78. 

At the first presidential election in 1840 
there was a whig" majority of 7 and at the 
last presidential election there was a re- 
publican majority of 78. Thus opposition 
to the democrats carried the first and last 
presidential elections at an average majority 
of 42. 

The democrats carried the fifteen inter- 
vening presidential elections at an average 
majority of 189, the lowest was 3 in 1844 
and the highest 392 in 1876. 

In the presidential landslide of 1904 the 
republicans had a majority for their state 
ticket considerably reduced below that of 
Roosevelt and elected their candidate for 
sheriff by 97. W Tile the democrats had a 
majority of 65 for Robinson for congress; 
151 for Green, district prosecutor; 145 for 
Depew, joint representative; 122 for Brand, 
county treasurer ; 151 fur Walter, surveyor ; 
13 for Williams, coroner; 105 for Irwin, 
commissioner, and 65 for Mowery, commis- 
sioner, an average majority for all county 
and district officers, except sheriff, of 102. 

During all the vicissitudes of the parties ; 
the death of the whig party, the birth of 
the republican party in 1856 and its ascend- 
ancy up to 1872 ; the rise again of the 
democracy to a majority in the Lower House 
of Congress in 1874 and its hand to hand 
conflict with its competitor, in almost equal 
battle up to its great victory in 1892, and 
its decline again ; during all these times the 
voters of Whitley county have been but 
little swayed from their moorings, show- 
ing that there has been complete organiza- 

tion on both sides. There are few counties 
in the country where there has existed such 
complete part}' machinery reaching out to 
each school and road district. From the 
democracy's slender majority in 1844 to 
1874 it held the county offices almost ex- 
clusively, first under the leadership of James 
B. Edwards and later that of Eli W. Brown, 
with I. B. McDonald and others as able 

Against this compact and finely balanced 
organization there was a revolt in 1874. re- 
sulting in the nomination of a ticket alter- 
nating candidates, republican and demo- 
cratic, under the name of People's Party, 
hut keeping hands entirely out of politics 
outside the count) - . It was signally suc- 
cessful in that year. 

In 1876 its success was partial. In 1878 
it elected three candidates. After that, 
parties lapsed back to their old positions 
until 1886, when the scheme was tried again, 
resulting in complete rout and failure. For 
many years the third party has been in evi- 
dence under name of Greenbackers or Pro- 
hibitionists but not in number sufficient to 
warrant a place in history. 

Man}' of the Greenbackers were perfect- 
ly sincere in their action but their leaders 
'were mostly adventurers who sought to 
make merchandise of their following in a 
market where each vote was a great factor 
in determining the local result, so that it 
became marketable to individuals rather than 

While the Prohibitionists in the main 
have been true to principle and have voted 
their sentiments without regard to the bal- 
ance of power the}' could produce, there 
have been notable examples to the contrary. 

In 1882 the republican party made its 



first real stand for a tight on the whole 
county ticket, though it often before made 
an effort for some individual candidate and 
sometimes with success. Conditions were 
not auspicious for the democrats and their 
opponents entered the tight with an advan- 
tage i >n their side and a ticket of good strong 
men. hut lost out because of poor manage- 
ment. The highest democratic majority 
was 222 for Harrison, clerk, and the lowest 
45 f< t Yontz for auditor. 

In 1884 the local contest was seemingly 
lost in the national campaign and the demo- 
crats won by about their usual majorities. 

We have already noted that a People's 
part}- was unsuccessful in 1886. 

In 1888 the republicans elected their can- 
didate. W. W. Hollipeter, for sheriff by 67 
majority, and the democrats all the balance 
of the ticket by majorities from 247 down 
to less than a hundred. 

In 1890 the democrats elected their entire 
ticket by about the usual majorities, except 

tn 1892 William F. McNagny, of this 
count)-, was the democratic candidate for 
congress and gave a stimulus to the cam- 
paign. His majority was t>2>7 and the low- 
est majority for the democrats was 191. 

In 1894 the entire republican county 
ticket was elected by majorities averaging 
114, while the state ticket had a majority 
1 if 64. 

In [896 the entire democratic ticket was 
again elected by majorities all over a hun- 
dred, except Meyers for treasurer who had 
73; and two years later, in 1898, the demo- 
cratic majorities were quite decisive, averag- 
ing above 200. 

As before noted, the result in 1900 was 

the election of part of both tickets, so also 
was the result in 1902 and 1904. the former 
year the preponderance was with the repub- 
licans and the latter with the democrats. 

In 1906 the republicans made a clean 
sweep on state and local tickets, except that 
the democrats elected the coroner and sur- 

In 1897 experts were employed to go 
over the books of the count)' for several 
years past that the people might know 
whether or not their servants had been hon- 
est and to prove or disprove the many 
charges and counter-charges that had been 
recklessly made. 

The result was most satisfactory and 
quieting to the people. Not a dishonest act 
was discovered ; not a cent had been misap- 
propriated or stolen. A few very small ir- 
regularities were pointed out due to different 
methods in bookkeeping which were readily 
adjusted and reconciled. Whitley county 
during its entire history has been a storm 
center of politics but its government has 
been honest and satisfactory. 

John S. Cotton, democrat, was elected 
representative from Whitley county in 1868 
by a majority of 238. At the regular ses- 
sion of the state legislature in January, 1869, 
the democratic members being in the minor- 
it)-, resigned three days before the close of 
the session to break a quorum and prevent 
the ratification of the negro suffrage amend- 
ment. The appropriation bills had not 
passed, which gave Governor Baker a good 
excuse to call an extra session to force the 
negro suffrage amendment to passage. A 
special election was called and Cotton be- 
came nominee again on the issue of negro 
suffrage. Lewis Adams, up to this time a 



democrat, and former member of the legis- 
lature, was nominated against him. Cotton 
was elected by 72 1 majority, carrying every 
township but Troy, which he lost by 15; the 
republican majority at the fall election be- 
fore had been 76. Adams lived in Troy. 
This vote is significant of the feeling of the 
people at that time on this question. 

The following persons have served the 
county officially: 


On the organization of Whitley county 
it was in the fifth congressional district, 
composed of the counties of Union, Fayette. 
Wayne, La Grange, Randolph, Henry, Dele- 
ware. Allen. Grant and Huntington, Whit- 
ley added in 1838, represented by James H. 
Rariden from 1837 to 1841 ; and by An- 
drew Kennedy from 1841 to, 1843. 

Under the apportionment of 184 J we 
were placed in the tenth district as follows: 
Randolph, Delaware, Grant, Jay, Steuben. 
Blackford, Adams, Wells, Huntington, La- 
Grange, Allen, Whitley, Noble and Dekalb 
and at the August election. 1842. Andrew 
Kennedy was elected from the new district", 
and by re-election held till 1847. William 
Rockhill held from 1847 to J 849- Andrew J. 
Harlan from 1849 to J 85i- Samuel Bren- 
ton from 185 1 to 1853. 

Under the apportionment of 1852 the 
following counties comprised the tenth dis- 
trict: Elkhart, Kosciusko, Noble, La- 
Grange, Steuben, Dekalb, Allen and Whit- 
ley. Ebenezer M. Chamberlain was the 
representative from 1853 to 1855. Samuel 
Brenton from 1855 to 1859. Charles Case 
from 1859 to 1861. William Mitchell from 

1 86 1 to 1863. Joseph K. Edgerton from 
1863 to 1865. Joseph H. Defrees from 1865 
to 1867. 

Under the apportionment of 1867, Allen 
was taken from the district and Huntington 
given to it, making the tenth district as 
follows : Kosciusko, Whitley, Huntington, 
Noble. Dekalb, Steuben, LaGrange and 
Elkhart. William Williams was the repre- 
sentative from 1867 to 1873. 

Under the apportionment of 1872 the 
twelfth district was Jay, Blackford, Hunt- 
ington, Wells, Adams, Allen and Whitley. 
This apportionment bill was approved at 
a special session of the legislature, December 
2^,. 1872, after the congressional election. 
The state's apportionment being raised from 
eleven to thirteen representatives, two con- 
gressmen, Godlove S. Orth and William 
Williams, were elected from the state at 
large, and Henry B. Saylor, of Huntington, 
by the old tenth. 

Andrew H. Hamilton, from Allen 
county, was representative from 1875 to 
1879, Walpole G. Colerick, of Allen county, 
from 1879 to 1883. 

Under the apportionment act of 1879 
the twelfth district was LaGrange, Steuben, 
Noble, Dekalb, Whitley and Allen. The 
apportionment acts of 1885, 1891, 1895 
and 1 90 1 have left the district remaining 
the same. Robert Lowry, of Allen county, 
was representative from 1883 to 1887; 
James B. White, of Allen county, from 
1887 to 1889; Charles A. O. McClellan, of 
Dekalb count}-, from 1889 to 1893: William 
F. McNagny, of Whitley county, from 1893 
to 1895; Jacob D. Leighty, of Dekalb 
county, from 1895 to 1897; James M. Rob- 
inson, of Allen county, from 1897 to 1905: 



Newton W. Gilbert, from 1905 till Septem- 
ber, 1906. when he resigned. Clarence C. 
Gilhams. of La Grange county, was elected 
for both long and short terms in 1906. 


The first constitution of Indiana adopted 
June 29, 1816, provided as follows: 


Sec. 2. — The general assembly may, 
within two years after their first meeting 
and shall, in the year 1820, and every 
subsequent term of five years, cause an enu- 
meration to be made of all white male in- 
habitants above the age of twenty-one years. 
The number of representatives shall, at the 
several periods of making such enumerations, 
be fixed by the general assembly, and ap- 
portioned among the several counties ac- 
cording to the number of white male in- 
habitants above twenty-one years of age in 
each ; and shall never be less than twenty- 
five (25) or greater than thirty-six (36), 
until the number of the white male inhabi- 
tants above twenty-one years of age shall 
be twenty-two thousand ; and after that 
event, at such ratio, that the whole number 
of representatives shall never be less than 
thirty-six, nor exceed one hundred. 

Sec. 3. — The representatives shall be 
chosen annually by the qualified electors of 
each county respectively on the first Monday 
of August. 

Sec. 5. — The senators shall be chosen for 
three years, on the first Monday in August, 
by the qualified votes of representatives, and 

on this being convened, in consequence of 
the first election, they shall be divided by 
lot, from their respective counties or districts. 
as near as can be, into three classes ; the 
seats of the senators of the first class shall 
be vacated at the expiration of the first year ; 
and the second class, at the expiration of 
the second year; and the third class, at the 
expiration of the third year; so that one 
third thereof, as near as possible, may be 
annually chosen forever thereafter. 

Sec. 6. — The number of senators shall, 
at the several periods of making the enu- 
meration before mentioned, be fixed by the- 
general assembly, and apportioned among 
the several counties or districts to be estab- 
lished by law, according to the number of 
white male inhabitants of the age of twenty- 
one years in each, and shall never be less 
than one third, nor more than one half the 
number of representatives. 


185 I. 

Jacob Wunderlich was delegate fronr 
Whitley county to the convention that 
framed said constitution. 


Sec. 2.- — The senate shall not exceed 
fifty, nor the house of representatives 1 me 
hundred members ; and they shall be chosen 
by the electors of the respective counties or 
districts into which the state may, from time 
to time, be divided. 

Sec. 3. — Senators shall be elected for the 
term of four years and representatives for 
the term of two vear-s from the dav after 



their general election. * * * One-half, 
as nearly as possible, shall be chosen 

At the first session, convened November 
4, 1816, there were ten senators and thirty 
representatives. The senate remained 

with ten members until 1821, when it in- 
creased to twelve. In 1822, it rose to 16 
and by 1838, when Whitley county was or- 
ganized, it had risen to forty-seven and by 
1 84 1 it has risen to the constitutional limit 
of fifty. The number of representatives in- 
creased steadily at almost every session, so 
that by 1836 it had reached its limitation 
of one hundred. 

In 1835, Ezra S. Trask was elected state 
senator for the term of three years for the 
district composed of Wabash, Jay, Grant, 
Huntington and the territory attached there- 
to for judicial purposes (meaning Whitley 
county) and was our senator at date of 
organization, but at the fall election of 1838 
James Trimble was elected senator. From 
that date to the present we have had the 
following senators : 

William B. Mitchell (W.) . . 1841 to 1844 

Matthew Rippey (W.) 1844 " 1845 

( District — Elkhart, Kosciusko and 


A. Cuppy (D.), Whitley. ... 1845 to 1847 

Elias Murray (W.) 1847 " 1848 

Henry Day (D.) 1848 " 1851 

( District — Huntington Kosciusko and 


T. Washburn (D.), Whitley.. 1851 to 1853 
(District — Noble, Kosciusko and Whitley.) 


S. D. Hall (D.) 1853 to 1855 

John Weston (D.) 1855 " 1858 

( District — Xoble, Kosciusko and Whitley. ) 

James R. Slack (D.) 1858 to 1863 

A. J. Douglas (D.), Whitley. 1863 " 1869 
(District — Huntington and Whitley.) 

A. Y. Hooper (R.) Whitley. 1869 to 1872 

Charles W. Chapman (R.).. 1872 " 1877 

Walter Olds (R.), Whitley.. 1877" 1881 

( District — Kosciusko and Whitley. ) 

Robert C. Bell (D.) 1881 to 1885 

E. W. Brown (D.), Whitley. 1885 " 1887 
I. B. McDonald (D.). Whitley 1887 " 1889 

Fred J. Hayden (D.) 1889 " 1893 

Ochmig Bird (D.) 1893 " 1897 

Louis J- Bobilya (D.) 1897 " 1899 

(District — Whitley and Allen.) 

F. J. Heller (D.), Whitley. . 1899 to 1903 

H. M. Purviance (R.) 1903 " i9°7 

John W." Orndorf (R.) Whit- 
ley 1906 " 

( District — Whitley and . Huntington. ) 


At the organization of the county in 1838 
William Vance was representative and was 
re-elected in August, 1838. 
(District — Huntington, Jay, Wells, Black 
ford and Whitley.) 

Lewis W. Purviance 1839101840 

Morrison Rulon 1840 " 1841 

(District — Huntington, Adams, Wells. 
Whitley. Blackford and Jay.) 



Peter L. Runyon 1841 to 1842 

Abraham Cuppy 1842 " 1N44 

Stephen H. Culms 1S44 " [845 

David Rippey 1845 " 1846 

(District — Kosciusko and Whitley.) 

James Gilleece 1846 to 1847 

Henry Swihart 1847 " 1848 

Samuel Jones 1848 " 1849 

John S. Cotton 1849 " 1850 

Henry Swihart 1850 " 1851 

I District — Huntington and Whitley. ) 


Whitley now becomes entitled to a rep- 
resentative of her own. 

David Litchfield 185 1 to 1853 

Adams Y. Plooper J 853 " 1855 

John S. Cotton 1855 " 1857 

Lewis Adams 1857 " 1859 

( District — Whitley. ) 

John B. Firestone 1859 to 1861 

James S. Collins 1861 " 1863 

Samuel McGauhey. 1863 " 1865 

John R. Coffroth 1865 " 1867 

A. J. Douglas 1867 " 1869 

( District — Huntington and Whitley.) 

Whitley county a district alone. 

John S. Cotton 1869 to 187 1 

I. B. McDonald 1871 " 1873 

Cyrus B. Tulley 1873 " 1875 

Thomas Washburn 1875 " 1877 

William E. Merriman ^77 " J 879 

Cyrus P. Tulley 1879 " 1881 

William Carr 1881 " 1885 

Martin I ). Garrison 1885 " 1889 

Andrew A. Adams 1889" 1893 

Jacob S. Schrader 1893 to '895 

Edwin L. Barber 1895 " 1 ^97 

Solomon Wiener 1897 " 1899 

(District — Whitley.) 

John W. Baker 1899 to 1901 

Levi R. Stookey 1901 " 1905 

Newton F. Watson !905 " 1907 

(District — Kosciusko and Whitley.) 

The legislature in 1905 made the district 
Kosciusko, Huntington and Whitley, and 
Newton F. Watson was re-elected in 1906. 


The clerk of courts was ex-ofncio clerk 
of the board of county commissioners from 
the organization of the county to 1841, when 
that duty was transferred to the county 

Abraham Cuppy 1838 to 1842 

Richard Collins 1842 " 1855 

I. B. McDonald 1855 " 1859 

William E. Merriman 1859 " 1863 

James B. Edwards 1863 " 1871 

Eli W. Brown 1871 " 1875 

James Reider 1875 " 1879 

James M. Harrison ^79 " 1887 

Samuel P. Kaler 1887 " 1891 

William H. Magley 1891 " 1895 

Richard H. Maring 1895 " 1899 

Walter J. Tyree,* 1899 " 1904 

Jesse A. Glassley 1904 " 1908 

Hugo Logan 1908 " 


Abraham Cuppy 1841 to 1842 

Richard Collins 1842 " 1844 

*Ofhce extended from November to 
fanuary 1 st. 



Charles W. Hughes 1844 to 1S44 

Thomas Washburn 1844 " 1855 

Adams Y. Hooper 1855 " 1859 

John S. Cotton 1859 " 1863 

Simon H. Wunderlich 1863 " 1869 

Theodore Reed 1869 " 1874 

Robert A. Jellison 1874 " 1877 

William H. Rutter 1877 " 1881 

William E. Merriman 1881 " 1882 

Manford D. Yontz 1882 " 1886 

Chauncey B. Mattoon 1886 " 1890 

Christopher Souder 1890 " 1894 

Daniel W. Sanders 1894 " 1898 

W. H. Carter,* 1898 " 1903 

Charles E. Lancaster J 903 " l 9°7 

Samuel F. Trembley l 9®7 " 


Abraham Cuppy 1838 to 1842 

Richard Collins 1842 " 1855 

Charles W. Hughes 1855 " 1859 

Henry Swihart 1859 " 1863 

Casper W. Lamb 1863 " 1867 

David A. Quick 1867 " 1871 

Jeremiah S. Hartsock 1871 " 1875 

John C. Wigent 1875 " 1879 

Wright Lancaster 1879 " 1883 

Casper W. Lamb 1883 " 1887 

John H. Shilts 1887 " 1891 

John W. Golden 1891 " 1895 

Henry Souder 1895 " 1899 

Frank Raber 1899 " 1904 

Levi M. Meiser 1904 " 1908 

George W. Hildebrand 1908 " 


Richard Baughan 1838 to 1838 

*Office extended from November 22d, to 
January* 1st. 

Richard Collins 

James B. Simcoke 

Jacob Thomson 

Jacob Wunderlich 

James B. Edwards 

William H. Dunfee. . . . 

John Brenneman 

Adam Avey 

John Wynkoop 

Oliver P. Koontz 

Jacob W. Miller 

William H. Liggett. . . . 
Adam T. McGinlev. . . . 
Franklin P. Allwein 

Leander Lower 

William W. Hollipeter. 

John W. McNabb 

Thomas N. Hughes. . . . 

Benjamin F. Hull 

Edward L. Gallagher. . 
Logan Staples 

1838 to 


1840 •' 


1844 •• 


1846 " 


1850 " 


1854 •' 


1858 " 

1 86a 

i860 " 


1862 " 


1866 •• 


1870 " 


1874 •• 


1878 " 


1880 " 


1884 " 


1888 " 


1890 " 


1894 •• 


1896 •• 


1900 " 


1905 " 



John Collins 1838 to 1840 

Benjamin Grable 1840 " 1848 

Joseph H. Pratt '. 1848 " 1848 

Charles W. Hughes 1848 " 185 1 

Jacob Wunderlich 185 1 " 1852 

Charles W. Hughes 1852 " 1854 

James T. Long 1854 " 1856 

Robert Reed 1856 " 1858 

Jacob Wunderlich 1858 " i860 

Henry Gregg i860 " 1862 

John S. Cotton 1S62 *' 1864 

William Reed 1864 " 1866 

John O. Adams 1866 " 1870 

Henry McLallen 1870 " 1874 

Jacob A. Baker 1874 " 1878 

Joseph Clark 1878 " 1882 


Oliver P. Stewart 1882 to 1886 

Joshua P. Chamberlin 1886 " 1890 

Jacob A. Ruch 1890 " 1890 

John Gross 1890 " 1894 

William A. Geiger 1894 " 1896 

William E. Myers 1896 " 1901 

Melvin Blain 1901 " 1905 

John W. Brand 1905 " 1907 

Clinton Wilcox 1907 " 


Seth A. Lucas 1838 to 1841 

Asa Shoemaker 1841 " 1847 

David Richmond 1847 " 1849 

William Guy 1849 " 1851 

William M. Swayzee 1851 " 1853 

Adam Avey 1853 " 1855 

Benjamin F. Beeson 1855 " 1863 

William Walter 1863 " 1865 

Henry H. Hackett 1865 " 1867 

Abraham Y. Swigart 1867 " 1870 

John B. Firestone 1870 " 1874 

John Richards 1874 " 1878 

William Yontz 1878 " 1882 

Charles S. Williams 1882 " 1894 

Nathan I. Kithcart 1894 " 1896 

Charles S. Williams 1896 " 1905 

John F. Brenneman JQOS " I9°7 

Jesse H. Briggs 1907 " 


John H. Alexander 1839 to [842 

Stephen Martin 1842 " 184(1 

< leorge Arnold 1846 " 1848 

John II. Alexander 1848 " 1850 

Jonathan Miller 1850 " 1851 

Richard Knisely 1851 " 1854 

Alpha A. Bainbridge 1854 " 1854 

Levi Adams 1854 to 1856 

Amasa W. Reed 1856 " 1858 

Eli W. Brown 1858 " 1864 

John H. Tucker 1864 " 1864 

Thomas B. Hathaway 1864 " 1865 

D. A. Quick 1865 " 1865 

Edward A. Mossman 1865 " 1867 

Cyrus B. Tulley 1867 " 1870 

Charles D. Moe 1870 " 1872 

James E. Dorland 1872 " 1874 

Herman Thiele 1874 " 1876 

Levi Adams 1876 " 1880 

R. A. Kaufman 1880 " 1882 

Herman A. Hartsock 1882 " 1888 

Edward W. Lilly 1888 " 1892 

Arvillus N. Miller 1892 " 1894 

Henry Lahm 1894 " 1896 

Morton A. Gillispie 1896 " 1900 

Oscar T. Schinbeckler 1900 " 1903 

Alpheas C. More 1903 " 1905 

David A. Walter 1905 " 1909 


First District — 

Joseph Parrett, Jr. 
Lorin Loomis. 
James L. Henderson. 
John S. Cotton, 
Henry H. Smith. 
Price Goodrich. 
Christian H. Creager. 
Alfred J. Koontz. 
William Dunlap. 
John Snodgrass. 
William Dunlap. 
Benjamin F. Thompson. 
Henry Snyder. 
Samuel B. Albright. 


John Trier. 
Henry Norris. 
Stephen A. Martin. 
George A. Bowers. 
Thomas H. Irwin. 

Second District — 

Nathaniel B. Gradeless. 
John G. Braddock. 
Adam Creager. 
Henry Knight. 
Adam Egolf. 
Adam Creager. 
Henry Swihart. 
Andrew Adams. 
George Eberhard. 
George W. Hollinger. 

Milton B. Emerson. 
Jacob A. Ramsey. 

William Tannehill. 

Peter Creager. 

Henry W. Miller. 

Peter S. Hess. 

Jacob Paulus. 

Robert B. Boyd. 

Noah Mullendore. 

"Third District— 

Otho W. Gandy. 
Joseph Pierce. 
Daniel B. Rice. 
Thomas Neal. 
Daniel B. Rice. 

Jacob Nickey. 
Richard M. Paige. 
James H. Shaw. 
George W. Lawrence. 
William S. Nickey. 
William Walker. 
Frederick Nei. 
Edward Geiger. 
John M. Mowrey. 
Edward Geiger. 


Christopher W. Long 1838 to 1846 

Charles W. Hughes 1846 " 1848 

Price Goodrich,* 1848 " 1852 


Charles W. Ewing. 

John W. Wright. 

James W. Borden. 

Elza A. McMahon. 

Edward R. Wilson. 

Robert Lowry. 

Elisha V. Long. 

Walter Olds. 

Joseph W. Adair. 

Common pleas judges were Stephen 
Wildman, James C. Bodley and William M. 
Clapp. Whitley and Noble counties con- 
stituted the nineteenth district. 

*Office abolished by law and common 
pleas court established in 185.2. Common 
pleas court abolished in 1872. 



Told September i, 1905. Interview by 
S. P. Kaler. 

I was bom in Muskingum county. Ohio, 
October 7, 181 6. the son of Samuel and 
Rebecca Rose Anderson, natives of Ireland 
and New Jersey, respectively, and of Scotch 
and German extraction. I came to Rich- 
land township. Whitley county, Indiana. 
October 9, 1837, and have lived continu- 
ously on the same farm I entered, ever since. 
My name is on the tax duplicate for every 
year that one was made. 

Charles \Y. Harden, son of David and 
Alma Hayden, was born August 12, 1837, 
the first white child born in Richland 

The second child born in the township 
was Evaline, daughter of Charles and Eva- 
line Ditton, October 14. 1837. 

The third child born in the township 
was Jacob Kistler, now living at Larwill, 
the son of Jacob and Sophia Kistler, and 
he was born August 20, 1839. 

The fourth child born in the township 
was Orilla, daughter of Edwin and Celina 
Cone, December 30, 1839 

The first death in Richland township 
was Samuel Jones in February, 1837. He 
died al)out the place afterwards called Sum- 
mit, one mile west of Larwill. He was the 
father-in-law of Norman Andrews. 

\liout the same time John Jones died 
at the home of Ezra Thompson. The fam- 
ily was moving through and the son became 
sick from exposure and Thompsons t< 11 >k 
them in, where he died. 

The third death was Mrs. Evaline Dit- 
ton, who died October 17, 1837, and she 
was buried on the farm called the Henry 
Norris farm, now owned by George Miller. 
Her casket was made out of some old wagon 
box boards, by her father, Mr. Andrew 
Compton, and myself. There was no one 
to hold a funeral. The grave was not 
marked and is lost and plowed over, as well 
as the graves of others at the same place. 

The next death was Mrs. Anna Ditton. 
wife of George Ditton, October 17. 1837. 
She was buried at the same place. 

The next deaths were Zebulon Burch 
and Anna Burch, his wife, and some chil- 
dren, among whom was a son named Joel. 
The next was Mr. James Perkins, father 
of Mrs. John Graham. His bod} - was re- 
moved some years after. 

The next death was that of David 
Welch, the man who died at South Whitley. , 
about whom so much has been said and 
written, as being the first man to die in 
the count}'. An effort is now being made 
to find the tody. I have recently been on 
the ground and am sure I know the exact 
spot, for 1 have always been familiar with 
the place. 

He was not a stranger or sojourner, but 
lived with his family, consisting -of a wife 
and four children, in a log cabin near Clear 
Creelc. north of South Whitley. He was 
rather shiftless, and worked at odd jobs and 
finally took his turn with the other settlers 
going after provisions and to mill on Tur- 
kev Creek, near Elkhart. 



He came home on the seventh day and 
had been drinking heavily and to sober off, 
his wife told me he drank two large spoon- 
fuls of turpentine and that night he died. 
The next day the neighbors gathered in and 
as there was no lumber David Payne made a 
casket out of his (Payne's) wagon box. 
There was no funeral, but in the evening 
they located a place on the Goshen road 
near the south-east corner of John Edwards' 
town lot in the alley six or eight feet from 
the road. 

The first cemetery was the one above 
described on the George Miller farm and 
it is all plowed over. Though I helped bury 
most of those interred there I cannot find 
the place. 

The second cemetery was Otto Webb's. 
Six or seven were buried there. Some 
were taken up, and the spot is plowed over 
and lost. The next cemetery was started 
by George Clapp on section 24, Richland 
township. This is the present Oak Grove 
cemetery. This was the fall of 1839. Clapp 
deecled the ground, a quarter of an acre, to 
the county, but it was long kept up by the 
citizens, but of late years the county ha s 
cared for it, and it is well kept and has a 
number of fine monuments. 

About 1S38 an Indian was buried in sec- 
tion 18, near Boonville, and about the same 
time a squaw was buried near the door of 
Monroe Snyder's resilience and two Indians 
on the Trerabley farm. 

In 1840 we built a schoolhouse at Oak 
Grove, in which were the first church serv- 
ices or preaching in Richland township. 

About two years after, we built, at the 
same place, a church for all who wished to 
worship and it was called Union church. It 

was dedicated by Rev. Anderson Parrett. 
The German Lutherans had an organization 
over about Eberhards, and their preacher 
had an appointment and it happened that 
the United Brethren had an appointment 
for the same da)- and hour and the Luther- 
ans got the start and would not let the 
United Brethren take a part. He said he 
did not want his services broke in two in 
the middle, so the United Brethren an- 
nounced he would preach in two weeks and 
retired, but in two weeks they came together 
again. The German started in to take full 
charge and after he had given out the first 
hymn the United Brethren announced that 
it was the first time he had ever seen a hand 
car get ahead of a locomotive. He retired 
but gave out an appointment for four weeks 
and told the Lutheran he would not again 
give way to him. In four weeks the United 
Brethren came and also a Universalist and 
there was a clash again. The Universalist 
said: "Let's hold services together; there 
is no difference between us." The United 
Brethren said: "No difference; there's as 
much difference as between a hawk and a 
buzzard. The hawk hunts for his meat 
and the buzzard steals his." 

The Methodists finally secured the 
house and some years ago built the present 
brick church and it is a successful and thriv- 
ing congregation. 

In the fall of 1837, William Rice went to 
Huntington and got a commission to or- 
ganize the township. The name Richland 
had been agreed upon at a meeting of set- 
tlers at Rice's house in October. In Decem- 
ber the first election was held at the home 
of Ezra Thompson in the north-west quarter 
of section 9, near the cross roads and adja- 



cent to the old Thompson cemetery, which 
is yet to be seen. 

The voters at that election were Ezra 
Thompson, J. R. Anderson, Edwin Cone, 
David Hayden, William Rice, Otto Webb, 
Zebulon Burch and Andrew Compton. 

The Whitley County History, published 
some years ago, has the names differently, 
but this is correct. I was there and have 
always kept the list of the voters. 


Historical article by Rhua Compton 
Mosher, late wife of Eliakim Mosher. Com- 
ments by John R. Anderson. 

Through the courtesy of S. P. Kaler, 
The Post is enabled to publish a valuable 
historical article written by the late Mrs. 
Eliakim Mosher, before her death, with 
comments upon the same by John R. Ander- 
son, who still resides in Richland township. 
The article describes their nineteen days' trip 
from Coshocton county, Ohio, through the 
wilderness to the chosen land, where both 
spent their long lives, Mrs. Mosher preced- 
ing him upon a journey he will yet take. 

how the nap was made. 

Andrew Compton and Mary Stafford 
Compton, his wife, with two men, John An- 
derson and Sam Holloway, started from 
Coshocton county, Ohio, September 27, 
1837. They wandered through the for- 
ests, picking their way through western 
Ohio to Pickaway and Black Swamp and 
then 011 to Fort Wayne. As there was no 
road to Whitley county they took the tow- 
path From Fort Wayne to Huntington. It 
commenced to rain soon after leaving Fort 
Wavne and continued to rain during the 
whole afternoon. Near Fort Wayne the 

first Indians were seen. They were still 
very barbarous, wearing the fetlock and 
rings in their noses. As night came on we 
camped in the woods. Here we made our- 
selves as comfortable as possible. A fire 
was the first thing needed. This we suc- 
ceeded in getting after shooting twice into 
a bunch of tow. The wind roared and the 
fire leaped high as the supper was being 
prepared. Supper being over, the horses 
were made fast so they could not get away. 
Then bed quilts were hung up as a protec- 
tion from the wind. All slept on the 
ground during the night. 

By noon the next day we reached Hunt- 
ington. There we sought to provide our- 
selves with a few needful provisions. Fifty 
pounds of salt was secured for five dol- 
lars. Other articles purchased were also 
very costly. After leaving Huntington we 
drove four miles to Delvin Hill. Here we 
camped for the night, enjoying the same 
accommodations we had enjoyed before. 

The next morning we started on our 
journey again. During the entire day we 
did not see a person and not even a house. 
From this we knew that we were getting 
into extremely new country. At night we 
again camped in the woods during a storm. 
The saplings were very thick and therefore 
afforded good protection. At this place the 
wolves were very thick and during the night 
they commenced howling" and became very 
hold. The men cut trees and made pens 
for the hogs in order to keep them from the 
hungry wolves. The next day was Sunday, 
but nevertheless we broke camp and jour- 
neyed on until we came to a cabin in the 
woods. The woman in the cabin made us 
very welcome, as she seemed to be over- 
joyed to sec people of her own race. She 



was especially pleased with the children of 
the party. Here we secured corn, which 
we kept for seed on our new farm. As we 
journeyed on we came to the river, which 
was deep and with no means of crossing. 
The problem of crossing was a serious one, 
but it was solved at last. John Anderson 
rode over on the one horse which we owned. 
He drove with him the cattle and hogs, but 
the current carried the hogs down the 
stream for some distance.' The family was 
secured in the large wagon, to which were 
hitched two oxen. The oxen moved slowly 
down the bank and out into the stream. 
In a short time they were dragging the 
heavy wagon up the opposite bank. We 
were now across Eel river, about where 
the old mill dam is near South Whitley, but 
which was then called Springfield. Near 
sundown we reached Mr. Burch's ; this was 
only a few miles from the land which we 
were to occupy. October 16th found us on 
our chosen ground. We had completed our 
journey in nineteen days. 


Sam Holloway went to Lafayette and 
died of milk sickness. 

We began the Black Swamp at St. 
Mary's river and town sixty-two miles from 
Fort Wayne. 

We did not see any Indians till we got 
to Vermilyae (now Roanoke), where we 
saw thirty or forty, as it was a little village. 

We camped under a birch tree about 
forty rods from the canal and about four 
miles below Roanoke and got to Huntington 
about ten o'clock next day. 

From Huntington we drove to Delvin 
Creek and camped on a little raise ; not Del- 
vin Hill: 

Next night where we camped must have 
been about four miles below South Whit- 

We drove thirteen hogs ; one old Jersey 
Blue slab-sided and long-nosed sow, an ani- 
mal that would kill a dog or a wolf or a 
hare. Everything that came in her way 
she would grab with her big mouth and 
dispatch with one snap, and go on as if 
nothing- happened. I told Compton that 
rail pen would not hold that sow a minute 
and it didn't. She slung it to pieces in an 
instant and the hogs all got out, but they 
staved with us and the old sow protected 
the hogs and us, too. The next morning as 
we were starting for Edl river we ran over 
one hog with the wagon and killed it. 
Compton said we w-ould take the carcass 
along for soap grease. Hollowav and I 
knew we would have to dress and cut up 
the hog and we put up a job. When we 
heard wolves howling we said they smelled 
the carcass. That settled it, and the hog 
was thrown away. 

At Eel river a council was held. The 
river looked bad. Compton could not swim 
and he was the head of the family. This is 
about the place of the grist mill at South 
Whitley. We only had one horse, an old 
tacky mare. Someone had to find the way 
across and the lot fell to me. I stripped to 
shirt and pants and straddled the old mare. I 
rode to near the middle, when the mare went 
down, but I got her up and got across. Then 
I went a few rods farther up and found a 
better place. AYe measured how- high the 
water came up on the mare and found it 
would come above the second sideboard of 
the wagon and wet everything in it. So we 
cut poles and put on top the sideboards, and 
piled the goods on top. All the partv got 



on top and rode across. The old sow kept 
close to the wagon and led the others across 
all right. One of the cows went about 
eight\- rods below and came near being lost 
and was got across with difficulty. I rode 
the mare across after the animals. 

We got to Burch's, where Tom Jellison 
now lives, after night and in the rain. 
Burch's cabin was only 16x18. The family 
consisted of seven children and himself and 
wife. His son-in-law, Ditton. and wife were 
there. Mrs. Ditton was very sick and died 
next day. Into this distressed family, wet, 
cold and hungry, came Compton and wife 
and four children and myself and Holloway. 


By Joe Pletcher, told August 5, 1905. 

Mr. Joseph Pletcher, now living near 
Pierceton, was one of the early settlers of 
Whitley county, coming here from Ohio in 
1843. Mr. Pletcher was in Columbia City 
. last Thursday, and gave Mr. S. P. Kaler 
an interesting written account of his experi- 
ences. He also made a pleasant and all too 
short call at the News office, extending his 
subscription another year. Although over 
seventy years of age. he is still very active 
and seems to be nearer fifty. His story as 
given to Mr. Kaler follows : 

I will give a little historical sketch of 
our settling in Whitley county. My father's 
name was John Pletcher. W r e moved to 
Whitley county from Wood county, Ohio, 
in 1843, June 10th of that year being the 
first time T saw the little town of Colum- 
bia, now called Columbia City. Although 
father was a Dutchman, he had some Yan- 
kee traits, as he moved here with two yoke 
of oxen to a wagon. 

I remember fording the Maumee river; 

an Indian took mother across in a canoe, 
and father waded across by the side of the 
oxen, and had hard work to keep the lead 
cattle headed across the river when they 
came to the place where the}- had to swim. 
He was in water up to his arms, but man- 
aged to get across all right. 

We w-ere on the road about fourteen 
days and had lots of mud to contend with. 
as the roads were new and rough. When 
we landed at Columbia it was about sun- 
down. There were two taverns in the town 
at that time; taverns they were called then, 
and if anyone used the word hotel he would 
not be understood. A man by the name of 
Long- had his building where Brand's drug 
store now is. but it was not vet reach- for 
business. Jake Thompson's tavern was 
about where the Clugston block now is ami 
there we stayed all night. 

The next morning we pulled out to our 
claim, two miles west of town. Father had 
been there the year before and entered a 
quarter section where Dennis Walters now 
lives. I was eight and a half years old 
when we came, and can remember the In- 
dians were here, a part of two tribes, the 
Pottawattamies and the Miamis. I don't 
remember how long they stayed after we 
came here, but I think about two or three 
years. A man by the name of French took 
the contract to move them west of. the Mis- 
sissippi river. 

As much as I can remember about the 
town of Columbia is that what is now South 
Main street was full of chuck holes with a 
good many beech and sugar maple stumps in 
the- way. There was one store in the place, 
owned by John Rhodes. Mr. Rhodes 
worked at the carpenter trade and his wife 
kept the store. We used to pick roots, such 


as seneca snake roots and ginseng, and 
wild berries and trade them for goods. In 
regard to the seneca snake root, I don't 
think any of the middle-aged people of the 
county know anything about it, as it disap- 
peared a few years after we came here. 
More about the town : A two-story frame 
building, west of the public square, where 
the engine house now stands, was the court- 
house, or was used for that purpose. It 
was moved down on East Van Buren 
street and the last I knew of it, a few years 
ago, it was used for a dwelling. There 
was a jail made of square hewn logs. An 
interesting incident took place in this old 
jail one evening. There were two Indian 
prisoners, John Turkey and Penimo. The 
latter concluded he had stayed there long 
enough, so he piled some stove wood against 
the wall and set it on fire, intending to burn 
a hole large enough to crawl out. When 
the fire began to make fair progress, Tur- 
key became alarmed and began to gobble for 
help, awakening- the sheriff, Simcoke. He 
put irons on them, but a friend gave them 
a file and they took their cuffs off. One 
evening when the sheriff went in to give 
them their supper, they made a spring for 
the door and made good their escape. 

This Penimo was a Pottawattamie and 
he had sworn vengeance on the Aliamis. say- 
ing he would kill the whole tribe. He did 
start out and killed two or three and the 
Miami's got so they were afraid to go to 
sleep in their cabins. They called on the 
authorities for protection and said they 
would give four hundred dollars to have 
him captured. This reward caused him to 
leave the neighborhood, but it was not long 
till he was taken prisoner down at Winamac, 
brought back to Columbia and put in jail. 

The Miamis were in great glee over it, and 
I remember two old braves being at our 
place one day who were pretty well tanked 
up, as the saying goes, and were telling how 
white men were going to hang Penimo. 
They would go through the motions of put- 
ting a rope around his neck and then would 
jump up and give a whoop. But when the 
bad Indian broke out, they did not jump so 
high ; they said thafs the way the white 
men do, feedum, getumfat and letumgo. 
The} - said if they had him the}- would ti >r- 
ture him to death in a very cruel way. 

Now I will tell of an experience we had 
with Indians on our farm. My brother Eli, 
when about four or five years old, happened 
to fall into the hands of two young Indians 
about eighteen or nineteen. He had started 
to follow mother to a spring that we carried 
water from, about a half mile south of the 
house. She told him to go back, but he 
waited till she got out of sight, then started 
to follow and got lost. He came out on the 
road that ran across from the squaw-buck 
road to the Warsaw road where Levi Mosh- 
er lived. The boys were just drunk enough 
to not care what thev did and when he saw 
them he hid in some weeds. They decided 
to have some fun with him, so they caught 
him and used various means to frighten him. 
Finally one of them held him while the 
other djeat him on the head with a club. 
He has the scars yet and could show them 
if he were here, but he is in Pasadena, Cal. 
When mother came back from the spring 
she asked my sister and me where Eli was 
and we told her he followed her to the 
spring. My sisters and 1 started out to 
hunt for him. but we did not find him. 
Father and a neighbor were stacking marsh 
hay down on what we called the big marsh. 



where the great sink on the Pittsburg Rail- 
road is now. The boys came along to where 
father and Mr. Smith were at work and 
talked with them a little and offered them 
something to drink. They went south about 
eighty or ioo rods, where they found Eli. 
It was right about where the barn now 
stands on the Samuel Scott farm, west of 
town two miles. 'When the lad got up after 
they got through with him, he happened to 
take the road to where father and Mr. Smith 
were working. When father saw him bloody 
from head to foot, he said that those Indians 
had been handling the boy, and after picking 
him up and taking him home, took his rifle 
and hunting knife and started out after the 
Indians. He hunted for them until eleven 
o'clock that night, but did not find them, 
and it is well that he did not, for he would 
have killed them or they him. 

In the morning the boy was quite well 
and father had cooled down, but he went 
after them and found them about five miles 
south of our place, on what is now the Chris 
Kourt farm, where they had a big dance or 
dum-dum. He went up to the one he was 
acquainted with and as soon as he began 
talking the boy broke down and was very 
penitent, laying all the trouble to bad whis- 
key. Father said he would forgive him, but 
his companion was very sullen and could 
not be made to apologize or say anything. 
The first fellow then made a proposition to 
settle the matter by giving father $10 and 
a new Indian blanket. My brother kept the 
blanket until a few years ago, but finally 
gol 1" using it and it went to pieces. T 
could give a good many details on these 
hi'Jian narratives, but will cut them short. 

I saw the account Mr. Liggett gave 
aboul the wheal crop forty years ago, and 

I will go back to the year 1852. That year 
the wheat was good. My uncle, Henry 
Mowrey, had out forty acres on the Curtis 
farm south of Larwill, which is now Press 
Patterson's farm. He hauled it to Fort 
Wayne and got forty cents a bushel for it. 

There are quite a number of birds that 
used to be here that are gone out and we 
will hear their songs no more. The quails. 
tin 1, will soon be gone, if the number of bird 
dogs and hunters increase. It is music to 
the ear now to hear one lone Bob White 
whistling, but makes one feel sad not to 
hear a reply. If I could have my way there 
would not be any bird dogs in the state at 
the end of three months. I often think 
when I hear boys talking about hunting and 
how many rabbits they killed, that they don't 
know anything about the turkeys, pheasants, 
black and gray and fox squirrels we used to 
kill when we were boys. We paid no atten- 
tion to rabbits, but of course they enjoy 
their sport now as much as we did in the 
old days. Joseph Pletcher. 


Christian Creager, who came to Cleve- 
land township in 1836, tells of privations 
pioneers endured. 

Told July 16, 1905. 

Among the very few earliest settlers of 
the county, Christian H. Creager, of Cleve- 
land township, lives to tell something of the 
early days. Peter Creager with his wife 
and children, Adam, Christian H., Levi. 
Peter, John and Lydia, left Montgomery 
county, Ohio, October 26, 1836, and after 
nineteen days of travel and privation ar- 
rived in Whitley county, November 15. 
They brought along four horses besides the 
two teams they drove. Also five head of 



cattle, six hogs and three dogs with two 
wagons and one tent. There were no 
matches and all fires had to be started from 
striking a flash on a flint stone. Wolves 
were very plentiful everywhere. Christian 
Creager's story was told to the writer, as 
follows : 

"We built a log cabin twenty-two feet 
square and moved from the tent and wagons 
into it on Christmas day. There were six 
families then, in all. in Cleveland township. 
We brought along a full supply of garden 
seeds, apple seeds and peach seeds. There 
are still some apple trees standing that grew 
from those seeds. We succeeded in preparing 
eight acres for crops the following spring, 
during' which time we killed twenty-eight 
rattlesnakes. We were obliged to go almost 
to Marion to a water mill on the Mississine- 
wa river to get any bread stuffs but our 
larder was easily kept filled with deer, tur- 
keys, pheasants and other game. We could 
be a little choicy as to our kind of meat. 
Deer would graze with the cattle and so we 
had plenty of venison fresh and dried ; the 
latter we called "jerk." The cows would 
drink leeches from the stagnant water and 
this caused "bloody murrain" and this 
caused us to lose twenty-eight head of cat- 
tle in a few years. 

At the first election there were three 
votes polled, all Democrats and no struggle 
about electioneering or counting' votes. In- 
dians were very plentiful and were always 
friendly with us and the other settlers and 
we traded with them a great deal. Once 
we went to Syracuse to Clawson's mill and 
the round trip took us ten days. On our 
return we met about 150 Indians and they 
stopped us and tried to hold conversation 
but we could not understand. We soon 

came up to their camp fire which was still 
burning. While we were looking around 
my attention was drawn to some fresh chop- 
ping in a large ash log. I took my axe 
and pried oft a large slab and there was a 
dead papoose. The night before we landed 
in the township for some reason the other 
Indians had killed a large male member of 
their tribe and buried him by digging a hole 
deep enough to stand him up and this way 
they buried* him, leaving him with head and 
shoulders above the ground. They left with 
him his rifle, butcher knife, tomahawk and 
bottle of whiskey, and built around him a 
log pen. These things did not long remain 
with their late master, but the body remained 
until it decayed and the head fell off. 
Doctor Joseph Hayes, of Collamer, picked it 
up and kept it until he died. His son then 
gave it to a doctor at Pierceton. 

The first white person who died in Cleve- 
land township was a man named Welch who 
was moving from Huntington to Goshen. 
He occupied a vacant cabin over night and 
took a severe case of colic and died suddenly. 
They made a rude coffin for him out of his 
wagon box and buried him directly in front 
of the house in South Whitley now owned 
bv John Edwards. The first person buried 
in the Cleveland cemetery was Jesse Cleve- 
land and the first at South Whitley cemetery 
was Henry Parrett. 

Wolves were very thick. Once father 
started me a little late in the afternoon to 
take some fresh pork to my brother-in-law, 
John Cunningham, about four miles from 
our house. There was a trail cut through 
and I had no trouble about finding the way 
but it got dark before I got there and the 
wolves smelling the fresh meat followed me 
in legions. I could see their eves flash in 


the dark in the bushes all around me. 
but they did not attack me. I rode 
up to Cunningham's cabin and tied my 
horse to the corner and we hurried the meat 
into the house but the wolves followed and 
howled around the house. We sent the 
three dogs out and they succeeded in driving 
them away for a short time, but the wolves 
turned on them and ran them back so fran- 
tically that the dogs came against the door 
with such violence that they broke the w< "Mi- 
en latch and fell over each other rolling into 
the house. The wolves remained howling 
about the house the greater part of the night. 
\\ ild turkeys and porcupines were very 
plentiful. I killed twenty-eight porcupines 
one season while hunting the cows and 
otherwise going about, without hunting 
them. Squirrels were so thick we had to 
kill them oft" to save our crops. I've shot 
eight off of one tree without going away. 
Once we had a squirrel hunt and a prize was 
given to the person who could kill the most. 
Fred Pence killed 138 and took the prize. 
Nothing was saved of them but their hind 
quarters and from that day's hunt over three 
barrels were hauled to Fort Wayne, besides 
everybody had all they wanted to eat and 
many were wasted. One bear was killed 
in what is now South Whitley where the 
VEaston & Burwell hardware store stands. 
Ii was shot by Joseph Parrett and when 
skinned the few settlers had all the bear meal 
they wanted to eat. It was a change from 
our regular diet and 1 thought it was the 
nd besl meal I ever ate. 
treams were fairly alive with fish 
and it was no trouble for any one to get all 
they wanted in a very short time. Streams 
that are now entirely dried up and plowed 

over or are but small wet weather ditches 
then abounded with fish. There were many 
valuable fur animals, among which were ot- 
ter. I killed an otter and sold the hide for 
$8.50, a big sum of money for the times. 
Wild ducks and geese were more plentiful 
than tame ones now. Birds were so thick 
and sang so loudly about sunup that they 
drowned out the ring of the cow bell." 


W. H. Liggett looks over files of the 
Post of that year and gets material for 
interesting article. 

( Written June 20. 1905. by W. H. 

I did not realize what a task I had set 
for myself when I undertook to write an 
article on events of forty years ago. Not 
because there is a lack of material to select 
from, but from the abundance, to select items 
for a short article, that would he of most 
interest to my readers. 

What a short period of time forty years 
seems to the old people ! What an eternity 
forty years seems to the young! Forty 
years ag'O Whitley county was woods, 
swamps, and mud — mostly mud — black 
stick}' mud. The roads during the rainy 
season were something awful to travel. 
The forests in many parts of the county 
were almost untouched. The timber that 
stood on what are now fine farms, if stand- 
ing to-day would he worth more than. the 
farms are worth with all the improvements 
of houses and barns, and beautiful fields. 
Farming, after the timber was cleared away, 
was no joke for several years afterward 

Forty years ago about this time. June 


26th, the wheat crop was being eaten up on 
the stalk by the red milk weevil. What the 
weevil left was about all rotted in the stack 
by the excessive rains after harvest. This 
damaged and weevil eaten wheat, what was 
left of it. sold for $1.25 per bushel that 
fall. Flour sold in June, 1865, in Columbia 
City, for $7. 50 per barrel. Shelled corn 
was worth eighty cents per bushel, ear corn 
was Si. 00 per bushel. Oats were worth 
sixty cents, potatoes $1.25 and salt was 
worth $3. 25 per barrel. On June 13th, gold 
was worth $1.42 r _.. 

In 1865 Alex Hall was revenue collector 
for this district. Everybody who, after de- 
ducting S600 and taxes and insurance, had 
an income above these deductions, paid five 
per cent income tax. A large number of 
farmers and others who had made more than 
a living were called upon by Mr. Hall and 
asked to donate something to the govern- 
ment in the way of income tax. The list 
published at the time (August 2d) contains 
some interesting reading, perhaps I will give 
the list later on. Almost all whose names 
were on that list are now dead. About the 
largest item on the list was opposite the 
name of a farmer in Cleveland township. 
The question that was most discussed by 
the papers forty years ago was negro equal- 
it}- and negro suffrage. It was feared, it 
seems, that the negro would supersede the 
white man, marry all the pretty girls and 
run things generally. The expected didn't 
happen, of course, and I for one am glad it 
didn't. It surely would have mixed things 
up considerably if the white women had 
all married negroes and the white men been 
compelled to marry Chinese and Indians. 
Whitley county was represented in the legis- 

lature by A. J. Douglas, who wrote very 
entertaining letters to the Post concerning 
the doings of the wise men who sat in the 
legislative halls with him. Many of the men 
who made history in our county were in the 
prime of life in 1865. I. B. McDonald and 

E. Zimmerman edited the Post. 

I have not now at hand the name of the 
editor of the Republican, the organ of the 
Republican party in 1865. 

The names of those who were the lead- 
ing citizens of the county at this time can 
be seen better perhaps by giving the pro- 
gram for the Fourth of July celebration in 
Columbia City. The celebration was held 
in Shinneman"s grove. The program shows 
the following : 

President of the day, John S. Cotton: 
vice presidents, A. M. Trumbull and B. 
A. Cleveland; chaplains. Revs. Hutchison 
and Wells : orators. A. J. Douglas and A. Y. 
Hooper : committee on toasts, James S C< il- 
lins, E. Zimmerman and Simon H. Wunder- 
lich; marshals, 1. B. McDonald, Charles 
Ruch, A\ "illiam Y. Wells ; finance committee, 

F. H. Foust, William Walters, Alexander 
Hall, Mathias Slessman and Dr. C, C. 

At the June session of the county com- 
missioners there were five applications for 
license to sell whiskey, only one of which 
was granted. This reduced the number of 
saloons in Columbia City to five, two in 
Fiddler's Green, as across the river was then 
called, and J:hree on this side of the river. 
It seems we are a more thirsty li it now in 
Columbia City than the people of forty 
years ago, as we have nine saloons. I think, 
where we can quench our thirst, and then 
there is Blue river also. 


The year of 1865 was full of memorable 
events. There was a call for 300,000 sol- 
diers early in the year. On April 1st. Sheri- 
dan won a victory at Five Forks; April 3d, 
Richmond was occupied by the Union army ; 
April 6th, Sheridan routed Lee's forces; 
April 9th, Lee surrendered to Grant at Ap- 
pomattox ; April 14th, Lincoln was assassi- 
nated by Booth; April 19th. Lincoln's 
funeral at Washington city; April 26th, 
General Johnston surrendered and about 
this date Jeff Davis was captured. In 
May, William Bowles and Horse}-, 
who had been convicted of conspiracv 
by a military court, were sentenced 
to hang-. The' day fixed was May 19th. The 
order for their execution was signed by 
Gen. Alvin P. Hovey, who was several years 
after elected governor of the state. Alto- 
gether 1865 was a stirring year. The 
south was in ruins and the north was filled 
with the returning soldiers. There was 
much bitter feeling everywhere and Whitley 
county had its full share. 

Forty years ago the charges of corrup- 
tion in "high places" were as fiercely made 
as they are today. Grant and Lincoln and 
Sherman and the United States senators 
were belittled and called all kinds of names, 
and if one believed the half that was said 
about these men they were a bad lot. 

Grant was shamefully abused while com- 
manding the army, but it was nothing com- 
pared to the abuse heaped upon him during 
his candidacy for President and after his 
election, ll takes forty years before a man's 
less is recognized. 

.Every movement made by the govern- 
ment to reconstruct the southern stairs or 
punish the murderers of Union soldiers was 

severely criticized. How the government 
succeeded at all with all the opposition and 
obstruction placed in its way, is beyond un- 
derstanding. The tariff, the money ques- 
tions, the rights of the south and a hun- 
dred other questions, big and little, kept the 
country in a state of unrest, that to one 
who lived through it all makes the disturb- 
ances in Russia at this time look like "thirty 
cents" in comparison. 

Great Britain's illy-concealed hostility 
to the north during the war, now that the 
war was over, claimed a good deal of atten- 
tion during the closing months of 1865. All 
during the war of the Rebellion, England 
had permitted cruisers to be built and fitted 
out in her ship yards, to run the blockade 
and prey upon our commerce. France was 
not much behind England in her hostility to 
the north. The only friend in the old world 
we had at that gloomy period was Russia. 
We have as a people paid Russia back with 
interest for her friendship then, by turning 
our backs on her and openlv sympathizing 
with Japan. All you have to do to make an 
enemy of a man is to befriend him when he 
is in trouble. Nations are like men in this 
respect. It is a wonderful thing what 
changes can take place in ten years. 

In 1805 the army had been disbanded 
and the soldiers had come home. The bit- 
terness of the fearful strife was fresh in 
every one's mind. There were old scores 
and old grudges to settle, and a wound still 
smarting with pain had not time to heal. 
The epithets "negro lover," "copperhead." 
"black abolitionist." "traitor," and so on. 
were freely used in the papers of both sideSj 
which kept up for a time an ugly feeling all 
over the country. Ten years later, in [875, 



these epithets were losing much of their 
force. The war spirit was dying out. The 
ill feeling only broke out during the cam- 
paign years. The war editors were replaced 
by younger men. The passions of the people 
were cooling off. The fires of hate had died 
out to a few embers and a good many ashes. 
These ashes were blown about a good deal 
during the campaign years and got into the 

eyes and down the necks of the stump speak- 
ers, which caused them to rear up and paw 
the air. 

There are so many things one could refer 
to which took place from 1865 to 1875 that 
it is hard to find a stopping place : but every- 
thing must come to an end and so must this 
article, and why not now ? 

\Y. H. Liggett. 



As these words are written, the people 
of Whitley county are much interested in 
the proposed building of two interurban 
railways through Columbia City and Whit- 
ley county. The one from Huntington to 
Columbia City, thence north-west through 
the county and on to Goshen. The other 
from Fort Wayne to Warsaw, paralleling 
the Pennsylvania railway and through the 
intervening towns. For the first named 
road subsidies have been voted. The peo- 
ple are skeptical and impatient of the de- 
lay. That they may know the vicissitudes 
through which other railroads and the canal 
were constructed across the county we have 
made this narrative unnecessarily full. 


Long before the dawn of history, during 
the formative period of the earth's surface, 
that part of the world now lying between the 
headwaters of the Maumee at Fort Wayne 
and the Wabash valley to the south, through 
which a little less than three-quarters of a 
century ago the Wabash and Erie canal was 

dug; it was occupied by a stream which 
carried the united waters of Maumee lake, 
St. Joseph and St. Mary's rivers into 
the Wabash river below Huntington. This 
prehistoric Wabash Erie river was thirty 
miles long, from one to six miles wide, cov- 
ering a part of Whitley county to the south- 
east and from sixty to one hundred feet deep. 
Little River is but a reminder of its powerful 
parent that was once comparable to the 
Niagara and Detroit rivers of to-day. 
There was Blue river, the large stream of 
this region. Eel river now, and for nearly 
three centuries, the most important of the 
two streams, was then a part of the valley 
with uncut channel. 

In the earliest historic times. Fort Wayne 
was the gateway from the Great Lakes to the 
vast interior. From Erie, red and white 
men came down the Maumee to Fort Wayne, 
thence by a short land route either to the 
Wabash or to Eel river and away into the 

Though George Washington never 
visited this region, his far-seeing vision was 
of an artificial waterway connecting Lakf 



Erie with the Ohio river. Himself one of 
the foremost engineers of the day, he sought 
all possible information from explorers and 
others, believing that in the future such a 
canal would be cut either via the route finally 
selected or by the way of one of the more 
western streams. Blue river or Eel river, 
from Fort Wayne. 

In the summer of 1824. in a little out 
kitchen to the residence of David Burr, in 
Fort Wayne, Judge Hanna mentioned to 
Burr his vision of such a canal. Strange, 
but the other had witnessed the same water- 
way in his day dreams. Then and there 
was the foundation laid broad and deep in 
two master minds. The)- then and there 
decided the canal must be excavated. The 1 , 
consulted, they thought, they planned 
and overcame, but it was almost twenty 
years thereafter that their hopes were fully 
realized. They opened correspondence with 
the Indiana representatives and senators in 
congress and secured their favor, influence 
and co-operation. These efforts resulted in 
1827 in a grant by congress to the state 
of Indiana of each alternate section of land 
for six miles on each side of the proposed 
line, through its whole length, in the con- 
struction of the canal. Strange indeed, bul 
a powerful opposition to the acceptance of 
this -rant by the state was organized in 
some parts and Judge Hanna was elected 
i" the legislature as the special champion of 
the 1 anal policy. The contest was long and 
bitter, but resulted in the acceptance of the 
grant. A thousand dollars was appropriated 
111 purchase the necessar) engineering in- 
struments and procure the survey and lo- 
cation of the summit level. Judge Hanna 
went to \ T e« York and purchased the in- 

struments, returning by way of Detroit, 
from which place he carried them on horse- 
hack to Fort Wayne. Hanna, Burr and a 
man named Jones were made canal com- 
missioners. Though good engineers' were 
scarce, one was procured and the 'work be- 
gan on the St. Joseph river six miles above 
Fort Wayne where the feeder dam was 
afterward located. Burr acted as ax man 
and Hanna as rod man, both at ten dollars 
a month. The second day the engineer took 
sick and left the job for good, but Burr and 
Hanna completed alone the survey of the 
summit feeder. Then they had to rest for 
the next legislature to take action. Judge 
Hanna being again a member, secured the 
passage of an act for the construction of 
the Wabash and Erie canal, and thus origi- 
nated the longest continuous line of artificial 
water then on the globe, and this section of 
the country was placed far in advance of 
most of much older parts of the United 
States. Then began a long array of hopes 
and discouragements of securing money and 
laborers, contractors and managers. The 
elevation of the Maumee above the level of 
Lake Erie at the head of the rapids is 
sixty-two feet, at Defiance eighty feet, at 
the state line one hundred thirty-five feet, 
at Fort Wayne one hundred sixty-three feet. 
The summit level of the canal was one hun- 
dred ninety-three feet above the lake, two 
feet higher than the marsh, which is the 
summit between the Maumee and Wabash 
rivers. The formal breaking of the -round 
was performed with great ceremony, just in 
time to save the land grant under the limita- 
tion of the act of congress. 

( )n Washington's birthday, [832, a pub- 
he meeting was called in Fort Wayne. 


Henry Rudisill was made chairman and 
David H. Colerick, secretary. A procession 
was formed and proceeded across St. Mary's 
river to the point selected, where speeches 
were made, after which Commissioner Yigus 
said with great solemnity, "I am now about 
to commence the Wabash and Erie canal, in 
the name and by the authority of the state 
of Indiana." He then struck a pick into 
the ground amid great cheers. Judge 
Hanna and others threw a little dirt, after 
which the procession moved back to town. 
At the time of beginning, $28,65 l na d been 
realized from the sale of the canal lands. A 
contract for the first fifteen miles, running 
westward from the formal point of com- 
mencing, was immediately let, and in the fall 
four more miles were let, extending the 
other way and including the feeder dam. 
Work was done in 1832 to the amount of 
$4. 180 dollars. In May, 1833, the remain- 
ing thirteen miles of the summit division 
were let, and in 1835 this division was com- 
pleted to Huntington. On the 3d day of 
July, 1835, the waters of St. Joseph river 
commingled with those of Little River at 
Huntington, and on the following day, July 
4th, the canal boat "Indiana" arrived at 
Huntington form Fort Wayne, with a large 
and enthusiastic crowd of people from Fort 
Wayne, who landed at the upper, or Burke's 
lock, and were greeted by the firing of an old 
cannon which Dr. George A. Fate had 
brought from Dayton, Ohio, for the occa- 
sion. Thus the old Wabash and Erie canal 
was completed through a corner of Whitley 
county three years before the county had a 
separate existence. Previous to this, the 
only place of marketing and securing sup- 
plies was Fort Wayne, but very early after 
the establishment of our county seat a road 

was opened up to Raccoon Village, by which 
ran the canal at the south-east corner of the 
county. Much of this air line road remains 
to-day, being the road east of town across 
Eel river, diagonally past Compton church 
and on to Jefferson t> iwnship. The canal 
was completed through Huntington county 
in 1836, but progress on the other end was 
not so rapid. Not until 1S43 was there 
navigation from Toledo to Fort Wayne and 
Huntington and to the west. Early in 1843 
a line of packets were run at regular inter- 
vals carrying freight, mail and passengers, 
and continued uninterruptedly until trains on 
the Wabash Railroad drove the canal out of 
existence, in 1854. About the middle or 
last of July, 1854, the last regular run of 
boats was made ; after that it was used as any 
one chose, as a personal ditch. There is 
dispute as to when the last boat ran between 
Fort Wayne and Huntington. Some well 
informed persons say in 1867, while others 
put it as late as 1S73. So gradual was their 
obliteration that there is no way of ascer- 
taining the exact time of the death of the 
canal. In 1847 the canal passed into the 
hands of three trustees, under the state debt 
act. Two of these were appointed by the 
holders of the bonds and one by the legis- 
lature of Indiana. The part running 
through Fort Wayne was sold to the Nickel 
Plate Railway in the winter of 1880 and 
1881, and much of the old tow-path from 
Fort Wayne to Huntington is now used by 
the Fort Wayne and Wabash Valley Trac- 
tion Company. 


On the 24th day of February, 1848, the 
Pennsylvania & Ohio Railroad Company 
procured a charter from the legislatures of 



both Ohio and Pennsylvania, for the build- 
ing of a railroad from Mansfield, Ohio, east- 
ward!)-, by way of Wooster, Massillon and 
Canton, to some point which the projectors 
might select on the Ohio & Pennsylvania 
line, thence to Pittsburg. Immediately 
after the war of the Revolution, the region 
west of the Alleghanies began to populate 
very rapidly. First came the tide of emi- 
gration over the mountains to western Penn- 
sylvania, and then the stream did not stop 
until farther westward. Mansfield was a 
village in 1808. and by 1816 it was a place 
of some importance, and by 1820 it was the 
gateway to the west. The stream of emi- 
gration over the mountains continued to 
Mansfield, and all the Ohio settlers, north 
and west of the center of the state, came 
that way. From the first it was an enter- 
prising place. At the date it received the 
charter for the above named, a railroad was 
in operation from that town to the lake. 
known as the Mansfield & Lake Erie, after- 
ward the Sandusky, Mansfield & Newark- 
Railway, and for many years past a part of 
the Baltimore & Ohio system. Also a road 
was under construction from Cleveland to 
Cincinnati. Mansfield, just a little out of 
the route, allowed it to run a short distance 
to the west of her. building up a rival town 
at the crossing of this line and the Mans- 
field & Lake Erie. Wounded pride de- 
manded that something be clone, and her 
foremost citizens secured the charter for the 
Ohio 6t Pennsylvania Railway, but securing 
a charter was far from building a railroad. 
Almost simultaneous, the same year, prac- 
tically the same people secured from the 
1 Him legislature a charter for the Ohio & 
Indiana Railroad, to run from Mansfield to 

Bucyrus and Cpper Sandusky, thence to any 
point the builders desired on the Ohio & 
Indiana line, thence to Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Less than the ordinary amount of trouble 
was experienced in building east from Mans- 
field. Work began on the 4th day of July, 
1849, at Seller's tavern, a point several miles 
west of Mansfield, which by some means be- 
came the western terminal of the Ohio & 
Pennsylvania Railway, and the eastern ter- 
minal of the Ohio & Indiana Railroad. The 
work was pushed rapidly and on the nth 
day of April, 1853, traffic was opened be- 
tween Mansfield and Allegheny, a distance 
of one hundred and eighty-seven miles. It 
was not extended across the river and 
into Pittsburg until 1857. when it was 
connected with the Pennsylvania Central. 
The Ohio & Indiana road languished, 
but the other end overlapped and built 
on about three miles to Crestline, the 
crossing of the Cincinnati & Cleveland- road, 
completed in 185 1. The ambition of the 
Mansfield people was satisfied, or at least at 
rest. Judge Hanna, of Fort Wayne, the 
father of the Wabash and Erie canal, came 
forward as the savior of the Ohio & Indiana 
Railroad. He induced Allen county, In- 
diana, to vote $100,000 to the capital stock 
of the road. This was the turning point. 
Without it the line would have been long 
delayed and probably diverted finally over a 
different route. The project was strong in 
merit, but weak in funds. After almost 
despairing of some one to undertake the 
work with its chances, in 1852, Mr. Hanna 
induced Pliny Hoagland and William 
Mitchell to join him in taking the contract, 
which they did. It was taken in the name 
of Mitchell, from Crestline to Fort Wavne, 



one hundred and thirty-two miles, and work 
began immediately. After making some 
progress the means of the company were 
exhausted and everything at a standstill. 
Not only was the road in danger of defeat, 
but the private fortunes of Hanna, Hoagland 
and Mitchell were in great peril. A meet- 
ing of the creditors was called at Bucyrus, 
but the prospect presented was dubious and 
dismal, desperate and hopeless. Dr. Mer- 
riman, of Bucyrus, the president, resigned 
in despair of rendering any further service. 
Hanna was immediately elected. He rode 
the same night on horseback from Bucyrus 
to Crestline, thence by the railroad to Cleve- 
land, and thence by boat to the east. In 
three days he was in New York pledging 
his honor and fortune, as well as that of 
his coadjutors, Hoagland and Mitchell. 
His action was daring and reassuring, and 
brought the needed funds. He struck far- 
sighted capitalists who had faith in him. 
With this arranged, he hastened to Montreal 
and Quebec to redeem iron that had been 
forfeited for nonpayment of transportation. 
The crisis was past. Work was resumed, 
and in November, 1854, the road was com- 
pleted into Fort Wayne, and before January 
1, 185*5, there was regular train service 
from Fort Wayne to Crestline, and before 
June, 1855, the train service was continuous 
to Allegheny. 

In 1852, the Fort Wayne & Chicago 
Railroad Company was organized and 
chartered, and Hanna was made president, 
while straining every nerve to complete the 
road already on his hands. The means of 
building the road were to be derived from 
the sale of stock and bonds. The stock sub- 
scriptions in all amounted to less than three 

per cent, of the cost of building the road 
and were mainly paid in wild, uncultivated, 
and then practically worthless lands, town 
lots and labor. This real estate, however, 
was mortgaged for a million dollars, which 
was a great part of the cost of grading. 
Other cash had to be derived from the sale 
of bonds, and as it was a recent corporation 
with an unfinished right of way, these were 
not readily sold. The Pennsylvania Rail- 
road Company gave the enterprise all possi- 
ble encouragement and gave it some credit, 
which was a great factor in its success. The 
road was completed to Columbia City, on 
the 22d day of January, 1856, and on the 
following morning, the first engine, the 
"Mad Anthony," came into town. There 
was no station, and the engine bringing 
several representative citizens from Fort 
Wayne in an open freight car with boards 
for seats, stopped about ten rods east of the 
present passenger depot. They were met 
by a number of our citizens and escorted 
up town, returning about noon. On Jan- 
uary 30, 1856, the following time card was 
issued and posted in Fort Wayne: 

"On and after February 1st, a 
passenger train will leave this city 
daily at 7:30 A. M., arrive at 
Columbia 9 A. M. Leave Colum- 
bia at 5 P. M., and reach this city 
at 6:30 P. M. 

The fare was eighty cents each way. It 
was before the time of round trip rates. 
When the road was completed here, con- 
siderable work and grading had been done 
farther west, and was progressing- at many 
points between Columbia and Plymouth. 



On August i. [856, at a meeting of the 
officers of the three minor corporations, they 
were all merged into one corporation, known 
as the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago 
Railway Company. This merger infused 
new life into the work, and early in No- 
vember flie road was completed to Ply- 
mouth, and before Christmas, 1856, there 
was regular train service through Colum- 
bia from Fort Wayne to Plymouth. At 
Plymouth was already the southern termi- 
nus of a railroad running to LaPorte, and 
from that point there was a line in opera- 
tion to Chicago. Thus there could be train 
service from Plymouth to Chicago by this 
route. There was some disposition to allow 
the western terminus to remain at Plymouth 
for awhile, but the progressive element of 
the new corporation pushed it rapidly to 
completion into Chicago in the spring of 
i8 5 7- 


As early as 1861, an agitation began for 
the building of a railroad through the rich 
Eel river valley, with southern terminal at 
Logansport, to connect with the great Wa- 
bash system for the southwest, and with the 
northern terminus at some point on the Lake 
Shore Railway in DeKalb or Noble county. 
The war between the states sunn absorbed 
all attention and no action was taken. Just 
at the close of the war, the Logansport & 
Northern Indiana Railroad was incorpo- 
rated, and a survey was made over sub- 
stantially the route the railroad finally look. 
This corporation died and the Toledo. 1 0- 
gansport X- Northern Indiana Railroad was 
incorporated, inheriting from its predecessor 

the survey, some books, etc. This corpora- 
tion secured the right of way over a number 
of tracts of land in Whitley and other coun- 
ties, terminal grounds at Logansport and 
also did do a small amount of grading. In 
April. 1869, the following paper was filed 
and recorded in the auditor's office of Whit- 
ley county: 

"Office Detroit, Eel River & Illi- 
nois Railway Company, Columbia 
City. Indiana. 

To the Auditor of Whitley county: 

In pursuance to an order of the di- 
rectors of said company, passed at a 
meeting of said board, you are re- 
quested to appoint one disinterested 
freeholder of said comity, under an 
act of the general assembly of the 
State of Indiana, approved March 
11. 1867, who, in connection with a 
like freeholder of said county, to be 
appointed by the Logansport & 
Northern Indiana Railroad Com- 
pany, shall constitute a board of ap- 
praisers to make a true and impartial 
appraisement of all the rights, privi- 
leges, interests, rights of way, fran- 
chises and properties of the Toledo, 
Logansport & Northern Indiana 
Railway Company. 

James S. Collins, 

Detroit, Eel River & Illinois Railway 


Michael Si c k a foose, 
Detroit, Eel River & Illinois Railway 

( 'ompany. 



And thus was established the new cor- 
poration, the Detroit, Eel River & Illinois 
Railroad, from Logansport, in Cass county, 
to Butler, in DeKalb count)'. The offices 
located at Columbia City, and two of our 
most distinguished citizens, president and 
secretary. Judge Collins at once entered 
zealously into the work, traveling on foot 
many times over the entire route. 

One of the first acts was to show the 
good faith of the people at home. A peti- 
tion was circulated and numerously signed 
asking that an election be held authoriz- 
ing the county to pay as a public tax 
$100,000, taking stock in the company for 
the amount. It was found that $85,000 
was the limit that could be paid under the 
law, with our amount of taxable property. 
Therefore, an election was held on the 16th 
day of June, 1869, for and against the pay- 
ment of $85,000 with the following result : 

For Against Total 

Cleveland township. . . 346 10 356 

Richland township.... 75 225 300 

Troy township 28 113 141 

Etna township 6 57 63 

Washington township. 31 57 88 

Columbia township .... 604 4 608 

Thorncreek township. .153 3 156 

Jefferson township.... 1 187 188 

Union township 75 125 200 

Smith township 139 7 146 

Totals 1.458 788 2,246 

An effort was made, a year later, to have 
Columbia township taxed for an additional 
$14,322, but it being unlawful, the commis- 
sioners did not call an election. Our people 

paid the tax and received certificates for the 
stock, but never realized any money in 

The road was completed from Butler to 
South Whitley, early in July, 1871, and on 
the 25th day of July the contractors ran a 
free excursion from Columbia City to South 
Whitley, carrying over five hundred people. 
The train moved slowly and cautiously and 
was an hour and a quarter making the trip. 
The train was met by a very large crowd, 
and a procession was formed which marched 
to the grove, where a free dinner was served 
and many enthusiastic speeches made. The 
road was completed to Logansport and regu- 
lar train service installed before the winter 
of 1 87 1 ; and until it passed into the hands 
of the Wabash Railway Company, it ran a 
passenger train from Logansport to Butler 
in the forenoon and back in the afternoon, 
and such freight trains as were necessary. 
In January, 1881, the line was leased by the 
Wabash Company for ninety-nine years, 
and they quickly built an extension to De- 
troit from Butler, connecting with their 
main line at Logansport, at once making it 
a trunk line, rivalling the best in the country. 
All the through passenger trains ran over 
the line to Buffalo, Boston and New York, 
and so continued for the nineteen years they 
held it. No sooner was the old Eel river 
road made a part of a great trans-conti- 
nental line than a few men at Logansport de- 
termined to ruin it ami damage every town 
along its line. They brought suit on the 
ground that the Wabash old line was parallel 
and a competing line and could not hold it, 
terminating after nearly twenty years in 
ousting it. In December, 1890, it was sold 
to the Vandalia, and on December 31st the 



Wabash ran the last of their magnificent 
trains over it. The next day began a ser- 
vice as antiquated and unsatisfactory as the 
old Eel river management could have possi- 
bly been, and is likely to continue indefinite- 
ly. They have made it from one of the best 
to one of the poorest, if indeed not the very 
worst in the whole country. Its termination 
at Logansport is north of Eel river. When 
the Wabash got it they tried to get a con- 
nection through the city to their line, but 
were spitefully defeated at every point. 
For a while they made the connection a few- 
miles below the city at Clymers, but finding 
it was impossible that they could join their 
main line anywhere near the city the}- built 
from Chili, a distance of six miles into Peru. 
They still own the six miles of rusty, unused 
track. The Wabash fought the litigation for 
years, but finally gave it up. They began 
from their main line at New Haven, six 
miles east of Fort Wayne, and built across to 
Butler, striking their Detroit line, and be- 
gan their service over it the day they quit 
the Eel river. The Wabash bettered itself. 
Logansport did itself no good, but the towns 
along the old Eel river line were damaged 
beyond computation. 


The New York, Chicago & St. Louis 
Railway Company was organized in 1880. 
It parallels the Lake Shore Railway from 
Buffalo to near the west line of Ohio, after' 
which it parallels the Pennsylvania to Chi- 
cago. It was projected by the late Senator 
Brice, of Ohio, and his associates, for the 
sole purpose of sale to the Vanderbilts, 
whid 1 objecl was finally accomplished after 

Vanderbilt had declared it a "string of 
worthless dirt, leading from nowhere to no 
place." It so threatened the business of the 
Lake Shore that its sale, the object of its 
building, was accomplished. It was first 
heard of here in January, 1881, and at once 
agents were at work buying the right of 
way through this county. Where a bargain 
could not be readily made condemnation pro- 
ceedings were at once instituted. It was 
built through Whitley county in the sum- 
mer of 1 88 1, and before the spring of 1882 
there was regular service over the whole line. 
It runs almost east and west through the 
county, cutting the south third off the 
county from the north two-thirds. Along 
its lines were soon located the villages of 
Dunfee, Raber and Peabody. It also strikes 
South Whitley. For several years it was 
considered only a freight road, but recently 
excellent through passenger service has been 
inaugurated, and it is to-day regarded as one 
of the great trunk lines. It strikes no towns 
of size from Fort Wayne to Valparaiso. 


The last of the railways to enter Whitley 
county is the Fort Wayne & Wabash Valley 
Traction Line. It runs from Fort Wayne 
to Huntington, practically on the line of the 
old canal of 1835. Through the corner of 
this county, it runs along the tow path of the 
canal. It was built in 1901 by Townsend & 
Reed, a construction company, and they 
operated it for a time, when it went into 
the hands of the McKinley syndicate and 
they built 011 t>> Wabash. November 4. 
1904, it was acquired by the Fort Wayne & 



Wabash Valley Traction Company, which line. The right of way in Whitley county 
still own and operate it. From the beginning, was purchased from Straus Brothers & Lee, 
it has given hourly service over the whole at about one hundred dollars per acre. 



The first public building erected in 
Whitley county was a jail, but it must not 
be presumed that the early settlers were so 
vicious that they needed a place of incav- 
creation more than a place for public busi- 
ness. The officers could not afford to oc- 
cupy a court house had one been ready. 
They kept their meager records at home and 
the sessions of court were easily held at res- 
idences or Thomson's hotel in the new seat 
of justice. The early criminals were mostly 
drunken Indians or traveling professional 

On the 1st day of June, 1840, the county 
agent was ordered to advertise and sell on 
the 20th day of the same month the build- 
ing of a jail described as follows : Eighteen 
feet long and sixteen feet wide, of hewn tim- 
ber squared to eight inches thick and twelve 
inches wide, the wall to be sunk three feet 
in the ground and butt up even with the 
surface of the ground, with a single wall, 
then laid with hewn timber seven inches 
thick, double crossed, then continue the wall 
double, of the same size timber ten feet high, 
with a partition through the center, of the 
same size timber. Door to be cut out and 
hung with a strong shutter of oak plank one 
inch thick doubled. The shutter made with 
small window in center, four inches deep 
and eight inches wide. The upper floor to 

be laid with hewn timber eight inches thick, 
to be laid upon the plaits. To be covered 
with good joint shingle roof. One window 
in the outside wall two feet square to be 
checked with bar iron, bars an inch and a 
quarter thick and four inches apart, well 
fastened in wall. The outside door to be 
made of inch oak plank, double and crossed 
and covered with sheet iron. This building, 
put on the south-east corner of the public 
square, was built by William Blair for $490 
and he was also allowed eight dollars for 
clearing timber and brush off the spot and 
two rods beyond each way. 

The board of commissioners at a special 
session held June, 1841, ordered a court 
house built on the north-east corner of lot 
7, in block 15, where the city building now 
stands. This building, thirty-six feet long 
and two stories high, was built according 
to specifications of the very best timber and 
strong enough to endure centuries. It now 
stands on lot 1, block 12, the original plat 
of Columbia City, at the south-west corner 
of Van Buren and Whitley streets, owned by 
Charles Eyansons' sons and used for a 
dwelling. It is in a good state of preserva- 
tion ami looks like a comparatively new 
building, though built for sixty-five years. 
It was set on five large rocks and had a 
stairs go up on the outside. This first court 

i3 2 


house cost $41 1.50 and was completed about 
the first of December, 1841, but was put in 
use as a court house in October. March 6, 
1S45, tne windows were ordered filled with 
glass, the fire-place torn out and a stove put 
in. The first story was used for holding 
courts, shows, public meetings and all other 
purposes and at one time by Thomas Wash- 
burn as a dwelling. James Washburn, at 
present one of the substantial business men 
of Columbia. City, was born in that court 
house in September, 1843. The upper story 
was used for various purposes ; one room 
was plastered and sealed and used for a time 
by the clerk and recorder. The other was 
used by the treasurer, sheriff and any other 
person who desired, and for almost any 

On the 9th day of June, 1842, Henry 
Swihart, county agent, was ordered to con- 
tract for the building of a house thirty feet 
long by eighteen wide, one-story high, with 
two rooms, two fifteen light windows in each 
room, one door in the center partition and 
one outside door to each room. The record 
ordering the building does not say for what 
use, but it was always called the "jury build- 
ing" by the citizens as well as by the com- 
missioners in their dealings with it. It was 
on the south-west corner of the public square 
or court house lot. It was built by Benja- 
min Grable for $197. For a short time the 
treasurer used one room and the clerk and 
recorder the other. It was also used as 
a jury room and Warren Mason rented it 
fur three months and taught school in it. 
tin jury building was rather a general 
purpose place for everybody and everything. 
It was sold to X. 1). Torbet tor $13 in [853, 
who tore down and removed it. 

In the summer of 1842, Jacob Frederich 
built a fence enclosing twenty-five perches 
at the south-east corner of the public square 
in a square form, the east side and south 
end of the jail to form a part of the fence, 
which was six feet high, with a heavy oak 
gate well hung and with good lock. 

June 8, 1844, the commissioners ordered 
built what was called a fire proof office build- 
ing forty-eight feet long, twenty feet wide, 
one-story high, ten feet in the clear, built of 
brick. The specifications, too long to be 
given here, read like it was to be a fortress 
that might withstand the best cannon of that 
day. There were two partition walls cut- 
ting the building into three equal rooms, 
two twenty-light windows in each room, 
with shutters of sheet and bar iron. A door 
to each room opening on the street covered 
with heavy sheet iron, and each door a lock 
of different style so that keys might not be 
interchanged. A fire-place in each room 
with a separate chimney for each. This 
was located on the north-east part of the 
public square. To be accurate, forty-eight 
feet west of Main street ; the south-east 
corner of the building six feet north of line 
running through the center of the public 
square from east to west. This was built 
by David Shepley for $1,250 and $2$ for 
extras, and completed in August. 1844. and 
the county treasurer at once occupied the 
middle room, the auditor the south room, 
the clerk and recorder the north room. The 
building faced to the east. 

The new county officers' fire proof build- 
ing was not completed until there began an 
agitation lor a brick court house, good and 
substantial, that might he used for the courts, 
conventions and general, opera house, and 



that might also hold the records and pro- 
vide offices for the county officers. At the 
regular December term 1847. the commis- 
sioners ordered the county agent to procure 
plans for a new court house and at the 
March term, 1848, they adopted the plans 
of Hossler & Radcliff, architects, for which 
they paid $15, and full specifications were 
put on record. After having duly adver- 
tised for bids, on the 7th day of June, 1848, 
the contract was let to F. Araline & -Rine- 
hart for $7,620. They failed to complete 
the contract by filing bond as required. Ad- 
ditions were then made to the specifications 
and on the 14th of June, 1848, the contract 
was let to Henry Swihart and Thomas 
Washburn, who completed it, and on the 
1 2th day of October, 1850, it was accepted 
and paid for at $7,747.50. and on the fol- 
lowing day it was occupied by the officers. 
The bell was installed in March, 1853, at 
a cost of $250. This same bell, no longer 
used for the simple purpose of making use- 
less noise, is now each hour struck by a 
hammer from the court house clock to note 
the passing hours. On December 9, 1853, 
the commissioners made a solemn order as 
to ringing this bell, under the direction of 
either the sheriff or auditor: "To be rung 
during the setting of courts or any other 
public occasion. May be rung morn- 
ing, noon or night, or at any other 
stated period or periods. Any other per- 
sons than auditor or sheriff may have it 
rung at any time by doing the labor of 
ringing it themselves or paying for the 
same." June 10, 1853, an order was made 
that the court room could be used only for 
the following purposes : holdings courts, 
political conventions, railroad conventions 

and all other meetings for secular purposes 
interesting the people, also for religious 
meetings and lectures on literary and scien- 
tific subjects. Church services were often 
held in it. It was as nearly the center of the 
square as the engineer could locate it. It 
was torn down in April and May, 1889. 
From the beginning there was trouble with 
the cupalo leaking and the records show 
not less than twelve appropriations for re- 
pairing it during the less than fifty years 
it was occupied. Otherwise it was an hon- 
est and substantial building, in a perfect state 
of preservation ..when torn down. For its 
day it was a first class court house, ranking 
with the best in Indiana. 

At the February term of circuit court, 
1 88 1, court was forced to adjourn because 
of defective chimneys. Judge Van Long 
appointed Richard Collins and I. B. Mc- 
Donald to repair the flues, which they caused 
to be done, but with little effect. At the 
March term of the same year the commis- 
sioners ordered C. H. Pond to draw plans 
and specifications for enlarging the build- 
ing and improving it in several ways. The 
plans suggested an outlay of about $20,000. 
The board called into consultation some 
thirty heavy tax payers from all parts of the 
county and agreeable with the general senti- 
ment it was not deemed worth the cost and 
for the present it was left alone. This 
started the agitation for a new building that 
might furnish protection from fire, vandal- 
ism and burglary. Soon after, the country 
was startled by the stealing of the records 
of an Illinois county and hiding them until 
by a series of maneuvers the county was 
obliged to pay $25,000 for their restora- 
tion. The loss of the records of Whitlev 



county could not be made good by any 
money consideration. It would involve the 
title to every foot of realty in the county, 
besides being irreparable in many other 
ways. Our records might be as easily 
stolen as a horse from a good stable and 
they might burn as easily as a common 
dwelling. The county treasurer's office was 
so small that not more than three or four 
persons could occupy the lobby at a time, 
which was a great inconvenience to the peo- 
ple in busy tax-paying time. That office 
had a little safe but little better than none 
and it could be easily loaded by a couple of 
men and hauled off by night. True, the 
treasurers were depositing the public moneys 
in the bank vaults, but frequently hundreds 
of dollars were taken in after the banking 
hours as an accommodation to the public 
and it was recalled that at one time over 
$40,000 remained in the safe over night. 
In December, 1865, the safe then in the 
county treasurer's office was blown up by 
burglars and an insignificant sum of money 
taken. A new safe was immediately pur- 
chased, but was too large for the little treas- 
urer's office and was put in the auditor's 
office, where it remained until the new court 
house was built and in 1891 was traded on 
the present burglar proof safe in the treas- 
urer's office. There was no sheriff's office 
at all. In the clerk's and auditor's offices 
the room was all occupied and many valuable 
papers had to be packed in boxes, almost in- 
accessible to the public. That there was 
most urgent necessity for something was ap- 
parent to everybody. The agitation went 
on, but politics was at red heat in a close 
county. The building of a new court house 
would be unpopular and the politicians dare 
not advocate it. Finally in 1888 the com- 

missioners decided to build. Several citi- 
zens were invited to make trips with them 
to see a number of court houses in different 
parts of the country. Brent S. Tolan was 
employed as architect. The rink building 
across from the south-east corner of the 
square, the north side lots 3 and 4, block 18, 
north-east corner of Main and Market 
streets, was rented from Linvill & Mitten as 
temporary quarters for the county business. 
and on April 1. 1889, everything was moved 
in. The rear room was used as court room, 
the front divided into two rooms, the north 
side was used by the auditor and treasurer, 
the south side by the clerk and recorder, the 
sheriff's office was the whole building at 
large. The court house was sold to Hon. 
C. B. Tully for $150 dollars and torn down 
and .taken away in April and May, 1889. 
On the 1st day of April, 1891, just two 
years after, the new building was occupied 
and the people of Whitley county will have 
no more clamor for a new court house for a 
century. It is an elegant stone building, 
built without a job or a graft and at a sum 
almost half of what it would cost to-day. The 
time chosen was when material was at its 
lowest point since the organization of the 
county and lower than it will ever be again, 
unless some unprecedented business depres- 
sion should strike the country. It was 
built by George W. Vanator and Joseph 
H. Baker, of Warsaw, for about $165,000, 
including the furnishing. The exact price 
we are unable to give, as in the last end of 
the work some things like grading and put- 
ting in walks were included in the court 
house expenses. The cost, however, of 
building and furnishing the house was about 
the sum stated. During the contracting and 
building of the court house George W. Law- 


rence was chairman of the board ; Chauncey 
B. ■ Mattoon, auditor, and William F. Mc- 
Nagny, county attorney, or advisor to the 
board. These gentlemen determined to 
save every cent possible to the tax payers, 
to see that the work was honestly done and 
the materials just as specified and that there 
should not be one cent jobbing in it, and 
they succeeded and deserve the gratitude of 
the people. 

The first court house, the old frame still 
standing at the corner of Van Buren and 
Whitley streets, was sold at public auction 
December 9, 1853, to Sylvester Knapp for 
$35.25, to be removed by May 1, 1854, 
which was done. On the same day the 
county officers' fire proof brick building at 
the north-east corner of the square was sold 
at public auction to Henry S. Cobaugh for 
$60, to be removed by June 1. 1854. For 
some reason unknown the contract was never 
carried out and the commissioners ordered 
it removed by the county under the direction 
of the auditor. About the cost of removing 
it was realized from the sale of material. 

The old heavily built fence around the 
court house square, the only one ever built 
around it, was put up in the fall of 1852. 
The contract was let to Samuel Brown for 
$195, but he failing to do the work. Auditor 
Simon Wanderlich purchased the materials 
and managed the labor for the county and 
the total cost was $187.50. It was removed 
in the spring of 1884. In March, 1842, 
David E. Long and Asa Shoemaker cleared 
the forest from the court house square and 
to the middle of the streets adjoining at a 
cost to the county of $52.50. In September, 
1852, James B. Edwards graded the grounds 
as they lay until 1891 at a cost to the 
county of $271.50. In i860 Joseph F. 

Shoemaker planted the grounds with trees 
at a cost of $75. These, the second supply 
of nature, had grown to a beautiful grove 
and the grounds were used for conventions 
and all sorts of gatherings in summer for 
years before it was a second time denuded, 
on the building of the last court house in 
1889. The losing of the grove from the 
square was attended with great regret by 
all our people. In 1891, after the comple- 
tion of the present court house the grounds 
were graded to their present condition by the 
county under the direction of Eli W. Brown. 

The first jail built on the south-east cor- 
ner of the public square was partly burned 
and totally disabled by John Wheatley, a 
prisoner waiting trial for larceny in March, 
1855. Immediately thereafter a jail and 
sheriff's residence was built on the site of 
the first court house removed, to-wit, on 
the spot now covered by the engine house 
and city offices. This was completed No- 
vember 1, 1855, built by James B. Edwards 
at a cost of $5,224. It was constructed on 
poor plans, was insanitary and unsafe. All 
criminals charged with felony or grave mis- 
demeanor were for years conveyed to Fort 
Wayne until wanted here for trial. 

In 1875, the present jail and sheriff's 
residence was built, completed and occupied 
early in 1876. The contract price was 
$34,486. The architect was J. C. Johnson, 
of Toledo, and the contractor was James 
M. Bratton, of Huntington. This was sup- 
posed to be the very acme of safety, but in 
April, 1881. a prisoner confined one after- 
noon had by the use of a case knife sawed 
off the grates in a window and made his es- 
cape before the next morning and steel and 
iron experts were called to examine the 
grates and pronounced the iron almost soft 

i 3 6 


as lead. Extra grates were immediately 
purchased by the commissioners, to be made 
of homogeneous steel, of alternate layers so 
soft as to keep the bar from breaking and 
so hard they could not be cut. So fearful 
were the authorities that the steel would not 
be right that on the arrival of the grates 
every blacksmith and metal worker in the 
county and- one from Fort Wayne were 
called to test them. They were first re- 
jected, but on securing an expert who had 
them heated and cooled, they were accepted 
and placed. They have since defied repeated 
attempts to saw out. Again in February, 
1884, the community was startled by the 
breaking out of jail of Charles W. Butler, 
the wife murderer, together with two crimi- 
nals held for counterfeiting, and several for 
minor offences. They simply broke a cor- 
ner out of one of the stone walls of the upper 
tier of cells, crawled through it and out of 
a hatch-way or opening in the roof. Exami- 
nation showed these walls to be of one thick- 
ness of stone, eight inches thick, without 
other protection. A corner large enough 
for the men to crawl through was easily 
broken out. These cell tops and all other 
vulnerable places were then securely covered 
with heavy boiler iron riveted or bolted to 
the stone. Since that time there has b?eii 
no jail breaking and the building bids fair 
to answer the county yet for many years to 

In March. 1857. the county purchased 
from James T. Long the north-east frac- 
tional quarter of section 16. in Columbia 
township, to be used as an asylum for the 
poor. The buildings then on the farm were 
used until the completion of the present brick 
structure, finished, accepted and occupied the 
first Monday in March,' 1865. The plans 
were drawn by C. H. Pond, who still lives 
in Columbia City, at a cost of Si 5. The 
contract was let January 30, 1864, to David 
J. Silver, of Allen county. The contract 
price was $11,900, but extras were added 
making the total cost, including a large 
cistern, etc., about $12,380. The old build- 
ings were given to Joseph Yontz, the first 
superintendent, for taking them away. The 
present brick hospital building was erected 
in 1895. The superintendents, as near as 
we can ascertain, to the present were Joseph 
Yontz, about ten years and Stephen Haley 
one year, Asa Meredith, about ten years, 
Cyrenus Coplen, about twelve years, then 
Charles Dimick and William Minor, who is 
at present holding the position. The su- 
perintendent holds his place by virtue of ap- 
pointment of county commissioners, makes 
bis reports to them and is always under their 
control and subject to their orders. 

The earliest physicians employed to at- 
tend the paupers at the asylum were Dr. 
John B. Firestone, Dr. Martin Ireland and 
Dr. Stephen Major. 


No part of the history of any people is tied, the means of communicating with dear 
more interesting than that which pertains ones left back in the eastern states was very 
to their communication with the outer poor and also expensive. Contrast our two- 
world. When Whitley county was first set- cent letter postage with that of the 'thirties. 



when there was no uniform rate of postage, 
charge being made according to the distance 
a letter was to be carried, and it being speci- 
fied that a letter was to consist of one sheet 
of paper, two sheets requiring double post- 
age, three sheets triple, and so on. 

The charge for carrying a letter any 
distance not exceeding thirty miles was six 
cents per sheet, over thirty and not exceed- 
ing eighty miles, ten cents; over eighty and 
not exceeding one hundred and fifty miles, 
twelve and one-half- cents; over one hun- 
dred and fifty and less than four hundred 
miles, eighteen and three-fourths cents. For 
any distance over four hundred miles there 
was a flat rate of twenty-five cents per sin- 
gle sheet letter. 

For newspapers, a rate of one cent a copy 
was made for distances not over one hun- 
dred miles, and one and a half cents for any 
greater distance, except that any newspaper 
mid be carried to any point in the state 
where published, without regard to distance. 
for one cent. Thus any weekly newspaper 
cost from fifty to seventy-five cents per an- 
num for postage. Few could afford even 
a weekly, and a daily paper was undreamed 
of by our people. 

All other difficulties of frontier life out 
of the way, the expense, where money was 
so hard to get, made letters between fam- 
ilies and friends few and far between. Then, 
too, the means of transporting letters was 
so slow and so very poor, that a large per- 
centage of letters sent never reached their 
destination. Who has not heard the sad 
story told by some old pioneer, of hearing 
of the death of a parent, relative or friend, 
not a hundred miles away, weeks, even 
months, after it occurred. Practicallv were 

our pioneers shut out from the world, their 
isolation, their loneliness made complete. 
The early years were strewn with deaths 
from loneliness and homesickness. How, 
in their desolation, they magnified the ad- 
vantages of old home. And again, if years 
afterward they were permitted to revisit 
the scenes of childhood, how different from 
what they expected, how disappointing. 
Rapid transit has almost annihilated that 
destroying monster, homesickness. 

Our first settlers were obliged to go to 
Huntington, Fort Wavne, Warsaw or 
Goshen for mail, if they ever got a chance 
letter; and these towns were not accessible 
as they are to-day. It took days of travel 
to reach them. 


At the organization of the county, there 
was but one postoffice in existence within 
its limits. The settlers on Eel river, about 
what is nov? South Whitley, made applica- 
tion in the fall of 1836, for a postoffice. The 
office was ordered established February 25, 
1837. with David D. Parrett as postmaster, 
but the government could not and did not 

3IJJ[ 'O^gl lUUn 3DB[d 3ip OJ [IBUJ .I3Aipp 

office was named Whitley. All mail ad- 
dressed to Whitley, Whitley county, Indi- 
ana, went to the Huntington postoffice until 
the Whitley postmaster, or some one in his 
place, called for it. So with outgoing mail. 
If deposited with Parrett at Whitley, he held 
it until he could go or send it to Hunting- 

On the 14th of May, 1842, a postoffice 
was established at Columbia City, and it 
was called Whitlev Court House, and on 



the same clay the name of the Whitley post- 
office was changed to South Whitley, as it 
still remains. Mail for South Whitley 
still came by way of Huntington, but the 
outgoing mail might be sent either to Whit- 
ley Court House or Huntington. Later it 
came also by way of Columbia. 

July i. 1850, a route was established 
from La Gro, Wabash county, through 
South Whitley, to Warsaw, making a round 
trip once a week. A branch line was also 
established from South Whitley to Colum- 
bia City, making a round trip once a week. 

July r, 1854, a route was established 
from La Gro, by North Manchester, Liberty 
Mills. Collamer, South Whitley, Clear 
Spring and Farmers to Warsaw, forty-one 
miles. Twice a week from La Gro to South 
Whitley, and only once a week the residue, 
with a weekly branch from South Whitley 
to Columbia City and back. 

July 1, 1858. the route was changed, 
making Columbia City instead of Warsaw, 
the northern terminus. It ran from La Gro, 
North Manchester, Liberty Mills, Collamer. 
South Whitley to Columbia City, thirty- 
three miles, and back twice a week: but one 
of these weekly round trips left Liberty 
Mills out. This service continued until 
July 1. 1866. after which one route ran from 
Columbia City to South Whitley and Colla- 
mer. making a round trip once a week, and 
one route from Fort Wayne to South Whit- 
ley, Collamer and intervening points, mak- 
ing a round trip once a week; and this serv- 
ice continued until the mail was carried 
daily to South Whitley over the Eel River 
Railroad. The postmasters at South Whit- 
ley have been : 

David D. Parrett, February 25, 1837, to 
September 7. 1840. 

William W. Arnold, September 7, 1849, 
to September 13, 1852. 

Samuel A. Sheibley, September 13, 1852, 
to December 21, 1854. 

Job Dow, December 21, 1854, to July 
18, 1856. 

Aaron Metz, July 18. 1856, to Septem- 
ber 1, 1857. 

Adam Bitner, September 1, 1857, to 
October 12. 1857. 

Obadiah Carper, October 12, 1857, to 
September 5, 186 1. 

John Allbright, September 5, 1861, to 
January 7, 1862. 

Jesse Arnold, January 7. 1862, to April 

7. 1869. 

William A. Hitchcock, April 7, 1869, to 
May Q. 1872. 

Samuel Robbins. May 9. 1872. to July 

8, 1885. 

Thomas J. Lafollette. July 8, T885. to 
June 13, 1889. 

George W. Reaser, June 13. 1889, to 
February 15. 1892. 

Rena Murray, February 15. 1892. to 
September 5, 1893. 

Stephen D. Dunlap, September 5. 1893. 
to August 4, 1807. 

Edward E. Hissem, August 4, 1897. to 
December 20, 1902. 

Cash M. Graham, December 20, 1902. 


On the 14th day of May. 1842, a post- 
office was established at the seat of justice 
of Whitley county. The citizens asked that 
it be called Columbia, but the department 
replied that there was already a postoffice 
by that name in the • state. A controversy 
then arose over a name. Richard Collins 



renewed his effort to call it Beaver, the name 
he tried to give the town. But during the 
dispute, the department named it Whitley 
Court House, and changed the already exist- 
ing Whitley postoffice to South Whitley. 

While Whitley Court House postoffice 
was established May 14, 1842, there was 
no mail service to the place until July 1st of 
the same year. During these six weeks or 
more, mail for the place was supposed to 
lie in the Fort Wayne postoffice till called 
for by the postmaster or some one for him, 
and outgoing mail had to be carried to Fort 
Wayne in the same manner. Then came a 
confusion between the two Whitley post- 
offices, that was very annoying and lasted 
until long after Whitley Court House had 
become Columbia City postoffice. Letters 
intended for either place often went to the 
other, and many found their way to the 
dead letter office and were never received 
by the party intended. As the business of 
the offices grew, this became SO' annoying 
that something had to be done. The long 
name was never popular and was not chosen 
by the people. Agitation for a change kept 
up from the first, but did not take definite 
form till the winter of 1853 and 1854. 
Finally, somebody called a meeting or elec- 
tion to be held in the new Court House, De- 
cember 16, 1853, to decide the name. Rich- 
ard Collins renewed the fight for the Indian 
name Beaver, and Dr. Swayzee led the fight 
for Columbia City. If it could not be Co- 
lumbia, it could be that name with city 
attached. It would give the place a big 
name. Considerable acrimony was manifest 
before and during the caucus, but Columbia 
City won out, was certified to the depart- 
ment at Washington as the choice of the 

people, and on the 16th day of January, 
1854, the day Lewis Dowell took the office, 
the name was changed. The railroads car- 
ried the name Columbia until recent years 
when they, too, changed to Columbia City. 
From Jul}- 1, 1842, to July 1, 1846, there 
was a weekly mail, on t e round trip a week 
from Fort Wayne to Whitley Court House 
and back. The next year, on the establish- 
ment of Coesse postoffice along the route, 
it was included. 

From July 1, 1846, to July 1, 1850, this 
route was maintained and also one from 
Columbia to Plymouth, by way of Warsaw 
and intervening towns, making a round trip 
once a week, distance fifty-one miles. Also 
the branch line from South Whitley ; a 
branch from La Gro to Warsaw. 

A route was also established July 1, 
1850, from Metea to Columbia, 55.36 
miles, but October 1, the same year, this 
route did not come farther north than 
North Manchester. On same date, two more 
routes were established out of Columbia. 
One to Elkhart, one round trip a week. One 
to Wolf Lake and back, eighteen miles, one 
round trip a week, and July 1, 1853, one 
to Albion and back, twenty miles, one round 
trip a week. 

Then came the Pennsylvania railway, 
and from July 1, 1858, to July 1, 1862, we 
had only the La Gro-South Whitley route 
and the W r ilmot and intervening offices 
route, and these were the only ones up to 

From 1866 to 1S70, the Wilmot route 
was extended to Cromwell and we had the 
route to South Whitley and Collamer, this 
latter continued to the completion of the 
Eel River Railroad, and the Cromwell route 



was changed to Ligonier. The following Eli \V. Brown, July 9, 1885, to June 29, 

is a complete list of Columbia City post- 1889. 

masters: George S. Meely, June 29, 1889. to Sep- 

David E. Long, May 14, 1842, to Octo- t ember 28, 1893. 

ber 17. 1845. John Adams, September 28. 1893, to 

Simon H. Wunderlich, October 17, October 12, 1897. 

1845, tn December 9, 1845. Wallace W. Williamson, October 12, 

James B. Edwards, December 9, 1845, 1807, to January 18, 1906. 

to October 21, 1847. John W. Baker. January 18, 1906. 

Joseph H. Pratt, October 21, 1847, t0 

T , " o COESSE. 

July II, 1849. 

James Wallace, July 11, 1849, to A.U- The third postofnce established in the 

gust 13, 1S50. county was Coesse, March 15, 1843. It was 

Adams Y. Hooper, August 13, 1850, to named after the Indian, Coesse. It was 

April 12, 1852. on the Ruckman farm on the yellow river 

Warren Mason, April 12, 1852, to Janu- road and remained in almost the same loca- 

ary 16, 1854. tion until the Pennsylvania Railroad was put 

Lewis Dowell, January ' 16, 1854, to in operation, when it was moved down to 

May 20, 1854. the town that took the same name. It was 

Warren Mason, May 20, 1854, to Octo- on the Fort Wayne and Columbia route, the 

ber 28, 1854. only one from which it ever got mail until 

Joseph A. Bern', October 28, 1854, to located on the railroad. 
June 12, 1856. The postmasters have been: 

Ignatius Hook, June 12, 1856, to Sep- Horace Cleveland, March 15, 1843. tn 

April 3, 1856. 

Joseph H. Root, Jr., April 3, 1856, to 
October 8, 1859. 

Simon Aker, October 8, 1859, to July 
10, 1 86 1. 

Joseph H. Root, July 10, 1861, to Sep- 
tember 22, 1863. 

George B. Bonestel, September 22, 1803. 
to February 5, 1866. 

Leonard Aker, February 5. 1866, to 
June 2~j, 1867. 

Margaret M. Kaufman, June 27. 1867, 
to November 4, 1867. 

Franklin Dustman, November 4, 1867, 
to January 14, 1869. 

John A. Kaufman, January 14. 1869, 
to April 7. T873. 

tember 24, 1856. 

Charles Ruch. September 24, 1856, to 
March 27, 1857. 

Samuel Miner, March 2"j, 1857, to No- 
vember 16, 1859. 

Simon H. Wunderlich, November 16, 
1859, to August 5, 1S61. 

Warren Mason, August 5, 1861, to April 
4, 1865. 

John T. Drury. April 4, 1865, to Au- 
gust 28, 1866. 

Albert F. Ruch, August 28, 1866, to 
March 17, 1869. 

Orson H. Woodworth, March 17, 1869, 
to October 8. 1884. 

John W. Baker, October 8, , 1884, to 
July 0. 1885. 



Israel H. Kinsey. April 7, 1873, to Oc- 
tober 24, 1873. 

Wesley W. Allen, October 24, 1873, to 
April 17, 1878. 

Frederick Smith, April 17, 1878, to Au- 
gust 17, 1885. 

Moses Winter, August 17, 1885, to 
March 29, 1887. 

William A. Allen, March 29, 1887, to 
May 14, 1889. 

Henry Bentz, May 14, 1889, to April 
17, 1893. 

Jackson Byram. April 17, 1893, to April 
29. 1897. 

•Francis M. Swartz, April 29, 1897, t0 
July 29, 1903. 

William A. Allen, July 29. 1903. 


The next office established in the county 
was Summit, December 21, 1846. It was 
at the old town of Summit, half a mile west 
of present Larwill. where the Columbia and 
Warsaw state road crossed the Goshen and 
Huntington state road. Alexander S. Mc- 
Nagny, still living at the same place, was 
first postmaster, from December 21, 1846, to 
August 6, 1850. Then Henry McLallen took 
it and held it till December 30, 1851. He 
kept it at his house on the Kerr farm, eastern 
edge of present Larwill. It was not a de- 
sirable office and went begging to any one 
who would take it along the post road, the 
Warsaw state road. Alonzo Rodebaugh 
kept it from December 30, 185 1, to June 11, 
1853. George D. H. Harris held it from 
June 11. 1853, ^11 February 18, 1854, when 
Henry McLallen was again induced to ac- 
cept it and held it till August 17, 1861. 
During McLallen's last incumbency, the 
Pennsylvania Railwav was built. McLallen 

had moved down to the new town of 
Huntsville and the office had become de- 
sirable, attracting trade to the place where 
kept. The Republican part)- having come 
into power. Edwin L. Barber secured the 
office. Barber held it till November 4, 1865, 
when Abram J. Whittenberger was ap- 
pointed, holding it till November 2, 1866, 
when Andrew Johnson's change of front 
gave it to Samuel S. Bonar, a Democrat. 

Up to March 28. 1866, the name re- 
mained Summit, though many letters ad- 
dressed to Huntsville reached the proper des- 
tination. On that day, the name was 
changed to Larwill, and so remains. It was 
on the Columbia-Plymouth route from its 
establishment till the route was discontin- 
ued when the railroad was completed. Mail 
once a week each way. Bonar held the of- 
fice until March 26, 1869, when Edwin L. 
Barber was again appointed, and held it till 
October 9, 1871. 

Hiram B. Whittenberger. from Octo- 
ber 9, 1871, to December 20, 1881. 

William N. Andrews, from December 
20, 1 88 1, to July 8, 1885. 

David F. Lower, from July 8, 1885, to 
April 27, 1889. 

Alonzo N. King, from April 27, 1889, 
to April 15, 1893. 

David B. Bonar, from April 15, 1893. to 
January 20, 1806, 

Elmore Everett Rindfusz, from January 
20. 1806, to June 23. 1897. 

John Trachsel. June 23. 1897. 


Popano — Etna. 

Popano postoffice was established April 
it. T84S. with Thomas B. Cunningham as 



postmaster, near the north line of Troy 
township, each early incumbent keeping the 
office at his home. April. 4, 1849, lames 
Blain took the office and kept it till June 
30, 1851. Rufus D. Keeney took the office 
from Blain June 30. 185 1, and kept it till 
June 23, 1855. On the "th of October, 
1 85 1, Keeney removed it across the line 
into Noble county (now Etna township), 
and on same day the name was changed 
from Popano to Etna ; and on May 22, 1852, 
the name was changed from Etna to Hecla. 
Eafavette Lamson having laid out the town 
of Etna and living there, took the office 
June 23, 1855, and held it till Daniel H. 
Chandler took it December 6, 1859. 

On the change of county, by which Etna 
township fell to Whitley county in 1859, the 
office again came into Whitley county. The 
following is a full list of postmasters from 
Chandler's time : 

Samuel Garrison, October 7, 1861, to 
April 24, 1865. 

William W. Graves, April 24, 1865. to 
June 7, 1865. 

Samuel Garrison, June 7, 1865, to July 
17, 1 866. 

James Felt, July 17, 1866, to January 
25. i860. 

Curtis Caskey, January 25, 1869, to Sep- 
tember 28, 1869. 

Virgil Barber, September 28, 1869, to 
November 7, 1878. 

Clarence E. Doane, November 7, 1878, 
to November 17, 1882. 

Peter Moore, November 17, 1882, to 
( let iber 22, 1884. 

William H. Sellers, October 22, 1884. 
to June ]6, 1885. 

Thomas VV. Blain, June 16, 1885, to 
June 20. 1889. 

Wesley J. Magley, June 20, 1889, to 
August 8, 1893. 

Frederic Zinsmeister, August 8, 1893, to 
March 17, 1896. 

Frederick W. Kline, March 17, 1896, to 
October 9, 1897. 

Jesse Miller, October 9, 1897, to De- 
cember 28, 1900. 

John A. Jontz, December 28, 1900, to 
November 5, 1903. 

Madge A. Kline, November 5, 1903, to 
February 29, 1904. 

On the 29th day of February, 1904, the 
office was discontinued, the patrons being 
supplied by rural delivery from Columbia 
City, route fourteen. From the establish- 
ment of the office April 11, 1848, to July 1, 
1850, there was no delivery of mail to the 
place. Mail for Popano remained in the Co- 
lumbia City office until called for by the 
postmaster or some one for him. Also out- 
going mail had to be carried to Columbia. 

July 1, 1850, Popano was put on the 
route from Fort Wayne to Elkhart, but in 
October, 1851, it was put on the Columbia 
City and Wolf Lake route. From that time 
until the discontinuance of the office, it was 
on some route from Columbia City, with 
various terminations. 


Though the Goshen road through Smith 
township was the earliest' thoroughfare, and 
the settlements among the verv earliest, 
there was no postoffice in the vicinity until 
the establishment of Churubusco September 
11, T848. 



Thomas B. Cunningham was the post- 
master and kept the office at his house on 
the Goshen road, northwest of the present 
town of Churubusco. The name was taken 
from the place in Mexico, made famous by 
the Mexican war. Just how it got the name, 
remains in dispute. Some say an old fiddler 
in the neighborhood was constantly sawing 
off a tune, Churubusco, and that he was mak- 
ing his home with Cunningham at the time. 
When the town of Churubusco started, 
there were two plats and two towns, Frank- 
lin and Union. There was considerable con- 
troversy as to which of the three names 
should survive, but Churubusco won out, 
and both the town and postoffice settled 
down to it many years ago. 

The following have been the postmas- 
ters : 

Thomas B. Cunningham, September 11, 
1848, to December 20, 1849. 

James F. Mason, December 20, 1849, 
to May 18, 1852. 

William B. Walker, May 18, 1852, to 
June 18, 1 861. 

Martin Thomson, June 18, 1861, to Oc- 
tober 10, 1863. 

Joseph Richards, October 10, 1863, to 
September 10, 1864. 

Alfred Jennings, September 10, 1864, to 
November 30, 1864. 

Lemuel J. Harding. November 30, 
1864, to September 1, 1865. 

William B. Walker, September 1, 1865. 
to March 2, 1866. 

John Deck, March 2. 1866. to August 
25, 1868. 

John A. Stratton, August 25, 1868, to 
July 23, 1869. 

Gilbert L. Walker, July 23, 1869, to 
September 21, 1869. 

David N. Hughes, September 21, 1869, 
to January 24, 1870. 

Anes Yocum, January 24, 1870, to Sep- 
tember 3, 1883. 

George W. Ott, September 23, 1883, to 
May 19, 1885. 

Winfield S. Gandy, May 19, 1885. to 
December 17, 1888. 

John W. Leiter, December 17, 1888. to 
July 2, 1889. 

John W. Orndorf, July 2, 1889, to July 

3- i893- 

William H. Carter, July 3, 1893, to 
June 8, 1897. 

William A. Devault, June 8, 1897. 

From the date of its establishment to 
Jul}- t. 1854, it was on the mail route from 
Fort Wayne to Elkhart. July 1, 1854, the 
terminus of the route was Goshen instead 
of Elkhart and continued till July 1, 1858, 
when it was on the route from Fort Wayne 
to Albion and so continued until July 1. 
1870. when the old route was cut in two 
parts. Two round trips per week from Fort 
Wayne to Churubusco, and also two round 
trips per week from Albion to Churubusco, 
and so continued until the completion of the 
Eel River Railroad. • 


This postoffice was established Septem- 
ber 18. 1849. The town was then of fully 
as much importance as to-day. It was called 
Millersburgh, in honor of Ellis Miller, the 
merchant and proprietor. The petition 
asked the postoffice be called Millersburgh. 
but as there was already an office by that 



name in Elkhart county, the department 
named it Collamer in honor of Jacob Colla- 
mer, postmaster general. 

The following have been the postmas- 
ters : 

Robert Reed, September 18, 1849, to 
December 21, 1854. 

Jacob Butler, December 21, 1854, to 
May 24. 1856. 

Abel Puffenbarger, May 24, 1856, to 
April 3. 1857. 

Abraham Collett, April 3, 1857, to June 
20. 1863. 

Daniel Haines, June 20, 1863, to Octo- 
ber 10. 1863. 

John M. Willits, October 10, 1863, to 
May 8, 1872. 

Edwin Harter, May 8, 1872, to March 
30, 1874. 

Henry Bowser, March 30, 1874, to No- 
vember 16, 1874. 

John D. Spurgeon, November 16, 1874, 
to October 19, 1875. 

James C. Grafton, October 19, 1875, to 
April 17, 1876. 

Joseph A. Schannep, April 17, 1876, to 
June 20, 1878. 

Alfred Ross, June 20, 1878, to Novem- 
ber 8, 1882. 

Joseph A. Schannep. November 8, 1882, 
to July 8, 1885. 

Alfred Ross, July 8, 1885, to August 20, 
1 889. 

Joseph A. Schannep, August 20, 1889, 
to October 2, 1893. 

Alfred Ross, October 2. 1893, to Octo- 
ber 20. 1897. 

Joseph A. Schannep. October 20. 1897, 
i' 1 I >ecember 1 1. 1902. 

Alfred Ross, December n, 1902. 

For thirty years there has been a run- 
ning fire between Ross and Schannep, but 
the latter has moved away, leaving the field 
to his rival. 

Reed kept the ofrite in a small log cabin, 
on the spot where Ross' store now stands. 
Puffenbarger kept it in a building torn 
down. Haines in a cabinet shop. Since that 
time it has been kept in some business house. 

The office, when established, was on the 
La Gro- Warsaw route, and on that being 
discontinued was from and to Columbia 
City, until the completion of the Eel River 


(Later Lorane.) 

A postofnee was established at the little 
village in north-east Richland (then Troy 
township), called Steam Corners, or Buz- 
zard's Glory, July 28, 185 1. We cannot as- 
certain the reason for the name, but Wil- 
liam A. Clark was the postmaster and kept 
the office in his little store. He sold the 
store to James Grant, April 14, 1854, and 
the office went with it. The store burned 
March 24. 1855, and the office was discon- 

It was re-established under the name of 
Lorane. May 21, 1872, and the following 
have been the postmasters : 

Amos J. Landis. May 21, 1872, to Janu- 
ary 5, 1875. 

Nathan E. Tinkham, January 5, 1875, to 
January 2. 1877. 

Charles W, Gruesbeck, January 2, 1877, 
to I Jecember 19, 1881. 

Theodore S. Gruesbeck, December 19, 
1881. to July 8. 1885. 



James Grant, July 8, 1885, to May 14, 

Rena Gruesbeck, May 14, 1889, to Feb- 
ruary 29. 1904. 

The office was discontinued February, 
1904, on establishment of county rural serv- 
ice. It was first on the Columbia City-Wolf 
Lake route, and until its discontinuance was 
on some route out of Columbia City. 


A postoffice was established at Bloom- 
field August 18, 1853. -"^ s Bloomfield is 
now off the county map, it is necessary to 
state that it was located on the line between 
section 1, Thorncreek township, and sec- 
tion 6, Smith township, and on the center 
line of these sections, a half mile north of 
the east end of Round Lake. The petition- 
ers asked that it be called Bloomfield, but 
there was already an office by that name in 
the state. They then sent in two names, 
Thorncreek and Round Lake, and the form- 
er was accepted. It was generally called 
Round Lake postoffice by the people of the 
neighborhood. Samuel Kinsey had a little 
store at the place and secured the postoffice. 
He tired of frontier life, sold out and went 
back to Ohio. Samuel Deck, from over 
about Ligonier, bought him out January 16, 
1854. and took the store and office that day. 
In July of the same year, Deck fell dead in 
his store, and was buried on the banks of 
Round Lake. Warren Mason, postmaster 
at Columbia City, went up next day and 
moved the office to Abraham H. Krider's 
cabin a half mile south of Bloomfield. on 
the east bank of Round Lake, and on July 
2j, T854. Krider was commissioned post- 
master. Krider soon sold out and moved 

near Churubusco. No one wanting the of- 
fice in the neighborhood, Krider bundled up 
the effects and took them to the Churubusco 
office, that being the nearest, and Thorn- 
creek postoffice passed into history after an 
existence of a year and eight days. 

It was on the route from Columbia City 
to Albion. 

Postoffices were established at Laud and 
'Washington Center on the same day, June 
2j, 1855. Laud postoffice was kept at the 
homes of three different postmasters until 
the business grew to such importance that 
it was worth keeping at a place of business, 
in the little town of Forest, on the line be- 
tween Washington and Jefferson townships, 
stretching a mile along the east side of sec- 
tion 24, Washington, and section 19, Jef- 

The postmasters have been : 

Thomas Neal, June 27, 1855, to June 
18, 186 1. 

Charles Bechtel, Jr., June 18, 1861, to 
April 2j, 1880. 

Marion G. Wright, April 27, 1880, to 
June j 1, 1 88 1. 

Edward E, Phelps, June 21, 1881, to 
May 15, 1882. 

James W. Burwell, May 15, 1882, to 
July 8, 1885. 

Perry Long, July 8, 1885, to January 9, 

Jacob C. ' Raber, January 9, 1888, to 
June 6, 1889. 

Leroy L. Kimmel. June 6, 1889, to July 
3, 1893. 

Jacob C. Raber, July 3. 1893, to June 8, 

i 4 6 


Leroy L. Kimmel, June 8, 1897, to April 
22, 1901. 

George W. Kelsey, April 22, 1901. 

The office was discontinued on account 
of rural mail service, February 28, 1903. 

When established, it was on the Fort 
Wayne and Liberty Mills route, thirty-two 
miles, making one round trip each week ; 
also making quite a number of other offices. 
This route was discontinued July 1. 1870. 
It was then put on the route from Aboite 
to Bracken (Claysviile), a distance of twen- 
miles, making one round trip each week ; 
and this continued until July 1, 1876, at 
which date a route was established from 
Columbia City to Laud, ten and a half miles, 
making a round trip two days in each week, 
and this continued until the Nickel Plate 
Railway was put in operation, after which a 
daily route was established between Laud 
and Peabody, a distance of four and a half 
miles. July 1, 1887, the route was changed 
to run daily between Laud and Raber, a dis- 
tance of three and three-quarters miles, 
which was soon after shortened to three and 
a half miles, and so remained until Laud 
postoffice was discontinued. 


This office was established June 27. 
1855. It was not at the center of Washing- 
ton township, as its name would suggest, 
but at different farm houses, usually about 
a mile south of the center of the township. 

William Chamberlin was the first post- 
master, and held it till May 24. 1856. Mar- 
tin P>echtel then held it until January 19, 
[866, almost ten years, at his home now 
owned by Charles W. Alexander, at the 

north-west corner of the cross roads, a mile 
south of Washington Center. Then Sylves- 
ter Alexander took his turn and held it till' 
April 9, 1868, at his home on the quarter 
section just east of Bechtel's. His folks said 
the proceeds of the office did not pay for 
scrubbing the mud off the porch, and Andrew 
Clark took and held it at his house just south 
of Alexander's and across the road, until 
December 22, 1874, when he, too, refused 
to serve longer and the office was on that 
day discontinued. It was on the Liberty 
Mills and Fort Wayne route from its estab- 
lishment until July 1, 1870. and from that 
time to its discontinuance on the Aboite and 
Bracken route. 

fuller's corners. 

This place is no longer on the map of 
Whitley county. It is on the line between 
sections 29 and, 30, Smith township, where 
the north and south road is crossed by the 
east and west, about eighty rods south of 
the north line of the sections. A postoffice 
was established in this neighborhood July 
24, 1856, with Cornelius Fuller as post- 
master, and lie held until November 29, 
1859, when Harrison F. Crabill, who still 
lives near the Corners, was appointed. He 
held until July 21, 1864. when he resigned 
and the office was then discontinued. It 
was on the route from Columbia City to Al- 
bion, an entire distance of thirty-seven miles, 
with two round trips a week. 

This office, near the south-east corner of 
the county, and in Jefferson township, was 
established January 21, 1857, with William 



T. Jeffries as postmaster. He kept the of- 
fice in his log cabin near the south-east cor- 
ner of section 22, until he delivered it to 
his successor, James T. Bayless, April 5, 
i860, and he moved the office a half mile 
east and kept it at his residence until he 
turned it over to Eli Hatfield June 22, 1865. 
Hatfield kept it at his residence near the 
north-west corner of section 26, on the Lib- 
efty Mills road, until he turned it over to 
James Broxon, December 5, 1867. It was 
kept by him and his family until April 20, 
1895, at the northwest corner of section 25, 
diagonally across the road from the ceme- 
tery. Marcus N. Aker held the office from 
April 20, 1895, until it was discontinued 
November 15, 1900, the patrons being sup- 
plied by rural delivery from Columbia City. 
Aker kept it at the northeast corner of sec- 
tion 27. 

It was always on or near the Fort 
Wayne and Liberty Mills road, and from 
its establishment until July 1, 1870, was on 
the Fort Wayne and Liberty Mills route. It 
was 'then put on the Aboite and Bracken 
route. July 1, 1876, the route was curtailed 
to run from Aboite to Saturn and return, 
five miles and back, three times a week, and 
this continued until the Nickel Plate Rail- 
road was in operation when the route ran 
from Dunfee to Saturn, five miles, and back, 
three times a week. 


A postoffice named South Cleveland was 

established near where the Fort Wayne and 

Liberty Mills road crosses the Goshen and 

Huntington road in the south-west quarter 

. of section 25, Cleveland township. It was 

on the Fort Wayne and Liberty Mills route. 
The following were the postmasters : 

James H. Lee, July 20, 1857, to June 
14, i860. 

Lewis W. Smith, June 14, i860, to Jan- 
uary 3, 1861. 

John Sickafoose, January 3, 1861, to 
September 23, 1865. 

Jesse Hissem, September 23, 1865, to 
December 24, 1870. 

John Sickafoose, December 24, 1870, 
until the office was discontinued. 

This postoffice was established Novem- 
ber 22, 1869, with George Gaff as postmas- 
ter, and was kept by him on the Goshen 
road north-west of Churubusco, until it was 
discontinued December 20, 1886. and mail 
addressed to that office was ordered sent to 
Churubusco. It was in section 4, Smith 


This postoffice, on the Vandalia Railroad, 
was established February 13, 1871. The 
postmasters have been : 

David Ruch, February 13, 1871, to No- 
vember 2^,, 1872. 

Cyrus J. Ward. November 2^,, 1872. to 
December 15, 1873. 

Martin Strouse, December 15, 1873. to 
February 25. 1874. 

Harrison F. Crabill, February 25, 1S74. 
to October 6, 1885. 

Robert C. Hemmick, October 6, 1885, 
to October 25, 1888. 

William J. McKown, October 25, 1888, 
to July 10, 1889. 

1 4 8 


Alice A. Hemmick. July 10, 1889, to 
March 4, 1892. 

Columbus N. Smith, March 4, 1892, to 
February 7, 1896. 

William J. McKown, February 7, 1896, 
to February 10, 1899. 

Columbus N. Smith, February 10, 1899. 

Mr. Smith has turned the office over to 
Mrs. Knight, who keeps it at her house. 

An office was established at what was 
called Taylor's Station, now Wynkoop, on 
the Vandalia Railroad, March 14, 1S76, and 
Simon J. Peabody was made postmaster. 
Mr. Peabody at that time ran a very ex- 
tensive saw mill and a little store at the 
place and quite a little village had sprung 
up. Mr. Peabody left the place in 1880, 
and by 1881 had taken his interests away, 
and the office was discontinued April 28, 
1 88 1. The village has disappeared almost 
entirely. It is in section 19, Columbia 


This office, at the once thriving village 
of Cold Springs, was established July 16, 
1880. It is on the line between Etna and 
Washington townships, Noble county, but 
in Whitley county. It is a mile north of 
the north end of Loon lake, in the north- 
west corner of the north-east quarter of 
section 25, Etna township. The following 
persons have held the office: 

William H. Beal, July 16, 1880, to Jan- 
uary 30, 1884. 

Alary A. Beal, January 30. 1884. to 
April [2, 1893. 

John D. Banta, April 12, 1893, to April 
19, 1897. 

Levi H. Todd, April 19, 1897, to April 
14, 1902. 

Calvin C. Hyre, April 14, 1902, till the 
office was discontinued February 29, 1904, 
and the patrons supplied by rural route four- 
teen, from Columbia City. When estab- 
lished, it was put on the route from Colum- 
bia City, by Lorane, Hecla, Ormas, Wilmot, 
Indian Village and Cromwell, to Ligonier, 
three times a week. In 1884, the route was 
shortened to take in Lorane, Hecla and Or- 
mas, then return, three times a week. This 
route was later extended to take in Cresco, 
and so remained until the office was 


This office was established January 16, 
1883, the first of the new offices on the 
lately finished Nickel Plate Railroad. It has 
been held as follows : 

Amos E. Redman, January 16, 1883. to 
July 7, 1885. 

Mary A. Gross. July 7, 1885, to January 
24, 1888. 

Henrv J. Ummel, January 24, 1888, to 
July 29, 1889. 

Amos E. Redman, July 29, 1889. to 
March 26, 1892. 

Henry J. Ummel. March 26, 1892. 

This was the second of the new offices 
established at new towns on the Nickel Plate 
Railroad. It was established April 6. 1883. 
and was held by George M. Singer, who 
was murdered in his store. It was turned 



over to William McWhirter November 21, the proper name for Dunkard, and this 
1895, and he still holds it. was a Dunkard settlement with a large brick 

church situated across the street from the 

RABER. pOStoffice. 

The third new town on the Nickel Plate 
Railroad to get a postoffice was Raber. 
Office established Apnl 1. 1884. 

Samuel Clark held it from its establish- 
ment to October 1, 1890. 

Thomas J. Berry, October 1. 1890, to 
August 31, 1 90 1. 

William Bogner, August 31, 1901, until 
the office was discontinued March 31, 1902, 
the patrons being supplied with rural deliv- 
ery from Columbia City. This is the first 
case of the discontinuation of a railroad pi >st- 
office in the count}'. 

This office was established May 10, 1888. 
at the south-east corner of section 8, Thorn- 
creek township. Edmund E. Hoffer kept 
the office at his little store until he sold the 
same to John J. Cotterly, and Cotterly be- 
came postmaster May 28, 1903. He moved 
the store and office a half-mile east and held 
it until discontinued on account of rural de- 
livery from Columbia City, February 29, 
1904. It had been supplied by the Colum- 
bia City, Hecla and Ormas route. 

This office at the north center line of sec- 
tion 19 and south center line of section 18, 
in Washington township, was established 
September 3, 1886, Henry K. Kitch being 
the postmaster during the entire life of the 
office. It was discontinued on account of 
rural delivery from Columbia City. Feb- 
ruary 29, 1904. It was supplied by a route 
from South Whitley and back, five miles, 
three times a week. Later the new office 
of Luther was added to the route. The ap- 
plication for this office was prepared by Eli 
W. Brown, then postmaster at Columbia 
City. He was told to name it. and sent in 
the name Vilas, the name of the postmaster- 
general under the then first term of President 
Cleveland. The department reported a Vilas 
already established in Indiana. Mr. Brown 
then named it Tunker, which he said was 

commonly called "Sawdust Hill," is on the 
Goshen and Huntington state road near 
where it strikes the Huntington county line, 
section 36, Cleveland . township. Luther 
postoffice was established January 2, 1894, 
with Myron L. Pray, the merchant, as post- 
master, and continued in his name until dis- 
continued on account of rural delivery, Feb- 
ruary 29, 1904. It had been supplied by the 
route from South Whitley by way of 


This office on the river-road from Colum- 
bia City to South Whitley, where it crosses 
the Nickel Plate Railroad a half mile west 
of Eberhard church and cemetery, was es- 
tablished June 25, 1898, with Rachael Bren- 
neman as postmistress. It was discontinued 


October 23, 1899, for want of business and 
because the postmistress moved to Fort 
Wayne, and for the further reason that the 
first rural route out of Columbia City cut 
off a part of the business. While in exis- 
tence, this office was supplied from the 
Nickel Plate Railroad. 


The last postoffice to be established in 
the county was at Wynkoop, on the Van- 
dalia Railroad, June 25, 1898, where Taylor 
postoffice had given up the ghost seventeen 
years before. Henry E. Fague was post- 
master until April 29, 1899. Then Stanley 
Smith until the office was discontinued No- 
vember 15, 1 90 1, on account of rural deliv- 
ery from Columbia City and want of 

The rural delivery system that has cov- 
ered the county since March 1, 1904, em- 
braces twenty-five rural routes. Fourteen 
out of Columbia City, five out of South 
Whitley, three out of Larwill and three out 
of Churubusco, with date of establishment 
as follows : 


No. 1, established October 2, 1899. 
No. 2, established September 15. 1900. 

No. 3, established September 15, 1900. 
No. 4, established October 15, 1900. 
No. 5, established October 15, 1900. 
No. 6, established March 1, 1902. 
No. 7, established March 1, 1904. 
No. 8, established March 1, 1904. 
No. 9, established March 1, 1904. 
No. 10, established March 1, 1904. 
No. 11, established March 1, 1904. 
No. 12, established March 1, 1904. 
No. 13, established March 1, 1904. 
No. 14, established March 1. 1904. 


No. i, established November 1, 1900. 
No. 2, established February 1, 1904. 
No. 3, established February 1, 1904. 


No. 1, established March 1, 1904. 
No. 2, established March 1, 1904. 
No. 3, established March 1, 1904. 


No. 1, established October 2, 1899. 
No. 2, established December 15, 1900. 
No. 3, established December 15. 1900. 
No. 4, established March 1, 1904. 
No. 5, established March 1, 1904. 



Up to 1853 not a word of printing had paper, and especially the people of Colum- 

ever been executed in Whitley county, but bia City and more especially the politicians, 

for three or four years there had. been a In May, 1853, Joseph A. Berry, of Steu- 

yearning demand by our people for a news- benville, Ohio, visited the place on a tramp 


westward in search of a location. He met 
with the proper encouragement and $200 
was given him as a bonus to establish a 
newspaper. Consequently on the 13th day 
of July, 1853, the first issue of the Co- 
lumbia City Pioneer came from the press 
to the joy and gratification of the people. 
It was a strictly Democratic organ and had 
a circulation of about four hundred nearly 
from the first issue. Prior to this time all 
our legal advertising required by law was 
published mostly in Fort Wayne, but an 
occasional legal notice found its way into a 
Warsaw or Huntington paper. 

Berry was a very noisy and blustery in- 
dividual with little ability of any kind, not 
even a good compositor. He, however, 
blundered along, scarcely missing a weekly 
issue until August, 1856. His conduct of 
the campaign was not satisfactory to the 
Democrats, nor was he satisfied with them 
or with the proceeds of the business. 

P. W. Hardesty came from somewhere 
in Ohio and purchased the office and closed 
the campaign more radically than his prede- 
cessor. He was a man of considerable 
ability but lazy and shiftless and soon be- 
came involved in trouble with the county 
officers and outside creditors and soon after 
the November election of 1856 he moved 
the office to Paulding Center, Ohio. 

For nearly two years Whitley county 
was without a Democratic paper. In the 
summer of 1858, Col. I. B. McDonald 
bought at sheriff's sale, from William Flem- 
ing, of Allen county, for $625 the office of 
the defunct "Jeffersonian." 

This was a Democratic paper started 
in opposition to the "Sentinel" by Zephaniah 

Turner, who involved himself in all kinds 
of trouble and was nearly killed by John 
Dawson, a prominent Republican. 

McDonald at once moved the office here 
and established the "Columbia City News." 
He assumed editorial control but put 
Thomas L. Craves in charg'e of the office. 
McDonald was then clerk of courts. William 
C. Graves, a brother of Thomas L., lived 
in Warsaw and was in the banking 
business and he occasionally wrote an 
article for his brother and being interested 
in him came over often to see him. This 
gave rise to the old story that Graves owned 
an interest. Neither of the Graves brothers 
ever owned a dollar in the News. 

In November, 1859, McDonald retired 
from the clerk's office and assumed entire 
management and control and Thomas L. 
Graves moved to Kendallville. Englebert 
Zimmerman was the foreman printer and 
gradually grew more and more in favor 
with the proprietor until in May, 
1 861, when McDonald was preparing 
to go into the service of his country he 
sold Zimmerman a small interest and turned 
the entire business over to him. On Mc- 
Donald's return from the army in 1864, he 
again assumed control of the paper and 
though relations were most cordial between 
them, Zimmerman retired to take charge of 
the Fort Wayne Sentinel. Frank Zimmer- 
man then took his brother's small interest 
and took charge under McDonald and after 
a couple of issues the name was changed to 
the "Post" and is continued to this day un- 
der that name and with the identical first 
head. In November, 1865. McDonald sold 
the office to Eli W. Brown, a Whitlev 

l 5 2 


county man, though he had heen part pro- 
prietor of the Fort Wayne Sentinel for a 

Brown continued sole owner and pro- 
prietor of the Post until April, 1879, when 
he. sold a half interest to John W. Adams. 
In April, 1881, Brown, having moved on 
his farm just west of town, sold the other 
half interest to Mr. Adams, who still owns, 
edits and publishes the paper. September 
30, 1896, a daily was started in connection 
with the weekly which still continues. There 
had been earlier issues of a daily during 
county fairs and during the trial of Butler, 
the wife murderer, in 18S4. The Post and 
its predecessors have always been the Demo- 
cratic organs of the count}'. 

In July, 1854, the opposition to the De- 
mocracy, crystalizing into the Republican 
party, felt the necessity of a newspaper to 
combat the influence of the feeble Pioneer 
and secured a printing office and placed 
Henry Welker, another Ohio man, in 
charge, and the Whitley County Republican 
made its appearance. 

The outlook was not promising and the 
road on which it traveled was a thorny one, 
though for a couple of years its competitor 
was out of business. Adams Y. Hooper had 
in some way become responsible for the ma- 
terial and soon was obliged to pay for it and 
became the owner and really was the owner 
during all its vicissitudes until sold to John 
W. Baker in 1868. At times he thought 
himself out of the business, but the sales did 
not stick or the payments were not made. 
After acquiring the office, he sold to Welker. 
lint he could not pay and the office reverted, 
and Hooper worried along with migratory 
assistants. In 1859 he sold it to J. O. Shan- 

non and W. T. Strother and they changed 
the name to the Columbia City Argus, hop- 
ing the change of name might be beneficial. 
These parties soon failed, and Mr. Hooper 
again had the office on his hands, and in- 
stalled S. H. Hill as publisher and part ed- 
itor. After one issue the name was changed 
back to the Republican. In February, 
186 1, Hill retired and George W. Weamer 
took his place. In September of the same 
year Weamer tired of the place and went 
to war and was killed. During the war 
Hooper managed the paper and edited it 
himself. In 1865 he sold it to John Davis 
and after a few issues it again passed back- 
to Hooper and then for a few months it 
was under the control of O. H. Woodworth 
and Hooper sold to W. B. Davis and Henry 
Bridge in 1866, and it again passed back to 
Hooper. In 1867 it was operated by A. T. 
Clark and later in the same year by Frank 
J. Beck, who continued until January, 1868, 
when it was sold to John W. Baker and 
passed finally out of the hands of Hooper. 

Mr. Baker successfully edited, owned 
and published it weekly until January. 
1005, and daily from 1888 till its close when, 
having been appointed postmaster at Colum- 
bia City he sold it to W. W. Williamson and 
the 'ild Commercial ceased publication, be- 
ing incorporated into the Mail, the other 
Republican paper under the name of the 

When Mr. Baker bought it he called it 
the Whitley County Commercial, which 
name it retained until about January I, 
1879, when it was changed to the Columbia 
City Commercial. 

The next venture into the field of Whit- 
lev countv journalism was at Larwill. In 



March, 1876, J. W. Torrey and W. J. Du- 
gar came to Larwill to establish a business 
college. After an effort of some weeks 
Torre}' retired but Dugar remained and by 
midsummer had a commercial school in op- 
eration in Shorb's Hall, but it languished, 
and lang-uishing did live about a year. 

In order to help his waning fortunes 
Dugar bought a small printing office that 
had failed at Kewanna. Fulton county, and 
brought with it the failing editor, O. W. 
Snook. The first issue of the Larwill Re- 
view appeared Christmas day, 1876. S. P. 
Kaler had secured Dugar on a note for part 
of the purchase money and by the first of 
March had the note to pav and a printing 
office on his hands. His name appeared as 
editor and Snook continued as publisher un- 
til the 1st of May, 1877. when Kaler sold a 
half interest to George J. Holgate from 
Ohio, a practical man. The paper ran under 
the names of Kaler and Holgate until the 
1st of January. 1878, when finding the busi- 
ness unprofitable, they leased it to W. E. 
Grose, an employe, and had it moved to 
Churubusco and the Churubusco Herald ap- 
peared the second week in January, 1878. 
Holgate returned east and Kaler looked after 
it. Grose, like many others under the same 
conditions, soon swamped and gave up. 
when Chase Millice, of Warsaw, took the 
lease and his management was worse than 
his predecessor's. 

In July. 1878, Kaler sold the office to 
D. M. Eveland from the mining districts 
of Pennsylvania. Eveland soon swamped 
but by making some political deal secured 
assistance and the chattel mortgage was 
lifted and Kaler and Holgate received full 

Thus far, at Larwill and at Churubusco, 
the paper was strictly neutral in politics. 

Eveland pretended first to run an inde- 
pendent Republican paper, then, in the same 
campaign, sought to make it the organ of 
the Greenback "party then at the very zenith 
of its existence. It was savagely personal 
ami its pages were read with interest. Eve- 
land was a man of mature years and excep- 
tional ability but rash and vindictive. 

Having run through the campaigns of 
1878 and 1880. being on all sides of all ques- 
tions as promised support; Eveland was as 
glad to shake the Whitley county dust from 
his feet as his enemies were glad to have, 
him do so. In December, 1880, he sold the 
Herald to I. B. McDonald and Henry 
Pressler, the latter taking but a small in- 
terest which McDonald soon after acquired. 

McDonald leased it to William Hall and 
son and it became a straight out Democratic 
sheet. The elder Hall was a Baptist minister 
and a man of decided ability. Plis editorial 
management was superb, his articles as able 
as any in the country, temperate and argu- 
mentative yet thoroughly Democratic. The 
venture was not sufficiently remunerative 
and the elder Hall soon retired. The younger 
Hall was. like many others of his profession. 
a good enough printer but unsuccessful, and 
McDonald soon had the paper back on his 
hands. It was then leased to Charles T. 
Hollis and son and Erank M. Hollis took 
charge of the office. It remained radically 
Democratic and for the first time self-sup- 
porting until November, 1S81, when it was 
moved to Columbia City. Hollis retired and 
McDonald took personal charge and suc- 
cessfully edited and published the Columbia 
City Herald, a Democratic paper. In May, 



1883, McDonald having purchased the 
Huntington Democrat and having other in- 
terests demanding his attention, ceased pub- 
lication, selling a part of the material to the 
Post and moving the balance to the Hunt- 
ington office. 

Prior to the appearance of the Churu- 
busco Herald, about the first of the year 
1877, Anes Yocum, the postmaster at Chur- 
ubusco, owning and operating a small job 
printing outfit, began publishing the "White 
Elephant," a small quarto semi-monthly, 
more as a pastime than anything else. It 
never assumed to be a newspaper of preten- 
sions, but ran for some four or five years. 

After the removal of the Herald from 
Churubusco, Virgil A. Gieger began in a 
modest way the publication of The Truth, 
which has grown under his management to be 
a first-class weekly newspaper, noted all over 
northern Indiana for its wit and spiciness. 
It is independent in politics with Republican 

About the 1st of June, 1878, R. B. 
Locke, a nephew of the celebrated "Nasby," 
opened an office at Larwill and began 
the publication of the Larwill Blade, but in 
about three months it passed into the hands 
of Charles T. and Frank M. Hollis, who 
published it for a time when the material 
was sold to I. B. McDonald, moved to 
Churubusco and was merged into the Her- 
ald when the Hollises took charge of that 

April 1, 1889, Eli W. Brown, after 
eight years, retirement from the profession, 
bought a new newspaper plant and, locating 
"ii the west side of the square, began the 
publication of the Columbia City Times, a 
weekly Democratic newspaper. After 

about two years he sold it to Williamson 
and Price, who changed the name to "The 
Mail" and to a Republican paper. 

In about a year these gentlemen sold it 
to A. R. Thomas, who soon after sold it to 
John C. Wigent and son. These parties 
at once began the issue of a morning daily, 
in connection with the weekly and failed 
financially in 1895. A receiver was appoint- 
ed who ran it a few. issues, when it was sold 
at public auction. J. W. Baker, proprietor 
of the Commercial, bought the material and 
it ceased publication. 

In January, 1896, W. W. Williamson, 
with a new office, began again the publication 
of "The Mail," a weekly, and August 14. 
1904. began the daily Mail, which has still 
continued, absorbing the Commercial as be- 
fore stated. 

"The South Whitley Magnet," the first 
paper published in South Whitley, started 
in November, 1882. by W. A. Myers. In 
1883 Mr. Myers also started "The Beacon," 
a publication devoted to the home and 
household. The former was a weekly and 
the latter a monthly publication. Both were 
suspended in 1885 and the entire equipment 
was moved to Kalamazoo. Mich. 

On April 1, 1887, William E. Ashcraft 
started the "Whitley County News," which 
he sold in February, 1889. to O. H. Downey, 
of Churubusco. Downey soon after sold an 
interest to Webb Emerson and Emerson la- 
ter acquired the entire interest. Emerson 
sold to George Bumgardner. under whose 
ownership it was edited by Dr. W. O 

Bumgardner sold to Robert J. Emerson 
and he sold to F. E. Miner, the present 
owner, Ausfust 1, 1888. Under Robert T- 



Emerson it was called the South Whitley 
News, but Mr. Miner changed it back to 
the Whitley County News. 

The two newspapers at Columbia City, 

Post and Commercial-Mail, are both daily 
and weekly, while the Whitley County News 
at South Whitley and the Truth at Churu- 
busco are weeklies only. 



Mention is made in several publications 
of Coesse having" delivered a very eloquent 
address at Fort Wayne on the memory of 
his distinguished uncle, Little Turtle. Some 
writers have said it was at the funeral of 
the great chief, while others have said it was 
on the Fourth of July, and the time or times 
stated vary from the death of Little Turtle 
in 1812, up to 1850. This is entirely er- 
roneous, and shows the disposition of writers 
to start with a very small imagination, and 
each to add to it. The few persons yet liv- 
ing who knew Coesse know that he was en- 
tirely unfitted by disposition, education, 
training and general intelligence to deliver 
an eloquent or any other oration. Richard 
Collins (shortly before his death in 1884) 
l-elated to the writer that he had investigated 
and found the truth. On July 4, 1846, the 
people of Fort Wayne held a large cele- 
bration and gathered as many Indians as 
they could. Coesse was invited, as the guest 
of Byram Miner, and accepted. As a 
nephew of the great Little Turtle, he was 
given a seat on the speaker's stand and after 
the eulogy on the chief by one of the orators, 
Coesse was asked to get up and say some- 
thing, but all he could do was to stand up 
and show himself. 

Bv the treaty made upon the Wabash, 

near the mouth of the Mississinewa, October 
23. 1826. all the lands north and west of 
the Wabash, in Indiana, the Miamis ceded 
to the United States, leaving out the fol- 
lowing reservations in Whitley county. 
"Seek's Village," "Beaver's Reserve," 
"Chapiene's Reserve" and "Raccoon Vil- 

The "Beaver," as he is styled, lived near 
Peru. As far as can be gathered, no white 
man in Whitley county ever saw him, and 
from the records, we feel sure he died as 
early as 1830, if not earlier. There was 
never any occupancy of his lands by Indians, 
except as they may have wandered into the 
public domain. His heirs or descendants 
conveyed it to white settlers. 

About the year 1881 quite an excitement 
was raised in Whitley county on the rumor 
that the Indian title was not extinguished 
by failure of the United States to issue the 
patents. Third-rate lawyers from different 
parts of northern Indiana swarmed to the 
recorder's office, with troops of dilapidated 
looking Indians behind them, deluded into 
the hope that they might secure a second 
payment for their lands from our people. 
The record of every transfer and the signa- 
tures to it were carefully gone over, and at 
least pretended preparation was made for 



preme court of the United States, soon after, 
in a parallel case, set all these matters at 

As early as 1826, at least, a Miami In- 
dian named Chino lived near the center of 
section 17, Columbia township, on the north- 
west quarter of that section. He had two 
daughters and one son. John Turkey fell 
desperately in love with one of the daughters. 
so much so that it seemed almost the entire 
subject of his conversation. He told the 
Mosher boys that he would have the squaw, 
in some way, or would never have an}' other. 
She refused to accept his attention, and 
when he pressed his suit to the point of be- 
ing offensive, she went away to Logansport, 
and remained a long time. She finally came 
back on a visit, thinking that perhaps time 
had cooled Turkey's insane, jealous love, 
but not so. While he did not molest her at 
her home, on New Year's day, 1844. he 
found her some distance from her mother's 
cabin. It was well toward night and she 
fled from him and tried to hide. A man 
named German lived on the northwest quar- 
ter of section 18, Columbia township, where 
John Betzner now lives. After he had 
gone to bed, about nine o'clock, she came tc 
his cabin and called as if in distress. He 
was a German in fact as well as in name 
and could not understand her language of 
English badly mixed with Indian, and sup- 
posing it to be some prowling Indian, per- 
haps bent on mischief, would not open his 
cabin to her. Very soon he heard her cries 
of agony and springing out of his cabin 
found her lying with her head smashed in 
with a tomahawk. Turkey beside her with 
the weapon in his hand and making no 

attempt to deny it. German took the toma- 
hawk from Turkey and ordered him to leave 
which he did. German then aroused his 
neighbor. Sterns, and they cared for the 
body until Indian friends came and took it 
away. Turkey did not attempt to flee the 
country, and was soon in the hands of the 
authorities at Columbia City. The Turkeys 
were Miamis and lived at the village in sec- 
tion 17. Penimo was a bad Pottawattamie, 
who stayed about the two villages. If he 
had a home it was at the same village with 
the Turkeys. There was a deadly feud be- 
tween them. 

On July 4, 1843, Sanford Mosher and 
Joseph Pierce went to the village in section 
17. at about nine or ten o'clock in the morn- 
ing. As they came down the trail, near 
where the wagon road runs, and up the 
hill in front of the village, they heard 
loud noises and the terrible Indian "Whoop, 
Whoop," which meant bloody fight. Com- 
ing in sight they saw the fight in progress 
between the Turkeys and Penimo, and the 
squaws dancing wildly round. The boys 
ran up. when Penimo pulled off his coat, 
showing his calico shirt covered with blood. 
Turkey was lying stretched out and the 
squaws disarmed Penimo, and requested the 
boys to help carry Turkey up to his wigwam, 
which thev did. laving him on the regula- 
tion couch of a piece of timber driven in 
the wall, the outer end supported by a peg 
to the floor, and covered with skins and 
blankets. The squaws swarmed around, and 
the bovs went to the door. Penimo came 
riding up on a black pony, as if to ride over 
the boys. Pierce shrank back, but Mosher 
raised his hickory club and said: "You 
black devil, go awav or I will kill you." 



He then rode away. They then went and 
got his coat, which they found literally cut to 
pieces by Turkey's knife. Soon the Indian 
bucks began to swarm up from the south, 
among them Mozette Squawbuck, a Potta- 
wattamie. He and another Indian, and the 
boys, tracked Penimo for some distance. 
Soon Orrin Mosher, George Mosher, Old 
Chestee and several other Indians came up. 
Chestee grabbed a bow and arrow from 
John Turkey and drew the bow to kill 
Squawbuck. thinking that he was the mur- 
derer of Turkey, but being told that he was 
mistaken, he dropped his bow and arrow and 
extended his hand to Squawbuck, which 
meant in the words of the white man, "I 
take it back." Penimo did not again show 
himself in this neighborhood until he shot 
old Turkey's squaw, John Turkey's mother. 
When Benoni Mosher came he paid his at- 
tention to Old Turkey. The squaws first 
protested against his going into the cabin, 
saying that it was "not good for white man 
to see Indian die." He was finally admitted 
and found Dr. Komota, the medicine man, 
fanning him with a feather, waiting' to see 
the last breath. The knife had penetrated 
one lung, and with each breath the blood 
gurgled out. Finally Komota saw some 
sign that gave him hope. He took a small 
stick and probed the wound and got its exact 
depth ; then going out he secured a small 
piece of yellow bark of some kind, made a 
plug the exact length and large enough to 
fill the incision and stuck it into the wound. 
While he was out Dr. McHugh, from 
Columbia City, chanced along and was called 
in and looking at Turkey, said : "He is 
stabbed in the lung and will die," but he 
soon recovered. 

In the spring of 1843, as Mrs. Turkey 
and another squaw were riding ponies to 
visit friends south of the river, when near 
Squaw Point, in section 32, about a half 
mile northeast of the present Eberhard 
church. Penimo came suddenly up to Mrs. 
Turkey and grabbed her pony by the bridle 
and bit. She gave it the whip, tore loose 
from him, and rode on into the river. When 
well into the river he shot her with his pistol 
and she fell off of the pony dead in the 
water. The pony stayed with its mate, car- 
rying the other squaw. Penimo ran 
through the waters, caught the pony and 
rode away. Allen Hamilton, the Indian 
agent, offered a reward of two hundred 
dollars for the capture of Penimo. William 
Thorn, of North Manchester, followed the 
latter into northern Michigan, caught and 
brought him back. He and John Turkey 
were both incarcerated in the Whitley coun- 
ty jail, and both were indicted for murder. 
Each plead "not guilty" and took a change 
of venue. The cases were sent to Allen 
county for trial, but before the prisoners 
could be removed they escaped. To prevent 
escape as'well as to keep them from fighting 
each other, Penimo was chained to the floor 
in the corridor, and Turkey was confined in 
a cell or apartment. Turkey succeeded in 
setting fire to Penimo's straw tick, de- 
termined to destroy his enemy, though he 
should perish with him, but the fire was ex- 
tinguished. In the dusk of one evening 
Sheriff Simcoke went to feed them. He 
went in leaving John W r ashburn in the door. 
Penimo had loosed his chain and, dashing 
past the sheriff, knocked Washburn out of 
the door, and both Indians escaped. They 
ran to the river, swam it near where the 



brewery stands on Whitley street, and both 
escaped and were never re-captured. 

During' the winter of 1843 and 1844, 
Minshaw, a Pottawattamie, died at the vil- 
lage in section 23, and on the spot where is 
now Korts' garden. He was set upright on 
the ground, with a blanket over his drooping 
head, and beside him was placed his bow 
and arrow and a dish. Around him was 
built a pole pen perhaps eight by ten feet, 
where his body was left to rot and did rot 
down and the pen with it. After George 
Helms bought the place he warned the 
widow several times to take the bones away, 
but she would not, until Helms subjected the 
skull to great indignity, when Komota, the 
medicine man, gave Helms one dollar to 
bury the bones. The Whitley county In- 
dians never buried their dead in the ground 
until white people taught them to do so ; 
the practice first began at "Seek's Village." 

John Wauwaessa became enraged at 
Chestee's daughter on section 20, Columbia 
township, and tried to kill her. This time 
at the knoll southeast of the home on Pea- 
body's farm, on the road running north and 
south. His brother, Bill Wauwaessa, and 
others interfered, and she fled to the swamp. 
In the fall at the paying of the annuities, be- 
tween Huntington and Roanoke, he finally 
struck her on the head with a club and killed 
her. He was never arrested, and stayed at 
the village, section 17, until the Indians were 

Bambookoo was a bad Pattawattamie. 
who did kill Chino, and who once tried to 
kill Turkey and before the latter's daughter 
had been killed by John Turkey, but we 
cannot learn the facts. Mrs. Chino offered 
fifty dollars to any one who would kill 

Bambookoo. After Chino's murder, Mo- 
zette Squawbuck lived with Chino's squaw 
at section 17. He was old, but a good 
hunter and provided well for her. He too 
was a Pottawattamie. In the spring of 
1845, Mrs. Chino and Mozette were mak- 
ing sugar near Eberhard's schoolhouse. 
Mozette was helping her lug the sugar 
home one bright warm day in March, and 
he became lazy and laid down along the 
trail and fell asleep. Bambookoo came 
along, but having no knife himself slipped 
Mozette's from his pocket and tried to get 
a hold of his tongue to cut it off. Mozette 
awoke, regained his knife, and killed Bam- 
bookoo, stabbing him eighteen times in the 
breast. Mozette was not hurt at all. His 
squaw. Mrs. Chino, paid him fifty dollars. 

There is an old tradition of quite an 
amount of silver being buried by Chino on 
the north half of the southwest quarter of 
section 17, now owned by S. T. Mosher. 
Chino's wife tried to find it. 

Out of curiosity Mr. John R. Anderson 
twice attended when the Miami Indians 
were paid their annuity. The place of pay- 
ment was in the thick woods about a mile 
east of Huntington. The government pay- 
master was there with the money. He had 
erected a small stockade, or rather a pole 
pen, and had a guard of several persons 
about him. Indians came in squads or by 
families, and received their cash. There 
was nothing striking about this. There 
was, however, a regular train of traders with 
a stock of groceries, dry goods, trinkets, 
notions, and not a very scarcity of whiskey. 
There were also ponies and horses. All 
with the result that the bulk of the money 
paid the Indians was not taken away with 



them. John Wauwaessa received three hun- 
dred and fifty dollars, perhaps not all his 
own, and paid two hundred of it for a pony 
that did not live over winter. 

The Pottawattamies were always anx- 
• ious to marry Miamis, that they might share 
in these annual payments. 

The Squaw Buck trail from Whitley 
county to Leesburgh Prairie, where also 
the settlers went for corn and other sup- 
plies, is here described. Beginning at Lees- 
burg, it ran southeast past "Bone Prairie," 
crossing the Tippecanoe river between the 
town of Oswego and the lake, thence south, 
skirting the west side of Round lake, thence 
southeast, nearly touching the south end of 
Barbee lake, thence south to nearly the pres- 
ent Columbia City and Warsaw road, strik- 

ing Whitley county at Haydens Lake and 
nearly following the said road eastward to 
within a half mile of present Larwill, at the 
McNagny farm, section 4, thence angling 
to the southeast across the east half of sec- 
tion 4, on lands now owned by Thompsons 
and James B. Kaler. then to the northwest 
quarter of section 10, across the lands now 
owned by the Patterson brothers, thence 
southeast through section 10 and 11, cross- 
ing the creek near the west line of section 13, 
land now owned by John R. Anderson, 
thence nearly east through sections 17 and 
18 and part of 16, Columbia township, to 
Beaver Reserve, thence southeast to the Is- 
land. From the Island another trail ran 
northeastwardly, until it struck Turtle's 
trail and on to (Kekionga) Fort Wayne. 




The first telephone service in Whitley 
county was in November, 1880, by the Mid- 
land Telephone Company, a branch of the 
Bell Telephone Company. At this time, the 
Bell company controlled patents which gave 
it a complete monopoly of the business. 
Toll offices were established at Lanvill and 
Columbia City, the line ran from Fort 
Wayne to Warsaw, and is the same line 
now owned by the Central Union Telephone 

On the first of January, 1881, an ex- 
change was installed in Dr. Mitten's office, 
in Columbia City, and $48 a year was 

charged for the rental of a telephone in- 
strument, with toll of twenty-five cents for 
a message to Larwill and larger amounts 
to other towns. Our people at first patron- 
ized it quite liberally, but as the novelty wore 
off, the excessive rental became a burden, 
and the subscribers dropped off until the 
exchange was scarcely self-supporting. The 
legislature of Indiana, in January, 1885, 
limited the right of a telephone company to 
charge not exceeding $36 a year, and soon 
after this law went into effect the company 
withdrew its exchange and local service, but 
maintained a toll line by which our people 



could communicate with the outside world, 
and this was maintained until the Central 
Union Company, successor to the Midland, 
effected an arrangement with the Farmers' 
Mutual Company. The legislature of 1889 
repealed this act, but the Midland did not 
take advantage of it here or in other towns 
of about the same size from which it had 
been driven. 


The Whitley County Telephone Com- 
pany, as the successor of the Home Tele- 
phone Company of Columbia City, had its 
inception from a desire of the incorporators 
to enjoy the benefits of telephone service 
rather than with the idea of making it a 
distinct business. A few local gentlemen, 
in the latter part of the year 1895, de- 
termined to run a few lines connecting their 
homes and places of business. Upon in- 
vestigation, it was found that this plan was 
impractical without a central switchboard. 
It was then determined to establish a small 
exchange, and it was figured that $1,500 
would supply the working capital. But in 
order to meet any possible demand there 
might Ix- for telephone service, it was de- 
cided to incorporate with an authorized 
capital stock of $3,000. Articles of incor- 
poration were filed with the secretary of 
state on the 10th day of February, 1896, 
and on the 1 2th day of February, the city 
council granted the new company a franchise 
to operate in Columbia City. The incor- 
p irators were S. J. Peabody, A. A. Adams. 
A. A. Pontius, W. H. Magley, A. W. North, 
A. II. Foust and J, A. Ruch. The officers 
were: A. A. Adams, president: W. II. 

Magley. secretary : A. H. Foust, treasurer; 
and J. A. Ruch, superintendent. 

At this time there were but few ex- 
changes in northern Indiana outside of the 
large cities where the Bell company con- 
tinued to operate. There was a small ex- 
change at Bluffton and one at Plymouth, 
before the home company was ready to give 
service. The switchboards and instruments 
used at the time were rather clumsy efforts 
to get around the Bell patents. The Bell 
company was claiming to have a patent on 
the principle of the transmission of sound 
by means of an electric current, which, if 
well founded, made every user of any other 
instrument guilty of infringement. It was 
not a business that appealed strongly to the 
investor, but the local incorporators were 
willing to take the chances. The Bell claim 
was subsequently held to be unfounded by 
the courts, and from that time the business 
grew by leaps and bounds. 

The $3,000 which the incorporators at 
first thought to be sufficient to meet the fu- 
ture growth of the business, was soon found 
to be insufficient, and on the 26th of May, 
1896. the company was authorized to in- 
crease its capital stock to $10,000. On the 
first of June, 1896, it began giving sendee to 
about seventy subscribers with a switch- 
board of one hundred "drops." This was 
soon found to be inadequate to meet the 
demand, and an additional board of two hun- 
dred drops was installed. The central office 
was in the Rhodes' building, and the entire 
business was at first looked after by Air. 
Ruch. the superintendent, and his wife. 
Soon after opening for business, the com- 
pany constructed t"ll lines to South Whit- 
li" , < liurubuso 1 and Etna. 



The new capital stock of $10,000 was 
soon used up, and on the 7th of June, 1901, 
the secretary of state authorized an increase 
to $25,000. About this time a demand for 
farm telephone service sprang up, and to 
meet this demand and to rebuild the Colum- 
bia City exchange, required the full author- 
ized capital. 

In 1900, an exchange had been estab- 
lished at South Whitley, and in order to take 
over the properties of the home company 
and the South Whitley company, the Whit- 
ley County Telephone Company was, on 
the 8th of October, 1903, incorporated with 
a capital stock of $100,000. The incorpora- 
tors were the principal stockholders of both 
companies, and all the property and con- 
tracts of both companies were assigned to 
the new company. The directors of the 
Whitley county company were S. J. Pea- 
body, A. A. Adams, G. A. Pontius, F. H. 
Foust, W. F. McLallen. T. R. Marshall, 
J. E. Remington, Robert Wiener and A. H. 
Krieg. With an ample capital and a large 
demand for telephone service, the company 
has had a phenomenal growth. Exchanges 
have been established at Larwill, Etna and 
Laud, and all the exchanges of the company 
are connected and free service is given be- 
tween exchanges. At this writing (August 
1, 1906) the company has in actual service 
1,447 telephones, representing an approxi- 
mate investment of $100,000. Twenty-two 
young ladies are employed at the different 
exchanges as operators. W. H. Magley is 
the manager of all of the company's proper- 
ties. The business rate at Columbia City 
is $24 per year, and at South Whitley $18 
per year. The residence, farm and village 
rate is $12 per year. 


The Churubusco Company, or rather the 
Geiger Company, first began operations at 
Churubusco in the fall of 1900. It was 
owned, built and operated by AVilliam A. 
Geiger and his son Virgil, and is still owned 
and operated by them and has a large pat- 
ronage. The Whitley County Company 
has run four wires to Churubusco and has 
an exchange arrangement by which the 
Geiger Company gives its patrons the service 
of the Whitley County Company and the 
Whitley County Company's patrons have 
free service over the Geiger lines. A like 
exchange has been effected by the Whitley 
County Company with the Wilmot Com- 
pany, giving service to many patrons in the 
north-west part of the county. The Geiger 
company has over 600 instruments in use 
and its service extends into Noble and Allen 


A company was organized at Luther, on 
the Whitley and Huntington county line, 
in 1902. It is properly a Huntington county 
local company, and is not connected with 
our companies and has less than half a 
dozen subscribers in Whitley county. 


A large number of the farmers of Whit- 
lev count)- met at Tuttle's Opera House, in 
Columbia City, August 25, 1903. and or- 
ganized by electing L. W. Dunfee tempo- 
ral^- president, and Robert R. Scott tern- 

1 62 


porary secretary. It was determined to 
build a telephone system by popular sub- 
scription, for the purpose of giving the 
farmers communication with each other and 
with the towns. The capital stock was put 
at 1,000 shares of $25 each, and 150 of the 
shares were sold at the first meeting. 

On September 8th, the company met for 
permanent organization, adopted rules, reg- 
ulations and by-laws and elected a board of 
seven directors, as follows : Robert R. 
Scott, Henry Norris, Charles R. Banks, 
John C. Pentz, Irvin J. Krider. Frank 
Briggs and Lewis W. Dunfee. Scott was 
elected president, Dunfee and Stoner vice 
presidents, and John C. Pentz secretary and 

Work began in November, by planting 
the first pole just south of the Nickel Plate 
Railroad at the town of Raber. A line was 
quickly built to Laud and an exchange was 
installed at that place March 16. 1904, with 
fifty patrons, all that could be accommo- 
dated, while double that number were wait- 
ing for service. A line w-as then run from 
Laud through South Whitley to Lar- 
will. and an exchange put in Larwill in 
June. The South Whitley exchange was 
installed September I, 1904. 

A franchise was granted the company 
to enter Columbia City October 1, 1904, 
and lines and cables were quickly built and 
the first farmers' phone in Columbia City 
was installed in democratic headquarters, on 
the evening of the presidential election. 
1904, and gave the news, which, of course, 
was not satisfactory. Reference here is 
made to the news, and not to the tele- 
phone service. The connection was made 
by way of the South Whitley exchange, or 
over the line to South Whitley. 

The following day an exchange was in- 
stalled in Columbia City, and on the same 
day the Central Union Company abandoned 
their toll office in Columbia City and con- 
nected their toll line into the Fanners' Mu- 
tual exchange. It was the policy of this 
company, from its inception, to abolish all 
t<ill service within the county. This had 
already been done by the Whitley County 
Company, and since November 1, 1904. all 
service is free within the count)' and to 
many patrons outside; except regular phone 
rental which is uniformly $1.00 a month to 
residences and $2.00 a month to business 

The Farmers' Mutual Company in- 
creased its capital stock to $100,000 at its 
annual meeting September, 1904. 

It had, November 20. 1906, 1,152 
phones in operation in all parts of the 
county, except that it has but two in Smith 
township. Four hundred and five of these 
are operated from the Columbia City ex- 
change. The present officers are Albert 
Bush, president ; William H. Carter, secre- 
tary : John C. Pentz, superintendent of con- 
struction ; Charles R. Banks, treasurer. 
Robert R. Scott has charge of the business 
as general manager. There are now over 
3,150 telephones in actual use in Whitley 

Our people can sit in home or office and 
converse with any one of more than three- 
quarters of the homes and places of business 
in the county and the number of phones is 
rapidly increasing. If it is desired to send 
sad intelligence or good tidings to any part 
of the county, if the exact place cannot be 
reached, at least a near neighbor can, and 
our people are practically at home with each 
other at all times. 





At different times during the last thirty 
years, there have been efforts made to form 
an Old Settlers' organization in Whitley 
county, and a number of old settlers' picnics 
have been held and always attended by 
large crowds of people ; but it was not until 
the autumn of 1904 that anything like a 
successful effort was made to organize a per- 
manent Old Settlers' Association and His- 
torical Society. A meeting for the purpose 
of forming such an organization was called 
to meet at Loon Lake, on Saturday. Sep- 
tember 17, 1904, and the meeting was a 
success in ever}' sense of the word and was 
attended by a great crowd of people. A 
permanent organization was effected, and 
Judge Joseph W. Adair was chosen presi- 
dent and Samuel P. Kaler, secretary and his- 
torian. The second annual meeting of the 
society was held at the court house and 
on the court house lawn, in- Columbia City, 
on Thursday, August 17, 1905, and was 
attended by one of the largest crowds of 
people ever seen in Columbia City. Hon. 
John W. Baker was chosen president. R. 
H. Maring, secretary, and S. P. Kaler, 
historian. Judge Otis L. Ballon, of La- 
Grange, delivered the oration of the day. 

A registration of all persons who had 
lived in the county for thirty years or longer, 
was taken, which revealed that Mrs. Mary 
Gould, of Smith township, who was born in 
Maryland, on January 30, 1814. was the 
oldest person in the county to register, and 
William Leslie, of Cleveland township, who 

had lived in the county continuously since 
1 83 1, was the person having the longest 
residence in the county, while Mrs. Rosanna 
Krider was the oldest person to register who 
had been born in Whitley county. Mrs. 
Krider was born in Smith township, Sep- 
tember 15, 1834. 

John R. Anderson, of Richland town- 
ship, was presented with a gold headed 
cane, for being the oldest tax payer in the 
county, he having the distinction of being 
a continuous tax payer since the county was 
organized in 1838, and never being 

At a meeting of the officers of the as- 
sociation, September 30, 1905, it was voted 
to fix the third Thursday in August, in each 
year, as the date for holding the annual Old 
Settlers' reunion, and at a later meeting it 
was voted to hold the reunion for 1906 at 
Columbia City. 

The meeting was accordingly held on 
Thursday. August 16, 1906, and again 
brought a great crowd of people to Columbia 
City. An interesting feature of the meeting 
was the presence of Kil-so-quah, the noted 
Indian squaw, ninety-six years old. and her 
son, Anthony Revarre, (White Loon) of 
near Roanoke, Ind. The Indians were 
brought to Columbia City, in the morning. 
by S. J. Peabody. in his large automobile. 
and were returned in the evening by Fred 
Welshimer, also in an automobile. Judge 
Lemuel W. Royse, of Warsaw, delivered the 
oration of the dav, and Dr. |ohn W. Morr. 



of Albion, and Hon. Clarence C. Gilhams, of 
LaGrange, democratic and republican candi- 
dates for congress, respectively, in the 
twelfth district, were also present and ad- 
dressed the crowd. 

A registration revealed the fact that 
Mrs. Mary Gould, of Smith township, who 
was ninety-two years, six months and six- 
teen days old, was the oldest person to 
register, but as she had taken the prize last 
year, the prize this year, a silver loving cup, 
was awarded to the next oldest person to 
register, which proved to be James Davis, 
of Richland township, who was ninety-one 
years, five months and twenty-eight days old. 

The second prize, a large Bible, was 
awarded to the person who had lived the 
longest in Whitley county and this proved 
to be Mrs. Jane Hull, of Smith township, 
who had lived in the county since January 
22, 1836, and was eighty-five years, seven 
months and twenty-four days old. 

The secretary reported that there had 
been eighty-five deaths of old settlers since 
the meeting one year ago, and a suitable 
memorial was adopted. 

The association elected the following 
officers for the next year : President, Henry 
McLallen secretary. Melvin Blain; treas- 
urer, James Wasburn ; historian, S. P. 

Previous to this organization, a number 
of Old Settlers' meetings had been held in 
the county, mention of which may be made 
of the one held in Columbia City in the au- 
tumn of 1877; the one in Troy township, in 
September, 1881, and the one at Blue Lake, 
in 1896. 

At the laying of the corner stone of the 
court hmise in Columbia city, on September 

21, 1888, a committee of Old Settlers had 
charge of a part of the exercises of the 
day. The committee was composed of the 
following well known citizens, nearly all of 
whom are now dead : 

James S. Collins, Benjamin F. Thomp- 
son, Joseph Welker, Leonard S. Maring, 
Jacob Nickey, Christian H. Creager, Isaac 
Hartsock, Martin Bechtel, Joseph Douglas 
and Solomon Miller. 

At the Old Settlers' meeting at Loon 
Lake, in 1904, Judge Joseph W. Adair spoke 
as follows : 


\\ e meet to-day to live over again some 
of the days of the past, and though many of 
us are near the dead line of the psalmist's 
reckoning, we say, "Come, grow old with 
me: the best of the days are" yet to be." 

We are joined by bright and dutiful sons, 
beautiful and loving daughters, but all these 
who come with their good cheer and all 
their wealth of affection to bid us good 
speed and happiness as we near the end of 
our race, can only renew our grief for those 
who have gone before. 

There is one common, wholesome cry 
springing eternal in the human soul, "Re- 
member me." The most careless soldier, 
in his weary march, feels the road shorter 
and better and his load lighter, when he 
thinks of a home some place where he is 
remembered. Amid the din and roar of 
the great battle brave soldiers are asking' : 
Is mother praying for me to-day? Is wife 
appealing- to the great White Throne to spare 
me? Is tlie dear girl I parted with at her 
cottage home with no word, but a sigh, still 



waiting for my return ? When this struggle 
lias ended, when this roar of battle has 
ceased, when the evening shadows fall, and 
I am left on this bloody field, will they miss 
me? When men and women talk of wars 
and battles, will they speak of me as one who 
loved his country and gave all he had to save 
it? This is all the reward that the good 
soldier asks or ever expects of men, and 
hopes that the God of battles will overturn 
and overturn, till he whose right it is shall 
rule and give rest to his soul. 

Men of high commercial instinct will 
plan and plan, squeeze and squeeze, wreck 
and wreck, and bring to nought all opposi- 
tion, and rob the thoughtless and improv- 
ident, that they may be remembered in the 
endowment of colleges or the erection of a 
stone library ; and, as helpful as their gifts 
may seem, we cannot resist the conviction 
that it is unwarranted flattery to call such a 
man a thief. The widow with her mite 
will live longer than the man with his name 
etched on a granite slab. 

The "Prisoner for Debt," described by 
our dear poet, will live longer than the man 
and his one hundred and sixty millions. 

"What has the gray haired prisoner done? 
Has murder stained his hands with human 

Not so, crime is a fouler one, 
God made the old man poor." 

As we look into your faces to-day, we 

read the hope that you are kindly remem- 

*bered now and will not be forgotten when 

you go to that land of the unfailing river 

and the unsetting sun. 

In the busv strife of life, we sometimes 

forget to think of friends separated, but are 
never willing to confess that we have for- 
gotten them. We have unbounded sympa- 
thy for any human being who can return 
to his old home and hear all the people say : 
"We have forgotten you." Perhaps you 
have all read the beautiful story of Rip Van 
Winkle, and some of you have seen the 
master artist represent him on the stage. 
After twenty years, he returns to his native 
village to learn that no man, woman or 
child remembered him, nor his dog Snyder. 
When Jefferson exclaims in deep pathos, 
"Are we so soon forgot?" the audience must 
break forth in tears as it beholds the true 
picture of human sadness and disappoint- 
ment. This world has many Rip Van 
Winkles in it and some, perhaps, deserve no 
better fate. 

Your committee requested that this ad- 
dress be in writing and largely historical. 
This was the first time that I had ever been 
accused of being a historian and I believe 
it will be the last time. But, a few things 
I have learned and will tell them to you in 
a very few words. 

Whitley county was named in honor of 
the great and brave Col. Whitley, of Ken- 
tucky, who fell at the battle of the Thames, 
in Canada, in 1812. Peace to his brave soul 
and may the sons of little Whitley ever 
emulate his honor and patriotism. 

We belonged to Old Allen county from 
1824 to 1837 — thirteen years — when the 
good county of Huntington took charge of 
us and nursed us till the first day of April, 
1838, when we began business for ourselves. 
Richard Baughan was appointed first sheriff. 
by Governor Wallace, and ordered to give 
notice and designate suitable places for hold- 

1 66 


ing election ; he gave notice for election to be 
held in four places in the county. One was 

at the house of Louis kinsey, now in Cleve- 
land township; one at the house of Andrew 
Compton, now in Richland township; one 
at the house of Richard Baughan. now in 
Thorncreek township: and one at the house 
of John M. Moure, now in Union township. 

The tally sheet of this election was never 
filed with the clerk, but there were not more 
than sixty votes cast. There being no 
organized townships, for the election of 
clerk, recorder, associate judge and com- 
missioners. Sheriff Baughan gave notice of 
another election, to fill these offices, by post- 
ing on trees along Indian trails and on cabin 
doors, of an election to be held at the house 
of Calvin Alexander, near what we n< iw 
call "Beech Chapel," in Thorncreek town- 
ship. Fifteen persons met, selected and 
unanimously elected Abraham Cuppy, clerk 
and recorder: Jacob A. Vanhouten and 
Benjamin F. Martin, associate judges; Otho 
\V. Gandy, Nathaniel Gradeless and Joseph 
Parrett, county commissioners. 

The first term of court held in Whitley 
county was at the saw mill of Richard 
Baughan, in Thorncreek township, on the 
ijth day of April, [839. 

Whitley county is one of the best coun- 
ties in Indiana, now the best state in our 
union of states. All [ndianans will admit 
this. If the stranger denies it. we will con- 
vince him with ready proof. 

The present generation of men and 
women living in northern Indiana ought 
I" In- the best that any state can show, for 
yon sprang from noble men and women 
coining from the east and from the south- 
land. I he reason for the possession of no- 

bility of character and steadfastness of pur- 
pose of the pioneer of this county is easy 
to find. They were men of courage for the 
coward heard of the savage men and the 
savage beast had not yet left, and said: "I 
guess I will remain awhile," and he re- 
mained in some quiet peaceful home among 
the Xew England hills, or in the cotton fields 
of the south. They were men and women 
with a purpose in life, and when they 
reached the conclusion to come, thev put 
their children in the wagon and started. Xo 
lazy, thriftless couple started, or, if they did, 
they never got through the Black Swamp. 

They were not men of any considerable 
amount of money — only enough to buy a 
little home at one dollar and twenty-five 
cents an acre and support the wife and chil- 
dren until they could see the corn silk and 
potato bloom on their own lands; the old 
man of the barns remained at home and 
said, "Soul, take thy ease." What a fool 
he was. This was no country to attract the 
worshiper of gold or the idle dreamer of 
visions of ease and pleasure, but the hard 
stern facts faced them that they must labor 
and wait. 

It was no miracle then that the noblest 
type of God's men and women came to settle 
in this good land. 

It is written in history that at the battle 
of Gettysburg, when the Confederate line 
was thrown into confusion and retreat and 
the whole Confederate army was in danger 
of stampede, their greatest commander, Lee, 
stood on the retreating line and simplv said, 
"All good soldiers will stop here." The 
soldier in gray heard the words and turned 
his face to the enemy, and order was re- 
stored in the Confederate army. So, it is 



no miracle or incident of chance that the best 
men and women should come to settle this 
land, or that their children should be men 
and women of real worth and bonor, for it 
is a fulfillment of the laws that- God has 

I feel that I am but a boy yet, but re- 
membering back almost sixty years, 1 can 
think of some of the things that I now feel 
that the pioneer might complain about with- 
out being charged with ingratitude. Those 
of us who were raised on ague and mosqui- 
toes would naturally think of these as the 
first hardships. I cannot explain to these 
young ladies and gentlemen what the ague 
was, but you old settlers know what it was. 
When the chill first came on we were afraid 
we would die. but when the fever took hold 
of us we were afraid we would not die. 
Talk about discouraging conditions. Go to 
my home fifty-eight years ago. Mother 
almost dead from the bite of a rattlesnake, 
fourteen children with the ague and father 
away from home hunting for bread. These 
were not altogether unusual conditions 
found in the homes of this count)' sixty 
years ago. 

Roads — well, we had none, in the sense 
which you now talk about roads. Think 
of going from here to Columbia City or 
Fort Wayne, through an undisturbed forest, 
with only here and there a tree blazed or a 
small sapling cut away. Well, we have no 
time to talk about these things to-day, and, 
that they are now past, no disposition to 
complain, for they might have been much 

Our opportunities to acquire the most 
common education were meager indeed. 
Sixty davs school in the year, often a sub- 

scription school ami many of us our parents 
too poor to pay for more than half their 
children of school age. There were no red 
schoolhouses in those days — only the log 
schoolhouse with stick chimney. I can de- 
scribe to you my first school and my teacher, 
which I believe a fair sample of teachers and 
schoolhouses in this county fifty-four years 
ago. The house stood about half way be- 
tween this point and my home, four miles 
from here and was called the "Scott school- 
house" — a plain log house with inverted 
slabs for seats and greased paper for lights, 
situated on the margin of a beautiful swamp : 
and, remember, the builders were no re- 
spector of persons, for they built all seats 
of the same height. My first teacher was 
Elder Fuller, who had his blacksmith shop 
at the other end of this lake, who pounded 
iron the most of the time, preached the gos- 
pel on Sunday, and pounded the bad boys 
for sixty days in the year, and with all his 
preaching and pounding I do not think he 
realized three hundred dollars per year. 
Oh, how well I remember my first recitation 
— if I dare call it that — "Come here, lad," 
he said, pointing to me. I arose and ap- 
proached. Taking from my hand the old 
elementary speller and, pointing with a tun- 
ing fork to the first letter of the alphabet, 
he said, "What is that?" I meekly con- 
fessed I did not know. He said, "That is 
the letter A. it looks for all the world like 
the gable end of your father's barn. Say 
"A." I said "A" and he said. "Take your 
seat." And I have ever after known the 
letter "A" when I saw it. Elder Fuller was 
a noble specimen of good manhood, a 
preacher of force and learning. Peace to 
his soul and may we meet more like him. 

1 68 


My experience was your experience, and 
I must leave most of it with you to think 
about to-day. 

We cannot close without a few words to 
the young ladies and gentlemen who have 
met with us. 

Young friends, you have a right to be 
proud of your ancestry and of your county. 
I pit}- the man who has ever found a better 
woman than his own mother, or a better 
country than his own country. You begin 
life in the very morning of the world's his- 
tory. I would rather live the next fifty 
years than to live the nine hundred and 
sixty-nine years of Methuselah, who did 
nothing but watch oxen eat grass. 

If you would be happy, try to make 
others happy about you, and remember that 

"No soul ever entered heaven alone. 
But save another soul and that 
Will save your own." 

Do your duty. This is the only way to 
success. When the boy boarded the man of 
war, the old captain said, "Lad, we have only 
two things aboard this ship : one is duty and 
the other is mutiny." 

You remember the story from "The 
Tales from the Wayside Inn,'* where the 
devout monk prayed for the higher and 
better life, and as he prayed the angel of the 
Lord appears, and as he listened to the words 
of the angel the convent bell rang out call- 
ing him to feed the beggars ; he hesitated, 
but the angel said, "Go, do your duty." He 
went and fed the beggars, and on his return 
found the angel still there, who said, "If 
you had remained I must have left." 

More than fifty years ago I learned to 
recite to my teacher, that good and brave 

soldier, Capt. Will N. Vorris, now of 

Albion, this almost forgotten poem : 

"How dear to my heart are the scenes of 
my childhood 
When fond recollection presents them to 
view : 
The orchard, the meadow, the deep tangled 
wildwood and every 
Fond spot that my infancy knew. 
The broad spreading river, the mill that 
stood near it; 
The bridge, the rock where the cataract 
The cot of my father, the dairy house by it. 
Even the rude bucket which hung in the 
The old oaken bucket, the iron bound bucket, 
The moss covered bucket that hung in 
the well. 

The moss covered bucket I hailed as a 
When often at noon returning from the 
I found it a source of exquisite pleasure. 
The sweetest and best that nature can 
How ardently I received it with hands all 
aglow : 
Soon to the white pebbled bottom it fell. 
Soon returning with the emblem of life 
All dripping with coolness it rose from 
the well. 
The old oaken bucket, the iron bound bucket. 
The moss covered bucket that hung in 
the well. 

How quick to receive from its moss covered 



As it poised on the curb and inclined to 
my lips. 
Not a full flowing goblet would tempt me 
to leave it 
Though filled with the nectar that Jupiter 
Now far removed from the scenes of my 

A tear of regret intrusively swells 
As I think of my father's plantation 

And long for the bucket that hung in the 

The old oaken bucket, the iron bound bucket. 
The moss covered bucket that hung in 
the well." 


W hitley count} 7 has an organization that 
is unique, and the only one of the kind in 
the state, as far as the writer has been able 
to learn. It is the Whitley County Officials' 
Fraternal Association, and all present county 
officers and their deputies, all ex-county of- 
ficers, their deputies and all persons who 
have held an official position in the count}'. 
are entitled to membership. 

In the spring of 1903, it was suggested 
that there be held a reunion of the ex- 
sheriffs of \\ "hitley county, and a meeting 
for that purpose was called to be held at 
Sheriff Gallagher's office on the 19th of 
March. At that time, ten ex-sheriffs of 
Whitley county were living, namely: John 
W. Wynkoop, who had served from 1 8( >J 
to 1S66, Oliver P. Koontz, 1866 to 1870, 
Jacob W. Miller, 1870 to 1874, William H. 
Liggett, 1874 to 1878, Franklin P. Allwein. 
1880 to 1884, Leander Lower, 1884 to 1888. 
William W. Hollipeter, 1888 to 1890, John 
W. McNabb, 1890 to 1S94, Thomas N. 
Hughes, 1894 to 1896, and Benjamin F. 
Hull, 1896 to 1900; Edward L. Gallagher 
being sheriff at that time. 

The meeting was accordingly held, and 
Oliver P. Koontz was chosen president and 
Edward L. Gallagher, secretary-treasurer. 

At the meeting, it was voted to organize a 
permanent association and invite all other 
county officers and ex-county officers to be- 
come members, and afterwards it was voted 
to extend the invitation to all persons who 
had occupied an official position in the 
county, whether principal or deputy, and it 
was arranged to hold an annual meeting of 
the association on the second Thursday in 
October in each year, to be followed by a 
banquet in the evening. 

The first annual meeting of the associa- 
tion was held at the circuit court room on 
Thursday, October 8, 1903, at which time 
Oliver P. Koontz was re-elected president 
and E. L. Gallagher, secretary-treasurer. 

An incident of this meeting may be men- 
tioned here: Rev. A. J. Douglas, who had 
served as county superintendent of schools 
for ten years and who at that time was in 
quite feeble health, was reported to be in the 
basement of the building and very desirous 
of attending the meeting, but unable to 
ascend the stairs. Accordingly, the presi- 
dent appointed Frederick Nei, ex-commis- 
sioner, and Richard H. Maring, ex-clerk, to 
assist Mr. Douglas up stairs. He was 
placed in a large chair and carried up stairs 
where he enjoyed the meeting very much. 


\ banquet was held at the Clugston 
house in the evening, Hon. A. A. Adams. 
ex-representative, acting' as toast master. 
Judge Adair. C. S. Williams, coroner, W. 
H. Liggett, ex-sheriff, and S. P. Kaler, 
ex-clerk, making the principal speeches. 

The next meeting of the association was 
held on Thursday, October 13, 1904, when 
Col. I. B. McDonald, who had served as 
clerk of the court nearly fifty years before 
and also had served the county as representa- 
tive, state senator and county school superin- 
tendent, was chosen president, and Jesse A. 
Glassley, present clerk, was made secretary- 

A banquet was held in the evening, the 
ladies of the United Brethren church serv- 
ing the supper, Benjamin F. Menaugh, ex- 
mayor of the city and ex-deputy sheriff, act- 
ing as toast master, and Henry McLallen. 
ex-treasurer, W. H. Liggett, ex-sheriff and 
George H. Tapy, present county superin- 
tendent, making the principal addresses. 

The third meeting of the association was 
held on Thursday evening", October 12. 
1005, when Jacob W. Miller, ex-sheriff, was 
elected president, and Charles E. Lancaster, 
present auditor, was made secretary-treas- 
urer. The ladies of the I'nited Brethren 
church again served the supper at the ban- 
quet in the evening, and Hon. Thomas R. 
Marshall, ex-notary public, was toast master. 
Judge Olds responded to the toast: "Early 
Recollections of the Bench ;" Col. Mc- 
Donald spoke on "Early Recollections of 
County Officers;" R. H. Maring spoke on 
the "Pioneer," and John W. Baker re- 
sponded to the subject, "Republican News- 

Ex-Sheriff Liggett, at the [904 banquet. 

had for his subject: "1X74:" his address 
was 1 if a historical nature and is as follows: 

"I am only human, and that is the reason 
nothing pleases me better than to see my 
name in the paper. When 1 saw my name 
in the paper the other day. as one of those 
who were to talk to you this evening about 
"1 874," I felt first rate — better than I do 
now that the time has arrived to do the 
talking. There is more pleasure, it is said. 
in anticipation than in realization. 

Beforehand. I always imagine a good 
many things that don't come' to pass, and I 
get puffed up over the nice things I think I 
am going to say, and the nice things that will 
be said about the nice things I have said. 
I make amends, by feeling extremelv humble 
for some time after, however. 

Imagine how I felt thirty vears ago 
when all the newspapers of one side anyway 
heralded my virtues far and near. I felt 
pretty good. Did I step high? Yes. sir: 
I could have stepped over a bank barn. 
That is, along at first; but when I saw what 
the Post said about me, I shrank up like one 
of those rubber balls you buy on show days 
that are full to bursting when yon buy 
them, but as_ soon as you squeeze them a 
little, thev collapse on your hands to about 
the size of a walnut. 

1 don't see how the newspapers can take 
just a common man — or, well, a mule, and 
make a lion of him. and by punching him a 
few times turn him back into a mule again — 
but thev can. This remark is not intended 
to reflect in any way upon myself or any 
one else. Perhaps the newspapers can get 
some consolation out of it and will comment 
on it. 

The year 1874 is indelibly fixed upon my 



memory, for in 1874 I emerged from ob- 
scurity and became great. Some men are 
born great — some achieve greatness and 
some, like myself, get into the hand wagon 
bv accident, the team runs away and carries 
them to the front of the procession. 

Becoming great is like getting rich — it 
is no sign of mental superiority — but mostly 
luck. Many a man gets all skinned up in 
his efforts to become rich or great. The 
chances are that if I got into the hand 
wagon now, the mules would run away in 
the wrong direction and break my neck ; and 
I should be greatly missed ; something, too, 
I should greatly regret. 

There have been great changes in 
Whitley county since I burst like a comet on 
the horizon of politics. The swamps and 
swales that were then the abode of the mos- 
quito and the home of the perfumed cat, 
now produce thousands of bushels of 
oderiferous onions — not very much differ- 
ence in the perfume perhaps, though the 
"cents" are in favor of the onions. But I 
will leave this matter to be discussed by some 
of the other speakers. I could talk to 
you for an hour on skunks and onions, but 
that would be too much like discussing poli- 
tics, and I do not want to do that this 

When one has become great, either by 
accident or design, he writes — or has some- 
body write for him — a minute history of 
his life, beginning with his childhood and 
gradually leading up to his magnificent man- 
hood, when the newspapers, for considera- 
tion, take him up and so advertise his virtues 
that a deluded public makes him its idol. 

Most of the great men of the nineteenth 
century were born in a log cabin in Ohio. 

They were born poor, but always burn 
honest, they tell us. 1 am not an exception. 
1 was born in Ohio, in a log cabin, pour but 
honest. I remained honest until 1 was two 
years old — or until 1 cut my first set of teeth, 
when I became wobbly. I am still reported 
wobbly by those who know me best. The 
dentists say I can even get wobblyer and 
wobblyer every time I cut a new set of teeth. 
I believe, however, if the other fellow would 
always do right by me as I look at it. I'd 
meet him half way and be good. That is, if 
there is any money in it for me, I'd be good. 
At my time of life, I cannot afford to be 
good for nothing. Honesty is the best policy 
in everything except politics. 

It seems to me I am not able to stick to my 
text this evening — get to talking about my- 
self and forget it. But I want to say before 
I get to rambling again, that I can truthfully 
say, as I lay my hand on the place my heart 
used to be — before I was married — if there 
is any virtue in poverty, I am IT. I in- 
herited most of my poverty from my folks : 
but by hard work and close attention to busi- 
ness and by some assistance, I got into poli- 
tics, I have added something to the original 
stock of "no assets" I inherited, until now in 
my old age I have quite a stock of calami- 
ties on hand which I would like to exchange 
with Mr. Carnegie for some of his cash. 
He could have his wish perhaps and die 
poor and I would dye — my whiskers. 

But about 1874. I have forgotten some 
of the mean things I did in 1874, and since 
I have cultivated the habit of forgetting 
them until now distance has lent such en- 
chantment to the view, that I complacently 
look upon myself and the campaign of 1874 
as being perfectly delightful. Among other 



things it did this for me — it made it possible 
for me to know most of you gentlemen 
present here this evening — something that 
perhaps I am prouder of than you are. But 
your friendship and good will are something 
I value highly. The honors of office 
are nothing. if to get the office 
you must sacrifice friends or self-re- 
spect to succeed. Ingratitude is not one of 
my faults, and I never turn my back to a 
friend. We joke each other a great deal 
during a campaign, and accuse each other 
of many things we do not mean, but so far 
as I know. I have never lost a friend by any- 
thing I have done or said about him because 
he was not of my political faith. I never 
intend to let political matters interfere with 
business or friendship. If I have ever un- 
wittingly said anything at any time you 
don't like, you may, if you wish to do so, 
apologize to me for it after the entertain- 
ment is over this evening; though it is not 
absolutely necessary. 

But I must get to talking about 1874 
pretty soon. In 1874, on the 25th day of 
July, the People's party of this county nomi- 
nated a ticket. I was one of the number the 
People's party drew as a prize on that day. 
I was nominated to run for sheriff and I 
began to run that same evening. 

My diary, if I had one, would read like 
this : July 25th, nominated for sheriff, 6 p. 
m. ; shook hands with about two million 
people; got home late; didn't tell my wife 
about it — no use for her to get stuck up 
about it — she can't be sheriff anyway. July 
26th, Sunday, lot of people here to-day to 
congratulate me: wife knows all about it 
now, but don't seem to be puffed up any — 
not as much as I am, in fact. July 27th, still 

running for office; wife says to me, "see 
here, why are you strutting around so much 
anyway ; why don't you go out and split 
some wood ; you haven't got sand enough 
to split kindlings, let alone being sheriff." 
August 2nd ; still running for office — been 
at it a week now. I like it better than plow- 
ing corn ; feeling pretty good. August 9th; 
still running; don't feel so good; the Post 
said some things about me this week I didn't 
know anyone knew about ; think I'll resign. 
August 16th, running some: been notified 
to drop $50 in the political slot; dog-gone 
politics anyway; August 23d, the Post is 
still at it and I don't feel well; am not run- 
ning much this week; if the Post proves the 
things it says it can,. I'm a goner: weather 
pretty warm. Think I'll resign and go 
some place where it is not so hot all around. 
August 30th, moving along, but pretty slow ; 
getting too hot to run. If all the Post says is 
true, I am dog-gone lucky if I don't land in 
jail without being elected. September 3d. 
running yet, feeling some better, our paper 
has been giving it to the Post like Sam Hill ; 
dropped another $50 in the slot; wife needs 
a new calico dress; she'll have to patch the 
old one again. September 10th, still running. 
September 17th, ditto; September 24th, ditto, 
October 1st, slowed down again. The Post 
has proved all the mean things it said about 
me and I am expecting to be arrested any 
minute. If ever I get out of this thing 
without being hung, I'll bet nobody will get 
me to run for office again. October 15th. 
election over: I'm IT. Just got word. I 
owe the committee $25 more: I've a 
notion to let the committee sweat for the 
money. I've been worried enough. Oc- 
tober 20th, dropped $25 as per request in the 



political slot; just like losing it. Now if 
ever any one suggests to me to run for office 
again, I'll take him by his soft white hand 
and gently lead him out behind the barn 
and brain him with the meat axe." 

This is the last entry in the diary. In 
1876 I had forgotten all this and entered 
myself for a three minute trot against a lot 
of ringers, and came pretty near being left 
at the quarter pole. 

After the election they had a big jollifi- 
cation at South Whitley. I went with some 
fear and trembling, felt it my duty to go, 
but was afraid maybe I would have to make 
a speech or get my hat burnt. Thought, 
though, if I had to make a speech, I'd deliver 
my inaugural and be done with that duty. 
There was a big crowd and everybody 
yelled, and everybody tried to burn every- 
body's hat but his own. Finally they burnt 
my hat and I yelled some too. Then they 
ran a big wagon out in the street, and I 
was caught and thrown into it — lit mostly 
on my head and kind of on all fours. As 
soon as I got on my feet and got the straw 
out of my mouth, I yelled some more and 
then waved my hands and arms and shook 
my head and kicked. Everybody was yell- 
ing and the crowd thought I was making a 
speech. About all I said was : "It gives 
me great pleasure (nit) to be here to-night 
and get my best Sunday hat burnt and have 
to go home bareheaded. If during my term 
of office any of you fellows have to be 

hanged, it will give me ." But 

just then the crowd quit yelling and I got 
down out of the wagon and slid for home 

Since then I have dwelt among you, and 
my life has been as an open book. I have 
been careful not to do anything the papers 

could get onto and make capital out of. I 
don't think I shall ever go into another cam- 
paign as the people's idol; it's too risky; 
they say things about you you would rather 
they wouldn't, and make you uneasy. 

There are but four left of those who 
composed the ticket of 1 874 ; James Rider, 
John Richards, Levi Adams and myself. 
The others are gone. The history of theii 
lives is part of the history of Whitley 
county. The ticket of 1874 made some his- 
tory, and it did its share in clearing up the 
political atmosphere of Whitley county. 
The survivors of that ticket are getting to 
be old men. It will not be long until the 
closing chapter of their lives will be written. 
and at the bottom of the page will be written 
the two words — The End. 

At the 1905 banquet, ex-Clerk Richard 
H. Maring spoke on the subject: "The 
Pioneers," as follows : 

The subject assigned me by the pro- 
gramme committee is rather indefinite. I 
might assume that they had in mind J. Feni- 
more Cooper's famous book: "The Pio- 
neers," or the early settlers of the Lnited 
States, or the state of Indiana, or Whitley 
county, or I might infer that they desired 
me to say something about the pioneer 
county officers of Whitley county. Vol- 
umes might be written upon these subjects, 
but in the very brief time at my command T 
will only allude to some of the early county 
officers, and especially to some of the men 
who in the long ago have occupied the office 
of clerk of the circuit court in this count) - . 

Of the thirteen men who have occupied 
that position of trust, eight are still living, 
and there has not been a death in the ranks 
in ten years. The work of the clerk's office 



is said to be quite laborious, yet it cannot be 
compared with that of the governor of the 
state : only one ex-governor of Indiana is 
living to-day, I believe. The clerk's work 
is n« it all play, yet it has never killed any- 
one in this county. 

\\ hitley county was organized in 1838 
and Abraham Cuppy was the first clerk. 
Mr. Cuppy was a man of considerable abil- 
ity, and afterwards represented the county 
in the state legislature and was a member 
of the state senate at the time of his death 
at Indianapolis, in January, 1847. Mr. 
Cuppy held the clerk's office four years and 
was succeeded by Richard Collins who, ac- 
cording to the records, served thirteen years. 
This would not be tolerated to-day. 

The third clerk, who filled the office from 
1855 to 1859, fifty years ago. was our 
worthy president. Col. I. B. McDonald. Mr. 
McDonald was followed by William E. 
Merriman. who served four years and was 
succeeded by James B. Edwards, who was a 
two termer and served from 1863 to 1871. 
Eli W. Brown was Mr. Edwards' successor 
and filled the office four years. 

These men can truly be called the pio- 
neer clerks of Whitley county. How dif- 
ferent were the conditions then from now. 
Then, court was first held in private houses, 
then in a two-story building that stood on 
the west side of the public square, then in 
the massive brick structure that preceded the 
present temple of justice. In 1838 the 
count}- was sparsely settled, the roads were 
mere Indian trails, the streams were not 
bridged and many of the townships were not 
organized. Then the records were copied 
in inferior books with quill pens, and it is 
said that when Richard Collins was clerk, 

some of the attorneys could read what he 
was writing by the squeaking of his goose 
quill pen as it glided over the pages. 

In after years as the business of the 
courts increased, the clerk was obliged to 
w( irk at nights and on Sundays to keep up his 
records. Now the records are made with 
the latest improved writing machines and 
the clerk can keep regular office hours. 
Then if the sheriff desired to serve notice 
on a juror living in a remote part of the 
county, it meant an all day's drive. Now he 
can call up his man by telephone and trans- 
act the business in a few moments. 

In the beginning, the clerk also filled the 
offices of auditor and recorder, and the 
sheriff's office had to seek the man as the 
compensation of the offices was not enough 
to induce any man to seek the office. In an 
adjoining county, it is said that after a cer- 
tain man had been elected sheriff and quali- 
fied, he traded the office for a shot gun, and 
perhaps the consideration for the transfer 
was adequate. 

In the early days, time evidently hung 
heavily upon the clerk's hands, and I find 
that one in order to pass the time, perhaps 
while some attorney was delivering a tire- 
some argument before a suffering jury, 
amused himself by executing a pencil draw- 
ing on the margin of an old order book. 
The drawing represented a noble red man, 
and under the portrait he had written these 
lines : 

"How vain are all things here below 
The course of justice, oh how slow !" 

Times have changed, and we may con- 
gratulate ourselves that we are living in an 



age of improved utilities, but let us never ally pause, look back and learn a lesson from 

forget the struggles and hardships of the the past. In the language of John Clark 

pioneers whose work has been so effective Ridpath, the noted Indiana historian: 

in the advancements that have followed. "77k' past has taught its lesson; the pres- 

Tn our rapid strides forward let us occasion- cut has its duty and the future its hope." 



It must be remembered that the surface 
of Whitley county was originally half or 
more covered with lakes, swamps and 
marshes, the remainder with heavy timber 
and fallen and decaying' trees and vegeta- 
tion. The rivers and streams were ob- 
structed and in the heat of mid-summer ma- 
laria held high carnival. Bridges and cul- 
verts were few and almost altogether of the 
corduroy type. The homes were -cabins, 
swarming with mosquitoes and other insects. 
Screens for doors and windows were for 
years after unknown. Everything was un- 
sanitary and conditions for health very bad. 
the property of the inhabitants consisting of 
their unimproved lands and scarcely any- 
thing else. 

Nearly all the physicians were from east- 
ern Ohio and other eastern states, since it 
could scarcely be presumed that there were 
at that time any parties engaged in the 
study of medicine preparatory to the practice 
of it. It might be proper under these cir- 
cumstances to give a brief resume of the 
condition of the profession in these states 
east of us. in order that we may become 
better acquainted with the history of the pio- 
neer doctors of the country. The greater 
number of physicians in the east were what 
is called regulars — those who bled, blistered. 

gave mercury, antimony, quinine and man- 
drake root, etc., etc.. secundem artem. 
Homeopathy was scarcely known this side 
of the Atlantic, Thomsonianism was in its 
infancy, and hydropathy, phisiopathy, electi- 
cism, chronothermalism and other isms had 
not been born to the world. In the year 
1822, the celebrated Dr. Samuel Thomson, 
having already invented a system of medi- 
cine, had it patented, as the following docu- 
ment will show : 

(Eagle, etc.) 
No. 2144. Fifth Edition. 

Thomson Patent. 
This may certify, that we have received 
of Thomas M. Greene twenty dollars in full 
for the right of preparing and using for 
himself and family the medicine and system 
of practice secured to Samuel Thomson by 
letters of patent from the President of the 
United States, dated January 28. 1823, and 
that he is hereby constituted a member of 
the Friendly Botanic Society and is entitled 
to an enjoyment of all the privileges at- 
tached to membership therein. 

Dated at Locust Grove, this 27th day of 
August, 1834. 

Pike Platt & Co., 
Aeents for Samuel Thomson. 


The great joke was in being entitled to 
enjoyment of the system. Several settlers 
came to Whitley county up to 1845 armed 
with this deadly weapon against disease. 
The holder, for the consideration of twenty 
dollars, who became possessor of this docu- 
ment, agreed in the "spirit of mutual inter- 
est and honor" not to reveal any part of said 
information to any person, except his fellow 
purchasers, to the injury of the proprietor, 
under the penalty of forfeiting their word 
and honor and all right to use the medicine. 
Accompanying the letters patent was a 
241110 book of one hundred and sixty-eight 
pages of texts and a supplement of twenty- 
eight more, which was supposed to contain 
all that was necessary to know in the depart- 
ment of anatomy, physiology, materia med- 
ica, practice of surgery, midwifery and 
chemistry. While Hippocrates, the "Father 
of Medicine," wrote many aphorisms, Thom- 
son had but one: "Heat is< life, and cold 
is death," and as a result, all that was neces- 
sary to treat a case was to keep the patient 
warm — in fact, hot. This was mainly ac- 
complished by pepper, lobelia, and steam. 
Thomson and his confreres used six prepa- 
rations in particular, which were applicable 
to almost any disease and in any stage of it, 
which were numbered from one to six, in 
order to avoid confusion. No. T, lobelia. 
Xo. 2, cayenne pepper. No. 3, bayberry 
root, bark, Whitepond lily root, and the in- 
ner bark of the hemlock. No. 4, bitters, 
made of bitter herb, bayberry and poplar 
bark, one ounce of each to a pint of hot wa- 
ter, and a half pint of spirit. No. 5. cough 
syrup. No. 6, tincture of myrrh and cay- 
emu' ] >c'i >i >er. These six preparations, with 

a steaming, were supposed to be competent 
to cure any form of disease curable or in- 
curable, — everything from consumption to 
the itch. This system has its victims in 
nearly all the early burying-grounds of the 
county. The following case actually hap- 
pened in Smith township, Whitley county, in 
1839, and will serve to illustrate the treat- 
ment of rheumatism : The doctor ordered 
a large iron kettle to be filled with water 
and brought to the boiling point, the kettle 
being removed from the fire, and the patient 
being divested of most of his clothing, a 
couple of sticks placed across the kettle for 
him to sit on, and a blanket thrown around 
him to hold the steam. Either from the 
quality of the sticks or weight of the pa- 
tient, the sticks gave way and the unhappy 
subject of treatment found himself a poste- 
riori at the bottom of the kettle. This sud- 
den, excessive and untimely application of 
the principles of health heat — as might be 
inferred — aroused all the evil passion of the 
patient and the fears of the doctor, who 
beat a hasty, retreat, followed by the victim, 
and the race was only concluded when old 
Eel river separated the pursuer and the pur- 
sued. It need not be remarked that the 
treatment was so successful that the doctor 
needed not to come back. 

As time progressed, other vegetables were 
added to the materia medica, until it became 
fairly extensive. These worthies went about 
the country abusing the calomel doctors, who 
were killing people, as they said, by blisters. 
bleeding, opium, tartar emetic, etc. Clearly 
a case of the pot calling the kettle black. 
Dr. Thomson believed, with the ancient phi- 
losophers, that there were only four ele- 



ments, fire, air, earth and water, as the fol- 
lowing stanza from one of his poems will 
show : 

"My system's founded on the truth, 
Man's air, and water, fire and earth. 
And death is cold and life is heat, 
These. tempered well, your health's 

Dr. Thomson, of course, condemned 
nearly, if not every remedy used by the 
regulars, especially saltpeter, which he said 
had the most certain deadly effects on the 
human system of any drug used as medicine. 
In its nature cold, there cannot be any other 
effect than to increase that powerful enemy 
to heat. An elderly physician, still in the 
practice, says he heard a celebrated professor 
of this system boast that he never graduated 
a young man in less than six weeks, but 
this was seemingly too long a course, when 
the average boy of twelve years might fa- 
miliarize himself with the system in a few 
hours. This aged professor was also a 
preacher and was charged with being some- 
what prodigal in his statements and reckless 
in handling the truth. On being remon- 
strated with, he confessed to the weakness, 
and said that he had shed barrels of tears 
on account of it. But this system has gone 
the way of many others. 

Another "hoodoo" of the early days was 
the Uroscopian, or water doctor. These 
gentlemen did not subject the urine to a 
chemical or any other test, but pretended to 
diagnose all kinds of disease, without see- 
ing the patient, requiring only a sample of 
the water. This he shook, smelled, felt of, 
and, when he wanted to make the case appear 
very grave, and thought the pay was good, 

actually tasted it. This, with a few slight- 
of-hand performances, sometimes putting a 
drop on the window pane, and looking 
through it, and varying his performances to 
create mystery, constituted the examination. 
These worthies were frequently the victims 
of pretended bearers of samples. For many 
years there was a current joke about Colum- 
bia City referring to an unfortunate female 
and a certain county official in which the 
samples became disarranged. 

The great panacea with this school was 
"blood physic," made up of juniper berries, 
epsom salts, senna leaves and often some 
other herb of practically no medicinal value. 
An ordinary dose of this, properly prepared, 
would nearly fill a gallon pot. The late Dr. 
Firestone once related to the writer that 
he was attending a case in Troy township, 
of a low grade of fever. The family had 
been persuaded that the doctor was incompe- 
tent, and sent for a water doctor over south 
of Pierceton. On Firestone's next trip he 
found a pot of this mixture ready for ad- 
ministration. He advised that it would be 
fatal, but after he left it was given and two 
hours afterward the poor patient ceased to 
require the services of a physician. He had 
gone to that place "where few physicians 
go." Many so called regular doctors were 
the veriest frauds. Young men, who 
thought they might as well be doctors, would 
spend a few days, weeks or possibly months 
in the office of some physician, "then go out 
west" to practice. The only requisites for 
this kind of practice was a horse, a few bot- 
tles and jugs and fewer medicines and a 
goodly amount of what the Arkansas doctor 
called the three "Fs," ignorance, independ- 
ence and impudence. 



Two young men brought up in \\ ayne 
county, Ohio, happened to meet not many 
miles from here. Mutually recognizing each 
other, one of them cried out. "For God's 

sake, H — . don't tell on me, for I 

can purge 'em and puke 'em as good as any 
body." The other replied: "Don't you 
think I'll tell, for the people would then find 
out what scamps we both are, for I am prac- 
ticing below here at ." 

This class generally relied greatly on 
their experience — that is, they had taken 
during their lives an occasional dose of pink 
and senna, calomel and jalap, castor oil, had 
been bled, and blistered and had not for- 
gotten the effects or why they had been 
given. Happily for the people "out west," 
there came an end to this kind of work. 
In our early years of malaria and' unsanitary 
condition many poor souls were ready to ac- 
cept the services of any one calling himself 
doctor. Some of these doctors began busi- 
ness with self-constituted diplomas, resemb- 
ling very much the one that may be found in 
the Comedy of Moliere entitled "Le Malade 
Imaginaire or the Hypochondriac." which 
reads thus: 

Ego cum is to bonets, 
Venerabile et docto. 
Dono tibi et concedo 
Virtutem et puisanciam 






Coupandi et. 

< Iccidendi. 
[mpune per i< itam terram. 

A literal translation of this bastard Latin 
and French would seem to declare that the 
newly fledged doctor is fully empowered to 
dose, purge, bleed, cut and kill with impunity 
unto the ends of the earth. 

In comparatively recent years there ap- 
peared in Columbia City an ignorant, shab- 
by and filthy, long-haired German, who 
stvled himself as Dr. Schweitz. He came 
< m the first of April and rightly celebrated 
the day by hunting up the township asses- 
sor and listing about twelve thousand dollars 
of notes, accounts, books, surgical instru- 
ments, rights, franchises, choses in action 
and what not. This gave him standing as a 
capitalist, though he had not a thing but his 
shabby clothes, and long before tax paying 
time had come he had flown, to the disgust 
of man}' creditors. Did we say that he had 
nothing. He had a diploma, which he called 
a "bluma." He was always prating about 
it, but it was so sacred it was not put on ex- 
hibition, excent to some people, who did not 
knew what it was — except the doctor made 
them believe it was something sublime. In 
fact it was an old patent for a piece of land 
in Clark county, Ohio, and the seal was a 
green wafer with the impress of the United 
States land office. Doc had a case: he 
had several. Such characters always get 
them, but this was a case in which the man 
refused to pay the bill, because of the utter 
incapacity of the doctor. Schweitz secured 
the services of a lawyer, who still practices 
in Columbia City, and, together with a 
ci luple of witnesses, made the trip to a justice 
of the peace in the southern part of the 
county. The trial began with all solemnity, 
but the doctor fell flat. He did not even 
know how to take the temperature of a pa- 



tient. The lawsuit ended in a farce and 
ignominious defeat. Schweitz did not pay 
the livery bill, — but then he didn't pay any- 
thing else. Finally the lawyer said to him, 
"Doc, if you don't pay that bill, I will, for 
I am getting tired of being dunned for it." 
The reply was, "Well, well, I think that 
would be the best," and the lawyer paid it. 
When Schweitz had a case he would ascer- 
tain from the patient the seat of trouble, 
whether of the head, stomach, liver or other 
organ. Then he would go to Dr. Sand- 
meyer, the druggist, and ask for "five 
cents liver, or stomach, or throat," etc. 
AA nen these quacks encountered severe forms 
of disease, they were about as successful as 
the celebrated firm of Sangrado and Gil Bias, 
the latter remarking that when a malignant 
form of fever made its appearance in one of 
the cities of Spain under their treatment it 
was never necessary to visit the patient but 
once, for before time for the second he was 
either dead or moribund, and that they made 
more widows and orphans in six weeks than 
were made during the siege of Troy. 

At Coesse during the building of the 
Pittsburg & Fort AA'ayne Railroad, a doctor 
was called to see a drunken man and he pro- 
nounced it Asiatic cholera and the scare went 
all over the country for miles around. A\ e 
must not forget the Indian doctor. Main- 
early settlers thought that while a white doc- 
tor might do for ordinary ague, it t< » >k a 
regular untutored red man of the forest to 
deal with the intricate and severe diseases. 
probably on the theory that the fellow said, 
his dog was good for coon hunting because 
he did not know anything else, and even 
white men who had been with the Indians 
for awhile were supposed to have absorbed 

some of that superior intelligence. The In- 
dian doctor, cutting a piece of poplar bark 
to plug a wound, rubbing a palsey, or dropsy 
with a twig or herb or punishing a stomach 
with a nasty decoction of weeds, was re- 
garded as almost a superhuman being, en- 
dowed with special wisdom from on high. 
And who has not heard of witches, Hex, 
as our German friends styled them. Many 
neighborhoods in this county even until re- 
cent times were tinctured with the belief that 
many forms of disease was due to "witch 
riding" and many forms and ceremonies 
were gone over to rid the victim from the 
power of the witch. And the worst was 
that many of the witches were not only sus- 
pected, but really known and there was a 
case in Richland township late in the '40s 
in which a witch was ordered to leave the 
neighborhood, and she forthwith went, fear- 
ing threatened violence if she did not. And 
who has not heard of miraculous cures from 
laying on of hands, rubbing and blowing of 
breath, accompanied by some jargon of 
words. The power could be transmitted, 
but nut to one of the same sex. It must be 
the opposite. AA'hy. there is living today a 
man in Columbia City, a prominent business 
man. who when a buy was cured of con- 
sumption by having his hair cut close to his 
head, the hair burned to ashes and the ashes 
put into a hole bored in a living oak tree. 
When the hole healed over the patient was 
cured. Xot over twenty years ago a Colum- 
bia City family was sorely stricken with 
consumption. Several members of the fam- 
ily died and about a year after the father's 
death, a son was stricken. He was told tint 
if his father's beard was secured and 
Inline-! to ashes and drank bv him he would 



recover. A dark and uncanny night friends 
exhumed the father's body, secured the 
w hiskers, and re-interred the body. The si in 
drank the whiskers and died. 

When ague, that omnipresent disease, 
that was always stealing hack when sup- 
posed to be cured, was invading every \\ hit- 
ley county home, the remedies tried could 
never be enumerated and if by chance the 
victim did not have a shake for some time 
after trying the remedy, he was sure that 
he had discovered an absolute specific and 
w r as desirous of having it tried by all his 
fellow sufferers. We have heard of eating 
three lemons a day, eating a pound of raisins 
while the chill was on. roasting a toad and 
eating while the fever was on, walking three 
times around a circle, with the eyes fixed 
intently on the new moon at first appearance, 
bathing in a lake, river, or swamp at sun- 
rise, but perhaps the most peculiar and far- 
fetched remedy ever suggested was com- 
municated in all confidence to Dr. D. G. 
Linvill. A man moved from Pennsylvania 
and located about a mile and a half south of 
Columbia City. The whole family had the 
shakes of course, but the venerable head had 
the worst case. Dr. Linvill would break it 
up. hut it returned, as the air was so thick 
with malaria that you could almost cut it 
with a knife. Finally the old man struck 
the remedy. He went in all soberness to the 
doctor, and told him that he had found a 
sure remedy, but said he, "If I were to tell 
yon, von would make fun of me." The doc- 
tor assured him that he would not, as he 
was anxious as anyone could be to know it. 
After a double assurance that he would not 
he laughed at, he told it with as much con- 
fidence and soberness as if it were a matter 

of life and death, which he really thought 
that it was. "I trimmed my finger nails, 
cooked the clippings in mush and fed the 
mush to the dog. The dog was not par- 
ticularly affected, but when time for the 
chill came. I retched and vomited awfully, 
throwing up a large quanity of gall and bit- 
terness, and my ague was cured." But it 
returned and, fully disgusted, he returned to 
Pennsylvania. The doctor held his mirth 
until away from the house, when he burst 
into a fit of uncontrollable laughter, that did 
not subside till he reached town; not so 
much at the remedy, but at the sincerity with 
which it was told. 

Dr. Francis L. McHugh came to the 
county in 1840 and located on section 12. 
Richland township, from which place he 
moved to Columbia City in 185 1. He was 
smart, able, affable, courteous, and faithful. 
He had a rich Irish brogue. His range of 
medicine included eleven remedies only, digi- 
talis, rhubarb, jalap, quinine, aloes, cayenne, 
calomel, myrrh, epsom salts, salt and 
antimony. He had a perfect knowledge of 
the properties and effect of these, and was a 
good practitioner for his day, riding all over 
Whitley and into the adjoining- counties. 
He was once called into consultation on a 
case in the north of Kosciusko county. The 
patient had been sick a long time, and was 
much reduced and almost bloodless. Dr. 
McHugh prescribed common salt, and told 
the people so. instead of hedging his remedy 
about in mystery. The man rapidly recov- 
ered, and then refused to pay because he was 
cured by salt instead of a lot of mysterious 
compounds. Whoever knew Dr. McHugh 
knew his failings. He would get drunk. 
hut when under the influence of liquor would 


never attempt to diagnose a case or give 
any medicine. People would sometimes 
come a great ways and get him while drunk. 
Arriving at the place, he would take a nap, 
then drink some milk, and assure himself 
that he was in proper condition before even 
seeing the patient. His appetite for liquor 
at times was uncontrollable. Dr. Linvill 
once came upon him as he was ready to begin 
a drunk and with a glass raised he said : 
"Doctor. I would drink that if I knew it 
would kill me in fifteen minutes." He had 
a noble brown mare that was faithful to him 
and seemed to know when he was drunk. 
She has been known to stand guard over 
her master for hours, in the stable or at the 
roadside, until he recovered from a drunk. 

He moved to the south side of the square 
in Columbia City, where he lived and died, 
leaving considerable property. Near his 
residence, directly south of the courthouse, 
was a little building that served as postoffice. 
grocery, tailorshop and Dr. Linvill's office. 
Dr. Linvill had prepared some of Hall's 
solution of strychnine from some of Kepner's 
whiskey with the dog-leg tobacco leaves in it. 
Dr. McHugh came in, perceiving it was 
whiskey took a good swig. He then ex- 
claimed, 'Strychnine, by G ,' and ran 

home and quickly dosed himself with a large 
quantity of calomel and jalap. When Dr. 
Linvill arrived, he already had slight con- 
vulsions, but by heroic treatment he was 
saved. When sober he never made a mis- 
take. When drunk he never tried to 

Dr. James B. Simcoke came in 1842. 
He was fairly educated, but out of his ele- 
ment as a doctor. He was a politician and 
was elected sheriff. After his bad luck letting 

the Indians charged with murder get away 
from him, he left the place. Dr. J. T. Beebe 
came from Mount Gilead, Ohio, in 1845 
and in 1846 Dr. A. H. Tyler, a cousin from 
the same place, joined him and the firm did 
considerable business. They were good 
practitioners and business men and made 
considerable money. They sold out in 1849 
to Swayzee and Linvill, closed their ac- 
counts, with money where they could, and 
traded them for horses, cattle or anything 
they could get and drove it away. Beebe 
returned to Ohio, but we do not know what 
became of Tyler. We are unable to ascer- 
tain anything about Dr. Samuel Marshall, 
who came in 1846, except that his stay in 
the place was short and uneventful. Dr. 
William M. Martin came in 1848. He was 
a bachelor, not overstocked with medical 
knowledge or skill and not over chaste in 
his morals. He became involved in one or 
two domestic scandals. He went from here 
to Kendallville, became a morphine fiend, and 
died from its effects during the Civil war. 
While he was here he was once called upon 
to pull a tooth. Setting on the turnkey or 
rather cant-hook, he gave it a jerk with the 
most shocking expression ever coined in 

Dr. Peter L. Cole came in 1846. He 
was a dandy — a veritable dude. Dark com- 
plexioned, frisky, clever and crafty. He 
was peculiar, but made some warm friends. 
He belonged to the class who "came west" 
to practice and soon moved on farther west. 

Dr. Francis A. Rogers came in 1S48. 
He was a preacher and son of a Methodist 
preacher from Ohio. His medical knowl- 
edge was gained from "Watson's Practice." 
Like the fortune teller, he was a pretty good 

1 82 


guesser and reader of character. He was 
smart and shrewd, preached a little, doctored 
a little, dabbled in politics, and loved the 
women. He was truly a mushroom doctor, 
and not being able to fool even a part of 
the people all the time, he soon folded his 
tent and, like the Arab, stole away. 

Drs. William M. Swayzee and David G. 
Linvill came in the fall of 1849. The for- 
mer graduated from the Western Reserve 
Medical College, Cleveland, Ohio, in 1848. 
and the latter in 1849. In addition to being 
thorough graduates, both had had a consid- 
erable successful practice at New Salem, 
Ohio, and were thoroughly equipped for the 
practice, and were men of excellent charac- 
ter. Dr. Swayzee's wife was the youngest 
sister of Dr. Linvill's mother. After years 
of success Dr. Swayzee, like many others, 
fell a victim to the wiles of a woman. He 
left his family and went west, with the red- 
haired woman, and they seemingly lived 
happy until his money ran out. She had 
no farther use for him. He came back and 
entered the practice at South Whitley, and 
from there went to Huntington, where he 
married a woman, who was faithful to him, 
but his sun had set. He died at Hunting- 
ton. Dr. Linvill at once took front rank 
among the physicians of the county, and has 
never lost his place. When he is superseded 
as "Dean of the Faculty" it will be when he 
answers the last roll call. At eighty-six, al- 
though retired from active riding practice, 
he is in full possession of all his faculties and 
fully abreast of the times. It will never be 
said of David G. Linvill that he is superan- 
nuated, antedated or unfit to prescribe for 
any form of disease. His spirits are as 
youthful and buoyant as when he first rode 

the wilderness of Whitley county. At peace 
with God and man, when the hour arrives 
he will "Wrap the drapery of his couch 
about him and lie down to pleasant dreams." 
His son, Lewis M., became a physician, but 
died in early manhood. His son David S. 
is one of the active practitioners of the 
county and his son Ben is nearing the end 
of the most complete course of the profes- 
sion ever taken by a young man in this 

Dr. S. G. A. Reed, who came in 185 1, 
like some of his predecessors, was a doctor 
and yet not a doctor. He came here holding 
a commission from the state to survey the 
swamp lands of the county, and did sur- 
vey part of them. He was also a school- 
teacher, and knew much more of mathemat- 
ics than medicine. He was a man of good 
character, prepossessing and educated. He 
took up the practice of medicine here with 
but slight previous preparation. He built 
the house and barn where F. H. Foust now 
lives, corner of Van Buren and Wayne. 
His wife's father hung himself in the Foust 
barn. " He was also something of a politi- 
cian. He also "went west." 

Dr. Myers came in 1852, and that is all 
we can learn of him. He certainly cut no 
figure or he would not have entirely been 
forgotten. Dr. William Morris, — yes. Bill 
Morris has not been forgotten. His claim 
to being a doctor was based on his mother 
being a midwife. He was a uruscopian. 
bought a book of receipts for fifty dollars 
and started up. He started up with a drug 
store on Tuttle's corner. He weighed about 
one hundred and eighty pounds, could talk 
glibly and smile blandly. A worthy Ger- 
man citizen sized him up correctly, when he 



said : "Bill Morris is de biggest liar on dis 
side fun hell." He, too, soon "went west." 

Dr. Henry Gregg came in 1853 anc l lo- 
cated first in Troy township. He was a 
graduate of medicine and also a teacher. He 
taught and practiced. Dr. Gregg was a 
good man and a good doctor, but an ex- 
tremist and a spiritualist. He was elected 
county treasurer in war times and secured 
the enmity of his brethren by denouncing the 
practice of medicine as a farce and humbug. 
After his term of office he moved away, but 
returned and successfully practiced medicine 
at Coesse for some time. Dr. Charles Kin- 
derman came in 1853. He was a German 
scholar and aristocrat. He was a good drug- 
gist and made but feeble attempt to practice 
medicine. He gave to the Masonic lodge 
the north half of the block extending from 
the Columbia City National Bank to the 
Lutheran church, expecting it to be used for 
the building of a school to educate orphans 
of Free Masons. His body lies in the Ma- 
sonic cemetery, enclosed by the only iron 
railing to be found there. During the cru- 
sade in the early '50s against liquor he was 
visited by a delegation of ladies, who begged 
of him to desist from selling liquor as the 
saloon did. He was obdurate and insisted 
that he would not be ruled by petticoats. 
To all argument he simply plead "not 
guilty" of being ruled by petticoats. The 
last argument and appeal was : "Didn't 
Adam listen to Eve?" The doctor was 
dazed and did not see the good sister was 
arguing his side — but the rest saw the joke 
and quietly filed out. 

Dr. Joseph Harper came in 1854. He 
was a "Thomsonian." He built the house 
on Line street, just north of Matthias Sless- 

man's residence, now owned by Slessmans. 
He was dirt}-, slouchy, ignorant, repulsive 
and a poor conversationalist. He had hand 
bills put up over town headed with the 
words : "Calomel kills. Give no person calo- 
mel." Lobelia was his principal drug. One 
day in a crowd. Dr. Linvill said to him : 
"You say that calomel kills. Xow I propose 
to you, that I will take a teaspoonful of cal- 
omel and you take a like quantity of lobelia, 
and that we continue the dose every hour 
until one or both of us is dead." That 
cooked Dr. Harper and silenced his bat- 
teries. He soon after left town, presumably 
for "the west." 

Dr. H. Otto Knause came in 1854 and 
connected himself with Dr. Kinderman. 
Mrs. John L. Korn, of the southeast part 
of the county, was very low for a long time 
and no one thought that she could live. 
Knause was called and she rapidly recovered. 
It was considered a miracle and Dr. Knause 
was at once on the crest of popularity and 
had a wonderful business, but he could not 
endure prosperity, and became an awful 
drunkard. He drifted over to Napoleon, 
Ohio, and his wife followed. He died over 
there of cholera. 

Dr. Keller ; such a man was here during 
or after the Civil war. All we can learn of 
him is that he practiced most about Fuller's 

Dr. John B. Firestone came in 1854 from 
Wooster, Ohio. He was a nephew of the 
celebrated Dr. Firestone who was of the 
faculty of Western Reserve College of Med- 
icine and a noted surgeon, and was a student 
of Dr. Firestone. Dr. John B. Firestone was 
a thorough doctor and a successful practi- 
tioner up t<> within a short time of his death, 


when failing health drove him out of the 
practice. After a few years here he con- 
cluded Larwill was going" to be the leading 
town of the county, as it was a very active 
business point. He located there, and re- 
mained until his death, about 1883. Dr. 
Martin Ireland came in 1855. He was 
an eclectic, a regular graduate in medicine 
and a successful practitioner for many years, 
dying at his home on Main street four or 
five years ago. Dr. Purkey was a nephew 
of Dr. John B. Firestone, and came here 
in 1856. forming a partnership with his 
uncle. Dr. Purkey was a regular graduate, 
a thorough practitioner and gave promise 
of becoming" quite prominent, but when Dr. 
Firestone concluded to go to Larwill he re- 
turned to Ohio. 

Dr. Stephen Major came from Defiance, 
Ohio, in 1856. He was more a druggist 
than a doctor. He located on Main street 
and practiced until age forced his retirement. 
He died about 1880. Dr. James Z. Gower 
came from Rome City, in 1856. He located 
here with a project, the building of a rail- 
road from Rome City to Huntington. He 
surveyed the line himself. He was bright 
and shrewd, but not very stable. He gave 
himself out as a physician, but never dis- 
tinguished himself in the profession. He 
soon went away, and we learn drifted into 
railroading. Dr. James Tollerton came in 
i860. He was the son of a uruscopian in 
Fort Wayne, but Jim was educated and a 
graduate in medicine. He made as much 
fun of his father's bunco system as anyone. 
He was not very successful, soon became 
discouraged and left. 

Dr. Adolph L. Sandmyre came in 1863. 
He was a thorough and competent druggist. 

He never entered into the regular practice, 
but often assisted in cases, with other doc- 
tors, and often prescribed for simple ail- 
ments. He went to Chicago in 1881 and 
died a couple of years later. Dr. William 
T. Ferguson located here in 1864. He had 
some arm}- practice and other preparation. 
He was quite successful, and a few years 
later located in Fort Wayne, where he still 
stands high in the profession. Dr. Henry 
Safford came in 1864, formerly from Ohio, 
but came here from Fort Wayne. His fa- 
ther had been Dr. Linvill's father's family 
physician at Zanesville, Ohio, many years 
ago. Dr. Safford was bright and a thor- 
ough graduate in medicine, but a confirmed 
drunkard, and soon left town. 

Dr. Franklin McCoy came in 1865. He 
was a polished gentleman and had kissed the 
"Blarney stone." He was thoroughly 
versed in "mental therapeutics" and his per- 
sonality was a large asset in his success. 
There was a case of hysteria in the commu- 
nity, that had tired -out most of the other 
doctors, and they thought that Dr. McCoy 
might help her. Her hallucination was that 
she had no one tp love her. Dr. McCoy fully 
posted, came into the room in raptures. 
How well he loved her, no one could 
know but himself. He called the sun, 
moon and stars, yea, the angels in 
heaven to witness this wondrous, raptur- 
ous love. "You are the man," she ex- 
claimed; but the spell did not last, and soon 
lie said, "Dang if I can afford to love this 
woman for nothing." Dr. McCoy's charac- 
ter was above reproach, and no one thought 
that the treatment was at all improper. The 
lady was also of irreproachable private 



Dr. John Foster came in 1865. He was 
a pretended Methodist preacher, and a med- 
ical quack. Was not of good appearance, 
and of very moderate tact and intelligence. 
He made no headway. Went from here to 
Warsaw and died. Dr. C. C. Sutton, who 
came in 1864, was more a farmer than doc- 
tor. He owned land in Washington town- 
ship and in Thorncreek townshjp, on Blue 
river. Did not pretend to practice much and 
no one seemed advised of his ability. He 
was quick, sharp and a thorough business 
man. With the selling of his farms he left 
the place. Dr. Allen P. Mitten was born 
and raised at Huntington. As a boy he 
worked at the carpenter trade. Studied 
medicine with his brother-in-law. Dr. Leh- 
man, and thoroughly equipped himself by 
education and practice for his profession. 
Came to Columbia City in 1867, and formed 
a partnership with Dr. Linvill. Dissolved 
in 1872. Mitten took post-graduate course 
at Bellevue, New York. Dr. Mitten was 
at the very head of the profession when. 
in 1885, he went to the Pacific coast, and. 
practically abandoning the practice, he has 
become a very successful business man and 

Dr. William Weber came from Hunting- 
ton, in 1870, a thoroughly educated physi- 
cian and gentleman. He practiced success- 
fully until his death, about nine years ago. 
Dr. W. W. Walkup came in 1872. He was 
a cancer doctor. Yen- proficient in the use 
of words, but his life was strewn with 
wrecks of broken promises. He died here 
a very few years later. 

Dr. Daniel M. Marshall came from 
Pierceton, in 1873. He came here prac- 
tically to retire from the profession after 

many years of a highly successful career. 
Dr. Marshall was not only a thorough phy- 
sician, but he was a man of many parts, and 
high intellectual attainments. He died, uni- 
versally respected, about 1892. His only 
son. Thomas R. Marshall, remains one of 
our most successful and respected lawyers. 
Dr. Charles S. Williams came from New 
York in 1873 and enjoyed a good practice 
until his death in 1905. He was county 
coroner from 1882 till his death, except 
from 1894 to 1896. His daughter. Dr. 
Alice Williams, is now a successful practi- 
tioner in the city. Dr. John Maine came in 
18^6 and with his son, Jefferson M. Maine, 
conducted a drug store. Dr. Maine was 
very old and never entered into active prac- 
tice. He died in Fort Wayne. Dr. C. L 
Cass came in 1880, but after a short medical 
career went into the woolen-mill, business, 
which he closed out a little later and re- 
turned to Ohio. 

Dr. S. D. Amerman, a homeopathist. 
came here from Pierceton, about 1881, and 
did a fair business for about ten years, when 
he moved to Florida, where he enjoyed a 
good business, but died in a few years after 
locating in that state. Dr. Frederick F. 
Fisher, a practicing physician, located at Col- 
lamer, died in 1885. 

Dr. Daniel Kirkpatrick came from Ohio 
and located at Laud, sometime in the '50s. 
In i860 he located at Larwill and continued 
in the practice until failing health compelled 
his retirement. He died about three years 
ago. Dr. Christopher Souder was horn in 
Richland county. Ohio, in 1842. In 1846 
the family located in Richland township, 
Whitley county. He served in the Forty- 
fourth Indiana Regiment from 1861 to 1864. 

1 86 


He studied medicine under Dr. Firestone and 
graduated from the Cincinnati Medical Col- 
lege in 1870. He practiced a short time at 
South Whitley, then went to Larwill, and 
practiced until his retirement on account of 
failing health. He died about eight years 
ago. He was elected county auditor in 
1890, but never moved from Larwill and did 
not give up the practice, dividing his time 
between practice and office. His son, Carl 
Souder. is now a successful practitioner in 
Columbia City. 

Dr. Melvin Lower, a native of Richland 
township, studied under Dr. Firestone at 
Larwill, graduated and located at North 
Manchester, where he is in successful 

Dr. Henry Swigart, a native of Thorn- 
creek township, studied under Dr. Souder 
at Larwill, graduated and located at several 
places in Indiana, after which he went to 
Nebraska and became prominent in politics 
and in his profession. He is now retired. 
He was a soldier and enjoys a good 

Dr. Thomas A. Lancaster, a native of 
Richland township, studied under the tutel- 
age of Dr. Souder, graduated and practiced 
a while at Larwill, then went to North Man- 
chester, where he was very successful. He 
went to California some years ago. 

Dr. Paige, "Old Doctor Paige," who lo- 
cated very early at Paige's Crossing, a mile 
and a half east of Columbia City, did some 
practice when he first came, but with the 
advent of more regular practitioners gave 
it up entirely. He had a very fair general 
knowledge of ordinary medical remedies. 
Dr. Joseph Hayes came from Dresden, Lick- 
ing county, Ohio, to Millersburgh, Col- 

lamer, before there was any town, about 
1838 to 1840. He had been Dr. Brown's 
hostler at Dresden for some years and had 
assisted him in mixing his compounds, tinct- 
ures and pills. There is a secret about his 
coming here, which was not to his discredit 
or dishonor, nevertheless would not be well 
now to unfold. The early settlers were fa- 
miliar with it. 

A little later came Joseph Hayes, brother 
to William, who from a driver of mules 
on the canal evoluted into a Whitley county 
doctor. There was a long drawn out mal- 
practice suit against these brothers, brought 
by a Mr. Neible of near South Whitley. 
He lost his leg, as he alleged, because of their 
incompetency. This was one of the most 
celebrated cases of litigation in the county. 
Dr. Joseph Hayes died at Collamer and Dr. 
William Hayes went to Pierceton. 

Dr. Caleb W. Edwards, a teacher, who 
had studied medicine and taken a one-year's 
course at Western Reserve College, came to 
South Whitley, in the early '40s. He prac- 
ticed but a short time, and went into busi- 
ness with J. K. Combs and the firm was 
highly successful. He died at South Whit- 
ley about twelve years ago. Dr. Elijah 
Merriman, a native of Ohio, came to Whit- 
ley county in 1843. He was a teacher, 
student of medicine, and on graduation set- 
tled at South Whitley in 1853. He prac- 
ticed successfully till his death about 1904. 

Dr. Thomas J. Lafollette, a native of 
Ohio, graduated at Miami Medical College, 
Cincinnati, in 1873. He first located in Wells 
county and came to Columbia early in 1876. 
A very short time thereafter he located at 
South Whitley. He was in successful prac- 
tice until 1893. On the World's Fair 



grounds in Chicago he was stricken with 
paralysis and lived for months a mental and 
physical wreck, dying at South Whitley. 
He was postmaster at South Whitley under 
the first Cleveland administration. 

Dr. Goshorn, a sort of traveling physi- 
cian, practiced in the south part of the county 
the year following the Civil war. He finally 
located at North Manchester and died some 
years ago. Dr. Alexander McHugh, son 
of Dr. Francis L. McHugh, took up his 
father's practice at his death. Alex was 
fitted for a business man, and not a physi- 
cian. He soon cast off his plug hat and 
saddle bags and after a successful business 
career here went to Iowa, where he is em- 
inently successful. 

Dr. Stephen S. Austin, a native of New 
York, graduated from the Indiana Medical 
College in 1849 an & located at Wolf Lake. 
After two years he removed to Etna and was 
an eminently successful practitioner until 
his death in 1884. 

Dr. B. F. Putt, a native of Ohio, came 
to Laud in 1S77, where he practiced a few 
years and then moved away. 

Dr. William H. Coyle graduated in med- 
icine soon after the war. Practiced at Etna 
many years and then moved to Columbia 
City, where he died about three years ago. 
Dr. David E. Webster, a native of Richland 
township, graduated in medicine at Ann 
Arbor, about 1879. Practiced in Larwill 
until Dr. Mitten left Columbia City. He 
then came here and practiced successfully 
until his death about eight years ago. 

Dr. Eli Pierce, a graduate of Jefferson 
College, Philadelphia, settled in the north- 
east corner of Union township in 1844. He 
bought a laree tract of land and built a great 

mansion, known in later years as "Hazel 
Cot." His brother Joseph came a little 
later, settled near by on section I. Eli did 
not practice much, devoting his time mainly 
to his estate. He fell dead in Areola about 
1872. Dr. Joseph Pierce practiced in the 
neighborhood for some years. Dr. John 
W. Miller died at Collamer in August, 
1872. The funeral was preached in Emer- 
son Grove, then called Harter woods, and 
he was buried in Collamer cemetery. Dr. 
Banks lived in the northwest corner of 
Washington township, on what is now the 
Swihart farm, from about 1858 up to and 
during the war, where he practiced, then 
moved to Fort Wayne and became a special- 
ist. He died at Fort Wayne. 

Dr. F. H. Falkenberg came to Columbia 
City in 1852. He was a German and a 
partner of Dr. Kinderman. He did not re- 
main long in the county. 

Dr. Noah R. Wenger practiced at Co- 
esse some years, then removed to Fort 
Wayne, where he is now a specialist. Dr. 
Owen Gandy was born in West Virginia, in 
181 2, and graduated at Jefferson Medical 
College, Philadelphia, in 1851. Soon after 
graduation he settled at Heller's Corners, on 
the Eel river, in Eel River township. Allen 
county. After two years he moved one- 
half mile east, just east of Eel river ceme- 
tery, and in about two years after, or in 
1856, he moved to Smith township, and lived 
one year on the farm of Mrs. Daniel Miller; 
from this place he moved back to Eel River 
township, about a half mile east of Churu- 
busco. In 1864 he moved to Churubusco, 
but shortly thereafter he moved north of 
Merriam, Noble count}-, and on a large 
farm. He lived at this place, practicing and 


superintending his large farm until his death 
in 1874. He is buried in the Christian 
Chapel cemetery, half a mile east of his farm. 
Dr. Gandy was the first to locate and prac- 
tice in the township. He was a hard work- 
er, a thoroughly educated gentleman and 
physician, successful as a practitioner anil 
a good financier. His first wife died before 
he came here and he brought with him his 
four children, Melissa, Luther, Oscar and 
Winfield S. He married Cynthia Ann Hire, 
a daughter of Absalom Hire, who was the- 
second white settler in Smith township and 
to this union was born Freedom, John Wes- 
ley, 'William (deceased), Nora, Charles, 
Burton. Nora, wife of Judson Smith, lives 
in Columbia City, Freedom in Columbia 
City, and the others in Noble county. Dr. 
Gandy was an ardent Democrat, and while 
he did not affiliate with any church was a 
generous supporter to all and made many 
liberal donations. 

Doctors Spratt and Kelly formed a part- 
nership and located in Churubusco in 1869 
and lived in the hotel in which Jacob Kich- 
ler now keeps a grocery and bakery. They 
did a good business until 1871. Dr. Kelly 
decamped, leaving his partner, Dr. Spratt, 
financially embarrassed, and leaving also an 
unsavory record. Dr. Spratt remained a 
year or two but never recovering from his 
loss, retired to his son-in-law's farm (Henry 
Rich), where his wife died in 1876. Dr. 
Spratt lived in retirement till his death in 
1 891. 

Dr. George Keller came to Churubusco 
from Bucyrus, Ohio, in 1877, and remained 
aboul a year, returning again to his old 
home. He was a well educated man and a 

thorough practitioner, but did not care to 
enter active work. He lived with his 
mother and brother, I. N. Keller, at Churu- 
busco. Dr. Maurice M. Modricker located 
in Columbia City in 1872, and went to 
Churubusco in 1876. He was a fine scholar, 
educated in Berlin, a fine linguist, and com- 
plete physician, who might have distin- 
guished himself in the profession, but for his 
intemperate habits. He would practice with 
complete success for a time and then go oft" 
on a drunken spree until physically and finan- 
cially exhausted, and finally left the county, 
keeping up his habits until his death. 

Dr. P. H. Aldrich came from Stryker, 
Ohio, to Churubusco in 1877, He was a 
graduate in medicine, but a drunkard, and 
made no headway. A couple of years later 
he went to Defiance and from there to Sher- 
wood, Ohio. Dr. William Burney located 
at Churubusco early in the '70s. He cele- 
brated his departure by thrashing his wife, 
and then leaving' her destitute. He then 
went to Hannibal, Missouri. 

Dr. John Ouincy Adams Banta located 
north of Laud, in Washington township, in 
1843. Of his success or the time he re- 
mained we are not advised. 

Dr. Straus located at Bloomfield in the 
early sixties and remained about four years. 
Then came Dr. Orvis to the same place 
(1869), but he soon went to Huntertown. 

Dr. J. N. Kester located in Columbia 
City in 1894 and left in 1896. 

Dr. J. N. Hammond was located at Laud 
for some time, leaving in 1873. 

Dr. J. R. Baker, physician and politi- 
cian, was located at Laud and at Columbia 
City a few years, leaving the county in 1875. 



Dr. James Richards, brother of Dr. John 
Richards, practiced at Laud for a time, then 
went to Omaha. 

Dr. J. W. Squires located at Churubusco 
in 1881 and went to Fort Wayne in 1906, 
where lie is now practicing. 

A Dr. Reed practiced a while in the east 
part of Jefferson township just after the 
Civil war. 

A perusal of the foregoing shows the 
necessity for some kind of legislation re- 
garding the practice of medicine. The agi- 
tation by a long-suffering public as well as 
by regular educated physicians finally pro- 
duced some action, though it was feeble at 
first. The legislature of 1881 provided as 
follows : 

Chap. XIX, Sec. 10, Acts 1881, Page 41. 

It shall be the duty of all physicans and 
accouchers in this state to register their 
names and postoffice address, with the clerk 
of the circuit court of the county in which 
they reside, and all such physicians and ac- 
couchers shall report to the secretary of the 
board of health of the town, city or county 
in which thev may occur, and within fif- 
teen clays thereafter all deaths and births 
which may occur under their supervision, etc. 

Any physician or accoucher failing or re- 
fusing to comply with the provisions of this 
section, shall be deemed guilty of a mis- 
demeanor and upon conviction thereof shall 
be fined in any sum not less than five nor 
more than ten dollars. 

Sec. 11. The clerk of the circuit court 
of each county in this state shall be re- 
quired to keep a book, especially prepared 

and set apart fur the registration of name 
and postoffice address of physicians and ac- 
couchers of their county,, etc. 

The state board of health prepared a 
form for such book, which, in addition to 
the legal requirements, had a large space 
headed "Remarks." The word went all 
over the state to physicians to register, with 
their names and postoffice, the college from 
which they graduated, with date of diploma, 
etc. Those who were regular graduates of 
course availed themselves of this privilege, 
that the}- might set themselves right in a 
public record, and at the same time put- 
quacks ami uneducated members of the pro- 
fession in a "hole," as it was termed. This 
caused quite a commotion, especially in the 
profession, and every doctor's registration 
was made the subject of critical examination 
and discussion, and it was charged that many 
false entries were made. A number of doc- 
tors availed themselves of the provisions of 
the law and made no entries at all under the 
head of "Remarks." The following entries 
under the head of "Remarks" were actually 
made. "Third of a century practice in the 
county." "For further information call at 
office," "From the University of Ohio," 
"Came March, 1856," "Charity Hospital," 
"Pennsylvania College," etc.. etc. Some 

of these entries, of course, meant nothing at 
all. The celebrated Dr. Shweitz registered 
"Godlieb Frederick Joseph Shweitz, Yale 
College." It is not likely he could have 
told in what state Yale College was located. 
Graduates registered about this way: 
"Graduated from Jefferson Medical College, 
Philadelphia, 1876." "Graduated from Cin- 
cinnati College of Medicine and Surgerv. 



18/0." Graduated from Medical Depart- 
ment Michigan University, Ann Arbor, 
1878." The following is a list of registra- 
tions : 

Austin, Stephen S., Etna P. O. 

Burns, A. M., South Whitley. 

Bainbridge, Nettie E.. Columbia City. 

Ammerman, S. I)., Columbia City. 

Burney, William, Churubusco. 

Barnhill, William A. D., South Whitley. 

Cass, C. L.. Columbia City. 

Christopher, William H, (Non-resident 
of county). ^ 

Criswell, John F., Churubusco. 

Coyle, William H., Etna P. O. 

Egolf, H.M., Collamer. 

Eberhard, Eli L., South Whitley. 

Eckman, George W., Coesse. 

Fisher, F. F., Collamer. 

Firestone, John B., Larwill. 

Frost, R. F. (Man-O-Tee), non-resident 
of the county. 

Gregg, Henry, Coesse. 

Grisier, F. G., Collins. 

Hoagland, J. W., Peabody. 

Ireland, Martin, Columbia City. 

Koontz, Sylvanus, Laud. 

Kithcart, N. I., Columbia City. 

Kirpatrick, Daniel, Larwill. 

Kenner, C. A., Columbia City. 

Kemp, Joseph M., Laud. 

Lawrence, I. E., Columbia City. 

Linvill, David G., Columbia City. 

La Follette, T. J., South Whitley. 

La Rue, E. S., (non-resident of the 
county. 1 

Merriman, Elijah, South Whitley. 

Mitten. Allen P., Columbia City. 

Magers, F. M.. Churubusco. 

Marshall, Daniel M., Columbia City. 

Putt, Benjamin F., Laud. 
Richards, John, Laud. 
Reid. C. B., Columbia City. 
Souder, Christopher, Larwill. 
Scott, J. William C, Etna. P. O. 
Shweitz, Godlieb Frederick Joseph, 
Columbia City. 

Squires, James W., Churubusco. 
Stauffer. W. W., South Whitley. 
Van Houten, Isaac, Collins. 
Webber. William, Columbia City. 
Williams, Charles S., Columbia City. 
Webster, David E., Larwill. 
Wenger, N. R., Coesse. 
Webster, Monroe W., South Whitley. 

The legislature of 1885 enacted a law 
that it should be unlawful for any person to 
practice medicine, surgery or obstetrics with- 
in the state of Indiana, without first obtain- 
ing a license so to do, under the penalty of 
being fined not less than twenty-five dollars 
nor more than one hundred dollars for each 
offense. License to be procured from the 
clerk of court in county where the applicant 
desires to practice. 

The requisites for a license were : First, 
when such applicant shall file with such clerk 
his or her affidavit stating that such appli- 
cant has regularly graduated in some re- 
putable medical college, and shall exhibit 
to such clerk the diploma held by such 

Second, or when such applicant shall file 
with such clerk his or her affidavit, and the 
affidavits of two reputable freeholders or 
householders of the county, stating that he 
or she has resided and practiced medicine, 
surgery and obstetrics in this state continu- 
ously for ten years immediately preceding 



the date of the taking effect of this act, 
stating particularly the locality or localities 
in which he or she has practiced during said 
period and the date and length of time in 
each locality. 

This law actually barred from practice 
all persons who did not come within the pro- 
visions of one or the other of the two requi- 
sites, except mid-wives practicing obstetrics, 
who were expressly exempt from the provi- 
sions of the law. The licensees under this 
law in Whitley county were: 

Ammerman, Samuel D., Columbia City." 
Balcom, Del-a-Claire, 1 
Bare, George, 

Bainbridge, Nettie E., Columbia City. 
Barnhill, William A. D., South Whitley. 
Criswell, John F., Churubusco. 
Coyle, William H., Hecla. 
Eberharcl, Elijah L., South Whitley. 
Egolf, Harvey M., Collamer. 
Eckman, George W., Coesse." 
Fry, Charles W., Bracken, Huntington 

Forden, William B., 

Fruth, David O., 

Frost, R. F. Manotee, 1 

Grisier, Frederick G., Collins. 

Geary, John K., Coesse. 

Goheen, Charles M., 

Grant, Sarah A., Lorane. 2 

Hontz. William Cyrus, Columbia City. 

Houser, James A., 

Ireland, Martin, Columbia City. 

Kithcart, Nathan I., Columbia City. 

Kirkpatrick, Daniel, Larwill. 

Linvill, David G., Columbia City. 

Linvill, Lewis M., Columbia City. 

Linvill, David S., Columbia City. 

Lawrence, Isaiah E., Columbia City. 

Long, Charles R.. 

LaFollette. Thomas J.. South Whitley. 

Longenecker, O. B.. 

Mitten, Allen P., Columbia City. 

Merriman, Elijah, South Whitley. 

Magers, Francis M., Churubusco. 

Mann. Jesse E.. 1 

Morrison, Thomas Ray, Churubusco. 

McHenry, Joseph D., Larwill. 

Moody, Theodore F., Pierceton. 1 

Morgan, Samuel E., 1 

Pagin, Samuel. 1 
■ Prizinger, Lewis A. 1 

Scott. J. William C, Hecla. 

Souder, Christopher, Larwill. 

Squires, James W., Churubusco. 

Smith, John W. 

Stults, Charles E. 

Simon, Joshua, Churubusco. 

Stauffer, Walter O., South Whitley. 

Secrist, H. C. 

Shuman, Oliver V., Columbia City. 

Richards, John, Laud. 

Reid. Charles S., Coesse. 

Williams, Charles S., Columbia City. 

Webster, Monroe W., South Whitley. 

Webster. David E., Larwill. 

Wenger, Noah R., Coesse. 

Weber, William, Columbia City. 

White, Samuel R., Laud. 

AVilliams, Alice B., Columbia City. 

Wagner, Philip Matthews. 1 

The legislature amended this law in 
1 Si >-. that those in practice must within 
ninety days from the passage of the law. 
and others before beginning the practice, 
must obtain a certificate from the state 

'Non-residents of the county. 
Admitted under ten-year clause. 



board of health before being licensed by the 
county clerk. If such persons present to 
the state board of health a diploma from a 
college, whose standards said board shall 
approve, the certificate is issued on proper 
presentation of the diploma, but if the diplo- 
ma is from a college which the state board 
does not recognize as maintaining a suffi- 
ciently high grade of standards the applicant 
may be examined by said board and if said 
examination is satisfactory, the certificate 
will issue. Persons who have practiced mid- 
wifery for ten years in the state were en- 
titled to a certificate, which would authorize 
the county clerk to issue a license to con- 
tinue the practice of midwifery. Violations 
of this law are punished by a fine of not less 
than twenty-five dollars nor more two hun- 
dred dollars.. The state board may revoke 
the license of any physician at any time for 
fraud in procuring said license, for being 
guilty of felon} - or gross immorality or ad- 
dicted to the liquor or drug habit to such a 
degree as the board may think such person 
unfit to practice medicine or surgery. The 
registrations under this law have been : 

Ammerman. S. D., Columbia City. 

Albertson, Charles. South Whitley. 

Barnhill. William A. D., South Whitley. 

Briggs, Jesse Howard, Churubusco. 

Beach, Charles E. C. Coesse. 

( riswell, John F., Churubusco. 

Coyle. William H.. Hecla. . 

Eberhard, Eli L.. South Whitley: 

Grisier. Frederick G., Columbia City. 

Geary, John K.. Coesse. 

I laiTold. Revere H., Peabody. 

Hart, Bruce D., Churubusco. 

Ireland, Martin, Columbia City. 

Kithcart; Nathan I., Columbia Citv. 

King, William F., Columbia City. 
King. James R., Columbia City. 
Kester, R. S., Columbia City. 
Keefer, F. R.. Coesse. 
Kirkpatrick, Daniel, Larwill. 
Linvill, David G., Columbia City. 
Linvill, David S., Columbia City. 
Lawrence, Isaiah E., Columbia City. 
Leedy, Charles E., Coesse. 
Merrim'an, Elijah, South Whitley. 
Magers, F. M., Churubusco. 
Morrison, Thomas R., Churubusco. 
Richards, John, Laud. 
Schuman. Oliver, Columbia City. 
Scott. J. William C, Hecla. 
Squires. James W.. Churubusco. 
Souder, Christopher, Larwill. 
Souder, Carl Lawrence, Columbia City. 
Swartz, Douglas A., South \\ 'hitley. 
Tennant, I ewis W., Larwill. 
Williams, Charles S., Columbia City. 
Worden. James W., Columbia City. 
Williams, Alice B.. Columbia City. 
Weber, William, Columbia City. 
Wilson, Frank D., Collins. 
Wells. Henry O., (non-resident). 
Webster, Monroe W., South Whitley. 
White, Samuel R., Laud. 


The present medical society dates from 
[883, but the minutes show a previous or- 
ganization, and say that, "Whereas, all the 
papers and records of the former Medical 
Society have been lost, and necessity exists 
for the organization of a new societv. 
therefore, we do organize by re-electing the 
former president, Dr. Stephen S. Austin, 
and former secretarv. Dr. Allen P. Mitten." 



A long constitution and by-laws were 
adopted, a seal procured and the society 
given a corporate existence by having the 
constitution and by-laws recorded in the 
recorder's office of Whitley county, April 
4, 1884, in Miscellaneous Record "B," pages 
403 to 407. This was signed by the follow- 
ing- members : 

Stephen S. Austin, 
John Richards, 

C. Souder, 

E. L. Eberhard, 
T. J. LaFollettee, 

D. S. Linvill, 
H. M. Egolf, 
M. Ireland, 
William Weber, 
N. R. Wenger, 
C. A. Kenner, 
Monroe VV. Webster, 
C. E. Leedy, 

David G. Linvill, 
Francis M. Magers, 
S. Koontz, 
L. M. Linvill, 
Daniel Kirkpatrick, 
P. M. Wagner, 
D. M. Marshall, 
A. P. Mitten, 
N. I Kithcart, 
D. E. Webster, 
F. G. Grisier, 
T. Ray Morrison, 
I. W. Moran. 

The by-laws call for not less than two 
meetings a year on call. The society has 
had a rather spasmodic career since that 
time, but at present is in excellent condi- 

tion and its meetings are productive of great 
good. Many peculiar and obstinate cases 
are fully discussed and patients are often 
brought before the society that all may ex- 
amine and the attending physician have the 
benefit of the combined counsel of the so- 
ciety. Its work is almost wholly confined 
to this business and to the cultivation of a 
spirit of helpfulness and good feeling in the 
profession. Nearly all the physicians in the 
county are members. Dr. O. V. Schuman 
is president and Dr. F. G. Grisier, secretary 
at this time. 


Dr. Banta 1858 to 1859 

Dr. Kirkpatrick 1859 " i860 

Dr. Banks 1864 " 1869 

Dr. Johnson 1865 " 1869 

Dr. Austin 1866 " 1870 

Dr. Baker 1870 " 1871 

Dr. James Richards 1870 " 1872 

Dr. Hammond 1871 " 1872 

Dr. Koontz 1872 " 1887 

Dr. Putt 1873 " 1884 

Dr. Gregg 1877 " 1878 



This was a term almost synonymous 
with Whitley county for some years before 
the Civil war, reaching its height of de- 
generacy during the war period, and even 
yet is regarded as a term of reproach. Forty 
or fifty years ago, mention of this fearful 
place was enough to scare any boy of fif- 
teen, under the bed. 

Its fame extended not only all over 
northern Indiana but into other states. The 
exact location of the place was not under- 
stood, but the swamps, heavy timber and 
thickets of south-west Columbia township 
and extending into Richland, were supposed 
to be alive with thieves and marauders. 

Three different vigilance committees 



were organized and incorporated under the 
laws of Indiana, for the purpose of cleaning 
out the Half Acre, one in Richland town- 
ship, one in Cleveland township, and one in 
Troy township. Each member was, by the 
authorities, vested with the rights of a con- 
stable, to make arrests, and it was generally 
understood that if he abused the legal right 
of an officer and overstepped his duty, he 
would in no way be brought to book for it. 
They were supposed to be a secret, oath- 
bound organization, and the weird story of 
what they were doing was overestimated as 
much as were the fanciful stories of what 
the denizens of the place themselves were 

The place was really located on the spot 
of the Indian village in section 20, Colum- 
bia township, and began to be notorious 
about the time the Indian history was dying 
out, some few straggling Indians being still 
about the place to add to its mysterious 

George Helms moved on the north-west 
quarter of section 20, early in the '40s. 
the farm now owned by the Korts. Harri- 
son Dowell lived a mile south. They were 
always quarreling and always involved in 
law suits. Helms was regarded as a very 
desperate character. He was vulgar and 
profane to the extreme, was very insulting 
to women and was charged with several 
very serious offences. He would go away 
for weeks at a time, and return with a lot of 
money. Every crime in the catalogue was 
imputed to him. Others might commit any 
crime from murder to counterfeiting and on 
down to petit larceny, and George Helms 
get the credit. 

Mam- stories have gained currency from 

time to time as to the origin of the expres- 
sion, when and how it came to be called 
Hell's Half Acre. The exact fact is this : 
In the early winter of 1849, Sanford Mosher 
came to Ben Beeson's blacksmithshop on 
Main street, on the bank of Blue river. 
Helms and Dowell had a lawsuit that day in 
Columbia, which was the general topic of 
conversation. The late Harmon Beeson 
was also at the blacksmithshop and began 
twitting Mosher about his quarrelsome 
neighbors and finally said : "There is a place 
down in Kentucky they call 'Hell's Half 
Acre,' they must have moved it up here." 
The expression raised a great laugh among 
the bystanders, which Mosher appreciated 
as much as any one, and the neighborhood 
received a name from which nearly sixty 
years has not divested it. Though the 
family name of Helms was very intimately 
associated with the Half Acre they were by 
no means the only ones, but it was left to 
Howard, son of George Helms, and his 
cousin, Sam Helms, to give the place a repu- 
tation for reckless daring and public, open 
and notorious defiance of law and law offi- 
cers. George Helms' two sons, George and 
Howard, were not regarded as worse boys 
than their neighbors. Indeed, in contradis- 
tinction to their father, they were generally 
called good boys, and their natures chafed 
seriously under the tyrannical domination 
of their father. Early in the Civil war, they 
both enlisted and entered the service, and 
had they not come home on a furlough their 
history might have been different, but they 
came home with the full intention of return- 
ing. The father did all in his power to pre- 
vent their returning to the service. They 
took' counsel from Orrin Mosher and others. 



who urged them to return to duty and ob- 
serve their oath of allegiance, but the very 
atmosphere was surcharged with excitement 
engendered by war, and a spirit of hostility 
to the cause was everywhere apparent. 
There was something tempting to persons 
with hereditary criminal natures, about 
being deserters, and the boys chose the 
wrong course and became at once fugitives 
and outlaws. 

Now began an era of crime beside which 
all former exploits of the Acre were tame. 
Howard Helms was captain, his brother 
George an able lieutenant and the} - had 
plenty of followers and assistants. Withal, 
there was something about Howard that at- 
tracted men to him, perhaps his reckless dar- 
ing and fidelity r to his friends. He always said 
he had as close friends among the vigilance 
committees as he had inveterate enemies, and 
that they always gave him warning of an 
attempt to get him, either by direct word or 
by some sign, and said that he would once 
have been caught unawares but for the signal 
of two shots as near together as a pistol 
could be made to fire. For several years he 
defied federal officers with warrants in their 
pockets when they knew where he was and 
he frequently went from the fastnesses of the 
Acre to Columbia City and other towns. 
The old criminal docket of Whitley county 
is burdened with causes against him and his 
associates, and constables and sheriffs had 
their pockets full of warrants, which thev 
made but feeble attempt to pretend to serve 
and thus crime went on in defiance of all 
law. Indictments for larceiw, resisting offi- 
cers, assault, riot, etc., were but idle mockery. 

George Deer, Joseph, George and Mathias 
Slessman, from Columbia City, once under- 

took to arrest Howard. They had learned 
to a certainity that he was at Lawrence 
Manier's house, section 20, farm now owned 
by Jules Romey. The Eel River Railroad 
now runs directly where the house stood. 
It was torn down on building the railroad, 
He saw them when within a few paces of 
the house and struck off south-east toward 
Harrison Dowell's ; they rode out the lane 
and turned south toward him. They called, 
halt! but he moved on. Then one of the 
party shot to scare. He was more than 
twenty rods from them and deliberately took 
aim and shot to kill. The bullet whizzed 
past Joe George's head. They ran out of 
the road to see the dust raise from the second 
shot on the spot where they had stood, and 
the expedition ended. The provost marshal 
made one attempt to arrest him. With a 
large posse of mounted men and with the 
knowledge that he was at Harrison Dowell's 
house, they started in high glee. As they 
neared the house Dowell came rushing in 
exclaiming: "My God, Howard, the lane 
is full of men on horses! For God's sake, 
Howard, go!" He walked right out with 
a big navy revolver, his finger on the trigger, 
and the weapon across his arm. and when 
the}' came within a rod- or two of him he 
said calmly. "Gentlemen, what do vim 
want ?" The marshal said : "We are look- 
ing for Jake Long." Harrison retorted: 
"I ran the Jake Long you are looking for." 
The marshal said again : "No, no. we want 
Jake Long." Howard then coolly said : 
"Gentlemen, turn round and go back. I am 
not guilty of murder and don't want to be. 
but will shoot dead the first man in your 
party who attempts to draw a gun. I have 
no ill will against you, but you'll not take 



Howard Helms this time.'" They all quietly 
turned and left as they were bidden to do. 

Early one morning as Hiram Mosher 
went tu the field to work he heard a voice 
calling him. He looked around and saw 
Howard Helms sitting cm the fence stark 
naked. "What is the matter," said the boy. 
"Oh, the regulators were after me last night. 
I heard the signal of two shots from one of 
the party and got out of the house into the 
woods. They "soon swarmed all around me 
and I just had to crawl into an old elm tree 
uprooted. 1 crawled into it and had to lay 
in mud and water, up to my face. John 
Anderson, one of my worst enemies, was so 
near me twice that I could have caught him 
by the leg, and it seemed so funny I had a 
notion to do it. I am now waiting for my 
clothes to dry, but some of them may yet be 
prowling around and as I am not in good 
shape to defend myself I guess I'll get off 
the fence and squat by that log." He had 
not thus concealed himself three minutes 
until Erastus Rollins rode up and accosting 
the boy said: "When did you see Howard 
Helms?" "Yesterday," said the boy, which 
was true. "If I ever get sight of him I'll 
sin nit him on the spot," and then he moved 
lift". Howard said laughingly, "I had a no- 
tion to come out naked as I was, with a stick- 
in my hand and point it at him and scare 
him white-headed, but I was afraid there 
might be a lot more of them around and 1 
am nut just now hunting trouble." 

The store of Combs & Edwards, at 
South Whitley, was rubbed, but not a win- 
dow was opened or door unlocked or broken 
in. Some one who knew all about the place. 
conducted the thieves under the floor and 
up through an opening. George Williams. 

who was said to be a "Hawpatch horse thief 
and counterfeiter," was supposed to belong 
to the gang. He was taken from a sick 
bed to the "red brush" schoolhouse in Rich- 
land township, a rope was put about his 
neck and threatened with death if he did 
not tell all. The best they could get out of 
him was, "I feel sick enough to die anyhow 
and you can just finish up the job if you 
want to," but they didn't and they learned 

A few davs after, as Orrin and Sanford 
Mosher were striking a bee-line below Tay- 
lor's station or Wynkoop, in section 30. 
thev heard noises in the swamp and listening, 
distinguished who they were, and that they 
were quarreling over a coat and other things. 
Howard and the fellow the regulators didn't 
hang were two of them. Orrin went quick- 
ly to Peter Snyder's and had him go tc 
Combs & Edwards at South Whitley and tell 
then to meet Orrin and San Mosher at 
Eliakim Mosher's. just after dark, and they 
would conduct them to the place of the stolen 
goods. Nobody came, perhaps Combs and 
Edwards were afraid of some trap, as they 
went instead to their lawyer. Three days 
after, Howard Helms appeared at Sanford 
Mosher's and brandishing a revolver, said : 
"Some Mosher has told on us, and if I can 
find out which one it was I will blow his 
brains out." 

Anderson Grimes had a fine set of double 
harness stolen, and the regulators offered ten 
dollars for their recovery. Soon after, San- 
ford Mosher, out hunting, saw a man carry 
ing a set of harness, but he soon dis- 
appeared in the thicket. The next day, tak- 
ing Orrin with him, they found the harness 
concealed in a hollow tree. Thev sent for 



John Anderson, leader of the regulators, and 
he took the harness and paid the reward. 

These are but a very few of the incidents 
■of the terrible years when "Hell's Half Acre" 
held mad riot in the center of Whitley coun- 
ty ; but with the coming of more settlers and 
the strengthening of the power of the law, 
the clearing of the swamps and hiding places 
the on-rushing tide of progress must neces- 
sarily clean out such festering places. 

No one knew this better than the Helms 
boys. George left some time before How- 
ard and went to Ohio. Howard went from 
here to La Otto. Dekalb county, in 1867 or 
1868, and married there, George going there, 

There began a new era of depredation. 
They gathered about them other thieves and 
tribute was levied by night on the country 
for anything that could be hauled to Fort 
Wayne and turned into cash, or could be 
used by the gang at home ; but the fame of 
Helms traveled thither and the ravishing of 
that neighborhood was not of very long 

One night as Howard was out scouting, 
as he termed; crossing a road he found him- 
self in the midst of a troop of horsemen. 
They asked him if he knew Howard Helms. 
To say he did not would be to arouse sus- 
picion, for his terrible name was on the lips 
of all the settlers. Yes, he had heard a great 
deal of him, but never saw him. "Well," 
said the leader, "he is at the house below the 
cross-roads two miles down and we are go- 
ing to get him tonight." He could easily 
save himself, but all thought was of his 
brother George, whom he knew was sleeping 
in that house. Quick as thought, he said : 
"I want to go along and help take him." 

"We want all the help we can get," the lead- 
er said, "but you have no horse and we are 
in a hurry and it is nearly two miles down 
there." "If you don"t ride too fast I will 
keep up," said Howard, and he never made 
two miles so quick in his life. Arriving at 
the place, the captain caused the men to sur- 
round the house some thirty rods from it 
and then move cautiously to the center. 
Howard stayed near the captain, whom ha 
took for a coward, and he felt if he were 
out of the way the others would flee in ter- 
ror. He thought the time had come to kill 
his man. When about ten rods from the 
house he gave the double shot, to warn 
George and wound the captain and not kill 
him unless further events necessitated it. 
Two shots, frantic yells, and the captain 
wounded in the leg and all was confusion 
and excitement, terror took the place of 
discipline. Just then George, fleeing from 
the house ran right up to Howard, and be- 
fore the frenzied crowd knew what had hap- 
pened, the brothers were out of their reach 
and made their way to Michigan. Howard, 
later, came after his wife and they made their 
home in Michigan. 

After he had gone to Michigan, three 
Whitley county regulators, armed with a 
belated warrant and stimulated by the prom- 
ise of a reward, undertook to capture him. 
He was at his uncle Dowell's. Just after 
dark, one evening, Dowell came in and said: 
"Howard, there are three men from Indiana. 
regulators, right here." Howard imme- 
diately jumped out of the back window and 
stood there with his navy revolver ready for 
fire. They filed in the house, two within 
range of his gun. His first impulse was to 
shoot all three, so enraged was he that they 



should follow him for the reward and after 
all deserters had been freed, and he waited 
till all would come within range so he might 
despatch them. Nothing happened, they 
stood seemingly amazed and he stood with 
cocked gun until he got tired and walked 
away. One of these men still lives in Whit- 
ley county. 

Both the boys settled down and became 
good, respectable citizens. George was 
elected sheriff of Lake county, Michigan, a 
few years ago and made a good officer. He 
still lives in that county. Howard, after 
several years' respectable residence in Michi- 

gan, moved to Wisconsin, where he still 
lives. By an accident, while out hunting a 
few years ago, he lost a leg. 

Hell's Half Acre of a half century ago 
with its swamp, morass and wilderness has 
become a beautifully cultivated country of 
elegant farms and pretty homes, good, in- 
telligent and law-abiding citizens, and life 
and property are as secure as anywhere in 
the world, not a cabin or landmark by 
which to remember the days of Indian sloth 
and drunkenness, nor yet of the sterner days 
when Helms was a name to be feared and 



The laws relating to county roads, when 
\\ hitley county was organized, were sub- 
stantially the same as today. Upon proper 
petition and notice, the board of commis- 
sioners sent out three viewers. If the view- 
ers' report was favorable and no remon- 
strances or objections were filed, the road 
was located. 

The law in relation to state roads was 
practically the same, except that where it 
was desired a state road should be located, 
which meant a road running through more 
than one county, a petition was filed with the 
state legislature and they appointed a com- 
missioner, usually more than one, to locate 
and lay out the same if he or they deemed 
ii practical or advisable. If there occurred 
a vacancy in this board of viewers, the com- 
missioners nf the county where the vacancy 
occurred, supplied the vacancy. The report 

of such commissioner or board of commis- 
sioners must be filed and recorded in each 
county, and any objections or remonstrances 
were passed upon and adjudicated by the 
county commissioners in each county just 
as county roads were adjudicated. 

There was also a township road law, 
applicable only to the counties of Carrol, 
Delaware. Clay, Madison, Warren, Clinton, 
Adams, Jay, Wells, Huntington, Whitley. 
Allen and Hancock. 

It will be seen that while this law was 
giiod in Whitley, and in our neighbors to 
the south and east, it did not apply to Kos- 
c iwsko on the west or Noble on the north. 

There were then three township trustees 
ami the township road law was as follows: 

"That when any person or persons wish- 
ing to establish cartways, or any township 
n i,k1 or to change a road in any of the town- 



ships, such person or persons, before any 
road can be thus established or changed, 
shall give notice of such application, at least 
twenty days preceding such application to 
the board of township trustees, by setting up 
advertisements in at least three of the most 
public places in the township in which such 
road is proposed to be located or changed, 
and shall also present to said board of trus- 
tees a petition signed by at least twelve 
householders of the neighborhood through 
which the same may run, setting forth their 
reasons for such location or change. And 
on receiving the petition the board, if they 
deem it expedient, shall proceed to examine 
the route thus proposed, and on the view and 
examination of the proposed road they shall, 
if they conceive that the public good require 
it, establish the same and make a record of 
the proceedings in the book in which the rec- 
ords of the township are kept, and when so 
recorded, shall be deemed a public highway 
and shall be opened and kept in repair as 
other roads and highways in the township 

Thus county, state and township roads 
were worked alike, that is, by a regular 
township levy as at present and by requiring 
all male persons not exempt, between the 
ag'es of twenty-one and fifty years to work 
two days annually. The law regarding cart- 
ways was as follows : 

"Any person for his convenience may 
have a cartway, not exceeding eighteen feet 
in breadth, laid out from or to any planta- 
tion, dwelling-house or public highway, on 
petitioning to the proper board (having ad- 
vertised his intentions as required by this 
act), which board shall cause the same to 
be publicly read, and if they think proper, 

order a view of the same. Said cartway 
shall, at the discretion of said board, be re- 
corded and declared a common cartway for 
the use and convenience of the public, and 
shall be opened by the persons petitioning 
therefor. If the said cartway be laid out 
through any person's land objecting thereto, 
the damages shall be assessed as provided 
in case of objection to public roads and high- 
ways, which being paid by the persons ap-> 
plying for such way, he may proceed to open 
the same agreeably to the order of said 
board. If the owner or owners of any 
land through which such cartway passes, 
be desirous of improving the same, he, she 
or they may be permitted to turn the same, 
on as good ground, not increasing the dis- 
tance more than one twentieth, on applica- 
tion to said board. Any person may be per- 
mitted by said board to hang swinging gates 
on said cartway, but shall keep the said gate 
or gates in good order and repair, under the 
penalty of one dollar for every offense, to be 
recovered before a justice of the peace of 
the proper count}-, by any person prose- 
cuting for the same, one moiety to the prose- 
cutor and the other toward keeping said 
way in repair." 

It was provided that any person who 
shall be found horse-racing along or across 
any state, county or other public highway 
or 1 'ridge, or be found shooting at a mark 
along or across any such highway, shall. 
upon conviction before a justice of the peace, 
be fined in any sum not exceeding three 

The statutes of 1843 did not in any ma- 
terial way make any change in the foregoing 
laws relating to state and county roads, but 
thev stvled what had been known as cart- 


ways, private roads, and ordered the record 
to be made in the county instead of the 
township. But one private road was ever 
located under this law and that was by Peter 
Haynes, in Thorncreek township, and the 
description is so indefinite that it could not 
be now located. 

By a perusal of the foregoing-, it will be 
seen that the law creating township roads 
was a special enactment, applying to only 
thirteen counties, among which was Whitley. 
The laws of 1843 repealed this township 
road law. The year following, that is. 
1844, four township roads were recorded in 
the commissioners' records of the county. 
There were cases began before the repeal of 
the township law, the proceedings being had 
before the township trustees and record then 
being made in the county as township roads. 

Under the new constitution, the statutes 
of 1852 did not consider roads running in 
more than one county state roads, and did 
not provide for viewers appointed by the 
state legislature. It also slightly amended 
and changed the county road law and en- 
acted a new township road law operative all 
1 iver the state. 

In case of roads running in more than 
one county, it provided that if twenty-four 
or more freeholders of any county should 
petition for a road running in more than 
one county, the petition should first be filed 
in that county and the auditor should for- 
ward a copy to the auditor of each and every 
county through which said road was to pass, 
and these auditors must place this before the 
commissioners at their next session. If the 
commissioners of the county where filed 
found that the law had been complied with 
as to notice, etc., they shall appoint one com- 

missioner and notify the other counties of 
the time and place to begin the work, and the 
commissioners of each county should appoint 
one commissioner or viewer. Substantially 
the same proceedings were then had as to 
laying off county roads, and when the road 
was established each county took care of its 
own part and each paid its share of the lo- 
cation expenses. 

The changes in the law regarding roads 
in one county were only as to the manner 
of legal procedure and did not differ much 
from, the former law. 

The township law provided that any per- 
son may have a highway laid out or a change 
of a highway in any township, on the peti- 
tion therefor of twelve freeholders residing 
in said township, six of whom must reside 
in the immediate neighborhood of such pro- 
posed highway or change. The petition 
must go to the three township trustees, and 
notice must have been given for twenty days 
by posting up notices at three or more public 
places in the vicinity. The trustees after 
passing on the sufficiency of the petition and 
notice, and finding them according to law, 
appointed three viewers, and did not view 
the road themselves as under the former 
law. These viewers must be disinterested 
residents of the township. The township 
clerk issued his precept to said viewers as 
the auditor in county roads and they must 
be notified by a constable, as viewers in 
county mads are notified by the sheriff. 
When said viewers made their report to the 
trustees, if a majority of the persons affected 
remonstrate, the petition must be dismissed; 
but if only one person remonstrated a new 
set of viewers must be appointed. 

The manner of adjudication was similar 


to the action by county boards, but' any 
person aggrieved at the final adjudication 
might appeal to the county commissioners, 
when the case became a county one. This 
statute also provided that viewers should 
stare the width of road, but in no case should 
a township road be less than twenty-five feet 
or a county road less than thirty feet. This 
statute also provided that if a road laid out 
should not be opened up and used within 
six years, it should cease to be a road, and 
that all public highways which had been or 
might hereafter be used as such, should be 
deemed highways. The changes in the laws 
since 1852 have not been fundamental, ex- 
cept that as township business became more 
and more simplified until but one trustee did 
all the township business ; the township road 
law was years ago repealed. 

About the same provisions were incorpo- 
rated in the township road law of 1852 as 
were in the former one, as to swinging gates 
and penalty for not keeping them in proper 

The Indiana Legislature in 1836 entered 
upon an extravagant era of internal im- 
provements under the caption of "An act 
for a general system of interna! improve- 
ments," and authorized the governor to ap- 
prove a board of six persons to carry out 
the work. The White Water Canal. The 
Central Canal to commence at some point 
on the Wabash Erie Canal between Fort 
Wayne and Logansport and run to Muncie. 
An extension of the Wabash Erie Canal 
from the mouth of the Tippecanoe river to 
Terre Haute. A railroad from Madison 
through Columbus, Indianapolis and Craw- 
fordsville to Lafayette. A macadamized 
turnpike from New Albany through Green- 

ville, Paoli and Mount Pleasant to Vin- 
cennes. A canal if practicable, and if not, 
a railroad from Fort Wayne by way of 
Goshen, South Bend and La Porte to Mich- 
igan City. Had these things all been carried 
out, the state would have been bankrupted. 
But a small part of the work was ever built. 
Three surveys of the Fort Wayne-Mich- 
igan City route were made, all three through 
Whitley count)-, but the meager record left 
does not allow us to state with any certain- 
it}" just where the lines ran. However, 
one was substantially along the Goshen and 
Fort Wayne road, through present Churu- 
busco ; one ran near the present town of 
Collins, and the other nearer Columbia City. 
Two of them crossed Thorncreek township. 
Had this canal or railroad been built, the 
history of AAdiitley county might have been 
entirely different. The state roads through 
the county were the Fort Wayne and Gosh- 
en, through Churubusco. The next was the 
Fort Wayne and Yellow River and from 
Columbia City east is practically the Colum- 
bia City and Fort Wayne road east on Van 
Buren street. Yellow River, the western ob- 
jective point, was in Elkhart county. The 
next was the Goshen and Huntington Road 
practically as it runs today through the coun- 
ty. The next was called Fort Wayne and 
La Gro road, but is substantially the Fort 
Wayne, Columbia City and Warsaw road of 
today. The next was the Logansport and 
Sparta road; but little of it was built anil 
it cannot be traced to-day. Then the Lima 
and Huntington road, which is practically 
the Columbia City Line Street road to Hunt- 
ington, and lastly was the Fort Wayne and 
Oswego state road, practically the north- 
west road from Columbia City to Etna. 


These state roads were not so important 
as we might think, as may be seen by the 
foregoing narrative. They were only roads 
in more than one county. An attempt to 
follow the location and changes of the coun- 
ty and township roads of the county would 
only lead to tiresome confusion. 

The soil of Whitley county, with its 
early swamps and streams, made the road 
problem a great difficulty. It is often said 
that the first forty years of road-work went 
for naught and that the highways were no 
better in 1878 than in 1838. True it is 
that for forty years the difficulties were 
great, corduroying swampy places, draining 
highways and cutting hills so vehicles could 
get over the roads at all, and we were a long 
time getting roads. Our people became 
quite restless over the road situation in the 
seventies. Huntington county had built two 
gravel roads from the city of Huntington 
to the Whitley county line. 

In October. 1S78, a meeting was called 
at the Whitley county courthouse to con- 
sider the graveling of the road from Colum- 
bia City to meet the Huntington gravel 
road at the county line. The estimated 
cost seemed appalling and taxpayers shrank 
from it. and old residents declared there was 
no gravel in the county with which to build 
roads and the purpose of the meeting went 
for naught, but the agitation went on. The 
legislature at its January session, 1881, 
changed the old method of working out 
property road tax. and the two days by each 
poll, into paying all in cash. Instead of 
working two or more days each person liable 
to poll tax wis required to pay two dollars 
in cash, rind all road tax must be paid in 
cash. The supervisor system was abolished 

and a road superintendent elected for each 
township who had entire charge of all road 

The law went into effect June 1, 1881, 
but superintendents were not elected until 
the first Monday in April, 1882. The 
change caused a balling up of road matters, 
and the superintendents having no road poll 
work and but little money, could do but little 
work. The winter of 1881 and 1882 was 
an open one, and the roads became for sev- 
eral months practically impassable. Travel 
was almost abandoned, and when spring 
came the highways, full of holes and wash- 
outs, got but little repair from the superin- 
tendents and a spirit of utter disgust was 
everywhere apparent. The legislature at its 
session in January, 1883, quickly repealed 
the road superintendent and cash payment 
law. going back to the old system of working 
out poll and property tax under direction of 
supervisors, and the township trustees had 
a good big cash fund, in addition to the 
work in 18S3. They now began work on the 
roads as it had never been done before. 

At the June term. 1883, of the commis- 
sioners' court, two petitions were filed for 
the building of turnpikes or gravel roads, 
both in Cleveland township, and practically 
from South Whitley to the Huntington 
county line. One the old Goshen and Hunt- 
ington state road and the other the Claysville 
mad. For the Claysville road, William H. 
Lancaster, George Kaler and Alvin H. King 
nf Richland township, were appointed view- 
ers and made their report at the September 
term, 1883. Total length of road five and 
seven hundred and seventy-five five thousand 
two hundred and eightieths (775-5280) 
miles; width of road twentv-four feet; 



width of gravel twelve feet, average depth 
of gravel ten inches ; estimated cost 
fifteen thousand three hundred and forty- 
five dollars and eighty cents. The report 
was accepted and on the 29th day of Sep- 
tember, the contract was let to Matter & Mc- 
Donald for eleven thousand eight hundred 
and fifty dollars. It was completed and ac- 
cepted September 29, 1 884. 

James H. Shaw, Frederick Nei and 
Richard M. Paige were appointed viewers 
for the Goshen road, and they reported at the 
September term, 1883. Length of road, five 
and three thousand one hundre five thou- 
sand two hundred and eightieths (5 3100- 
5280) miles. Same roadbed as the Clays- 
ville road, and an estimated cost of sixteen 
thousand one hundred and twenty-seven dol- 
lars and fifty cents. The contract was let 
to Wilson T. Taylor and Jeremiah Stiver 
for twelve thousand five hundred dollars, 
and was completed and accepted September 
2^, 1S84. An allowance was also made 
for extra work of six hundred and sixty-four 

dollars and sixty cents. There were two 
thousand three hundred dollars of donated 
subscriptions by the citizens in and about 
South Whitley. 

It was now proven that there was plenty 
of gravel in Cleveland township and in al- 
most all other parts of the county. These 
were the only roads ever built in the county 
under the free turnpike law. They were 
pretty expensive to the people along the line, 
but they got good roads quickly and the 
county is bound to keep them up for all 
time to come, by a levy over the entire coun- 
ty for the purpose. 

Then trustees and supervisors began to 
stir themselves and the graveling of the 
roads began in earnest with tax levies to 
the legal limit 

The work has gone steadily and rapidly 
on, until to-day nearly, if not all the main 
roads are graveled, and side ones are rapidly 
catching up. The question of poor roads 
in Whtley county is about solved, which 
wlli be a relief to the citizens. 



The history of education in Whitley 
county is the story of a struggling people 
rising from infancy to approaching man- 
hood. Most of it is the common story of 
the hardships of the pioneers. But long be- 
fore the county was organized, before the 
actual appearance of the "log cabin," the 
"puncheon floor" and the "oiled-paper win- 
dow," the county came into an inheritance 
that has proven its educational wealth. 
Whether the fathers "builded wiser than 
thev knew" or were p'ifted with the vision of 


the Prophets it remains true that while yet 
the Red Man roved unmolested through the 
forests wise men in Indiana were agitating 
the question of schools and colleges, and 
statesmen were laying deep the foundations 
of one of the greatest school systems in the 
world. Education in Indiana was early felt 
to be one of the corner-stones of a republic- 
an form of government. 

In May. 1785. congress passed an act 
providing for the survey of the Northwest 
Territory. In 17S7 the famous ordinance 



was passed to which we trace the origin of 
our school system. It provided that the 
territory should be divided into townships 
six miles square, each towns-hip to be sub- 
divided into thirty-six sections one mile 
square. It also provided that section six- 
teen in each township be set apart for the 
maintenance of the public schools. In 1816 
when Indiana was admitted to the Union as 
a state the provision for the section of land 
in each township was reaffirmed and the con- 
stitution declaring its faith in "Knowledge 
and learning, generally diffused through a 
community, being essential to the preserva- 
tion of a free government." further provided 
for the establishment of a system of schools 
consisting of a gradation of common 
schools, county seminaries and a state uni- 

When on the seventh day of May, 1838, 
Whitley became a separate county it at once 
entered into a rich inheritance of school of- 
fice's. In 1 818 the general assembly of In- 
diana enacted a law making it the duty of 
the Governor to appoint a seminary trustee 
whose duty it was to accumulate and invest 
funds arising from exemption moneys and 
fines and looking to the establishment of a 
seminar_\ r in each count}- that should receive 
pupils from the common school and admit 
them to tlie university. In May, 1830- the 
county commissioners appointed Henry Swi- 
hart seminary trustee, who thus became the 
first school official in the county. In 1840 he 
was reappointed and summoned to appear 
before the commissioners and file a sworn 
statement of the condition of the school 
funds of the county. The report shows that 
he had received the sum of $15,121/ from 
Abraham Clark, who had previously been 

appointed for Huntington County, a perma- 
nent fund to remain inviolate for school 
purposes. Later Richard Collins became 
the seminary trustee; and when in 1852 the 
legislature ordered the sale of all county 
seminaries "with all their properties, real 
and personal," the funds became a part of 
the common school fund of the state. Whit- 
ley county never established a seminary un- 
der the provisions of the law. 

In 1833 a law was enacted providing for 
a county commissioner of education, three 
township trustees and three trustees for each 
school district. It became the duty of the 
school commissioner to take charge of the 
congressional township funds in his county, 
to make sales of the lands belonging there- 
to, and to hold in trust the funds of the lo- 
cal corporations. His duties were entirely 
financial in their nature and he was not con- 
cerned about the actual problems of teach- 
ing. In August. 1839, Andrew Compton 
was elected the first school commissioner in 
Whitley county. On November 19, 1841. 
he made the first sale of school lands. An 
eighty-acre tract belonging to the sixteenth 
section in Union township was sold to 
James Pringle at $3.75 per acre. During 
this and the few succeeding years the school 
lauds were rapidly sold. In August, 1845, 
James B. Edwards was elected to the office 
and served one term. Henry Hanna succeed- 
ing him in 1847. Mr. Hanna served until 
1850, when the office was abolished and its 
duties transferred to the county auditor. 
November 19, 1853, exactly twelve years 
after the first sale, the last quarter section of 
school lands was sold from the sixteenth sec- 
tion in Smith township to Berlin Myers for 
the consideration of $4.00 an acre. The 



total sales of all these lands amounted to 
$17,258.60, or a trifle less than three dollars 
per acre. This congressional fund still re- 
mains the same, — a part of the perpetual 
common school fund "which may be in- 
creased, but shall never be diminished." The 
value of these lands at present leads one to 
speculate upon what the congressii mal town- 
ship funds might have been had the lands 
remained unsold to the present day ; but it is 
gratifying to reflect that our fathers gave 
us a foundation for our public school in a 
fund, though small when compared with the 
millions in educational endowments today. 
yet permanent and untainted by dishonesty 
and the odor of Standard Oil. 

Naturally the first schools of the county 
were conducted in the most primitive way. 
In this educational beginning when it was 
said, "Let there be light," the creative proc- 
ess was not instantaneous. Where the first 
struggling settlements appeared there slowly 
rose the "little log cabin" where the true 
"brisk wielder of the birch and rule" taught 
the elements of "reading, writing and ci- 
phering." The story is familiar to all. The 
wall of the log hut lifting its roof barely 
high enough to admit the master rod and 
all, the puncheon floor and seat, the holes cut 
into the logs for window and door, the wide- 
mouthed fireplace with stick-and-mud chim- 
ney, the slab upheld by pegs that made the 
writing desk against the wall, forms a pic- 
ture that often before has been painted and 
is yet vivid in the reader's mind. 

Such a cabin was erected in the fall of 
1837 on the north bank of Eel river just 
below the place where the State street bridge 
now spans the river in the town of South 
Whitlev, and there David Parrett the fol- 

lowing winter taught the first school in the 
county. Ten pupils made up the enrollment 
and the term lasted probably four months, 
tuition paid entirely by subscription. He 
was succeeded by Miss Elma Thompson, 
who in her turn gave place to Sarah Sluves. 
The following year the early pioneers 
elsewhere in the count}- made their first 
feeble but heroic efforts to have school. John 
Strain taught school in Smith township in 
Ins own log house, and Stephen Martin also 
taught a few months in his own house in 
Troy township. The first house in this 
township was built at Grant's Corners and 
Miss Clarissa Blanchard taug'ht in it the 
first term. The same year Rufus D. Kinney 
taught the first school in Etna township in 
a house built for that purpose. In 1839 the 
first school in Union township was opened 
two miles northeast of the center, and Mrs. 
Cornelia Bonestel, a widow who had come 
west from Xew York, taught for several 
terms. In 1841 William W'idup taught a 
school in Thorncreek township in the Egolf 
district, and Charles Hughes the same year 
opened a school at Bethel. The following 
year Jesse Case taught the first school in 
Washington Township south of the center : 
and when in 1845 Mrs. B. F. Davis became 
the first teacher in Jefferson township near 
the place commonly known as Saturn settle- 
ments dotted the valleys of the county ev- 
erywhere and the little schoolhouse where 
teacher and preacher held forth followed 
hard upon the trail of the pioneer. In 1847 
the first brick schoolhouse in the county 
was built in Columbia City on lot 3, block 
25, original plat. 

In 1837 in addition to all the officers 
named above and with but little modification 



of their duties the circuit court was author- 
ized to appoint annually three examiners 
whose duty it should be "to certify the 
branches of learning each applicant was 
qualified to teach." During the next decade 
no changes were made in the school system 
when in 1847 Caleb Mills of Wabash Col- 
lege, the greatest educational statesman In- 
diana has produced, published in the "Indi- 
ana School Journal" his famous message ad- 
dressed to the general assembly and signed 
"One of the People." He gave his views 
freely and forcibly, criticising the governor 
and other officials of the state for their want 
of interest in educational matters, and point- 
ed out the need of efficient state and county 
supervision of schools. As a consequence a 
law was enacted in 1849 that abolished the 
office of school commissioner, retained the 
three examiners in each county and the three 
township trustees, but substituted one trus- 
tee in each district instead of three. 

The new constitution of 1852 incorpo- 
rated this law, and under this simplified ma- 
chinery the supervision of schools in 
Whitley county practically began. Prior to 
the adoption of the new constitution the 
primitive conditions in the county made 
the appointment of school examiners unnec- 

Early in the summer of 1852 Joseph 
Stultz, who was then justice of the peace in 
Cleveland township, having made up his 
mind to teach school within the year, dis- 
covered after some investigation that a 
teacher who expects remuneration out of 
the public funds should be leg'ally licensed 
by a properly appointed examiner. He came 
to Columbia City, and upon failure to find 
such an official made his wants known to the 

board of county commissioners, who 
thereupon temporarily appointed I. B. Mc- 
Donald, school examiner for Whitley 
county. After a brief oral examination Mr. 
Stultz was placed in possession of the first 
teacher's license issued in the county. Later 
in the same year Mr. McDonald was regu- 
larly appointed examiner and for two years 
he served in that official capacity alone. In 
1854 S. G. A. Reed and A. A. Bainbridge 
were appointed his associates for one year, 
and the following year C. W. Edwards and 
A. A. Bainbridge were chosen; but these 
gentlemen looked to McDonald for the exe- 
cution of the duties of the office and it was 
under his management that the teaching 
body of the county began to assume form. 
For the succeeding five years the appoint- 
ments to the office of examiner were as fol- 
lows: In 1856, P. H. Hardesty, William 
Bell, A. A. Bainbridge; 1857, J. H. Alexan- 
der, Henry- McLallen, Josiah Brown; 1858, 
A. J. Douglas, Josiah Brown, J. H. Alexan- 
der; 1859, Isaac Van Houton, A. J. Comp- 
ton, A. W. Myers; i860, Isaac Van Houton, 
A. J. Compton, A. W. Myers. 

In 1854 Reverend Jacob Wolf, believing 
in the efficiency of learning beyond merely 
the rudiments, undertook the establishment 
of a colleg-e in the county. Whether the 
early activity in educational matters of the 
people of Union Township helped him in 
the selection of the site is not known, but he 
decided upon a place at the center of this 
township and there erected a building as the 
nucleus of W^artberg College. He brought 
to this place A. J. Douglas, an intelligent 
and enthusiastic young man, and the two 
assumed the work of a faculty. A number 
of young men took up their residence here. 



and others found homes among the farmers 
in the immediate vicinity, and for two years 
the school seemed to prosper with a fair at- 
tendance. The day, however, was too early 
and the "call of the wild" too strong for the 
awakening of interest in Latin and Geom- 
etry, and in 1856 the school was disbanded 
and the property willed to Wittenberg Col- 
lege, at Springfield. Ohio. Mr. Douglas 
came to Columbia City, and assisted I. B. 
McDonald in a public school which he had 
opened above the old Baptist church where 
now stands the Town Hall. 

In 1 86 1 the legislature enacted a law 
providing- for the appointment by the county 
commissioners of but one school examiner 
for each county to serve for a term of three 
years, and H. D. Wilson was at once ap- 
pointed. He was a man of considerable 
ability and served the people in a credit- 
able manner during the years of the Civil 
W T ar holding the first county institute in 
1863. In 1864 I. B. McDonald returned 
from his service at the front with the title 
of Colonel and was promptly elected exam- 
iner. He held the office for two terms and 
entered vigorously into the spirit of the 
work. His large problem was the establish- 
ment of school districts and the location of 
schoolhouses. The early pioneers had built 
log cabins for schools and had naturally 
located them at the best convenience of com- 
munities regardless of geographic lines. To 
reduce these promiscuous schools into the 
system contemplated by the state of having 
one school regularly located at the center of 
four sections of land was a problem that 
involved no end of rivalry and even bitter 
feeling. It must be said to the credit of 
Colonel McDonald that in all this he acquit- 

ted himself with honesty, good judgment 
and dignity. Time has proven that as long 
as the little district schools remain their loca- 
tion in the county was judiciously deter- 

Teachers' examinations then were infor- 
mal. The examiner held an institute for a 
week or two at which such topics as the 
"reduction of complex fractions," "punctua- 
tion," or the "parsing of the noun" were 
taught, and at the close he held an oral ex- 
amination under whose searching fire of 
questions the prospective teacher sat in fear 
and trembling. But there were splendid 
young people in those days who aspired to 
teach and whose heroism in facing priva- 
tions and hardships was a lesson and a wor- 
th}- example itself. The following names 
are taken from the record of licensed teach- 
ers : Hugh L. Finley, Rose Nickey, Mary 
Mag-ers. Joseph P. Anderson. John C. Chey- 
ney, William H. Knisely, W. H. Liggett, 
Ruth McNear. H. C. Widup, William Mc- 
Laughlin, Mattie Best, Nellie M. Coutz, L. 
D. Bevington, Malissa Bechtol, James A. 
Campbell, Zilpha E. Hurd, G. W. North, H. 
W. Spangler, Jeremiah Summers, Lizzie 
Widup, Joseph E. Stoner, B. F. Stultz, Fan- 
nie Thompson, Hannah Holm, Jennie A. 
Park, Louise Gregg, Chester L. Cone, Au- 
gusta Cleveland, Millard F. Anderson, 
Charles D. Moe, Frank B. Moe, Valorous 
Brown, T. A. Lancaster, Alexander Snvder, 
Jennie Daniels, Maggie Daniels, John Fetro. 
Lizzie McCoy, George W. Reasor, William 
H. Swan, W. C. Barnhart, Samuel D. Mil- 
ler. A. J. Douglas. J. W. Adair, L. D. Tho- 
man, W. H. Coyle. Christopher Souder. 
Jacob Herr, John H. Reider, George D. 
Trembly. W. C. Rickey, J. D. Allerton, 



Amos Coyle, F. M. Ihrig. W. F. McNag- 
ney. C. B. Tulley, M. D. Garrison, F. M. 
Searles, Henry Bridge. D. Dickey, Isaac 
Herr, T. A. Stewart, J. D. Coverstone, 
Isaac Van Houton, Alexander Knisely, Da- 
vid Webster, Jennie Hartsock, Hannah 
Hartsock, Augusta V. Ireland, Alary E. 
Lathrup, Lucy A. Watson, Almeda Keni- 
son, Mai-y Jane Swayne, Amanda D. Ree- 
fer, Nancy F. Kaufman, Josiah F. McNear, 
Amanda Cassel, David Coyle, James E. 
Darland, Richard H. Darland. 

One day in July, 1867, a young man with 
all his earthly possessions in a satchel 
walked into the Ritter House in Columbia 
City and registered under the name of W. 
C. Bamhart. He was a teacher from Ohio 
and came to this county with the intention 
of teaching a private school. After a talk 
with Examiner McDonald he walked the 
next day through the woods to South Whit- 
ley. There he met Dr. E. Merriman, Dr. 
C. W. Edwards, and S. A. Sheibley, trus- 
tees of an organization that had joined the 
township trustee in erecting a schoolhouse, 
and contracted with these gentlemen to es- 
tablish a school to be known as Springfield 
Academy : the one other condition in the 
contract being that the school should have 
a primary department sustained by the 
township and that this department should 
be taught by Mrs. Nellie Couts. 

In August Mr. Bamhart opened his 
school in what is now a part of the building 
occupied by the Atoz Printing Company, 
and fiir two years with the assistance of M. 
S. Tracy, L. D. Bevington, J. M. Fraze, and 
G. W. Reaser, as teachers, he conducted a 
prosperous institution. Most of the work 
thai known as the "higher branches" was 

taught by Mr. Barnhart himself; and dur- 
ing" the life of the school two hundred thirty- 
seven pupils attended the majority of whom 
registered in his department. After the 
second year, finding that hard work and 
Eel River ague were laying their hands 
roughly upon him and, according to his own 
statement, that the mutations of local poli- 
tics were proving equally unkind and disas- 
trous, he left the school and went to Lar- 
will. Here he taught a short term, and be- 
fore its close was elected superintendent of 
schools in Defiance, Ohio. Meanwhile the 
growing movement toward the high-school 
idea all over Indiana made the local private 
school more and more difficult, and Spring- 
field Academy was absorbed by the public 
school system. 

At the regular election in 1870 Colonel 
McDonald was elected a member of the state 
legislature and in June, 1871, he resigned the 
office of examiner and A. J. Douglas was 
appointed in his place. Mr. Douglas served 
the unexpired term following the policy of 
his predecessor but making use of written 
examinations upon questions provided by 
the state department. In 1872 State Super- 
intendent Hopkins and other leading educa- 
tors of the state recommended that the office 
of school examiner be abolished and that of 
county superintendent be created. As a re- 
sult the general assembly in 1873 enacted a 
law providing for a county superintendent 
to be appointed by the township trustees for 
a term of two years. It did not create a new 
office but changed the name of the old one 
enlarging its powers and increasing the 
function of supervision. A. J. Douglas was 
elected for four successive terms ; and in 
addition he performed the duties of super- 



intendent of city schools of Columbia City 
from 1869 to 1879. During his administra- 
tion the history of the schools was marked 
by a slow but steady growth in efficiency. 
Brick houses and improved desks were tak- 
ing the place of the log structures and hewn 
benches and some attention was being given 
to a uniform course of study. School meet- 
ings were common, and the "big dinner" at 
which the genial county superintendent did 
the honors, and where conviviality and the 
school spirit were happily commingled, kept 
parents, children and teachers close to- 

In 1873 Hon. A. Y. Hooper, a gentle- 
man of public spirit and some financial 
means, established Green Hill Academy. He 
built on North Line street in Columbia City 
a small frame building designed for school 
purposes and placed in charge Misses Lou- 
isa C. Kinney and Sarah A. Nichols. These 
ladies were teachers whose culture and re- 
finement appealed to many of the best fam- 
ilies in the city and here they conducted a 
subscription school with thirty or forty chil- 
dren. In 1880 the teachers went west, and 
the building was converted into a dwelling- 
house which stands as a memorial "even 
unto this day." 

In 1879 the growing responsibilities of 
the city schools induced the board of edu- 
cation to relieve Mr. Douglas of their care 
and oversight and Augustus C. Mills was 
chosen the first superintendent of city 
schools with distinct duties. The high school 
was commissioned under his charge in 1880. 
While serving his second year the educa- 
tional waters became somewhat troubled 
and he resigned, W. C. Barnhart being cho- 
sen to fill his place. 

In June, 1881, the administration of 
school affairs in the county passed into the 
hands of Joseph W. Adair who served two 
terms. Mr. Adair was a man whose intui- 
tions were strong and accurate, his sympa- 
thies were generous, and his heart big 
enough to feel that every boy and girl in the 
county was his own. He had been a success- 
ful teacher and as a lawyer had proven his 
ability at the bar. Normal schools were 
still in their infancy, and the tide of school 
literature of which now there is a flood had 
not yet begun to rise. Every year he con- 
ducted a training school for teachers at the 
county seat continuing for several weeks 
and the progressive teachers depended upon 
it for their advancement and inspiration. 
Township institutes were organized, and the 
"big dinner" feature began to give place to 
the discussion of school questions. Ques- 
tions for the examination of teachers were 
provided by the state board of education 
and imported talent began to be used in the 
county institutes. Text books were adopted 
by the township trustees under the advice of 
the superintendent. 

During this time W. C. Barnhart was 
showing his hand as an organizer in the 
schools of Columbia City. He made no 
pretense of diplomacy but met the situation 
in a square fight, and to him is due the credit 
of bringing order out of the rather chaotic 
state into which want of organization had 
permitted the city schools to grow. He re- 
duced the grades into a definite system and 
reorganized the high school to retain its 
commission. At the end of three years 
though doing splendid work he had made 
enough enemies to call for his successor and 
John C. Kinney was named in his stead. 


Near the close of this administration 
James B. Humphreys came to Churubusco 
and was employed as principal of the town 
schools. He organized a few classes in the 
"higher branches" ; taught algebra, rhet- 
oric and natural philosophy to the students 
who cared to do "advanced work" and to 
this beginning the high school at Churu- 
busco owes its origin. 

The trustees met in regular session in 
June 1885 and elected Alexander Knisely, 
countv superintendent of schools. That Mr. 
Knisely was the right man in the right 
place at the right time there has never been 
the slightest doubt in the minds of the 
people. No one in the history of the county 
has ever brought to the office hardier cour- 
age, better judgment, and a keener sense of 
honor. Gifted with a personality that was 
positive and unflinching, he set his face to 
the task of making teaching a distinct and 
separate problem for every teacher indi- 
vidually. He outlined and published the 
first course of study and made school work 
throughout the county uniform. He had a 
unique method of encouraging self-criti- 
cism 011 the part of teachers by putting his 
observations in question form, and the terse 
and pointed letters that the lagging teacher 
might expect seldom failed to hit the mark. 
Eighth grade commencements were held in 
every township: competitive declamatory 
exercises grew out of these among the chil- 
dren ; rousing school exhibitions were held 
at the count}- seat : and in every way the 
boys and girls were encouraged to do their 
best. County institutes were held during 
the mid-winter holidays for which the best 
instructors were employed and patrons at- 
tended in large numbers while teachers were 

required to render punctual attendance. Mr. 
Knisely's devotion to the cause of education 
is shown by his spending most of his own 
salary in the administration of the office. 

The South Whitley high school was or- 
ganized in 1886, and G. M. Naber was 
placed in charge. The following year the 
town was dignified by the construction of 
what was then the finest school building in 
the county ; and this material equipment 
made it possible for South Whitley to main- 
tain educational leadership in the count}- f< >r 
a number of years. In 1888 L. H. Price 
was chosen principal, taught for two terms, 
and was succeeded by J. D. Merriman. In 
1890 G. H. Tapy organized and taught a 
normal school in the G. A. R. Hall in the 
town of Etna and began work with fort}- pu- 
pils. He arranged to continue the school 
but at the close of the first term he was 
elected principal of the South Whitley high 

W. C. Palmer became superintendent of 
the Columbia City schools in 1885 and for 
six years followed a vigwous policy in the 
administration of school affairs. The enu- 
meration of children for school purposes in 
1887 was 6,005. the highest mark in the his- 
tory of the county; and this evidence of 
prosperity made imperative the construction 
in 1889 of the West Ward school building. 
\Y. W. Williamson in 1888 was chosen prin- 
cipal at Churubusco. He believed in the vir- 
tue of discipline; and. quoting his own 
words, "Government more or less civil con- 
stituted the center of the course of stud}-." 
His successor was A. R. Thomas, who held 
the position for three years. 

In [89] at the expiration of his third 
term Mr. Knisely was succeeded by Guilford 


M. Naber. Mr. Naber was a graduate of 
the State Normal School and during his 
incumbency gave methods of instruction 
much attention. A short time" prior to his 
election the new text book law became oper- 
ative under whose provisions uniform books 
at practically half their former price were 
furnished under state contract upon the 
requisition of the township trustees and 
boards of education. The county superin- 
tendent became the accountant and was 
made responsible for the record of sales and 
remittances of these books. Mr. Naber 
proved a faithful official and devoted much 
of his time to the actual "field work" among 
the schools. He organized the "Teachers' 
Association" which held its annual meeting 
<m the two days following Thanksgiving 
Day, and he changed the date of the o mnty 
institute to some week in the autumn before 
the opening of the public schools. He devel- 
oped the Teachers' Reading Circle in the 
institutes and encouraged the establishment 
of Young People's Libraries in every school 
district. In continuing the policv of his 
predecessor Mr. Naber intensified the work 
of teaching and his own energetic and tire- 
less efforts were reflected by his teachers. 
In 1 89 1 P. H. Kirsch was chosen super- 
intendent of the Columbia City schools. 
Though the details of school work were irk- 
some to him he was in many respects an able 
man. having made original researches in bi- 
ology and becoming an authority in ichthy- 
ology. The school enjoyed a gradual gr< iwth 
under his supervision and he was followed 
in 1897 by Miss Luella A. Melhinch. During 
this administration the principals at Churu- 
busco were U. W. Keplinger. Paul Wilkie, 
L F. Chalfant, and G. H. Mingle. Each con- 

tributed to the organization of a three 
years' high school In 1895 G. H. Tapy 
was promoted to the superintendence- at 
South Whitley. 

Burnside Clapham, who was also a grad- 
uate of the State Normal School was elected 
county superintendent in 1897 and held the 
office one term. He was decisive in char- 
acter, positive in his convictions, and uncom- 
promising toward opposition when he be- 
lieved himself to be right. In 1897 a ' aw 
was enacted by the general assembly giving 
an applicant for teacher's license the option 
of having his papers graded by the county 
superintendent or the state superintendent. 
•The term of office was also lengthened to 
four years. Mr. Clapham gave his atten- 
tion largely to grade work, making it his 
policy to withhold children from the high 
school until they had thoroughly mastered 
the work of the grades. He took an ad- 
vanced position on school architecture, as- 
sisting Trustee J. L. Creager of Washington 
township, in constructing in district No. 
two the finest district school building in the 
county. In 1898 the South Whitley high 
school was commissioned and the same vear 
C. L. Hottel was chosen superintendent at 
Columbia City. He held the position seven 
years, giving the schools a quiet but safe 
administration. During this time the en- 
liillment due to transfers from the country 
and promotions from the rural high schools 
leached one hundred twenty pupils, and the 
hig'h-school corps was correspondingly in- 
creased from two to five teachers. 

In 1899 George H. Tapy, a graduate of 
Wabash College, was elected count} - superin- 
tendent. He at once began the solution of 
iwo Cuming problems; — the establishment 


of local high schools and the consolidation 
of the district schools that had become too 
small to do good work. Early in 1902 the 
people in Washington and Jefferson town- 
ships held mass meetings and decided to 
erect a high school building at the center of 
each township. "" The following year meet- 
ings were held in Etna township which re- 
sulted in a petition signed by ninety-five per 
cent, of the taxpayers asking the trustee to 
erect a commodious schoolhouse and to con- 
solidate all the schools of the township. A 
little later Trustee Hugo Logan enlarged 
the school facilities of the village of Colla- 
mer by building a modern structure and 
transported to it the children of the adjacent 
districts. Additional teachers were added 
at Collins and in 1906 Trustee Elmer Nei 
contracted to have built a beautiful and com- 
modious building at Coesse to accommodate 
all the school children of Union township. 
A high school had been previously organ- 
ized at Larwill and for these schools a uni- 
form course of two years' and three years' 
work was arranged through which all stu- 
dents could be regularly promoted into the 
graduating classes of the commissioned 
schools in Churubusco, South Whitley, and 
Columbia City. Bad roads are yet a hin- 
drance to transportation but the intelligent 
and prosperous people who live in the coun- 
try are awake on the subject of education 
and are demanding school facilities for their 
boys and girls equal to those of the city. 
During this administration the qualification 
of the teacher was gradually raised from 
proficiency in the common branches to grad- 
uation from the high school, and this 
broader view of school work is bringing 
with it better results. 

In 1899 D. H. Richards became princi- 
pal at Churubusco. The next year his suc- 
cessor, Claude Beltz, was given the title of 
superintendent, an additional teacher was 
added to the high school, and in 1903 the 
high school was commissioned by the state 
board of education. Mr. Beltz was fol- 
lowed by L. L. Hall and J. W. Colburn. At 
South Whitley O. H. Bowman, J. W. Cole- 
berd, and W. W. Strain took charge in the 
order named. In 1904 the enlarging school 
sentiment in the county, and city demanded 
the construction of the magnificent building" 
in Columbia City now used exclusively for 
high-school purposes, the schools of the city 
at once leaped into a class with the best 
schools of the state, and M. W. Deputy, an 
energetic, scholarly man, placed in charge. 
The schools of Whitley county today 
rank high in Indiana. They have more 
than kept pace with the material develop- 
ment of the county. When we look back 
over the experiences, trials, failures and suc- 
cesses of seventy years we feel an honest 
pride in our attainments and our hearts 
grow warm in the faith of a yet brighter 
da}-. Old things have passed away and all 
things have become new. Our fathers 
looked forward to the realization of the 
thing's contemplated in their wise system, 
and we can prove ourselves worthy or our 
sires only by keeping our faces to the future 
in the anticipation and achievement of still 
better things for our sons and daughters. 

What the future may bring does not 
concern the historian but lies within the do- 
main of prophecy. But if the "signs of the 
times" are rightly interpreted the day will 
sometime come when one splendid and corn- 
hand as well as the head, and above all 



modious school located in the midst of beau- where the true teacher will follow the pre- 

tiful grounds will grace the center of every cept and example of the Great Teacher in 

township, where the workshop and school the training of the heart that makes for 

garden will contribute to the training of the righteousness and more abundant life. 



The first military organization in Whit- 
ley county was a company of cavalry, of 
which each furnished his own equipment 
and mount. Then, 1852 to 1855, were or- 
ganized a company of infantry and a bat- 
tery of artillery and some of them were still 
in existence at the outbreak of the Civil 
war. They were for home protection and 
amusement, it affording the "young bloods" 
an opportunity to meet, have a good visit 
and show their ability as soldiers. It may 
be said that it was largely due to these vol- 
unteer organizations that Whitley county 
was able to furnish its full quota of soldiers 
during the Civil war, the training and mili- 
tary spirit of the former organizations had 
its effect and a strong martial spirit ex- 

After the Civil war there was organized 
in the county a company of infantry with 
headquarters at South Whitley (Spring- 
field) and was made a part of the state 
militia, the equipment being furnished by 
the state, though each individual member 
supplied his own uniform. 

Among those who have lived in Whit- 
ley county who served in the war of 18 12 
was David Hemmick, who was orderly un- 
der General Harrison. Thomas Walker. 

who lived west of Columbia City, served in 
a Virginia regiment, as did James Jones. 
John Jackson, William James and a Mr. 
Maring were also soldiers in that memorable 

Mexican soldiers who have resided in 
Whitley are Thomas Keeley, John Slees- 
man, William Smith, Joseph Crow, James 
Van Ness, Edward McMahon, Peter Mc- 
Mahon, William McMahon. Peter Howell, 
James E. Sargent and a Mr. Disbrow. 

Without attempting to analyze the vari- 
ous views held by citizens at the outbreak 
of the Civil war, it is sufficient to say that 
the great body were in accord with the sup- 
pression of the rebellion and took early ac- 
tion toward advancing the Union cause. 
Stirring editorials in the Republican and the 
News, a Democratic paper, led to enthusi- 
astic meetings where patriotic speeches were 
made and resolutions passed pledging loyal 
support to suppress the rebellion. A volun- 
teer company was enlisted, its roster ap- 
pearing on another page. 

Liberty poles were raised in every town- 
ship, great gatherings of people attending 
and dozens of flags could be seen flying to 
the breeze from a central point of vantage. 
May 7. 1 86 1, the ladies presented a silk 



flag to the volunteers and May 21 the com- 
pany left for Camp Morton at Indianapolis, 
being mustered into United States service 
June 1 1 . 

This company was attached to the Sev- 
enteenth Indiana Regiment and was sent 
into West Virginia. I. B. McDonald, who 
went out as its second lieutenant, an un- 
compromising Democrat and the third man 
to enlist, wrote stirring and patriotic letters 
that produced effect when read at home; 
and soon other companies were being raised. 
October 17th Captain Cuppy's company, 
which became Company E, Forty-fourth In- 
diana Volunteer Regiment, and which was 
raised largely in Richland township, 
marched from South Whitley to Columbia 
City, where it took rail for Fort Wayne, the 
rendezvous of the regiment, and was mus- 
tered in November 22, 1861. 

November 21, 1861, Captain Peter Si- 
monson secured the mustering in of the 
Fifth Indiana Batten- Light Artillery, which 
had been raised largely by Judge James C. 
Bodley. who had but recently served as 
judge of the district court and who became 
Captain of Company K, Eighty-eighth In- 
diana, and who later lost his life by the 
explosion of a cannon while at home and 
assisting' in the celebration of some war 

At the time of the first draft Whitley 
count\- was posted as being about one hun- 
dred and fifty men short. Though by special 
efforts this was reduced to about twenty- 
five, who were provided for by draft. Scenes 
similar to what were witnessed in even- 
state transpired : but the quota was filled 
without serious difficulty, the district mar- 
shal keeping the necessary machinery in mo- 

Considering the influences and the rabid 
condition of the public mind, so many not 
yet being settled in policy, no future citi- 
zen of this county may blush for failure to 
thoroughly perform the duty demanded of 
its people. Nearly one thousand men went 
from the small county, a remarkably small 
number of them acting otherwise than to 
reflect credit and honor upon its escutcheon. 

While no Whitley county men attained 
remarkable distinction, a few were pro- 
moted to responsible position. I. B. Mc- 
Donald was made a captain in the regular 
army by President Lincoln, served with dis- 
tinction on the staff of General Milroy and 
final!}- was promoted to be lieutenant colonel 
of the Sixth West Virginia Veteran Cav- 

Captain James C. Bodley was advanced 
to be major of his regiment. Captain 
Stough. the first man to enlist in the count}-, 
was a man of great patriotism and was 
made major in the field for gallant service. 
He was captured, confined in Libby and 
while there was promoted to lienteuant 
colonel, but never wore the bars, as he gave 
up his life while still a prisoner. October 
29, 1863. 

Idic drafts of Jul}- and December. 1864, 
demanded four hundred and eighteen men 
from Whitley county. Strenuous efforts 
were put forth by the citizens and the bounty 
was increased so that $1,192 could be had 
for one year's sen-ice. As drafted men re- 
ceived no bounty, the inducement was such 
that this county soon filled its requirement 
and these drafts did not affect it. 

The amount of $159,684 was paid by 
the county during the war in bounty and 
relief fund. 

December 4, 1862, the following persons 


were appointed superintendents of soldiers' 
families and to provide for their wants: 
Cleveland, B. H. Cleveland ; Richland, A. 
F. Martin; Troy, A. M. Trumbull; Wash- 
ington, Martin Bechtel ; Columbia, F. H. 
Foust ; Thorncreek, H. S. Cobaugh ; Jef- 
ferson, John W. Crowell ; Etna, Alanson 
Tucker : Union, Francis Mossman ; Smith, 
Francis Tully. 

They were ordered to make inquiry into 
the condition of soldiers' families and re- 
port to the county auditor what was neces- 
sary for their support and should register 
name of wife or other person in charge of 
the family and auditor then to draw orders 
accordingly each month as long as the neces- 
sity existed, not more than three dollars per 
month for wife and one dollar for each 

In addition to what the county did for 
soldiers' families nearly every township had 
regular organized societies looking after sol- 
diers' families, furnishing them necessaries 
of life as well as money. Richland township 
was the first township to organize such a 
society, October 23, 1861. 

When the war ceased. May 1, 1865, 
Whitley county had put ninety-two more 
men in the field than the calls of the Presi- 
dent had required, all told. Every other 
county in northern Indiana was seven to 
eighty-nine behind their quota. 

The Eleventh Indiana Regiment con- 
tained several Whitley county men and did 
excellent service early in the war. particu- 
larly at Forts Henry and Donelson, at Shi- 
loh. Corinth, Yazoo Pass, siege of Vicks- 
burg and later in the battles of Winchester 
and Fisher's Hill. 

The Seventeenth, with Company E from 

Whitley county, first fought at Greenbrier, 
Virginia, and then at Corinth, Mississippi, 
against Forrest and Bragg. In February, 
1863, it was mounted and armed with Spen- 
cer rifles. It was prominent in all the most 
sanguinary battles of the Atlanta campaign, 
was active in "the Wilson raid" and without 
aid captured Macon, Georgia, securing one 
major-general, three brigadier-generals, 
three thousand prisoners, sixty pieces of ar- 
tillery, three thousand small arms, etc. It 
had a glorious record anil one to which any 
descendant of one of its soldiers may point 
with pride. It was and is an honor to have 
belonged to the Seventeenth. Company E 
received seventy-five recruits during its ser- 
vice, as is seen in its roster, which is here 

The Forty-fourth Regiment, of which 
Company E was from this county, had also 
a creditable record. Captain Cuppy was 
killed, as was George Weemer, first lieuten- 
ant. Oliver P. Koontz and William H. Hil- 
debrand were his successors in command. 

The regiment was mustered into service 
November 22, 1861, under Colonel Hugh B. 
Reed. It suffered severely in the attacks on 
Forts Henry and Donelson, being under fire 
constantly at the latter place from the thir- 
teenth to the 1 6th of February and on the 
evening of the 15th it forced General Buck- 
ner back into the fort as he made a sortie 
to escape and charging up the works where 
its heaviest loss occurred. 

In the two days' battle of Shiloh it lost 
thirty-three killed and one hundred and sev- 
entv-seven wounded. It had long, arduous 
marches after Perryville. It was in Stone 
River. Chickamauga and Mission Ridge, 
losing eighty-two killed, wounded and miss- 



ing in these last two battles. In October, 
1863, the regiment was detailed for provost 
duty at Chattanooga and there remained till 
mustered out in September, 1865. It lost 
three hundred and fifty killed and wounded 
and fifty-eight by disease. 

Company B, Seventy-fourth Indiana 
Volunteer Infantry, Captain James E. Sar- 
gent, was mustered in August 21, 1862. 
Captain Sargent was a Mexican soldier, be- 
came a saddler in Columbia City and was 
the second man to enroll for service in the 
rebellion in Whitley county. He was first 
lieutenant of the first company, resigning to 
raise another company, which he command- 
ed until the close of the war. He died in 
recent years at Fort Wayne. No more gal- 
lant man is credited to Indiana. 

The Seventy-fourth pursued Bragg in 
Kentucky and fought the famous John Mor- 
gan. It occupied Gallatin, Tennessee, and 
was active in the Tullahoma and Chatta- 
nooga campaigns. It was one of the first 
regiments engaged at Chickamauga and one 
of the last to leave the field, where it lost 
twenty killed and one hundred and forty 
wounded and missing. It lost eighteen 
killed and wounded at Mission Ridge. It 
fought at Buzzard's Roost, Dallas, Kene- 
saw and Lost Mountain. At Jonesboro its 
brigade carried the enemy's works, captur- 
ing four pieces of artillery and seven hun- 
dred prisoners. It marched with Sherman 
to the sea, on to Savannah, Raleigh and 
Richmond, rounding out a remarkable rec- 
ord with a final march in the "grand re- 

Company K of the Eighty-eighth was 
mustered in August 29, 1862, and October 
8th fought like veterans at Chaplin Hills, 

where it suffered a severe loss. Its action 
was such as to draw commendation for 
its steadiness and good conduct from 
Rosecrans. The enemy retreating, the regi- 
ment lay at Nashville till it moved in De- 
cember to participate at Stone River January 
1st, 2d and 3d, 1863, making the final 
charge late on the third, driving the enemy 
from its cover, its colonel, Humphrey, being 
among the wounded. Lying at Murfrees- 
boro and Winchester it was ready for its 
brush with General Polk's command at Dug 
Gap, Georgia. Its division was first to open 
the battle of Chickamauga on September 19, 
forming after two days' engagement Rose- 
crans's rear guard on the retreat to Chatta- 

Its charge at Mission Ridge brought 
compliments from General Thomas, it being 
one of the first to plant its flag on the ene- 
my's works. It pursued and captured a bat- 
tery at Ringgold, Georgia. 

■ It felt the heaviest fighting in the At- 
lanta campaign, including Tunnel Hill, Buz- 
zard's Roost, Resaca, New Hope, Dallas, 
Kenesaw, Chattahoochie. Peach Tree Creek. 
Atlanta, Utoy Church and Jonesboro. It 
pursued Hood for two hundred, miles, re- 
traced its march and on to Savannah. In 
advance, March 19th, it was attacked at Ben- 
tonville, where it experienced one of the 
hottest little fights, losing thirty-nine men. 
It, too, marched before the national offi- 
cials and on every hand drew shouts of 

Company F. One Hundredth Indiana 
Volunteer Regiment, under Captain Abram 
W. Myers, Colonel Sanford J. Stoughton, 
went out November. 1862, was in the Vicks- 
burg campaign and with Sherman at Jack- 



son. It turned the flank of Bragg's army 
at Trenton, Georgia; at Mission Ridge it 
lost one hundred and thirty-two men killed 
and wounded. In the Atlanta campaign it 
marched and fought for one hundred days. 

Company D, One Hundred and Twenty- 
ninth, Captain F. M. McDonald, served 
creditably the last year of the war. Its se- 
verest service was in pursuit of and battles 
with Hood, losing heavily at Franklin. It 
was transferred to Moorhead City and after 
a fight at Wise's Forks did provost duty at 
Charlotte, North Carolina, till mustered out 
in August, 1865. 
• John H. Slagle commanded Company G, 
One Hundred and Forty-second, which 
served in the battle of Nashville, where it 
did duty till July, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-second was 
organized March 16, 1865, under Colonel 
Wheldon W. Griswold, Company I, Cap- 
tain John M. Albright, being from Whitley 
county- Its service was post and garrison 
duty in Virginia, Charlotte, Stevenson Sta- 
tion, Summit Point and Clarksburg till Au- 
gust 30, 1865. 

The Fifth Indiana Battery, Light Artil- 
lery, Captain Peter Simonson, Henry Ran- 
kin first lieutenant, Alfred Morrison, second 
lieutenant, consisted of six guns and one 
hundred and forty-eight men, mustered in 
November 22, 1861, and December 26th was 
at Louisville, where it joined Mitchell's Di- 
vision, Buell's army. April nth it occu- 
pied Huntsville, Alabama, capturing stores 
and three railroad trains. Two guns were 
put on platform cars, run ahead of engines 
for seventy miles each way on the Memphis 
& Charleston Railroad, destroying bridges 
in return. Only instance on record of re- 

connoisance by railroad of artillery in ene- 
my's country. August 24th had six hour ar- 
tillery fight at Stevenson, where it was sent 
to protect removal of government stores, 
which was done under its cover. Fired six 
hours at Chaplin Hills and November 31st 
at Stone River lost heavily. The command- 
ing general reports : "Captain Simonson 
managed his battery with skill and courage, 
doing good execution. Lost two guns, but 
not till horses had been killed and guns ren- 
dered useless." At Chickamauga lost one 
man killed, nine wounded, two prisoners, 
twenty-six horses, two guns. At Waldron 
Ridge had to haul guns and caissons up hills 
with ropes, one hundred men to the gun, but 
made three and a half miles in one and one- 
half days. Held that commanding position 
till February' 24th, when assigned to Stan- 
ley's division. During Atlanta campaign 
battery constantly • in the front — Tunnel 
Hill, Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Adairs- 
ville, Kingston, Cassville, Pine Mountain, 
Kenesaw Mountain, New Hope Church, 
Peach Tree Creek. Atlanta and Jonesboro. 

While placing battery in position at 
Pine Mountain Captain Simonson was in- 
stantly killed and was succeeded by Captain 
Alfred Morrison. 

Peters Simonson was a civil engineer 
and came to Columbia City to assist in the 
survey of the Pennsylvania Railroad. He 
was in command of all artillery in General 
Stanley's division. No braver man ever 
lived. One of the Rodman guns of this bat- 
tery fired the ball at Pine Mountain that 
killed the famous Bishop General Polk. 

George W. Stough Post, No. 181. Grand 
Armv of the Republic, Columbia City, was 
organized June 1, 1883, by Allen H. 


Dougall. mustering officer, and Michael 
Sickafoose, post commander. Comrade 
Daniel Meyers suggested the name George 
W. Stough, which was accepted. The post 
has continued in a flourishing condition, its 
commander at present being D. R. Hem- 
in ick. 

A list of the soldiers who enlisted in the 
Union arm}- from Whitley county, Indiana, 
during the years 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864 
and 1865 : 

This list is from Col. I. B. McDonald's 
private record, heretofore unpublished, and 
is the only complete roster of Whitley coun- 
ty soldiers in existence. The Colonel has 
spared no time or means to make it perfect 
and complete. It has had his great care 
and attention for more than forty-four 


April 21, 1 86 1. 

George W. Stough. 
James E. Sargent, 
Isaiah B. McDonald. 
Nimrod Smith, 
James K. Ward, 
Cyrus J. Ward, 
John T. Drury, 
John J. Weiler, 
Edward B. Beeson, 
David Carver, 
Edwd. A. Mossman, 
David R. Hemmick, 
William L. Birney, 
D. M. Shoemaker. 
Nicholas Beesack, 
Jacob J. Conrad, 
Henry Banta. 
Wm. M. Bamhill, 

Lewis Hartman, 
Geo. W. Hartsock, 
Joseph W. Hiler, 
Wm. F. Johnson, 
Homer King, 
Jesse Kyler, 
Isaac Leamon, 
Henry Moore, 
Samuel McDonald, 
Joseph H. Nelson. 
Samuel Parks, 
Henry R. Pegg, 
Thomas W. Piper, 
Joseph E. Plummer. 
Joseph A. Poff, 
R. O. S. Pumphrey. 
Henry C. Pressler. 
Ji ihn Raypole, 

Nicholas Beer, 
Joseph Beesack, 
Benj. F. Bennett. 
John Bennett, 
William Brubaker, 
Walter S. Collins, 
Jacob Dinsmore, 
Oliver Droud, 
Alvers B. Dudley. 
Joseph Effert, 
John W. Elder, 
Simon English, 
Frederick Ford, 
James Force, 
Franklin Freese, 
Joseph Fries, 
Otis J. Gaudy. 
Saml. J. Goodwin, 
William Grimes. 
M. V. Hammond. 
Isaac Harrison, 

Francis L. Rhoads, 
George T. Roley, 
Anthony Seymour, 
John T. Sherrod, 
Solomon O. Shoup, 
1. W. Shinneman, 
Alex. Showalter, 
John H. Slagle. 
Francis M. Slagle, 
Heriford D. Smith. 
Frederick Smith, 
Henry* Suavely. 
Andrew Spear, 
David Stough. 
Wm. B. Sumney, 
Sydney S. Tuttle, 
Lewis R. Whiteman, 
Milton Whiteman. 
Charles T. Wilder, 
John H. Wireman. 


John H. Appleton, 
William A. Allen. 
Jacob Bolinger. 
Levi D. Bodley. 
Geo. W. Chapman. 
Sanford Chapman. 
Mark Coat, 
Henry Cunningham, 
Edward C. Cutter, 
Josiah C. Cutler, 
Thos. W. Darragh, 
Samuel Deems. 
Charles Dunham, 
Frank DeLacev, 
Chester C. Elliott. 
Richard Francis. 
William Ferris, 
Solomon J. Foust. 
LeRoy Fi mst. 
Jacob S. Foust. 
James W. Geiger, 
William Geis'er, 

Hiram Lantz, 
Jacob S. Lewis. 
Sydney H. Lee, 
Moses R. Leland, 
John S. Moore, 
William Mineka, 
A. J. McDonald. 
John Merrica, 
George A. Nichols, 
Selah P. North. 
Abraham Paulin, 
Henry Patton, 
M. C. Plummer, 
Othneal Ouinn, 
John Rice. 
Ezra Rice, 
Joseph Saylor, 
Henry C. Scott. 
Jacob F. Sharp. 
Charles T. Sherrod, 
Aaron P. Slagle. 
Edward Smith, 



David Hyer, 

Reuben Humbarger, 
Martin Haynes. 
Eli Haines, 
Otis S. Hurtsell, 
John Hess, 
Henry C. Hively, 
James L. Johnson, 
John H. Kendal], 
David Kime, 
Isaac Kime, 

William H. Smith, 
Tilghman H. Snell, 
Dorman Smith, 
Joseph Swisher, 
Nathan Swisher, 
David Waugh, 
Joseph Waugh, 
Lewis M. Watson, 
William Walker. 
Geo. W. Williams. 


Ezra Buschnell, 
Christ. Burnsworth, 
Frederick Bonta, 
Henry Brenneman, 
William F. Bitner, 
Samuel A. Baker, 
Noah Brubaker, 
Peter Boblett, 
Joseph W. Compton, 
Thomas Combs. 
Joseph Karns, 
George W. Karns. 
Appleton Cowen, 
John M. Collins. 
John C. Clapp. 

Henry Rhoads, 
Barrett Reckard, 
Elim Robbins, ■ 
Amos Roadarmel, 
Michael Sickafoose, 
John Shaffner, 
John D. Spurgeon, 
William Stiver, 
Jan ib Shorter, 
Harrison Saver, 
Alfred Snyder, 
James W. Samuels, 
David Warts, 
George Webster, 
William Youst. 

November 22, 1861. 

William H. Cuppy, 
William Hildebrand, 
Oliver P. Koontz, 
Isaac L. Compton, 
F. M. McDonald, 
John D. Spurg-eon, 
Stephen J. Compton, 
William S. Bitner. 
George Sickafoose. 
Jerome F. Combs, 
Henry Cray, 
Samuel Havens, 
John Y. Robbins, 
Warren Bonta, 
Hiram Smith, 
Henry Rupley, 
John M. Albright. 
Stephen Circle, 
James Collett, 
William Clapp, 
Joshua Shafer, 
Joseph Anderson, 
Andrew Arnold, 
Jay B. Baker, 
Adam Barsh, 
Hiram F. Biddle, 
Isaac Byers, 
Harvey W. Boaze, 
Amos Bachtell, 

Solomon Carpenter, 
James Carpenter, 
Henry Dillater, 
Randolph Dimmick, 
John Denny, 
John Goucher, 
Asbury Grable, 
Alexander Goff. 
David Hale, 
Nicholas Hapner, 
George Holloway, 
Win. Holderbaum, 
Geo. Hennemeyer, 
Martin Hathaway, 
Job Haynes. 
Samuel Haze}', 
Alonzo King, 
Oliver P. Koontz. 
William A. Kelsey, 
William Lesley, 
Jackson Lippencott, 
Allen Myers, 
Theodore F. Nave, 
Simeon Oberhalzer, 
Cary Pimlott, 
Nelson Parrott, 
Joseph Parrott, 
William Prugh, 
Andrew Reed, 

Alfred B. Alton. 
John Alton, 
John H. Biddle. 
Thomas Biddle. 
Samuel Creager. 
William Fox, 
Alkanah Fletcher, 
Noah Fletcher, 

Win. R. Holloway, 
William McKinney, 
Samuel Pritchard, 
Israel Rhodes, 
William L. Ransom, 
William P. Reed. 
Theo. A. Stewart, 
Henrv Urich. 


August ;, 1862. 

Samuel Keefer. 
O. H. Woodworth, 
James E. Sargent, 
James A. Spear, 
John H. Slagle, 
Josiah F. McNear. 
Edward A. Rowe, 
John B. Hiler, 
John R. Colvin. 
Nathaniel Gordon, 
C. L. Kaufman. 
Samuel Elder. 
George W. Triplett. 

Berij. F. Ginger, 
Josiah Gradeless, 
James Graves, 
\Yalter Gruesbeck. 
Peter Haynes, 
Tames Huston, 
John V. Hiler, 
Frederick Hively, 
Daniel Howard. 
W. E. Hively, 
Benj. F. Hartman, 
James D. Jameson, 
Win. C. Tameson, 


Henry A. Rice, 
Ephraim A. Smith, 
William Huston, 
Francis M. Martin, 
John C. Brown, 
O. W. Hamilton. 
William C. Moore, 
George Cummins, 
Samuel Aker, 
John Q. Adams, 
Wesley W. Allen. 
Henry R. Bishop, 
Isaac Billman, 
Emory Bennett, 
Samuel Butler. 
David M. Brown, 
James Barber, 
William H. Brown, 
Allison F. Briggs, 
Alfred Blanchard, 
William Bowlby, 
William H. Bell, 
Seth Cummins, 
James Coyle, • 
John E. Castle. 
Samuel Castle. 
David Churchill, 
Charles Crury, 
William G. Daly, 
Stephen Donnelly, 
John Dowell, 
James Dowell. 
Thomas Edginton, 
Hugh L! Finley, 

Andrew J. 

John A. Jameson, 
W. L. H. Jackson, 
Solomon C. Kerns, 
Horace S. Klink, 
J. W. Loofborrow, 
Sigmund Mosher, 
Jas. G. McDonald, 
Jasper McNear. 
C. C. Morrison, 
Berry Marrs, 
Jackson Mosher, 
Gilbert Norris, 
George Neff, 
Henry C. Oman, 
Jacob Plummer, 
Jesse Revert, 
Charles Richey, 
David Smaller. 
Charles A. Scott, 
James W. Smith, 
William H. Sellers, 
Washington Sivits, 
James M. Snyder, 
Linton Shoemaker, 
John A. Shoemaker, 
Andrew Tinkham. 
William Tucker, 
William I. Wade, 
James C Watson, 
Wm. D. Whitesides, 
Gilbert L. Walker. 
Benjamin Wooden, 
Nathan Walton, 
William Hutchcraft. 


August ii, 1862. 

James C. Bodley, David Engle, 

George W. Stough, Daniel Herr, 

Thomas Hathaway. Henry Holvcross. 

David Harshbarger, Robert Hanna, 

William Forest, 
John A. Rovenstine, 
Caldwell W. Turtle, 
Daniel Little, 
George W. Forest, 
John Hildebrand, 
Simon Harshbarger, 
Henry Souder, 
James Walker, 
Asa Cook, 
George W. North. 
George Bressler, 
William H. Coyle. 
William Beard, 
John Anderson, 
Omer H. Alley, 
Adam C. Brossman. 
Jacob Braver, 
Robery Blaine, 
William A. Blaine, 
Reuben Barnes, 
David J. Bowman, 
Edwin A. Briggs, 
William Boyd, 
Anderson Burrell, 
Alexander Bayman, 
William Croy, 
A. P. Cunningham, 
A. Cunningham, 
Amos Coyle. 
Uriah Clark, 
Charles Cramer, 
Archibald Carter, 
Jacob Crum, 
Daniel Doney, 
Samuel Egolf, 
Robert Forest, 
Wm. H. Gearhart. 
David Gill is. 
Phillip Gordon, 
Jesse B. Grimes, 
John P. Grace, 
James Hartup, 
Lewis Hartup, 
H. C. Hammontree. 
Daniel Hand. 

Wash. Holderbaum, 
Joseph W. Howe, 
Hiram Harpster, 
Adam E. Hively, 
Asher D. Hathaway, 
Orange L. Jones, 
Ephraim C. Kyle. 
David L. Kyle, 
William H. Loomis, 
Lewis R. Long, 
Wesley Ladson, 
William Marshall, 
William Miller, 
Levi P. Miller. 
Abraham Nicheles, 
Washington Prugh, 
Daniel Pressler, 
Eli Fletcher. 
Judson Palmer. 
William H. Pence, 
Noah Pence, 
Abraham Parrott, 
William Rovenstine. 
Albert Rovenstine. 
Joseph Roberds, 
Albert F. Ruch. 
Harrison Ricle, 
James Ritter, 
G. W. Rittenhouse, 
Caleb S. Stewart, 
Howell Scott, 
A. Shinneman, 
A. Y. Swigart. 
Daniel Shirley, 
Franklin Simpkins. 
Isaiah Smith, 
Benjamin Shamley. 
Elijah Sears. 
Parlev Tritch, 
Wm. R. Vandeford. 
Abram Walker, 
Josiah Walker, 
Jesse T. Ward. 
Seymour Whitman, 
Embra Washburn, 
David Sprinkle. 


l ■ N T E E K I X F A NTRY. 

August 15, 1862. 

Leonard Aker, 

Israel Beers, 

Jacob Stoler, 

Adam H. Swihart, 

F. B. Harris. 

Israel Bierce. 

David Snyder, 

C. L. Heaton, 

Seynour Cole, 

Elijah Graves, 

John Mossman, 

Samuel Cole, 

Isaac Schrader, 

Joseph Plummer, 

James Bills, 

John Bennett. 

David J. Lamb. 

Reuben Hawkins, 

Washington Acker, 

Henry W. Arnold, 

Nelson Bugbee, 

Asa Butler, 

Albert Bell, 

Frank Bloomery, 
Henry Brown, 
Hiram Burkholder. 
David Crawford, 
William A. Clark, 
Abraham A. Croy, 
James Cleland, 
Samuel Deems, 
Jacob Doag, 
Daniel Decker, 
Geo. W. English, 
John Egolf. 
John W. Falk. 
Isaac W. Falk, 
Leander F. Fouser, 
James Fullerton, 
David Finch, 

Adolf H. Hensley. 

Wm. R. Johnson. 

Lawrence P. Jacqua. 

Mathias Kenaga, 

Adam N. Keirns. 

William S. Keirns. 

Wm. W. Lindley. 

George Litehizer, 

George Miller, 

Josiah McCoy, 

Aaron Miner, 

Calvin Mellet, 

Andrew Malone, 

Curtis J. Matthews, 

John McNab. 

David Mussleman, 

Henry Mack, 
Charles Noble. 
Edward North, 
John Owens, 
Anthony dinger, 
Daniel Olinger, 
R. W. Pumphrey, 
John H. Plough, 
Boyer Pittman, 
Othina Ouinn, 
James Samuels, 
McArthur Scott, 
William Sterling, 
Charles Swindel, 
W. Stickler. 
Franklin Shaffner, 
George Simpkins. 
Henry C. Tuttle. 
Thomas Thrasher, 
Danl. Whitleather, 
Jos. Winegardner. 
Wm. T. Walker. 
Jeremiah Wolford, 
John Weil, 

A. J. Forsythe. 
Isaac H. Goble. 
Daniel German, 
Dennis Harrington. 
J. B. Helms. 
John Hush, 
Benjamin Hush, 
George Hills, 

Hiram Young, 
Isaac Groves. 
P. H. Ginger. 
James Hinman, 
Benj. F. Kenaga. 
Henry J. Newcomb. 
Daniel Richards, 
George Simpkus, 

Samuel Taylor. 


January 10, 1864. 

F. M. McDonald, 

Lemuel M. Richey, 

Ancil Bloomer, 

George Shoup. 

Heriford Smith. 

Robert Taylor. 

William Deveny. 

Alonzo Phoman. 

C. L. Carpenter. 

Lawrence P. Jacqua, 

Alexander Snyder, 

Jesse R. Williams, 
Henry Smith, 
Winfield S. Smith. 
William Abbott, 
Andrew Arnold, 
Albert H. Bell, 
James Burnsworth. 
George Bumgarner, 
Jesse Bumgarner. 
Ellis Bennett, 
C. Burnsworth, 
Edmund Busby, 
Matthew Bennett, 
Benjamin F. Batey, 
Harrison Baker, 
Patrick Butler. 
Cornelius Cauglan. 
Samuel Crume. 
Theron Clark, 
Elihu Clark, 

Peter Hess, 
Alexander Hughes, 
John Harbor, 
Silas A. Jackson, 
George W. Krider, 
Adam M. Kerns, 
Samuel B. Kerns, 
Jeremiah S. Kerns, 
John W. Kline, 
Richard Kerns, 
William Lipps, 
John Leslie, 
Andw. Landsdown, 
Benoni Mosher. 
Thomas McGuire. 
William Mussehnan, 
Richard T. Nott, 
Benjamin E. Nott, 
Sylvester Parrott, 
James Plummer, 
Allen Pence, 
Isaac Percunier. 
Roderick Bartlow, 
John Bartlow, 
Edwin Ream, 
Daniel Rihart, 
Elijah Ritter, 
John E. Sherrod, 
Benjamin Strong. 
Enos S. Swisher, 
Henry Swingart. 


George Colling. 
Henry T. Crowell, 
John Cooper, 
Isaac Claxton. 
Gideon Cobb, 
N. Drawbaugh. 
Richard Darragh, 
Jesse A. Denny. 
Orlando Dillon, 
George D. French. 
William Finley. 
Jacob Greenwalt, 
Charles Gable. 
George W. Gump, 
Thomas J. Graves, 
Isaac Grimes, 
George Hazen, 
Jacob Huffer. 
John D. Harbor, 

John Snyder, 
Alfred Snyder, 
Isaiah W. Site, 
Henry Stultz, 
Thomas F. Spacey, 
James Sinclair, 
Samuel W. Scott. 
Henry F. Smith, 
Enos Stanley, 
Lewis Vamprey, 
Wilier Watson, 
William H. Belcher. 
William D. Clark, 
William Cochran, 
Willis Dillon, 
John Lemon, 
E. Rodenburger. 
George T. Scales. 
John A. White. 


March 3. 1865. 

John Albright, 
George H. Winters. 
Albert J. Koontz, 
James Washburn, 
Thos. B. Hathaway. 
William Brubaker, 
Reese Pritchard, 
William Tannehill. 
Henry Norris, 
John P. Creager, 
John Sickafoose. 
Wm. Chamberlain, 
Moses Beerbower, 
Lafayette Bushness, 
John Batz, 
Henry Bash, 
Geo. P. Cullimore. 
J. P. Chamberlain, 
Alonzo T. Clark. 
Levi A. Creager, 
Isaac F. Circle. 
Thomas Carpenter, 
Robert Chase, 

■ John Kreider, 
John Kesling. 
Alfred J. Koontz, 
George W. Kales, 
David Kyle. 
Samuel W. King', 
H. W. Landsdown, 
M. B. Merriman, 
Joel More. 
John H. Mann, 
Daniel Myers, 
Taylor Newcomb, 
Thomas Nichols, 
Levi Phillips, 
Noah Pritchard, 
Wm. M. Plough, 
John W. Perm, 
William Priddy, 
William Reese, 
George W. Souder, 
George Shavey. 
Samuel Stewart. 
Leander Smith, 

Wm. H. Campbell. 
Thos. Cavanaugh. 
James W. Dean, 
Jacob Fox, 
Valentine Gordon, 
Andrew Hannen, 
John Haas. 
James Harshman. 
Wm. V. Hathaway, 
R. Householder, 
Henrv Humbarger, 
Wm'. O. 

Martin Sloan. 
Matthew Sheffer, 
John Smith, 
Jefferson Scott, 
J( ihn A. Scarlett, 
Anderson Stanley. 
Benj. F. Seymour. 
Silas Snavely, 
Winfield S. Smith. 
Georg'e H. Winters, 
Francis M. Wilson, 


( Three-Year Service. ) 
November 22, 1861. 

Peter Simonson, 

Henry Rankin. 
Alfred Morrison, 
Jacob F. Ellison, 
George A. Briggs, 
James Tollerton, 
S. P. C. Freeman, 
John Marshall. 
Joseph M. Allen, 
David R. P. Donley, 
Smith Brown, 
Josephus Aumack, 
John J. English, 
Wm. G. Robertson. 
Wilson Guisinger, 
Henry Mock, 
Henry Bricker. 
Luman A. Baker. 
Richard P. Miles. 
Henrv M. Kendall, 
B. F. MacCallum, 
Georg-e Mayer. 
William W. hones. 
Claud C. Miller, 
William L. Hultz, 
Danl. H. Chandler. 
Sylvester Knapp, 
John R. Spear, 
Jasper X. Kuntz. 
John T. Prickett, 

William Henrv. 
Harrison Imbody, 
Daniel Jones, 
Benj. F. Johnson. 
.Alexander Jordan. 
Jacob Kurtz, 
William D. King, 
Xorhett Keen. 
John F. Kates, 
Joseph Kehlor. 
Anthony Kramer, 
Stephen Kelley. 
Charles Knocksin, 
Michael McCarty, 
Thomas McGuire, 
Charles W. Miller. 
Curtis V. Milman, 
Daniel Mellyers, 
Wm. F. Marshall. 
Adam Malone, 
David E. Miller. 
John Mendenhall, 
Stephen McKinzie, 
Patrick New 
Simon Parker, 
Andrew Pettit. 
Arthur Peabody, 
Simon Richards. 
John J. Roily. 
Daniel Rickard, 



Samuel Broughton. 
L. W. Ackley, 
J. M. Armstrong - , 
Michael Alms, 
George C. Acker, 
Wesley Amos, 
Samuel T. Barth, 
Isaac Barr, 
A. Baumgartner. 
Joel Beckner, 
Joseph Blenk, 
Henry Beckler. 
Harrison Blowers, 
Conrad Brucker, 
David Bricker, 
Robert Bolton. 
Nicholas Brue, 
Charles Backhaus, 
Alonzo K. Bodle. 
Thomas Cole. 
McAdoo Crance. 
Alexander Craig. 
Michael Crance, 
Harrison Cramer, 
David Cool, 
Daniel Culver, 
Samuel Culver, 
Nicholas Cummins, 
Jacob C. Clark, 
Solomon Castle, 
John E. Douglass, 
Joseph Davis. 
Jos. H. Donnelly, 
Wm. M. Darlington, 
John Eberhart, 
John Eustice, 
Thomas Evans, 
John Eaton, 
Frederick Ehrich, 
John Eg-ner, 
Abraham Forey, 
John Fullerton, 
Harlow Fisk, 
Jacob Geiger, 
P. V. Gruesbeck, 
John C. Ginger. 
Henrv Gwin, 

Samuel J. Rollins, 
Jacob Shoemaker, 
David Shaffer, 
Joel Slump, 
Solomon Shoup, 
W. A. F. Swayze, 
John H. Stewart, 
Christian Shaffer. 
George Shaffer. 
William Snyder. 
John Sickafoose, 
Geo. W. Sickafoose, 
William Sims. 
Solomon Simons, 
George Simons. 
George Thomas, 
Leander P. Taylor, 
John C. Wigent, 
Samuel Waters, 
Edw. A. Wallace, 
Oscar Worley, 
James M. Waters, 
Alanson Washburn, 
Perry Ward, 
Fredk. Wampner, 
John C. Walton, 
H. J. Weckerlin, 
Thomas Watson, 
John S. Wade, 
Joseph Wilson, 
Bouist. Vizina, 
Albion Bair, 
William II. Donly, 
James Felt, 
Henrv Gallentine, 
Abner D. Goble, 
William Green. 
Omer Gruesbeck, 
Toseph Hughey. 
"William Holt," 
lames H. Hufford, 
Geo. W. Harts. .ck, 
A. M. Kermaston, 
Alonzo King, 
John Kennedy. 
Wm. G. Lowman, 
Ephraim Mullen, 

Phillip Gaddis. 
Wallace Gould, 
John Houston, 
Ormond Hupp, 
P. L. Hornebeck, 
Henry Hackett, 
Otis Heath. 
Albert Homsher, 
Benj. F. Homsher. 
Nelson W. Hall, 
Alexander Hall. 
John Hutchison, 
Tames R. Harvev, 
David D. Holm,' 
Jacob Hoffman, 

Squire Mack, 
A. J. Parshall, 
William Plummer, 
James A. Price, 
Walter Rickard, 
Sylvester Ruckman, 
John W. Roberts, 
Clark Scott. 
John P. Schenier. 
Isaac Swihart, 
David M. Shufler, 
Gabriel Swihart. 
Geo. W. Wilcox. 
Theodore Wilcox, 
fohn Welker. 


A company was organized through the 
efforts and influence of John Adams, then 
postmaster at Columbia City, also an aide 
on the staff of Governor Claude Mathews 
with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. In the 
organization he spent much time and money 
and can feel well paid for his efforts as the 
organization still exists. This company, 
consisting of three officers and fifty men, 
was mustered into the state service on the 
28th day of June. 1895, becoming Company 
C, Fourth Regiment Infantry, till April 26. 
1898. The state furnished all equipment 
and paid all expenses, but the officers and 
men received no compensation unless when 
called into active duty. During the spring 
of 1898, when the call was made for volun- 
teers to serve during the Spanish-American 
war. this company was among the first to 
respond. The call was made at 1 1 :3c p. m., 
April 25th, an,d this company was in camp 
reporting for duty at Indianapolis at 3:20 
p. m. April 26th. It. as Company G, One 
Hundred and Sixtieth Indiana Volunteers, 
entered upon active training for hard field 



duty and was examined and mustered into 
the United States service on the 12th day 
of May, becoming a part of the One hun- 
dred and Sixtieth Indiana Volunteers. This 
regiment served till the close of the war and 
was then sent to Cuba to do garrison duty 
and served one year, all told, being mustered 
out of the service on the 25th day of April, 
1899. This company and regiment saw no 
active service, but has the distinction of be- 
ing one of the best regiments called for the 
war. Also, the regiment traveled more 
miles and was in more camps during the 
war than any other volunteer troops in the 
United States service at the time, with the 
exception of those regiments that were after- 
ward sent to the Philippines. 

After the muster out there was a move- 
ment started by Captain Harrison, Lieuten- 
ant Clapham and others to reorganize the 
old company and the same was mustered 
into the state service May 15, 190°- and 
was known as Company G, Third Infantry, 
Indiana National Guard. This company is 
still in the service and through the efforts 
of its officers has the reputation of being 
one of the most efficient in the state. 


This company was organized at Colum- 
bia City, Whitley county, on June 28, 1895, 
and was assigned as Company G, Fourth 
Regiment, Indiana National Guard. 

214A — Bowen Historical 


Harrison. Joseph R. 

First Lieutenant. 
Linvill, David S. 

Second Lieutenant. 

Clapham, Lloyd D. 

First Sergeant. 

Gallivan. Thomas. 

Quartermaster Sergcan t. 

Washburn, John L. 


Clapham, Simon P. Reese. Dr. J. 
Malone, Otis. Erdman. August E. 


Clapham, John T. Brown. Edwin M. 
Gardner, William F. Wallace. Byron P. 
Kronk. Charles. 


Fen-en, Philip. Myers, Christian D. 


Waterfall. Fred S. 


Hoose, William. 



Anthes, Adolph. 

Binkley, Daniel. 
Binkley, Lewis. 
Brenneman, F. R. 
Brown, Erwin L. 
Brown, Simon. 
Bryan. Howard. 
Chapman, Carlos D. 
Clark, Walter L. 
Connolly, John. 
Corse, Alfred E. 
Cotton, Elmer K. 
Croxton. Daniel C. 
Croy, Daniel. 
Crov, Tames. 
Dull. Charles. 
Erb. Howard. 
Fullam, John. 
Fuller. Jethro. 
Graves. Edward. 
Groesbeck. Fred. 
Gross, Raymond. 
Groves. Laurtes H. 
Haynes, Jedd. 
Hammontree. Jos. 
Harshbarger, Paul. 
Holbrook, Chas. F. 
Jackson, L. E. 
Jellison, Floyd O. 
Jellison, Robert A. 
Johnston, James. 
Kinney, James R. 

Long, Peter J. 
Lowry, Albert S. 
Markley, S. N. 
Miller. Horace W. 
Mitten, Frank L. 
Monroe, Stephen L. 
More, Charles H. 
Myers. Ira Sankey. 
Xott. George W. 
Norris. Fred. 
Pence. Elmer E. 
Pickard, Walter H. 
Rapp, Fred. 
Rapp, John. 
Reid, Ralph. 
Ruckman, Chas. F. 
Russell. Earl D. 
Shafer, Calvin. 
Slentz. Brodie. 
Slesman, Wm. H. 
Smith. Mell C. 
Smoots, John. 
Souder. El. 
Squires, Horatio H. 
Squires, O. P. M. 
Vernon, N. E. 
Wallace, Frank M. 
Warner, Wayman. 
Webber, Harry E. 
Whiteleather. J. F. 
Winegardner, A. 
Yontz, Ralph. 


*Baker, Tudson. 
Barr. Alfred F. 
Buntain, Alva. 
Butler, Richard. 
Brown, Eli. 
Brand. Charles C. 

Garty, Robert W. 
Gilbert. Willis. 
Kane, John. 
Klingaman, James. 
Klingaman, Gid. 
Xott. Frank. 

Clark, Frank L. 
Curtis. Elmer. 
C rowel, Sai. 
Crowel, Charles O. 
Easton, Clarence. 
Fletcher, Tames. 

Miller, Harry W. 
Xeiswonger, Elza. 
Pine, Charles R. 
Prugh, Raymond. 
Rindfusz, Clyde. 
Waugh, Harvev E. 

*Died December 14. 1? 
bus, Georgia. 

at Colum- 

Ferguson. Chas. M. 



During the greater part of the years of 
the Civil war, the government expenses 
amounted to a million and a half dollars a 
day and at the end of the war the public 
debt amounted to $2,808,549,437.55. This 
debt must be extinguished with interest ac- 
cruing. Indirect or tariff tax was laid at 
a merciless rate on everything and no per- 
sons would attempt to compute the tax thus 
paid by a county, a township, municipality 
or an individual. Direct internal revenue 
or excise tax was also levied upon articles 
manufactured within the country, nearly if 
not quite as great, and in addition congress 
had been driven to enactments to provide 
revenue, that were more grievous than 
either of the others, because more easily as- 
certained and more directly collected. 

In the year 1865 there was levied and 
collected in Whitley county the following 
revenue taxes : 

Home manufactured products . . $1,355. I 7 

Licenses 2, 188 . 24 

Carriages 105 . 00 

Watches 20 . 00 

Musical instruments 14.00 

Incomes 2,875 • 7° 

Slaughtered animals 134.35 

Auction sales 45-97 

Legacies 43 . 84 


Beer 136.00 assessed for that year. In addition, there 

SP ints 9,130.00 was levied for that year and collected on 

Revenue stamps sold 1,646. 14 . 1 „ . 4 1 i- ^ r ,1 ,. ri ., 

1 • -+ -+ the county tax duplicate for the relief of sol- 

diers and soldiers' families, $12,110.48. 
• $17,694.41 . ■ v . y-t 

These two items alone cost almost six times 
Estimating according to the rule em- the amount levied and collected for the sup- 
ployed for calculating the population in the port of the common schools. There were 
middle of a decade, there were in 1865 other large expenditures, such as bounty, etc. 
12,564 people in the county, or 2,512 voters. At a very conservative estimate, the Civil 
This revenue tax levied and collected within war cost the county of Whitley at least one 
the county for national purposes therefore and one-third the entire assessed valuation 
amounted to one dollar and forty cents plus of all her real estate in in 1865. And in this 
for each person, or over seven dollars for estimate we do not consider the burden of 
each voter, or over ten dollars for each poll tariff taxation. 



The permanent place of operation or the 
definite locality of the operator, the act or 
operation of dealing" in money, the opera- 
tion or business of a banker, the method 
he adopts in carrying- into execution the 
various operations required in carrying out 
the details of his methods and the persistent 
and strict observance of these principles in 
the conduct of monetary operations may 
well be styled "Banks and Banking." 

However interesting and instructive as 
these various commercial doings may ap- 
pear, it is not the purpose of this article to 
enter this broad scope of useful research, 
but merely give a brief synopsis of the time 
and place of some of the ancient bank opera- 
tions as a preliminary to the more detailed 
features of "Banks and Banking" in Whit- 
lev county. 

Banking, like all other enterprises, could 
not have been much needed nor required un- 
til public sentiment and commercial neces- 
sity had developed to a degree which made 
it possible for their existence, yet the origin 
dates back to a remote time in the world's 
history. The practice of loaning money for 
interest is a part of the old Mosaic law 
which reads, "If thou lend money to any of 
ni) r people that is poor by thee, thou shalt 
not be to him as a usurer, neither shalt thou 
lay upon him excess usury," and as it was also 
said by the Divine Teacher after the days of 
the Xew Testament, "Thou oughtest to have 
put my money to the exchangers and then 
at my coming I should have received mine 
own with usury." 

Recent discovery which is highly inter- 
esting to the student of finance discloses be- 


yond the shadow of a reasonable doubt that 
there was a banking establishment in the 
ancient city of Babylon as early as 604 B. C, 
which did a commercial business of the 
great Euphrates river that would have done 
no discredit to the Bank of England. Not 
long since it was my good fortune to be put 
in possession of a fine series of articles on 
this subject, showing that banking was well 
understood at Athens nearly as early as at 

Italy was one of the leaders in banking 
in the middle ages and in fact the English 
word "bank" comes from the Italian word 
"banco," which means a "bench" and points 
to the fact that while the first bankers were 
conducting their business they sat upon 
benches as the Hindoo money changers do 
to this day. All of us know more or less 
of the Bank of England. It was founded 
by the greatest financier of his day, Wil- 
liam Patterson, on July 2j, 1694. This 
mighty financial concern stands practically 
alone as a bank, there being nothing supe- 
rior to it in the civilized world. It consti- 
tutes a category of itself. It is operated and 
ruled by a governor, a deputy governor anil 
twenty-four directors. Its original capital 
was fi .200,000, or about $6,000,000. It 
is a bank of issue. It is often called upon 
to help the government in its need of finan- 
cial assistance, and in return the government 
frequently comes to the monetary rescue of 
this bank. With all of its gigantic power 
and worldwide possessions it has seen its 
days of distress and its prosperous seasons 
of success. Its vicissitudes have been fre- 
quent and great, and the day of adversity 
has shadowed at times its prosperous life. 
In 1696, when but two years old, it was 

forced to suspend payment of its notes, and 
in 1797 and 1820 it was restricted from 
making its payments in gold. The directors 
of this bank meet every Tuesday for the 
purpose of fixing the rate of discount and 
for the adjustment of any and all matters 
relative to its successful operation. Com- 
ing nearer home, we find that the Bank of 
the United States was established in 1790, 
although it was not incorporated until 1816. 
This great American institution passed 
through many and varied changes as the 
outgrowth of conditions arising- from the 
development of the country in general, and 
from the rise and fall of different political 
parties springing up along the line of our 
phenomenal expansion. 


During the stormy times of the Civil 
war the present national banking system 
was instituted, which is based upon the prin- 
ciple that United States bonds to an amount 
equal to the capital stock of the bank shall 
be purchased by the stockholders of any 
proposed bank and be placed on deposit with 
the comptroller of the currency at Washing- 
ton, as a positive, tangible security to the 
issue of the said bank. For many years but 
ninety per cent, of the amount of bonds so 
deposited was issued in currency for the 
bank's use. but of more recent years the 
entire amount of the face of the bonds thus 
deposited has been issued in bank notes if 
desired by the stockholders of the bank : 
however, five per cent, of the issue is held in 
reserve by the comptroller as a guarantee 
ag'ainst losses by notes not returned for re- 
demption. By this method of procedure a 


uniformity of bank notes is maintained and 
is a great protection to the government 
against counterfeiting. 

The individual states of the Union had 
their own system of banking prior to the 
great Civil war, each being a thing of itself 
and a bank of issue and in many cases its 
notes were poorly secured, thus making sure 
a great loss to the holder thereof at the 
slightest commercial provocation or de- 

We think it will not be amiss here to 
briefly refer to our own state banks during 
this period of financial uncertainty and de- 
pression as a compliment to our credit, 
and to those in charge of our common- 
wealth at this critical time. The notes is- 
sued by the state banks of Indiana during 
this perilous season had almost a sterling 
value everywhere. 

Our bank notes were never rejected by 
any of the other states nor by any individual. 
so well was their virtue known. They 
passed in payment of debts at all times and 
at par. 

The character of the issue of our banks 
was practically established before its dis- 
tribution. The state had agents in the east 
busily engaged in detailing the character of 
our securities and strengthening the faith 
of the money centers in the sincerity of our 
purpose. This good work was due almost 
in the entirety to the efforts of two men 
whose names the financiers of today hold in 
reverence. We refer to the late Hugh Mc- 
Culloch and I. F. D. Lanier, now the head 
of the great financial concern of Winslow. 
Lanier & Co., of the city of New York. 
The latter was a state agent in the east and 
in a position to come in direct contact with 

the money centers and their operations, thus 
fitting him well for the directing of our 
monetary affairs toward an end worthy the 
dignity of a state. In order to accomplish 
this work Mr. Lanier spent liberally of his. 
own personal means in the maintenance of 
a high standard of excellency in our state 
money, and the fact that not a dollar was 
lost to a single citizen of the United States, 
by virtue of a bad, unsecured bill cropping 
out from a bank of Indiana, seems to have 
been sufficient gratifictaion to him for all the 
money and effort so lavishly bestowed. 


November 26, 1867, marked the begin- 
ning of the banking- business in Whitley 
county. Before that time no one was doing 
a strict banking" business in the county, al- 
thougii Franklin H. Foust, a successful mer- 
chant since 1852, received deposits for safe 
keeping, issuing - therefor a simple receipt 
payable on demand. This was followed by 
making settlements for traders, stock dealers 
and local merchants of their eastern ac- 
counts. But it was not until 1867 that Mr. 
Foust discontinued merchandising and 
turned his entire attention to banking. 

The close of the war and the return of 
the soldiers gave a new impetus to industry 
along all lines in Whitley county and a reg- 
ular banking institution was one of the needs 
of the time. The bank was opened in a 
room fourteen by twenty feet, now occupied 
as a part of the Harter restaurant. Associ- 
ated with Mr. Foust in this venture was 
Adam Wolfe, of Muncie, Indiana, and the 
firm name was F. H. Foust & Co. Mr. 
Wolfe retained his interest in the bank until 



his death in 1892. The office equipment of 
the original bank consisted of a large Hall 
safe and some plain office furniture, but 
these met all demands for the time being. 
It was a private bank and had the fortunes 
of the partners behind it. 

Brand, Sr., J. F. Mossman, David James, 
Sanford T. Mosher, Ephraim Strong. Sr.. 
Isaac VV. Prickett. Dan Daniel. Alfred 
West, Michael Yohe, R. B. Boyd. 



The first depositor was James Taylor. 
Other depositors within a few days of the 
opening- were the following well known cit- 
izens of Whitley county: C. D. Waidlich, 
H. S. Cobaugh, James S. Collins, J. O. 
Adams, Richard Collins, Nathan Levi, A. 
Y. Hooper, Taylor & Boyd, Eli W. Brown, 
Linvill & Edwards, Eyanson & Bro., Henry 
Swihart, N. D. Torbert, Samuel Freidger, 
Josiah Archer, Dr. M. Ireland. Jonathan 
Keirn. Henry Zumbrun, Colonel I. B. Mc- 
Donald, William Reed, M. E. Click, Samuel 
Raber, Augusta V. Ireland, William Wal- 
ters, Ben Steinfield, A. Kramer, Judge Rich- 
ard Knisely, Jeremiah Stiver, G. W. Harley, 
Samuel Braden, Warren Mason, S. G. 
North, Otha Clark, John J. Rhodes, Jacob 
Pentz, John A. Kaufman, Solomon Miller, 
Gove Davenport, H. C. Yontz, William 
Walker, William W. Kepner, J. H. Kepner, 
F. M. McDonald, Charles Shuh, W. A. 
Geiger, Dennis Walters, Zeph Johnson, 
Julia Mauk, A. L. Sandmeyer, F. P. Grues- 
beck, A. J. Stouffs, James M. Barnes, Daniel 
Hively, James Shaw, Fred Magley, Charles 
Compton, Levi Waugh, M. D. Garrison, 
Joseph Waugh, W. M. Hughes. A. A. 
Ricker, Francis Tulley, Sarah Nickey, Jo- 
seph Egolf, George K. Hurd, Christian 
Lucke, W. M. Crowell, K. C. Hamilton, 
Michael Sickafoose, B. F. Ream, John 

By the year 1870 the bank had out- 
grown the quarters in which it was started. 
Banking was no longer an experiment in 
Whitley county, it had become a necessary 
institution. The wealth of the community 
was rapidly increasing, a new railroad was 
being constructed through the county, and 
Mr. Foust and his partner prepared to meet 
the needs of the public by providing more 
commodious quarters for the bank. The re- 
sult was that in 1S73 the handsome brick 
and stone building at the corner of Main 
and Van Buren streets was erected as the 
permanent home of what was then known 
as the Columbia City Bank. The building 
was planned by Mr. Foust with special ref- 
erence to convenience and safety. The bank 
vaults, constructed under Mr. Foust's per- 
sonal supervision, were fire proof and bur- 
glar proof and at the time were the best and 
most substantial of any in the state north 
of Indianapolis. 

The year 1873 was one that the old 
bankers of the state will never forget, and 
the resources of the Columbia City Bank 
passed through a trial such as was never 
known before or since. The New York 
correspondent of the bank failed and a 
large reserve deposit was tied up. The Chi- 
cago banks refused to do business with the 
country banks, and the Fort Wayne banks 
held all the currency they could get. Un- 
aided and alone Mr. Foust paid every check 

2 3 


and met every demand during the entire 
time of the great panic, and came through 
without the loss of a dollar to a depositor. 


After the death of Adam Wolfe Mr. 
Foust made a settlement with the heirs of 
his deceased partner and became the sole 
owner of the Columbia City Bank. He con- 
tinued to conduct the bank as a private in- 
stitution until his increasing years reminded 
him that if his life work was to live after 
him his bank should be organized as a na- 
tional bank. Application to incorporate un- 
der the national banking laws of the United 
States was approved by the comptroller of 
the currency and the nth day of April, 
1904, the Columbia City National Bank 
opened for business with a capital stock of 
fifty thousand dollars, the majority of which 
was held by Mr. Foust. Other stockholders 
and directors were S. J. Peabody. Andrew 
A. Adams, William H. Magley, Benton E. 
Gates and Cleon H. Foust. The officers 
were Franklin H. Foust, president ; S. J. 
Peabody, vice-president; William H. Mag- 
ley, cashier, and Cleon H. Foust. assistant 
cashier. No change has been made in the 
officers, but Judge Walter Olds, of Fort 
Wayne, and Albert B. Tucker, of Etna, be- 
came stockholders and were in January, 
1907, elected directors. 


In the report to the comptroller of the 
condition of the bank at the close of busi- 
ness on January 26, 1907, the bank made 
the following statement : 


Loans and discounts $166,971.66 

Overdrafts 3,489.49 

U. S. Bonds, for circulation. . . . 50,000.00 

U. S. and other bonds 32,788.10 

Banking house, real estate, fur- 
niture and fixtures 22,495.80 

Due from banks 128,110.10 

Redemption funds with U. S. . . 2,500.00 

Cash 36,906.23 



Capital stock *. . .$ 50,000.00 

Surplus and profits 8,321.54 

Circulation 48,800.00 

Deposits 336,139.84 



This popular bank has the pre-eminent 
distinction of being the largest institution 
of its kind in the county and was established 
in 1873. Realizing the need of greater facil- 
ities for local banking in the city and countv 
than were then enjoyed, Elisha L. McLallen, 
a retired merchant and capitalist of Larwill, 
his brother, Henry McLallen, of the same 
place, then county treasurer, and Theodore 
Reed, of Columbia City, formed a banking 
association named E. L. McLallen & Co. 
Mr. Reed retired at the end of the first 
year, disposing of his interest to the other 
members of the firm. 

The McLallen brothers, with others, had 


2 3* 

previously purchased from Hon. Thomas 
Washburn the row of dilapidated wooden 
building's standing" on the north side of Van- 
Buren street opposite the court house and 
they thereupon erected what is known as the 
Central block. The banking department of 
this building was designed and constructed 
by the members of the firm, who spared no 
means to make it the best protected bank 
building in this part of Indiana, thoroughly 
equipped and modernized for commercial 
banking. The vault in this structure is of 
solid burglar-proof masonry extending four- 
teen feet below the ground floor, is the 
first vault ever built in the county, and it 
contains the first burglar-proof steel safe in- 
stalled in the county. After having made 
prearrangements as stated, the business was 
launched on April i, 1874, and that "open- 
ing day" found the new firm installed in its 
new and commodious quarters under the 
name of "The Fanners' Bank," E. L. Mc- 
Lallen & Co. 

From the first the firm, encouraged by 
the substantial people of the community, met 
.with confidence and success and its growth 
has ever since been steady and continuous. 
Its business has increased with the develop- 
ment of its resources, as the city and county 
have progressed, until it has become an im- 
portant factor in maintaining our phenom- 
enal expansion. The fact that it passed, un- 
aided, through varied financial depressions 
and monetary disturbances for the third of 
a century explains in a measure at least the 
magnificent patronage it now enjoys. In 
the latter part of 1889 the junior members, 
E. L. McLallen, 2d, and W. F. McLallen, 
were admitted to partnership. The greatest 
blow the personnel of this institution has 

ever sustained occurred in March, 1895, 
when without warning' the senior member, 
E. L. McLallen, 1st, while apparently in 
perfect health, was stricken with apoplexy 
and fell dead at the door of his private con- 
sultation room in the rear of the offices. His 
sudden death was an inestimable loss to the 
institution which he had helped found and 
to the community as well. In the summer of 
that year H. De Witt McLallen became an 
active member of the firm. 

For three generations or more the Mc- 
Lallens have been bankers in a true commer- 
cial sense, having controlled large financial 
transactions for themselves, and they have 
ever bear a class of men to whom the less 
successful could appeal for financial guid- 
ance. Perhaps the business sagacity and 
the progressive spirit of the operators of 
this bank has in no instance been more in 
evidence than in a change of their affairs 
somewhat recently made. Aware of the un- 
stable character of a private bank, uncon- 
trolled by any state or federal authority, 
the firm decided to "nationalize" the insti- 
tution, which was accordingly done Feb- 
ruary 2, 1904, when the Farmres' -Bank was 
reorganized and chartered as "the First 
National Bank," of Columbia City, under 
No. 7132. It has a capital stock of $50,000, 
all fully paid, which is all held by the Mc- 
Lallens except an allotment which was fit- 
tingly apportioned at this time to Thomas 
L. Hildebrand, who has been identified with 
this bank for over seventeen years and who 
on the above date was made assistant cash- 
ier. The business proportions of this bank 
can be well adjudged from an examination 
of its last current statement, which was 
issued at the close of its business hours on 



January 29, 1907, which statement we here- 
with append : 


Loans and discounts $258,208.89 

U. S. bonds for circulation 50,000.00 

Other bonds 51,842.60 

Real estate, furniture and fix- 
tures 15,000.00 

Cash on hand and in banks. . . . 165,198.20 



Capital stock $ 50,000.00 

Surplus and undivided profits . . 7,077.94 

Circulation 50,000.00 

De P os its 433,171.75 


The officers of this bank are as follows : 
Henry McLallen, president ; E. L. McLallen, 
vice-president; H. De Witt McLallen, vice- 
president; Walter F. McLallen. cashier; 
Thomas F. Hildebrand, assistant cashier. 


The next and third bank organized 
within the limits of the county was that of 
the bank at South whitley known under its 
firm name of John Arnold & Co. 

For many years one of the leading fam- 
ilies of South Whitley was that of the Ar- 
nolds. They came to the county with other 
pioneers and various members of the family 
located at different parts of the country in 
and about the village of Springfield, now 

called South Whitley. John Arnold located 
upon a tract of land lying on the south bank 
of Eel river about four miles east of South 
Whitley, which had been given to him by 
his father. 

One of the most essential needs of the 
early pioneer was that of a grist mill and 
accordingly the citizens of Springfield early 
in the spring of 185 1 started a subscription 
for the purpose of raising a fund to induce 
some one to undertake the establishment of 
a flouring mill on the river at that place. 
True to their former progressive business 
instincts, John Arnold and some of his 
brothers looked upon the proposition with 
favor, and as an outgrowth of their discus- 
sion they erected a saw mill during the year 
of 1852. 

This venture was fraught with such mar- 
velous results and was productive of such 
indispensable utility to the settlers of the 
surrounding" country that the flouring mill 
proposition was undertaken the following 
year and culminated in the erection of a mill 
on the present site of the mill now owned 
and operated by the South Whitley Mill 
Company. In conjunction with the two 

enterprises mentioned the Arnolds erected 
a fine one-story brick business house at the 
northeast corner of Front and State streets 
in the village and from it commenced the 
retail mercantile business. 

The country store flourished under their 
careful management like their previous ven- 
tures, until it soon became apparent that 
greater facilities were extremely necessary 
for the adequate handling of their commer- 
cial interests and accordingly John Arnold 
and his brother Jesse founded a private bank 
at North Manchester in the summer of 



1871. For seven years this bank was suc- 
cessfully operated in connection with their 
business interests at South Whitley, until 
some of the younger members of the family 
had been admitted to the various interests 
involved in their operations and a second 
private bank was organized and opened its 
doors for business in a fine two-story brick 
building built for that purpose and located 
on the southeast corner of Front and State 
streets, just opposite the Arnold store. 

This bank was not organized under the 
law, but was a private or partnership bank, 
the partners being John Arnold, of South 
Whitley, and Jesse Arnold, of North Man- 

This bank enjoyed the confidence of 
the people of the community from the start 
and had become an important factor in the 
commercial interests of South Whitley. 

About the time this bank was organized, 
or in 1878. the Arnolds divided their busi- 
ness interests and the bank at North Man- 
chester was made a national bank, with 
Jesse Arnold as its president, and the bank 
at South Whitley was managed directly by 
John Arnold, who pursued the best plans 
known by him to build up a banking business 
on lines to maintain the confidence of the 
patrons of his concern. 

In October, 1880, he was stricken with 
a fever, resulting in his death after a brief 
illness. His death was a great shock to the 
community. The people had learned to 
know him as a kind hearted, benevolent citi- 
zen and the rectitude of his conduct had 
merited him an everlasting remembrance by 
the people of South Whitley. During the 
quarter of a century of an active business 
career John Arnold had accumulated consid- 

erable property, both personal and real, and 
by the terms of his last will and testament 
his possessions were placed under the con- 
trol of his wife, and his son James was 
called home from college to assist in the ac- 
tive management of the business. After 
a few vears some changes were made and 
the bank was thereafter operated under the 
name of James Arnold and Company, and 
was known as the South Whitley Bank, but 
for convenience of management the records 
of the bank named James Arnold as presi- 
dent. Jesse Arnold, vice-president, and 
Thompson Arnold as cashier. The last 
named was a son of Jesse Arnold and 
was practicing law at Marion, Indiana, but 
gave up his practice to take a position in the 
bank at South Whitley. For ten years 
or more James had direct charge not 
only of the bank, but led in the business 
operations of the flouring mill, besides the 
handling of a large elevator, which had 
been erected by the Arnolds in conjunction 
with the mill. Besides the foregoing busi- 
ness enterprises, James became interested in 
some personal affairs and formed a part- 
nership with Simeon Huffman in the lumber 
business and operated this business from 
Grassy creek, Fulton county, under the firm 
name of Arnold & Huflman. In 1887. he 
was elected township trustee of Cleveland 
township which greatly increased his under- 
takings and responsibilities. During his 
term of office he built the magnificent public 
school building now owned by the corpora- 
tion of South Whitley in which the public 
schools are now conducted. During the 
summer of 1893 large amounts of grain 
were bought and shipped by the Arnold Mill 
Company and many bushels were placed in 



storage in the mill and elevators owned and 
operated by the Arnolds, all of which neces- 
sarily required large sums of money. So 
great indeed were the needs of the bank for 
ready money that their deposit with their 
correspondent in New York and Chicago 
had ebbed to such a low tide that in June 
two drafts drawn on their Chicago account 
went to protest. This unfortunate and most 
disastrous occurrence soon became known 
among the local bankers of the country and 
ultimately came to public notice which was 
the direct cause of heavy withdrawals from 
the bank and a run on the institution was 
averted only by the assurance of the Arnolds 
that they were amply able to meet any de- 
mand made upon them, and that they had 
three dollars' worth of assets to every dollar 
of liability, and by the further action of a 
large number of responsible citizens signing 
an article of agreement binding themselves 
to discharge any obligation of the bank that 
might not be liquidated by it on demand. 
(This agreement was soon afterward 

The action of the citizens of the town 
in coming to the aid of the bank in June, 
in a measure quieted the apprehensions of 
depositors, but there continued to be a quiet 
withdrawal of deposits, until October fol- 
lowing, when it became apparent that their 
little financial craft had drifted so far from 
the moorings of the founders, that a return 
to the golden haven of splendor and plenty 
was but a dream of idle hope and on 
the third day of October, 1893, James 
Arnold went to Columbia City and made 
a full statement of the bank's condition to 
his attorney. A. A. Adams, still insisting 
that the bank was solvent. It was the judg- 

ment of the attorney that for the protection 
of creditors a receiver should be appointed 
without delay, and accordingly the case of 
Jesse Arnold vs. James Arnold, for the ap- 
pointment of receiver, was filed and the 
papers were taken the same day by Mr. 
Adams to Albion and presented to Hon. Jo- 
seph W. Adair, judge of the thirty-third 
judicial circuit, who was holding court at 
that time in Noble county. James Arnold, 
the defendant, was present in court, admitted 
the truth of the facts set out in the com- 
plaint and consented 'to the appointment of 
a receiver. William B. Fox, of South 
Whitley, was named as receiver and took 
charge of the bank on the morning of Octo- 
ber 4, 1893, after giving the required bond. 
Ford Grimes and Francis B. Moe were ap- 
pointed appraisers and spent more than a 
week in listing the assets and liabilities of 
the bank. The assets consisted of three hun- 
dred and nine items of personal property, 
real estate, notes, mortgages, overdrafts and 
cither claims., amounting in all to eighty-two 
thousand eig - ht hundred thirty-five dollars 
and forty-five cents face value. Such a 
large part of the listed assets were consid- 
ered worthless that the appraisers valued the 
same at nineteen thousand five hundred 
twenty-eight dollars and sixty cents. 

The liabilities scheduled embraced six 
hundred and thirty-eight items, aggregating 
the sum of one hundred and thirteen thou- 
sand seven hundred fifty-nine dollars and 
fourteen cents, showing an excess of liabil- 
ities over assets of thirty thousand nine 
hundred twenty-three dollars and sixty-nine 
cents, as listed and an excess of ninety-four 
thousand two hundred thirty dollars and 
fifty-four cents as appraised. On the 13th of 



November, 1893, Mr. Fox resigned as re- 
ceiver, and Martin L. Galbreath was named 
by the court as his successor and Hon. A. 
A. Adams was retained as council for the 
new receiver. No sooner was the task of 
administering said trust commenced than it 
appeared that the appraisement was even 
too high and that the inventory was inaccu- 
rate. Notes considered good were found 
to be copies, the originals being hypothecated 
to secure loans or depositors. More than 
four thousand dollars of good notes held by 
the bank were for advances made to farmers, 
who had wheat deposited in storage with 
the Arnold Mill Company, also in the hands 
of a receiver and held by the bank as security 
to such advances, were offset by wheat re- 
ceipts after a test case had been broug'ht on 
one of such notes, and the court holding 
that all of the notes marked "secured by 
wheat in mill" could be paid by tendering 
to the receiver wheat checks amounting to 
the value of such notes, allowing fifty-six 
cents per bushel for the wheat, which was 
selling for that price upon the day the bank 
failed, and consequently by this decision the 
available assets of the bank fell off over four 
thousand dollars and the resources of the 
mill company were correspondingly in- 
creased. It also developed that collections 
had been made for local and foreign houses, 
and remittances delayed. In a case broug'ht 
to determine the standing of such claimants, 
it was held by the court that all such col- 
lections constituted a trust fund, and the 
claimants were preferred creditors. This 
further depleted the small cash balance with 
the receiver, and in the end, there was noth- 
ing for the regular depositor. 

An event in the settlement of this dis- 

astrous failure was the sale of the remain- 
ing securities at public auction, by order 
of court, at the office of the receiver in 
South Whitley, which occurred on Wednes- 
day, January 30, 1895. This was an event- 
ful day in the history of the Arnold bank. 
David L. Shinneman was the auctioner. 
This day of all others was one of universal 
sympathy among the victims of this ill- 
fated bank. No strangers sought to profit 
by the losses of those now in distress and 
the bidders were simply left alone to pur- 
chase their own obligation if they so de- 
sired. One judgment of three hundred dol- 
lars was sold for twenty dollars. Another 
of nearly four hundred dollars went for 
thirty dollars. The overdraft of James 
Arnold, the president of the bank, of four 
thousand four hundred sixteen dollars and 
twenty-eight cents and appraised at seven 
hundred dollars was knocked down for the 
frightful pittance of twenty-five cents, and 
was regarded upon that day as going at a 
premium. The overwdraft of the First Na- 
tional Bank of Huntington which had been 
appraised at two thousand three hundred 
fifteen dollars and seventy-eight cents was 
shown to be a false entry on the books and 
subsequent developments showed that in 
fact James Arnold owed the said bank near- 
ly twelve thousand dollars. The overdraft 
charged against J. L. Snell, of Sidney, 
amounting to four thousand fifty-one dol- 
lars and appraised at two thousand dollars 
was more than offset by wheat receipts, com- 
missions for services and other items of 
indebtedness. Snell was the Arnold agent 
conducting a grain business for them at Sid- 
ney, a little town over in Kosciusko county. 
The unsecured notes of James Arnold 

2 3 6 


amounting to seventeen thousand five hun- 
dred dollars sold for sixteen dollars and 
fifty cents. Thompson Arnold, the cashier, 
had an obligation to the bank as shown by 
the books of nine thousand, three hundred 
dollars which was sold for fifty-nine dollars 
and twenty-five cents. 

The above are but few of the more im- 
portant items constituting the remnant sale 
of the once flourishing banking house of 
James Arnold & Company. The items 
sold in this sale had a face value of forty- 
three thousand seven hundred three dol- 
lars and forty-two cents and they yielded 
to the creditors the paltry sum of two hun- 
dred thirty dollars and eight cents. The 
bank building and office fixtures were sold 
to Jerry F. Schell, as the agent of Andrew 
Shorb, for three thousand dollars, and final- 
ly came into the possession of F. H. Foust, 
I. B. Rush and F. S. Remington, consti- 
tuting the firm of Foust, Remington & 


The legislature of 1891 enacted a law 
making it a felony for bankers to receive 
deposits after insolvency. Probably the first 
case tried under this law, and certainly the 
first case reaching the supreme court of the 
state, grew out of the failure of the South 
Whitley Bank. 

Soon after the truth about the real con- 
dition of the Arnold bank became known, 
there were rumors of criminal proceedings 
being instituted, and during the last week 
of the year [893, upon an affidavit made in 
Huntington county, a warrant was issued 
for the arrest of lames Arnold, but was 

never served, as the friends of Arnold had 
advised him of the action taken, and he 
hurriedly left the state and has never 

The grand jury called at the February, 
1894, term of the Whitley circuit court, re- 
turned a large number of indictments against 
James Arnold. Jesse Arnold and Thompson 
Arnold. A number of these indictments 
were for receiving deposits after they knew 
the bank to be insolvent. Lorenzo D. Flem- 
ing, of Ligonier, was prosecuting attorney 
and appeared for the state, assisted by 
Thomas R. Marshall, as special counsel em- 
ployed by the county to prosecute the Arnold 
cases. Mr. Marshall retired from the case 
near the end of the trial owing to the serious 
illness of his mother, who never recovered, 
and his law partner, P. H. Clugston, con- 
cluded the prosecution and made one of the 
best efforts of his life. 

For Jesse and Thompson Arnold, H. 
S. Biggs and L. W. Royse, of Warsaw, and 
A. A. Adams, of Columbia City, appeared. 
The attorneys for the Arnolds filed a mo- 
tion to quash the indictments for receiving 
deposits after insolvency, upon the ground 
that the act of 1891 was unconstitutional by 
reason of an incomplete title. Judge Van 
Fleet, of Elkhart, was called to hear the 
motion and after hearing extended argu- 
ments, sustained the motion and quashed 
the indictments. The state took an appeal 
to the supreme court, where the case became 
a celebrated one, and was finally reversed, 
the constitutionality of the act being upheld. 

Jesse Arnold, while included in the in- 
dictments was never molested in any way. 
on acocunt of his age and a very general feel- 
ing that he had no guilty knowledge of the 



management of the South Whitley Bank. 
Thompson Arnold was by the same grand 
jury indicted for conspiring with James and 
Jesse to fraudulently procure from "divers 
citizens of Whitley county" money to be 
deposited in the bank, by making false rep- 
resentations as to the solvency of the same. 
He was tried at the November, 1894, term 
of the Whitley circuit court and on the 5th 
day of December, 1894, was found guilty 
by a jury, who assessed his punishment at 
one year in the state prison and that he pay a 
fine of twenty-five dollars. The attorneys 
for Arnold presented a number of dilatory 
motions all directed to the proposition that 
the jury had made his term of imprisonment 
one vear when the minimum provided by 
law was two years. The result was. after 
much argument, that the court. Judge Wil- 
liam L. Penfield. declined to pronounce sen- 
tence on the verdict of the jury except as the 
same related to the fine. He held that 
the verdict imposing imprisonment for 
one vear was void, but that part impos- 
ing the fine was regular and therefore the 
verdict must stand as to the fine. Again the 
state appealed to the supreme court and 
again the ruling of the trial court was re- 
versed, and Thompson Arnold was then 
sentenced to serve one year in the state's 

The Whitley circuit court has probably 
never known a case which excited such pop- 
ular interest and was conducted throughout 
with such skill, as the case against Thomp- 
son Arnold. After the expiration of his 
term of imprisonment. Arnold returned to 
North Manchester, where he re-entered the 
practice of law until his death which oc- 
curred April 3, 1903. 


Earl}- in the summer of 1888 a well 
dressed gentleman made his appearance in 
Churubusco and it was soon learned that 
it was a well educated and wealthy mute 
looking for a location for the establishment 
of a bank. Meeting with encouragement 
he returned to his home at Sturgis, Michi- 
gan, and arranged his business affairs, re- 
turning to Churubusco in the course of ten 
days he established the first bank of the 
town in a little wooden building on the 
present site of the meat market of Emerick 
& Madden. This little private bank had a 
capital of $10,000,00 and did a nice busi- 
ness, being managed by Mr. Thomas Beals. 
cashier. A fire broke out in the town one 
day and Mr. Beals over-exerted himself in 
an effort with other citizens to extinguish it, 
and resulted in a severe case of pneumonia, 
from which he died. After this occurrence 
the affairs of the bank were closed out and 
the business was suspended. 

Churubusco now fell a victim of the no- 
torious Zimri Dwiggins, of Rensselaer, In- 
diana, who formed a chain of banks all over 
the country and drained them into his 
Columbia National Bank, established in Chi- 
cago for the purpose. Dwiggins was the clev- 
erest captain of high finance who ever oper- 
ated in the country. What happened at 
'Busco was enacted at a large number of oth- 
er places in the country. 

He comes with a little safe, a little furni- 
ture and a few books, rents a building and 
calls it a bank. In it may or may not be 
ten dollars or a hundred. It isn't business 
particularly he is looking for. as he couldn't 
attend to it if he had it. It's confidence he 

2 3 8 


is looking for. He installs a bland, modest, 
in fact, delightful gentleman who is faithful 
in his attendance a Sunday-school and pub- 
lic worship and sits idle the entire week. 
Finally the citizens begin remarking what 
a very nice man he is and once in a while 
some one buys a draft for a dollar and a 
quarter and another deposits fifty cents to 
the account of his little boy. Finally Dwig- 
gins comes and' calls on the people, attends 
Sunday-school one Sabbath and remarks 
how much better he is doing than he ex- 
pected, when everybody knows that he 
knows he hasn't made a cent, but the leaven 
is working and he is making — headway. So 
matters go along until the bank actually 
does a little business, but the profits from it 
for a month would not buy a breakfast for 
the manager. Dwiggins comes again, more 
pleased than ever with the business he is 
getting and is now ready to begin opera- 
tions. He suggests that while he is doing 
well he proposes to organize a bank under 
the state laws and give the offices to the 
citizen stockholders. In fact, put the man- 
agement all in their hands. 

Many whom he approached did not have 
a thousand or two idle, or at least to spare. 
Why bless you it isn't their money he wants 
doesn't need it, has plenty to run the bank 
but wants influence. Just draw your note 
to the bank, deposit it and in a year or two 
the profits will pay it and you will he a 
banker — free. Admirable scheme. The 
hank is organized, directors, president, vice- 
presidents and all are citizens who give the 
bank credit and standing — but Dwiggins' 
man still handles the money. The bank now 
begins to do business in earnest. Officers 
and stockholders are responsible and they 
and their friends soon see deposits running 

into the thousands. The same is going on 
at many other points. The morning papers 
announce the closing of the Columbia Na- 
tional at Chicago and our friend who wields 
the cash at Churubusco with tearful eyes 
tells that nearly all the local bank's cash is 
up there and if it is true he is ruined, as 
everything he has in the world is invested 
here. He calls a meeting of the panic- 
stricken depositors and stockholders and 
tries to explain why all the bank's cash is up 
there. The upshot is that he and a kindly, 
benevolent old gentleman are sent up to 
Chicago to investigate. They are met by 
Dwiggins and wined and dined and it was 
fully explained that the Columbia National's 
troubles were but temporarv and it would 
resume in a few days. 

The committee returned fully satisfied 
and seemed to satisfy others. More money 
was raised to put the local bank on its feet, 
but somehow things did not work right, 
except that more money went mysteriously 
to Chicago or elsewhere and one morning 
the cashier was as if the earth had swallowed 

Stockholders who paid in a thousand 
were liable to the depositors for another thou- 
sand under the double liability law and like- 
wise those who had deposited a note for a 
thousand must pay it two fold. The de- 
positors thus got their money and the stock- 
holders held the sack. The Columbia Na- 
tional did not open again. 

Among the assets of the hank was the 
note of Ira J. Chase, Governor of Indiana, 
for fifteen hundred dollars. This was the 
preacher governor — of course, he never paid 
it nor did he or Dwiggins land in the peni- 

The fixtures and remnants of the bank 


were bought by Oscar Gandy, who estab- Due from banks 35,096.80 

lisherl the bank he still runs at the place. Bonds 898.50 

Cash and cash items 9,792.10 


LEY. $145,414.36 

In March. 1894, following the Arnold 
failure, O. Gandy, of Churubusco, and Theo- 
dore Mayer, of South Whitley, rented the 
Arnold bank building with its fixtures and 
started a private bank. The firm occupied 
this building until it was sold, at which time 
the}; rented the Johnson building on the 
west side of State street, now occupied by 
the Eastom restaurant. This room was re- 
arranged and new and complete furniture 
and fixtures added. These quarters were 
occupied until 189S, when the bank was 
moved into the Edwards building at the cor- 
ner of State and Mulberry streets, where it 
is now located. This bank has been a pro- 
gressive institution and. has taken on many 
side lines, among which is the flouring mills 
at Collamer, the grain elevators located on' 
the Nickel Plate tracks, besides handling 
real estate and vehicles of various kinds. 
This bank was reorganized in 1905 and is 
now operating under the laws of Indiana as 
a state bank under the name of "The Gaudy 
State Bank." 

The following statement will show the 
strength of this bank at the close of busi- 
ness hours on January 26. 1907, and the 
names of the present officers : 


Loans .$ 93.045-°5 

Overdrafts 2. 081. 91 

Real estate and fixtures 3,600.00 


Capital paid in $ 25.000.00 

Surplus 2.861.85 

Deposits 117,552.51 


President, O. C. Gandy ; vice-president. 
Mose Mayer ; cashier, Louis Mayer. 


(Foust. Remington & Co., of South Whit- 
ley. ) 

On the 2 1st day of March, T895. a deed 
to the Arnold Bank Building was made by 
Andrew Shorb to Franklin H. Foust, Fran- 
cis S. Remington and Iredell B. Rush, who 
had organized themselves into a partnership 
under the name of Foust, Remington & Co.. 
for the purpose of conducting a commercial 
banking business in South Whitley. 

This building had been occupied by the 
Gandy bank, which now moved across State 
street into the Johnson building. The new 
firm remodeled the offices and built a splen- 
did large burglar-proof vault in the rear "I 
the main office and added all of the modern 
conveniences necessary to complete a well ar- 
ranged banking house, and commenced busi- 
ness soon thereafter. The affairs of the bank- 
were placed in charge of Mr. Remington. 



who remained in control until his death, 
which occurred on June 2j, 1902. After 
the death of Mr. Remington his son, James 
E.. who had been an employee in the bank 
for some years, was placed in charge and the 
affairs were continued until the bank was 
reorganized into a state bank and a number 
of farmers and other business men were 
admitted to the new organization. Mr. 
Rush and the Remington interest retired at 
the time of the new organization. 

The new organization is operated under 
the name of "The Farmers' State Bank" 
and is in the hands of careful and competent 
men and is doing a splendid business for its 
short existence, only having commenced op- 
erations in May, 1906. The last statement 
made by this bank upon call of the state 
will show its condition at the close of busi- 
ness hours on the 26th day of January. 


Loans and discounts $ 70.394.76 

Overdrafts 2,884.03 

Due from bankers and bankers. 14,394.76 

Banking house 4,280.00 

Furniture and fixtures 1,755.00 

Current expenses 1,560.68 

Cash Currency 2.357.00 

Cash, specie 3,592.87 

Cash items 134.54 

Profits and loss 314.46 

Deposits on demand 73,641.09 



Capital paid in $ 25.000.00 

Discounts, exchange, interest.. 2.398.09 

$ioi.353- 6 4 

The officers of this bank are as follows : 
President, John Swihart; vice-president, 
Harmon H. Warner ; cashier, Robert Emer- 


This institution is the only one of its 
kind in the county. The articles of associ- 
ation under which it is operating were filed 
with the secretary of state on the 22d day 
of December, 1899, and its opening was on 
the 1 8th day of January, 1900, thus it com- 
menced with the new century. 

Its quarters are neat and commodious, 
located at No. 222 West Van Buren street, 
in the new Eyanson building. 

It has a capital stock of $25,000.00 and 
arrangements have been made to double the 
stock after March 1st of the present year. 
All of its stock is held by citizens of Whit- 
ley county. The present officers are as fol- 
lows and have been in control ever since the 
original organization : 

President, David B. Clugston ; first vice- 
president, S. J. Peabody; second vice-presi- 
dent. S. P. Kaler; secretary, Walter F. Mc- 
Lallen; assistant secretary, W. T. Binder; 
general manager. M. L. Galbreath. 

Tn the report made to its directors on 
January 16, 1907, at the close of business 
on that day the following statement was. 
made : 

Resources. Liabilities. 


Mortgage loans $170,506.00 Capital stock $ 25,000.00 

Miscellaneous loans 22,690.40 Surplus 5,000.00 

.... 5,400.00 

.... 900.00 

805.79 Savings 41,538.97 

.... 1.303.06 Trust funds 6.490.95 

.... ^00.00 

Trust fund loans. . . . 
Furniture and fixtures 
Current expenses .... 

Interest paid 

Bond premium 

Certificates of deposit 138,196.13 

Cash on hand 20,507.88 

Tax and interest reserve. 






Little Etna came from Washington 
township, Noble county, to Whitley county, 
in 1859. The causes which impelled the 
separation, the facts and proceedings are so 
well set out in the chapter on organization 
that an attempt to detail them here would 
be useless repetition. Etna is the smallest 
township in the county, two miles by six, 
composed of sections 25 to 36, in towship 
33, range 8. It was surveyed at the same 
time as that part of the county lying directly 
south of it. When Noble county was or- 
ganized in 1836, two years prior to the or- 
ganization of Whitley county, there were 
about a dozen settlers in Washington town- 
ship. The election organizing the township 
was held at the home of Joseph E. Adair, 
father of Hon. Joseph W. Adair, judge of 
the Whitley-Noble circuit, and was held 
April 3, 1837, and Mr. Adair was elected 
justice of the peace. His residence was in 
that part of the township remaining in No- 
ble county. 

The first settler was Agard, who came 
late in 1833 or early in 1834, settling near 
the Noble county line, north of Albert 
Tucker's farm. Following him came Kin- 
ney, who domiciled on what is now the 
Tucker farm. Both these gentlemen were 
from Vermont. Kinney was well educated 
and quite intelligent. His word was taken 
on all questions as some great constitutional 
lawyer in the United States senate. He ex- 
pounded chimney corner law and was au- 
thority on ecclesiastical as well as secular 
and scientific questions. He taught the first 
school in the township in the winter of 1836 
and 1837, in his cabin, near the present resi- 
dence of Albert B. Tucker. 

Agard's wife died in a few years and was 
the first burial in the cemetery laid off by 
Stephen Martin, just west of Dr. Scott's 
present residence. Both Agard and Kinney 
sold out and left the country many years 
ago. After these, settlers came thick and 
fast and it is impossible to enumerate their 

2 4 2 


names in the order of their coming. Hugh 
Allison, Jacob Gruemlich, Abraham Goble, 
John Blain. Joshua Benton, James Campbell, 
Jacob Frederick, Robert Scott, John Scott, 
The weight of authority is that the Scotts 
were first after Agard and Kinney. 
These all came by or before 1836, 
and by 1841, all the land in the town- 
ship was entered and much of it set- 
tled upon. John Scott came in 1833 and 
settled on the spot where the hamlet of Etna 
now stands. He had a large family of boys 
and girls, among which were three grown 
men. The same year they made a dugout 
canoe and fished in a little nameless lake, 
finding fish in abundance. The next year 
they made another canoe of the same sort 
and put it on another little lake to the south. 
When they would talk about going fishing, 
the)' would ask "Are you going to the old 
lake or the new one?" and thus they un- 
consciously gave names to both these lakes. 
Jacob Scott, who lived many years on the 
farm now owned by Ambrose Keister, may 
be said to have given the lakes their names. 
Benjamin Blair settled in the township 
in 1836, entering a piece of land south of 
Cold Springs, or Ormas. He partly cleared 
his forty-acre tract, grubbed it and built 
a cabin. In 1S38, he went up to the Haw 
Patch above Ligonier to help harvest wheat. 
He was a most excellent cradler and could 
make big wages for several weeks. He re- 
mained in that locality for a couple of years. 
In 1840 he married Nancy Hunt and came 
back to his cabin. He soon sold and moved 
to Elkhart county. Mrs. Blair died in 1846, 
leaving two daughters. During their resi- 
dence in Elkhart county he was converted in 
a Wesleyan revival which was said to have 

been the most powerful ever known in north- 
ern Indiana. From this time he was men- 
tally unbalanced. He was a man of good 
character, memory and natural ability, but 
very limited education. He soon felt him- 
self called upon to preach, but his church 
would not give him license and this disap- 
pointment disturbed him very greatly. The 
death of his wife soon after, in addition to 
his already unbalanced condition, made him 
hopelessly insane, and from that on "Old 
Ben Blair" was as frightful a scare crow to 
the children as the celebrated fabled "raw 
head and bloody bone." He neglected his 
children and became a roving, noisy maniac. 
One daughter lived with her grandmother, 
Mrs. John Scott, at Etna, until the age of 
fourteen, when she went to her mother's 
people in Elkhart count}- and died. The 
other lived until maturity, married and went 

He made a great noise and frightful 
noise, but was never dangerous. His in- 
sanity took form in preaching. He was 
always talking scripture but all his 
harangues were without point. He would 
approach the house of friend or stranger 
preaching with his voice in the higFest key 
and the children would scamper to cover. 
He would preach to a stump, a goose, pig, 
cow or stone as quickly as to a human being. 
He found welcome in many homes as an 
unfortunate insane, yet harmless wanderer 
and at times would talk intelligently for ten 
or fifteen minutes and again break out in 
noisy religious harangue, and if interferred 
with, would immediately leave the house. 
His favorite salutation on meeting friend 
or stranger was: "By the Grace of God!" 
He never begged but the people furnished 


2 43 

him clothes and sustenance. He had several 
canes loaded full of coins of small denomi- 
nations, medals, buttons, etc., and made the 
late E. L. McLallen custodian of them. 
Some of these may still be seen in the First 
National Bank at Columbia City. Mr. Mc- 
Lallen was g'ood to him and secured his 
undying friendship. He never belonged to 
any lodge but used to say that he and brother 
McLallen were the two highest Masons in 
the world. For nearly thirty years he was 
a wanderer over Elkhart, Whitley and No- 
ble counties, preaching - , preaching, always 
preaching. He died in the earl}- winter of 
1S73 in the Noble county poor house; his 
mind never having cleared, even in his last 
moments. He always requested to be buried 
•beside his mother and when death dame to 
his relief, kind friends laid him beside the 
dear one he so tenderly loved, in the Scott 
cemetery in Troy township, near the Etna 
township line. 

The first mill in the township was a 
saw-mill built by Hugh Allison at Cold 
Springs, in 1837. It was of course the old 
up and down saw and ran by water. Crude 
though it was, it was considered a great im- 
provement. Hall's mill, in Noble township, 
Henshaw's in York township, furnished the 
early supplies of lumber to the township. 
There were grist mills at Oswego and North 
Webster at a very early day,. antedating the 
Etna township settlements and the people 
of this part of the county were more fortu- 
nately situated than those in other parts. 
The Ryder mill at Wilmot, just across the 
county line, was built in 1848 and for many 
years was the most up-to-date mill in the 
country for many miles adjacent. 

The first white birth in the township 

was a son born to Mr. and Mrs. Robert 

The first death was Mrs. Agard, the sec- 
ond was Jacob, son of Robert Scott. The 
third was Sarah Elizabeth Long, daughter 
of James W. and Katharine Long in 1838. 
The first marriage was Elisha Moore to 
Nancy Scott, in 1837, at the Scott home on 
the site of Etna town. The first wedding 
in the township after it became a part of 
Whitley county was Adam C. Johnson to 
Margaret Long, in i860. 

The Scotts, Longs and Blains have 
from the earliest settlements constituted a 
large and respectible part of the community. 

The first steam saw mill was built west 
of the village of Etna and the next on the 
Hartup farm in the west part of the town- 
ship. Abraham Goble conducted a tannery 
at his home in a very early day. The first 
school building was a log one built on the 
corner of Goble's farm and was first used 
the winter of 1837 and 1838. 

The first church built in the township 
was right on the then county line, being in 
Noble county, now Etna township, on the 
south line of the southeast quarter of sec- 
tion 31. It has been known for many years 
as the Snodgrass church. It was built in 
1840 and was on the farm of John Blain. 
The first burial in this cemetery was Thomas 
Long, brother of William C. Long, still in 
the township. The first services were held 
at the homes of John Blain and John Snod- 
grass. The church building yet standing, 
was built more than sixty-five years ago. 
The first worshipers here were the families 
of John Blain. John Snodgrass, Joseph 
Scott, James Scott, Thomas Kirkpatrick, 
Levi Belch and others. The denomination 



was called Associate Reform, and was re- 
form from the old seceecler. It is from the 
old Scotch Presbyterian stock. No religious 
organization had a more noble parentage, 
better record or better people. They were 
old psalm singers. The church organization 
has gone down but the building never 
went to any other denomination. The so- 
ciety was organized by Rev. Robert Kerr. 
who lived at Oswego. 

One of the very earliest burying places 
was on the Emanuel Fashlaugh farm in 
the southwest corner of section 30. It 
was called the Grumlick cemetery. Most of 
the bodies have been removed to Salem, 
across the line in Noble county, anil to other 
places. Most of the bodies remaining are 
of the Grumlick and Goble families. 

The town of Etna was surveyed Septem- 
ber 11, 1849, by John H. Alexander, for 
Lafayette Lamson, who was in business at 
the place. It consisted of eighteen lots, num- 
bered from one to eig'hteen. The plat was 
acknowledged by Lamson. and recorded in 
Noble count}-, September 29, 1849. Though 
laid out by Lamson the land was owned by 
John Scott, and on the 2d day of October, 
1849, John Scott and Elizabeth, his wife, 
conveyed to Lamson the entire surveyed 
town of Etna for the sum of forty dollars. 
Lamson named the town Etna in honor of 
the place he came from in Ohio, and when 
the township was stricken from Noble coun- 
ty it also took the same name. The lots 
are four and a half by nine rods. 

November 19. 1878. Dr. S. S. Austin 
platted and recorded an addition to the town 
consisting of twelve lots, numbered consecu- 
tively 1 to 1 _>. Levi Adams was the sur- 
veyor. Lots i to 6 are ten rods bv four 

and four twenty-fifths; lots 7 to 12 are 
nine by four and four twenty-fifths rods. 
The streets are West, Line and Mechanic. 

Cold Springs was laid out and surveyed 
May 9, 1856, by Jacob Keefer, and was 
surveyed on that day by D. \\ . Myers, sur- 
veyor of Noble county. It consists of lots 
1 to 16, seventy-four and a quarter 
by one hundred forty-eight and a half feet. 
Keefer did not acknowledge and record the 
plat until November 19, 1856, and on that 
day he and his wife, Maria Jane Keefer. 
conveyed lots 7 and 12 to the Free 
Will Baptist church, the consideration being 
that they should erect thereon a church fi >r 
the worship of Almighty God and allow 
any and all other evangelical denominations 
to hold services therein, without charge, 
when they were themselves not using it. 
This church is called "The First Church of 
Noble, Free W ill Baptist Church." It was 
organized in 1837, by Elder Pullman at the 
residence of John Prickett. in Washington 
township. Services were held in dwelling- 
houses and schoolhouses until 1853. They 
began building the old frame church in Cold 
Springs in 185 1. but as the people were 
poor and it was built entirely bv donation, 
was not finished until 1853. It was built 
when the town was platted and three years 
before the deed was made to the organiza- 
tion bv Keefer. .The congregation continued 
to worship in the first building until 1888. 
when the}' erected the present brick veneered 
church. The charter members were John 
Prickett and wife. Nicholas Prickett and 
wife. Paul Beezly and wife. Mr. Graham 
and wife. Andrew Humphrey and wife, and 
Mrs. Piper. The present trustees are B. F. 
Cooper, M. W. Bristow and E. E. Knapp. 



The first cemetery was laid out by 
Stephen Martin in 1835, he being himself a 
surveyor. No plat of it was ever recorded 
and but little of it is now left. It was di- 
rectly west of Doctor Scott's farm residence. 
There were quite a number of burials at 
the place, but quite early it was abandoned 
and the greater part of the bodies were 
taken up and moved to the Scott cemetery 
at the southwest corner of section 1, Troy 
township, and some to other places. As 
early as 1838, Robert Scott dedicated a plat 
on his farm for a cemetery. This is west of 
Cold Springs and in the center, on the east 
line of section 26. A number of bodies 
were removed from Martin's to this place. 
There are still a few burials of old families 
at the place. 

The people of Etna have always been 
morally and peaceablv inclined. If there 
were no more litigation in the county than 
in this township the courts would close and 
the jail remain empty. The township has 
always been well supplied with churches and 
never had a saloon. Three different at- 
tempts have been made to run quart shops, 
but they soon suspended for want of patron- 

The change from Noble to Whitley coun- 
ty disarranged the school districts and while 
Etna is exactlv the right size for three 
schools the roads are and always have been 
wrong for the arrangement. Soon after the 
change five school houses were erected and 
five districts were maintained until the con- 
solidation three vears ago. 

These school districts were oddly ar- 
ranged and no one seems to know when or 
how they came by their location, one of them 
being right on the Noble county line. Until 

very recent years the five schools were al- 
ways as full as in the neighboring town- 
ships where four square miles constitute a 
district. Many pupils were from time to time 
transferred from Troy township and also 
from Noble county, their share of the tui- 
tion fund being paid to the trustee of Etna 

Three years ago a large central school 
building- was erected at a cost of about 
twelve thousand dollars, just west of the 
town of Etna with four rooms and main- 
taining a high school with good standards. 
All the children of the township now go 
there, and from maintaining five schools 
and five school houses where there should 
have been only three, the township has 
changed to one central school building with 
four rooms and four teachers. Quite a 
number of pupils from Troy township and 
from Noble county are each year trans- 
ferred to this place and materially assist in 
furnishing- the revenue. This move has put 
the township deeplv in debt, but ten or 
twelve vears will pay the debt which leaves 
the township in better financial shape than 
most town and city school corporations. 
The outlay was great in the start, but was 
fully justified bv the economy in the present 
system, together with the greater efficiency. 
Three school transfer wagons are run to 
carry the children from the remote parts of 
the township to school. All the school 
houses have been sold. 

Olive Chapel, United "Brethren church, 
was organized in 1844. The first members 
were the Grumlich family. John A. Miller 
and wife and Toseph Welker and wife. The 
first minister was Rev. Todd. Other early 
ministers were Snepp, Hiker. Shomas, Had- 

2 4 6 


ley, Richeart, Fast, Forbs, Freeman, Slight. 
The following are the ministers of later years 
in their order : 

J. F. Martin, Seithman, Simons and 
Wood, each one year; Cleaver, two years; 
Eby. one year ; Cummins, three years ; Bell, 
two years ; W. F. Simons, two years ; Butler 
and Miller, each one year; Byrer, Riley, 
Mattox and Showley, each two years ; Fet- 
ro, three years : Sickafoose, two years ; Dun- 
kle, one year ; Hill, two years. Rev. G. H. 
Hutchinson is present pastor. 

Services were first held in homes and 
school houses. The present building was 
erected in 1880 at a cost of two thousand 
two hundred dollars. There are at present 
forty members. The present trustees are 
A. C. Brosman. H. Batz and A. Hines. The 
cemetery is known as the old Grumlich ceme- 
tery and a Mr. Grumlich was the first burial. 

The Etna Methodist Episcopal church 
was organized in 1867 by Rev. A. Lacey. 
The first members were Virgil Barber and 
wife. Jacob Bowlby and wife, William Blain 
and wife and Hannah Scott. 

The present church building was erected 
in 1888. Rev. S. B. Stuckey is present pas- 

The Baptist church two miles west of 
the town of Etna, called the First Troy Bap- 
tist church because it was organized near 
Troy Center in 1847, was organized with 
the following persons : Samuel, Sallv, Al- 
mond and Katharine Palmer. Joseph and 
Martha Walton, James Grant. Samuel El- 
der, J. H. Sowerman, Elisha S. and Lucinda 
Havens, Alfred and Betsy Jordan, Hiram, 
Sarah and Sarah A. Lambkin, Harvev and 
Mary Orcutt. Samantha Trumbull, Jemima 
Palmer. Elizabeth Campbell, James and 

Eunice Latson, William James, Henry and 
Frances McLallen and Phebe Barnes, Field- 
ing, Eliza and Zachariah Barnes. Among 
the early ministers were Revs. D. Scott, Ira 
Gratten, E. Barnes, Worth and Coyle. 
There was never a church building in Troy, 
services were generally held in the Troy 
Center schoolhouse. 

The church was reorganized as the Etna 
township Baptist church December 20, 1862, 
with the following members : Harvey and 
Mary Orcutt, Joseph S. and Sarah Palmer, 
Saruch and Anna Benton, Anna Jones, Se- 
mantha Trumbull, J. L. and Mary McLeod. 
The present church building was erected in 
1869 at a cost of twenty-four hundred dol- 

The towns because of their isolation 
have never made much headway. About all 
there is of Cold Springs is the church, a 
general store and a few dwelling houses. 

Etna has two general stores, drug store, 
meat market, barber shop, hotel and black- 
smith shop. Dr. J. William C. Scott is the 
only physician. The Grand Army of the 
Republic and Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows have each a hall and lodge. The 
lodge of Modern Woodmen use the Grand 
Army of the Republic hall. There are about 
sixteen dwellings. The township has five 
lakes, all in the east half of the township. 
Loon lake, the largest, covers the greater 
part of the east half of section 36, the south- 
east corner of the township. It also skirts 
corners of both Troy and Thorncreek town- 
ships and a great part is in Noble county. 
Dollar lake, about the center of the south 
half of section 25, is small and almost round, 
therein- resembling a silver dollar from 
which it takes its name. It used to he said 



it had no bottom, but it has been found to be 
comparatively shallow, from twenty to thir- 
ty feet deep, with a few quite deep places. 
Old lake covers about fifty acres in sections 
36 and 35. We have already shown how 
it came by its name. It has an average 
depth of twenty-five to thirty feet. Brown 
lake, covering' some ten acres, is in the cen- 
tral west half of section 26. It is shallow 
with muck margins and marl bottom. It 
takes its name from the owner of the adjoin- 
ing land. Indian lake, about the same size 
as Brown lake, is near the center of the 
northeast quarter of section 27, and is also a 
shallow marl muck lake. 

On Wednesday, the 21st day of August, 
1878, Mr. Halderman, who had a saw-mill 
near the west bank of Old lake, desiring a 
hired girl, Joe Nickerson, son of Elder Nick- 
erson, of Wolf lake, who was working for 
him, offered to go and get one. The offer 
was accepted and Nickerson said he would 
stav till he found one. He went at once to 
Hills, about three-quarters of a mile north- 
east of Loon lake, and secured Katie Hill 

and started with her a little before dark, 
going in a boat across Loon lake and thence 
through the channel between Old and Loon. 
When near Old lake a dog began barking 
terribly and the owner listening heard a 
\\<uuan scream and a man trying to pacify 
her. This was about nine o'clock Wednes- 
day evening. Nothing was thought of their 
absence. Hills supposing Katie was at w.i >rk 
at Haldermans and Halderman supposing 
Nickerson had not got the girl and went else- 
where. On Friday afternoon some boys 
fishing found the boat they had used. Nick- 
erson's coat and a paper of tobacco being 
in the boat. Search began on land and water 
and it was now first discovered that they 
were gone. On Saturday evening the bodies 
of the two were found in ten or twelve feet 
of water twentv-five or thirty feet from the 
outlet of Old lake. There were no marks 
of violence on either body. The two had 
been engaged at one time, but owing to the 
dissolute character of the man she had brok- 
en the engagement. 



The Grange had its origin in that period 
of general depression of the early 'seventies. 
Not only was there a great slackening of the 
commercial pulse but it extended everywhere 
and the unrest was perhaps greater in the 
rural districts than anywhere else. Farmers 
felt the_\- were not having what is now 
termed the "square deal" and that they were 
getting the worst end of the bargain in all 

lines. This culminated in the establishment 
of a great farmers' alliance called the 
grange and it spread with lightning rapidity 
all over the land. 

Many who first entered the order were 
actuated by that excitement incident to great 
popular movements and not realizing the 
importance and true principles that formed 
its foundation soon dropped out throug'h 

2 4 8 


carelessness, disappointment and other 
causes so that the order in man)' places dis- 
integrated as rapidly as it had formed. 

The first general move in Whitley 
county was in the early spring of 1874, 
when it swept the country like a tornado. 
The records show that in April of that year 
there were eighteen subordinate lodges or 
granges organized within the county, named 
and numbered as follows, as far as we have 
been able to determine from the records : 
Thorncreek, No. 278; Union, No. 649; Eel 
River, No. 689; Richland, No. 925; Blue 
River, No. 945 ; Lynn, No. 980 ; Fair Oaks, 
No. 991; Sugar Grove, No. 1075; Troy, 
No. 1 155; Washington, No. 1163; Jeffer- 
son. No. 1256; Sugar Grove. No. 1264; 
West Union, No. 1408; Coesse, No. 1625; 
Spring Run, No. 1892; Collins, South 
Whitley "and Pleasant Lake. 

A large part of the more prominent and 
influential farmers and their wives, sons and 
daughters became members, some to remain 
true to its principles and others to drop out. 

Immediately on the organization of 
these lodges the necessity for a county or- 
ganization with general supervision was 
clearly apparent. A meeting was called in 
Columbia City and a county council was 
organized to have general supervision of the 
affairs of the order within the county. We 
need only to refer to the ups and downs of 
the order. Springing so rapidly into exist 
ence the rebound was sure to come, but the 
order has survived and is today a living 
and vital factor for good. 

On June 22, 1878, those who were yet 
members of the council met in Central Hall. 
Columbia City, and organized in its stead a 
County Grange. It was first known as Co- 
lumbia City Pomona Grange, No. 33, but 

was soon after changed to the Whitley 
County Pomona Grange, No. 33, and is 
still in good working order. No stated 
times are set for its meeting, but it meets as 
the business may require on the call of the 
executive committee, which consists bf a 
member from each subordinate lodge. These 
meetings are held as often as three weeks 
and some times not for two months. They 
are held at the different subordinate lodges 
and all members of all lodges in the 
county, being- members, participate in the 
proceedings and assist in deciding all ques- 
tions. The meetings generally discuss ques- 
tions of law and general welfare. The meet- 
ings of the county grange were at first called 
by the president and secretary. 

Of the original eighteen lodges all but 
three have passed out of existence, but these 
three are in good condition. They are 
Spring Run Grange, No. 1892, held at their 
ball near Compton church ; Sugar Grove 
Grange, No. 1264, with hall at Laud, and 
Thorncreek Grange, No. 378. meeting in 
the upper story of Thorncreek Center 
schOolhouse. This last one was for a long 
time dormant, but was recent lv reorganized 
and is in healthy condition. More recentlv 
Richland Grange was reorganized and be- 
ing - in g"ood condition holds its meetings in 
the old Odd Fellows' Hall in Larwill. 

The executive committee of the county 
grange consists of Elisha Swan, of Sugar 
Grove ; Daniel Morrolf. of Spring- Run ; 
Thomas Briggs. of Thorncreek, and John 
Butler, of Larwill. 

Spring Run Grange is the only one of 
those organized in 1874 that has never been 
dormant and has missed but very few 
regular meetings. 

Early in 1906 a committee was appoint- 



ed by the county grange to try and secure 
the meeting of the next state grange at 
Columbia City. This committee was Henry 
H. Lawrence, Eugene Chavey, John Butler 
and J. E. Baer. Through the united efforts 
of the committee and the members through- 
out the county the state meeting- was held 
in Columbia City December n and 14. 

Eew influences have done more to ele- 
vate the rural districts, allay prejudice and 

cement the cordial relations now existing 
than the grange. We could name those 
who were prominent in the movement in 
the early days of the organization and the 
few of the pioneers of the order who re- 
main with those who are today bearing the 
burden of battle, but so man}- c< mid demand 
mention that we hesitate to do so. 

Very sincerely yours, 

Henry H. Lawrence. 


Troy township, the middle of the west 
tier of townships of the county, township 
32, range 8, was organized in 1839, the 
first township organized after the county 
organization, and the fifth in the county, 
Cleveland, Smith. Richland and Thorncreek 
having- organized in advance of the county 
organization. The matter of township or- 
ganization was simple. Application was 
made by written petition to the board of 
county commissioners for the naming of a 
congressional township and holding an elec- 

At this time there were but five voters 
in the south third of the township, now a 
part of Richland township — Jesse S. Perin, 
Price Goodrich. Timothy F. Devinney, Bela 
Goodrich and Nathan Chapman. 

The voters in that part of the township 
now Troy were Samuel Hartsock, Thomas 
Estlick, James Lytle, William Doney, James 
Keirsey, Joseph Tinkham, Jacob Scott, Ste- 
phen Martin, Henry Moore. Jonathan Smith 
and James Joslin. 

This was the election for organization 

and the only officer elected was a justice of 
the peace. Nathan Chapman received nine 
of the votes and Price Goodrich the other 
seven. Each candidate voted for his com- 
petitor. The naming of the township was 
done by Jesse Perin. 

No settler had appeared up to 1836, but 
very early that year Jesse Perin came in the 
si >uth part, Stephen Martin. Samuel Hart- 
sock and Thomas Estlick in the north. It 
is generallv conceded that Hartsock came 
first and Perin next, though but very few 
days elapsed between their 'coming. 

John Snodgrass, Nathan Chapman. 
James Keirsey, Joseph Tinkham, T. F. De- 
vinney and Jacob Scott all came in [836 or 
quite earl}- in 1837. Joel Rine came in [837, 
and George W. Elder. Price and Bela 
Goodrich in 1838. 

The Martin family came from Oneida 
count}-. New York. They came to Buffalo 
by canal, then took ship on the bark "Old 
Fulton" for Maumee, but were driven to 
port at Erie for twenty-four hours during a 
violent storm. Arriving: at Maumee Bav 


the goods were unloaded on the river bank, 
where work had already begun on the Wa- 
bash-Erie canal. They hired teams to haul 
them above the rapids, above what is now 
called Grand Rapids, some twenty miles this 
side of Toledo. There they hired a keel 
boat to bring them on the river to Fort 
Wayne. They arrived at Fort Wayne early 
in the morning of July 8, 1836, where they 
were met by Mr. Martin's brother and a 
neighbor with teams from Wolf Lake, Noble 
county. They got as far as present Chur- 
ubusco the first night, where they camped 
in a dense forest. It took two days more to 
reach Wolf Lake and two days more to 
reach their land in the northeast part of 
present Troy township. Mr. Martin's son, 
Stephen Martin, Jr., was an early surveyor 
of the count}' and was defeated for re-elec- 
tion because part of the tickets were Ste- 
phen Martin and a part Stephen Martin, Jr., 
Asa Shoemaker and others claiming they 
had voted for Stephen Martin. Sr. 

Stephen, Jr., was assessor for the whole 
countj r in 1847 and took sick at the home 
of Mr. Fellows, Mrs. Dr. Ireland's father. 
Dr. Pierce was called and helped him and he 
sent for Beaver Edwards to come and g'et 
him, which he did and brought him to his 
own home, the house still standing north of 
the county jail. Dr. Tyler was called, gave 
him an overdose of morphine and he died in 
that house without waking. 

Abraham, son of George W. Elder, says : 
"We moved from Seneca county, Ohio, with 
a team of oxen. We first went to mill at 
Syracuse and it took us two full days to 
go and return with our oxen. There were 
no regular schools, only subscription schools. 
1 first went to Mrs. Joel Rine, who taught 
in her kitchen in 1839. I now own the land 

on which this first school room stood. The 
first death I know of in the township was 
my grandmother, Elizabeth Rine, in 1839. 
We buried her over in Kosciusko county. 
We did not do much store trading, nearly 
every one produced what they used, but 
what little trading we did was mostly at 
Summit, one mile west of present Larwill, 
We scarcely ever went to Warsaw, Colum- 
bia or Fort Wayne, but did sometimes go 
to Oswego. One morning about four o'clock 
I asked my father if I might go that day to 
Grandfather Rine's. 'Yes,' said he, 'if you go 
right now.' and I went. He was more afraid 
than I was and I had scarcely made the mile 
in the dark till he was there too. I think 
the first school house ever built in the town- 
ship was on the northwest quarter of sec- 
tion 15." 

Lorin Loomis came in 1839. Fielding 
Barnes in 1843. Settlers came slowly to 
Troy township till 1840, but the following 
came before 1841 : Robert Adams, Lewis 
Adams, Jacob Stackhouse, Henry Harpster, 
Samuel Marrs, James Grant, Samuel Pal- 
mer. Henry Roberts, Levi Adams, Pearson 
R. Walton, James Latoon, John J. English, 
Almond Palmer, Hiram Lampkins and Har- 
low Barber. Alexander Blain came in 1840, 
Thomas A. Elliott and Richard Vanderford 
and Carter McDonald in 1843, Lorin Loomis 
and John Harrison in 1841 ; Jonathan Sat- 
tison and A. M. Trumbull in 1842. 

The first taxes assessed in 1838 were: 
John Burns, $1.25; Thomas Estlick, $1.85: 
Samuel Hartsock, $3.16; Stephen Martin, 
Sr.. $1.30; Jesse S. Perin, $3.40; Joel Rine, 
$2.51 ; John Snodgrass, $3.17; Joseph Tink- 
ham, $2.75. Total, $19.31. The taxes lev- 
ied in 1906 amounted to $8,559.61. 

The first child born in this township was 


Thomas Estlick. The next was a daughter 
of Joel Rine, and this child was the second 
death. The first marriage was Rev. Samuel 
Smith to Clarissa Blanchard ; the second, 
David James to Eunice Goodrich. 

The first school in the township was 
taught by Stephen Martin, Jr., in his own 
house in 1838- 1839. The first log school 
house was built at Grant's Corners, and 
Clarissa Blanchard was the first teacher; 
the second, Old North school house, on A. 
M. Trumbull's land. The next was called 
Black Rock because built near the land of 
Joel Casey, a negro. 

The first church organization was the 
Protestant Methodist in 1840. Rev. Bratt 
came from over in Kosciusko county and 
preached in the cabins of the settlers in the 
south and west part of present Troy. This 
resulted in the organization of a class of the 
society and preparation was made for the 
building of a log church on section 18 in 
1 84 1, but it fell through and the organiza- 
tion soon after disbanded, as the Methodist 
Episcopal denomination had organized near 
the center of the township in 1840. They 
met at settlers' cabins and in school houses 
until they built their first house of .worship 
in 1849. The present brick church was built 
about 1879. About 1844 a Baptist organi- 
zation was formed and they held services for 
several years at private houses and at the 
Center school house, but never erected a 
house of worship in Troy. The Baptist 
church in Etna township is its successor. 

The Presbyterian church was organized 
in 1846. Thomas Elliott was its real found- 
er. The society now worships in the sec- 
ond house built on the same spot. It is at 
this place that Rev. W. S. Harker died on 

duty. He lived at Larwill and was the reg- 
ularly installed pastor of this church. On 
the first Sunday morning of August, 1869, 
he was on hand, and just before going into 
the pulpit remarked that he was in a perfect 
state of health. To John Harrison he said, 
"I am as heart} - as a bear." He had been 
speaking for a few minutes when he weak- 
ened and a few words he attempted to say 
were a rattling ramble, then taking a deep 
breath, he said, "Friends, I can say no 
more." He then called his wife and sank 
into a seat. She ran to him, ordered the 
windows opened and then had him carried 
out and back of the house and laid on the 
grass. He at once lost consciousness and 
never regained it. Dr. Kirkpatrick was sent 
for and bled him. but it did no good, and 
he died in about two hours from the time he 
was stricken. 

The Free Methodist church was built in 
1879 on the farm of Jacob Klingerman at 
the northeast corner of section 34, Richland 
township. The trustees were Thomas 
Pritchard, Jacob Klingerman and Jackson 
Tannehill. The building was torn down in 
1882 and moved to Steam Corners or Lorane 
in Troy township, where it was rebuilt and 
was rededicated by Rev. Hammer. It now 
has a membership of nineteen. The trustees 
are Edward Russell and Charles Sellers. 
The present pastor is Rev. Perry E. 

Levi Adams settled on section fourteen 
in 1842 and in 1845 he laid off a spot on 
his land for a cemetery and deeded it to the 
county. It is still known as the Adams 
cemetery. The first burial was Mrs. Lo- 
renzo Havens in 1845, and the second was 
Levi Adams' first wife in 1846. 


Jacob Scott owned the southwest quarter 
of section one in 1847 when his wife. Lydia, 
died, and he buried her on the southwest cor- 
ner of the farm and dedicated a plat for a 
public cemetery and it is still known as the 
Scott cemetery. There were many earlier 
burials at various places in the settlement 
but most of the bodies were taken up and 
reinterred at Scott's. 

The Presbyterian cemetery was laid out 
at the time land for the church was secured 
and we are not advised of the first burial. 

June 3, 1867, Samuel and William Snod- 
grass and Adam C. Brosman. all of Troy 
township, and Samuel Firestone, from Kos- 
ciusko count}', organized themselves as Reg- 
ulators, and were incorporated as the "In- 
vincibles" and given the power of constables 
to make arrests of persons violating the 
criminal laws. 

Jacob Scott named Xew Lake, because 
the Scott family found it after the one to the 
north, which they called Old Lake. Thom- 
as Estlick named Loon and Goose lakes. In 
1837 he shot a loon on the former and had 
a great deal of trouble to get it ashore, then 
gave the body of water the name. He named 
the other Goose Lake because in early days 
he shot so man}- wild geese on it. Cedar 
Lake took its name from the larg'e number 
of cedar trees that early grew on its banks. 

As before noted. James Lyttle was an 
earl_\' settler in Troy. He was a negro. 
Soon after his settlement in the township 
his wife died, leaving - several children, all 
full-blood negroes. 

There was a family named Sutton liv- 
ing on the northwest quarter of section 18, 
Thomcreek township, adjoining Troy, and 
one daughter. Charity, lived with Nathan 
Chapman in the strip now belonging to 

Richland. She was a comely maiden, but 
the family was rather shiftless and not of 
the highest order. Lyttle was fairly well- 
to-do and had some money and determined 
to marry Charity Sutton at all hazards, 
though the law forbade such marriages un- 
der severe penalties. It was evident he could 
not marry her and stay, here, so he arranged 
to move west, promised Nathan Chapman 
$100 to secure the girl's consent and help 
consummate the deal. He also secured the 
consent of the girl's family and took them 
along. In October, 1841. the Lyttle family 
and the Sutton family, accompanied by 
Chapman, started west. In Michigan at that 
time no marriage license was required, but 
the laws strictly forbade the intermarriage 
of whites and blacks. On October 30. 1841, 
Chauncey May, a justice of the peace in St. 
Joseph county. Michigan, married Lyttle 
and Miss Sutton. What he got for disobey- 
ing the law is not known and as the parties 
moved on and Chapman returned, the jus- 
tice of the peace was never brought to book. 

In 1888 a letter was received by the 
clerk of the Whitley circuit court "from a 
daughter of this union at Pineville. Oregon, 
offering fiftv dollars for a certificate of the 
marriage if it could be made to appear the 
marriage took place four months earlier 
than it occurred. A certificate was pro- 
cured from St. Joseph county, but as no one 
wished to perjure themselves or falsify the 
record the Oregon parties would not pay 
for it. 

There has never been a saloon in Troy 
township. The people are industrious and 
thrifty and a greater per cent, of them are 
church-going people than of any other town- 
ship in the count}'. 

It is a fine farming' community and its 


people are prosperous and happy. Having" 
neither town nor railroad, it is somewhat 
isolated, but is near enough to Columbia 
City, Larwill and Pierceton that the people 
do not suffer any special inconvenience. 
Neither a doctor or a lawyer has a residence 
in the township. 



This brings to my mind the scenes of my 
childhood and those dear old faces that have 
nearly all passed away. If I could only re- 
member dates I could give you a great deal 
of interesting' early history. My father, 
Price Goodrich, landed here in June, 1838. 
James Joslin, John Black and Harlow Bar- 
ber, with their families, came in 1839. 
Blanchard and Harry Roberts about a vear 
and a half later. Samuel Marrs came in 
1837, the year my father came to buy land. 
They both picked on the same piece, and 
Marrs got it. but I got one of his boys. I 
have lived on the place for fifty- four years. 

It was Levi Little* and not James who 
came in 1838. He settled on the bank of 
"Wilson Lake and the lake went by the name 
of Lyttle's Lake. Alex Wilson bought him 
out and the lake took his name. When Lu- 
cie Billy Jameson came to the count}- he 
wanted to find Lorin Loomis. The trees 
were marked "L" and he followed them and 
came to Lyttle's. 

I was present at the Presbyterian church 

*The record of his marriage to Charity 
Sutton says James, but he may have changed 
it for that occasion to better avoid trouble if 
anv came. 

when Rev. Harker fell and died. The 
church was organized in 1846 by Mr. Sad. 
Lorin Loomis, William Jameson, Thomas 
and Robert Elliott, John and William Har- 
rison, Salmon and Lyman Noble, John Mc- 
Keehan and Myron Noble, with their wives, 
constituted the first membership. 

The first Methodist I heard preach was 
at ni}' father's house, Anderson Parrett and 
Edwin Cone alternately. They held services 
around in the homes of the brethren. 

My father used to take brother Silas and 
myself by the hand and take us as far north 
as Etna to Kinney's and as far south as 
Benoni Mosher's and as far west as David 
Hayden's. I remember well once when my 
father. Aunt Lucinda Goodrich and myself 
went down to Hayden's to meeting". We 
had only one horse, which we took turns rid- 
ing. We were on the old Squawbuck trail 
and I was walking" ahead and I saw just 
ahead of me in the roots of a beech tree a 
little fawn. I slipped up and sprang" after 
it, but it was too quick for me. I think it 
was in the year 1850 that the first old Meth- 
odist church was built. Among the first 
members were my father and mother, 
Blanchard and wife, Harlow Barber and 
wife, Harry Roberts, Joseph and Robert 
Tinkham and wives. Samuel Smith was our 
first circuit preacher. He married Clarissa 
Blanchard for his second wife, and my fa- 
ther broke his team to sell him a horse so 
his wife could ride the circuit with him. I 
think the old school house at Grant's Cor- 
ners was built in the vear 1840. Clarissa 
Blanchard was the first teacher and among 
her pupils were Edwin, and Joseph Joslin. 
Delila Loomis. Jane, John and Hannah 
Hartsock, Henry and Ezra Grant, Sarah I. 

2 54 


Black. Permelia Chapman, my brother Silas 
and myself. I do not know sure, but 
think old Mrs. Hartsock and her son Wil- 
liam were the first burials at the Presbyte- 
rian church. 

My grandfather, Bela Goodrich, was a 
feeble old man when we came here, but was 
able to hunt and fish a great deal. He used 
to hunt young" wolves and bring them in the 
house before they had their eyes open and 
lay them down on the floor. We children 
would want to keep them as pets, but he said 
he would pet them with a club. 

The first deer my brother Silas ever shot 
was when he was eleven years old. He came to 
have me go and help hang it up. I went with 
him and we worked and worked and tried 
very hard to bend a sapling, but finally gave 
it up. I want to tell how the children of those 
days had to work for a living. To get a few 
cents we had no other way except picking 
cranberries and digging g'inseng and other 
roots. Didn't have a place even to sell 
these before there was a store in Columbia. 
I remember once of going east of Columbia 
to what was called Polander's store at 
Heller's Corners — a neighbor girl and 
I nil horseback. I rode a three-year- 
old colt. Sometimes we crossed Loon 
Lake to a little store kept by a man 
named Richards and in 1843 I think the 
first store was started in Columbia. I could 
give a perfect history of the early Columbia 

if I could remember the dates. I remember 
the first peaches we sold in Columbia. We 
had a few very nice red and yellow ones, 
rare ripes. My father took a patent pail full 
to town and sold them by the dozen. Bever 
Edwards bought them and took a few and 
tied them up in his red bandana handker- 
chief and started out and I watched him go 
across the way to old Jakey Thompson's, 
where his girl, Beckv Thompson, met him 
at the door. She was his wife later. 

I think Horace Tuttle and old Dr. Mc- 
Hugh's place of settlement was about a mile 
southwest of where Sam Shoemaker now 
lives. Their wives were sisters — Irish wo- 
men. Once when I was down at Asa Shoe- 
maker's their girls and I went over to Tut- 
tle's to see the baby and they let us hold it. 
Mrs. Tuttle said they called it Colwell Wol- 
cott. I never forgot his name. I have 
heard he was born in Columbia City, but 
that is not true. 

Once when I went to pick swamp goose- 
berries I saw a rattlesnake run into the moss 
at the roots of a willow tree. I took hold of 
its tail and threw it up on the high ground 
and killed it. When deer were plentv. one 
day the children came in and told mother 
her geese were all flying away. They saw 
the deer jumping the fence and their white 
tails bobbing, and they mistook them for the 

I was born in Delaware county, Ohio, 
November 5, 183 1. 



Columbia township was organized by the 
board of commissioners May 5, 1840, the 
election for one justice of the peace being 
held on the 3d of August at the .house of 
David E. Long in the village of Columbia, 
and resulted in the selection of Elijah C. Os- 
born, who received four of the six votes 
cast. Failing to qualify, Joseph W. Baker 
was appoined, being succeeded upon his res- 
ignation by Horace Tuttle September 6, 

February 1, 1840, Elihu Chauncey, of 
Philadelphia, laid out Columbia, the original 
plat showing two hundred and twenty-eight 
lots in twenty-seven whole and three frac- 
tional blocks, all north of Blue river. It 
was located on the west side of section elev- 
en (il), township thirty-one (31), range 
nine (9) east. See Deed Record "A," pp. 

The streets surrounding block fourteen — 
the court house square — were niney-nine feet 
wide and the plat shows that the streets are 
nut of the true meridian (north and south) 
fiVe degrees and thirty-five minutes. Elihu 
Chauncey's first addition was platted April 
10, 1841, and contained one hundred and 
thirty-six regular town and twenty-eight out 
lots. Deed Record "A," pp. 441-2. Henry 
L. Ellsworth acted as attorney and agent for 
Chauncey and, in fact, it was he who secured 
the site as the future county seat, though one 
mile to the southwest on the Beaver reserva- 
tion would have been a much more suitable 
location, it having a gravelly instead of a 
heavy clay soil. Isaac Shinneman on the 2d 
of Tune, 1848, recorded an addition of twen- 

ty-four lots west of the section line, now 
called Line street. Deed Record "C," p. 417. 
The original town was surveyed by Richard 
Collins during the last week of November, 
1839, assisting the commissioners, Otho W. 
Gandy, Joseph Parrett and Nathaniel Grad- 
less. Collins was sheriff and was the trustee 
to whom Chauncey had conveyed one-half 
the lots in the town site to the county. He 
lived near South Whitley and in riding home 
after his survey was completed was lost and 
found himself near Fort Wayne upon con- 
sulting his compass. 

We have had three court-houses, the first 
a two-story frame, which stood on the west 
side of the square, and was erected about 
1842. The jury room was in a separate 
nearby building, built but one or two years 
after the court house. It now belongs to the 
Harter family and stands in the north part 
of the town, while the court house was sold 
to Dr. Swayze and standing opposite Dr. 
Linvill's is owned by the Eyanson estate. 

The second court-house, on site of the 
present, was begun in 1849 and finished in 
1851, costing $8,500. and was constructed of 
brick and stone. Tt was sold to C. B. Tulley. 
who removed it. In 1888 it was replaced 
with the present building costing $165,000. 
B. F. Tolan, of Fort Wayne, architect. Jo- 
seph S. Baker and Washington Yanator, of 
Warsaw, contractors. 

The old jail standing west of the square 
on the present site of the city building was 
of plank and finally replaced in 1^75 by the 
present commodious structure combining jail 
and sheriff's residence, costing $35,000. 



The name Columbia was at first given to 
the county seat, but "Whitley Court House" 
was the name of the first postoffice, there be- 
ing another Columbia in the state. In 1854 
there arose a desire to have the postoffice 
conform to the town and a heated discussion 
resulted, man}- names being presented and 
supported. The contest narrowed to "Beav- 
er" and "Columbia City," the former being 
in honor of the noted Indian whose reserva- 
tion occupied much of Columbia township. 
The population of 740 people waged a wordy 
war. a final vote resulting in but three ma- 
jority for the present name. 

In 1850 Whitley county had nine hun- 
dred and thirteen dwellings, nine hundred 
and forty-one families, five hundred and 
twenty-two farms and eight manufacturing 
establishments. The first of the latter was 
a corn cracker and saw mill, which was 
erected in the autumn of 1843 D >' Henry 
Swihart as agent of Henry Ellsworth, 
and stood near the present Tuttle & Com- 
pany mill. The limited water supply made 
its operation a matter of considerable uncer- 

In after years the Tuttle & Company 
flouring mill and Liggett & Mills mill each 
contributed in no small way to the industrial 
life of the city and are to-day first-class prop- 

During the "forties we had some small 
stores. Thomas Ellis, Thomas Washburn. 
George Arnold. Eli Meiser and Mrs. John 
Rhodes were among the owners as was 
Tames B. Edwards, whose geniality and 
readiness at argument and repartee soon 
made him popular. All the great questions 
agitating the country, slavery, temperance, 
the republic of Texas, the Mexican war. the 

gold fever were ably argued pro and con 
around his fireside, his own part giving him 
a prominence that made him clerk of the 
courts and sheriff of the county. 

The first bank in Columbia City was es- 
tablished by Franklin H. Eoust, the present 
president of the Columbia City National 
Bank. In the early 'seventies, Elisha L. 
McLallen and Theodore Reed started the 
Farmers' Bank, now the First National, in 
the Central Building, which is now owned 
by the McLallen brothers and their father, 
Henry McLallen. 

Probably the first permanent settler in 
what is now Columbia township was Asa 
Shoemaker, who. in 1837, settled on Big 
Spring' creek, where his son, Samuel F. 
Shoemaker, was born October 18, 1838, 
without question the first white child born 
in the township. 

Joseph M. Baker, who designed and 
built the first courthouse, settled just north 
of town and Raymond J. German became 
his immediate successor. 

April 8. 1841, Henry Swihart, a justice 
of the peace, married Elijah Scott and La- 
vonia Witt, the first marriage in the county. 

"David E. Long, Entertainment for 
Man and Beast," was the sign that swung 
on its creaking" hinges in front of the first 
tavern in the town, and in fact it was the 
first house erected in Columbia City, its 
site being more generally remembered ni iw 
as the location of Brandt & Ireland's drug 

In 1842. a second tavern was started 
with Jacob Thompson as boniface. Chris- 
tian Hoover was the first saloon keeper and 
was succeeded by William W. Kepner. 
though even then the law would not permit 


the sale of liquor to Indians. As in many 
other communities, the question of temper- 
ance demanded and received much attention 
by both men and women in Columbia City. 
December 31, 1855, a Ladies' Temperance 
League was organized and two days later, J. 
A. Berry, publisher of the Pioneer, made a 
terrible onslaught on liquor doggeries and 
groceries, though no names were mentioned. 
February 20, 1856, articles over the names 
of "Copenhagen," "Fanny" and "Ouisical 
Quincoy" came out with criminations and 
recriminations, much rabid and meaningless 
things being uttered. This agreement was 
entered up, "We, the undersigired, retailers 
of spirituous liquors in Columbia City, agree 
to abandon the sale of intoxicating drinks 
from and after this date, December 31, 1855, 
3 o'clock p. m. S. Cole; E. Strong; Peter 
Snyder; S. Trumbull: Simon Trumbull; Z. 

The physicians were drawn into line as 
witness: "This is to certify that we believe 
the sale of spirituous liquors is injurious and 
especially for the fair sex. H. F. Falken- 
stine; J. B. Firestone; C. Kinderman." 

January 3, 1859, the Good Templars 
were organized, D. R. Hemmick presiding 
and becoming worthy master. 

March, 1859, temperance resolutions 
were passed "that liquor traffic must be put 
down, peaceably if possible, forcibly if we 
must." The newspapers sustained it and 
one hundred and fifty names were secured 
to a petition. 

January 23, 1856, J. C. Bodley, F. A. 

Crabb and J. R. Baker, justices of the peace, 

recite that their oath binds them to support 

the constitution and agree to fine any one 


who will swear in their presence and ask 
others to file affidavits. 

February 20, 1856, one hundred and 
sixteen advertised letters are in the post- 

January 23, 1856, "Mad Anthony." the 
first locomotive arrived at Columbia City. 

March 31. 1859, "The News" announced 
that the bottoms at Nolt's Mill was impassi- 
ble for some weeks, and calls on the county 
and township and citizens to raise one hun- 
dred and seventy-five dollars to fix road and 
make it passable. 

In 1863, the county poor farm on north- 
east fractional quarter section 16, bought and 
poor house started. 

In 1872 I. B. McDonald bought the 
Washburn lot north of the court house and 
gave bond for $1,000 to improve it in two 
years. The next year McDonald, Brown, 
Reed and C. B. Tulley joined to build Cen- 
tral Building. It was necessary to have 
drainage to the river to secure dry basement 
and this led to a merry war, the fight that 
followed resulting after a long and hotly 
contested battle in the complete overthrow 
of the opposition and the establishment of 
a system of sewerage that has made this city 
a desirable place of residence. This devel- 
oped a spirit of improvement which has not 
since faltered. Foust and Wolf soon 
after erected the bank building and the Foust 
block. James M. Harrison Mayor and mem- 
bers of the city council had the nerve to take 
hold of the matter and stood loyally for im- 
provement. Columbia City is now one of 
the best towns of Indiana, the sewerage is 
splendid, the paved streets are a credit to 
the city, the water-wnrks and fire protection 



are first-class, the electric light and telephone 
systems are up-to-date, the public schools are 
excellent and in every respect we have a city 
of which every citizen may well he proud, 
and one whose future promises to cast added 
luster upon the untarnished name it bears. 

Levi Myers made the first successful ef- 
forts to organize a Sunday-school, which 
was done sixty-one years ago, one year later 
being known as the American Sabbath 
School Union at Columbia City, and as such 
did noble work until various religious organ- 
izations each established its individual school. 
April 4, 1853, a Baptist society was perfect- 
ed and among those who have seiwed it 
faithfully are Reverends Wilder, J. L. Mc- 
Leod, R. H. Cook, C. B. Kendall, Adam 
Snyder, John Reider, W. W. Robinson and 
V. O. Fritts. 

Grace Lutheran organized April 19, 
1847. by R ev - J- B. Oliver with six mem- 
bers. Rev. Franklin Templin served four 
and H. Wells sixteen years. Other ministers 
are L. Ritz, A. J. Douglas, A. H. Studeba- 
ker, J. B. Baltzley, J. N. Barnett, C. H. 
Rockey, J. Milton Francis, H. C. Haithcox 
and F. M. Porch. Present church erected in 
1S73, costing including additions and par- 
sonage, about $25,000. 

The Presbyterian church has had a pre- 
carious existence, much of the time having 
110 pastor and never making much progress 
'or numerical strength. 

The Free Methodists occupy what was 
the former Catholic church building, sold 
by them to the Free Will Baptists, who dedi- 
cated it Decembers, 1867. 

The United Brethren church was organ- 
ized in 1880 by Rev. Wood, assisted by 
William M. Bell, now a bishop, a native of 

Whitley county, and who preached his first 
sermon in the church at Columbia City. 
The pastors have been Fletcher, Thomas, J. 
A. Cummins. A. H. Slusser, C. A. Brigham, 
W. F. Parker. C. W. Pattee. Henry Rup- 
ley, E. Seithman. L. W. Love, R. Z. Brown. 
J. E. Grimes, J. W. Borkert, H. C. Shaffer, 
and S. L. Shaffer, Air. Love serving twice, 
two years from 1889, as also , four years 
from 1899 The new church was dedicated 
May 11, 1902, and including parsonage cost 
$8,000. November 21, 1904. a marble tab- 
let with inscription "Tulley-Crider Memo- 
rial" was installed over main entrance in 
honor of Mrs. Rosanna Crider and her fa- 
ther. Francis Tulley. 

The German Lutheran, Rev. Hess. 

The German Presbyterian. Rev. Zim- 

The Universalist own old Methodist 

The German Baptists. River Brethren, 
or Dunkards. 

September 15, 1878. at a meeting at 
court house to consider the graveling of the 
road south to the Huntington count}' line. 
Eli W. Brown and James S. Collins declared 
there was no gravel in the county to be had. 

The oldest person living in Columbia 
township is Jshn Haas, who was born in 
Switzerland December 2^, 1816. Airs. A. 
F. Martin, the longest resident, came Octo- 
ber 27, 1836. 

When Rachel Wagner was fifteen, she 
rode with her brother Harmon Beeson to 
Warsaw to attend the wedding of another 
brother, Benjamin. Starting to return. Ben- 
jamin's wife's father. Mr. Sapp. handed her 
a willow switch, saving- "Stick that in the 



ground, it will make a nice tree." She did 
so and today it is a landmark at least four 
feet in diameter, standing close to the walk 
on the main street as you go to the Penn- 
sylvania depot, marking the site of Lee 

Bros', blacksmith shop, which is just being 
demolished as these lines are written. Janu- 
ary. 1907. This landmark has also fallen 
beneath the hand of the demolisher since 
the above was written. 



There are many well meaning people 
who profess a contempt for the law, and if 
there occasionally occurs a miscarriage of 
justice in its administration are quick to 
denounce it as utterly inadequate to do jus- 
tice. The fact is that whatever rights of 
person or security of property we enjoy is 
because of the law. It is because certain 
prescribed rules of conduct are recognized by 
the vast majority of people and because we 
believe that a violation of those rules will 
result in a vindication of the law that our 
rights are not more frequently invaded in 
our relations with our fellowmen. 

As much of crime and wrong and dis- 
honesty as there is in the world, a careful 
study will reveal that the cases where rights 
are invaded are few when compared with 
the rules that are recognized and observed 
every day. 

There has been no more potent factor 
in promoting human welfare than the law. 
All advancement in civilization must neces- 
sarily be through the social relations, and 
only wise and beneficent laws insure perma- 
nency and make possible such relations. The 
best thought and the best effort of our time 
have been devoted to the development of the 

law. The wisest and best of men have given 
the best of their lives to its construction. 

It therefore follows that in studying the 
history of any count} - or of any state or 
municipality it is important to consider the 
origin and development of our system of 
jurisprudence, and in this connection to con- 
sider the lives, character and work of that 
body of men who stand as the distinct expo- 
nents of the law — the bench and the bar. 


The earliest courts in the Northwest Ter- 
ritory, out of which our state was carved, 
were held under the French rule. By a 
treat}- made in 1763 France relinquished her 
claims and Great Britain assumed control. 
Under her rule a court was organized to 
"settle all disputes and controversies and all 
claims to property, real and personal." This 
control continued until Virginia assumed 
sovereignty and organized all of the North- 
west Territory, under the name of the 
count}- of Illinois. 

In 1784 Virginia ceded her claims to 
the United States and by the ordinance of 
1787 a governor and three judges were ap- 



pointed who not only sat as a general court 
but enacted the laws. The chances are that 
there were not man}- constitutional ques- 
tions raised in those days, for the "general 
court" which enacted the law would prob- 
ably hold it to be good law. 

After organizing the judiciary system at 
Cincinnati the council crossed over into 
what is now Indiana, and at Vincennes or- 
ganized the county of Knox, with Vincennes 
as the county seat, some time in February, 

Indiana Territory was organized as a 
territory of the first grade on Jul}' 4, 1800, 
at Vincennes, which was the seat of govern- 
ment of the territory. 

It is instructive to note that in the or- 
ganization of each new territory the gen- 
eral government recognized the threefold 
function of government, the executive, leg- 
islative and judicial, and that these depart- 
ments always went hand in hand. When- 
ever there were enough settlers to require 
the appointment of an executive officer, there 
were enough to demand the organization of 
courts for the administration of justice. 
And wherever courts were organized, there 
must come the lawyer. So it is also instruct- 
ive to note that the law-makers of 1799 had 
an exalted idea of the character and qualifi- 
cations of the members of the bar ; but, as 
we are inclined to feel, a much mistaken 
judgment as to the value of his services. 
Fi ir we find them enacting that he must be 
licensed by the governor as attorney or coun- 
sellor, and could practice during good be- 
havior, and could demand only such fees as 
might be established by law. Before he 
could be licensed to practice he must show 
that he was of £ 1 moral character, that he 

had regularly and attentively studied law for 
fi lur years and must have the certificate of 
si nue practicing attorney in the territory that 
he believed him to be of sufficient ability and 
legal knowledge to discharge the duties of 
an attorney at law. 

When he had complied with these re- 
quirements he obtained a rule of the general 
court for an examination. He was then ex- 
amined by two or more judges, or such per- 
sons as they might appoint, who must state 
truly whether or not they believed him qual- 
ified. Even after this the court held him 
under a tight rein. The judges could pun- 
ish him for contempt, strike his name from 
the roll, or order him arrested if he collected 
money for a client and failed to turn it over 
upon demand. 

The lawyer of that clay "simply had to 
be good." But the worst indignity put upon 
him was to fix the limit of his fees. For a 
civil case he was to receive two and one-half 
dollars, unless the title of land was involved, 
and in such case five dollars. For advice 
when no suit was pending one dollar and 
twenty-seven cents. 

When the state was organized in 1816, 
the constitution then adopted provided that 
"the judiciary power of the state shall be 
vested in one supreme court, in circuit courts 
and in such other courts as the general as- 
sembly may establish." The supreme court 
was to consist of three judges and was to 
have appellate jurisdiction only, except that 
the right was reserved to confer upon the 
supreme court original jurisdiction in cap- 
ital cases and cases in chancery where the 
president of the circuit court might be in- 
terested or prejudiced. It further provided 
that "the circuit courts shall each consist of 



a president and two associate judges. The 
state shall be divided by law into three cir- 
cuits, for each of which a president shall be 
appointed, who during his continuance in 
office shall reside therein." The president 
and associate judges were given in their re- 
spective counties both common law and 
chancery jurisdiction, as well as complete 
criminal jurisdiction. The president alone, 
or the president and one associate were given 
authority to hold court, or the two associate 
judges were authorized to hold court except 
in capital cases and cases in chancery. 

The presidents of the circuit courts were 
to be chosen by the general assembly and the 
associates were to be elected in each of the 
respective counties. 

Under this organization the president 
judge was usually a lawyer of recognized 
learning and ability, but the associate judges 
were ordinarily elected from the body of the 
people, much as justices of the peace now 
are. It resulted therefore in many cases that 
in trials of importance the burden fell upon 
the president judge, and the associates were 
judges only in name. This gave rise to the 
remark by Jim Campbell that they practiced 
before one hundred judges sitting- in bank, 
one judge and two ciphers. 

Under this law the clerk was to be elect- 
ed by the voters for a term of seven years 
and was not eligible until he had obtained 
from one of the judg'es of the supreme court 
or from one of the presidents of the circuit 
court a certificate that he was qualified to ex- 
ecute the duties of the office. 

The first general assembly elected under 
the constitution convened at Corydon, No- 
vember 4, 18 16. 

The state was divided into three judicial 
circuits. The counties of Wayne, Franklin. 

Dearborn, Switzerland and Jefferson formed 
the third circuit, and court was provided for 
once in each county during each year. At 
this time Whitley county was embraced 
within the limits of Wayne. At this session 
of the general assembly provision was made 
for justices of the peace in each county, with 
jurisdiction over misdemeanors, and in civil 
matters to the amount of fifty dollars. At 
the same session a board of commissioners 
for each county was provided for. 

At the second session of the first general 
assembly of the state it was enacted "that the 
common law of England and all statutes or 
acts of the British parliament made in aid 
of the common law prior to the fourth year 
of the reign of King James the First, ex- 
cepting certain sections, should be consid- 
ered in full force in this state" ;-and this pro- 
vision was carried into each revision of the 
laws until 1852. 

The effect of the adoption of the code 
was to abolish the distinction between ac- 
tions at law and suits in equity and the forms 
of all actions theretofore existing and to pro- 
vide but one form of action. While the 
adoption of the code was a matter of vital 
importance to the bench and the bar as it 
was an absolute reversal of all forms of pro- 
cedure and practice, yet as it did not serious- 
ly affect the people it need not here be en- 
tered into. 

The whole body of the law, whether ad- 
ministered in a court of law or in a court 
of chancery, was left in full vigor. The 
remedy, not the rights, was changed, and 
the burden fell upon the lawyers and judges, 
who were compelled to adapt themselves to 
new methods of preserving the rights and 
redressing the wrongs of their clients. 

In 1 8 18 the county of Randolph was 



formed from the north end of Wayne. In 
1823 Allen county was organized with its 
present boundaries, out of Randolph, with 
all the territory north to the Michigan line 
attached to it for jurisdictional purposes. 

Following this date the counties in 
northeastern Indiana organized rapidly, so 
that by 1839, when Whitley county had ar- 
rived at the dignity of holding court within 
her own borders, it was part of the eighth 
circuit, consisting of Allen, Cass, Miami, 
Wabash, Whitley, Huntington, Noble, La- 
grange, Steuben and Delvalb counties. 
Prior to this time the time and place for 
holding the first session of the circuit court 
in Whitley county had been fixed on the 
fourth Thursday of September, 1838, at the 
house of James Parrett, Jr., in what is now 
Cleveland township. At this time Charles 
W. Ewing was president judge, and Thomas 
R. Johnson prosecuting attorney for the 
eighth circuit. An error had been made in 
naming the place of holding the court, there 
being no James Parrett. Jr., in the county. 
The judges, clerk, sheriff and attorneys met 
at the house of Joseph Parrett, Jr., which 
was evidently the place intended, but after 
consultation the judges concluded that a 
term of court held under such circumstances 
might not be legal, and no business was 

The first term of the circuit court was 
then ordered to be held at the house of Rich- 
ard Baughan in April, 1839. Richard 
Baughan lived in Thorncreek township 
aboul two and a half miles northeast of Co- 
lumbia ( 'ity, and had a sawmill, and the tra- 
dition is that for the better accommodation 
of the crowd the court was held in the mill. 
The president judge and associates were all 

present, as shown by the following" extract 
from the record : 

"At a regular term of the Whitley cir- 
cuit court, began and held at the house of 
Richard Baughan in the county of Whitley 
and state of Indiana, on Tuesday, the 9th 
day of April, 1839. Present, the Honorable 
Charles W. Ewing, president judge of the 
eighth judicial circuit of said state, and the 
Honorable Benjamin Martin and Jacob A. 
Van Houten, associate judges of said court, 
as also Abraham Cuppy, clerk, and Richard 
Collins, sheriff, of said county of Whitley." 

Judge Ewing lived in Fort Wayne. He 
is said to have been a good lawyer but some- 
what eccentric. He appeared in court here 
after his retirement from the bench a few- 
times, but at a time when he should have 
been in the prime and vig-or of manhood 
came to an unfortunate death. It seems 
that the prosecuting attorney. John A. 
Wright, was not present and the court ap- 
pointed Reuben J. Dawson prosecutor for 
the term. Reuben Jackson Dawson was a 
Hoosier by birth, having been born in Dear- 
born county. He studied surveying and 
law. He came to Fort Wayne with his 
brother-in-law, Colonel John C. Spencer, in 
1832, and was employed in the office of the 
receiver of public moneys. He was appoint- 
ed surveyor of Allen county, and had a con- 
tract for surveying a large tract of land, 
now part of Noble, Elkhart and Kosciusko 
counties. He read law with Thomas John- 
son, and subsequently entered into partner- 
ship with him. The firm of Johnson & Daw- 
son are the first attorneys noted as appearing 
in any case in Whitley county. He platted 
the town of Spencerville in DeKalb county, 
conducted a store and mills there. He 



moved there in 1841, but continued to prac- 
tice all over the circuit. He was a great big, 
genial fellow. His business was flourishing 
and he was well fixed for those days, and 
enjoyed mounting his horse and riding 
twenty or thirty miles along the Indian trails 
to Albion, Fort Wayne or Columbia to at- 
tend court. He served as representative of 
DeKalb and Steuben counties, and also as 
state senator of his district. Upon the res- 
ignation of Judge Worden in 1858 he was 
appointed to fill out the unexpired term. He 
was compelled to resign in November, 1858, 
on account of sickness, having served less 
than one year. In that time, however, he 
had proven his mettle. In both Noble and 
LaGrange counties he found awaiting trial 
a number of prisoners who were charged 
with horse stealing, counterfeiting-, etc., and 
who were accused of belonging to a regular- 
ly organized gang of "blacklegs" which in- 
fested northern Indiana. Only a short time 
before the Regulators in Noble county had 
taken the law into their own hands and 
hanged one of the ringleaders. The public 
mind was so inflamed that many citizens 
were present ostensibly to see the law en- 
forced but with the purpose of overawing 
and intimidating the court. Judge Daw- 
son acted and ruled promptly, firmly and 
fearlessly, and law and order prevailed. 

Judge Dawson entered part of the land 
on which Columbia City is located, after- 
wards selling it to the Shinnemans. 

The grand . jurors summoned by the 
sheriff were : David Wolfe. Seth A. Lucas, 
James Jones, William Van Meter, Jesse 
Spear, Samuel Creger, Peter Circle, Chris- 
topher W. Long, Horace Cleveland, John S. 
Braddock, Adam Egolf, Levi Curtis. Wil- 

liam Cordill and Joseph Tinkham. They 
were brought into court, Christopher W. 
Long was appointed foreman, they were 
sworn and sent out. They soon reported to 
the court that no business had been brought 
before them, and they were accordingly dis- 

There were but three civil cases on the 
docket at that term, and none of them of any 
importance. The petit jury was also sum- 
moned, but no cases came before them for 
trial. The petit jury consisted of B. H. 
Cleveland, John W. More, Jesse Briggs, 
Zebulon Burch, Jacob Brumbaug"h, Lewis' 
Kinsey, J. H. Alexander, David Hayden, 
George C. Pence, Thomas Estlick, Jesse W. 
Long - , James H. Russau, Daniel Hively, 
Benjamin Gardner, Benjamin Grable, Ben- 
jamin Krusan, James Zohlman, John Col- 
lins, Philetus Wood. Francis Tulley and 
William Blain. 

In the case of Webster et al vs. Webster 
et al for partition, notice was ordered given 
in the Fort Wayne Sentinel and in the Jef- 
fersonian published at Richmond. John H. 
Alexander was appointed count}' surveyor. 
He seemed to be "Johnny on the spot," for 
he at once accepted and gave his bond. 

The court allowed Richard Baughan 
three dollars for the use of rooms for court 
and grand jury, and adjourned until court 
in course to meet at the same place. 

When the time came for the October 
term of court. Judge Chase and Prosecuting 
Attorney Wright were both absent. The 
associate judges again appointed Dawson as 
prosecuting attorney during the term, the 
grand jury was charged and with John Sick- 
afoose as foreman went to work. They lost 
no time, for on the next day they "return 



into court and report sundry bills of indict- 

The first one was against Nathan Chap- 
man for vending foreign merchandise with- 
out a license, and charged that on May 1, 
1839, he "sold to one James Lyttle four 
pounds of tea not then and there being the 
product of the United States without having 
a license or permit as required by law." He 
entered a plea of guilty and was fined six and 
one-fourth cents." 

Joseph Pierce was also called upon to 
answer similar charges, and charges of sell- 
ing spirits to the Indians, and, in the lan- 
guage of the records, "it being demanded of 
him how he will acquit himself of the said 
charge, for plea thereto he says he is guilty 
in manner and form as he stands charged in 
said indictment." 

At this term of court the record shows 
that John B. Chapman was admitted as an 
attorney at the bar of this court. The only 
attorneys who had so far appeared in any 
of the court proceedings were Johnson and 
Dawson. Before Chapman left he filed 
complaints in three new cases, and before 
the next term of court, actions were also 
bn lught by Coombs and Colerick. Chap- 
man had formerly been prosecuting attor- 
ney of the circuit, and resided at Fort 
Wayne. After the first year or two bis name 
docs not appear on the records here. 

William. H. Coombs was another Fort 
Wayne lawyer. He came to Indiana from 
( >hio .-111(1 was engaged in the practice both 
at Connersville and Wabash before coming 
to Fort Wayne in 1837. He was prosecut- 
ing attorney at an early day and the ac- 
quaintance thus formed brought him some 
business in this county. In 1849 ne went 

to California, remaining there about six 
years, and upon his return resumed the ac- 
tive practice in which he continued until 
his death. He had the reputation under the 
old common law practice of being one of 
the best special pleaders in northern Indiana. 

When court convened in April, 1840, 
John W. Wright filed his commission as 
president judge and Lucien P. Fern- as 
prosecuting attorney. Judge Wright had 
formerly been prosecutor of the circuit, and 
was elevated to the bench in 1840. While 
at the bench he maintained the dignity of his 
office, but in his intercourse with the bar was 
genial and affable and was familiarly 
known as "Jack." It is related of him on 
one occasion in Noble county that a "black- 
leg" having passed some counterfeit coin 
in payment for a horse, a posse was formed 
for pursuit. The judge adjourned court, 
mounted his pony and stayed in the front 
van until the counterfeiter was captured. 
The matter was taken up by the grand jury, 
court was reopened and the judge was ready 
to try the case. On another occasion it is 
told that one citizen had partaken too freely 
of the cup that cheers and insisted upon 
doing a little cheering himself. The judge 
ordered the sheriff to quiet him, but the sher- 
iff's order was of no avail. "Take that 
man to jail," ordered the judge. "There 
is no jail," responded the sheriff. "Then 
take him out in the woods and tie him to 
a tree so that he can't disturb the court." 
It was done and order prevailed. He 
served until 1842 and was subsequently 
elected mayor of Logansport. He spent 
sonic years in Kansas before the war and 
afterward removed to Washington, D. C. 

At this term of court no important 



cases were tried, but it is interesting" to note 
that the grand jury were diligent in their 
business, returning" eight indictments for 
betting. James Crowe was indicted for 
winning at cards, entered a plea of guilty 
and was fined ; but when they followed 
this with another charging him with losing 
a game of cards, he "wouldn't stand for 
it." It was submitted to the summary de- 
cision of the court, and he "went hence 

On motion of the prosecuting attorney, 
it was suggested that the office of school 
examiner was vacant, and the court ap- 
pointed Otho W. Gandy, Abraham Cuppy 
and Edwin Cone. 

The associate judges allowed themselves 
six dollars each for the term of court and 
adjourned to meet at the house of David 
E. Long in the town of Coumbia. By this 
time the site of the county seat had been 
selected and Long had erected a one-story 
frame house at the northwest corner of 
Main and Van Buren streets and had put 
up a creaking, wooden sign, announcing 
"Entertainment for Man and Beast." 

\\ 'hen court met in October. 1840, it 
was evident that Long's hotel would not 
accommodate the court and the crowd, and 
court was forthwith adjourned to and held 
at the house of Abraham Cuppy, the county 

Henry Cooper is the next attorney who 
appeared in the courts. It is said that Coop- 
er was one of the best lawyers who rode the 
circuit in those early clays. He is said to 
have been master of all the books contained, 
but perhaps did not appear to full advantage, 
as he was not an eloquent or fluent talker. 
AVe are again indebted to Nelson Prentiss 

for this story concerning Cooper. There 
was also in the circuit a pettifogger by the 
name of Powers, whose only qualification 
was his ability to talk. Like necessity, he 
knew no law, and his abusive tongue made 
him especially obnoxious to a man of Coop- 
er's temperament. Meeting him one day 
Powers said, "Cooper, if I had your head 
or you had my tongue, what a man would 
be the result." Quick as a flash Cooper re- 
sponded, "Powers, if you had my head, 
you'd know enough to keep your mouth 
shut." Like many another, he was his own 
worst enemy, and in his latter days was 
only a wreck of his former self. 

Richard Collins, sheriff, now produces 
a metallic seal procured for this court by 
the commissioners of Whitley count}' of the 
following description and design, to-wit : 
"A circular metallic seal with a figure of a 
plough and a sheaf of wheat in the center 
and the words 'Whitley Circuit Court, la.' 
in a circular form around the center, which 
seal is now adopted by the c< mrt as the seal 
of this court." 

Charles Ditton made application to be- 
come a citizen, renouncing all allegiance to 
Queen Victoria, and was admitted and be- 
came the first naturalized citizen of the 

One of the sad features of this term of 
court was that the bailiff was able to 
draw pay for only one day's services. 

At the March, 1841, term, a boy was 
brought before the court on the charge of 
vagrancy, and the court finding that he came 
within the description of a vagrant and that 
he was under the age of twenty-one years, 
ordered that the sheriff should bind him to 
some person of useful trade or occupation 

2 66 


until he arrived at the age of twenty-one 

At this term was tried the first criminal 
case of importance, the case of The State vs. 
Alexander Smith for forgery. The charge 
was that he had uttered and tendered in 
payment of a bill for lodging to one John 
B. Godfroy, who lived on the Goshen road 
near Churubusco, a counterfeit bill of the 
denomination of five dollars. Charles W. 
Ewing, of Fort Wayne, was appointed by 
the court to defend him, and the cause was 
tried before Judge Wright and a jury. The 
jury found him guilty and fixed his punish- 
ment at imprisonment in the state's prison 
for two years. The house where the court 
was held was on the northwest corner of 
Jackson and Main streets, where Henry 
McLallen's residence now stands, and Rich- 
ard Collins tells that the jury, when thev 
were sent out to deliberate on their verdict, 
gathered around a large black walnut stump 
near where the Lutheran church now 
stands. Smith's companion at the time the 
offense was committed was one John Adams, 
and it is told that Adams came into court 
as a witness in Smith's behalf and was or- 
dered by the judge into custody until the 
grand jury, then in session, could investi- 
gate his case. Within an hour the grand 
jury returned an indictment against him 
for perjury. He was immediately arraigned, 
and Judge Ewing appeared for him and 
asked for a change of venue. The change 
was granted and the case sent to Allen coun- 
ty, and the following week was tried and 
Adams was convicted and sentenced to the 
state's prison for two years. The record 
shows that Ewing was allowed the munifi- 
cent sum of (en dollars for defending Smith. 

In the fall of 1841 the new courthouse, 
a two-story frame structure on the west side 
of the public square near where the city hall 
is now located, was so nearly completed 
that' when court met at the house of David 
E. Long it forthwith adjourned to the court- 
house. I am not aware that there were any 
dedication services or any speeches made, 
but it must have been a proud day in 

One of the first cases at this term was 
notable for being perhaps the only case ever 
tried in the county; at least I have never 
heard of a prosecution for the same offense. 
Claybourne Pompey was indicted for usury. 
He "acknowledged the corn," and was fined 
six dollars and costs. It appears from the 
record that he loaned Richard Baughn fi irty 
dollars, and took ten dollars for one year's 
interest. It is evident that the jury figured 
that after paying six dollars fine, it would 
still leave him four dollars interest, making" 
ten per cent, which was then the legal rate. 

In the proceedings of the September 
term, 1S41, appears the case of The State of 
Indiana vs. Peter Heller — indictment for 
usurpation. This is a rather unusual charge, 
and an investigation of the indictment dis- 
closes that it charges that on the 1st day of 
January, 1840. the said Peter Heller "did 
unlawfully solemnize a marriage between 
Henry Hull and Jane Gardner — he, the said 
Heller not then and there being a justice 
of the peace in said county, a judge of either 
of the courts in said county, a president 
judge of the eighth judicial circuit in said 
state, nor of the Society of Friends, com- 
monly called Quakers, nor a minister of the 
gospel regularly licensed to preach." The 
indictment was quashed. 



In March, 1842, James W. Borden be- 
came judge, and William H. Coombs prose- 
cuting attorney, and John Wright succeeded 
Benjamin F. Martin as associate judge. 
Judge Borden was admitted to the bar in 
New York in 1834, and in 1835 went to 
Richmond. Indiana. He went to Fort 
Wayne in 1839, and in 1841 was elected 
president judge of the circuit. Fie was elected 
a delegate to the constitutional convention 
in 1850. and resigned his office as judge. 
He took prominent and active part in the 
deliberations and debates of that convention. 
He was elected common pleas judge in 
1852, and served until 1857, when he was 
appointed minister to the Hawaiian Islands.- 
On his return he was again put on the com- 
mon pleas bench and later of the Allen crim- 
inal court. Judge Borden is represented by 
those who remember him as a tall man of 
commanding presence, rather positive in his 
manner, and perhaps too much of a politi- 
cian to please everybody as a judge. 

The jail was the first public building 
built in the county, and was a hewed log 
structure, located on the southeast corner of 
the public square. It was built in 1840, and 
at the March term, 1843, the grand j un- 
reported that they had examined the jail 
"and find the same in good condition with 
the exception of the doors thereof, which 
are, from the settling of the building, not 
in a situation to be closed." We presume 
if the sheriff happened to have a prisoner, 
he put him "on honor" and left the doors 

At this time there were still many In- 
dians in the county, and occasionally one of 
them got not only a taste of the white man's 

whiskey, but a taste of the white man's law. 
Alexander Bulkley brought action in as- 
sumpsit against Pe-kash-ka, Ke-Keo-qua 
and Shap-en-dino before Horace Tuttle, jus- 
tice of the peace, and recovered judgment in 
each case. 

At the March term, 1843, these causes 
were appealed to the circuit court and there 
was judgment for the red men. 

The first case of any note in which an 
Indian was involved was also the first mur- 
der case in the county. The records, of 
course, only give the barest recitals of the 
charge and the proceedings, and we are 
indebted to the older inhabitants for the 
details. It has been more than sixty years, 
and naturally the old settlers do not agree 
in all the details, but we have relied largely 
upon the recollection of Curtis W. Jones, 
who possesses a wonderful memory, and an 
inexhaustible fund of information concern- 
ing the early days. Peen-am-wah ( the name 
is spelled in his affidavit for change of venue 
Peen-am-wah was a Pottawattamie Indian 
and was a bad Indian. One day in the 
fall of 1843 he was going along the trail 
south of Columbia when he met a Miami 
squaw — the mother of Turkey, riding on 
a pony. Her name is given in the indict- 
ment as O-way-so-pe-ah. He talked with 
her. and after she turned and rode on, shot 
her in the back of the head and threw her 
body in the river. The place was known 
for many years as "Squaw Point." Be- 
fore any action was taken Peen-am-wah de- 
parted. Allen Hamilton, at Fort Wayne, 
was Indian Agent, and offered a reward of 
two hundred dollars for his arrest. \\ "il- 
liam Thorn, of North Manchester, followed 


him into Michigan and brought him back 
and he was committel to jail to await the 
action of the grand jury. 

On January I, 1844, John Turkey, a 
Miami Indian, killed a squaw of the Potta- 
wattamie tribe. The murder took place 
southwest of Columbia on what was known 
for many years as the Martin farm. He 
was arrested upon affidavit of Asa Shoe- 
maker, coroner, filed with Henry Swihart, 
justice of the peace, charging him with the 
murder of Saw-ga, a Pottawattamie In- 
dian. He was tried before a jury and found 
guilty and committed to jail by the justice, 
as he says in his transcript "there to remain 
until further dealt with according to law." 

At the March term, 1844, indictments 
were returned by the grand jury against 
both of these prisoners. 

Peen-am-wah filed an affidavit for a 
change of venue and the case was transferred 
to Allen county. The next day John Tur- 
key's case was called. He entered a plea 
of not guilt)' and put himself upon the 
country. The prosecuting attorney was nut 
present and Lysander Jacoby was acting in 
that capacity under appointment of the 
court. He asked for a continuance of the 
cause and it was granted. Before the close 
of the term, one evening at dusk the sheriff, 
John B. Simcoke and John C. Washburn 
went to the jail to feed the prisoners and at- 
tend to their wants. Peen-am-wah for safet) 
had been put into an inner room of the jail 
which was called the dungeon, a?id chained. 
As the story goes the other Indians had 
been loafing around the old jail and it was 
supposed that an Indian called Davis had 
passed in a file with which Peen-am-wah 
severed one link- of the chain. The sheriff 

went into the dungeon and Washburn stood 
in the outside door. At a signal Turkey made 
a rush and knocked Washburn out of the 
door and both Indians were out and gone. 
The woods came up within a few rods of the 
jail and they were soon lost to sight. They 
crossed Blue river just above where the 
brewery now stands, and being expert 
woodsmen and knowing every foot of the 
country, they were soon beyond reach and 
were never seen nor heard of in this neigh- 
borhood afterward. The indictments were 
carried on the docket for several years and 
alias writs issued, but the cases were finally 
dropped. After all it was probably the best 
solution of the trouble. The trial of these 
Indians would have stirred up bitter feelings 
among' the Indians still remaining. 

This March term, 1844, was marked by 
the presence of three distinguished visitors. 
ex-Governors David Wallace and Samuel 
Bigger, and General James R. Slack, all of 
whom were admitted to the bar. 

David Wallace was Governor of Indiana 
from 1837 to 1841. Upon the expiration of 
his term of office he entered the practice of 
the law at Indianapolis. At one time he lo- 
cated in Fort Wayne, and was in the prac- 
tice there for a few years, but later returned 
to Indianapolis. At that day he was well 
known over the state, but to the younger 
generation will perhaps be more generally 
remembered as the father of General Lew 
Wallace. I find from an inspection of the 
old bench docket that he is noted as appear- 
ing with Ferry in the prosecution of 

Samuel Bigger, who was admitted to the 
Whitley county bar on the same day. had 
also been governor of the state, and his term 



had probably only recently expired, as he 
was elected in 1840. It is probable that 
lie was on his way to Fort Wayne, for he 
is said to have located there after his term 
expired and remained there until his death 
in 1S47. 

Lysander C. Jacoby, who is mentioned 
as serving in the capacity of prosecuting 
attorney, lived at Fort Wayne, and was a 
lawyer of fair ability. He was quite active 
in the practice here for a few years, being 
associated with J. H. Pratt in a number of 
cases and with Worden in the defense of 
Samuel Pegg. It is said that he had some 
disagreeable peculiarities that perhaps re- 
sulted in his leaving Fort Wayne. He fol- 
lowed the course of empire on its westward 

For the first five years after courts were 
organized in Whitley county the little busi- 
ness that there was was cared for hy at- 
torneys from other places, principally by 
the members of the Fort Wayne bar. But 
now there seemed to be enough to justify 
some local attornev. The first three mem- 
bers of the local bar must have appeared in 
a short space of time, probably within a 
year. They were Joseph H. Pratt, James 
1.. Worden and James S. Collins, and as 
nearly as can be ascertained were admitted 
in the order named. The records do' not 
show the date of Pratt's admission, but 
show his appearance in a case at the Sep- 
tember term, 1844. At this term James L. 
Worden was admitted to the bar and ap- 
pointed master in chancery. 

Joseph H. Pratt is remembered as a 
man of education, a fluent talker and what 
would probably be called a good "mixer." 
He served as deputy treasurer and upon the 

town hoard, and had his full share of the 
local practice. He left here about 1851 or 
1852, locating in Wisconsin. 

James Worden was horn May 10, 1819, 
in Rerkeshire county, Massachusetts. He 
had a common school education, and devoted 
some time to study during his youth, which 
was spent upon a farm in Ohio. He entered 
the office of Thomas T. Straight, of Cin- 
cinnati, in 1839, and after his admission 
spent some time at Tiffin, Ohio, coming to 
Columbia City early in 1844. In 1845 he 
married the daughter of Benjamin Grable, 
then county treasurer of Whitley county. 
In the fall of that year, becoming convinced 
that there were too many lawyers in Colum- 
bia and seeing an opportunity in the ad- 
joining county of Noble, he removed to 
Port Mitchell, where the county seat of that 
county in its wanderings had temporarily 
located. He soon took front rank as a 
lawyer, followed the county seat to Albion, 
and acquired a good practice for those days. 
He acquired some reputation and made 
many friends by the masterly manner in 
which he conducted a prosecution for mur- 
der which had been sent to Allen county on 
a change of venue. Worden was only a 
backwoods county prosecutor, and the de- 
fense was represented by Coombs, wdio was 
the best technical lawyer in northern Indi- 
ana, and David H. Colerick. whose sway 
over juries was such that he was credited 
with having cleared men charged with steal- 
ing hogs, a most heinous crime in those days. 
Seeing an opportunity for extending his 
practice, and under the influence of 'his 
friends he removed to Fort Wayne. In 
1855 lie was appointed by Governor Wright 
as circuit judge, and in 1858 resigned to 



accept an appointment from Governor Wil- family came to this county when he was 
lard on the supreme bench. In 1859 he was about seventeen years of age. At that clay 
elected to the same position and served educational facilities were meager, but he 

for the full term of six years. In 1864 he 
was again a candidate for the same position, 
but went down to defeat with his party. His 
term closed in January, 1865. and he re- 
turned to Fort Wayne and engaged in the 
practice. In 1876 he was again elected to 
the same position, entering upon his third 
term in January. 1S77. He refused to again 
become a candidate in 1882, and was elected 
as judge of the superior court of Allen 
county, and died in 1884. while occupying 
that position. 

Judge Worden has an enduring place 
in the history of the state. He had not the 
gift of eloquence, the power to sway juries 
anil wrest verdicts from them, but was clear, 
forcible and full of resources. And even in 
those days when fluent speech counted much, 
he was regarded as one of the ablest lawyers 
at the liar. But it was when he was ap- 
pointed to the bench that his friends recog- 
nized that he had come into his proper 
sphere. He was pre-eminently fitted for the 
discharge of judicial functions. Clear, con- 
cise, analytical, with a deep sense of right 
and justice and a discernment that refused 
to be confused or befogged by unimportant 
matters, or led away by side issues, he went 
at once to the heart of the question. 

He n<>t only saw things clearly, but he 
expressed his convictions clearly. There is 
no sophistry in his' opinions. Xo lawyer 
can read them and then be in doubt as to 
what the court decides. They constitute a 
monument to his memory that shall endure. 

lames S. Collins came from one of the 
pioneer families of Whitley count}'. The 

devoted his spare moments to the few books 
that were accessible. It is told that in 1843 
he studied Blackstone with a dictionary be- 
side him to help him with the big words. 
Afterward he read law for a while with L. 
P. Ferry, of Fort Wayne, and was admitted 
to the bar in this county in 1845. T ne '°t 
of the young lawyer in those days was not 
one that yielded great financial returns. 
Worden soon left the county, and Pratt a 
few years later, but Judge Collins continued 
in his profession and by his ability and perse- 
verance acquired an important clientage, 
and a host of personal friends. He con- 
tinued in the active practice until a very short 
time prior to his death, which occurred on 
August J2. 1898. and is entitled to rank- 
as the pioneer lawyer of the county. He 
was associated in practice with Joseph W. 
Adair for several years: after that for a 
number of years with Michael Sickafoose. 
then with A. A. Adams, and up until the 
time of his retirement with P>. F. Gates. 

At the time of the building of the Eel 
River road he was prominently connected 
with the enterprise, and served for several 
vears as president of the company. He also 
served as a member of the state legislature 
one term. 

An inspection of the records discloses 
that during the decade from 1840 to 1850 
there were several well known citizens who 
appeared promptly at each session of court 
and entered a plea of guilty to indictments 
for retailing without license or selling liquor 
to the Indians, submitted to a small fine 
and apparently returned to their homes to 



repeat the offense. The profit in the busi- 
ness -was evidently greater than the fine 

On the 14th of November, 1844, Samuel 
Pegg filed his application for naturalization. 
He evidently did not become a good Amer- 
ican citizen, for in January, 1845, ne was m ~ 
dieted for murder. The charge was that 
he had killed his son, who is described in 
the indictment as Samuel Pegg, the younger. 
The family lived in Union township. 

Worden and Jacob}- defended him and 
William H. Coombs prosecuted the case. 
He was found guilty of manslaughter, and 
was sentenced to imprisonment in the state's 
prison for eight years at hard labor. 

His trouble did not end here. At the 
next term his wife brought suit for divorce. 
There seemed some difficulty in getting ser- 
vice, as he was clear at the other end of the 
state at the Jeffersonville prison, but finally 
in March, 1848, the bonds of matrimony 
were severed. 

At the March term, 1845, another law- 
yer, who afterward became well known over 
the state appeared in the person of John 
U Petit. 

At the September term, j 845, Richard 
Knisley and Henry Swihart qualified as as- 
sociate judges. Lydia Tuttle was granted 
a divorce from Ransom Tuttle and this was 
the first divorce granted in the county. 

Judge Petit is said to have been as 
ardent a disciple of Isaac Walton as ever 
graced the woolsack, and lost no opportu- 
nity of indulging in his favorite sport. 
There is an old story afloat in northern In- 
diana concerning one of his fishing expedi- 
tions. The writer does not pretend to give 
the authority for the storv nor fix the loca- 

tion. But the story is that on one occasion 
■he gathered together a jolly crowd and 
started for the fishing grounds. Thev 
had proceeded only a short distance when 
it was discovered that two necessaries had 
been omitted from the commissar}- supplies 
— bread and whiskey. The company halted 
under a tree by the roadside and dispatched 
Sam, the colored cook and factotum, to pro- 
cure these essentials. Sam returned in 
about an hour, and in answer to the judge's 
inquiries reported that he had procured a 
three gallon jug of whiskey and a quarter's 
worth of bread. "Boys," said the judge, 
turning to the crowd with a look of conster- 
nation 011 his face, "what in — are 

we going to do with all that bread!" 

The record for October, 1845. shows the 
admission of Moses Jenkinson. He is an- 
other Fort Wayne lawyer who attained con- 
siderable practice at the Whitley county bar. 
He entered the practice at Fort Wayne in 
1840, and was a man of considerable force 
of character, and not only met with success 
in his profession, but is said to have had 
considerable business capacity and was en- 
gaged in several enterprises. 

On the 29th of December, 1N45, the 
chairman and clerk of the election filed their 
certificate showing the election of the f< >11< >w- 
ing named trustees -of the town of Colum- 
bia, "said town being districted as an in- 
corporated town for the better regulation 
of the internal police of said town." 

District No. 1, Joseph H. Pratt. 

District No. _\ John Rhodes. 

District No. 3, John Gillespie. 

District No. 4, Alfred K. Goodrich. 

District No. 5, Abram S. Monger. 

Along about this period the records dis- 


close indictments also against prominent 
citizens for malicious trespass. These un- 
doubtedly arose over disputes as to property 
lines, and perhaps ordinarily arose over 
charges of cutting timber on another man's 
land. There were, however, very few 

At the March term, 1846. there appeared 
in court two gentlemen whose names are 
familiar to the younger members of the bar 
only in connection with the criminal prac- 
tice, John Doe and Richard Roe. This, 
however, was a civil action, and was en- 
titled, John Doe. on the demise of Milo 
Gradeless vs. Richard Roe, and was an 
action for trespass in ejectment. Alas! poor 
John and Dick ! Once the plaintiff and de- 
fendant in much important real estate liti- 
gation, now only known as defendants in 
prosecution for public intoxication — (How 
have the mighty fallen?) 

On the other hand we note the rapid 
progress made by one young man in pro- 
fessional life. At the September term, 184.7. 
on motion of Joseph Pratt, "It is ordered 
by the court to be certified of record that 
Zenas Brown is a man of good moral char- 
acter." This was the first step required for 
admission to the bar. How quickly he 
sprang full armed into the arena may be 
judged when we read just a year later that 
he was indicted for an affray. 

Lorin Loomis succeeded Henry Swihart 
in September, 1847. The grand jury as 
usual inspected the jail and as usual re- 
ported that it was in good condition except 
that the outside door couldn't be locked. 
There being no prisoner on hand, that didn't 
make much difference. The first case I can 
discover which went to the supreme court 

from Whitley county was the case of Rea- 
son Huston vs. Joab McPherson. This was 
an action of trespass on the case in slander 
brought by McPherson against Huston and 
tried at the March term, 1843, an d resulted 
in a verdict for the plaintiff for thirty dol- 
lars. It was tried again in September, 1846, 
and the plaintiff recovered twenty-five cents. 
Huston appealed and the judgment was re- 
versed, the opinion being certified on March 
8, 1848. 

Judge Hiram S. Tousley, another fa- 
miliar figure in northern Indiana appeared 
at the bar of this county in 1849. He was 
living at that time at Albion, but had once 
been a resident of Whitley county. His par- 
ents became residents of Union township 
about 1843. The young man worked on the 
farm for some time and finally accumulated 
a few dollars by making "black salts." 
With his little fund and a new suit of 
"jeans" made by his mother, this lanky 
young fellow went to Fort Wayne and be- 
came a student under L. C. Jacoby. Some 
of the younger fellows were inclined to 
laugh at him, but David H. Colerick said 
to them, "You may laugh now, boys, but 
you'll not laugh long." He was admitted 
to the bar and entered the practice at Albion 
in 1848, and resided there until his death. 
In 1863 he was appointed as judge of the 
circuit, and was twice re-elected. He was 
recognized both as a profound student of 
the law and of history. 

Adams Y. Hooper was the next local 
attorney coming to the bar. being admitted 
in 1X50. Adams Y. Hooper was born at 
Athens. Ohio, in 1825. After completing 
his literary education, he read law and was 
admitted to practice at Lancaster, Ohio. In 


1849 he went to Huntington. Indiana, but 
only remained there a short time, moving' 
to Columbia City in the autumn of that 
year. The records show that he was ad- 
mitted to the bar here at the next term of 
court, in March, 1850. and here he lived 
and labored during the remainder of his 
life. In the early days, in a small county 
like Whitley, the practice of the law alone 
was scarcely sufficient either to occupy the 
entire attention or furnish an adequate liv- 
ing to an ambitious young man with a grow- 
ing family. Shortly after his arrival Mr. 
Hooper engaged in school teaching. Later 
he served as postmaster, and still later he 
was elected and served as county auditor. 
In 1852 he represented Whitley and Noble 
counties in the legislature, and in 1868 rep- 
resented Whitley and Kosciusko in the state 
senate. He was universally esteemed and 
respected by the community, and was re- 
garded as a wise counsellor and a just and 
upright man. In 1869 he formed a partner- 
ship with Walter Olds which existed up to 
the time of his death, and they took rank as 
one of the leading law firms of the county 
and commanded a large clientage. 

At the April term, 185 1, William Arnold 
and Samuel A. Sheibley filed their petition 
for a writ of ad quod damnum and the court 
ordered the sheriff to summon twelve men 
and view the site of the proposed mill dam 
at Springfield (now South Whitley) and 
appraise the damages. After much jockey- 
ing the inquest was returned, damages to 
adjoining landowners fixed, and the peti- 
tioners granted privilege to build a dam six 
and one-half feet in height. 

At the succeeding fall term of court 
Elza A. McMahon became president judge, 

and two men who were destined to appear 
many times in this court were admitted, Jo- 
seph Breckenridge and Lindley M. Ninde. 
Judge McMahon came from Ohio and set- 
tled in Fort Wayne about 1845. His first 
appearance in this court was as prosecuting 
attorney. He is remembered by the older 
members of the bar as a fair lawyer, an in- 
telligent and pleasant gentleman and a very 
satisfactory judge. 

Joseph Breckenridge was another pio- 
neer lawyer who spent his life in Fort 
Wayne. He was educated in that city and 
admitted to practice in 1846. He served as 
prosecuting attorney and as judge of the 
court of common pleas and judge of the cir- 
cuit court. Early in his career he became 
engaged in railroad practice, acting first in 
connection with Robert Breckenridge and 
later by himself as attorney for the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, until the time of his retire- 
ment. It was in this capacity he was best 
known by the bar in Whitley county. He 
was characterized by an irrepressible fund 
of good humor and an inexhaustible fund 
of good stories, and perhaps no man was 
ever more successful in dealing with bellig- 
erent attorneys who had a suit for damages 
against the railroad. 

Curtis W. Jones, who is the oldest liv- 
ing member of this bar, was admitted at 
this time. 

It seems that with the advent of a new 
judge it became necessary to "spruce up" a 
little, and under order of the court three 
dollars was spent for sawdust for the court 
room, paper-hanging, etc., and three dollars 
and seventy-five cents for one new set of 

Upon the taking effect of the constitu- 



tii hi of 1852, the offices of associate judge 
and probate judge were abolished and the 
common pleas court was created. At this 
time the state was redistricted for judicial 
purposes, and Whitley county became part 
of the tenth district. In September of this 
year Stephen W ildman and Isaiah B. Mc- 
Donald came to the bar. Judge Wildman 
afterward served as judge of the court of 
common pleas. Colonel McDonald has been 
identified with the Whitley county bar since 
1 85 j. In the same year in which he was 
admitted he was elected as prosecuting at- 
torney, and served until 1855, when be was 
elected county clerk. He served with dis- 
tinction during the Rebellion and at its con- 
clusion resumed the practice, serving also 
as school examiner from 1864 to 1870. 
Later he was identified with the newspaper 
business and other interests, but until very 
recent rears, when his increasing" infirmi- 
ties compelled him to lay aside some of the 
burdens, he continued in the active practice. 

At the September term, 1853. there ap- 
pears the record of an ex parte proceeeding 
of some note, for the reason that it is rather 
out of the ordinary. William McCutcheon 
presented to the court bis petition and made 
proof of publication, the prosecuting attor- 
ney appeared, and after due consideration 
the court granted his prayer and decreed that 
his name be changed to William Mills, and 
thai lie he hereafter known by that name. 

At this time the grand jury reported that 
the jail would do until a new one could he 
built, it not being worthy of repair. 

The bar of the present day perhaps won- 
ders how they got along in the early days 
without a court stenographer. The follow- 
ing entry will perhaps throw a little side 

light upon the question. The case of The 
State vs. William Logan was brought to 
this county on a change of venue from 
Wells, was tried, and Logan was found 
guilty of manslaughter. "Ordered that 
John R. Coffroth be allowed ten dollars for 
taking down the testimony in the case of the 
State of Indiana vs. William Logan, to he 
certified to the county of Wells for pay- 

At the March term, 1855. A. W. Myers 
was admitted to the bar. 

It was about this time the Pennsylvania 
Railroad was being constructed. This of 
course created a boom for the new town 
and business was on the increase. This also 
perhaps brought the first newspaper. It was 
evidently a hard struggle for the paper, for 
the first record I find even before he began 
to draw any fees for legal notices, is a o m- 
fession of judgment by the proprietor, Jo- 
seph A. Berry, in favor of the Cincinnati 
Type Foundry Company. It is refreshing 
to know that friends came to his rescue, 
staid the judgment, and he remained to 
wield the quill for several years. 

John W neatlev was indicted for bur- 
glary and larceny, was tried and the jury 
failed to agree. He was confined in the old 
jail, which had already been condemned by 
the grand jury, and in some manner man- 
aged to set it afire. He was at once in- 
dicted for arson, tried and convicted, and 
sentenced to imprisonment in the Jefferson- 
ville prison for two years. I imagine not- 
withstanding" the loss, there was some wag- 
ging of the wiseheads and a large number of 
"I told you so's." At any rate it was now 
necessary to have a new jail. Judge Collins 
was allowed ten dollars for defending 



Wheatley on the first charge, and Moses 
Jenkinson the same for defending on the 
second charge. 

September term, 1855, P. W. Hardesty 
was admitted. Hon. James L. Worden pro- 
duced his commission as judge of the tenth 
circuit and entered upon the discharge of 
his duties. 

For the first time, court proceedings 
were a subject of comment by the news- 
paper. The Pioneer, under date of January, 
1856, having this to say : "The January 
term of the court of common pleas for this 
county commenced on Monday, the 7th inst., 
and is still in session. Much mure than an 
ordinary amount of business has been lie- 
fore the court, and there is a probability that 
the remainder of the week will be consumed 
in the disposition of cases on the docket. 
The case of Dr. Linvill vs. A. K. Goodrich 
occupied several days of the term and was 
submitted to the jury on Monday night, who 
returned a verdict against the plaintiff. This 
was an intricate case, and one involving 
manv nice points, and called out the best 
efforts of the attorneys engaged thereon. 
Hardest} - & Myers appearing fur the 
plaintiff and James S. Collins for the de- 
fendant, all of whom acquitted themselves 
with dignity becoming the profession. Dr. 
Linvill also made an argument before the 
jury of some hours length, in which he 
advanced many good, sound, common sense 
ideas. The charge of Judge Wildman to 
the jury was an able one, delivered in a 
very plain and elaborate manner." 

The paper of this date contained the 
cards of Hardesty & Myers and James S. 
Collins, resident attorneys, and of attorneys 
at Angola, Albion, Lima. Ohio, and 

In considering the early courts, we must 
not overlook a very important factor — the 
clerk. As heretofore noted, Abraham 
Cuppy was the first clerk. He was suc- 
ceeded by Richard Collins, who held the 
office until 1856. when he was succeeded by 
I. B. McDonald. 

At the March term, 1856, A. J. Douglas 
was admitted to practice. He had been a 
teacher and after some years returned to that 
profession and was also ordained to the 
ministry. He taught, was city and county 
superintendent a number of vears. retiring 
from the city schools in 1879 an< ^ from the 
county superintendency two vears later, 
after which he devoted his life to the minis- 
try until failing' health compelled his retire- 
ment about five years ago. His death oc- 
curred in Columbia City about two years 

At this term, also J. M. Austin was ad- 
mitted, and the Pioneer made this pleasant 
mention of the fact: "J. M. Austin, of this 
place, was admitted to the practice of law at 
the Whitlev circuit court vesterdav. He is 
a young man of some promise. May he 
meet with unbounded success." Pioneer, 
March 12, 1856. 

lames S. Frazer is first noted as ap- 
pearing in the Whitley circuit court at this 
session. Judge Frazer lived at Warsaw and 
soon became well known here. He was en- 
gaged here as counsel in important cases and 
as special judge many times, even up to the 
time of his retirement from active work. 

lb.' Pioneer under date of March 12th, 
again made a mite of court proceedings: 
'"The March term of the Whitley circuit 
court is now in session. Judge Worden pre- 
siding with his usual dignity. Among those 
of the legal profession present from a dis- 

> 7 6 

tance we observe Hon. J. S. Frazer 
Slack, J. R. Cofforth, Messrs. M. Jenkinson, 
Case, Breckenridge and Dodge, of Fort 
Wayne, and H. S. Towsley, of Albion. We 
are not able to report tbe cases thus far 
disposed of, but let it suffice for this week to 
say that on a motion to quash the indictment 
against Z. Henderson for violation of the 
liquor law on the ground of unconstitution- 
ality, that the motion was overruled by the 

In the next issue, March 19, 1856, the 
Pioneer, at the request of all the members 
of the bar published the opinion of Judge 
Worden in the Henderson case. 

On April 9, 1856, the same publication 
contained a new advertisement: "Marcus 
H. Drown, Attorney and Counsellor at Law, 
Columbia City, Indiana." But the adver- 
tisement disappeared after a few months 
and as I am unable to learn anything about 
this man I am led to the conclusion that 
he was a young man seeking a location and 
that the long vacation from- March to Sep- 
tember exhausted his resources or his pa- 
tience, or perhaps both, and that he folded 
his tent and departed. 

April 20. 1857, a new seal was adopted. 
"I, James L. Worden, sole judge of the 
Whitley circuit court, being fully satisfied 
that the seal heretofore and now used by the 
clerk of said court is so worn out by many 
years' use and that the same is of itself al- 
most useless, I therefore order that Isaiah 
B. McDonald, the clerk of this court, do 
procure a good, new and sufficient seal for 
said Whitley circuit court, with the follow- 
ing device, to-wit: A circular seal with the 
words 'The Whitley Circuit Court, Indiana, 1 
in the outer circle, with scales or balances 


in the upper part of the center, and directly 
under the said device of scales or balances, 
and within the inner, or centre, the words 
'Whitley County.' " 

September 1. 1857, D. T. Davis was ad- 
mitted to the bar. 

Thomas Johnson came from Richmond 
to Fort Wayne and served as probate judge 
and later as prosecuting attorney. He died 
while still a young man, from the effects 
of a cold contracted on his return from at- 
tending court at Bluffton. 

Moses Jenkinson began practice in 1840. 
He was a successful lawyer, his practice was 
extensive, and he was often noted as appear- 
ing in the courts of this county. 

John C. \\ igent entered the practice of 
law late in life. He was in the war of the 
Rebellion, a member of the famous Simon- 
son Battery. After the close of the war, he 
began farming in Union township. At the 
age of about thirty-four, he was elected 
county recorder. Upon retiring from that 
office in 1878, he engaged in the abstract 
business, and gradually took up the practice 
of law in connection with this business. He 
served one term as prosecuting attorney. 
Later he took interest in the newspaper busi- 
ness, and the latter years of his life were 
clouded by financial difficulties. 

Walter Olds read law in the office of 
Olds & Dickey at Mt. Gilead, Ohio. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1869 by the su- 
preme court of the state of Ohio. During 
the same year he came to Columbia City 
and formed a partnership with A. Y. 
Hooper under the name of Hooper &- Olds. 
They acquired a large business and con- 
tinued in partnership until the death of Mr. 
Hooper in 1875. Later he formed a part- 


nership with Michael Sickafoose which con- 
tinued until 1884, when he was elected judge 
of the circuit court, consisting of the coun- 
ties of Whitley and Kosciusko. Judge Olds 
was the first judge of the Whitley circuit 
court who was a resident of Whitley county. 
He resigned in 1889 upon his election to the 
supreme bench of the state of Indiana. He 
resigned from the supreme bench in the state 
of Indiana, and entered the practice of law 
in the city of Chicago, but later re- 
turned again to Indiana, where he is now 
enjoying a large practice in the city of Fort 
Wayne, being the solicitor for both the 
Nickel Plate and Lake Shore Railroads. 

Elisha V. Long, of Warsaw, was by 
Governor Hendricks, appoined Judge of the 
thirty-third circuit, composed of Whitley 
and Kosciusko counties. He was elected for 
a full term of six years in 1878. On his re- 
tirement in 1884 he was. by President Cleve- 
land; appoined chief justice of New Mexico. 
On his retirement from that position with 
the incoming of the Harrison administra- 
tion, be went into the practice of law at 
Las Vegas, where he still enjoys a large and 
lucrative practice. 

Edward R. Wilson was only about 
thirty-two years of age when elected circuit 
judge in 1S58. He studied law with Gov. 
Joseph A. Gage, and was admitted to prac- 
tice at Indianapolis. He located at Bluffton 
in 1853. In 1854, be was appointed prose- 
cuting attorney to succeed Judge Worden 
and succeeded him also as judge upon bis 
resignation to accept an appointment in the 
supreme bench. Shortly after the expira- 
tion of his term. Judge Wilson removed to 
Madison and engaged in the practice of the 
law and later returned to Bluffton. 

Robert Lowry was born in Ireland and 

came to Fort Wayne in 1843. He studied 
law and was admitted to the bar and began 
practice at Goshen in 1846. He was elected 
circuit judge in 1864, re-elected in 1870. 
lint resigned in 1875 and entered the prac- 
tice at Fort Wayne, having removed from 
Goshen in 1867. In 1877 he became judge 
of the newly created superior court of the 
city of Fort Wayne. He served two terms 
in congress as representative of the twelfth 
congressional district. Judge Lowry was 
perbaps one of the ablest judges who ever 
sat at Nisi Prius. He was honest and in- 
corruptible. He was a man of large mental 
attainments, kindly disposition and one in 
whom both lawyers and parties litigant had 
the utmost confidence. 

Joseph W. Adair was born and spent 
the early years of his life in Noble county. 
After his appointment as judge he was 
elected for a term of six years and has twice 
since been re-elected, as a Democrat in a 
normally Republican district. Judge Adair's 
ability as a circuit judge is recognized by 
the bar all over northern Indiana. His clear 
conception of the underlying legal principles, 
his patience under all the trials a judge is 
called upon to endure in the disputes and 
questions arising', his prompt rules and Ins 
constant and uniform good nature and cour- 
teous treatment of the members of the bar, 
has made his court a favorite forum for the 
settlement of legal battles. This, together 
with the tact that Whitley is a small county, 
and has been able to keep her docket clean 
and secure prompt hearing- of pending cases, 
has made his court a Favorite place for cases 
sent from other counties, so much so, that 
it is sometimes referred to as the "Whit- 
ley change of venue court." 

Cyrus P>. Tullev was a Floosier and to 



the manor born. He was the first member 
of the Whitley county bar, born in Whitley 
county. His parents were among the very 
earliest settlers of the county. He was burn 
in Smith township in 1839 and had only the 
advantages of such school as that day 
afforded. In 1865 he came to Columbia 
City and began the stud}" of law and engaged 
in surveying. He was admitted to the bar 
in 1869 and followed his profession until 
advancing years and the condition of his 
health required his retirement. In his 
earlier years he filled numerous positions in 
the city and county governments, having 
been town clerk, town trustee, county sur- 
veyor, city marshal and representative in the 
state legislature. Mr. Tulley was a self-made 
man, and was a man of very strong likes 
and dislikes. His unswerving honesty gave 
him the confidence of the people and in his 
prime he enjoyed a very large practice. 

David H. Colerick was admitted to the 
bar at Lancaster, Ohio, and came to Fort 
Wayne in 1829, where he practiced law until 
he retired in 1872. He was of Irish par- 
entage, and possessed in an eminent degree 
the powers of an orator, and this coupled 
with his education and thorough prepara- 
tion, gave him at once a high rank in Indi- 
ana practice. He was employed in many 
of the criminal cases in the early days, when 
a plea to the sympathy and emotion of the 
juror were deemed of value. He founded 
a family of lawyer sons and grandsons. 
Two of his sons are yet in active and valu- 
able practice in the city of Fort Wayne: 
Walpole G. and Henry. 

A. \. Chapin read law and located at 
Angola, after completing his college course 
al \nn Arbor. Tn 1865 he removed to 

Kendall ville and in 1883 to Fort Wayne. 
In i860 he was elected and served one term 
as prosecuting attorney of the tenth circuit 
which then embraced ten counties in north- 
western Indiana, including Whitley. There 
were two terms of court each year in each 
county, and the judge and prosecuting attor- 
ney were compelled to go from one county 
to the other and hold court. In 1886 he 
was elected to hold the office for one term 
of judge of the Allen superior court. Dur- 
ing the latter years of his life, his hearing 
has been defective and he has been compelled 
to devote his attention largely to patent law. 
He justly merits the reputation which he 
has attained, that of being an honest and 
safe lawyer. 

Henry Chase was about forty years old 
when he went on the bench and while he 
served this circuit only a short time, and 
never held a term of court in this county, 
was said to have been one of the best judges 
in his day. 

F. P. Randal was identified with the 
history of Indiana for many years. He 
read law at Williamsport, Pennsylvania, and 
after his admission in 1838 took up his resi- 
dence in Fort Wayne and remained an im- 
portant factor until his death in 1892. He 
held office for many years in the city govern- 
ment and was five times elected mayor of 
the city. 

The later members of the bar were John 
Krider, admitted in 1S73: Thomas R. 
Marshall, William F. McNagny and James 
A. Campbell, in 1874. Then came Eph EC 
Strong. I'. H. Clugston, Benton E. dates. 

D. Y. Whiteleather, W. H. Kissinger. O. 

E. Grant, F. P.. Moe, John W. Orndorf, E. 
C. Downey and C. L. Devault. All these 



gentlemen are yet too young to figure in 


In 1856 the justice's court was in full 
tli iwer. As witness the following adver- 
tisement in the "Whitley Pioneer:" "Esq. 
Bodley has removed his office to the build- 
ing opposite the Tremont House where he 
is prepared to discharge any duty made en- 
cumbent upon him by the statute, nut neg- 
lecting to tie the marriage knot for those 
disposed to commit matrimony." 

At the March term, 1844, the regular 
judge of the court was indicted for assault. 
Instead of appearing before his associate 
judges he endorsed upon the indictment, 
"I plead guilty to this indictment and wish 
the court to examine Mr. Long and assess 
the fine." This judge was James L. 

In 1856 a communication appeared in 
the "Whitley Pioneer" signed by three 
justices of the peace, to-wit : J. C. Bodley, 
T. A. Crabb and J. R. Baker, announcing 
that the law against profanity was in force 
and in the discharge of their future duties, 
they were bound to enforce it, and gave 
notice to the public accordingly. So far as 
heard from, this is the last time that the 
law against profanity was ever known to 
be in force. 

For a while there was a probate court 
in this county. It met at the house of Rich- 
ard Boughan on Monday. November 1 1 , 
1839. Hon. Christopher W. Long, sole 
judge, Richard Collins, treasurer, Abraham 
Cuppy, clerk. Charles W. Hughes, father 

of William M. Hughes, was in 1846, judge 
of this court ami in 1848 Price Goodrich 
was its judge. 

A common pleas court was established 
in 1853 and continued until its abolition by 
the legislature in 1873. The judges of this 
court were Stephen Wilman, James C. Bod- 
ley, H. J. Stoton and William Clapp. Con- 
cerning the latter judge, Colonel McDonald 
has an amusing story which upon occasion, 
he can be prevailed upon to relate. 

It will be a surprising fact to many peo- 
ple to know that the town of Coesse once 
elected officers as an incorporated village, 
but the records in the clerk's office show that 
on September 13, 1867, an election of offi- 
cers for the incorporation of Coesse was 
held, resulting as follows : Marshal. John B. 
Imsie; treasurer. M. E. Doane ; assessor, 
William Greene; trustees, W. L. Barney, 
Fred Smith, Elijah Depew, Robert Steele 
and J. H. Root. 

We cannot close this article without 
reference to the only execution of a murderer 
in the count} - . In the latter part of 1883, 
Charles W-. Butler, of Columbus, Ohio, fol- 
lowed his wife, who had fled from his 
brutality, to Pierceton and there shot her 
dead, as he had threatened if she left him. 

After being confined in the Warsaw jail 
for a time he secured a change of venue and 
was brought here. He with others broke jail 
but was recaptured near bis home. He was 
put on trial Monday, .May 12. 1N84, before 
the following jury: Jacob A. Baker. Josiah 
Archer. Jacob W. Nickey, John 1\ Depoy, 
Joseph J. Pence, Lewis Deem, Alexander 
Ah .re. David James. James Blain. James 
Cordill, Thomas Jellison and Elijah Depew. 
Judge Van Long presiding. Michael Sicka- 



foose, assisted by William F. McNagny, i if 
Columbia City, and Lemuel W. Royse, of 
Warsaw, prosecuted. The prisoner was de- 
fended by Joseph W. Adair, of Columbia 
City. Lee Haymond. of Warsaw, H. J. 
Booth, of Columbus, Ohio, and Thomas E. 
Powell, of Delaware, Ohio. 

He was convicted and sentenced to be 

hanged on the ioth of October, 1884, and at 
exactly 12:08 p. m. of that day he was 
swung into eternity in an enclosure built in 
the jail-yard. Frank P. Allwein, sheriff, 
personally attended to the details and sprung 
the trap. The law was soon after changed 
so that executions now take place in the 
state prison. 



Some time previous to 1827 a squatter 
in the person of Andrew Mack built a cabin 
near the Fort Wayne and Goshen trail on 
section 4, where now stands the frame house 
owned by Martin Kocher. Andrew Mack 
was no doubt the first white settler in the 
then almost impenetrable wilderness which 
abounded with bear, deer, wild turkeys, 
wolves, wildcats and many other smaller ani- 
mals. It appears that Mack was a great hunt- 
er and spent most of his time in hunting, trap- 
ping and fishing. His cabin frequently gave 
comfort and shelter to the wayfarer during 
his lonely journey from Fort Wayne to Go- 
shen, Elkhart and the interior. It was for 
some years the only haven of rest between 
these villages separated by a distance of 
almost eighty miles. The "table d'hote" 
of this primitive hostelry consisted of ven- 
ison, bear meat, potatoes and squash. If the 
epicure should ask for pie he would be po- 
litely invited to "go way back and sit down." 
If he asked for devil's food or angel cake 
he was told that the generation that gut 
up such food and pastry was yet unborn and 
that his fastidious taste must be satisfied 

with corn mush and the dodger roasted in 
hot ashes. 

It is to be regretted that the place An- 
drew Mack came from and whither he went 
are unknown, but that he did locate at the 
above place is abundantly verified by Jacob 
Baker and Jehu Skinner, both of whom fre- 
quently related that they had partaken of 
his hospitality. Alpheus B. Gaff, a man of 
extraordinary memory and unquestioned in- 
tegrity and who had the great honor of 
holding the office of justice of the peace for 
thirty-six years in this township, has fre- 
quently related to his neighbors the fact that 
the above named Skinner and Baker, with 
whom he was well acquainted, had told him 
of stopping at Mack's cabin as the only 
house between Fort Wayne and Goshen and 
Elkhart and that Baker had partaken of 
.Mack's hospitality as early as 1S27 and 
Skinner in 183 1. 

During the very early settlement of Ohii >. 
Indiana, Michigan and Illinois the French- 
Canadian settlers and traders spread over 
nearly all that vast territory as traders and 
merchants among the Indians. Knowing 


the wants and propensities of the Indians, 
they sold them powder, lead and whiskey. 
John Baptist Godfrey, a Frenchman, was 
the second white man to settle in Smith 
township, came about the time Andrew 
Mack left and no doubt occupied the cabin 
Mack had vacated and with a small stock of 
goods that were in demand established a 
trading post. Godfrey and wife were not 
blessed with children, but an adopted son 
named Gregory Bundy, a tall and well pro- 
portioned young Frenchman, lived with 
them and afterwards kept tavern and sold 
whiskey on section 2, near the Fort Wayne 
and Goshen road on land now owned by 
Val Brown and known as the old Boggs 
farm. Godfrey in a few years found his 
business had outgrown the capacity of the 
Mack cabin, erected a more commodious one 
on the north side of the Goshen road, where 
now stands Martin Kocher's barn. Numer- 
ous settlers coming in, it became necessary 
to provide more room for his increasing 
trade and he built the most elegant and 
stately house in all "this neck of woods." 
The building was a hewed log house which 
some years afterward was weatherboarded 
with three-quarter inch poplar boards and in 
after years, up to about 1866, was occupied 
by James S. Craig, who razed it to the 
ground and built a substantial modern house 
on its site. 

It has been the gossip of many that J. B. 
Godfrey was possessed of many eccentricities 
and that in his later years he lived as a 

The facts are, as told the author by Aunt 
Katie Gordon, nee Hull, that Godfrey be- 
came insane and for several years retired to 
a room and was under the watchful care of 

his devoted wife. The Hull family were 
very early settlers on Eel river in Allen 
county and visited back and forth with the 
Godfreys. Adam Hull, a brother of Aunt 
Katie Gordon, especially being a frequent 
visitor of the Godfreys to procure his sup- 
plies of powder and lead, became almost a 
confidant of the Godfroys and during his 
visits was always admitted to Godfrey's 
room. The antecedents of Godfrey and 
wife, like those of Mack, are unknown. 
They died in 1845 anc ' were taken to Fort 
Wayne and buried. Godfrey once traded 
horses with Daniel Geiger, father of Y\ il- 
liam A. Geiger. Geiger had a very fine 
spotted pony and Godfrey said he wanted it 
for the express purpose of riding- it to 
heaven. Whether he traveled from this vale 
of tears on the spotted pony is not related by 
his neighbors. 

During the decade from 1830 to 1840 
cheap land and good soil began to attract 
many settlers to this territory and the sturdy 
pioneers began settling- here and there with 
their families, rearing their pole cabins by 
the united effort of wife and children, who 
were helpmeets in all the interpretation of 
the word. 

Absalom Hire, the third settler, reared 
his cabin in the virgin forest in 1833 en 
section 5 on lands now owned by Mrs. Da- 
vid W .Nickey. The following year 1 [834) 
Francis Tulley, Richard Baughn. Jesse 
Long, John More, Samuel Nickey, Sam- 
uel Smith and Nelson Compton cast their 
fortunes in the wilds of this township. John 
W. Mure and Otho Gaudy were companion 
home seekers with their families through the 
unbroken wilderness of western Ohio and 
eastern Indiana, but unfortunately Gaudy 



became swamped near Monmouth and was 
obliged to remain there with his family till 
the following year. On arrival at his des- 
tination he was greatly surprised to find 
some one had raised a patch of corn for him 
and that there were a couple of well filled 
potato holes, all grown on his own prospec- 
tive ground. William Vanmeter and Jesse 
Briggs, companion home seekers, came in 
1835 and Zachariah Garison came in 1836. 

At the close of 1840 the few families 
who had settled previous to 1835 found 
themselves surrounded by man}- neighbors, 
whose presence was frequently revealed by 
the crack of the rifle or the sound of the ax 
in felling trees and sometimes by the clang 
of a strange cowbell. In those early days 
the pioneer was familiar with the sound of 
his neighbor's cowbell as well as his own. 

David Wolf, James Zollman. James 
Gordon, George Pence, William Cleland, 
James Crow and Jesse Spear took up their 
abode in the wilderness in 1836. Daniel 
Miller probably came the same year. Then 
came Jacob Xickey in 1839, Appleton Rich, 
George W. Slagle and Patrick Maloney, 

John Blakely, David Gordon, James Ma- 
son, Simeon and Cinda Nott were also 
among the earliest pioneers of Smith town- 
ship. Those early settlers who had the cour- 
age to hew out their fortunes in the wilder- 
ness left a progeny of honorable descend- 
ants scattered over the township and sur- 
rounding country. Many of them in after 
years went west and cast their lot as pio- 
neers in reclaiming the prairies beyond the 
Mississippi river. There is probably not a 
state in the Union and but few countries in 
the world that are not represented by a de- 

scendant of some of the earlv pioneers of 
Smith township. 

In 1835 one Bryant entered that part of 
section No. 22 known as the Jerry Krider 
farm and now owned by Josiah Wade. Mr. 
Bryant, more fortunate than many of the 
earl}- settlers, brought with him three grown- 
up children, who assisted him in raising his 
pole cabin and clearing up his farm. In a 
few years the old folks died and were buried 
in Hull's graveyard on the south side of 
Eel river, where Mr. Hull and several of 
his family and others were buried. 

The young people went away after the 
death of their father and mother and left 
a vacant cabin and some cleared land as a 
memorial of their unfortunate bereavement. 
Enoch Magart, with his wife and children, 
moved into the vacant cabin and took pos- 
session. Mr. Magart. like Mr. Bryant, did 
not long endure the joys and hardships of 
pioneer life. 

Talcot Perry settled in Union township 
just across the south line of Smith town- 
ship on the Fanny Vanmeter farm. The 
bill of fare in those early days did not con- 
tain apple pie or apple sauce and other deli- 
cacies to please the fastidious taste of the 
pioneer or to diversify the routine of pork. 
venison, wild turkey, cabbage, potatoes and 
corn pone. Soon, however, they were sup- 
plied with maple sugar and wild honey, and 
wild blackberries, raspberries, gooseberries 
and cranberries were the sources from which 
the delicacies of the pioneer came. 

One bright and joyous Sunday morning, 
with hearts light in the anticipation of the 
enjoyment of cranberries and wild turkey, 
Mr. Pern- and Mr. Mag-art set out in quest 
of cranberries, which grew abundantly in a 



marsh in section 23, on lands owned now by 
L. F. Metsker, Mr. Perry on horseback, 
carying his rifle, as was the custom, and Mr. 
Magart on foot. Arriving at a point near 
a swamp in section 22, through which a 
road now runs about midway between B. F. 
Krider's farm house and William Deems's 
residence, a twig" caught the hammer of 
Perry's rifle and drew it back sufficiently to 
discharge the gun. the ball entering Ma- 
gart's back and making its exit in front. 
Perry moved him near to a poplar tree and 
by the assistance of Brinton Jones and 
other neig'hbors he was hauled on a hand 
sled back to his humble home to his grief 
stricken family. Magart suffered great 
agony surrounded by his family and aided by 
the kind hands of his neig'hbors until night, 
when death released him from his terrible 
suffering and left a widow and orphans in a 
lonely cabin in the wilderness where howl- 
ing- packs of wolves kept vig-il with the heart 
broken widow. Kind neighbors she had, but 
like "angels' visits" they were few and far 

Talcott Peri"}- ever kept the sad incident 
vividly in his memory until November 11, 
1845, he died and was buried in Concord 
cemetery, where a marble slab marks his 
resting place. 

The pioneers lived in peace and harmony 
although surrounded by many privations, 
yet crime was hidden in the secret recesses 
of some breasts. In 1837 a Mr. Bowls, who 
had settled on the west side of Blue Lake, 
murdered his wife with a hand spike. Mrs. 
John More, who lived on that part of sec- 
tion 27 now owned by J. W. Jones, known 
as the John Jones farm, acted as the good 
Samaritan and prepared her body for burial. 

Mrs. More found upon examination that the 
body was so terribly bruised as to arouse 
suspicion which finally culminated in the ar- 
rest and trial of Bowls. Similar to many 
other cases of the kind in the then wild west, 
no autopsy was held. 

Mrs. More and Mrs. Francis Tulley, led 
by the hand of friendship and charity, took 
a prominent part in the preparation and 
burial of Mrs. Bowls and saw and heard all 
that was to be seen and heard by any one ex- 
cept the guilty conscience of the murderer, 
and were therefore subpoenaed as witnesses 
at the trial in Huntington, then the county 

Being' matured in hardships, as all pio- 
neer woman must be. and determined to do 
their part in bringing' the guilty to justice, 
they mounted their sure footed horses as the 
rays of the rising sun began to appear and 
turned their faces toward Huntington, 
thirty-five miles distant, through an almost 
unbroken and impenetrable forest and no 
road to lead them to their destination. But 
those noble women, unmindful of wear and 
weariness of mind and body, guided their 
horses over logs and brush, through streams 
and bogs, alert always to the growl and 
snarl of wolves and the shrill snort of the 
nimble deer that often crossed their path, 
they wended their lonely way to the temple 
of justice, which consisted of a log cabin 
in Huntington. Who can imagine the dis- 
appointment and chagrin of those women 
when they learned at the close of the trial 
that the evidence was not sufficient to con- 
vict Bowls. 

They consoled themselves by the knowl- 
edge that they had done the part allotted 
to them and if the guilt}' went unpunished 



it was not their fault. Bowls soon after took 
his children and left for parts unknown. 
William Blair about this time, 1837, settled 
on the east bank of Blue Lake and was a 
noted trapper and hunter and followed the 
occuptaion of trapping and hunting and dis- 
posing of his products to J. B. Godfroy until 
about 1840. 

About this time an old trapper came and 
stayed with Blair. For some time each one 
followed his usual occupation. One day 
when Blair was perambulating through the 
woods and marshy thickets looking after his 
traps he saw the old trapper taking and 
skinning- animals taken from his (Blair's) 
traps and a quarrel ensued. 

Exasperated at the treachery of the man 
whom he had taken in and befriended, Blair 
killed him with a club. After sinking the 
body in the river near a log, Blair confessed 
to the crime and fled the country. 

At this time the reins of justice were 
loosely held, as is usual in all new countries, 
and legal proceedings were of difficult ma- 
nipulation and no effort was made to bring 
Blair to justice. 

Some time after this a great flood came 
and is memorable by the early settlers as the 
"biggest rain that ever fell." The body of 
the trapper was washed out from its hiding 
place. Dogs and wolves had devoured por- 
tions of the body when found, which was 
reinterred by the neighbors. The sudden 
disappearance of Blair from the neighbor- 
hood excited a great deal of comment among 
the neighbors, among whom was Alexander 
More, then a bo) whose curiosity prompted 
him to ask his mother one night while 
watching al her bedside during- a spell of 
sickness whal was the cause of Blair's sud- 

den disappearance. She told her son Alex 
that Mrs. Blair told her that Blair had killed 
the old trapper. 

While reciting these sad accidents and 
heartless crimes we must not imbibe the no- 
tion that crime and wickedness was in ad- 
vance of the progress of good. The children 
of early settlers were growing up and schools 
were to be provided for them. The first 
schoolhouse reared and dedicated to school 
purposes was on the northeast corner of 
Christ Long's farm now known as the De- 
vault farm and the first teacher to call 
"books" was Ira Wiznar. Wiznar, being- 
human and like other teachers, had his 
troubles and tribulations, taught in Francis 
Tully's kitchen the next winter on account 
of petty disagreements among his patrons. 
The second schoolhouse reared and dedi- 
cate to purposes of showing" "the young 
scion how to grow" was near the comer of 
section 25-26 east of William S. Nickey's 
house. This temple of learning-, a log cabin. 
was built by the voluntary aid of surround- 
ing neighbors. Jacob Nickey, Otho Gandy, 
Jesse Long, Nelson Compton, Absalom 
Hyre and Mr. Fellows and others united in 
building the cabin and furnishing it with 
puncheon floors, a clapboard d< 11 >r, puncheon 
writing desks, slab benches and a magnifi- 
cent and extensive fireplace in one end, 
and lighted by eight by ten window lights. 
Sawmills and sawed lumber, it must be re- 
membered, were merely heard of hut not 
in actual existence at this stage of the de- 
velopment of the country. The first teacher 
was Joseph Fellows, who afterwards be- 
came a doctor. 

Previous to the building of these school- 
houses, however, schools had been taught 



in different parts of the township and were 
called "subscription schools." A subscrip- 
tion paper was taken around the country by 
some one interested in school work and ob- 
tained subscription for one or more scholars 
at a stated sum per month. Sometimes the 
prospective teacher wielded the "subscrip- 
tion paper" among" the parents of the neigh- 
borhood and afterwards wielded the "birch" 
among his scholars. 

These schools were taught in vacant 
cabins wherever found, one of which was 
located in Churubusco on the west side of 
main street near where the Vandalia Rail- 
road crosses, another on Main street in a 
log" cabin situated on the lot where Misses 
Nettie and Annie Keichler now reside. Al- 
exander Craig" taught in J. B. Godfrey's 

All 1 if the schoolhouses were primitive 
and supplied with the crudest paraphernalia 
and the ingenuity of the teacher was taxed 
to its utmost. Corporal punishment was in 
vogue those days and the teacher put in 
a good deal of his time wielding the gad 
across the backs and legs of the recalcitrants. 
His morning hours before school took up 
in" "books" were called were occupied with 
his keen edged penknife in making and re- 
pairing goose quill pens and "setting cop- 
ies." A popular one was "Command you 
may, your mind from play." Steel pens 
were unobtainable and the goose quill was 
always on the market and in good demand 
during the winter months. 

Isaac Claxton, who taught near the 
crossing of Main street and the Vandalia 
Railroad, was the first to introduce the 
teaching of geography by singing. He es- 
tablished geography singing" classes in the 

schoolhouses of the neighborhood and 

taught these at night, using "Pelton's Key 
to Geography" as his guide. It must be 
remembered that in the building of dwell- 
ings and schoolhouses and their equipments 
nails were not a necessitv and main - inge- 
nious shifts were made by the early settlers. 

Window g'lass and other hardware were 
procurable at Piqua, Ohio, more than one 
hundred miles away. Doors were hung on 
wooden hinges, whose squeaking was gen- 
erally prevented by an application of a little 
soft soap and supplied with wooden latch 
with a buckskin string alwavs hanging on 
the outside. Clapboards riven from a near- 
by straight grained tree by an instrument 
called a "trow" were carefully laid on "ribs" 
and held in place by "weight poles" extend- 
ing the full length of the roof, formed the 
covering of the cabin. 

The seats or benches for schools were 
slabs split from a log and smoothed with a 
broad-ax and writing desks of the same ma- 
terial supported by pins driven into auger 
holes in the logs on one or. two sides of the 
schoolhouse. It was considered bv the 
smaller scholars quite an honor to occupy 
a seat at the "writing desk." 

The third schoolhouse was on the Harter 
farm, now owned by L. F. Metsker and the 
fourth on the Joseph Pence farm. 

About this time the movement of taxa- 
tion for public schools was agitated and be- 
came a political question that was very bit- 
terly discussed between all classes. The 
Democrats in opposition and the Whigs in 
favor. The Democrats claiming it wrong to 
tax property owners who had no children 
for the benefit of those property owners 
who had children ami for the benefit of 



those children whose parents had no 

The Whigs claimed the property of the 
country should he taxed for the benefit of 
the country and that free education was the 
greatest benefit to the country. The Whigs 
won and public schools were established and 
supported by taxation. This movement was 
of great benefit not only as an educational 
procedure but was of vast help to the man 
of moderate means in procuring a home. 
Great tracts of land at that time were held 
by speculators, who refused to sell the land 
they had entered at one dollar and a quarter 
per acre at a reasonable advance. 

The tax for school purposes being as- 
sessed on their lands in addition to other 
taxes for general improvements, caused 
many to sell their lands in small tracts for 
prices ranging" around five dollars per acre. 
Thus the Whigs were building better than 
they knew, for that aspect of the question 
had not been agitated. 

From this period on the structure of 
school houses took on a more pretentious 
appearance and a frame schoolhouse occa- 
sionally appeared here and there as a mon- 
ument of the improvement of the country. 

The congress of the United States had 
granted section 16 to each township for 
school purposes and about this time section 
in became renowned as the guidepost for 
the home seeker. 

These were the days of old-fashioned 
spelling schools, when to be the best spellers 
and the "lasl one down" was the highest 
ambition that could possess a boy or girl. 

The tallow dip for lighting purposes 
was a vi iluntary d« mat ion. A block with a hole 
bored into it served for a candlestick. The 

chandeliers — their description is one of the 
lost arts. The teacher with a greasy tallow 
candle in one hand and the Elementary 
Spelling Book in the other pronounced the 
words. O, how the young man's heart 
would throb with joy when the school 
ma'am would ask him "please snuff my 
candle?" but how humiliating when he 
would snuff the light out, sometimes inten- 
tionally. Spelling schools were the prin- 
cipal entertainments and attended by the 
parents, who generally kept g - ood order. 

The fond mother anxious to protect her 
children from disease and sickness pro- 
vided them with the magic charm in the form 
of a little sack of sulphur or asafoetida sus- 
pended from a string around their necks. 
This talisman, however, did not ward off the 
omnipresent itch mite nor the voracious 
louse. The itch was as fashionable a disease 
as lagrippe or appendicitis of to-day, but 
afforded much more pleasure to the square 
inch than either of the latter. The per- 
sistent enjoyment of scratching was contin- 
uous day and night until life became a real 
torture, mixed with less and less of pleasure. 
Its possessor was shunned and abused, vet 
heartily pitied. Xo one shared his seat nor 
played with him. He was lonely and for- 
lorn, with everybody's hand against him. 
The pugnacious louse afforded less enjoy- 
ment but was as persistent in attracting- one's 
attention to his specialty, which consisted in 
burrowing into the seal]) by means of his 
proboscis, armed with three sharp claws on 
each side. 

Who does not remember the ordeal of 
the hue-toothed comb in the hand of his 
mother, while he reluctantly and irreverently 
knelt at her feet with head bowed between 


>8 7 

The loft, and the puncheon flore — 
The old fi-er-place. with the crane swung 
And the latch-string thrugfh the door. 

her knees and firmly held as in a vise, while 
she, intent upon catching every living thing 
upon the hair or under the hair, upon the 
scalp or. under the scalp? 

The squirming and writhing and cry of 
pain unheeded, the process went on, and Tell of the thing's jest as they was — 
with unerring presure of the thumb nail pro- They don't need no excuse! — 

duced a report that sounded the death knell Don't tetch'em up like the poets does. 
of the pesterous "pediculus capitis." No Tel theyr all too fine fere use! — 

church bell's funeral toll could sound it bet- Say they was 'leven in the fambily— 
ter than that familiar "snap." Like the 
buffalo, the itch mite and the louse have 
about become extinct, and we should appoint 
a da} r of thanksgiving. 

The old "town ball." "bull pen." "sock 
ball," "three or four hole cat" and "shinny 
on your own side," were plays of the larger 
boys. Anxious to get at the ball game, 
every one swallowed his corn bread, cold 
buckwheat cake, sometimes, about "butcher- 
ing time" the meal was diversified with a 
piece of frozen mince pie. spare ribs, back- 
bone and maple syrup, which was carefully 
placed in the dinner basket by the thoughtful Blow and blow tel the sound draps low 

Two beds, and the chist, below. 
Ami the trundle-beds that each belt three. 
And the clock' and the old bureau. 

Then blow the horn at the old back-door 

Tel the echoes all halloo. 
And the children gethers home onc't more, 

Jest as they ust to d( > : 
Blow fer Pap tel he hears and comes. 

With Tomps and Elias. too. 
A-marchin' home, with the fife and drums 

And the old Red, White and Blue! 


Oh! tell me a tale of the airly days — 

Of the times as they us to be. 
"Filler of Fi-er" and "Shakespeare's Plays" 

Is a'most too deep fer me! 
I want plane facts, and I want plane words. 

Of the good old-fashioned ways, 
Y\ hen speech runs free as the songs of birds 

'Wav back in the airlv davs. 

As the moan of the whipperwill. 
And wake up Mother, and Ruth and Jo, 

All sleepin' at Bethel Hill ; 
Blow and call tel the faces all 

Shine out in the back-log's blaze. 

And the shadders dance on the old hewed 
As thev did in the airly days. 

— Riley. 

Tell me a tale of the timber-lands — 
Of the old-time pioneers : 

Somepin' a poor man understands 
\\ ith his feelins's well as ears. 

Tell of the old log house. — about 

The 15th day of September, 1834, was a 
joyous da}' for Mr. and Mrs. Francis Tully. 
On that dav a little cherub in the person of 
Rosana first saw the light of day as the 
first white child born in Smith township and 



probably the first in Whitley county. Ros- 

ana afterwards married John Krider and is 
now living in Columbia City. The first in 
the township to mourn a loss by death was 
Wyatt Jeffries and wife over the death of a 
child in [834. The first potatoes that came 
into the possession of George C. Pence were 
procured at Beach Chapel in Thorncreek 
township, which he and his two sons, Henry 
and Abe, carried home on their backs a dis- 
tance of six miles. Henry Pence and Rich- 
ard Bowhan as traveling companions made 
a trip to Elkhart to procure com meal and 
other necessaries of life and all went well 
with them until they returned as far as the 
Indian camp on section No. 7, near where 
the old bridge was. Here their wagons 
broke through the ice and they were com- 
pelled to stay over night with the Indians. 
Next morning, after many strenuous efforts, 
assisted by the Indians, they got their wag- 
ons across the river and proceeded home- 
ward rejoicing. 

The young men who contemplated en- 
tering the state of matrimony had many dif- 
ficulties to face. However, there were no 
barriers that could frustrate his plans. And 
for the lack of lumber the little cherub, 
when he made his appearance, was not 
rocked in the fine cribs and rubber tired 
baby cabs of today. A convenient poplar 
tree furnished the material for a sugar 
trough in which his babyship was rocked 
and put to sleep by the sweet lullaby of his 
fond mother. 

When Henry Pence convinced himself 
that marriage was not a failure and resolved 
to try it he walked to Huntington to pro- 
cure the necessary license. Henry, no doubt, 
had not heard of the laundered shirt, the 

ready made suit, the thoroughbred horse or 
the rubber tired buggy. His homespun and 
his home made suit was good enough for 
him to stand up in before the minister and 
declare his intentions. 

Corn, being one of the staples of food, 
was often g'otten up in different styles, one 
of which was hominy, but not store hominy, 
as we buy it today. The hominy block was 
one of the necessities of every house, or at 
least every neighborhood. A block about 
three feet long- was cut from a suitable log, 
sycamore or gum preferred, and set on one 
end. On the upper end a fire was built and 
attentively looked after until a bowl shaped 
receptacle was burned sufficient to hold three 
or four gallons. 

It was then thoroughly cleaned of the 
adhering charcoal by a chisel or gouge. 

Sometimes the man who had time and 
was esthetic formed them with their crude 
tools into the shape of an hour glass. Into 
the receptacle or hopper the corn was poured 
(generally the eight rowed or flint was pre- 
ferred), upon which warm water was poured 
and covered closely so as to soften and 
loosen the husk. After a certain time the 
corn was beaten with a pestle until the husk 
was well off the grain. The pestle consisted 
of a stick split at one end and surrounded 
by an iron ring- and into the split end an iron 
wedge was inserted. The product was fin- 
ished by winnowing in the open air or by 
a fanning mill. The hominy was put into a 
large iron kettle, properly seasoned with 
salt, early in the morning and hung 1 <n a 
"crane" in the fireplace and cooked until 

This was generally a solicitous day f< >r 
the mother lest her hominy should burn. 


The finished product when cold was cut in 
slices and fried or otherwise warmed and 
made a dish that would surely satisfy the 
taste of the epicure. 

The wool was clipped from the backs of 
the sheep, generally by the wife, and well 
washed and hung on poles and fences or 
spread upon the green grass if such a spot 
was obtainable, to thoroughly dry. It was 
then put into blankets and folded up, using 
large thorns for pinning up closely, and 
taken to the "carding mill" ran by water 

The most coonvenient "carding mill" for 
the pioneer of the township was in Thorn- 
creek township at Beach chapel. The wool 
was formed into rolls and spun into yam 
on the "big wheel" and woven into all wool 
goods or with cotton chain into linsey, which 
was afterwards taken back to the carding 
mill and "fulled," the product of which was 
called "fulled linsey." Anxious and busy 
days were then spent by the family in antici- 
pation of the new clothes that were cut out 
and sewed by the slow process of the needle 
and thimble. The gray stocking yarn made 
from the wool off the old black ewe was 
knit into stockings by the light of tallow 
dip or old iron lamp supplied with rag wick 
and fat. 

We little know of the long and weary 
hours our mothers spent in securing com- 
forts for their children while they lay sleep- 
ing sweetly in their trundle bed. 

On Sunday mornings in well regulated 
families the members took a thorough bath 
with soft soap and water, after which they 
were attired in their cleanest and best and 
started to Sunday school and frequently (as 
Uncle Joe Pence tells us) with the motherly 
admonition "to not get your feet dirty." 

Man_\' amusing incidents happened that 
ma}- not be devoid of interest. One Joseph 
Fellows, who taught the first term of school 
in the second school house in the township, 
was a Sunday school teacher. Ever}' one 
had a sheepskin in lieu of a saddle for horse- 
back riding. Mr. Fellows, unfortunately, 
lost his sheepskin for several months. One 
day Joseph thought he saw a huge snake 
coiled up in a clump of bushes and hurriedly 
procured his rifle and shot at it several 
times, but his snakeship refused to budge or 
exhibit signs of distress. Joseph's father 
armed himself with a heavy club and cau- 
tiously advanced towards the snake to re- 
connoiter, and to his great surprise he found 
the object to be his long lost sheepskin and 
exclaimed with delight, "Joseph,- it's our 
sheepskin," which from exposure to rain 
and sun had curled up into a firm roll. 

For many months Joseph underwent 
jibes and jeers of the neigfiborhood. One 
Sunday, while instructing' his Sunday school 
class and the story of Joseph being clad in 
various colors and sold in bondage was un- 
der discussion, he asked his class the ques- 
tion, "What did Joseph do?" when a little 
fellow rose up with great pride and 
answered '.'He shot his father's sheepskin." 
Joseph Fellows afterwards became a doctor 
and was killed in Ohio. 

Although the pioneers were greatly in- 
terested in clearing up their farms and the 
preservation of themselves and families, 
manv of them were not negligent in their re- 
ligious duties. Samuel Smith's name must 
be transmitted and honored as the first to or- 
ganize a religious congregation. He and 
a few other early settlers met at Samuel 
Nickey's cabin and organized the first 
church in the township. The spiritual wel- 



fare of the organization was looked after 
by Samuel Smith, Otho Gaudy and an occa- 
sional itinerant minister until 1840. The 
first .meeting house in the township and also 
the first in the county was erected at Con- 
cord, it being a log building which served 
the purpose of religious meetings until about 
185 1 or 1852. A frame building- was at 
this time erected under the guidance and en- 
ergy of David F. Striker. 

In 1S48 the United Brethren erected a 
church house on the southwest corner of 
Concord. Both of the houses of worship at 
Concord were used for the purpose for 
which the} - were built for many years, but 
they were finally abandoned. 

Schoolhouses becoming more numerous 
were frequently used as places of worship, 
at which many exciting religious revivals 
were held, to which many of the families of 
early settlers are indebted for the good qual- 
ities transmitted to their posterity. 

The women of those days were not im- 
bued with the eagerness of the present day 
to exhibit their fine and costly costumes. 
The generation to use the plumes of the os- 
trich and skinned birds, costly ribbons and 
shirtwaists with wide, flowing- and rustling- 
skirts was unborn. 

The maiden who went to "meeting" had 
abi rut sufficient expansion in her skirts to 
enable her to make a decent step in walk- 
ing. The ten or fifteen yards of material 
for a skirt of the present day was unheard 
of and an abomination. The young man 
laid by his sickle or ax and went to "meet- 
ing" clad in his shirt sleeves and "every day 
The worn out cow hide shoes 
were zealously preserved, from which were 
made buttons which his mother sewed on his 

trousers. Saturday was the busy day of the 
g-ood mother, who occupied her time in do- 
ing her "Saturday's work." This consisted 
of baking bread and pies in the "out oven," 
scrubbing the floors with sand and water, 
brightening tinware and pewter plates with 
bulrushes gathered from the -nearby stream, 
patching and darning the worn and thread- 
bare clothing of the family. The clothing- 
store or the boot and shoe store were not 
established. No doubt it is difficult for the 
present generation to imagine the condition 
our country would be in without clothing 
stores and shoe stores, but such was the con- 
dition of the pioneers. Here the reminis- 
cences of Joseph J. Pence will illustrate the 
life of pioneers as it is almost a counterpart 
of every settler. It is given below in his 
own language. 


"My father came to Whitley county, ar- 
riving November 18, 1836. We came from 
Fayette county, Ohio. He had bought sec- 
tion 19 in Smith township for $1,200. 
There were ten children, of which I was the 
youngest, being five years old. They were 
Henry, Abraham, John, Absalom, Willis 
and Joseph J. and three girls. My oldest 
sister married James H. Rousseau, who was 
on the first jury that ever sat in the county. 
They moved west and are both dead. Sister 
Elizabeth married John Vanhouten and she 
lies in Concord cemetery. My youngest sis- 
ter. Catharine, was the first wife of Michael 
K. Zorger. 

All my brothers and myself had farms 
in section 19. Four of my brothers and one 
sister lie in Blue River cemeterv. 



The only settlers in Smith township 
when we came were Francis Tulley, Richard 
Baughn, Jesse Long, Samuel Smith and 
John More. More came a few months he- 
fore we did. He was out hunting near Con- 
cord on November 18, 1836, and came 
across the tracks our horses had made and 
followed the tracks to see what new settler 
had come, blazing his way so he could find 
his way back. He found us at our land and 
said our horses were tied to bushes and our 
tent up and habitation established. The 
snow was nine inches deep. 

Some months afterward Jerry Hart- 
sock's uncle came to our hut in search of 
flour; said he had hunted two days without 
success. \Ye had eighteen pounds and could 
spare none. He went away with a very 
heavy heart and father called him back and 
divided with him. 

It was in 1838 that Preacher E. Hold- 
stock started to get married and the Indians 
stole his pony and he had to go afoot or miss 
getting married. He went on foot and 
stayed over night at Uncle Nat Gradeless'. 
Some years ago he was stationed in Colum- 
bia City as Methodist Episcopal minister. 

The year after we came we had several 
hog's and one day we heard a great noise of 
dogs and hogs about eighty rods away. 
Father and a couple of my brothers hurried 
there and found the Indians had already 
killed one of our hogs and one Indian was 
just dragging the carcass onto his pony 
when father shot at him and he rode hur- 
riedly away with a great yell. They all get 
away very fast, but though they had killed 
one of our hogs they did not get the meat. 
Father followed them nearly to their village 
on the Silas Brig'gs farm and then gave up 

the chase. After that we put a cowbell on 
the old sow so we could tell when lost or in 

Father gave half an acre of land for a 
cemetery and Rousseau's child was the first 
burial and it went by the name of Rous- 
seau's graveyard. My brother Absalom is 
buried there. There were about thirty per- 
sons buried there, Benjamin Harter being 
the last, about twenty years ago. My 
nephew, John Pence, the butcher in Colum- 
bia City, now owns the land. 

In those early days in the summer we 
cooked on a fire built side of a log out- 
doors and until it became so cold we could 
not do so, then by a fireplace in the cabin 
built of sticks and clay mortar. We had a 
tub made by a neigLbor out of oak staves 
and bound by hickory hoops, but such a 
thing as a washboard was not to be had 
till brother John split out a piece of slab and 
with his knife cut irregular grooves in it. 
I often helped mother wash. She would 
wash the garments with her hands in the 
tub and I would then take them and facili- 
tate the work by pounding them with a flat 
paddle on a block. One day I got tired and 
turned my paddle edgeways, nearly spoiling 
a garment, when my mother proceeded to 
use the paddle on me. 

Fortunate was the family who had an 
ox team to go to meeting when there was 
any and our girls would cut the wool from 
the sheep and with their own hands put it 
through every process necessary up to their 
clothing and I think they were better looking 
than 1 he girls of to-day. 

Our clothes lines were basswood poles 
denuded of the bark or ropes made of bass- 
w 1 bark, and if clothes pins were used at 



all tbe_v were thorns with which clothes were 
pinned to the pole or line. Our clothes were 
all made by hand and at home, from fibre 
to finish, and the scraps of all entirely worn 
i nit boots or shoes cut into buttons. 

Our folks managed to have coffee of rye 
on Sunday mornings and later we had it 
once a day. All other hot drinks were of 
spice brush or sassafras, the latter indis- 
pensable for a month or two in the spring 
to get our blood in order. All the sugar we 
had was made from maple trees. 

One day father and myself were drop- 
ping corn and brother and two sisters were 
covering it and the}' sent me home for wa- 
ter and the sisters wanted something good 
to eat. Mother had nothing to send but a 
piece of dry corn bread about four inches 
square. The girls were not pleased, but one 
of them said philosophically: "I have three 
articles of food — upper crust, lower crust 
and crumbs." 

Fort Wayne was a sort of market, but 
food was scarce there. We often went to 
the Elkhart Prairie for corn, sometimes pay- 
ing a dollar a bushel for it. Father once 
drove to Michigan City for supplies and was 
gone a long time. 

The first mill we bail was Hall's, in No- 
ble county, then Richard Baughn built one 
at the Barney place. I often went there 
with a sack of corn in the morning on a 
horse and waited all day without myself or 
horse having anything to eat. Once in the 
evening I was lying down and Baughn 
called: "Get up, Joey, the last grain of 
your corn is in the mill." 

I In 1 firsl time I went to preaching was 
to reward me for some extra labor I bad 
performed the week before. It was to an 

old log school house in Thorncreek town- 
ship near where Charles W. Hivelv now 
lives. I was dressed in my linen pants and 
shirt, washed clean and gallowses properly 
sewed in place and my feet washed good and 
clean. The last admonition mother gave me 
was to be careful not to get my feet dirty. 

At this same school house at a night 
"meetin' " ten boys made up to ask ten girls 
to see them safe home, and each agreed if 
he got the shake to hollow it right out. The 
girls found out what was going on and fixed 
up a job too. The boys lined up in front 
of the door and as each girl went out the 
usual question was propounded and in 
every case the response was "No." Every 
fellow bawled out. "Got the mitten." But 
when the girls found the predicament they 
were in thev recanted, livery fellow got a 
girl, but perhaps not the one allotted to him 
in the deal. 

Mrs. Lyman Robinson was superintend- 
ent and general teacher of the first Sunday 
school I attended at Nathaniel Gradeless' 
in 1841. 

The first itinerant preacher who came to 
the neighborhood was Rev. Samuel Smith, 
father of William Smith, who was about Co- 
lumbia till a few vears ago. He was sent 
by the Methodist Episcopal conference and 
preached at Uncle Nat Gradeless' house. He 
had a four weeks' circuit and preached 
every day or night at a different place, and 
I heard him say his Monday night audiences 
were generally the best. He preached also 
at South Whitley and Summit in Richland 
township in this county. Then came a man 
named Flammens, who preached several 

Uncle Zack Garrison came in [836. He 



Avas a Methodist Protestant, and was a good 
man and powerful preacher and did much 
good. His church finally played out and he 
went to the Church of God. He died some 
twenty years ago and is buried at the Gar- 
rison cemetery near Collins." 

In 1852 and 1853 religious revivals were 
in progress and "camp meetings" were held 
in those years in "God's first temples" a lit- 
tle north of Mrs. D. W. Nickey's residence. 
Otho Gandy. M. Eaton and. Zachariah Gar- 
rison and others were the local leaders in 
the dissemination of religious thought. 
These meetings, like many others of the 
kind, were the scenes of many affrays and 
disorder. Luther Nott and Christ Long get- 
ting into a mixup, Long cut Nott with a 
knife. Abe Pence, acting as the good Samar- 
itan and peacemaker, bound up Nott's wounds 
and poured on him the oil of kindness and 
induced him to take supper with him. After 
supper Pence persuaded Nott to join with 
him in keeping order, which he did to the 
great delight of everybody. During the 
meeting that evening" a drunken man came 
staggering down through the audience, and 
being unable to stop tumbled over the "bull 
pen." as it was then called, but is now de- 
nominated as the "mourners' bench" or al- 
tar. This was Nott's first opportunity to 
show his ability to keep order, and forth- 
with he took the drunken man under bis pro- 
tection. However, Nott certainly relaxed 
his careful watch over his ward, whose name 
was Ben Madden, the Madden who was aft- 
erward hanged by the side of Keefer in Fort 

About the year 1850 Jacob Brumbaugh 
built a sawmill run by water power and 
turned out a exeat deal of lumber for the 

neighbors during high water and freshets, 
and in three or four years after Alphus B. 
Gaff and his brother George built the sec ind 
sawmill in the township, on the former's 
farm, also run by high water and freshets. 
Both mills discontinued business about 1863 
or 1864. 

In 1855 Joseph Brown erected a steam 
sawmill on the site which Val Brown's mill 
now occupies and has since been owned by 
Thomas H. Hughes and Tom Jones, Doc- 
tor Gandy and T. A. Rhodes, William H. 
Hughes and Thomas H. Hughes, S. G. 
Clark, Theodore F. Gilliland and Randolph 
& Brown, the latter of whom bought out 
the former in about 1884, since which Valo- 
rous Brown has operated the mill and made 
a large fortune. But Mr. Brown, like most 
other men, met with a misfortune in the to- 
tal destruction of his mill by fire on the 
morning of June 16, 1906. He is now (Jan- 
uary, 1907) building a large mill on the site 
of the old one. 

Organization of Smith township, so 
named in honor of Samuel Smith, who came 
in 1834. originally included Union and Jef- 
ferson. Election for justice of the peace 
on the first day of November. 1837. by or- 
der of the Huntington county commission- 
ers. First county officers elected on the first 
Monday of April. 1838. who met in May and 
organized. In 1837 the population of Smith 
township, which at that time included the 
territory of what is now Union and Jeffer- 
son townships, had increased so much that 
some more convenient civil and judicial 
movement became a necessity. 

The county commissioners of Hunting- 
ton county authorized an election for justice 
of the peace and constable on the first day 



of November, 1837. Election was held at 
J. W. More's house, which is now known 
as the John Jones farm. J. \V. More was 
elected justice of the peace and Eli McClure 

John W. More was a man of more than 
ordinan- muscular strength and many won- 
derful feats are told of him. If his horse 
fell through a bridge or in a bog he only 
had to take him by the tail and pull him out. 
He was also a man of honor and a lover of 
justice and peace and it was well for some of 
his neighbors that he was exceedingly slow 
to anger. And in the administration of his 
office he was compelled by his sense of jus- 
tice to render judgment against poor pio- 
neers that caused his heart to ache. As an 
instance we will cite one case in which he 
entered upon his docket the following: 
"15th of January, A. D. 1840. Execution 
issued on the 27th to-wit : The plaintiff 
do agree that execution shall be stayed for 
one month -from this date by the defendant 
delivering to the plaintiff twenty dollars' 
worth of property which the defendant doth 
agree to do, and delivered to the plaintiff the 
following property, to wit : One side saddle 
worth $12: three quilts and one coverlid 
worth $8.00. this 27th day of January, 1840. 
February 29, 1840, received my damages on 
the above judgment.' Plaintiff." 

The nth day of March. 1840. Justice 
Ali 11 ire had a very rushing business, as we 
find that he disposed of five cases similar to 
the following except names of parties, which 
we give "verbatim et literatim," which shows 
a -cry interesting period in the history of 
Smith township. On page thirty is recorded 
as follows: "Be it remembered, that on the 
ntli day of March, A. D. 1840. personally 

came before me John \Y. More, a justice of 
the peace in and for the county of Whitley, 
and state of Indiana, George C. Pence and 
Jacob Sine, overseers of the poor for Smith 
township, and made application for a sum- 
mons for Benjamin Jones and Winifred, his 
wife, to show cause why they don't comply 
with an act concerning free negroes and mu- 
lattoes. servants and slaves, and on the 12th 
of the present month a summons is issued 
directed to Eli McClure, constable, return- 
able on the 1 6th of March, 1840, at ten 
o'clock a. m., and the said Eli McClure made 
return thereof on the 12th instant., served 
on the 1 2th of March, 1840. at which time, 
to wit, on the 16th of the present month, 
came the parties, and the cause being fully 
heard it is adjudged that there has been no 
cause shown why Benjamin Jones and Win- 
ifred, his wife, don't comply with the pro- 
visions of an act concerning free negroes 
and mulattoes, servants and slaves. And on 
the nth day of April, A. D. 1840, came 
Benjamin Jones and made application for 
an appeal on the above case, which was 
granted." On the same day at 12 o'clock 
a. m., "Wyatt Jeffries and Eliza, his wife. 
Lucinda Junes at 2 p. m., Brinton Junes at 
3 p. m. and Claborn Pompy at 4 o'clock 
p. m., were required by the overseers of the 
poor to show cause why they did not com- 
ply with the provisions of the same act. 

In explanation of the filing of the above 
suits it may be well to say that the legisla- 
ture passed a law requiring all "free ne- 
groes, mulattoes. servants and slaves" on en- 
tering the state to give bond for five hun- 
dred dollars to indemnify the state against 
their becoming public charges. 

On the 22d dav of March, 1S41. the 



monotony of Justice More's court was in- 
terrupted by the filing of a complaint by 
James Vaughn. It appears that a couple of 
men in passing through the country took 
lodging with Jacob Sine on the Goshen road 
north of Churubusco, and in payment of 
which one of them proffered a five-dollar 
bill, which Sine suspected to be counterfeit. 
But by the persistent assertions of the men 
the bill was taken and the two companions 
went on their way. Sine was yet unsatis- 
fied and showed the bill to some of his neigh- 
bors who were at his house, among whom 
was James Vaughn, all of whom pronounced 
the bill a base counterfeit. Mr. Vaughn 
went to Justice More and filed complaint and 
a posse of men was sent on to keep in touch 
with the strangers, who had left the main 
road after traveling several miles, and went 
into camp for the night. With as much 
haste as possible James Vaughn had en- 
tered on Justice More's docket the follow- 
ing: "State of Indiana, Whitley county, 
Set: Before me, J. W. More, a justice of 
the peace of the county aforesaid, this day 
personally came James Vaughn, of the 
county aforesaid, who, being by me duly 
sworn, sayeth that on the 22d day of March, 
A. D. 1 84 1, at the county aforesaid, Alex- 
ander Smith and John Adams, late of said 
county, did on the 22d day of March, 1841. 
pass spurious money to the amount of five 
dollars in one bill on the Ohio Life Insur- 
ance and Trust Company purporting the 
same to be good, and further deponent say- 
eth not. James Vaughn. 

"Subscribed and sworn to this 23d day 
of March, 1841, before me. 

"John W. More, J. P." 

On the same day a warrant issued 

against the said Alexander Smith and John 
Adams on the aforesaid charge and a sub- 
poena for one witness directed to L. Nott, 
constable, returnable forthwith and after- 
wards, to wit: "On the same day, aforesaid 
warrant was returned by L. Nott, constable, 
executed, and the bodies of the said Alex- 
ander Smith and John Adams brougfit be- 
fore me, who, after hearing the charge, 
pleads not guilty to the charge. After hear- 
ing the proofs and allegations it is adjudged 
that the said Alexander Smith is guilty of 
said charge and be recognized in the sum 
of two hundred dollars to appear at the next 
circuit court for the county of Whitley and 
answer to said complaint and in default to 
recognize to be committeed to jail of said 
county to be dealt with according to law. 
And that the said John Adams is not guilty 
and is therefore acquitted. And on the 23d 
day of March. 1841, a mitimus was issued 
direct to L. Nott, constable, March the 27th, 
1841. the said L. Nott, constable, made re- 
turn, T have taken the prisoner to the jailor 
as commanded.' " 

It will be noticed that the prisoner was 
delivered to the "jailor," there being no jail 
in the county at that time. Rather than in- 
cur the expense of transporting the prisoner 
to Fort Wavne jail he was allowed his lib- 
erty and at the next term of court was tried 
and convicted and sentenced for two years 
in the penitentiary. 

In the trial of this case John Adams, the 
pal of Smith, let his anxiety t>> tree his 
friend overcome his better judgment and 
swore that the bill in evidence was not the 
bill that his friend Smith had passed. The 
identification of the bill was so positive that 
Adams was taken from the witness chair and 



arrested and detained until the grand jury, 
which was in session in an adjoining room, 
found an indictment against him for per- 
jury and arraigned before court. The whole 
procedure was completed in less than one 

The prisoner was granted a change of 
venue to Allen county, where he was con- 
victed the following week and followed his 
companion in crime to the penitentiary for 
two years. The Smith trial was the first of 
importance in Whitley county and the jury 
adjourned to a big black walnut stump to 
deliberate on its verdict. Every man in those 
days was more or less a hunter of wild game 
and the barking of squirrels and the gobble 
of wild turkeys caused the bailiff a great 
deal of trouble in keeping the jury together 
and attentive to business. The jury con- 
sisted of George C. Pence, John L. Hamil- 
ton, John Buck. John Thompson, Jesse 
Briggs, Samuel Andrews, Joel McPherson, 
Louis Kinsey, Robert Gaff, James B. Smock, 
George Harter and Zebulon Burch. Justice 
More terminates his official career thus : 

"June 14, A. D. 1843. So ends the time 
of my office. J. W. More, J. P." 

In the year 1848 the population became 
quite numerous by the addition of new 
comers and the establishment of a postoffice 
began to be agitated. Huntington, Fort 
\\ ayne, Goshen and Elkhart were metropol- 
itan villages of the country where mail was 
received and distributed. 

The name of the new postoffice was 
seriously discussed by (lie neighbors at 
Wl'ldon Riche's house where they had con- 
vened for tlic purpose of establishing it. 
Manx names were suggested and it living 
about the time of the Mexican war. the bat- 

tle of Churubusco had been fought and won 
by the American army on August 20, 1847. 

Miss Eliza Rich, who had taught school 
and consequently was considered authority, 
remarked to the assembled neighbors, "Why 
not call it Churubusco?" So it was unani- 
mously decided to christen the new postoffice 
Churubusco in honor of the achievements of 
the American army in Mexico. 

Miss Eliza Rich afterward married 
Sampson Jackson and resided with her hus- 
band in this township for many years. 
The}- now live in Fort Wayne with their 
children. The first postmaster, Joseph 
Scott, who kept a store on what is known 
as the Jacob Sine farm, who built a brick 
house near the site on which the postoffice 
and store house stood. This was the second 
store in the township, J. B. Godfrey having 
the first as is elsewhere stated. The ox, on 
account of the two-toed formation of his 
foot, was frequently used as a beast of 
burden, and was used by the mail carrier 
in preference to the horse on account of his 
ability to travel through deep mud. mire and 
swollen streams. 

This was certainly very slow for the anx- 
ious lover to send his "billet-doux" to his 
sweetheart in the east, for which he must pay 
a "fippenny-bit" or six and a fourth cents. 

Churubusco postoffice remained where 
established until 1853. at which time the 
Detroit, Eel River & Illinois Railroad was 
surveyed and on which a great deal of work 
was done during [853 and [854. William 
Buchanan Walker about this time laid out 
the town of Franklin north of the proposed 
railroad, ami David Craig laid out the town 
of I ui. m on the south side. 

On account of the prospect of the two 



towns becoming the emporium of the coun- 
try, "William B. Walker, a Democrat, was 
appointed postmaster under the administra- 
tion of President Pierce. 

The new postmaster removed the post- 
office and all of Uncle Sam's paraphernalia 
in a red bandana handkerchief into his log 
cabin, the only house in town, and which 
stood on what is now lot No. 5, Walker's 
first addition and is owned by W. S. Candy. 

Abraham H. Krider, now of North Man- 
chester, presided over the destinies of the 
second postoffice in Smith township, sur- 
prisingly, probably to the present generation, 
without solicitation on his part. 

Mr. Krider lived on the east bank of 
Round lake, on the northeast quarter of 
section 7. Thorncreek postoffice, frequently 
called by the citizens "Round Lake" post- 
office, was established August 15, 1853, with 
Samuel Kinsev as postmaster, who came 
from Ohio and soon returned, having sold 
out his small stock of goods in Bloomfield to 
Samuel Deck, ( the postoffice going with the 
store) on January 16, 1854. 

On July loth of the same year, Abra- 
ham Krider and others were cutting wheat 
just across the road on the farm now owned 
by McConnel. He heard a commotion and 
calls for help. When they arrived at the 
place they found Mr. Deck laving on the 
floor lifeless in his store. 

He was hurried in Round lake ceme- 
tery. Warren Mason, who was postmaster 
at Columbia City, took possession of the 
postoffice and took it to Mr. Krider's cabin, 
about a half mile south of Bloomfield. The 
mail was carried from Columbia City b > 
Albion twice a week. On the approach of 
the mail carrier he would proclaim his com- 

ing by hollowing at the top of his voice, 
"Mail!" "Mail!" and the postmaster would 
jump from the log on which he was chop- 
ping and run to his cabin to change the mail. 

It being unlawful to change the mail in 
the presence of others. Postmaster Krider 
was compelled to hang up a quilt at the foot 
of his bed, and there secure from the scruti- 
nizing eves of his wife and babies, changed 
the mail. Krider did not long endure the 
arduous labor of postmaster. He sold out 
to Aaron Hyre in August and no one want- 
ing the honor of postmaster. Mr. Krider took 
the paraphernalia and mail to Churubusco 

In 1871, on the completion of the Detroit. 
Eel River & Illinois Railroad, the town 
of Collins was laid out. A postoffice was 
established and called Collins, in honor of 
James Collins, the then president of the De- 
triot, Eel River & Illinois Railroad 

This, like many other countries, became 
the resort of criminals of all grades. Noble 
county, especially, being probably more in- 
fested with horsethieves, counterfeiters, 
highwaymen and thieves than any other 
county. To such an extent was outlawery 
carried on, that a man hailing' from Noble 
count)-, was suspicioned and shunned from 
Maine to California, and from the lakes to 
the gulf. Yet Noble county was not more 
frequently the scene of the depredations oi 
blacklegs than other counties. Bui from its 
topographical features it furnished ideal 
hiding places in her heavy timber, marshes 
and tamarack swamps. It was one of the 
headquarters of an organized hand of crimi- 
nals that spread over adjacent states. in 
[856, their lawlessness became intolerable 
and patience ceased to be a virtue. Organi- 



zations of regulators were made with the 
greatest scrutiny, lest a confederate of the 
blacklegs would be admitted. 1857, was a 
serious and busy year for Noble and adjoin- 
ing counties in organizing and working out 
a campaign against the blacklegs. 

On January 16, 1858, a demonstration 
was made in Kendallville by the Regulators 
of the surrounding country. The next day, 
January 17th. active hostility began by the 
arrest of a dozen or more of the most noto- 
rious blacklegs. This was in a few days 
followed by the hanging of Gregory Mc- 
Dougal, a tripple murderer and an all-round 
criminal, on Tuesday, January 26, 1858, at 
2 p. m., on the banks of Diamond lake, near 
-Ligonier. This execution broke the back- 
bone of the black-legery. Smith township 
was represented by several of her citizens as 
Regulators, but unfortunately, by the lapse 
of time, only a few of their names can be 
mentioned. Among them were Sampson 
Jackson, James Jackson, Western Ackley, 
Nathan Smith and Daniel Geiger. The 
writer taught school in the winter of 1856, 
near Avilla, and in 1857 and 1858 in Jef- 
ferson township, Noble county, and can at- 
test that it was safest to be off the road at 

In approaching the matter relating to the 
colored population of Smith township, we 
find man}- perplexities and erroneous views. 
It has been the general opinion that those 
who were of dark skin were of African 
blood, and in funning this opinion, physi- 
ognomy stature and actions of those of dark- 
skin were not taken into consideration. 

To such an extent do we find this opinion 
that in give all parties as near justice as pos- 
sible 11 is necessary to separate this question 

into two divisions, and in doing so, we hope 
to arrive at the truth as nearly as can be at 
this late day. 

First. The original pioneers have all 
died and but few of their children are left in 
the neighborhood. Benjamin Jones, a na- 
tive of Greenville county, Virginia, moved 
with his family to Greene county, Ohio, in 
1825, and in 1835, moved to Smith town- 
ship. Benjamin was the father of nine chil- 
dren, of whom we can mention Eliza J. 
Brinton, Peterson, Curtis B., James and 
Hulda. Wyatt Jefferies, a native of Green- 
ville county, Virginia, came to Greene coun- 
ty, Ohio, where she married Eliza J. Jones, 
daughter of Benjamin Jones, in 1835. 
Wyatt Jeffries was of Indian and French ex- 
traction and the father of Augustus W. and 
Annie. Clayborn Pomp}', the uncle of 
Fielding and Dawson Pompy, came about 
the same time. These families may be con- 
sidered the original stock of the colored pop- 
ulation. Their zeal for religion and the 
elevation of themselves was manifested in 
the erection of a small frame church in 1861. 
and the establishment of a very neat ceme- 
tery nearby. The church was dedicated in 
December, 1865, by the Rev. Dr. Robinson, 
president of the Methodist Episcopal Col- 
lege, of Fort Wayne, Indiana. 

In consequence of the deaths and re- 
movals to other parts, the membership be- 
came almost annihilated, and religious ser- 
vices and Sunday-school were discontinued, 
the house abandoned and torn down many 
years ago. 

Thev were industrious, enterprising and 
moral. Some accumulated property in the 
form of real estate until they were among 
the largest landowners in the township. 



They were imbued with a moral and reli- 
gious spirit that prompted them to be good 
and kind neighbors. 

It is a significant fact showing the won- 
derful mutations of time, that although Ben- 
jamin Jones, with his sons, who had large 
families, and the Pompys, who also had 
large families, are all dead or left the town- 
ship, except Mrs. Peterson Jones, George 
Burdan and wife, and their two daughters, 
whose African blood is much attenuated, 
and three grandsons of Wyatt Jeffries. 
Mrs. Peterson Jones (Eliza Countee), is 
seventy-six years old and was born in Wash- 
ington, D. C, and was married in Fort 
Wayne fifty-five years ago by the Rev. 
Ball, a Methodist minister. Peterson, at 
that time, was a hostler at a hotel, and after 
their marriage, they moved to Smith town- 
ship on a farm. 

Second. Herbert Jeffries, a native of 
Greenville county, Virginia, was married in 
North Carolina, to Ridley Pruitt, a French 
woman. Herbert was of French and Indian 
extraction and his children in this township, 
have always claimed to be free from African 
blood, which their stature and physiognomy 
does not belie. Herbert Jeffries and Ridley 
(Pruitt) Jeffries were the parents of Mar- 
tha, Mortimore, David, Marcus, Nathan and 
Amorilla, all of whom were born in Green- 
ville county, Virginia. Amorilla, the young- 
est daughter, being two years old when they 
moved from Greenville county, Virginia, in 
1832, to Green county, Ohio, where they 
remained until 1843, in the spring of which 
year they removed to this township. Being 
of dark complexion and settling - in this town- 
ship as neighbors and in proximity to those 
who were of African extraction, thev were 

supposed to have been the descendants of 

To such an extent was this sentiment 
among their neighbors that the right of suf- 
frage was refused them until i860, when 
this family voted for Lincoln against the 
most urgent protests and demonstrations of 
their neighbors. To prevent a repetition 
of their again exercising the right of suf- 
frage, the citizens of the township elected 
Wells Smith, a republican, as trustee, who 
declared that if elected, he would prevent 
them from exercising their rights by refus- 
ing to take their ballots. 

This question of suffrage in connection 
with the strenuous times of the Civil war, 
created a political furor among all parties. 
The refusal of Mortimor Jeffries' ballot by 
Trustee Smith, was the straw that broke 
the camel's back, and he immediately re- 
sorted to the intercession of the courts. The 
case, on change of venue, was taken to 
Noble county, where it was bitterly fought 
by the best legal talent obtainable, but Morti- 
mor lost out. 

During - the trial one witness assumed to 
be an expert in distinguishing* traces of 
African blood by a critical examination of 
the hair. Mr. Jeffries' attorney presented 
to this witness a lock of hair clipped from 
the judge's head, which the witness, after 
a very careful examination pronounced to 
be African hair. 

Mr. Jeffries did not lie down supinely, 
but being more determined to secure his 
rights, carried his case to the supreme court 
and was granted suffrage for himself and 
brothers, which they afterward exercised 
undisputed under the scornful eyes of some 
of their neighbors. Mortimor Teffries 



fought his legal battle for the rights of him- 
self and brothers, as descendants of Indian 
and French. 

Two other families by the names of 
Keen, from North Carolina, settled in the 
township sometime previous to 1850, who 
were of Indian and French extraction, a 
few of whose descendants are now living in 
the township. In industry, progress and 
education, these people have been the equal 
of their neighbors and as for morals and 
religion, have held equally as exalted a po- 
sition, having many obstacles thrown in 
their path in school privileges until Morti- 
more Jeffries and his brothers achieved 
their victory in the supreme court. 

In early days the water used for drink- 
ing and culinary purposes was obtained from 
dug wells of various depths. The country 
was not drained and shallow wells were 
quite common. They were generally walled 
up with niggerheads, sometimes with timber 
and at others a hollow tree was upended 
into the well and served for a wall. 

The digging of these wells was fre- 
quently attended with more or less danger 
from "damps," which frequently proved 
fatal. A fatal occurrence of this kind hap- 
pened on the Wolf farm, where now lives 
Xai Metsker. Ebenzer Maxwell, in about 
A.pril, [842, was digging a well, when one 
morning he was let down into the well to re- 
sume liis work, lie did not reach the bottom 
until he gave the signal tn his companions to 
draw him up, which his companions did with 
all the speed they could, but unfortunately, 
just as Mrs. Wolf (grandmother Wolf) was 
aboul to grasp him by the locks of his hair 
to pull him onl. Maxwell fell out of the 
bucket to the bottom of the well lifeless, in 

full view of his co-workers. His body was 
brought to the surface by means of steel- 

About 1865, William Coulter brought to 
this township full-blooded Berkeshire hogs 
and sometime after, James Jackson secured 
Poland China and Cheshire and the im- 
provement of swine was so rapid that "elm 
peelers" have long since become extinct. 

Mr. Jackson was also among the first 
to introduce the Durham cattle. Scott Van- 
meter was the first to introduce Polled 
Angus. Through the efforts of Noah Long 
and Evan Coulter, the imported Percheron. 
Norman, Clydesdale, Belgean and Coach 
horses have been introduced for man)' years, 
so that the surrounding country can boast 
of a superior grade of horses. 

As an agricultural and grazing country. 
Smith township is superior to many and 
is equalled by few. 

The topographical features of Smith 
township may be briefly described as hills. 
some of which are abrupt and interspersed 
with fertile prairies especially adapted to the 
culture of corn, onions and potatoes. These 
prairies furnish the best of blue grass for 
grazing. These hills and prairies are prin- 
cipally confined to the northern tier of sec- 
tions. The middle and southern portion is 
level and rolling, furnishing an abundance 
of fall for drainage, systems of which have 
been inaugurated all over the township, so 
that many acres of land only a few years 
ago considered worthless are now in a prime 
condition of cultivation, 

Cereals of all kinds are raised abundant- 
ly and to perfection in Smith township. It 
is also pre-eminently a grazing country. A 
great interest in the graveling of roads has 


been manifested in recent years and must of 
the main roads in the middle and southern 
portion are well graded and graveled, so 
that we travel over the old "corduroy" un- 
conscious of its presence. 

Blue Lake, a beautiful body of water 
about one mile long and three quarters 
of a mile wide, is situated in the 
northern part, surrounded on the north, 
east and south sides by bluffs, which 
make ideal sites for summer cottages, quite 
a number of which have been built on the 
east end by Thomas McGuire, and on the 
south side many others erected by O. Gandy. 
Mr. Gandy built a magnificent cement block 
residence here in 1906, for a permanent 
abode. Blue lake furnishes a pleasant sum- 
mer resort for a great number of residents 
of the larger towns. Black and rock bass, 
pike and perch, blue gills and sunfisb fur- 
nish the piscatorian with remunerative re- 
wards. The efforts at fish culture a few- 
years ago is being rewarded by an occasional 
catch of vvaleyed pike. 

Although Blue lake has been the scene 
of joy and pleasure to many thousands, it 
has also been the scene of the saddest hours 
of man} - . On April 17. 1856, Samuel Mc- 
Clintock, with his brothers and some neigh- 
bor friends, crossed the lake on their way to 
work for Pierce Brothers. After crossing 
the lake. Samuel and Nathan McGuire be- 
gan a scuffling contest in which Samuel's 
ankle was injured so that he returned home 
accompanied by Nathan. On their return 
trip the canoe capsized and as both were ex- 
pert swimmers, each one felt content to care 
for himself. Before making the opposite 
shore Nathan, who was clinging to the stern 
of the canoe, heard Samuel's cry for help. 

On looking, Nathan saw Samuel go down 
and never to rise again. Nathan reached 
shore overcome with grief and became un- 
conscious until the next day, when he pointed 
out the exact spot where his friend's body 
could he found, which was hoi iked out of its 
watery grave by Freeman Ford. Samuel 
AlcClintock was about sixteen years of age 
and left his parents, brothers and a sister 
to mourn their loss. 

In April, 1893, Blue lake was the scene 
of another sad drowning, in which J. W. 
Powell, a popular salesman for a Toledo 
firm but living at Bryan, Ohio, lost his life 
and ex-Auditor Charles E. Lancaster, was 
only saved from a watery grave by the most 
heroic efforts of friends. Air. Powell was 
standing up in the boat and fired at a flock 
of ducks when the rebound of the gun threw 
him out and capsized it. Being loaded down 
with a belt of loaded shells and heavy cloth- 
ing, he was rendered unable to help himself. 
He sank never to rise, till Robert Dolin 
brought him to the surface many hours 
afterward, during a terrific gale of wind. 
Lancaster, clung to the capsized boat until 
his last desperate effort had about failed, 
when he was rescued just in the "niche of 

Again in the summer of 1898. a Mr. 
Koontz, of Fort Wayne, while fishing alone 
in a boat, fell overboard and was drowned, 
ft was g-enerally supposed that during an 
attack of some heart trouble he suddenly 
lost his balance ami was probably dead be- 
fore he reached the bottom of the lake. 

On July 28, 1002, a pall of sorrow over- 
spread the country around about as the 
news Ml" one of the most popular young men 
1 if the neighborhood bad met his death at 



the bottom of Line lake. Patrick Maloney, 
ever joyful and sprightly, but an inexpe- 
rienced boatman, entered a leaking boat for 
the purpose of fishing. He proceeded but 
a short distance when he found his boat fast 
lilling with water and in his strenuous ef- 
forts to reach shore, he rfell overboard, and 
being encumbered with heavy rubber boots, 
he arose and sank the third time, when as- 
sistance was almost at hand. His body was 
recovered after persistent seach by his 
friends about nine o'clock the same night 
by his uncle, James Maloney. Patrick Ma- 
loney was twenty-eight years old, the son 
of John and Mariah (Hull) Maloney, and 
had been married but a few months to .Miss 
Maud Nickey, daughter of J. W. and Mina 

Louis Turnbull, a n experienced saw-mill 
man. was operating a mill near Collins, 
when, on December 16, 1879, the explosion 
of the boiler caused the most horrible and 
appalling catastrophe that ever happened in 
the history of Smith townhsip. Louis 
Turnbull, the proprietor, and his two sons. 
Robert and Wesley, their cousin Lorenzo 
Turnbull, and Elzie Gleen were the victims. 
Their bodies were torn and mutilated beyond 
recognition, except by the remnants of their 
clothing. Shreds of their clothing and 
bodies were found hanging upon the limbs 
of trees many feet distant and scattered 
broadcast over the surrounding debris. 
I he explosion was heard for many miles 
and when the near neighbors arrived and 
beheld the horrible and ghastly scene, there 
were bul few who had the courage to render 
assistance in gathering up the mangled 
arm-, legs and bodies of the unfortunate 
victims. Small shreds of mangled flesh 

hung dangling from almost every object in 
the immediate vicinity, which were carefully 
placed in baskets for burial. What re- 
mained of the bodies was neatly wrapped in 
sheets and decently interred in Eel River 
cemetery. The boiler was torn to pieces, 
some of which were thrown a quarter of a 
mile distant, which attested its soundness. 
In the opinion of experts the boiler was dry 
and the escape of steam prevented by the 
weight of a heavy scantling, which had been 
frequently used for that purpose, notwith- 
standing the many warnings by those who 
frequently visited the mill. 

The schools of Smith township have 
always hovered around the apex of educa- 
tion under the efficient management of F. 
P. Loudy, present trustee, E. E. Stites, his 
predecessor and others gone before. The 
corps of teachers have been selected with 
care and generally from home talent. 
Among the more recent teachers of the pub- 
lic school may be mentioned, P. J. Maloney, 
T. B. McGuire, Zella McLain, Stella Pence, 
Ollie Pence, Edith Kent, Fred Metsker, 
Bulah Tulley, Ollie Krider, Bessie Magers, 
Hale Brubaker, Ed Beavers and others. The 
present corps of teachers are: No. I, Maud 
Griffith; No. J, Ollie Pence; No. 3, Hettie 
Zeigler; No. 4, Sadie McLain; No. 5. Edith 
Lynch: No. 6, P. J. Maloney; No. 7. Zella 


In the two-story brick school of Collins 
is taught a three-year high school under the 
following corps of teachers: A. R. Fleck, 
principal; Tobe J. Krider. intermediate: 
Stella Pence, primary. 

The patriotism of Smith township cannot 



be questioned when we look over the "Roll 
of Honor" and see the names of those who 
answered the call of their country during 
the Civil war, in which may be mentioned 
the fact, the population of the township dur- 
ing the early sixties was not more than forty 
per cent, of the present population. 


Bose, Philip. 
Brubaker, William. 
Craig, Alexander. 
Demony, Albert. 
Geiger, James W. 
Geiger, Jacob. 
Gaff, George. 
Geiger, Nathan. 
Hazen, George. 
Krider, George. 
Miller, Daniel. 
McLain, Samuel. 
McNear, Josiah. 
Richey, Henry. 
Rollins, Zacariah. 
Pence, Henry. 
Smith, Joseph. 
Slagle, Clayton. 
Slagle, Aaron. 
Wauerh, David. 

Birney, William. 
Crabill, Martin. 
Demony, Albert. 
Geiger, William A. 
Geiger, Edward. 
Garrison, Levi. 
Gaudy, O. J. 
Hickman, Joseph. 
Keller, I. N. 
Luthborrow, John. 
McGuire, Thomas. 
McMahan, Peter. 
Rauche, Edward. 
Richey, Lemuel. 
Pence. Anderson. 
Smith. J. W. 
Sumney, William. 
Slagle, Harvey. 
Wade, O. J. 
Waugh, Joseph. 

Those who followed the flag in the 
Spanish war were : 

Baker. Judson. Dull. Charles. 

Fullam John. Gilbert, Willis. 

Jackson, Lawrence. (Iross, Ray. 

Kronk, Charles. Knott, Frank. 

Knott, George. Pence, Elmer. 

Rapp, John. Rapp, Fred. 

Russell, Earl. Squires, Lloyd. 

Squires, Morton. Squires, Horatius. 


"Ef the tide is runnin' strong, keep a pullin' ! 
Ef the wind is blowin' wrong, keep a pullin' ! 
'Tain't no use to cuss and swear — 
AYastes your breath to rip and tear — 
Ef it rains or ef it's fair, keep a pullin'! 

" 'Though it's winter or it's May, keep a 

pullin' ! 
Ef you're in the ring to stay, keep a pullin' ! 
'Though you can't see e'en a ray 
Sun is bound to shine some day. 
Got to come 'fore long your way. keep a 

pullin' ! 

"Fish don't bite just for the wishin', keep a 

pullin' ! 
Change your bait and keep on fishin', keep 

a pullin' ! 
Luck ain't nailed to any spot. 
Men you envy like as not 
Envy you your job and lot ! Keep a pullin' ! 

"Can't fetch business with a whine, keep a 

pullin' ! 
Grin an' swear you're feelin' fine, an' keep 

a pullin' ! 
Summin' up, my brother, you 
Hain't got no other thing to do : 
Simply got to pull her through! So keep 


5 04 



In [865 Churubusco consisted of one 
store building owned by Joseph Richards 
in which is now George B. Slagles' meat 
market, a tavern kept by W. B. Walker 
in the building owned by Jacob Keichler, 
used as a grocery and bakery, a small frame 
house on the corner where the Exchange 
Bank now stands, an old shack and residence 
mi the southwest comer of Main and Whit- 
ley streets, an old frame where Geigers' Tel- 
eph< me Exchange is located and a frame 
building adjacent to the railroad and now 
occupied by Dr. Bruce Hart as residence 
and office. The dilapidated house north 
of the electric water and light plant was 
owned and occupied by Alfred Jennings and 
an old log house now where E. E. Gandy 
lives. On the south side of the railroad, the 
saw-mill run by Thomas H. Hughes and 
Thomas Jones, a blacksmithshop in a wood- 
house on the lot now owned by Ed Flane- 
gan. Anos Yocum was the blacksmith who 
afterwards built a blacksmith shop and resi- 
dence where James W. Burwell now keeps 
hardware. Grandmother Wolf lived in the 
house now owned by Joseph N. Richards 
and a small house north, where now stands 
Ed Flanegau's residence, was occupied by 
David V. Miller. The first harness shop was 
opened in this house by Alfred Hosack, who 
made his first set of harness for Dr. F. M. 
Magers in 1872. Hughs and Jones did an 
extensive- custom sawing- for the surround- 
ing country and hauled the product of their 
mill to Fort Wayne, where it was difficult 
to dispose of the hest of it at ten dollars per 

Churubusco remained in statu quo as far 

as business and enterprise was concerned un- 
til about 1870. The grist mill now owned 
by Jacob and Michael Keichler (now leased 
by VV. A. Geiger and John Deck), was built. 
A brief history of its building may be of in- 
terest. About 1869 the grist mill at Heller's 
Corners burned down and was a total loss. 
Jacob Hose and Alexander Hall came to ask 
what inducements Mr. Heller would offer 
them to rebuild the mill. They also came 
to Churubusco to investigate the prospect of 
erecting- a mill. The}' asked one and one- 
half acres of land, all the framing timber 
and stone for the foundation. Through the 
energy and enterprise of James M. Harri- 
son, ex-mayor of Columbia City, who was 
then clerking for his father-in-law. Joseph 
Richards, subscription papers were circu- 
lated by Samuel Jackson and Alex Craig, 
and in a few days more was subscribed 
than asked for. John Deck donated one acre 
of land and James M. Harrison held himself 
as security to Deck in the sum of fifty dol- 
lars for the half acre, which afterwards was 
paid by subscription. 

Dr. James McDuffy donated seventeen 
large oak trees for the heavy frame and 
others delivered stone for the foundation. 
Hose and Hall contracted with J. W. lludsel 
for the construction of the building. Mr. 
Hudsel worked for several weeks without 
pay except what Mr. Harrison paid from 
his private purse. Finally about seven hun- 
dred and fifty dollars was paid, but the 
project became more visionary and un- 

At this. juncture John Deck was induced 
to buy out Hall, who. with Hose, completed 
the mill, the first wheel of which was turned 
by Joseph Kichler, Sr.. who was installed 


as the first miller. David Shillings and Wil- 
liam Waterson afterwards purchased the 
property and sold out to the present proprie- 
tors, Kichler Bros. 

In 1 87 1 the construction of the old De- 
troit. Eel River & Illinois Railroad was re- 
sumed and completed and the first through 
train was run in October of the same year 
and Churubusco became a booming town. 
Laborers and tradesmen of all kinds flocked 
in faster than houses could be built for their 
accommodation, and in a few years became 
the second town in population in the count)-. 
It soon became one of the best trading points 
on the new railroad, and still maintains that 

Among those who took an active interest 
in the upbuilding of the town may be men- 
tioned John Deck, Western Ackley, F. M. 
Magers, James M. Harrison, H. C. Press- 
ler, J. E. Criswell and W. B. W r alker, etc. The 
merchants of the town were Harvey McCul- 
lough and Joseph Richards. F. M. Magers 
built the store room now occupied by J. H. 
Grisamer, and with William Ross opened up 
a dry goods, grocery, clothing", boots, shoes 
and drug's store about the time the railroad 
was completed. Business houses were in 
great demand and business and professional 
men came in so that in a short time it be- 
came unnecessary to drive fifteen miles to 
Fort Wayne when you wanted a piece of 
hoop iron, a suit of clothes or a fine silk 
dress. Ed Geiger, presait county commis- 
sioner, could cut your hair and scrape your 
face with a razor. 

Among the substantial brick buildings 
which have taken the place of frames and the 
date of their erection may be mentioned : 
Keller & Kahn, a two-story brick, now oc- 

cupied by L. Isay, in 1881 ; T. A. Rhodes, 
two-story brick, now occupied by Arthur 
Bros., in 1888; M. Kocher, 1892, occupied 
by the owner; Ida Forsyth, now occupied by 
Stamets & Frazier, in 1895; Exchange 
Bank, by ( >. Gaudy, in 1898; Smith Bros., 
in 1899. now occupied by J. W. Smith; Ort 
Bros., a two-room store, now occupied by 
the proprietors; S. Emerick, now occupied 
by the owner, in 1903 ; the Truth building, 
in 1903, now occupied by the Geiger Tele- 
phone Exchange ; Truth Printing Office and 
Dan Lung on first floor for saloon, restau- 
rant and pool room. Besides the above, 
Churubusco merchants have large stocks of 
goods in frame buildings. Churubusco, 
"Busco," "The Blessed City," has become 
the best stock market on the Vandalia Rail- 
road, which is carried on by Emerick & 
Madden and George B. Slagle and son 

The sawmill owned by Dr. Gandy and 
T. A. Rhodes was rushed in filling orders 
for the railroad and building material for 
houses. Land was platted into lots by Wil- 
liam B. Walker, John Deck, Western Ack- 
ley, F. M. Magers and others. Through the 
lepresentation of railroad officials the citi- 
zens purchased about four acres of land and 
presented it to them in anticipation that the 
town would be the location of the railroad 

But oh! how vague and dim were their 
ideas of railroad manipulations. In place 
of the railroad shops they built a grain ele- 
vator and stock yards. From inability to 
procure brick the business In fuses as well as 
residences were frame structures. The first 
brick house was built by Dr. F. M. Magers 
of brick of his own make in 1874. the Meth- 



odist Episcopal brick church was built in 
1875 under the pastorate of I. H. Tobey. 

The same year (1875) under the trustee- 
ship of George Gaff the brick school house 
was built. For some years previous to this 
the old school house in the south end in 
which James E. Witham resides became too 
small for the increasing population and 
schools were taught in different rooms 
wherever procurable. William Knisely 
taught in the room over Ed Geiger's store, 
also in the room over S. F. Barr's furni- 
ture store, which was built on lot No. 6, 
Walker's first addition, at which time the 
Corean millionaire, L. S. J. Hunt, was a 
young man under the tutelage of A. J. Doug- 
las. County Superintendent. W. S. Gaudy 
and George W. Maxwell taught in the old 
schoolhouse. Afterwards, W. S. Gandy 
taught a term or two in "Ammonia Hall," as 
it was called from the fact that a livery sta- 
ble was kept below and profusely evolved 
the fumes of ammonia. From the fact that 
there were different schools and as many 
teachers and their adherents a great deal of 
controversy and jangling was indulged in. 
On the completion of the new school house 
with four rooms a systematic grading was 
organized. The new school house, quite 
plain on its exterior and devoid of any at- 
tempt at modern architecture, answered its 
purpose but for a few years, when remodel- 
ing of its interior became necessary to ac- 
commodate the increasing attendance. 
Finally it became necessary to erect the two- 
n m im frame building located upon the same 
lot, Churubusco's schools have flourished 
under the superintendeucy of J, B. Hum- 
phry from [883 to [889; W. W. Williamson 
in 1889 and 1800: A. R. Thomas. 1890-OT ; 

Paul Wilkie, 1891-94; L. F. Chalfant, 1894- 
95; George H. Mingle, 1895 to 1899; D. 
Hayden Richards, 1899 to 1900; Claud 
Belts, 1900-1904; L. L. Hall, 1904-05; and 
Joe Colburn, 1906-07. Under Claud Belts 
it became a commissioned four-year high 
school in 1902. It is attended now by com- 
mon school graduates of all the surrounding 

The disciples of Esculapius and Hypoc- 
rates who have at various times located here 
are Drs. Magers. Kelly, Spratt. Criswell, 
Bimey. Modriker, Keller, Aldrich, Kester, 
Squires, Morrison, Briggs and Hart, of 
whom Drs. Magers, Criswell. Morrison, 
Briggs and Hart are at this date looking 
after the sick. Among the followers of 
Blackstone are Ed A. Mossman, Frank A. 
Brink, W. S. Gandy, J. W. Omdorf and 
George W. Keichler, and Ed C. Downey, 
Ed. C. Benward. notary public, real estate 
and insurance agent. Those who have rep- 
resented the profession of dentistry are F. F. 
Cook, L. D. Palmer and George and Sam- 
uel Keiser, of Bryan, Ohio, who visited one 
week in each month for about eighteen years 
when, in 1895, F. B. Weaver became a per- 
manent resident and dentist now doing busi- 
ness over L. Isay's store. 

Churubusco, like other booming towns, 
gave the aspiring printer his opportunity, 
and in 1876 William E. Gross established 
the "Churubusco News," which eventually 
passed into the hands of Chase Milice. who 
changed the name to the "Herald." which 
almost died "a-bornin'." but was revivified 
by Daniel M. Eveland, whose political pro- 
clivities overcame his business judgment and 
issued a "red hot" Republican paper and 
made some very bitter criticisms of his Dem- 



ocratic patrons and their "grindstone con- 
ventions." Major J. R. Harrison, who was 
just out of his short pants, while entertain- 
ing' Mr. Eveland's daughter Lizzie in the 
printing office, came into possession of cir- 
culars containing very serious strictures of 
some Democrats which we doubt the major 
ever returned. In consequence of the with- 
drawal of many Democratic patrons, Mr. 
Eveland withdrew from the field of journal- 
ism in Churubusco. Colonel I. B. McDon- 
ald purchased the plant and installed Wil- 
liam Haw and son as editors and publishers, 
under whose management the paper became 
as rabid a Democratic paper as it had been 
Republican. Haw & Son controlled the 
paper for a short time, when it passed into 
the hands of Charles and F. M. Hollis, 
whose careers as newspaper men were of 
short duration, and Colonel I. B. McDon- 
ald removed the plant to Columbia City. 

Charles L. Kinsey and Lizzie Eveland es- 
tablished the euphoneous "Sunbeam" in 1878 
and about the same time the "White Ele- 
phant," the protege of Anos Yocum, the 
postmaster, made its debut, both of which, 
like their proprietors, have "folded their 
tents" and left. 

It remained for V. A. Geiger to make a 
success of the newspaper in Churubusco. 
He purchased the "Sunbeam" plant, which 
bad been chang'ed to the "Sunday People," 
and transformed it into the "Truth," which 
at this date is one of the most readable local 
independent papers of the surrounding 
country. "Virg," as he is called by friends, 
assumed control of the "Truth" during his 
boyhood days and has grown to manhood 
in its sendee. From the proceeds of his lit- 
tle printing plant he has established a com- 

plete cylinder printing machine run by a 
gasoline engine, with all the paraphernalia 
belonging to a first-class printing office, all 
housed in a two-story brick building of his 
own. V. A. Geiger and his father, William 
A. Geiger, in August, 1902, established a 
telephone exchange with thirty patrons, 
which has at this time increased to six hun- 
dred and fifty, with toll lines at Albion, Gar- 
rett and Fort Wayne, and whose lines can be 
used to all parts of Ohio, Indiana. Illinois 
and Michigan. 

About the year 188S, William A. All- 
man, of Sturgis, Michigan, a deaf mute but 
wealthy and of good business qualities, es- 
tablished the first bank in a little frame 
building" where now stands Emerick & Mad- 
den^ meat market, "The Bank of Churu- 
busco." with a capital of $10,000. Unfortu- 
nately by the loss of the health of Thomas 
Beals. the cashier, by exposure at a fire the 
affairs of the concern were amicably settled 
and the bank closed. 

Soon after, about 1889, C. K. Hollings- 
worth established the "Citizens' Bank" in the 
came building with John Starbuck as cash- 
ier, which by the retirement of Hollings- 
worth and Starbuck was resumed under the 
same name by an organized stock company, 
composed of leading citizens and fanners, 
by John \\". Paris with William [Miller as 
president and M. L. Campbell cashier. This 
being" one of the links of the Zimri Dwiggins 
chain of banks, established in Indiana, Ohio 
and Michigan, closed its doors the last day 
of May, 1893. 

On September 11, 1893, Oscar Gandy 
established the "Exchange Bank" under the 
firm name of O. Gandy & Co.. with a capital 
of Si 0.000. The Exchnage Bank has al- 

3 o8 


ways done a prosperous business and is con- 
sidered one of our most substantia] financial 

affairs ami has increased its capital to $25,- 
000. The present officers and employes are 
( I. Gandy, president: E. E. Gandy, cashier; 
John A. Pressler, assistant cashier; Ursula 
Magers, bookkeeper; Minnie Anderson, 
stenographer, and George Gump, janitor. 

In 1872 John Deck, to supply the in- 
creasing demand of the traveling public, 
built the hotel near the depot, which he sold 
to Alexander M. Long', who for some years 
operated it and sold out to Thomas Lari- 
more, who some years after sold to George 
W. Stites, the present landlord. 

Among those who acted as landlords 
during- the interim between Long and Lari- 
more may be mentioned William Waterson, 
John W. Hutsel, Jr.. Joseph Parks, I. N. 
Keller, Fred S. Shoof and John Girdinck, 
and Thomas Larimore. who sold out to the 
present proprietor, George W. Stites. This 
hotel has been operated by Air. Stites or 
some of his children since 188.2. A Mr. 
Smedlev, a traveling man from Fort Wayne, 
was found dead in his room one morning 
with a bullet in his bead and a revolver 
clased in one hand. By misrepresentations 
the hotel became a little unpopular among 
the traveling public for a year or two. 

Patrick Fullam has the honor of being 
a boarder at this house for the longest time. 
Patrick has made this his home since 1881. 
and has paid money enough for board to pay 
for the whole establishment. I lis sojourn 
at thi-. hotel has been about twenty-six years. 

In 18X2, it becoming- necessary for the 
better preservation of order, uniform im- 
provement and for the betterment of the 
sell. mis. the incorporation of the town was 
agitated by her citizens. 

On June 20th and 21st a survey was 
made by C. P. Tulley of the territory and 
contained "one hundred and eighty-six 
acres, three roods and twelve rods of land." 
A census of the population of the territory 
was taken by Josiah F. McNear, F. M. Ma- 
gers and J. W. Orndorf and showed 786 

A petition to the county commissioners 
was presented September 9. 1882, by F. M. 
Magers, J. W. Orndorf, George W. Max- 
well, J. F. Shoaff et alias for an election to 
decide the question of incorporation, which 
was granted, and said election was held on 
October 7. 1882, at the office of J. W. Orn- 
dorf. J. I 1 .. with Charles W. Walkley. in- 
spector; V. P. Loudy and De Lavern 
Young, clerks. There were 160 votes cast, 
of which 106 were "yes" and 54 "no." 

On the 1 2th of January. 1883, the first 
election for officers was held and resulted in 
the election of John Deck, Lemual Richey 
and George W. Maxwell as trustees; J. W. 
Brand, clerk; William C. Smith, marshal, 
and W. A. Geiger, treasurer. On January 
24. 1883, the town board at an adjourned 
meeting elected the first school board con- 
sisting of John L. Isherwood, John F. Cris- 
well and Jacob Keichler. The town and 
schools were carefully looked after by the 
two boards and on May 7. 1883. in accord- 
ance with the provisions of an act concern- 
ing incorporated towns an election was held 
at the office of W. S. Candy and resulted in 
the election of W. A. Geiger, hirst ward; 
Lemual Richey, Seeond ward; George W. 
Maxwell Third ward; F. M. Magers, clerk 
and treasurer; Charles Erickson, marshal. 
Political strife did not enter this election 
and the results were a mixture of Demo- 
crats and Republicans. On the 4th of Feb- 



urary, 1886, a contract was entered into by 
George W. Orndorf, George Richards and 
Edward E. Cutter as trustees with Charles 
Byers for the construction of a town hall 
for $820, to be completed on the 1st day of 
June, 1886. On November 29. 1886, an 
engine and hose cart were purchased of 
Rumsey & Co., of Seneca Ealls. New York, 
for the better protection against fire, for the 
sum of $967. The 1st day of December. 

cent of the people were in opposition to the 

The vote of the board on the proposition 
is recorded as J. H. Grisamer and T. Ray 
Morrison in favor, and to the honor of 
Alex. B. Craig be it said, he voted in oppo- 
sition. It was not long until the proverbial 
"elephant" was on hand seeking funds 
wherewith to be fed. Troubles mountain 
high came swiftly, litigations numerous and 

1886, an exciting election was held upon the expensive with C. B. Magers as receiver. 

question of stock running at large, resulting 
in 102 voters who thought they could live 
without milk and 29 voters were sure they 
would starve if the cows could not run at 
large. The first fire company was organ- 
ized on March 31. 1887, by the passage by 
the town board of ordinance 39 and after- 
wards Frank P. Loudy was chosen first 
chief, who has served continuously since. 

In Jul}' and August, 1892, Main street 
was graveled and has proved to be the 
greatest improvement Churubusco has made, 
the contract being" let to O. Gandy and the 
gravel procured on the farm of George VV. 

In 1898 a majority of the board of trus- 
tees of Churubusco decided that the town 
required more metropolitan utilities and to 
that end passed an ordinance and entered a 
contract for the establishment of an electric 
light and water plant at a cost of over 

The high handed manner and pugnacity 
with which the majority of the board en- 
tered upon this unpopular movement pre- 
vented even a referendum and called out 
from the public the most bitter criticism and 
condemnations. At least ninety-five per 

who by order of United States court sold it 
to Josie Kingdon for about $5,000, who is 
now operating the plant. 

Churubusco is now (in the beginning of 
1907) living in the proud expectation of an 
interurban railroad from Fort Wayne to 
South Bend. The route has been surveyed 
and resurveyed with a subsidy of $10,000 
voted, and the prospect for its completion 
among the laity is good. The grain market 
of the town compares most favorably with 
any town of its size in northern Indiana. 
The surrounding country also compares well 
with the best. The inhabitants are indus- 
trious and prosperous. Many are religious 
and moral and some are "virtuous and 

In the summer of 1892 the body of Wil- 
liam Flicks, an old soldier who had recently 
received his pension, was found lying in an 
old lumber shed near the Vandalia depol 
with a heavy piece of timber across his neck 
and a bloody scalp wound. A coroner's 
inquest was held, traces of blood were 
traced to a low resort and many other evi- 
dences of a foul murder were established 
to such an extent that suspicion of a man 
was almost convincing. The case was in 


the charge of F. J. Heller as prosecutor and 
W. S. Gaudy as justice of the peace. That 
the perpetrator of this horrible crime went 
unpunished has always been a problem un- 
solved by the public. 

On the morning of April 13, 1905, the 
people of Churubusco were aroused from 
their slumbers by. a terrific report of the 
explosion in the large safe in the Exchange 

When the surprised citizens made their 
appearance upon the streets they found 
themselves held up in real western style by 
two sentinels passing back and forth in front 
of the bank, firing occasionally into the air 
and sometimes at a citizen who failed to 
obey their command. O. Gaudy and wife, 
living near the bank, were made the special 
object of their firing, Mrs. Gandy receiving 
a flesh wound on the neck while standing 
in front of her house. 

It required but a few minutes to com- 
plete the business by the two men who were 
in the bank and join their pals on the street 
and hurriedly left with a buggy and horse 
stolen from G. R. Hemmick's bam. 

After the robbers took their leave and it 
became safe to approach the building it was 
found that the safe was blown to pieces, the 
fixtures and furniture broken up and the 
building badly damaged. The robbers in 
their hurry overlooked the greater portion 
of the contents of the safe but secured over 
$4,700, which, with the loss by the explo- 
sion, amounted to over $6,000. 

The debris was cleared away and quiet 
rest'. red and at 10 a. m. the Exchange Bank 
was dning its usual business. 

The commercial and industrial enter- 
prises of Churubusco are principally repre- 

sented in dry goods, groceries, boots, shoes 
and clothing by Leslie & George Arthur, E. 
Geiger, Leopold Isay and S. F. & F. C. Ort ; 
drug' stores, J. F. Criswell & Son and Miss 
Mary Eikenberry & Co. ; groceries, Bert 
Brubaker, Frazier & Stamets, J. H. Gris- 
amer, Jacob Kichler, grocery and bakery ; 
harness, O. Deerdorff; meat markets, S. 
Emerick & Madden, G. B. Slagle & Son and 
Charles H. Long ; millinery, Mrs. Mabel 
Frazier, Mrs. Amanda Hemmick and Mrs. 
Eliza Walters; jewelers, G. R. Hemmick 
and W. E. Summers; hardware, J. W. Bur- 
well & Son and J. W. Smith ; furniture and 
undertaking, F. M. Sonday; wells, pumps 
and supplies, Elvin, Tompson & Stroh : 
plumbing, Patrick Fullam ; lumber and 
staves manufacture, Valorous Brown ; lum- 
ber, cement and lime, James B. Grawcock ; 
blacksmiths, Homer Cutter, George W. 
Sefton and Frank Witham & Charles Har- 
ter and Harris Ketchem ; livery and feed 
barns, Bair & McCurdy, Lou Long. Carmi 
E. (Tom) Richey; saloons, A. Anderson, 
Dan Lung, Joe Throp and William H. 
Wolf; hotel, W. W. Madden and C. W. 
Stites ; restaurants, Dan Lung, Mrs. Del 
Harter, John Deck; butter, eggs and poul- 
tiy, Beyer Bros., butter, eggs and poultry. 
Clyde Jones, manager; barber shops. Arthur 
Benward and Emery Geiger. 

Under dispensation the Ancient Free 
and Accepted Masonic Lodge met on the 
nth of March, 1875, and on May 25, 1875. 
the first meeting under charter with the fol- 
lowing officers: Ed. A. Mossman, W. M. ; 
Andrew Anderson, S. W. ; G. W. Fair. J. 
W. ; John R. Ross, secretary; S. F. Barr, 
treasurer; I. N. Whellenbarger, S. D. ; 
Henry M. Wyatt. J. D. ; Samuel Hosack, 


3 H 

tyler, and George W. Slagle and Charles 
Erickson, Stewarts. William Carr, special 
D. G. M., on July 29, 1876, instituted the 
lodge as Churubusco Lodge, No. 515, An- 
cient Free and Accepted Masons, with four- 
teen members. 

The present officers are W. S. Gandy, 
W. M.; A. S. Kline, S. W. ; Frank J. 
Gandy, J. W. ; John A. Pressler, secretary ; 
Jacob Keichler, treasurer; George R. Hem- 
ick. S. D. ; Pearl Sible, J. D. ; F. P. Loudy, 
tyler. Number of members, 69 at last re- 

Oliver P. Koontz instituted Lodge No. 
462, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, on 
August 18, 1875, which a few years after- 
wards was discontinued. 

Churubusco Tent, No. 113, Knights of 
the Maccabees of the World, was instituted 
April 12, 1895, with Francis M. Richards 
sir knight commander; William A. Devault, 
sir knight record keeper. 

The present officers are Lawrence A. 
Boggs, sir knight commander, and William 
A. Devault, sir knight record keeper. The 
lodge is now the owner of its equipments. 


Churubusco Hive, No. 113, organized 
19, 1900, by Sarah Eliot, with 
forty-six charter members, with Ettie R. 
Diller. post commander; Emma Pressler, 
lady commander; Myrtle Douglass, lieuten- 
ant commander; Caroline Rich, record 
keeper; Sarah A. Smith, finance keeper; 
Almira J. Smith, chaplain ; Madge Slagle, 
sergeant ; Mildred R. Weaver, mistress of 
arms; Effie K. Diller, sentinel; Ada Hull. 

picket. The present officers of this lodge 
are Amanda Hemmick, lady commander; 
Katie Ort, record keeper; finance keeper, 
Emma Pressler ; chaplain, Katie Geiger, 
with nine members. 

Oliver P. Koontz instituted Lodge No. 
462, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, on 
August 18, 1875, which a few years after- 
wards was discontinued. 

Charles G Archele, of Kendallville. in- 
stituted a Knights of Honor Lodge, No. 
2,109, on March 11, 1880. which has also 

Churubusco Tent, No. 113. Knights of 
the Maccabees of the World, was instituted 
April 12, 1895, with Francis M. Richards 
sir knight commander; William A. Devault, 
sir knight record keeper. The present offi- 
cers are Lawrence A. Boggs, sir knight com- 
mander, and William A. Devault, sir knight 
record keeper. 

Zion Temple, No. 177, of Pythian Sis- 
ters was organized October 5. 1898. with 
twenty-nine charter members under the fol- 
lowing - officers : Most excellent chief, Mina 
Nicky; excellent senior, Carrie Leiter; ex- 
cellent junior, Mary Devault ; manager of 
temple, Jennie Rhodes ; mistress of records 
and correspondence, Nettie Keichler : mis- 
tress of finance, Katy Ort ; protector of 
temple. Allie Wyatt ; guard of outer temple. 
Nora Smith ; past chief. Rose Grisamer. 
Present membership, sixty-one, with the fol- 
lowing officers : Past chief, Rose Grisamer ; 
most excellent chief, Etta Ort ; excellent 
senior, Margerite Coulter; excellent junior. 
Allie Reed ; manager of temple, Nettie 
Keichler; mistress of records and corre- 
spondence. Annie Geiger: mistress of 
finance. Maggie Loudy ; protector of 


temple, Delpha Richey; yuan! of outer 
temple, Lettie Greenwalt. 

On April 20. 1893. Ephraim K. Strong, 

special deputy, assisted by the Columbia City 
Lodge, organized a lodge of Eastern Stars 
with thirteen charter members, with the fol- 
lowing officers: Sarah Morrison, W. M. ; 
Leopold Isay, W. P. : Katie Geiger, associ- 
ate matron ; W. A. Geiger, treasurer; Mrs. 
J. A. Pressler. conductress; Eva Johns, as- 
sociate conductress; Myrtle Kent, Adah: 
Maggie Loudy, Ruth; Tilly Isay, Esther; 
Amanda Hemmick. Martha ; ' Rachael Ar- 
thur, Electa; Ellen B. Baker, warden: 
Charles Erickson. tyler. 

Present officers of the Order of the East- 
ern Star: Worthy matron, Tillie Isay; 
worthy patron, V. A. Compton ; assistant 
matron, Emma Pressler; secretary, Hettie 
Gandy; treasurer, Viola Welsimer: con- 
ductress. Edna Cline ; associate conductress, 
Ocie Hall: chaplain, Jennie Orndorf; mar- 
shall. Emma Stites ; organist. Ottie Smith; 
Adah. Veru Potter; Ruth, Jessie Sordlet ; 
Esther, Georgie Geiseking; Martha, Mary 
Devault ; Electa. Julia Krider: warden, 
Susan Long. 

Simonson Post, No. 151, Churubusco, 
Indiana, was organized March 2, A. D. 
[883. Charter members : \Y. K.Anderson. 
William Brubaker, Isaac Claxton. E. E. 
Cutter. A. T. Esterbrook, John M. Fowler, 
Edward Geiger, David Glor, II. A. Grim, 
George Gaff, Nathan Cray, D. C. Green, 
Joseph Hood, Joseph Hosack, George Han- 
nan, M. < i. Heffelfmger, Wesley Johnson, 
G. H. Johnston. C. II. Kreston, Samuel 
Kissinger, A. K. Krewson. Ira Kinney, G. 

W. Krider. E. P. Loudy, L. A. Millier. 
W. C. Moor, Amos Miller. Charles Rapp, 
George W. Stites, William Sible, A. D. 
Skidgel, Frank Stamets, Abraham Weaver. 
William Watson. Jonathan White. I. Wiue- 


Chapter 8026, Churubusco Camp of 
Modern Woodmen of America, was organ- 
ized April 2j, 1900. by Deputy W. W. Ren- 
ley, with thirteen charter members with the 
following officers: Consul, E. J. Smith; 
adviser, S. E. Brig'gs ; banker, J. L. Long: 
clerk. J. W. Leiter; escort. H. A. Cutter; 
watchman, Jess Greenwalt; sentry, Elijah 
Kissinger ; managers — C. I. Bechthol, Ed 
Miller, F. E. Long. The present member- 
ship is fifty-six and the following named 
officers: Consul, Albert Jackson; adviser. 
Log-an Killworth; banker, O. B. Clase; 
clerk, William H. Hawk; escort, Arlo 
Hawk ; watchman, Harry Scarlet ; sentry, 
Edward Ramsey ; physician, Jesse Briggs : 
managers, E. C. Jackson. Charles Harter. 
E. Bridegan. Through the efforts of 
William A. Devault the, present postmaster. 
Rural Free Delivery route No. 1 was estab- 
lished on November 1, 1900. with Alfred 
Geiger carrier; No. 2 route on February 1. 
1904. Walter T. Raypole carrier and Har- 
vey Raypole substitute: No. 3 route. Feb- 
ruary 1, 1004, Edward T. Vorhees carrier 
and Lewis D. Strong substitute: No. 4. es- 
tablished October 1, 0104. Chancy Bear 
carrier and Alfred Bear substitute. The 
present salary is $720. 



By reference to the general chapter on 
organization in this history our readers will 
get much detail information, which to give 
here would only be a repetition. Cleveland 
township was organized and named in 1836, 
more than a year before the organization of 
the count}'. The county was organized in 
May, 1838. A year before this, or, to be ex- 
act. May 1, 1837, Joseph Parrett caused to 
be surveyed and platted forty-two lots on 
Eel river, and called the town Springfield. 

Before this time, to-wit, on the 25th 
day of February, 1837, a postoffice was es- 
tablished in the locality. In view of the 
coming' town which it was understood 
should be christened Springfield, that name 
was asked for the postoffice when the appli- 
cation was made, but there being another 
Springfield in Indiana at the time, the au- 
thorities named the office Whitlev, as it was 
the only place in all the new and unorgan- 
ized Whitley count)' that made any preten- 
tions to being a village. All other present 
towns in the count}' were a dense forest. 
Anything' approaching to the dignitv of a 
town was considered synonymous with 
Whitley county. This action of the depart- 
ment did not deter Joseph Parrett, Jr., from 
naming his town Springfield, and we thus 
have the origin of the two names that have 
caused so much confusion. On the estab- 
lishing of a postoffice at the new county seat 
a little later it was called Whitley Court 
House, and Whitley postoffice was changed 
to South Whitlev on the same date, and 
this caused still more confusion. 

Though Springfield was surveyed and 
platted May 1, 1837. the plat was not ac- 
knowledged and recorded until January 9, 
1840, but in the meantime he began selling 
lots. It might have been recorded in Hunt- 
ington county, but the proprietor wanted to 
patronize home institutions and wait to have 
it recorded in the new count}' when organ- 
ized, and even when that was done held it 
from the record nearly two years. In this 
later day of abstracts and perfect titles peo- 
ple would hardly want to lake deed for a 
town lot of a town without an existence 
except a plat on paper the proprietor carried 
around in his pocket or kept in the family 
Bible, the only book in his cabin. 

However, on July 8. 1837, Parrett sold 
to Richard C. Meek inlot number two for 
sixteen dollars, and this was the only con- 
veyance prior to the county organization, 
but there were three other conveyances be- 
fore, the plat was recorded. On May 16. 
1838. a week after the county organization. 
lot twenty-six was sold to Daniel Lesley 
for fourteen dollars, and on April 10, 1839. 
Samuel Obenchain bought lots four, twenty- 
eight, twenty-nine and thirty for seventy- 
four dollars and twenty-five cents, and on 
May 25, [839, Solomon Stiver bought lot 
twenty-seven for twenty-five dollars and 
twentv-five cents. Prom this earl}' and small 
beginning Springfield has grown to be a 
fine town with two railroads, and has held 
its place as first in the count}', outside of 
the county seat. Twenty additions to the 
original plat have been made from time to 



time, though some of these have been only 
the platting of larger outlots or subdivisions. 

On the 9th day of February, 1846, Smith 
Rambo procured the services of George Ar- 
nold and surveyed and platted the town of 
Millersburgh, and on the 23d day of March 
following acknowledged and caused the plat 
to be recorded. 

September 8, 1849, a postoffke was es- 
tablished. The name asked for was Millers- 
burgh, but as there was already a town and 
postoffice by the name in Elkhart county, 
the authorities named it Collamer, in honor 
of Jacob Collamer, then postmaster-general, 
and it is now known as Collamer. There 
were ten lots surveyed. Lot one was three 
by eight poles, lot ten was ten poles on the 
north line and bent around river. The 
other lots were four by eight poles. The 
first lots were sold on February 6, 1847. 
On that day Rambo sold four lots or parts : 
To Christian Harter, lot one and a rod off 
the south side of lot two for sixteen dollars 
and ninety-six cents, and to John W. Not- 
tingham, lot seven for fourteen dollars, and 
lot six for eleven dollars and sixty-six cents. 
The next sale was November 25, 1847, lots 
four and five to Ellis Miller for twenty-five 
dollars and fifty cents. Ellis Miller had 
built the dam across the river in the sum- 
mer of 1845 anc ' sometime in the winter of 
1845 anr ' 1846 began to grind corn and 
shortly after wheat and other small grain. 
The mill and dam remain, the only water- 
power left in the whole county, the South 
Whitley dam having gone out on the dredg- 
ing of Eel river a few years ago. Millers- 
burgh, nr Collamer, though having the only 
water-power mill in the county and having 
the Vandalia Railroad, and being: in as fine 

country as the world affords, has made no 
headway and is no better town than a half 
century ago. The railroad station has been 
abandoned and it has been hinted that the 
postoffice will soon yield up the ghost before 
the march of rural delivery. 

The place has two churches, the Chris- 
tian and Church of God, and a few years 
ago an attempt was made to erect a Univer- 
salist house of worship, but on the theory of 
being saved anyhow, enough force could not 
be generated to get even a foundation. 

While the first town and postoffice in the 
county were at South Whitley, and Cleve- 
land township was the first organized, there 
were two or three, perhaps more, settlers 
in Smith township prior to the Eel river 
settlement. It is impossible to ascertain 
who was the very first settler or to determine 
the priority of several of the first ones. 
James Chaplin lived on section 7 in 1835 
and blazed a trail or road from his farm 
to intersect the Squawbuck trail in Richland 
township. This was the highway to Oswego 
and Turkey Prairie. It is most likely that 
the Clevelands, Parretts, Samuel Obenchain 
and John Collins were all settlers before Jan- 
uary 1, 1836. Joseph Creager soon fol- 
lowed. Creager and Joseph Parrett settled 
on land now covered by South Whitley. The 
Goshen and Huntington road was the only 
established road in that part of the county 
at the time of organization. The only other 
in the county was the Fort Wayr.e and Go- 
shen road in the northeast part of the 
county, though there were several applica- 
tions pending at the time of organization, 
proceedings began in Huntington county 
and concluded in Whitley. Soon after the 
establishment of the countv seat a road was 


blazed through, practically what is today 
called the "North, Whitley and Columbia 
road." It was blazed almost through in 
1839 and finished early in 1840. Soon after 
the river road was opened up to what is now 
Collamer, Liberty Mills and North Man- 

There were no Indian habitations or vil- 
lages about South Whitley when the set- 
tlers came, the villages were south and in 
Huntington county and in Columbia town- 
ship. They gave some trouble as beggars, 
but the settlers forgave this propensity so 
much different from what they had expected 
of savages. 

Henry Parrett's remains were deposited 
in what is now the South Whitley cemetery 
in 1845, August 2 1st. It was used as a pri- 
vate family burying place for some time and 
gave no more prospect of becoming the beau- 
tiful city of the dead it now is than several 
other places now obliterated. Some time 
in the same year Benjamin Cleveland was 
buried in section 1 1 , what has since been 
known as the Cleveland cemetery. We 
omit reference to the burial of that old set- 
tler on John Edwards' lot in South Whitley, 
as it is fully detailed elsewhere in this book. 
The old cemetery adjoining the South Whit- 
ley cemetery to the west was also started as 
a family burying place in that same year — 
1845. John Collins' body was the first de- 
posited therein. 

It is settled that the first death in the 
township was Roxina Chaplin, September 
18, 1836. She was buried on her father's 
farm on section 7. The first birth was also 
in this same family — Byron Chaplin — born 
April 14, 1836. 

When the postoffice was established 

February 25, 1837, Henry Parrett had a 
little store on the west side of State street 
near the bridge. The street now runs over 
the exact spot where it stood, in the Hunt- 
ington and Goshen road. The postoffice was 
installed here, in the name of David D. Par- 
rett. This rude store contained a few no- 
tions and curiosities and some staples. The 
supplies were mostly brought in from Fort 
Wayne by wagon, but were sometimes 
shipped by canal from Fort Wayne to a 
point near Huntington and hauled in. 

In the summer of 1839 Parrett sold the 
store to Arnold & Townsend, from Stark 
county, Ohio, and Arnold was made the 

In 1838 another small store was started 
farther north on the same road and did a 
good business. This was the beginning of 
the Combs & Edwards general store that 
was of so much importance to the commu- 
nity for many years. 

The first saw mill was erected by Wil- 
liam Parrett in 1841, on section 34, just 
north of South Whitley, called Wetzel's mill 
for many years. It entirely ceased opera- 
tions in 1S72. A year later Milton Grimes 
and David Clapp built a saw mill a mile 
southeast of South Whitley. 

The most important milling enterprise 
ever in the township was the Arnold water- 
power mill. Work on the dam began in 
1848, but the mill was not put in operation 
until about January 1, 1851, and at once 
the Arnolds came to the front as millers, 
bankers and general merchants and re- 
mained at the front until the disastrous and 
far-reaching results of their complete fail- 
ure a few years ag'o, which is well described 
in the article on Banks and Banking: in this 



history. For many years this mill drew 
the milling' business from many miles. The 
writer remembers when a boy of being sent 
t" this mill a distance of ten miles, starting 
in the night and arriving at the mill about 
the time it opened up in the morning and 
awaiting his turn, got his grist of eight 
bushels just after dark and making the re- 
turn trip the next night, the roads then be- 
ing entirely different from the present. 

The marriage record discloses the fol- 
lowing as the first in the township : Isaac 
H. Collins to Nancy Cuppy. December 2~. 

iN^N: John Cuppy to Nancy Hale. February 
S. 1839; A. Rambo to Margaret Collins, 
September 16. 1839. 

John Parrett began the hotel business 
when the town began taking on airs in [837, 
furnishing the primitive entertainment for 
man and beast, and even that early there 
was considerable travel and his cabin hotel 
of two rooms below and a loft above was 
often taxed to its limit, and at no time could 
a weary traveler get a room to himself with 
steam heat and bath. 



The most interesting incidents of Indian 
history before and during the war of iNu 
center in. what is now Union township; but 
it is found recorded in detail in other chap- 
ters. However, the village of Coesse, in 
which the first house was erected in 1855, 
by Ji >seph Root, preserves the name of one 
of the latter chieftains of the Miamis. In 
[846 they were removed to Indian Terri- 
tory, Coesse accompanying them; but he 
returned and died while visiting near Roa- 
noke Indiana, where he was buried. Tal- 
COtt Terry was the original settler in Union 
township; coming .-in did Benjamin Gardner. 
Dr. Joseph Pierce, Horace Cleveland and 
' leorge W. ( >man, in [837. 

Terry and Oman selected the name of 
kvnship at the first election held July 
4, 1839, at which Terry was chosen jus- 
tice oi the peace, an office to which he was 
again chosen four vcars later. Dr. Tierce. 

the first physician, had a Mr. Starkweather 
associated with him in a general store for 
some years, most of their trade being with 
the Indians, it not being an unusual sight 
to see three hundred of them in and about 
the store. Upon the death of a little son of 
Starkweather's, treated by Dr. Pierce, a 
quarrel arose between the two men. result- 
ing in a dissolution of partnership. 

The first saw mill of the township, if not 
in Whitley count}-, was built by Dr. Tierce 
111 [839, and the late James YVorden, who 
had come from New York to work fur the 
doctor, claims that he and William Van 
Meter hauled the first saw logs to that mill. 
The first steam saw mill was erected in [854 
by Nathaniel Allen and John Stagle and 
James Burton built the first grist mill, on 
Eel ri\er in the northeast part of the town- 
ship. A distillery was operated for a time 
by a Mr. Kepler in the southeast pari of 


the township where peach brandy was a 
principal output. In 1852 J!. A. Cleveland 
sold merchandise for a couple of years. 
Freeman and Fuller keeping' a general store 
on the Yellow River road and later one mile 
east of the present site of Coesse. This vil- 
lage was laid out by Peter Simonson in the 
winter of 1854, Joseph Root erecting the 
first building. Christ Rummel had the 
blacksmith shop. Very little growth oc- 
curred for ten years. The first goods sold 
in the village was by Simon Ilerr & 
Brother. B. A. Cleveland, Thomas Mc- 
Cune. F. Smith, J. H. Clark and J. S. Baker 
were among' those who have sold goods at 
Coesse. as are Luke Tousley and William 
Swarts. Kaufman & Levi. I. Kinsev, Allen 
Bros . F. Smith and W. F. Mossman. 

The first postoffice was kept by Horace 
Cleveland on the Yellow River road, its re- 
moval to Coesse being in 1856 with ]. H. 
Root as postmaster. 

Cornelia Bonestel taught the first school 
in Union in 1839, receiving $1.50 per week. 
This was in a cabin on Horace Cleveland's 
land, though the "school house on the hill" 
standing on the north side of Beaver Run 
was the first school building". Mrs. Simon 
Sherod in 1845 taught in her own home in 
the extreme northwest part of the township. 
Mary Brown. Amanda Tousley; Eliza 
Young, Cornelia Travis, George Lawson, E. 
A. Smith, Riley Merrill, Maxie Foust and 
Miranda Root, all of whom labored faith- 
fully and left strong impress for good on 
the minds of their pupils. 

Esther Omans was the first white child 
born in Union township, though it is 
claimed that David, a son of Talcott Perry, 
was born in 1836. and Whitlock, son of 
Benjamin Gardner, was born in 183". 

Henry Hull and Jane Gardner were 
married December 18, -1839, which was 
doubtless the first ceremony of this kind. 

The first death was Robert Starkweather 
in the fall of 1838. though in March. 
(839, William Clater was killed in a barn 
raising but in Lake township, Allen county. 
James Worden helped to build the first 
bridge not only in Union township but in 
Whitley county. This was over Eel river 
though probably the same year, 1838. some 
movers made a rude log' bridge over the 
stream at Akers. G. W. Oman kept tavern 
on his farm in 1837. The next year Isaac 
Taylor began to accommodate the travelers 
though it was four years later that he hung 
a sign. 

Rev. Jacob Wolf was doubtless the first 
minister, organizing a Presbyterian church 
October 15, 1841, with eight persons. 
George Walker and wife, Jacob Vanhouten 
and wife, Mrs. Vance, William Park, and 
James Pringle and wife. Rev. Wolf was a 
graduate of Harvard and naturally a man 
of finest- impulses. In 1854 he erected 
"Wartburg College," named in honor of 
Wartburg Castle near Eisenach Saxe-Wei- 
mar. founded in 1067 and renowned as the 
refuge of Martin Luther after the diet of 
W onus and where he finished his transla- 
tion of the Bible. Wolf's ambition was to 
educate young men for the ministry anil 
with Rev. A. J. Douglas as an assistant 
conducted a school for two years. Mr. 
Wolf's heart was right and to advance the 
cause he loved so well made provision to 
have most of his property go to Wittenberg 
College. Springfield. Ohio. 

In 1844 a "hallelujah band" was organ- 
ized by the Methodists under direction of 
Rev. Jesse Sparks and held worship in 



school houses till 1S57 and didn't secure a 
church of their own until 1870. Rev. Wells, 
an educated and accomplished gentleman 
and an orator of no mean ability, organized 
a Lutheran church in 1857. A Christian 
church was started in 1854 by Rev. Van 
Sickle baptizing several converts in a hole 
cut through the ice on Mud creek. 

Judge Hannah, of Fort Wayne, ad- 
dressed the first Sunday school picnic and 
the late Bishop Anthony, of California, was 
present as a pupil. 

The first candidate for congTessional 
honors to speak in Union township was 
Samuel Brenton, who had been presiding 
elder at Fort Wayne, and who walked with a 
crutch owing to paralysis. The meeting 
was held at Oman's home, his advent being 
declared by the hoisting of the stars and 
stripes on a tree still standing in George 
Oman's yard. 

John Pecker induced J. H. Clark to 
bring several paw paw bushes from Ohio 
mi horseback to propagate the fruit. His 
description of the delicious flavor and tempt- 
ingness of that delicacy being such that 
Clark's mouth watered and continued to do 
so whenever paw paws were mentioned, un- 
til in his haste and enthusiasm he tasted the 
green fruit. 

( rei irge Slagle produced the first brick 
used in the township. Making a circular 
box five feet high and ninety feet in circum- 
ference he shoveled in clay and drove a yoke 
of cattle over it until it was reduced to stiff 
mortal - , when it was molded, dried and 

Many beaver dams are still to be traced, 
indicative of the thousands of those indus- 
trious animals that must have existed here. 

Social conditions among our forefathers 
were such that there ever existed the warm- 
est community of interest. Horseback rid- 
ing was the usual mode of travel, a young 
man often having his ladv love seated be- 
hind him, though there were none of the 
ladies but could ride and easily control the 
wildest steeds. 

When Rachel Wagner was fifteen, she 
rode with her brother Harmon Beeson to 
Warsaw to attend the wedding of another 
brother Benjamin. Starting to return Ben- 
jamin's wife's father, Mr. Sapp, handed her 
a willow switch, saying "stick that in the 
ground, it will make a nice tree." She did 
so and today it is a landmark at least two 
feet in diameter, standing close to the walk 
on the main street as you go to the Penn- 
sylvania depot, making- the site of Lee Bros, 
blacksmith shop, which is just being demol- 
ished as these lines are written, January. 


In 1842 Eli Pierce, while a medical stu- 
dent in Philadelphia, married a rich Eng- 
lish lad}' who soon purchased a large tract 
of land in the northeast part of Union 
township, where they settled in 1844. Dr. 
Pierce practiced somewhat, but mainly de- 
voted himself to the clearing of the land 
and in building a castle after the style of 
an old English lord and which, with its ex- 
tensive outbuildings, became the wonder ot 
the entire region. The house had broad 
porches, sweeping verandas and huge col- 
umns, the barn being also pretentious. In 
180.2 the ruins of the barn were cleared 
away and the remains of the house a year 
later. Mrs. Pierce died in 1868 or 1869 


and the doctor fell dead at Areola in 1872 Through Union township it was at an angle 
or 1873, both being buried at Lake Chapel of about thirty degrees. One hundred and 

cemetery, it having been a portion of the 
farm. Their children were five sons and two 
daughters. Mrs. Pierce retained her old 
English customs, living in state and ever ex- 
hibiting that courteous bearing characteris- 
tic of the patrician class. Charles Hughes, 
then county treasurer, was once invited to 
dinner by Dr. Pierce, and when asked by 
Mrs. Pierce if his office was one of much 
dignity he replied, "None at all." She 
turned her attention to other guests. 

Many years ago. when the people of Ire- 
land were said to be starving to death, T 
think it was in 1846, Union township peo- 
ple were the only (Mies in the county to re- 
spond. Although the}' were poor and had 
about all they could do to take care of them- 
selves, they responded liberally. My father 
gave the largest amount, five dollars. 
George Walker led in the movement, and 
was assisted by others among whom was the 
Rev. Jacob Wolf. 

I remember well when Wise went over 
the country in a large balloon before the 
Civil war. He started at St. Louis and 
landed in Canada. He passed over Coesse 
about five o'clock in the afternoon and was 
so close to the ground that James Worden 
and Zebulon Park motioned to him and he 
responded. He crossed the county from 
the southwest to the northeast. Near South 
Whitlev an old woman who saw him ran 
into the house crying, "Jesus is coming." 

About the first of January, 1877, a large 
meteor crossed the county, making a belt 
of fire clear across the heavens and a 
thundering noise. It lighted the whole sky 
and seemed to e - o over the entire county. 

fifty miles north of here it seemed to be at 
about the angle of seventy-five degrees. 

On Monday, May 14. 1883, a cyclone 
seemed to gather and start in the south 
central part of Columbia township, at about 
five o'clock in the afternoon. Clouds seemed 
to come from the northwest and southwest 
and to meet at that point. The first damage 
was near Compton church, section 19, 
Union township. Tt tore down the brick 
church, on the foundation of which the 
present one was built, leaving but a few 
brick in one corner. Shingles and debris 
were scattered for more than two hundred 
yards. It moved northeast to the corner 
of Union township where it seemed to let 
go its force and drop what it had gathered. 
Its path was more than a half mile wide and 
it took everything in its way, stripping 
forests, moving and tearing down buildings 
in its path. Simon Akers' barn was moved 
thirty feet off of its foundation and demol- 
ished and part of his house was torn down. 
The damage was frightful. Only one per- 
son was injured, Henrv Schrader. who was 
hurt by a flying rail striking him on the 
head. He was reported dead, lint soon re- 
covered and is living vet. 

Before closing this article. I want to re- 
mark the difference in our schools. New 
branches are now taught and the course is 
more thorough, hut they have stopped teach- 
ing courtesy and manners as we were taught 
in the old log schoolhouse. The children of 
the earlv day were courteous and respectful 
to older persons but Young America is in- 
dependent and lacking in refinement and 



One of the best, if not the best township 
in Whitley county, is Washington, which is 
a regular government township of thirty-six 
sections and is the middle of the southern 
tier of three townships and is bounded on the 
north by Columbia township, on the east 
by Jefferson township, on the south by 
Clearcreek township in Huntington county, 
and on the west by Cleveland township. It 
was organized September 8, 1840, just in 
time to participate in the great presidential 
election of that year. The first election was 
held at the house of Abraham Leslie, Si"., 
and Daniel Leslie was inspector. At this 
election the following electors were pres- 
ent : George Rittenhouse, David Ritten- 
house, George D. Rittenhouse, Jr., Freder- 
ick Weybright, Adam Creager, John Oliver, 
Abraham Leslie. Daniel Lesley, William 
Leslie, Enos Miles, Jacob Ecker, Joseph 
Ecker, Samuel Braden, Reuben Long. Wil- 
liam Kates, Jesse Baugher and Henry Bay- 
ler. These men are now all dead except 
William Leslie, who lives at South Whitley, 
Indiana, in his ninetieth year. For several 
years the various elections were held at the 
house of Abraham Leslie, who was always 
ready to receive every one in a hospitable 
manner. In those days there was not much 
political antagonism at elections but a gen- 
eral good feeling prevailed. At the elec- 
tion held at the house of Daniel Leslie, on 
the first Monday in April, [845, there were 
eighteen votes polled and at the presidential 
election on November 8, 1904, 349 voters 
exercised the right of franchise in the town- 

The township was named in honor of the 
father of our country, "Washington," but 
was nicknamed "Swamp township," as at 
the time of the first settlements and for many 
years after, a vast portion of the township 
was covered with almost impenetrable 
swamps, which to the prospector at that 
time did not seem possible ever to be worth 
anything-. But now, after the lapse of near- 
ly three-quarters of a century, these swamps 
have practically all disappeared and thriving 
farms and beautiful homes have taken their 
places, and where once the muskrat and 
bullfrog held kingly sway, now r seventy-five 
bushels of corn per acre are raised. 

The first permanent settler of whom any 
authentic account can be given was Joseph 
N. Ecker, who settled on section 7. in the 
northwestern part of the township in the 
fall of 1836. He was the first man assessed 
in the township, the amount of his taxes be- 
ing' twenty-four and one-half cents. The 
following is a partial list of those who set- 
tled in the township prior to 1845: Joseph 
N. Ecker. Reuben Long, John Oliver. Adam 
Creager, Samuel Braden, Frederick Wey- 
bright, William Sterling. Abraham Leslie, 
Daniel Leslie, William Leslie, Jonas Baker, 
Henry Emery, John Arnold, Henry Shank, 
John Wise, William Kates, Michael Sicka- 
Eoose, Martin Bechtel, George Rittenhouse, 
David Rittenhouse. Enos Miles, Henry Bay- 
lor, Philip Maring. Calvin Maring. Jacob L. 
Maring', Ira Jackson and David Jackson. 

The first marriage to take place in the 
township is said to have been that of Adam 
Creasrer and Susan Stoner, who were mar- 


ried on December 18, 1831), by Henry Swi- 
hart, justice of the peace ; the second was 
that of Levi Creager to Margaret Fulk, De- 
cember 7, 1842, by Aaron M. Collins, justice 
of the peace, and the third was that of David 
Rittenhouse to Margaret Fullerton, April 
14, 1843, by John Sickafoose, justice of the 

The first birth in Washington township 
occurred about 1S43 an d was that of Jacob 
Shank, who died in infancy. His was 
probably the first death of a white person 
in the township. 

Wdien the settlers began making the first 
improvements within the limits of what is 
now Washington township their methods of 
procedure and the tools with which they 
worked corresponded with the general order 
of things in that early day. In clearing the 
land of the timber, the ax was about the 
only tool worth considering in felling the 
trees and in getting the logs ready to roll. 
A good chopper with a sharp ax could cut 
off a log or fell a tree in a less space of time 
than would seem possible to the present gen- 
eration. The only cross-cut saws in use 
were the old brier-tooth saws, the very re- 
membrance of which is enough to make an 
old settler have the backache. There were 
few men who would not rather chop off a 
log than to help saw it off with a saw of 
that description. A tree intended for saw 
logs was chopped down, butted off with the 
ax and chopped off at the top and the saw 
was only used to cut the body of the tree 
into sections. Sawing down trees was not 
known until many years later. 

Oxen were used almost exclusively in 
squaring the logs ready for the log heaps. 
The plows were rude affairs. In plowing 

new ground the one side shovel plow was 
generally used to scratch up the soil among 
the roots. Corn was dropped by hand and 
covered with a hoe and in cultivating the 
shovel plow was used, but the hoe was more 
to be depended upon than the plow in keep- 
ing the weeds in check among the stumps. 
All grain was cut with sickles or cradles and 
bound by hand. Grass was cut with scythes, 
raked up by hand and the only use for horses 
in making hay was to haul it to the barn or 

Jacob L. Maring relates his experience 
in taking care of a field of wheat soon after 
becoming a resident of Washington town- 
ship in 1844. After the wheat had been cut 
and shocked he and his father, Philip Mar- 
ing, cut two poles about ten feet long and 
laid them on the ground about two