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Full text of "History of Wichita and Sedgwick County, Kansas, past and present, including an account of the cities, towns and villages of the county"

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HISTORY OF WICHITA 

AND 

SEDGWICK COUNTY 



KANSAS 



PAST AND PRESENT 

INCLUDING AN ACCOUNT OF THE CITIES, TOWNS 
AND VILLAGES OF THE COUNTY 



EDITOR-IN-CHIEF 

HON. O. H. BENTLEY 



Vol. I 



Illustrated 



1910 

C. F. COOPER & CO. 

CHICAGO 



THE HISTORY OF 
SEDGWICK COUNTY. KANSAS 

To the hardy pioneers of a great county, whose early hard- 
ships, fortitude and patience has made the desert to blossom like 
the rose and whose enterprise and faith has builded in the great 
American desert a peerless city and converted the erstwhile 
favorite feeding-ground of the buffalo into fruitful farms, with 
grateful acknowledgments to the gifted contributors, whose 
facile pens have so much embellished these pages, and especially 
to the press of Sedgwick county, which has proven a fund of 
reliable information; and more especially to that noble woman, 
Mrs. J. R. Mead, and that eminent lawyer and savant, Kos 
Harris, this History of Sedgwick County is affectionately 
inscribed, by 

ORSEMUS H. BENTLEY, 
The Editor-in-Chief. 



INTRODUCTION 

Few counties of the United States possess the stirring and 
romantic history that attaches to Sedgwick county. None has 
within such a short period of time achieved the fame and acquired 
the commanding commercial importance as the City of Wichita. 
Within the span of two generations, within the memory of men 
who are still in the prime of life, the wilderness has been trans- 
formed and a rich and thriving community has taken the place 
where once the Indians roamed at will and hunted the wild game, 
with which the prairies were so plentifully stocked. Nature 
provided the ideal site for the creation of such a city. But it 
was the work of man to build it, and few of those who now 
enjoy the benefits of their work have any adequate conception 
of the difSeulties and hardships that the pioneers of Sedgwick 
county had to surmount. The builders of Wichita were men of 
indomitable perseverance. They were men who were endowed 
with prophetic vision. Unless they had been possessed of all 
these traits of character the city of Wichita would never have 
come into existence. They were able to forecast the future with 
a certainty that can only be characterized as marvelous, in view 
of the fulfilment of their predictions. They were laughed at as 
dreamers of dreams; they were scoffed at as visionaries. They 
were held up to ridicule, but the sturdiness and virility of these 
pioneers at last won the day for their cause, and the scoffers 
in time became the zealous converts and the active co-workers of 
the men they had ridiculed. JL3900S0 

To adequately write the history of Sedgwick county has been 
a work encompassed with tremendous difficulties. It has necessi- 
tated laborious investigation and research, and the cooperation 
of many of the oldest citizens. Of the history of the city itself, 
there is ample material to be obtained from the pioneers of the 
sixties and seventies. Many of these have long since passed to 
the other side, but they have left that record of their time. 
Still others are yet living, ripe in years and experience, but 
with a vivid recollection of the early days of the city's building 



iv IXTEODUCTIOxV 

and a keen interest in relating the experiences of those epochal 
days. The stories of these pioneers form an indispensable and 
one of the most interesting parts of the present work. They 
possess also the additional value of authenticity. There is 
nothing of legend or tradition about their narratives. They are 
the plain, unvarnished tales of men and women, who bore the 
heat and burden of those days of trying endeavor, who endured 
almost incredible hardships, who never lost faith in the future 
greatness of their city and county, and many of whom still live 
to exult in its beauty and progress and to prophesy that the 
astounding development of today is but the forerunner of still 
greater things to come. 

■ And who shall venture to assert that they are not right and 
justified in these predictions? Marvelous as have been the devel- 
opments of the past, what finite mind will set the barrier at which 
progress shall cease? The commerce which has made Wichita 
the greatest shipping point in the Southwest will not dwindle 
as the years pass. The wealth of the inconceivable I'ichness of 
the soil in Kansas, and Sedgwick county in particular, will con- 
tinue, for ages to come, to pour a flood of riches through this 
natural gateway. The thousands of acres of the choicest farm- 
ing lands in the world which the county possesses will in time 
form the homes of many hundreds of thousands of people, all 
of whom will contribute their moiety to the progress of the 
city of Wichita. The great Southwest will, year by year, send 
an ever increasing stream of its varied products to the city, there 
to be distributed to the markets of the world. The flood of 
commerce between the Orient and the East which will grow 
by leaps and bounds in the future, will always seek the city, 
because of its unrivalled transportation facilities. The unparal- 
leled advantages which the city has to offer for manufacturing 
will in time make it one of the great industrial communities of 
the West. Here are all the essential conditions for the building 
of a great city, and with them nothing can stop its future growth 
and progress. 

When Wichita sprang into being forty years ago, it was the 
only settlement in Sedgwick county. Today there are a score 
of more of villages within a radius of twenty-five miles of the 
city, and this development of the county is no less marvelous 
than that of the city. These cities are a part of the exploitation 
of the agricultural resources of the county, but they are not 



INTKODUCTIOX v 

mere camps. They are built to stay. They are cities in every 
sense of the word. Their schools and churches are equal to 
those of any city of the land. Their public buildings, residences 
and streets are metropolitan iu character. They enjoy all the 
luxuries and refinements of life, with a climate that is ideal in 
character. These cities are progressive, alert, gifted with a fine 
sense of civic pride, and steadily forging ahead to a greater 
development. In time they will become the commercial centers 
of the great and rich agricultural country and productive farms. 
The supremacy which Sedgwick coimty now enjoys, of being the 
richest county, agriculturally, of the state, is solely because of 
the unequaled richness of its soil for agricultural purposes. 

The publishers of the history desire to acknowledge the 
cordial and valuable assistance which has been accorded them 
in its coBipilation by many citizens of Wichita and Sedgwick 
county. It has been a help deeply appreciated, and deserves 
due recognition. Among those to whom thanks are due are the 
Eagle and the Beacon, whose store of valuable historical collec- 
tions have been freely drawn upon, as well as the many 
eonrtibutors whose names head their contributions. 



NOTE 

All the biographical sketches published in this history were 
submitted to their respective subjects, or to the subscribers from 
whom the facts were primarily obtained, for their approval or 
correction before going to press, and a reasonable time was 
allowed in each case for the return of the typewritten copies. 
Most of them were returned to us within the time allotted, or 
before the work was printed, after being corrected or revised, 
and these may therefore be regarded as reasonably accurate. 

A few, however, were not returned to us, and, as we have 
no means of knowing whether they contain errors or not, we 
' can not vouch for their accuracy. In justice to our readers, 
and to render this work more valuable for reference purposes, 
we have indicated these uncorrected sketches by a small asterisk 
(*), placed immediately after the name of the subject. 

C. P. COOPER & CO. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTEE I. The City of Wichita 1 

Favorably Located. The Second City in the State. The Sur- 
rounding Country of Unsurpassed Fertility. A Wholesale and 
Jobbing Center of Vast Importance. Two Hundred and Thirty 
Manufacturing Concerns. Bank Deposits and Clearing. The 
Union Stock Yards. The Grain and Milling Business. Street 
Eailway System. Public Buildings. School Buildings. Natural 
Gas. Hospital. Sewer System and Drainage Canal. 500 
"Knights of the Grip." Substantial Growth of the City. 

CHAPTER II. Eakly History op Wichita 6 

Origin of Name. Town Platted and Surveyed by Chartered Com- 
pany in 1868. The Old Time Business Center. "Durfees 
Ranch. ' ' Wichita 's Early Merchants. Some Noted Characters of 
the Pioneer Days. The First Lecture Course in Wichita. Some 
Pioneer Women of Wichita. The First White Child Bom in the 
County. First Religious Services. The First Church Edifice. In- 
corporated in 1870. First Town Officers. In 1872 Made a City 
of the Second Class. The Big Toll Bridge. The Cattle Drive 
from the Texas Plains. The Spirit of '72. Will Somebody Start 
SometMng. First City Officers of Wichita, 1872. First^ County 
Officers of Sedgwick County. Thirteen Mayors in Thirty-nine 
Years. 

CHAPTER III. Wichita as a Commercial and Manufacturing 

Center 16 

The "Peerless Princess of the Southwest." Some Items of Some 
Interest. A Summary of What Wichita Has Done and is Doing 
Now. The Outlook. Commercial and Industrial Interests in Order 
of Importance. Wholesale and Jobbing. Live Stock and Meat Pack- 
ing. Grain and Milling. Selling Broom Corn and Manufacturing 
Brooms and Miscellaneous Manufacturing. Wichita as a Home Town 
and Some Reasons Why. Wichita 's Flour Production. Wichita Job- 
bing Business Totals Forty Millions a Year. Lumber Trade of 
Wichita. List of Manufacturing Establishments. Wichita Has 
These. A World Market for Broomcorn. A Few of the Many 
Big Things That Wichita is Doing Now. Contractors and 
Craftsmen Help Make a Greater Wichita. Wichita Bank Taxes 
in 1910. The Why of Wichita's Greatness as a Railway and Job- 
bing Center. A Few Big Things Wichita Has. Property Values 
in Wichita. Interesting Facts Concerning Wichita. January, 
1910, in Wichita, Kansas. February, 1910, in Wichita, Kansas. 
The Wichita Grain Market. A Great Motor Car Center. The 
Wichita Railroad & Light Company. Lumber and Building 
Materials. The Sash afld Door Industry in Wichita. Wichita: 
Some Idea of the Importance of the City. Roster of City Officers 
of Wichita, Kansas, 1910. Wichita Fire Department. 

vii 



viii CONTEXTS 

CHAPTER IV. The Wichita Chamber op Commerce 

Was Organized in 1901. First Officers and What They Accom- 
plished. Later Achievements. Social Features. Number of ilem- 
bers and Directors. A Business-Social Center and the Civic 
Center of Wichita. The New Location in the Beacon Block. 

CHAPTER V. Board of Trade and How it Grew 

The Trade Getters. Personnel of Officers and Members and the 
Firms They Represent. Something About the Importance of 
Wichita Grain Trade. 

CHAPTER VI. The Commercial Club and Commercial League 

Date of Organization. The Successes of the Coronado Club. The 
Promoters, Directors, First Officers. Some of the Big Things They 
Have Accomplished. The New Home of the Club. Some of 
the Live Wires Past and Present. The Present Board of 
Directors. The West Wichita Commercial League. The Young- 
est Commercial Body, but One of the Most Active. Have Accom- 
plished Much in a Short Time and are Planning iluch for the 
Future. Something About West Wichita of Interest to the Man- 
ufacturer and Home Builder. The Men Who are Making the 
League Go. 

CHAPTER VII. The Wichita Water Company 

An Unique and Efficient System. The Water Pure and Inex- 
haustible. A Modern Plant and Accessories. Analysis of the 
Water. 

CHAPTER VIIL The Wichita Land Office 

Its Early History. Its Officers, Clerks and Attorneys. Discrip- 
tion and Classification of Lands. Name of Land District. A 
Roster of Registere and Receivers of Wichita Land Office. Editor 's 
Note. 

CHAPTER IX. The Banks of Wichita 

The Arkansas Valley Bank. The Wichita Bank. The Wichita 
Savings Bank. The Kansas National Bank. The Kansas State 
Bank. The Citizens' Bank. The Bank of Commerce. Editor's 
Note. The West Side National Bank. The American State 
Bank. The National Bank of Commerce. The Commercial Bank. 
The State Savings Bank. The Citizens' State Bank. The Na- 
tional Bank of Wichita. The Gold Savings State Bank. The 
Stock Yards State Bank. The Merchants' State Bank. The 
Wichita State Bank. The Union Stock Yards National Bank. 
Tvrelve Million Dollars in Wichita Banks. The Country Banks 
of Sedgwick County. The Growth and General Prosperity. The 
Farmers' State Bank of Sedgwick. The Sedgwick State Bank. 
Valley Center State Bank. State Bank of Kechi. Farmers' 
State Bank of Mulvane. Mulvane State Bank. Home State 
Bank of Clearwater. The State Bank of Clearwater. Viola 
State Bank. Cheney State Bank. Citizens' State Bank of Cheney. 
State Bank of Garden-Plain. Goddard State Bank. Farmers' 
State Bank of Mt. Hope. First National Bank of Mt. Hope. 
Andale State Bank. State Bank of Colwick. The State Bank 
of Bentley. 

CHAPTER X. Wichita Postoffice 

Two Hundred and Fifteen Persons Required to Give Us 'MaO. 
Rapid Increase in Postoffice Business ; Thorough Organization 
and Office Force. Records Showing Growth. The Rural Delivery. 
Thirty-six Rural Routes. Nine of Them from Wichita. Post 
Master and Employes of Wichita Postoffice. Railway Mail 
Service. 



CONTENTS ix 

CHAPTER XI. Meaning or the Word ' ' Wichita " Ill 

A Controversy Between Local Historians and an Irishman. The 
Question is Now Regarded as Settled. 

CHAPTER XII. The Drill Hole at Wichita 113 

The Log of the Well. 

CHAPTER XIII. Wichita's Industrial History — In the Beginning 115 
In 1835. Some Pioneer Traders. The Arrival of the Wichita 
Traders' Merchandise. Credit to the Eedmen. Traders' Credit 
Unlimited. Walnut Grove. The Law of the Plains. At Cow- 
skin Grove. 

CHAPTER XIV. The Little Arkansas 121 

From 1859 to 1862. Some Word Painting of the Beauties of the 
Valley. The Santa Fe Trail. The Great Osage Trail. The Great 
Herds of Buffalo. Their Summer Home. The First Attempt at 
Settlement. The Indian Settlers of 1863. Jesse Chisholm. The 
Treaty of the Little Arkansas. Kit Carson. Indian War Rumors. 
The Cholera Plague of 1867. Sheridan's Campaign of 1868. 
Some Good Tndians and Some Bad White Men. 

CHAPTER. XV. A Lawyer's Reveries of the Times When Wichita 

WAS IN the Gristle 132 

Prefatory. A Biography of the Brain. Some Early Scenes and 
Incidents. A Cherished Hope. An Early Survey of the Legal 
Profession in Wichita. Reminiscences of the Bar and Other Bars 
of Wichita. Duglas Avenue and North Main Street. A Few of 
the Noted Men of the Early Days of Wichita. One Thrifty 
Lawyer. The First Duel in Wichita. Jupiter vs. the Bull. The 
Arrest and Trial and Escape of Jesse James. An Aesthetic 
Drunk. The Migrating Christy Asphodel of the Bar. 

CHAPTER XVI. Baron Jags in Wichita 164 

How He Produced ' ' Our American Cousin ' ' with Local Talent 
—By One of the "Talent." "Through Tattered Clothes Small 
Vices Appear." The Star and the Best of the Cast. "The 
American Cousin. " " Earl of Jim Jams. " " Height of a 
Diamond to the Depth of a Pawn Ticket." 

CHAPTER XVII. Wichita Presbyteeianism and its Amenities .... 172 
As seen by a Local Goat. First Acquaintance with the Faith. 
Description of First Meeting Places. The Rev. Mr. Harsen. 
Early Membership. Some Wrap Holders. Some Recollections 
and Annals of the Church. 

CHAPTER XVIII. The Board or Trade of Wichita AND Herein 180 

Some of the Early Trades and Why They Were Made. Greiffen- 
stein vs. the North End. Some Events and Who Caused Them. 
Wichita Gets Railroads and Other Things. The Boom is Started. 
More Railroads. Poker and Pap. 

CHAPTER XIX. The Street Railway— A. D. 1883 194 

Jim Steele 's Last Work for Wichita. First Officers and General 
Make-up. A Money Maker From the Start. 

CHAPTER XX. Chronicles 196 

Some Railroad History of 1885. Jay Gould Comes on the 
Scene. The Wichita and Colorado Railroad. Reorganized Board 
of Trade. The Burton Car Works. "Don't Issue Bonds; Draw 
on Us for Amount Required — Wichita Board of Trade." The 
Dold Packing House. Much Oratory and Many Subscriptions. 
General Insolvency. Wichita Egotism. The Oklahoma Boom. 
Recapitulation. Retrospection and Prognostication. Hindsight 
and Foresight. A. D. 1910. 



X COXTENTS 

CHAPTEE XXI. Eeview of City 230 

Some Deductions and Suggestions. Wichita First Euled by a 
Board of Trustees. The First Three Ordinances. Jim Hope's 
Administration. George Harris' Administration. Greiffenstein 's 
Administration and a Pen Portrait of that Illustrious Dutchman. 
Joe Allen 's Administration. George W. Clement 's Administration. 
John B. Carrey's Administration. J. M. Cox, the Seventh Mayor. 
Finley Eoss; the Park Administration. Ben McLean's Adminis- 
tration. Ben Aldrich of Boom Times. Some of the Occur- 
rences of This Time. The Bock Island Depot. 

CHAPTEE XXII. Eeminiscencks op a Briefless Barrister 249 

Some Eeeollections and Confessions. Don Carlos Jaundaro. A 
Stern Prosecutor and My Destiny. 

CHAPTEE XXIII. Historical Address by Attorney Kos Harris, 

December 9, 1903 256 

An Exordium to be Eemembered. 

CHAPTER XXIV. Old New York Block — Schweiter Corner — 

A Narrative op Early Wichita r. 264 

The Halcyon Days of Wichita. Wichita's First Circus. Keno 
Eoom Described. .Jim Steele as a Fire Hero. A Case Where 
Justice and Liberty Interfered with Trade and Commerce. A 
Prophetic Quotation from "Dutch Bill." Old Time Law Firms. 
Some of the Belles of this Period. A Gorgeous Law Office. 
Bequeathing an Office. 

CHAPTER XXV. The Legend op John Farmer 273 

An Incident of Pioneer Justice Wherein a Friendless Irish Boy 
Encountered the Gray Wolves. 

CHAPTER XXVI. William Mathewson— Buppalo Bill— Last of 

THE Old Scouts 276 

The Last of the Old Scouts. A Vivid Description of Buffalo Bill 
from the Beacon. His Ancestry, Birth and Some of His Early 
Adventures. In 1849 with the Northwestern Fur Co. In 1852 with 
the Bent-St. Varin Co. He Conquers Satana " Sinpah Zilbah." 
The Terrible Winter of 1860-1861. Saving the Settlers' Lives 
and Earning His Title. Incidents of 1864. His Personal Bravery 
Saves a Wagon Train from Destruction. A Military Blunder 
and the Consequences. Mathewson Selected as a Sacrifice. He 
Makes Peace with the Warring Kiowa. He Rescues Women and 
Children from the Indians. A Pleasant Surprise at Leavenworth. 
Preempted His Homestead in 1868, Now the Heart of Wichita. 

CHAPTEE XXVII. Some Well-Known People 295 

Wichita's Mayor. Wichita Hay Man Has Become "Hay King of 
Kansas." Yank Owen. William Greiffenstein, "The Father of 
Wichita." A Sketch of His Life. Abram Burnett, His Father- 
in-law. Doc Warrall. The Pioneer Eural Mail Carrier, W. L. 
Appling. Remembrances of His First Trip. The Oldest Mail 
Carrier in Wichita is George Chouteau. E. B. Walden. Oremus 
Hills Bentley, the Editor-in-chief of this Work. W. R. Stubbs, 
Governor. Mrs. L. S. Carter. 

CHAPTER XXVIII. Some Prominent Buildings in Wichita 309 

New Buildings Worth Two Millions in the First Four Months of 
1910. The figures for the first four months of the year. "The 
Mathewson." Mrs. Grant Bradshaw Hatfield. The Interesting 
Romance of Wichita's First Skyscraper. The New Beacon Build- 
ing. Brief History of Beacon Block. The Schweiter Block. 
Wichita 's Forum. The Address of Governor W. R. Stubbs at the 
Laying of the Corner-stone of the Beacon Building. 



CONTENTS xi 

CHAPTER XXIX. Wichita an Important Educational Center. 325 

Wichita Public Schools. The Public Schools of Sedgwick County. 
The Superintendent's Report. Rural Schools are Growing. The 
Cheney High School and the Clearwater High School. Fifteen 
Thousand Two Hundred and Twenty-five School Kids in Sedgwick 
County. The Wichita City Schools. First School in 1871. Mrs. 
James Black, Teacher. Personnel of Wichita's School Boards. 
Wichita's High School. In 1874 Prof. B. C. Ward Organized 
the First High School. The Departments and Training. Grade 
Schools. School Property. The Board of Education. Enrollment 
in the Ward Schools. Razing of Webster School Building. 

CHAPTER XXX. Colleges and Universities 340 

Friends University. History of Fairmount College. Mount 
Carmel Academy. 

CHAPTER XXXI. The Pioneer Churches op Wichita, Kan 361 

Episcopal Church. First Presbyterian. The M. E. Church. The 
First Baptist. Monuments to the Past. Wichita's First Church. 
The Rev. J. P. Hilton, the First Pastor. The Exterior and In- 
terior of the Church. The Vestrymen. An Incident Showing 
Their Character. Wichita's Churches of Today. The Young 
Men's Christian Association. Board of Directors. Officers. The 
Salvation Army Barracks. 

CHAPTER XXXII. City Federation op Clubs 385 

Hypatia Club. Twentieth Century Club. Fairmount Library 
Club. The South Side Delvers. Wichita Musical Club. Eunice 
Sterling Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution. 

CHAPTER XXXIII. Fraternal Orders 390 

York Rite Masonry. Wichita Lodge, No. 99, A. F. & A. M. 
Sunflower Lodge, No. 86, A. F. & A. M. Albert Pike Lodge, No. 
303, A. F. & A. M. Ivy Leaf Chapter, Order Eastern Star. 
Wichita Chapter, No. 33, Royal Arch Masons. Capitular Masonry, 
Wichita Chapter. The Scottish Rite in Wichita. Review of 
Wichita Bodies. Mount Olivet Commandery, No. 12. Scottish 
Rite Masonry. The Mystic Shrine. Kansas Masonic Home and 
Chapel. Jeremiah Giles Smith. Other Fraternal Orders. Trades 
and Labor Organizations in Wichita. Brotherhood of Railway 
Trainmen, Wichita Lodge, No. 356. Ladies' Auxiliary, Peerless 
Prince Lodge, No. 349, B. of R. T. Order of Railway Con- 
ductors, Wichita Division No. 338. Peerless Princess Division, 
No. 221, Ladies' Auxiliary of O. R. C. 

CHAPTER XXXIV. The Medical Profession in Wichita 415 

Wichita Hospital. 

CHAPTER XXXV. Scraps op Local History 41S 

Park City and Wichita and their Astonishing Contest. An Awful 
Election. The Countess. A Tragedy and a Romance of Park City. 
The Pioneer Real Estate Dealers. Circus Day in Sedgwick 
County. The Northwest Corner. The Arkansas River. The 
Struggles of the Early Business Men. A Little Reminiscence of 
the Days When Wichita Was Young — Inspired by Looking at the 
Beacon Building. Thoughts of Helping Wichita. The Main 
North and South Street of Wichita. The Old Munger House, the 
First House in Wichita. A Frontier Incident. Local Conditions. 
The Population of Wichita, Sedgwick County, and the State of 
Kansas. Tags. First Impressions were Lasting. Wichita's First 
Daily Newspaper. The Stage Coach Period of Wichita. The 
Story of the Peerless Princess. An Old Landmark. The Heart 



xii CONTEXTS 

of Wichita. The Little Arkansas Eiver. The Wichita Boom. 
The McKnight Land. The Drainage Canal. The House in the 
Park. Wichita Sees Her Vision and Smiles. Versatile Preacher 
of Pioneer Days. The Charity of Wichita Citizens. Theaters 
in Wichita. The New Auditorium. Crawford Theater. Elite 
Theater. Marple Theater. The Novelty Theater. Orpheum Theater 
(vaudeville). The Princess Theater (vaudeville). Yale Theater. 
"Ida May" a Victim of Cowboy Sport. The Fuel Problem Per- 
plexed Pioneers. Farmers Brought Wheat Many Miles to Wichita. 
Sedgwick Home Lumber Hauled from Emporia. The Trend 
of Business. Sedgwick County Pays its Full Share of Taxes. The 
Benefactions of Tom Shaw. Kos Harris. 

CHAPTER XXXVI. An Early Incident of Wichita 

Judge S. M. Tucker Subdues Hurricane Bill. Mathewson's 
Pasture. 

CHAPTER XXXVII. The Press 

The Founding of the Beacon. Introducing Mr. D. G. MDlison. His 
Narrative. He and His Good Wife Entertain a Distinguished 
Journalist. Mr. Millison Visits Wichita and His Former Guest 
Reciprocates. Is Royally Entertained. But Does Not Buy. 
Has a Parting Feast with His Host. And Meets F. A. Sowers. 
Result the Beacon was Born Oct. ISth, 1872. The Beacon is 
Thirty-eight. How the Beacon was Named. Subsequent History. 
History of the ' ' Wichita Eagle, ' ' Is the History of Wichita. 
Is Thirty-nine Years Old. Naming the ' ' Eagle. ' ' Colonel Mur- 
dock 's Joke. The First Subscriber. The Policy of the ' ' Eagle ' ' 
Has Always Been Agriculture, Commerce and Industry. Becomes 
a Daily in 1884. Always Broad, Liberal and Clean. The New 
Home of the ' ' Eagle. ' ' Mrs. Victoria Murdock sole owner. 
Circulation Over 35,000. Other PubUeations from the "Eagle" 
Office. The ' ' Wichita Weekly Eagle ' ' and ' ' Arkansas Valley 
Farmer. ' ' Biography of Col. Marshall M. Murdock. Editor 's 
Note. The Early Contributors to the Press. Wichita's News- 
papers of Today. Agricultural Southwest. Catholic Advance. 
Daily Livestock Journal. The Democrat. Kansas Commoner. 
Kansas Farmer Star. Kansas Magazine. Missionary Messenger. 
Price Current. Primitive Christianity. Southwestern Grain and 
Flour Journal. Wichita Daily Beacon. Wichita Daily Pointer. 
Wichita Eagle. Wichita Herald. Wichita Searchlight. 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. Sedgwick Countt 

Origin of the County 's Name. First Set of Officers. Elected 
in 1870. First Trading Post in 1863. Sedgwick County in Class 
A. Soil, Products, Climate and People. Sedgwick County, Its 
Organization. First Court House. Meeting of County Com- 
missioners, April 27, 1870. A Night Herd Law Enforced. A 
Saloon License Granted. Ordered that a Bond Issue be Voted 
on. The Tax Rolls of Sedgwick County for 1909. Taxable 
Property Shows Large Increase. The Investment of Sedgwick 
County Capital. The Population of a Great County. Roster of 
County Officers, Sedgwick County. Population of the Townships. 
Toljal Property Values. Live Stock en Hand. Last Indian Scare 
in Sedgwick County. The Kingman Trail. 

CHAPTER XXXIX. Bench and Bar 

The Sedgwick County Bar in the Early '80s. Early Incident of 
the Bench of Sedgwick County. The District Judges of Sedg- 
wick County. Sessions of the U. S. Court are Convened in 
Wichita. The Courts of Sedgwick County, Kansas. District 
Court. Probate Court. Juvenile Court. City Court. United 
States District and Circuit Courts. The Sedgwick County Court 
House. Odds and Ends of County and City News. 



CONTENTS xiii 

CHAPTEE XL. A Dying Eivee 522 

The Arkansas the Largest Eiver in the State. A Navigable Eiver 
Prior to 1880. The Great Flood of 1867. The Change Has Been 
Brought About by Jlodern Civilization. 

CHAPTEE XLI. The Indians in Kansas 525 

Struggles of Various Tribes on the Plains. The Story of War 
and Peace Among Indians First and Later Between the Indians 
and the Whites. The Osages. Increase of Tribes. Land Valued 
at Seven Cents Per Acre. The Santa Fe Trail. The Eeservation 
Indians. Indian Names. The Wichitas. Eeal Barbarians. The 
Grass Houses. The Big Chief. The Head Trading Post. Visited 
by Wild Tribes. Left Their Names. In War Times. Loyal to 
the Union. The Trouble of '67. Eavages of Cholera. Then it 
SnoTved. Again Scattered. Life of James E. Mead. 

CHAPTEE XLIL The G. A. E. in Kans.\s 539 

The Veterans of Sedgwick County. Woman's Belief Corps, No. 
40. Eggleston Post, No. 244. Anson Skinner Camp, No. 49, 
Sons of Veterans. 

CHAPTEE XLIII. The Colored Soldiek of Sedgwick County in the 

Spanish-American War 543 

CHAPTEE XLIV. Claim that Kansas JIan is Original "Buffalo 

Bill" 550 

Friends of Eetieent Eesident of Wichita Say He Was Known by 
Appellation Years Before William F. Cody Succeeded to Title — 
Fed Starving Plainsmen with Spoils of the Chase — Was Indian 
Fighter of Benown, Saving a Train of Immigrants Who Were 
Attacked on the Santa Fe Trail. Trading Post on the Arkansas. 

CHAPTEE XLV. P.iTNE's Dream Came True 554 

A Short Sketch of Capt. David L. Payne. The Oklahoma Boomer. 
The New Country South of Us. The Cherokee Strip. 

CHAPTEE XLVI. Eailroads of Sedgwick County 558 

Boosters Brought in the Eailroads. Making Eailroads in the 
Early Days. First Train on the Santa Fe. The Santa Fe Bail- 
road. Early Eailroads Had to Struggle for an Existence. Santa 
Fe Tonnage. The Santa Fe in Wichita. The Missouri Pacific. 
A Million and a Half in Terminals. The Missouri Pacific Begins 
Bebuilding of All Its Lines. The Wichita & Colorado Eailway. 
The St. Louis, Fort Scott & Wichita Eailroad. The Wichita, 
Anthony & Salt Plains Eailroad. The Wichita & Western Bail- 
way. St. Louis & San Francisco. Personnel of the Frisco in 
Wichita. The St. Louis, Wichita & Western Eailway. The 
Orient Eailway Company. Orient Brings in Trains of Stock. 
Arthur E. Stillwell, President Kansas City, Mexico & Orient 
Eailway Company. The Eock Island Eailway. The Kansas Mid- 
land Eailway. A Crying Need. Surveying a New Boute to 
Wichita. Proposed Eailway Lines. Wichita Is First as Eailway 
Center. Central Point for Eailroads. 

CHAPTEE XLVIL The United States Weather Bureau .594 

Local Forecaster, Weather Bureau, Wichita, Kan. Institution and 
Expansion of the Service. Establishment of a First-Class Observ- 
ing Station at Wichita, in the Heart of Sedgwick County. Climate 
of Wichita and Sedgwick County. Accepted Scientific Views 
Eegarding Change of Climate. Scope of the National Weather 
Service. Forecasts. Spurious Forecasts. Practical Uses of the 
Forecasts. Eesearch Obser^'atory. Climatology of Wichita and 
Sedgwick County. Location and Equipment of Station. Climatic 



xiv CONTENTS 

Data. So-Called Change of Climate. Eelative Stability of 
Climate. Superiority of Scientific Eeeords Over Memory in Mat- 
ters of Climate. Insignificance of Man 's Influence Upon Climate. 
Quantity of Moisture. Temperature. Conclusion. 

CHAPTER XL VIII. Towns and Villages op Sedgwick County 

The Ninnescah Valley. The Big Four. The Township of Afton. 
Andale. Anness. Bayneville. The Town of Bentley. Cheney, 
a Good Town in a Good Locality, With Fine Homes and Good 
Farms. An Early Incident of Cheney. Clearwater. Colwich. 
Davidson. Derby. Furley. Garden Plain. Goddard. Green- 
wich. The Town of Hatfield. Huckle. Jamesburg. Kechi. 
Maize. The Town of Marshall. Mount Hope. Mulvane, Kan. 
Farmer Doolittle Is Inspired Over Mulvane. Oatville. Peck. 
Schulte. Sedgwick. St. Mark. Sunnydale. Valley Center. 
Viola. Waco. Wichita Heights. Western Sedgwick County. 

CHAPTER XLIX. Agriculture in Sedgwick County 

The Evolution of the Farm. Kafiir Corn. Alfalfa. The Raising 
of Alfalfa. Alfalfa an Imperial Forage Plant. Is This a Fruit 
Country ? 

CHAPTER L. Fruit Raising in Sedgwick County 

Irrigating Small Fruits Will Pay. How to Improve Apple 
Orchards. Grape Culture in Southern Kansas. Fruit and Truck 
Farming Will Pay. Sedgwick Has an Entomology Station. Urges 
Growing of Onions Here. The Frost Meter in Sedgwick County. 
Kansas Crop Figures. A Report Recently Issued by F. D. 
Coburn, Secretary of the Board of Agriculture, Regarding the 
Products of Kansas During the Past Twenty Years. Yields in 
Bushels for Twenty Years. This Table Gives the Aggregate 
Values for the Past Twenty Years. 

CHAPTER LI. Native Forest Trees of the State op Kansas 

CHAPTER LII. The Live Stock Interests op the Interior West. . 
Largest Receipts of Stock in One Year. Total Receipts of Stock 
for Seven Years. Total Shipments of Stock for Seven Years. 
Valuation of Stock Handled at These Yards in Twenty Years. 

CHAPTER LIII. History op the Wichita Union Stock Yards 

Largest Receipts in One Day. Largest Receipts in One Week. 
Largest Receipts in One Month. Largest Receipts in One Year. 
Record Growth in Live Stock Business. Yearly Shipments by the 
Railroads. Wichita's Prominence as a Stock and Feeder Market. 
Stock Market That Satisfies. Development of Packing Industry. 

CHAPTER LIV. Biography 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, VOL. I 

Davidson, C. L 44 

Fairmount College 326 

First House in Wichita Frontispiece 

Friends University 350 

Kimball, E. D 100 

Main Street, Wichita 182 

Mathewson, William 280 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, VOL. II 

Bentley, 0. H 498 

First Episcopal Church 548 

Friends University 648 

Hatfield, Rodolph 748 

Russell Hall ■ 698 

Sedgwick County Courthouse Frontispiece 

University Avenue 598 



HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 



CHAPTER I. 

THE CITY OF WICHITA. 

By 
0. H. BENTLEY. 

The ardent friends of Wichita are those who live within its 
borders; those who sojourn away from it long to return. It is 
always eulogized by its absent friends. Favorably located at the 
junction of two rivers, it aptly illustrates the saying that large 
streams always flow past great cities. That Wichita is the city 
of destiny, was a belief always fondly cherished by its founders. 
Wichita today is the most prosperous and rapidly growing city 
in the state of Kansas. It is the second city in size in the state 
and most favorably located on the banks of the Arkansas river, 
in one of the most fertile and productive valleys in America. 

The population of Wichita is cosmopolitan in nature and 
energetic in spirit ; is enterprising and public spirited. The city, 
being built upon the plains, had no special advantages 
geographically over any other part of the state. It so happened, 
however, that an aggregation of men constituted its first inhab- 
itants who were wide awake to every opportunity that offered, 
and embraced them with a full knowledge of their value and 
importance. Around this nucleus of pioneer heroes came later 
on other and younger men of the same character, who promptly 
joined hands with those who laid the foundation of the city, and 
together, and in harmonious accord, pushed the city to the front 
and held it there. Whenever a united effort was required to 
accomplish a given object for the upbuilding of the city, not a 
laggard or a "kicker" was found within its ranks. Thus, by 



2 fflSTOKY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

reason of a remarkable unity of action and purpose on the part 
of all, a city has been builded of which its architects are justly 
proud. 

Looking at the city as a whole, it possesses that rotundity not 
often found in cities of rapid growth. 

Its foundation is laid upon the character and extent of the 
soil and climate of the surrounding territory. No country is 
blessed with a greater expanse of productive soil than that 
surrounding Wichita for hundreds of miles, which, as agricultural 
possibilities are developed, will always insure a most substantial 
trade for its merchants and consequent increase in the city's 
importance as a commercial center. 

Within a radius of one hundred miles of the city there is 
already being produced annually 50,000,000 bushels of wheat, 
twice that many bushels of corn, and other cereals in proportion, 
together with a live stock production not exceeded in any section 
of the country of the same area. The jobbing trade of Wichita 
for the year 1909 reached the handsome aggregate of $30,000,000. 
Wichita is now making rapid strides as a jobbing center. There 
are four large wholesale grocery houses, two large and rapidly 
extending packing plants, with others in prospect, two wholesale 
dry goods houses, two wholesale hardware establishments, one 
being one of the largest in the interior West, one wholesale 
millinery house, one wholesale hat house, several farm imple- 
ment houses, besides a large number of smaller plants covering 
every possible line of trade. 

Wichita's wholesale territory covers southern and western 
Kansas, reaching as far east as Fall River, and a large part of 
Oklahoma and a portion of western Texas. This territory is 
being rapidly extended. 

During the year 1908 the wholesale lumber dealers of 
Wichita handled 12,000 cars of lumber, valued at $4,000,000, 
while that manufactured into house furnishings by its 
five sash and door factories amounts to many thousands 
more. The city's manufactured products for 1909 sold on the 
markets for $9,000,000. Wichita is rapidly forging to the front 
as a grain and milling center. The number of ears of grain 
handled by members of its Board of Trade in 1908 was 22,600 
and in 1909 approximately 25,000. Its milling capacity is at 
present 4,000 barrels of flour per day. The four splendid floiu-ing 
mills now in operation have handled during 1909 the immense 



THE CITY OP WICHITA 3 

amount of 9,500 cars of graiu and its products, the largest in 
the history of the city. This amount will be largely increased 
during the coming year. It is estimated that the wheat tributary 
to Wichita will aggregate 50,000,000 bushels annually, and by 
reason of favorable conditions now under consideration by the 
various systems of railroads serving this market may soon be 
increased to a greater sum. Wichita's bank deposits for the 
week closing with February, 1910, were .$12,000,000, which is an 
average month. This volume of business is transacted by eleven 
banks, whose clearing house reports show an average weekly 
transaction of business amounting to one and a half million 
dollars. The volume of merchandise of all descriptions consumed 
in Wichita and shipped through its jobbing houses to its legiti- 
mate country trade, when measured in bulk, reaches the enormous 
sum of 50,000 carloads, not counting grain shipments, which have 
been given in a separate item. The Union Stock Yards handled in 
1909 756,560 hogs, 184,659 cattle, 22,796 sheep and 3,645 horses 
and mules, or over 14,083 cars of stock. Much of this was con- 
verted into packing house products by the two packing houses, 
whose daily capacity is 10,000 hogs, 5,000 cattle and 2,500 sheep. 
Nine hundred men are employed by these two institutions alone, 
while their combined products amount to 50,000,000 pounds 
annually. According to the latest enumeration Wichita has 230 
manufacturing concerns of all descriptions, whose aggregate 
output runs into many millions of dollars. The farm implement 
trade in Wichita has within the last few years assumed flattering 
proportions. There are now located here fifty houses and agencies 
handling farm implements, many of these being branch houses, 
while others are transfer agencies only. 

The street railway system of the city consists of thirty-five 
miles of splendidly equipped road, laid with heavy T rails, and 
a large share of it paved, two miles being laid in 1907 to the 
.new Wonderland Park and the new fair grounds, with an added 
equipment of ten new cars. Forty passenger trains daily serve 
the city, running over fourteen diverging lines of road, and 
operated by five great systems. The public buildings are excep- 
tionally fine for a young western town. They comprise the city 
hall, built of stone, cost $300,000 ; federal building, of stone, cost 
$300,000: Kansas Sanitarium, of brick, cost $50,000; Masonic 
Temple, stone, cost $250,000; county court house, of stone, cost 
$250,000; new fire stations, of stone and brick, built i)i 1907 at 



4 fflSTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

a cost of $31,000 ; Y. M. C. A. building, of brick, built in 1907 at 
a cost of $110,000. Wichita has fifteen public school buildings, 
twenty-nine churches, .fifteen news journals (two daily), five 
hospitals, two homes for orphans and indigents, water works, gas 
and electric light, two telephone systems, libraries, and a parking 
system comprising in the aggregate 300 acres of lawns and flower 
beds, forests and ponds. Fairmount College, Friends' University, 
Mount Carmel Academy and Lewis Academy merit special men- 
tion, because of their vigorous growth, large attendance and wide 
influence, and consequent results in advancing the educational 
interests of the Southwest. 

Natural gas conditions in 1908 show a very great improve- 
ment. Mains and service pipes to the extent of 150 miles are 
laid to every part of the city and manufacturers are being sup- 
plied with gas at a cost of 10 to I21/2 cents per thousand feet. 
In the neighborhood of 350 manufacturing plants and 5,000 homes 
are at present supplied with gas. The Edison Light and Power 
Company expended $385,000 during 1907 in its new plant and 
appurtenances and has the most modern electi-ic light and power 
system in the United States today ; electricity costing 40 per cent 
less in 1907 than in 1906. Wichita's hospitals, also, the Wichita 
Hospital and St. Francis Hospital, deserve the admiration of the 
citzens for the relief afi'orded by them to suffering humanity. 
In these two institutions are treated patients from all parts of 
Kansas, Oklahoma and even Texas and New Mexico. The city 
spent in 1907 $100,000 for the storm water sewer now in course 
of construction, which when completed will cost $297,000. 
Drainage canal and concrete bridge crossing the same, $120,000. 
Paving in 1907, 12 miles, 20 miles in 1909 and 50 miles in 1910. 

A knowledge of the growth of the city may be gained from 
the summary given below: The total cost of business houses 
constructed during 1908 was $800,000 ; public buildings, $200,000 ; 
dwellings, $1,000,000 ; thus making a total expenditure in business 
and residence construction of $2,000,000. Of these gratifying 
results the Wichita commercial bodies are not only very proud, 
but feel a deep and lasting interest because of efforts in bringing 
them about. By united efforts in placing the advantages of the 
city before the world, inquiries are constantly coming from all 
states in the Union for further details regarding special lines in 
which the inquirer may happen to be personally interested. The 
greatest factor, however, in keeping Wichita in the public eye 



THE CITY OF WICHITA 5 

is till! unswerving loyalty of its general citizenship at home and 
abroad. The 500 "Knights of the Grip" having their headquar- 
ters and residences in Wichita never tire of singing the virtues 
of their chosen city, and to them is due much of the credit for its 
success, and they are still on their way. For the past two or 
three years another impoi-tant factor in the upbuilding of Wichita 
has been the Chamber of Commerce, composed of some of the 
best business men of Wichita. This is the second commercial 
body of the city, and without jealousy, in connection with the 
Commercial Club, works incessantly for the general good of the 
city. The Chamber of Commerce has already secured new and 
most commodious rooms on the tenth floor of the new Beacon 
block, and when located in its new quarters will greatly add to 
its numerical strength and numerical importance. The Commer- 
cial Club, the senior commercial body of the city, is now erecting 
a magnificent structure six stories in height at the corner of 
Market and First. These commercial bodies are a tower of 
strength to the city and are its pride, and their endorsement 
usually carries any fair proposition with the taxpayers. The 
present outlook for the city, in every direction, far exceeds that 
of any previous year, and that Wichita will attain a population 
of 100,000 in 1915 seems more than probable to its people. The 
Polk-McAvoy directory people, who have just completed the 
annual directory of the city, place its population at this time at 
60,000. Commercial men report a large increase this year over 
last, and all lines of trade are especially prosperous. The outlook 
for the future of Wichita as a large and commanding city in the 
interior West is superb. 



CHAPTER II. 

EARLY HISTORY OP WICHITA. 

By 
FRED A. SOWERS. 

Wichita was named after the band of Indians called the 
Wichitas. They came into this valley in 1864 and settled along 
the Little Arkansas river, between the junction and the old fair 
grounds. Some of their tepees were still standing on the land 
formerly owned by William Greiffenstein, north of town, as late 
as 1871. A chartered company was formed at Topeka, in the 
summer of 1868, comprised of ex-Governor Crawford, J. R. 
Mead, W. W. Lawrence, E. P. Bancroft (of Emporia), A. P. 
Horner and D. S. Hunger, the latter arriving here during the 
same year, when the survey and plat of the original toAvn were 
made by Mr. Pinn. William Greiffenstein soon afterwards bought 
Lank Moore's claim. It now comprises Greiffenstein 's original 
addition, on which the main portion of Wichita now stands. 

At that time the business and prospects were away north of 
the present business center. Henry Vigus ran the "Buckhorn 
Tavern," where every class of frontiersman as well as border 
terror had a home. A music box was one of the features of the 
hotel, which was in itself most enlivening, often engaging the 
motley assemblies into a dirt floor dance. On one occasion it 
provoked the ire of Jack Ledford. While the Buckhorns were 
engaged at the evening repast he jerked a "Navy" from his 
belt and silenced it forever. Several of Wichita's citizens still 
here left the table precipitately to get fresh air outside. 

"Durfee's Ranch" was the headquarters; Milo B. Kellogg 
was postmaster, clerk and bookkeeper, assisted by Charlie Hunter. 
Henry Vigus was doing the saddlery job work ; Charley Garrison 
was mail rider, afterwards starting the first regular saddlery 
shop here. A long adobe south of Durfee's Ranch was Jack 



EARLY HISTORY OP WICHITA 7 

Peyton's saddle shop and "Dutch Tobe's" shoe repair. John 
Gifford kept a saloon and refreshment stand in the log house, 
afterwards used as a stable by W. C. Woodman; he was the 
first man who died a natural death among the whites. A great 
many of the Wichita Indians died here during the cholera epi- 
demic of 1866 and '67. As late as 1870 many skulls and curiosi- 
ties Avere to be found on the prairie north of town, many of 
which Henry Vigus labeled with outlandish names and sent to 
the Smithsonian Institution, at Washington, D. C. At that early 
day there was no lack of amusement, as the soldiers stationed 
here had formed a negro minstrel troupe out of their numbers, 
spoken of to this day as being equal to the best shows on the 
kerosene circuit. Their music also furnished the prime feature 
of frequent "adobe dances," with no sleep until morning, while 
"chasing the hours with flying feet." 

Then D. S. Hunger kept a hotel at which H. C. Sluss was a 
productive boarder. It has since been converted into a residence 
by W. C. Woodman. D. S. Hunger was likewise postmaster and 
carried the mail in his hat. He used to empty the mail pouches 
on a bed and sort 'em over, putting enough in his hat for imme- 
diate delivery. He would then place one knee on the prairie and 
look them over ; if he met the owner of one he would often call 
out to Hollie when his memory failed or a letter was floating 
around the hoiise, or paper gone, if "she knew where Dan or 
Sam Hoover's or Doc Fabriques's paper was?" Whatever the 
response, he would look knowing, spit out some tobacco, readjust 
his cud, re-hat the mail, clinch it with his large red handkerchief, 
and lay plans for the future metropolis. He is gone, God bless 
him, to greater rest than he found here ; but not without having 
lived to see Wichita a thriving city and he its police magistrate. 

Doc. Lewellen kept the first grocery in the log house just 
north of Woodman's after Durfee's retirement, afterwards at 
the extreme north end of Hain street. His old, two-story frame 
was afterwards the adjunct to one of our elevators. Lewellen 's 
hall was over the grocery, and it was in this stately edifice (then) 
that the court was held after its removal from the sunflower 
roofed abode of Jack Peyton and Dutch Tobe. It was in this 
hall that Uncle Jack Peyton delivered his celebrated lecture on 
"Theology and Theocracy." Uncle Jack was a character as 
well as a saddler. Nature or an accident had shortened one of 
his limbs, otherwise he would have stood six feet and was built 



8 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

in proportion. But as he was he would oscillate six feet or four 
feet and would rise and faU at his wQl. He had a most stentorian 
gift of voice and could out-swear a native Arizonian. He was 
pedantic and at times given heavily to grog. To these grog 
periods were we indebted for the first lecture course that ever 
attracted a Wichita audience. The subject, as above, was given 
to the public in a small wood type hand bill printed at the 
"Vidette" oflBce, then boasting of only one wood font. The hall 
was brilliantly illuminated with six tallow candles held in their 
own grease, a store box the stand, and boards laid on nail kegs 
the seats. Quite a crowd of ladies and gentlemen were present; 
all kinds, and all expectant. Jim Vigus was present near the 
speaker's stand. Jim was an uproarious b\it always repentant 
bummer, always "full," and always ready to cry because of the 
lamentable fact, "cheeky," loud and shrill voiced, a Ughtning 
talker himself, but a poor listener. 

After some delay Uncle Jack got up, sis feet high, standing 
on one pin, announced his subject in a way down voice, started 
out deep and clear, but drunk and misty in ideas. He said: 
"Ladies and gentlemen, theology is religion as taught to the 
ministerial profession, theocracy is the — is the — well, anyhow 
(getting down to four feet), she defies the moral world." At 
this point up jumps Jim Vigus and rattled on like a buzzard 
clock: "Boys, old Jack Peyton don't know what he is talking 
about. I want to tell you the cause of getting drunk." Here 
Uncle Jack would rattle the windows with "Set down! Who 
paid for these candles, who rented this haU ? ' ' 

In this strain for nearly an hour the lecture continued until 
nothing but shrieks of laughter and the occasional popping of a 
revolver through one of the open windows could be heard. In 
the midst of it all the lecture closed. Uncle Jack went to his 
shop and bottle, after a promise of what he would do in the 
same line " 't show 'em soon." Shortly after he and Jim both 
disappeared. But what they left behind them on this occasion 
will be remembered to the death hour of those who were fortunate 
enough to be present. Many other amusing incidents occurred 
that limited space wiU not admit of repeating. So we will 
narrow down to succinct history. 

William Mathewson was here at an early date, freighting 
thjough Wichita as early as 1860. His wife was the first white 
woman that crossed the Arkansas river at this point (so far as 



EAELY HISTORY OP WICHITA 9 

known), date 1865. The first sermon was preached in Durfrees 
Ranch in 1868 by Rev. IVIr. Saxley, a Baptist, and the only hymn 
the boys knew was "Old John Brown." Mrs. Vigus was the first 
white woman that made Wichita her home, a most estimable and 
gentle natured lady who died in 1871. Mrs. D. S. Munger. who 
died in 1893, was the hostess of the Munger house. Mrs. Water- 
man, Mrs. N. A. English, Mrs. Everts, Mrs. Sayles, Mrs. Hunter, 
Mrs. Hall, Mrs. J. P. Allen, Mrs. H. H. Allen, Mrs. Abraham 
Smith and Mrs. Meagher were among the earlier settlers and all 
possessed of qualities that so distinguishes the unselfish sacrifices 
of the true pioneer women over all others. The first child born 
in the county, so far as known, was Sam Hoover's son, Sedgwick, 
born December 25, 1869, and named after his native county. The 
first child born in Wichita village was Frank H.. son of Joseph 
P. Allen, druggist, July 3, 1870, surviving only about two months. 
Maud Teeter was born a few months prior, March 8th, but in the 
country iidjacent to Wichita. The first marriage wa^ that of 
Perry Eaton in the winter of 1869. Reuben Riggs opened the 
first la^v■ ofiice during the winter of 1869, and H. C. Sluss in the 
spring. Steele, Bright & Roe the first real estate otfice, north of 
the Ida May house on Main street. Joe Alien opened the first 
drug store on Korth Main street ; Aldrich & Simmons still further 
north and near the corner of Main and Pine streets. John Dickey, 
now of Newton, was postmaster then, and the oSice was in 
Aldrich & Simmons' drug store. Jack Ledford traded Hubbard 
out of his interest with Matsill in the general merchandise busi- 
ness, getting also the Grand Hotel, then being built (afterwards 
the rear part of the Tremont). The store stood in an old two- 
story frame on the corner of Third and Main streets, where the 
first niunbers of the "Eagle" were printed in 1872. Jack Led- 
ford named the hotel the "Harris" House, to honor the maiden 
name of his wife. The hotel was not run by him over a month 
before he was killed in a street fight, almost in front of his hotel, 
late in February, 1871, by a company of United States soldiers 
and a band of government scouts who sought to arrest him for 
one of his past pleasantries (robbing a government train of fifty 
wagons and running oft' the stock, besides killing several of the 
drivers). 

Edward W. Smith had a grocery and general outfitting store 
in a frame building on ilain street, afterwards owned by W. C. 
Woodman and next door south of his bank. J. H. Black and Lee 



10 mSTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Nixon were his clerks. J. M. Johnson opened the first exclusive 
grocery stock on North Main street, Arthur Allen, clerk. Arthur 
has since died. Bailey's was the first hardware store, kept in a 
little frame building located about where J. A. Black's diamond 
front grocery was. Mike Zimmerly started a hardware store and 
tin shop nearly opposite, and Schattner & Short kept a saloon 
in a frame building that stood upon the lot owned by Deacon 
Smith. H. H. Allen, Arthur's father, ran the first boarding house 
(a story and half) on the corner opposite Ford's grocery on 
upper Main street. John Martin ran a restaurant north of 
Steele's office, then north of Pine street, and just opposite was 
the Bismark saloon. "Doc." Oatley had a story and half resi- 
dence where the Occidental now stands, and just north E. H. 
Nugent started the first bakery in a one-story frame, and sunk 
the first drive well on the premises ever operated in "Wichita. 
Hills & Kramer opened the first regular dry-goods store on the 
corner just south of the Occidental Hotel. Although Mr. Hughes 
kept a small stock of dry goods and clothing prior in the building 
still standing on the west side of Main street between Second 
and Third. The "Vidette" building stood a few blocks further 
north. The "Vidette" was the first newspaper printed in the 
Arkansas valley for its entire length, and was founded by Fred 
A. Sowers. 

Charley Hill opened a drug store in a small frame building 
near what was then Kimmerle & Adams' tombstone shop, after- 
wards building a few doors further south. In the meantime Sol. 
Kohn came down from Hays and rented a frame storeroom 
south of the Lynch building on upper Main street, due south of 
the Occidental, now called the Baltimore Hotel, where he opened 
out in drygoods, groceries, clothing, boots and shoes, etc. He 
soon built lower down and next door north to Charley Hill, both 
then north of the old court house. The first church edifice was 
an adobe with a dirt roof that stood a half block north of Third 
street on the east side of Main street. It was built by the 
Episcopalians, under guidance of the then pastor. Rev. J. P. 
Hilton. It was unique, to say the least, as we recall it now. A 
rude board cross was nailed up in front of the entrance; the 
light was admitted through two small apertures cut up high 
in the mud and secured by wooden shutters; the roof waved 
in summer with highly colored prairie flowers and a luxuriant 
growth of tall grass, and rattled in winter time with the wind 



EARLY HISTORY OF WICHITA 11 

whistling through the naked sunflower stalks that grew up there 
also. The church was officered by such eminent moralists as 
Bill Hutchinson and Charley Schattner, who ran the Bon-ton 
saloon; George Richards, a traveling printer; Bill Dow (Rattle- 
snake Bill"), a Cincinnati gambler, and John Edward Martin, 
whose chief anxiety in life was to get somewhere where he could 
not be found by the citizens of the place he last emigrated from. 
The above named were vestrymen. They sang in the choir, 
assisted in the sacrament, all wearing the robes of the church. 

It was about this time that J. R. Mead, who had donated the 
church its ground, proposed to swap for another site further 
away, and some of the officers thought it an inferior location. 
The result was a Sunday after-service meeting, with all present, 
when the matter was fully discussed, and upon which occasion, 
as it waxed warm, "William Bloomfield Hutchinson, a fully in- 
ducted vestryman, arose radiant in his vestry clothes and 
remarked in his usual smooth, bland and childlike manner, that 
"he didn't care a cuss what the other officers of the church 
done, but he was in emphatic opposition to seeing any citizen 
cheat Jesus Christ out of a foot of ground so long as he had 
power to interpose." The rest sedately fell into "Hutch's" 
opinion, so the matter quietly dropped and church was out for 
another holy Sabbath day. 

In July, 1870, Wichita was incorporated as a town, with the 
following officers: C. A. Stafford and Chris T. Pierce, who kept 
a small grocery at the north end of town, Edward Smith, John 
Peyton (Uncle Jack) and Morgan Cox (afterwards landlord 
of the Avenue House) were the trustees; W. E. Van Trees, police 
magistrate; Ike Walker, marshal. April, 1871, the town was 
merged into a city of the third class, with Dr. E. B. Allen, mayor. 
Councilmen : W. B. Hutchinson, S. C. Johnson, Charles Schattner, 
Dr. Fabrique, George Schlichiter and George Vantileburgh. D. 
C. Haekett was appointed city attorney, H. E. Van Trees police 
judge and Mike Meagher harshal. W. C. Woodman & Son opened 
the first moneyed institution in 1871, as a loaning office, after- 
wards merged into the Arkansas Valley Bank. The Wichita 
Bank was opened in 1871, with C. Fraker, president ; J. R. Mead, 
vice president, and A. H. Gossard, cashier. It started as a 
national bank and was closed shortly after the closing up of a 
cattle drive here in 1875. The Wichita Savings Bank was organ- 
ized in 1872, with M. E. Clark, of Leavenworth, president; Sol. 



12 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

H. Kolm, vice president, and A. A. Hyde, formerly of Leaven- 
worth, cashier. It was incorporated in the fall of 1882 as a 
national bank. 

In 1872 Wichita, through the efforts of our representatives 
at Topeka, was made a city of the second class, and out of a 
total vote of 479 elected E. B. Allen mayor for a second time; 
Mike Meagher, marshal ; William Baldwin, city attorney ; Charles 
A. Phillip, treasurer, and J. M. Atwood, police judge. During 
this year the big bridge spanning the Arkansas river, at the west 
end of Douglas avenue, was erected at a cost of $27,000. The 
bridge was built by W. J. Hobson, contractor, and paid for by a 
joint stock company organized for that purpose. It nearly paid 
for itself in tolls the first year and would have made the company 
rich had it not been for the pluck of Lank Moore, Hills & Kramer, 
J. C. Fraker and other " north-enders, " who forced it to be sold 
by starting a free bridge near the junction of the two rivers, 
where the park now is. The county then bought it and abolished 
tolls. The "drive" came in hot about this period in 1872. 
Wichita was the thriftiest and most uproarious town between the 
two seas. Large sign boards were posted up at the four con- 
spicuous entrances into town (James G. Hope was then mayor), 
bearing the strange device: "Everything goes in Wichita; leave 
your revolvers at police headquarters and get a check ; carrying 
concealed weapons strictly forbidden." Everything did go in 
Wichita; there was not a gambling device known to the world 
that was not in full operation openly. A variety theater nightly 
gave exhibitions in the old building then south of what was 
called the Hills & Kramer corner on Main street. It was, in 
fact, more of a free and easy than a theater. Then the streets 
just clanged with the noisy spurs of Texas cowboys and Mexican 
ranchmen, while the crowds that pushed along the resounding 
board sidewalks were as motley as one could expect if siiddenly 
transported where there was a delegation from every nationality, 
hastily brought together, at a vanity fair to vie in oddity with 
each other. Whimsical and eccentric were our citizens of '72, 
with a constant nervous suppressed something in their expression 
that you never could quite fathom until there was a chance for 
a fight or a foot race. Then you would see the glad change 
sweep over their brow, dispelling the somber shadows, and 
lending a glad sparkle to the eye, as they went for the belt that 
held up their jeans and two navies and began to toy with the 



EARLY HISTORY OF WICHITA 13 

triggers, while a sweet, expectant smile lit their sad looking 
countenances. Texas sombreros and leather leggins, the brigand- 
ish looking jackets with bright buttons close together of the 
Mexicans, the buckskin outfit of the frontiersman and the highly- 
colored blanket representatives from a half dozen different tribes 
of "Poor Lo," all alike fantastic, but all fantastically different, 
mingled with noisy shouting, was a familiar street scene of early 
72 at Wichita. Then add to this a brass band brought down 
from Kansas City by the gamblers, on a year's engagement, that 
played from morning until far into the night, on a two-story 
platform raised over the sidewalk against a large frame building 
that stood where the Kansas National Bank now is. 

Steele & Smith's real estate office, a one-story frame with a 
wooden porch, occupied the New York store corner, and in the 
rear of it was pitched throughout the entire season of the drive a 
large tent, in which was given the exhibtion of Prof. Gessley, 
the armless wonder. The street blew white with his progressive 
poem, "writ by hisself." It went on to say: "With the reigns 
between his toes, he loads, primes, puts on a cap and fires off a 
gun, and often goes to shoot wild game for want of better fun. 
He handles the pen with the ease of any in the land; in fact, his 
foot is turned into a hand." Connected therewith under one 
pavilion (in show parlance) was also the child wonder, born 
alive (but awfully dead at the time), with two heads, four arms, 
two feet and one perfect body; also a pig with two bodies and 
eight legs, to attract the crowd. A hand organ filled with doleful 
and disjointed tunes ground unceasingly, while at ten-minute 
interludes, all day long, would ring out the sharp report of the 
gun the professor fired with his toes, followed by the deep 
Pennsylvania Dutch accent of the professor, yelling in his hilarity 
until it could be heard above the organ and band over the way, 
"Dere she goes agin; kick like a mool!" 

Mix this all with the motley caravan that thronged the 
streets, the fighting, yelling, swearing, and too often the ring 
of the revolver that carried death with it, the night scenes of 
dance houses, painted courtesans and drunken brawls, and you 
have the Wichita of 1871-72 and '73. 

So Wichita began, a town at the junction of the two rivers, 
the early gathering point of the Osages, their favorite camping 
ground; all of the surrounding country abounded in game; the 
home of the buffalo, and their favorite feeding ground ; abundant 



14 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

waters, succulent grasses, delightful climate. A border town, a 
frontier trading post, a good town from the very first, full of 
traditions, full of history, full of energy and push, the future 
is full and promising for Wichita, and her destiny is to make a 
great city. That she will fill the promise of her founders, no 
one can doubt. 

FIRST CITY OFFICERS OF WICHITA. 

1872. 

Mayor— E. B. Allen. 

Police Judge — J. M. Atwood. 

City Treasurer — Charles A. Phillip. 

Marshal — M. Meagher. 

City Attorney — M. Baldwin. 

City Clerk — George S. Henry. 

Justices of the Peace — William H. Roarke, H. E. Van Trees. 

Constables — S. K. Ohmert, George De Amour. 

Council — First ward. Dr. Owens, Charles Shattner; second 
ward, James A. Stevenson, C. A. Bayley; third ward, J. M. 
Martin, A. J. Langsdorf; fourth ward, J. C. Fraker, William 
Smith. 

Board of Education — First ward, N. A. English, Nelson 
McClees; second ward, E. P. Waterman, W. C. Woodman; third 
ward, G. W. Reeves, R. S. West; fourth ward, A. H. Fabrique, 
Fred A. Sowers. 

FIRST COUNTY OFFICERS OF SEDGWICK. 
1872. 

Judge Thirteenth District— W. P. Campbell. 
Board of County Commissioners — H. C. Ramlow, R. N. Neeley, 
Sol. H. Kohn, chairman. 

County Treasurer — S. S. Johnson. 

County Clerk — Fred Sehattner. 

Sheriff — John Meagher. 

Clerk District Court — John Mclvor. 

Probate Judge — ^William Baldwin. 

Superintendent Public Instruction — ^W. C. Little. 

Register of Deeds— John Mclvor. 

County Attorney — H. C. Sluss. 

County Surveyor — John A. Sroufe. 



EARLY HISTORY OF WICPIITA 15 

THIRTEEN MAYORS IN THIRTY-NINE YEARS. 

During its thirty -nine years' existence as a city, "Wichita has 
had thirteen mayors. Of this number seven are dead and the 
other six reside here. Following is a list of the mayors in suc- 
cession from first to last: E. B. Allen, 1871-72; James G. Hope, 
1873-74 and 1876-77; George E. Harris, 1875; William Greiffen- 
stein, 1878 and part of 1879, 1880-84 ; Sol. H. Kohn, 1879 ; B. W. 
Aldrich, 1885-86; J. P. Allen, 1887-88; George W. Clement, 
1889-90; John B. Carey, 1891-92; L. M. Cox, 1893-96; Finlay 
Ross, 1897-1900 and 1905-6; B. F. McLean, 1901-4; John H. 
Graham, 1907-8; Charles L. Davidson, 1909-10. 

William Greiffenstein occupied the major's chair in Wichita 
longer than any other man, having held the position about six 
years and a half. James G. Hope was elected to the office of 
mayor four times, but that was when mayors were elected every 
year. Next to Greiffenstein, Finlay Ross, who was elected three 
times and served six full years, has held the office longest. L. M. 
Cox was twice elected to the office and so was J. K. McLean, 
both of whom served four years. 

The five living ex-mayors of Wichita are George E. Harris, 
of 224 South Lawrence avenue ; Finlay Ross, of 821 North Waco 
avenue; L. M. Cox, of 529 North Waco avenue; B. F. McLean, 
of 313 North Seneca street, and John H. Graham, of 825 Wiley 
avenue. 



CHAPTER III. 

WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL AND MANUFACTURING 
CENTER. 

By 

EUGENE FAHL. 

The truth about Wichita is good enough. The figures given in 
the following article are as nearly accurate as it was possible 
to obtain. They were obtained from the most authoritative 
sources. Came a day in early spring, just forty years ago, when 
a sturdy pioneer merchant jerked a paper bag from a pile of 
miscellaneous packages on the end of his rude counter, not to 
fill it with sugar or beans for a waiting customer, but to rip it 
open and draw thereon in his crude way the plat of the original 
city of Wichita. This document was filed for record on March 
25, 1870. It is now in the recorder's office at the Sedgwick county 
court house, a beautiful building costing a quarter of a million 
dollars, in the substantial, fast growing city which the early day 
German trader was so largely instrumental in founding. Later, 
another pioneer of a different type, Colonel M. M. Murdock, 
founder and editor of the Wichita "Eagle" and one of the most 
talented and powerful personalities of the virile West, nicknamed 
the young city at the ' ' meeting of the waters ' ' of the Big Arkan- 
sas and Little Arkansas rivers, the "Peerless Princess of the 
Southwest," and this has been her nickname since that day. 
There were many lean years in the West between 1870 and 
1900 — many lean years. The Princess at times became haggard 
and careworn. Her enemies encompassed her about. Her trials 
and tribulations were many. They were the trials and tribula- 
tions of a royal pioneer. But today she is fair, fat and forty; 
she is no longer a princess but has become a queen — the Queen 
City of the Greater Southwest, her star is in the ascendant and 
her sturdy sons and daughters who stood by her through the 
dark days are now reaping the reward of their faithfulness. 
16 



WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTER 17 

Great mills, manufacturing establishments and mercantile houses, 
beautiful, well paved streets, splendid homes, churches and 
public buildings and excellent schools and collages are their 
portion. The domain of her subjects has become so rich in 
production that when the harvest time draws near the great 
wheat markets ask: "What is the outlook in Kansas?" and the 
answer affects the price of bread in all the nations of the earth. 
And therein lies her greatness, for her prosperity is founded upon 
the production of the necessities of life. 

Today the population of Wichita is estimated by the com- 
pilers of the latest city directory at 60,000. Other estimates run 
as low as 55,000. Area, 18% square miles, with 375 miles of 
streets, about 30 miles of which are paved ; water mains, 65 miles ; 
capacity of pumping plant, 15,000,000 gallons per day; number 
of miles of public sewer, 75 ; assessed valuation, $44,444,451 ; area 
public parks, 325 acres; altitude, 1,300 feet; average tempera- 
ture for 21 years, 56 degrees ; average rain fall for 21 years, 29% 
inches. Five railroad systems, as follows: Santa Fe, Rock 
Island, Frisco, Missouri Pacific, Orient, with 44 daily passenger 
trains. Electric street railway, 30 miles ; natural gas mains, 100 
miles : number of telephones in use in city, 6,500. Daily papers : 
The Wichita "Daily Eagle," the morning paper, and the Wichita 
"Daily Beacon," the evening paper. Public schools, 17 (three 
more will be ready for next term); academies (Catholic), 3; 
colleges, 2; business colleges, 2; colleges of music, 3; churches, 
31 ; enrollment in public schools, 7,623. Public and semi-public 
buildings and their cost: Federal building, $150,000; city hall, 
$150,000; Sedgwick county court house, $250,000; Masonic Tem- 
ple, $250,000; Masonic Home and grounds, $250,000; Y. M. C. 
A. building, $110,000; St. Francis Hospital, including grounds 
and equipment, $200,000; construction begun on Convention 
Hall, $150,000; Kansas Sanitarium, $50,000. Number of banks, 
11; total capital and surplus, $1,013,000; deposits January 1, 
1910, over $11,000,000; bank clearings, 1909, $128,399,860. Num- 
ber of real estate sales in 1909, 5,331, amounting to $9,612,580; 
postoffice receipts, $232,326.61; building permits, approximately, 
$4,000,000; city revenue. $835,000. Number of jobbing and 
wholesale firms, 138, doing an annual business in 1909 of over 
$40,000,000; packing houses, 2, with an annual production of 
60,000,000 pounds; flouring mills, 5, with a daily capacity of 
4,100 barrels; lumber business, $10,000,000 in 1909. Wichita is 



18 HISTOEY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

the largest broom corn market in the world, handling about 40,000 
tons annually, has the largest broom factory, with a daily 
capacity of 2,000 dozen brooms. The value of automobiles distrib- 
uted by Wichita dealers in 1909, $1,250,000. Number of cars of 
grain bought and sold by the Board of Trade, 24,000. The Union 
Stock Yards handled in 1909 756,560 hogs, 184,659 cattle, 22,796 
sheep and 3,645 horses and mules, or over 14,000 cars of stock. 

GROWTH OF WICHITA. 

It is difficult to show the important things concerning the 
growth of a city, in figures. The growth in population, in postal 
receipts, in bank deposits and bank clearings, etc., can all be 
given in figures. But the bustling activity, always apparent in a 
prosperous city, the expansion of the many mercantile and manu- 
facturing establishments, many of them enlarged to double their 
former capacity, the atmosphere of general push and progressive- 
ness, are hard to portray in figures. To the business man, how- 
ever, who speaks the language of figures and is accustomed to it, 
the following comparative statistics regarding the city of Wichita 
will speak in no uncertain tones, for established cities do not 
grow at such a rate without cause. The cause in this instance 
is the rapid development of the greater Southwest, Oklahoma, 
Texas and New Mexico, which is just naturally Wichita's trade 
territory by right of location: 

Population in 1900, 24,571 ; in 1910, 60,780, a growth of nearly 
150 per cent in ten years. Bank clearings for 1906, $58,062,985 ; 
for 1909, $128,399,860, a gain of over $70,000,000, or 121 per 
cent, in three years. Bank clearings for 1908, $72,948,070; for 

1909, $128,399,860, a gain in one year of $55,000,000, or 76 per 
cent. Bank deposits January 1, 1900, $1,281,671; January 1 

1910, $11,000,000, an increase of almost 1,000 per cent in ten 
years. Building permits for 1908, $1,563,200 ; for 1909, $3,968,350, 
an increase in one year of 154 per cent. Postofifice receipts in 
1900, $73,934; in 1910, $232,326.61, an increase in ten years of 
212 per cent. 

THE OUTLOOK. 

It has been said recently by a man well informed in matters 
pertaining to the city that there are 800 buildings of various 
kinds in the course of construction in Wichita today. A ride 



WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTER 19 

through the different sections of the city would lead one to believe 
that this statement was too low rather than too high, there being 
scarcely a block in the city without building improvements of 
some kind in progress. Wichita will be a city of 100,000 popula- 
tion in less than five years. Some of the larger projects now 
building or in immediate prospect (1910) are the following: A 
convention hall with a seating capacity of 5,000, to cost $150,000, 
for which the contract has been let. New high school building 
to accommodate 1,200 students and costing $150,000. Ten-story 
office building costing $350,000, now well under way. Ten-story 
office building to cost approximately the same as above. Plans 
are drawn and construction will begin soon. Six-story office 
building and store costing $55,000, nearly finished. Commercial 
Club building, $85,000, well under way. Pine theater to cost 
$75,000. Immense agricultural implement branch house, to be 
one of the largest in the West. Large wholesale grocery building, 
now under construction; a new firm in the city. Four-story 
building for a branch house of the largest dealers and manufac- 
turers of plumbers' supplies in the world. Fifty miles of paving 
to cost over $2,000,000. An electric interurban line, with sixty 
miles of track, connecting Wichita with a number of towns north 
and west of the city. Cost $1,000,000; now under construction. 
Terminal Railroad Association will make extensive improvements, 
costing $100,000. Orient railroad shops, to cost $300,000, and 
employing about 300 men. Elevated railroad tracks and union 
passenger station, requiring an expenditure of about $400,000. 
Paper and strawboard manufacturing plant, to cost $500,000. 
Immense additions to one of the packing houses, $300,000. Two 
new churches, one costing $200,000 the other $100,000. Wichita 
Natural Gas Company improvements costing $400,000. The 
Street Railway Company will expend $700,000 in improvements. 
Building permits for the first three months of 1910 are just 
'about equal to the total of the j^ear of 1908. The indications are 
that building operations in 1910 will exceed $6,000,000. 

COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL. 

The industrial and commercial interests of the city of Wichita 
in the order of their importance are as follows : First, wholesale 
and jobbing; second, handling live stock and packing meats; 
third, handling grain and milling flour and feed ; fourth, handling 



20 fflSTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

broom corn and manufacturing brooms ; fifth, miscellaneous 
manufacturing. 

No other city in the United States of equal size does so large 
an annual jobbing business. The principal lines are dry goods, 
groceries, notions, drugs, hardware, hats, shoes, furniture, agri- 
cultural implements and lumber. There are two large wholesale 
dry goods houses, five grocery houses, three drug houses, one 
hardware house, one wholesale hat house, one shoe house, one 
furniture house, one notion house, many implement houses, and 
the lumber jobbers, commission dealers and mill agents number 
over thirty. The traveling representatives of these houses are 
to be found in all parts of the fast developing territory of western 
Oklahoma, northern Texas and New Mexico, as well as in Kansas, 
and they sent in $31,000,000 worth of business in 1909. Lumber 
companies whose general offices are in "Wichita own and operate 
more than 250 lumber yards in Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas and New 
Mexico. Their annual business has reached the $8,000,000 mark. 
One firm, the Boyle Commission Company, buys and sells over 
2,000 carloads of potatoes per year, their record sales being 63 
cars in one day and 530 cars in one month. A large four-story 
building is being built, to be occupied by an addition to the 
city's wholesale grocery business, the new firm coming to Wichita 
for the purpose of getting better railroad facilities, while one of 
the wholesale grocery firms, Jett & Wood, established some years 
ago, more than doubled the size of its building the past season, 
so that the increase in the wholesale grocery business is apparently 
keeping pace with the other lines of jobbing. A $50,000-building 
is to be built immediately for the Wichita Wholesale Furniture 
Company, which has outgrown its present quarters. The capital 
of this firm will be doubled at once. The McArthur-Kiler Mer- 
cantile Company, a wholesale notion house, increased its business 
100 per cent in 1909. Prom these few instances it will be seen 
that the wholesale business in Wichita is not exactly a losing 
proposition. 

LIVE STOCK. 

Second only in importance and annual business to the jobbing 
interests are the Wichita Union Stock Yards and their allied 
interests, the packing houses. Fourteen thousand and eighty-four 
cars of live stock were handled by this rapidly expanding market 
in 1909. These would make a train about 120 miles in length. 



WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTER 21 

These cars contained 756,560 hogs, 184,659 cattle and 22,796 
sheep. About 60,000,000 pounds of the finished product of pork, 
beef and mutton were cured and packed by the local packing 
plants. With the by-products their business in 1909 amounted to 
about $9,000,000. 

The new live stock exchange building is one of which any 
city might well be proud. Walls, floors and stau-ways are of 
molded cement construction, making the building absolutely fire- 
proof. The interior finish is of oak. Large, well lighted ofSce 
rooms opening on a wide, roomy corridor make it an ideal office 
building. 

GRAIN. 

The Board of Trade is the great nerve center of the grain 
business in the Southwest. These men bought, sold and shipped 
in 1909 nearly 24,000 cars of grain. Not nearly all of this amount 
was handled in Wichita, as a large amount of it was shipped 
directly from originating point to the buyer. The five large flour 
mills of the city used a great amount of wheat, as their daily 
capacity of over 4,000 barrels of flour would indicate. Kansas 
wheat and Kansas flour are known and recognized the world 
over, wherever flour is bouglit and sold, as a distinct grade of 
very high quality. Within a radius of 100 miles of Wichita are 
raised annually 50,000,000 bushels of this justly celebrated hard 
winter wheat. As a milling wheat it has no superior. Kansas 
leads all the states of the Union in the production of wheat by a 
wide margin, the production in 1909 being 76,808,000 bushels, 
her record crop being 91,000,000 bushels. 

The milling and mixing of alfalfa-grain stock foods is one of 
the industries in which Wichita leads the world. Three large 
mills and a number of smaller ones have an annual output of 
many thousands of tons, one mill alone having a capacity of 
sixty tons per day. Alfalfa stock food is a mixture of ground 
alfalfa hay and grains in such proportion as to furnish a balanced 
ration for all live stock. The territory tributary to Wichita is 
the greatest alfalfa producing section of the earth, Kansas being 
so far ahead of all other states that there is hardly a chance for 
comparison. While Kansas leads all other states in the pro- 
duction of wheat and alfalfa, yet her largest crop is corn, pro- 
ducing 150,640,000 bushels of this grain in 1909. It will be seen 
from this that there is no lack of raw material for the great floui- 



22 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

and feed mills of the city, nor would there be if their capacity- 
was twice as large as at present. The American Alfalfa Food 
Company has one of the largest mills in the world devoted to the 
milling of alfalfa food. Mr. Otto Weiss, of Wichita, who is still 
in the alfalfa stock food business here, is the originator of the 
balanced ration food for stock. 

MISCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURERS. 

In the matter of miscellaneous manufacturers Wichita is well 
represented. The Mentholatum Company, the Hydro-Carbon 
Company and the Brooks Tire Machine Company occupy factory 
buildings that are positively the last word in factory construction, 
and would be considered a credit to any city, eastern or western. 
When talking over the matter of manufactures and factories in 
Wichita with one of the prominent business men of the city the 
writer was told the following significant fact: "There is not a 
manufacturing establishment in Wichita that is not making 
money. If there is I do not know of it." The manufacturer of 
staple products has no monopoly of the profitable business. While 
the great flour and feed mills, the planing mills and sash and 
door factories, etc., are turning out products that are just as 
staple as the coin of the realm, and making good profits too, the 
manufacturer of special articles, such as those mentioned above, 
is getting his share of the business and the trade territory of these 
firms is not confined to Kansas nor the western country, but is 
world-wide. Wichita makes a strong bid for more manufacturers 
of specialties as well as miscellaneous staple articles. Cheap 
building sites and natural gas for power at 121/2 cents per thou- 
sand, together with splendid railroad facilities, are some of the 
inducements held out to the manufacturing firm that is dissatisfied 
with its present location. 

FINANCIAL. 

As in every prosperous, growing city, real estate transactions 
are given a great deal of attention and at the present prices 
of property offer the most attractive investment propositions in 
the state of Kansas, and perhaps in the entire West. However, 
Wichita is not booming. The growth of the city is natural and 
healthy, and for this reason property values are very low com- 
pared to those of many cities that are doing less in the way of 
actual growth. Rents are reasonable, being little more than half 



WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTER 23 

as much, for the same location, as in many other western cities 
which are no larger than Wichita, and in which the amount of 
annual business transacted is much less per capita. On account 
of this fact, real estate values will continue to increase steadily 
and Wichita property will continue to be a first-class investment. 
Bank deposits increased $1,174,000 in the fifty-five days from 
February 2, 1910, to March 29, 1910. 

WICHITA AS A HOME. 

Wichita is noted for its beautiful streets, splendid shade trees 
and fine residences. University avenue, on the west side of the 
river, is one of the stateliest residence avenues in the United 
States. With its three rows of large maples on either side and the 
Friends University building, in all its massiveness, directly in 
line with the western end, closing the view in that direction, it is 
one of the most magnificent streets to be found in any city in 
the country. All the principal residence streets are lined with 
shade trees of extraordinary size. Trees four feet in diameter 
and eighty feet in height have been removed recently to make 
room for the wide sidewalks in front of new business buildings. 
There are seventeen public school buildings in the city, counting 
the high school. A new high school and three new wai'd schools 
are to be built at once. The population of the city is increasing 
so rapidly that it is difficult to keep the number of school rooms 
up to the required capacity. Both of Wichita 's colleges are fully 
accredited educational institutions. Friends University, situated 
on the west side of the river, almost at the extreme western 
limits of the city, occupies one of the largest school buildings in 
the world. It is said to have ample accommodations, assembly 
rooms included, for 2,000 students. Its main chapel room, when, 
fully completed, will seat 1,500 comfortably. Fairmount College 
is a Congregational college. It is situated on the hill in the 
extreme eastern part of the city. It has splendid buildings and 
■ an ideal location. The Carnegie library is located on the campus 
of this college. 

The churches of Wichita number thirty-one. Some of them 
are especially fine buildings. The First Baptist, St. Paul's M. E. 
and Trinity M. E., the last named situated on the west side, are 
among the finest of them. The congregations which will erect 
new buildings this year are the First M. E., the First Presbyterian, 
each to build a $100,000 edifice. The Catholic Cathedral will 



24 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

also be pushed to completion this year and next and will cost 
$200,000. 

The Young Men's Christian Association occupies a fine build- 
ing at the corner of First and Emporia. It has a well equipped 
gymnasium for the physical culture department, which is under 
the direction of a physical director who has achieved some 
remarkable results in the year in which he has been employed 
in that capacity. Evening educational classes are conducted dur- 
ing the winter months. Mr. A. A. Hyde is president and Mr. 
Clifford Pierce secretary of this splendid institution, which is 
doing so much for the younger generation of Wichita's male citi- 
zens, spirit, mind and body. 

Wichita has three commercial organizations — the Chamber of 
Commerce, the Commercial Club and the West Wichita Com- 
mercial League. The Chamber of Commerce and Commercial 
Club are divided on the question of social features only. In 
matters concerning the welfare of the city and its citizens they 
work unitedly. The west side league is composed of the busi- 
ness men of the district west of the river. They have no social 
features. The Commercial Club is building an eighty-five-thou- 
sand-dollar club house on the corner of First and Market, which 
will be strictly fireproof and a credit to the city. The Chamber 
of Commerce is located on the tenth floor of the Beacon Building 
on South Main street, where they have elegant quarters. 

The Riverside Club has just completed a splendid club house 
in Riverside at a cost of $35,000. They will have tennis, boating 
and bathing for outdoor features, while the building is equipped 
with bowling alleys, billiard room and the usual country club 
equipment. Their cuisine is unsurpassed in the West. 

The Wichita Country Club makes a specialty of the games of 
golf and tennis. They will build a new club house at once, to 
cost, when completed and equipped $50,000. 

WICHITA'S FLOUR PRODUCTION. 

As a milling center, Wichita has established an enviable repu- 
tation and is now regarded as one of the most prominent in the 
Southwest. Not only is the city and large sections of the southern 
part of Kansas and northern Oklahoma supplied with the prod- 
ucts of its mills, but large quantities of flour are shipped to nearly 
all the states of the Union, and large shipments are made to 



WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTER 25 

Cuba, Europe and Oriental countries. The quality of the flour 
made in Wichita is not excelled by any in the world. Not even 
the famed mills of Minnesota are able to produce better. Kansas 
hard winter wheat has become noted for its excellent milling 
qualities, and nothing but this grade of wheat is used by the 
mills of Wichita. 

There are five of these mills, with a combined capacity of 
3,750 barrels of flour a day. Much of the time they are all operated 
to their full capacity. These are the Howard Mills Company, 
with a capacity of 300 barrels a day ; the Imboden Milling Com- 
pany, with a capacity of 350 barrels; the Kansas Milling Com- 
pany, 1,500 barrels ; the Watson Mill Company, 1,000 barrels, and 
the Red Star Milling Company, 600 barrels. 

LUMBER TRADE OF WICHITA. 

No industry in the Southwest has developed more rapidly than 
the lumber industry, which of necessity has been compelled to 
grow to keep pace with the improvement and development of the 
country. In this particular Wichita is credited with being one 
of the most prominent lumber-dealing towns west of Chicago, and 
among the best in the United States outside of milling centers. 
In addition to the twenty-two local yards, the lumber for 250 
yards in Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico is bought 
and paid for in Wichita, which is the headquarters of most of 
the companies having line yards throughout the Southwest. Last 
year the lumber business of Wichita aggregated $10,000,000. 

Nearly all the large mills of the West and South have repre- 
sentatives who make headquarters here, and in addition to these 
there are several wholesale lumber dealers. There are more than 
twenty of these lumber jobbers and agents, from whom most of 
the supplies for the yards in the Southwest are procured. 

WICHITA JOBBING BUSINESS TOTALS FORTY MILLIONS 
A YEAR. 

Wichita's jobbing business during the year 1909 approximated 
$40,000,000, and it promises to show a decided increase in 1910. 
Wichita's jobbing business in 1909 was not only greater than that 
of any other town in Kansas, but it was greater than that of all 
the towns of Kansas combined. Wichita's jobbing business is 
greater than that of any other city of its size in the world. When 



26 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

the men who came to "Wichita many years ago opened small whole- 
sale houses for the distribution of goods to meet the needs of 
the retailers throughout the then undeveloped sections of the 
Southwest, they laid the foundation for a business infinitely 
greater than any of them dared to dream of. The principal reason 
for this lies in the fact that, sanguine as they were, they had no 
conception of the possibilities of the Southwest. Towns that are 
now supplied from the enormous stocks of goods handled by the 
wholesalers of Wichita were not in existence then, and cities with 
thousands of inhabitants were mere trading points where the 
entire business of the community was transacted beneath a single 
roof. 

The progress of Empire has done much for Wichita. It has 
brought into cultivation countless thousands of acres of rich soil, 
reared cities and developed the natural resources of the country 
contiguous to this metropolis until almost before its own residents 
are aware of it, it has become the great trade center of one of the 
largest and richest sections in Ameuica. All this has been accom- 
plished in spite of the opposition of larger and more powerful 
competing towns, and much of the time in the face of railroad 
discrimination that to any one but a Kansan would be discour- 
aging. Wichita has little reason to thank the outside world for 
what it has become, but, rather, it may properly congratulate 
itself upon possessing a citizenship that is always hopeful and 
undaunted and a constituency throughout the Southwest that has 
always been loyal. Wichita has as many wholesale dry goods 
houses as Kansas City. The combined business of these institu- 
tions during 1909 was over four and a half million dollars. Every 
one of these concerns has enjoyed a splendid increase in business 
since they were opened, and the prospect for a still greater growth 
is exceptionally bright. 

Wichita has five large wholesale grocerj^ houses, with an aggre- 
gate annual business of more than four and a half million dollars. 
One of these is just starting, but the others have been here many 
years, and they report a constantly growing business throughout 
the Southwest. Some of these institutions put up several lines 
of goods under their own label, which is a guaranty of their 
excellence. Wichita has the largest wholesale hardAvare house 
west of St. Louis, and its wares are a household word throughout 
the United States. There is not a town in the Southwest where 
they are not sold. The wholesale drug business of Wichita aggre- 



WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTER 27 

gates three millions of dollars. It has three jobbing houses that 
handle everything essential in the way of drugs and druggists' 
supplies, and that ship goods to five states of the Southwest. 

As a distributing center for machinery, no city in the world 
can compare with Wichita, size considered, and few of them can 
show as large a volume of business, no matter what their size. 
Practically all the implements, harvesting machinery and thresh- 
ing machines used in the Southwest are distributed from Wichita. 

It would not be practicable to go into detail regarding all the 
lines of business jobbed in Wichita, though nearly every article 
used in the homes, on the farms or in the banks, stores and offices 
of the country may be had here. There are, in addition to the 
lines already named, houses where may be procured everything 
necessary in the line of art goods, automobiles, barber supplies, 
boots and shoes, brooms and broomcorn, caps and hats, cash reg- 
isters, chili supplies, cigars, coal, confectionery, cutlery, dental 
supplies, electric and telephone goods, fruits, furniture, harness, 
hay, jewelry, leather, lumber, millinery, music, notions, oils, 
paints, paper, photographic supplies, produce, poultry, plumbers' 
supplies, sand, trunks and other articles that can be found only 
in an up-to-date jobbing center. 

There are, all told, one hundred and ninety wholesale and job- 
bing houses here. These statements, bombastic as they may seem 
to be, are truth and reliable, as any man may learn for himself 
who will take the trouble to investigate them. It is because 
Wichita can meet the demands of the great Southwest for every- 
thing needful for its sustenance, comfort and luxury that the 
business men of this city have inaugurated the plan of making 
annual tours into the territory so easily accessible to it. They 
know what they have to offer and they are willing to meet all hon- 
orable competition; they know what Wichita can do, and they 
propose to do all they can to convey this knowledge to the people, 
who should be mutually interested in the further development of 
the jobbing interests of the town. 

THE JOHNSTON & LARIMER DRY GOODS COMPANY, 
WICHITA, KANSAS. 

The above rapidly growing house is one oE the oldest jobbing 
institutions in the Southwest. Commencing in a modest way 
twenty-five years ago, it has each year since made rapid gains. 



28 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Today it is considered by the merchants of the Great Southwest to 
he one of the most dependable houses to do business with. Some 
years ago the business demanded a large and modern building in 
order that it might be handled with the utmost dispatch and "hat 
the merchandise carried might be displayed to the best advantage 
and every facility afforded the customer to quickly and thor- 
oughly inspect the classes of merchandise desired. To meet tl;is 
need, five years ago, the company purchased a tract of land 
adjoining the Santa Fe depot. On this they erected one of the 
most modern buildings owned by any dry goods house in the 
country. It has five floors and a spacious basement. Each floor 
is fitted in the most intelligent manner for the best method of han- 
dling its particular class of goods carried, and is connected by 
elevators and telephone service, both local and long-distance; a 
customer can, therefore, talk to any department or person direct. 
On the fifth floor is located the Famous Jayanell Factory, where 
is manufactured the brand of overalls, work shirts, etc., known 
all over the Southwest for superiority of workmanship and dura- 
bility. It is the only factory of its kind west of the Missouri 
river owned and operated by a wholesale dry goods concern under 
its own roof. 

On the second floor the notion and hosiery departments are 
located. Mr. J. E. Osborne, manager and buyer, has been con- 
nected with this house sixteen years as department salesman, trav- 
eling salesman and, for the past three years, manager and buyer. 
On the third floor the factory or furnishing goods department is 
found. Mr. W. K. Jones, manager and buyer, served his first 
business experience with Mr. Johnston, some twenty years ago, 
and has been with the house ever since as department salesman 
and buyer. The whole of the fifth floor is devoted to the manu- 
facture of the famous Jayanell brand of overalls, shirts, trousers, 
duck coats, etc., etc., and is under the able supervision of J. Q. 
Adams, who in turn is assisted by several lady superintendents. 
In this department particularly is evidenced tlie "temper" of this 
Square Deal House. Here most of the employes have been engaged 
since the factory was opened, some four years ago, and from time 
to time, as new machines were added, the most competent help 
was procured to operate them. They in turn appear glad to 
remain with this house, for square dealing and fair treatment 
seems to be its policy at home with its own employes as well as 
abroad with customers. The management is now and has been 



WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTER 29 

for some time considering how best to add to their building in 
order to keep up with the rapid growth of their business, and 
shortly several more stories will be added, for the ground all 
around has been secured by other business concerns who realize 
too well the splendid value of its position to dispose of it at any 
price at all, so there is only one way to build aud that is — 
skywards. 

The personnel of the company is as follows: John L. Powell, 
president; W. E. Jett, vice president; Charles A. Magill, secre- 
tary and treasurer; G. A. Deakman, manager piece goods depart- 
ment; J. E. Osborne, manager notion and hosiery departments; 
W. K. Jones, manager furnishing goods department; W. M. G. 
HoAvse, manager sales department; J. Q. Adams, superintendent 
"Jayanell" factory. 

Fifteen salesmen represent this enterprisiug house in the tei-- 
ritory contiguous to Wichita, assisted at season times by special 
salesmen from the departments. The management proposes to 
extend this territory at the close of 1910 by adding two or three 
further representatives. The salesmen and their territories are: 

George L. Elston, central Kansas ; headquarters, Wichita. C. R. 
Dixon, central Kansas; headquarters, Wichita. J. M. Crossfield, 
southwestern Kansas; headquarters, Wichita. H. S. McCann, 
southwestern Kansas ; headquarters, Wichita. H. C. Neely, south 
eastern Kansas; headquarters, Wichita. W. M. Neely, centra' 
Oklahoma, northern part; headquarters, Enid, Okla. W. Love 
land, northeastern Oklahoma ; headquarters, Guthrie. E. S 
Wykert, southeastern Oklahoma; headquarters, Oklahoma City 
B. D. Herloeker, southwestern Oklahoma ; headquarters, Lawton, 
V. D. Wessel, western Oklahoma; headquarters, Kingman, Kan, 
W. S. Judkins, Texas and New Mexico; headquarters, Amarillo, 
M. W. Hellar, southern Colorado, Texas and western Oklahoma; 
headquarters, Alva, Okla. C. R. Thompson, western Kansas and 
Colorado; headquarters, Great Bend, Kan. F. 0. Shoemaker, 
notion salesman ; headquarters, Wichita. G. Sinniger, piece goods 
salesman ; headquarters, Wichita. W. H. Saxe, factory salesman ; 
headquarters, Wichita. Claude Zirkle, house salesman, piece 
goods department. Hugh McCormick, house salesman, piece 
goods department. Charles A. Coleman, house salesman, notion 
department. Lester Edwards, house salesman, notion depart- 
ment. Charles Schell, house salesman, furnishing goods depart- 
ment. Elmer Lyons, house salesman, furnishing goods department. 



30 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

It is an achievement in which they take very much pride that 
every salesman who had represented the house so ably during 
1909 started out to represent them again in 1910, and at the annual 
banquet much was made of this fact by the men themselves enthu- 
siastically declaring their loyalty to the house and their increased 
confidence in their line. 



WICHITA AS THE MANUFACTURING CITY OF THE GREAT 
SOUTHWEST. 

"Wichita is logically a manufacturing city, and as such it 
affords a splendid field for the investment of capital, energy and 
brains. Already it is giving employment to thousands of men 
and women who are engaged in its factories and who are making 
a prosperous living by their industry. In this way it is adding to 
its population as well as to its material prosperity. Only one other 
city in the state has more money invested in manufacturing indus- 
tries or which employs more men or turns out more goods in the 
aggregate, and that is Kansas City. This is according to the 
statement of the State Labor Commissioner. Although but a 
comparatively short distance from the manufacturing cities of 
the East, Wichita still finds a ready sale for all its products. The 
great West and Southwest are open fields for its endeavor in this 
direction. Near at hand is to be obtained much of the raw mate- 
rial which, manufactured into serviceable articles or wares, finds 
ready sale wherever introduced. Few persons realize the extent 
of the manufacturing business in Wichita. Almost everything in 
common use is made, and many of the factories are operated on 
an extensive scale. A list of the factories, together with the arti- 
cles manufactured, is given herewith : 

Art Glass- — Western Art Glass Works. 

Alfalfa Mills — American Alfalfa Food Company, Otto Weiss 
Alfalfa Stock Food Company, Wichita Alfalfa Stock Food Com- 
pany. 

Boilers — Western Iron and Foundry Company. 

Bricks — Jackson-A¥alker Coal and Material Company, Wichita 
Hydraulic Stone Company. 

Bridges — Wichita Construction Company. 

Brooms — Southwestern Broom and Warehouse Company, 
Wichita Broom and Brush Company, J. A. Graves, H. F. Ealston. 

Building Steel — Wichita Stove and Iron Works. 



WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTER 31 

Candy — McCoy-Bryan Candy Company, "Western Biscuit Com- 
pany, E. E. Newhold, Thomas Pasparis. 

Cannery — Wichita Canning Company. 

Carriages — W. H. Gaiser, E. 0. Harrison, E. J. Koons, Mrs. 
M. A. McKenzie, J. E. Richmond. 

Caskets — Wichita Casket Company. 

Cast Iron Foundries — G. C. Christopher & Sons, Western Iron 
and Foundry Company, Wichita Stove and Iron Works. 

Cement Block Machines — Western Iron and Foundry Com- 
pany. 

Cement Block Makers — G. E. Bartholomew, J. V. Brown, S. G. 
Butler, Cornelison Bros., Torrington Jordan, F. J. Schwartz, R. L. 
Wentz, Wichita Hydraulic Stone and Brick Company, Winfrey 
Cement Stone Works, Jackson Walker Coal and Material Com- 
pany, R. F. Kirkpatrick, Cement Stone and Supply Company. 

Cigars — Boyd Cigar Company, N. E. Burrus, Earhart & Law- 
less, George Herberger, John Herberger. 

Cooper — William Bank. 

Cornice Makers — American Cornice Works, Globe Cornice 
Works, W. M. Hartzell. 

Crackers — Western Biscuit Company. 

Creamer ie s — Southwestern Creamery Company Wichita 
Creamery Company. 

Cultivators — Reschke Machine Works. 

Distilled Water — Distilled and Aerated Water Company. 
' Electrical Supplies — United Electric Company, Midland Light 
Company, Wichita Electrical Construction Company. 

Elevators — Landis Electric Company. 

Extracts — Murray & Co. 

Fencing — Arkansas Valley Fence Company. 

Fire Escapes — G. C. Christopher & Son, Western Iron and 
Foundry Company. 

• Flour Mills — Howard Mills Company, Watson Milling Com- 
pany, Kansas Milling Company, Imboden Milling Company, Red 
Star Milling Company. 

Furniture — Western Furniture and Manufacturing Company. 

Gas Mantles — Incandescent Light and Supply Company. 

Gates — A. F. Diggs. 

Grain Bins — Kansas Metal Granary Company. 

Grain Tanks — Wichita Construction Company, Kansas Metal 
Granary Company, Western Iron and Foundry Company. 



32 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Harness and Saddles — L. Hays Saddlery and Leather Com- 
pany, MeComb Bros., J. W. Gibson, E. Haskin, C. L. Pearson, 
C. 0. Pollock, T. M. Powell. 

Jap-a-Jap Salve — Jap-a-Jap Company. 

Jewelry Makers — E. G. Gallant, Varney Jewelry Company. 

Ice Cream — Arctic lee Company, Steffen-Bretch Ice and Ice 
Cream Company, Bissantz lee Cream Company, Wichita Creamery 
Company Bon Ton Bakery. 

Ice — Arctic Ice Company, Crystal Ice Company, Steffen- 
Bretch Ice Company, Midland lee Company, Wichita lee and 
Cold Storage Company. 

Joist Hangers — Western Iron and Foundry Company, Wichita 
Stove and Iron Works. 

Lithographers, Engravers and Designers — Capper Engraving 
Company, Near Lithograph Company, Western Lithograph Com- 
pany, Wheeler Lithograph Company, Wichita Engraving Com- 
pany. 

Mattresses — George Weterhold, G. T. NoUey. 

Mentholatum — Mentholatum Company. 

Metal Goods — Martin Metal Manufacturing Company. 

Model Makers — Union Model and Machine Company, Wichita 
Pattern and Model Works, Arkansas Valley Fence Company. 

Newspaper Ready Prints — Western Newspaper Union. 

Novelties — ^Wichita Novelty Works. 

Overalls, Etc. — Cox-Blodgett Dry Goods Company, Johnston & 
Larimer Dry Goods Company. 

Packers of Meats — Cudahy Packing Company, Jacob Dold 
Packing Company. 

Paint Makers — Hockaday Paint Company. 

Paper Boxes — N. E. Owens. 

Planing Mills — Eagle Planing Mill, Kansas Planing Mill, North 
End Planing Mill, Peerless Planing Mill, H. B. Taylor, Van Tuyl 
& Irwin. Western Planing Mill, Wichita Sash and Door Company, 
Wichman Bros. 

Pop — Cox Bottling Works, Allen Bottling Works. 

Refrigerators — E. J. Drake. 

Rug Makers — Wichita Rug and Carpet Company. 

Sash and Doors — United Sash and Door Company, Wichita 
Sash and Door Company. 

Sash Weights — G. C. Christopher & Son, Western Iron and 
Foundry Company, Wichita Stove and Iron Works. 



WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTER 33 

Shirt Makers — ^Pioneer Shirt Company. 

Stock and Poultry Foods — Otto "Weiss, American Alfalfa Food 
Company, Wichita Alfalfa Food Company. 

Stoves — Wichita Stove and Iron Works. 

Suspenders — Wichita Suspender Manufacturing Company. 

Tents and Awnings — W. C. Langdon, Ponca Tent and Awning 
Company, Wichita Tent and Awning Company. 

Tire-Setting Machines — Brooks Tire Machine Company. 

Toilet Preparations — Jap-a-Jap Company, Mexican Manufac- 
turing Company, Zona Toilet Company. 

Trunks — MeComb Bros., Wichita Trunk Company. 

Underwear — Steiert & Co., Pioneer Shirt Company, Walker 
Bros. 

Vinegar — Wichita Vinegar Works. 

Yeast — Fleischman Yeast Company. 

Zinc Etchings and Half-Tones — Wichita Engraving Company, 
Capper Engraving Company. 

WICHITA HAS— 

Wichita has an armory. 
Wichita has one tannery. 
Wichita has eleven parks. 
Wichita has ten theaters. 
Wichita has five railroads. 
Wichita has four ice plants. 
Wichita has six sanitariums. 
Wichita has five flour mills. 
Wichita has six planing mills. 
Wichita has a fair association. 
Wichita has three creameries. 
Wichita has four box factories. 
Wichita has one paint factory. 
Wichita has six iron foundries. 
Wichita has one school of art. 
Wichita has a Deaconess' home. 
Wichita has one casket factory. 
Wichita has twenty-four hotels. 
Wichita has four alfalfa mills. 
Wichita has two glove factories. 
Wichita has six steam laundries. 



mSTOKY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Wichita has forty-five churches. 
Wichita has an automobile club. 
Wichita has a mattress factory. 
Wichita has six broom factories. 
Wichita has four cigar factories. 
Wichita has four bottling works. 
Wichita has one canning factory. 
Wichita has two daily newspapers. 
Wichita has an interurban railway. 
Wichita has sixty-four freight trains daily. 
Wichita has two furniture factories. 
Wichita has one monthly magazine. 
Wichita has one hundred attorneys. 
Wichita has nineteen public schools. 
Wichita has nine weekly newspapers. 
Wichita has four express companies. 
Wichita has 552 streets and avenues. 
Wichita has the State Masonic Home. 
Wichita has seventy miles of paving. 
Wichita has one shirt manufacturer. 
Wichita has fifteen machine shops. 
Wichita has two wholesale jewelers. 
Wichita has one telephone company. 
Wichita has ten wholesale coal dealers. 
Wichita has eight typewriter agencies. 
Wichita has 604 registered automobiles. 
Wichita has thirty labor organizations. 
Wichita has 500 "Knights of the Grip." 
Wichita has one wholesale furniture house. 
Wichita has two engraving companies. 
Wichita has three large overall factories. 
Wichita has thirty-five miles of trolley wires. 
Wichita has an excellent public library. 
Wichita has two trunk and grip factories. 
Wichita has forty-six daily passenger trains. 
Wichita has four large department stores. 
Wichita has seventy-two secret societies. 
Wichita has two wholesale hardware houses. 
Wichita has two hide and wool houses. 
Wichita has five wholesale grocery houses. 
Wichita has five sporting goods houses. 



WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTER 

"VVieliita has sixteen publishing houses. 
Wichita has three wholesale drug houses. 
Wichita has two wholesale paper houses. 
Wichita has three manufactiu-ers of cornice. 
Wichita has a large art glass manufactory. 
Wichita has three saddle and harness factories. 
Wichita has six wholesale fruit dealers. ^ OO/lAork 
Wichita has three wholesale hay dealers. -LOo'lJ'i/^t/ 
Wichita has three wholesale meat dealers. 
Wichita has three manufacturing jewelers. 
Wichita is to have a new $50,000 children's home. 
Wichita is to build two $100,000 churches this year. 
Wichita has the commission form of city government. 
Wichita has a $150,000 auditorium under construction. 
Wichita will build a $150,000 high school this year. 
Wichita has 150 miles of natural gas pipe. 
Wichita has eleven state and national banks. 
Wichita has more than 100 general contracting firms. 
Wichita has three commercial organizations. 
Wichita has two special trade organizations. 
Wichita has two building and loan associations. 
Wichita has a population of over 55,000 boosters. 
Wichita has five wholesale dry goods houses. 
Wichita has fourteen manufacturers of medicines. 
Wichita has fifty implement houses and agencies. 
Wichita has twenty private schools and colleges. 
Wichita has three wholesale barber supply houses. 
Wichita has forty-six wholesale lumber dealers. 
Wichita has three concrete machine manufactories. 
Wichita has a milling capacity of 3,800 barrels a day. 
Wichita has a central fire station that cost $31,000. 
Wichita has thirty-two wholesale grain companies. 
Wichita has the two youngest firemen in the world. 
Wichita has seven benevolent and charitable homes. 
Wichita has two of the finest country clubs in the state. 
Wichita has three of the handsomest parks in the state. 
Wichita has a Melon Arch bridge that cost $100,000. 
Wichita is the largest broomcorn center in the world. 
Wichita has a steel fence post and stock feeder factory. 
Wichita has two electric and telephone supply houses. 
Wichita has two posts of the Grand Army of the Republic. 



36 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Wichita has two hospitals — the Wichita and the St. Francis. 

Wichita is the acknowledged musical center of the Southwest. 

Wichita has a new live stock exchange costing $50,000. 

Wichita has the Peerless Prophets Carnival Association. 

Wichita has a library of city directories from 150 cities. 

Wichita has four manufacturing and wholesaling confec- 
tioners. 

Wichita has a stamp club that is one of the largest in the 
state. 

Wichita has a wholesale publishing house of souvenir post 
cards. 

Wichita has one of the largest broom factories in the United 
States. 

Wichita has a right to the title "The Peerless Princess of the 
West." 

Wichita has a drainage canal and concrete bridges which cost 
$120,000. 

Wichita has a score of artificial stone plants and one large 
brick plant. 

Wichita has the home office of one life and two fire insurance 
companies. 

Wichita is building a strawboard mill costing one-half million 
dollars. 

Wichita has two packing houses that consume a carload of salt 
every day. 

Wichita has golf and tennis players that range among the 
champions of the West. 

Wichita has a large wholesale optical house that does a gen- 
eral optical business. 

Wichita has twenty motor car houses that hold agencies for 
fifty different cars. 

Wichita has the biggest bank clearings of any city of its size 
in five states. 

Wichita has just completed a mammoth storm water sewer that 
has cost $297,000. 

Wichita has four large floral greenhouses covered by 100,000 
square feet of glass. 

Wichita has a Young Men's Christian Association building that 
cost $100,000. 

Wichita has builded 500 new buildings in the first four months 
of 1910. These buildings represent an outlay of $2,000,000. 



WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTER 37 

Wichita has bright prospects for a $4,000,000 union depot and 
track elevation. 

Wichita erected new homes and business blocks costing $4,000,- 
000 last year. 

Wichita has thirty-five miles of street railway and more being 
constantly installed. 

Wichita has the finest Masonic building, devoted exclusively to 
Masonry, in the world. 

Wichita has now building the Orient railway shops that will 
cost $1,000,000 and will employ 1,000 men. 

Wichita has a retail credit directory with names of 11,000 
buyers, published by the Merchants' Credit Bureau. 

Wichita has army and navy recruiting stations for the United 
States and a United States weather bureau. 

Wichita has under construction two ten-story office buildings — 
the Beacon Building and the Schweiter Block. 

Wichita has the largest exclusive gasoline light factory in the 
United States. It is called the Hydro-Carbon Light Company. 

Wichita has sixty-seven street cars, thirty-one of which are in 
operation at all times. This includes four of the finest trailer ears 
in the West. 

Wichita has within its vicinity an annual production of wheat 
amounting to 50,000,000 bushels, twice that many bushels of corn, 
and other cereals in proportion. 

Wichita has Union Stock Yards and two packing houses. The 
packing houses employ 3,000 men and their combined products 
amount to 50,000,000 pounds annually. 

Wichita has nine of the finest buildings devoted to business 
interests in the state — the Boston Store, six stories; the Smyth 
Building, six stories ; the Caldwell-Miirdock Building, seven sto- 
ries ; the Beacon Block, ten stories ; the Butts Buildings, six sto- 
ries; Michigan Building, seven stories; Commercial Club Home, 
five stories; and Schweiter Building (imder construction), ten 
stories. 

A WORLD MARKET FOR BROOMCORN. 

The story of Wichita's wonderful growth as a broomcorn cen- 
ter is old to members of that line of business — the men who make 
that market, who own the big warehouses, or who come here from 
the East, the North, the South and the West to get their supplies 
— but it still is new to many who have not yet heard that Wichita 



38 fflSTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

is, in truth, the greatest brooincorn center in the whole world. 
Wichita sprang into prominence in the broomeorn world within 
a few short months. So rapidly did it become the big center of 
that important industry that the people here at home, though they 
realized and appreciated the city's other advantages, did not 
know that it was a broomeorn market until it had been leading 
all others in volume of business for a year or more. That was 
due, perhaps, to the well-known fact that broomeorn men are 
modest about their business affairs. They tell no one what they 
are doing, and make no boasts of prosperity nor complaints of 
adversity. They take things as they come, boost their city as pri- 
vate citizens, and add their considerable to its bank clearings 
without asking anything in return. 

It was in the fall of 1904 that the American Warehouse Com- 
pany was organized in Sterling, Kan., with the intention of mak- 
ing Wichita its headquarters. It was the first of the many broom- 
corn dealers now here to establish an office in this city. Late 
that year H. K. Lindsay, now president of that corporation, came 
to Wichita and opened an office in the Sim Building, at the corner 
of Douglas and North Emporia avenues. That was the entering 
wedge. Associated with Mr. Lindsay were the late Robert Find- 
lay, one of the oldest dealers in the state, and half a dozen or 
more men equally prominent in the business in this and other 
states. Arrangements were made for storage, and ultimately the 
company purchased what formerly was known as the Burton Car 
Works, north of the city, converting the big buildings into ware- 
houses, and changing the name of the place to "Amwaeo," a 
name derived from the abbreviation of the corporate title of the 
company. 

Other dealers followed the American into Wichita, until within 
a very few months this city became known as the Areola of the 
West, and by another season it was leading even the Illinois mar- 
kets as a distributing center. Today there is hardly a manufac- 
turer in the country — none who uses Western brush — who does 
not make from one to half a dozen trips to Wichita every year. 
They come not only from all parts of the United States, but also 
from Cuba, Mexico and elsewhere. 

Throughout the Wichita market, Kansas, Oklahoma and New 
Mexico brush is distributed among the manufacturers everywhere. 
Among broomeorn dealers, growers and users, the Wichita mar- 
ket is looked upon as standing in a class by itself, far above those 



WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTER 39 

in the Illinois field, which held supremacy for so long. Its loca- 
tion near the big "Western field, as well as its railroad facilities 
and the class of dealers found here, has made it. 

Following its establishment on a firm basis came the big 
Southwestern Broom Company, which built at Wichita one of 
its largest plants, as well as its most complete. In 1909 it com- 
pleted its buildings in the north part of the city, and commenced 
turning out gross after gross, and carload after carload of 
brooms, from an equipment that cannot be surpassed and that is 
capable of completing 1,000 dozens of brooms of all grades every 
day in the year. 

A FEW OF THE MANY BIG THINGS THAT WICHITA IS 
DOING NOW. 

Wichita's wholesale and jobbing business already amounts to 
about $40,000,000 annually, and each week's growth is marvel- 
ous. Within a radius of 100 miles of Wichita there is produced 
annually 50,000,000 bushels of wheat and 100,000,000 bushels of 
corn. Wichita sold products which it manufactured in 1909 to 
the value of nearly $10,000,000. Wichita's live stock market han- 
dled nearly 100,000 more cattle in 1909 than in 1908, and between 
10,000 and 20,000 more hogs. Wichita's Board of Trade handled 
30,000 cars of grain during the year 1909. Wichita's eleven 
banks are each holding on deposit an average of over $1,000,000, 
or a total deposit of $12,000,000. Wichita contracted for 505 
new business and residence buildings, valued at $2,000,000, in 
the months of January, February, March and April, 1910. Wich- 
ita, through its Union Stock Yards, in 1909, handled about 800,- 
000 hogs, nearly 200,000 cattle, 25,000 sheep, 4,000 horses and 
mules. The total number of cars of live stock handled was about 
15,000. 

WICHITA BANK TAXES IN 1910. 

Wichita banks will pay taxes in 1910 on a total valuation of 
$1,063,530. This is a total increase for the eleven institutions 
included in the list of $132,210 over their total, in 1909, $931,320. 
In reality the increase is $3,300 more than that, as the Commer- 
cial Bank in 1909 paid on that much real estate, which since that 
time has been transferred. While its valuation on this account 
shows a decrease in 1910, in reality it has increased, as its per- 



40 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

sonal property valuation in 1909 was $13,200, as compared with 
$13,500 for 1910. 

The new bank at the stock yards is not included in the list, 
for the reason that it was not organized until after April 1, 1910. 

Banks are assessed for personal taxes on their capital stock, 
surplus and undivided profits, less their real estate where they 
own any. The figures here given include the real estate where 
any is given : 

1909. 1910. Increase. 

American State $ 75,000 $ 110,000 $ 35,000 

Fourth National 300,000 330,000 30,000 

Kansas National 200,000 220,000 20,000 

National Bank of Commerce.. 200,000 220,000 20,000 

State Savings 25,000 25,000 

Gold Savings 11,320 26,000 14,680 

Citizens' State 15,000 23,000 8,000 

Stock Yards State 11,000 12,390 1,390 

Commercial 16,500 13,500 *300 

Merchants' State 51,000 52,640 1,640 

Wichita State 26,500 31,000 4,500 

Totals $931,320 $1,063,530 $135,510 

The country banks, of which there is at least one in nearly 
every town in the county, show similar increases as a rule. It 
is probable that their valuations would run the total property on 
which Sedgwick county banks pay taxes up to the neighborhood 
of one and one-half millions. 

CONTRACTORS AND CRAFTSMEN HELP MAKE A 
GREATER WICHITA. 

The growth and development of Wichita has made this city 
the home of the greatest construction companies and material 
supply concerns doing business in the Southwest. These con- 
cerns are not only carrying on enormous building operations in 
the city, but are reaching out over all the territory and making 
successful bids on practically all of the important construction 
work that is being done in this part of Kansas and the territory 



♦Real estate 1909 not included 1910, $3,300. 



WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTER 41 

south of it. Wichita is the Mecca, too, of artisans of every class. 
Carpenters, bricklayers, stone masons, cement workers, electri- 
cians, and representatives of all the other building crafts are here 
in greater numbers than they can be found in any other city 
in Kansas or in the Southwest, and their number is constantly 
increasing with the increasing demand for workmen in the build- 
ing trades. 

The reputation of Wichita as the city which has the most 
massive and modern buildings to be found in the State of Kansas 
has spread all over the Middle West, and it is this reputation 
that has attracted here some of the best equipped construction 
companies in the country. 

These are employing their capital, their equipment and their 
men in the construction of the finest and largest office and busi- 
ness buildings ever erected in Kansas. All over the business dis- 
trict of Wichita the massive steel and concrete frames of uncom- 
pleted buildings give evidence of the greater Wichita which is 
coming, and coming soon. 

It is a significant fact also that nearly two thousand new resi- 
dences were erected in Wichita in 1909. The number to be built 
in 1910 may even pass the two-thousand mark, and each succeed- 
ing year is certain to pass all former records in this line. 

These building operations also explain the presence of the 
numerous local concerns that handle large quantities of building 
materials of every description. No other city in Kansas has so 
many thriving dealers. No other city in the state handles so 
many planing-mill products as Wichita. There is no other city 
where so many brick and so much cement are used. Every class 
of building material has a ready market here, and in some 
lines the materials cannot be produced fast enough to meet the 
demands. 

The material and construction companies are coming to con- 
stitute one of the important commercial interests of the city, and 
with such a flattering prospect of a rapid growth to a city of 
100,000 people, there is every reason to believe that these interests 
will be enlarged and extended from year to year. 

The pay roll created by these building operations is another 
thing that is promoting the Greater Wichita. Thousands of fami- 
lies here are supported by the work of builders, and Wichitas 
artisan element is as prosperous as that of any city in the United 
States. 



42 fflSTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

THE WHY OF WICHITA'S GREATNESS AS A RAILWAY 
AND JOBBING CENTER. 

Annual pay roll, $1,500,000. Annual passenger receipts are 
$1,000,000. Railways employ 2,000 persons in Wichita. Annual 
freight receipts, all lines, are $6,000,000. Anijual freight tonnage 
in and out, 3,000,000 tons. Wichita has sixty-four freight trains 
that handle 1,500 ears of freight daily. Brought to the live stock 
market 15,000 cars of stock and took out 5,000 cars. Wichita 
railways handled jobbing business totaling .$40,000,000 in 1909. 
Wichita mills produce over 800 carloads of flour and other mill- 
stuffs every month. Wichita is the largest broomcorn market in 
the world, handling 40,000 tons annually. The railways hauled 
out 60,000,000 pounds of packing-house products, worth $10,000,- 
000. Five railway systems handled into and out of Wichita mar- 
ket 24,000 cars of grain in 1909. Wichita has forty-six passenger 
trains every day, which handle 3,000 passengers in and out of the 
city. Passenger earnings for July of 1910 were 35 per cent 
greater than July of 1909, which was the banner month for all 
railways. 

WICHITA DOES THINGS— HENCE ITS PROGRESS. 

Here are some of the things Wichita is doing, as all may learn 
upon investigation: Protecting its park system and residence 
section by the construction of a costly concrete dam and river 
embankments. Extending its boulevard system along the banks 
of the rivers. Assisting in the making of excellent wagon roads 
leading into the city from every direction and making sand roads 
disappear. Spending a million dollars a year in paving and street 
improvements. Putting nearly half a million dollars into drain- 
age and sanitary sewers. Erecting $6,000,000 worth of build- 
ings. Building the greatest convention hall in the state. Build- 
ing the finest high school building in the state. Building $525,- 
000 worth of church edifices. Increasing its bank clearings mil- 
lions of dollars annually. Increasing its building permits $2,000.- 
000 a year. Gaining in bank deposits $1,000,000 a year. Gaining 
in population at the rate of 5,000 a year. Building an extensive 
Interurban Railway system. Building the finest modern ear shops 
in the West. Building a paper mill at the cost of $500,000. 
Erecting two ten-story office buildings, the first in the state, one 



WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTER 43 

of which is the new home of "The Beacon," in the heart of 
Wichita. 

A PEW BIG THINGS WICHITA HAS. 

Wichita has an area of twenty square miles. Wichita has 400 
miles of streets. Wichita has 500 miles of cement walks. Wich- 
ita has 110 miles of sanitary sewers. Wichita has forty miles of 
storm sewers. Wichita has thirty-five miles of paved streets. 
Cost of sanitary sewers constructed, $450,000. Cost of storm 
sewer constructed, $325,000. Sanitary sewers under contract, 
forty miles. Cost of sanitary sewer under contract, $225,000. 
Cost of pavement constructed, $1,250,000. Pavement under con- 
tract, ten miles. Cost of pavement under contract, $500,000. 
Wichita has 200 acres of public parks, worth $725,600. Other 
city property worth $477,000. 



PROPERTY VALUES IN WICHITA. 

The final figures, recapitulations and estimates for the reports 
for 1910 from the County Assessor's office were furnished by the 
staff in Major Bristow's office: 

Number of acres of taxable land under cultivation 451,797 

Number of acres of taxable land not under cultivation. . . 163,464 
Total number of acres of land taxable 615,261 



Average value per acre with improvements $ 48.36 

Aggregate value of all lands taxable 29,757,936.00 

Number of improved town lots 2,089 

Number of unimproved town lots 27,581 

Total number of town lots 29,670 

Average value of town lots. $ 71.62 

Total value of all real estate 31,883,036.00 

Aggregate value of all town lots 2,125,100.00 

Total value personal property, City of Wichita. . . . 13,700,600.00 

GEO. W. BRISTOW, County Assessor. 



44 fflSTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

INTERESTING FACTS CONCERNING WICHITA. 

By 

C. L. DAVIDSON. 

The next issue of "The Book of American Municipalities will 
contain some interesting information concerning Wichita. The 
data has just been compiled by Mayor Davidson's secretary, at 
the request of the Municipal Information Bureau of Chicago. 
Among other things, the book will show: Wichita has an area 
of 18.75 square miles. The assessed valuation for the year 1909 is 
.$44,444,451. Revenue from all sources, $468,088.04. Revenue 
from licenses, $12,000. Revenue from police court, $11,000. 
Bonded indebtedness, $1,108,697.02. Special benefit indebtedness, 
$755,323.93. The City of Wichita has never defaulted payment of 
a debt. Wichita has eighteen grade schools and one high school. 
The average school attendance is 6,643 daily. One hundred and 
forty-five teachers are employed in the public schools of Wichita. 
Wichita has ten colleges and technical schools. Wichita uses 
5,000,000 gallons of water daily. Two hundred and sixty-eight 
arc lights, costing $66 each, and 418 vapor lights, costing $27 
each, are kept burning to light Wichita's streets. There are 
130.66 miles of sewer in Wichita now and thirteen and one-half 
miles are under construction. There are 349% miles of unim- 
proved streets in Wichita and 251/2 miles of improved streets. 
Sixteen and two-tenths miles of streets have been improved the 
past year, at a cost of $898,012.58. There are 8,000 telephones in 
use in Wichita. There are 100 miles of gas mains in Wichita. 
In 1908 the expenditures for public improvements were as fol- 
lows: Storm water sewer, $400,000; paving, $100,000; concrete 
bridge, $300,000; fire station, $25,000. Proposed improvements 
to be made at once : Auditorium, $150,000 ; high school building, 
$135,000 ; new sewer and paving, $500,000. 

ONE MONTH ONLY— JANUARY, 1910— IN WICHITA, 
KANSAS. 

In spite of the winter weather, the month of January broke 
all records for building permits in Wichita. The total was nearly 
three-quarters of a million dollars — in exact figures, $735,075. Of 




6,/^. 



WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTER 45 

this amount, $625,400 was for business buildings, $107,500 for 
dwellings, and the remainder for various small structures. 

It may be noted here that four and one-half million dollars 
were spent for new buildings in Wichita in 1909. From all indi- 
cations, the present year will greatly exceed this record. 

The street railway company announces that it will spend 
$700,000 this year for new power house, new car barn aiid other 
improvements. 

The Union Stock Yards Company, having just completed a 
large and costly exchange building, states that $50,000 more will 
be spent this year to take care of the rapidly growing live-stock 
interests. 

The street railway company completes its loop in the down- 
town district to relieve the congestion of the busiest streets. 

The City Commissioner's let contracts in January for ten miles 
of paving. 

Wichita's postofifice is made distributing station for postal 
supplies in the Southwest. The postmaster also finds that the 
average daily business of the postoffice has doubled in four years. 

Second annual Pure Food Show is held — a big success. 

Three new buildings are started for new motor car companies. 

Beautiful library building at Fairmount College is dedicated. 

Plans are accepted for $150,000 high school building to be 
built this year. 

International Harvester Company will have new four-story 
home built. 

Wichita is healthy. Report of Health Department shows twice 
as many births as deaths in the city in 1909. 

Two thousand birds are exhibited at the State Poultry Show. 

Deposits in Wichita banks amount to eleven million dollars 
and are constantly increasing. 

Construction work started on ten-story "Beacon" Block. 

Highly successful automobile show is held. 

The First Methodist Church decides to erect new building, to 
cost about $100,000. 

A $300,000 hotel is -one of the good things of which Wichita 
has received the promise the past month. 

Plans are adopted for the $125,000 Auditorium which the city 
is to build this year. 

The Terminal Association, organized to systematically handle 
the freight-SAvitching problems of the milling, packing and stock- 



46 HISTORT OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

yards district, has planned extensive improvements and additions 
to the track facilities of that section. 

Contract is let for the Catholic Cathedral, which will be an 
imposing structure of Bedford stone. It will cost, when ready for 
use, about $200,000. 

Foundation is put in for the five-story Commercial Club Build- 
ing, to be occupied exclusively by that organization. 

Wichita is the most rapidly growing city in the Southwest. 
It is situated in a rich and productive agricultural district and 
its large wholesale and manufacturing interests are placed in 
close touch with a profitable market by means of seven railway 
lines operated by five railway systems. Surveys are being made 
to connect the city with its most important neighbors by electric 
lines and it is expected to be only a few months until an extensive 
interurban system is in operation. The city has plenty of good 
water. It has natural gas for domestic and factory use. It has 
many splendid churches and excellent schools. It has many miles 
of paved streets, fine parks and driveways, a forest of shade trees 
in all parts of the city, and a mild climate unexcelled by any inte- 
rior city. Wichita has three live commercial organizations, and 
an inquiry addressed to either the Chamber of Commerce, the 
Commercial Qub or the West Side Business League will bring 
such information as vou may wish. 



ONE MONTH ONLY— FEBEUARY, 1910— IN WICHITA, 
KANSAS. 

The most interesting news of the month to Wichita was the 
statement given out by the general manager of the Kansas City, 
Mexico & Orient Railway that the contract had been let for the 
road's repair shops to be built in Wichita. The first unit of the 
shops will be built this year, and will furnish employment to 200 
men at the start. The amount to be expended on this work is 
about .$3.50.000. 

Three miles of additional paving is ordered by the city. 

Five new business houses are to be erected in one block on 
North Main street. 

The postmaster finds that Wichita's postoffiee did 30 per cent 
more business in January. 1910, than it did in January, 1909. 

A new wholesale firm is organized to handle supplies for 
bakers, and will begin business March 1. 



WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTER 47 

The Crane Supplj- Company, wholesale steam fittings and 
plumbers' supplies, announces that it will begin immediately the 
erection of a six-story building to accommodate its growing 
busiaess. 

The AYichita Natural Gas Company announces the expenditure 
of $400,000 to increase the capacity of their plant and lines to 
keep up with the increasing demand for gas. 

The Farmers" and Bankers' Life Insurance Company is organ- 
ized in "Wichita, with $250,000 capital stock, and a large surplus. 
Local capitali.sts are at the head of the company, and stock is 
being rapidly subscribed. 

The beautiful new building of the Riverside Country Club is 
completed. 

A new photo-engraving plant starts business, making two 
engraving companies in the city. 

A wholesale bakery company will build a three-story home 
for its business, commencing, work on it immediately. 

A new theater, costing $75,000, and having a seating capacity 
of 1,600, will be built this summer. It is intended to make it 
the finest in the state, and to have it ready for use by September 
1, 1910. 

Stock is being sold by a company which proposes to build an 
interurban line connecting "Wichita with Chester, Neb. 

Buildings and improvements to cost $300,000 are to be added 
to the "Wichita plant of the Cudahy Packing Company, as an- 
nounced by the officers of the company. This company completed 
recently additions which greatly enlarged their plant, and the 
additions now ordered will call for the employment of over 300 
more workmen when the new equipment is ready for ojperation, 
which is expected to be not later than next September. 

Fifty new cattle pens at the stock yards and a new hotel to 
accommodate shippers are two improvements ordered by the 
• directors of the Stock Yards Company. 

The most valuable corner in Kansas, at Main and Douglas, 
will be cleared this spring for the erection of a ten-story store 
and office building. The plans were originally made for an eight- 
story structure, but the great demand for office rooms caused the 
change to a larger building. 

A half-million-bushel grain elevator, which will be a bonded 
warehouse, is one of the good things of which February brought 
the promise. The project will give great impetus to the grain 



48 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

business of Wichita, which is now one of the principal factors of 
the city's growth, and is a step toward making her the grain 
market of the West. 

The total cost of public and private buildings and improve- 
ments now under construction and planned for construction this 
year in Wichita is nearly eight million dollars. 

Wichita is increasing in population at the rate of about 20 
per cent a year, while the business interests of the city are advan- 
cing by leaps and bounds, and nearly every wholesale and manu- 
facturing company is enlarging or planning to enlarge its facili- 
ties. Every day marks the addition of a new business establish- 
ment in the city. The building of new railroads and interurban 
lines, which are assured, will open up an immense territory 
hitherto scarcely touched by the local companies. Wichita is a 
clean, beautiful, energetic city, and offers advantages to home- 
builders and business-builders unsurpassed by any city in the 
Middle West. The city's growth is conspicuously free from any 
"boom" movement or wild speculation. 

THE WICHITA GRAIN MARKET. 

By 

W. F. McCULLOUGH, 
President Wichita Board of Trade. 

One of the most interesting studies in connection with the 
growth of a city is the tracing of the birth and development of 
the various lines of industry and trade that go to make up the 
busy whole. Very good advice it is, that we cultivate the habit 
of looking forward ; yet there can be no denying the fact that a 
sober and conservative estimate of the future can only be arrived 
at by studying the events that have already transpired. Prophecy 
of the future growth of the city, state or nation is only well 
informed when the events and accomplishments of the past war- 
rant us in believing in great possibilities for the future. 

With this in mind, a consideration of Wichita as a central 
grain market cannot be complete without going back to the begin- 
ning of the city and following the development step by step. 
We find the young city's first shipping fame is founded on great 
cattle shipments ; that the product of the ranges for hundreds of 



WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTER 49 

miles were driven here to finish by rail the remainder of the trip 
to market. That this should come first was but natural, for the 
country had not as yet settled down to soil cultivation. This 
stage was, however, soon past, for a country so rich in soil could 
not remain a cattle range. 

Year by year, thousands of acres of the virgin soil were 
broken out and the staple and principal crop was, from the 
first, winter wheat. The soil and climatic conditions were found 
to be peculiarly adapted to this cereal, and then was founded the 
great empire of wheat, the crop that has made Kansas famous, 
the crop of which she produces annually more than any other 
state in the Union, and which has made the farmers of central and 
western Kansas the most well-to-do of any similar body of men 
in any section of the country. 

This, however, is anticipating, for at the time of which we 
write the steam gang plow and the grain header were unknown, 
and even the self-binder had hardly come into use. Wheat rais- 
ing was not the "bonanza farming" that it has since become, yet 
so prolific was the soil, so earnest were the tilers, and such great 
distances was it hauled that Wichita became the greatest wagon 
wheat market in the United States. It came from far and near, 
from every direction, and in such quantities that unloading and 
shipping facilities were overtaxed. Grain elevators ran day and 
night and were still unable to care for the streams of wheat 
poured in from the surrounding country. There were no rail- 
roads west and south of Wichita at that time, and grain was 
hauled to this market distances of fifty and sixty miles or more, 
and old residents remember the time when lines of wheat wagons 
extended from the Douglas avenue bridge to the Santa Fe tracks, 
waiting their turn to unload. Many of these had to wait until 
the next day "before they could be relieved and start on the home- 
ward trip. 

This situation was entirely changed by the building of rail- 
roads into the section of the state west and south of us. On 
these railroads numerous small towns and shipping points sprang 
up, and while the growth and settlement of the country contrib- 
uted to Wichita's growth in many ways, it put an end to her 
distinction as a wagon wheat market. 

During this time, however, Wichita was but undergoing a 
transition period from a country shipping point of grain to a 
wholesale grain market — the same transition period that is neces- 



50 fflSTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

sary in this and any other city in changing from a local trading 
point, dependent upon the trade of such territory as can reach it 
by country roads, to a wholesale market, commanding the trade 
of states. Where the establishment of these new shipping points 
cost us the wagon trade of the territory in which they were 
located, we now handle the grain shipped from those points and 
from many others — in all a territory many times larger than we 
originally controlled. Where it was formerly handled in wagon 
loads, now it changes hands in carloads, and where formerly 
Wichita shipped wheat to other markets, it is now the market 
itself for the wheat from a great portion of Kansas and parts of 
Oklahoma and Nebraska. 

This new condition of affairs began to be in evidence about 
the year 1901, although it was of small moment until two years 
later. 

In 1903 the Wiehita Board of Trade was organized. There had 
formerly been a commercial organization known by the same 
name, which had been very effective in building up and pro- 
moting the growth of the city. The new Board of Trade was 
formulated, however, strictly as an organization of the grain 
dealers, and for the grain trade, along the lines of similar organ- 
izations in other cities. It was not noted for its strength at 
that time, every member realizing that to build a grain market 
required a long, hard effort. The charter membership at organ- 
ization was fourteen, and several of these were not actively 
engaged in the grain business, but loaned their influence and 
membership to the new concern for its assistance. The value of 
memberships at organization was $25 each, and the question may 
well have entered into the minds of the members, whether they 
were worth that amount. 

However, it is necessary for everything to have a beginning, 
and this was the beginning of the grain organization of Wichita. 
From this time forward its growth has been steady. It has been 
necessary to overcome the competition of older established mar- 
kets, coupled in many cases with freight rate adjustments, which 
rendered it well-nigh impossible to compete, with them. Also 
was it necessary before material growth could be made that these 
discriminating rates be overcome and that we impress upon the 
railroads the necessity for our recognition as a market. Year 
by year, and one at a time, the various drawbacks have been 
overcome and reduced, materially assisted in some cases by the 



WICHITA AS A COMiMERCIAL CENTER 51 

interstate commerce commission, until now, although many ad- 
justments are still necessary, we are in a position to hold our own 
and more than this, to grow. 

The membership of the trade is limited to fifty at the pres- 
ent time, and Ihese are all sold, and practically all in the hands 
of active grain merchants. None of them can be bought today 
for less than $800, which by comparison with the price of $25 
at the time of organization tells better than anything else the 
growth of the business. 

During the crop year of 1909 there were handled by the mem- 
bers of the Wichita Board of Trade 24,326 ears of grain, three- 
fourths of this being wheat, as befits a market located in the 
wheat belt of the state which raises a greater amount of wheat 
than any other. The season of 1910 will, no doubt, surpass this, 
as the receipts during July and August, the two heaviest months, 
were in excess of the same months last year. 

Look at the map and fix the wheat belt of Kansas and Okla- 
homa, and find, if you can, a more favorable location for a great 
grain market and milling center. Why should we not grow? 
A review of present conditions and a comparison with a short 
time ago is the best encouragement, and fully justifies the faith 
of our people. 

We have six tei-minal elevators, with a total storage capacity 
of a million and a quarter bushels, and a handling capacity of 
125 cars of grain daily. We have five flouring mills, with a 
daily capacity of 4,100 barrels of flour, requiring 15,000 bushels 
of wheat per day to satisfy their needs alone. All of this built 
up in six years from practically nothing. With anything like 
the growth in the future that we have enjoyed in the past, Wich- 
ita will before many years take her place among the great pri- 
mary grain markets of the country. 

A GREAT MOTOR CAR CENTER. 

Wichita is not only the greatest city in the Southwest, but 
the greatest motor car center in the West. That's what Wichita 
stands for in the motor world. With her twenty or more garages 
and agencies, which sell on the weekly average $20,000 worth 
of motor cars, she ranks well up with the large motor car dis- 
tributing point of the United States. 

More cars were sold in 1910 from the Wichita motor car 



52 fflSTOKY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

houses than were sold from the agencies in Kansas City, Mo. 
"Wichita agents supply Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas with motor 
cars — the greatest motor car country in the world. 

Fifty or more of the leading motor car factories are repre- 
sented in Wichita, and no matter how fastidious the purchaser 
may be he can find the latest motor car invention or accessory, 
for the Wichita agents keep right up to the dot. 

At one time this year there were forty-five cars filled with 
motor cars on the tracks in Wichita. Wichita is the greatest 
distributing point for the Reo, Ford and Auburn motor cars west 
of the Mississippi. Collectively the motor car dealers are not 
only great hustlers and active business men, but are town boost- 
ers as well. A car very seldom goes out of Wichita on a long 
trip unless it bears a "Wichita Win" banner. The dealers not 
only find pleasure in disposing of their cars, but enjoy the 
prestige the sales give Wichita. 

For fine garages and up-to-date machine plants for sick mo- 
tor cars Wichita is equipped with the best. Several of the ga- 
rages are two stories in height and have unusual storage room. 
Most of the fine garages have been built during the past two 
years. 

The very latest models in motor cars are received in Wichita 
because the demand for the latest motor cars come in from this 
section. The motor car owners of this section of the country 
cannot enjoy motoring unless they have the very latest product 
from the factory. For this reason every year sees the habitual 
motorist with a new model car. 

Wichita has been a motor car city for just about a decade. 
To speak of driving over the streets of Wichita in a motor driven 
vehicle ten years ago would have indicated real "battyness." 
Every one thought the Schollenberger boys near the dead line 
of sanity nine years ago when they startled the horses with the 
snorts of their noisy little motor car. There was much talk a 
little later when A. S. Parks ambled down to his sash and door 
plant on Rock Island avenue in a Locomobile. But when other 
men began to take up the idea of the motor car every one had 
to admit that there was something destined for the vehicle. 

Since then Wichita has been adding motor cars until now 
it has more private motor cars on the city tax rolls than any 
other city in the state. Eight hundred motor cars are owned 



WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTER 53 

in Wichita and new names are showing up in the city clerk's 
office every week. 

Motor car interest in Wichita does not need urging. Every 
man that can scrape together the spare simoleons hies himself 
to the motor car store and invests in a gasoline barouche. The 
Wichita Automobile Club has been an important factor in mak- 
ing Wichita a large place on the motor car map. It has logged 
the principal roads out of Wichita and has mapped several runs, 
which are followed by the most enthusiastic motorists. 

The era of good roads which is dawning in Sedgwick county 
can be traced to the appearance of the motor car. When the 
motorist began to travel over the country roads he found that 
they were mighty poor. Agitation for better roads commenced 
immediately and its fruition has come in the thirty-six miles of 
new sand and clay rOads, which will soon make Sedgwick county 
the county of the best roads. The Wichita Automobile Club 
contributed $2,000 towards the building of these new roads. 

Plans are being made for the reorganization of the Automo- 
bile Club and plans for sociability runs will be considered. A 
big motor car show has been planned, at which all models of the 
best motor cars known to the motor world will be exhibited and 
demonstrated. 



THE WICHITA RAILROAD & LIGHT COMPANY. 

The Wichita Railroad & Light Company was organized in 
1900 and have charge of all operation of thirty miles of street 
railway track in the city of Wichita. The passenger business 
has doubled in the last two years, and the character of the service 
and size of cars have been greatly increased. 

The passenger car equipment consists of sixteen large double 
truck pay-as-you-enter cars, and twenty-seven single truck closed 
winter bodies, twelve single truck open cars and eight large 
double truck, baseball trailers. The regular service varies from 
eight-minute headway to twenty-minute headway, according to 
the amount of business done on the line. The most important 
line is the stock yards line, operating to the north end oi the 
city, and passes the courthouse, several large flour mills, the 
Cudahy and Dold Packing companies, Union Stock yards and 
Missouri Pacific shops and the roundhouse. The second line in 
importance is the Topeka avenue, operating past the Masonic 



54 fflSTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Temple, Elks Club, Y. M. C. A., the St. Francis Hospital, the 
Kansas Milling Company and terminating at the Watson Mill- 
ing Company at Seventeenth and St. Francis. The third line, 
the west side, operates on the west side of the river, past the 
Missouri Pacific depot, the Wichita Hospital, Masonic Home and 
out towards Friends University. The passengers on this line 
also reach Mt. Carmel, Battle Creek Sanitarium and the new 
Orient shops. The South Main line operates south, passing the 
city building, Hamilton Hotel and reaches the League baseball 
park, two miles out. The Emporia avenue line goes south on 
Emporia avenue through the residence district. 

The College Hill line operates straight east two and one-half 
miles, passing all depots entering the city and reaches the Wich- 
ita Country Club. The Pairmount line operates north two miles 
from the College Hill, passing the cemeteries of the city, and 
ends at Fairmount College. The Pattie avenue line operates 
south and east of the railroad in residence district, and serves one 
of Wichita's prettiest parks, known as Linwood. The Cleveland 
avenue line operates east of the railroads through the residence 
district and serves McKinley Park. Waco avenue line operates 
northwest of the Missouri Pacific tracks, through residence dis- 
trict, and serves the territory west of the Little River at Eight- 
eenth street. The Riverside Park line operates west from the 
courthouse through the largest and prettiest park in the city. 
It also passes the water works and reaches the Riverside Park 
Club. Passengers will take Riverside car to see Riverside zoo, 
which contains* as many animals as many of the cities of ten 
times Wichita's population. The Wonderland Park line oper- 
ates west of Douglas to Wonderland Park, the largest amuse- 
ment park west of Kansas City, located on Wonderland Island. 
This line also serves the Sedgwick county fair grounds. 

The company is spending large sums of money in improve- 
ments in cars, tracks, pavement, shops and improved power 
plant. 

THE SASH AND DOOR INDUSTRY IN WICHITA. 

Wichita is one of the most important planing mill and sash 
and door centers in the West. More sash and doors are shipped 
out of Wichita in a year than from any other city in the South- 
west. This is due partially to the great number of yards of the 



WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTER 55 

<3ity, which are supplied with sash and similar products by the 
local mills and factories and also to the location of Wichita. In 
the early days Wichita was a supply station and it has continued 
to be such ever since. The sash and door companies ship on an 
average of two cars of sash, doors, etc., every week. 

One of the largest factories in Wichita is the United Sash 
and Door Company. It has three warehouses on South Rock 
Island avenue. Its mill is the Western Planing Mill, which has 
recently been remodeled, a new dry kiln installed and more 
machinery put in. 

This factory does a wholesale sash, door, glazing, paint and 
varnish business. Acres of glass are stored in the basement of 
the large warehouse and this can be glazed by expert glass men 
into almost any design and shape desired. All the doors of the 
common variety are glazed at the plant. 

Sash and doors are made at the factory. The forms are cut 
at the planing mill and assembled in the factory. Two huge 
door presses which press the door frames together are kept busy 
all the time. There are numerous sandpaper machines, which 
give the doors and sash a smooth, even finish. 

One hundred and fifty men are employed in the sash and 
door plant. During the winter months night work is done. All 
the local deliveries are made by a motor truck recently 
purchased. 

The United Sash and Door plant has more than 150,000 square 
feet of floor space and every foot of it is used. It has its own 
lighting and generating plant and is a modern sash and door 
factory in every sense of the word. 

The Western Planing mill is an adjunct of the United Sash 
and Door Company, which is well known over the Southwest. 
This mill has every modern woodworking machine known to 
woodworkers and all the work is under the supervision of a 
skilled foreman. Every man employed in the mill is an expert. 

The largest dry kiln in the state is a feature of the planing 
mill. There green lumber from Louisiana, Canada, and, in fact, 
every part of the globe, is dried and prepared for use. The turn- 
ing department does unusually fine work, as does the stair de- 
partment. All sorts of saws can be seen there, but in spite of 
the many maiming instruments very few accidents occur. 

The Rock Island Sash and Door Company is two years old 
in Wichita, but very much older outside the state. The ware- 



56 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

house is on North Mosley avenue. No macliinery is kept and 
nothing is worl^ed up, all the material being shipped to "Wichita 
from the head factory. A large stock of sash, doors and blinds 
is kept on hand and a very extensive business is done. 

There is another sash and door house in "Wichita that bears 
the title of the "Wichita Sash and Door Company. This is located 
on North Water street. It is one of the oldest sash and door 
houses in the city and does an extensive business in sash and 
doors. It has its own modern planing mill. 

The quality of the product sent out by these Wichita factories 
has had no little effect in giving Wichita a good reputation. The 
traveling representatives of these houses cover a territory com- 
prised by several states and the Wichita goods are shipped into 
the districts where sash and door factories are common. All the 
Wichita factories are up to the minute in every particular and 
are helping materially to make Wichita win. 

LUMBER AND BUILDING MATERIALS. 

By 

0. A. LEASURE. 

Prominent among the contributors to Wichita's commercial 
prosperity and eminence are her lumber and building material 
interests. That more materials of this character are marketed in 
and through Wichita than in any city of like size in the entire 
United States is the statement of wholesalers, whose experience 
and business connections enable them to speak with authority. 
Of course this will not pass without certain caviling exceptions 
being raised by some of Wichita's urban rivals in the South- 
west, but the clincher to this statement is the fact that the vol- 
ume of such business transacted here not only represents the 
local consumption of lumber and building materials, but also 
the stocks and supplies for 284 retail lumber yards, whose gen- 
eral management and purchasing agencies are located in this 
city. The retail businesses so represented are located through- 
out the states of Kansas and Oklahoma, the Panhandle of Texas, 
eastern New Mexico and eastern Colorado. The total number of 
cars of lumber marketed in the Wichita wholesale market dur- 
ing the last twelve months amounts well into the ten thousands, 
while during the previous year the volume was even larger. 



WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTER 57 

In a wholesale way every prominent manufacturer of yellow 
pine and cypress lumber in the Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas and 
Mississippi district is represented in this city either by a per- 
sonal representative or through the numerous commission and 
brokerage houses. In like manner the manufacturers of what 
is known in trade parlance as Pacific coast products, such as 
cedar, fir, spruce, white pine and redwood, are represented in 
the Wichita market, together with the hardwood products, such 
as oak, birch, maple and the like. In such manner is Wichita 
the chief jobbing center of lumber in the Southwest. 

In the line of manufactured sash, doors and interior orna- 
mental woodwork Wichita is not only a jobbing, but a manufac- 
turing center. Located here and representing a capitalization 
and investment mounting well toward the half million mark is 
the United Sash and Door Company, whose plant and equipment 
are unexcelled west of the Mississippi river. Other manufac- 
turers and jobbers in this line are the Western Planing Mill 
Company, an adjunct of the United ; the Wichita Sash and Door 
Company, the Rock Island Sash and Door Company, and numer- 
ous other smaller planing mills operated by retail lumber yards 
as an adjunct to local business. These interests employ a corps 
of traveling salesmen, whose territory is bounded by the Rock 
mountains, the Gulf and the Missouri river. 

Closely allied to the lumber interests are the brick, cement 
and plaster interests. These lines are all well represented in the 
Wichita wholesale market. All the manufacturers of Portland 
cement, the lola, the United Kansas, the Monarch, the Fredonia, 
the Ash Grove and the Western States, maintain city sales forces, 
and from here the traveling sales force canvasses the southwest 
territory. The local consumption of cement, owing to the ex- 
tensive street paving work of the last twelve months and the 
erection of large public buildings, such as the Schweiter and 
Beacon buildings, the Catholic cathedral, the Commercial Club 
'and the high school, has been a record breaker, being estimated 
at between 200,000 and 250,000 barrels. Brick and plaster are 
lines represented in the Wichita market largely through jobbers. 
The Lumbermen's Supply Company, the Jackson-Walker Coal 
and Material Company and J. H. Turner being representative 
concerns in this trade. The Wichita Silex Brick Company manu- 
factures and distributes here a brick unique to the trade, pure 



58 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

white pressed brick, suitable for both exterior and interior use 
and for ornamental purposes. 

Allied to this branch of the building material trade is the 
cement stone business, of which there are some twenty extensive 
manufacturers. The cheapening of cement, incident to the dis- 
covery in Kansas, Missouri and Iowa, of a shale having ingredi- 
ents necessary for a practical cement product, is entirely respon- 
sible for the establishing of this industry. An idea of the extent 
of this business is best obtained from the fact that fully ninety 
out of every hundred domestic buildings erected in this city 
within the last three years have used this material for founda- 
tion purposes in preference to brick or stone, to say nothing of 
the many business buildings which have been erected in the recent 
past exclusively of this material. 

In a retail way twenty-four lumber yards cater to the de- 
mands of the Wichita builder. Prominent among these are the 
J. W. Metz Lumber Company, the Long-Bell Lumber Company; 
the Rock Island Lumber Company, the Hill-Engstrom Lumber 
Company, the Schwartz Lumber Company, the Davidson-Case 
Lumber Company, the Pond-Comley Lumber Company 
the Pratt Lumber Company, the Graham Lumber Com 
pany, the Caldwell-Hoffman Lumber Company, the Chas- 
tain-Cathey Lumber Company the Ketcham Lumber Com 
pany, the King Lumber Company, the Orient Lumber Company 
the Zimmerman Lumber Company, the United Lumber Company 
the South Side Lumber Company, the Shearer-Titus Lumber 
Company, and others. As shown by the records of building 
permits issued to Wichita builders, the aggregate of building 
operations in the city for the last twelve months is approximately 
$6,000,000, in which total these institutions have shared for 
lumber and like materials used. 

Headquarters, offices and purchasing agencies for yards lo- 
cated in Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico and eastern Colo- 
rado, located in Wichita are the J. W. Metz Lumber Company, 
the Davidson-Case Lumber Company, the Rock Island Lumber 
and Coal Company, the Big Jo Lumber Company, the 
Kirkwood Lumber Company, the Hill-Engstrom Lumber 
Company, the Amsden Lumber Company, the Pond-Com- 
ley Lumber Company, the Stewart Lumber Company, and others. 
Prom these offices are managed and supplies purchased for 284 
country retail yards, while several of the concerns mentioned 



WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTER 59 

maintain hardware and implement stocks in connection with 
their regular lumber and building material business in many of 
their country points. The capital investment represented in 
these interests is expressed well up in the seven figures. 

The Wichita College of Music was organized and established 

four years ago by its' present president and founder, Theodore 
Lindberg, the well-known violin artist. The building at No. 351 
North Topeka avenue, which is the home of Mr. Lindberg, was 
used as a college building the first year, where all departments 
of the school were cpnducted. The second year the college moved 
into its splendid building especially erected and planned for a 
school of music at Nos. 217 and 219 North Lawrence avenue, right 
in the heart of the city. This building contains music studios, 
reading-room, office, and the beautiful Philharmonic Hall, seating 
700, with all modern appliances, stage settings, pipe organ, etc., 
and within the past year this enterprising school has completed 
its ladies' hall, "The Lindon," at No. 315 East Third street, used 
as a boarding department for young ladies who attend the 
Wichita College of Music. This is a four-story, fireproof brick 
building, perfectly modern in every detail. The aggregate value 
of real estate and buildings now owned and under the direct 
supervision of the management of the College of Music amounts 
to more than $75,000. During the season of 1909 more than 300 
students attended the College of Music. The policy of the man- 
agement has always been to employ only first-class teachers. It 
does not believe in employing assistant teachers. The success of 
the graduates from the College of Music has been exceptional, 
many of them holding responsible positions with schools and 
colleges with salaries ranging from $1,000 to $2,000 per year. 
The Arctic Ice and Refrigerating Company, of Wichita, Kan., 
is one of the prominent industries of the city. Its plant, which 
was established at Rock Island avenue in 1907, extends from 
Rock Island avenue to the tracks of the Rock Island railroad, and 
has a frontage of 254 feet. The plant has a capacity for manu- 
facturing 120 tons of ice daily, and its cold storage capacity is 
500 cars of perishable goods at one time. Through a pipe line 
system it is also enabled to furnish refrigerating service about the 
city. This fui-nishes space and power for the Arctic Ice Cream 
Company, which produces 500 gallons of ice cream per day, which 
is shipped throughout the Southwest. In addition, the National 



60 fflSTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Bakers' Egg Company rents space, electric power aud storage 
room in the plant. The officers of the Arctic Ice Company are: 
W. J. Trousdale, president ; J. Elmer Reese, vice-president ; W. H. 
Phillips, secretary and treasurer. 

The Shelley Drug Company, located at 118 East Douglas, is 
considered to be the peer of any drug store in the Southwest. 
The interior fittings of the store are among the finest and most 
expensive in the United States, the fixtures being made of solid 
Honduras mahogany, trimmed in metal dipped in gold; the 
shelving all enclosed with heavy plate glass doors, while the top 
of the fixtures are studded with electric lights, giving a very 
handsome effect. 

The soda fountain is of the same material, and is twenty-two 
feet long, with twenty-one tables, twelve stools and four buffets 
which will accommodate a party of six people each, making the 
seating capacity for the soda business of 120 people. Hot lunches 
are also served as well as the latest in cold drinks, and delicacies 
are served the year through. 

On the outside of the store is one of the finest soda signs ever 
manufactured, representing a stream of soda flowing from a 
draught arm and filling the glass below. This sign is twenty-two 
feet in height and takes 396 Tungsten lamps to produce this effect. 

The Shelley Drug Company bought the defunct Sharp-Vincent 
stock on May 30, 1909, closing it up for a week for decoration and 
repairs, and opening under the management of Mr. Chester D. 
Shelley, conducting the business at 126 North Main until Feb- 
ruary 4, 1910, moving at that time to 118 East Douglas avenue, 
one of the first drug locations in Wichita, George Matthews 
having opened at that location from 1876 to 1879, he then selling 
to M. P. Barnes and 0. D. Barnes, the style of the firm being 
known as M. P. Barnes & Son until 1888, when the stock was sold 
and moved to other quarters, there being several different kinds 
of business in the building up to the time of the Shelley Drug 
Company occupancy. 

Mr. 0. D. Barnes, of the old firm of M. P. Barnes & Son, is 
now the principal owner of the Shelley Drug Company, but on 
account of his large property holdings does not take an active 
interest in the management of the drug store, leaving the entire 
management to Mr. Shelley, the junior member of the firm. 

Mr. Shelley started in the drug business with his father at 
Hutchinson, Kan., about eighteen years ago, afterward coming to 



WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTER 61 

Wichita witli Wells W. Miller, at 248 North Main, for two or 
three years and after that with W. A. Stanford, at 102 East 
Douglas; C. H. Hutbell, at McPherson, Kan., and the Westhall 
Drug Company, at Oklahoma City. 

After leaving Westhall 's, Mr. Shelley was engaged in contract- 
ing in the oil fields of eastern Kansas and Oklahoma for three 
years, but when the oil business dropped went back to the drug 
business with H. B. Allen at 102 East Douglas, Wichita. 

Mr. Shelley was married in March, 1908, to Miss Winnie 
Barnes, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. 0. D. Barnes, moving to Okla- 
homa City, where he was connected with the Roach & Veazey 
Drug Company until he became interested in the present firm. 

The Higginson Drag Company, of Wichita, Kan., corner of 
Douglas and Topeka avenues, is one of the oldest established 
retail drug houses in the city. It was organized and began busi- 
ness a quarter of a century ago, the first proprietors being Kerster 
& Romig. The style of the firm shortly changed to that of Kerster 
& Wallace, and later George Gehring and H. D. Higginson became 
proprietors. Prom 1904 to 1905 it was known as the Higginson 
Drug Company, H. D. Higginson proprietor. The company later 
became incorporated, and has since occupied its present location. 
The company has a trade that branches out to other states, from 
which orders are received daily. It has always borne the dis- 
tinction of living up to the letter of the law, and its reputation 
in this respect is far-reaching. Henry D. Higginson, at the retire- 
ment of Mr. George Gehring, in 1905, reorganized the business 
under the name of the Higginson Drug Company in the fall of 
1905, and continued as the proprietor until May 11, 1910, when 
Frank J. Garrety became the proprietor, continuing the well- 
known name of the Higginson Drug Company. Mr. Garrety was 
born in Gettysburg, Pa., on April 19, 1885. He is a son of John J. 
and Lulu J. Garrety, natives of Pennsylvania, who came to 
.Wichita in 1886, where the elder Garrety has since been engaged 
in the contracting business. Frank J. Garrety was educated in 
the public schools of Wichita, and began his business career by 
selling newspapers and shining shoes. He afterward obtained a 
clerkship with H. D. Cottman and worked for him for twelve 
years, when he opened the first moving picture show in the city 
at 410 East Douglas. From this he branched out until he had six 
show places, and sold out in April, 1910, and May 10, 1910, became 
the proprietor of the Higginson Drug Company. He is vice- 



62 HISTOKY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

president of the T. M. A. and treasurer of the local Order of the 
Knights of Columbus. Mr. Garrety was married on April 5, 1910, 
to Miss Sylvia Cone, daughter of Rufus Cone, of Wichita. Mr. 
Garrety is also interested as a stockholder in the American Paper 
Manufacturing Company, of Wichita. He is the financial repre- 
sentative of the Mount Carmel Academy, of Wichita, and is quite 
an extensive holder of improved real estate in the city. 

The Wichita Trunk Company, a prosperous and promising 
manufacturing enterprise of Wichita, Kan., was reorganized in 
1909 with Mr. Frank S. Rose, president; Mr. T. P. Kelso, vice- 
president, and Mr. Albert J. Errickson, secretary and treasurer. 
It occupies 7,000 square feet of floor space on the second and 
third floors of the building at No. 119-121 South Lawrence avenue, 
and with its thorough equipment and experienced force turns out 
a fine and full line of high-grade trunks and valises, and in fact 
everything pertaining to that line of trade. The men at the head 
of this enterprise are trained to their work and under their prac- 
tical management, the business must soon outgrow the limits of 
retailing and take on the wider scope of wholesaling as well. 

Mr. Rose was born in St. Louis, Mo., in 1872, to Frank and 
Mary (Bullock) Rose, who, in 1882 moved to Atchison, Kan., 
where the father organized the Rose Trunk Company. After 
leaving school our subject entered his father's establishment and 
acquired a thorough knowledge of the business, spending ten 
years as traveling salesman and a longer period as active man- 
ager of the factory and business. He is a member of B. P. 0. Elks, 
K. of P., I. 0. 0. F. and a 32d degree Mason. 

In 1907 Mr. Rose married Miss Lillian Elenore, daughter of 
Isaiah Brown and Julia Turpin Harris, of St. Louis county, 
Missouri. 

Mr. Errickson is a native of Greenwood county, Kansas, and 
was born in 1871. He acquired a common school and academic 
education in his native place and later was graduated from the 
Southwestern Business College, at Wichita. In 1897 he entered 
the employ of the Dold Packing Company, at Wichita, Kan., and 
continued with that concern, serving in different capacities till 
1909, when he assumed his duties as secretary and treasurer of 
the Wichita Trunk Company. In 1901 Mr. Errickson married 
Miss Minnie Howard, of Eureka, Kan., and they have one child, 
named Charles Abner. 

Mr. Errickson is active in fraternal orders, being a Mason, a 



WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTER 63 

Knight Templar, a Shriner and an Odd Fellow. He also holds 
membership in the Riverside Club and the Chamber of Commerce, 
of Wichita. 

The Southwestern Mantel and Tile Company, J. E. McEvoy 
and James H. Murphy, proprietors, Wichita, Kan. This company 
was established on April 15, 1908, its specialties being interior 
marble, wall, ceiling, floor and fireplace tile, mantels, grates and 
furnishings. Its office is at No. 215 North Market street, Sedgwick 
Annex, Wichita. Mr. McEvoy is a native of Ohio, where he was 
born on October 4, 1851. He moved with his parents to Illinois, 
where he spent his early life in Grundy county, removing to 
LaSalle county, same state, in 1888. He obtained his education 
in the public schools of Illinois, and early learned the iron 
molder's trade. In 1878 he began work at his trade, which he 
followed for eighteen years, when he entered the mercantile busi- 
ness in Marseilles, 111., later removing to Chicago, where he was 
engaged in the grocery business for two yeare. In 1908 Mr. 
McEvoy moved to Wichita, Kan., having spent one year prior to 
this at Coffeyville, Kan., where he was employed in a woodwork- 
ing plant. Since the establishment of the mantel and tile business 
in Wichita several buildings have received adornment from this 
house, among them being the Princess Theater, Marple Theater, 
and also the Court Houses at Eldorado and Anthony, Kan. Mr. 
McEvoy is a Past Chancellor of the Knights of Pythias, and is 
also a member of the Knights of Columbus and the Fraternal 
Order of Eagles. He was married in 1882 to Miss Julia Wood, a 
native of Illinois. Four children have been born of this union, 
viz. : Stephen E., Margaret A., wife of Thomas Slattery, of Morris, 
111., and Mary E. and Julia. 

James H. Murphy is a native of Illinois, where he was born in 
Chicago thirty-two years ago. He learned the mantel and tile 
trade in Chicago with George Reese in 1894, and has since fol- 
lowed it, being a practical man in every department of the work, 
especially as a tile setter. Mr. Murphy was for a time located at 
Tulsa, Okla., prior to his moving to Wichita and forming a part- 
nership with Mr. McEvoy in 1908. 

The Morton-Simmons Hardware Company is one of the big 
concerns of Wichita that is making the city known all over the 
country as a jobbing center. It is a concern that every citizen 
points out to strangers and travelers as being the representative 
business institution. The company is one of the five local houses 



64 fflSTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

of the Simmons Hardware Company, of St. Louis, Mo., and 
Wichita takes it as a compliment that when Mr. E. C. Simmons, 
founder of the Simmons Hardware Company, was locating the 
local houses he selected the city as the logical and geographical 
center to which the merchants of this great Southwestern country 
would come for their goods. That his judgment was sound is 
proven by the fact that their business in this territory has been 
doubled since they located in Wichita. Their present building, 
fronting on East First street and extending from Mosley avenue 
to Rock Island avenue, was erected five years ago and contains 
more floor area than any other wholesale house in this locality. 
This building is 150 feet square, four stories in height, and back 
of it are the steam heating plant, axe handling department and 
loaded shell room. In addition to these are two warehouses on 
South Rock Island avenue, giving a total floor area of 108,888 
square feet, or about two and one-half acres. The main building 
is thoroughly modern and up-to-date. It is protected from fire by 
an automatic sprinkler system, has messenger call boxes, inter- 
communicating house telephones and electric elevators. One 
hundred and fifteen men and women are required to carry on the 
business. The arrangement of the general offices is unique, being 
150 feet long and but seventeen feet wide, and they occupy the 
entire south side of the second and main floors. This arrangement 
gives abundance of light to all desks. The city sales office is 
located on the first floor, for the convenience of the city trade. 
Adjoining and connected with the general office is a sample room 
in which there is an attractive display of samples of the most 
complete line of tools ever assembled under one brand — the cele- 
brated Keen Kutter — which was established by ilr. E. C. Sim- 
mons fifty years ago. There is also a rest room for employes and 
customers, where comfortable chairs, reading material — books, 
current magazines and periodicals — are placed at their disposal. 
The Wichita Abstract and Land Company was organized in 
1894 and has a continued existence since, increasing its books 
with the growth of the city and county. Mr. J. E. Farrow, the 
present owner of the company and its president, came to Sedge- 
wick county with his parents, James and Charlotte Farrow, in 
1876. when six years of age. They settled in Grant township on 
a farm. The father died in Texas in 1900. The mother lives in 
Wichita. He attended the schools in Grant township and came 
to Wichita and took a business course in the Wichita Commercial 



WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTER 65 

College and on graduating was connected with the school as a 
teacher for a year and a quarter. He was then appointed Deputy 
Register of Deeds, where he served for nine years and then for 
one year in the oifiee of County Clerk. In 1910 he purchased the 
control of the Wichita Abstract and Land Company, to which he 
now devotes his whole time. He was married in 1894 to Miss 
Nellie I. Horts, daughter of S. H. Horts, of Grant township. They 
have three children — Clarice, Geraldine and Pauline. 



WICHITA. 

Some idea of the importance of the city and the opportu- 
nities it aif ords may here be obtained. In Wichita ycu will find : 

The greatest broomcorn market in the world. 

The best grain and stock market in Kansas. 

The second largest distributing point for threshing machines 
in the world. 

The second largest distributing point for agricultural imple- 
ments in the United States. 

The home of more dry goods jobbing houses than any town in 
the state. 

The center of the richest and largest agricultural section in 
the country. 

The meat packing center of the great Southwest. 

As fine a climate as is to be found anywhere in this latitude. 

A larger percentage of home owners than can be found in any 
city of its size iij the country. 

The center of the best apple growing section in the West. 

The finest concrete arch bridge in the state of Kansas. 

The tallest business blocks in Kansas. 

The largest single college building west of the Mississippi 
river. 

The most extensive and beautiful public parks in the state. 

Commodious city, county and federal buildings. 

The most extensive distributing point in the West for motor 
cars. 

An excellent sanitary and storm water sewer system, insuring 
good health to its residents. 

The most popular convention city in the state. 

City water that is as pure as can be found anywhere, by 
actual test. 



66 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Five big flour mills with a capacity of 4,300 barrels of flour 
a day. 

The home of 190 jobbing houses that handle more goods than 
are sold by all the jobbing houses of the state. 

Headquarters for lumber dealers of the Southwest, where 
$10,000,000 worth of lumber is bought and sold yearly. 

One of the finest distributing houses of the largest wholesale 
hardware company in the world. 

ROSTER OF CITY OFFICERS OF WICHITA, KANSAS, 1910. 

Election held first Tuesday after first Monday in April. 

Election Commissioner — Murry Myers. 

Mayor — C. L. Davidson. 

Clerk — "William Sence. 

Auditor — Finlay Ross. 

Treasurer — E. A. Dorsey. 

Attorney — A. S. Buzzi. 

Engineer— B. C. Wells. 

Assessor — G. W. Bristow. 

Marshal— F. S. Burt. 

Police Judge — Jesse D. Wall. 

Physician — Dr. F. H. Slayton. 

Weighmasters — George Majors, A. W. Wallace, R. P. Dodds. 

WICHITA FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

For efficiency there is no fire department in America that 
surpasses Wichita's fire fighting force. That is a broad state- 
ment, but figures of fire losses in American cities will show that 
the protection against fire in Wichita is second to none. Wichita 
never has had a really severe confiagration. Yet, but for the 
rapid and efi'ective work of the fire laddies, there would have 
been many a disastrous fire. It is the fighting spirit of Wichita's 
firemen that has saved the city thousands from fire losses. For 
iustance, not long ago fire broke out in a small barn which was 
almost consumed when the department arrived. Six other build- 
ings in the immediate vicinity were saved through the rapid 
work of the firemen. 

For twenty-four years the Wichita department has been 
headed by A. G. Walden as fire marshal. It has been largely 
through the leadership of Chief Walden that the Wichita fire de- 



WICHITA AS A COMMERCIAL CENTER 67 

partment has been builded to such efHcieney. Chief Walden has 
grown gray in the service of the city, yet in all his twenty-four 
years' fire fighting he has never failed to be in the thickest of the 
battle for the preservation of property. Chief Walden is ably as- 
sisted by A. S. Brownewell, assistant chief of the department. Mr. 
Brownewell has been in the service many years and for a period of 
two years he headed the department. In any absence of Chief Wal- 
den Assistant Brownewell manages the department affairs care- 
fully and well. The Wichita fire department consists of five sta- 
tions in various parts of the city. The central station receives 
all alarms and directs the actions of the outlying stations. The 
substations are located at College Hill, North End, South End 
and the west side. Each station carries equipment sufficient to 
control any ordinary blaze within its territory. Always, how- 
ever, the central station sends assistance. It is rarely that the 
entire department is called out for any one fire. There are forty 
men in the Wichita fire department. Every man is a fighter of 
tried character. Many are old in the service and each may be 
depended upon in a crisis. A fire crisis comes rarely, but when 
one does arrive there is need for men who can meet it. Such men 
belong to the Wichita fire department. 

Recently Chief Walden has begun the reorganization of the 
department's equipment on the motor car basis. The city's first 
motor driven chemical engine was purchased in 1909. In a few 
months it has so thoroughly proven its superiority over horse- 
drawn apparatus that more motor driven equipment is inevitable. 
Chief Walden recently offered the opinion that in ten years 
Wichita would have no horses at any of the stations. For twenty- 
four years Chief Walden has been attending the annual conven- 
tions of the American fire engineers. In that time he has become 
recognized as one of the foremost fire fighters in the country. 
At a recent meeting of the association he was invited to sit for 
a photograph with department chiefs from New York city, Kan- 
sas City, Cleveland, Denver and Chicago. 



CHAPTER IV. 
THE WICHITA CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

By 

EUGENE FAHL, SECRETARY. 

Cities are made for commerce. Some cities boast of their 
wealth ; others of their splendid buildings and beautiful streets ; 
others of the culture and refinement of their citizens, but the 
primary cause of all these congested knots of humanity, caUed 
cities, scattered everywhere over the face of the earth is 
commerce. 

In every city of any considerable size this commerce in its 
various phases produces problems so large and numerous and 
varied that nothing short of a well organized body of business 
men can hope to successfully cope with them. Then, too, cities 
must be watched from a civic viewpoint as well as from the 
commercial side. The civic affairs of a city are better adminis- 
tered if the mayor and city commissioners or city council are 
conscious of being constantly under the watchful eye of an in- 
fluential organization which has at all times a thumb on the 
public pulse, and which in itself constitutes a large part of that 
pulse. The growth of a city is also a matter of much importance. 
Every city wants to grow. Every city should grow. In the mat- 
ter of bringing new industries to a city there is an absolute 
necessity for the well directed efforts of an organization of the 
resident business men of that city. 

The Chamber of Commerce of the city of "Wichita was or- 
ganized in 1901 for the purpose of promoting the commercial 
and civic welfare of "Wichita citizens and for the further purpose 
of making known to the world the exceptional advantages of 
that city as a commercial and industrial center and as a home 
city. Several different men lay claim to the distinction of start- 
ing the organization of this splendid body of business and pro- 



WICHITA CHAMBER OF COAIMERCE 69 

fessional men. Mr. J. M. Knapp was the first one to start out 
M'ith a siibscription list, however, and seems to be entitled to 
whatever credit may be due for starting the organization. The 
first president of the club was C. L. Davidson, who served for 
three years in that capacity; J. H. Stewart was the first vice- 
president ; James Allison, second vice-president ; L. S. Naftszger, 
treasurer, and M. W. Levy, secretary. Offices were opened in 
one of the basement rooms of the City building, which continued 
to be the headquarters of the club until early in the spring of 
1906. George "W. Smith succeeded Mr. Levy as secretary after 
the first year. He prepared a booklet which gave, in a concise 
way, many interesting facts regarding Wichita and containing 
a number of illustrations of the public buildings, colleges, park 
and street scenes, hotels, residences, etc. Fifty thousand of these 
booklets were printed and widely distributed. 

The second man to serve as president of this club was J. E. 
Howard, who was followed by I. N. Hockaday, who was suc- 
ceeded by George M. Dickson, whose last term expired January 
1, 1910. 0. A. Boyle was elected president for the year 1910, 
which brings us down to the date of this writing. 

Early in the spring of 1906 the headquarters of the club were 
moved to the building at 133 North Market street, and a dining 
room and many social features were added. Drinking and card 
playing have never been allowed in the clubrooms, however, and 
this is a settled policy of the club, as the membership is largely 
made up of Christian gentlemen who will not countenance any- 
thing of that character. At the first meeting of the board of 
directors in the month of April, 1910, it was decided to lease 
new quarters on the tenth floor of the new Beacon building on 
South Main street, which will give them quarters not excelled 
by those of any commercial body in the West. 

Since its inception the Chamber of Commerce has had at its 
head, both as officers and directors, men of the very highest char- 
acter and ability, who have worked unitedly for the building up 
of their city and for the successful solving of its many and 
perplexing problems. In the assembly rooms of its present quar- 
ters many important questions touching the civic life of Wichita 
have been threshed over and definite working plans arrived at. 
Many enterprises, involviag the expenditure of hundi'eds of thou- 
sands of dollars, have been promoted there. Its rooms have at 
all times been freely opened to any organization, of whatever 



70 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

character, which was working for the advancement of the inter- 
ests of Wichita and her citizens. Among the things which the 
Chamber of Commerce has done or aided in doing may be 
mentioned the following: 

Bringing the Interstate Commerce Commission to Wichita to 
investigate the matter of unjust freight rates and discrimina- 
tion in favor of other cities. This was largely due to the efforts 
of Mr. Davidson as president of the club and was the beginning 
of the fight for equitable freight rates, which is still going on at 
the present date. The Southwestern Fair Association was started 
by the Chamber of Commerce and for some time the headquar- 
ters of the fair were in the clubrooms. This annual exposition 
of farm products has contributed in no small degree to the de- 
velopment of Sedgwick county agriculture, and it has also been 
an occasion of profitable and much-needed recreation. 

Largely through the efforts of this club, natural gas for fuel 
and light was piped from the gas belt farther east. This cheap 
fuel gas has been a potent factor in the matter of securing new 
industrial enterprises for Wichita and the Chamber has seen 
to it that the manufacturing world was made aware of this great 
convenience. Probably no other one thing has done so much for the 
industrial side of Wichita. 

The Beacon building enterprise, although a private one, was 
started in the Chamber of Commerce by Chamber of Commerce 
men. This "tallest building in Kansas" is strictly a home en- 
terprise and was built by home capital. Mr. Henry J. Ellen, edi- 
tor of the Beacon and prime mover in the enterpi-ise, was vice- 
president at the time he started the building company. 

The Arkansas Valley Interurban Railway, organized and man- 
aged by 0. A. Boyle while president of the club, is another in- 
stance of the really great and beneficial enterprises having their 
inception in the minds of Chamber of Commerce men, and being 
fashioned from the first crude idea into a splendid realization by 
them. The few instances given will show the character of the 
Chamber of Commerce and its work for Wichita. They will also 
serve to show the great value to any city of an organization of 
this kind as a clearing house of civic and commercial ideas. 

Nothing is too large and nothing is too small to elicit the in- 
terest of the Wichita Chamber of Commerce. In fact, it is a 
most democratic body, whose sole object is to be of the great- 
est use possible to the largest number of Wichita citizens. In a 



WICHITA CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 71 

nutshell, the Chamber of Commerce is an institution that is ready 
to espouse the cause of any person or any company or any insti- 
tution when their interests are identical with the growth and 
prosperity of Wichita. "Watch Wichita win" is the motto of 
the Chamber of Commerce and no institution in the city is do- 
ing more to "help Wichita win." 

The Chamber of Commerce is composed of 350 members, who 
are mostly engaged in the retail business establishments. How- 
ever, there are many bankers, lawyers, physicians and manu- 
facturers numbered among the membership. The clubrooms 
at 133 North Market street form a most popular meeting place 
for business men, for committees, small business gatherings, 
luncheons and banquets. It will move into the new Beacon build- 
ing in the fall. Ten years ago the Wichita Chamber of Com- 
merce was a rather small and insignificant institution. At times 
it did efficient work in securing freight rate adjustments, but it 
was not a very lively factor in Wichita commercial life. But 
this apathy was thrown off and the club began to spread out, to 
gather in new, vigorous members and to liven up the city. The 
gloomy quarters in the basement of the city hall were given up 
and roomy club parlors secured in North Market street. The 
lunch and game room features were added, while the membership 
immediately swelled. Not only that, but the scope of the organ- 
ization was enlarged and much was done for the good of the city. 

Popular open meetings are held for the club membership from 
time to time during the winter months. At these meetings sub- 
jects of general interest to the city are discussed. Recently the 
Chamber of Commerce took the initiative step to find out the 
physical valuation of the city water plant. When there was a 
campaign to vote bonds for a new auditorium and a new high 
school the Chamber of Commerce championed the causes val- 
iantly. Many new factories and other industries have come to 
.Wichita from other places during the past few years through the 
influence and assistance of the Chamber of Commerce. Much 
literature and thousands of letters, telling of the city's advan- 
tages, are mailed out every year by the club secretary. At the 
head of this live commercial organization is 0. A. Boyle, one of 
the foremost boosters of the city. Mr. Boyle was elected presi- 
dent of the club at the beginning of this year. During the last 
half of 1909 Mr. Boyle was secretary of the Chamber. 

John L. Stingley, secretary of the club, is another "live wire." 



72 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Mr. Stingley is working all the time and in four months of his 
incumbency he has accomplished many important tasks. The 
other officers of the Chamber of Commerce are: Paul Brown, 
vice-president, and V. H. Branch, treasurer. The board of direct- 
ors meets regularly every month for the consideration of all sorts 
of business. Frequently there are called meetings to meet an 
emergency. The directors are: E. T. Battin, R. E. Bird, 0. A. 
Boyle, V. H. Branch, Paul Brown, R. B. Campbell, H. W. Darling, 
T. M. Deal, G. M. Dickson, J. H. Graham, C. H. Matson, J. N. 
Haymaker, R. L. Holmes, John Kelley, Henry Lassen, M. A. Me- 
Clellan, M. M. Murdock, Dr. E. M. Palmer, 0. A. Rorabaugh, H. 
J. Roetzel, W. T. Rouse, W. E. Stanley, J. L. Stingley, A. Van 
Zandt and Otto Weiss. The executive committee is composed of 
the following men: G. M. Dickson, W. F. McCullough, John L. 
Stingley, M. M. Murdock and R. L. Holmes. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

By 

J. N. HAYMAKER. 

The Chamber of Commerce is one of the newer institutions of 
Wichita, of which its members and the city at large are justly 
proud. 

It was organized in the year 1901 and was the outgrowth of 
a party of men who had at heart both the material and moral 
good of the city. They desired not only a greater Wichita, but 
a better Wichita. Not only a greater and better Wichita, but 
a closer bond of companionship and fellowship among those who 
were striving to make it greater and better. With these ends in 
view commodious and accessible quarters were procured at the 
city building and afterward at No. 133 North Market street. 
The rooms are furnished in a neat and attractive manner at an 
expense of several thousand dollars ; a good cafe was established ; 
the spirit and purpose of the organization was made known to 
the public, and the enterprise was launched under favorable 
auspices. The response was immediate. Within one month from 
its opening it had 250 members. Its presidents have been suc- 
cessively, C. L. Davidson, J. H. Stewart, J. E. Howard, I. N. 
Hockaday, George M. Dickson and 0. A. Boyle. Its prime object 



WICHITA CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 73 

as indicated by its name is the promotion of the commerce, growth 
and advancement of the city. To this end its committees have 
been organized and its energies in a large measure directed. 
Many and notable have been the efforts made by this body for 
the securing of new enterprises for Wichita, the extension of its 
trade through tributary territory, the securing of advantages to 
business already established in the way of more favorable freight 
rates, and others of like kind, and many have been the successes 
achieved. Not a forward step has been taken by our city along 
the line of business growth and development without its help, 
encouragement and good will, but, as before indicated, its aims 
and purposes have not been material and mercenary only; they 
have been moral and social as well. 

Ever since its organization the Chamber of Commerce has 
been the business-social center, or the social-business center of 
the city. Scarcely a week has passed without a banquet of some 
kind within its hospitable walls. Business organizations of vari- 
ous kinds looking toward the advancement and promotion of 
business interests; public organizations of various kinds looking 
toward municipal growth and improvement; civic organizations 
of various sorts looking toward the general good of our people, 
city and state, all have been welcomed here and all have availed 
themselves of its generous hospitality, excellent cuisine, sympa- 
thetic atmosphere and friendly help. It has been the civic center 
from which has radiated good influences in every direction. 

The spirit and genius of the organization is truly democratic. 
While it numbers among its members many of the most substan- 
tial business men of the city, yet the young man of character 
and aspiration is just as welcome to its membership as the wealth- 
iest man in the city, and receives the same consideration. It 
recognizes the truth that, "The rank is but the guinea's stamp, 
a man's a man for a' that." While liquors have always been 
strictly barred from its portals and liquid conviviality is un- 
known, yet innocent games are encouraged, such as chess, check- 
ers, pool and billiards, and a feeling of comradarie and good fel- 
lowship characterizes its members from the oldest to the young- 
est, from the richest to the poorest. 0. A. Boyle, one of the most 
progressive and successful of Wichita's young business men, is 
its efficient president and John Stingley its popular secretary. 

Its present condition is most flourishing. It is out of debt, 
has money in the treasury and has taken in about seventy-five 



74 mSTOEY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

new members during the present year. The outlook for the fu- 
ture is most encouraging. On October 1 it will move to its new 
location, on the tenth floor of the Beacon building, and a more 
beautiful, more sightly, better arranged and more appropriate 
location could scarcely be obtained or desired. Its aims for the 
future are in keeping with its high and beautiful location: to 
make Wichita ever a bigger and better city and its members big- 
ger, better and happier men. 

About October 1, 1910, the Wichita Chamber of Commerce, 
the junior commercial body of Wichita, moved to their splendid 
new quarters in the Beacon block on South Main street. This 
club has accomplished great good for the town since the organ- 
ization of the same, and has promoted and assisted many of the 
best enterprises of the town. The Wichita Chamber of Commerce 
has rented large and very spacious quarters on the tenth floor 
of the new Beacon block and their lease runs for a term of years. 

On the eveniag of September 23 they had their last rally in 
the old quarters. A delightful banquet was served to about 200 
men. A splendid spirit of harmony prevailed, an all-around talk- 
fest was indulged in, and the underlying euiTent was that the 
town was "safe and sane." The future was discussed and the 
past was reviewed. The ways and means committee reported 
that it would take in the neighborhood of $1,600 to move the 
club to the new quarters and start all matters off right. This 
amount was raised at this meeting in half an hoiu-, a large num- 
ber of those present subscribing $25 each. The speeches made 
and the spirit of the club as manifested showed a most hopeful 
outlook for the future of Wichita. — Editor. 



CHAPTER V. 
BOARD OF TRADE AND HOW IT GREW. 

Wichita has not achieved many things greater than her pres- 
ent board of trade in her thirty years' struggle for municipal 
recognition. With a grain market that is known as one of the 
• best in the Southwest and a board of trade made up of live, hus- 
tling business men who get what they go after, it is not at all 
surprising that Wichita is a blacker speck on the grain map than 
many cities larger than she. The board of trade is one of the 
livest business organizations in Wichita today. In the line of 
city pushing and advertising it has done its share in giving Wich- 
ita the reputation of the coming city of the great Southwest. 

The president of the board is W. F. McCullough, of the Mc- 
Cullough Grain Company. This is Mr. McCullough 's second term 
in this capacity, his first term being so satisfactory to the board 
that the members demanded his appearance in the dictatorial 
chair for the second time. Mr. McCullough occupies about the 
same place among Kansas grain dealers that Browning did among 
the poets of the English tongue — the highest. If there is any- 
thing that the board of trade needs for the betterment of the 
grain business, Mr. McCullough is up night and day seeing that 
this is brought to pass. That's the sort of a man that is at the 
head of the Wichita board of trade, a dynamic, high-tension per- 
sonality who always lands with both feet fair and square. The 
vice-presidency is filled by C. M. Jackman, of the Kansas Mill- 
ing Company, the largest mill and elevator company in the South- 
■ west. He is an able abettor in every good movement for the grain 
industry and loves his "profession." 

The "Old Ironsides" of the official group is J. S. McCaulay. 
Always noted for his reticence — unless it is a rate discussion, 
then, say, you ought to see him declaim — he is lowering his rec- 
ord every year for saying less and is learning more about the 
rate question. Of course, every one will grant that there are 
numerous experts in Wichita who take special delight in learn- 
75 



76 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

ing everything they can about certain lines, but it is safe to say 
that such an expert in the rate business as Mr. McCaulay never 
vs^alked across the new creosote pavement around the Sedgwick 
block. Whether it is his position of secretary, which he has had 
for several terms, that gives him this prying rate mind it cannot 
be authoritatively stated, but such is the fact. Mr. McCaulay 
is one of the first fourteen charter members and has been in the 
grain business in Wichita for more than twenty years. 

The directors of the organization are C. K. Nevling, W. R. 
Watson, F. C. Dymock, C. R. Howard, A. R. Clark, J. W. Craig 
and W. L. Scott. The board is full on membership now. All 
of the fifty memberships have been disposed of, the last charter 
membership being sold a little over a year ago. If a person de- 
sires a membership he has to buy it directly from the owner and 
consequently the price of these little privileges to do business 
with the Wichita grain men are costing a deal more than they 
used to. A membership now costs a person $1,000. Seven years 
ago when the board of trade thrust its puny little self into the 
grain business in a half-hearted attempt to grow, memberships 
had difficulty in selling at $25. These memberships have become 
things of really great commercial value now and buying and sell- 
iag them is a lucrative business. The habitat of the grain men 
and the lair of the board of trade is the Sedgwick block. This 
historic pile has gained fadeless laurels by being the home of so 
many bulls and bears. On the first floor everything is right and 
proper and one would naturally suppose that it is an ordinary 
office building, but hist ! the second floor is a complete giveaway. 
From the moment you set foot on the seconci floor landing and 
hear the sound of manly voices shouting, you know that you have 
struck some sort of a combination. The second floor of the struc- 
ture is nothing but grain offices, with the exception of one or 
two insurance offices, which manage to exist in some unexplain- 
able way through the turmoil. It is the same way on the third 
floor. On you go to the fourth storj'^ and yet you find offices, yet 
not quite so many. When the fifth story is reached you strike 
the limit of the grain offices and also the limit of the building's 
height. It is one vast honeycomb of live, busy grain men who 
think the grain business, next to baseball, is the greatest thing in 
the world. 

The firms who have offices in this building and are members 
of the board of trade are : Anderson-Koch Grain Company, Henry 



BOAKD OF TRADE AND HOW IT GROWS 77 

Probst Commission Company, David Heenan and Company, Da- 
zey-Moore Grain Company, Stevens-Scott, Hall Baker, Roth Grain 
Company, A. R. Clark Grain Company, MeCuUough Grain Com- 
pany, G. S. Barnes Jr. Grain Company, W. T. McCaulay Grain 
Company, Kolp Grain Company, Independent Grain Company, 
Western Grain Company, Kaufman-Boyle Grain Company, J. R. 
Williams, James Dobbs, Hastings Grain Company, Kelly Bros. 
Grain Company, Alvin Harbour Grain Company, H. C. Thomp- 
son Grain Company, Empire Grain Company, Woodside Smith 
Grain Company, United Grain & Commission Company, Tri-State 
Grain Company, Nevling Grain & Elevator Company, Arkansas 
Valley Grain Company, Norris and Company, Millers Grain Com- 
pany, Kemper Grain Company, B. C. Christopher Grain Company, 
B. M. Elkins Grain Company, J. R. Harold Grain Company, Gor- 
vin Grain Company and the Brooking Company. The following 
milling and elevator companies are members of the Wichita board 
of trade : Kansas Milling Company, Red Star Milling & Elevator 
Company, Howard Milling Company, Imboden Milling Company, 
Watson Milling Company. 

The Wichita board of trade is responsible for the great im- 
provement in Wichita as a grain center. Prior to 1900 Wichita 
as a grain center did not cut a very big figure. In 1906, two 
years after the board had been organized, 10,875 cars of grain 
were handled by members of the board of trade; in 1907, 16,575 
cars; in 1908, 24,326 cars. The number of cars handled during 
1909 is estimated at 26,758. This is more than doubling the car- 
load receipts in four years. This is certainly going some, but 
it is the normal gait of the Wichita board of trade. One-third 
of these receipts was wheat. This shows clearly enough that the 
Wichita market is securing a great deal of wheat from this, the 
richest wheat growing section in the world. 

Wichita always has been a grain market. Even during the 
time of the Indian it was the camping spot for him and the feeds 
were made here. Later on when the trading post was started 
up on Chisholm creek it was the halting place for the prairie 
schooners as they crawled westward over the dreary plain lands. 
With the advent of the Santa Fe trail and its tributary trail from 
Texas, through Wichita northward, Wichita became a market. 
In a few years, by reason of the hundreds and hundreds of wagon 
trains which made this city the terminus of their trip, it became 
known as the greatest wagon market in the world. When the 



78 mSTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Santa Fe railroad was put in, wagon loads of grain were hauled 
from points sixty miles distant from Wichita. The grain was 
ground, loaded and shipped to the North. By reason of this 
Wichita secured a very wide reputation as a center of some im- 
portance. Later when the Frisco system came, the ground grain 
was loaded and shipped to St. Louis, Mo. Old-timers can easily 
recall the long rows of grain wagons which came lumbering to 
Wichita from every direction, piled high with grain. At this 
time when a few of the citizens of the then rather dmiinutive 
town had aspirations for a New York on the Western plains, a 
bunch of them got together and founded what was called the 
Wichita board of trade. Now this wasn't any more of a board 
of trade than a quartette is an orchestra, yet it did good work 
for the town. It was more of a commercial club than anything 
else and did good work while it lasted, but after a brief existence 
— kersmash it went. 

The grain business continued to pick up, new firms came in, 
new capital came in, and a new tone was given to the market. 
Along at the close of the 90 's men in the grain business knew 
that the point to either put up a fight for the grain center of the 
Southwest or to lose out entirely had been reached. There was 
nothing of the coward in these early men and the matter of the 
grain organization was talked of seriously. The twentieth cen- 
tury dawned, yet no definite arrangements had been made, al- 
though favor for this new project had grown. The promoters 
of this new commercial entity met in 1902 and made plans for 
the arranging of shares and operation of an organization known 
as the Wichita board of trade. In 1903 the first fourteen shares 
of the fifty shares of stock were sold for $25 per share. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE COMMERCIAL CLUB. 

By 
CHARLES H. SMYTH. 

The Wichita Commercial Club had its origin in the Coronado 
Club in 1897. A few Wichita business men met at the home of 
J. H. Black, to talk over the need for a commercial organization. 
There were present at that meeting Charles Aylesbury, Charles 
G. Cohn, Mr. Wright and several others. They discussed the uct 
cessity of a commercial club for the purpose of working unitedly 
and intelligently for the good of the town. These gentlemen 
arrived at the conclusion that a meeting of business men of the 
city should be called and invitations were issued to meet at the 
Coronado clubrooms, which at this time was a social organization 
with clubrooms in the old Levy home, corner of Second and To- 
peka. The meeting proved to be one of the best attended and 
enthusiastic ever held in Wichita, and an organization was per- 
fected. Directors were elected who at their first meeting elected 
as their president Charles G. Cohn, and the Coronado Club went 
out of existence and merged with the Commercial Club. Mr. 
Cohn served as president ten years; his successors in office were 
0. P. Taylor for one year, Frank C. Wood for two years, and 
Charles H. Smyth, the present incumbent, for two years. His 
term of office expires January, 1911. His assistants are H. E 
.Case, vice-president; V. H. Branch, treasurer; John MeGinnis 
secretary. What has the Commercial Club done for Wichita' 
Very much. One of the first things after organization that de- 
manded their attention was the grain and milling business. A Mr 
Caldwell, with whom was associated Mr. Stevens now in the city 
was invited to come to Wichita from Louisville, Ky. In a short 
time $100,000 was subscribed by the adjacent towns and city 
Political and financial conditions in the country at that time elim 
79 



80 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

inated Mr. Caldwell from the movement, nevertheless this was 
the beginning of our enormous elevator and milling interests. 
The Watson Milling Company and the Kansas Milling Company 
were both brought to Wichita by the Commercial Club. 

The directors about this time found that something must be 
done to encourage the packing industry and it brought about the 
opening of the old Whitaker plant, that had lain idle a long time, 
by John Cudahy. The Dold packing plant was burned out and 
had not the Commercial Club gotten busy with encouragement 
the plant would never have been rebuilt. Necessarily, the club 
to a wonderful degree is responsible and proud of the present 
day packing industries and stock yards. The Orient railway 
came knocking at our doors. The Commercial Club immediately 
interested itself, raised money and assisted Mr. Stillwell in every 
possible manner. Through appeals and assistance financially, the 
great shops now under construction, to eventually cost $1,250,000 
and employ 2,700 men, were made possible. The present build- 
ing when completed will cost $400,000 and employ five to eight 
hundred mechanics and laborers. About February 1, 1911, the 
shops will be opened for work. Among many other things done 
by the club, it has encouraged and helped the interurban and 
the proposed extension of the Midland Valley railway from Ar- 
kansas City to McPherson, Kan., to a connection with the great 
Union Pacific. It has pushed the Peerless Prophets jubilee that 
brings so many persons to Wichita once a year ; it has organized 
the Trade Trip organization that does so much to advertise Wich- 
ita. It originated the transportation bureau that has done so 
much in the way of reduced rates to and from Wichita and im- 
proved train service, and has brought many minor manufactur- 
ing concerns that have located with us. You will find af the 
head of all these strong business men and city builders, and every 
one a member of the Commercial Club. 

The latest and crowning accomplishment will be the com- 
pletion of a hundred thousand dollar clubhouse at the corner of 
Market and First streets. In July, 1908, the directors had a 
meeting to determine what should be done in relation to new 
clubhouse quarters, as their lease with the National Bank of 
Commerce on the present clubrooms had expired. Mr. Sim made 
a proposal to fit up rooms in his new building. While discuss- 
ing this proposal Judge Dale asked, "Why not build a new 
club and get a home of our own?" The suggestion of a nev[ 



THE COMMERCIAL CLUB 81 

clubhouse was all that was needed. It was known that the old 
Baptist church property was for sale and on instructions from 
the directors to purchase the same H. J. Hagny in less than thirty 
minutes returned from the Kansas National Bank and advised 
the gentlemen he had purchased the property through Mr. Chand- 
ler, a member of the Baptist church board. The building is 150x 
140 feet, five stories and basement. On the first floor are the 
ladies' reception and dining rooms, lounging room, living room 
and offices. On the second floor are the dining rooms and kitchen. 
On the third floor, billiards and games. On the fourth and fifth 
floors are sleeping rooms. On the roster of the Commercial Club 
are the names of a good many men who have done and are do- 
ing things for Wichita. Among them are Charles Aylesbury, P. 
A. Amsden, 0. A. Boyle, J. H. Black, C. H. Brooks, V. H. Branch, 
Tom Blodgett, C. M. Beachy, H. E. Case, Charles G. Cohn, L. W. 
Clapp, Henry Comley, D. M. Dale, C. L. Davidson, J. 0. David- 
son, W. C. Edwards, T. G. Fitch, Dean Gordon, P. V. Heally, 
J. D. Houston, Dr. J. Z. Hoffman, R. L. Holmes, H. J. Hagny, Ben 
Eaton, W. P. Innes, E. B. Jewett, Thomas P. Kelso, Henry Las- 
sen, M. M. Murdock, R. L. Millison, B. P. McLean, L. S. Naftz- 
ger, John L. Powell, George L. Pratt, Charles H. Smyth, J. H. 
Stewart, C. "W. Southward, Henry Wallenstein, H. V. Wheeler, 
n. J. Allen and others. 



HOME OF THE COMMERCIAL CLUB. 

No city ever grew largely without the aid of a strong com- 
mercial organization. The modern city that outstrips her neigh- 
bors is not always the one of favored location and rich surround- 
ing territory. Wichita prizes its commercial club. It is the boost- 
ers within a city that makes it great. It is the aggressive, never- 
give-up spirit of the merchants, the jobbers and the manufac- 
tiu-ers which brings a city into the limelight before the eyes of 
the world. Prom the beginning Wichita had some sort of a com- 
mercial organization. There were not always handsome parlors, 
equipped with tables for games and easy chairs for reading. The 
early day commercial organizations held their meetings in wooden 
shacks, where the members sat on nail kegs and cracker boxes. 
But the spirit of acquisition was there in the tiny wooden quar- 
ters just as it now permeates the atmosphere about the clubrooms 
of any of the three Wichita commercial organizations today. It 



82 HISTOEY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

is the same spirit that is now prompting the business men of the 
city to reach out for new trade by means of a trade extension 
excursion. Forty years ago Wichita was nothing. Today it is a 
city of about 60,000 inhabitants, growing at the rate of 5,000 to 
10,000 persons each year. New industries of all sorts, brought 
in through the influence and assistance of the commercial or- 
ganizations, are largely responsible for this rapid increase in 
population. 

Foremost among the Wichita commercial organizations is the 
Wichita Commercial Club. It is an institution builded of big 
men, who play for big stakes and usually win. There was never 
a really big job tackled by the city of Wichita in which the Com- 
mercial Club failed to take an active part. It was twenty-one 
years ago that the old Coronado Club was organized. It was not 
prompted by any commercial instinct. In fact, it was to be a 
purely social club, where the "big boom" sufferers might while 
away a few hours of idle time each day. But no true Wichitan 
ever had time to waste in the comfortable luxury of a social club- 
house. There were some who were not completely winded by 
the hard jolt landed by the bursting of the boom. And these, 
after a few years of listless existence, began to awaken and to 
regain something of the old-time spirit, which went after things 
at the drop of the hat, and brought them home on broad, tri- 
umphant shoulders. 

The Wichita Commercial Club was the result of this unrest. 
In 1896 the Coronado Club went out of existence and a live, 
hustling commercial organization was formed. Years passed and 
the club grew, taking the city along with it. In 1904 the old 
Levy home at the corner of First street and Topeka avenue be- 
came too small for the organization. At that time the National 
Bank of Commerce was planning to build a new home, so the 
Commercial Club engaged the two upper floors of the new build- 
ing. When the club entered this new home six years ago it had 
less than 200 members. The new quarters were considered com- 
modious and beautiful. But the city began to grow faster than 
in any previous period of her history and the membership of 
the club increased by large bounds. A new modern club build- 
ing was being talked of before the organization had worn the 
new off its present quarters. A year ago plans for the new 
clubhouse were commenced. A fine location was secured on the 
northeast corner of First and Market streets. On that site is 



THE COMMERCIAL CLUB 83 

being builded a five-story, fireproof building, whicli, when fully 
equipped, will be the finest clubhouse in the state. 

Within this year the Commercial Club will occupy its new 
home. As it steps out of the old shell into new raiment it will 
likewise broaden and lengthen to fill a greater need. For there 
was never a time in the history of the city when the sinew and 
courage of a strong commercial club was needed more than at 
this time. The membership of the club now approaches 400. The 
officers and directors are strong, vigorous business men who have 
succeeded in spite of adversity and builded a city that is the pride 
of Kansas and the metropolis of the Southwest. These men are: 
Charles H. Smyth, president ; Howard E. Case, vice-president ; 
y. H. Branch, treasurer; John McGinnis, secretary. 

The directors are : Prank C. Wood, L. W. Clapp, H. J. Hagny, 
W. P. Innes, C. L. Davidson, F. A. Amsden, V. H. Branch, J. 0. 
Davidson, Henry Lassen, C. W. Southward, C. H. Brooks, H. C. 
Case, Charles G. Cohn, T. G. Fitch and Charles H. Smyth. 

THE WEST WICHITA COMMERCIAL LEAGUE. 

By 
J. B. COVAULT, SECRETARY. 

The youngster among the Wichita commercial organizations 
is the West Wichita Commercial League. It is an infant in age, 
but a good husky fellow in strength and size. It is distinctly 
a west side institution, but has never yet refused to come over 
the river to help boost Greater Wichita. The West Wichita Com- 
mercial League is less than two years old. In one year it reached 
a membership of 130. Noav there are 160 names on the club's 
roster. Roomy club quarters are maintained at 1005 West Doug- 
las avenue. Enthusiastic meetings of the members are held here 
^very month. Things of vital interest to the west side are the 
chief business of the club, but nothing of city-wide importance 
is overlooked by the league's active membership. 

To the West Wichita Commercial League goes the credit for 
landing the largest manufacturing institution coming to Wichita 
in a good many years. This factory, secured only two months 
ago, is the American Paper Manufacturing Company. This con- 
cern has secured ground in the northwestern section of the west 
side and will erect a half-million-dollar strawboard plant during 



84 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

the coming twelvemonth. The league's committee on new in- 
dustries worked long hours and burned the midnight oil many- 
nights in landing this big institution. Public-spirited men of the 
league donated their services and finally, when a suitable site 
could not be found at a reasonable price three men donated 
eighteen acres of their own land to make sure of the mill. Since 
its organization in June of 1908 the "West Wichita Commercial 
League has done much to enliven the civic pride of that section. 
Streets are cleaner and better kept; yards are neater and more 
attractive; interest in making the west side a cleaner and more 
beautiful place in which to live has increased tenfold through the 
efforts of the league. Aside from the big paper mill the club has 
landed several other business institutions for the west side during 
the past year. The officers are constantly on the lookout for op- 
portunities and few get by them. At recent meetings there was 
much interest shown in the Orient bond election and every mem- 
ber of the club worked hard for the passage of these and the Ar- 
kansas Valley Interurban bonds. 

"More car lines, more pavement and more factories" is the 
slogan of the league for the coming year. West Wichita has 
grown marvelously during the past five years and the facilities 
of a few years ago have been outgrown. Several miles of new 
paving have already been contracted for and two car line exten- 
sions are in prospect for the next few months. With the com- 
pletion of the $100,000 concrete bridge across the Arkansas river, 
giving West Wichita better connection with the east side; with 
the extension of the street railway from Seneca on West Doug- 
las to the city limits on the west ; with her half score of churches, 
her high elevation and general lay of the land on which she 
stands, West Wichita is destined to be the attractive place to the 
future homeseeker in Greater Wichita. West Wichita has in- 
stalled a sewerage system which will add greatly to its sanitary 
condition. There are many other things of interest concerning 
West Wichita about which we would like to speak, but it is im- 
possible for us to do so at this time. We would suggest that you 
write the secretary of the West Wichita Commercial League, 
telling him what you want and he will put you in touch with the 
proper committee that will give you the desired information. 
Will say, however, if you are looking for a location to engage in 
the manufacture of an article of some kind, or if you are looking 
for a place for a home where you can spend the remainder of 



THE COMMERCIAL CLUB 85 

your days in peace and ease, come to Wichita and you will find 
just what you want in West Wichita, the garden spot of the 
Queen City of the Southwest. 

The officers of the league, who are giving their time and ener- 
gies to make the city grow at capacity speed, are : W. S. Hadley, 
president ; William McKnight, vice-president ; J. N. Covault, 
secretary; G. T. Riley, treasurer. A strong board of directors 
stands behind these officers ready to lend its assistance when nec- 
essary. The directors are: John Harts, James Murray, Fred 
Farmer, Wallace C. Kemp, Jesse L. Leland, George Cole, W. E. 
Davis, Charles T. Lindsay, 0. Martinson, L. F. Means, H. Shap- 
cott and H. D. Cottman. 



CHAPTER VII. 
THE WICHITA WATER COMPANY. 

The people of Wichita may be assured that when the present 
improvements are completed that they will have one of the most 
up-to-date water systems in the country, and not only will they 
be guaranteed the purest water for drinking and domestic pur- 
poses, but an ample supply for fire protection. During the past 
year the American Water Works and Guarantee Company, own- 
ers of the Wichita plant, have expended an enormous sum of 
money, the greatest in the history of the company, on extensions, 
reinforcing lines and other improvements. An entire new sta- 
tion has been built. A new 100-foot brick stack has been added, 
in addition to two 250-horsepower boilers. Two new 5,000,000- 
gallon pumping engines have been installed, bringing the pres- 
ent pumping capacity of the plant up to 20,000,000 gallons per 
day. The present well system is also being thoroughly over- 
hauled and many new wells are being added. 

In addition to the foregoing, more than twenty-five miles of 
cast iron mains, the greater part of which will be reinforcing 
lines of large diameter, have been authorized and are being laid. 
A new twelve-inch reinforcing line is being laid north of the 
pumping station into the Riverside district. Pipe is on the 
ground for reinforcing line up Waco avenue to the stock yards 
and packing houses. Probably the most important reinforcing 
line that is to be put in will be an additional sixteen-inch main 
from the station direct to the heart of the business district ; this 
in addition to many miles of smaller lines which will be put in 
to reach the residences in outlying districts, all of which will be 
properly reinforced. As a result of the foregoing mentioned im- 
provements the city of Wichita may boast of having one of the 
most complete water works systems in the western country, and 
this opinion is supported by the statement of several expert 
water works engineers, who recently visited the plant and who 
have no interests in it whatever. They pronounced it one of the 



THE WICHITA WATER COMPANY 87 

most up-to-date systems in the world, and one that is now be- 
ing adopted by different water companies who are desirous of 
supplying their patrons with a pure supply of water. The water 
itself comes from a series of large cylinders which are sunk be- 
neath the bed of the Big Arkansas river to a depth of from forty 
to forty-five feet. By means of steam pressure all the sand is 
forced out of these cylinders and the water is permitted to flow 
through the deep body of gravel which remains, thus affording 
one of the purest water supplies to be found anywhere. 

The water from these cylinders is syphoned by vacuum pumps 
into a large cement receiving reservoir, where the water is thor- 
oughly aerated before passing into the mains of the city. This 
is in addition to the company taking every known precaution to 
guard against contamination of the city water supply, as it is a 
well-known fact that many of the most malignant germs cannot 
exist in water thoroughly aerated. The cement receiving reser- 
voir, constructed for this purpose, is one of the most important 
of the company's recent improvements. It is thirty-three feet 
deep and twenty-five feet in diameter and is built of brick, laid 
in cement. The walls of this reservoir are three feet thick at the 
base and about two feet thick at the top and are cemented thor- 
oughly to prevent any surface water getting into it. By means 
of vacuum pumps the water from the cylinders or wells is emptied 
into this reservoir, where it is kept at just the water level in the 
ground. Prom this receiving reservoir the large pumps force 
the water through the mains to all parts of the city. So care- 
fully adjusted is this system that not a ripple disturbs the sur- 
face of the water in the reservoir, though thousands of gallons of 
water are discharged into and pumped out of it every minute. 
Some idea may be had of the purity of this water when one is 
given a chance to look down into it. Although it stands twenty 
feet deep in the reservoir, it does not look to be more than three 
feet deep, and one could easily see a nickel on the cement bot- 
tom, so clear is the water. No sediment or filth of any kind can 
find its way into this reservoir. This differs from the reservoirs 
in some cities where the water is retained in great receptacles to 
settle before it is pumped into the mains and where masses of 
green scum and moss cover the top of the water, thus forming a 
breeding place for all kinds of disease germs. As the source 
from which the water is drawn, namely, the underflow of the Ar- 
valley, is six or eight miles wide and hundreds of miles in 



88 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

length, it is plain to see that it is inexhaustible, and in ease more 
water is needed at any time all the company would need to do 
would be to sink more cylinders by which to draw from the under- 
flow. Another evidence of the great care exercised by the water 
company to guard against any possible filth or contamination to 
the water used is that it owns the entire island on which the 
pumping station is situated. Originally there were two channels 
of the river, but now there is only one in which the water runs, 
but the water company's holding is commonly spoken of as the 
island. The strip of ground is forty rods or more in width and 
about a mile long and no stock or offal of any kind is allowed 
upon it. Thus every possible safeguard has been provided against 
any impurities in the water which is offered to the people of 
Wichita for their use. This water is frequently analyzed and has 
always been found to be of excellent quality. 

The last analysis made by W. E. Bunker, an expert bacteri- 
ologist, assisted by Dr. P. H. Slayton, city physician, shows the 
water absolutely pure and safe for drinking purposes. It cer- 
tainly ought to be a source of satisfaction to the people of 
Wichita, as it is to the water works company, that they have a 
system so well equipped and a supply of water so pure. There 
are two requisites for an ideal water supply that are always to 
be sought. The first is absolutely pure water as a reasonable 
guarantee of health and an abundant supply to insure protection 
against fires. No city can boast of anything more desirable for 
the upbuildiag and advertisement of its advantages than an ade- 
quate and pure water supply and no citizen can afford to dis- 
parage such an advantage for political or other purposes. A 
town may have mills and other great industries, but if they are 
at the mercy of the flames and the workmen who are employed 
in them are compelled to use impure water it is a dangerous place 
to live. Give the people plenty of pure water, such as they are 
assured here in Wichita, and the saving in doctor's bills and 
undertaker's charges alone would be an argument in its favor. 
The Wichita Water Company has nothing to cover up. It in- 
vites the most rigid and critical examination of its system and 
water supply, and the public is especially invited to visit the 
station, where the engineer in charge will take pleasure in show- 
ing visitors over the plant and explaining everything in detail. 
Every detail of the water system is now and has been for twenty 
years under the personal supervision of Mr. Fred D. Aley, the 



THE WICHITA WATER COMPANY 89 

superintendent. Having lived in Wichita from his boyhood, Mr. 
Aley knows what his city needs, and as a resident and a large 
taxpayer he feels that he has a personal interest in the matter 
aside from any pecuniary interest as superintendent. This has 
given him a sense of pride in trying to make the Wichita water 
system the best in the West, and the company reposing the utmost 
confidence in his judgment and having faith in the future of the 
city has anticipated the city's needs by the present extensive 
improvements. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

THE WICHITA LAND OFFICE. 

ITS EARLY HISTORY— ITS OFFICERS, CLERKS AND 
ATTORNEYS. 

By 

JUDGE JAMES L. DYER. 

The local land ofSce of the United States at Wichita, Kan., 
embraced all the tract of land bounded on the north by the 
fourth standard parallel south, on the east by guide meridian 
east of the sixth principal meridian, on the west by the boundary 
line between Colorado and Kansas, on the south by the south 
boundary line of the state of Kansas. 

The lands in this boundary were of three classes: First, a 
narrow strip of land known as the Cherokee Strip, varying from 
three and one-half miles on the east to one-half mile in width 
on the west, situated at the extreme south of the state. 

Second — A fifty-mile strip known as the Osage Trust and Di- 
minished Reserve lands, lying directly north of the Cherokee 
Strip and extending from the east boundary of said land district 
to the 100° west longitude; and 

Third — The remainder of said land district was unoffered 
lands subject to pre-emption settlement. Homestead and timber 
culture acts under the laws governing the public lands of the 
United States. 

The lands in the Cherokee Strip were subject to sale to actual 
settlers, without regard to time the settler occupied said land, in 
quantities in compact form not exceeding 160 acres to one actual 
settler at $1.25 per acre. 

The Osage Trust and Diminished Reserve lands were subject 
to sale to actual settlers for the sum of $1.25 per acre in tracts 
not exceeding 160 acres in compact form under the act of July 1, 
1870. 



THE WICHITA LAND OFFICE 91 

The land office at Wichita was known as the Arkansas Land 
District, and was first located at Augusta, Kan., but as immigra- 
tion pushed west, the settlers driving before them the buffalo and 
coyote, it became necessary for the accommodation of the large 
body of people to change the location, and hence in March, 
1872, the land office was removed from Augusta to Wichita, and 
from that time it took the name of the Wichita Land Office of the 
United States, retaining the same boundary until 1874, when it 
was subdivided and other land offices established west of range 
ten west of the 6° principal meridian. 

On May 9, 1872, congress passed an act (see 2283 R. S.) re- 
quiring that the Osage Trust and Diminished Reserve lands in the 
state of Kansas, excepting the sixteenth and thirty-sixth sections 
in each township, be subject to disposal for cash only to actual 
settlers in quantities not exceeding 160 acres in compact form, in 
accordance with the general principles of the pre-emption laws 
under the direction of the commissioner of the General Land 
Office, but that settlers must make proof of settlement, occupancy 
and cultivation within one year from date of settlement. The 
moneys derived from the sale of these lands were to be held in 
trust for the Osage nation after deducting the actual expenses 
of sale of said lands. The Osage Indians realized from the sale 
of these lands in the Wichita district over $4,000,000. 

The officers of a local land office consist of a registrar and 
receiver, appointed by the President, holding their offices for four 
years but subject to removel at the wish of the President. 

The registrar receives all applications and jointly with the re- 
ceiver passes upon the legality of all applications and all proofs 
presented to the local office, and determines the rights of adverse 
claimants to the same tract of land. In case of disagreement be- 
tween registrar and receiver the case is referred to the honorable 
commissioner of the General Land Office. 

The receiver in addition to the foregoing duties must receive 
all moneys paid to the local office and must deposit the same in 
some United States depository under direction of the Secretary 
of the Treasury. 

The first registrar of the Wichita land district was A. C. 
Aken, who was appointed while the office was at Augusta, and the 
first receiver was W. A. Shannon. Both came to Wichita with 
the office in March, 1872. Mr. Aken was succeeded as registrar 



92 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

by W. T. Jenkins, and Mr. Shannon was succeeded as receiver by 
J. C. Redfield, formerly of Humboldt, Kan., now dead. 

The offices of registrar and receiver in those days grew high 
up on the political tree, and the one having the longest and 
strongest pole got the persimmon. Although appointed for four 
years, yet if the officers happened to be for the wrong man for 
congress or for the United States senate his resignation was soon 
demanded and a favorite was selected to succeed him, in accord- 
ance with the old Jacksonian policy, "To the victor belongs the 
spoils." And thus Mr. Jenkins, registrar, was not permitted to 
hold out his full term, but in 1875 had to give way to the Hon. 
H. L. Taylor. J. C. Redfield was permitted to hold his full four 
years' term, having so trimmed his sails, politically, and having 
been such an efficient officer that no one was able to oust him from 
his office. 

H. L. Taylor was forced to give way before the expiration o^ 
his term of office to the Hon. Richard L. Walker in 1879. Colonel 
Taylor was lieutenant-colonel of the Sixty-eighth Illinois In- 
fantry and was provost marshal at Alexandria, Va., where the 
regiment was encamped in the summer of 1862. He remained 
in Wichita and held other offices of trust and died an honored 
citizen in the summer of 1906 at the age of seventy-two. 

J. C. Redfield lived in Wichita after retiring from the office 
of receiver and was manager of the G. G. Smith dry goods store 
at this place. He was also county commissioner for several years. 
He died in 1904 at the age of seventy-four years. All who knew 
Mr. Redfield loved him for his sterling worth. 

Mr. Redfield was succeeded in December, 1876, by James L. 
Dyer as receiver, who held the position of receiver of this office 
until November, 1885. 

Richard L. Walker, who succeeded H. L. Taylor as registrar, 
was prior to that time sheritf of Cowly county, Kansas, and held 
the office of registrar one full term, and was reappointed for a 
second term. Then he had to fall by the wayside on account of 
Cleveland's election. He was captain of Company A, Nineteenth 
Ohio Infantry, and had a splendid record as a soldier. He re- 
moved from here and afterwards was United States marshal for 
the district of Kansas. He was a jolly good fellow and counted 
a great politician, but has been gathered to his fathers many 
years ago in the prime of his vigorous life and manhood. 



THE WICHITA LAND OFFICE 93 

James L. Dyer, who came here in April, 1872, is at present 
judge of the city court of "Wichita. 

Walker was succeeded as registrar by the Hon. Prank Dale, 
who held the office as long as the pie tasted good, but when it got 
too poor he resigned, moved to Guthrie, Okla., where he mad^ 
money at the practice of the law, and was afterwards honored by 
President Cleveland and made chief justice of the territory of 
Oklahoma. He is now a private citizen, enjoying the luxuries of 
a well-earned fortune at Guthrie, Okla., and a leading lawyer of 
the new state. 

J. G. McCoy succeeded Mr. Dale as registrar and held the 
office until it was abolished and absorbed by the offices at Topeka 
and Port Dodge. 

Samuel Gilbert succeeded James L. Dyer as receiver in No- 
vember, 1885, and performed the duties of the office as long as 
there was any pay. Then he quit and now lives in California. 
J. G. McCoy is now a resident of Wichita and enjoys the many 
friends in his declining years of an active life. 

Connected with the local office were clerks and attorneys, some 
of whom will long be remembered in this community. W. B. 
Mead came here a clerk of the office from Augusta and was clerk 
for a long time afterward. He lived to a ripe old age. C. A. 
Walker came with Mr. Redfield from Humboldt and was clerk 
during the whole of Mr. Redfield 's term. He was a very pro- 
ficient clerk and afterwards was cashier of the Wichita National 
Bank until it suspended business. He now lives in Kansas City, 
Mo. Robert E. Guthrie held the position of clerk longer than 
any other person during the existence of the office at this place. 
He was one of the most efficient clerks that ever held a position 
in the United States Land Office. He has been clerk in several 
United States land offices since that time, and is now a clerk in 
the treasury department at Washington, D. C. Avery Ains- 
jvorth was a genial and efficient clerk, but went to Larned, Kan., 
and was clerk in the LTnited States Land Office at that place for 
many years. Harry St. John, son of ex-Governor John P. St. 
John, was clerk for many years. He died several years ago in 
Oklahoma. J. Clifford Bentley was a most efficient clerk for 
two years. He is now practicing law in Kingman, Kan. John M. 
Lean was also a clerk for several years. His whereabouts is now 
unknown to us. J. P. Horton was a very efficient clerk for two 



94 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

years. He went from here to Anthony, Kan., and died a few 
years ago. He was an old bachelor. 

D. B. Emmert, formerly receiver at Humboldt, Kan., served 
as clerk under Mr. Walker, registrar. Dr. E. B. Allen, the first 
mayor of Wichita, was clerk under W. T. Jenkins. 

Hon. J. F. Lanck was one of the very best land ofSce attorneys 
in the country. He practiced before the Wichita ofSce during 
its whole existence. He was at one time chancellor in Tennessee, 
after the war. He was a Union soldier. He died a few years ago. 
0. D. Kirk and W. W. Thomas were two excellent attorneys and 
practiced before the ofSee many years. Thomas was afterwards 
probate judge of Sedgwick county. He now lives in California. 
0. D. Kirk is now probate judge of Sedgwick county, Kan., and 
an honored citizen of Wichita. 

But few connected with the land office at an early day now 
live, and their names are almost forgotten by the public at large. 
And the fact that there was once a United States land office at 
Wichita is almost a dream. Once it was the busiest place in the 
whole district, and thousands came to Wichita from the vast terri- 
tory it embraced, coming with teams and remaining here for 
days at a time, and when one did a great business in those days it 
was said of him, "He does a land office business." 

There were many other features connected with the land 
office which would interest early settlers, but the foregoing is a 
mere biographical sketch of its officers, clerks and attorneys and 
of the vast business transacted here. 

Note. — Judge James L. Dyer was for many years receiver of 
the United States Land Office at Wichita. No man living is so 
competent to write its history as Judge Dyer. The location of the 
Government Land Office at Wichita gave the town its first im- 
petus as a trading point. — Editor. 



CHAPTER IX. 
THE BANKS OF WICHITA. 

By 

L. S. NAFTZGER. 

An authenticated history of the banks of "Wichita since the 
founding of that city as a mere hamlet to a now thriving com- 
munity, known and called the Metropolis of the Southwest, is not 
only important but in a commercial sense exceedingly advisable 
and almost indispensable. 

Therefore, we have taken pains by use of records and by 
careful inquiry among the older business men living here since 
1870, who have had business with the earlier banks, to establish 
beyond cavil an undisputed history of the banks of Wichita. 

The Arkansas Valley Bank is often credited with being the 
first bank organized in Wichita, but this is not substantiated by 
the facts based upon authentic information, and, further, the 
records at the court house show that W. C. Woodman did not 
arrive in Wichita until the spring of 1871, when he bought out 
George Smith's general store, located midway on the west side 
of the first block on North Main street, where he erected a frame 
addition on the rear of the storeroom, where his family resided. 

Mr. Woodman converted the northeast corner of his store with 
a desk behind the counter into a loan office, where money was 
advanced to settlers for the purpose of proving up on their claims 
at the rate of 5 per cent interest per month, secured by mortgage 
on the land, and many settlers lost their claims through this 
severe exaction of interest rate. 

After several years of loaning the institution grew into the 
Arkansas Valley Bank, and failed some time in the nineties. 

The Wichita Bank was really the first legitimate bank estab- 
lished and was opened for business in the spring of 1872 by 
J. C. Praker, president; J. R. Mead, vice-president, and A. H. 
Gossard, cashier, and was located in the most credible frame 
building in the town at that time. 
95 



96 fflSTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

The building was a handsomely built frame with store front 
erected midway on the west side in the third block on North 
Main street and did an excellent business from the start, and 
remained in that location until the spring of 1873, when it was 
chartered as the First National Bank of Wichita, at that time 
building a splendid bank structure, still standing as an ornament 
to the city, on the northeast corner of Main and First streets. 

The county made it a depository, and when it failed obtained 
title to the building and ground in lieu of the losses sustained. 

The Wichita Savings Bank was next in order and was incor- 
porated July 1, 1872, with a capital of $100,000, one-third being 
paid up, and the first officers being A. W. Clark, of Leavenworth, 
Kan., president ; Sol. H. Kohn, vice-president, and A. A. Hyde, 
formerly with Mr. Clark's bank at Leavenworth, cashier, and 
commenced business in August of the same year. 

The first board of directors was completed with A. M. Clark, 
Sol. H. Kohn, W. A. Thomas, William Griffenstein, S. C. Johnson, 
H. J. Hills, N. A. English, Emil Werner and A. A. Hyde. 

On October 27, 1875, M. W. Levy was elected vice-president, 
Mr. Clark retiring March 1, 1879, and the bank was merged into 
the Wichita Bank of Kohn Brothers & Co. on January 1, 1883. 

The institution began business as the Wichita National Bank 
with Sol. Kohn, then of this city, president ; A. W. Oliver, vice- 
president; W. M. Levy, cashier; C. A. Walker, assistant cashier. 
Capital. $250,000, and in 1882 deposits were $350,000 ; loans and 
discounts, $150,000; cash and sight exchange, $200,000. 

This bank did a very successful business for several years, 
but owing to the disasters and shrinkages incident to the boom 
of the years 1900 and 1901 it passed into the hands of Major 
Ewing as receiver; finally, however, paying out its depositors in 
full. 

The Kansas National Bank opened for business originally as 
the Farmers' & Merchants' Bank, and was established November 
1, 1876, by H. W. Lewis as a private institution, and on Septem- 
ber 1, 1882, was organized under the state banking law with a 
capital of $25,000, the directors and officers being H. W. Lewis, 
president ; A. A. Hyde, cashier, S. Houek, W. S. Corbett and T. H. 
Lynch, and subsequently nationalized as the Kansas National 
Bank. 

The deposits during the first year were $20,000, and in 1882 
amounted to $100,000, with discounts of $60,000. 



THE BANKS OF WICHITA 97 

The organization of the national bank iinder its present name, 
the Kansas National Bank, was made on November 1, 1882, with 
a capital stock of $50,000, with board of directors as follows: 
H. W. Lewis, J. L. Dyer, R. H. Roys, R. E. Lawrence and A. A. 
Hyde. 

The ownership of this bank has entirely changed, but is still 
doing a large and profitable business in its own building located 
at the corner of Main street and Douglas avenue under the able 
and efficient management of C. Q. Chandler, president ; E. E. Mas- 
oerman, vice-president; J. W. Berryman, second vice-president; 
Elsberry Martin, cashier, and Charles Testard, assistant cashier. 

It has a capital of $100,000 ; surplus and undivided profits 
amounting to $140,000, and has come safely through the financial 
storm incident to the boom, and is still one of the most solid, sub- 
stantial and conservative financial institutions in the state. 

The Kansas State Bank was organized December 16, 1880, 
with a paid up capital of $52,000, its officers being B. Lombard, 
Jr., president; James L. Lombard, vice-president; L. D. Skinner, 
cashier, and George E. Spalton, assistant cashier. 

After a year's business the bank was nationalized, but subse- 
quently failed in 1894. Of the roster of officers of this bank only 
George E. Spalton remains as a resident of Wichita. 

The Citizens' Bajik was incorporated December 20, 1882, with 
a capital of $100,000 by J. 0. Davidson, S. L. Davidson, C. L. 
Davidson, W. E. Stanley, R. S. Gates, A. Drum and John Carpen- 
ter, and officered as follows: J. 0. Davidson, president; S. L. 
Davidson, vice-president; C. L. Davidson, secretary, and John 
Derst, cashier. 

The bank was opened for business at the corner of Main and 
Douglas, where the Kansas National Bank now operates, it hav- 
ing built and owned the building, and was finally merged into the 
Kansas National Bank. 

The Bank of Commerce, a private banking institution, was 
established by Rodolph Hatfield and John W. Hartley in Janu- 
ary, 1883, with a capital of $25,000, to be increased as business 
demanded, and was afterwards purchased by George C. Strong 
and in 1887 reorganized as the Fourth National Bank of Wichita. 

In 1892 a controlling interest was purchased by Messrs. L. S. 
Naftzger and J. M. Moore, and has at the present time a capital 
of $200,000, with surplus and profits of $200,000. 

Mr. J. M. Moore severed his active connection with the bank 



98 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

in the fall of 1908, present officers being L. S. Naftzger, president ; 
"W. R. Tucker and C. W. Brown, vice-presidents; V. H. Branch, 
cashier; George M. Whitney and M. C. Naftzger, assistant 
cashiers. 

The bank is located in its own building, the handsome four- 
story brick structure at the corner of Market street and East 
Douglas avenue, and is credited with having gone through the 
entire boom and various financial depressions and remaining con- 
tinually in business since its establishment in 1887 without ever 
dishonoring a check or losing an hour's business time. 

The bank has been managed under a broad and exceedingly 
safe and conservative policy, and has always been regarded as 
one of the most safe and solid financial institutions in Wichita or 
the state of Kansas. 

Note. — Since the writing of the above article Mr. Naftzger has 
retired from the presidency of the Fourth National Bank of 
Wichita. He is succeeded by Mr. Ben F. McLean, so long con- 
nected with the directorate of that bank and formerly mayor of 
Wichita.— Editor-in-Chief. 

The West Side National Bank was established in 1887 by Rob- 
ert E. Lawrence and associates, but after two years' business went 
into voluntary liquidation, paying its depositors in full. 

The American State Bank, located at the corner of Topeka and 
Douglas avenues, was organized in 1890 with a capital of $50,- 
000, subsequently increased to $100,000, and has at the present 
time, in addition to the $100,000 capital, a surplus and profit 
account amounting to $20,000. The present officers are C. E. 
Denton, president ; M. J. Lloyd, vice-president, and J. N. Richard- 
son, cashier. 

This bank has had a very remarkable and substantial growth, 
and is a popular depository and enjoys the confidence of the busi- 
ness community. 

The National Bank of Commerce was established in 1899 and 
now has a capital of $100,000 and surplus of $100,000, is under the 
excellent management of C. W. Carey, president; J. H. Stewart 
and J. H. Black, vice-presidents, and F. A. Russell, cashier. 

This bank is one of the leading popular and successful banks 
of Wichita and was founded by A. C. Jobes, now vice-president of 
the First National Bank of Kansas City, Mo., and C. W. Carey 
and enjoys the implicit confidence of the community, having 



THE BANKS OP WICHITA 99 

made a remarkably strong growth and building up its business 
upon extreme conservatism and excellent business judgment. 

The Commercial Bank, located at 143 North Main street, is a 
private bank having a capital of $100,000, and is owned and op- 
erated by its president, J. A. Davison, with the assistance of E. L. 
Davison, cashier. 

This bank is a very conservative private institution, with 
many friends and depositors. 

The State Savings Bank, located at No. 115 East Douglas 
avenue, was organized by W. M. Levy and H. W. Lewis, who 
subsequently sold their controlling interest to Mr. J. S. Corley, 
now managing the bank as president Avith the assistance of "Will- 
iam C. Little, vice-president ; M. V. Corley, cashier, and H. U. P. 
Gehring, assistant cashier. Its present capital is $25,000, and the 
bank is a well-established, painstaking institution with a growing 
business. 

The Citizens' State Bank, located across the river at No. 915 
West Douglas avenue, was organized in 1902, and has for its 
present officers W. S. Hadley, president ; G. E. Outland, vice-presi- 
dent; W. C. Kemp, cashier, and H. C. Outland, assistant cashier. 

This institution has always enjoyed the entire respect and 
confidence of the citizens of Wichita in general and the West 
Side in particular, to which location it has largely confined its 
growing business, constantly increasing, and building up a very 
large and successful business, particularly for a bank with so 
limited a capital, and this growing business has recently made it 
necessary to increase the capital from $10,000 to $25,000. 

The National Bank of Wichita was organized by C. T. Granger, 
of Waukon, Iowa, and his associates, date of organization certifi- 
cate being May 10, 1902, but the bank was not opened for busi- 
ness until in November following, owing to delay in completion 
of the building. 

First officers were C. T. Granger, president ; R. S. Granger, 
vice-president ; George W. Robinson, cashier. 

Later and in July, 1903, R. G. Granger resigned as vice-presi- 
dent, being succeeded by V. H. Branch, and on the following 
January Mr. C. W. Brown was elected president in place of C. T. 
Granger, resigned; George W. Robinson remaining as its cashier 
until he resigned on August 26, 1905, being succeeded by V. H. 
Branch, Mr. F. C. Sheldon, of Kansas City, being elected vice- 
president. 



100 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

The business of the bank continued under the excellent man- 
agement of C. W. Brown, president ; F. C. Sheldon, vice-president, 
and V. H. Branch, cashier, vintil July 3, 1908, when the business 
was consolidated with the Fourth National Bank of Wichita, Mr. 
Brown and Mr. Branch going to the Fourth National Bank, the 
former as vice-president and the latter as its cashier. 

The National Bank of Wichita enjoyed a successful business, 
and at the time of the above mentioned consolidation carried a 
deposit of $600,000. 

The Gold Savings State Bank, occupying the new Anchor 
Trust building, corner North Market and First streets, was or- 
ganized in 1906 with a capital of $25,000, and now has surplus 
and profits amounting to $1,500. 

This institution is under the management of H. W. Lewis, 
president ; P. K. Lewis, vice-president, and Charles Frank, cashier. 

This bank is doing a general banking and deposit business 
and is meeting with a steady and substantial growth. 

The Stock Yards State Bank, situated at 1857 North Lawrence 
avenue, was organized in 1907 by W. W. Brown and his associates, 
F. C. Sheldon and V. H. Branch, having a capital of $10,000. 

Messrs. Sheldon and Branch subsequently sold their interests 
in the bank to Mr. Brown and associates, and same is now under 
the active and conservative management of Garrison Scott, Presi- 
dent ; George T. Cubbon, vice-president, and W. W. Brown, 
cashier. 

This institution is located in a territory by itself, having a 
fine neighborhood in the center of the growing industries on 
North Lawrence avenue, including the packing house district, 
and is doing a thriving and successful business. 

The Merchants State Bank, located at the corner of Emporia 
and Douglas avenues, was opened for business on December 10, 
1906, with George W. Robinson, president ; D. Heaton, vice-presi- 
dent, and J. A. Murphy, cashier, with a capital of $50,000. 

The bank is at the present time under the management of 
Charles H. Lewis, president; George Veail, vice-president, and 
J. W. Dice, cashier. 

Mr. Robinson, who was the organizer of the bank, resigned 
on October 1, 1909. 

Present deposits of the bank are $315,000, and is one of the 
successful financial institutions of the city of Wichita. 

The Wichita State Bank was organized on August 2, 1908, as 



THE BANKS OF WICHITA 101 

a sayings bank only with a capital of $25,000 and surplus of $5,- 
000, present officers being H. V. Wheeler, president; H. J. Hag- 
ney, vice-president; J. C. Kelly, cashier, and H. H. Dewey, secre- 
tary. 

This bank does exclusively a savings bank business, and as 
such is rapidly growing in popular favor, and holds the faith and 
confidence of its customers. 

The Union Stock Yards National Bank was organized in May, 
1910, and opened for business in the stock yards district north of 
Twenty-first street and just outside the city limits of Wichita by 
Charles H. Brooks and his associates, and has a capital of $50,- 
000, with the following officers: Charles H. Brooks, president; 
George Theis, Jr., vice-president; F. F. Ransom, cashier, and 
John D. McCluer, assistant cashier. 

The bank occupies a fine banking room in the Live Stock Ex- 
change building, and will undoubtedly enjoy a successful busi- 
ness under its present efficient management. 

We have endeavored in this resume of the banks of Wichita 
to show no partiality and to name them all in existence at the 
present writing, June, 1910, though we are informed there are 
several banks in contemplation, all of which, of course, cannot be 
included in this recital no more than we could undertake to de- 
scribe the thousand or more new organizations and industries 
that the coming years will unfold, these forming material for a 
subsequent history. 

It might be well to state in conclusion that during the boom 
of 1887 the deposits of the Wichita banks increased to about $4,- 
000,000, but later on and at the close of the boom and some few 
years subsequent thereto finally shrunk to the low level of $437,- 
000, and at about that time seven of the nine Wichita banks then 
in existence either failed or liquidated as a result of the boom, 
leaving the two banks, the Fourth National Bank and the Kansas 
.National Bank, as the only solvent financial institutions of the 
city. 

Subsequently, however, and in the last years of the century 
just passed, the deposits of the Wichita banks commenced to in- 
crease at a substantial rate, and later on increased very rapidly, 
until at the present time deposits of all the Wichita banks have 
reached the high figure of over $12,000,000, showing a financial 
growth seldom recorded in a city the size of Wichita, and is a 
striking tribute to the wonderful resources of the territory sur- 



102 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

rounding Wichita and the care, thrift and business sagacity of 
the various gentlemen now managing the twelve Wichita 



$12,000,000 IN WICHITA BANKS. 

According to the last official report of the condition of the 
eleven banks of Wichita, there was on deposit at that time about 
$12,000,000, or more than an average of a million dollars each. 
The bank clearings of Wichita during the past year have in- 
creased in a greater ratio than those of any other city in the 
United States. This increase has at times run as high as 62 per 
cent over last year, as shown by the weekly reports sent out by 
the government. Of these eleven banking institutions of Wich- 
ita, three are national banks and eight are under state super- 
vision. They are all conducted in a businesslike and conserva- 
tive manner, and no legitimate banking institution in Wichita has 
failed in many years. 

The three national banks, which have deposits aggregating 
nearly $8,000,000, are the Fourth National, the Kansas National 
and the National Bank of Commerce. The state banks, with an 
aggregate in deposits of $4,000,000 are the American State, the 
Wichita State, the State Savings, the Stock Yards State, the Gold 
Savings State, the Citizens' State, the Merchants' State and the 
Commercial. A new national bank has just been organized and 
will be ready for business soon. It will be known as the Union 
Stock Yards National Bank. 



THE COUNTRY BANKS OF SEDGWICK COUNTY. 

By 
THE EDITOR. 

As Sedgwick county has grown and expanded, there has grad- 
ually arisen a need of banking facilities in the various trading 
and shipping points in the county. This want has called into 
existence a niunber of very reliable banking institutions, located 
in the various towns of Sedgwick county. These banks are pat- 
ronized extensively by the business men of the various commu- 
nities and very generally by the farmers in the localities named. 

Sedgwick City, upon the northern border of Sedgwick county, 



THE BANKS OF WICHITA 103 

has two banks — namely, the Farmers' State Bank, organized in 
1906, with William Nightser as president, J. C. Crawford as vice- 
president and Charles B. Harling as cashier; this bank has a 
paid-up capital of $10,000, and carries a good line of deposits; 
the Sedgwick State Bank, which was organized in 1894, of which 
C. A. Seaman is president and J. H. Hume is cashier; the capital 
stock of this bank is also $10,000, fully paid up. 

At Valley Center is one bank, the Valley Center State Bank, 
with a paid-up capital of $10,000. W. D. Goodrich is the presi- 
dent, S. B. Amidon is the vice-president and J. B. Gardiner is the 
cashier. This bank was organized in 1901. 

Kechi has the State Bank of Kechi, with L. H. Watson as 
president, S. B. Amidon as vice-president and E. S. Basore as 
cashier. This bank has a paid-up capital of $10,000, and was 
organized in 1909. 

Payne, Minneha and Gypsum townships have no banks, but 
Rockford township has a bank at Derby, called the Farmers' and 
Merchants' State Bank, which was organized in 1907, with a 
paid-up capital of $10,000. This bank is officered by S. T. Towns- 
din as president, R. R. Goodin as vice-president and S. T. Towns- 
din as cashier. 

Mulvane, on the southern border of Sedgwick county, has 
two banks. The Farmers' State Bank was formed in 1906, with 
a paid-up capital of $10,000. George Miller is president, J. W. 
Dice is vice-president and 0. W. Good is cashier. Also the Mul- 
vane State Bank, organized in 1886, with a paid-up capital stock 
of $20,000. Of this bank W. C. Robinson is president and C. F. 
Hough is cashier. 

Clearwater has two banks. The Home State Bank was organ- 
ized in 1905, with a paid-up capital stock of $10,000. A. W. Wise 
is president and S. M. Broomfield vice-president and cashier. 
The State Bank of Clearwater was organized in 1899 and has a 
capital stock of $10,000. Z. H. Stevens is the president, H. M. Har- 
rington is the vice-president and J. W. Dale is the cashier. 

Viola has one bank, to-wit, the Viola State Bank, organized in 
1903. This bank has a capital of $10,000, fully paid up, and 
Joseph Longe is its president, Charles Dalbom its vice-president 
and J. E. Mathes its cashier. 

Cheney has two banks, the Cheney State Bank, with John T. 
Hessel as its president, J. W. Weatherd as vice-president and F. 
Zimmerman its cashier. This bank was organized in 1889 and 



104 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

has a cash capital of $10,000, fully paid up. Also the Citizens' 
State Bank, organized in 1884, with a capital stock of $15,000, 
fully paid up. Of this bank A. W. Sweet is the president, Odin 
Northeutt the vice-president and E. M. Carr the cashier. 

Garden Plain has one bank called the State Bank of Garden 
Plain. This bank was organized in 1901, with H. F. G. Wulf as 
president at this time, William H. Taylor, Jr., as vice-president 
and G. A. Tayer as cashier. This bank also has a paid-up capital 
of $10,000. 

Goddard has one bank, the Goddard State Bank, with a paid- 
up capital of $10,000. This bank was organized in 1907. S. L. 
Nolan is its president, S. L. Hutchinson its vice-president and 
V. A. Reece its cashier. 

Mt. Hope has two banks — namely, the Farmers' State Bank, 
organized in 1909, with a paid-up capital of $12,000. E. W. Jewell 
is president, E. C. Gortner is vice-president and H. M. Washing- 
ton is cashier. Also the First National Bank of Mt. Hope, organ- 
ized in 1885, with a capital stock of $25,000, fully paid up. Of 
this bank J. R. Fisher is president, S. B. Amidon is vice-president 
and Henry Jorgenson is the cashier. 

Andale has one bank, denominated the Andale State Bank, 
organized in 1900, with a fully paid-up capital of $10,000. L. A. 
Townsend is the president, A. M. Richenberger is vice-president 
and E. 0. Lamon is the cashier. 

Colwieh has one bank, the State Bank of Colwich, organized in 
1885, with a capital stock of $10,000, fully paid up. W. H. 
Burks is president of this bank, H. H. Hansen its vice-president 
and A. C. Lambe its cashier. 

Bentley has one bank, organized in 1901, known as the State 
Bank of Bentley. This bank has a paid-up capital of $10,000. 
H. H. Hansen is its president, T. J. Smith is its vice-president, 
C. L. Baird its cashier and Avis Baird its assistant cashier. 

The country banks of Sedgwick county are regarded as uni- 
formly safe and conservative. Their business interests are in 
the hands of careful and conservative men — men who have an 
intimate personal acquaintance with the patrons of the various 
banks. Bank failures are unknown in the country banks of 
Sedgwick county. This situation is due to two causes — first, the 
uniform prosperity of the county, and second, the care and 
fidelity of those intrusted with the management of the various 
institutions. 



CHAPTER X. 

WICHITA POSTOFFICE. 

TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTEEN PERSONS REQUIRED TO 
GIVE US MAIL. 

Streams of people going through the entrance to the big 
federal building, crowds working their way out through the 
exits — that is all the passerby sees of the enormous postal busi- 
ness that is conducted in "Wichita every day. A patron who takes 
his place in line in front of the stamp window, spends a quarter 
for postage and drops several neatly sealed epistles into the 
opening marked, "Other States," thinks little of the regiment 
of specialists that Uncle Sam maintains behind the lobby enclosure 
to serve the thousands of residents of the community. But the 
specialists are there, a little army of them, each with a depart- 
ment of his own, handling letters, newspapers, magazines and 
mail packages of every description. Two hundred and fifteen 
people are employed in the Wichita postofSce every day and they 
are kept busy from morning until night handling and accounting 
for the tons of mail matter that come in and go out from the 
federal building during the course of a day. Their aggregate 
salary allowance from Uncle Sam amounts to over $200,000 a 
year. 

Included in this euormous postal force are the assistant post- 
master, the cashier, clerks, city carriers, railroad postal clerks, 
janitors, drivers, special delivery messengers, and rural carriers, 
with Postmaster W. C. Edwards at the head of the entire organi- 
.zation. It is no small undertaking to organize as large a work- 
ing force as that employed at the Wichita postoffice. It is still 
another matter to keep a large force well organized while many 
additions are being made in every department and the character 
of the work to be done is constantly growing more complex. 
That is what has had to be done in Wichita. During the past 
five years the postal force has been almost doubled in numbers 
and the mail requirements here are almost as difficult to meet as 
lOS 



106 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

those in any city in the country. No department can be closed, 
even temporarily, at the postoffice. No matter who is ill or absent, 
no matter what happens ; every department must be kept going, 
for every department is a cog in the great machine and its work 
is necessary for an efficient service. The postal force must per- 
form the task completely without a hitch, and the way the service 
is handled in Wichita is a splendid testimonial to the mental 
capacity and faithfulness of the scores of men wlio occupy posi- 
tions in the department here. The business of the Wichita post- 
office for the year ending March 31, 1910, aggregated nearly a 
quarter million dollars. This year it will pass the quarter million 
mark. The growing population, the enlargement of business 
enterprises here, the numerous institutions that are springing up 
anew in every part of the city are having a remarkable effect 
upon the postal business here. What is more, the process of 
development is only well begun. Although the Wichita postoffice 
now handles more mail matter than originates at any other post- 
office in the State of Kansas, provision for as much more will have 
to be made during the next few years while Wichita is growing 
into a city of 100,000 people. In any event, Uncle Sam may be 
depended upon to keep up with the procession. A splendid build- 
ing, has been erected for the accommodation of the government 
institutions here, the postal employes are trained in their respect- 
ive lines, and the force is capable of making the enlargement that 
the increasing business of the city will demand from year to year. 

POSTOFFICE RECORDS PROOF OF GROWTH. 

Three new families are moving into Wichita every day. This 
is the very moderate rate placed upon the city's growth by the 
"new family" officials of the postoffice. This statement is backed 
up by figures prepared by this department of the postoffice. 

This is the rate at which families are moving in at this time 
of the year, the slackest time of the year in the moving line. 
When the winter rush commences, families will come in at the 
rate of six or seven every day. This was the rate last year. 

The way the postoffice officials get tab on the new families is 
by the carriers. A carrier is supposed to be sort of a directory 
all of the time, and it is his business to keep track of and report 
all families which move in and out. These are recorded. A new 
system of recording new families and removals is followed at the 



WICHITA POSTOFPICB 107 

postotBce now. The card system was formerly used, but did not 
give satisfaction. The book system is the one now in use. A 
two-column edition of the Wichita directory is kept on hand, and 
between each sheet there are two blank leaves. The new families 
are recorded there. 

FARMERS GET MAIL DAILY OVER NINE RURAL 
ROUTES. 

The rural free delivery department of the Wichita postoffiee 
and Sedgwick county is one of the best conveniences that a repub- 
lican form of government is supposed to have for its people. This 
is not placing the Wichita and Sedgwick county departments 
away above other delivery departments, but it is saying that 
the rural free department in this county, which every day out 
of the year, with the exception of Sundays and holidays, gets 
mail to every farmer in the county, is as good as the best. Be- 
cause this department is several years younger than the other 
departments in the local postoffiee, it is not one whit behind the 
other departments in efficiency. Thirty-six carriers take charge 
of delivering mail to the farmers in Sedgwick county. Every car- 
rier on an average covers twenty-nine miles per day. This num- 
ber of carriers means that once each day mail is delivered on 
every section line in the county. Nine carriers take care of the 
rural work outside of Wichita. This means there are nine routes, 
each averaging twenty-nine miles. These carriers deliver mail to 
4,640 persons. Each carrier starts from the local postoffiee at 8 
o'clock in the morning, and reports back at 4 o'clock in the after- 
noon. No matter what the condition of the weather, he must 
make his trip every day. The rural carriers out of Wichita are 
very reliable men, and it is seldom that one of them uses a sub- 
stitute. Whom do you suppose his substitute is? Generally his 
wife. Strange, but true; most of the carriers' wives learn the 
route so thoroughly that it isn't any trouble for them to cover it 
when their husbands are unable to. They are said to make fewer 
mistakes than their husbands. The first routes in Sedgwick 
county were routes Nos. 1 and 2, leading out of Wichita. Each 
went north of the city. When it was first made public that 
Wichita was to have a rural free delivery, there was great agita- 
tion. Some advocated it as the proper thing for the government 
to do. Others thought they saw a nigger in the woodpile, and 



108 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

said it was a scheme to get more money. The common report 
then was that it was a Republican scheme to get more taxes out 
of the farmers. 

Some of the residents on the rural lines believed this so sin- 
cerely that they refused to take their mail for fear their taxes 
would be doubled. All of this happened in 1900. The first route 
was put in October 1, 1900. The first two rural carriers in the 
state were J. R. Moore and W. L. Appling. They agreed to cover 
the twenty-nine miles on each of their routes once a day for $500 
per year. Carriers now receive -$900 per year. It is said that 
they are trying to get their wages increased to $1,000 per year. 
In 1902 routes 3 and 4 were added ; later route 5 came in. M. M. 
Murdock was postmaster at that time and was an ardent advo- 
cate of this system. In 1905 the county service was established. 
This gave Sedgwick county the distinction of having the second 
complete service in the state. There has been no change in the 
service since that time. The carriers who go out of "Wichita 
every morning are : Route No. 1, Charles C. Snyder ; route No. 2, 
Benjamin F. Smith ; route No. 3, A. J. Parker ; route No. 4, 
Thomas A. Bowles ; route No. 5, James C. Smith ; route No. 6, 
Arthur Bell ; route No. 7, J. W. Baughman ; route No. 8, J. W. 
Snyder; route No. 9, J. T. Woodford. 

POSTOFFICE. 

Postoffice — Market, northwest corner William. 

Postmaster — W. C. Edwards. 

Assistant Postmaster — J. F. McCoy. 

Cashier — J. H. McPherson. 

Money Order Department — Frank Fisher, Ida W. Decatur, 
Henrietta Menz. 

Register Clerk — G. A. Nachtrieb. 

Stamp Clerk — Francis M. Cruse. 

Night Service— C. E. Smith. 

Chief Mailing Department — J. E. Higgins. 

Mailing Clerks— E. W. Berdine, W. C. Ludlum, J. J. Smith, 
C. W. Berrman, J. E. Bishop, Otis Broadus, L. 0. Julian. 

Distributing Clerks— J. W. Belcher, C. R. Hibarger, H. S. 
Bird, Henry Kernohan. F. L. Bell, B. M. Farrar, H. H. Hatfield, 
J. H. Miller. 



WICHITA POSTOFPICE 109 

General Delivery Clerks— G. H. Winn, W. H. Plant, J. J. 
McDermott, F. H. Towner. 

Forwarding Clerk — Mrs. Martha MeCabe. 

Superintendent of Carriers — E. B. Walden. 

Carriers— Oscar Ward, G. T. Chouteau, V. M. Briggle, J. H. 
Smith, J. T. McDonald, C. H. Bracken, P. S. DeMaree, C. G. Lilly, 
T. H. Mayberry, M. J. Sweet, H. A. Pinaire, W. E. Barlow, I. R. 
Moore, J. A. Simon, W. C. Webber, Louis Bulkley, F. W. MeClin- 
tock, A. V. Taggart, A. B. Fortner, H. L. Dewing, F. H. Obrist, 
J. F. A. Nitehske, J. H. South, C. H. Baker, A. E. Johnson, R. H. 
Moore, D. P. Young, R. F. Washburn, E. W. Knowles, L. V. 
Koch, C. V. Poole, E. B. Smith, A. 0. Bradford, E. J. Burns, B. 0. 
Chick, J. J. Branson, Jr., J. C. McDonald. 

Substitute Carriers — Harry Bertholf, J. S. Benn, A. L. Feeler, 
Lee A. Pennock, Ralph Wentworth, W. G. Wertz. 

Special Delivery Messengers — Res E. Boyer, Robert Smith. 

Rural Delivery Carriers — No. 1, J. R. Moore; No. 2, B. F. 
Smith ; No. 3, W. C. Rodgers ; No. 4, T. A. Boyles ; No. 5, J. C. 
Smith ; No. 6, Arthur Bell ; No. 7, J. W. Baughman ; No. 8, John 
Snyder ; No. 9, J. T. Woodford. Substitute, C. C. Snyder. 

Custodian — W. C. Edwards. 

Engineers — R. W. Williams, Andrew Carmichael. 

Janitors — Henry Schad, Henry W. James, John Simmonds. 

Postal Stations — Station A, 1101 West Douglas avenue ; clerk, 
G. T. Riley. Station 2, 726 North Main ; clerk, Dunn Mercantile 
Company. Station 3, Boston Store ; clerk, Charles G. Cohn ; Sta- 
tion 4, George Junes Dry Goods Company ; clerk, W. P. Innes. 

RAILWAY MAIL SERVICE. 

Offices, second floor Federal Building; chief clerk, D. E. 
Barnes. 

HOW POSTAL RECEIPTS IN WICHITA HAVE GROWN. 

The receipts of the postal department of the government in 
Wichita were $66,344.01 in 1900. Since that time they have 
increased fourfold, the year ending March 31, 1910, making the 
enormous aggregate of $4,232,326.61. Following are the postal 
receipts here for each of the past six years, during which time the 
annual collections for postal privileges have doubled : 



110 fflSTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

1904 $116,316.03 

1905 129,939.42 

1906 147,927.16 

1907 167,554.74 

1908 •. 196,431.88 

1909 232,326.61 

1910, estimated 275,000.00 

(The period covered for each year begins April 1 of that year 
and ends March 31 of the succeeding year.) 



CHAPTER XI. 
MEANING OF THE WORD "WICHITA." 

By 
J. R. MEAD. 

For a week or more the literal English meaning of the word 
"Wichita" has been in controversy. Some stranger came here 
from the East and asked a hotel man what the word meant. Hotel 
men in Wichita are a little too busy to give any time to the 
origin and meaning of the Indian words, and if he did not tell 
his guest that much, he indicated it by his actions. It made the 
Eastern man indignant to see such indifference to one of the 
prettiest town names in the gazetteer, and he began telephoning 
all over town — to editors, college professors, school teachers, city 
statesmen, and everybody else who, he thought, ought to know 
the meaning of the word. Not one of them knew, until the great- 
est of all authorities on subjects concerning this valley — James 
R. Mead, pioneer and historian — was reached. It was on the end 
of his tongue — "Scattered Lodges." 

For fully two days this authority was accepted, until an 
Irishman came along and asserted to the "Eagle" that the word 
"Wichita" meant "Tattooed Faces." We hated to hear the deci- 
sion of Mr. Mead disputed — especially by a foreigner — and we 
called up William Mathewson, a man who was here before the 
Askansas river was dug, and asked him about it. He dissented 
very strongly from the Irishman's opinion and stood loyally by 
his pioneer friend, J. R. Mead. He informed us also that the word 
•"Wichita" is not a Wichita word at all, but an Osage word, and 
it was from the Osages themselves, many years ago, that he 
learned that the word meant "Scattered Lodges" or "Scattered 
Villages," which means the same thing. 

Now comes the Irishman, who cites as his authority no less 
a person than J. W. Powell, director of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology. We have examined Mr. Powell's references to the 



112 fflSTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

matter in the Seventeenth Annual Report of his bureau, and a 
casual reading of it would indicate that the Irishman was a little 
more than a match for the two famous Kansas pioneers. A more 
attentive reading, however, reveals the fact that "Tattooed 
Faces" comes from a Kiowa word which was applied to the 
Wichita, Waco, Tawakoni and Kichai Indians on account of their 
habit of tattooing their faces and mouths. The word in ques- 
tion is "Doguat," which evidently means "Wichita," for we find 
the Wichita mountains in Oklahoma called "Doguat kop" by the 
Kiowas even unto this day. 

The question now is whether the Osages knew more about the 
Wichitas than the Kiowas did. We doubt it, but for all that, the 
name "Wichita" has been recognized by the government for a 
great many years, and no one would be willing to give it up for 
such an ugly word as "Doguat." 

It is settled, therefore, that "Wichita" means "Scattered 
Lodges," and not "Tattooed Faces," and the superintendent of 
education ought to have it at once proclaimed in the school 
houses, so that when the next inquiring Easterner comes along 
and asks the question, all may be able to answer him. 



CHAPTER XII. 
THE DRILL HOLE AT WICHITA. 

By 

J. R. MEAD. 

(Read before the Academy, Wichita, Kan., January 3, 1896.) 

In the year 1895, the city of Wichita voted $10,000 in bonds 
to drill one or more holes to ascertain what of value might be 
found beneath the city. Coal, salt, oil and gas were among the 
possibilities. 

A sample of each five feet in depth has been preserved in glass 
jars, properly nximbered. The hole is within the city limits, in 
the valley of the Arkansas, one-fourth of a mile from the river, 
and within fifty feet of the track of the Missouri Pacific Railroad. 
Work commenced October 20, 1895. 

The first twelve feet was through surface soil and clay. Strata 
of quicksand and gravel filled with water were then reached. 
This constituted the underflow, or "subterranean river," as it 
was called in the newspapers. Great difficulty was experienced 
in securing a curbing through this sand and water, which caused 
a delay of several weeks. First, a round wooden pipe, sixteen 
inches in diameter, strongly made of two-inch pine, and wrapped 
with sheet iron, was placed in the hole and gradually sunk by 
pumping the sand from the inside. As depth was gained, the 
pipe constantly bent to the southeast, indicating a pressure in 
■ that direction. Trains passing imparted a quivering motion to 
the sand and water. The wooden pipe was abandoned, as it 
could not be kept vertical. A heavy wrought-iron tube fourteen 
inches in diameter was substituted, which proved a success. 

Following is the log of the well, which at this writing has 
reached the first hard rock, black flint or chert, at a depth of 
642 feet: 

113 



114 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 



!?■ 


i! 


27 


15 


42 


15 


80 


38 


90 


10 



265 


15 


270 


5 


275 


5 


285 


10 


295 


10 


300 


5 


325 


25 


350 


25 


375 


25 


385 


10 


390 


5 


400 


10 


440 


40 


455 


15 


480 


25 


490 


10 


550 


60 


5fi0 


10 


563 


3 


572 


9 


575 


8 


585 


10 


590 


5 


600 


10 


610 


10 


615 


5 


630 


15 


637 


7 


642 


5 



LOG OF THE WELl,. 



Surface soil and clay. ■ 

Quicksand and water. 

Coarse sand and gravel, full of water. 

Tenacious blue clay. 

Gj'psuni crystals (selenite). Between 80 and 90 feet a pocket 
of smooth water-worn pebbles, consisting of white quartz, 
quartzite, granite, jasper, etc., broke into the well from the 
side. 

Alternating layers of clay, gypsum and clay shales. 

Massive gypsum, gray and black. 

Blue shale. 

Gypsum. 

Light and dark shale. 

Soft clay shale. 

Clay and gypsum. 

Gypsum. 

Blue shale. 

Black shale. 

Blue shale. 

Dark shale. 

Blue shale. 

Black shale. 

Blue shale. 

White and gray gypsum. 

Shale, strongly charged with petroleum. 

Dark shale. 

Light gray shale. 

Gray limestone. 

Pine sand full of very strong brine, which rose 300 feet in the 
drill hole, and would perhaps have risen to the surface had 
it not been stopped by the insertion of tubing. 

Gray limestone and clay. 

Clay shale. 

Black shale. 

Blue clay. 

Soapstone and clay or shale. 

Light gray limestone. 

Dark soapstone. 

Dark shale. 

Grav limestone. 

Black flint (chert). 



CHAPTER XIII. 

WICHITA'S INDUSTRIAL HISTORY— IN THE BEGINNING. 

Wichita's industrial history may be said, with subsequent 
explanations, to have begun as long ago as forty years. That 
many years ago, on what later became a portion of Wichita, as 
the Alamo addition, then an ideal camping place, a trading post, 
established by J. R. Mead, stood. This is believed to have been 
the first stationary place of business set up on what was to become 
Wichita. The hand-to-hand trading between men, white and 
Indian, and Indian and Indian, runs back before the records of 
civilization, but J. R. Mead, who still retains a wonderful power 
of recollection, recalls events in the Arkansas valley three score 
and ten years old. In the following, he gives the beginning of 
industrial life at the confluence of the Little and Big Arkansas 
rivers. 

By 

J. R. MEAD. 

You ask me to write something of the first industrial and 
mercantile enterprises of this locality. I have had some experi- 
ence with the present race and generation, also with a different 
people, who occupied the country before its present inhabitants. 
Of the former times, I will write. There are others to write of 
the country since its occupancy by its present inhabitants. 

The Little Arkansas for five or six miles above its mouth 
always had been a favorite location on account of its abundant 
timber and pure water. It was surrounded by a country full of 
game, so here was a natiiral gathering place for Indians, traders 
and hunters. 

The present inhabitants of the valley fondly imagine that 

before their arrival there was nothing here but earth, sky and 

river. In this they are in error. It is fair to assume that while 

Joseph was laying up grain in Egypt against years of famine, 

115 



116 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

there were people here laying up stores of provisions for winter 
use and for traffic with their neighbors. 

It was the good fortune of the writer to have spent some 
years in this valley before the coming of its present people, on 
one occasion occupying what is now Sedgwick county for three- 
weeks Avith no other inhabitants but two men, but there were 
camps, villages and townsites where people lived when it suited 
their convenience — unnumbered leagues of country was theirs to 
occupy when and where they pleased — and there were more cat- 
tle in the country then than now, and had been for some thou- 
sands of years. 

Of a few things of which the writer learned or saw a part, I 
will briefly narrate. 

IN 1835. 

The first commercial enterprise that I have knowledge of was 
in 1835, when Jesse Chisholm guided a party from Arkansas to 
the mouth of the Little river, equipped with a small trading 
outfit, but in search of a gold mine or buried gold — the same, per- 
haps which parties dug in search of for two years recently in 
Charley Payne's park on the West Side. These enterprising 
Arkansas gentlemen spent some time here, but failed to find what 
they sought. 

SOME PIONEER TRADERS. 

Of what occurred here for some years after that, I have no 
knowledge, but in 1858 "Moxley and Mosely" were doing a mer- 
cantile business in a log house on the Little river at the Osage 
crossing, and did a thriving business for a while, until Moxley 
was drowned while fording the river at Lawrence. Moseley, after 
an eventful life, was killed by Indians at his hunting ranch on 
the Medicine river. Mosely was a jolly, ideal frontiersman, as 
fine a "looking man as I ever saw. I named a street of our city for 
him. About the same time Jake Carey and Bob De Racken had 
a trading ranch where the Jewett farm (old Park City) was since 
located, and expected to make a fortune catching buffalo calves 
for market. Then, in 1860, came William Ross with his family, 
who built a cabin on the Big river. He was killed that fall, and 
his family returned East. 



WICHITA'S INDUSTRIAL HISTORY 117 

THE WIOHITAS' ARRIVAL. 

Then, in 1863, came the Wichitas, who located near the mouth 
of the Little river, and with whom the writer and others engaged 
in mercantile traffic, as also with the Osages, who made this val- 
ley their hunting ground. Their camps or villages were four or 
five miles up the Little river. At about the same time came 
bands of Shawnees, Delawares, Kickapoos and others, who set- 
tled on neighboring streams, and added to the population and 
business of the country. 

We frequentlj' took a wagon load of goods to one of these 
camps and made a camp of our own from which to trade, or 
moved into an Indian lodge, made ourselves at home, set up our 
stock of goods and stayed until we were traded out, when we 
would load up our robes and furs, call for our horses, which the 
Indians herded for us somewhere in the vicinity, and pull out 
for home, which, in the writer's case, was at his headquarters 
ranch at Towanda, where there was an Indian agency, postoffice, 
general store, etc. 

ARTICLES OF MERCHANDISE. 

Our staple articles of trade were flour, coffee, sugar, tobacco, 
Mackinac blankets, two and three point, bolts of imported save 
,list Btrouding and broadcloth, costing from $2.50 to $5 a yard 
wholesale, calico, Chinese vermilion, knives, small axes, hair 
pipe, a bead two to six inches long and pearly white, made from 
the lip of a conch shell on the Atlantic coast, Iroquois and aba- 
lone shells from the Pacific ocean, beads from Germany, and 
many minor articles of use, adornment or fancy. 

CREDIT TO THE REDMEN. 

I frequently went on these trips alone, sometimes leaving the 
remainder of my goods with an Indian to trade while I was away. 
To some of them we sold goods on credit, and had no occasion to 
regret it. Our trafSc was mostly in buffalo robes and furs, which 
were as good as gold. Our usual market was Leavenworth, where 
we sold our robes and also bought or received our goods from 
the East, they being shipped up the Missouri river by boat. 
Sometimes the Indians had money from the sale of half-wild 



118 fflSTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

cattle whose owners had fled the country, which they gathered 
down about their old homes in the territory and sold to parties 
that they met along the border, who took the chances of smug- 
gling them to a market, as at that time they were contraband of 
war. Not all Indians knew the value of money. During the 
Civil War the Cheyennes captured a paymaster's train on the 
Platte, and in the plunder they found a chest of greenbacks, 
something new to them. As they were pretty, they took them 
along for the children to play with at home, and for cigarette 
papers. Before they were used up, Colonel Bent, a famous trader, 
happened in their camp, and gathered in the remainder for about 
the price of waste paper. This was the story told to "Dutch 
Bill" (Griffenstein), who unfortunately arrived in their camp 
too late to get his share. Our people along the Little river knew 
the value of a dollar in paper or gold. 

CREDIT UNLIMITED. 

Occasionally we took a trip to Philadelphia or New York to 
purchase goods in quantity. A frontier trader who had proven 
himself capable and reliable could command almost unlimited 
money or credit in any of the great cities. I once drove one 
wagon loaded with furs and robes from this vicinity to Leaven- 
worth, which sold for a sum equal to thirteen carloads of wheat, 
estimating the average price and capacity of cars for the past 
ten years. I have on numbers of occasions sold as much as 
$3,000 worth of goods in one day, before the present race of 
people came to this country. 

There were others in trade — "Stine and Dunlap, " "Lewellen 
and Davis," Spooner, now of Anadarko. 

On one occasion, Jesse Chisholm, a half-blood Indian and 
Scotchman, going south to Washita, bought of me $3,000 worth 
of goods, saying he would pay me on his return, whenever that 
might be. The next spring he returned, camped by my place 
with his train. I took supper with him, and he said, "I am 
owing you. I have no money, but have buffalo robes, wolf skins, 
beaver, buckskins, and you can take your pay from any of 
them." I chose coyote skins, which were legal tender for a dol- 
lar, and he counted out three thousand. We also sent wagon 
trains of goods to the camps of wild Indians, 200 miles southwest. 



WICHITA'S INDUSTRIAL HISTORY 119 

WALNUT GROVE. 

On another occasion he returned from the South, which 
included some Indian families and Mexicans whom he had bought 
from the Comanehes when children, and trained to be expert 
teamsters, herders and campmen. He camped at the ""Walnut 
Grove," a beautiful and favorite camping place between the 
rivers. Here he was met by two traders, Charley Rath and 
Louie Booth, who bought all of his furs before I arrived. How- 
ever, there was a big pile of buffalo robes under a walnut tree, 
which Chisholm asked me to buy. I looked them over and made 
an offer of $1,600 for the lot, which he accepted. None of us 
then knew the market value of such robes. On getting them to 
market, I found they were worth double cost. 

Chisholm built some cabins, a trading house and a strong 
corral at "Walnut Grove," about 100 yards in front of the 
house later built by Sand Hill Davis, a farm now owned by 
Judge Wall, I believe. Close to Alamo Addition, between the 
rivers, and up the river on the east side a quarter of a mile, at 
a fine crossing, "Don Carlos," a young man Avith an Indian 
wife, built a cabin and sold goods in a small way. On one occa- 
sion Chisholm brought up 400 head of cattle from his home place 
on the Canadian river. I bought them, paying .$16 a head, and 
held them at the Walnut Grove, using the corral and buildings 
he had turned over to me. 

THE LAW OP THE PLAINS. 

The cattle ranged between the rivers that summer among the 
Indians, with one man to look after them. Here I might remark 
with enlightenment to many that during these years in which I 
personally was in business in the valley, there was no law but 
the law of the plains, "Do as you would be done by," no courts, 
no officers ; yet life and property were as safe as they are today. 
A man could ride all over the country alone with thousands of 
dollars of money in his pocket, among Indians, whites, classed as 
outlaws, half-breeds, anybody, camping alone at night with a 
load of valuable goods, as I have done many a time, without the 
slightest apprehension of danger. During these years no intox- 
icating liquors were sold or used. But one crime was committed 
to my knowledge in that time, and that by a renegade white man. 
It was not until after the country was surveyed, in 1867, and 



120 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

opened to settlement, that there came the saturnalia of crime, 
debauchery, craft and graft. 

In the spring of 1865 came John Stevens with men, teams 
and goods, and, with Chisholm's assistance, employed Indians 
(mostly Caddoes) to gather and drive up cattle from the ter- 
ritory, paying for them in goods. In the course of a summer 
they had collected a herd of over 3,000 head, which they held 
on the "West Side, the Indians herding them over several miles 
of country between the rivers and the Cowskin. Their camp 
was about where the watch factory was built on the West Side. 
These cattle were first driven east, where Stevens was drowned, 
crossing a river, and then driven to New Mexico on a government 
contract, as originally intended. 

AT COWSKIN GROVE. 

About this time I had a stock of goods at an Indian village 
at Cowskin Grove, in charge of Davis Ballou, a Cherokee Indian. 
During June and July he collected for me 1,500 buffalo hides, but 
the Big Arkansas was such a great river that summer we could 
not cross, except by swimming on horseback, which we often 
did. Soon the moths commenced eating the hides. We moved 
them, beat them, put them on platforms with a big smoke under- 
neath, yet still the moths ate them. Finally, towards the last 
of August, we got the running gear of a wagon across by men 
riding the horses and standing on the axles. We made a rack 
and hauled the hides to the bank of the river. Still it was im- 
passable, and they lay on the banks for two weeks, waiting for 
the river to fall, which it failed to do. At last a party of thirty- 
five Kaw Indians came along, to whom I told my woes. They 
kindly offered to swim them over, so we built rafts of dry cotton- 
wood logs, on which they would pile a lot of hides. Then one or 
two would swim ahead with a rope to a possible standing place 
and pull while others swam and pushed, sometimes landing a 
quarter of a mile below. They got them across finally, losing but 
a few hides. The great impassable river cost me in this instance 
$1,500, for on taking the hides to the market they were docked 
one dollar each for being moth-eaten. 

These are a few of the many facts and incidents I might write 
of trade and traffic here before the white man came. I look back 
to those days of absolute freedom as among the happiest of my 
life. 



CHAPTER XIV. 
THE LITTLE ARKANSAS. 

By 

J. R. MEAD. 

The central third of Kansas was bountifully provided by 
nature with rivers and streams of pure running water, bordered 
by lines of stately trees. No more beautiful or diversified pas- 
toral landscape could be found on the North American continent. 

There was no monotony. At short intervals the traveler 
would find a convenient camping place in the shelter of tall trees, 
beside a running stream or spring coming out of a cliff. He 
could usually supply his larder with fish, turkey, venison or buf- 
falo within a few minutes' walk of camp, while his horses were 
grazing in the sweet grasses and many-colored flowers which 
covered valley, hill and prairie alike. As he proceeded on his 
way, he might observe the many forms of animal life grazing on 
the abundant herbage or basking in the warm sunshine. Occa- 
sionally would be seen the stately elk, with his head-dress of 
immense horns, from two or three old bachelors to bands of 
several hundred. To vary the landscape were occasional hills 
of the red Dakota sandstone, or strata of white magnesian lime- 
stone cropping out of the river bluffs, broken blocks covering the 
slopes, quarried ready for use. In another locality would be seen 
cedar hills crowned with heavy formations of gypsum, which 
sometimes formed cliffs along the water courses, while at con- 
■ venieut distances were salt streams, springs or marshes to supply 
the needs of the animal life, suggesting the sea of rock salt 
which underlies much of this portion of the state. What more 
could nature or art do to improve upon this natural park? 

I write of the country as I saw and explored it in 1859 and 

later years as it then was and had been for untold ages in the 

past. All of these streams were tributaries of our two great 

rivers, the Kansas and the Arkansas — appropriate names for the 

121 



122 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

rivers of Kansas. All of these rivers and nearly all of the 
streams flowed eastward or southeastward towards the morn- 
ing sun. 

These streams had some interesting history before civilized 
man came upon the scene, and many of them much interesting 
history since. There should be a local historical society in each 
county to gather and preserve the tragedies, comedies and ro- 
mance of the early days. 

When the writer roamed over the hills and valleys of the 
Solomon, Saline and Smoky Hill, from 1859 to 1862, he imagined 
that the most beautiful country on earth. Then his red brethren 
warned him of impending wrath soon to come, and thinking of 
his loved companion and baby boy, he wisely decided to seek a 
new field of activity toward the sunny South. Here he discov- 
ered that the "raging Walnut," as it was called, and the Little 
Arkansas were just as beautiful and interesting as the country 
to the north, and in later years has found that all of Kansas is 
very good. The Flint Hills, which were once considered utterly 
worthless, are now the choice natural grazing grounds of the 
state. « 

The Little Arkansas was a gem ; a ribbon of stately trees 
winding down to the parent river through a broad, level valley of 
green, as I first saw it, dotted over with the black bodies of fat, 
sleek buffalo and an occasional group of antelope or straggling 
elk, and not a living human soul in all the country now known 
as Sedgwick county. Such was the Little Arkansas as the writer 
first saw it from the highlands to the east, overlooking the valley, 
on a sunny afternoon in June, 1863. 

From whom or when the Little Arkansas obtained its name, 
or why, of all the many tributaries of the big river, it should 
have been given its diminutive, I have not been able to learn. 
The earliest explorer of whom I have knowledge called it by that 
name. The river was the western hunting ground of the Osage 
Indians when the first explorers visited them on the Osage river. 
At that time they had a name which signified it was the young or 
offspring of the big river. The Arkansas was "Ne Shutsa" (red 
water) ; the Little Arkansas river, "Ne Shutsa Shinka" (the 
young or little red water), associating the two rivers as parent 
and child. Or perhaps some early explorers or trappers, coming 
down from the mountains, following the almost treeless Arkansas 
(all trails on Kansas rivers were on the north side), came to the 



THE LITTLE ARKANSAS 123 

beginning of the continuous body of timber on the big river, ten 
miles above the junction, and a short distance to the east saw 
another heavily timbered river, with a V-shaped valley between, 
and considered the two equally entitled to the name. 

The Santa Fe trail crossed the head of the Little Arkansas 
near its source, where it was a small stream, and there it was 
known by the same name. The writer's description is intended 
for the lower portion of the river, in Sedgwick county. The 
Little Arkansas was the dividing line between the plains proper, 
the range of the wild Indians, and the country to the east, the 
home of the reservation Indians, and was near the eastern limit 
of the main range of the buffalo at the time of which I write. 
It was the dividing line between the limestone formations, with 
their black, heavy, waxy soil, and the sandy, loamy soil to the 
west. It was the western limit of the oak in this part of the 
state, some fine oak timber growing in the wooded bends near 
its mouth, and was the last heavily timbered stream in Kansas 
as the traveler proceeded directly west, and south of the big 
river. 

In Sedgwick county it Jies under the sixth principal meridian, 
which divides the State of Kansas. Commencing at this meridian, 
the ranges are Nos. 1 to 25 to the eastern boundary, and Nos. 1 
to 43 to the western boundary. It is about the eastern limit of 
the cretaceous formation. 

Its pure waters were fed by springs issuing from the sheet of 
sand and gravel underlying the valley, and abounded in fish and 
molusks. Of the latter, Unio purpuratus grew to maximum size 
and beauty, while Unio arkensensis was first found here and 
named from the stream. Beavers made their home in its banks 
as late as 1878. 

About six miles above the junction was the western terminus 
of the great Osage trail from the Neosho and Verdegris to the 
Little Arkansas, evidently long in use, from the deep gullies 
washed in the trails on the slopes of the hills. Hunters and 
traders followed the trail and came to the little river at the same 
gravel ford. 

The country beyond to the south and southwest was almost 
unknown, and none ventured very far in that direction, both 
hunters and Osages being in fear of the wild Indians, referred to 
by the Osages as "Paducas," who, they said, were as plenty as 
the grass, somewhere to the west. No one on the Southwestern 



124 fflSTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

frontier knew of such a river as Medicine Lodge or Salt Fork, 
or of there being timber in that direction. 

Of the history of the Little Arkansas prior to 1860, but little 
is known. In Du Pratz's map of Louisiana, published in 1757, in 
which the course of the Arkansas is properly laid down, at the 
junction of the two rivers is marked "A Gold Mine." In 1836 
Jesse Chisholm guided a party from Arkansas, in search of this 
mine or of bm-ied treasure, to the mouth of the Little Arkansas. 
There is a tradition that long ago a party from New Mexico, 
descending the river in boats, were surrounded by Indians in 
the night at this point, and after a siege of several days were all 
killed but one, who escaped, after he had buried their gold and 
silver. Recently parties dug for two years in search of this 
treasure. Whether found or not, this valley has proven to be 
a gold mine to the industrious agriculturist. 

This was the favorite hunting ground of the Little Osages, 
who usually came out in June and again in September, under 
their chief, Mint-sho-shin-ka (Little Bear), and No-po-wal-la, 
second chief. They camped along the Little Arkansas in the tim- 
ber and made their lodges of rows of green poles set in the 
ground about eight feet apart, bent over and tied together, form- 
ing an arch about sis feet high ; other poles would be lashed to 
the sides with willow withes, and all covered with dry buffalo 
skins, forming very comfortable houses, ten, twenty or more 
feet in length. 

Buffaloes were here in endless numbers, except in the winter 
months, when they, along with the other countless herds from 
the North, moved off' southwest to their vast winter home, west- 
ern Oklahoma and Texas, the Pecos river and the Gulf, which 
Ihey had abandoned in the summer for the cooler uplands of the 
North, leaving the grass to grow undisturbed for use on their 
return. Some wintered in the broken hills of Medicine Lodge 
and along the Salt Fork, as they did in the hills of the Solomon 
and the Saline. The last buffalo seen on the Gulf were two bulls 
killed on a peninsula below Corpus Christi, in the winter of 1868. 

The Osage (Wa Sashes), Wichita and plains Indians used the 
bow and arrow in killing buffalo. I have witnessed a run which 
left the prairie strewn with dead cows for ten miles, and it was 
pitiful to see the little red calves gather on the slight elevations, 
looking for their mothers to come back to them. 

Of the first attempts to settle on the little river, I have learned 



THE LITTLE AEKANSAS 125 

that in 1857 a party of men came from Coffey county, Kansas, 
for the purpose of hunting and trading. Of these, Moxley and 
Ed. Moseley built a trading house at the Osage crossing and 
engaged in trading with the Osages. C. C. Arnold, Bob Juracken 
and others went up the big river a few miles and built a cabin, 
and, it is said, broke up some ground and undertook to make a 
fortune catching buffalo calves for the Eastern market. Moxley 
was drowned not long afterward, fording the river at Lawrence. 
Moseley returned to Humboldt, and their trading house was 
burned. • Arnold and his associates left for Butler county, and 
soon no trace of their occupation remained. These parties were 
hunters and traders and could hardly be classed as settlers. But 
in 1860 came John Ross, with his wife and two children and a 
hired man, equipped with tools and utensils for farming and 
housekeeping. He built a comfortable cabin, stables, etc., about 
three miles beyond the Osage crossing, on a high bank of the big 
river, broke up some ground and planted a crop. All went well 
with him until, in the fall, he, with his man and team, went for 
a load of meat a few miles across the river in the direction of 
Cowskin Grove. They did not return. A party of horsemen from 
the Walnut came out, and after a long search found Ross' body, 
nothing more. How he came to his death is not known — probably 
killed by Indians. His man and horses were never found. The 
body was buried on the bank of the river and a mound of stones 
placed over it. His fate was that of many of the pioneers, from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific. His family returned East, and the 
two Arkansas rivers reverted to their original solitude. 

When, in June, 1863, the writer, with two men, visited this 
valley on a three weeks' hunting and exploring trip, and camped 
in the Ross cabin the first night, there was not another human 
being in what is now Sedgwick county, nor another vestige of 
human habitation, as we learned by driving all over it. But of 
. animal life there was plenty. Close by the Ross cabin the writer 
killed sixteen buffaloes and a big horned elk within an hour. 
Yet some time in the dim ages of the past a people had lived 
here, for the floodtide of the Arkansas, in cutting into the natural 
strata of the valley, disclosed a pottery vessel of good workman- 
ship, five feet below the surface, made, perhaps, by the Lansing 
man's wife. The valley here was above high water. 

In the fall of 1863 came the affiliated bands comprising the 
Wichita Indians. They made their village on the little river, 



126 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

near its junction, in the timber, some 1,500 of them. They flour- 
ished on buffalo meat and the fine gardens of corn, beans, squash 
and melons they raised the next summer. They built cone-shaped 
houses of poles, thatched with grass, ten to twenty-five feet in 
diameter, fifteen to twenty feet high, very comfortable and dura- 
ble. They were a kind, gentle, honest people. At the same time 
there came from the South camps of Kickapoos, Shawnees, Dela- 
wares and others, who settled on the Walnut and White Water. 
These Indians were the friends of all the wild Indians of the 
plains, and so long as they remained the Southwestern .frontier 
was safe from hostile attack. With these Indians as guides, we 
traveled all the plains in safety, and visited the wild tribes and 
thoroughly explored the country of the Cimarron, Canadian and 
Washita, the winter home of the wild tribes. These rivers some 
years later were stated by military men to be an unknown coun- 
try, when the fact was that some of us knew that country well 
as early as 1864, and visited the wild tribes in their winter camps 
with teams and wagons for the purpose of trade, and came and 
went at all times, winter or summer, without difficulty, loss or 
hardship. 

There were pretty lively times along the Little Arkansas 
after the Wichitas came. The Osages were here part of the time. 
Parties of Kaw Indians occasionally came. The plains Indians 
came here visiting their friends, the Wichitas. The writer met 
here Black Kettle, the Cheyenne chief who was killed at the 
Washita fight; Satanta, the great war chief of the Comanches, 
and Heap of Bears, the great medicine man and warrior of the 
Arapahoes. Col. J. H. Leavenworth was sent to this point by 
the government to arrange with the wild Indians for a treaty of 
peace, as we could communicate with them at all times, and to 
him in a large measure should be given the credit for the success 
of the treaty of 1865. 

The most influential man among these Indians was Jesse 
Chisholm, a Cherokee, who was beloved of all the Indians. He 
in his younger days had bought captive Mexican children from 
the Comanches and raised them as members of his family. They 
were entirely devoted to him, became expert in all the lore of the 
plains, and were excellent guides and interpreters, as they could 
speak or understand all languages of the plains, including the 
sign language which was in universal use. Of these most faith- 
ful and devoted men, I remember the names of Jackson, Caboon 



THE LITTLE ARKANSAS 127 

and Yonitob. They were very handy to have along when we 
ran into a war party of Indians, strangers to us, as happened 
the writer a number of times. Chisholm laid out the trail bear- 
ing his name, from the Little Arkansas south to the north fork 
of the Canadian, and the stream running through Wichita was 
named for him, as he was the first person to build a house on it. 

The Treaty of the Little Arkansas was held on the east bank 
of the Little Arkansas, about six miles above its mouth, in the 
middle of October, 1865. The commissioners on the part of the 
United States were William S. Harney, Kit Carson, John B. San- 
born, William W. Bent, Jesse H. Leavenworth, Thomas Murphy, 
and James Steel. The Indians were represented by Moke-ta- 
ve-to (Black Kettle), Oh-to-ah-ne-so-to-wheo (Seven Bulls), Oh- 
has-tee (Little Raven), Oh-hah-mah-hah (Storm), and other chiefs 
and head men on the part of the Indians. 

The Indians, several hundred in number, camped along the 
river, on either side, as did the one or two companies of soldiers 
who were present. The Wichita, Waco, Caddo, loneye, Towa- 
kony, Kechi, and other Indians, some 1,500 in number, were liv- 
ing here at the time, and were scattered along down the river to 
the junction. They had cultivated extensive gardens, and had 
scaffolds covered with sliced pumpkins, beans and corn, drying 
for winter use, with plenty of melons in their gardens, which 
were a feast to visiting brethren. 

Kit Carson came down the Arkansas river from New Mexico 
with an officer's ambulance and army wagons, with teamsters, 
took and an escort of six soldiers, and was well equipped with 
tents, provisions, etc. Colonel Bent came down from his fort 
on the big river, up towards the mountains. General Harney and 
Kit Carson were the most noted persons present. The former, a 
noted Indian fighter and athlete, was as slim as our former 
senior senator, six foot four in his moccasins, his luxuriant hair 
as white as snow. He was a famous story teller. Kit Carson was 
his opposite in everything but fighting qualities. He was short- 
legged, standing, I should think, about five feet five or six, stoutly 
built, short, arms, round body, ruddy face, red eyes with rays 
rnnning from the pupils like the spokes in a wheel, his silky 
flaxen hair reaching almost to his shoulders. He was a man of 
fierce, determined countenance. With a kind, reticent and unas- 
suming disposition, he combined the courage and tenacity of a 
bulldog. His prominent characteristic seemed to be instant deci- 



128 HISTORY OP SEDGAVICK COUNTY 

siou and action. Carson and Bent were much together. The 
latter was a famous Indian trader, dark, almost, as an Indian, 
with jet-black hair and eyes. By invitation, I camped with Car- 
son while the treaty was in progress and heard from his lips 
some of his adventures on the plains and moiintains. 

Carson died at Fort Lyon; Colonel Bent, at Westport, Mo., 
I believe, and General Harney in Louisiana. Black Kettle was 
killed by Custer 's men in the battle of the Washita, and most of 
the other participants in the treaty, both white and Indian, have 
long since gone to their long home. 

All kinds of rumors were floating about during the progress 
of the treaty, and there was considerable uncertainty and anxiety 
as to its success. The Indians were friendly, but very independ- 
ent and indifferent, and reluctant to relinquish their rights to all 
of their country north of the Arkansas and much of that to the 
southwest. They justified their depredations and cruelties by the 
wanton slaughter of their women and children by white men at 
Sand creek a year before. 

While the treaty was in progress, a rumor came that a party 
of Indians coming down from the North to the treaty had been 
attacked by soldiers on the Santa Pe trail, and thirteen of them 
killed. At once the camp was in an uproar. A runner came into 
the tent where I was sitting with Carson and Charley Rath, and 
told of the riunor. Instantly Carson said, emphatically: "I don't 
believe a word of it; those Indians could not possibly have been 
there at that time," and, turning to me, said: "If that rumor 
is true, the treaty is gone to hell. I had six soldiers coming 
down, and would need a hundred going back." 

I asked him about some of his adventures of former years, 
of which I had read in the papers. He replied: "Some of these 
newspaper fellows know a damn sight more about my affairs than 
I do." The origin of one story he told as follows: "When I 
was a young man I was going out to Santa Pe with a pack-train 
of mules. We camped at Pawnee Rock and were all asleep in 
our blankets in the grass, when a party of Indians rode over 
us in the dark, yelling to stampede our stock. I jumped up and 
fired my rifle in the direction they had gone, and shot one of my 
best mules through the heart." 

About rattlesnake bites on man or animals, he said: "I cut 
the bite open and flash powder in it three times, and it is all 
right. One of my men was once bitten on the hand by a big 



THE LITTLE ARKANSAS 129 

rattler. I cut it open, flashed powder in it three times, and that 
afternoon he killed and scalped two Injuns." 

The next year — 1866 — Grierson and Custer, with the famous 
Seventh Cavalry, were stationed at the Santa Fe crossing on the 
Little Arkansas, where there was a stone corral, and built a log 
stockade. The crossing M^as a noted place on the trail, as run- 
ning water was always present and timber for fuel abundant, 
as well as fine grass for grazing. In 1867 a detachment of the 
Fifth United States Infantry, under command of Col. Thomas 
F. Barr, was stationed near the mouth of the river, by the Indian 
village, where Wichita now stands. These troops brought the 
cholera with them, and many Indians and about a dozen settlers 
of Butler county died, including one of the writer's household. 

The cholera spread all over the plains. As the Wichita In- 
dians were returning to their former homes on the Washita, in 
the fall of 1867, so many of them died that at one creek they 
M^ere unable to bury their dead, and we gave the name of Skele- 
ton creek to that stream. 

In the summer of 1867 the Indians were said to be on the 
war path, but we traveled over the plains as usual, unmolested. 

Why a company of infantry should be sent to this point, we 
were never able to learn. In the previous years we had been 
coming and going over these plains with no protection whatever, 
and all had been peace and quiet in this part of the state. A 
company of infantry would not have been effective beyond a 
half-mile of their camp. None but well mounted horsemen, 
trained to plains life, could have protected an extended frontier. 

General Sheridan came out and organized a winter campaign 
in October, 1868. The Nineteenth Kansas Cavalry was ordered 
to proceed across the country to the junction of Beaver creek and 
the North Fork of the Canadian, via Camp Beecher, at the mouth 
of the Little Arkansas. The writer, by chance, met the command 
going into camp on the South Fork of the Cottonwood — a splen- 
did body of men and horses, under an able and honored com- 
mander, whom I well knew, and was invited into his tent. On 
asking the colonel where he was going, he replied that he was 
not allowed to say, but from inquiries he made as to the country 
beyond, I soon learned his destination. I then said: "Colonel, 
you cannot get through that country at this season of the year 
unless you know just where to go ; it is exceedingly broken and 
difficult." I asked to see his guides. He sent an orderly out, 



130 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

who brought in two young men, neither of whom I had seen 
before. I knew they were never in that part of the country, or 
I should have known them. They were absolutely ignorant of 
the country they were attempting to guide a regiment through. 
One of them was Jack Stillwell, who knew the country north of 
the Arkansas well enough. They soon went out. "When I told 
the colonel that he never would get through with those men as 
guides, and oifered to furnish him guides who knew the country, 
as for several years we had sent teams over the same route in 
winter and summer, trading with the Comanches, who wintered 
in the vicinity of his destination, our outfits always returning 
safely, the colonel replied, in language too forcible to repeat, that 
Sheridan had furnished him these guides, and they had to take 
him through ; that he had no authority or money to employ other 
guides. 

The command reached Camp Beecher, at the mouth of the 
Little Arkansas, on the 12th of November. From there to Camp 
Supply, their destination, was about 160 miles by our route. 
For ninety miles, to the junction of Medicine Lodge and Salt 
Fork, there was a plain trail over a level country ; Camp Supply 
was three days' march beyond, over a good route if one knew 
where to go. It was a six-day trip from the Little Arkansas to 
Camp Supply ; a good horseman could ride it in three days, with 
ease. The command left Camp Beecher November 14 and reached 
Camp Supply November 28. It should have made the trip in six 
days and arrived safely at the destination two days before the 
terrible snow storm of the afternoon of the 22d, which came near 
destroying the command and caused untold suffering and loss. 
My only apology for writing of this stupendous blunder is that 
it is properly a part of the history of the Little Arkansas. 

The writer is not one of those who believe that only dead 
Indians are good Indians. During the five years' residence of 
the Wichita Indians on the Little Arkansas, I knew of but one 
crime committed in the country. Jack Lawton, in charge of my 
trading post between the rivers, was killed by a renegade white 
man. In the first five or six years after the Indians had left, and 
the country was open for settlement, I have a record of some 
twenty men who came to a sudden and violent death. Most of 
these were no special loss to the country. 

In the summer and fall of 1867 white horse thieves were en- 
gaged in running off the Indians' horses, going in the direction 



THE LITTLE ARKANSAS 131 

of Fall river and the Cottonwood. In retaliation, just before 
their departure, the Wichitas took some horses from those rivers. 

With the survey of the country in 1867, and its opening to 
settlement, there drifted into the country some of the most 
vicious and lawless characters to be found in the West. Very 
soon we found it was necessary to lock our doors at night and 
take indoors any loose property we might have — something we 
were unaccustomed to do during the Indian occupation. Prohibi- 
tion prevailed, in fact as well as in name, on the Little Arkansas 
until the white man came. 

Briefly, I have written something of the freedom, beauty and 
chivalrj' of the country as it was, and the fascination of those 
times and scenes lingers in my mind like the memory of pleasant 
dreams ; but gone are the Indians, the bison, and the beaver, and 
in their haunts along the little river are the gardens, fields, 
orchards, homes, cities, and villages of thousands of prosperous 
people. 

It is my prayer that in the happy hunting grounds of the 
Great Spirit I may again meet some of my faithful friends of 
those early days, both red and white. 



CHAPTER XV. 

A LAWYER'S REVERIES OF THE TIMES WHEN WICHITA 
WAS IN THE GRISTLE. 

By 
KOS HARRIS. 

In the attic of memory, long disused, almost forgot, crum- 
bling to decay, I ran afoul some old yarns, which it hath pleased 
me to weave into a patchwork fabric of mine own fancy for 
amusement. 

PREFATORY. 

The past is a rose-covered walk as we travel in recollection; 
invested with a hazy, dim outline that gives to retrospect a view 
of pleasurable facts, shading the bitter past until it, like a ship 
at sea, recedes gradually from sight till lost from view, and all 
becomes waste — the future a hope, the past a dream, the present 
only filled with gloomy forebodings, doubts, apprehensions and 
fears. Each year the past has a new charm, a richer coloring, 
not noted nor recalled before, that lends additional interest to 
the mind-painting, even as "Robinson county twenty-year-old" 
jugs take on added strength, beauty and aroma with the flight 
of time, proving that age, covered with dust and cobwebs, yet 
can conjure bright fantasies that the "still" of the present ne'er 
can rival. 

The labor of the receding vision, like a prairie sunset, seems 
to give its softest picture as the golden ball sinks low in the 
horizon ; seems a delightful playground whereon merry boys and 
girls were wont to play; the labor of the present is simply 
drudgery, and hateful. Our past, as we dream it over, is as the 
first circus, our present an unpaid packing-house subscription. 
When Senator Ingalls was first elected; when "Subsidy" Pome- 
roy was under a cloud, which as yet has never rolled away ; when 
the fraudulent bond issue of Harper, Barber and Kingman was 
132 



A LAWYER'S REVERIES 133 

disclosed ; when the "Wiuner and McNutt cremation on North 
Main street was fresh; when the Harvey county bond fight was 
ripe ; when the batch of horse thieves were hanged at Douglas ; 
when Texas cattlemen were legitimate prey of all classes, from 
the highest to the lowest, and cattle were commerce ; when the 
United States land office was at the corner of Main and Second 
streets; when Madame Sage ran a billiard parlor opposite the 
Occidental ; when it was a mile, almost, from civilization, through 
a forest of sunflowers, to the home of the "Eagle"; when the 
Eagle Block and the old State National Bank Building (now the 
National Bank of Commerce corner) were the cynosures of Doug- 
las avenue; when Steele & Levy had an office where Sam Houck's 
store now is, and a circus pitched its tent where the "Eagle" 
office now is ; when the dance houses across on the West Side 
were in the zenith of immoral splendor, and one of the presiding 
goddesses excused herself the night her husband was shot, with 
a hope that the guests would not think her absence from the 
room, on such a trying occasion, a breach of etiquette; when the 
saloons were not only gorgeous but magnificent, not only fash- 
ionable but quasi-respectable ; when at midnight, throughout the 
summer, the gentle winds carried the familiar tones o'er the 
silent town, of 49, 85, 76, 32, 91 and 74, "Keno !" from the second 
floor of an old frame building then situated where the Citizens' 
Bank Building now stands; when the old "Tremont," then the 
"Empire," Hotel stood on the corner of Main and Central — when 
all these things were fresh, and many other things of less and 
greater note were living facts, 'twas then the writer hereof 
became a Kansan, a citizen of the city of Wichita, and a member 
of that body of whom the poet hath said, "War is its jest," and 
which body some carrion-minded wretch hath derided by saying 
that the law of "self-defense is understood because no lawyer 
had any hand in making it." 

The people of Wichita, at that date, did not send away for 
'counsel to try cases, as some other counties did, when matters of 
mighty and deep import were on hand. The bar of Wichita has 
ever had the confidence of the people, notwithstanding that a few 
sturdy "blackbucks" have got into the legal flock. Law, religion, 
education, journalism, physic and politics were ably represented, 
but other pens may do justice to other vocations, and my humble 
task, and pleasure, is to collect the withered roses that have fallen 
in my path in the days that are no more, and to recall in retro- 



134 fflSTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

spect some of the deeds of the happy days of the years that 
have sped, as seen from a law office, the interior of which was 
plain even to poverty, and the patrons of which, "in the old 
days," were not much given to style. 

I am not writing histoi-y, for history must exist before it is 
written. It is the biography of the active brain of a place, local- 
ity or country, and though that brain is here, a recognized un- 
known entity, it so far has not, in science or profession, legisla- 
tive hall or pulpit, made the world's noisy tongue proclaim to 
the gaping thousands our greatness. That we have in our midst 
some great unrecognized "purring" brain that will carry the 
name "Wichita" to the portals of far-off time, there is no reason- 
able doubt. 

History teaches us that we are dependent on great vice or 
virtue to be long remembered ; hamlets that would ere this have 
been lost to history are preserved to us, until there is a romantic 
halo thrown round their very pigsties, and we are as familiar 
with their history as if it was today instead of the yesterday of 
piled-up and moss-grown centuries — aye, even villages whose his- 
tory comes to us thundering adown the highways, aisles and 
boulevards of the misty, dusty, past have withstood the ebb and 
flow of the waters of oblivion, either by reason of some mighty 
virtuous intellect whose pen as burnished gold shines on the world 
tlirough the lapse of ages; some warrior whose Damascus blade 
has blazed a track through the forests of mythical lore, patri- 
archal legend, ancient, medieval and modern history, yet is today 
bright and shining as the disk of the moon in full-orbed splendor ; 
or some one matriculated in the very genius of infamy, some 
savant in crime's belles lettres, whose sin-stained and blackened 
hand has left the print on history's page, and the foul blot seems 
to be a fresh-struck coin from the historical mint, rather than 
an abrased coin of a time that runs almost beyond the grasp of 
intellect, almost baffling the research of the historian as he gropes 
in agony to find a virtuous act worthy of record, and turns in 
disgust and immortalizes a town by the record of a crime. 

Thus, if Wichita thwarts the ravages of Time's gnawing rav- 
enous and destructive touch, it must be through amarinthine 
infamy or unperishable virtue. 

"What shall the harvest be?" I but feebly recall visions of 
swift flown hours; endeavor but to rescue from quick oblivion 
a few withered wild flowers strewn along the river's brim, give 



A LAWYER'S REVERIES 135 

unto them the counterfeit of life, pluck a nosegay and bind them 
together with memory's slender thread to preserve them a little 
longer from the ocean of "time, whose waves are years," which 
hath swallowed the archives of centuries and blurred, erased and 
obliterated the records of those whose monumental shafts, reared 
against "the tooth of time and razure of oblivion,'" are but as 
the ashes of the things they were vainly intended to commemo- 
rate. I string a string of colored beads to amuse, not instruct, the 
grown-up babies of Wichita. 

That W^ichita shall be saved the humiliation of being buried 
underneath the dust which will eventually hide most towns in 
Kansas, there is no doubt, and there is just as little doubt that 
we have in our midst, though unknown, a Webster, a Lincoln, 
a Grant, a Bentham, a Mansfield, a Beecher, an Edison, and that 
some unborn chronicler of events will, when we are all dust or 
ashes, embalm in never-dying prose or poesy the memory of 
some Wichitan, even as Gray immortalized, in verse : 

Some village Hampden that, with daimtless breast. 

The little tyrant of his fields withstood ; 
Some mute, inglorious Milton here may rest ; 

Some Cromwell, guiltless of his country's blood. 



CHAPTER I. 

At the time of my advent in Wichita, the legal profession was 
not as well dressed, well booked, or finely officed as at present. 
There was a "Tog-haired" commonness in the dress, conduct 
and tout ensemble of the profession, which did not comport with 
the assumed dignity of some of the modern Hortensiuses of Wich- 
ita. To the new immigrant it seemed as if the profession had 
adopted the ways of the country, "homesteaded" or "pre-empted" 
"all the clients, and regarded the new man as a "claim-jumper." 
In fact, the right hand of fellowship was extended in such manner 
that you felt as though a "wet-elm club" was handy — i. e., the 
cordiality was about such a welcome as you give a fellow who 
called at your girl's home after you had pre-empted the "parlor" 
and were getting down to business. 

To a legal tenderfoot with eighteen dollars in money — two dol- 
lars of which went for a copy of the Statutes of Kansas, five dol- 



136 HISTOKY OF SEDGAVICK COUNTY 

lars for a copy of Swan and Plumb's (Senator Plumb's) "Justice 
Practices," and four dollars for a row of wet-pine shelves, the 
outlook was promising — in fact, it was — 

Eating the air, on promise of supply, 
Flattering himself in project of power. 

Though there was no fear of becoming dry, 

There was not provender to last a fleeting hour. 

I can truly say to those who came after me : 

If sorrow can admit of society, 
Tell o 'er your sorrows by viewing mine ; 
If ancient sorrow be most revered, 
Give mine the benefit of seniory. 

Judge William P. Campbell (our own sweet William) was then 
Lord Chancellor, Master of the Rolls, Chief Baron, Chief Justice 
Archon, Mafti, Kadi, Rhadamanthus, over Sedgwick, Sumner, 
Cowley, Butler, Greenwood and Howard (Elk and Chautauqua) 
counties. Campbell was a fearless judge. 

Edward B. Jewett (our own former postmaster) was justice 
of the peace and police judge, and, as McCarthy says of the 
"House of Hanover," having the gift of inheritance, Edward 
seemeth to be possessed of the gift of continuous office tenure. 

William C. Little (our own North Lawrence Avenue Presby- 
terian deacon) was probate judge. 

Judge Henry C. Sluss was county attorney, and at the head of 
the legal profession. Since which Henri has drawn a salary as 
judge on ilexican claims. 

Judge McCollough was elected city attorney in the spring of 
A. D. 1874, to succeed Judge William Baldwin. McCollough was 
a spendthrift, and owned a building rented for saloon purposes at 
$1,000 per year, and, it was said, never drew a cent of rent. He 
was presented with a silk hat the night he was elected city attor- 
ney, and he paid a fifty-dollar bar bill ere 

"The breezy call of incense-breathing morn" 

roused the slumbering town from repose. McCullough had not 
died if Keeley had proclaimed his famous cure in the year A. D. 
1874. He was a jolly Scotchman, a liberal-hearted man, free from 
guile, and as easily imposed on as a child. He once loaned the 
author five dollars, without chattel mortgage security, and, in 



A LAWYER'S REVERIES 137 

fact, it was a great business disadvantage and personal injury to 
me when Jim McCullough died. 

It could not be said of McCullough, as it M^as said of another 
member of the bar (now gone to a better land — i. e., Indian Ter- 
ritory), that if he had known a little law he would have known 
something of everything. McCullough was a brevet lawyer and 
eared nothing for law, save as it entitled him to respect and stand- 
ing. He was, at that date, too rich to become a lawyer. He was 
one of the men David Dudley Field had in mind when he said, 
"It was as hard for a rich man to become a lawyer as it was for 
a camel to go through the eye of a needle." There is a legend 
that when Jim McCullough died he bequeathed the unexpired 
term of his office to the gentleman who was appointed to fill the 
vacancy. This may have been in Jim's Scotch education, and he 
may have thought it was his office, and not the public 's, but those 
who wanted the place, then as now, spent their time "cussing" 
the "power" who made the appointment. It is observable that 
the position of city attorney in Wichita has been filled by able 
counselors from the beginning. It has been sought by lawyers 
and has grown in favor as a position, while that of police judge 
has tended to drawf and injiu-e rather than elevate men. This, 
in a less degree, seems to be the fate of the probate judge 's office, 
but the opinions of men differ concerning these things. 

But, returning to our muttons. I wormed myself into M. W. 
Levy's good graces, metaphorically speaking, at the side of Mc- 
Cullough 's deathbed, in a room on the second floor at the north- 
east corner of Douglas avenue and Main street, torn down by 
Henry Schweiter in May, A. D. 1910, and was thereby enabled to 
replace the loss of McCullough by inaugurating a business of 
rediscounting small personal law library chattel mortgage paper 
with Levy. Levy at that date was a political Machiavelli, and 
tradition saith he gave Zach Chandler et al. pointers on counting 
out at elections. He was secretary of the senatorial convention in 
■ 1874 (composed of all that part of Kansas lying west of Newton, 
running west to Sundown and south to the Red river), when it 
was hinted that Henry Booth, of Lamed, was the real nominee 
of the convention. No one ever believed the report, but, like 
Henry Ward Beecher's "damned hot day" remark, it, like the 
"scent of the rose," still lingers. 

Levy was from Denver, had formerly been on the pay roll of 
the "Rocky Mountain News," and was considered a litterateur. 



138 HISTOKY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Levy is now iu New City, connected with the insurance busi- 
ness. He was a member of the bar, was authority on "land titles," 
and if he had been forced to labor for a livelihood might have 
been a commercial lawyer and rendered valuable opinions of real- 
estate titles, but money came to him without effort, and his 
subsequent position as banker was the result of "natural 
gravitation. ' ' 

In 1874 the Indians took the Southwest. Tip McClure, of 
Medicine Lodge, got one scalp, brought it to Wichita, and con- 
vulsed the country. Governor Osborn came to Wichita, and he 
and Levy "swung round the circle," and couriers sent after the 
governor struck a hot trail of "cough-syrup bottles" along the 
road, followed it up, and caught the majesty of the state. To 
those who knew Levy in the early day, he is the same individual. 
Though contact with yaller gold was said to harden and steel and 
steal the soul, its effect on Levy has been molecular. Levy was 
for years president of the school board and the Wichita National 
Bank, and his administrations were marked by prudence, economy 
and good schools. (If these two last sentences did not entitle me 
to a "line of credit" at Levy's bank, I shall rewrite them under 
the head of "errata," with corrections as to facts, not fancy — 

' ' And send him down the alley of fame, 
Damned to everlasting shame.") 

Levy's bank failed in 1894, and subsequently paid out in full. 
Levy and Colonel Lewis subsequently organized the State Savings 
Bank. 

Levy, in early days, was the junior member of the firm of 
Steele & Levy, who were agents for the sale of the land grant 
lands of the A., T. & S. F. R. R. Co., and doing an abstract busi- 
ness where Sam Houck's hardware store now is. I remember 
one morning starting around to Levy's office to renew a note, and, 
to my surprise, the office was non est, it having been moved that 
morning before breakfast, across the street to the site subse- 
quently occupied by Tucker's restaurant, and now by the State 
Savings Bank. 

That old office was to Wichita's political circles the "Hoffman 
House" of New York. National, state and county politics were 
discussed, local politics of the city were made there, and all things 
pertaining to the weal or woe of Douglas avenue were talked over. 



A LAWYER'S REVERIES 139 

Greiffenstein, Sol Kohn and "Brother Maurice," N. A. English, 
Jim Steel and A. W. Oliver composed the cabinet that battled for 
Douglas avenue. The Occidental crowd was composed of Lank 
Moore, C. M. Garrison, Al Thomas, Hees and Getto, Hill and 
Kramer ; Munger, J. R. Mead, J. C. Fraker, and some lesser lights, 
with a strong second on Alain street, between Douglas and First, 
in Commodore Woodman and Sam, father of Adrian Houek, and 
Amos Houck. 

The United States land office was at the corner of Main and 
Second streets; J. C. Redfield, afterward justice of the peace, 
was receiver; C. A. Walker, afterward cashier of the Wichita 
National Bank, was chief clerk. 

The land office was moved to the building where Henry Schad's 
harness shop was, on West Douglas avenue, now the American 
Express office, and great was the rejoicing among the Douglas 
avenue crowd. 

The postofifice was on Douglas avenue, where Jesse MeClees' 
hardware store now is, and the Occidental crowd secured its 
removal to the Occidental Hotel, and one morning Douglas ave- 
nue awoke to the fact that it had lost the postoffice. Great jollifi- 
cation at the north end. Douglas avenue assembled its chiefs at 
Steele & Levy's office and proclaimed war — war even to death. 
The air was pregnant with trouble. Gloom sat high-throned on 
■each forehead. Vengeance was the only thought, and, meta- 
phorically, each man exclaimed : 

"Blood shall manure the ground, 
And future ages groan for this foul act. ' ' 

Soon afterwards the postmaster was removed and M. M. Mur- 
dock was appointed. He was editor of the "Eagle," and officed 
in the Eagle Block, over Wallenstein & Cohn's store, now Boston 
Store, and all Douglas avenue went wild over the appointment. 
'Tears of joy chased each other down the cheek, froze ere they 
reached the ground, because it was discovered that the postmaster 
was neutral and intended to "split the difference" and settle at 
a half-way point on Main street, where Sam Tanner's book store 
now is. Murdoek "kept the Avord of promise to our ear, but 
broke it to our hope." 

Among the first men to discover that Douglas avenue was the 
maintrunk highway, and that all else was tributary, was old Doc 



140 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Thayer, the proprietor of the "Gold Rooms," a bon-ton place to 
play faro and poker. Then Al Thomas bought the Bitting corner 
lot and moved to it the old building now on the corner east of 
Greenfield's clothing palace. Next Houek Bros, and J. P. Allen 
abandoned Main street ; then the Douglas avenue toll bridge 
over the river was made free, and for a brief season North Main 
street threw up the sponge. There was many a scrimmage, first 
blood on one side, then on the other. Commodore Woodman ral- 
lied his clans and succeeded in building a bridge across the river 
at the east end of Central avenue, and this affront was not wiped 
out until Douglas avenue elected Jim Steele county commissioner, 
regardless of party ties, religious bias or personal likes or dislikes. 
Jim, pursuant to his implied promises, proceeded to tear down 
the Central avenue bridge "eye-sore" and distribute it to the 
various townships in the county, thereby restoring to Douglas 
avenue its natural trade and offsetting the rage of the north end 
by the solidification of the agricultural classes who obtained 
bridges without higher taxes. Jim practically paraphrased the 
great poet, and acted on the motto : 

Let all the ends thou aim 'st to be 
Douglas avenue's, they God's and Truth's. 

It may not be inappropriate to state that much chicanery is 
enveloped in the husk of "low taxes," even as "naked villainy is 
clothed with old odd ends stolen from holy writ." 

I recall to memory some particularly sulphurous hours, when 
the stars put out their fires and gloom o'er the avenue seemed to 
glower; when the opening flower of prosperity was frost-bitten 
in May; when all rage before exhibited by the Rob Roys of the 
south end was as a whistle in an autumn hailstorm compared to 
the blast that echoed from the bridge on the west to the Santa 
Pe on the east. Douglas avenue had donated the court room and 
county offices to the county (the second floor over the old Eagle 
Block, now Boston Store). One morning the avenue "awoke and 
found it a joke, as the offices were still a 'fleeting," and were 
located in the south room of the ground floor of the Occidental. 
"The sweet milk of concorcf was poured into hell," and the infant 
Cottonwood boughs breathed a deep-mouthed refrain : 

Over the land, scatter white sand. 

To drink up the blood which shall presently flow. 



A LAWYER'S REVERIES 141 

But the First National Bank failed, owing the county a big 
deposit, and the county got the building at the corner of First 
and Main streets, and used same for court house many years. 
The star of empire again tended southward, and seeming peace 
reigned once more in the future city of the great Southwest. It 
is the opinion of the writer that if Sol Kohn, "Brother Maurice," 
Jim Steele and "Dutch Bill" had still resided in "Wichita and 
continued in close business relations, and had assembled their 
cohorts, the present court house would not be where it now stands. 
Douglas avenue has not yet forgiven "Dutch Bill" for moving 
north of the avenue, and when Greiffenstein abandoned Douglas 
avenue it was as if a modern Coriolanus, in a fit of pique, had 
determined to scatter the ashes of his former triumphs and over- 
throw the temples which his genius had builded. 

Prior to his going north, ' ' Greiffenstein stock, ' ' like gold, dur- 
ing the war, was 285; subsequently it was as Confederate cur- 
rency after the "silent man on horseback" had received the sword 
of the mirror of Southern chivalry under the ' ' famous apple tree. ' ' 

The men who builded Douglas avenue may forgive this move 
north, but they will never forget it or restore Greiffenstein to the 
pedestal in their esteem from which he fell when he crossed the 
Wichita rubicon and linked his future to the north end of the 
town. The names Greiffenstein, Douglas avenue and Wichita 
will ever be linked together. 

For fear that the writer may be thought too partial to "Dutch 
Bill," let it be chronicled that William rented me an ofSce when I 
had no money, and I would not be thought ungrateful. (See 
Twelfth Night, iii and iv.) 



CHAPTER II. 

As I recall the bar when I came to Wichita — i. e., the massive 
brow, the heavy jaw and capacious maw that lived by the law — 
it was composed of Henry Clay Sluss and James L. Dyer, who 
ofificed on the second floor front in a building on the corner of 
Main and First streets, which afterwards was "foreclosed" on by 
Sol H. Kohn and torn down and rebuilt on Douglas avenue, two 
doors east of the old "Eagle" ofiSee, and then occupied by Steele 
& Levy as an office, now owned by Governor Stanley. Charles 
Hatton was then Sluss' assistant. Dyer was ill and not in his 



142 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

office very much. On the north of the building, near the Main 
street corner, was a painted sign, three by four feet, and on a 
white field in large black, black letters, appeared : 



BALDWIN & STANLEY, 
Attorneys at Law, 

My recollection is that Stanley occupied the first room to the 
left on entering the hall overlooking Main street. The first time 
I remember meeting Oak Davidson was at Stanley's office on the 
last day of March, 1874, and he and Stanley were putting up an 
April fool joke on Mrs. A. H. Gossard, of Kansas City, Mo., who 
was then Alice Davidson, and a sister of Oak's. 

In Sluss & Dyer's office I first met Judge Campbell, then a resi- 
dent of El Dorado, and he was preparing an order for a special 
term of court, at which the great murder trial of Winner and 
McNutt was tried. Judge William Baldwin had an office, but I 
never knew where it was, unless it was adjoining the police 
judge's office, under the room afterward occupied by L. W. Clapp, 
and now by the Postal Telegraph Company, on First street. Albert 
Emerson was another legal mind. E. B. Jewett was probate judge 
and justice of the peace. Jacob M. Balderson was on Main street, 
second floor front of a two-story frame building, on the site of 
which is now standing the north of Walker Bros.' store. Old 
Bully Parsons was on the curbstone, and W. R. Kirkpatrick was 
over Houck Bros.' hardware store, in the building now occupied 
by Mueller, florist, on Main street. Judge S. W. Tucker and 
B. H. Fisher had an office on North Main street, second floor 
front, and I think the old Heller Building and 230 North Main 
street are on the same lot. 

Moses Sampson Adams, of whom, even in the early days, Noble 
Prentis once said in Wichita, "What! 'Mose' Adams, of Leaven- 
worth? He has been in Kansas a thousand years." Moses had 
an office on North Main street, near the corner of Second street, in 
a building on the lot now covered by the Getto building or Clement 
Block, owned by Ed Vail. Adams was a gentleman, of fair abil- 
ity, warm friendship, politically ambitious, and had some weak- 
ness which caused his fall; but to a young man, poor, green, 
friendless and obscure, he was "an oasis in a desert." He will 
ever be remembered by the writer as a kind-hearted gentleman 



A LAWYER'S REVERIES 143 

who made him feel that patience and industry would bring fees 
and be crowned with final success. 

George Salisbury, Albert Emerson and John Stanard were also 
here, and George Salisbury will have a more extended notice. 
M. W. Levy and James McCullough officed in Steele & Levy's 
ofTices, where Houek's hardware store is. Subsequently came 
Howett and Brewer, H. G. Ruggles, George H. English and H. C. 
Higginbotham. After this the deluge, whose names are legion, 
and space forbids naming all of them. 

HENRY 0. SLUSS. 

Few men in the West have had the strong pull on public con- 
fidence enjoyed by Sluss since the date of his residence in Wichita 
to the present time. 

His enemies have given him credit for his integrity, real ability 
and personal power; yet without that magnetism which always 
attends the footsteps and Avaits upon the fortunes of the tribunes 
of the many-headed multitude. He has been spoken of as one 
whose rind of austerity, when punctured, discloses that he has 
but little dignity, but his husk is not broken save to his personal 
friends and intimates. From the beginning of that time to which 
southwestern Kansas' memory runneth not to the contrary, Sluss 
has been the one man of the Southwestern empire whose fame 
has filled the mouths of the people. To what this is attributable, 
is a problem with two or three unknown quantities, and is not 
within the province of this reminiscence to solve. We state the 
simple fact. There are those who believe, others who affect to 
believe, that popularity is but evanescent ; yet the fact remains 
that no other man has had such recognition of forty years of 
even such evanescent power among a people, and whether this 
power is real or fancied, cuts no figure on results. Like counter- 
feit greenbacks in Texas after the war, they passed readily and 
without discount because all men had 'em. (The public can have 
no interest in knowing what compensation I am to have from Sluss 
for this sketch, yet "I do expect return of three times the value 
of this bond.") 

Tradition has it that Henry Clay Sluss came to Wichita by 
wagon, and at sunset reached College Hill, o'erlooking the coming 
giant, then in its swaddling clothes, and was so impressed with 
the sight that the gift of divination, by Hydromancy, was con- 



144 HISTOEY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

ferred on him, and it is said that he removed his dusty hat, wiped 
his "Bismarckian" brow, and exclaimed: "Thou art the realiza- 
tion of my sleeping fantasies, the extravaganza of my dreaming 
brains, rarest vintage, 'Nature and Fortune,' miraculous, peerless 
gem, have united in one homogeneous crystal to make thee great." 
He then turned to the teamster, with whom he was temporarily 
associating, his face pale as alabaster, the royal blood having in 
the momentary excitement abandoned his "graven front," and 
thus prophesied: "This royal infant, yet in its cradle, contains 
for Kansas a thousand blessings, which time shall bring to ripe- 
ness." In one hour more he had reached the "Buckhorn" Hotel, 
kept by Henry Vigus, near the banks of the Little river, at once 
announced himself a resident of Wichita, and in three days was an 
old settler. 

Soon after, Sluss and M. M. Murdock formed the "David and 
Jonathan joint-stock company" which continued until Colonel 
Murdock was followed to his narrow, final home on the hillside 
overlooking the scenes of his mature manhood's ambitious strug- 
gles and labor, the situs of years of success and failure, triumphs 
and humiliations, and paid the last tribute that humanity can pay 
to a friend departed forever. 

Sluss, in the Douglas avenue fights, was in a peculiar posi- 
tion, as he was the personal friend and attorney of the leaders of 
the north and south ends, but his conduct was satifaetory to both 
sides, and he lost no friends by it. 

It is not the purpose of these remarks to estimate any live or 
dead man, or to criticize character, but, as it may add a keener 
pang to Sluss in the hour of death to know that if I outlive him, 
an estimate of him will be published, and, like Cromwell's por- 
trait, I will "love the warts and wrinkles," as well as the noble 
forehead and lustrous eye. It is not the intention to write up the 
present or living men, but as Sluss had gone into a "cave" for 
five years when this was penned, he was made an exception. 



CHAPTER III. 

James L. Dyer, Sluss' partner, now judge of the City Court, 
when I first knew him, was supposed to be within a few months 
of death, but he was appointed receiver of the United States land 
ofifice, and immediately gained a fair degree of health. Dyer, in 



A LAWYER'S REVERIES 145 

the early day, was considered a metaphysical, technical, pro- 
foundly scholastic, keen lawyer; an authority on all legal ques- 
tions, and pre-eminently gifted in the knowledge of what did not 
constitute "usury." On the trial of a case one hot summer day, 
Dyer was once more confronted with the "irrepressible statutes" 
on usury. Judge Campbell, (afterward Dyer's partner), the nat- 
ural foe to "money-lenders," was on the bench, and he rode 
"Jim" for two hours, even as the fairy tales relate how witches 
ride brooms. Dyer's feeble physical condition at last succumbed 
in the struggle, and he was carried home. The action was con- 
tinued and later compromised. The real estate in controversy was 
the land known as Orme & Phillips' addition to Wichita. The 
debt sued for was $2,000, and the land is now worth $350,000. 

Old "Bully Parsons" was a character Dickens would have 
delighted in. He could, in him, have embalmed for future ages a 
phase of attorneyship that is not recorded in history. Old Bully 
was suave — i. e., suaviter in modo. He was an embodiment of 
tranquilized, philosophical imperturbation. If possessed of emo- 
tions, he rarely disclosed them. The facts of the case (not the 
law) were his aim. If he had a case, and the papers were lost, no 
inqiiiry arose as to their whereabouts ; a motion for substitution 
of papers was the remedy. He was distinguished by the outdoor 
practice of the law, and directed his mighty energies to the free 
instruction of witnesses in the art of how to state "a fact" so as 
to have the greatest weight. Sad as it may seem, he and Judge 
Campbell never won each other's respect, and on one occasion the 
judge offered to receive "Bully's" resignation as a member of the 
Wichita bar. Soon after this he left Wichita. He was indifferent 
concerning money matters, and was remembered after he left by 
many whom he had honored with his custom. He was about 
sixty-five years old, a splendid specimen of preserved humanity, 
white-headed, smooth face, blue eyes, frank in manner, and pos- 
sessed of a smile as childlike and bland as the heathen Chinee 
embalmed in immortal verse by Bret Harte. The only oratorical 
effort I ever heard of in connection with Bully was on one Fourth 
of July, during the cattle trade. He made the address to the 
American Eagle, and commenced : 

"Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen, and Texas Men." 
Whether this was a mere "break," a sarcasm, or a compliment, 
will never be known. 



HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 



CHAPTER IV. 

Among the attorneys who herded with the contemporary pau- 
pers of A. D. 1874, yet was not of them, was one George Salisbury, 
who was descended from one Sylvester Salisbury, a soldier who 
died in 1680 — whether B. C. or A. D., we do not know. At any 
rate, George reflected credit on his ancestor, and, had he remained 
in Wichita, he would be recognized not only as a lawyer, but also 
as an orator, if not as a private banker, as he was one to whom 
money came easy and stuck long. His dollars bred nickles as 
easily as a dead dog in August sun brings forth corruption. In 
his day he was the czar money-maker of the Arkansas valley. He 
was the realization of the " early-bird "-catching-the-worm theory. 
Gifted with untiring industry and a strong physical constitution, 
he was an engine that only needed a governor to keep it at its best 
work and on the track. He owned a two-story frame building situ- 
ated on the lot where Paul Eaton was, north of the corner of Main 
and Douglas; received $900 per year from the lower floor, had 
his oiBce on the second floor, and lived in the back part. 

Each day George arose with larks and bent his energies to earn 
money in the legal vineyard ; each night when the sun sank to 
rest "like a ball of fire in the west," he was richer. It was said 
of him, though no doubt the allegation was the machination of 
his jealous competitors, that he never asked a client for money 
until one hour, or at the longest half a day, before a case was 
called for trial. This course caused the client to "hump himself" 
for money, when George whispered to him : "No money, no trial." 
li is said on one occasion a demand was made on a client, and the 
client, instead of getting money, got the ear of the court. Judge 
Campbell, and Campbell commanded George to go to the trial 
without a fee. George was formerly of the Lynchburg (Virginia) 
bar, a contemporary of John W. Daniel, author of "Daniel on 
Negotiable Instruments," and George always said "John's father 
wrote the book" and gave the name of it to "Jack" to help him 
along. George, in many well-contested cases, had wiped the earth 
with the said John W. Daniel. 

George had learned in his youth, and had memorized, the old 
adage, "A timid man has no business in court"; hence he was a 
lion in his claims. The first time the writer called on George 



A LAWYER'S REVERIES 147 

Salisbury in his office, he was sorting dictionaries. He had about 
fifty unabridged ones and one hundred or more school diction- 
aries, and stated that he got thein as a fee from a book peddler. 
When he went away from home on business or pleasure, he ex- 
pected to do, and usually did do, enough extra business to pay 
expenses. On one occasion the writer was in Kansas City, and, 
hearing a voice enough like George to be a twin, stopped and 
ascertained that it was George. It seemed he went to Kansas 
City and, being delayed, attended police court and "plucked a 
goose" for expense money. 

George had, for about one year, when pressed to trial, con- 
tinued his cases on the plea that his wife "was in the way women 
are who love their lords." Common humanity permitted the 
ease to go over, but after about one year had passed, S. M. Tucker 
called for an investigation by the medical profession. Tucker was 
a parent and had experience, and in the interest of science he 
desired an examination and report to the court. 

George had for a tenant vmder his office a grocer. He also 
was possessed of a brother-in-law, who was about twenty-five 
years old, and a dependent on George for support. This creature 
was an habitual loafer at the grocery and an omniverous gour- 
mandizer. He was not, however, like an ostrich, willing to tackle 
everything, but confined himself to fruits, nuts and candies, and 
was dead gone on gumdrops, and helped himself without stint on 
account of his relationship to the landlord. The grocer, as a mat- 
ter of protection, obtained some croton oil at a drug store and 
dosed a layer or two of gumdrops in the brother-in-law's usual 
candy jar. The loafer soon came in, took out some drops, and 
by chance went upstairs and generously divided his candy with his 
sister, Mrs. Salisbury. If any member of the Salisbury family at 
that time was in need of physic, relief was at hand. The first 
thought was that the family was poisoned, but soon the facts were 
.known, and the military figure of George, with a double-barreled 
shotgun was seen prowling up and down Main street looking for 
a grocer. 

George's description, next day, of the agony of his family, 
after eating gumdrops, would have caused the "round-heads" to 
break ranks and lie down and roll over. The gumdrop fiend soon 
left the city. George removed to Colorado, became a cattle- 
raiser, was a candidate for supreme .judge on the Greenback 
ticket, and in 1887 sold his lot, twenty by forty-five, on Main 



148 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

street, for $20,000, and said to the writer hereof that he cleared 
$17,000 on the property. 

George's lungs were unimpaired. Though it was said on one 
occasion that he had his lungs tested after orating for four and 
one-half hours on a nineteen-dollar law suit, he was leather- 
lunged — equal, in fact, to a blacksmith's bellows; ponderous in 
"logick, " fertile in imagination, and his exuberant fancy sup- 
plied all lapse in proof, and to all this were united an untiring 
industry and a capacity for "shekel-gathering" the like of which 
hath not been seen in Wichita since George's shadow ceased to 
fall on Main street. 

George's greatest forensic effort was in behalf of the liberty 
of the late Judge Balderston. In fact, this effort was not only 
his greatest effort, but it was the nonpareil effort of southwestern 
Kansas, and for vigor, lung power, length, and deafening ap- 
plause, all of which were crowned with success, has never been 
surpassed. 

Main street was electrified one day by the news that Judge 
Balderston was about to shoot Commodore Woodman. The judge 
was arrested and the prosecution was in the hands of Stanley and 
private counsel, Sluss and Dyer. The remaining members of the 
bar were for the defense. A council of war was held in H. G. 
Ruggles' office, in the basement of the old county building, corner 
Main and First street. Before the examination commenced, it 
was demonstrated that the justice's office was not large enough 
for even the defendant and his multitudinous counsel, and an 
adjournment was had to the old Eagle Hall. The house was 
crammed full; examination occupied all day, and the "genius 
licks" — i. e., oratory — was concluded after supper. Salisbury 
had argued something over two and a half hours, on a motion, 
and was awarded the main speech in argument. The effort lasted 
not less than five or more than seven hours. It was said the 
classical quotations and recitations from poetry consumed at least 
two hours, but the mob, the populace, the city was with him. He 
was cheered enough to breathe inspiration into a corpse, but he 
needed no inspiration. Dyer closed the argument, but the mob 
had already recorded a verdict of "not guilty," and the justice 
bowed not to the submission to the decree of the people, and the 
illustrious defendant was bound over and then discharged. The 
eff'ort of George's was for years the standard of comparison on 
the questions of length, breadth and thickness. 



A LAWYEB'S REVERIES 149 

During this examination an assertion was made that Judge 
Balderston was a dangerous, bold, bad man, too vitriolic to run 
at large in a community, with so many sky-aspiring church spires 
and other inspiring. Christianizing "inflooenees." George met 
the thrust thusly: 

"Does your honor, on naked assertion, without proof — mere 
declamation, without argument — believe these charges? I have 
heard your honor called 'a stinker' an hundred times — aye, a 
thousand times. Men have openly and boldly charged your honor 
with being as corrupt as hell is hot, as base as angels are pure ; 
in fact, as your honor knows, there is no epithet in language indi- 
cating human depravity, no term painting reproach, no lingual 
picture of vileness, that has not, at some time or other, been 
applied to your honor, and the sentiment has been cheered to 
the echo — and only your honor knows whether it is true or false. 
And yet, if these mere statements are to gain credence in our 
minds, we are bound to believe that your honor is the vilest of 
the vile; but I confidently assert that statements cannot change 
Judge Balderston 's character, nor your honor's." 

'Twas in this case that George grew restive under continued 
interruptions, during four hours of unwearied lung devotion to 
his client, and, tiu-ning on the opposing counsel, exclaimed: 
"Great God! If in my beginning you wiggle, squirm and squeal, 
what will you do at my close tomorrow?" 

George's defense of a "nigger" charged with chicken steal- 
ing, based on the "custom and usage" of niggers to thus own 
chickens, and on their prescriptive right to so obtain them, 
backed up by the constitutional provision guaranteeing life, lib- 
erty and the pursuit of happiness, was a great constitutional 
argument, but though rewarded with a verdict of "not guilty," 
it is hardly worthy of mention in connection with his greatest 
forensic effort in the case nominally presented by the "State of 
Kansas," but which was in reality W. C. "Woodman versus J. ]\I. 
' Balderston. 

THE FIRST DUEL IN WICHITA. 

Soon after George Salisbury had made his legal "debut," and 
was engaged in his first case, against Judge S. M. Tucker, 
who for the first time in his life heard the florid style lately 
imported from Lynchburg, Va., and was astonished thereat. In 



150 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

reply he used the "mountain howitzer jackass yarn" for an illus- 
tration. George acted the part of the "jackass" in Tucker's pan- 
tomime, to his great disgust and to the amusement of the crowd. 
George was as full of rage as a sodapop bottle is of fizz, and he 
went down upon the street and foamed like a dog with the rabies. 
His wrath grew with age, and on the morrow it filled his soul to 
overflowing, and sprang full-orbed into a consuming fire — even 
unto a "rage whose heat hath this condition, that nothing could 
allay it but blood ! ' ' — warm, hot, human blood. 

George sought out some of his new acquaintances, and to 
them he "did a tale unfold" of the insult heaped upon him, and 
stated that if he was in Virginia he could solve the difficulty and 
wipe out the insult under a "code of honor" that yet obtained 
among the remnants of knighted chivalry in that civilized and 
enlightened country, formerly called "the mother of presidents." 
The boys said: "Challenge 'Tuck' to fight a duel, eh?" George 
said, "Yes." Here was a chance for fun, too rare to be neg- 
lected. George was at once informed that, notwithstanding the 
crude civilization of Kansas and the lack of refinement, there 
were some old and highly honored customs which, by mere acci- 
dent, had crossed the Missouri river and found lodgment in the 
hearts of many, and among them was the "code of honor," dear 
to the hot blood of the South, longed for by George, and revered 
by the early settlers of the Osage Indian diminished reserve land, 
in which Wichita was situate. 

The advice was given that dueling was the only way in which 
a man who had the discernment to know when he was insulted, 
spirit enough to resent it, and courage sufficient to demand satis- 
faction, could avenge himself on an aggressor, and that he should 
at once personally see Tucker and demand an apology or satisfac- 
tion under the "code of honor." The information was furnished 
that Tucker was a bombastic Orlanda Furioso, a veritable Fal- 
staff, and that on being confronted with a master would fawn as 
a whipped spaniel and cower in a corner like a well drubbed 
slave. 

George, conscious of his insult, clothed in the armor of right, 
and full well knowing the craven he would humiliate in the dust 
ere another moon shone o'er the town, sought Tucker in his 
office, and thus the bloody dialogue ran : 

George — Judge Tucker, you insulted me on yester e'en, and 



A LAWYER'S REVERIES 151 

I my bed have not sought nor wooed slumber to mine eyelids. I 
have come, sir, to demand an apology. 

Tucker — ^And if I do not, sweet sir, apologize, what then? 

George — I then demand of your knightly hand that satisfac- 
tion and reparation which are due from one gentleman to 
another. 

Tucker — Do I understand that you challenge me to fight a 
duel? 

George — Aye ! to mortal combat ! 

Prom proud Virginia's moss-grown tombs, 

O'er which said tombs indigenous creepers have for 

centuries bloomed. 
My ancestors' bones, in chivalric rage. 
Doth right briskly rattle, pressing me to engage 

You to mortal combat ! Deny me not ! 
Said ancestral bones aforesaid demand 
That you apologize, or die by my hand; 
Ample time shall unto you be given 
To prepare to meet your God in heaven ; 
The said bones urge that I by chastisement 
Prove my birthright ere the day be spent ; 
I "wired" said bones that, ere another sun be risen, 
Mine foe should quaff my blood, or I'd drink his'n. 

Lay on, McDuff, etc. 

Tucker — By your code of honor, I have the choice of weapons, 
do I not ? 

George — Yes, sir ; our seconds will fix the time and place. 

Tucker — I will select cowhide boots, do away with seconds, 
and commence right now and kick you downstairs. 

"Whereupon Tucker arose and started for George, who fled 
down stairs amidst cheers and jeers, and thus the "code of 
honor" was derided and trampled under foot by one whose finer 
senses had been blunted by residence in the North, and who made 
mockery out of things revered and sacred in the eyes of ALL gen- 
tlemen. This was the only duel ever fought in "Wichita. 

Hearing, from obscure, as well as conspicuous, sources, that 
these reminiscences were historically incorrect, were overdrawn, 
contained personalities not in "good form" (see, however, "Ward 
McAllister's book, volume I, page 9, footnote 3, left-hand column, 



152 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

bottom of page, for justification), that this was simply rinsings of 
sM'inish ablutions, I deem it a pleasurable duty to explain my 
position, not censoriously, but with humility, but reference to a 
gray-haired mythological legend, which runs in my mind about 
as follows, to-wit: 

JUPITER VS. THE BULL. 

Once upon a time, while Jupiter was resting, and his daughter 
Minerva was practicing on some stringed instrument, the front 
door bell was pulled violently, and presently a card was brought 
in by Mars (Mars, by the way, was the putative son of his uncle 
and aunt), who said that one of the neighboring bulls was await- 
ing an audience on some matter of mighty and deep import; 
whereupon Jupiter ordered him admitted, and the Balaam's ass, 
bovine quadruped, stated, as a grievance, that one of the archi- 
tects had builded a house contrary to the Romanesque style — in 
fact, was using the Doric. On hearing this, Jupiter, who was 
leaning carelessly against one of the columns supporting the 
temple, spat on the antique floor and, deftly wiping it up with 
his left sandal, remarked, in that oratund accent noticeable in 
the plays of "Cffisar," "Virginius" and "Coriolanus": "Thou 
quadruped, when thou hast builded in any style of architecture, 
then thou mayest criticize the builder who, having worn out 
his own ideas, resorts to ancient Greece. Get thee hence ! Be- 
take thee at once to thy cow harem, or, by Helios, I'll hamstring 
thee!" 



CHAPTER IV. 
THE ARREST, TRIAL AND ESCAPE OF JESSE JAMES. 

Practical jokes, keen, rough and ludicrous, are essentially on 
the frontier order of civilization. Frontier towns are boys ; civ- 
ilized cities are men. The young lawyer has ever been the sub- 
ject of practical jokes, and the following yarn illustrates the 
degree to which a joke can be carried before the "jokee" is 
aware of it. 

It will hardly be necessary to state that 0. C. Daisy was one 
of the jokers, and that he performed his part perfectly. It is 
not intended to give the entire cast of characters that took part 



A LAWYER'S REVERIES 153 

in the burlesque legal-tragi-eomedy, but only the star and prin- 
cipal support. 

A young lawyer from New York City, a graduate of Columbia 
Law School, fine presence, good address, arrived one day, pro- 
ceeded to make an inventory of the law shops of the town, and 
presented his card with his name. My recollection is, the card 
was as follows, but I may be in error: 



Alphonse Ddtcher, Tourist. 

Alma Mater, Columbia Law School. 

Mati-imilatod March IS, 1878. 

A. B., A. A. S.. A. A. S. S. 

Dutcher was a lawyer, and aware of it. It was not egotism, 
but simply that calm self-consciousness that buoyed Lincoln and 
Grant during the war, when others doubted — the serenity of an 
able lawyer who has a hard legal fight on hand, and yet feels 
his education has enabled him to triumph. The boys admired 
his self-assertiveness, yet pitied his ignorance. But the dog pities 
and plays with the rat ere he kills it. The chance for fun — 
rich, racy and rare — was too good to be forborne, and a scheme 
was incubated in the front room over Hyde & Humble 's old 
store, where the Hub clothing store is. The principal charac- 
ters were 0. C. Daisy (our own Daisy), J. Herbert Wright (a 
lawyer reminding one of Sam Howe, of Howe & Mastin), who 
subsequently married a Canuck fortune and is now a milk 
farmer; Robert Lundy, a young lawyer from Springfield, over 
in Missouri ; Major Yank Owens, who was a Kansas reminiscence 
since 1854 to death ; Frank Todd, the sheriff, now dead ; Jimmie 
Mohen, a policeman, now deceased; and the selected populace 
who were to be witnesses and jury. 

The plan was to have 0. C. Daisy arrested as Jesse James, 
placed in jail, and have him send for Alphonse Dutcher on 
account of his legal attainments, and place his defense in his 
hands. Daisy was arrested and apparently incarcerated. J. Her- 
bert Wright was the commonwealth's counsel; Major Owens was 
the court ; Lundy was a young lawyer who, being employed by 
"Jesse," was to hunt able counsel to assist him, and he employed 
Dutcher. The warrant alleged every crime in the decalogue, 
and ended with the grave charge that "Jesse James" was "Jesse 



154 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

James." Dutcher obtained the warrant and immediately de- 
manded a continuance, which was refused. The hearing was 
set for that night, and took place over the storeroom now occu- 
pied by Mueller, the florist, on North Main street. Jesse informed 
Dutcher that if he was acquitted he would pay $5,000; if con- 
victed, Dutcher should die; and a check for $5,000 was given 
Lundy to deliver on acquittal. 

At the hour appointed, the room was filled, and some of the 
crowd was "full." Judge Owens was the ideal frontier court — 
dignified, yet brusque. The illustrious malefactor was brought 
in, heavily ironed and securely manacled, and was seated by 
his counsel, while a cordon of bailiffs surrounded him to prevent 
his escape. The scene was a most impressive and solemn bur- 
lesque. Dutcher felt the dignity, gravity and responsibility of 
his position. Entrusted with the liberty, perhaps the life, of the 
greatest criminal in the West, he nerved himself to make a fight 
which would free his client, and by his success — 

Send Dutcher 's name 
"Down the aisles of fame," 
Through cycles of time. 
In syllables sublime. 

The court, being the natural enemy of disorder, license and 
crime, bore down with a heavy cast-iron hand on the counsel for 
the defense, abused Dutcher, called him the Columbian Duke, 
and fined him for contempt for referring to the constitution of 
Kansas, which the court knew by heart, or any other legal author- 
ity not printed in Kansas. Dutcher sarcastically referred to 
Jeffreys and Sci'uggs as the court's guide. The court imme- 
diately claimed relationship to one of them by blood and the 
other by marriage. Dutcher at last forgot the respect due to 
the court, and roasted him. Judge Owens again imposed a fine, 
and ordered the lawyer's imprisonment, but, at the request of 
the commonwealth's counsel, delayed the punishment. The court 
fined Wright $10, who, to make it appear bona fide, paid it to 
the court. The court kept this money, and Wright consented to 
pay for the beer for the crowd, as the court would not disgorge 
on any other consideration. 

The major was at his best. At last he seemed to weary of the 
lengthened sweetness long drawn out, became irritated at the 



A LAWYER'S REVERIES 155 

nonsensical cross-examination, the purpose of which seemed to 
be to discredit the witnesses for the prosecution, and, rapping on 
the table with a revolver at least a foot long, delivered himself 
about as follows: "Mr. Dutcher, unless you have witnesses to 
establish the defendant's innocence, you may subside — simmer, 
as it were." Dutcher here referred again to the constitution as 
guaranteeing life, liberty, fair, impartial trial, etc., and to the 
fact that the presumption was innocence, not guilt. The refer- 
ence to the constitution seemed to act on the court as a red rag 
in front of a bob-tailed bull, and the judge maintained that 
THIS has no reference to non-resident defendants, but to Kansas 
defendants. 

Here the major stood up, cocked his revolver, and, addressing 
himself to Jesse, said: "If you are guilty, of which I have but 
little doubt, and have good and sufficient reason to believe, I'll 
be * * * if you slip through these hands by technicalities or 
quibble. Of all men, you are the one I am desirous of trying my 
hand on. It is my intention that no man shall be robbed or killed 
without the consent of this court, first had and obtained and pro- 
vision made for its perquisites. Prisoner at the bar, stand up! 
What have you to say why you should not stretch hemp in the 
moonlight in one hour? God is merciful and just; this court is 
just ; but in one hour from now prepare to meet your victims in 
purgatory. Justice shall reign ! 

" 'Order shall reign in Warsaw!' 

' ' You have been the destiny of many men ! 

' ' Gaze now on your Waterloo ! ' ' 

During this homily, Dutcher 's face was a study. Impotent 
rage, abortive malice, chagrin, disappointment, indignation and 
astonishment — all were there, each striving for supremacy. He 
felt that he was undone, disgraced, whipped ; yet he bore up with 
it as though it was but the fate of legal war, instead of the mur- 
der of his first-born. Jesse asked for a conference with his coun- 
sel, and asked him what he thought the chances were. Dutcher 
told him, none; informed him that immediate death was now 
upon him ; that the interposition of the Almighty alone would save 
him. "What!" said Jesse, "must I die — be hurled into Pluto's 
dread domain, with all my sins clinging to my trousers? Oh, ye 
gods, this is 'tough'; in fact, it is simply * * *_ j ^^m never 
be hung. I will fight to death. I'll kill the court and Wright, 
and escape or die." 



156 fflSTOKY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

The court ended the tete-a-tete of Jesse and his counsel, and 
the argument was had. Dutcher made a thrilling, eloquent, log- 
ical argument, broken into fragments by the continual cross-fired 
interruptions of the court and state's attorney, and closed with 
an assertion that if this man was hanged in disregard of law, that 
the court would be a murderer and the state's attorney an acces- 
sory to the crime. He denounced the proceedings as more damna- 
ble than the trial of Sir Walter Raleigh ; more disgraceful than 
any trial chronicled in the annals of legal butchery since the 
dawn of civilization. Through it all, Dutcher was unconscious 
of the part he was playing in a burlesque. He believed it was 
simply frontier law practice. When he quit, every man pitied 
and respected him, yet the roaring farce went on to its tragic 
and calculated conclusion. The grand tableau was yet to come, 
and even to those in the secret it was a blood-curdling surprise. 

Jesse, manacled, sat with bowed head, as if lost in deep ab- 
straction, "wrapped in the solitude of his own original turpi- 
tude," friendless and powerless, apparently, to free himself from 
the meshes of the law. Dutcher alone knew that Jesse was a 
baited lion surrounded by hungry hounds, contemplating murder 
ere he surrendered to death. The conduct of the court left no 
room for hope, no avenue for escape. Death's chasm seemed 
almost to open to joyously embrace the heroic and nonpareil 
felon of the nineteenth century. Dutcher was pale as washed 
snow; beads of sweat fell from his graven forehead. There was 
a stillness in the room — that momentary calmness that pervades 
space ere the tempest breaks in all its fury. 

All at once "Jesse" sprang to his feet. A miracle had been 
wrought. His manacles had been loosened, his fetters had fallen. 
In his hands were revolvers, in his eye vengeance, fury, rage and 
defiance. He proclaimed that he was Jesse James; that he was 
once more an uncaged lion. "Woe to the sons and daughters of 
men ! Woe to all when I roam again !" that the insults of the day 
were to be wiped out and credited in full at once. Tears were 
for babes; bloody revenge only for men. He hurled "chunks" 
of carefully accented, well rounded and emphatic profanity at 
the court. 

In a moment all was confusion. 

Mischief was afoot. 

The lamps went out, tables were overturned, chairs tipped 
over, all as if by a magician. Jesse shot Wright, who fell upon 



A LAWYER'S REVERIES 157 

Dutcher; Mohen was shot, and fell on both of them. The court 
shouted: "My God, my God, I am killed!" In the darkness all 
were niggers. Jesse shouted to his imaginary rescuers "to kill, 
rob, burn." Shots were fired as if by battalion. Oaths, groans, 
yells and agonizing shrieks commingled with dread, and the deaf- 
ening roar of the infant artillery, and above all was heard the voice 
of Jesse James, urging his men to do their bloody duty with honor 
to themselves and families. At last the door was opened, and the 
living, who expected in death to shortly lie, reached the stairway, 
shouting: "Jesse James has escaped! Jesse James has killed 
the court, his guard and the state's attorney! Run for your 
lives!" 

Jesse's counsel found the door and stairway and landed at 
the bottom on some one's back, bareheaded and breathless. He 
ran across the street, exulting in the prowess of his client, and 
yet fearful that he might be shot by accident or hanged by a 
mob seeking to find some object on which to rest its resentment 
and discharge its fury. He reached his boarding-house, bathed 
in perspiration, weak from fear and excitement, and to the 
inmates thereof he did ' ' a tale unfold ' ' which, ordinarily, would 
have made "each particular hair stand on end" like the quills 
of a fretful porcupine. In truth, a devil unchained was roaming 
o'er the town, seeking not to escape, but to destroy. 

From his report, delivered in unction and in fragments, be- 
tween gasps, one would have supposed that the Plutonian realm 
had vomited forth its crowned inmates to revel on earth a spell ; 
that the cabinet of hell, including the prime minister thereof, 
attended by Rhadamanthus, its dread judge, and all under the 
escort of Cerberus, the three-headed hell hound, had arrived in 
Wichita on a business tour to close the equity of soul mortgage 
redemption and obtain some fuel from flesh to inspire the then 
flame-fed, fattened, famished fires. 

Butcher's eyes, protruding 'neath his alabaster forehead, 
seemed as the ghastly light emitted from some tongueless, cav- 
ernous skull, when lighted upon ' ' hallowe 'en ' ' by the stolen can- 
dle filched from some thrifty housewife's kitchen. Jesse James 
to him seemed an army, awfully arrayed and armed, boldly 
besieging Wichita, creating consternation, dealing death and 
destruction and devastation in its bloody track. Almost in his 
recital you could hear : 



158 fflSTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

"The roar of cannons, whose deadly peals, 
In repeating echoes, through the valley ring, 
Starting and affrighting Jlidnight on her throne. 
Feel the jar of bursting booms and falling beams ; 
Hear the dying groan, agonizing shriek and the shout 
Of maddened men, inebriate with rage." 

At last, pale, exhausted and worn out, Dutcher sought his 
couch, and dreamed, no doubt, that he was "hair-hung and 
breeze-shaken" over the Calvinistic resort of sinners, and that 
"Jesse James" was tickling his toes to make him snap the slen- 
der thread that separated him from immortality. 

When the morrow's sun had peeped o'er College Hill, Dutcher 
arose and went to town to hear the denouncement of the 
bloody scene, but some one took him aside and brutally broke 
the enchantment that bound him. His heart was broken. He 
fled to his room and a few hours later the north-bound Santa Fe 
had one passenger, at least. 

Dutcher reached New York by the limited express, subse- 
quently removed to California, and was, in 1887, an attorney in 
San Francisco, with a good practice. To prove that he had ability 
and only needed to have the sap dried in him, Mr. H. C. Gager, 
one of our retired "boomers," now in Galveston, was in San 
Francisco in 1887, and at a hotel was in the act of turning away 
from the register, when a fine-looking man spoke to him and 
asked him if he was from Wichita. Gager replied that he was, 
whereupon the gentleman said: "Do you know 0. C. Daisy?" 

"Who in Wichita doesn't know Daisy?" 

The gentleman then related this arrest, trial and escape, his 
humiliation and flight, and ended by saying: "Daisy ran me out 
of the State of Kansas. I owe him a debt of gratitude I can never 
repay. He cut my eye teeth and made me rich. Daisy can get 
rich playing Jesse James in New York City. You tell him that 
if he ever comes out here, to come and see me, and I will 'put up' 
his hotel bill for a year. I have seen a good deal of 'plays' in the 
East and West, but of all of 'em, I remember this Jesse James 
act best. The court was bluif, rough and tough, and though after 
I left Wichita, and before I settled in San Francisco, I witnessed 
some frontier justice proceedings, all were but a feeble copy of 
the presiding justice in the 'Jesse James' tragic comedy, wherein 
I played as an unconscious sucker to a full house." 



A LAWYER'S REVERIES 159 

Recollections of those days in the early seventies crowd upon 
my memory. George Reeves, at that date clerk of the district 
court, was an autocrat in his own right, and at times felt that 
he was first assistant to the judge, and invested with judicial dis- 
cretion, as well as ministerial functions, as witness the occasion 
when, while somewhat in "budge," he continued court, and the 
other occasion, M^hen an injunction was wanted, he had chartered 
the card room of a saloon where the Hub clothing store is, and 
refused to grant any writ of injunction until 9 a. m. of the next 
day, and the judge had to help the litigant out by issuing an 
order. 

A writ of injunction, in so far as the speed is concerned, is 
somewhat like the speed required of a doctor on interesting occa- 
sions in the home of a married man, or, like a pistol desire in 
Texas, it is needed at once or never. 

During a session of court, when the present ofSce of the Occi- 
dental Hotel was the court room, some of the foreign element 
desired to be naturalized, and appeared in the court room, where 
George was engrossed with business and worn down with 
"budge," and being somewhat annoyed at the intrusion, was not 
as amiable as might be desired. After George had made out the 
oath and had it signed, one of the new-born Americans expressed 
a desire to know what George wanted him to do next, and George 
gratified him, to the amazement of the voter and merriment of 
the court room, by saying : 

"Hold up your right hand, keep your mouth shut and stand 
still. * * *." 

During the year 1875, a long, lank, lean, cadaverous, sallow- 
complexioned, and jaundiced in disposition, heavy-jawed, her- 
ring-gutted, web-footed, sad-eyed and melancholy "Patience on a 
monument, smiling at grief" kind of human proved to be the 
most litigious eiiss in the realm. His general appearance brought 
to mind the "roundhead cavaliers," and had he lived in Crom- 
well's day, he would have had a command. He was an involun- 
tary "false pretense," as no one could be as sorrowful as he 
looked. He was a hybrid 'twixt an Arkansian and a Missourian, 
and he dressed in the garb of the Ozark mountains, and "chawed" 
the dog-leg of the Bald Knob region. He commenced law suits 
by the dozen and score, gave no bond for costs, and his signature 
was sufficient on a poverty affidavit, without the formality of an 
oath. He infested the clerk's office, and on divers and sundry 



160 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

occasions had been adjudged to pay the costs, but failed to 
respond to any and all demands. 

One sultry August day he entered the clerk's office, a room 
23x100, on North Main street, with a handful of pleadings, and 
George, seeing in the dim vista more work and no fees, his natu- 
rally imperious spirit took fire. He, however, pleasantly enough, 
said: "Going to commence another suit, Mr. ?" and the sad- 
eyed transmigrated soul of the cavalier said, "Yes." George 
bade him be seated, and went and locked the front door, and 
then surrounded the remnant of better days, with a coal hatchet 
in his hand, and but for Bill Rouse, he would have "slew" the 
unhappy litigator. 

It will not be necessary to name this general attorney, as the 
old members of the bar remember well a "law office" that drew 
the loose driftwood of society to it as a magnet draws iron filings, 
or a molasses barrel, flies. There was a "oneness" of idea, a 
commingling of soul's deepest thought, a meeting of a unities, a 
homologj^, as it were, an intersocial cognition and relevancy of 
purpose, design and act, " 'twixt" that office and a debtor who 
could not pay his costs. No "war boss" ever snuffed the carnage 
afar, or sleuth-hound scented him with the celerity, directness and 
relentless ruth with which that "office" tracked the debtor to his 
lair and demanded his business for "business' sake," and after- 
ward posed as the friend of the down-trodden and oppressed. 

On another occasion, one balmy day in the early month of 
May, when green buds were swelling, when all nature seemed in 
tune, and each flower to vie to surpass its rival in freshness and 
beauty, and everj^thing was in harmony, the blue overhead and 
the green underfoot, the tall cottonwoods on the river banks filled 
with bluejays, and their branches gracefully waving benisons 
over the town, their leaves whispering "peace on earth" — just 
such a day as Bret Harte sketched when he said, "It seemed as 
though the voice of God pervaded the earth and spoke to man as 
'in the old days' "; just such a day as brings to mind a Sunday 
long ago, when we put our earnings into four hours of livery team, 
and, seated beside a vision of white swiss and blue ribbon, "wi' 
eyes o' heaven's own blue," and a voice soft and low, sweet and 
tremulous as a lute, and as thrilling as the dying cadence of a 
whip-poor-will's notes at midnight on the banks of a dark wooded 
stream, and we felt a desire to be good, not for our sake or God's 
sake, but for "white swiss' sake" — 'twas on just such a day as 



A LAWYER'S REVERIES 161 

this, we say, that George, in regal splendor, appeared on Main 
street with a milky-white team and silver-painted buggy, bring- 
ing to mind the story of Phoebus careering across the heavens. 
He was dressed with taste and doting care. Of course he was at 
once the cynosure of all eyes, the envy and admiration of all 
beholders, and he was drunk enough to prove that there is a 
fine art in getting drunk as well as iu other habits, combining at 
once, and artlessly, the suavity of the late Mr. "Woodman, the 
taste of a Beau Brummel and the elegance of Chesterfield with the 
prodigality of Jim Piske and the regularity of Coal Oil Johnny. 

George wore a soft drab crush hat at an Emerald Isle angle, 
with pantaloons, gloves and shoes to match, a Marseilles vest with 
creamy glass buttons, and an immaculate and faultless shirt 
bosom and cufi's as pure as bleached snow, and he proceeded "to 
do the town," regaling himself at every saloon, and at last wind- 
ing up at Al Thomas' grocery, at the Occidental Hotel, where, 
after some negotiation, he became the owner in fee of a full tub 
of eggs, which he immediately scrambled with his drab shoes, by 
dancing a jig in the tub until the egg was spattered all over him- 
self, the floor and store, egg galore, then a marigold in liquor, 
a buttercup complete, a jumping daisy from head to foot, he 
jumped into the buggy and finished his ride, but he "cussed" 
some of the boys because he asked them to ride and they "egg- 
seused" themselves. 

George's penchant for variation of the common and accepted 
manner of executing a ' ' drunk ' ' was simply high art, which blun- 
dering mediocrity should not essay. 

Copies do not succeed, and the originality of the Reeves drunk 
robbed it of half its degradation and disgrace. Failing to be 
renominated for clerk, he shook us, and we understand he is now 
a " Missoiu-ian. " 

Lucifer fell from the battlements of heaven to hell, and Reeves 
.left Kansas for Missouri. 

Among the attorneys of the time was one Robert Jerome 
Christy, formerly of Pittsburg, formerly of Peabody, then to 
Wichita, from here to San Francisco, and from there direct to the 
bosom of Abraham. (He is dead and the view taken is charitable. 
It is not pretended that any advices have been received or that 
any bill of lading was made out with the consignment.) 

Robert J. Christy was a dandy in the superlative and galore 
sense. He was not only an educated lawyer, but a graduated 



162 fflSTOEY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

spendthrift. If there be anything ia the genus of spendthriftism 
which may be designated the belles lettres of prodigality, bold, 
imprudent, plausible and without any finish except the natural 
grain, Robert J. was the personification living embodiment of the 
ideal creation. He bought everything and paid for nothing, and 
stood ofif a monthly ornithorynchus with a charming naivete and 
careless abandon, a princely insouciance that disarmed suspicion 
and brought apologies for the seemingly unwarranted intrusion. 

There was no asperity ia his tete-a-tete with a bill fiend, no 
hauteur of voice or manner, no "unsettled account to be ad- 
justed" or "credits not given," no "call tomorrow." The liquid 
diphthong "call again" seemed to melt as it fell from his ca- 
deneed and well modulated tongue, as the door closed on the 
retreating and abashed form of the creditor. He boarded his 
family at the Occidental, occupied the second floor of the Henry 
Schweiter corner, just torn down, for a suite of rooms, kept a car- 
riage and buggy and sulky, boarded three horses at livery, smoked 
twenty-cent cigars, and sported a massive chattel mortgage on his 
library. 

Robert J. did not succeed as a lawyer. Having become matric- 
ulated in the law in the bankrupt courts of Philadelphia, where 
the debtor expected nothing but a receipt, creditors hoped for 
nothing, and officials and attorneys divided the assets, Robert J. 
was annoyed at the grasping characteristics of litigants who de- 
sired to know the value of legal services before they contracted 
for them, therebj'^ placing "brain" on a par with "bull beef, 
sugar, lard, salt and nails. ' ' 

His creditors at last descended on him, e'en as the "Assyrian 
came down like a wolf of the fold," and seized his personal 
belongings in lieu of silver and gold. 

Sluss sold his library for a law book company, and the boys 
gathered at the feast, thus providentially prepared, like ghouls 
at a graveyard, vultures over a carcass, and flies at a " 'lasses" 
barrel, and greatly rejoiced thereat, saying one unto another 
exceedingly: "111 bloweth the wind that profits nobody." 

Christy had nice discernment in the selection of books, and 
introduced Pomeroy's Remedial Rights, Daniel's Negotiable In- 
struments, Freeman on Judgments, and other text work to the 
Wichita bar. 

Christy's proud, imperious spirit was wounded. The iron 
entered his soul. His nonchalance was pricked. He pronounced 



A LAWYER'S REVERIES 163 

a eui'se on the community and left us, aye, forever. He was the 
natural ancestor of that large school of princely paupers which, 
like mushrooms, grew to maturity in a night in 1886. 

No great recognized business incapacity whose shadow fell on 
Main street during that epochal milestone in our path called the 
"boom" approached Robert in gorgeousness of apparel, varied 
idiosyncrasies of purchases, or entire lack of display of common 
sense. He was the original of dazzling borrowed splendor, com- 
pared to which those who came after and battled with each other 
to wear his fallen mantle were as neophytes, notwithstanding 
some have high claims to distinction. 

In my poverty, I was dazzled by this princely, insouciant, epi- 
curean, nonpareil pauper — by his utter indifference to all things 
that bothered me, his carelessness about debt, his disregard of 
creditors, his seeming sublime trust in Providence, and "suffi- 
cient unto the day is the evil thereof" way of treating all omi- 
nous forebodings. Often during the "boom," when diamonds 
grew on shirt fronts that ne'er before had worn a pearl button, 
Robert's form before mine eyes seemed from the earth to rise. 
Yet mine eyes ne'er beheld his equal, but for this we have good 
reason, for, as was said after Napoleon : ' ' Copies never succeed. ' ' 



CHAPTER XVI. 

BARON JAGS IN WICHITA. 

HOW HE PRODUCED "OUR AMERICAN COUSIN" WITH 
LOCAL TALENT— BY ONE OF THE "TALENT." 

By 

KOS HARRIS. 

(Reminiscential o" the days when Wichita was in th' gristle.) 

' ' Gather roses while ye may ; 
Old Time is still a-flying ; 
The fairest rosebud of today 
Tomorrow may be dying." 

To recall the pleasurable past is to double our lives. 

The preservation of the commonplace affairs of a town may 
be a waste of time, but time is wasted without effort. This humble 
preservative town history may be of no use to anyone, except as 
copy for a printer, yet this may be an amusement, a gratification, 
to those who follow after the present generation, and in the 
grandeur of the brick and marble Wichita yet to come, will curi- 
ously search out and trace its humble beginning, to adorn an 
ambitious illustration or point a moral. My office is not to 
instruct, but amuse, the present and those who in years to come 
will vote bonds on Wichita, hold its offices, give away its fran- 
chises, squander its revenues, swamp its taxpayers, and attend to 
business ; those who will assist in keeping up our pro rata in the 
beneficent public institutions at Leavenworth. Lansing, Hutchin- 
son, Winfield, Topeka and Osawatomie; those who will succeed 
the present generation and follow its noble example, its strong 
"lead" in annually lying about its personal property assessments 
and settling with its flexible, Goodyear-patent conscience by a 
plea of "hard times." This manuscript, written some years since, 
164 



BARON JAGS IN WICHITA 165 

hath been dragged to light to help make one "BLAZE," and as 
years come and go it and its companion pieces may be read with 
curiosity . 

When the grown boys and girls of today, 
Like weed and flow'r, ha' withered away. 
As ripened grain, to seed have gone. 
Unheeded by the coming throng. 



In thus preserving "Our American Cousin," 
I cut this tale a monument, 
Recalling how the past was spent. 
When Wichita was young and need. 
And life was bright as sparkling deed. 

History is the record of the acts deemed worthy of preserva- 
tion by the recorder of the acts. The history of a community by 
a theologian, statesman, biographer, gambler, washerman, scav- 
enger or pawnbroker would be seven places or seven views of one 
place. This idea of history has been impressed on me by the several 
distinct and contradictory accounts of battles, all written by eye- 
witnesses; also I have noticed that a description of a dog fight 
by nine men — all pious men — impress one with the truth of the 
words of the Psalmist : ' ' That all men and a percentage of women 
are liars. ' ' Hence, if I am not thought absolutely correct, I will 
forgive anyone reflecting on my character, and try to forget that 
he, she or it hath me a liar denominated. We are delighted when 
we pick up Macaulay's England, and read of little, common, ordi- 
nary acts of those entombed before America was discovered. 
When we read that King James said, "He was a bold man who 
ate the first oyster," we know that oyster-eating was a new 
thing at that date in England ; otherwise the remark would not 
have been made. It is the preserved "tittle-tattle" of royalty 
that enables us to know that the "Elizabethan ruff" worn in 
society was adopted to hide a scrofulous royal neck ; that the dis- 
ease "king's evil" was common scrofula ; that the touch of royalty 
alleviated, if it did not cure it ; and that old Sam Johnson sought 
the king to cure his ailment. To the good miller all grain is 
grist, and common things of yesterday, today and tomorrow, in 
the years to come, may give pleasure to the many-headed multi- 



166 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

tude who shall walk the streets we have trod, when we shall have 
put on the robe of immortality and twang our harps ia the New 
Jerusalem. 

'Tis a pleasure to me to know that Lincoln, at the little town 
of Elwood, Kan., made a speech on December 1, 1859. Some day 
that humble place will be rescued from obscurity by a monument 
commemorating the first speech of Lincoln in Kansas, even as 
Stratford-on-Avon is now made historic and amaranthine in the 
mind of mankind. The Elwood speech of Lincoln was the speech 
subsequently delivered at Cooper Institute, New York, and was 
the keystone of the campaign of 1860. 

When the preservative generation comes to Kansas, Elwood 
will be renowned, and a monument will be built on which will be 
cut in marble : 

"Thy name shall live while time endures. 
And men shall say of thee : 
'He saved his country from its foes. 
And bade the slave be free.' " 

When a true life of Phil Sheridan is written, it will not be 
complete without the record of Sheridan and Bill Greiffenstein's 
meeting at the Occidental Hotel in Wichita, and the story of 
Sheridan's proclamation of one thousand dollars for "Dutch 
Bill's" head. 

Wichita as yet has not evolved a man with a destiny — a man 
marked for earthly immortality. Of course he may be here, 
incog, as it were. He may flash yet on us as an arc light, and soar 
from oblivion's cruel, relentless billows; but the knowledge of 
these things has led me, in an humble way, to record the produc- 
tion of the "American Cousin" in Wichita, by local talent. 

I am aware that nothing herein is instructive, but it is in a 
measure illustrative of a phase of Western civilization, commend- 
able in the fact that people from every nation, clustered on "buf- 
falo grass" and surrounded by "sunflowers," deprived of better 
things, forget for a day the business of "bread and butter," and, 
for amusement — 

"Strut and fret one hour upon the stage." 

One day Charley Stanley came into my office. I think it was 



BAEON JAGS IN WICHITA 167 

"in the early month o' May, 1881, when green buds were a-swell- 
in'." He had for his personal baggage a thin, stoop-shouldered 
cadaver, blase in tout ensemble, "short" on hair, "long" on 
imperial mustache and Napoleonic goatee. He was "a actor," 
had played at Covent Garden, Old Drury, and Madison Square; 
was en roate to "Frisco"; had stopped oflt" at Wichita to witness 
the bold stride of the cosmopolite clustered on the left bank of 
the Arkansas, ere he wended his way to the Pacific sea. To incul- 
cate in the mind of Wichita a taste for histrionic science, he was 
willing to put before the public the play of 



THE AMERICAN COUSIN. 

He to be the main planet, the cynosure and the star around and 
about whom some of Wichita's humble souls might mildly 
twinkle. He was going to "star" for cash — we of Wichita, for 
glory. He was our idea of Lord Dundreary, and at rehearsal 
Charley always addressed him as "me Lud." He (Dundreary) 
presumably had parents — for aught we knew, a father and a 
mother, and also a grandam, too. His real name we knew not, 
and cared less. He could, at that ambitious day in Wichita, have 
passed himself off as 

BAEON JAG, EARL OP JIM JAMS, 

From Deliriumshire, 

In the County of Tremens, 

Hengland. 

Of couse the manikin lived, but where, no one inquired. He 
also drank. This usually took place at the old Turner Hall Opera 
House, at rehearsal. The evidences of this bibulous habit were 
found in his dressing-room in the shape of forty empty half-pint 
bottles of "Old Crow." His clothes were a misfit, as if he had 
broken into Dr. Jekyll's and Mr. Hyde's wardrobe and tucked 
himself out with the clothes of both men. He was a living exem- 
plification of the old saw : 

"Through tattered clothes, small vices appear." 



168 HISTOKY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

His hat was a sawed-off plug of 1871 and 1872; his coat 
was a double-breasted Prince Albert, big enough for Fritz von 
Schnitzler. His pants — pantaloons — breeches — (now I have it) 
trousers — were in and of themselves a speaking tale of splendor 
and glory, pawnshops and jags, recalling the pauper's tale of 



"FROM THE HEIGHT OF A DIAMOND TO THE DEPTH OF 
A PAWN TICKET." 

Charley and I pitied the poor devil, promised our assistance to 
him, went in the back room and "rolled over." Charley had an 
inspiration (he was often inspired, and made the sad old world 
laugh at his original and genuine witticism), and suggested that 
we have him recite to us, so we could be sure we were to have the 
guidance of a true compeer of McCready, Booth and Garriek. He 
recited; we simply "died." 

Charley was to attend to the securing of talent, to assist and 
arrange the caste of characters and the meeting of the troupe. 
After some preliminary work, Charley notified me that the great 
combination was to have its first "sitting" and distribute the 
parts to the actors and actresses. 

We met. The gkls viewed the "GRATE ACTOR" with curi- 
osity, if not disdain, some surprise, and a little disgust. He (the 
great aetor) was loaded to the guards with "tonic," aromatic 
spices and loud perfume, that, like the historic snore, "filled the 
room from ceiling to floor." We debated, deliberated and dal- 
lied, and at last incubated, budded, flowered and fruited the fol- 
lowing caste of characters, and adjourned : 

Lord Dundreary Baron Jag and Earl of Jim Jams 

Sir Edward Trenchord Col. H. W. Lewis 

Harry Vernon Judge W. P. Campbell 

Captain De Boots A. F. Stanley 

John Wickens. . ., Kos Harris 

Florence Trenchord Ella Fuller, Mrs. Finlay Ross 

Mary Rilla Keller, Mrs. Elmer Beach 

Georgina Libbie Israel, Mrs. Jake HoUinger 

The caste of characters is from vague recollection. 



BARON JAGS IN WICHITA 169^ 

It will be noted that in the above caste Stanley and Harris 
had to earn their living "by the sweat of their face, and could 
not always be on hand at early lamplight for rehearsal. One 
night "Baron Jag" roasted us for being late, and Charley said 
unto him, in a comical, lago-like voice: "Sir, we had to dine 
after our day's work was o'er. If we had only to drink a half 
pint of liquor, we had long since been here." 



TABLEAUX. 

(Note. — In the language of "Little Britches," when Charley 
and I meet and "loaf around the throne," I expect to laugh o'er 
Baron Jag and Earl of Jim Jams.") 

The rehearsals were had, and the play came on. In one scene 
the "hevy villun" was to throw the hero down and "they wuz" 
to apparently fight, even as tho ' unto cold, clammy death — worm- 
banqueting death. The villain and hero, it will be noted, were 
about the same physical proportions, and the villain agreed with 
Charley and me to make the hero "win his spurs" on the event- 
ful night by holding him to the sword. When the moment came 
which was to witness the struggle 'twixt heroism and villainy, 
the tragic scene in which virtue was to triumph o'er vice, Charles 
and I hid in a wing to see the fun, and see how hard virtue would 
have to struggle ere it overcame vice. The audience, which was 
made up of complimentary ticket-holders, beheld the struggle, but 
knew not how near rampant vice was to victory. Charley and I 
concluded vice triumphant would be "fatal variance" from the 
usual denouement, but it would be fun. We thought the hero 
would be in a quandary as how to end the play, when vanquished. 
We had rehearsed for fun, and wanted to break the record on 
.heroism, but the swelling cords on the hero's neck, and his loud 
whispers to the villain to "let up," aroused the audience, and at 
last the villain permitted virtue to rise, amidst cheers, to the dis- 
gust of Charles and the writer. 

"In great beads on the hero's face the sweat did stand." 



170 HISTOKY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Lord Dundreary was so overcome with the size of the audi- 
ence that he bade us good-night in glee, and when the morn stole 
upon the night he went to Charley's ofiSce to receive his douceur, 
pourboire, backsheesh, honorarium, and, whilst waiting, suggested 
a second night's play. The box receipts were not enough to pay 
expenses. Charley and I had prevented an empty house by issu- 
ing at least one hundred complimentary tickets. The rage of 
Baron Jag and Earl of Jim Jams was awful to contemplate, fear- 
ful to behold. In fact, we feared his consuming rage might his 
existence dissolve and send him unshrined to a bar where "Old 
Crow" was not handled. The rage of Alecta and Tisiphone in 
mythology was as sweet milk to carbolic acid compared with the 
rabid frothings of "Mi Lud." A she tiger robbed of her whelps 
could not have roared in greater anger and distress than did 
Baron Jag on the denouement of his first and last appearance 
on the "boards." As he left us, Charley asked him about the 
second night, and — 



He turned and blew a bugle-blast, 

A lion's detonating roar; 
His rage was foaming at the crest- 



We feared wi' us he'd mop the floor. 

Though we had courage, we also had wisdom, sagacity, pru- 
dence and common sense, and remembering that "speech is sil- 
ver and silence is gold," we immediately adopted the gold stand- 
ard and left him alone in his glory, and went out in the back room 
and from thence into the card room of Tom Jewell's place, where 
Jim Steele was playing rounce. At our suggestion, Jim stopped 
the game long enough to go into the office and order "Baron 
Jag" to slope, decamp, skedaddle, absquatulate, abjure the 
realm, flee the bailiwick. When Charles and I returned, the 
"Baron" was "nit." The place so shortly before redolent with 
baronial fumes and flavor "knew him no more forever." 

The Baron's tout ensemble was in such a wretched state of 
general as well as particular decadence at our first acquaintance 
that Charley's guarantee procured him some apparel, which ap- 
peared as follows: 



BARON JAGS IN WICHITA 171 

May, 1881. 
"Baron Jag," per guaranty A. F. S. 

In account with 

GOLDEN EAGLE CLOTHING STORE. 

To 1 shirt $2.00 

" 1 pair hose 50 

" Yo doz. cuffs and collars 1.50 

" 1 tie 75 

" 1/3 doz. handkerchiefs 1.00 $5.75 

After the show, the melodrama, Charley prevailed on the 
opera-house manager to declare a dividend in our favor for the 
amount of the above bill. 

Charley at that date was at work for Jim Steele, in the room 
under Governor Stanley's present law office, on Douglas avenue. 

Thus endeth the history of the production of "Our American 
Cousin ' ' in Wichita, in the ambitious days 'twixt the grasshopper 
and the "boom." 

The preservation of this memorabilia may be amusing in after 
years, when some human question box — i. e., some "little tot" — • 
says: "Grandma or grandpa, did you ever play on the stage in 
Wichita, and was Lord Dundreary drunk?" To those grand- 
parents who may be asked, and desire to be exactly truthful, 
"nothing extenuating and naught set down in malice," the writer 
hereof saith that they are at liberty to say, "Baron Jag" was 
* ' fuller ' ' than a ' ' guse, drunker than a biled owl, ' ' slept that night 
on the floor in a real-estate office, and when the moon had paled 
and the rosy hue of dawn o 'erspread the eastern sky, the atmos- 
phere of that room was simply diabolical, proving to all mankind 
possessed of noses that 'twas not the smell of posies, aromatic 
perfumes or roses. 



CHAPTER XVII. 
WICHITA PRESBYTERIANISM AND ITS AMENITIES. 

By 

KOS HARRIS. 

Memory is the mind's storehouse; some use a closed vault, 
others a well-ordered room, and treasure away things valuable. 
The generality of mankind use an attic in which "things" are 
pushed in heterogeneously, and, when called for, the valuable and 
the worthless are so mixed as to be almost inseparable. 

Properly speaking, this tale should be entitled "Wichita 
Presbyterianism, as Seen by a Local Goat in 1874-1875." 

Though it was "foreordained" that I should write this piece, 
it was not made known to me until Thanksgiving Day, 1898. Hav- 
ing received the information, I now proceed to evolve the facts, 
unravel the ball of memory. Germane to this piece is the inter- 
esting fact that Presbyterianism and grasshoppers landed in Kan- 
sas as twins on July 19, 1820, according to my Kansas history. 
Presbyterianism stuck; grasshoppers, like "ager," have been 
intermittent, but are well remembered. 

When I first became acquainted with Presbyterianism in Wich- 
ita, services were held in Old Eagle Hall. The memories of that 
festooned Eagle Hall are multifarious and intensely cosmopolitan 
in their nature. As a church, convention hall, reception room, 
theater, opera, spelling school, board of trade room, court room, 
council chamber, church festival and fair room, political speaking 
place, it filled the bill on all occasions. This hall was on the second 
floor at the left of the stairway over the Boston Store. The room 
was about fifty by one hundred feet. At the top of the stairway 
there was a box office three feet square. At the south end there 
was a stage three feet high and adorned on the front with a 
dozen dirty, dingy, smoky, murky old coal-oil lamps, that kept 
the audience in hot water at any evening show for fear that the 
old drop-curtain would catch on fire or knock over a lamp. This 
172 



WICHITA PRESBYTERIANISM 173 

fact alone kept an audience awake, no matter how dull was the 
play. There was no life insurance agent residing here then, and 
people were more careful of their lives than since the "boom." 
The pulpit was on a movable platform, and was as handy as a 
pocket in a shirt. The Rev. John P. Harsen was the Presbyterian 
minister. Mr. Harsen was a pioneer man. He was fitted to deal 
with all classes. He antagonized no one, and was a friend to all — 
black, white, copper-colored or tan, Jew or Gentile, rich, poor, 
good, bad, moral or viciaus. He was a student, a pastor, but he 
was not a pulpit orator. His every-day life was a sermon. Mr. 
Harsen always reminded me of the following lines of Goldsmith : 

"Truth from his lips prevailed with double sway. 
And fools who came to scoff, remained to pray. ' ' 

"He tried each art, reproved each dull delay, 
Allur'd to brighter worlds, and led the way." 

The church, as a body, approved the forced resignation of 
Mr: Harsen, but the people of Wichita condemned the abdication, 
and another generation shall pass away ere Harsen will be for- 
gotten and the church ceases to be criticized for his removal. 
(Note. — This is a pure goat view or guess.) There was no day 
or night too hot or cold to prevent his leaving his fireside or home 
to give solace to the wretched or dying or perform the last sad 
rites over the body of the sinful and almost abandoned dead. His 
spiritual make-up was of Him who said: "Neither do I condemn 
thee ; go, and sin no more." 

Mr. Harsen did not, perhaps, possess those ministerial charac- 
teristics required to hold a large and wealthy church together; 
but he was possessed of a faculty to gather under one roof the 
sheep of his fold and the morally inclined goats, and form the 
constituent elements of a future church. He perhaps belonged 
to a pioneer civilization, where one-story wooden houses are fash- 
ionable, where poverty is only an inconvenience, and by reason 
of its universality is robbed of its humiliation, general condemna- 
tion and consequent degradation. Mr. Harsen owned 160 acres 
of land east of Wichita, afterward sold to Harry Hill, the "Okla- 
homa Boomer," and manager of a Wild West Show that broke 
every man connected with it, and had the proud distinction of 
being attached by creditors a greater number of times than any 



174 fflSTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

other show that ever existed. It is said that the route of this 
Wild West Show can be traced from county to county and from 
state to state by examination of the court and chattel mortgage 
records, without any other data to go by. 

Unless I am at fault in my recollection, the music of the Pres- 
byterian church in 1874 and 1875 was under the charge of Mrs. 
Catherine Russell, Mrs. Emma J. Simmons, Mrs. Theodore Par- 
ham, C. S. Caldwell, W. B. Mead, Mrs. Mead and Miss May Wil- 
lard. Mrs. Simmons was the mother of Mrs. Floy Gallant. 

As I remember, the regular attendants at the church in those 
years were A. A. Hyde and wife, the Misses Brown, J. H. Todd 
and family, Pattie Todd, wife of George C. Strong, Robert E. 
Lawrence and wife, Henry W. Lawrence and family, W. S. Cor- 
bett and wife, J. H. Black and wife, George E. Harris and wife, 
D. A. Mitchell and wife, A. J. Cook and family, Robert Cook, 
I. D. Fonts and family, C. S. Caldwell and family, Mrs. Hunter 
(Mrs. J. H. Black's mother), W. B. Mead and family, W. G. 
Hacker and wife, Fred Martsolf, Mrs. Harry Lindsey, George E. 
Kirkpatrick and family, D. A. McCandless and family, J. G. Rode 
and family, Will Reese and wife, John Reese and wife, Mrs. Ap- 
pleby, Mr. and Mrs. Throckmorton, Mrs. Charley Davidson, Ralph 
Stevens, Mrs. Carl Graham, May Willard, Emma Markham, Mrs. 
S. G. Butler, J. M. Steele, W. C. Little, John G. Dunscomb, John 
Lawrie and family, Lee Nixon, Mrs. Amy Sayles, A. H. Gossard, 
William West and wife, Mrs. R. H. Roys, Mrs. L. B. Bunnell. 

The young men seen there often, occasionally, monthly, quar- 
terly and semi-annually were Harry Arrowsmith, Will Hillis, Wal- 
ter DuBois, Jim McCuUough, Prank Todd, Fred Dutton, John I. 
Stewart, Kos Harris, J. T. McMillan, G. H. Herrington, John M. 
Allen, Amos L. Houek, Joseph Askew, E. B. Jewett and W. R. 
Kirkpatrick. 

As one looks over the present church, indulges in retrospec- 
tion, unrolls the scroll of the past, he realizes the ravages of the 
gnawing tooth of time on matron and maid, and him who came 
in the pride, strength and glory of ambitious manhood to do 
honor unto Him who walked upon the sea, who died upon Calvary 
ages before civilization penetrated the American desert and 
builded homes and fashioned a city at the junction of the St. 
Peter and St. Paul (Big and Little Arkansas rivers), where 
Coronado bivouacked his Spanish buccaneers in his march to find 
and conquer the kingdom of Quivira, plunder, ravish and sack the 



WICHITA PRESBYTERIANISM 175 

"Seven Cities," and float the banner of Castile and Aragon on 
the heights of Cibola. 

The then older men, the patriarchs of this church, ha' gone 
where pre-emption and homestead contests are unrecognized, 
where town building is a lost art, and the local rivalry locating 
a county seat, of finding a site for a mill, a depot or postoiBee 
is a dead science; where toll-bridges are not required. On the 
eastern hill, from whose crown our own Henry Clay Sluss first 
beheld the "Happy Valley" and pronounced his prophetic apos- 
trophe on the royal infant at his feet, these pioneer patriarchs 
sleep. There were plainness, bluntness, directness and honesty 
in their every-day life that commanded reverence, even in a gen- 
eration where "Honor thy father and thy mother" is a repealed 
statute. 

"If death unto the noble dead 

Is sweet as life to them that live. 
Why mourn for those who worms ha' fed. 
Or salt the earth wi' bitter tears?" 

If Christianity is true, the dead patriarch is the happy patri- 
arch, and is now in attendance at an eternal and universal world's 
fair compared to which the Chicago exposition was as feeble, 
meager, vapid and trashy a copy as the tin crowns of the king 
of a one-night-stand show in a cove oyster town is compared with 
the coronet of the Dutchwoman who rules Great Britain. 

Of others in this church, one may say : 

"They are fast achieving the silver livery of age, and though 
not clean past youth, yet have some smack of age in them." 

When one realizes that the babes christened in this church 
have grown to manhood and womanhood, even since Dr. Hewitt's 
time, we realize that the whirligig of time is still a-spinnin'. One 
young married woman had only one regret on her wedding day, 
•viz. : that she could not be married by the Presbyterian pastor. 
Dr. Hewitt, who had baptized her when she was three months old. 

This life-growth affection by children for a pastor is the out- 
growth of the system of the selection of pastors. To our mind, 
the "circuit-rider" system is not conducive to the building up 
of bonds 'twixt pastor and church. 

"With tendrils strong as flesh and blood, 
Round which our past-time and happiness grow. ' ' 



176 HISTOEY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

I have read in history of family doctors and family lawyers 
who, from sire to son, three generations or more, have been in one 
place. The pastor in a church should be as fixed as the pulpit, 
metaphorically speaking. 

The corner-stone of the present church was laid on July 4, 
1876. My recollection is that the day was the hot, hotter, hottest, 
dusty, dustier, dustiest, torrid, torrider, torridest day in Kansas. 
In fact, it was a catoose, serifacious, sevaguous day. These last 
three words express the positive, comparative and superlative 
degree in anything as to fineness, quality, length, breadth, thick- 
ness, good, vile, gorgeous, etc., etc. Any one needing an adjective 
to express any differentiation of a word can use these instead of 
hackneyed and commonplace terms which are worn thin by the 
abrasion of millions of tongues for ages. 

The corner-stone contains the ordinary things put in corner- 
stones since the day Hiram of Tyre consigned his rafts of cedar 
and cypress to Solomon and drew a sight draft for corn and oil 
to liquidate the balance of trade, thereby establishing amicable 
trade relations between them. (Blaine, no doubt, was aware of 
this when he flew reciprocity's eagle some years ago.) In addi- 
tion to the "staple articles" put in the corner-stone hereinbefore 
mentioned and heretofore referred to, there were the following 
"new goods," to-wit: 

1 letter to posterity. 

1 letter to local editor Wichita "Eagle." 

1 letter to money order clerk, postoffice, Wichita. 

1 letter to registry clerk, postoffice, Wichita. 

1 letter to descendants of Frank Yike and Mary Carpenter. 

1 letter to descendants of J. P. Harsen and wife. 

1 letter to descendants of W. J. Hobson. 

1 letter addressed "To any white man having the name of 
Murdock, at Wichita, Kansas. If none at Wichita, then to any 
man in Kansas of that name." 

]\r. W. Levy deposited two silver half-dollars. 

All of the above are to be opened in A. D. 1976. 

Frank Yike and wife lived on the West Side. W. J. Hobson 
was a bridge builder and clothing store man. He and Morgan 
Cox, partners as Hobson & Cox, bought out Hays Bros.' clothing 
store, then known as "Oak Hall," at 103 West Douglas avenue, 
in the fall of 1874 or 1875. 

Mr. Harsen received a salary of $800 per year, which pre- 



WICHITA PRESBYTERIANISM 177 

vented his wasting his substance in riotous living. He received 
$3,600 for his claim, afterwards sold to Harry Hill. Many of his 
friends regretted that he did not hold his claim until the "boom" 
and lay it out in town lots (and then go "busted"?). 

This church was organized March 13, 1870, on Waco avenue, 
above Oak, at the Hunger House. The charter members were: 
John M. Steele (Jim Steele), E. A. Peck, William Finn, W. H. 
Gill, William Smith, R. M. Bowes, B. S. Dunbar, Lucy Greenway 
(wife of D. R. B. X. I. Y. Greenleaf), Ella Boggs, Margaret, Mary 
and Anna Peck and Mrs. Amy Sayles (wife of M. A. Sayles and 
daughter of A. J. Cook). William Finn now lives at Sedgwick 
City. 

In 1870 this church held services in a livery stable, and the 
flies — the big blue-bottle flies, the pestiverous gadflies, the ram- 
pant "hoss-flies, " the blue-tail flies, blue-green flies, flesh, black, 
cheese, forest, bee, spider, wine, bat, Hessian, onion and stable 
flies, and "all and singular" the multiform, the gregarious and 
annoying insects of every "name and nature and kind whatso- 
ever" that bother man, woman and beast, that infest the fauna 
and flora of stables, that live, move and have their being, that are 
born, baptized, educated, married and rear progeny, in, under, 
around, about a stable, and die and go to the fleld Elysian of 
"Flydom" — all made it their particular business on Sunday to get 
up early and wash and dress their "kids" so as to be sure of a 
parquet or dress-circle seat on a large, glassy bald-head, at eleven 
a. m. and then hold the fort from the solo or voluntary to the 
common singing, on through "preachin'," on and on to the col- 
lection, aye, verily even unto the doxology. 

And when the services were o'er. 
And the flies, the said flies, galore. 

Emerged in a body from the door. 
And in the air did soar. 

The weary passer-by wont to exclaim. 
That a hive of bees had swarmed. 

Editor's Note. — This livery stable incident is not based on 
any well authenticated historical sketch, preserved in the archives 
of the church, or in any musty tome, enveloped in Kansas 
"Loam," but is reasoned out from cause to effect, just as the 



178 HISTOEY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

scientist, from a bone, constructeth an animal; and gives it char- 
acteristics and habits. 

Later, afterward, subsequently, according to the chronology 
of the church, the church caused to be builded a tabernacle on 
the corner of Wichita and Second streets, at the place where the 
Missouri Pacific Railroad Company now stops its passenger trains. 
The said tabernacle was a well built building and in keeping with 
the size, wealth and social position of the congregation. This 
church was not a small, insignifiicant, "dinky" affair, as many 
suppose. It is not the building now used by the Missouri Pacific 
railway as a place to sell tickets and store baggage at Wichita 
and Seconds streets, as people generally believe. A person of 
even limited observation would, on viewing the said place, reach 
the conclusion, at sight, that a respectable church body, cor- 
poration or association would not have build such a "wood-shed" 
affair for church purposes, even in the early cottonwood-lumber, 
saw-mill days, when "'wet-pine" was a luxury and seasoned 
hardwoods were as far beyond the dream of the dwellers in the 
"Happy Valley" as alabaster and onyx are now barred in the 
nocturnal visions of a "busted boomer" who was on the bullish 
side of the market in from 1886 to 1888. 

Later on the tabernacle was conveyed to the Catholic church 
and was its church building for some years and until the same 
was transferred unto the colored people, and it is now the Cen- 
tropolis hotel on Main street, between Elm and Pine streets. 
Many memories cling 'round this building. Children who were 
christened in it have grown to man and womanhood and have 
been united in it until death us do part; from it, the tenement 
of clay hath been borne to the silent city on the eastern hill ; in 
it many have turned their backs on the world, flesh and devil and 
pushed forward, onward, upward, to a nobler life, in happy, sober 
earnestness. From the day it was builded until the present time, 
a change, a transformation hath taken place, which the most 
sanguine never imagined; since its construction a single lot has 
sold for more money than the entire townsite at that date would 
have brought in cash. Three of the elders of this Presbyterian 
church are of legal age as elders, viz. : 

Robert E. Lawrence, January 8, 1871. 

C. S. Caldwell, October 13, 1872. 

D. A. Mitchell, December 13, 1874 (since deceased). 



WICHITA PRESBYTERIANISM 179 

I am very proud to be a "goat" where elders "hold their 
job" from generation to generation, since t^lie Australian ballot 
has become a law, and the congregation, without fear, favor or 
espionage, can vote its individual sentiment. 

The history of this church since 1876 1 leave to others. I 
long since determined to preserve a short sketch of this church, 
for the generation to come after us. 

Note. — I acknowledge indebtedness to Judge D. A. Mitchell 
for historical data. He furnished the "wool" but the carding, as 
well as the "shoddy" are from mine own factory and loom. Much 
good wool hath been ruined by poor dye and bad looms, and 
forced on the "trade" by the loud pattern and glib salesman. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 
THE BOAED OF TRADE OF WICHITA AND HEREIN. 

By 

KOS HARRIS. 

"Of many M'orthy things which I fain would rescue from 
quick oblivion." 

Long since I resolved to preserve a sketch of the board of 
trade. Many facts are now in the realm of legend. In this zone 
men differ ; I give only my own views, subject to criticism, carp- 
ing and contradiction. 

To destroy wild beauty, toil, fret and die. 
The pioneer came, with strong arm and brain ; 

The vision that runs to the western sky, 
Forever was o'er on the wind-swept plain. 

Our sympathies control judgment ; opinions are formed by 
association; facts take on the hue of wishes; fancy and imagina- 
tion supply lapses — in the chain of a narrative — until, as Shake- 
speare hath it: 

"Made such a sinner of his memory, to credit his own lie." 

When this last stage of the disease is reached, we are qualified 
as a witness — and ready to swear to all we relate. 

By question and association, the things I recite were unto 
me divulged. When I landed at Wichita, Uncle Jake Pittinger 
took me to Will Reese's carpenter shop on North Market street 
and I negotiated for seven wet pine planks, one inch thick and 
twelve feet long, and the same were put on the walls of a room 
nine feet wide, twenty-four feet long and twelve feet high. (I 
could have arranged the square feet of this room better by laying 
it on its side.) If I had placed these shelves on North Main street. 
I would have had a different destiny. ' ' The lottery of my destiny 
barred the liberty of choosing" where I would place those shelves. 
180 



BOAED OF TRADE OF WICHITA 181 

Greiffenstein rented rooms on credit; North Main street demanded 
cash. Thirty days on Douglas avenue colored all my views of 
Wichita to such a pitch that three North Main street men together 
on Douglas avenue was in itself a suspicious circumstance, de- 
manding explanation. 

There was no "Board of Trade" then; there were two cliques 
striving for the mastery of a street. We talked, then, not of build- 
a city, but of building a street. 

To my mind there was one main figure in Wichita, and that 
was Greiffenstein; others had an avocation, "Dutch Bill" played 
"rounce, ■' "the devil among the tailors'" and smoked an admix- 
ture of tobacco and perique — and deliberated. Douglas avenue 
was his business. It was his ' ' first born, ' ' the ' ' apple of his eye, ' ' 
and all the ends at which he aimed were Douglas avenue. The 
Iron-gray German was a wizard, who rubbed his "snow-blind 
eyes" touched his enchanted meerschaum-wand, and in the dis- 
solving circling clouds of ascending smoke, beheld visions of a 
future Douglas avenue, akin to the streets that the genii of 
Aladdin's lamp created at his call. He was not a talker, but a 
thinker. In fact he was a 

"Sworn enemy to long speeches. 
And never given to repartee ; 
His deliberation was long, 
His conclusion sure and strong." 

Monticello, The Hermitage, and Greystone have each had 
their pilgrims, but Greiffenstein 's old home on South Water street, 
now Forum, was to the Douglas avenue men "Strawberry Hill," 
and thither on Sunday afternoon the cavaliers of the avenue went 
to plan the week's campaign. 

On the, then, wide-open porch, surrounded by Jim Steele, 
N. A. English, Jim McCullough, C. F. Gilbert, Colonel McClure. 
Fred Daily, Charley Thompson, M. W. Levy, Sol Kohn and Bro. 
Morris, the chieftain sat and blew the "clouds" heavenward and 
listened, and on the morrow gave his deductions. 

Greiffenstein, in the pre-grasshopper day, was always in evi- 
dence when the tocsin sounded to summon Douglas avenue to 
battle for the supremacy of the "half section line, Douglas avenue 
over Central avenue and North Main street : then his step was 
quicker, and the smoke rolled high — 



182 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

There was glory on his forehead 
There was luster in his eye. 
How many times since, 

' ' Those halcyon days, 

When flowers bloom 'd in all our ways ' ' 

has the image of this generous, faithful man come before me in 
"Board of Trade" councils. The absence of some men create a 
feeling that power has departed. To my mind, in after years, the 
absence of the reviled "Big Four" from "Board" meetings 
created this feeling. (This may be, however, the lingering Doug- 
las avenue bias.) Douglas avenue men had brains, ideas, courage, 
but on one occasion "Dutch Bill's" absence on account of a sore 
throat, "milled," stampeded Douglas avenue men, in A. D. 1874, 
like Texas steers crossing the Big river below the bridge. 

Greiffenstein was the Henry of Navarre; his meerschaum 
plume, as the banner, was followed trustingly and blindly. Some 
men are a battalion; Greinfifenstein was a brigade. His calm, 
silent presence was the presage of triumph. 

"One blast upon his bugle horn. 
Were worth a thousand men." 

Greifl'enstein was a statesman. The placing of the toll-bridge 
stock in the hands of H. C. Day, N. McClees, et al., "North 
enders, " deprived Main street of voices, which, for "dividends 
hoped for, ' ' would have made them as enemies to Douglas avenue. 
'Twas their interest to draw interest. The building of Eagle block 
and the location of the postoffiee, the Eagle office, county offices, 
court house, in it, was sagacity; the removal of the land office 
to Douglas avenue was the storming of the heights of El-Caney. 

Charles Gilbert and James R. Mead, with large interests both 
north and south, were neutralized. 

The north end was W. C. Woodman, Lank Moore, Al. Thomas 
and J. C. Fraker, leading a brigade of neutrals and close students 
in private economy with a Yankee bias. 

The north end, with Central avenue as the main artery east 
and west, with capital in hand could have placed the Santa Fe 
depot at the corner of Fifth and Central, the big bridge across the 
river at Central avenue, and forever "shut" Douglas avenue out 
on the first heat. The south end had less cash but more faith and 



BOAED OF TRADE OF WICHITA 183 

courage. Its friends were a unit, and this unity characterized the 
"Board of Trade" in after years, and a study of men shows that 
the "Board of Trade" was ever dominated by Douglas avenue 
men. Though it was concealed generally, the "Board of Trade" 
was selected on Douglas avenue before the annual meeting. This 
was not chance but design. Greiffenstein was a statesman; he 
was not a politician. He read the future and felt that only in- 
creasing labor could conquer the natural advantages of the north 
end. The location of the Oliver-Imboden mill on Douglas avenue 
was a fixed fact before Woodman and Lank Moore knew the mill 
was on foot. 

Greiffenstein, Sol Kohn, Morris Kohu, M. W. Levy, N. A. Eng- 
lish, A. W. Oliver, Jim Steele, Billy McClure, Colonel McClure, 
Jim McCuUough and a host of "small fry" made the Douglas 
avenue crowd. In after years Douglas avenue was "a power," 
and through it all the same spirit dominated the selection of men 
and characterized the measures adopted. 'Twas Douglas avenue 
that located the Missouri Pacific depot (only it stopped at Second 
street instead of the avenue) ; it located the city building and the 
postofSce. Douglas avenue debated three days as to whether or 
not it would fight the court house bonds. It is a matter of deep 
regret that the court house bonds were not defeated and a location 
selected having some regard to the convenience of business men. 
Time was when court twice a year resembled a "general muster," 
but the court house of Sedgwick is a place of business, even as a 
bank or a store. 

There is a legend that "Dutch Bill" and N. A. English drove 
"Old Ben" from Wichita to Emporia to catch Tom Peters, of the 
Santa Fe road, and seciu-e the Santa Fe to Wichita. This drive 
was made in a single buggy and made with three stops. The trip 
was successful, and N. A. English received from Tom Peters a 
guaranty for a "life pass." In 18. . the railroad company repudi- 
ated the "pass." English sued the road and recovered. (See 38 
Kansas, 110.) There were many who claimed that English had 
no more to do with it than many others. The depot was put on 
Mead's land, but English had a "life pass." English either had 
much to do with the location or he "hoodooed" Tom Peters. 
Mead's land was so situated as to give him such a double pull that 
the north end lost a good fighter on north location. In other 
words, he had a "lead-pipe cinch," and did not worry on loca- 
tion. When the depot was first located it was a "heap way" from 



184 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

depot to the Douglas Avenue and Occidental hotels, and the "old 
Daily House" (corner of First and Water) and Southern Hotel 
(old Missouri Pacific ticket office on Main street), now Hub Cloth- 
ing Store. The business men demanded a sidewalk to the depot. 
One was built from Lawrence avenue to Fifth avenue, fronting 
English's land. After some tax sale proceedings and an injunc- 
tion suit the city presented English with a receipt in full. It 
seemed that the council neglected to do everything in regard to 
the "business" except to build the sidewalk. As there were no 
city taxes levied in those days, the income from various divers 
and sundry "places" (now abolished) paying all expenses, the 
loss was not mourned over. 

(Note — In this connection it may be remembered that in those 
halcyon days, ere the tempestuous storm burst in fury o'er, our 
defenseless head, it was our proud boast to the incoming "sucker" 
that "there were no city taxes.") 

To return to our mutton: In 1877 to 1879 "things" moved 
slow, * * * slow. Acres of lots had been sold for taxes; no 
one wanted any. The foreclosure of mortgages on the Occidental 
Hotel, the prior failure of the First National Bank, the tendency 
to move toward and on Douglas avenue, the freeing of the toll 
bridge, and other lesser things paralyzed North Main street, and 
for a season Main street was ' ' Goldsmith 's deserted village. ' ' The 
fortunes of Main street have been as the waves of the sea — at 
highest and lowest tide. The depression on Douglas avenue has 
been great, but if it had equaled Main street's depression. Main 
street would have been annihilated. 

In 1879 the Frisco railway pointed Wichitaward, but had Win- 
field and Wellington in view. A business men's league was called 
and every human in the county was for the bonds. The vote 
supposedly was for a railroad from St. Louis to Wichita and one 
fork to Viola township and one to Mount Hope. The railroad 
got as far as Wichita and stopped. It then appeared that the 
railroad intended to " go on. ' ' The vote was inseparable ; Wichita 
stood "pat" on three lines or no bonds; and the result was "no 
bonds." Two men of all others claimed the crown for the Frisco 
road— C. Wood Davis and Colonel Joeelyn— but Col. M. M. Mur- 
dock, Jim Steele, A. W. Oliver, M. W. Levy, Col. Milton Stewart, 
N. A. English et al. were found about that time and did some 
work. There is a legend that after the road was built and the 
usual excursion to the business men who did nothing toward 



BOAED OF TRADE OF WICHITA 185 

securing the railroad was had the Chamber of Commerce at St. 
Louis gave a banquet, aud one-half of the said business men 
drank out of the "finger-bowls," under the belief that it was 
"pineapple sop," and one man swore that it was the flattest 
champagne he ever tasted. 

' ' Mind you, now, I wasn 't there — 
I only solemnly state 
What Ed Jewett did relate, 
But I forget when or where. 

The opening of the Frisco was manna to the children in the 
desert. It was the "restoration." In the language of Colonel 
Murdock, in Palingenesis, who said : 

"Yet anon, in brighter strains of destiny, 

The Star of Empire beckons on a happy throng, 
Kansas ' Palingenesis. ' ' 

Twas in this hour of hope that the "Old Board of Trade" 
was placed on a foundation. The raven of doubt was banished; 
the croaker was an unclean thing; on double "Eagle" wings we 
soared to heights sublhne. We adopted the German proverb, 
"There is no fish so small but it expects to become a whale." The 
man with money, time, brain, voice was expected to devote a por- 
tion to the advancement and upbuilding of Wichita. He who 
hung back and held his purse was voted as a Wichita curse. The 
stingy man was a marked man, and was pointed out as a negative 
lesson to every newcomer. 

Colonel Milton Stewart was president of the "Board of Trade" 
at the first meeting the writer attended. At this meeting Judge 
Thomas B. Wall and the writer paid $10 and became members of 
the board. 

The glucose factory was tackled. It had no capital, and was 
frowned upon. Subsequently, in 1881, the "creamery craze" 
struck Kansas. It had a representative here, and he worked the 
town to the "ragged fringe of a frazzle," and the "boys" first 
learned the meaning of a double-liability on corporate stock. The 
creamery Avas built, mortgaged, foreclosed to Dr. Hoffman's 
father. It afterward was burned. 



186 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Subsequently, Jim Jones, who worked on a farm at $15 per 
month, got a new suit of clothes and went off on a visit and 
returned as a graduate in the art of building waterworks. He 
got a franchise and sold out to Colonel Lewis and built the 
hoiise where the widow of Mr. Roach now lives, sold out for 
$25,000 and went to Memphis, Tenn., and "worked" that town. 
As a bold schemer, Jones was quartered oak, hand-rubbed, done 
in oil and waxed. He filled his contract with the city, but he 
made a contract that was a jewel, and this was learned as the 
days and months went speeding by, when wooden mains were 
rotting and bursting. "Thus we learn that they who ha' na' 
sense, but money to burn," will find some one to help burn it. 

Wichita was now at the incoming of the tide, and on the crest 
o' swelling wave we gleefully did ride. 

About this time Kansas "took a header" and voted for the 
"prohibition amendment." IMen differ as to the effect on. Wich- 
ita's fortunes by reason of this change, but, in my judgment, a 
change in "theory" without a change in "practice" deprives us 
of the premise from which to argue. John Peter St. John (on 
whose bosom most prohibitionists expected to finally rest, prior 
to Grover's election in 1884) said: "You people (Wichita's) 
have carried on the most successful rebellion against the consti- 
tution in the history of our government." Conceding that St. 
John was correct, we cannot say what the real effect has been 
on the financial condition of Wichita by the liquor law. 

This brings me, according to my chronology, to the shore of 
the "flood" and in sight of the "white caps" so soon to roll 
over Wichita and engulf it; to the wild billows whose spray 
dampened and refreshed everything within an hundred miles, and 
attracted the greedy frotn the Atlantic coast, challenged the 
admiration of all beholders and at the same time made our rivals 
"as full of envy at Wichita's greatness as Cerberus was at Proser- 
pina's beauty." So many things crowd for space that this sketch 
is too long for one paper, and will be finished at a futiu"e time. 

I think it is a truth that until 1883 the local organizations 
were mere cliques, building with a selfish pecuniary direct and 
immediate end, and that the upbuilding of Wichita as a com- 
mercial city, a railroad center, a large distributing point, did 
not enter into the mind of but one man. viz. : Col. M. M. Murdock. 
Colonel Murdock stood between the two furious factions, and 
was appointed postmaster as the only man that both ends would 



BOARD OF TRADE OF WICHITA 187 

trust. There was less polities and more real business in his 
appointment than ever since displayed. He placed the postoffiee 
Avhere Tanner's store is, on Main street, and the factions 
shook hands and went home to whet butcher knives for the next 
engagement. 

In the second paper on this subject will be given the unity 
of Wichita under the banner of "Harmony, Unity, Strength, 
Success. ' ' 

December 3, 1898. 

CHRONICLE II. 

"Local history is a chain, the links o' which are the united 
memories of many minds." 

In the fall of 1882, when Wichita was on the commercial 
"teeter-board" — no one knowing what our destiny was to be — 
there was "talk" of the "Fifth Parallel Railroad," i. e., the road 
supposed to be hunting location and subsidies (principally sub- 
sidies) running from Fort Scott toward Wichita. It was char- 
tered from Fort Scott as the St. Louis, Fort Scott & Wichita 
Railroad (but names do not afPect locations), and our people 
naturally were anxious. Frank Tiernan, then its president, came 
to Wichita and convinced our people that if we obtained this 
road it would cost money, though natural advantages would 
count ; bonus, subsidies, largesses would also weigh. Frank went 
to Newton, drove from Newton to El Dorado, practically over 
the present route of the Ellsworth, Newton & Southeastern Rail- 
way (the railway from El Dorado to Newton). We learned that 
there were at least three factors in getting this road, viz. : Loca- 
tion, bonds and Tiernan, and all seemed to be equally urgent. 
There were no social advantages at Newton. Our saloons were 
open and Frank "played poker." This gave us an advantage 
which was not counted by our people, but Frank looked on the 
foaming beer in the schooner at Tom Jewell's place, under Gov- 
ernor Stanley's law office, and made promises in writing that led 
him to assert that Wichita was to have the road, and the Newton 
committee went home discouraged. The bonds were voted, and 
the road to be completed by July 1, 1883. Mr. Jay Gould was 
believed to be behind this road, but he denied it until the railway 
was built to El Dorado. (A law suit with IMoran developed the 
scheme.) Soon as it was known that it was the Missouri Pacific, 



188 mSTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

"things" at Wichita brightened up, and lots had a value, lands 
stiffened, but all the sales were local (even as the story of rats 
penned up, we simply were slowly consuming ourselves) . 

One day old man Morse, of Connecticut, and a man named 
Ives came to Wichita. They looked around for a while, and 
priced a great many pieces of Douglas avenue and Main street 
lots. They purchased the following properties : 

Southeast corner Main and Second streets. 

Southeast corner Main and First streets. 

The old building and lots where Dunbar's undertaking estab- 
lishment is, and the propei-ty on East Douglas avenue where 
Paige's store is. Pinlay Ross sold them the First street corner 
and immediately purchased the lots where Rorabaugh's store 
now is. 

Finlay bought out Emil Werner. Whether he got the old 
organ that ran from month to month and year to year, without 
a break, when Emil was a "wet goods merchant," I don't know, 
but that organ, with its solemn, melancholy, diabolical, weird, 
spirit-exasperating and soul-destroying strains, was hushed for- 
ever, and everybody chanted Te Deum, Non Nobis Domine, and 
sang the hallelujah, etc. The truth is that said organ, that inani- 
mate, howling parody on musical inventions, caused more blood- 
shed than figures can tabulate. Two men on a hot day could not 
argue on Main street without fighting. The doleful sounds emit- 
ted from the bowels of that * * * organ would cause an excited 
man to whip his mother, a banker to reduce his interest to 3 per 
cent a month, and an officeholder to resign his office. 

Note. — My honest belief is that the organ aforesaid would 
produce pandemonium in Paradise in one hour from its first lugu- 
brious howl. In fact, it was a wooden hypochondriac proclaiming 
its desolation and misery to all mankind. 

The above lot sales to a total stranger acted on the corporeal 
system of the dwellers in the Happy Valley like electricity to the 
frog's leg. The dead were alive ; the alive were quickened. The 
"Board of Trade" (then, as afterward) claimed all the credit. 
Men invoiced themselves and marked their "stuff" up daily, like 
merchants during the "Rebellion." Each week justified the last 
invoice, and we commenced to get the "magnus caput." 

Note. — Joe Morse went home, felt dissatisfied with his pur- 
chases, came back at once to Wichita, and stopped at the Occi- 
dental. Early the next morning he strolled down Main street. 



BOARD OF TRADE OP WICHITA 189 

No one was on the street; the silent hamlet slept. In front of 
Dunbar's he stopped. Old man Grantham came along and Joe 
accosted him. 

Morse — What town is this? 

Grantham — Wichita. 

Morse — What population ? 

Grantham — According to census, 5,000; according to facts, 
2,500. 

Morse — Any property selling? 

Grantham — No. 

Morse — Ain't you mistaken? 

Grantham — No, I ain't. 

Morse — I am told that several large sales of business property 
have been made. 

Grantham — Well, there were two * * * old idiots from Con- 
necticut came out here, and the boys unloaded on 'em, but that is 
the extent of the sales. 

Tableau ! 

Morse went to the hotel, attempted to eat breakfast, went at 
once to Jim Steele's house and was, in fact, "stampeded." Steele 
laughed at him and found him an "optioner" who wanted the 
Paige lot at an advanced price, but advised Morse to reject it. 
Before supper (dinner) Steele had convinced Morse that he was 
a shrewd buyer. Morse walked the street. Men who did not 
know him told him a hundred times of his own purchases. Before 
he left, Morse made other purchases. 

Morse was the original Wichita boomer. He kindled a fire 
that he could not stop, and at last, after making a fortune, was 
consumed by the original fire which he had kindled. 

' ' Behold how great a matter a little fire kindleth ! ' ' — James 
III, 5. 

Prom the Morse-Ives purchases dated the milestone called the 
"boom." A hundred land-owners withdrew their land from 
sale ; two hundred placed theirs on sale. Jim Steele, in Pebruary, 
1883, had his office on the second floor of the building east of the 
"Eagle" office, and one day booked over fifty tracts of land. 
"Jim" sold his home here for $40,000, to Al Thomas and Amos 
Houek. "Jim" had no part in the "boom." He Avent to Tacoraa, 
invested his money in timber lands, and "backed" the Grant 
boys, of Wichita (who lived where Will McNaughten now lives, 
on Topeka avenue), who went to Tacoma and first used and 



190 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

tried to patent the method of raising sunken ships that Hobson 
(the naval kisser) wanted to use on the Spanish ships. 

Note. — Jim Steele died, almost a pauper, in Tacoma. He was 
a man who possessed natural magnetism, and was one of the 
306 immortals who voted for Grant at Chicago, when Grant 
succumbed to the cry of "Csesarism, " "Imperialism" and 
"Dynasty." At a future time I may give space to Steele' as he 
deserves. 

J. M. Steele had as much to do with getting the Missouri 
Pacific Railway as any other one man. He was one of the men 
who possessed power, as Garfield expresses it, in a twofold way, 
viz. : Strength and force ; strength, as typified by the oak, and 
force, as in the thunderbolt. Steele was a leader and in the "long 
ago" was made "of blood and iron." Wichita owes him much. 
The young never knew him. The generation gliding swiftly to 
"nothingness and decay" still recall his majestic presence; the 
old heads remember his power ; the poor, his generosity. 

"Many long summers th' grass shall grow green. 
Blossom and fade, our faces 'atween. 
Ere we shall behold a figure so bold. 
Or in councils hear the voice of his peer. ' ' 

The Missouri Pacific was assured. The depot was not selected. 
The railway company, not being particular, asked for a right of 
way on one of the following streets: Waco, Wichita, Mead, Mos- 
ley, Washington and Kellogg. The town rose in arms ; the city 
council was threatened. Judge Balderston was city attorney. 
After wrangling from Tuesday until Friday, the ordinance was 
passed. The "roar" grew louder. Captain Smythe, a member 
of the council, got out a petition and had the council convened 
on Saturday at 3 o'clock. Judge Sluss represented the "many- 
headed multitude," and was permitted to speak in favor of the 
resolution to repeal the ordinance. Sluss was hired to make that 
speech as a lawyer, and he earned every dollar he charged for it. 
He had an audience that was with him. The room, the hallway 
and the stairway were crowded and the crowd cheered him to 
the echo. The council, like willows, waved to and fro. Mike 
Zimmerly, the president of the council, was the railway company's 
"Gibraltar." He was "a rock in a weary land," in the shadow 



BOARD OF TRADE OF WICHITA 191 

of which the railroad company's attorney and its friends sat 
trembling. On him all our hopes reposed. The railroad com- 
pany's attorney represented that the railway officials were all 
in Fort Scott and that any action in their absence was unfair and 
unjust. Mike Zimmerly moved that the meeting adjourn until 
Tuesday afternoon to give the company officials an opportunity 
to be present. The motion carried. 

In one-half hour a telegram was sent to Frank Tiernan at 
Fort Scott, which, divested of all surplusage and the marrow 
extracted, was, to use the classic language of Isaiah, about as fol- 
lows : ' ' Hell from beneath is moved for thee, to meet thee at thy 
coming." 

Ere vespers, long before Erebus spread his sable mantle o'er 
the carpet of sun-brown buffalo grass, a telegram was received 
that Tiernan, president; Chanault, treasurer, and Woods, engi- 
neer, would arrive here Sunday, if possible on the construction 
train. The railroad was new, track out of line, culverts were 
temporary, made of ties, bridges half constructed, and all was 
being crowded to earn bonds — i. e., get the subsidies and build the 
road permanently afterward. On Sunday word came that they 
(Tiernan et al.) were coming, and to have teams at the west end 
of the track at once. 

The warm friends of the road were excited, but were reas- 
sured when the "wire" came: "Port Scott. — All aboard. — 
Tiernan. ' ' 

Coming to head off "the repeal," 

Carried by an engine fleet; 
Whizzing on the bands of steel 

Through the fields of yellow wheat ; 
Rumbling on the trembling bridges. 
And between the "walls of corn," 
Along the Flint hills' ridges — 
To save a hope forlorn. 

Banking on the ordinance, $20,000 had been expended on West 
Douglas and Wichita streets. 

On Sunday twenty teams from the end of the railroad reached 
Chisholm creek, with ties and iron to make a "showin'." On 
Monday morning an acceptance of the ordinance was served on 
the city officials, in "deshabille" and "decollete." And the engi- 



192 fflSTOKY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

neer corps entered on Wichita street at Park street. The depot 
was commenced, the ties and iron strung along the street; the 
railroad officials and attorneys went to bed, saved by a "vested 
right." Waco street not being selected. Captain Smythe was 
appeased, and the council did not act on the motion to repeal 
the ordinance. 

Germane to this railroad history there were many amusing 
things, three of which are worth space : 

After the ordinance was accepted, and the officials were going 
to the Occidental Hotel, Tiernan said: "Boys, this is equal to the 
excitement of a poker game in room 12. ' ' 

Speaking of Frank's penchant for poker: In June, 1883, an 
injunction was issued to prevent crossing the land at Twenty-fifth 
street and Hydraulic avenue. It was agreed to hold the same 
twenty-four hours, imtil $800 could be sent here for settlement. 
The treasurer of the road wired that Tiernan had a draft for the 
amount. Tiernan was in room 12, aforesaid, in the Occidental, 
but he was like the man from Jericho. M. W, Levy sent for the 
road's attorney and showed him the draft, indorsed by Tiernan to 
Dick Walker. No further explanation was given or requested. 
The general impression was circulated that Tiernan was unable to 
settle for $800, and another draft for same amount was sent. 

On the day (or night) that the ordinance was passed, Mike 
Zimmerly was the last name called on the roll. Mike had been 
promised a guaranty that the road would not go down Kellogg 
street, and he did not intend to vote until he got it. When his 
name was called he arose and left the room, followed by Tiernan. 
When he came back and voted "Aye," Captain Smythe arose 
and demanded to know the nature of the conversation between 
Zimmerly and Tiernan. Mike arose and said the gentleman from 
the Second ward could go to Pandemonium, Abaddon, Domdaniel, 
Purgatory, Gehenna, Hades, Tartarus, Styx, Plutonian shades, 
Tophet, and other words germane to the above, closely allied 
therewith, from the same Greek and Latin rot. And thus were 
dull hours of council meeting interspersed with pleasantries to 
lighten the burden of weighty matters fraught with deep solici- 
tude to the city. 

The completion of the Missouri Pacific was to Wichita as — 

"Wine that maketh glad the heart of man." — ^Psalms iv, 15. 

It was the first railroad to give promise of competition. The 



BOARD OF TRADE OF WICHITA 193 

Frisco was really in the hands of the Santa Fe, so we only had 
one road. 

To prevent Tiernan going to Kingman, the Santa Fe and 
Frisco built a joint line to Kingman, and rejoiced all "Wichita 
because Tiernan was "headed for Anthony, and both roads were 
building at once, and then to Hutchinson. 



CHAPTER XIX. 
THE STREET RAILWAY— A. D. 1883. 

By 

KOS HARRIS. 

Among the last acts of Jim Steele was to interest himself in 
the street railway. Col. John "W. Hartzell, of Topeka, came here 
and met with no encouragement. At last Steele took the same 
in hand; a charter was obtained and corporation organized, as 
follows: President, Hartzell; vice-president, Steele; treasurer, 
L. D. Skinner ; secretary, Frank Hartzell ; attorney, Kos Harris. 
The road issued bonds, $15,000, sold them at par to S. W. Wheel- 
ock, of Moline, 111., and built from Fifth avenue to Main street 
on Douglas, and then north on Main street; thence from Oak 
street to the Santa Fe depot. 

During this year (1883) people commenced to come to Wich- 
ita — at least 2,500 "newcomers." The street railway paid from 
the start. The "corn train" to Cincinnati, 0., was shipped on 
the first Sunday after street cars were started, and the receipts 
for that day were $250. 

Hartzell was a pioneer and, like Alexander the Great, wanted 
to conquer more worlds, and then determined to go to Carthage, 
and then determined to go to San Francisco. He sold his lines 
at Wichita to Col. E. R. Powell for $25,000. Powell sold one-half 
to Col. B. H. Campbell for $25,000, and subsequently sold the 
other half to J. 0. Davidson, Colonel Campbell, George L. Rouse, 
R. E. Lawrence and 0. Martinson et al. for $100,000. 

Note.— On July 4. 1883, Colonel Campbell made a bet that 
the street cars would be in the hands of a receiver in six months. 
Judge Edwin Hill was stakeholder. Inside of one year Campbell 
paid $25,000 for half interest, thus proving that — 

For the almighty dollar, common clay man 
Will "tack his course" and change his plan; 
"Eat his words," lose his bet, for any scheme, 
"Wlieu a change comes o'er the spirit of his dream." 
194 



THE STREET RAILWAY— A. D. 1883 195 

In other words : "A A^ase man adapts himself to cu'cumstances, 
even as water shapes itself to the jug that contains it." 

Verily, verily, on rolling waves the ship "Wichita" was scud- 
ding, chased by a tempest soon — too soon — to overtake it and 
sweep from the deck every man not lashed to the timbers. The 
ravens were many, but the albatross in our natures moved us to 
seek the "trade-winds," court the commercial billows, to defy 
the tempest, and become as deaf as adders. We drowned the 
fierce cries of the croaking raven, and onward we went, pro- 
claiming to the dwellers of the Happy Valley: 

There's money in the town, boys, 

If you will only by it stand ; 
There's millions in th' deal, boys, 

If you will lend a helping hand. 
Let us join hearts and hands together, 

And put our rivals down ; 
'Twill be glory after while 

To know we built a town. 

And yet, up to this date (1884) in our history, the "Board of 
Trade ' ' was but little known and was less appreciated. There were 
not to exceed twelve men (same number as a petit jury, same as 
the apostles) who were crying in the wilderness. The majority 
of our people were "sawing wood" at their own woodpile, and 
paying no heed to the swelling storm soon to burst o'er us. To 
raise $100 for a railroad committee was simply worse than pay- 
ing campaign expenses after election, or raising a church moi-t- 
gage. Some men said they would not give anything, because they 
were never on committee. The truth is, few men were fitted in 
brain to head a committee. The real railroad committee — no 
matter who was appointed — were Murdoch, Levy, Niederlander 
"and Oliver. One reason for this was, they were personally 
acquainted with Gould, Hayes, Hoxie, Clarke and other Missouri 
Pacific officials. 

Great and efficient work was done by J. 0. Davidson, H. W. 
Lewis et al., but this will come hereafter. 

This brings me to the year 1885, one year prior to the organ- 
ization of the "Board of Trade" on a new basis and the cam- 
paigns under the motto of Harmony, Unity, Strength, Success. 



CHAPTER XX. 
CHRONICLES. 

By 

KOS HARRIS. 

CHRONICLE ni. 

' ' To write local history ; to be exact ; to wound no one ; to 
give all actors their due, is to be a god." 

In the spring of 1885, 
The budding city was all alive ; 
There was business, thrift and money ; 
Kansas was tli ' land o ' milk and honey. 

In the year of '85, farm land sold then ' ' sightunseen ' ' on gen- 
eral reputation. The trouble was to keep the ' ' stuff. ' ' Raw lands, 
ten to fifteen miles from Wichita, sold at from $2,000 to $4,000 per 
quarter. 

Late in the spring of 1885, Jay Gould, General Solicitor Brown, 
General Manager Hoxie, George Gould et al., officers of the Mis- 
souri Pacific Railway Company, arrived in Wichita one morning 
and invited Colonel Murdock, Levy, Niederlander and Oliver and 
the local attorney to go with them to Anthony. On the ride back, 
the Wichita & Colorado Railroad was born, the route being then 
from Wichita to Mt. Hope, thence to Stafford, St. John and 
Larned. Procrastination, however, let the Santa Fe build from 
Hutchinson to St. John before we got started. The relationship 
of a Hutchinson lady to the wife of an official of the Missouri 
Pacific forced the line to Hutchinson. Verily, verily, woman, weak 
woman, round among "pots and kettles,'" using man, strong man, 
for "skittles": woman, frail woman, with a duster in hand, scat- 
tering microbes and other death-dealing animalcular infusoria 
from times beginning, hath had a large part in the world's 
chronicles. 



CHRONICLES 197 

' ' Talk of woman 's sphere as if it had a limit : 
There's not a place in earth or heaven; 
There's not a task to mankind given, 
That hath a feather 's weight o ' worth, 
Without a woman in it." 

Helen of Troy, Cleopatra, Dido, Garah of Marlborough, 
Eugenie, the Duchess of Portsmouth, Agnes Tarei, Pompadour, 
Maintenon, Mrs. Lincoln, Madame Recamier, Madame de Stael, 
Countess of Pembroke and other ladies of character, reputation 
and wit, and thousands of unknown yet strong-brained women, 
have made and unfrocked men, created generals, colonels, nobles 
and judges, as well as wars ; changed forms of government ; and 
man, strong, brainy man, has charged the same to "destiny," 
instead of petticoats; cursed his divining star; his horoscope — 

Little think — never dreaming. 

That some lovely woman's ways, 
Li affectionate scheming. 

Has changed a year 's work in a day. 

The local directory of the Wichita & Colorado Railway went 
to bed hearing the "braky" call out: "All aboard to Mt. Hope, 
Stafford, St. John and Larned!" and awoke with a telegram 
from New York: "The road will go to Hutchinson. Pull instruc- 
tions to Harding by mail." 

Afterward we learned — 

That the eloquence of man. 
All statistics, map, and plan, 
Were brushed aside by woman's wit, 
And that was the end of it. 

Hutchinson claimed the "first blood," and we then all claimed 
that we always intended to go to Hutchinson. Before we "laid 
down," however, we appealed to Mr. Gould. He dismissed the 
appeal and affirmed the judgment of the lawyer official. In a 
little time we found tjiat the D. M. & A. Railroad, Jay Gould and 
S. H. Mallory, and the line from Geneseo to Pueblo had formed 
a "trust," and that the Wichita & Colorado Railway would 
end at Hutchinson; that all dreams, schemes, plans, hopes 



198 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

and ambitions of the "Wichita crowd" as "railway projectors" 
and "town builders," "bond voters," "subsidy-getters," were at 
an end, and forever ; and instead of a main line to Pueblo, Colo., 
from Wichita, we were tied to the main line as a branch at 
Geneseo. Instead of being the "trunk" we we-re only one of 
many branches. 

Pate hath so far made Wichita a branch-line town in name, but 
we are the only "branch-line town" that "time tables" are made 
to accommodate. The only one where twelve commercial trav- 
elers for a wholesale house might make Marion, Newton, Burton, 
Lyons, Kingman, Harper, Medicine Lodge, Anthony, Caldwell, 
Arkansas City, Neodesha and El Dorado, and get home the same 
day. Wichita as a town paid for all it has ; no legislative larceny 
hath added a dollar to the millions of taxable assets of Wichita. 
The sums paid to the state treasurer give us a right to demand 
some public enterprise, enable us to criticize appropriations made 
to towns whose existence depends on biennial legislative plunder. 
Note. — The writer hereof, speaking only for himself, hopes 
we will continue this policy until all the lunatic asylums, state 
prisons and normal schools are located. Though home industry 
is a good thing, it is better to ship lunatics and convicts out and 
thrifty people in. So far as a normal school is concerned, it will 
add nothing, be nothing ; 'twill only take luster from and dwarf 
our present splendid educational institutions. Another great 
reason is that we are now at liberty to examine into and criticize 
all appropriations not just or demanded. The location of a pub- 
lic institution forces us to let all "steals" go through to save our 
own particular larceny of public money. Wichita is the resultant 
of local pride, brain, labor and push. Situate on buffalo grass; 
surrounded by sunflowers; hundreds of miles from commerce; 
the political and commercial Ishmaelite of Kansas; without nat- 
ural advantages save land (the supreme mother of all fortune) 
and — 

With no powerful "friend at court," 

Of every bantling town the sport; 

The ribald jest and envious sneer 

Were daily ours from year to year. 

The years came and went, yet slowly, surely, we were upward 
climbing. High was the mark at which our archers shot. We 
aimed at the capital, and struck the column above the base. Our 



CHRONICLES 199 

rivals became our helpers and by hatred "pricked the sides of 
our intent," goaded us to shoot at the unattainable and lose a 
thousand arrows. We learned to shoot high. And from the- peak 
of our efforts we beheld our rivals groveling in the dust beneath 
us, scrambling for the crumbs of the Wichita banquet. 

The shafts of envy, spite, rancor and malice were hurled at 
Wichita from every point of the compass. Our success only 
created a larger band of "howlers" and our misfortunes were 
heralded abroad as if our misery, desolation and woe were mat- 
ters to be proud of. In fact, the "Kansas fight" on the only town 
having spirit or independence reminds one of the exultation of 
a family over the ruin of a sister, because it gave a chance to get 
into print. Before we succeeded, columns were printed by 

"Lean-faced envy from its loathsome cave" 
and scattered as autumn leaves. Poison was shed on the evening 
air like the deadly upas, to inoculate all within its zone. 

"With rival hating envy" our good offices were spurned; our 
friendship was a badge of disloyalty to the coyote hamlets, which, 
aft last, stood afar oft', contemplating the dying lion, waiting for 
the hour for to "hold a wake" and gnaw the carcass. In 1886 we 
felt we had succeeded, despite the many handicaps put on our 
steed by the jealous rivals in the race. In fact, we may truth- 
fully say : 

On prairies level, bare and brown, 

Wliich seem 'd to reach from sky to sky. 
United brain built up a town 

Which envy said would surely die ; 
Dwellers therein all move away; 
Soon it would crumble and decay, 
As many another had done. 
And, save ruin'd brick and stone, 

Naught remain to recall, some day, 

The dreamers on the Arkansas 

Wlio founded what was "Wichita." 

But these calumnies, base as hell, blacker than the hue of 
dungeons, as rancorous as the tongue of a "turncoat," only made 
our fires burn brighter and spur the town to carry a heavier 
load, and break every colt to work in "lead, swing or wheel," and 
push on the hilltop. Yes, in 1886, we had triumphed, and yet 



200 fflSTOEY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

we felt that until we achieved the mountain's top, the regal peaks, 
and stood upon the lofty crest, o'ertoppling the naked beetling 
rocks that frowned on the valley below, far above the timber-line, 
beyond the ragged pine and the flower that buds amidst the snow, 
beyond the clouds, above the glare, where, wrapped in the ever- 
lasting shroud of frosted ice, the frozen sentinels guard the rocky 
pass in solitude and grandeur, we should neither pause nor rest. 
Our ambition was not baseborn, but high, sublime and lofty. Old 
age would be in comfort ; the generations unborn would lisp our 
names, and build monuments when we were dust of ashes. 

"Our high-blown pride at length broke," and there "were 
none so poor to do us reverence." We fell, and oh, what a fall! 
"Aye, verily, as Lucifer from the battlements of heaven"; and 
what royal company — Kansas City, Omaha, Los Angeles, Denver, 
Galveston, Tacoma, Sioux City — and the small fry. Railroads 
went into receivers' hands. The shock that cleared our decks, 
tore away the mast, flooded the hold and tore from our sides the 
lifeboats and left us "to the mercy of a rude stream," was felt 
from Marblehead to the Golden Gate; from the Lakes, north, to 
the Gulf, south. ' 

Our bold temerity dwarfed the past and made us a monument 
— a milestone in the highway of the historian — and we will not 
be forgotten. 

Note. — Ere we say to this farewell, I desire to give a few 
facts as to the Wichita & Colorado Railway. Colwich was made 
as the name from the first syllable of Colorado and Wichita ; An- 
Dale (this is the proper spelling, as fixed in the charter of the 
An-Dale Town company) was formed from the name of George 
Anderson and Will Dale (Judge Dale's brother), the first syllable 
of Anderson and the name of "Dale." 

REORGANIZED BOARD OP TRADE. 

In the winter of 1886 the new blood was striving for place, for 
recognition. The old Board of Trade was dictatorial. It was the 
pioneer, and, like "old politicians," hated to surrender to the 
young men. The new men were impatient and aggressive, and 
had some cause for it. They wanted a place on the Board of 
Trade. No one would give way. The Board of Trade held its 
meetings and heeded not the brewing storm. Some of the mem- 
bers felt that the new men were not treated fairly, but the "man- 



CHRONICLES 201 

agement" just "sawed wood," heard not the "rabble." The 
"rabble" aforesaid was composed of men that had themselves 
held power ere they to Kansas came — men that had brains, influ- 
ence, "and, by jingo, had the money, too," belonged to the new 
crowd, and in their veins "blood ran warmer than wine." 

They, too, had read Rob Roy, and learned — 
"The good old rule, the simple plan. 
That he shall take who has the power. 
And he shall keep, who can." 

Acting on this humanitarian impulse, which has been the rule 
amongst the civilized and uncivilized heathen since the days of 
one Julius, surnamed Caesar, the new blood circulated a call 
around town for a business men's meeting at Garfield Hall on that 
evening. The old Board of Trade held off, but many of the silent 
members attended. 

(Up to this date the Board of Trade had no funds, save the 
dues, which were small; no funds were in the treasury. Collec- 
tions around town were made to raise money for any committee 
work.) 

On the night above set out, at least five hundred men met at 
Garfield Hall, as agreed in the call, and a more enthusiastic band 
never before or since had business in hand. George W. Clement 
(afterward mayor) was made chairman and Alexander Steele was 
secretary. 

Among the then prominent men present were: George M. 
Dickson, Colonel Bean, "W. K. Carlisle, Attorney Paey, Ed Foster, 
Mr. Hess, George Blackwelder, George L. Rouse, Mose Hinman, 
R. A. Haste, Sam Howe, George Hasten, W. R. Dulaney, Elmer 
DeVore, George C. Strong, Talmage (of Todd & Talmage), George 
G. Mathews, Arthur Parks, W. P. Green, C. E. Ferguson, W. P. 
• McNair, C. H. Peckham, Gardner Work, W. M. Bond, Colonel 
Topler, George W. Walker, J. S. P. Gordon, Frank Dale, Jim 
Mercer, J. J. Parks, Judge Museller, Bruce Keenan, Wesley Mor- 
ris, Aaron Katz, Lee Hays, Sam Goldstein, Robert and M. Jacks, 
Murray Myers, Hank Heiserman, and hundreds more I cannot 
at this date recall. 

On that night George Clement "won his spurs," demonstrated 
his power to talk, and his right to be ruler. 

Alexander Steele that night proved he could think and act. 



202 HISTOKY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

' ' Things ' ' moved along, with suggestions, until Pacy arose and 
said: 

"Time was money; money was power; power was what we 
needed; that a corporation with such purposes as we were at- 
tempting needed cash ; that an empty treasury could do noth- 
ing — was as nothing. He therefore moved that 100 men donate 
$10 apiece, to be called membership fee ; that each new member 
donate $100 apiece, and that this money be used to defray the 
expenses to be incurred in securing industries for Wichita. ' ' 

Pacy sat down, and fifty men seconded the motion. The roll 
was called, and Clements announced over $5,000 donated in 
twenty minutes. The crowd went wild, to draw it mild. Every- 
body smiled. A committee was appointed to draw a charter for 
The Wichita Chamber of Commerce ; a committee for rules and 
by-laws; a committee for soliciting members. All committees to 
report next night at same place. 

Meeting adjourned. 

The old Board of Trade had its ears to the ground. It had 
heard the rumbling sound. A detail was sent out to recall the 
wandering sheep from its fold and learn what was on foot. The 
aforesaid sheep were called together by the Chamber of Com- 
merce bell. Dire destruction's desolating discrimination had cut 
the old "board" in twain. The silent members were free and 
were glad that they were free. They exclaimed, when accosted by 
the detail sent after them by the old board : 

"Let the galled jade wince ; our withers are unwrung. " 

The imperious temper of the "old board" was cheeked. There 
was naught to do but "stoop to conquer." Delay was dangerous. 
The new charter must be left unwritten. Concession, compromise, 
capitulation on honorable terms were all that was left. The old 
board saw that dissension was death ; that in harmony only was 
success to Wichita. The board met in the room where C. V. 
Ferguson's law office was later, and sent a committee to the 
Chamber of Commerce. The Chamber of Commerce sent a com- 
mittee, composed of Clement, Steele, Dickson, and two men who 
were members of the old board, and who had linked themselves 
to the new. After deliberation, it was agreed that the board be 
increased to twenty-three ; that the old board have thirteen ; new 
men, twelve ; that A. W. Oliver be president ; George L. Rouse, 
vice-president ; George W. Clement, secretary ; M. W. Levy, 
treasurer ; that the subscription made be turned to the old board ; 



CHEONICLES 203 

that a meeting be held in the court room at First street ; that the 
new directory be elected, new officers chosen, the subscriptions be 
paid. With some modifications, the program was carried out, and 
as the meeting adjourned, some one (probably from Kentucky) 
sang out: 

"United we stand, divided we fall." 
Some one answered: 

"In harmony triumph, in unity fall, 
Be the banner sheltering all." 

This was the ' ' starter ' ' of the motto : 

Harmony, 

Unity, 
Strength, 



The new Board of Trade soon had in its treasury .$12,000. The 
old board had surrendered, but by a strategic act it regained all 
it lost. The board was too large to handle anything. The per- 
sonnel of the directory, for brain, labor, power, "result-getters," 
was never surpassed by any town, but the board was too big to 
act. Therefore an executive committee ! President, vice-presi- 
dent, secretary-treasurer, and Colonel Murdock. The old board 
lost the "deal" and won by taking "the last trick." 

The personal aggregate wealth of this board ran into millions 
— millions based on tangible wealth. And yet the "slump," the 
subsequent decline, has left them as ruined gamesters of rou- 
lette, faro and the "Derby." Of that glorious, gallant, generous 
band, few remain ; many are dead. Some died almost as paupers. 
The monument that marks their resting place cost more money 
than the estate they left was worth at final settlement. Some are 
almost outcasts ; some are working by the day to earn bread for 
their respective families. Many of these men subscribed and paid 
donated subscriptions that today would make their family above 
want, if not in comfortable circumstances. 

And yet, even at this short day, their names, deeds, lives, are 
almost forgotten. Verily, verily, you stick your finger in a glass 
of water, beer, brandy or other liquid, and when you pull it out 
no trace of said finger remains ; so with man. 



204 HISTOKY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

"The evil men do lives after them; 
Men's evil manners live in brass, 
Their virtues we write in water." 

Monuments in brick and stone, in railroads, colleges and pack- 
ing houses attest their liberality and labor ; yet all, all is wiped 
out by the remembrance of what they failed to do. 

' ' All honor to him who wins the prize ! 

This world has cried, for a thousand years ; 
To him who tries, who fails and dies, 
There's naught but pitiful tears." 

In our little world, naught is left but curses for many who 
have fallen, and every noble act is effaced, obliterated by the 
remembrance of a debt unpaid, an obligation uncanceled ; and yet 
he who thinks, realizes that but for this army of workers, who in 
unselfishness worked for all, there would be but little here, and 
that little would have but a nominal value. 

Those who are here, who know the sacrifice, who beheld them 
in health, ambition and pride, cannot but feel a pang that they 
were only to "behold the promised land, and were never to enter 
therein. ' ' To name these men now will wound the living — wound 
many of them, yet living, afar off. 

Some day, when the historians write of Wichita, they will, "in 
letters of gold, on leaves of silver," inscribe the names of our 
"heroes," and the generation yet to follow us will do them the 
honor which this generation withholds. The pioneer since the 
world began has never reaped the harvest ; he that plants a tree 
seldom eats the fruit thereof. The pioneers of Wichita are no 
exception to the rule. Of the pioneer of the West, of southwest 
Kansas, it may be said: 

There's now a city, a thousand homes, 
On land he broke for his first sod-corn ; 

He, a stranger, now aimlessly roams 

Where his wife died and his babes were born. 

The fusion of the new blood and the old blood was a guarantee 
of success. 

George Clement afterward became president of the board; 



CHRONICLES 205 

then mayor of Wichita. His sun went down in a cloud, never to 
rise again. He was a man, proud, ambitious, noble, generous, 
undaunted, and his friends yet believe that had he lived and 
kept his health, he would have cut his name in the Kansas tree 
deep enough to have it remain until our archives became as "dust 
of ashes." 

Clement was, in many respects, an orator. He was clear-cut, 
forcible and argumentative. He stumped Kansas for Charles Rob- 
inson for governor, and made friends wherever he went. His 
speecli at Galveston was the one speech made by a Kansas man. 
The Texans who attended that meeting all recall Clement of 
Wichita. 

The writer hereof and Clement were never warm friends. I 
do not, in his praise, disparage others ; recalling the Roman say- 
ing, "Let nothing save good be said of the dead." 

I do but call to mind his worth, his noble attributes. In the 
hundreds that belonged to the Board of Trade, Clement "dared 
to lead where any dared to follow." His friends were proud of 
him and his enemies respected him. He was a good hater, and a 
warm friend. "And the elements so mixed in him, that nature 
might stand up and say to all the world, 'This was a man.' " 

The amalgamated forces of Wichita were, in their day and 
generation, invincible. The new Board of Trade 

"Had an eye as keen, 
A brain as clear. 
An arm as strong, 
A purse as long, ' ' 

as any rival they had to grapple with. 

Association with these men was a liberal education. It was 
a school where matured men learned the power, worth and genius 
. of each other; where opinions were weighed by enemies and 
deliberately adopted as the course of wisdom and business sagac- 
ity. The majority ruled and the minority submitted. 

This paper has reached its length. In number four (when 
written), the Burton Car Works, Dold Packing House, Whittaker 
Packing House, Rock Island Railroad, and minor things, will be 
treated; and then — "and then the Deluge." 



206 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

CHRONICLE V. 

' ' Examples, not precepts, govern the world. ' ' 

On July 4, 1887, as the writer was going to town, he saw 
an excited crowd in front of Levy 's bank ; I think there were at 
least fifty men. A. W. Oliver was talking, and i^ a moment it 
was learned that J. 0. Davidson had sent a telegram to the effect 
that he had secured the location of the Burton Stock Car Works, 
on terms that he was sure Wichita would accept. The John 
Bright University, located somewhere in the vast terra incognita 
lying southwest of Wichita some miles, was for the time being 
forgotten; the Baptist College, down south (since dedicated to 
humbler uses by Henry Schnitzler by hauling part of same away 
and building with the remainder), was overlooked; the Reformed 
Church College and Fairmount w.ere laid away in the shade ; Gar- 
field College was no longer a theme; the talk concerning the 
location for the government building was suspended; city hall 
and county court house locations no longer engrossed attention; 
the Gould car shop in the "Y" across the river no longer inter- 
ested any one. These things were sure and certain, and the Bur- 
ton Stock Car Company was a "bread winner." It was to be 
the initiative of the dreamed-of "tin bucket brigade" that would 
draw others similar to it. Aye, verily, as a magnet attracts iron 
filings ; as Sunday schools do boys who love girls ; as Christmas 
doings at a church or picnics in May draw the one-gallused "kids" 
from swimming holes and fishing places for a day. 

The excitement July 4, 1898, was loud, noisy, and went off in 
explosion ; the feeling July 4, 1887, was deep, exultant and trium- 
phant. Of course no one knew what the things were to cost, nor 
how it was to be paid. No one cared. A stranger, coming to 
Wichita, as he met each individiaal unit that made up Wichita, 
would have at once exclaimed : 

"There is either liquor in his pate or money in his purse. 
When he looks so merrily. ' ' 

Up to this hour we were on smooth seas, under benign skies, 
and unconscious that the rapids were but a little way below us. 
We had never known defeat, and had the hot blood of past suc- 
cess in our veins. We could well exclaim : 

' ' This is the period of our ambition ; 
this blessed hour!" 



CHRONICLES 207 

The cautious individuals who hinted that this "thing" might 
cost more than it was worth, hunted niches in the walls and as 
mummies sat like their "grandsires cut in alabaster." To have 
faith in things hoped for was a part of our creed, and he that 
dallied was a dastard, and he that doubted we already damned 
by an almost unanimous vote, and if the "boomers" could have 
fixed the penalty, like a Missouri jury, each ominous croaking 
raven would have left the town or climbed a telegraph pole. 

"VVe admitted no doubts ; had no patience with the man whose 
caution bade him hold his purse-strings ; and urged each other on, 
so that the entire seething mass of humanity resembled a mob, 
which, moved by one impulse, rushed to the hanging, and each 
unit, when alone, was afraid of his own shadow. Collectively we 
were — 

"All too confident to give admittance to a doubt." 

On that day we were so purse-proud and pecuniarily plethoric 
that if the secretary of the United States treasury had requested 
a guaranty on an issue of government bonds, we would probably 
have wired him as follows : 

Wichita, Kan., July 4, 1887. 
"Your wire received. Don't issue bonds; draw on us for the 
amount required. — Wichita Board of Trade." 

At this ambitious day we felt no misgivings as to the future. 
We all felt like Al Thomas, who dropped a $20 gold piece and 
hesitated as to whether or not to stop and pick it up, for fear he 
would lose $40 worth of time. If on the evening of that day an 
absolutely true and correct horoscope of Wichita ten years hence 
could have been shown us, the drug stores would have run short 
on arsenic, prussie acid, antimony, strychnine, hemlock, hellebore, 
nightshade, belladonna, aconite, laudanum and all kindred poi- 
sons. We would have become students in toxicology. The fumes 
from hundreds of unlighted gas .jets would have told of escaping 
gas; the town would have been a charnel house; grave diggers 
would have rivaled plumbers in per cent per hour; undertakers 
would have astonished the coffin manufacturers of the United 
States in their telegraphic demands for coffins ; we would in ten 



208 HISTOEY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

days have drawn the line on metallic caskets and "bulled' the 
market on poplar and "yaller pine." 

The Creator brings us to bear our ills by gradual stages and 
by easy and slow descent. 

The misery, want, woe and desolating scenes we have wit- 
nessed since July 4, 1887, can never be told to a stranger without 
risk of being informed that the grand lodge of the Ananias Club, 
with a Sapphira (Eastern Star, Rebecca or Woman's Relief 
Corps) annex to the same, evidently has its annual meetings in 
Wichita. Who can believe that bankers are outcasts, speculators 
tramps, merchants day laborers, lawyers section hands and society 
people reduced to penury, beggary and brought face to face with 
absolute want ; diamonds pawned for food ; and watches with 
monograms on " 'em" sold for one-fifth of their cost; furniture 
mortgaged to friends and shipped on Sunday to avoid attach- 
ments; thousands of deeds and mortgages made and dated back 
a year, to save something as salvage from the greatest financial 
and local storm that the United States ever beheld since old Noah 
loaded his ark and steered for dry land on the highlands of 
Armenia; the uplands overlooking the second bottom of the 
waters that surrounded the plateau of Araxes, cycles of time 
before Jim Mead, Dutch Bill and the original Buffalo William 
swapped beads for buffalo hides at the junction of the St. Peter 
and St. Paul, and founded the town of Wichita. . 

Note. — Some may say I should not get down to ' ' brass tacks ' ' 
on these reminiscences; but "Grover" some years ago (and 
"Grover" is one of my tutelary gods and patron saints) said, 
"Tell the truth," and I have resigned my membership in the 
Ananias "outfit," quit shaking plum trees, put on my belt, and 
stuck my George Washington hatchet in it, and dare not lie — 
"I'd like to, but I dassent." 

To return to the cold mutton, the Board of Trade was con- 
vened, the Burton Stock Car man and the inebriate he had with 
him for an attorney arrived. After several meetings, a contract 
with no marrow in it was drawn up. The same was read over in 
the parlor of the Manhattan Hotel, and rejected; another was 
drawn and approved by the inebriate aforesaid. Old man "Per- 
kins" read it over, and he saw that he needed a lawyer, and he 
got one. 

The next morning a new contract was submitted, and it was 
a "jug-handled contract," had two handles, and both of them 



CHRONICLES 209 

ou one side — and Perkins had hold of both handles — and it was a 
glazed jug, and there was no place for Wichita to get a hold on 
at all. "Things hung fii-e." We knew that to sign this up was 
simply wilful and deliberate suicide. Colonel Lewis was the only 
man who denounced the contract. Some of the others wanted to 
say something, but all were mum, until Lewis spoke. We could 
not get the boys to take $200,000 of the stock of the company. 

We wanted "ear works," but we wanted 'em on the homeo- 
pathic plan. This dose was an alopathic dose, by an old-fashioned 
regular, who was brought up on blue mass and calomel, and who 
bled patients as Dolds bleed hog. Hence, we went slow, cautious, 
just as if we were hunting a match, after attending a "Bobby 
Burns" banquet, and wanted to get to bed without falling over a 
sewing machine or cradle. At last Oak Davidson said if the 
Board of Trade would make him a giiaranty of $50,000 he would 
subscribe $200,000 stock. 

Oak's nerve secured the Burton Car Works. 

That night the Board of Trade sent out a note to the "tops" 
of the board, just as a "feeder" selects a carload of best steers 
to send to market, and the "tops" aforesaid met in the room 
where Ferguson's oiBce is. At 9 o'clock that night, the guaranty 
was duly signed and delivered. The guarantors wanted to "cover 
their bet," and it was agreed that nothing should be said about 
the guaranty, but the board should announce that instead of tak- 
ing $200,000 stock, we were to raise in cash, by subscription, the 
sum of $50,000 instead of stock. 

The board issued a call to the entire membership to meet at 
the board rooms the next morning at 9 o'clock. At the hour 
named, fifty men were on hand. Some were almost ill, but imbued 
with the spirit of Ligarius, who said, when Brutus sent for him : 
"I am not sick if Brutus have in hand any exploit worthy of the 
name of honor." 

The war was on ! 

The campaign was planned. 

The town was cut into twelve parts. The country adjacent to 
town was cut into four parts ; sixteen committees, each of three 
men, were appointed, and their district was given them. A gen- 
eral committee was appointed to oversee the work of the other 
committees. A special committee was appointed to correspond 
with nonresident land-owners and absent members of the board. 
Each committee was to report at 6 o'clock in the evening, deliver 



210 fflSTOKY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

the subscriptions taken, and receive instructions for the morrow. 
At evening, weary men and jaded horses occupied the street at 
Levy's bank, now Boston Store. The tirst $40,000 was raised 
without great labor. The last $10,000 was like pulling jaw teeth. 
The last $3,000 was harder work than the $47,000. The lists were 
overhauled, revised, to see that "no guilty man escaped." Then 
came the increasing of the subscriptions already made. At last 
the executive committee announced that the committees might 
disband. 

The victory was ours ! 

As to whether or no Kansas City at any time wanted the 
Burton Car Works, no one ever knew. Whether this was a pure 
bluff to "rib us up," no one ever learned. 

When this business was all finished, 90 per cent of the board 
had some doubts as to the success of the Burton Car Works, but 
loyalty forbade any comment or carping criticism. 

The members had faith in the general directors. The town 
had faith in the board. 

The "Eagle" proclaimed our victory; yet "things" were tak- 
ing on a darker hue. There were clouds in the sky, but we dared 
not own up to each other the thoughts that we "thunk." Full 
well we knew that the carrier pigeons of spite and malice were 
being sent out daily proclaiming our downfall. The old proverb 
applied to us: "For a bird of the air shall carry the voice, and 
that which hath wings, shall tell the matter. ' ' 

It was no profit to tell our people that "He that observeth the 
winds shall not sow; and he that regardeth the clouds shall not 
reap. ' ' 

We had finished sowing, and knew that unless we reaped 
quickly the "stuff" would rust, burn and mildew. 

Our only hope was in the patriotism of our own people. The 
simon-pure speculator was gone. We were as a man who had built 
a house and no cash with which to furnish it. We had all the ele- 
ments that go to make up a city save manufactories. Something 
must be done, and in the language of ]\Irs. Macbeth: "If it were 
done when 'tis done, then 'twere well it were done quickly. ' ' 

The Bin-ton Car Works would not, directly, consume cattle, 
hogs or sheep, corn, wheat or oats. These things were germane to 
our soil, and we reasoned as follows : that to ship out all this in a 
raw state, and pay two or three profits and two freight bills, to 



CHRONICLES 211 

get a part of the same back, was nonsense. Hence our needs were 
industries. 

Ten thousand "Eagles," on double wings, announcing our 
triumph, bore our hopes to every point of the compass, to impede 
if not arrest the brewing hurricane. Coming events before them 
shadows cast. And the stoutest held his breath. We knew we 
were drooping, paling, falling, fading, sinking, and almost ready- 
to flounder. As small boys going by a graveyard, we shouted and 
whistled to "skeer" away the ghosts. Among our intimates, we 
closed the doors, stopped the keyholes, peeped in the closets and 
spoke in loud whispers or grave, low, funereal tones. Metaphor- 
ically, we unto each other said : 
Note the values sinking daily wi' th' sun ! 
Unless relief be furnished, our sands of life shall run. 
Faster and lower, observe the values go. 
As the crawling river melts the mountain snow. 
Soon the storm will burst in fury o'er our defenseless head. 
And the Princess of the Plains will be numbered 'mongst the dead. 

The Board of Trade resolved that we must for a time forget 
everything save cementing the foundation on which the town 
rested. "We resolved we must have solid underpinning, viz. : 

Packing houses. 

Elevators. 

Glucose and starch factories. 

Straw board factories. 

Canning factories. 

All in the order above named. We interviewed Armour, Swift, 
Nels Morris, Fowler, and from each of them received the informa- 
tion that packing west of the Missouri river was nonsense. The 
elevator et al. things were dropped. We were fishing for whale 
,and wanted no small fish (not even a hundred-pound mudcat). 
We then had men whose private business was not only neglected 
but ruined in trying to ward off the blows that fell on Wichita; 
men who forgot their own affairs to hold up the town. There 
were men who lived at the Board of Trade rooms ; who could be 
found there daily, and among these men were N. A. English, 
George H. Blackwelder, George L. Rouse, Pat Healy, N. F. Nieder- 
lander, A. W. Oliver. Others worked, spent time, money, answered 
every call by the board, but attended to their own business. These 



212 fflSTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

six men were invoiced at a million dollars. They and their fel- 
lows at many millions, and if the establishment of packing houses, 
the founding of schools, and the securement of the C, R. I. & 
P. R. R. and other things can be estimated in money, these men 
were worth to \Yichita all these things by their dollars; but bj' 
their example not only at that time, but for all time. 
. On that date there were many Elijahs — the Elishas who shall 
catch and wear their fallen mantles are yet incog. Of the men who 
labored for AVichita, there are many whose names deserve to be 
printed in capitals, whenever used. Yet it would be unjust to 
these loyal and unselfish men not to state that there were men at 
that date whose names in long primer would be a decoration, and 
whose real size is small pica or great primer. 

Wichita, at that date, or shortly after, resembled a callow 
youth, brought up on small beers, who had reached the brandy 
and champagne stage, suddenly brought to face with native wine, 
diluted with water ; being unable to sacrifiee his passion for liquor, 
he at least wanted the aroma. 

We died hard, and among the bolder souls was the determina- 
tion to "bet the last dollar," and "let the tail go with the hide." 
Like the thrifty housewife, with a lean larder, we put on a bold 
fi-ontage and kept up appearances. 

The paving of streets, building a court house and a city build- 
ing has its prototype in the family who eats thin soup to keep a 
carriage. 

Governor Stanley and others thought that $25,000 invested in 
small concerns would grow to large ones ; but this was unheeded 
in the harpooning of the Dold and Wliittaker whales, and when 
we landed the whales we were, as a Board of Trade, hopelessly 
insolvent, and a large majority of the membership of the Board 
of Trade were beggars. 

Note. — Ottumwa, la., with half of Wichita's population, fur- 
nishes Kansas, Oklahoma et al. states Silver Gloss starch; six 
towns in Kansas whose population is less than Wichita 's sell Wich- 
ita canned goods. Ask your grocer about this. Herein is a pointer 
for the coming Elishas, Lishas and Liges on whose shoulders rest 
the future growth of AVichita. 

While Dold was here, one hundred men, who subscribed liber- 
ally, attended a meeting, at which Dold was the "star actor," and 
not one of them were offered an introduction. This incident and 
others similar, first cousin, half brother, or at least blood kin to it, 



CHRONICLES 213 

caused that feeliug that hastened the general disrespect for a 
body of men who, though loyal to the core to Wichita, permitted 
their "Paleruian wines" and ciuail on toast to puti' them up so that 
the smaller men, the lesser units, the dray horses who pulled the 
load from the ditch, at last exclaimed: "Upon what meat doth 
this our Cffisar feed, that he is grown so great ? ' ' 

In criticizing these men, I criticize my friends. That they had 
faults is admitted, but their faults were but spots on the sun, and 
in striking a balance there is much to their ci-edit. These leaders 
are gone, fallen, and their places as organizers have not been 
filled. 

' ' And yet, despite the snub — the wrong — 

The dray horses ne'er failed to carry on 
The work so hard they had begun. 

But pulled the weary load along." 

Few men forget snubs, and it took talk, earnest solicitations, 
frequent allusions to "harmony, unity, strength, success," to hold 
the crowd and make it see that prudence dictated that we get 
Dold's packing house first and wipe out the insults subsequently. 
The ' ' snub ' ' was obvious. 

Mr. Dold asked $150,000. It was annihilation to delay the 
thing. We debated, and, like Dona Julia, "vowing we'd ne'er 
consent, consented." Once again we rang the bells, called out the 
town to the old court room on First street, and when the hour 
came we "sold standing room." There was not a candidate for 
office that dared absent himself from this boiling mass of human- 
ity. Many wanted to be away, but, like ' ' Gene ' ' Field 's poem, ' ' If 
I dared to, but I darsent," they came. The boys knew that it 
would not do to have a "fall-down." This "play" had to have 
more than a ' ' one-night stand " ; it was a ' ' season-ticket ' ' affair ; 
and if it was damned the "first night" by "bad acting," our name 
would be "Dennis," "Pants," and we would be "Nit." We did 
not intend to embark in the "Nit" business; hence there was 
music in the air, eloquence on the platform, elackers in the gal- 
lery, family circle and pit. Nothing that would stimulate man or 
produce enthusiasm was omitted. Naught that would rouse man 
or open pocket-books was neglected. 

Sluss was there to deliver an extemporaneous address, on 
which he had spent some hours or days in preparation. He was 
the field artillery, the heavy ordnance, to be followed by the 



214 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

small arms, viz.: the Minie, Enfields, Springfields, the Sni- 
ders, the Martini-IIeni-y and ehassepots, carbines, blunderbusses, 
smooth-bores, small-bores and old muzzle-loaders, as well as the 
air-guns. The program was Sluss, and then the ten two-thousand- 
dollar subscriptions; then more shot and shell, followed by the 
twenty pledged one-thousand-dollar men; more shot and shell, 
and then an invitation to the mourners' bench." It was intended 
to raise $50,000 at this meeting and adjourn without any sub- 
scriptions less than $1,000. Sluss, as per prior arrangement, was 
called out by men who knew not the program. Sluss was at his 
best. He started as a broad and placid river, running through 
green fields, skirted by rich pastures and fringed by foliage and 
ended as a cataract; a winding mountain stream, seeking an 
egress, almost lost to view, suddenly emerging and dashing over 
a precipice, astonishing and bewildering all beholders. At one 
moment, his vision comprehended our future hopes; at another, 
he beheld us prostrate and ruined by failure; triumphant and 
grave. He played on every string in his harp ; pictured compe- 
tence, wealth and glory to the present, and "riches beyond the 
dreams of avarice" to succeeding generations, on the one hand; 
dissolution, beggary and woe, tombstones, neglected graves and 
the potter's field, on the other. As a prepared speech it was a 
masterpiece; as an extemporaneous effort, his sentences were 
burning words, jewels from the alphabet which on Time's fore- 
finger will sparkle while memory lasts. His exordium, in which 
he painted our future conditions, if we failed in this game, and 
last the Dold packing house seemed, stretched by oratorical 
license, beyond the possibilities of failure. And yet his prophecy 
as to what would come to pass, if we failed, lacked one thousand 
seven hundred and nineteen and one-eighth per cent of equaling 
our insolvent condition after we seeiu-ed two packing houses. 

Note. — In the hind-sight of the past, I feel at liberty to state 
that Sluss "sold as short" on the future condition, compared to 
the real thing, as the Fourth of July firecracker rivals a modern 
Krupp. 

That Dold meeting was a success. The Creator only knows 
what our condition would have been if we had failed. ]\Iany say 
worse, some say better, but 90 per cent of those who say worse 
held their purse-strings and made the load heavier to the men 
who leaped the ditches and stormed the breastworks. No man 
who was not on committee knoAvs the pulling, hauling, cajo- 



CHKONICLES 215 

ling, threats, promises, and general all-round abuse received and 
bestowed in that Dold campaigns. Only the committees know how 
long and hard the "pull" was. 

Of the $150,000 subscribed, $25,000 was worthless before called 
for. We knew not our condition. Men who gave $2,000 left 
Wichita as paupers before the house was built ; men were called 
upon to raise their donations, to advance their payments before 
due. The board anticipated the future and borrowed money, and 
the members had to indorse the notes. Hess, Corbett, Oliver, J. M. 
Allen et al. became surety for Wichita, and paid out thousands 
where they had no interest other than Wichita citizenship. 

Some men, who now exist here, beat, on technical grounds, 
their subscriptions, let others carry their "load," and yet pray 
loud enough to be heard four blocks. Aye, verily, verily, their 
voices are heard above the cyclone when it cometh. 

Memory brings these men to mind. 

When in its paths I travel ; 
In beloved Wichita I find 

Some men are as mean as the d 1. 

The Dold house was secured, and, like Alexander, we meditated 
and hunted for more "hog," and at St. Louis we found him. And 
as the days go by, I will tell o' that campaign and the heroic 
struggle to "win out." 

January 8, 1899. 

CHRONICLE VI. 

"Men there have been in our time, as in all time, shorn of 
personal magnetism, who possessed the genius of putting their 
fellows in motion to do a work, which their minds comprehended, 
.but which they were unable to perform." 

In straying around, I ran afoul of the above idea in an old 
book. 

The sentiment fits the "Wichita" of 1887. It expresses the 
difference 'twixt the inventor and mechanic; the architect and 
builder ; the man who plans and the one who executes. Wichita 
had architects in the superstructure "Wichita" who were so 
"grained" that they could not dig, or lay brick, carry mortar, 
or ' ' groin the aisles, ' ' yet their vision beheld the completed work, 



216 HISTOKY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

even as the painter or sculptor sees the finished art ere a touch of 
the brush or a stroke of the chisel. These Wichita architects were 
followed by builders, vmable to plan anything, but who were gifted 
with the power of convincing men who had money that "the half 
was greater than the whole" ; that there was "a giving that made 
man rich, a withholding that made men poor." The best donation 
beggar in Wichita was George H. Blackwelder. Al Thomas was a 
graduate, but George had a "knack" of convincing men that they 
themselves were good beggars, but before they started out to beg 
their own subscription was needed. He obtained a donation and 
new recruit. George's theory was that no man ought to ask 
another to subscribe until he had made his own subscription. In 
other words, he said, "Come along," not "Go along." 

Suggestive of begging which may come to pass after the com- 
ing "Elishas" take up the work, "Wichita." 

An illustration of ' ' Come along or go along " as a policy may 
be in place : 

A captain in the rebellion used to tell how, in 1861, he was 
making a speech, urging everybody to go to war. He had, then, 
no idea of being the subject of "Johnnies' target practice." As 
he closed his speech, an old lady in the audience arose and said : 

' ' Bill, you 've told the other boys what to do ; now what are 
you going to do?" 

The future captain said: "Realizing that the meeting was 
depending on me for success, I said, 'I am going to war.' " 

The Wichita secret was "come along," not go along. 

In the latter part of 1888 the city of Hutchinson got hold of 
Lord & Thomas, of Chicago, and through them were endeavoring 
to get some industries. Our boys got wind of the "thing," and 
sent for Lord & Thomas, and though no one ever at any time 
owned up to the truth, our "Board of Trade," as a body, were 
guilty of the vice, if not crime, of trying to steal the Hutchinson 
industries. No one had courage enough to denounce the scheme. 
We sent a committee of ten to Chicago, made a contract, put up 
$10,000, and, so far as the town was concerned, lost the money, 
as well as our own self-respect. No good ever came out of the 
matter, and the deep damnation of our conduct will remain to 
disturb our dreams to the end of our time. 

The Whittaker Packing Company was now ' ' on string. ' ' The 
committee of ten, representing the picked men of the board, were 
then in Chicago. All knew that Dold had "set the hair" on the 



CHRONICLES 217 

price ; that Wliittaker would not permit himself to accept less ; 
but we, at that date, did not know that Whittaker was on the 
"ragged edge"; that he needed our money to carry over the 
approaching "Whittaker falls," which were only a little way off. 
Whittaker was a "plunger" in his own right. Our gift simply 
went to pay a part of his debts (part of which were "wheat-deal" 
losses, as we were subsequently informed). 

Whittaker posed as the head of a house which was started 
in 1848; sold ham for the officers and "sow-belly" for the sol- 
diers diu-ing the war; hence he was the real "thing," and we 
were led to believe that he was of greater value than Dold. There- 
fore in getting him at the same price was just like buying "Gen- 
eral Arthurs" and "Tom Moores" at a nickel apiece. Of course, 
a closer investigation of Whittaker would have resulted in throw- 
ing him overboard. But we are better off now than if we had 
"investigated," for the reason: packing houses, like car shops 
and railroads, when built, eventually get under the wing of some 
one able to run them, at a figure that gives a profit. True, they 
for a spell may be dormant, but dormancy is not annihilation. 
Every dollar put in these things will prove to be worth it to 
those who "hang on." Every dollar put in these things by 
"boomers" would have gone in some other "rathole." That 
Cudahy is better than Whittaker, no one has any doubt. 

Providence, destiny, nature, fate, chance, or what you may 
name it, so arranged "things" that the impending ruin over- 
hanging us was not to be avoided. So preordained were results 
that the then present crowd of "boomers" should be thrashed 
to straw ; ground 'twixt the upper and nether milestones ; beaten 
flat as hammered gold, and torn by rude winds and creditors to 
a ragged and frazzled fringe, beyond recognition and identity. 

The writer of this is of the opinion that as the "boomer" 
talked of great benefit to succeeding generations by his labor 
and money, he may be gratified by the good to come out of the 
Burton Car, Presbyterian outlook, as well as a philosophical view 
of looking at things ; hence we adopt this view. 

To retvu"n to the sheep : Some work had been done looking to 
the donation to Whittaker. The outlook was not encouraging. 
There was no cash in sight. Notes in bank represented at least 
$50,000 of the sums subscribed to the Burton Car Works and 
Dold. The banks had pro-rated loans (to their customers) to 
raise this $50,000. These loans were, in a great part, renewed. 



218 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Hence cash to any new scheme was not to be considered. Yet 
no one thought we could not, in some undefined, unknown way, 
raise the subsidy. 

One rainy afternoon, when the whole earth looked dismal and 
gloomy, and the writer was at home with quinzy, George C. 
Strong and George L. Douglas came after him in a hack to attend 
a meeting and discuss the situation. At this meeting Scott Cor- 
bett was sent for; then Colonel Lewis. At 5 o'clock a meeting 
was held in Judge Sluss' office, and some rude drafts of dona- 
tions, in three or four forms, were submitted to Sluss and recast 
by him. 

These memoranda were reduced to four sets or forms : 

First — Subscriptions outright to the general subsidy fund, to 
be used to procure any needed industry. 

Second — Deeds, with and without any conditions. 
Third — Mortgages, with and without conditions. 
Fourth — Conditional location subscriptions. 

All this was rushed to a printing office, to be ready next 
evening. 

The amount of money to be raised for the general fund to be 
used by trustees "for an.y needed industry" was at least $300,- 
000. We said to ourselves : Cash, 50 cents ; land, $1 ; take your 
choice. 

At that date we did not — could not — realize that lands and 
lots appraised by fair men at near a half million dollars would 
eventually be a drug at twenty-five cents on the dollar. We now 
know that if we had not caught a "sucker" we could not have 
sold the stuff at twelve and one-half cent on the dollar. 

"Allah be praised for such suckers!" 

In fact, a great deal of this so-called property would have 
caused a law suit some years later if a grantor, by stealth, had 
caused some of it to be put in a deed unbeknownst to the grantee. 
But at that date it had a value, based on the "tail end of the 
boom." 

We in our minds figured that a half million dollars of prop- 
erty sold at fifty cents on the dollar would leave at least $200,000, 
after allowing for shrinkage in handling, exchange, transporta- 
tion, counting, abrasion and short weight. This $200,000 would 
buy Whittaker and get some small industries. The small-industry 



CHRONICLES 219 

crank was always making profert of himself and urging the board 
to put out $50,000 to assist "infant industries," but the board 
was as deaf as an adder to these cranks. Having embarked on 
the sea to catch packing-house whales, we did not intend to be 
diverted from our "catch." 

In this campaign we forgot the Board of Trade and enlisted 
every man (and some women) in "Wichita. This general subsidy 
was a citizens' subsidy, and was not put on foot as a Board of 
Trade scheme. The board subsequently managed, controlled, 
mortgaged and pledged the same, but this was no part of the 
original scheme. The scheme, when born, had as many god- 
fathers as a Mormon kid has stepmothers, but so far as the writer 
knows, George Strong and George Douglas were wet-nurses at 
accouchement ; Sluss was the boss Aesculapius, with L. D. Skin- 
ner, Scott Corbett and Colonel Lewis and others as "bottle hold- 
ers" and "spongers." 

Unlike the Dold campaign, this drama was a Chinese play, 
and ran all day as well as at night. 

Some men were becoming hollow-eyed, sleepless, restive. The 
question was, Shall we stop or bet a half million assets on the 
general result? The majority said, bet. The next move was to 
rouse everybody and turn the town into a Methodist revival at 
the Board of Trade rooms. 

"Enthusiasm imparts itself magnetically and fuses all within 
its zone into one happy and harmonious unity of feeling and senti- 
ment." The above sentiment is good as far as it reaches. In 
Wichita, after the boom burst, bankruptcy ; and all our boomers 
had only a cake of soap with which to wash themselves to the 
shore of the financial flood, the above definition of enthusiasm 
was as much out of place as knickerbockers on a fifteen-year-old 
kid. Though no philological society formally revamped the defi- 
nition, we gradually adopted the idea that the true meaning of 
. enthusiasm was about as follows, viz. : 

Enthusiasm is the temporary idiocy of a man who, on ordinary 
occasions, has common horse sense. 

After we located Dold, Wichita suspended all rules relating 
to business principles, and took a day off that lasted a spell. 
And in that day we conducted business as sober men generally 
conduct themselves at a "Bobby Burns banquet" or New Year 
calls. We were rich, and we did not attempt to conceal it. A 
man who was not connected with corporations or town-lot addi- 



220 fflSTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

tions was a miserable manikin. He was a "feather-top," bereft 
of friends, and was shunned by all, even as much as an American 
citizen from Honolulu would be who should appear on Douglas 
avenue with jaundice. He might make oath he was not a leper, 
but we'd know from his looks that he was a leper, walking around 
to save funeral expenses. 

The "Eagle," next day after the meeting at Sluss' office, had 
some calls to "Wichita to go to the Board of Trade rooms. At 9 
o'clock there were at least 500 men, everybody talking at once. 
A meeting at night was arranged. Governor Stanley said : 

"We want a band, music, songs, etc., so everybody will feel 
good ; have some music ; then speech, more music ; more speech ; 
then music; then donations; then music, etc." 

The speakers were Lewis, Stanley, H. Windslow Albert and 
some exhorters. The result of this meeting was a fall-down as 
to assets. The next day the crowd was on hand and better in 
the matter of attendance. The next day was spent in making out 
names and assessing men as to what they should do. This plan of 
assessment was not very popular. That night was to be the 
grand effort. It was to be "Wichita day at the fair." A detail 
was sent after Dr. John D. Hewitt, the pastor of the First Presby- 
terian Church. 

Hewitt was an all-around man. As a young man fresh from 
college, he was launched in life at Helena, Mont., as a pioneer 
preacher. He saw, in Montana, man in all his phases as God 
turned man out of the machine as a product ; he realized that 
"environment" had much to do with a man's impulses. He 
learned that men who possess vices had honesty, benevolence and 
charity ; that men who had no observable vices might be dis- 
honest, selfish and bereft of charity; that men who belonged to 
his flock might — 

"Compound for sins they were inclined to 
By damning those they had no mind to ! " 

Hewitt was of that genus ecclesiastic that in an earlier civiliza- 
tion would have been a Rowland Hill, a Peter Cartwright, or a 
Lorenzo Dow. He was practical to intensity and was identified 
with Wichita from the date he came until he went away with 
many things not ecclesiastic, philanthropic or eleemosynary ; many 
things that tended to inoculate simon-pure worldly money (root 



CHEONICLES 221 

of evil) getting lessons. Hewitt was a ' ' stayer, " a " fighter. ' ' He 
knew a king from a jack; he could put "gaffs" on a chicken; he 
knew a thoroughbred ' ' hoss " ; he knew the mainspring that gov- 
erned men in ordinary life. He not only had a strong hold on the 
sheep and goats of his flock, but he commanded the respect of 
"Wichita, as a man, by reason of his strong, forceful, energetic 
methods. His enthusiastic nature was Methodistic, from early 
training. He was a strong Presbyterian with a strain of Meth- 
odist alloy. He was the church militant. He might have been 
one of Hudibras ' preachers, of whom he said : 

For his religion it was fit 
To match his learning and his wit ; 
'Twas Presbyterian, true blue ; 
He was of that ecclesiastic crew 

Whom all men grant 

To be the church militant. 

Who build faith upon 

The text of pike and gun. 
And prove their doctrine orthodox 
By apostolic blows and knocks. 

Therefore, in enlisting Hewitt, we were getting a hold on his 
flock, securing an earnest speaker, who believed what he said; a 
good practical reasoner, who saw in the growth of Wichita the 
upbuilding of many churches. Hewitt was once criticized for 
accepting money from a saloon-keeper. He replied that he would 
always accept the devil's money to fight him with. 

Day after day, night after night, we pounded, begged, argued, 
promised, threatened, persuaded. My recollection is. Governor 
Stanley made many speeches. He and others spoke until their 
voice was gone and their argument ' ' thinner ' ' than ' ' hot Scotch ' ' 
at 3 a. m., after a Burns banquet. 

The subsidy raised was to be conveyed to five trustees. These 
men had to have the confidence of the people. One drizzling night 
a boy came to the writer's home with a note to get Colonel Mur- 
dock and N. F. Niederlander and go to the board rooms. In those 
days, to be notified was to go. We arrived at the rooms. There 
were perhaps 200 men present. It had been decided to select the 
five trustees to hold the so-called "half million" of assets. As 
usual, there were factions — the old crowd, the new crowd and 



222 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

the men who had no ax to grind. After calling tlie crowd to order 
and stating the object of the meeting, the chairman seated him- 
self, and tM^euty men were on the floor at once, shouting "Mr. 
Chairman!" 

Things looked mixed. By accident, George Matthews was rec- 
ognized, and he nominated Sluss as one of the trustees. This was 
seconded. Then there was a roar. One man, who was hounded 
into giving anything, kicked on Sluss like a "Texas steer." 
Demands were made for adjournment; voted down; jnotion for 
electing by ballot; voted down; motion to elect by voting a 
ticket with five names ; voted down. Some one moved to vote on 
each name proposed and seconded, until we had five selected; 
carried. 

"Then many were called, but few chosen." 

Scott Corbett was named and elected; a half dozen names 
proposed and rejected; Albert A. Hyde named and elected; Rob- 
ert E. Lawrence named and elected; then a brigade named and 
voted down; then John M. (J. M. "Johnnie") Allen was named 
and elected; and we adjourned. 

Note. — Four of the trustees selected were Presbyterians ; Sluss 
was a Methodist. The meeting was a general, promiscuous crowd. 
Two-thirds of the crowd believed in Christianity, but did not 
believe in any particular scheme of final redemption after fore- 
closure, but by accident picked out five churchmen to handle the 
cash. 

George Matthews evidently in his young days went to see 
a Methodist girl and attended revivals. One night George got 
the floor and moved that every man who was a subscriber to 
the fund go to the west side of the room and all non-subscribers 
go to the east side. The subscribers fllled the west wall as 
"statoos," and soon the other crowd began to hunt holes. Little 
Pierce locked the east door and south door, so that "the way 
out" was through the west door, and the crowd of subscribers. 
The scheme was a regialar evangelistic trick, but it worked in 
business just as it works in religion. Some weak men sur- 
rendered; some able-bodied ones got mad and "cussed." As 
a scheme it was a success ; as a policy is was damnable. 

One night a boomer who owned twenty acres of land, that 

cost him $1,000 and which was platted as addition, 

into as many lots as it would make, got up on the floor and made 
a speech as to our general, particular and specific duty in the 



CHRONICLES 223 

premises; spoke of his purchase; his addition; its value at $200 
per lot, running into many thousands, and everybody supposed 
he vsras going to donate at least half of the addition ; but he didn't ; 
he gave two lots. The groan was such that he left the hall, and 
never made a deed. 

As I remember. Oak Davidson's donation, it was three times as 
large as any other donation. 

The donations being all made, the gathering in of the assets took 
as much labor as the bookkeeping of a receiver of a busted bank. 
At least ten per cent was so tangled as to be worthless. A large 
per cent was mortgaged. When appraised, the second time, for 
the Peel syndicate, the assets dwindled half. The amount of stuff 
that went into the Peel syndicate left but little available assets. 
Not enough was left to secure the indorsers on the notes in bank, 
to pay the borrowed money of the board. 

The men who skinned the Board of Trade on the sale of land, 
for locations, themselves got skinned at the final "round-up." 

The Peel syndicate was "peeled." One Greenwood in St. 
Louis and one A. K. Florida, who had connections in "Hengland" 
formed the Peel syndicate and floated the concern. They paid 
Wichita $150,000 and it is said received twice that sum for doing 
it. Florida killed himself. 

Old Abe Hewitt, the Democratic mayor, who would not let any 
flag but "old glory" float on the New York city hall, was a heavy 
subscriber to the Peel fund, and now has a lot of lots for sale, at 
low prices. See "King-George" for list, at corner of Douglas and 
Lawrence avenue, second floor front. 

Note: George is to give me a "rake-off" for this notice. 
Anyone buying after this date please notify me at 111 
South Main street, room 1, second floor. — George is Geo. 
Spencer. 

GENERAL INSOLVENCY. 

A great many men claim their subscription to these industries 
"broke" them. This may be true in some instances, but in three, 
personally known to me, it is untrue, as follows : 

No. 1. There is a duodecimo biped here who tells that the 
Dold and Whittaker "business" broke him. He paid Dold by 
material at 25 per cent profit, i. e., he paid $500 in $400 worth of 
"stuff." He beat his subscription to Whittaker on a technicality. 



224 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

No. 2. Another animaleulae-souled stands frequently at the 
corner of Main and Douglass and "cusses" the Board of Trade 
generally, and Dold and Whittaker specially, for shortcomings on 
their contracts. He never paid a nickel on either contract. 

No. 3. There is a bald-headed cadaver who uses profanity as 
semi-colons and periods in his ordinary conversation for greater 
emphasis. He cannot express himself on the ''Eagle," Dold 
packing house, Whittaker plant. Burton car works, Garfield col- 
lege and other ' ' things ' ' without having a spasm ; almost an epi- 
leptic fit; linguistic jim-jams. When he goes to "eussin" he gets 
choked up. His eyes roll like a "cullered pusson" drunk on 
" 'lection" day. He heaves like "hoss" with heaves; has blind 
staggers ; froths like an insane canine ; grunts like a hog with 
cholera ; squirts his poison like a tree-toad. This ' ' critter" robbed 
a dead man; "boomed" on land way out of town, and so far as 
known made no donation. 

When the board was raising money for Burton car works he 
refused to give a cent. One day nine men agreed to work on him 
in three squads. Squad one was to go at 10 a. m. and stay till 
noon; squad two, from 2 to 4; squad three, from 4 to 6. Squad 
one was W. P. Carey, A. L. Houck and the writer; squad two 
had Al Thomas, as for chairman; squad three was headed by 
Corbett. The three squads spent the day with this man. He swore 
six (6) hours without a break. The next day he was informed 
that the scheme was a put up job by Al Thomas to let him have 
a continuous "swear," and that no one supposed he would give 
a cent. He was so mad he swallowed a "cigar stub," as reported 
by Al Thomas to the board. 

These incidents are given to show how men lie as to what 
caused their general insolvent condition. 

Wichita's boom was, in fact, "busted" prior to securing either 
Burton, Dold or Whittaker, but we didn't know it. We hadn't 
heard it. 

This was the condition of Wichita. Months and years rolled 
away after the boom busted before we heard of it. 

'Twas the sheriflf's rude voice, 

With a writ in his hand. 

That roused the "boomer" frae his slumber. 

'Twas the stopping of renewals on notes; the demand for 
currency, legal tender, circulating medium, specie, coin, hard 



CHRONICLES 225 

cash, pence, shillings, pounds, rhino, blunt dust, mopus, tin salt, 
chink, "yaller daddies," that caused us to study numismatics in 
all its varied forms and phases. 

'Twas the voice of the court: "That the plaintiff: have and 
recover of and from said defendant the sum of ten thousand dol- 
lars," etc., that forced upon us the fact that the full-blown blad- 
der of our pride was losing air; that our El Dorado was "nit;" 
Pactolus, gone, Golconda vanished. We were no longer Nabob, 
Midas, Croesus, Gould, Astorbilt or Vanderfellow. We rode no 
longer. We walked, and were simply plain people. As Lon Hod- 
ings says: " Gildersleeve was Gildersleeve once more." 



WICHITA EGOTISM. 

Our egotism prompts us to claim all our successes as the re- 
sult of our great, throbbing, purring brain, working like a Corliss 
engine ; but our pride charges all ill success to the machinations of 
some unknown astrological devil. We don't consult soothsayers, 
as in the days ' ' when Caesar in the senate fell, and the sun, in re- 
sentment of his slaughter, looked pale and hid his face a year 
after," but we still ha' some lingering superstitions in us and 
trace our misfortunes to some cause as idiotic as the augury of the 
sun-dried entrails of a white chicken, hatched by a "yaller" hen, 
on the anniversary of Caesar's birth. This, and all this, we do, 
rather than "fess" our vaulting ambition o'er leaped itself "and 
left us in the ditch." 

THE OKLAHOMA BOOM. 

One day Senator Plumb wrote a letter to Wichita that the 
Oklahoma opening band wagon was enroute, and that notwith- 
standing the personal feelings of Wichita and the Southwest, as 
to the effect on Kansas by this Indian Territory being thrown 
open to settlement, the only thing to do was to get into the band 
wagon and all take a ride. We "got" immediately. We had a 
meeting at once. We had Crocker and others here at once, and 
called a meeting at the Crawford Grand that was a "James 
Dandie." 

Weaver, once a candidate for president, was here. 
Charles Mansur, congressman from Missouri, w^s here. 



226 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK CDUNTY 

Old (Illinois) Bill Springer, afterward judge in the territory, 
was here. We played our hand for every cent that was in it. 
We were the home of David L. Payne, the original "Oklahoma 
Boomer," beginning in 1874. Bill Couch was one of our "things." 
Bill was the "Elislia" who caught Dave Payne's falling mantle 
ere it struck the dust in Sumner county. Wichita, by right of 
ownership, was the place to have the monster Oklahoma meeting. 
This meeting was a grand-stand play, and played to standing 
room only. Congress was absolutely paralyzed by our demon- 
stration, and passed the bill as soon as it could after our meeting. 

This proved to us that Oklahoma as a buyer of goods, wares 
and merchandise, was to be our commercial solution. It has so 
proved. It is the customer that will never fail us. We will be 
its Kansas City. It will be to us in trade, "Kansas expansion." 

When Oklahoma has two million people Wichita will be forced 
to add millions of capital to do business. The peopling of Okla- 
homa, is Wichita's greatest source of prosperity. 

Long live Oklahoma! 

RECAPITULATION. 

So much for the past ; the happy past ; the red, red past, when 
it was a mile and a half through sunflowers from the "avenue" 
to the Eagle's home; when on " 'lection" day the First ward ran 
to the Red river; when, at night, o'er the drowsy town was heard 
the old familiar sound: 76, 42, 98, 21, 39, 64, 57, 22, Keno! 

Adieu to the past, the diabolical and fiendish past; the pro- 
tested past; the past of foreclosures, fraudulent deeds and mort- 
gages, writs of assistance, proceedings in aid of execution, notices 
to quit and the multiform actions of relentless creditors to rob 
debtors. 

Welcome ! thrice welcome ! the past of 1885 to 1888, when glad- 
ness shone in every face, hope beamed from every eye and the 
happiness and buoyancy crowded, packed and jammed into thirty- 
six square miles on the Big and Little Arkansas, never has 
been equalled. 

Let natural Wichita pick up the burden that broke the back 
of the youthful Wichita, and under the pennant 

In harmony, triumph; in unity, fall, 
Be the banner sheltering all. 

achieve victory. 



CHRONICLES 



RETROSPECTION AND PROGNOSTICATION. 

(Hindsight and Foresight.) 

"Wichita, commercially, in 1887, was a nude hope, based on a 
sight-draft drawn on A. D. 1899. The draft wa.s protested, but 
we did not get notice of the "protest," and still worked "puts 
and calls," "blinds" and "straddles," "margined," "bullied" 
and sold ' ' short. ' ' We knew we were all right. 

But one summer day. 

We were "short" on cash. 

The devil was to pay 
And we went to smash. 

The above beautiful sentiment is "cribbed" from Homer, 
Virgil, Chaucer, Dryden, Horace, Ovid, Terence, Ben Johnson or 
Sam Butler, I forget which, but I know that some ancient pen 
propeller dipped his quill into a solution of nut galls and logwood 
and "writ them air" four lines. 

A. D. 1910. 

The Wichita of 1910 is a grown man, a strong, healthy, able- 
bodied man, subject to a draft in a case of war. An entity of 
flesh, blood and iron, who in any commercial joust or tourney 
can sit firm in his saddle, give the horse his head, poise his bull- 
hide buckler and withstand the shock of any knight that dates 
to fight in open field under the rules of Charles th' Great, Mai-tel 
and Ethelbert; the regulations of Donnybrook, the progressive 
and higher civilization of Rugby football, or, the rules of the 
Marquis of Queensberry, as amended by Congressman John Mor- 
Tissy of New York and used by Pitzsimmons, Jeffries and Jolmson. 

The year 1874 was grasshopper milestone: 1886 was a boom 
milestone; 1889 was the milestone of depression, insolvency and 
bankruptcy. But the year 1910 is the renaissance of commerce. 

"The Kansas" palengenegis. 

'Tis a promise, a hope based on the enterprises that have grown 
up since the boom waned, sickened and died. 

Without departing from our plan, glance for a moment at — • 

Burton Car Works, to be operated. 



228 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Dold, a success from beginning. 

Whittaker, to be operated soon. 

Fairmount, a success. 

Garfield (now Friends' University). 

Lewis Academy, a success. 

Rock Island railroad. 

Midland railroad— Frisco, operator. 

City building and County Court House. Forum. 

Miles of paving. 

United States Court House. 

Two thousand feet of brick frontage and ten-story buildings. 

Hundreds of fine homes. 

The finest city park in Kansas. 

Water woi-ks unequaled. 

Wholesale trade in many lines, all prosperous. 

Four hundred commercial travelers. 

Half million people in Oklahoma, with Wichita as nearest com- 
mercial capital. 

Twenty to thirty prosperous manufacturing concerns. 

At least $4,000,000 of new assets that are safe, permanent and 
secure more than we had in IS^T, when we said we were a city. 

Now, consider the water squeezed out of all values, and present 
values as the base to build on. Is it egotistic for Wichita to feel 
that 

"Every prospect pleases and only man (some other man) is 
vile?" 

The rainbow in our sky is bright. Every color is visible save 
blue. In 1889 to 1898 blue was the predominant hue. In truth 
we may say that 

A rosy red o'ercasts our sky; 

Many happy faces illuming; 
A hope there is in every eye. 

As just before the "booming." 

Mankind is up and down. We've been down; we are rising. 
In all things we have the dark and the light, good and bad, the 
beautiful and the ugly, the sweet and sour, the false and true. 
In other phrase, existence is 

Hope and despair; pleasure and pain. 
Darkness and light ; sunshine and rain. 



CHRONICLES 229 

Thro' the web of life are the shining threads and sombre 
ones. 

Let us remember the past with its sorrowful lesson, yet give 
credit to the things of value; forget the bitterness. He without 
hope may well exclaim : 

"They have tied me to a stake; 

I cannot iiy, 

But bear-like, I must fight my course." 

As Whittier says : 

"Alas for him who never sees 
The stars shine through the trees." 

"Without hope, faith is a corpse. Hope spreads its golden wings 
and lures us mortals on thro' burn and briar, fen and forest; 
through wind and storm, hail and rain. We forget all save the 
promise in the future. Hope is our anchor in business, as faith 
is the anchor of the Christian. Destroy hope and annihilate faith 
and we are but as wolves preying on each other. 

Let every business man in Wichita proclaim that never before 
did the sun shine as bright, luring men to chase the butterfly. 

Let the pessimist howl, and then outhowl him. 

Let the "New Wichita" and the robust fragments of the "Old 
Wichita" with united brain and arm pull altogether. Bach period 
of time produces its own leaders, in war and peace, literature, 
progressive civilization and commerce. The new men of Wichita, 
from necessity, must lift up and carry the load. The old bottles 
won't hold the new wine. 

Let new Wichita under the banner : Harmony, Unity, 
Strength, Success, march to success and make Wichita in fact, 
what it was to our fancy in 1887, ere we, by industries and solid 
buildings, buttressed its foundations to ward off and break the 
storm that shook Wichita as an earthquake, and when the sky 
was cleared beheld our ruined fortunes, and yet realized the 
wisdom "that builded wiser than it knew." And at this date 
realize that our present worth and real valuable acquisitions are 
the things that we secured and builded when our property ceased 
to have a market value. 

This closes the scheme of these chronicles. Though written for 
amusement, they may contain a lesson. Adieu. 

May, 1910. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

REVIEW OF CITY 

By 
KOS HARRIS. 

"Gather rose-buds while vre may; 
Old time is still flying; 
The fairest rose-hud of today, 
Tomorrow may he dying." 

To the Editor of the "Eagle:" 

When Wichita is moss grown, when it reaches the second or 
third generation of the "lean and slippered pantaloon;" when 
some local chronicler prowls around to substantiate some myth; 
verify some legend, or preserve some fading fact, then interesting 
to our grandchildren even unto the third and fourth generation; 
when the preservative feature in town history overtakes us, then 
Wichita will eventually regret that nothing was done to call back 
the receding past. In an humble way, in by-gone days, the writer 
has written some pieces, publi.shed in the ' ' Eagle, " " Mirror ' ' and 
"Beacon," which may contain a few grains of wheat, amongst 
its chaff, to put in a bound volume by some historical society. 
Wichita, so far, as a town, has taken no step to preserve any fact 
in its history. This paper is not broadcasted for pelf, nor the 
laudation of self, but simply to remind the people of Wichita and 
call their attention to the duty of the present to adopt some 
method to embalm the past, for the amusement and instruction 
of the future, when the present Wichita is counted and numbered 
in the census to be taken from year to year from the ghostly stones 
in the silent city on the eastern hill, that overlooks the city, which 
stones admonish the passengers on the Frisco train daily, that in 
the midst of life we are liable soon to be dead; dead as Adam, 
Rameses or a desiccated political hack. Simply to write a dry fact 
and file it away for the use of the historical artist to come after 
us, who will adorn it and preserve it, is neither labor nor waste of 
230 



EBVIBW OF CITY 231 

time ; to write the future in detail, so as to be worthy of adoption 
by the future chronicler as a fact to be credited to the real author, 
will please your grandchildren, when ye are dust of ashes. 

Many things have impelled me to write this piece, but the 
"motor" that caused me to work at the present moment was a 
letter written from Iowa, asking me to give my recollection as 
to the location of an old wooden building in the town in which I 
was born, in which my father had an office in July, 1861. It 
struck me that an appeal to the recollection of a nine years '-old- 
boy, proved that facts are fleeting, even amongst the denizens of a 
town in the whirl-i-gig of time. Wichita on some former occasions 
has adopted suggestions by the writer and his associates and in 
connection with this piece and its legends. I believe the sug- 
gestions made herein are worthy of attention. One infirmity of 
the human mind that has come under my notice, is the old resi- 
dential liar, who recalls facts that no contemporary ever heard 
of ; another is the fact that some men remember absolutely noth- 
ing; and lastly, is the fact that some men remember vaguely, 
but conversation enables them to recollect facts. I received a let- 
ter last week from an old friend in an adjoining county, who an- 
swered a letter to me as to what took place in a land sale in A. D. 
1875, where Frazier's drug store now is situated, and the answer 
of my correspondent, a succinct statement covering one page of 
typewritten matter, is as clear cut as a stamp on " a dollar of our 
daddies" just stuck from the United States mint. This and all 
this has moved me to call a meeting of myself and appoint a com- 
mittee to take hold of this matter and organize "The Wichita 
Historical Society," of which the mayor of the city of Wichita 
shall and his successors until time shall be no more, shall be the 
chairman; the city council to furnish the store-house for all the 
wares that are brought to the store-house, which are worthy of 
preservation, until that future day arrives when the city shall 
• chronicle the past and monument it for the delight, amusement 
and pastime of the future people of Wichita forever. This society 
once formed, will endure and when Wichita, as Chicago, com- 
memorates its hundredth year, our hours of saving facts will be 
appreciated. The society can meet annually and elect its trustees 
and it recommended that for the first trustees, the following 
named persons be chosen: Chairman. Mayor B. F. McLean; 
Secretary, M. M. Murdock; Custodian, John Davidson; Trustees, 
Doctor Fabrique, Ben Aldrich, M. W. Levy, Robert B. Lawrence, 



232 fflSTORT OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

William C. Little, Mrs. J. H. Aley, Mrs. J. H. Black, Mrs. H. J. 
Hillis, Mrs. N. A. English. 

These trustees to be elected annually, five men and four women, 
or if you want to be esthetic, five gentlemen and four ladies, or, if 
rough, five males and four females, as follows : Three, one year ; 
three, two years ; three, three years. However, this is a matter of 
detail and to be governed by the wishes of the trustees. It might 
be a nice thing to elect three of these trustees for life, as in some 
New England towns. It would be a tribute to three pioneers, and 
pleasing to them as to the days of "sans teeth, san eyes and sans 
taste, ' ' approach and they shall live in the autumn haze of 
recollections, indulging in the pleasant memories of the days that 
are dead. Every city administration should be a mile post to re- 
member as the days go speeding by, recall the past, the rallying 
cry of former days and deeds of former years. 

Wichita was organized under three trustees, C. A. Stafford, 
who lived on the land where Abe Wright and Al Bitting now 
live; Ike Elder, who lives in Harvey county; 6. H. Smith, also 
called Little Smith, who owned the land from Eleventh street to 
St. Paul's church on Lawrence avenue, who was at one time 
John Steele's partner and who went into partnership with Uncle 
Jake Pittinger and then stole all the assets and ran away and from 
that hour even unto the present day, he hath not been seen or 
heard of by any man that dwells in Wichita. 

The first mayor was Dr. E. B. Allen, and the first council was 
S. E. Johnson, Charles Schattner, George Schlichter, W. B. Hutch- 
inson, Dr. Fabrique and George Van Tilburg. Harry Van Trees 
was police judge and Bill Smith the first city marshal. Of these 
men columns can be written, which will redound to the credit of 
some and to the dishonor of others, in their conduct as men, citi- 
zens and officials. This administration may well be called the 
beginning of civilization in the Arkansas valley and through this 
administration was builded the Santa Fe railroad from Newton 
to Wichita. This was the pioneer civilization administration. 

The first three ordinances passed by this council were amplify- 
ing, reaching out, "pioneer spreaders" and annexed to the city 
of Wichita, all that part of the present city lying on the south 
side of Douglas avenue, from Water street to the Santa Fe depot 
and also from Lawrence avenue to the Santa Fe depot on the north 
side and also from the corner of Murdock avenue and Lawrence 
avenue to Ninth street on the east side of Lawrence avenue, b 



EEVIEW OF CITY 233 

strip of ground 150 feet wide and 1,200 feet long. This was done 
eight days after the council met and was for revenue purposes 
only, taxable purposes and is recommended to the present admin- 
istration for the benefit of those people who have sneaked their 
stuff outside the city limits to avoid taxes and yet at the same 
time have all the benefits and comforts of a city of 30,000 people. 

Jim Hope's Administration will live as the "cattle trade" 
administration. The character of Jim Hope and his attributes 
demand a strong artist for their delineation and for the present, 
any attempt will be omitted. 

Geo. Harris' Administration. George Harris' administration 
(present city treasurer) was the first great wheat year after the 
"grasshopper" and it was the year that old Eagle Hall was 
adorned, decorated and festooned with the fruitage of the "happy 
valley," as named by Commodore Woodman. The people at that 
time brought forth the first fruit, even as Cain did his sacrifice, to 
be offered up for the glorification of the Arkansas valley. At this 
gathering 200 editors from New York and Missouri called upon 
Wichita and 100 of them got full, fuller than geese and five "of 
'em" got left and missed the train. "Wichita, from that visit, got 
about three hundred columns of free write-up and in that pri- 
mordial stage of evolution from savage ways to modern civili- 
zation; in that primeval way, Wichita established its reputation 
for hospitality and self-abnegation by the surrender of the keys of 
the gates of the town to the visiting stranger. This freedom to 
all who visit us is known wherever the commercial traveler makes 
his way, wherever the newspaper circulates and wherever people 
whose blood runs warm as wine, congregate, smoke, talk and 
swap yarns. Some years ago a Boston man said to me, "Once I 
traveled out of Boston and stopped at many places and for some 
months I was completely a foreigner. One Sunday morning I 
reached Wichita and stayed there three days. The day I left 
■Wichita was a regret. Some twenty years have rolled away since 
that trip and all that I now recall is that once out west I spent 
three days in Wichita and had the 'time of my life.' I cannot 
recall, at this time to mind, the name of a solitary indi^ddual I 
met, but if lease of life should be granted to me for more than 
969 years, I shall always remember the three days I spent in 
Wichita, in the year A. D. 1876, in the ' early month of May, when 
green buds were a-swellin'." 



234 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Greiffenstein's Administration. During Greifif enstein 's time 
from 1878 to 1885, were glorious, great and triumphant years. 
The Frisco railroad and the Missouri Pacific railroad were built; 
the Santa Fe went west to Kingman and south to Wellington ; the 
Gas Company 's franchise was granted ; the water works franchise 
and the opera house, old Turner Hall at the corner of First and 
Market streets was builded by a syndicate and bonds were is- 
sued on five years' time at five per cent interest and stood to the 
patriotic citizens of Wichita to enable the Germans to build the 
old Turner Hall. These years were busy years, full of joy and 
profit and a modicum of tears. During the year A. D. 1879, 1,000 
town lots were sold at a judicial tax sale for the average of 
$10.00, and at the present date there are $100,000 worth of real 
estate in Wichita held under that judicial tax sale. Pat Healy 
bought the lot where Gehring's drug store now stands for 
$100.00; a lawyer got the corner of Main and William streets 
for $100.00. A portion of Governor Stanley's home on Topeka 
avenue was in this same sale. Oak Davidson's old home at the 
corner of Murdock and Lawrence avenue was in this sale. 

These years were formative years, were guiding stars, and 
their influence governed succeeding years. These years were the 
Douglas avenue years, when the Greifl'enstein-Steele dynasty 
planned, directed and executed the things which were undertaken. 
This was when the war 'twixt Main street and Douglas avenue 
raged furiously. When a Main street man prowling on Douglas 
avenue was an ominous portent; when the rear room in Tow 
Jewell's saloon on Douglas avenue, where George McNeal's bar- 
ber shop is now situated, was the actual board of trade rooms 
for Douglas avenue. In this room it is said, Frank Tierman 
heated with "booze," agreed for $1.00, love and affection to 
build to Wichita the Missouri Pacific railroad and place the depot 
on the corner of First and Second streets on Wichita street 
and this was done one year before the location was made pub- 
lic. During these years, land was bought, that when sold, made 
enough money to keep the "wolf from the door," if men had been 
satisfied, but the blood was hot, the ambition was fired. The 
desire to obtain millions, and then came on the "boom;" then 
the deluge and then assets melted as "snow under an August sun." 
The result was insolvency, expatriation, misery, humiliation, deg- 
radation and death to many; proud homes were abandoned; 
ruin ate fortunes, thicker than fallen leaves, in Wichita, in each 



REVIEW OF CITY 235 

succeeding year, were witnessed on every hand; noble, generous, 
liberal men walked the streets of Wichita in agony ; women of 
culture and refinement surrendered the jewels of prosperity to 
buy bread of necessity and adversity. Wedding gifts were bar- 
tered, sold and pawned to pay rent. Costly furniture was sold 
at second-hand stores to raise money with which to get out of 
town; and, in one ease, known to the writer, after the fore- 
closure of a mortgage, the owner one Sunday took a carpenter 
and plasterer to the house, then situated north of Third street 
and west of Waco, and removed therefrom two mantels, one oak 
and one mahogany, which Avere then put in a piano box and 
shipped to Kansas City, Mo., and sold for $220, and the money 
was used to help establish a small business on Ninth street in 
Kansas City, that earned a portion of a livelihood for the family 
which in Wichita, in 1887, gave a reception that cost $500, includ- 
ing a dance at Garfield Hall, in honor of a daughter. Ye, who 
things recall, put on your thinking caps and tell who this was. 
The writer was not in at that dance, but was named as the 
consignor about that time for a piano which was shipped to Kan- 
sas City. There is in all of us, as a writer says, "a streak of 
yaller." It seems to me that there is a germ of toadyism, syco- 
phancy, in most of us; a reverence for men who are (published) 
great ; a bowing down before some shrine, either financial, social, 
spiritual or politic. The -m-iter does not think he is filled with 
this toadyism qualitj- above mankind, nor that he is a hero wor- 
shipper to any great extent. But whenever the subject of the 
building of Wichita comes up, there arises before his mind's eye 
the figure, acts and speech of Greiifenstein. The writer does not 
believe that Wichita has dealt generously or kindly with Greif- 
fenstein or with his family. It is said that republics are ungrate- 
ful. Towns, also, forget the sacrifices made by pioneers. The 
following lines are applicable all over Kansas to the pioneers who 
, builded not for self alone, but from ambitious pride to leave 
behind a mark more lasting than brass or marble, in wide streets 
and avenues: 

"There is now a city, a thousand sweet homes. 
On the land he plowed for his first sod-corn. 
And he, a stranger, aimlessly roams 

Where his wife died and his babes were born." 



236 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Douglas avenue is Greiff enstein 's creation. It was his dream 
to behold it from the bridge to the Santa Fe depot lined with 
business, and the broadest, busiest, wealthiest thoroughfare in 
all Kansas. He was not bereft of hate, and wanted the north 
end humbled, but it was the hatred of rivalry — not personal feel- 
ing toward anybody. It was the feeling expressed by a gentle- 
man of the English nation: "Individually, you fellows are all 
right, but collectively, I would like to see you all hung." With 
Greiffenstein it was simply a pride to build a town, defeat his 
rivals. He gloried in the building and the opening of the old toll 
bridge on the west end to free travel and in the location of the 
Santa Fe depot at the east end. He almost broke the back of 
the north end when he seduced the north-end capitalists to take 
stock in the toll bridge and thereby make their selfishness earn 
dividends for Douglas avenue. He was almost alone in hi.s 
labors. The wealth and power of Wichita was against him, but 
it was extremely prudent wealth and unsacrifieing power. In 
the beginning, Greiffenstein, with Jim Steele and N. A. English, 
were arrayed on the south side, with land, pluck and determina- 
tion, but without money. On the north end were Woodman, Joe 
Allen, Al Thomas, Lank Moore, Minger, Wilder, Horner, Houck, 
MeClees, Davidson and Fi-aker. James R. Meade, vice-president 
of the First National Bank, interested in North Main street, also 
owned land on Douglas avenue, so that his efforts were neutral- 
ized, and neither side got full benefit of his labors. In the street, 
Sol and Kohn were north-enders, but Kohn went with Greiffen- 
stein. Eagle block was built and a dry goods store was built on 
the corner of Main and Douglas. The county offices were placed 
in Eagle Block, also the postoffiee. The Wichita Savings Bank 
was located on Douglas avenue, and Douglas avenue commenced 
to win. The United States land office was the only thing left on 
Main street that drew business, except the First National Bank 
and Woodman's Bank. Greiffenstein went after the United States 
land office, and gave to the government free rent on the second 
floor of the building now occupied by Dr. Dorsey and the street 
railway company and Jackson's barber shop. The land office was 
moved and Main street gave a howl. Then the postoffiee was 
moved by malign influence to the Baltimore Hotel, then the Occi- 
dental, and a bridge was built across the big river at Central 
avenue. Main street rested from its labors, but Greiffenstein 
redoubled his efforts and went to work to remove the postmaster 



REVIEAY OF CITY 237 

and get a Douglas avenue man appointed in his stead and inci- 
dentally destroyed the Central avenue bridge by the election of 
Jim Steele as county commissioner. 

Politics did not count much on the south side of town in these 
days. The question asked was whether or not a man was abso- 
lutely loyal to Douglas avenue. If so, then stand by him ; and if 
not, then the Irish motto at the Donnybrook fair, "When you see 
a head, hit it," was adopted. N. A. English was considered some 
of a Democrat. Greiffenstein was counted and elected to the 
legislature as a Democrat ; yet to establish and maintain the 
supremacy of Douglas avenue was more than politics; it was a 
religious faith, and its promises to its votaries were not of any 
spiritual condition or location after death, but it was victory over 
the north end and high prices for Douglas avenue lots when the 
battle was over. 

The north end could have vanquished Greiffenstein in sixty 
days if it had loosened its purse-strings, but the men at the north 
end were "not built that way." They were built on prudent, 
cautious lines, and some of them were like the Methodist who 
boasted that he had belonged to the church for forty years and 
it had never cost him a cent. Many north-enders sympathized 
with and belonged to the north end, but would not pay sub- 
scriptions to build up the north end. As proof of this. Woodman 
at one time agreed to furnish the buildings where Tanner's book 
store now is on Main street and give the United States govern- 
ment free postoffice rent if the business men of Main street would 
pay him a portion of the value of the rental per annum. The 
building was furnished as Woodman agreed and the postoffice 
was placed therein by Colonel Murdock and for seasons the north- 
end business man paid rent, but Douglas avenue forged ahead. 
Main street lost some business and some prominent men and the 
rental was not paid to Woodman, and he then brought action for 
.the balance due on rent, against the north-end men, who would 
not pay. And these north-enders defeated Woodman on the 
ground that it was illegal and contrary to public policy to agree 
to pay rent on a postoffice. This case went to the Supreme Court, 
and any one real curious to know who did not pay his rent for the 
postoffice while on North Main street can find out by consulting 
any lawyer in Wichita, as this case decided a principle which had 
not been decided very often. 

This spirit dominated the north end from the beginning to the 



238 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

death of Woodman. Woodman was a foe that was a good fighter, 
that spent money, but being practically abandoned by his people, 
he quit the fight. Al Thomas moved his grocery from the Occi- 
dental, now Baltimore, to the building on the corner of Market 
and Douglas. Allen & Tucker moved their place from Main 
street to the present location of the National Bank of Commerce. 
Hess & Getto moved from the corner of Main to Greenfield's. 
Deter & Kaiser moved their barber shop. Joe Allen moved from 
First and Main to Roy Allen's present location. George Mathews 
moved to the room now used by the Tornado Store. Charles Hill 
moved to the brick store now occupied by Stanford's drug store. 
Sam Houck moved from North Main to the present Houck hard- 
ware store. Tow Jewel moved to Tom Johnson's barber shop. 
Sluss, Hatton, Stanley, Wall, Balderson, Adams, English, all attor- 
neys, moved to Douglas avenue. Allen, Fabrique, Furley and 
McAdams, all doctors, moved to Douglas avenue. During these 
years the First National Bank failed, and as a consequence there- 
of, the officers were indicted by the United States grand jury. 
They were technically guilty of violation of the national banking 
act and were found guilty, but were thereafter pardoned. They 
returned to Wichita, but their influence as men was over. No 
one particularly blamed them for the failure of the bank. The 
paper they had taken in became worthless by reason of the panic 
of 1873, caused by J. Cook and Henry Villard's failure. But 
when all these things came to pass, the backbone of Main street 
was broken. Its dream of being the business street of Wichita 
was over, and it is now considered on all sides that the dream of 
Main street as the business street of Wichita was over forcA^er. 
In this connection it might be remarked that the first law office 
on Douglas avenue was Harris & Harris, over the street car office, 
at 193 West Douglas avenue, unless Bully Parsons is counted, 
who had no books and stayed in the card-room of Lew Dittman's 
saloon in the old building that has been replaced by the Royal 
on West Douglas avenue. Bully played "rounce" and the "devil" 
among the tailors with Greiffenstein, Colonel McClure, Jim Steele 
and James McCulloch and others if business was dull, and some- 
times when business Avas not dull. 

This may seem a digression from Wichita's history to a purely 
Douglas avenue write-up, but these days were so imtued in my 
mind, being a young and impressionable boy, that the Clan Doug- 
las Avenue won me over and I was loyal to Douglas avenue unto 



REVIEW OP CITY 239 

this day. The ends aimed at in these days were success and the 
glorification of Douglas avenue ; hence my views of Wichita are 
full of Douglas avenue prejudice and bias. Greiffenstein loved 
his friends, and, though he was not a demonstrative man, he 
hated his enemies. Dr. Johnson said unless a man was a good 
hater, he was not worthy of confidence. Tested by this rule, 
Greiffenstein was worthy of absolute confidence, if he believed a 
man had purposely given him an insult or done him an injury 
Greiffenstein was a Socialist in Germany. He left college as a 
refugee in 1848, some time about the time that Charles Schurz 
and Joseph Pulitzer (New York "World" man) left the old 
country. Greiffenstein believed in liberty under law and also 
some liberty in defiance of law. His views of the prohibitory 
liquor law were so pronounced and are so well known that no 
comment is necessary. He came here on the prairie, established 
a trading post, lived in the open, helped to found tlie town, and 
the idea that a lot of puritanical pharisees should move in and 
control the town founded by him, and prohibit the use of beer, 
was as abhorrent to his feelings as a law, today, would be pro- 
hibiting the use of coffee and tobacco. Greiffenstein was not a 
snob nor an aristocrat. He was plain, simple and honest in all his 
dealings. I have no recollection of his ever wearing a collar or 
having his vest buttoned up. I do not say he never did, but I 
say that in daily association with him for years, I never observed 
that fact. He was not as old a man as he looked, with his gray 
hair and whiskers. He said to me one day, ' ' Call me Bill ; I do 
not like to be called Mister." Greiffenstein was Bill to his friends, 
always William to his wife, and he was Old Bill, "Sore-Eyed 
Bill," Dutch Bill and the "Douglas Avenue Dutchman" to the 
north end. He always rubbed and blinked his snow-blinded eyes, 
having been struck snow-blind in 1867 or 1868, wandering over 
the prairies, when he lost his bearings. He smoked cigars, but 
he loved his pipe, and with that pipe in his hand, held by its 
long stem, he smoked and the curling smoke ascended to the 
clouds, and after a time he gave an opinion. He was an oracle to 
his followers. He was Bismarck in the Douglas avenue fight; 
Jim Steele was Von Moltke. N. A. English was the crown prince 
and everything from the north line of Douglas avenue to the 
big river on the south were trained armies to do his bidding. 
He was an iron-gray town-building wizard. It may be that des- 
tiny located Wichita, and Colonel Murdock has often said, but 



240 HISTOEY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

it was Greiffenstein that made Douglas avenue. There are those 
that belittle his life and deeds, but the fact remains that he built 
Eagle Block on the bare prairie and afterwards built Douglas 
Avenue Hotel, and that, except English and Steele, all the popu- 
lation of Wichita was north of Douglas avenue. The north end 
bought his lots and moved on the avenue, after a most deter- 
mined effort to locate the depot somewhere north of Douglas 
avenue on Santa Fe avenue. Some near or distant day, Greiffen- 
stein will have a monument in Wichita, and, in my judgment, of 
the pioneers of Wichita, he will be the only one, because he is the 
only man who has impressed his individuality upon the minds of 
Wichita. Others may have some claims, but they must continu- 
ally prove them. Douglas avenue is Wichita, and Douglas avenue 
is Greiffenstein on both sides from Lawrence avenue to the bridge, 
except McLean's lumber yard and the Missouri Pacific depot. 

Greiffenstein was not an uneducated man, as charged by many. 
He was unknown generally to the people of Wichita, as a man, 
citizen, reader, husband, neighbor, friend or parent. As a young 
man, I spent many pleasant days at the Greiffenstein homestead 
on South Water street. It was a home in the strictest sense of 
the word, and more luxuriantly furnished than any private house 
I had ever visited prior to 1874. Before this house was remod- 
eled, the hall ran through the center. On the north side was the 
parlor and dining-room and library. In 1874 a Miss Sallie Barker, 
of Paris, 111., came to Wichita and lived at Greiffenstein 's and 
gave Mrs. Greiffenstein lessons on the piano. So far as I know, 
her piano, Mrs. Charles Hatton's and Mrs. W. D. Russell's were 
the only ones south of Douglas avenue. I did not visit much on 
the north end, except on North Water street. There was an organ 
on North Topeka avenue, above Third street, that did not have 
as much music in it as the one Emil Warner had on Main street, 
where Rohrabaugh's store is now situated, that used to grind 
out doleful sounds on Sunday evenings, as if it had a bad cold 
or consumption. Harry Arrowsmith, who was here in those days, 
mailed a receipt to the house once for a severe cough and recom- 
mended the organ have a tablespoonful every hour until relief 
was given. The boys thought this a good joke, but the house 
voted it an insult. But to return to the mutton: Greiffenstein 
was a great entertainer of his friends, and especially his "Injun" 
friends. He used to entertain them in the pasture running from 
English street to Kellogg on the west side of Water street. Prom 



EEVIEW OF CITY 241 

1874 until the Indians quit visiting Wichita, at least 200 Indians 
who came to Wichita from the territory were bivouacked in the 
pasture. One old buck was an acquaintance of Greiffenstein's of 
twenty-five years' standing, and he and his tribe put their tents 
in the pasture and killed and cooked beeves according to Indian 
gastronomy, without frills. Greiffenstein had outgrown his Indian 
customs, but his generosity led him to put up with his visitors as 
long as they called on him. In 1878, when Colonel Boon came to 
Wichita with his Indians that he was taking to the territory, 
Greiffenstein gave them a beef to kill and eat in the pasture, and 
about all Wichita called on them in the pasture. My judgement 
is that Greiffenstein's annual expenses were greater for those who 
lived upon, around and with him than his own family expenses. 
I remember on one Sunday afternoon a north-end man, who was 
off his beat and was down on South Water street, passed Greif- 
fenstein's home and saw so many men on the front porch that 
he went to Woodman's house and told him that the Douglas ave- 
nue gang was all down at Greiffenstein's and some devilment was 
on foot. The fact was, this was the usual thing for the Douglas 
avenue men to be on the front porch, as Douglas avenue was 
always planning something to the detriment of Main street and 
the glorification of Douglas avenue. 

Joe Allen's administration will always be known as the sewer 
administration, and it was marked by economy and prudence, so 
far as the mayor had any voice in the expenditure of money. 

George W. Clement's Administration. — This administration 
marked the advent of the new blood, the retirement of the pio- 
neer sentiment in city elections, and was the first administration 
after the boom was over and the bladder had burst. Clement 
realized that something must be done ; that money must be paid 
on improvements to save our falling fortunes; that something 
permanent must be built, and though he was abused and cursed 
.by some and supported by others, he resolutely pushed forward 
the asphalt pavement and the City Building, both of which are 
monuments to his zeal and courage. 

John B. Carey's Administration. — This administration was one 
that had blame attached to it by reason of the insolvent condi- 
tion. Contracts had been made to pave the streets and erect 
the City Building. The contract for the jasperite pavement was 
procured by doubtful means. Captain Carey set his shoulder to 
the wheel to run the city as he ran his business; to run the city 



242 fflSTOKY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

on as little money as law permitted, pay all honest bills, pay no 
money the law did not authorize, put his name to no ordinance 
that the law condemned, defeat the jasperite contract for pave- 
ment and pave Douglas avenue with asphalt. Carey failed of 
re-election by reason of the determination of what was known 
as the new blood or new element to be recognized in the city of 
Wichita, and, when "boiled down," the real fight on Carey was 
that the administration was too economical and would not wink 
at appropriations that the law would not authorize. Hence the 
new blood upheld Cox. Carey was an honest, fearless man, and 
his defeat was a rebuke to economy and the running of the city 
upon an open, legal basis, in which the business so far as the 
mayor was concerned was open to the world for inspection. 

L. M. Cox's Administration. — This administration was the 
"funding administration." Money was due on maturing con- 
tracts, and the treasury was about empty. Money collected was 
used on current bills. The "sinking fund" was drawn against. 
Old bonds were paid by new ones, which were sold or exchanged. 
During this time the city lost money through Doran, county treas- 
urer, so that the expenses were greater than receipts. This admin- 
istration, by reason of its magnificent funding operations, came 
in for general cursing on all sides, before it was over, but the 
general condition of the city had much to do with this, as the 
August special session of congress, 1893, followed by the failure 
of two national banks, involving many depositors, the city felt 
feverish. Money was close and hard to get, and creditors pushed 
hard. The blame of being too free in the use of money attached 
to Cox's administration made the pendulum rebound and the 
demand was made for an economic administration by the leaders 
of all parties, and L. M. Cox, who defeated Carey, because he 
was too economic, was set aside for Finlay Ross, because Cox was 
too extravagant. Such are the vagaries of politics. 

Finlay Ross' Administration. — This administration will be re- 
membered as the "park administration." To Ross' efi'orts Wich- 
ita owns the finest city parks in the state. It will be as a monu- 
ment, when he is wearing a robe and twanging a harp in the New 
Jerusalem. This administration was one that brought the old 
street car line to the final end, but the administration had noth- 
ing to do with getting the present street car company. This credit 
is due to Coler L. Sim. This administration commenced the fight 
on the M., K. & T. Telephone Company and granted the fran- 



REVIEW OP CITY 243 

chise to the present Independent Company. Whether rightly or 
wrongly, Ross is accused of having had in mind the formation of 
the Independent Company when he commenced the fight on the 
old company. Ross' friends do not believe that he was in any 
wise connected with the new company nntil after his time as 
mayor of the city had expired. Whether it is an error or not, 
there is in Wichita amongst all classes a deep-seated opinion that 
Finlay Ross, as mayor, honestly, earnestly and faithfully per- 
formed his duty and that he demanded a system of bookkeeping 
to be inaugurated so that the city could know what it owned and 
when it was due. It has been said that up to the time when Ross 
became connected with the city administration that the books in 
the city office were not kept in such a way that the city knew 
either what its bills payable or bills receivable were. 

Ben McLean's Administration. There is now on and is not 
yet history, and hence will not be written about, except inci- 
dentally, to say that the west side is being cared for as it never 
has been helped before. Every good citizen is aware that the west 
side has the mayor, as heretofore it has been neglected. The west 
side surrendered its rights as an independent town and sank into 
the insignificant condition of being a ward. The building of a 
double bridge on the river, carrying gas and water pipes and 
having good foot walks across, with double driveway, will bring 
the west side close to Douglas avenue, and the present adminis- 
tration is recommended to do two things before it closes and goes 
into history: First — Organize a Historical Society. Second — 
Build a double bridge on Douglas avenue, so that the future col- 
lector of events, when he proceeds to gather his facts, will embalm 
in the history of Wichita that the McLean administration paved 
the west side, built the double bridge and organized a Historical 
Society. 

The Boom Administration. — Ben Aldrich was mayor of the 
city from 1885 to 1887. This might be properly named the "boom 
administration." During this administration was the awakening 
of the people of Wichita to the fact that Wichita was being no- 
ticed by people from the Eastern states, by men with money ; by 
simon-pure, unadulterated, square-sawed oak, beeswax-rubbed and 
unpolitical speculators ; the man who hunts a place where values 
are rising and who keeps tab on every place where money can be 
quickly made and harvested. The population of Wichita from 
1885 to 1887 increased about 20,000 people. The west side, also 



244 HISTOEY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

called Delano or West Wichita, had a population sufficient to 
organize as a city of the second class. At that time William Pitt 
Campbell, also known as "Tiger Bill,'" was the city attorney. 
The things accomplished under this administration, which were 
pure city acts, were the building of the Rock Island Railway; 
the Midland Railroad (now part of the Frisco system) ; the Wich- 
ita & Colorado Railroad to Hutchinson : the extension of the Mis- 
souri Pacific Railroad from Anthony to Kiowa, to get this terri- 
tory of a tributary to Wichita, and also a road called the Leroy & 
Western, which was built from Mulvane, through the southern 
part of the county, west to Clearwater, Norwich and thereafter 
to Coldwater, all for the purpose of bringing this territory into 
Wichita as tributary territory. 

West Wichita was induced to become part of the city, and 
Robert Lawrence was one of the prime movers in this undertak- 
ing. Wichita at this time passed from a second to a first class 
city. This was purely the work of William Pitt Campbell, as 
90 per cent of the citizens of Wichita did not desire that Wichita 
should go from a second to a first class city, because of the addi- 
tional burdens and expenses, which were necessarily incident to 
such a change. During this time the United States Government 
Building was got under way. Incidentally, this cost the men that 
located the buildings .$1,200 for the location. The Biu-ton Car 
Works were got under way. During this time these were com- 
menced, but nothing was done until after Allen's administration 
had closed; also the county court house was commenced. From 
1885 to 1887 were record-breakers, world-defeaters. Millions were 
spent in public and private and quasi-public improvements. Thou- 
sands of acres of land were added to the taxable values of the city. 
The Valley Center motor line, that is now but a legend, was. built 
and operated at the cost of thousands in the building and a loss 
of thousands at the final end. During this time George Strong 
built his two lines of street railway, one of which ran up Fourth 
avenue and is now a myth ; the other which went up Water street 
north to Fifteenth street and east to Fairmount College. This was 
an electric line and the lots cost over $100,000, and some of the 
bonds are still afloat. During this time J. O. Davidson got his 
first electric railroad, called the Riverside line, up Market street, 
Avest on Pine street to across the little river to Riverside addition. 
Historically speaking, this was the first operated electric railroad 
in the United States. 



REVIEW OP CITY 245 

Henry Schweiter built his line down Emporia avenue and out 
to Linwood Park. The West Douglas Avenue Street Railway- 
Company was organized by promotors of the Wichita & Colorado 
Railroad, and Capt. F. G. Smyth, who was one of the prime movers 
in what was called Junction Town Company addition. The old 
street ear company had agreed with the Junction Town Company 
addition that as soon as their addition was platted it would extend 
its line from the corner of Main and Douglas avenue across the 
bridge and at least one mile in length, but it took its time to per- 
form its promise. The west side was demanding that the street 
car line be extended across the river. One Sunday morning Cap- 
tain Smyth called a meeting of the Junction Town Company and 
stated that it was absolutely necessary for the moving of the 
Junction Town Company property on the west side that this street 
car line be built. Thereupon a charter was drawn up. On Mon- 
day morning it was forwarded to Topeka. A wire was sent from 
Topeka that the charter had been filed and a copy mailed to 
Wichita. On that afternoon the city council were seen, a special 
meeting of the council was held, the franchise was granted to the 
West Douglas Avenue Street Car Company, and on the morning 
thereafter Captain Smyth left for St. Louis to buy two cars to 
put on this line. The most of the work was kept secret. The 
first that the old street car company knew of the progress made 
by the West Douglas avenue company was when its officers beheld 
the street cars sitting on the Frisco sidetrack, ready to be un- 
loaded. In twenty-four hours the old street car company had 
gathered its company and called a meeting of the Junction Town 
Company with its managers and assumed the obligations of the 
West Douglas avenue company, paid for the new cars and track 
and commenced to operate the road as soon as it could be gotten 
under way.. 

It is estimated that the loss in the building of the street cars in 
the city of Wichita, from the organization of the first street car 
line in 1883 down to the time that the present street railway sys- 
tem purchased the electric line three years ago, amounts to about 
$700,000. In this connection, it might be said that the first street 
ear line was organized in 1883, by Col. John W. Hartzell, then of 
Topeka, Kan. ; J. M. Steele, Kos Harris, L. D. Skinner and Frank 
Hartzell. This street railway line ran from the Santa Fe depot up to 
Main street on Douglas avenue, and thence north to Oak street, 
now Murdock avenue, and thence east to Fifth avenue, and thence 



246 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

north to the old Santa Fe depot. The present city street railway 
rails weigh over 100 pounds to the yard. The Wichita street rail- 
way, when built in 1883, used iron, which weighed but fourteen 
pounds to the yard, so that one can readily see the difference 
between building a mule car line and an electric car line. The 
Wichita Street Railway Company, organized in 1883, issued its 
bonds to the amount of $14,000, payable to S. W. Wheelock, of 
Rock Island, 111., and after this line was built, cars purchased as 
well as mules, the company had about $8,000 in addition to the 
$14,000 furnished by Wheelock. The earnings the first year were 
127 per cent on the amount of capital stock. Subsequently this 
road was sold to Colonel Powell for $25,000, and thereafter Colonel 
Powell sold one-half interest for $25,000, and thereafter he sold 
his other half interest for $100,000, which was paid in notes and 
mortgages taken by him in part payment, and he lost over $35,000. 
During this time the Garfield University was started by the Chris- 
tian church; also Fairmount College, the German Reform Col- 
lege, now used by the Catholic church, south of the golf grounds. 
During this time John Bright 's University was started. There is 
perhaps one person in five hundred in the city of Wichita who 
remembers where John Bright 's University was located. This 
administration was the one that gave to Wichita the celebrity 
and it is a period of high values. The apex of its prosperity and 
this administration passed into history before Wichita realized 
that it was insolvent or dreamed of what would follow. 

As a matter of fact, the city of Wichita was in the condition 
of a n^an who goes home and finds some of his family is ill. While 
he is shocked to some extent, the member of the family lies sick 
for one month, two months or three months. The doctor tells 
them that there is doubt of the recovery of the sick person. By 
the time the person dies, the family have become accustomed and 
reconciled to the condition, and the death is not as much of a 
shock as the original information of the illness. Where a person 
goes home and finds a member of the family has been suddenly 
killed, the shock is terrible. Wichita was a sick man. It did not 
know whether it would recover or not as the days, months and 
years went by, and had become reconciled to the condition. If 
on some morning in 1888 all of the misery, desolation and bank- 
ruptcy had suddenly come to Wichita in the night, the shock 
would have been so great that the undertakers of this city would 
have had to telegraph to Eastern cofSn manufacturers to order 



REVIEW OF CITY 247 

boxes with which to bury the suicides. My judgment is that all 
the strychnine, arsenic, prussie acid and laudanum in the town 
would have been used in forty-eight hours if one-half of the mis- 
ery and desolation had struck us suddenly instead of being long 
drawn out. 

During this time Linwood Park was laid out, which was the 
first real park of the city. The Christmas of 1886 was the wildest 
and noisiest day in speculation that Wichita ever beheld. Real 
estate trades that amounted to millions of dollars were made in 
that day. There was indebtedness enough created on that day to 
bankrupt at least fifty families. On that day the writer was a 
member of a syndicate and put up his portion of $30,000 in a 
piece of property which was thereafter carried ten years and then 
sold for about the same amount of taxes that had been paid out 
on the property from 1886 to the day of the sale, a period of about 
ten years. On that day every hotel of the city was full and run- 
ning over. Business men had abandoned their stores and became 
real estate speculators. Stocks of goods were sold and boxed up 
and the stores were rented for business houses. One business house 
on North Main street rented for $125 per month, was used as a 
real estate office, and sublet for desk room, so that the original 
lessee of the room received a profit of $250 per month for the 
room. 

During this time the Rock Island Railway made a contract with 
a local syndicate to locate its depot at its present site and the 
ground, which in 1885 was worth perhaps $20,000, was bulled until 
the owner saw fit to ask $60,000 for 100 feet of ground facing on 
Douglas avenue. The railroad company was determined not to 
pay this money or to make this location. It was agreed between 
this syndicate and the railroad company that the company would 
pay $20,000 toward the purchase of this ground and the syndicate 
should pay the other $40,000, and the railroad company was to 
give the syndicate company reasonable time in which to purchase 
the ground with which to requite itself of the amount paid for the 
depot site. This syndicate made its first purchase of the ground 
now known as Rock Island addition, which runs from the Rock 
Island depot across Rock Island avenue to the Frisco depot, east 
and west, and runs to Division street, north and south, being 
located 140 feet south of Douglas avenue. Fifty thousand dollars ' 
worth of other property was purchased on Douglas avenue, and 
Rock Island addition was laid out. Rock Island avenue was 



248 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

thrown open, but to get to Douglas avenue with Rock Island ave- 
nue it was necessary to purchase two lots on Douglas avenue and 
dedicate them for a street, and these two lots were purchased for 
$12,000, and afterwards dedicated to the public for a street. The 
syndicate that purchased this addition and furnished the depot 
to the Rock Island Company, made a profit over and above 
expenditures which amounted in the aggregate to over $60,000 
or $74,000 in six months from the date that the addition was 
platted. So in truth and in fact, Ben Aldrich's administration 
should be put down in history as the "boom administration." 



CHAPTER XXII. 
REMINISCENCES OF A BRIEFLESS BARRISTER. 

By 

KOS HARRIS. 

When one falls into a reminiscent mood, 'tis said to be decay 
— dry-rot — softening of that part of man which passeth for brain ; 
yet Daniel "Webster, the tutelary god of American authors and 
embryonic constitutional expounders, hath said: " 'Tis pleasant 
to indulge in recollections of the past"; hence I will indulge in 
recollections. I state, as a preface, that I belong to the prehistoric, 
second-grasshopper period of Kansas. My information is that 
there was a grasshopper raid during the war, ere what we call 
civilization penetrated southwestern Kansas. I may say that dur- 
ing the year A. D. 1874 I did not live, but simply existed. My 
office was nine feet wide, twenty feet long and eleven feet high. 
Could I have had the arrangement of the square feet of the office, 
I might have shaped it better, but as I did not pay any rent, or 
any part thereof, during the year 1874 I had a delicacy about 
"kicking" on the inconvenience of the office, or the leaky condi- 
tion of the roof. I only remember one rain that year, so that I 
was not damaged. I had hoped for a soaking rain that might 
bring in a bill for damages on my library, but was deprived of 
the privilege through the benign goodness of Him who watcheth 
over the fledglings. 

Having nothing to do, in A. D. 1874, I grew dissipated, and 
regularly took one glass of beer per diem at a saloon called the 
"Texas Saloon," usually the resort of cowboys and Mexicans. 
This saloon was the last resort on the west end of the street, and 
there, unnoticed, unmolested and friendless, I went to get one 
glass of beer to submerge my sorrows and engulf my grief. This 
saloon was under the guardianship of a descendant of some al- 
leged old Spanish hidalgo whom I will call Don Carlos Juandaro. 
I could not for my life help admiring, yet hating and despising. 



250 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Don Carlos. The first time I beheld him was in March, 1874, 
standing behind the bar with a revolver pointed at a desperado 
and influencing him to pay one dollar for thirty cents' worth of 
the meanest beer a mortal ever tasted. He was a beau ideal Span- 
ish guerrilero. I usually passed by if he was at the bar, being 
in no condition to pay over five cents for five cents' worth of 
beer, and did not intend to take any chances on it. The long, hot 
and windy summer days came and found me in my dingy office, 
contemplating cold, clammy, worm-eaten physical dissolution, 
temporal annihilation, permanent absence from earth, commonly 
known and denominated as death. Of course there is no such 
thing as death, but as common people will understand me better 
when I say death, I will thei-efore call it "death." I did not feel 
too young to die, to be dissolved, annihilated, permanently re- 
moved, but I felt too bad to die; therefore I existed, not from 
love of life, but from fear of hell. Had I been better fitted to be a 
male angel, no doubt this would never have been written; no 
doubt the hand that writes this would long since have been part 
and parcel of a compost heap o'er which little buttercups, wild 
cacti and bluestem would long since have budded, blossomed, 
withered, decayed and dissolved. Perhaps the cottonwood would, 
ere this, have "sent his roots abroad to pierce my mould, etc." 
Who can say that the undertakers of Wichita would not have 
had a quarrel over my fleshless skeleton ; that some future Ham- 
let might not have used my skull as an apostrophe on the fleeting 
condition of mankind in general and me in particular? Yet all 
this has been happily avoided by my cowardice or want of spir- 
ituality. Save the footfall of a creditor, no sound reverberated in 
my stairway, nor disturbed the quietude of my lonely den, save 
my own, till one day a step on the stairway gave me palpitation 
of the heart, vertigo, sent shooting pains through my bloodless 
frame, as if stung simultaneously by a thousand nettles, each net- 
tle provided with as many prongs as the countless tongues of the 
Mohammedan chanticleer — viz., male cock — of the Koran, with 
which all mankind is familiar. To paraphrase Burns' lines, I 
could say at that time "The fear of a creditor's whip is hell." 
All boomers, to the manner born, will echo this sentiment. 

At that time there was an old attorney here, formerly a judge 
advocate in the army, ' ' lofty and sour to those who loved him not, 
but to those that sought him, sweet as summer. ' ' The legal kids 
respected him for his legal knowledge, yet feared him for his 



EEMINISCENCES OP A BARRISTER 251 

acid accent and his seeming roughness and brutality in his prac- 
tice. He will be known as "Surly Bill." In September, 1874, 
after the "grasshopper" had swept the verdure of the Arkansas 
valley, even as Bismarck's "iron dice of destiny" had mowed the 
vineyards of France, I was in my office, aimlessly "sitting like 
Patience on a monument," not, however, "smiling at grief," and 
heard a sound on the stairway. Every creditor had previously 
paid his respects, and I was wondering if one of these fiends in 
human garb was returning to drive me mad (the word mad is 
herein used in the idiotic, insane sense, not as denoting anger), 
when Surely Bill came in. He had ne'er before opened my door, 
nor walked across the floor, and I expected naught save a dun, a 
suit, a judgment, disgrace, humiliation, commercial dishonor and 
insolvency. Bill seated himself — without invitation, by the way 
— and remarked: "I suppose you have not seen a dollar for so 
long that you can't tell the difference between a good or bad 
one." This was humiliating, yet almost true; insulting, yet I 
bore it all — in fact, separated as I am from that day by years, 
I may be pardoned for saying that it was Christian meekness that 
nerved me to bear it without at once whipping him soundly, even 
though at that date the contrast as to size was about the same 
between Bill and myself as between Judge Reed and Judge Wall. 
Bill, mollified by my forbearance, continued, after a pause: 
"I have a little case, a proceeding in aid of execution. I wish to 
have some depositions taken, and I will have you appointed to 
take testimony if you desire. I want to examine the debtor as to 
a conveyance made to his father-in-law." Visions of wealth came 
before me, and I eagerly assented and thanked the judge. He 
left, had the appointment made, gave me the names of witnesses ; 
I made out the subpoena and gave it to Mike Meagher to serve. 
(Mike was afterward killed at Caldwell, Kan., by some cowboys.) 
Mike served the subpcena and returned it to me with a "grin." 
• This nettled me, as I supposed I had made "some break" that he 
was "on to," and I asked him what he meant. "Old Bill is 
going to let you try this, is he?" said he. "Yes; why?" I 
replied. "Oh, nothing — only two or three of the boys have com- 
menced on the case and quit. Juandaro won't answer, and you'll 
have to send him to jail. I don't think he is dangerous, but I'll 
come round when you examine him." I now realized that I had 
been caught because I was green, obscure, and had never heard 
of this matter, which no doubt all the other attorneys had full 



252 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

knowledge of. My proud, imperious spirit sank. The next two 
days were simply a prelude of the everlasting Calvinistie torment 
to come to man after death — i. e., dissolution — and before the 
day of trial arrived I contemplated leaving town, skipping ; yet 
had no money to skip with. I dreamed of being shot, of dying. 
I beheld my lifeless form in a coiSn, pale, sad, melancholy even in 
death, and yet how relieved I was I had died, but not by my own 
hand! I thought the agony of the interval between the date of 
serving that accursed subpoena and my death had so purified my 
unclean and aching heart that my poverty, utter loneliness and 
abject vsTetchedness would appeal to the good God, that he would 
permit me to at least enter the back yard of paradise ; perhaps 
grant me admission to the stables of the King of Hosts and give 
me a pass to the hay mow for a bed. Time, that is so fleeting; 
time, that matures a five-year note in one year; time, that has 
buried the archives of centuries; time, that has obliterated the 
glorious records of deeds of generations of Turiennes, Charles 
XII 's, Cromwells, Hannibals, Marlboroughs, Napoleons, Grants, 
Shermans and Von Moltkes; time, that in its hurried flight 
reckons not days, years or decades, was for me too slow. It 
dragged along at a crippled snail's pace ; hours were as days, and 
a day was a month. I was in a fever heat. I wanted to examine 
Juandaro, hear him refuse to answer, commit him to jail, be shot, 
die and be dead, dead forever and forever. In fact, none save 
God knew "the fatness of my full-rounded misery." 

All things temporal end, however. The day, the hour, came ; 
and as I sat awaiting, a heavy foot was heard on the stairway, 
bounding up two steps at a time, and in an instant Carlos Juan- 
daro stood before me, and then for the first time I knew who was 
the witness. As I remember him, he was a man of about five feet 
eight inches high, well knit, an iron-built frame, swarthy com- 
plexion; long, snaky black hair hung round his shoulders; eyes 
as black as a raven and piercing and relentless as a rattlesnake 's ; 
a frown on his brow as ominous as inky sky in summer; a mus- 
tache heavy and long as the "jack of spades" of the American 
army ; a mouth that half opened like that of a snarling cur, dis- 
closing two rows of teeth white as pearl. He wore a white som- 
brero, with wide rim and tall crown covered over and over with 
silvery binding and rosettes, that shone like a helmet in the sun ; 
a pale-blue shirt and no coat or vest; purple velvet trousers 
tucked in a pair of high-heeled boots, set in yellow stars. Round 



EEMINISCENCES OF A BARRISTER 253 

his waist was a belt filled with cartridges and over this a heavy 
crimson-red sash which, wound round and round his body, formed 
a fold, the rich tassels hanging down at each side, and peeping 
from the folds of this belt appeared the ivory handle of a revolver. 
He was the ideal creation of an artist, a poem on legs — his tout 
ensemble astonished, fascinated and bewildered me. Scientists 
say snakes don't charm animals, but that animals become en- 
tranced and charm themselves by being unable to remove their 
eyes from the snake after once gazing on it. In the same way I 
was hypnotized, became dumb. My heart ceased, almost, to beat. 
I was tired, weary, sleepy, limp, when I was suddenly roused from 

my lethargy by a loud voice saying, "What in do you want 

with me, you ? ' ' 

I rallied, grew talkative, explained as best I could my position 
in the matter, begged his pardon, expressed the hope that it was 
all right, and thus in the presence of impending death was as 
cheerful as I fancy "Praise God Barebones" (Cromwell's assist- 
ant) would have been at a dance at the time when the Long Par- 
liament was prorogued, and the only real amusement a Round- 
head had was singing psalms through his nose as a vocation and 
spearing Cavaliers for recreation. That interview, however, came 
to an end, and I was permitted to live. The day of trial arrived. 
The judge; G. H. E., Carlos Juandaro's attorney, and Juandaro 
entered the court room. The preliminaries were soon over; the 
witness was sworn ; the first question asked and answered about " 
as follows: "State your name, age, residence, occupation." "It's 
none of your business as to my age, residence or occupation, and 
as to my name, unless I am the man for whom the subpoena was 
issued, I have no business here. If I am the man, you know my 
name." The next few questions were answered because they did 
not tend to elicit any information. At last a question was put by 
Surly Bill, and to the end of it, by way of parenthesis, he added : 
."You can now perjure yourself if you want to, or surprise me by 
telling the truth." This addenda to the question produced a clap 
of Mexican thunder in a cloudless Kansas sky. Juandaro raged 
and swore and foamed at the mouth like a mad dog. He almost 
burst a blood vessel and his gall bladder. He swelled up in the 
neck like the picture of a cobra filling his hood preparatory to 
ejecting the poison gathering under his tongue, and his eyes were 
as changeable as a tiger-eye jewel. When he paused to recover 
breath, Surly Bill remarked in a dry voice that he was a born 



254 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

actor and ought to be on the stage instead of selling whisky and 
conveying away his land to defraud his creditors. This brought 
on another scene. During the oration Juandaro's right hand 
nervously clutched the ivory handle of his revolver, and when he 
sat down it M'as the general understanding that he was not going 
to answer that question. The tableau was stirring — four men sit- 
ting looking at each other — deep breathing, long silence. 

Surly Bill at length said : ' ' Mr. Notary, do your duty. ' ' Juan- 
daro's attorney here mildly remarked that he did not suppose the 
notary would take the responsibility and perhaps get sued for 
false imprisonment, etc. Surly Bill arose, even as Ulysses arose 
in the old poem : 

As if in thought profound. 

His modest eye fixed upon the ground, 

and, after an expressive pause, proceeded : 

"The witness is now at the end of his rope. Justice will be 
done. The law will be vindicated, the culprit punished. Others 
have permitted this witness to defy the strong arm of the law, 
but, thank God, we have now a notary who in his duty is as fear- 
less as the lion, bold to do right, timid only in wrong. I know 
that I am not, in the discharge of my duty to my client, appealing 
to a coward, but to one who, knowing the law, is courageous 
enough to enforce it. Mr. Notary, I demand an answer to my 
question, or a commitment." During the address I was the per- 
sonification of abject misery. I had a chill. I grew dizzy, blind 
— in fact, I felt as the poet when he said: 

What a tide of woes came rushing 
'er my wretched soul at once. 

Surly Bill, seeing my condition, sat down at my table, wrote 
out the commitment, showed me where to sign it, put the seal 
on it, went to the window, called Mike Meagher, and in five min- 
utes Juandaro was in the hall on his back, senseless. I went home, 
went to bed, stayed there three days. On the evening of the third 
day. Surly Bill came down to inquire after my health, gave me 
five dollars, thanked me for my courage, and stated that Juandaro 
had offered fifty cents on the dollar as a compromise the morning 
after his commitment, and that the matter was settled. 



EEMINISCENCES OF A BAKRISTER 255 

Juandaro left Kansas and is now in Arizona ; his attorney is 
in Kansas City, Surly Bill in Ohio, Juandaro 's father-in-law in 
"Wichita. The real estate which was in controversy is at present- 
covered with a brick building on East Douglas avenue. "Pro- 
ceedings in aid of execution" always bring to mind my first depo- 
sitions in Kansas, with Juandaro as a witness. 

"Amaranthine that day in my memory lives." 

"GRASSHOPPER." 

February 26, 1892. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

HISTORICAL ADDRESS. 

By 
KOS HARRIS. 

DECEMBER 9, 1903. 

Kos V. Harris, who delivered the formal address of welcome 
at the convention of implement dealers late yesterday afternoon, 
electrified his auditors. His language was eloquent, and the 
address was pronounced one of the best efforts, oratorieally and 
otherwise, heard at any similar gathering in Wichita. 

Following is the address in full : 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen : The committee having 
charge of this gathering have selected me to deliver an address 
of welcome to you. I was selected because I was entirely igno- 
rant, and therefore presumed to be absolutely without bias and 
prejudice on this subject. On behalf of the local committee, the 
local implement dealers of Wichita and the city of Wichita, I bid 
you welcome. Glanciag backward almost thirty years, when 
Smith & Keating and F. G. Smyth & Sons, at the corners of Law- 
rence and Douglas avenues, were engaged in the implement busi- 
ness, with one railroad in this city ; when looking westward, mil- 
lions of cultivatable lands were cattle pastures, and from the 
state line to the Red river, other cultivatable millions were cut off 
from trade, commerce and cultivation by an arbitrary edict and 
law, and from then down until the present day of this harmonious 
gathering, in generous rivalry of men engaged in the sale of 
agricultural implements, must be to every man here a revelation, 
a surprise and a continual source of wonder. 

To him who comes here for the first time today, the past, as 

related by the pioneer, almost staggers belief. To him who has 

witnessed it all, the past is almost an Arabian Nights tale; the 

present a glorious triumph ; the future full of rich promises. To 

2S6 



HISTORICAL ADDRESS 257 

those who have witnessed the A, B, C of agricultural civilization 
in the Ai'kansas valley and the adjacent and tributary territory; 
to those who have beheld the sun of hope arise, watched it in the 
meridian and beheld it decline in the days of financial distress and 
adversity, this is a joyous occasion, and they may exclaim as the 
Psalmist : ' ' The lines are fallen unto me in pleasant places ; yea, 
I have a goodly heritage!" A meeting of men engaged in busi- 
ness rivalry, in meetings of this character, is not only a liberal 
education, but builds up confidence in, respect and esteem for each 
other. Practically speaking, it is a new era in trade and com- 
merce when men engaged in the same lines meet together to dis- 
cuss their business and mutually encourage each other. Behold 
how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together 
in unity. Competition, notwithstanding trusts and combines, still 
exists among dealers and manufacturers. From east to west, 
north to south, men are employed in the empire of agricultural 
machinery for their industry, honesty, fidelity and alertness ; and 
in no biisiness throughout the West is there any greater number 
of capable men employed than in the business controlled and 
directed by this meeting. In fact, a man who is engaged in your 
business, and sails his boat successfully, can engage in any busi- 
ness — except medicine and the ministry. 

The banker, the lawyer and the newspaper man are your 
debtors. Your calling has to do with all of them, and your opin- 
ion given from time to time has in many cases become the deliber- 
ate judgment on values, results and the public pulse, by men 
engaged in other lines. The grain and stock markets of the world 
are measurably affected year by year by the reports to your 
houses from your respective agencies. Your business compre- 
hends grain and stock to such an extent that you are the barom- 
eter of the condition of the crops of the country from year to 
year. 

But, gentlemen, notwithstanding the past and the present, I 
beg to state that "Wichita has for thirty years planned for gath- 
erings of this sort. Millions in bonds have been voted and sub- 
sidies given in the Arkansas valley, trusting to time to redeem the 
promises made to the voter and the giver. The land was here, 
the men were here ; and they believed as firmly as they believed 
in existence that this valley was not only the granary of Kansas, 
but that this Southwestern territory was the superior in yielding 
power of equal acreage anywhere in the known world. The val- 



258 HISTOEY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

ley of the Nile has heen proclaimed for centuries as the greatest 
field of production ; and yet the valley of the Arkansas, the Nile 
of America, contains a yielding power in wheat compared to 
which no other section of the world is equal, and the figures of 
which, when sent abroad, are not only not believed, but are dis- 
credited. Our people believed that to everybody — and especially 
the agricultural implement dealers — this valley would prove to 
be the gold-winner and world-beater of the West. Kansas and 
Oklahoma business men have given great hostages to fortune, and 
their faith in the future; and the lines that you represent have 
taken greater risks, perhaps, on the future development of this 
country than any other business. 

With no disparagement to Oklahoma, its wondrous growth, 
its glorious future, Wichita has faith in the broad and fertile 
acres that lie at its gates, in its banking facilities, its railway 
connections, to finally bring to it the reward to which its people 
are entitled for planting, nursing and bringing to young and 
ambitious manhood this commercial infant, that has demonstrated 
its right to lift its head and be recognized as one of the great 
commercial factors west of Kansas City, south of Omaha, east 
of Denver, and north of Texas. The first great gathering of men 
of national renown to push the claims of Oklahoma was in Wich- 
ita. At that meeting General Weaver, Congressmen Springer 
and Manser, Colonel Crocker, and men from other states were 
present, and at that time Wichita placed herself in the front rank 
and worked for the success of that meeting, as much as if she 
was trying to build a railroad or establish a packing house. And 
when that great meeting adjourned, the rustling "blue stem" of 
Oklahoma breathed a song which was borne by eager, willing 
winds along to the oleanders of Texas, the holly of Arkansas, the 
long-leafed pine of Georgia, the magnolia of Florida, the palmetto 
of South Carolina, the craggy pines and singing rills of Colo- 
rado's snow-capped hills to the northern lakes, which song was 
divined and caught up by the homeless and landless yet ambitious 
manhood of our common country, and fifty thoiisand tongues were 
singing : 

"Come along, come along, make no delay; 
Come from every nation, come from every way; 
Come along, come along, don't you be alarmed — 
Uncle Sam is rich enough to give us all a farm." 



HISTORICAL ADDRESS 259 

Never siuee the date that Adam and Eve "hoinesteaded" the 
Garden of Eden was a fairer prospect ever given over to ciliviza- 
tion. History fails to record another such a peaceful, cosmopolitan 
settlement that transformed a melancholy and voiceless plain into 
a human beehive, containing all the necessary elements in popula- 
tion, intellect and wealth Avhich go to make up a state between 
the rising and setting of the sun. And at nightfall of that event- 
ful day, long, long to be remembered and recalled in story and 
legend and song, when the sun, like a ball of fire, sank into the 
Pacific sea, "the foxes had holes, the birds of the air had nests, 
but the Son of Man had not where to lay his head." 

"The night winds swept across tlie plain — the voiceless plain no 
more to be; 
The glowing sun arose again, and smiled upon a human sea." 

The sun looked down and smiled upon a happy, ambitious peo- 
ple ; a future commonwealth that provoked the envy and greed 
of speculators and the admiration of statesmen ; a new-born civ- 
ilization, proving that Americans (born or naturalized) were capa- 
ble of government twenty-four hours after residence ; looked 
down upon the united "blue and gray," and consecrated the mar- 
riage of Kansas and Texas, Nebraska and Tennessee, Indiana and 
Arkansas. Men of Oklahoma, the homogeneous and happy, peace- 
ful and prosperous home of the warring enemies that met at Get- 
tysburg and Donelson, Appomattox and Frederickstown, Atlanta 
and Chancellorsville — 

"You have turned your swords into plowshares. 
Your spears into pruning-hooks. " 

Wichita welcomes you as the keystone of the government 
arch, a jewel fit to be set in the con.stellation of stars that the 
rising sun gilds with its morning rays and kisses with its last 
beam ere it sinks to rest. Your settlement and progress is a 
standing criticism to all prior efi'orts at civilization, and but for 
the fact that the day of the pioneer is over, would be a lesson to 
mankind forever. 

Gentlemen, in the unconfined, boundless and ambitious West, 



260 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

where men are free, tireless, and labor with zest, the agricultural 
implement business is not only prosperous, but it is the, best. 

"It is your refuge and your hope ; 
It is the shadow of a rock in a weary land. ' ' 

The pioneer is gone forever: 

"Never again; no, never again 

Shall the eye of the traveler behold 
The naked, boundless, treeless plain. 

The charming vision of the pioneer behold. 
"Now teeming fields of golden grain 
By the eye of the tourist is seen, 
"Where once a free, unpeopled plain, 
Now appears a waving sea of green." 

Gentlemen, this agricultural empire belongs to you and your 
"children even unto the third and fourth generations." All that 
we ask is that you treat our farmers fairly and put the carload 
lots at Wichita, to be "localed" out and distributed throughout 
Kansas and Oklahoma from Wichita, instead of Eastern points. 
If we furnish millions in trade, the freight rates should be as low 
as possible, and from a basing point as near the grain as it can 
be put, and in our judgment this should be at Wichita, until 
another star arises in the firmament, makes its way to the zenith 
and demands recognition — some bright star, yet unknown and 
undiscovered by the town-building astronomer, that may yet 
rival us in our boasted possessions and contest with us the right 
to wear the belt of commercial supremacy in the great Southwest. 
The development of these lands and the opening up of that ter- 
ritory gave to the agricultural implement dealers a domain almost 
equal to Kansas, the profits from which will last until the end 
of time ; and these profits, present and prospective, should entitle 
this people to have your goods in bulk placed as near the point 
of demand as it is possible to do. Wichita, situate 225 miles from 
Kansas City, 600 miles from Denver and 150 miles to Oklahoma 
City, with its radiating railroad lines, welcomes you here as 
heirs and joint heirs of the prosperity that will surely flow to this 
valley before another decade shall pass away. God Almighty 
seldom sends a man into the world with an ambition to accom- 



HISTORICAL ADDRESS 261 

plish something, without endowing him with the capacity to per- 
form his work, and we of the Arkansas valley feel that we have 
both the ambition and capacity to be the commercial center for 
this Southwestern territory. 

To the manufacturer, we say come among us; be one of us 
and reap the harvest to come. Your houses can fix the rates on 
tonnage to Wichita if you so will it. A joint demand from the 
immense tonnage represented by you will make the basing line 
225 miles southwest of Kansas City. Kansas City was made the 
"basing point" when its population and railroads were less than 
Wichita's. Less than one-half a million Kansans made Kansas 
City, and the million of people now directly tributary to Wichita 
will make it. Your acts may retard, may hinder and delay the 
fruition of the hopes of the Arkansas valley, but as sure as there 
is a God in Israel, the day will come when every manufacturer 
in your lines will be here with a place for his goods, or regret 
that he had not faith in this locality, situation and fertile lands 
to get in the Arkansas valley team and "work in lead, swing or 
wheel," to people the Arkansas valley and the adjacent lands 
and double and triple the "output" per annum. 

But, gentlemen, to your business, "this royal infant, yet in 
its cradle, contains a thousand blessings, which time shall bring 
to ripeness." The wild Indian rose at the south, and the carpet 
of grass to the west, has but been scratched by the plow or 
touched by the reaper and the traction engine. You, gentlemen, 
can push or retard the growth of your own business. You can 
settle this great field and enjoy your profits, or watch the gradual 
growth from year to year. You can be pioneers of agriculture 
instead of followers, "trolleys in place of trailers; engine, not 
caboose." Your advertisement of southwestern Kansas and 
Oklahoma will send to those fields thousands of farmers, to 
whom your goods will go, and, in building up the prairie, enrich 
yourselves. 

• The men of Wichita have been thirty years building up this 
city — building it up in the faith that the time would come when 
it would be the depot of not only your wares, but the headquar- 
ters and "basing point of Southwestern trade and commerce; 
building it up to welcome you — to welcome you today. ' ' 

We feel "that we are citizens of no mean city," and that we 
are especially and distinctively the city of Kansas, dependent on 



262 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

none and independent of all. We have made a city fit to entertain 
any gathering, and, from our beginning, the stranger has been 
made welcome at our gates. 

Charlemagne, at Hamburg, about A. D. 800, on the bank of 
the Elbe, made it a free city; "Dutch Bill" the Great established 
and intended it as a free city. To this free city we welcome you 
and invite you to bring your wares and enable us to make it big- 
ger, to the end that your trade will help to put millions of souls 
in Oklahoma and Kansas to buy your implements and move the 
depots of machinery to a basing point west of Missouri, to break 
its bulk and be distributed throughout southwest Kansas and 
Oklahoma. You are here to extend your trade and increase your 
profits ; your ambition is to excel your rivals. This meeting will 
result in good to all and broaden your views. 

Your attention is called to the fact that when your eyes look 
to the west beyond Kansas City, there is but one place upon 
which they can tranquilly rest as a depot for your goods, and 
that place is Wichita. It has cost millions to make this town and 
develop this country, but some near or distant day Wichita will 
be to southwestern Kansas and Oklalioma what Kansas City was 
to Kansas in an early day; and when that day arrives, he who 
waits to see the outcome wilf regret that he did not get on the 
ground floor. In every honest calling there's a prize for him 
who stands his ground ; and for every man who regulates his 
conduct by the golden rule, there is a crown which will make his 
declining days contented, peaceful and happy, and will be the 
most glorious legacy he can bequeath to his children. 

All Wichita rejoices at this meeting and bids you welcome, 
and if good will and good wishes have any weight, we hope you 
will continue to contend for the prize in generous rivalry, a free 
fight and a fair open field, and when the end comes, that you 
may receive a prize as your reward, and a crown as an heritage 
to leave to your children. He who fails, can read the story of 
his failure and his rival's success in sorrowful retrospection. 
Prom unlucky men, as from a pestilence, people fly, while success 
is borne on eagle 's wings from sky to sky. 

"All hail to him who wins the prize! 

This world has cried for a thousand years ; 
But for him who fails, who fails and dies, 
There's naught but pitiful tears." 



HISTORICAL ADDRESS 263 

Go on in your labor, gentlemen; adopt the "Old Wichita 
Board of Trade" motto: "Harmony, Unity, Strength, Success." 
Welcome, thrice welcome to the "Hamburg to Kansas," and, 
hoping that your meeting may be successful ; that you may leave 
us with regret, after passing a resolution that you and your 
descendants and successors will meet in Wichita annually, until 
time shall be no more, I bid you glad welcome, and I bid you 
adieu. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

OLD NEW YORK BLOCK— SCHWEITER CORNER— A NAR- 
RATIVE OF EARLY WICHITA. 

By 

KOS HARRIS. 

Somewhat is saved from the tooth of time by the recordation 
of fragmentary, confused facts, which afterward are sorted by a 
ragman into some sort of order, strung together like buttons on a 
memory -string and denominated "history." Some are better 
sorters and stringers than others. That which follows is one 
memory-string concerning the old Schweiter corner and things 
brought to mind in connection therewith. 

' ' One generation passeth away and another one eometh. ' ' 

THE SCHWEITER CORNER. 

A man whom I have known for over a generation said to me : 
"Why don't you write up the Schweite^r corner as it was in the 
days of long ago?" This suggestion moved me to put a saddle 
on the cow pony, sit firm in the saddle, give the pony its head and 
a free rein, and ride wherever he goes, nipping at blue-stem and 
buffalo grass, as he moves ambling and shambling along. In the 
former generation, when "grandads" were few and far between ;- 
when white Swiss, blue ribbons and pigtails on youthful feminin- 
ity were rare; when there were three or four boys to every girl 
iu town and you could count the girls; when old Eagle Block 
(commonly called old Eagle Hall), where the Boston Store now 
stands, was a more magnificent and grander "publick" edifice 
than the new Coliseum, Hippodrome, Flavian Amphitheater or 
Architectural Fabrication or Forum, now in its genesis, at the 
corner of Water and English streets, or any other future build- 
ing, will be to Wichita, the "Old New York corner," now yclept 
"Schweiter corner," was the center of business, and drew the 
264 



OLD NEW YORK BLOCK 265 

loafers around it even as a barrel of molasses draweth flies or a 
magnet draws iron filings. 

The golden days, whereof I write, were halcyon days to those 
who called Wichita "home." A few people were called "Mis- 
ter," but they could be counted on your fingers and thumbs. 
Nearly everybody was young — at least not over middle age — 
and the gray-headed man was almost alone. The wrinkled fore- 
head, the gray head, the lack-luster eye, the bent form and the 
"lean and slippered pantaloon" were rarely observed. 'Twas 
the era of ambitious, buoyant, fearless youth, "when blood ran 
warmer than water." Wichita was happy, hopeful, hospitable, 
harmonious, ambitious, and so contented that "if the Creator 
had made us another world of one entire and perfect chrysolite," 
we would not have exchanged Wichita for it. We were "It," and 
we knew it. When these torn-down buildings were built, Judge 
Sluss, Governor Stanley, Greiffenstein, Kohn Brothei's, Steele, 
Hope, Gilbert, Murdock, Schatners, Hays Brothers, Judge Jew- 
ett and Balderston, Fisher, Tucker, Adams & Levy, Oliver, David- 
son, McClees, Allen, Fabrique, McCullough, W. A. Thomas, Black, 
Corbett, Parsons, Block, Hess, Getto, Hatton, following the above 
order, were Henry, Gene, Bill, Morris, Sol, J. M., Jim, Jake or 
"Tripe," Uncle Ben, Seth, Mose, M. W., A. W., J. 0., Nels, Joe, 
Fab, Jim, Al, Jimmie, Scott, "Bully," Mike, Albert, Peter and 
"Caig." 

As my cow pony wanders west on Douglas avenue and across 
the yards of the Pond Lumber Company, the Schwartz Liunber 
and Coal Company and the Union Mills, to the ford below the 
old toll bridge, I dig in the attic of my memory for things long 
unrecalled and almost forgotten. 

Scenes vanished, unbidden rise 
From the ground before my eyes ; 

Years of toil, hopes and fears. 

Freighted with joy, watered in tears. 

I hunt amongst the "jetsam and flotsam" of the past genera- 
tion and recall the buoyant young men, as they are now remem- 
bered, when Wichita was a Texas cattle town, a straggling town 
in swaddling clothes, but "hitching its wagon to a star," and the 
past has such a roseate hue that now it almost seems that in that 
golden ambitious past, "the morning stars sang together and the 



266 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

sons of God shouted for joy." In the days of old, the days of 
blue-stem and buffalo grass, keno, faro and all the things implied 
thereby, men were venturesome, brave and bold. 

The sun shone clear, the world was new, 
And Life was bright as sparkling dew. 

South of the Schweiter corner stood old Eagle Block, or hall, 
and in the second story was the "Eagle" office, the county offices, 
the court room and a temporary jail. The ground floor on the 
corner was occupied by the Wichita Savings Bank, the Presby- 
terian minister's study in the rear. Caldwell & Titsworth's 
queensware and grocery store, the postoffice, G. H. Herrington's 
book store and Karatophasky's dry goods and notion palace occu- 
pied the ground floor east. ("Karatoph" was the fee owner of 
a new and young second wife and one son, aged about fifteen 
years. Said wife and son were not congenial, and what spare 
time "Karatoph" had away from the store and the new bride 
• he spent mauling said youth in the rear of the store, on the back 
end of a vacant lot, where the Beacon Building now stands. This 
is a digression, but it is true.) 

WICHITA'S FIRST CIRCUS. 

East of Eagle Hall was a vacant space to Market street. The 
first circus that the scribe hereof attended in Wichita was on said 
vacant land. The circus tent was short on the top covers, and 
R. P. Murdock, John T. Stewart, Jim McCuUough, Tommie 
Holmes, Gene Schatner and one other got on the roof of the Eagle 
Block and viewed the circus without paying the ordinary honora- 
rium usually demanded by the door-keeper, the rule of circuses 
then being the same as now, that you can pay without going in, 
but you can't go in without paying. To the west of the New 
York corner, where the Kansas National Bank now stands, was 
the Progressive saloon, Jim Dagner's wholesale and retail liquor 
house, Pearce & Cogdell's cigar house, a barber shop, a Lone 
Star deadfall saloon, and overhead was a keno room, connected 
with other rooms, where there were a few games of chance, such 
as roulette, faro, gift enterprise, chuck-a-luck, poker (straight, 
bluff and stud), horse-head. On the theory of old Herodotus, the 
mention of the thing will be noted that one of the games of 



OLD NEW YORK BLOCK 267 

chance above set forth is horse-head. On the theory of old Herod- 
otus, the mention of the thing at a time, presupposes that the 
thing must have existed. No one in Wichita can tell what kind 
of a game horse-head was, but it evidently was a very pernicious 
gambling game, otherwise the city council of Wichita, good men 
and true, would not have prohibited the playing thereof. Over 
the sidewalk of this building, reached from the second floor by 
a door and from the sidewalk by a narrow stairway, was a bal- 
cony where, on the long summer nights, the band played and 
when the music died away there was a cheerful refrain that 
floated out upon the air and startled the night, the which, if I 
remember correctly, was about as follows : 

"24, 38, 56, 21, 19, 33, 11, 17, Keno." 

Usually these sounds were followed by language not permissi- 
ble in good society and never heard in Sunday school or church. 

^ KENO ROOM DESCRIBED. 

For the edification of those who never matriculated in keno, 
it is herein stated that this keno room was about 45x70 feet, and 
had six or eight long tables running from east to west. There 
was a chair about every two feet around this table, and these 
chairs were usually occupied. At midnight there was served a 
lunch, and those who were thirsty did drink, and those that were 
hungry did eat. 

North of the New York corner, where the Hub clothing store 
now is, stood the Southern Hotel, which burned one night. A 
large lady appeared at the window and expressed a desire to be 
saved. Jim Steele, who weighed something over twenty stone, 
told her to jump, and he her saviour would be. The offer was 
immediately accepted. In about three seconds, at least 600 pounds 
of humanity was rolling around in the alley, as if it were a two- 
headed phenomenon. On the Main street front of this corner 
was Jim Hope's wholesale and retail liquor house, on the alley 
corner. Immediately north of this was the Oyster Bay Restau- 
rant, conducted by Andy Wilt, and south on the corner was 
Steele & Smith's old land office. Between Hope and the land 
office was a theater. The first block on Main street, north, was 
the real business section of the city at that time. Douglas avenue, 
east from the corner, had no business except in the old Eagle 



268 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Block. George Salisbury, barrister at law, was an occupant of 
the Paul Eaton stand overhead. He had a law office in front and 
residence on the second floor back. 

George was a "shekel" gatherer who had no superior. It is 
doubted if he had an equal. His library was imposing, until 
examined with a critic's eye. Once upon a time he defended a 
traveling book peddler, who had a consignment of Webster's 
dictionaries. Said peddler was short on cash, but was long on 
dictionaries. George took 100 Webster's dictionaries and put 
them on his shelf as fillers. George, for lung power, had no 
human equal in the law. His equal, if any, was a Spanish jack, 
and a reference to the jack by Judge S. M. Tucker in connection 
with George's lung power almost produced a duel, but this is 
another story. George left Wichita for Pueblo, thence to Cripple 
Creek, now unknown, but wherever he is and whatsoever he is 
doing, the sinking sun shows that George has more cash in his 
purse than he had when the sun rose. George, as a speaker, had 
no equal in Wichita. Others were more eloquent, more logical, 
some closer reasoners. Some, at times, were louder, but taking 
it all in all, George's speeches, for length, breadth and thickness, 
have never been surpassed since the days when old Bill Allen, of 
Ohio, put a foghorn out of commission on the Ohio river in the 
Hard Cider campaign of "Tippecanoe and Tyler too, and little 
Van is a used-up man. ' ' At one time there was an auction store 
in the Paul Eaton stand, conducted by "Four Eyes" Fred Han- 
num and Tom Conklin. "Four Eyes," if he had been a lawyer, 
could have paid entrance fees and entered for the nine-hour test 
against Salisbury. On one occasion "Four Eyes" was selling a 
mule on Main street while George was in justice court across the 
street, defending a' "coon" for stealing a watch. The united 
voices of these two orators paralyzed Main street and stopped 
the noise of Emil Werner's organ next door. Both orators ap- 
pealed to the police court for protection from the other, one in 
the interest of justice and liberty, the other on the ground of 
interference with trade and commerce. 

There was a mighty strife betwixt Douglas avenue and Main 
street. The Santa Fe depot on the east and the toll bridge on 
the west, naturally made Douglas avenue the main business 
artery of the great metropolis. AVhen this mighty business was 
done, and Main street was downcast, disheartened and hiunbled, 
Greiffenstein, commonly called "Dutch Bill," without a collar 



OLD NEW YORK BLOCK 269 

and with his vest unbuttoned and a heavy gold watch chain 
hanging down at the left side, rubbing his snow-blind eyes and 
sending upward wreaths of smoke from blended tobacco and 
perique, waved his pipe as a magic wand, and prophesied the 
future of Douglas avenue, about as follows: "This royal infant, 
yet in its cradle, contains for its people a thousand blessings, 
which time will bring to ripeness. ' ' 

NOT EXACT QUOTATION. 

Now, this is not exactly what William said on that occasion, 
but that is what he meant. His dream is not yet fulfilled. The 
crowd then adjourned and went over to Tom Jewel's place to 
play a game of "devil among the tailors," which was one of 
William's favorite games. 

The bridge and depot were the beginning of the demolition 
of Main street. Lank Moore, Joe Allen, Sam Houck, Al Thomas, 
Hess and Getto, fled from North Main street, as rats from a sink- 
ing ship ; that is, all fled to Douglas avenue, except Lank Moore, 
who was so disgusted that he went to Arizona. These men were 
all stout North Main street adherents, but they could not abide 
to see the trade going away from them, and they built on Douglas 
avenue, between Main and Market. Sol Kohn tore down a two- 
story brick building, formerly occupied as a wholesale house by 
Todd & Royal, at the corner of First and Main, and rebuilt the 
same on Douglas avenue, where the State Savings Bank and Gov- 
ernor Stanley 's office are now situated, and the supremacy of the 
New York corner was fixed for a generation, if not for all time. 

The lawyers also moved down from North Main street. Gov- 
ernor Stanley, also McClees and H. C. Day, loan agents, moved 
over the building where Vail's jewelry store was. Sluss and 
Hatton moved over the old Wichita Savings Bank; Balderston 
over the second story of the present site of the Shelley drug store. 

R. S. Timmons, from Baltimore, also was on the second floor of 
this building. One John Stanard also hibernated in a room on 
the second floor. Adams, English, Ruggles and Yank Owens were 
over Richard & Rogers' store in this same New York block. This 
last firm had a sign, two and one-half feet wide and eighteen feet 
long, on which was printed in large goldleaf letters, "Adams, 
English & Ruggles, Lawyers." George Reeves denominated this 



270 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

"the brass front firm," and it went by the name of the "brass 
front" until the end. 

OLD-TIME LAW FIRMS. 

Then the firm of| Adams & Dale, succeeded by Dale & Dale, 
and then by Dale & Reed, were over the second floor on the corner 
west of Houek's store; also, Stanley & Wall occupied rooms at 
Stanley's old office. Stanley & Hatton and H. C. Higgenbotham 
were also there. Dr. Furley had an ofSce over the old Charlie 
Lawrence drug store on the second lot east of the corner. The 
doctor had a "writ of assistance" served on him one night by 
Charlie Hill, his landlord. "Doc" had been up the street, calling 
on a young lady, and when he returned he found his carpet, 
chairs, stove and desks all piled up on the sidewalk and in the 
gutter. This at that time was, and as far as I know, ever since 
has been the most rapid forcible-entry-and-detention law suit 
that ever took place in Wichita. Charlie was not only plaintiff, 
but he was the justice of the peace and constable. With him, to 
think was to act. It is said that the doctor and Charlie Hill were 
never friends after this occasion, but of this I do not know. Dr. 
McAdams moved in the next day. 

Robert S. Timmons, above spoken of, was a lawyer from Bal- 
timore. He used tobacco in all forms, and whittled pine sticks. 
He went to Quannah, Texas, where afterward he became wealthy, 
and there died. 

D. B. Butcher, a jeweler, called "Butch," was on the first 
floor. M. L. Garver and L. B. Bunnell and R. H. Roys had offices 
in the building torn down. 

R. H. Roys, attorney at law, was a careful, methodical and 
painstaking, regular, perennial, non-union chess player. Law 
and money-making was a side issue with him. He at one time 
tried to get up a chess club, to be called "Calumet," or calamus 
root, or something of that sort. Probably Roys is this minute 
sitting with a chess board in front, working on the problem, 
"white to move and checkmate in five moves." 

HE HAD NO PRACTICE. 

John Stanard, as a lawyer, attended court regularly, looked 
after the call of the docket, but did not have any practice. 

John came from Pennsylvania, but where he went to no one 



OLD NEW YORK BLOCK 271 

knowetli. It was currently reported that John received an an- 
nuity, which was paid every ninety days, and which boarded and 
clothed him and allowed him to dress in black broadcloth and 
appear dignified. John Stanard had naturally at all times as 
much dignity as Judge Reed used to have in the morning, after 
attending an installation at the Consistory, and desired to appear 
as Perfect Master or Knight of the Brazen Serpent. 

The young ladies of the town, when the old building was new, 
as I recall them, were Laura, Emma, Jose and Lou, Matie, Julia, 
Cora and Sue. There were Emmas three and Lauras two. 

The trade of the town then was between Main and Market 
streets. Stanley, as county attorney, a few years afterward, sold 
at judicial tax sale over one thousand lots for delinquent taxes. 
He did not get enough money to pay the taxes. The costs ran up 
in thousands of dollars. Three particular lots now called to 
mind, which were in this judicial tax sale, sold for $100 each, 
and they are now, on present Wichita values, worth about $40,000. 

The land office moved from Second and Main streets to 103 
West Douglas avenue. The first mortgage on the Occidental 
Hotel, now called the Baltimore, was foreclosed and the hotel 
shut up. A fire at the corner of Second and Main streets, destroy- 
ing a two-story building, left a vacant spot where the Northern 
Building now stands. The burning of two buildings on the left 
side of Main street, between Second and Third streets, where 
Winner and McNutt, to get some insurance money, burned the 
body of a man named Seiver, otherwise called "Tex." All of 
these things, taken together, gave Main street a "raggedy" 
appearance. 

In this New York block, as it was then called, Kohn Brothers 
had the corner, just torn down. Charlie Hill occupied the drug 
store at 102 East Douglas avenue, afterward sold to Charlie Law- 
rence, Richards & Rogers, Allen & Tucker, grocers, and the J. P. 
Allen drug store and Murphy & Riley, filled this corner to the 
alley west of Houck's hardware store. 

A GORGEOUS LAW OFFICE. 

At that time the most gorgeous law office in Wichita was on 
the New York corner, over the second floor of this building. It 
was occupied by Robert J. Christy, formerly of Peabody, Kan.; 
formerly of Pittsburg, Pa., and lastly of the Pacific coast. Christy 
bought $1,000 or $1,500 worth of books and had carpets, chairs 



272 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

and desks which made the ordinary Wichita attorney's mouth 
water. My recollection now is that Sluss sold all these books 
under chattel mortgage and thereby distributed a good many 
good law books around town, amongst the attorneys, which, per- 
haps, but for Robert J. Christy, would not have been on any law 
book shelf in Wichita for manay years. Sale under this chattel 
mortgage caused the iron to enter into the soul of Robert J. 
Christy, and he pronounced a curse and doom upon the town 
and abandoned it forever. 

In the front room in this corner building, just torn down, 
Jim McCullough, a whole-souled Scotchman, who had plenty of 
money and simply had a law office as a matter of introduction 
into good society, died. At that time Jim was city attorney. He 
made an oral will and bequeathed the ofiice of city attorney to 
Judge Balderston. While there was no provision of law that per- 
mitted an officer, when dying, to bequeath his office to any succes- 
sor, Jim Hope, who was mayor at the time, to carry out the wishes 
of the testator, accordingly appointed Judge Balderston as city 
attorney. 

In front of this old corner building, Mike Meagher shot Sill 
Powell one night. Judge Jewett was a witness to the act. Noth- 
ing was ever done with Mike Meagher. The shot was heard 
around the corner and across the street and emptied old Eagle 
Hall of the theater-going public. At that time Simon Show was 
in progress in old Eagle Hall. Simon at Ihat date was the star 
attraction in southwestern Kansas on the eoal-oil circuit. 

Whether or not Jim McCullough would have been a good law- 
yer, had he lived, no one can tell. Jim was too rich, with his 
income of $200 a month in Wichita in 1874, to go through the 
drudgery of the ordinary law office. An old lawyer used to say 
that the quotation in the Bible, "It is harder for a rich man to 
enter the kingdom of heaven than for a camel to go through 
the eye of a needle," was a mis-translation, and that it should 
have said, "It is harder for a rich man to become a lawyer than 
for a camel to go through the eye of a needle." 

McCullough used to throw bones to the writer which were 
snapped up like a stray dog at the back end of a butcher shop 
in the long, hot, dry summer of 1874, about the time the grass- 
hoppers swept the verdure of the fields of Kansas, even as the 
gardens and vineyards of France were swept, in the Franco- 
Prussian war, by Bismarck's Iron Dice of Destiny. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

THE LEGEND OF JOHN FARMER. 

By 
KOS HARRIS. 

Many moons ago a tale to the writer was told, the which he 
will now unfold, concerning an old Wichita resident and citizen. 
The same was verified by him some years after the occurrence. 
There is now on the west side a real estate dealer and broker of 
the same name. It may be the same man ; anyone who is curious 
can ask him. 

The John Farmer who is the hero of this legend came to 
"Wichita in its raw days, when bricks were unknown, when stone 
was as scarce as diamonds, lumber was higher in proportion than 
the present prices quoted by any "lumber trust" compared to the 
price before there was any trust. The assumption that there 
doth exist a lumber trust is founded on observation, conditions 
and a lack of real genuine, all wool, yard wide competition. But 
in the days whereof I write, lumber was high — higher than gold 
on "Black Friday," higher than "horse-liver" and "cat-chops" 
in Paris in January, A. D. 1871. Tliere was a saw mill at the 
junction of Chisholm creek and the Arkansas that sawed cotton- 
wood, and the small area of cottonwood fit to cut was watched as 
closely as a hen watches her chicks when a marauding hawk iS 
overhead. John Farmer had a claim, whereon there was some 
small timber, and naturally desired to be among the pioneer tim- 
•ber dealers and reap the benefit of his foresight in getting a pre- 
emption that had timber on it. The majority of the would-be 
purchasers were "short" on cash, but long on promise, and as 
John had timber and the buyer had no cash, the trade, the nego- 
tiation, the commerce, was as at a standstill. All negotiations 
were broken ofl", and therein lies the deep, dark, despicable vil- 
lainy that proved John's disastrous undoing. 

At this time, in our peaceful hamlet, when buffalo hides were 
273 



274 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

legal tender, buflPalo rump was steak and roasts, there was one 
Harry Van Trees, a duly elected and qualified "justice of th' 
peace,'' as full of tricks as a dog of fleas, hungry as a hound, out 
at the toes and also the knees, who had been living on beer, 
crackers and cheese, and who was growing tired of these and 
was ripe for stratagem and spoils. The timber buyers or thieves 
had recourse to the cunning and judicial wisdom of Judge Van 
Trees, who evolved a scheme as follows: One lovely morning, 
just about the break of day, John Farmer heard a crash like that 
made by falling timber. He got on some clothing right away 
and found that during his stunts the thieves were ' ' making hay. ' ' 

He scared them off with a gun, and put them on the run. 

And deemed the victory won. 

But did not reckon on the hours till the setting of the sun. 

John recognized several of the malefactors, and under the 
advice of some neighbors, he sought the fount of justice of Judge 
Van Trees, on North Main street. He found the place by a sign 
as thereafter set out. 

I am informed that the blind goddess at this date occupied a 
one-story edifice, twelve by fourteen, at least ten feet high, made 
of Cottonwood lumber, with a square front so as to be as pre- 
tentious as possible. John explained the nature of the crime com- 
mitted, and demanded that a warrant be issued. Judge Van 
Trees inquired into the matter, consulted the old statutes of 
1868, and Spaulding's Treatise, and Swan, and Plumb. These 
books at that date were a law library in the law offices in the 
great terra incognita south and west of Emporia, at which time 
Emporia was the end of wisdom and beginning of ignorance in 
law and religion, politics, commerce and real business. The 
judge, as he looked John over, unto himself softly said : 

Here is a chunk of raw Irish clay 
Which Providence hath put in our way 
To furnish food for a rainy day ; 
Therefore, let us be thankful and "prey." 

The judge saw that John knew nothing of procedure, nothing 
of his legal rights; and, contrary to the statutes in such eases 
made and provided, he demanded a deposit of costs to the extent 



THE LEGEND OF JOHN FARMER 275 

of $5, which John "put up,'' and the law commenced to grind. 
The celerity of the officer who served the warrant was a surprise 
to John. The ofiScer was Mike or John Maher, Jim Cairns or Ike 
Walker. The criminals seemed to have courted arrest, as they 
were all in court in one hour, demanding separate trial, which 
was granted. All defendants were out on bail. After dinner one 
case was called and trial commenced. After all testimony was 
in and the case argued, the court discharged the defendant and 
made a finding that the prosecution was malicious, and held the 
prosecuting witness for all costs, taxed at $50. This was a de- 
nouement not anticipated. There was no compassion, no relent- 
ing ruth, for the Irish youth who had told the truth; who was 
as green as his own Emerald Isle, even causing his tormentors 
to smile at his lack of guile, as they all the while were preparing 
to divide up his hard-earned money ; yea, verily, even as Joseph 's 
brethren divided up his price when he was sold into Gilead for 
twenty shekels. John was encompassed round and about by his 
enemies. In all the land there was no protecting hand to assuage 
his grief or grant unto him relief, for as much as the judge, of 
all the timber thieves, was the chief ; though it passeth all belief 
that such "things" could be, yet such "things" were. 

The judge at last grew merciful, and, as John had no shekels, 
rhino, mapus, chink, argumentiun ad crumenam at hand, the court 
took his note for $50, due in ninety days, and immediately took 
the same to Sol Kohn and got the money on it. He discharged 
ye prisoner, who, thankful to "get off with his skin," hurried 
home, and then the deep damnation of the plot broke out on John 
even as ehickenpox on a healthy child. All the cut timber was 
gone ; the timber thieves out on bond had, during the trial of the 
malefactor placed on trial, gone to the land and, unmolested by 
any one, had leisurely taken all they had cut in the morning, and 
John was left lamenting. 

Note. — Mr. Harris is without a doubt the most prolific writer 
in Wichita outside of the newspaper profession. His writings 
cover a great variety of subjects, and his style is terse and vigor- 
ous. He possesses a great fund of humor, unlimited information, 
and a large good fellowship. His productions are always eagerly 
read by the people of Sedgwick county. Kos Harris is the Mark 
Twain of southern Kansas. — Editor. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

WILLIAM LIATHEWSON— BUFFALO BILL— LAST OF THE 
OLD SCOUTS. 

By 

DALE RESING. 

I went to get the histoi-y of a city, and came back with the 
annals of an empire tucked away in ray notebook. I had sought 
only for a few facts relative to the founding of a city, but when 
I had finished seeking there was enough material in my possession 
to build a reliable chronicle of the early days of Kansas and then 
leave plenty to write a fair-sized biography of the Last of the 
Old Scouts. The Last of the Old Scouts ! The final shoot of that 
old stock of hardy frontiersmen which blazed the way from the 
Alleghanies to the Rockies for the thousands who later harked to 
the call of "Westward Ho!" Much has been written of Daniel 
Boone, the founder of the nineteenth-century school of frontiers- 
raanship. Every youngster in the land knows how he went into 
the wilds of Kentucky in 1769, and there, fighting and treating 
with the Indians, paved the way for the future settlement of that 
country. Not a lad but knows of the wonderful exploits of David 
Crockett, who passed Boone's last settlement in Missouri and 
placed the outposts of civilization a little farther to the west, and 
then died at the hand of the bloody butcher, Santa Anna, in the 
Alamo. And the intrepid courage, skill and endurance of Kit 
Carson are subjects for many a thrilling tale in all future genera- 
tions. But of the last of this illustrious line of daring explorers, 
hunters, Indian scouts and fighters little has ever been \witten. 
History says practically nothing of his life and deeds; and yet 
none of his famous predecessors of the same school did more to 
prepare the pathway for Western emigration and settlement. 
None saved more lives than this Last of the Old Scouts, who in 
his time rescued fifty-four women and children from camps of 
savage Indians, and prevented the massacre of hundreds of others. 
276 



WILLIAM MATHEWSON— BUFFALO BILL 277 

No frontiersman fought the wild hordes of redskins with more 
courage and valor ; and yet none was more respected, more feared 
and more beloved by the Indians than this last of the old-time 
pioneers. William Mathewson is his name. William Mathewson, 
of Wichita, heir in direct line to the prowess of Daniel Boone, 
1735 to 1822; David Crockett, 1786 to 1836; and Kit Carson, 
1809 to 1868. William Mathewson, 1830 and still living— living 
and pining, in his comfortable, modern home, for those old-time 
hardships and comrades of forty years ago, when men were men 
on the plains of Kansas, and lived only when they were men. So, 
it was to William Mathewson that I went for information regard- 
ing the foundation of the city of Wichita. And from him I went 
away with more appreciation of the danger and hardship of a 
pioneer life than I had ever gleaned from a dozen books. 

He eyed me stolidly as I entered his cozy little parlor on the 
chill October evening, and backed up to the cheerful blaze of the 
grate fire. And I as frankly scanned his battle-scarred counte- 
nance. It was a noble brow that I saw — high, broad and fringed 
with snowy hair, combed backward. Beneath shaggy eyebrows 
two gray-blue eyes gleamed steady and stern. The mouth was 
thin, straight and firm. A square, lean jaw and sinewy neck 
based the noble proportions of the head. A deep scar in the chin 
was half hidden by the scraggly gray hairs of the beard. But 
striking beyond other features was the huge, hooked nose, like the 
beak of an eagle. "What's the use of my talking of these things 
to you?" he had said when I queried him regarding his connec- 
tion with the early history of Kansas. "Why should I speak of 
them to anybody ? You can 't understand ; you don 't know what 
they mean. Nobody knows or can know, except those who were 
here in those early days. I could tell you of the hardships, the 
drouths, the famines, the terrible massacres, but even then you 
couldn't understand." The words were spoken half reprovingly, 
"half sadly. As they fell from the lips of William Mathewson, the 
Last of the Old Scouts, I scanned the stern, battle-scarred face of 
the old Indian warrior with a keen interest. Yes ; he was right. 
There was no possibility of any one of the present generation 
realizing half the horror, half the privation, the danger through 
which passed the pioneers of the great Middle West. Those sears 
on that austere countenance were too deep to fathom ; those lines 
and furrows carried by too stern a hardship to understand. 

The eyes of William Mathewson closed. His head rested 



278 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

wearily in his hand, while I, the visitor, sat silent and full of 
inspired admiration. I had heard of Indian fighters, read of them 
in books ; but never in my life had I beheld one belonging to the 
old school. And now that it was one of the greatest of them who 
was before me, I was dumb with mingled sensations. « 

I tried to grasp the trend of the old scout's thought. But it 
ran too fast for me. On and on it raced, touching here and there 
on the greatest deeds of a life full of adventure, till sixty years 
were covered, and "William Mathewson, with a few sturdy com- 
rades, was seen crossing the vast prairies west of the Mississippi 
in the year of 1849. For tlu-ee hours I listened to the incidents 
and experiences of this man 's life. And when it was over I went 
out of the cozy little parlor half fearing that instead of seeing the 
well lighted street of the city I should find a wide, moon-lighted 
prairie, dotted here and there with the camp fires of Indian 
lodges. Thus vivid were the tales of adventure told by the Last 
of the Old Scouts. When we had sat for a long time silent, he 
spoke again. Staring with half-shut eyes into the cheerful grate 
fire, his thoughts doubtless wandering over some half-forgotten 
trail of the prairie trod half a century ago, I hungrily waiting for 
him to pick up the thread and lead me with him through some of 
those vast, strange wildernesses. My nostrils dilated as did 
those of my host to sense the smell of camp-fire smoke. In my 
veins raced something of that flame called "wanderlust." "You 
have never tasted buffalo meat, young man," said the old scout, 
abruptly, "and you don't know what real eating is. I wish I 
had a big juicy steak out of a young buffalo cow to give you. 
It's the finest meat in the world — just as much superior to the 
best of corn-fed beef as the beef is superior to mule meat. I know, 
for I've eaten all of them. Many's the time I've lived on buffalo 
meat alone. And it was good living, too. There is more nutrition 
in a buffalo steak than in any meat a man ever ate." 

So, piecemeal, I drew out the life story of William Mathewson, 
known to early settlers from the Missouri river to the Rockies as 
"Buffalo Bill" between the years of 1860 to 1880. There was no 
connected recital of events. William Mathewson is a man of 
eighty years. His mind was filled with the thoughts of his Indian 
fighting and scouting days on the plains of Kansas; but as the 
separate incidents came back to him they were sadly out of their 
historical place, but none the less interesting. 



WILLIAM MATHEWSON— BUFFALO BILL 279 

WILLIAM MATHEWSON. 

By 
MRS. J. R. MEAD. 

The Last of the Old Scouts ! The final shoot of that old stock 
of hardy frontiersman, which blazed the way from the AUe- 
ghenies to the Rockies for the thousands who later harked to the 
call of "Westward Ho." 

Much has been written of Daniel Boone, the foimder of the 
nineteenth century school of frontiersmanship. Every youngster 
in the land knows how he went into the wilds of Kentucky in 
1769 and there fighting and treating with the Indians paved the 
way for the future settlement of that country. Not a lad but 
knows of the wonderful exploits of David Crockett, and the 
intrepid courage, skill and endurance of Kit Carson. But of the 
last of this illustrious line of daring explorers, hunters, Indian 
scouts and fighters little has ever been written, and yet none of 
his famous predecessors of the same school did more to prepare 
the pathway for western immigration and settlement. None saved 
more lives; no frontiersman fought the wild hordes of red skins 
with more courage and valor, and yet none was more respected, 
more feared and more beloved by the Indians than this last of the 
old time pioneers. 

William Mathewson is his name. William Mathewson of Wich- 
ita, heir in direct line to the prowess of Daniel Boone, 1735 to 
1822; David Crockett, 1786 to 1836, and Kit Carson, 1809 to 1868. 
William Mathewson, the original "Buffalo Bill," is a native of 
Broome county, New York, his birth place being located in the 
town of Triangle. He went west when young and earned his name 
after passing through wild adventures among the Indians and 
killing buffaloes. 

• In the beginning of the eighteenth century, three brothers, 
heads of the Mathewson family in America, emigrated from Scot- 
land. One of them, William Mathewson, great grandfather of the 
subject of this biography, settled in Connecticut, where he en- 
gaged in farming until his death, having been a soldier of the 
French war. His son, William Mathewson, was born in Con- 
necticut in 1743 ; was a farmer all his life, and during the Revolu- 
tion participated in the campaigns in New England until the close 
of the war. In 1806 he removed to and settled in Broome county, 



280 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

New York, when the country was wild and very thinly settled; 
clearing his land of timber he engaged in farming there until his 
death, in 1835, aged 92 years. His son, Joseph Mathewson, was 
born in Connecticut in 1790, removing with his parents to New 
York. He engaged in hunting and trapping until the incoming 
settlers drove the game from the country, when he engaged in 
farming and stock raising until his death, in 1835, aged 45 years. 

His son, William, the subject of this sketch, was born in 
Broome county. New York, January 1, 1830, being the seventh of 
eight children. His mother's maiden name was Eliza Stickney, 
who moved with her parents from New Hampshire to a farm on 
Page Brook in the town of Triangle, adjoining the farm owned by 
Joseph Mathewson. 

When but a child, his inclinations were for the wild, roving 
life of a hunter. He inherited the intrepid daring of his High- 
land Scottish ancestry and longed for the adventurous life of a 
frontiersman. Remaining at home after his father's death and 
his mother's second marriage to Charles Mathewson from Ver- 
mont, a soldier of 1812, he attended the country schools until he 
was ten years old. He then went to live with an older brother, 
where he stayed three years. At the age of thirteen he went into 
the lumber regions of Steuben county, New York, and there and 
in western Pennsylvania, was employed in the lumber and mill 
business a part of each year until he was eighteen years old!; 
In the fall of the year he would set out with other hunters on a 
long hunting expedition, and would go to Pennsylvania, Michigan, 
and Canada, returning home from these trips towards spring. 
He was a part of the time engaged in looking up pine lands in 
Wisconsin and Minnesota, and at one time acted as a guide to a 
party of land buyers through the unknown West. 

When he was nineteen years of age. New York state was too 
small for him. He had hunted and trapped in its every nook 
and corner ; explored its mountains and streams. He yearned for 
the great West of vast prairies and towering mountains, where 
game was big and plentiful, and every hour was full of adventure. 
Like Alexander the Great, he wanted new worlds to conquer. 
In 1849, he embraced the opportunity offered him by the North- 
western Fur Company, with headquarters at Ft. Benton, Montana, 
and went West with a party of men. Through Montana, the 
Dakotas, Nebraska, and Wyoming, passed this party, trading 
with the Indians where they found the redmen friendly, fighting 



WILLIAM MATHEWSON— BUFFALO BILL 281 

them when the war dance reigned instead of the peace pipe, but 
ever pushing farther into the wilderness. It was in this expedi- 
tion that MatheAvson acquired his first knowledge of Indian war- 
fare. Their hunting grounds were in the territory of the Black- 
feet, a hostile and warlike tribe, and the intrepid hunters kept 
their position only by their courage and the accuracy of their 
marksmanship. At one time they were surrounded by a war 
party of the Blackfeet and did not dare to leave their stockade 
to give them battle. After very severe fighting, however, the 
Blackfeet were driven off. During their continuance in that coun- 
try, they were exposed to continual danger and Avere compelled 
to be ever on the alert and to carefully study the character of 
the people in whose country they were employed. 

After remaming nearly two years in the employ of the B^ir 
Company, Mr. Mathewson joined that famous party under the 
leadership of the world renowned Kit Carson, consisting of the 
two Maxwells, James and John Baker, and Charles and John 
Atterby. They came south to the head of the Arkansas river in 
Colorado, traversing the foot-hills of the Rocky mountains, cross- 
ing the head waters of the Big Horn — where General Custer was 
subsequently killed — the north and south forks of the Platte, 
down through the country where Denver now stands, when there 
was no sign of habitation, and elk, deer, antelope and other game, 
were abundant. Mathewson Avent with Kit Carson to get the 
Indians together and prevent them from raiding into Mexico. 

In 1852 he entered the eraploj' of the Bent-St. Vrain trading 
post at the foot of the Rockies. This post furnished supplies for 
all of the spare settlements in Eastern Colorado, Western Ne- 
braska and Kansas and even on back to the central part of the 
latter state. Often young Mathewson Avondered at this condition 
of affairs. He saw no use in the freighting of provisions across 
Kansas, and then sending them back three hundred miles into the 
.territory, through which they had just come. Asking the rea- 
son for this, his curt ansAver was "Indians." 

A year with the Bent-St. Vrain trading post gave William 
Mathewson a new insight into the affairs of the West. He had 
traversed the entire unsettled region betAveen the Missouri river 
and the Rocky mountains and his keen brain saAV readily that 
when emigration burst through the Llissouri river boundary, the 
settlement of Eastern and Central Kansas would be rapid. With 
this in mind he determined to establish a trading post someAvhere 



282 fflSTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

near the center of Kansas on the old Santa Fe trail. The an- 
nouncement of this determination brought down on the head of 
Mathewson a storm of ridicule. Seasoned frontiersmen said that 
no trading post could stand a week on the prairies of Ksknsas 
where the Indians were as thick as buffalo. No man had yet 
dared such a thing so far away from military protection. But 
just here the indomitable courage and determination of the man 
cropped out. He listened to the ridicule of the older and more 
experienced men. He heard their importunities with stolid in- 
difference; his mind was made up, and in 1853, four years after 
he had joined the Northwestern Fur Company, Mr. Mathewson 
opened up his trading post at a point known throughout the 
west as the Great Bend of the Arkansas river on the old Santa 
Fe trail. This post Mr. Mathewson maintained for ten years 
and it was while living here that the most remarkable deeds of his 
career were accomplished. 

Here in 1861, Mr. Mathewson had a personal encounter with 
Satanta (White Bear) , who in his time was the boldest and most 
powerful of the Kiowa Indian chieftans. Satanta, with a small 
band of warriors entered the post and announced his intention of 
taking the life of Mr. Mathewson for the death of one of his 
braves, killed while stealing a horse from the post. In a flash Mr. 
Mathewson floored the Kiowa chieftain and gave him a severe 
beating. The followers of Satanta, whom Mr. Mathewson had 
driven from the house at the point of a revolver, were then forced 
to carry their defeated leader back to camp. For this humilating 
defeat, Satanta swore revenge. Hearing of this and deeming it 
best to settle the matter once for all, Mr. Mathewson rode out 
alone on the prairie in search of his enemJ^ Satanta, learning of 
the pursuit, and deeming discretion the better part of valor, fled 
and did not return for more than a year. When he did return, 
he acknowledged Mr. Mathewson as his master and entered into 
a treaty with him, giving as a token of his subservience, a num- 
ber of his best Indian horses. From that time on Mr. Mathew- 
son was known in every Indian camp of the plains as "Sinpah 
Zilbah," the "Long-bearded Dangerous White Man." 

The thing for which Mr. Mathewson was most revered and 
most renowned in Kansas pioneer days was that which obtained 
for him that famous sobriquet of "Buffalo Bill." The winter of 
1860 and 1861 was a hard one for the early settlers of the Sun- 
flower state. Hot, scorching winds of the summer had burned 



WILLIAM MATHEWSON— BUFFALO BILL 283 

up the crops, and all over the eastern part of the state they were 
literally starving. Finally good news reached them. A man 
returning from the west over the Santa Fe trail brought with him 
a wagon load of buffalo meat. Meeting some of the famishing 
settlers headed westward the man was beseeched to know where 
he secured such a bountiful supply of meat. 

"Out to Bill's," he replied. 

"Bill who?" eagerly asked the hungry settlers as they cast 
longing glances at the buifalo meat. "Oh, just Bill, the buffalo 
killer out at Big Bend; that's all I know." 

So the fame of Bill, the buffalo killer spreacT. By late in Sep- 
tember dozens of settlers were coming to the Mathewson ranch 
each week with empty wagons that went away creaking with the 
weight of buffalo meat. By the last of October as many were 
coming each day with pleadings for meat for the famishing 
settlers. And none were turned away empty handed. Day after 
day "William Mathewson followed the magnificent herds of the 
prairie, selecting with unerring skill the fat young cows and 
bringing them down with one shot each. With tears in their 
eyes the hungry settlers thanked Bill, the buffalo killer. Some 
offered pay and others promised it when they had anything to 
pay with. All were grateful and ever retained memories of the 
man who saved them from starvation in that terrible winter of 
1860 and 1861. Till February, William Mathewson remained on 
the buffalo range, some days killing and sending eastward as 
many as eighty carcasses of fat cows. Each day brought its 
quota of gaunt, penniless settlers, and each day, no matter what 
the weather, Mathewson shouldered his rifle and with a few hours 
of tramping sent his guests rejoicing homeward with all the 
choicest buffalo roasts and steaks they could carry. 

Thus William Mathewson earned his title of "Buffalo Bill." 
To this day there is many a family, living in the first cities of 
Kansas and Nebraska, who remember and cherish the name of 
"Buffalo Bill." In one of these homes during recent years Mr. 
Mathewson was introduced to the children as the man who saved 
the lives of their parents through his skill and fame as a hunter 
of buffalo. And it is this title of Buffalo Bill, so nobly earned, 
that William Mathewson himself cherishes most of all his pos- 
sessions. 

An an Indian fighter of skill and daring, William Mathewson 's 
fame was wide spread throughout the frontier in the early sixties. 



284 fflSTOEY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

But his fame following a deed of unusual intrepidity near his 
Cow Creek ranch where he was located after selling the Great 
Bend post in 1863. reached the officials of the war department in 
"Washington and brought to the brave man a fitting reward. 

It was in the summer of 1864 when the Indians took the war 
path and were terrorizing the settlers in the most extreme set- 
tlements of Kansas. Satanta. the war chief of the Kiowas. after 
his treaty with ""Siapah Zilbah" was the fast friend of William 
ilathewsou. He warned the latter of the uprising three weeks in 
advance, and entreating him to leave, stating that in revenge for 
having been fired on by a regiment of soldiers, the Indians were 
not going to leave a white man. woman or child west of the 
Missouri, and insisted that Mr. Mathewson leave at once, but 
instead of fleeing, Mr. Mathewson sent all of the settlers to 
places of safety, and then settled down with a few brave men 
to hold his trading post. All of his men had the choice of going or 
remaining. Five remained, but these were armed with the first 
breech-loading rifles that had ever been used on the plains of 



On the morning of July 20 a band of fifteen hundred Indians, 
gaudy in war paint and feathers, surrounded the Mathewson post. 
There was no delay in the first attack, but less in the retreat. The 
new fangled guns in the hands of skilled marksmen dealt out 
death to Indians and Indian horses. For three days the red war- 
riors skulked about the post, attacking, reconnoitering and spy- 
ing. But always they were forced to retreat quickly, upon com- 
ing within range of the deadly certain fire of the breech-loading 
rifles. Long after the fight was history and peace reigned be- 
tween the Indians and Sinpah Zilbah, the warrior chieftans tried 
to learn from Mr. Mathewson how many men he had within the 
post during the terrible vigil. Mr. Mathewson smiled and replied 
that he had had plenty. So the redskins never knew how easy 
it would have been to have captured the post with one grand 
onslaught. In reality they had thought the place swarmed with 
men because of the rapid firing of the breech-loading guns. As 
it was. the Indians lost 160 horses, and a score or more of their 
kinsmen upon the prairie. 

When Mr. Mathewson was first warned of the Indian uprising, 
among the first things he did was to write to the Overland Trans- 
portation Company, and to Bryant. Banard & Company, telling 
them of the uprising and not to send any wagons out. in reply to 



WILLIAM MATHEWSON— BUFFALO BILL 285 

which he got a letter from the Bryant, Banard & Company tell- 
ing him they had already started a train before his letter was 
received, and that the train was loaded with modem rifles, and 
ending with the appeal, "For God's sake save this train as it is 
loaded with arms and ammimition. " And it was on the fourth 
day of the siege that this great overland train of 147 wagons, 
loaded with supplies for the government posts of New Mexico, in 
charge of 155 men, appeared upon the scene. Ignorant of the 
Indian uprising, the train had come within three miles of the post. 
"When dawn broke on the fourth day of the battle, Mr. JMathewson 
discovered that he and his comrades had been deserted by the 
Indians. In sudden apprehension he mounted the highest build- 
ing of the post. One glance through his field glass told the story, 
even in the dim half light of the morning. There to the eastward 
three miles was the government train, drawTi up in the usual 
camp half circle, and the whole surroimded by Indians. The 
horror of the situation was staggering to William Mathewson. 
He had received government advice of the train and knew that 
there were no experienced Indian fighters among the men in 
charge, nor were any of them well armed. They were ignorant 
of the contents of the wagons, the contents being disguised. What 
a massacre there would be unless something could be done quickly. 
Not only would the train be destroyed, but the Indians equipped 
with the rifles and ammunition from the government wagons 
stood in condition to make good their threat to kill every white 
man, woman and child west of the Missouri. For a few minutes 
Mr. Mathewson studied the situation. He saw the ever diminish- 
ing circle of the mounted red-skins; saw them stealthily closing 
in on the train. Quick thoughts passed through the brain of 
the grim watcher. In his mind's eye he saw the slaughter of the 
wagon men, the looting of the rifles and provisions, and then, 
most horrible of all, the carnage of the eastern settlement at the 
hands of these savages armed with the improved guns. For a 
long time, as time is reckoned in such cases, William Mathewson 
scanned the scene to the east of the post. His thoughts ran 
smoothly and rapidly over one plan and another. Occasionally 
he saw puffs of smoke that brought to earth a horse or a red-skin, 
but the circle narrowed. He watched a little group of the horse- 
men gather on either side of the one gap in the circle of wagons. 
He knew they were planning the rush which would take them 
inside the circle for a hand-to-hand conflict in which there would 



286 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

be no doubt as to the result. Turning to his most trusty com- 
panion, he inquired if he could hold the stockade in his absence. 
Being answered that he could, he ordered his horse saddled, and 
was ready himself, with his Sharp's rifle and six Colt's revolvers, 
when the mare was led out of the stable. She was a tine 
beast, this mare Bess, of Hamiltonian breed. Far famed on the 
prairies was she for speed and endurance ; often had she outrun 
an antelope. 

As William Mathewson moimted his men gathered around him 
astonished. Surely he could not be so foolhardy as to attempt to 
reach the wagon train through that cordon of savages. The at- 
tempt meant certain death and nothing accomplished. But there 
was no sign of relenting from his purpose in the stern countenance 
of the horseman. Brave men wept at the. thought of their leader 
riding out to his death but all was unavailing. After a hearty 
handshake with each of the little band and a cheery good-bye, 
William Mathewson touched the spurs to the sensitive flank of the 
mare, and the two shot out of the stockade gate like a whirlwind. 
Valiantly the good steed sped over the prairie toward the In- 
dians and the wagons. With heavy hearts the little baud moimted 
the stockade building and took turns at the glass, watching with 
fascination the ever diminishing cloud of dust in which they 
knew their leader to be enveloped. At times their hearts beat 
high in hope; and again almost stifled them with throbs of despair. 

Before starting on this perilous mission, William Mathewson 
had weighed his chances coolly. He knew Indian nature well and 
trusted much to the belief that all would be too deeply engrossed 
with the attack to see him till it was too late. Then he allowed 
for the possibility of the men within the wagon circle, holding oif 
the enemy till he arrived. But the chief trust of the undertaking, 
he placed in the strength, speed and endurance of his magnificent 
steed. If she held out, the chances were good.. If not — well, a 
man has to die sometime, and this was a worthy cause. 

But there was no faltering of steps on the part of the mare : no 
stumbling in prairie dog-holes, no slacking of the splendid stride 
taken at the beginning. Straight and sure went the horse and 
rider toward the loophole in the wagon circle, across which log 
chains were strung to keep in the horses at night. 

On the stockade roof the five men saw the little cloud of 
dust draw near to the tiny lane formed by the rows of Indians on 
either side of the gap in the wagon circle. With bated breath. 



WILLIAM MATHEWSON— BUFFALO BILL 287 

they saw that there was no stopping to reconnoiter, to study the 
situation or weigh the chances. But they know William Mathew- 
son and realized that all this had been done beforehand. 

Suddenly the man with the glass noted a commotion among 
the Indians forming the lane out from the gap. A cloud of dust 
shot between the two lines and dashed on toward the wagons. 
As it passed the Indians closed in behind him and a tremor of 
terror passed over the body of the eager watchers. Was all lost ? 
Or all saved? The next few minutes were tense with excitement 
for the five men on the stockade. There was an unquestionable 
commotion among the Indians, and the uncertainty gave them 
hope. Minutes passed like hours, and the Indians circled wildly 
about. Then suddenly they scattered pell-mell and left the wagon 
train clear. 

It was true ; William Mathewson had burst into the little 
camp like a cannon ball. Shot after shot whizzed past his ears 
as he dashed through the two lines of startled Indians. But so 
sudden was it all that none had time or thought to take aim. A 
second later, landing in the midst of the startled camp, William 
Mathewson was off his horse and calling lustily for an axe. He 
quickly mounted one of the wagons, split open the boxes and 
handed out rifles and ammvinition to the men. Many of them were 
acquainted with him and all had heard of him. Cheer after cheer 
went up when they recognized who their rescuer was. In a 
moment a well directed fire was turned on the now astonished 
and bewildered Indians. After continuing the fight for a short 
time, having many of their number killed and wounded, the In- 
dians beat a hasty retreat. Not yet being satisfied with the 
victory, Mr. Mathewson organized and mounted the teamsters 
at once, and giving chase, drove the Indians miles away. After 
taking needed rest, burying their dead, and repairing the ravages 
of the fight, the train moved on to its destination. 

In 1864, our subject joined Blunt 's expedition as a scout, and 
it was through his exertions that comparative quiet was restored. 

The great Indian War of 1864 and 1865 and the great Civil 
War between the North and the South was nearly at its turning 
point, and Uncle Sam needed all the soldiers he could get. There 
was one regiment on the plains in western Kansas and Colorado 
which was ordered into the states for active service. When that 
order reached the Colonel, he ordered two or three battalion of 



288 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

his regiments to march to the Indian camps and fire on them, 
which they did, and caused the Indians to go on the war path. 

After the close of the Civil War in the States, the Govern- 
ment commenced sending troops out to subdue the Indians. In 
the meantime, the officials' at headquarters commenced to look 
into the report as to the cause of this Indian outbreak, and 
orders came to the commander of the western department not to 
send any expedition against the Indians, but try and get some 
one to go to the wild Indians and see if they could get them to 
come into council with the Commissioners that the President 
would send out to meet them, but the man or men could not be 
found that would go. They tried to get the other Indians to 
take messages from the Great Father at Washington to the wild 
Indians, but all was of no avail ; nobody would go. 

After a conference with the commanding officers, superinten- 
dent of Indian affairs, and the agents for the different tribes of 
Indians, it was decided that William Mathewson should be sacri- 
ficed to appease the wrath of the Indians; he said he would go 
providing he could get orders from the President of the United 
States with the seal of the United States on the document ; also an 
order from the Secretary of War and from the Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs; he also got a commission from General Sanborn. 

Mathewson started from Larned, Kansas, going to the mouth 
of the Little Arkansas river to get below the picket line of the 
Indians, who were watching the soldiers; traveling under cover 
of the darkness and secreting himself during the day; the fourth 
day after leaving the Arkansas he came in sight of the camp, 
and lay in hiding all that day. That evening in wandering around 
and debating with himself as to the best method of approach, 
he accidentally met the daughter of the head chief of the Kiowa 
tribe, whom he knew personally. She was badly frightened at 
sight of him, but he spoke to her in her own language and told 
her to get him to her father's tepee as fast as possible, which she 
did. The tepee was filled with the head men of the tribe, who 
was much startled at sight of Mathewson in their midst. He told 
them that he had a message from the great Father to read to 
them, and on showing them the big seal of the Government, they 
assured him protection. The Kiowa tribe was divided into two 
parts; one was hostile and the other peaceable and they warred 
among themselves all night over the possession of Mathewson, 
but the peaceable ones were finally successful in driving away the 



WILLIAM MATHEWSON— BUFFALO BILL 289 

hostile tribe, but next day the chiefs of the hostile tribes came 
back imarmed, and agreed to listen to the message brought by 
Mathewson from the Great Father; they all consented to come 
in, provided the chiefs of the other tribes would also come, so 
they sent runners out to bring in the chiefs of the other tribes to 
the Kiowa camp so they could all consult together, and they 
went with him to meet the Superintendent of Indian Affairs and 
other officials to make arrangements for a future council. The 
council was held between the Big and Little Arkansas rivers. 
The Commissioners appointed by the President to treat with the 
Indians were four Generals of the United States army, one sena- 
tor and two congressmen, Kit Carson and Col. A. G. Boone, 
nephew of Daniel Boone. After the council treaty was agreed 
to, and made to satisfy all, the documents being signed by all 
parties. 

The Indians told the Commissioners there was another treaty 
they wanted to make the next day, so on the following morning 
at nine o'clock, they again met in council; the Commissioners 
asked them their wishes, and they replied they wanted to make 
a treaty with "Sinpah Zilbah," and they didn't want him to 
join with the soldiers any more, against them. They told the 
commissioners if they would take him away from the soldiers, 
they could kill all the soldiers with clubs that they could bring 
into the country ; they both feared and respected him and wanted 
him to stay in the country and trade with them and they would 
see that he or his men were not molested in any way by the 
Indians. That treaty was also confirmed by all. 

In 1867 the Indians were again on the war path, the result of 
being fired upon by a regiment of soldiers. Mr. Mathewson at 
that time was to the South trading with the Indians, and did not 
get back for three weeks ; when he came back he went to Junction 
City and telegraphed to Washington, asking the recall of General 
Hancock and that he (Mr. Mathewson), would take care of the 
Indians. They telegraphed General Hancock, in care of Mr. 
Mathewson, to return, and Mr. Mathewson overtook him just as he 
was about to cross the river where Dodge City now is, and deliv- 
ered the message, and then Mr. Mathewson got the Indians to- 
gether for another treaty, known as Medicine Lodge treaty, 
after which they ceded all their rights and title to lands in 
Kansas and Colorado to the Government, and the Indians went 
back to their reservations, and William Mathewson went with 



290 HISTOKY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

them; lived and traded with them for seven years, preventing 
outbreaks of the 1865 and 1867 type, settling internal quarrels, 
and doing all in his power to make the red skins satisfied with 
their lots. 

During the years between 1865 and 1873, William Mathew- 
son saved 54 women and children from deaths at the hands of the 
savage tribes, or from a life of unspeakable slavery and drudgery! 

One of these was a young woman who had been captured in 
Texas by the Kiowas and brought North into Kansas where she 
escaped. It was by his knowledge of the sign language that 
he was able to rescue her. Approaching by stealth, he learned of 
her escape from the recital by Kiowas to Apaches, to which latter 
tribe the Kiowas offered a reward of horses if they would assist 
in her recapture. Mr. Mathewson immediately determined to save 
the girl from being taken by the Indians. 

He saddled and mounted his favorite mare, Bess, which could 
outrim anything else in the country, and had figured prom- 
inently in other rescues, and with a horse which he led, set out 
in the face of a driving storm, figuring that as the wind was from 
the Northwest, she would be driven somewhat to the East, and 
adopting this line of search, spent two days of endless trials and 
hardships. On his way he met a party of Indians to whom he said 
he was going in search of meat; they offered him a supply from 
theirs, but he told them it was iasufficient and proceeded in his 
search. Finally he struck the trial of the girl's Indian pony, 
and on the evening of the second day he found her more dead 
than alive, aback the gaunt, starved horse that staggered about 
in the storm, but thinking it was an Indian she tried to escape. 
He took her to a ranch, where they got her dinner and allowed 
her to sleep, to bathe and refresh herself. From there they went 
on to Council Grove, where his friend Mr. Simcox had a store. 
Mrs. Simcox took charge of her. He had left word at the ranch 
for the Indians that he had the girl and they could not have her, 
as he would shoot the first one who attempted. They did not 
follow. She remained with Mrs. Simcox and a few years later 
married, and still lives there. 

Mr. Mathewson also arranged with the Chief of the Kiowas for 
the release of two little girls held captive by them, whose names 
were Helen and Louise Fitzpatrick, aged six and four years. 
Their parents were killed by the Indians. The eldest child re- 
membered the massacre. Mr. Mathewson intended to raise these 



WILLIAM MATHEWSON— BUFFALO BILL 291 

children, and the Government appropriated money for their edu- 
cation and promised to return them to Mr. Mathewson, but did 
not do so. Their names were changed from Fitzpatrick to Helen 
and Louise Lincoln. The Government took them to Washington 
and kept them there. 

In the spring of 1866, about the 1st of May, Mr. Mathewson 
went to Leavenworth to dispose of a train load of furs that he 
had collected during the winter. At that time there was a large 
wholesale firm that handled exclusively Indian goods to supply 
Indian traders. This firm was knoAvn as Peck, Durfee & Company. 
This firm bought furs, and would assist Indians traders in ship- 
ping their furs to Eastern markets. 

The next day after Mathewson 's arrival in Leavenworth, Mr. 
Durfee told him that the leading citizens were going to have a 
banquet at his house the next night, and make a special request 
that he should attend. Mr. Mathewson thanked him for the invi- 
tation, but told him it would be impossible for him to attend. 
The next day Mrs. Durfee and Mrs. Peck came down to Mr. Dur- 
fee 's store and insisted on Mr. Mathewson 's coming, and told him 
they would not take no for answer, and he was finally induced to 
go. After refreshments, Mr. Durfee called the house to order, 
and a motion to elect Mr. Mathewson speaker of the house was 
unanimously carried, and he was informed that as speaker he was 
expected to relate some of his experiences, and more especially 
his experiences in releasing women and children from captivity 
among the Indians, after which excusing himself he put on his 
overcoat preparatory to departing when Mr. Durfee ask him to 
take the key which he gave him and unlock a rose-wood case 
which he had brought from another room and display its con- 
tents to the ladies. As the case was opened, there was displayed 
to view a most beautiful pair of six shooters which had carved 
ivory handles and were silver mounted and inlaid with gold. Mr. 
Mathewson jokingly said he knew of no one better qualified to 
use those than he, upon which Mr. Durfee begun the presentation 
speech, the sentiment of which was that they were presented to 
him by The Overland Transportation Company in recognition of 
his saving 155 men and 147 wagons of government supplies. Gen- 
eral Curtis in speaking said: "Nothing in the annals of history 
compares with the feats of bravery done by you." In speaking 
of the affair afterwards, Mr. Mathewson said: "You could have 
knocked me down with a feather when they gave me those guns, 



292 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

with my uame carved on them. I have been in tight places in 
my time, passed through many a danger, but nothing ever took 
my nerve away so completely as the presentation of those guns. 
I was speechless, but finally stammered some sort of appreciation 
and rode away over the starlit prairie that night, the proudest 
man on the frontier." 

During the fall and winter of 1854-55, and in March of the 
latter year, Mr. Mathewson, with a small party of hunters, were in 
the mountains of Colorado. While on the Colorado river, in the 
southern part of the then territory, they undertook to cross over 
the Santa Christa range to the St. Louis valley. Thirteen men 
besides himself, formed the party, comprising what is known in 
frontier parlance as two outfits. They were iu that region for the 
purpose of hunting, trapping and prospecting for gold. The party 
had gone thither in the fall, and for mutiial protection kept to- 
gether. The game at that time of the year on the high mountains 
was very scarce, and heavy snowstorms having prevailed for -a 
long time, they were caught in the wild fastnesses of the moun- 
tains and soon ran short of food. They were on very short rations 
about two weeks, and after that prolonged fast there were four 
days that they had nothing to east, and no water but snow. 
Eleven of the men became nearly wild from hunger and thirst, 
and were in danger of killing one another for food. Two of Mr. 
Mathewson 's associates he could rely upon, and with these he 
disarmed the eleven, and kept them under guard. It was at this, 
time that probably the highest test of his courage, bravery and 
fortitude was exhibited. He was also in a weak and famished 
condition, yet determined that he would force the party to abide 
by his decision, and not do each other injury, declaring to them 
that even at that critical moment, if they would be guided by his 
counsel, he would yet bring them out in safety. After getting 
them in camp on the evening of the fourth day, though himself 
hardly able to walk, he informed them that he would go out and 
search for game. Ha-ving proceeded a short distance from the 
camp, and nearly exhausted from the effort, he sat down on the 
brow of a canyon, and after watching for some time he saw no 
game, and rose to return to camp. Seating himself again, how- 
ever, and soon after looking across to an adjacent canyon, a little 
over 100 yards away, his heart was gladdened by seeing a large 
black-tailed deer walk out from behind the jutting crags. With 
promptness he shot it, and the sharp crack of his rifle was heard 



WILLIAM MATHEWSON— BUFFALO BILL 293 

by his distressed companions in camp. So wild with delight was 
Mathewson, that mounting an adjacent eminence and swinging his 
"sombrero" around his head, his clarion voice sounded the glad 
tidings to the despairing men. In a few minutes he was joined 
by them, and from that time the question of their being saved 
was solved. 

In 1868 Mr. Mathewson pre-empted a homestead at a spot near 
the Arkansas river which is now iu the heart of the city of Wich- 
ita. Here he built the first house in Wichita of logs, which was 
torn down in the fortieth year after its erection. Prom some 
shingles and other wood from it has been made a fine violin. 

Mr. Mathewson has been a permanent resident of Wichita 
since 1876, and has carried on agriculture on a large scale on his 
farms of several hundred acres. He has been a live stock and 
real estate dealer and in 1887 organized a bank in Wichita, of 
which he was president. He had an interest in three street rail- 
way lines in that city and stock in two national banks. In 1878, 
he established a brick plant, south of the city, for tlie manufacture 
of dry-pressed brick. For many years past, until he sold his 
farms, he devoted himself mostly to agriculture, and obtained 
a gold medal for the best exhibit of corn at the Omaha Exposition. 

Mr. Mathewson spent thirty years among the Indians, trap- 
ping, hunting buffalo, and trading. The territory covered by 
him is now occupied by the Dakotas, Nebraska, Montana, Kansas, 
and Indian Territory. 

While living at Walnut Creek ranch, many noted men were 
their guests, of whom Gens. Sherman, Hancock and Canby may be 
mentioned, and Henry M. Stanley, the African explorer, and on 
his second trip to Africa, tried to induce Mr. Mathewson 
to go with him. Col. J. H. Leavenworth, the noted Indian agent, 
made his home at their house, and by the influence and assistance 
of Mr. Mathewson was enabled to reach and negotiate treaties 
with the hostile tribes. 

Mr. Mathewson has been twice married. His first wife, to 
whom he was married. August 28, 1864, was Miss Elizabeth Inman, 
who was born in Yorkshire, England, in 1842, and immigrated 
with her parents to this country in 1850. She became an expert 
in the use of the rifle and revolver, and was her husband's com- 
panion among the Indians, passing through many scenes of 
border life. She was possessed of undaunted courage, and was 
the first white woman who ever crossed the Arkansas river and 



294 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

went thi'ough the Indian Territorj^ and on more than one occa- 
sion she stood by her husband's side and help beat back the 
savage foe who attacked their home and camp. It was from her 
that Henry M. Stanley obtained much of the information he 
furnished Eastern papers concerning savage life on the plains. 
At Walnut ranch she became a successful and favorite trader with 
the Indians, M'ho called her "Marrwissa" (Golden Hair). She 
died October 1, 1885, leaving two children, Lucy E. and William 
A. Mathewson, who are now of full age. 

Mr. Mathewson 's second marriage which occurred May 13, 
1886, was to Mrs. Tarlton, a most estimable lady of Louisville, 
Ky., whose maiden name was Henshaw. Socially he is a Mason, 
an Odd Fellow, a Knight of Pythias, and Improved Order of 
Red Men. He was for three years Grand Instructor of Odd Fel- 
lows of the State. 

Mr. Mathewson is of tall and commanding figure, six feet and 
a half inch in height; noted for his great strength and wonderful 
power of endurance ; forehead broad and of medium height ; fea- 
tures distinctly marked without angularity; blue eyes and for- 
merly dark hair and complexion ; modest in his demeanor, he ab- 
stains from all boasting; retiring in his disposition, he avoids 
publicity, preferring the quiet and seclusion of private life. Posi- 
tive in his character, calm and self possessed in the moment of 
danger, energetic and persevering, he is a bright example of that 
class of men who opened the country to the demands of civili- 
zation. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

SOME WELL-KNOWN PEOPLE. 

WICHITA'S MAYOR. 

Upon the mayor of the city, as head of the municipal govern- 
ment, devolves the duty of looking after the department of public 
safety, which includes the police and fire departments. Members 
of both these departments are subject to civil-service rules, with 
the exception of the department heads. The reason for this is 
that the work of the police and firemen is of a character that 
requires trained men, and when such men are once obtained, they 
should not be subject to dismissal at the whim of any one. There 
are thirty-nine men in the Wichita fire department, with A. G. 
Walden at the head and A. L. Brownewell as assistant. Wichita 
has five fire stations, known as Central and Numbers 3, 4, 5 and 6. 
There are nineteen men in the Central station, eight in No. 3, and 
four each in the others. In the police department there are thirty- 
six persons, including J. H. McPherson, chief; W. H. Boston, 
assistant, and Helena S. Mason, police matron. The executive 
department, of which the mayor is head, includes the city clerk, 
the city attorney and assistant, the police judge and the election 
commissioner, though the latter is an appointee of the governor. 

Charles L. Davidson, mayor of Wichita, was born near the lit- 
tle town of Cuba, N. Y., November 22, 1857. He came to Wichita 
in 1872, when a mere boy, and when the town was in its infancy, 
and it has been his home since. The first song he ever heard in 
• Wichita was the night he arrived here, and on his way up town 
he passed near where a band of cowboys were singing their herd 
to sleep. He has lived to see the place where that herd lay at 
rest that night covered with great brick and stone business houses, 
and the broad prairies from which this herd came transformed 
into wheat and cotton and alfalfa fields. The song of the cowboy 
is forever hushed in Wichita, but the hum of a hundred factories 
and the stir of business make a music just as sweet if not as weird. 



296 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Mayor Davidson obtained a common-school education here in 
"Wichita, after which he spent four years in the Kansas State 
University at Lawrence. He has been engaged in the real estate 
loan and insm-ance business for several years. Mr. Davidson was 
nearly six years a member of the city council, ten years he was 
city park commissioner, and he served one term in the Kansas 
legislature. He was the first president of the "Wichita Chamber 
of Commerce and has done more than any other man to procure 
for "Wichita equitable freight rates. 

Mayor Davidson is the original insurgent in Kansas, for he is 
the man who started the "square deal" movement a few years 
ago that resulted in a declaration of independence from the 
domination of all combines in Kansas. His life as mayor has been 
a very busy one and he has advocated some of the biggest things 
for "Wichita that have yet been undertaken. Among these has 
been the purchase of the water works system, elevated tracks, 
and a union depot for the railroad district. 

WICHITA HAY MAN HAS BECOME "HAY KING OF 
KANSAS." 

Speaking of noted Kansans, it will be in order to remark that 
"Wichita has a modest young man, now thirty-three years of age, 
who is undoubtedly the hay king of the Sunflower State, and this 
is about the second time his name has ever been printed except 
in advertisements. 

J. H. Turner. For the year ending the first of last January 
he bought and sold over 2,500 cars of hay, about 5 per cent of 
which was alfalfa. Mr. Turner came to this country from Eng- 
land sixteen years ago when he was seventeen years old. He 
went to the English colony at Runnymeade and came from there 
to "Wichita four years later. He thought America was a pretty 
good place and that Kansas must be the best place for a poor 
man. He managed to get a couple of teams and a hay press, and 
started in business on his own hook. He would buy hay of the 
farmers in the country and press it, haul it to the city with his 
teams and sell to the retailers. Turner was between two fires, as 
it were. The dealers in the city would tell the young hay dealer 
that they could buy hay cheaper from the farmers than he was 
asking, and the farmers would tell him that they could get more 
money for their hay in "Wichita. He was compelled to do business 



SOME WELL-KNOWN PEOPLE 297 

on a small margin. He worked hard and his labor counted for 
something when he came in competition with other dealers. Ten 
years ago the low lands on West Douglas avenue just west of 
the big bridge were not very valuable. The young hay dealer 
rented a room there and commenced to retail his hay to the peo- 
ple of the city. Nobody ever got a "plugged" bale of hay from 
J. H. Turner. He soon built up a large retail business. He 
bought the house and lot he had rented. 

Sir. Turner prospered in his retail business. He would buy 
the grass on seven or eight thousand acres of land in the country. 
He would take his teams, harvest the hay, press and haul it to the 
city to supply his retail establishment. Finally he closed the 
retail house and went into the wholesaling of hay. He added 
coal and building material to his hay business, and now he owns 
six lots on the fine paved street where he first started in business, 
besides a long stretch of track property along the Missouri Pa- 
cific road. The hay king said yesterday that his business this 
year, of course, would depend on the size of the hay crop, but that 
indications are good for a big crop of hay and he expects his 
business this year to largely increase over last year, -as it has 
grown every year since he started. Come on with your hay 
kings, not the commission men who handle hay for other people, 
but the men who own and sell the valuable stuff. 



YANK OWEN. 

By 
THE EDITOR. 

In the early days of W^ichita, "Yank"' Owen was a char- 
acter. His real name was A. T. Owen; by courtesy the lawyers 
called him Major. He was always attached to some law office, 
and usually slept in this office and was a notary and all-around 
man in the office where he made his headquarters. In the 
early frontier days of Kansas, Yank had been clerk of the 
district court at Junction City. His acquaintance with old-time 
lawyers in Kansas was most extensive. Leaving Junction City 
when the town became too quiet for him, Yank came to Wichita 
and for many years was a most familiar figure upon the princi- 
pal streets of the town. He was wont to discourse and orate on 



298 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Napoleonic history, and declaimed in stentorian tones from the 
speeches of Napoleon the First. He was well read on French his- 
tory, and something of a reader on general topics. He acted 
often in the capacity of conveyancer, and his angular, long hand- 
writing will be long remembered by the older members of the 
Sedgwick county bar. He usually wore a loose-fitting frock coat 
and a flaring blue cap. A grizzly mustache gave him a somewhat 
fierce and warlike appearance. He took a lively interest in all 
court matters, and upon the slightest provocation would swear 
like the army in Flanders. His excessive loyalty to Sedgwick 
county was a matter of general remark. On a bright spring day 
Yank was missed from his accustomed haunts. He had taken 
the train for the Pacific coast. He never returned. Later on, it 
Cwas reported that he had died in San Francisco, Calif. 



WILLIAM GREIFFENSTEIN, "THE FATHER OF WICHITA." 

By 

THE EDITOR. 

William Greiffenstein, who was a mayor of the city and who 
was honored by election to the state legislature, had an interest- 
ing career. To the early fur traders he was known as "Dutch 
Bill." He was born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, in Germany, July 
28, 1829. For three years he attended college at Darmstadt and 
was later employed in a commission house at Mentz, first coming 
to America in 1848. First he located at Hermann, Mo., later going 
to St. Louis and then to Westport. In 1850 he'began trading with 
the Indians on the Shawnee reservation, then located six miles 
below what is now the city of Lawrence. He took a claim at 
Topeka in 1855, and in 1859 opened another trading post in west- 
ern Kansas, bartering with the Cheyennes, Arapahoes, Kiowas, 
Comanches and Apaches. This post was on Walnut creek. Later 
he opened one on the Cowskin, about ten miles west of Wichita. 

In 1867 he removed his trading post to the Kiowa and Co- 
manche agency near Washita, below Fort Cobb. He married, in 
1869, at Topeka, Miss Catherine Burnett, who was the daughter 
of Abram Burnett and Mary Knoffloeh, a native of Germany. 
Abram Burnett was chief of the Pottawatomie Indians and a 
highly interesting man. The Indian chief weighed 465 pounds 



SOME WELL-KNOWN PEOPLE 299 

and gloried in his great strength. Near him, at Topeka, also lived 
another heavyweight, named Young, who weighed about 400 
pounds. The two big fellows called one another "Bud" and 
"Bub." Mrs. Greiff enstein 's father was Bub. One Sunday, it is 
told, the two giants got into a dispute as to which was the 
stronger. Burnett challenged Young to lift the largest rock he 
could, and it is said that when he had lifted the biggest flagstone 
he could find the chief of the Pottawatomies then asked him to 
sit upon it and the 465-pounder lifted both rock and the 400- 
pounder together. 

Abram Burnett was educated at the Carlisle Indian school at 
Carlisle, Pa., and was a close friend of Abraham Lincoln. There 
are many persons living in and near Wichita who have knowl- 
edge of the early history of Wichita which should be preserved 
for future reference. Mrs. Greiffenstein is now living at Burnett, 
Okla. ; her brother, Christopher T. Pearce, is at Noble, Okla. ; her 
son, Charles, is in business at Greenwich, Kan., and her son Will- 
iam is in business at Enid, Okla. Otto Weiss, who contributed 
much to the information for this story, is a well known manu- 
facturer of Wichita. J. T. Holmes, who worked at the Greiffen- 
stein ranch on the Washita, is in Wichita, and Phil Clark, who 
worked for "The Father of Wichita," on the Cowskin, is now 
in Oklahoma. 

William Greiffenstein was a warm-hearted, generous man, and 
in Sedgwick county his freinds are legion. Time will do his 
memory justice, and posterity will perpetuate his many virtues. 

DOC WORRALL. 

By 

THE EDITOR. 

In the early eighties, when W. G. Hobbs was a justice of the 
peace and held court in Old Eagle Hall, where the Boston store 
now is. Doc Worrall was his constable. Doc regarded himself as 
an amateur detective. He posed as a "bad man from Bitter 
creek." He was especially handy as a boxer, quick as a cat, 
supple as a circus tumbler, and filled with frontier energy. Doc 
was a character, and his appearance was a circus. He weighed 
about 115 pounds, wore his hair long and flowing upon his collar, 
usually wore a red or blue flannel shirt with a wide collar open 



300 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

at the neck, and seldom wore suspenders, as he regarded them 
as a badge of an effete eastern civilization. His shirt was laced 
lip in front, and he wore his pants in his boots. And such boots ; 
they were of the red top, lace top, narrow heel A'ariety, usually 
affected by the cowboys. He usually wore a broad belt with a 
.44 and cartridges. Surmounting this all, was a jaunty, bell- 
crowned, broad-brimmed hat, and a rakish mustache, and you 
have an ink portrait of Doc Worrall, in the frontier days of 
Wichita. Doc was a good officer, and posed as a lightweight 
pugilist until Denver Ed Smith came along and dislocated his 
false front teeth, over at the old rink on West First street. Doe is 
now an honest farmer on a farm just west of Mulvane, Kansas. 

THE PIONEER RURAL MAIL CARRIER. 

W. L. Appling, of the Horton & Appling Real Estate Com- 
pany, 520 East Douglas avenue, was one of the first rural mail 
carriers to carry mail from the Wichita postoffice. He was the 
first carrier to go over the thirty-one miles of route number 1, 
which included the northern part of the county. When Mr. 
Appling rode behind his span of young mules on that first day 
of October, 1900, he unknowingly was beginning a strenuous life- 
Here is his story as told to a reporter for "The Beacon": 

"Remember my first trip? Well, I guess I do. I shall never 
forget it, I know. I had experiences on that day enough to last 
me the remainder of my lifetime. I felt rather smart when I 
crawled in behind my span of young mules, which I thought were 
the best in the country, for I was doing a government job which 
had never before been done in the state. It was a muddy day. 
In some places the roads were so deep in mud that even my 
trusty mules could hardly pull the buggy through. I started at 
8 o'clock and thought I would be through by noon, for I had 
very little mail to carry. But there 's where I got left. At every 
farmhouse I stopped the farmer would have to have a full ex- 
planation of the new system of the mail. Some of them couldn't 
see how the government was going to deliver mail free of charge 
without mcreasing the taxes. The idea of Uncle Sam sending 
them their mail without a cent of charge looked to some of them 
preposterous on the face of it. I remember the actions of one 
farmer for whom I had mail. 

"His house was a short distance from the school, and as I 



SOME WELL-KNOWN PEOPLE 301 

was going past there at the noon dismissal I gave the letter to 
one of his children, whom I saw coming out of the school. The 
farmer saw me do it and nearly broke down a barb wire fence in 
getting to my buggy. 'Hey, there, Appling,' he cried, angrily, 
'don't you give that mail to any boy of mine. I won't take it.' 
I tried to quiet him and told him the old story of Uncle Sam's 
goodness, but he would have none of it. He kept on insisting 
that the government couldn't possibly do such an unheard of 
thing without going into bankruptcy. He declared up and down 
that it was a political scheme of the Republicans to get more 
taxes from the people. He was a Democrat, by the way, and 
in spite of all the figures and statements made by the postoffice 
officials, I couldn't make him believe that there was anything 
fair in the deal. He didn't take his mail, either. He went to the 
postmaster later, I was told, and told him that he didn't want 
his mail sent out by a rural carrier. I never delivered any more 
mail to him." 

Note. — Gen. W. L. Appling is now the quartermaster general 
of the Department of Kansas, and very deservedly prominent in 
political and Grand Army circles. — Editor. 

THE OLDEST MAIL CARRIER IN WICHITA. 

The oldest carrier in the service of the Wichita postoffice de- 
partment is George Chouteau, who lives at 316 North Emporia 
avenue. For twenty-five years he has been blowing a whistle, 
handing out an anticipated letter and making everyone feel bet- 
ter. During this bi-decade and a half the days he has missed 
handing out a message could be counted on both hands. He is 
well up in years now, but manages to cover his route as easily as 
the younger men. He became a city mail carrier October 18, 
1885. When he started out on his run through the south part 
of town George Chouteau didn't find pavements, street cars, or 
motor cars. He rode a "nag." Delivering mail in the South 
End then was like going on a day's journey. He took all day to 
it. Leaving the Garfield Hall on West First street, where the 
postoffice then was, early in the morning, he sometimes would 
not get in until the roosters began to welcome midnight. He 
says that carrying mail now is something of a snap to what it was 
twenty-five years ago. 

Another old-timer, and one of the originals, is E. B. Walden. 



302 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

He isn.'t a carrier now, being superintendent of them, but lie 
made his debut in Uncle Sam's ranks as a carrier. Mr. Walden 
rode a horse, also. He had a part of the South End of Wichita 
and a part of the North End. In speaking of those times, he said, 
the other day: "Conditions then were very different from what 
they are now. For one thing, the houses didn't have any num- 
bers. We didn't mind this, for we soon learned the names of 
the people who lived in houses and we picked out the owners 
of the letters by the house, instead of the number on the house. 
Then, too, there were plenty of streets, in fact, too many, but 
there were no names on them. It is diii'icult enough to deliver 
mail when you have the street and the street number, but you 
can imagine what it was like to deliver mail — and lots of it — 
when you didn't know the address of the party. Many a time 
I have had to read the addresses on an envelope by the light of 
a blinker. In those days a blinker was a great thing for Wichita, 
and there was sort of a novelty in doing this. All of us were 
detectives. We had to run down the people. Even the people 
didn't know their whereabouts, and after the list of names was 
made out I found that several thought they were living on Meade 
avenue, when they really lived on Washington. In the South 
End it was sparsely settled. When I first went out with my sad- 
dle bags filled with mail and a loud whistle, people didn't know 
what to make of me. I didn't think I looked formidable, but this 
little incident, which I remember very well, will show that I did, 
at least to some persons. 

"Late one Saturday afternoon I came to a street away doAvn 
in the South End. I can't recall the name of it now, but it had 
very few houses on it. I had a letter addressed to a woman whose 
house I knew. As I rode up I saw her sitting in the window. I 
waved a letter so she could see it and expected her to come out to 
the curb to receive it. But, do you know, she didn't budge? I 
whistled as loudly as I could, but still she didn't move. It was. 
against our orders to take the mail to the door, so I rode away 
carrying the letter. Next day I went by there and whistled. You 
ought to have seen her rush out and take that letter. Residents, 
in that section afterwards told me that she thought I was a police- 
man when I drove up the first time, and she was afraid to go out. 
That may seem funny to you, but the other fellows on the line had 
the same trouble. I am sure we were as placid-appearing a bunch 
of men as could be found in the city, and to think we were taken 



fc;0:\LE WELL-KNOWN PEOPLE 303 

for desperadoes, when we were working for the government ! This 
was a standing joke among us for several months." 

Orsemus Hills Bentley, the editor-in-chief of this work, is a 
native of the state of New York, having been raised upon a farm 
in Wyoming county, of the Empire State. He is the son of 
Gideon Bentley and Emma Hickox McClenthen, both natives of 
Onondaga county, in central New York. At an early age the 
parents of Mr. Bentley went West, as it was called in those days, 
and settled upon a farm at Arcade, near the city of Buffalo. 
Here Mr. Bentley spent his boyhood and was a student of Arcade 
Academy, one of the best schools in that portion of New York 
state. At eighteen, Mr. Bentley began teaching school, which 
avocation he followed for two years. At the end of that period 
he took up the study of law in Arcade, Buffalo and Cleveland, 
and was admitted to the bar at Columbus, Ohio. He was married 
to Flora X. Harris, in Cleveland, and soon after, and in the year 
1880, he settled in Wichita. For more than thirty years he has 
been a resident of Sedgwick county. While devoting his time 
principally to the law, his activities have gone into other lines. 
Railroad building, farming, ranching, the raising of Hereford 
cattle, and Poland-China hogs have engaged his attention. He 
owns a fine ranch in Kingman county at this time, which is well 
stocked with pure-blood cattle. He was the promoter and princi- 
pal builder of the Kansas Midland Railway, from Wichita to 
Ellsworth, and has assisted in promoting other railway enter- 
prises. He has figured in many notable law suits in Kansas, 
among others, the Fairchild murder case, in Harper county; the 
Nutting murder case in Sumner county, and the Carter-Lane case 
in Sedgwick county. Mr. Bentley served in three sessions of the 
Kansas legislature as state senator from the J9th senatorial dis- 
trict. He is one of the best Spanish scholars in this portion of 
Kansas, reading, writing and speaking this language like a native. 
Senator Bentley has a distinct literary turn, is a great reader, 
having literary taste of a high order. He has written much, 
worked on newspapers, and is a ready public speaker, being in 
great demand in political campaigns. During his residence in 
Kansas Senator Bentley has taken an active part in all of the state 
and local campaigns for the Republican ticket. His acquaintance 
is state wide. 

In his business he has acquired a competency, and he has just 
sold the tenth house which he has built in Wichita. He has been 



304 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

at the head of the following well known law firms in Wichita: 
0. H. and J. C. Bentley ; Bentley, Hatfield & Bentley, and Bentley 
& Hatfield. For more than a quarter of a century he has been 
associated in business with the Hon. Rodolph Hatfield, one of the 
distinguished lawyers of Sedgwick county. Senator Bentley is 
a thirty-third degree Mason, and has traveled extensively in this 
country, and has lately taken a long trip to Panama and South 
America. 

Senator Bentley 's energy, literary taste, social and business 
standing, his wonderful acquaintance and familiarity with Sedg- 
wick county and Kansas is amply reflected in this history of 
Sedgwick county. — By a Lawyer Friend. 

W. R. Stubbs, governor, was born JNovember 7, 1858, at Rich- 
mond, lud. While an infant, he was taken to Iowa, and remained 
there until he was twelve years of age. He then came to Hesper, 
Kansas, with his parents, and began work for Samuel Davis at 
50 cents a day. He went to school in the winter and got a lim- 
ited education, which he improved later on when his circumstances 
became better by going for a year or two to the university. 

At the age of twenty-two he bought a span of mules and went 
to work on the grade of a railroad then building, and remained 
in that work until about 1903, when he had as high as 5,000 men 
working for him. 

About that time his neighbors drafted him for the legislature. 
He was then forty-six years of age, and had never been into a 
township or county caucus or convention. Since entering public 
life a few years ago he has been a member of the legislature, 
speaker of the house, state chairman of the Republican party, and 
is now governor. This is his history in brief. 

Note. — In a county history so complete as this we have thought 
proper to give a place to the chief executive of this great state, 
who has always been a consistent friend of Sedgwick county and 
whose relatives largely reside upon our southern border. The 
sketch of the governor was prepared by his secretary, David D. 
Leahey, one of the best newspaper men of Kansas. — Editor. 



SOME WELL-KNOWN PEOPLE 305 

THE BENEFACTIONS OF TOM SHAW. 

Tom Shaw runs a music store on North Main street in Wichita. 
He is a modest man, little given to show. Some years ago, he 
inaugurated the plan of serving a Thanksgiving Newsboy's din- 
ner in this city. He does this all by himself and never makes any 
fuss about it. Each Thanksgiving day he gathers up about 100 
newsboys in this city, and marches them to some good eating 
house, where he proceeds to fill them up with a good turkey din- 
ner. He makes no distinction between the blacks and the whites, 
it matters not how poor they are, how ragged or unkempt, he 
marshals the line and marches along Douglas avenue, and reach- 
ing the dining hall they do the rest. 

Tom Shaw has no imitators and no one envies him the place 
he holds in the affections of hundreds of men, who were for- 
merly newsboys and the recipients of his boimty. 

His methods are unique, and he does things in his own way; 
no fulsome advertising, no fuss or feathers, he simply marches 
with the boys and feeds them with a lavish hand. In his simple 
benefaction his neighbors respect him, and the boys love him. 
Their parents swear by him, and the world is better off for such 
men whose gifts are so modest and unobstrusive. — Editor. 

MRS. L. S. CARTER. 

By 

ELBERT HUBBARD. 

I've been out to Wichita giving a lecture for Mrs. Carter, and 
again I stand with hat in hand, out of admiration for a beautiful 
life well lived. My awe is not alone for a woman who can make 
money out of one of my amusing lectures, but it is out of respect 
for certain sterling qualities which some day will become universal 
and cease to be the exception. 

Mrs. Carter turned her eightieth birthday some years ago, 
and has asked her friends to forget it. She is well, happy, active 
and takes a highly intelligent interest in the world's events. 
She is going to school. She believes in manual training, crema- 
tion, deep breathing, and hold that President Roosevelt is only 
in process — that he is not yet completed — otherwise he would 
not be tepid on equal suffrage and violent in all else. Mrs. 



306 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Carter says she expects to see grammar kiboslied in every public 
school. She wants children taught to draw, model in clay, paint, 
sing, and says they ought to get acquainted with bees, birds, 
butterflies and know all the flowers and trees by name. 

Mrs. Carter wore a new white satin gown that she had 
bought in honor of my coming. She looks like Mary Baker Eddy, 
and probably knew it. She had arranged the stage-setting as a 
library scene — looking after every detail, even to a bunch of 
"White Hyacinths on the table, and a spray of the same for the 
lapel of my Prince Albert. 

Mrs. Carter has not a living kinsman nearer than a second 
cousin in the world, therefore she chooses her friends. Cer- 
tainly she has cause for gratitude. All of Wichita is her family. 
The woolsack and the ermine do not overawe her, much less 
"the cloth," which she declares is for the most part shoddy. 
She says that in order to be poor in Kansas, you have to waste 
an awful lot of time and money. Mrs. Carter holds that a 
woman is as good as a man, if not better, and yet she does not 
urge that woman should make all the laws for man nor at- 
tribute the world's damnation to him, beside. She keeps a 
woman stenographer and a man-of-all-work. She makes at 
least five thousand dollars a year, and gives most of it away in 
educating girls to lives of usefulness. 

In twenty years Mrs. Carter has sold over half a million 
dollars' worth of books to Kansas and mostly full sets of finely 
bound books, too. She showed me a letter from Houghton, MifBin 
& Company, wherein they said that hers was the first order lor 
a full set of Emerson that came to them from Kansas. 

Her own library cost her ten thousand dollars, and she has 
given it to Fairmont College at Wichita, a school for girls, eon- 
ducted under the auspices of the Congregational Church. And 
lookee, neighbor, this library contains full sets of Tom Paine, 
Voltaire and Ingersoll. Wichita does not fieteherize the lint 
when a good thing is offered. 

So here is a woman, born in Vermont, transported to the 
prairies, reaching out for the last lap of the century run, whose 
mind is vigorous, alert, active, appreciative, and who is never ill, 
but works ten hours or more a day, who delights in New Thought 
and Free Thought, and has no quarrel either with God or His 
children. Isn't it beautiful? 



SOME WELL-KNOWN PEOPLE 307 

MRS CARTER'S BIRTHDAY. 

Today is Mrs. L. S. Carter's birthday. She is 82 years old, 
or to be more explicit, 82 years young, as any one who knows 
her would testify. Friday was Mr. Fred Smyth's 52nd birth- 
day, and Junior Smyth is 19 years old today. The three of them 
celebrated their birthdays together and had a regular birthday 
feast at the Smyth home on North Topeka avenue. 

Mrs. Carter has completed another year of usefulness. She is 
as energetic as ever and doesn't even consider that she needs a 
vacation this warm weather. In the summer time she always 
wears white to please her friends, she says, as they absolutely in- 
sist upon it. While in her heart she would rather wear something 
just a little bit darker, as laundry bills take a lot of money that 
could be used where Mrs. Carter thinks it is needed more. The 
only ornament that she ever wears is her Daughters of the Ameri- 
can Revolution pin. 

Mrs. Carter resides in the Ferrell flats on East Second street. 
She has four rooms and a bath, but she has decided that four 
rooms are too many for her so she is going to rent two of the 
rooms. Her ofSce is in the Michigan building and is one of the 
prettiest in the city. It is finished in buff, has awnings at the 
windows, a marble wash stand, an electric fan and other con- 
veniences. Mr. 0. D. Barnes, who is the owner of the building, 
has given the room to Mrs. Carter for the rest of her life. Since 
1904 her office has been in the Winne building. When the new 
Barnes building was completed Mr. Barnes told Mrs. Carter that 
she was to have a room in it for life. Mrs. Carter thought he 
was joking and didn't accept, although he repeated the offer 
several times. When the new Michigan building was completed 
Mr. Barnes simply wouldn't take "No" for an answer and Mrs. 
Carter was installed in a room that was many times an improve- 
ment on her old one. She is quite enthusiastic about Mr. Barnes, 
and says that every one should take off their hat to him. 

Since her last birthday she has put eleven hundred and sev- 
enty-five dollars worth of steel furniture in the new Carnegie 
library. Tear before last she donated her own library, which is 
valued at $8,000 to the college. This year she gave to the Y. W. 
C. A. 25 volumes of a de luxe edition of Walter Scott; 40 volumes 
of little classics ; 6 volumes of Victor Hugo, five yearly subscrip- 
tions to magazines, and enough other books to fill a bookcase. 



308 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

The Fairmount "down town" studio was furnished recently 
by Mrs. Carter. Fairmount is not the only thing that is benefited 
by the generosity of Mrs. Carter. She helps lots of other things 
and persons that are never heard of. She received lots of pres- 
ents today — among them a case of mineral water that had no 
name signed. 

One thousand two hundred dollars to the Children's Home, 
put in three metal drinking fountains, two for horses, one for 
men. — Daily Beacon, July 11, 1910. 

KOS HARRIS. 

Kos Harris, whose writings adorn many pages of the history 
of Sedgwick county, is a xmique character of "Wichita and a 
versatile and well known writer in Kansas. He is a distinguished 
lawyer of Wichita, where he has practiced since the early 70 's. 
Kos has acquired a competency, and as he says himself, he can 
now keep the wolf from the door. He is a tovm booster and a 
town builder. He has been active iu railway and other building. 
He has been a most successful practicing lawyer at the bar of 
Sedgwick county and he possesses so much good humor that it 
is a delight to do business with him. At one time, when Kos 
Harris was building his present office building on South Main 
street in Wichita, he received a letter addressed to Mr. Kozarris. 
This name amused him so that he at once named his building 
the Kozarris building, putting that name on the front iu bold let- 
■ters, and since that time this building has been known as the 
Kozarris building, and so it will remain to the end of the chap- 
ter. This incident is characteristic of the man whose whole life 
has an undercurrent of quiet humor. Kos enjoys life to the limit 
and while a careful, painstaking lawyer, and a dangerous antag- 
onist in a law-suit, after the battle is over he is a friend of all 
parties^ and his good nature and good humor smoothes away all 
of the rough edges and animosities of the litigation. I wish that 
there were more men in Wichita like Kos Harris, light-hearted, 
witty and entertaining; loyal to his friends, and forgiving to his 
enemies. — Editor. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 
SOME PROMINENT BUILDINGS IN WICHITA. 

The city and the public utility-corporations are going to make 
extensive improvements during the present year, but they will 
not be far ahead of the individuals and private corporations of 
the city. The indications are this will be the biggest year in the 
private building line in the history of Wichita. No less than 
$2,000,000 is to be spent in buildings, aside from those which ' ' The 
Beacon" mentioned earlier this week. This is assured at the 
present time, though the year is but little more than one month 
old. It will not be surprising if this amount is more than doubled 
before the end of the year. 

Following is a list of most of the business buildings for which 
contracts have been let or upon which work has been commenced 
since the first of January, 1910 : 

Beacon building. South Main street, 75x140, ten stories and 
basement, cost $350,000 ; Schweiter building, corner Douglas and 
Main, 70x136, eight stories and basement, cost $275,000; Butts 
building, 100x140, corner First and Lawrence, six stories and 
basement, cost $125,000; Commercial Club building. First and 
Market, 50x140, five stories, cost $62,000 ; J. F. Hollieke, motor car 
building. North Topeka, 50x140, three stories, cost $35,000 ; Catho- 
lic cathedral, cost $200,000 ; First Methodist church, cost $100,000 ; 
First Presbyterian church, cost $100,000; Grace Presbyterian 
church, cost $20,000; 0. C. Daisy, South Topeka avenue, 50x160, 
three stories, cost $30,000; L. F. Means, West Douglas, 50x130, 
t\Vo stories, cost $12,000 ; Roy Reeves, West Douglas, 25x100, two 
stories, cost $8,000; John Wentzel, corner Pine and Main, two- 
story brick, cost $8,000; W. H. Fitch, Nortli Main, three-story 
brick, cost $8,000; Jott & Wood, addition, Santa Fe tracks, cost 
$25,000; A. S. Parks, building for International Harvester Com- 
pany, cost $100,000 ; Western Planing Mill, St. Francis, 30x62, two 
stories, cost $7,000 ; J. F. Hollieke, 1219 East Douglas, 25x72, two- 
story, cost $6,500 ; Stewart & Burns, garage, North Lawrence, 95x 



310 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

140, cost $12,000 ; W. H. Gaiser, St. Francis, 42x125, two stories, 
cost $10,000; H. D. Cottman, East Douglas, 25x100, two-story, 
cost $8,000; Mrs. Emma Cox, South Market, 25x140, two stories, 
cost $12,000; Metz Lumber Company, North Main, 40x140, two 
stories, cost $20,000 ; Carey Hotel addition, $50,000 ; L. W. Clapp, 
25x100, two stories, $5,000 ; W. S. Brown, two-story, 25x140, cost 
$12,000; People's Ice Company, Fifteenth and Santa Fe, 30x150, 
two stories, cost $35,000 ; C. A. Preston, North Market, two-story 
flat. 50x140, cost $16,000 ; W. 0. Truesdale, addition North Rock 
Island, cost $15,000; Mrs. Mary Dotson, Main and Lewis, two- 
story flat, cost $20,000. The total cost of these buildings is 
$1,682,500. 

Last year there were 1,400 dwellings built in Wichita, and it 
is safe to predict at least 1,500 will be built this year. At the 
average cost of $2,000, which is very conservative, these dwell- 
ings would aggregate $300,000. This amount, added to the sum 
that will be paid for the business buildings already contracted 
for, makes certain the expenditure of, approximately, $2,000,000, 
to say nothing of the buildings which may hereafter be contracted 
for during the year. The new high school will cost $150,000, and 
"The Beacon" neglected to include it in the list of public build- 
ings published a few days ago. After leaving it out, the im- 
provements of a public nature, by the city itself and the public 
utility corporations, amounted to over $5,000,000. A million of 
this vast sum to be expended in 1910 will be spent for paving. 
The public and private improvements during the present year will 
total more than $7,000,000. 

NEW BUILDINGS WORTH TWO MILLIONS IN THE FIRST 
POUR MONTHS OF 1910. 

The building of large cities was ever attended by romance. 
The hero of this modern age is he who dares to build something 
larger, broader, grander, than anything of the sort of a previous 
age or period. Man's mission in the world is to create, to con- 
struct. Every man of consequence has a longing to do something 
bigger and better than any other man has done it. And that is 
the way of Wichita in her building. Her citizens are filled with 
ideals of a larger, more beautiful, more firmly grounded city. 
The working out of these ideals forms the romance of building 



PROMINENT BUILDINGS IN WICHITA 311 

the greatest city of the greatest state in the Union — Wichita, of 



Perfection in anything is rare. The struggle for perfection 
is one of man's rarest virtues. The struggle for civic perfection 
is more rare and more worthy of large reward. In the building 
of a city there is more than the mere shaping of materials into 
buildings of four, six, or ten stories height. There are beauty 
and symmetry and safety to be considered. In Wichita all are 
taken into consideration. The time for throwing up flimsy struc- 
tures for the service of a few years has passed. The builders of 
modern Wichita are grounding their foundations deeply, rein- 
forcing their superstructures solidly and finishing interiors and 
exteriors simply and beautifully. Not only beautifully and solidly 
does Wichita build, but rapidly. Once determined upon building 
a Wichitan goes about his task with alacrity. Hundred^ are con- 
stantly imbued with the spirit, and they, with their unending 
activities, have made the city famous as the fastest growing urban 
community in the state. 

The year 1910 will go down in history as a wonderful twelve- 
month of building. The chronicle will read like a romantic tale 
of twelve chapters, each filled with the vigorous interest of human 
achievement as applied to architecture. In the year 1909 over 
four millions of dollars were expended for new homes and new 
business blocks in this city. That was a remarkable record, and it 
was .heralded to the four winds. Yet still greater things are hap- 
pening in this year of 1910. Specifically, the 1909 building rec- 
ord was $2,658,760 for the erection of new homes, more than a 
thousand of which were builded. For business structures, $1,414,- 
900 was expended. For public buildings, additions and barns 
more than $400,000 was spent. 

At the opening of the present year building operations started 
off with a bound. In one day the fire marshal's office issued per- 
mits for the construction of more than half a million dollars' 
worth of business blocks. At the end of the first month the total 
was close to three-quarters of a million. February was a short 
month, filled with bad weather. Building operations were light 
for that reason. At that, however, buildings to cost more than 
$100,000 were commenced. March made for itself a record that 
probably will stand for some years. In all, 183 buildings of all 
sorts were started. In the fire marshal's permit book they were 



312 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

scheduled to cost $670,000. April came forward with 152 permits, 
for a total of $460,000. 

The figures for the first four months of the year are: 

Month. No. Permits. Cost. 

January 91 $ 735,075 

February 79 100,570 

March 183 669,280 

April 152 457,551 

Total 505 $1,962,476 

These permits and amounts were classified as follows: Resi- 
dences, 400 permits for $756,951 ; business houses, 46 permits for 
$1,080,950 ; churches, one permit for $100,000 ; barns and additions, 
58 permits for $25,575. Some idea of the speed with which 
Wichita is growing may be gained from a comparison of figures. 
In April of 1908, 41 permits were issued for buildings to cost 
$73,500. During the following April the number of permits 
leaped to 162 and the amount to $309,000. April, of 1910, estab- 
lished a new record of 184 permits for a total of $457,551. Fore- 
most among the new buildings of this year stands the new Beacon 
block. This huge monolith of concrete and steel will be the first 
ten-story building in the city. Construction work was started 
in February, and at the present time the ninth floor is being com- 
pleted. In nine months from the date of beginning the building 
will be completed and occupied by The Beacon Publishing Com- 
pany. The structure is costing $300,000. 

The second sky-scraper to be erected in this city wiU be 
started June 1. The site at the corner of ]\Iain street and Douglas 
avenue is now being cleared for this new Schweiter block. 
Another $300,000 is being invested in this modern ofiSce structure. 
Other substantial buildings in the business district are: Butts 
building, six stories high; the Michigan building, seven stories; 
Commercial Club home, of five stories ; new theater, to cost $100,- 
000; new auditorium, to cost $150,000, and scores of smaller 
structures. At the stock yards $500,000 is being expended for 
the enlargement of the packing plants and the yard facilities. 
A new $50,000 exchange building has just been completed. In 
the wholesale district several substantial structures have been 
started or completed. Among these are two large wholesale 



PROMINENT BUILDINGS IN WICHITA 313 

grocery houses and a six-story warehouse for a steamfitting 
supply house. 

"THE MATHEWSON." 

Mrs. Grant Bradshaw Hatfield has sent "The Beacon" a very 
interesting communication, in which she urges the adoption of 
"The Mathewson" as an appropriate name for the new audi- 
torium. Some of the points coA^ered by Mrs. Hatfield's letter are 
given below: 

"I desire to propose the name, 'The Mathewson,' for the new 
"Wichita auditorium which is now being built. 

"The subject of this sketch is the Father, Founder, Scout, 
Frontiersman and only original 'Buffalo Bill.' Mr. Mathewson 's 
prophetic eyes were the first to see the possibilities of building 
a great city here. He came to the site of Wichita when there was 
nothing here but barren prairie. He remained, to suffer all the 
hardships of frontier life, and is still active in supporting the 
progressive policy of the city. 

"I think it would be an appropriate acknowledgment of his 
service to the city if the mayor and city commissioners should 
decide to use Mr. Mathewson 's name for the auditorium, which is 
to be the most imposing building of its kind in the Southwest. 
Mr. Mathewson has personal knowledge of more Wichita history 
than any other living man. As an agent of the general govern- 
ment he arranged the first treaty ever made with the Indians in 
this particular territory. That was in 1867, and for many years 
thereafter he remained the friend and protector of every white 
resident of the territory. 

"The title of 'Buffalo Bill' did not come to him merely because 
of his skill as hunter, but was given him by a grateful people who 
were indebted to him for their lives. During the early history 
the colony here was prevented from securing food by the savages, 
who continually guarded the camp. William Mathewson braved 
the dangers of a venture upon the plains, killed scores of buffalo 
from the grazing herds, and with the aid of a few other mem- 
bers of the colony managed to transport the animals to the starv- 
ing people at the camp and the surrounding country. Another 
evidence of his bravery and service to the early settlers was his 
rescue of two little girls, who were the only survivors of a family 
raided by a band of Kiowa Indians. These girls were taken to 
Washington and a congressional appropriation secured for their 



314 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

education. Through all the struggles incident to pioneer life, 
Mr. Mathewson never was known to. withhold a helping hand 
from a needy iadividual who was worthy, and for fifty years he 
has worked and talked and sacrificed to help make Wichita a 
great city. I hope all the friends of Mr. Mathewson in the city 
will urge the mayor and the city commissioners to name the new 
auditorium 'The Mathewson.' " 

SKETCH OP MR. MATHEWSON. 

Mr. Mathewson is of tall and commanding figure : six feet and 
one-half inches in height ; noted for his great strength and won- 
derful power of endurance; forehead broad and of medium 
height ; features distinctly marked, without angularity ; blue eyes 
and formerly dark hair and complexion ; modest in his demeanor, 
he abstains from all boasting; retiring in his disposition, he 
avoids publicity, preferring the quiet and seclusion of private 
life. Positive in his character, calm and self-possessed in the 
moment of danger; energetic and persevering. He is a bright 
example of that class of men who opened the country to the de- 
mands of civilization. 

The same patriotic blood trinkles the veins of every Ameri- 
can. Then, citizens of Wichita, why not execute your loyalty 
by placing some token of appreciation in memory of this brave 
living frontiersman, who so nobly withstood all privation of such 
life and which now stands as the result of our Peerless Princess, 
of which we are each and everyone so proud, and christen the 
spacious assembly hall or auditorium now under discussion "The 
Mathewson," as a reminder to our progeny and a tribute of our 
appreciation. 

Note. — William Mathewson was the original "Buffalo Bill," 
and was employed for a long time in furnishing buffalo meat to 
General Sheridan's army. Wichita was for years General Sheri- 
dan's headquarters. — Editor. 

THE INTERESTING ROMANCE OF WICHITA'S FIRST 
SKYSCRAPER. 

The new Beacon building, which has excited widespread com- 
ment as the first skyscraper ever erected in Kansas, will house 
1,000 people daily. The work which will engage these people 
will cover nearly every field of human labor. In the first place, 



PROMINENT BUILDINGS IN WICHITA 315 

the building requires its own corps of servants, twenty in all. At 
the head of these is the manager, John H. Graham, who has in 
charge the complex machinery of the little city. In addition to 
the manager, an engineer, an electrician, a house carpenter, five 
elevator men and twelve janitors and scrub women will help to 
oil the wheels each day. One hundred stenographers will remove 
their hats, tenderly finger their "puffs" and powder their noses 
in this building every morning. And a vast crowd of professional 
men, business men, sightseers and agents will keep the four ele- 
vators working constantly. It is estimated that 10,000 persons 
will visit the building on business every day. During the lunch 
hour from 150 to 200 business men will lunch on the tenth floor in 
the restaurant of the Chamber of Commerce, an organization com- 
prised of 400 of the foremost of Wichita business men. The view 
from the roof of a skyscraper is like a glimpse into wonderland 
itself. Thirty-five miles in any direction on a clear day is a view 
worth climbing a mountain to see, though even here the tall 
building offers a superior inducement by carrying us up in an 
elevator. Looking down at the street one marvels at the little 
street cars crawling along the narrow pavements. The diminu- 
tive horses drawing toy wagons, and the pigmy men and women 
threading their way between the traffic. Away to the south flows 
the Arkansas river, partially veiled in the smoke of a Septem- 
ber haze. If your eyesight is good you can count ten bridges 
spanning it. Just this side of the river lies a broad field of 
brightest green, plentifully streaked with yellow. Golden rod 
or field daisies growing on some golf course probably. There is 
Friends University ofi' in the west, and just this side of it, in our 
panorama, the Orient shops. That white croquet wicket is the 
entrance to Wonderland Park. There is the race track in plain 
view. A person armed with binoculars could easily follow the 
races from here. Another point in favor of our skyscraper. A 
grandstand on the roof from which the inhabitants of the model 
city can watch any race or ball game within a radius of five 
miles. So we follow the parapet around its four sides, viewing in 
turn the Little Arkansas, the packing houses in the north. River- 
side Park and Fairmount College, all walled in and partially 
buried by trees. Trees ! The eye grows dizzy trying to separate 
and count them, a forest of green lightly brushed over with 
autumn red. 

Part of the eleventh floor is given over to the machinery of the 



316 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

foui' automatic elevators. A 110-volt motor operates a 10-volt 
generator, while the public rides. The elevators run from 7 in 
the morning till 7 at night. Two of them are worked for two 
hours longer and one runs all night and furnishes service on 
Sundays. Almost the entire tenth floor has been designed for the 
Chamber of Commerce. There is a game room, which can be 
closed off, a main reception hall, a main dining room, a private 
reception hall and dining room, a serving room and kitchen. The 
kitchen is on the eleventh floor and two dumb waiters will carry 
food and dishes between it and the serving room. The rest of 
the tenth floor will be devoted to the Boyle Commission Company 
and the Interurban offices. An interesting feature of the eighth 
floor is the office of the Paper Mills. The mills are being erected 
now in West Wichita, and will be directed from the Beacon 
building. The Natural Gas Company will have its offices on the 
seventh floor, while on the second, a cigar store wiU be estab- 
lished. A bank and a drug store, for which quarters will be pro- 
vided on the first floor, will complete the industry list of the two- 
acre city, with the exception, of course, of its daily paper. 

The editorial offices and composing room of the Wichita Daily 
Beacon will occupy the front half of the second story. Two 
Associated Press cables which are being installed will carry the 
news of the world into the building. The counting room is the 
southwest corner of the main floor, with the pressroom back of it, 
where the new sextuple press, which is to strike oft' the first copies 
of ' ' The Beacon" printed in its new home, is being installed. When 
the freshly printed papers come off the press they go through 
a chute into the basement, where they are received on tables pre- 
pared for them and distributed to the newsboys and mailing 
agents. In the basement are two boilers of 100-horsepower each, 
which will heat the entire building. Another smaller boiler will 
provide warm water for the lavatories. Two vacuum cleaners 
have been installed, which will clean every office every night. 
Vacuum cleaners are worked by means of compressed air. The 
compressing of the air leaves a vacuum in the tubes, which creates 
a suction. So the dust is drawn into the tubes and falls into dust 
boxes prepared for it. Another clever invention which is being 
installed is the "air washer," designed to ventilate the basement 
and other rooms having no outside ventilation. The outdoor air 
is received into the basement, where it is purified by passing 
through a miniature rainstorm. It is then fanned into the un- 



PROMINENT BUILDINGS IN WICHITA 317 

"ventilated rooms by means of revolving fans. Not less than 12,000 
cubic feet of air per minute must flow through the water to keep 
the air in these rooms pure. An electric switchboard, 20 feet long 
and 10 feet high, controls the lighting. 

The Beacon building was erected by a stock company at a cost 
of $350,000. Shares of this stock, which sell for $50.00, have been 
bought in amounts varying from $50 to $10,000. Several children 
have bought one share apiece. At the present time only about 
$30,000 worth remains unsold. The first actual money received 
for Beacon building stock was a check for $1,000, received from 
Charles Watersehied. 

BRIGHT LIGHTS AND MARBLE. 

Some interesting facts about this skyscraper are that it takes 
1,500 incandescent bulbs to light it, that the Italian marble wains- 
cotings with Kentucky marble bases costs $20,000, and that there 
are 75,000 square feet, or a little less than two acres of floor space 
in the building. The structure contains 600 windows, which the 
Beacon Building Company have provided with Holland shades 
at a cost of over $500. The half-acre of glass in these windows 
was furnished by the Mississippi Glass Company. In addition to 
the other conveniences of the model city, any member of it may 
drop a letter in one of the boxes to be found on each floor, and it 
will be carried to the mailing department in the basement. The 
consent of the government is to be obtained to widen to a 40-foot 
street the alley east of the building, which adjoins the postoffiee. 
The telegraph poles will be taken down, the wires put under 
ground and the street paved with asphalt. Richards, McCarty & 
Bulford, of Columbus, Ohio, are the architects of the Beacon 
building. The building contract was let to Selden & Breck, of 
St. Louis, on the 29th of last December. Actual work commenced 
the first week in January, and since that time 200 laborers have 
been given steady employment, while at times as many as 300 
men have been at work. Perhaps nothing in connection with the 
new building suggests so vividly the growth of the "Wichita 
Beacon" from a country weekly to a great city daily as the story 
of the man who is writing the signs for the new building. Thirty- 
four years ago this man, R. D. Bordeaux, painted the first sign 
"The Beacon" ever had. He took the design, a beacon-lighted 
tower, from an old geography, and received his pay for the work 



318 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

in weekly papers. Today Mr. Bordeaux, now an older man, has 
the very considerable contract for writing all the door signs to 
be used in the new building, while the beacon tower — his work 
of thirty-four years ago, is to be commemorated in a stone tower 
60 feet high, bearing a revolving searchlight, which will flash for 
miles across the surrounding country. What would you think of 
a village of a thousand people, containing as residents twenty-five 
doctors, fifteen lawyers, ten real estate agents, fifteen wholesale 
lumber dealers, fifteen life insurance agents and ten fire insur- 
ance agents, three wholesale jewelers and ten or fifteen first-class 
dentists, besides the employes of a bank, a drug store and a daily 
newspaper with a circulation of over twenty-one thousand papers? 



BRIEF HISTORY OF BEACON BLOCK. 

By 
HENRY J. ALLEN. 

A painless dentist, whose name shall be unknown, started the 
magnificent $380,000 building to which "The^ Beacon" is just 
moving. This dentist was from Kansas City, and he came to ' ' The 
Beacon" one day to make an advertising contract, so that he 
might pull many teeth without pain in this beautiful city. After 
making his contract, of some considerable dollars, he said he'd 
go out and engage his rooms and be back soon. He came back 
three hours later and said he couldn't get an office in town and 
would therefore have to stay away, as he couldn't extract teeth 
without pain in the open streets. 

A great financier once said that the way to make money was 
to discover some human need which had not been supplied, and 
supply it at so much per. The Beacon building Avas erected to 
supply a human need. The statement that a man couldn't rent a 
suite of offices in Wichita was given grave consideration. Investi- 
gation developed the fact that at all the office buildings there was 
a waiting list and that the business growth of the city was being 
retarded by a lack of suitable offices for new firms. Nothing^ 
is so important to the development of a city into a great busi- 
ness center as that it shall have suitably equipped office buildings. 
The enterprising people of this city realized this fact. "The 
Beacon" bought a year ago last May for $39,000 the lots where 



PROMINENT BUILDINGS IN WICHITA 319 

The Beacon building now stands, and began the organization of 
a stock company of $350,000 to put up a ten-story building. Ac- 
tual work on the building was started January 6, by the Selden- 
Breck Construction Company, of St. Louis. The progress of the 
work, under the splendid management of Mr. McDonald, the resi- 
dent superintendent of this firm, has broken all building records 
in Kansas. The building has practically been completed in nine 
months. The cost of the building and grounds will be about 
$380,000. The original estimate was $350,000, but the directors 
decided to add several expensive equipments, not originally fig- 
ured, such as marble wainscoting, wardrobes in each suite of 
rooms, vacuum cleaning, artificial ventilation, a refrigerating. 
plant for the delivery of drinking water in the corridors, and 
other items to make the building absolutely modern. 

The architects of the building, Richards, McCarty & Bulford, 
of Columbus, Ohio, had just finished the splendid newspaper 
building for the Columbus "Dispatch," so that "The Beacon" 
was fortunate in receiving the benefit of many special investiga- 
tions made for the "Dispatch." The Beacon building is J^^re 
proof, made of steel and concrete, with a brick and terra cotta 
exterior. Its wood trim is quarter-sawed oak, with the exception 
of the first floor, which is finished in real mahogany. The cor- 
ridors are all finished in Italian marble and tile. The elevator 
equipment is the best contained in any building of equal size in 
the Middle West. Pour rapid electric traction elevators supply 
the passenger service. These are the latest type made by the 
Otis Elevator Company and cost $6,000 each. They run at the 
rate of 350 feet per minute, and each of the four elevators is 
operated by a separate 50-horsepower motor, so that the disabling 
of one machine would not affect the other elevators. When fully 
occupied The Beacon building will have practically 1,000 tenants. 
This means that 1,000 business men, lawyers, doctors, stenog- 
paphers, clerks and bookkeepers will hang up their hats and go 
to work in the building every week day morning. In addition 
to this, the Chamber of Commerce will have several hundred vis- 
itors a day to their beautiful club rooms on the tenth floor. The 
only element of uncertainty in the success of an office building 
is in this speculation: "Can it be rented?" This problem was 
solved early in the case of The Beacon building. There are 
signed up leases at this time sufficient to occupy over 65 per 
cent of all the rental space. This is a remarkable record with 



320 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

which to open a building, and doubtless means that by January 
1, at the very longest, every office in the building will be leased. 
This building when fully leased will bring over $74,000 per 
annum; the cost of maintenance will be $25,000, leaving a net 
earning of $49,000 on $380,000. 



THE SCHWEITER BLOCK. 

On the corner of Main and Douglas avenue, in the city of 
Wichita, the best business corner in Wichita, and the best in 
Kansas, Henry Schweiter, an old resident of this great county of 
Sedgwick, single-handed and alone, is erecting a magnificent ten- 
story building, a credit to the city and a monument to the sagac- 
ity, thrift and enterprise of the owner, who is one of the best 
known and much respected citizens of Wichita. Coming to W ich- 
ita comparatively poor, in an early day in the history of the city 
and county, Mr. Schweiter bore with patience and fortitude all 
of the ills and hardships of the early pioneers. By his toil and 
ctreful attention to business, he, with his good wife, who always 
toiled by his side, amassed a fortune. Reared in a sturdy mold, 
schooled in honesty from his youth, Henry Schweiter now sees the 
fruition of his hopes in the magnificent building which is going 
rapidly skyward. Long after the readers of this volume and the 
enterprising builder of the Schweiter Block shall have crumbled 
to the dust, this magnificent building, in the very business heart 
of Wichita, shall stand as a proud monument to the sagacity and 
business ability of Henry Schweiter. Many a younger man in 
Wichita would hesitate a long time before hazarding his entire 
fortune in so large an enterprise. Not so with Henry Schweiter; 
with a courage that never falters, and a faith in Wichita and its 
magnificent county which has characterized all of his life, he 
moves forward in this great building. The building is a great 
mass of concrete, steel, brick and terra cotta. It augurs well for 
the future ; it is the culmination of a careful, sane, safe judgment 
which has always guided this man. 

"His head is silvered o'er with age. 
And long experience makes him sage." 



PEOMINENT BUILDINGS IN WICHITA 321 

WICHITA'S FORUM. 

Wichita's splendid Forum, the largest public assembly build- 
ing in Kansas, is fast nearing completion. The outer side walls 
are all completed, and work is progressing rapidly on the roof. 
It is no idle boast when it is said that this building will be the 
finest and most up-to-date convention building in Kansas. Some 
idea of the size of this magnificent building may be gained from 
the following figures, taken from the plans: It is 260 feet long. 
It is 160 feet wide. The front will be 55 feet high. The rear will 
be 80 feet high. The arena will be 150 feet long. It will be 80 
feet wide. Combined seating capacity, 8,000. It will have a stage 
60 feet long, fully equipped with scenery. It will be fireproof, 
everything about it being brick, steel and cement. It can be used 
for motor car or horse shows. It will be suitable for lectures and 
concerts. It was designed by Richards, McCarty & Bulford, of 
Columbus, 0. Constructed by Dieter & Wenzel, of Wichita. The 
building, exclusive of stage fittings, will cost $150,000. It is being 
built by the city of Wichita, for the people of Kansas and Okla- 
homa. This beautiful structure will be completed about the last 
of January, at which time a benefit concert of the highest order, 
given by one of the greatest singers of the world, will be given 
for the purpose of paying for the stage fittings. Everybody will 
want to be at the opening of this building, and Mayor Davidson 
and Sam F. Stewart, commissioner of public buildings, hope to 
make the occasion one long to be remembered. 

GOVERNOR OF KANSAS PRAISES GROWING WICHITA. 

The address of Governor W. R. Stubbs at the laying of the 
corner-stone of the Beacon Building during the meeting of the 
Kansas Editorial Association, March 8: "We are today laying a 
foundation that is full of significance and meaning. We are put- 
ting in the corner-stone of a monument to the private enterprise 
of Mr. Allen as well as to the public spirit and patriotism of the 
people of Wichita, whose enterprise and energy are the pride and 
the inspiration of Kansas. In all quarters and sections of our 
state it is conceded that Wichita represents the highest type of 
commercial enterprise and development within our borders. The 
story of Wichita reads like a romance. I am still a young man, 
but I was twelve years of age when this 'Peerless Princess of the 
Plains' was born. Forty years ago the buffalo roamed at will up 



322 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

and down this magnificent valley upon which now stands your 
great establishments of commerce and industry. Here at the junc- 
tion of these rivers was located an Indian village, and who knows 
but what on this very spot some mighty warrior of the tribe 
whose name you bear had his wigwam, where councils of war and 
peace decided the fate of unprotected frontier settlements? You 
are indeed fortunate in having among you men who saw this vil- 
lage townsite without an inhabitant of our race or of our civiliza- 
tion or of that religion that makes America greater than any other 
nation on earth today. From what I know of the frontier plains- 
man, I shall not be surprised to see William Mathewson, the orig- 
inal 'Buffalo Bill,' with you when you celebrate that great jubi- 
lee a few years hence, when the census emnnerators for the first 
time will have counted 100,000 inhabitants in Wichita. 

"The Wichita you see here today is not so much the product 
of tireless energy and endless toil as it is the result of a great 
faith and a greater loyalty. Wichita has had its dark days of trial 
and almost despair, but the indomitable spirits of its citizens 
enabled it to stand the shock of panics and survive those erratic 
changes of the elements which would have discouraged a less 
determined people. The race that has made Kansas so great 
came from a stock that can change even the elements when they 
are unfavorable. This is no figure of speech, but a scientific fact 
that can be easily demonstrated. Cities, like individuals, have 
sown wild oats, and Wichita is no exception, and I am gratified 
immensely today to hear upon every hand that she is standing up 
for righteousness in a way that touches the pride of every decent, 
law-abiding person of Kansas. No city in this broad West has 
any better schools and churches and colleges and academies, and 
I am informed that the spirit of moral uplift and civic virtue is 
the predominating influence that controls your community. This,> 
with your marvelous commercial business and industrial opportu- 
nities, are winning favor for you everywhere and constitute the 
strongest and most attractive appeal to people of ambition, energy 
and character throughout the land. But I want to say to you, my 
friends, that you have only just commenced your career of for- 
tune. Within this generation you will have 100,000 inhabitants, 
and in twenty years you will be laying foundations of other build- 
ings that will make this one which we are eulogizing here today 
look insignificant. No man of understanding can reflect on the 
vastness and richness of this valley and territory, or estimate its 



PROMINENT BUILDINGS IN WICHITA 323 

development, without seeing in the distance a city of a quarter 
of a million people. Your pioneer fathers were considered the 
wildest sort of dreamers when they saw in the far-away future a 
city of 50,000 inhabitants. You have more than that now, and 
you will have doubled it within the near future, or I am no 
prophet. It is especially gratifying to me to know that the first 
ten-story building in Kansas is to be the home of a newspaper. 
Modern civilization is largely influenced by the public press. 
Cities can dispense with almost any other civic factor and 
succeed, but they cannot make satisfactory progress without 
newspapers. 

"Now, I am sure you will all agree with me that at the head 
of the newspaper which is to make this building its permanent 
home is a writer and business man who has few, if any, superiors 
in the Mississippi valley. I have known Henry Allen for some 
years, and am well aware of his faculty to make himself heard in 
the world, and in making himself heard he will make all Kansas 
and all of the United States hear of you and your city. With the ' 
added prestige of his great achievement of financing this build- 
ing, he has an extraordinary opportunity before him to not only 
increase his fame and fortune, but to be of signal usefulness to his 
city, his state and his country. I feel sure he will improve this 
opportunity at every point, and hence my allusion to the meaning 
and significance of the occasion. The newspapers of our state 
have never had such a harvest of opportunity as they enjoy today, 
and as many of that profession are with us, I cannot refrain from 
giving expression to some of the ideas of a layman. I have some 
right to do this, for in my brief public career I have contributed 
indirectly to an increase in your powers in the state. I have 
taken a humble part in making government in this state respon- 
sive to public opinion. This came from my faith in the people, 
and I hope I shall never have any reason to regret it. I partici- 
pated in the movement that gave to every man in Kansas a free 
voice in the nomination of men for public office. I call this matter 
to your attention for no other purpose than to say that the day 
the primary election law became effective the newspapers were 
clothed with not only greater power but also with greater respon- 
sibility. The public press in a large measure moulds public opin- 
ion, and under the primary election law public opinion makes or 
unmakes public ofBcers. If I did not have an abiding faith in the 
patriotism of the editorial profession, I am frank to state that I 



324 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

would not have voted for a law that places in your hands such 
tremendous power to shape the destiny of this state. 

"I would suggest also that you get into closer touch not only 
with your publishers, but with your editors and reporters. I 
regard the men who gather the news for newspapers among my 
best friends, and in every way worthy of my confidence. They 
do not always agree with me, but I have yet to know one of them 
who has not been true to his relations with myself and my office. 
The newspaper man is a good companion because he is intelligent 
and knows a great deal about public affairs and public opinion. 
It is a serious mistake to suppose that a newspaper is a party 
organ or a political institution. In this day and age of the world 
it is as much of a business institution as a bank or general store, 
or a factory, and if it is successful it must pursue the same busi- 
ness methods of sterling honesty and render the same kind of 
service to its customers. In Kansas, I am told by good profes- 
sional authority, we have the best newspapers in the United States, 
taking into consideration the size of the cities where they are pub- 
lished. I read in a magazine a few days ago that we have more 
editors who have national reputations than any other state of a 
similar size in the Union. Stand by the newspapers. Work in 
harmony with them and give them your moral and financial en- 
couragement, and you will have a better business, a better com- 
munity and a more healthy and wholesome moral and political 
atmosphere. ' ' 



CHAPTER XXIX. 
WICHITA AN IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL CENTER. 

The growth of Wichita in the past twenty years from a village 
to a modern city of 55,000 people has been a source of surprise 
and wonder to those who have watched the development of the 
great Southwest, but nothing in the city's history has been more 
remarkable than the rise of her educational institutions. Wichita 
is proud of her universities and her colleges. They have risen to 
splendid proportions during the past few years and are rapidly 
taking positions of high rank among the educational institutions 
of the country. Each succeeding school year brings an increased 
number of college students to Wichita. They come from all over 
Kansas, Oklahoma and neighboring states. They are attracted 
here by the unusual advantages that are offered by the universi- 
ties and colleges of Wichita and by the high educational stand- 
ards that are consistently maintained by these schools. The uni- 
versities and colleges of Wichita owe much of their remarkable 
success to their efficient management. The executive heads of 
these growing schools have been able to organize their institu- 
tions to take care of the increased enrollments and extended 
courses. They have managed to acquire larger facilities and to 
offer better things to their hundreds of students every year. They 
have been progressive. The favorable location also has helped 
with the work and a prosperous city has done its part in support- 
ing the institutions in the way that schools of their class deserve 
to be supported. 

The sum of all these efforts has made Wichita the educational 
center as well as the commercial center of the great Southwest. 

FAIRMOUNT COLLEGE. 

Fairmount College has grown into a splendid, thriving institu- 
tion within the fifteen years that it has been organized for college 
work. With a net enrollment of 341 students, the college is rap- 
idly enlarging its facilities for taking care of a larger student 
325 I 



326 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

body. In a short time another large dormitory will be erected 
for the young women of the college. It will be similar to Fiske 
Hall which is now used for dormitory purposes by the college men 
and the new building will need to be quite as large as Fiske Hall. 
The main hall of the college is a roomy and attractive building. 
The founders of the college laid their plans for a large school 
when the building was erected and it will furnish classroom ac- 
commodations for several hundred students. One of the other 
principal buildings on the campus is the fine library building for 
which a substantial gift from Andrew Carnegie is largely respon- 
sible. The new building now houses a library of over 30,000 vol- 
umes, which is open to the students and to the public. Fairmount 
has a faculty of twenty-five scholar^ people, who are laboring 
earnestly and industriously for the intellectual development of the 
college men and women. Dr. Henry B. Thayer, the president, 
has shown marked ability as an executive officer, and those asso- 
ciated with him on the faculty are specialists in their respective 
lines. 

Fairmount deserves the reputation it has as one of the best 
colleges in Kansas for liberal arts work, and its conservatory of 
music is rapidly rising in importance among the departments of 
the college. Fairmount also maintains a preparatory school for 
those who are unable to meet the entrance requirements. 

FRIENDS UNIVERSITY. 

Friends University was established twelve years ago. About 
400 young men and women are taking training there at the pres- 
ent time, and the enrollment in the college of liberal arts has 
increased about fifty this year. Under the administration of 
President Edmund Stanley, the university has made a healthy 
growth and a prosperous epoch has opened for the institution. 
The university has one of the largest college buildings in the 
West. Not all of the interior is yet finished for use, but about 
$12,000 has been spent this year finishing additional rooms in 
the building, and splendid accommodations are now provided for 
all the class work. The building is well equipped, and dormitories 
are provided for the students. Coiu-ses are offered at Friends' in 
liberal arts and sciences, theology, education, music, fine arts, 
commercial work, physical culture and preparatory work. Spe- 




FAIRMOUNT COLLEGE. 



AN IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL CENTER 327 

cial prominence is given in the curriculum to liberal arts work 
and music and the institution is acquiring a wide reputation for 
the work it is doing in these departments. 

Friends' has a faculty of finished scholars, and they are mak- 
ing the university one of the most progressive and most thorough 
schools in the state. 

MOUNT CARMEL ACADEMY. 

Mount Carmel Academy is another school that is prominent 
among the institutions of learning in this section. Mount Carmel 
was established in 1887, but its greatest growth has been made 
during the past few years. It is a boarding school for young 
women and is under the management and control of the Sisters of 
Charity of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Owing to the ever-increasing 
number of students, new constructions have been added to the 
original building, until the present academy is of magnificent 
proportions, with a frontage of 300 feet, and accommodations 
for over 250 students. The teaching staff of the institution has 
been greatly enlarged during the past two or three years, and 
the Sisters of Charity, who are in charge of the school, devote 
their entire attention to the refinement and education of the 
young women in their charge. The academy is favorably located 
two and a half miles west of the city. Students of all religious 
denominations are admitted. Courses in academic, preparatory 
and primary departments are maintained. 

WICHITA PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

The children and young men and women who are now enrolled 
in the public schools of Wichita now number 8,556, an increase of 
1,236 over the corresponding period of last year. The high school 
has an enrollment of 832, an increase of seventy-six over last year. 

Seventeen buildings in the city are now being used by the 
grade schools and three more large ones are under course of con- 
struction. The new buildings will be ready for use at the opening 
of the next school year. In addition to the new buildings for the 
grades, a contract will be let during the next two weeks for the 
erection of a new high school building on Emporia avenue, be- 
tween Second and Third streets. The new building wiU cost a 
quarter of a million dollars, and will be completed in about twelve 



328 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

months. Over 175 teachers are employed in the city schools. The 
salaries of these teachers amount to about $13,000 a month. The 
officers and employes draw $300 a month more, and janitors are 
paid about $1,000 a month, making the pay roll of the public- 
school system in the neighborhood of $15,000 a month. 

BUSINESS SCHOOLS. 

In addition to all these splendid institutions of higher learning 
and the extensive system of public instruction which the city 
maintains, there are many thriving schools of business training, 
music, languages and other special lines of learning and culture. 

Wichita is a great school city. Her power and influence in 
educational matters are increasing with the march of years and 
her enlarging facilities for the training of young men and women 
are rapidly making her the Athens of the great Southwest. — From 
the "Daily Beacon." 

THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OP SEDGWICK COUNTY. 

There are no better schools in Kansas than the public schools 
of Wichita and Sedgwick county. The residents of the county 
point with no small degree of pride to the county schools. There 
is a uniform system of school books, and the country schools in 
Sedgwick county, as in all counties of Kansas, are carefully 
graded. The schools of the county are now under the efficient 
management of Prof. J. W. Swaney, a most experienced educator. 

THE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

That Sedgwick county is one of the greatest school counties in 
the state, is shown by the 12,000 and more pupils who are attend- 
ing the schools this year. The school census for the county showed 
that there were 17,914 persons between the ages of five and 
twenty-one years. This means that almost 61 per cent of them 
attend school. This fact was learned from the annual report of 
J. W. Swaney, county school superintendent. It is learned from 
this report that to educate the children of Sedgwick county last 
year took the tidy little sum of $378,186.90. The monthly pay roll 
of teachers in the schools, outside of Wichita, amounts to $11,525 



AN IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL CENTER 329 

every month. The monthly pay roll of teachers in the city schools 
amounts to $15,000 per month. It costs $2.54 per month to educate 
the pupil in a one-teacher school, and $3.23 to educate one in the 
two or more teacher school. The monthly cost of instructing a 
pupil in the Barnes high schools is $5.81. 

The salaries paid in the county schools are no jokes. When 
it is realized that the average monthly salary of women teachers 
in the schools amounts to $51 per month, it is easily understood 
why there is a desertion from the dry goods counters. The men 
receive an average monthly salary of $57, but the men are scarce. 
The lowest salary paid in the rural schools is $40, the highest $111. 
There is nothing the matter with the attendance of the pupils. 
The average enrollment in the one-teacher schools is 23, and the 
average attendance is 17. In the two-teacher-or-more schools the 
average enrollment is 31 and the average attendance is 28. 

RURAL SCHOOLS ARE GROWING. 

The rural schools of the county are growing. There are at 
least 200 more pupils enrolled in the schools this year than there 
were last. The number of teachers in the country schools is four- 
teen more than were on duty last year. Sixteen thousand dollars 
were spent in building new schools last season, and several thou- 
sand will be expended this year. The enrollment in the high 
schools is 100 better this season than it was last. The high school 
is becoming one of the most attractive features of the Kansas 
plan of education. Under the Barnes law, any town that can 
show one year's work on high school work, done thoroughly, is 
given aid from the Barnes fund the next year. Several strong 
schools have been built under this plan. Two of the strongest high 
schools in the county are the Cheney high school and the Clear- 
water high school. Each of these schools has a complete four 
years' fully accredited course and is turning out some strong 
men. Superintendent Swaney says that the county high school 
makes it possible for every boy to have the same chance. Last 
year 226 were graduated from the county schools. A majority of 
them entered the high schools and academies of the state. The 
education of the farmer boy doesn't stop now at the sixth, eighth 
grades or senior year of high school. You will find him in the uni- 
versities and colleges. In the common country school he comes 



330 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

in contact with broad-minded teachers — this is- especially so in 
Sedgwick county — who show him the value of an education. 

Mr. Swaney says that this report is one of the best he has ever 
received from the county schools and that he expects greater 
things next year. 

The various district school buildings of the county were the 
very best buildings in the district when built. The last decade 
has seen a most agreeable change for the better in the school 
buildings ; the old house has been added to, or has given place to 
a larger and more commodious structure; the buildings in this 
day are painted, and present a neat and attractive appearance. 
In many instances convenient stables have been erected upon the 
school lots where the horses of the pupils are cared for, those at 
a distance now attending school, and driving in conveyances. This 
method was unheard of in the olden days. Better teachers are the 
rule, those holding normal school certificates being preferred, and 
the pupils wear better clothing than in the past. 

15,225 SCHOOL KIDS IN SEDGWICK COUNTY. 

Superintendent J. W. Swaney, of the county educational sys- 
tem, is busy preparing the apportionment of the state and county 
funds for school purposes, pro rata for all children of school age. 
The aggregate will be the largest in a long while, and far in 
excess of last year. Prof. Swaney gives it out that there are 
in all 15,225 children in the county of school age, and that means 
between the ages of five and twenty-one years. The first appor- 
tionment of the superintendent will be the first dividend on the 
semi-annual school fund divided among all pupils. Of the total 
number of scholars above given, Wichita's portion is 9,353, and 
the rest of the county 5,872. The state fund wiU be about 49 
cents per student available, and from the county, such as fines, 
forfeited bonds from the district court, about 10 cents more, mak- 
ing in all about 60 cents per capita. For the first dividend last 
year, in February, it was but 45 cents, and for August last it was 
50 cents. There are 167 organized districts in the county, and 
nearly all are in the finest of condition, all view-points considered, 
such as high tone of scholastic work done, punctuality, standard of 
teachers, and numbers attending out of the school population. 



AN IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL CENTER 331 

THE WICHITA CITY SCHOOLS. 

By 

RODOLPH HATFIELD. 

As the public schools of an American community constitute a 
reliable index to its intellectual, moral and industrial rank, the 
history of such an important feature of Wichita's growth must 
prove interesting and worthy of conservation in its annals. This 
is especially true, as the men who have composed its directorates 
and boards have been animated by no spirit of selfish gain nor 
motives of ambitious preferment, but rather by a sense of duty 
to serve their day and generation for the common good, with- 
out hope or expectation of monetary benefit, or, indeed, of being 
the recipients even of any considerable amount of unanimous pub- 
lic gratitude. No other branch of public service demands and 
receives such time and attention, unremunerated by the public 
treasury. Such service is the most conspicuous exception to the 
truth and rule, "The laborer is worthy of his hire." 

Forty years ago, or in 1870, Wichita was a newly founded 
frontier village, with a population of fifty souls, all told. The 
spirit of free schools, a cardinal principle of American civilization, 
found earlj' expression in infantile Wichita, and resulted in the 
organization of its first public school, in the spring of 1871, hold- 
ing its sessions in the Presbyterian church, corner of Wichita 
and Third streets, with Miss Jessie Hunter (now Mrs. James H. 
Black) as teacher, during a portion of the summer. The enroll- 
ment was twenty-five pupils, and the munificent salary of $40 
per month was paid the said teacher. Mrs. Black may congratu- 
late herself in having so successfully started public instruction 
in Wichita as to require now nearly 200 teachers, after forty 
, years, to conduct it properly. The city should fittingly recognize 
the services of its first school teacher. 

The members of that first directorate were : John M. Martin, 
director ; Dr. Lewellen, secretary, and Dr. Oatley; treasurer. The 
first-named gentleman has continued an honored resident of the 
city through all the intervening years of frontier vicissitudes, and 
has repeatedly served the people well as a member of the '. 
of Education, as well as a member of the city council. Mr. 



332 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

tin may be justly termed the "official founder or father" of the 
"Wichita city schools. 

The first public school building in "Wichita was a small two- 
room frame, erected on the site of the late "Webster, corner of 
Emporia and Third, which latter, in turn, has been razed recently 
to make room for the new high school now in course of con- 
struction. 

In the winter and spring of 1872, according to the very meager 
records of that time. Prof. Snover and Miss Lizzie Higday taught 
a short term of school, but there remain no details of the first work 
in the new building. 

During the summer of 1872, the first school building was en- 
larged and that fall Mr. John Tucker was chosen first superintend- 
ent, and, with Mrs. Lizza Tucker, Mrs. Helen Fees and Miss Lizzie 
Higday as teachers, constituted the corps of instructors for the 
school year of 1872-73. Mr. Tucker was paid a salary of $80 per 
month as superintendent, and several years later served Sedgwick 
county as treasurer for two terms. The first building, as enlarged, 
burned December 21, 1879. 

In the spring of 1873 "Wichita's public school system assumed 
more metropolitan proportions and rank, by forming its first 
Board of Education, with a membership of six, as follows: Dr. 

A. H. Fabrique, C. M. Garrison, H. J. Hills, N. McClees, M. R. 
Moser and R. L. "West. The first board was organized with Mr. 
R. L. "West as its president, Mr. (now ex-6ov.) "W. E. Stanley as 
secretary, and Rev. J. P. Harsen as treasurer. In that early and 
far-away day, it may be noted that the official microbe was mani- 
festing itself in the political system of our genial and distinguished 
ex-governor. 

The first school enumeration in "^'^ichita was officially taken 
in 1873, and showed 449 children of school age. It was during 
this same summer, too, that the school board instituted the first 
step in municipal finance by submitting a proposition to the peo- 
ple to vote and issue $3,000 of bonds, but the voice of the people 
was not the voice of the board, and the proposed bond issue was 
defeated by a majority of 145 votes. 

In the ensuing two school years of 1873-74 and 1874-75, Prof. 

B. C. Ward was elected superintendent, at $120 per month, with 
Mrs. Helen L. Fees, Miss Lizzie M. Foote, Miss Mattie J. Nichols 
and Mrs. M. H. West as teachers. 

Including the present incumbents, eleven different individuals 



AN IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL CENTER 333 

have acted as superintendents, twenty-two as presidents, nine as 
secretaries and six as treasurers of the Board of Education. Super- 
intendent R. P. Knight has served in that capacity more years 
than any of his predecessors, being no-w in his tenth consecutive 
term. Keeping out of partisan politics has kept him in his place 
and given the city the most satisfactory and efficient superin- 
tendence of its schools. 

Of the presidents, the records show M. W. Levy as serving 
the greatest number of years as such officer, but Rodolph Hatfield 
as second in term of service in that capacity, and first in number 
of consecutive terms as a member of the board. Of the secretaries, 
the present efficient incumbent, C. S. Caldwell, now in his four- 
teenth consecutive term, leads all in length of service. Mrs. E. C. 
Furley exceeds all others in time of service as treasurer, having 
held the position for seven years. 

Of the many principals who have served our people well in the 
grammar schools, and so materially contributed to the successful 
administrations of superintendents, placing our city school system 
among the foremost of the country, we can only mention a few 
of those whose names and work, in many years of commendable 
identification with Wichita schools, if omitted, would leave these 
annals incomplete of main features and facts. Many hundreds of 
young people, now engaged in life's activities, trace their inspira- 
tion for learning to Principals Mrs. M. N. Neihardt, (nee Dickin- 
son), Miss Addie J. Brook, Miss Jennie Daugherty, Mrs. Rodolph 
Hatfield (nee Morehead), Miss Minnie Stuckey, Miss Emma 
McGee, Mrs. George S. Freeman (nee Mulvey), Miss Amy Burd, 
Miss Mary Shaw, Prof. D. S. Pense and Prof. J. S. Carson and 
others of lesser years' service, but of equally efficient work. 

HIGH SCHOOL. 

In 1874 Prof. B. C. Ward organized the first high school, and 
its sessions were held in the old frame building on the site of the 
new high school building. There it was conducted, without any 
record separation from the grade school, or distinct teachers, for 
ten years, or till the first high school building was erected, in 
1884, and which has been continuously in use, on North Emporia, 
as a high school, with its many additions, since then, and will so 
continue till the new building is opened in the fall of 1911. Wich- 
ita, prior to 1886, and the growth of the "boom," was only a 



334 HISTORY OF SEDGAVICK COUNTY 

healthy country village, and contented with village methods and 
school equipment. There is no record as tO who constituted the 
first corps of high school teachers, but it is known that for the 
ten years after its organization, or until the high school building 
was erected, there was no principal elected, but the superintendent 
was principal ex officio, and performed the duties of that officer. 
We find mention, however, not as the first, but among the early 
high school teachers were Dora Wadsworth, Mary Neely, Josie 
Reynolds, and one or two others. 

For the year 1874-75, Prof. Ward reported forty-eight pupils 
in the high school department. The first class graduated from the 
Wichita high school was in 1879, and was composed of three girls 
and one boy, viz. : Clemmie Davidson, Grace Pope, May L. Throck- 
morton (now the wife of Mayor C. L. Davidson), and W. B. 
Throckmorton. 

The first principal elected was John G. Steffee, in 1884. 
Many earnest and efficient men have held the principalship since 
then, of whom not the least is the present incumbent, Prof. I. N. 
Allen, with twenty-five teachers and about 800 pupils. With com- 
pletion of the new high school building, the enrollment will easily 
reach and pass 1,000. In the present corps of instructors is an 
early graduate of the school and a very faithful and capable 
member. Miss Leida H. Mills, whose long and acceptable service, 
particularly in the Latin department, entitles her to special and 
honorable mention. 

The music department, with Miss Jessie Clark for many years 
its efficient director, and the art department, under the acceptable 
supervision of Miss Ann Mason, were established in order as the 
schools grew many years ago, and each of said departments ranks 
in the foremost of their respective kinds. 

Manual training and domestic science departments were duly 
installed in the old Webster building, October 1, 1903, with Clar- 
ence J. Smith and Miss Olivia M. Staatz, respectively, as instruct- 
ors. These departments have grown steadily and are now reeog-. 
nized as of great value to the young men and women entering 
them, as they specifically equip them for self-maintenance. 

A commercial department was also added to the high school 
curriculum in 1907, and is steadily affording the best of instruc- 
tion to pupils in it, and is only one of the various departments 
which compose the curriculum of a modern high school. 



AN IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL CENTER 335 
PROPERTY. 

There are now, including the new high school, nineteen build- 
ings, which, with grounds and equipment, are estimated of the 
value of from $700,000 to $750,000, and every year the board is 
adding rooms to these, yet the schools remain continuously 
crowded. 

Thus have the public schools of Wichita, in forty years, grown 
from a first enrollment of twenty-five, with one teacher, to an 
enrollment of some 8,000, with nearly 200 teachers, and from one 
small two-room building of frame to nineteen splendidly con- 
structed and equipped brick and stone structures, and now rank, 
as a well organized system of public instruction, among the very 
best in this land of superior public schools. 

GRADE SCHOOLS. 

The public school system of Wichita is the largest business 
enterprise in the city, and is growing so rapidly that the Board 
of Education is kept busy advertising for bids for new school 
houses. The total valuation of the schools of Wichita is close to 
$2,000,000. There are nineteen school buildings, which are sup- 
plied with 190 teachers. The school enrollraeut on the first day 
of this year was more than 7,000, and it is expected by the end of 
the year to amount to almost 9,000. The phenomenal growth in 
the number of students in the Wichita schools has been one of the 
most remarkable things in the progress of Wichita. The increase 
in pupils from 1909 to 1910 was more than the combined growth 
of the schools of Kansas City and St. Louis. The schools of Wich- 
ita offer every branch that can be taught in the public schools. 
Every convenience that can be given the pupil is given to the stu- 
dents in the Wichita schools. The board always has been willing 
•to put in new departments as the time demanded them. The 
schools are managed on a very democratic basis and the pupil's 
advancement is in proportion to his ability to work and learn. 

The primary object of the Wichita schools is not to make the 
pupil a shining light of erudition, one who can master every phase 
of arithmetic and decipher involved sentences like a Harvey. Its 
object is to give him tools with which he can hew out the most 
successful life. It doesn't try to make a success of him; it gives 
him the means of making a success of himself. Wichita has made 



336 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

investinents the increased values of which seemed almost unbeliev- 
able, but its greatest investment has been in its school system. The 
first school building put up in Wichita was a small one-room frame 
building which stood at the corner of North Emporia avenue and 
Third street, the site of the $250,000 high school building now 
being erected. It was built in 1871. So anxious were the students 
to go to school that school was held on the day following the com- 
pletion of the building. The hub of school life in Wichita is the 
high school. A complete four-year eoiu-se of study is offered at 
this institution, which is fully accredited at all of the state uni- 
versities. After completing the eight years of work in the gram- 
mar schools, the student is admitted into the high school. At 
present the handsome new high school building is under construc- 
tion, and will be finished next summer. When completed, this will 
be one of the finest high school buildings in the state. All work 
in the public schools is superintended by R. F. Knight, who is one 
of the well-known educational men of Kansas. The management 
of the schools is in the hands of the Board of Education, the mem- 
bers of which are: B. B. Messerve, president; C. H. Andrews, 
J. F. McCoy, Robert Campbell, C. R. Howard, W. H. Kelchner, 
H. W. Collier, H. M. Grafton, E. Stanley, W. R. Nessly, L. B. 
Price, H. F. Miltner. C. S. Caldwell is clerk. 

ENROLLMENT IN THE WARD SCHOOLS. 

In the public schools of Wichita there were enrolled the first 
week in October, 1910, nearly 8,000 pupils. The enrollment in 
the several schools is as follows: Carleton, 390; College Hill, 
304 ; Emerson, 442 ; Fairmount, 96 ; Franklin, 604 ; Harry, 396 ; 
Ingalls, 580 ; Irving, 654 ; Kellogg, 618 ; Lincoln, 577 ; Linwood, 
249 ; McCormick, 267 ; Martinson, 204 ; Park, 295 ; Riverside, 87 ; 
Waco, 474 ; Woodland, 105 ; Washington, 480 ; high school, 800. 
Total enrollment is 7,822. 

WICHITA HIGH SCHOOL. 

Wichita high school was organized thirty-two years ago. A 
comparison of the high school then with that of today would indi- 
cate clearly the rapid growth of the city. Then there was one 
teacher, one room, eight pupils, four branches of study taught 
and a three years ' course offered. Today there are thirty teachers, 
800 pupils, twenty-five studies taught, a four years' course, and 



AN IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL CENTER 337 

100 graduates per year. The growth of the American high school 
has been phenomenal, and the growth of the Wichita high school 
has been typical. From the first graduating class of Wichita high 
school, four in number, are numbered some of our leading citizens 
of today. Since that time, the number has increased from year 
to year, so that among her alumni are found leading lawyers, doe- 
tors, merchants, bankers, business and professional men. Prom 
the one-room high school is traced the successive periods of growth 
of two rooms, four rooms, eight rooms and twelve rooms. Tnis 
last state has been inadequate for over five years, and the only 
way the large high school population could be housed was by 
dividing the school into two sections, taking half in the forenoon 
and half in the afternoon, thus converting the twelve-room build- 
ing into a twenty-four-room building. Probably it is safe to say 
that no city in the United States has had a harder problem of 
handling her high school population for the last five years than 
has this city. Yet this has been done, and the school has held her 
own with the other large high schools of the country. During the 
last three years fully accredited relationships have been estab- 
lished with the leading women's colleges of the country — Welles- 
ley, Smith and Vassar — while the boys of the high school enter 
the leading colleges of the Middle West without examination or 
condition. 

The present crowded condition, however, is soon to be relieved, 
when a magnificent $200,000 high school building will shortly be 
ready for occupancy. In this fifty-room building v,ill be installed 
an equipment equal to that in the best high schools. A faculty of 
forty or more trained teachers will offer instruction to more than 
a thousand pupils. All departments will be expanded. Manual 
training will include woodwork, metal work, forge and machine 
shops. Domestic science will offer the girls cooking, sewing 
and I household economics. The commercial department will be 
■ equipped so as to offer in modern office and business practice. Jhe 
academic department will be correspondingly increased and im- 
proved so that the Wichita high school will be surpassed by none 
in the Southwest. — I. M. Allen. Principal High School. 

RAZING OF WEBSTER SCHOOL BUILDING. 

Razing of the old Webster school building at Emporia avenue 
and Third street, to make way for the new $125,000 high school 



338 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

building, brings to a host of citizens memories of their early years. 
The material in the building was taken out under supervision of 
A. Wilday, a pioneer contractor and builder, who, in the interest 
of the school board, saved it for use in constructing a warehouse 
for school supplies. Mr. Wilday is to many buildings in Wichita 
somewhat like the old family doctor. He came to this city in 
1873, and has been associated with many other contractors in 
building countless structures. Like an old family doctor of build- 
ings, he has officiated at their beginning, has repaired them in 
their illnesses, and still administers at their final passing from the 
world. Of present public school structures, the Webster, or, as it 
was known in former days, ' ' the old Fourth Ward, ' ' is among the 
oldest. It was built in 1880, at the same time as the Emerson 
school. The Carleton school had been put up in 1879. 

This trio was sufficient for the school population until 1885, 
when the Park and Lincoln schools met the demands of boom 
days, followed by the Franklin in 1886 and the Irving in 1887. 
Two years later were built the Washington, McCormick and Kel- 
logg, College Hill in 1890, Fairmount (public) in 1895. Lately 
have come the mere youngsters of school structures — the River- 
side, Martinson and Linwood. The first public school was held in 
a Presbyterian church at the site now known as Wichita and Third 
streets, and there Miss Jessie Hunter (now Mrs. James H. Black) 
was the first teacher. That was in 1871, when twenty-five pupils 
attended. The site which is now being erased for the new high 
school was first used for a school that same year, when a two-room 
frame building was put up in November and December. That 
predecessor of the old Webster school was destroyed by fire De- 
cember 21, 1879. Then began the history of the building which 
is now passing away. The "Eagle" reported on May 6, 1880: 
"About $8,000 of the $15,000 voted last spring are still held by 
the board waiting for the plans of the new buildings. E. T. Carr, 
the state architect, who was employed by the board, was here 
last week looking at the ground for the foundation, the classes 
of building material, and so forth." 

The contract was awarded to H. F. Butler on June 21, 1880, 
at the lowest bid of $16,600, to put up a six-room brick and a 
four-room brick, these structures being the beginnings of the 
Emerson and the Webster schools. With its additions, the Web- 
ster school cost $11,000. By the contract terms, the building was 
to be completed September 21, 1880. At that time when the 



AN IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL CENTER 339 

building became endeared to the first instalment of its alumni, 
Wichita was the fifth city in Kansas, with a population of 5,482. 
The total assessed value of all real estate in the city was $314,- 
581, and the total taxable personal property was $341,064. In 
that year the editor of the Caldwell "Commercial" made this 
comment, after visiting Wichita: "The majority of the people 
have the same old faith in the future of the place, and are man- 
fully working to make the place one of the big cities of the 
West." When the Webster school was built, M. W. Levy, now 
of New York City, was president of the Board of Education, and 
on the board H. C. Mann and D. W. Smith represented the 
Fourth Ward. Prof. L. G. A. Copley was superintendent of 
schools. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITY. 

FRIENDS UNIVERSITY. 

By 
PRESIDENT EDMUND STANLEY. 

Friends University occupies a commanding view as one looks 
westv^ard along University avenue, the most beautiful boulevard 
in the city of Wichita. The graceful elms and stately maples, 
with now and then an ash or sycamore, with boughs almost over- 
lapping above the smooth asphalt pavement, the cement walks 
and broad parking — all help to make the approach to the uni- 
versity an attractive thoroughfare for the residents as well as 
the visitors in the city. Few educational institutions are so 
favorably situated, and none have buildings more imposing in 
structure or more beautiful in architecture. The history of the 
main building, the plan of its construction and the difficulties 
encountered in the progress of the work have been so graph- 
ically described by Mr. R. J. Kirk, in an issue of the "Kansas 
Magazine," that, by permission, it is here reproduced: 

Almost like a romance reads the history of Friends University 
(then Garfield University), Wichita's boom educational institu- 
tion. Conceived diiring the time of the wildest building activity, 
it was to be the crowning feature of them all. And it was. No- 
where in the world was there a school building containing as 
much floor space under one roof. It was Wichita's pride, and 
the enthusiastic citizens pointed to the massive pile of stone and 
mortar and poured into the ear of the astonished Easterner the 
work of Kansas in the educational line, as well as in other indus- 
tries. The gigantic university building, costing more than a 
quarter million dollars, grew, blossomed and then faded away in 
its infancy. The story of the university on the western outskirts 
of Wichita is the story of many other institutions and industries 
340 



COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITY 341 

founded and fondled during those momentous times. Many of 
them died, were buried and then forgotten. Others lived, died 
and then arose from the ashes of abandonment to serve even a 
greater purpose than originally planned. In this latter class 
belongs the chronicles of the foundation now occupied by Friends 
University. 

The promoters of Wichita early determined that that city 
should be the gateway to all the Southwest. Many of them 
looked at the proposition from a cold-blooded business standpoint 
only. But while Wichita was building railroads, factories and 
office blocks, some asked why it should not be equally practicable 
to make the "Peerless Princess of the Plains" the educational as 
well as the commercial center. In 1886, while the memory of the 
late lamented James A. Garfield was yet fresh in the minds of 
all Americans, W. B. Hendryx conceived the dedication of a 
great university in the West, even as great as the universities in 
the East, to the memory of the departed president. 

Mr. Hendryx at that time was pastor of the Central Christian 
Church in Wichita. He was the leading spirit in building the 
structure, and was later made its first president. Mr. Hendryx 
was formerly pastor in President Garfield's church, at Mentor, 
Ohio, and, being a personal friend of the executive, was a great 
admirer of his virtues. At the Rev. Hendryx 's suggestion, the 
university was given its name. It was originally intended that 
the school should belong to the Christian denomination, and 
the Wichita church was one of the backers in the enterprise, 
but the principal support came from the citizens, irrespective of 
church affiliation. After lying idle, forsaken and forlorn, a 
home for pigeons and wayfaring tramps, from 1892 until 1898, 
the building came into the hands of the Friends church, and since 
that time has gone under its present name. 

Elaborateness was the watchword with the founders of Gar- 
, field University. Cost was not considered when the plans were 
drawn, and the sole aim was to make the best possible building 
that money could erect, and to place in it the highest perfection 
of the architect's and craftsman's skill. As a result of this policy, 
the building is a model of the stonemason's art and, architectur- 
ally, it remains today the peer of any building in Kansas. In 
the basement alone $27,000 were spent, and the foundation was 
laid in such a manner that it will endure for centuries. The 
highest quality of brick was placed in the upperstrueture, and 



342 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

the trimmings, finely carved and sculptured, were brought from 
the famous quarries at Bedford, Ind. The work on the building 
progressed rapidly, and by the time the boom bubble was punc- 
tured the north wing of the building was completed and ready 
for occupancy. The remainder of the building, however, was 
unfinished, and the greater portion of it stood without a roof for 
several months. With the exception of the north wing, the build- 
ing was nothing but a shell until the occupancy of the Friends 
in 1898. Since that time much of the other portions have been 
completed. 

The property soon after passed into the hands of Mr. Edgar 
Harding, a capitalist of Boston, who had advanced money to 
the amount of nearly one hundred thousand dollars for the prose- 
cution of the work in the construction of the buildings. The 
school disbanded in 1892 and the buildings remained closed and 
without occupants for the following six years. In 1898 a full- 
page advertisement appeared in a St. Louis paper, describing the 
university property, and announcing that it was for sale. 

James M. Davis, a wealthy investor of St. Louis, saw this 
advertisement, and, as he was contemplating some work of this 
kind in connection with the Friends in Kansas, he became inter- 
ested at once. This was the beginning of the history of Friends 
University. Mr. Davis came to Wichita and made a careful 
inspection of the property. The building, though vacant and 
dust covered within, presented many attractions to the keen 
eye of a practical business man. The massive walls of the founda- 
tion, the high grade material used in the construction, the beauti- 
ful designs of architecture, and the large and commodious halls 
and lecture rooms appealed to him forcefully, and he set about 
at once a movement for the reopening of the property for the 
original purposes contemplated in its construction. 

Mr. James Allison, of Wichita, was at the time custodian of 
the property, and as a citizen he had long been interested in the 
property and its purposes. He at once took up the matter of the 
sale of the property, having the assurance that if Mr. Davis pui*- 
chased it the building would very soon be reopened for college 
purposes, and the work of finishing the great structure would be 
pushed as rapidly as the needs of the institution should demand. 
The citizens of Wichita offered to give to the institution 300 
additional city lots in the territory adjacent to the university if 
the purchase was made and the property again occupied for col- 



COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITY 34o 

lege purposes. The transfer of the property was consummated in 
March, 1898. It consisted of the university building and campus, 
the two dormitories and nearly 300 city lots of the original prop- 
erty. Mr. Davis soon after made an offer of the property to 
Kansas Friends on condition that they raise a fund of $50,000 
for the beginning of a permanent endowment of the institution. 
This offer was accepted by the permanent board of the church 
and later ratified by the annual meeting of the Friends, including 
the congregations of Kansas and Oklahoma. In the September 
following the college was opened, with fifty pupils. The pro- 
posed endowment was speedily raised and the title to the prop- 
erty was transferred to the church in 1903, one year earlier than 
the contract stipulated. Since its organization the university 
has had a steady growth and its equipment has been as steadily 
enlarged. Four hundred students have enrolled for work during 
the past year, $12,000 have been expanded for the enlargement 
of its facilities, and much of the unoccupied room in the building 
has been finished and brought into use. 

The great building is fast approaching completion, the campus 
is being set to trees and grass, walks and drives constructed, and 
one can now get a glimpse of the founders' ideal, as no doubt 
he saw the scene as he made plans for a future great university. 

The university has at the present time a faculty of about 
twenty professors, assistant professors and instructors, most of 
whom are specialists in their departments of work. It is building 
up an excellent library, equipping laboratories, has the nucleus of 
a fine museum, has increased its endowment to $135,000, and is 
planning to materially increase this amount in the near future. 
In a word, the past history of the institution, the work that has 
been accomplished, the patronage it is receiving and the confi- 
dence it has inspired through careful and businesslike manage- 
ment and thorough and practical work, give promise of a success- 
ful future and a place of high rank for Friends University 
among the educational institutions of the growing and prosperous 
Middle West. 

The Friends University has a most promising field for opera- 
tion. Its support is drawn largely from the two states, Kansas 
and Oklahoma, but there are students in attendance from many 
other states. It is the policy of the board to make the institution 
strongly and positively Christian in its instruction and social life, 
but to guard against anything of a sectarian bias. Emphasis is 



344 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

put upon those things that tend to build character and develop 
real Christian manhood and womanhood, leaving in the back- 
ground the shades of differences that have so long maintained 
the barriers among the churches of Christendom. Its door are 
open to young men and young women alike, and honors and pre- 
ferment are equally accessible to all who enter for the work of 
its classes. A number of different churches are represented in 
its faculty, and among its students are found young men and 
young women of almost every church fellowship of our country. 
Its Biblical and Theological Department, which is the most com- 
plete in its organization and most comprehensive in its instruc- 
tion in the state, is patronized by young people from many differ- 
ent churches studying side by side and striving for that prepara- 
tion that is needful for the work of world-evangelization of the 
twentieth century. Such was the purpose of the founders of the 
institution, and such is the policy of the management, as shown 
by the inner working and spirit of the university. 

The student in search of opportunities for obtaining a liberal 
education can find ample courses of instruction open to him and 
from which he can select to suit his taste or prospective needs if 
he wishes to fit himself for specialization later. In addition to 
the large number of college courses offered, there are courses for 
teachers leading to state certificates, and which are recognized 
by the State Board of Education; also commercial and academy 
courses are maintained. The university has a strong apd exceed- 
ingly popular conservatory of music, with instructors of marked 
ability and thorough preparation. In a word, the great structure 
so magnificently planned has within its walls abundant room for 
many and varied lines of work, and it is the purpose to occupy 
and utilize as rapidly as means will justify and the increase of 
students demand. 

The great Southwest should have at its door all the facilities 
for the thorough education of its children, and if the business 
enterprise and sound judgment prevail in this, as in most other 
interests, our people will not long withhold their means from the 
institutions in their midst that promise such valuable returns for 
investments. There are many reasons in favor of educating our 
young men and young women at or near the home and home influ- 
ences, besides the question of financial cost, and as the community 
comes to a fuller realization of these advantages, institutions of 
learning in our midst will receive better patronage, stronger 



COLLEGES AxND UNIVERSITY 345 

financial support and more hearty appreciation. Our young men 
and young women are our most valuable assets in business, and 
their proper education and equipment for life will yield the great- 
est returns for our financial investments. Indeed, the investment 
that men put into the lives and minds and hearts of those they 
help and influence is the only permanent and enduring invest- 
ment that they can make. All others perish. 

FACULTY FRIENDS UNIVERSITY, 
1909-10—1910-11. 

Edmund Stanley, A. M., Penn College, 1892 ; President ; Pro- 
fessor of History and Political Science. 

William P. Trueblood, B. S., Earlham, 1875; Vice-President; 
Professor of History and Philosophy. 

Benjamin W. Truesdell, A. B., Friends University, 1902; 
Graduate Student University of Chicago, 1902 and 1904; Pro- 
fessor of Education and Chemistry. 

Anson B. Harvey, B. S., 1894, A. M., 1895, Haverford ; Gradu- 
ate Student University of Pennsylvania, 1895-97 ; Professor of 
Biology and Psychology. 

John J. Wheeler, A. B., Indiana University, 1904; Professor 
of Mathematics and Astronomy. 

Edith Furnas, Ph. B., Earlham, 1897 ; Graduate Student Bryn 
Mawr, 1898-99 ; University of Berlin, 1903-05 ; Student The Sor- 
bonne, Paris, 1908-09 ; Professor of German and French Lan- 
guages. 

Charles E. Cosand, A. B., Earlham, 1896; Graduate Student 
University of Chicago, 1899-1900; Summer, 1908; Professor of 
English Language and Literature. 

William L. Pearson, A. B., Earlham, 1875; A. M., Princeton 
University, 1880; Graduate and Fellow Princeton Theological 
Seminary, 1881 ; Student University of Berlin, 1881-83 ; Ph. D., 
University of Leipzig, 1885; Principal of Biblical School and 
Professor of Biblical Literature and Exegesis. 

Arthur W. Jones, A. B., 1885, A. M., 1890, Haverford ; Gradu- 
ate Student University of Chicago, 1894-95; Professor of Greek 
and Latin Languages. 

Edgar H. Stranahan, A. B., Earlham, 1898; A. M., Earlham, 
1906; Professor of Church History and Christian Doctrine. 



34G HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Verne F. Swaim, B. S., Earlham, 1909; Assistant in Mathe- 
matics and Director in Athletics. 

Elsie McCoy, A. B., Wilmington, 1906 ; A. B., Ohio State Uni- 
versity, 1909 ; Assistant in Latin and English. 

Lucy Francisco, A. B., 1895, A. M., 1898, Earlham College; 
Graduate Student, Bryn Mawr, 1895-97 ; University of Chicago, 
Summer 1901 ; University of Wisconsin, 1902 ; Student in Con- 
servatory of Music, Berlin, 1903-04, and Winter 1908-09 ; Director 
of the School of Music and Instructor in Piano and Voice, 
1910-11. 

Nellie May Benton, A. B., Friends University, 1907; Gradu- 
ate School of Music Friends University 1907 ; Student in New 
England Conservatory, Boston, 1908-09 ; Instructor in Piano. 

Gabriella Knight, Graduate Judson College and Conservatory 
of Music; Two Years Student in Berlin, Germany; Instructor 
in Violin, 1909-10. 

M. Frederic Cahoon, Graduate of Dallas and Nashville Con- 
servatories of Music ; Student of Max Bendix, New York ; Violin 
Instructor in Orchestral Instruments ; on leave of absence 1909-10. 

Gretchen Cox, Student of Max Bendix, S. Jacobsohn and 
Theodore Spiering; Instructor in Violin, 1909-10. 

Lillian Crandall, Principal of the Commercial School. 

Charlotte Whitney Barrett, Instructor in Elocution and 
Oratory. 

Mabel Beck, Teacher in Training School. 

Wm. P. Trueblood, Registrar. 

C. E. Cosand, Librarian. 

E. H. Stranahan, Principal of Preparatory School. 

Anson 13. Harvey, Curator of Museum. 

Verne F. Swaim, Director of Gymnasium. 

Charlotte Whitney Barrett, Assistant in Gymnasium. 



FRIENDS UNIVERSITY A GREAT INSTITUTION. 

By 

PARMER DOOLITTLE. 

Since Friends University has become a great educational 
institution, people are beginning to realize the great work of 
Prof. Edmund Stanley, who has been a teacher ever since he was 



COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITY oV, 

seventeen years of age. This magnificent building was a sort 
of an elephant drawn by Wichita in the days of her real estate 
boom. It was built away out on the prairie, beyond Robert 
Lawrence's farm, to boom an addition. It was given to the 
Christian church, which did not consider itself able to buy hay 
for the elephant. It was called Garfield University then, and 
Wichita soon realized that she still had one elephant on her 
hands. An effort was made to give it to the state of Kansas. 
The government lived in the northeastern section of the state, 
and it did not want any educational institutions in Wichita. 
Garfield University was a magnificent pile of red bricks, but that 
did not prevent its being an elephant on the hands of Wichita. 
The men whom the Christian church put in charge of the univer- 
sity tried hard to establish a school, but when they conceded 
their failure there was a big mortgage on the property. This 
mortgage put the university in the hands of Mr. Harding, of 
Boston, who sold it to James M. Davis, of St. Louis. 

Mr. Davis actually bought the elephant, and just to show his 
magnanimous nature he gave it to the Friends church of Kansas 
and Oklahoma, and in 1898 Edward Stanley was elected presi- 
dent of the university. He came to Wichita at once and opened 
the school. He had $250 in cash and an endowment of $2,000. 
That appeared like a huge burlesque on universities, but some 
of the old-timers said: "Wait and see. This man Stanley is 
a James G. Blaine style of man, and the Friends are a common 
sensed people. There is no foolishness about them; they may 
succeed." Well, when Prof. Stanley opened his school in Sep- 
tember, 1898, he had forty-two students. He closed the term 
this year with 400 students, and some friends of the institution 
predict that when the next term opens in September 500 stu- 
dents will be enrolled. The university now has an endowment 
of $130,000 and it closed its twelfth year with not a dollar of 
. debt against the institution. 

One hundred and twenty students have been graduated, and 
it means something to be a graduate of Friends University. The 
work in this great school is recognized by the state university 
on a par with its own, admitting its students for post-graduate 
work on a record of work in Friends University. The state 
university each year awards to Friends a fellowship valued at 
$280, given to a graduate to pursue post-graduate work in the 
state university. Friends University is a religious school, but 



348 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

non-sectarian. It has among its students Protestants, Catholics 
and Jews. This thing that Wichita regarded as an elephant that 
nobody wanted through the untiring industry of a President 
Stanley and the wise liberality of the Friends church has become 
one of the great educational institutions of the West. 

President Stanley had received a training before coming to 
W^ichita that fitted him for his great work. He became a teacher 
at the age of seventeen in the public schools in Hendricks 
county, Indiana, where he was born, and in this was earned the 
money to pay his way through the academy at Lafayette, Ind. 
He desired to see the South, and after the war he accepted a posi- 
tion as teacher under the Freedmen's Bureau, and opened a school 
at Curthage, Tenn., in 1867. He now has in his possession 
a Ku-Klux letter warning him to leave the place. He refused to 
leave, and his schoolhouse was burned down. He repudiates the 
idea that the ex-slaveholders and better class of people recog- 
nized the methods of the Ku-Klux. He rented a warehouse of a 
rich ex-slaveholder and reopened his school in it, and when there 
were threats to lynch him some of the ex-slaveholders armed 
their negroes and secreted them in nearby buildings to open fire 
on the mob if an attempt was made to molest the young school 
teacher. That kind of service was not pleasant to Prof. Stanley, 
and he gave up his job with the Freedmen's Bureau. He came 
to Lavirence, Kan., in 1868, and became a teacher in the public 
schools. In 1871 he married Miss Martha E. Davis, of that place, 
who was a Southern girl. 

While in Lawrence he took up a line of studies in the state 
university. He was for four years principal of a ward school and 
assistant in the high school. He was for fifteen years superin- 
tendent of the LavvTcnce schools, and was elected state superin- 
tendent in 1894. The growth of this great school under President 
Stanley is very pleasing to the people of this city. When Prof. 
Stanley assumed control the huge building was not one-fourth 
completed, but now two-thirds of the sixty-six rooms and halls 
are finished without creating a debt, and Friends University is 
today the finest school building in the state of Kansas. The men 
who work in the cause of humanity never get rich and some of 
Prof. Stanley's friends say that he never could have succeeded 
so well if he had not had means outside of his salary to support 
his family. There now seems to be no legitimate reasons why 
Friends University shall not continue to grow until its influence 



COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITY 349 

shall be as wide as the nation. It is even now a great institution, 
and in the years to come its patron saints will be Edmund Stanley 
and James M. Davis. 



FRIENDS UNIVERSITY. 

A little more than twelve years ago the largest and one of the 
most beautiful buildings in the city of Wichita was the home of 
bats, pigeons and sparrows. In September of 1898 the bats, 
sparrows and pigeons were crowded out. Where thousands of 
them had roosted for years there was started Friends University. 
The magnificent building now occupied by the prosperous Quaker 
college was erected during the boom days. Its original cost was 
$265,000. It was built as the Garfield University and for a few 
years a school by that name was conducted. The college was 
closed at the bursting of the boom some twenty years ago. For 
about fifteen years the magnificent structure of Gothic archi- 
tecture was unoccupied except for the birds and vermin. Vandals 
broke out windows here and there, destroyed furniture and car- 
ried away whatever pleased them. But the building itself 
remained intact. Then came James M. Davis, a wealthy St. Louis 
stereopticon view manufacturer, who was raised in Kansas of 
Quaker parents. Mr. Davis saw and admired the old and 
deserted Garfield University. He strolled about the unkept 
campus of virgin prairie ; he entered the building and prowled 
about among the cobwebs; he frightened away hundreds of spar- 
rows and pigeons from their nesting places among the rafters of 
unfinished wings. Then he went out of the musty corridors into 
the clean pure air and dreamed a dream. 

At the beginning of this dream James M. Davis saw a young 
man of his own likeness struggling in poverty and privation for 
an education. He followed that young man through a number 
of years until he became a wealthy manufacturer in a city on 
the Mississippi. Then the scene shifted and the dream changed 
to a vision of the future. Mr. Davis saw the wild grasses of the 
campus transformed into a beautiful lawn of blue grass. Broad 
walks appeared on all sides leading to the main building. The 
nailed and cleated doors swung open and streams of happy faced 
students marched past him into the class room. The dream and 
the vision pleased James M. Davis. He smiled and went away to 
his home in the eastern city. In time he became the owner of 



3.50 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

the building that had given him his dream. And he was proud of 
the ownership, for within his mind there was a deep pui-pose. 
Not long after the purchase of the building Mr. Davis appeared 
before the Kansas yearly meeting of the Friends church and 
offered to its members the building of his dreams for a college. 
With his gift he imposed certain restrictions as to the main- 
tenance of a university and its endowment fund. The Friends 
of Kansas were elated with the gift of Mr. Davis. They imme- 
diately began the preparation of the building for the opening of 
the first Quaker college in the middle West. In September of 
1898 school was opened. 

From that time on the growth of the university has been rapid 
and permanent. The first year there were scarcely a hundred 
students and a half dozen professors. Next year there were twice 
as many students and a number of new faces in the faculty. The 
Quakers of Kansas came to the support of the new institution 
with money and students. 

It was not many years till every Quaker academy in Kansas, 
Oklahoma and Texas was sending an annual delegation to 
Friends University for higher education. Frequently students 
have come from Nebraska, Colorado, Missouri, Indiana and other 
states further away. They were drawn to Wichita by the fact 
that the big Friends school here is one of the finest and best 
equipped institutions maintained by the Friends in America. As 
a college. Friends quickly made a place for itself in the state of 
Kansas. At the present time the courses maintained at the 
university by a student at Friends are accepted for their face 
value in any other college of the middle West in the event a 
student desires to transfer. Kansas University, which sets the 
standard for Kansas scholarship, has given the Quaker college in 
this city full recognition. The Friends Biblical School is one of 
the few first class institutions of the sort in the West. Pro- 
fessors of long and careful preparation head this department. 
During the current term there are three pastors of Wichita 
churches taking advanced Biblical work at the university. A 
number of the foremost Quaker preachers and missionaries of the 
present generation are graduates of the Friends Biblical depart- 
ment. In athletics the Quakers stepped into the first rank of 
Kansas colleges within four years after the school was estab- 
lished. From 1903 to 1907 the Quakers sent onto the football 
fields some of the best football men who ever wore moleskins in 



COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITY :]■>'. 

this state. Three years ago football was officially wiped off the 
cui-riculum of Friends University. Instead of football the 
Quakers are now introducing soccer. The first soccer ball game 
ever played in Kansas occurred last fall between the Quakers 
and a state normal team. This year the game is spreading and 
half a dozen contests will be played by the local team. In base- 
ball and basketball the Quakers rank with the best teams of 
Kansas and Oklahoma. In the past ten years there have grad- 
uated from the college courses of the university something like 
two hundred students. A large number of these have continued 
their studies in the East. Many specialized and are now engaged 
in professions of all sorts in various parts of the United States. 
In the past five years a dozen graduates of Friends have taken 
their diplomas of medicine, dental surgery or law from the best 
universities of the country. Two scholarships are given annually 
to the graduates of Friends University. One of these is offered 
by Haverford College, of Philadelphia, to the young man making 
the best record for four years at Friends. The other goes to the 
young woman with the best four years' record. It is given by 
Earlham College, of Richmond, Ind. The opening enrollment of 
the university this year was close to 350. This shows a healthy 
increase over the enrollment for the first semester of last year. 
The faculty consists of fifteen capable professors, each a special- 
ist in his line. In the training school department there ate five 
instructors. 

HISTORY OF FAIRMOUNT COLLEGE. 

By 

ANDREW P. SOLANDT. 

The men who founded Wichita had great visions, intending to 
■make the city a great commercial center. But even that did not 
satisfy them; they laid tremendous plans for making it also an 
intellectual center, so that in 1871 the first small schoolhouse was 
built, which, in 1887, had grown to a high school building and 
nine large public school buildings. Higher education was pro- 
vided for in the following list: Garfield University, built at a 
cost of $200,000, the building now being used by the Friends 
University on the West Side. It comprised a college of law, 
college of medicine, a college of arts, a college of theology and 



352 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

a college of commerce. It opened its door to students and sur- 
vived for a few years. The Wichita University of the Reformed 
Church of America, built on College Hill, the fine building now 
owned by Catholic Sisters. It also opened its door to students 
for a few years. Judson University, under the care of the Bap- 
tists, was projected with the following departments : University, 
academy, college of liberal arts, school of theology, college of 
music and college of fine arts. They claimed assets of $400,000, 
but I cannot find that they ever enrolled any students. 

John Bright University, under the Society of Friends, claimed 
$300,000 in money and lands to establish an institution here. The 
Presbyterian College, it was claimed, had $200,000 to begin work 
with. 

Other institutions were : Lewis Academy, Brothers Academy, 
Southwestern Business College and the Kansas Military Institute. 

In 1886 Rev. J. H. Parker, pastor of Plymouth Congrega- 
tional Church of Wichita, not wishing his denomination to be 
outdone by the churches represented in the foregoing list, pro- 
posed founding in the city a ladies' college, that was to be the 
Vassar of the West. Interesting a few friends in his plan, they 
advertised for bids of money and lands. Several being sent in, 
they chose the spot where Faii-mount College building now 
stands^, on account of its high elevation and the large amount of 
money and land given by the friends of that vicinity. The 
growth of his plans was so rapid that the next year he decided 
to enlarge the board of trustees from five to fifteen and change 
the name to Fairmouut College, under which a state charter was 
obtained. Rev. J. H. Parker was elected president of the board 
of trustees, other members being : H. A. Clifford, W. J. Corner, 
H. H. Richards and F. G. Stark. The institution was to be under 
the care of the Evangelical Congregational churches. 

Hon. J. J. Ingalls and G. C. Strong served on the board of 
trustees when the board membership was increased to fifteen. 
Bids were called for, plans adopted, and the present college main 
building erected. A committee was appointed to search for and 
engage a president at a salary not to exceed $3,000 a year, and 
Rev. S. S. Mathews, of Boston, was called. 

Financial troubles began, the trustees appealed to. the citizens 
of Wichita with small result, and after spending $40,000 on the 
building the property was sold to satisfy claims, passing into the 



COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITY 353 

hands of D. B. Wesson. Therefore the first corporation known 
as Pairmount College never opened its door to students. 

Before the commercial panic all the educational institutions 
of a high grade fell into ruins, Fairmount College alone rising 
later into vigorous life. The population of Wichita decreased 
ten thousand in two years, much property was deserted and many 
houses were moved from Fairmount and vicinity or sold for a 
trifle of their cost. With the slow return of better conditions 
Pairmount Institute was organized as a legal corporation, to 
which D. B. Wesson conveyed what is now Fairmount College 
main building and some surrounding land, the corporation agree- 
ing to pay off the mortgage still hanging over the property. This 
action was taken March 7, 1892, the institute applying for the 
endorsement of the state association of Congregational churches. 
The first and only prospectus issued by the Pairmount Institute is 
dated June 15, 1892. It gives the board of trustees with Rev. 
R. M. Tunnel as president of the board, also principal of the 
institute. Nine other clergymen were on the board, as well as 
W. J. Corner and H. A. Clifford, of the original Fairmount Col- 
lege board. H. T. Cramer was treasurer, and last, but most 
important of all, we find the names of J. M. Knapp and R. L. 
Holmes, who ever since have faithfully served on the board. 
Besides Mr. Tunnel the faculty consisted of Miss Delia M. Smoke, 
Miss Marie Mathis and Dr. E. W. Hoss. 

The founders of the institute declared it to be their intention 
to establish a school that shall rank as high for classical scholar- 
ship as the far-famed Phillips academies, at Andover, Mass., and 
Exeter, N. H., and in addition the institute shall be co-educational 
and practical. 

The Bible shall be thoroughly studied, also English, mathe- 
matics and the ancient and modern languages. Any person not 
less than twelve years of age and having a moderate education 
may enter. September 15, 1892, Pairmount Institute opened its 
doors to students. The number enrolling the first year cannot 
be found. The institute obtained the recognition of the Con- 
gregational Educational Society of Boston, and in the session 
of 1894-95 enrolled seventy-eight students. The next year the 
institute took on new life by the coming of forty students and 
several teachers from Garfield University, which had been forced 
to close its doors. 

June 22, 1894, the trustees voted to develop the institute as 



351 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

rapidly as possible into a college, Mr. J. M. Knapp making the 
motion, seconded by Mr. Graves. This was done after a long and 
heated discussion. Principal Tunnel immediately resigned, as 
well as many of the trustees. Mr. Tunnel, however, agreed to 
remain principal until other arrangements could be made. The 
courses in the institute were considerably expanded. 

August 4, 1894, Mr. W. H. Isely was elected member of the 
faculty. Born in Brown county, Kansas, of Swiss-French parent- 
age, educated at Ottawa and Harvard universities, he came with 
youth, energy and a fine education to begin his long and splen- 
did career at Fairmount as professor and dean. 

The institute felt the power of his leading mind, and rapid 
development ensued, leading to the calling of Dr. N. J. Morrison 
to be president, June 11, 1895. Dr. Morrison came indorsed by 
the Educational Society of Boston and invited by them and the 
trustees to take charge of the school and develop it as rapidly as 
seemed best into a first class college. Mr. Morrison brought with 
him Prof. Paul Roulet, of Springfield, Mo., who had been asso- 
ciated with him for fourteen years in Drury College. 

March 30, 1896, the trustees of Fairmount Institute voted to 
give up their charter and reorganize as Fairmount College. The 
April following the state of Kansas issued a new charter grant- 
ing full college and university rights and privileges to Fairmount 
College of Wichita, and the Congregational Educational Society 
of Boston approved of their action. The charter declares that it 
is the intention of the trustees to establish on a broad and perma- 
nent foundation a college of the first rank, this school to be 
positively, aggressively and wholly Christian in the evangelical 
sense, but in no wise sectarian ; to fashion young men and women 
in knowledge and in character for the best citizenship in a Chris- 
tian state of the Nineteenth Century. July, 1896, Miss Flora 
Clough was elected dean of women and professor of English 
literature, which positions she still fills with gracious efficiency. 

The following September the college opened with a faculty of 
thirteen, all finely equipped mentally and determined to work 
harmoniously together to build up a strong and efficient Christian 
college. Prof. Paul Roulet, besides being professor of mathe- 
matics and French, at once began to build up a library, thus 
laying the foundation of our splendid collection of books. 

The building now known as Holyoke Cottage was purchased 
and refitted as a ladies' dormitory, which purpose it has filled 



COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITY 355 

since. The college year was divided into three terms — fall, win- 
ter and spring ; and three degrees were given — B. A., at the close 
of the classical course ; B. S., at the close of the scientific course, 
and B. L., at the close of the literary course. At the end of the 
year, June, 1897, there were 154 students. Fifty-one of these 
were in the college department, which consisted of three classes — 
Junior, Sophomore and Freshman. 

June, 1898, the college graduated its first class — a class of 
nine— and had an enrollment of 179, and a spirit of strong hope- 
fulness cheered everyone. 

The next years were marked by steady advance in the num- 
ber of students, in the size of the faculty, in improvement in the 
main building, by fitting up additional rooms, and by many hard- 
ships regarding street car connection with the city. At one time 
it was even necessary to run a hack line between Fairmount and 
the corner of Hillside and Douglas, but finally the old mule cars 
gave way to the splendid and efficient electric service of the 
present time. Through these pioneer years the faculty were 
loyal and self-sacrificing to an extent little known by the general 
public, and there began to develop the Fairmount spirit among 
them and the students that has characterized the institution ever 
since. 

Theodore H. Morrison, a son of President Morrison, was 
appointed assistant librarian June 24, 1898, and has been con- 
nected with the library ever since, much of its splendid efficiency 
being due to him. In January, 1900, D. K. Pearsons, the million- 
aire college builder of Chicago, offered $50,000 if the friends of 
the college would raise $150,000. The attempt to raise this 
amount failed in part, but sufficient was collected to induce Dr. 
Pearsons to give $25,000. Rugby Hall, the two-story brick build- 
ing now occupied by a grocery store on Vassar avenue, was sold 
after having been used for several years as a boys' residence. 
. April 8, 1903, Prof. Roulet died. He was a native of French 
Switzerland, coming to Fairmount with Dr. Morrison. His long 
and successful experience as a teacher and his training as a busi- 
ness man greatly helped in building up Fairmount, and especially 
the library, of which he was the first librarian. His picture 
hangs in the main hall of the Fairmount College library. Prof. 
A. P. Solandt succeeded him the same year. 

In order to bring the college and its claims before the people 
of Wichita and vicinity, E. M. Leach was appointed field secre- 



356 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

tary, in 1904. Through his energy the college was widely adver- 
tised, especially through the Arkansas Valley Interscholastic 
Meet, of which he was the founder. To this gathering all high 
schools for miles around are invited annually to send their best 
athletes, orators and readers, Fairmount College being host, its 
students not competing, but helping in every way to make the 
gathering a success. It meets annually in May and the attend- 
ance several times has been two thousand. 

The Fiske family of Boston for years had been firm friends 
and supporters of Faii-mount. In 1904 Mrs. Fiske gave $2,500 
to start a fund to build a boys' dormitory. Other friends con- 
tributed and the trustees erected the present splendid building, 
said to be the finest dormitory in the state. Two years after- 
wards it was completed and opened for use, and very appro- 
priately named Fiske Hall. 

This same year the trustees applied to Andrew Carnegie, of 
New York, for money with which to build a library building. 
After due consideration and arrangement of terms he granted 
$40,000 with which to erect the beautiful building now standing 
on the college grounds. 

Several years of steady progress followed until 1907. In 
April of that year, after a short illness. President N. J. Morrison 
died. As a college builder he will long be remembered as one of 
the founders of Olivet College, in Michigan. After leaving there, 
in 1873, he founded Drury College, at Springfield, Mo., of which 
he was for fourteen years president, leaving it with many splen- 
did buildings and a large endowment. Later he was professor 
of philosophy in Marietta College, in Ohio. From there he came 
to Fairmount, where he worked with devotion and success until 
his death. 

In August of the same year Fairmount suifered another 
serious loss in the death of its dean, W. H. Isely, called away in 
the prime of life. He left a record of self-sacrificing industry 
not easily surpassed. As a teacher, member of the city govern- 
ment of Wichita, official in the Wichita Chamber of Commerce 
and the Kansas National Guard, his loss was widely and keenly 
felt. 

After careful consideration and extensive correspondence the 
trustees invited Rev. Henry E. Thayer, D. D., of Topeka, Kan., 
to become president. He accepted, and at once entered upon 



COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITY 357 

his duties with energy and success, bringing to bear on every 
question the ability of a man of wide vision and long experience 
in public affairs. 

January, 1910, the new library was formally dedicated and 
opened to use. Tlie furniture, through the generosity of Mrs. 
L. S. Carter, was all in place and the main floor presented a beau- 
tiful and appropriate appearance. This floor contains reading 
rooms and office and delivery desk. On the second floor are 
found the Carter memorial room, all within it being furnished 
by Mrs. L. S. Carter, and contains, besides the splendid library 
furniture, a large number of sumptuously bound books; the 
Library Club room, the meeting place of the Fairmount Ladies' 
Library Club, which for many years had worked faithfully and 
successfully in forwarding the interests of the library; another 
room is occupied by the Daughters of the American Revolution, 
and now contains many articles illustrating the early history 
of the country. Still another room contains the beginnings of a 
college museum. At present it is mainly occupied by a large 
number of articles from Palestine illustrating the life and cus- 
toms of the people of that country. Dr. Selah Merrill, a friend 
of the late President Morrison, made the collection while United 
States minister at Jerusalem. 

The college gymnasium, a modest but commodious building, 
was erected recently on the campus througli the efforts of the 
student body, and serves as headquarters for the athletic interests 
of the college. For a number of years Fairmount has had a regu- 
lar coach, and their teams in football, basketball, track and 
baseball have been conspicuously successful in standing for clean 
athletics and winning many honors, considering the size of the 
college. 

Efficient and prosperous literary societies are maintained by 
the students, doing much to advance the interest in public speak- 
ing and sociability. Among the ladies are Sorosis and Alpha 
Tau Sigma for the college girls, and Philomathean for those of the 
academy, and among the men Webster and the Counsel societies. 

Such is the story, in part, of these years of sacrifice, struggle 
and achievement, and the college is proud to think that with each 
succeeding year it is sending an increasing band of young people 
into the world, who bring to all the duties of life, the ability of a 
trained mind and the devotion of a Christian conscience. 



358 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Proud on thy mountain, sunlight gleaming from fhy tower, 
Pure Wisdom's fountain, truth and honors bower. 
While our boundless prairies yield their fruits from year to year. 
May thy thousands ever hold thy name more dear. 
Fairmount forever; here we raise a song of praise, 
Pairmount, blest Fairmount, to eternal days. 

FAIRMOUNT COLLEGE. 

One of the strongest Congregational schools in the West is 
Pairmount College. It commenced the school year of 1910-11 
with an enrollment of more than 300 students. It is noted for 
its broad democratic tone and character building environment. 
The college buildings are located on Fairmount in the eastern 
part of the city. A college building erected at a cost of $60,000, 
a librarj^ building costing $25,000, a men's dormitory costing 
$15,000, a gymnasium and other buildings compose the college. 
Pairmount is one of the highly accredited colleges of the state 
and has always enjoyed a good reputation. 

The president of Fairmount College is H. E. Thayer, one of 
the broadminded college presidents of the West. He is a 
thorough scholar and is full of rugged western progressive ideas. 
He took the school at the death of Dr. Morrison, one of the 
most beloved college presidents in the state and the father of 
Pairmount academy and college. The dean of the college of 
liberal arts is S. S. Kingsbury, a professor of broad culture and 
much executive ability. A complete college training is given in 
Pairmount. The science faculty is unusually well equipped with 
strong men. The laboratories are complete and up to the minute. 
A classical element pervades the school and strong philosophy 
courses can be given. Considerable special work is done in the 
college. Prowess in athletics has always been a characteristic 
of Pairmount College. The gymnasium is well equipped to take 
care of the training of the men and all athletics is under the 
supervision of a competent coach. All students entering Pair- 
mount are compelled to take a certain amount of exercise and 
their development is noted carefully. A rule was adopted last 
year compelling all those who desired to enter the more violent 
form of athletics, such as football and basketball, to pass a 
heart examination. The faculty did this in order that no student 
should be seriously injured in these games because of physical 



COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITY 359 

unfitness. That is the way the Pairmount officials look after 
the students ; they are always on the alert to help them or advise. 
A feature of Fairmount College, which is almost as famous 
as Wichita itself, is the Paii-mount library. This is one of the 
largest college libraries in the state. The new Carnegie library 
building was first occupied in 1909. The library comprises 3,100 
bound volumes and 50,000 pamphlets and papers. The library 
is in charge of a skillful librarian and assistants and the books 
are carefully catalogued. The library is used not only by the 
students of the college but is open to the residents of Wichita. 
The history of Pairmount College is one of disappointment and 
discouragement and yet one of great achievement as well. The 
academy was opened in 1892. In 1895 the idea of a college, 
advanced in the previous year, took root, and the college was 
established. In 1899 the first degrees from the college of liberal 
arts were given. Ever since its genesis Fairmount seems to have 
had debt sliadowing and hindering it on every side. But in spite 
of it remarkable progress has been made. Through endowments 
from friends of the college in the East the indebtedness has 
been cut down and now Pairmount sees a dawn of new things. 
A great future is in store for the college and all the troubles 
and worries of the strong, zealous, early day men, Dr. Morrison, 
Prof. Isley and others, will be recompensed when Fairmount 
stands free and clear — a democratic school where young men 
and young women are taught that education should be means 
to a good end. 

MOUNT CARMEL ACADEMY. 

Mount Carmel Academy, one of the best known and most 
popular institutions in the Southwest, is situated two and one- 
half miles west of Wichita, in a campus covering fifty or sixty 
acres. The buildings are elegant and commodious and equipped 
with everything that lends itself to the cultivation of taste and 
refinement. The academy has an interesting history. It was 
opened in 1887 by five Sisters of Charity, who came from their 
mother house in Dubuque, la., at the invitation of the Rev. Father 
Casey. The ability of these sisters to conduct a successful school 
soon made itself felt, and the best citizens of Wichita, irrespect- 
ive of religious convictions, sent their daughters to the academy. 
It must be said that the people of Wichita have always shown the 



360 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

keenest appreciation of the work done at the academy. They 
have encouraged its growth in every possible way and are justly 
proud of its present high standing. In 1900 an addition to the 
original "All Hallows" became necessary and the south wing 
was put up at a cost of about $60,000. In this addition are the 
chapel, the auditorium, the music studios, the reception rooms 
and the dining halls. 

So great prosperity did the academy enjoy at that period 
that it was necessary to build again in 1906. This latest and 
chief addition is in perfect architectural harmony with the former 
wing and no expense was spared in the furnishing of the various 
apartments. These comprise the study halls, dormitories, recrea- 
tion parlors, art studios, private rooms and observatory. On 
every floor of the building are bathing apartments supplied with 
hot and cold water. The building is heated with hot water and 
perfect ventilation is secured by a system installed in the con- 
struction. Every room is so situated as to admit an abundance 
of air and sunshine. No history of Mount Carmel, however brief, 
would be complete without the name of the Rt. Rev. J. J. Hen- 
nessy, who since his advent to the city has watched over the 
academy with fostering care. Notwithstanding the numerous 
demands on his attention as bishop of a large and prosperous 
diocese, he has given the interests of Mount Carmel his personal 
attention, has often sacrificed his time and comfort for its benefit, 
and many of the most beautiful ornaments in and around the 
building are the effects of his princely generosity. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

THE PIONEER CHURCHES OF WICHITA, KAN. 

By 
C. S. CALDWELL. 

I have been asked to prepare a short article giving the date 
of organization, the early history and experience of the pioneer 
churches of Wichita. This may seem at first thought to be an 
easy problem, but when we consider that there are more than 
forty churches in the city and twenty-five in the other towns 
and outlying districts of Sedgwick county, all of which are, in 
a sense, pioneer churches, the problem grows. 

Another difficulty confronts the historian : The shifting popu- 
lation, the push and hurry incident to the opening of a new 
country, and building new cities produces an atmosphere that 
is not very favorable to the organization of churches and religious 
institutions, and many of them have failed to make and preserve 
a permanent record of their birth and early life, and before they 
are aware of it the early members and promoters have passed 
away, and their whole history becomes largely a matter of 
tradition only. 

While the early history of these sixty-five churches would be 
very interesting, and would be in a permanent form for ref- 
erence in years to come, it would not only extend this article 
beyond a reasonable limit, but would involve more time and labor 
. than the writer has at his disposal, so this article will cover only 
the genesis of four or five parent churches of Wichita, whose 
organization dates prior to 1873. 

When the vrriter saw Wichita for the first time, October 1, 
1871, it was a very small Western cattle town, with Newton, 
the nearest railroad station, thirty miles away. 

The few people that were here were chiefly young, unmarried 
men, or men who had left their families in the East and had 
361 



363 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

come West to take claims aud prepare homes for those who were 
to follow. 

We found that some settlement had been made as early as 
1868. The city was platted in 1870, but it was still the uttermost 
ends of the earth — a hundred miles or more to the nearest 
railroad. 

Devoted missionaries to the Indians and to the hardy pioneer 
settler had found their way to Wichita, and religious services 
were held as early as 1868, but no record can be found of any 
effort toward the organization of churches until 1870. Late in 
1871 we f.ound two organized churches — St. John's Episcopal and 
the First Presbyterian. These had been holding services more 
or less regularly for a year or more. The Methodist Episcopal 
and the Baptists had held religious services at irregular periods 
during this time, but had done much toward gathering up those 
who were the "lost sheep"' of their house of Israel, and were 
favorably inclined toward these churches. 

So far as is now known the first sermon preached in Wichita 
was by a Baptist minister by the name of Saxby, in the fall of 
1868, at Durfee's ranch, on North Waco avenue, a short distance 
north of ]\Iurdock avenue. It was listened to with respectful 
attention by the motley little company that had come together 
to hear it, as many of them had not attended a religious service 
or heard a sermon for many years. As hymn books were exceed- 
ingly scarce in those days, the minister, at the close of the sermon, 
asked some one to start a familiar hymn. Some one started 
"John Brown's Body Lies a-Mouldering in the Grave." The 
hymn was sung lustily throughout and closed the services. 

EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

An Episcopal clergyman by the name of John P. Hilton 
came some time in the fall of 1869 and filed upon a claim, now 
in the central part of the city, and began at once to gather 
material for the organization of a church, which was accom- 
plished some time in the early spring of 1870; the exact date 
the writer has been unable to learn. The first services were held 
in the Munger Hotel, which subsequently became the home of 
Com. W. C. Woodman, and now the property of Mr. P. J. 
Conklin, on North Waco avenue, one block north of Murdoek 
avenue. 



PIONEER CHURCHES OF VriCHlTA 363 

In a short time, however, a rude chapel was constructed of 
cotton-wood logs, split and set in the ground after the fashion 
of a stockade and covered with logs and earth. This chapel was 
located on Market street, near where the courthouse now stands, 
and served as a place of worship for about two years. Photo- 
graphs of this rude chapel may be seen today in many of the 
homes of the city. Fromthis humble beginning St. John's Epis- 
copal church has grovs^n to a large and influential parish, occupy- 
ing a fine stone church on the corner of Topeka and Third streets, 
and has organized several missions and churches in other parts 
of the city. Dr. P. J. Fenn is the present popular and efficient 
pastor. 

FIRST PRESBYTERIAN. 

In October, 1869, W. K. Boggs, a Presbyterian minister, ap- 
peared upon the field and preached his first sermon in a dugout 
on North Waco avenue, near where Finlay Ross now resides. 
Services were held quite regularly all winter, and on the 13th 
of March, 1870, a church was organized with thirteen members, 
none of whom reside here now; most of them have passed away. 
Two or three are living somewhere in Oklahoma. 

Robert E. Lawrence, residing on North Topeka avenue, 
attended a midweek prayer meeting in this dugout in the early 
spring of 1870. He was driving through this country in a 
carriage and had encamped for the night on the banks of the 
Little Arkansas river. He heard singing not far away, and, fol- 
lowing the sound, soon found the little church, and spent a 
pleasant evening with them. 

In the summer of 1870 the little band hauled green cotton- 
wood lumber from Emporia and erected a neat little frame chapel 
on the corner of Second and Wichita streets, which was a com- 
fortable little church home for two years. 

Dr. Boggs remained in charge of the work until late in the 
autumn of 1871, when he was succeeded by Rev. John P. Harsen 
as its first pastor. In the fall of 1872 this little chapel was sold 
to the Catholic church and moved to the corner of St. Francis 
and Second streets and used by them for chapel and school pur- 
poses for several years, when it was sold and moved to the sixth 
block on North Main street, where it now stands. 

After selling their church the Presbyterians rented old Eagle 
Hall, and services were held there until 1877, when a small brick 



364 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

church was completed and occupied, at the corner of First street 
and Lawrence avenue. This building was enlarged in 1883, and 
served as their church home for more than thirty years, Mr. 
Harsen remaining its pastor until 1879, and was succeeded by 
Rev. John D. Hewett. 

This church has also prospered and taken a prominent posi- 
tion among the churches of Kansas, and has been instrumental 
in establishing and maturing to self support five other Presby- 
terian churches in the city, and is now engaged in the erection of 
a fine church building on the corner of Lawrence avenue and 
Elm street. 

THE M. E. CHURCH. 

The M. E. church had occasional services during 1871 by 
visiting clergymen. A class was formed and preparation made 
for the organization of a church as soon as the way would be 
open. This, however, was not accomplished until the early spring 
of 1872, when Rev. John F. Nessly became their first pastor. A 
Sunday school was organized and ex-Gov. W. E. Stanley was 
chosen as its first superintendent. A small church building was 
erected at once on the ground where the first church now stands, 
and until it was ready for occupancy their services were held in a 
frame schoolhouse, on the corner of Emporia avenue and Third 
street, where the new high school building is now being erected. 
Mr. Stanley remained at the head of this school for a score of 
years, and placed it among the largest Sunday schools of the 
state. With a long line of able and popular pastors the church 
grew apace, establishing several churches and missions in 
various parts of the city, some of them (St. Paul and Trinity) 
almost rivaling in strength and influence the parent church. 

The present pastor. Dr. W. H. Heppe, is leading them out in 
a vigorous preparation for building a new house of worship 
where the old one now stands, tO cost $100,000, which will be 
pushed to completion in the near future. 

THE FIRST BAPTIST. 

While the Baptist church has the honor of being the first to 
proclaim the Gospel within the limits of the city of Wichita, they 
did not secure the organization of a working church until some 



PIONEER CHURCHES OP WICHITA 365 

time in the spring of 1872. A Baptist layman, by name Sturgis, 
organized a Union Sunday school in the summer of 1871, and 
conducted it successfully until the spring of 1872, when Rev. 
John C. Post came and took charge of the work, organized a 
church and became their first pastor, and remained in charge of 
the church for several years. 

This church has also taken its place among the leading 
churches of the city and state, a positive force for good in the 
city, its acts being known and read of all men who have kept 
pace with the religious growth and development of the city, and 
have just completed a new house of worship on the corner of 
Lawrence avenue and Second street, costing about $75,000. 

It may be an item of interest to those who knew and remember 
Father Post to learn that when a young man he was in the mili- 
tary service (Texas Rangers), and was in the army of Gen. Sam 
Houston when it marched to the relief of the little garrison in 
the besieged castle of The Alamo in 1836, but were too late to 
rescue them ; but they completely routed the Mexican army that 
had murdered in detail the little band that had so heroically 
defended it. 

These four pioneer pastors, all of them by the name of John, 
builded greater than they knew, laid foundations broad and 
deep. Others have entered upon their labors, have built and are 
continuing to build what will be monuments to them and the 
faithful few who stood with them in these days of trial and of 
small beginnings. 

It was eight or ten years after this before the Reformed 
Church, the Central Christian, the Plymouth Congregational, the 
Friends and other churches were established. All of these and 
many others stand prominently among the churches of the city 
and deserve more than a passing notice, and if written up as 
they ought to be would make a large volume of very interesting 
history. I hope some capable pen will take it up and place the 
record where it will be preserved. The present generation, which 
has been so instrumental in establishing these churches amid the 
whirl and excitement of a busy commercial life, would very much 
enjoy sitting down in the evening of life and carefully perusing 
the record and handing it on down to coming generations. 

Will not some one take it up before the records of these 
churches are lost or destroyed? I sincerely hope it will be done. 



HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 



MONUMENTS TO THE PAST. 

By 

CLARENCE J. MARTIN. 

The church steeple is a monument to the memory of the de- 
parted who have lived lives of truth, and a skyward pointed fin- 
ger to those that yet live and are prone to go astray. 

Every note of the ringing bell is a voice of approval to those 
who do right and a hammer-stroke of rebuke upon the heart of 
those that do wrong. 

The American home is built in the shadow of the cathedral 
and felicity and love walk from the chancel rail hand in hand 
to bless the world. Childhood learns to pray in the pews and 
youth to love the truth. Old age lays down its burdens at the 
altar rail, lets go of fear and makes ready to depart. 

The secular business of a city can be put upon a commercial 
basis and considered solely from the view-point of dollars and 
cents without the necessity of including any moral issue in the 
consideration. It is not so with a church or a religious society. 
While the money value of a church or parsonage is a valuable 
asset to any city, the uplifting moral effect upon a community 
produced by the presence of the chapel and the rectory cannot 
be computed by any system of finance. 

The church and business have mutual interests. Each has 
made possible the prosperity of the other, and religion, education 
and business have made Wichita a city where to live is life indeed. 

For over forty years, since the time her first congregation 
gathered to attend the first religious service conducted in the 
city, Wichita, has honored and given place to the church, and now 
the spires of the places devoted to religious worship pierce the air 
from the very heart of the city to the limits of the far suburb. 

Wichita does not aspire to be called "the city of churches," 
but is satisfied to patronize those she has and build others as fast 
as her growth justifies. 

For long years the idea has prevailed that religion was entirely 
apart from business, but in Wichita the falsity of that idea has 
been proved in the fact that many of the wealthiest, most suc- 
cessful business men, politicians and public officers are closely 



PIONEER CHURCHES OP WICHITA 367 

associated with all kinds of religious activity, holding oiBces of 
responsibility in the various churches. 

They have proved that piety and progress are not at variance 
and that salvation and sense can be mixed without neutralizing 
either. 

From the rude building, constructed of slabs from a sawmill, 
with its dirt roof, where the early citizens met for worship forty- 
two years ago, to the magnificent structures in many parts of 
the city today, is an almost startling transition. 

Wichita has more than sixty religious societies and as many as 
fifty edifices devoted to religious worship, while immense mission 
enterprises are found throughout the city. 

The total membership of all the denominations is above 13,000, 
and the Sunday schools have a combined membership of over 
12,000. 

The total valuation of the church properties is greatly in 
excess of $1,000,000. 

The valuation of the several church buildings are: 

Baptist churches $ 85,500 

Christian churches 73,000 

Congregational churches 69,000 

Episcopal churches 83,000 

Friends churches 7,000 

Presbyterian churches 188,500 

Methodist Episcopal churches 232,500 

United Brethren churches 19,500 

United Presbyterian churches 8,500 

German Evangelical churches 15,000 

Catholic churches 145,000 

Colored Baptist church 30,000 

African M. E. church 10,000 

M. E. Colored church 2,000 

Dunkard church 8,000 

Reformed church (Brown Memorial) 25,000 

Universalist church 15,000 

Salvation Army 35,000 

Free Methodist chiu-ch 3,000 

Total valuation $1,074,500 



368 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Members of the various denominations number as follows : 

Baptist churches 1,295 

Christian churches 1,507 

Congregational churches 700 

Episcopal churches 540 

Friends churches 710 

Methodist Episcopal churches 2,965 

Presbyterian churches 1,943 

United Brethren churches 322 

United Presbyterian churches 180 

German Evangelical church 50 

Catholic churches 2,140 

Colored Baptist church 300 

African M. E. church 200 

Negro M. E. church 50 

Dunkard church 175 

Reformed church (Brown Memorial) 105 

Universalist church 100 

Salvation Army 100 

Free Methodist church 50 

Total ■ 13,480 

After conversation with conservative business men and those 
familiar with conditions in the city, it is certain that there is 
much property devoted to religious purposes held by other denom- 
inations, Avhose holdings are not included in the above list. 

For years the general work of the churches of the city has 
been augmented by the existence of a strong ministerial associa- 
tion, which was organized to bring the pastors of the different 
churches together at regular intervals, where papers are read and 
discussions on helpful themes are held. 

The work of the association reaches further than mere denom- 
inational lines, and one result of the organization of the alliance 
has been to produce a i better spirit of fraternalism among the 
ministers themselves, which has had its effect on every parish rep- 
resented in bringing about co-operation in all lines of Christian 
work. 

Several churches in the city have also become engaged in for- 
eign missionary work and are supporting missionaries in China, 



PIONEER CHURCHES OF WICHITA 369 

Japan, India, Africa, South America, Korea, Mexico and Alaska. 
This is aside from the regular mission work of the denominations 
and is carried on by the local churches, each church assuming the 
responsibility of supporting one or more missionaries. 

Ardent zeal and sane optimism will be the guides for all future 
religious enterprises in Wichita, because successful business men 
are the builders and supporters of these Christian institutions. 
They will not, in moments of enthusiasm, construct large and 
'costly edifices and then leave them to be occupied by the moles 
and bats. They will fill them and thrill them with brain and red 
blood and maintain in them a spirituality void of cant and 
whine and a sincerity as refreshing as the morning dew, and in 
the future, whatever is characteristic of progress in religious life 
in the West will be found in the churches of Wichita. 

WICHITA'S FIRST CHURCH. 

By 
HATTIE PALMER. 

(In the ' ' Kansas Magazine. ") 

Trade follows the flag, but civilization follows the church. 
In the frontier days of Kansas the Indian trading post and store 
was the first institution erected. Immediately afterward came 
the saloon to bid for a portion of the circulating capital. Soon 
afterward, a worthy competitor of the saloon, and companion of 
the trading post, came the church. 

Wichita's first church was not an imposing structure. Archi- 
tecturally, it was not even so imposing as the "Bon Ton Saloon," 
operated by Charlie Schattner, the good-natured German in the 
next block. The first church was in striking contrast to the mag- 
• nificent structure of the Baptist denomination which is now near- 
ing completion in that city. Forty years have made great changes 
in Wichita, and the churches of the two periods might show the 
extreme of the development. Wichita's first house of worship 
did not cost a cent. The last one nearing completion will cost in 
the neighborhood of $100,000. But it is different now, and times 
have changed. 

Early in the spring of 1868, the hundred or so people on the 
present townsite of Wichita discussed the advisability of erecting 



370 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

a church. They had passed through the winter without a house 
of woi'ship, and many of them were homesick for a real church. 
It was reasoned that if a church were built it would draw the 
people together in more common bonds of sympathy and would 
make it possible to enjoy at least one of the benefits of the civ- 
ilization which they had so recently left. 

But the church was slow in materializing. Money was scarce ; 
people were too busy providing for a home of their own, and 
there was not much enthusiasm generally in the church proposi- 
tion. But the faithful kept tirelessly at work. An Episcopal 
minister had recently arrived from England, and he put new 
energy into the work of building the church. J. R. 
Mead, now deceased, came forward with an offer to give 
the ground for the structure. Then William Smith, a sawmill 
man, who had moved to the place with his machinery, offered 
the refuse slabs from the cottonwood logs around his mill down 
near the Arkansas river. Enthusiasm grew with the summer and 
by the time the grass was green and the flowers were blooming 
out on the prairie, the church was commenced. 

All of the townsmen turned out and gave a helping hand to 
the erection of the new church. The cottonwood slabs were hauled 
from the mill and within a week after active operations were com- 
menced the church was completed and ready for occupancy. The 
building was about thirty feet long by twelve feet wide. Posts 
of cottonwood logs were placed at the corners and at intervals 
on the sides. To these were nailed the slabs in a vertical position. 
Two windows were made on each side and a wide door was built 
in the front end. The roof was so low that a person of ordinary 
height was compelled to stoop on entering. While the sides of 
the structure were of wood, the roof was made of dirt. Boards 
were laid across from the side beams and on these was piled the 
earth, giving the roof an oval shape to turn aside the rain. But 
as it did not rain very often in those days, a waterproof roof 
was not considered in the plans. The boards upon which the 
earth was piled protruded in an uneven and zigzag fashion around 
the eaves. The antique style which is so popular at the present 
time would find many opportune suggestions in that first church. 

Notwithstanding the crudeness of the outside appearance, the 
church was snug within. It was nicely seated with benches and 
through the efforts of the pastor's wife a carpet was spread on 
the bare floor. She worked night and day to make the church 



PIONEER CHURCHES OP "WICHITA :■: 1 

building homelike and inviting, and many tireless hours were 
spent in beautifying the interior to make it look like a real church 
and providing for the comforts which would attract the rough 
men of the village. 

The Rev. J. P. Hilton was the first pastor, and he served in 
that capacity until the church was torn down two years later and 
a more imposing structure was erected. The Rev. Hilton was an 
Englishman and, it is said, he was one of the finest readers who 
ever expounded the Episcopal faith in Wichita or in Kansas. He 
was an earnest preacher, and with his estimable wife did much 
to preserve the spiritual dignity of the border settlement. He 
left Wichita in the early seventies and died a few years later at 
some place in the eastern part of the country. 

Immediately after the church was completed, the entire popu- 
lation of the village turned out, and a group photograph was 
taken. The new church was a matter of concern to every citizen 
in the town and they were proud of their work. Prominent in 
the first picture were the vestrymen. That it was a cosmopolitan 
congregation is shown by the list of officers and their vocations. 
Among the vestrymen was William B. Hutchinson, the editor of 
the "Vidette," the first paper published in Wichita. Hutchinson 
was considerable of a "rounder" and was known as a bad man. 
Charles Schattner, the proprietor of the "Bon Ton" saloon, was 
another vestryman. Another was George Richards, a tramp 
printer. "Doctor" William Dow was another. He was a profes- 
sional gambler, and many shootings and killings were pulled off 
at his resort at that time. The cowboys and the wandering gam- 
blers made his place their headquarters and there was always 
danger for the unwary and the slow-on-the-trigger when the 
liquor began to flow and the cowpuncher's luck went against him 
at the poker table. The name of John Edward Martin completed 
the roll of the vestrymen. 

The location of the church, which was in the first block north 
of the court house, on Main street, facing west, came near causing 
a killing. A few months after the church was erected, several of 
the members wanted it moved to a new location. Mr. Mead, who 
had given the original site for the building, offered it a new loca- 
tion near what is now the corner of Main street and Douglas ave- 
nue — the heart of Wichita. At that time the business portion of 
the town was in the neighborhood of Central avenue, four blocks 
from the present center of business activity. Mr. Mead owned the 



?,Tl HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

quarter section along Douglas avenue extending from Lawrence 
avenue to the Arkansas river. Mr. Mead was convinced that in 
time the business section of the city would be located there. How- 
ever, some of the members of the congregation and olificers thought 
differently, and a great discussion arose about the new location. 
William Hutchinson disliked Mr. Mead on account of the fact 
that the latter had fought against the principles for which the 
former stood. Hutchinson was a tough, while Mr. Mead stood for 
the law and decency. As a consequence, the two men had many 
differences and stormy meetings frequently occurred. At the 
meeting called to discuss the removal of the church to the new 
site, Hutchinson inferred that Mr. Mead regretted the donation of 
the building site for the church and was planning to get the build- 
ing moved away in order that he might use the plot of ground for 
speculative purposes. Hutchinson declared that Mr. Mead's desire 
to have the church removed farther south was prompted only by 
mercenary motives. He made a fiery speech against the proposi- 
tion, in which he said: "I don't care a d — ^n what the rest of 
you think of this change, but I want to go on record as being 
against any move to cheat Jesus Christ out of a foot of ground." 
The congregation was unable to agree, and as a- result the church 
was not moved to the new location. The site offered by Mr. Mead 
is now worth many thousands of dollars. 

It was a democratic congregation which assembled on Sunday 
morning to listen to the Rev. Hilton. The saloon-keepers and 
gamblers, who were the vestrymen, were true to their offices and 
were regular attendants at the services, as well as the best people 
of the town. It was the only church building in the section, and 
members of all denominations were urged to come and take part 
in the worship. Several people who are now residents of Wichita 
were members of that first congregation and many others are 
scattered throughout the country, while the greater number is 
dead. 

The cowboys were also present at the services at different 
times. Church-going with them, however, was more of a novelty 
than a duty. When they came to town they came to see all of 
the sights, and the church was one of them. They were able to 
come to town not more than two or three times a year, and they 
stayed as long as their money lasted. The cowpuncher within 
seventy-five miles of Wichita who had not been an attendant at 
the little church was the exception and was looked down upon 



PIONEER CHURCHES OP WICHITA 3:3 

by his fellows. To miss it was like going to New York City and 
failing to see the Bowery or a visit to San Francisco which omitted 
the trip to Chinatown. Their horses were tethered on the outside 
and their decorum, while attending the services, was most admira- 
ble. They were devout as far as silence and attention were con- 
cerned. They held the church confines sacred and no guns were 
ever drawn within its portals. Differences often sprang up on 
the outside and blood stained the steps, but when the provocation 
arose which demanded redress at the pistol's point it was settled 
without desecrating the house of God. 

Following the erection of the Episcopal church, the Presby- 
terians were the next to build. Their church was a more modern 
building than the first church, but there was probably no church 
ever erected which served its purpose better than the rude slab 
and dirt structure erected in 1868, where the saloon-keeper and 
the pious worshiped in common with one another. The church 
was torn down after it had done service for more than two years, 
and the congregation moved into a store building which was 
fitted up as a church. In the early seventies several other con- 
gregations started their churches in the vacant store buildings. 
These offered better accommodations than the old slab structure. 
Many of the rooms served for other purposes, and when Sunday 
arrived the benches were taken from the piles in the alley and 
placed in position for the worshipers. 

The growth of the "church industry" in Wichita is typical of 
all Kansas. The forty years which have passed since the little low 
structure was erected have seen many wonderful strides in all 
lines. Xiess than a half mile from the site of the dirt-thatched 
structure there is nearing completion a new church building. 
It is of solid stone ; it shows the perfection of the architect 's and 
craftman's skill. It is built with the view of beauty, comfort and 
durability, and it cost thousands and thousands of dollars, but it 
represents not an iota more of the earnestness and devotion which 
inspired the erection of the cottonwood slab and dirt structure 
which housed the first congregation of worshipers in Wichita. 

WICHITA CHURCHES OF TODAY. 

Prom a wild and woolly frontier town in the early eighties, 
Wichita has been transformed into a city of schools and churches. 
Nearly every denomination is represented, and churches are now 



374 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

building in this city that will cost $150,000 each. The following 
is a list of churches and church societies in this city : 

Seventh Day Adventist Church. Dodge avenue, southeast 
corner Burton avenue; membership, 150; pastor. Rev. James 
MorroAV; residence. No. 207 North Dodge. 

First Baptist Church. Lawrence avenue, northwest corner 
Second; organized 1873; membership, 900; pastor. Rev. G. W. 
Cassidy; residence. No. 1203 North Wichita. 

New Hope Baptist Church (Colored). No. 446 North Rock 
Island avenue ; organized 1889 ; membership, 200 ; pastor. Rev. 
E. T. Fishbaek (colored) ; residence. No. 827 North Washington 
avenue. 

Second Baptist Church (Colored). Water, northwest corner 
Elm; pastor. Rev. G. W. Smith (colored); residence, No. 212 
West Elm. 

Tabernacle Baptist Church (Colored). No. 834 North Water; 
pastor. Rev. M. L. Copeland (colored) ; residence, No. 1015 North 
Wichita. 

West Side Baptist Church. Walnut, southwest corner Burton 
avenue; pastor. Rev. W. A. Ayres; residence. No. 212 South 
Exposition avenue. 

St. Aloysius Pro-Cathedral Church. St. Francis avenue, 
southeast corner Second ; rector, Rt. Rev. J. H. Tihen ; residence, 
No. 244 St. Francis avenue. 

St. Anthony German Catholic Church. Ohio avenue, south- 
east corner Second; pastor. Rev. C. B. Schoeppner; residence. 
No. 256 Ohio avenue. 

Central Christian Mission. Fifteenth, northwest corner Mar- 
ket ; organized 1910 ; membership, 50 ; pastor. Rev. E. A. Newby. 

Christian Central Church of Christ. Market, southeast corner 
Second ; organized 1880 ; membership, 1,200 ; pastor, Rev. Walter 
S. Priest ; residence. No. 724 North Lawrence avenue. 

Christian Church of Christ. No. 201 Mathewson avenue ; pas- 
tor. Rev. W. F. Parmiter ; residence, 1806 North Waco avenue. 

South Lawrence Avenue Christian Church. No. 1132 South 
Lawrence avenue ; organized 1888 ; membership, 350 ; pastor. 
Rev. C. C. St. Clair ; residence. No. 114 East Gilbert. 

First Church of Christ Christian Scientist. No. 259 North 
Lawrence avenue; organized 1880; membership, 140; first reader, 
Mrs. A. M. McCune ; second reader, Joel Tucker. 

Second Church of Christ Christian Scientist. No. 217 North 



PIONEER CHURCHES OF WICHITA 3:5 

Lawrence avenue ; organized 1908 ; membership, 52 ; first reader, 
Mrs. M. T. Jocelyn ; second reader, E. E. Cornelius. 

College Hill Congregational Church. Clifton avenue, north- 
east corner First ; organized 1909 ; membership, 105 ; pastor, 
Rev. W. W. Bolt; residence, Lawrence, Kan. 

Fairmount Congregational Church. Fairmount avenue, south- 
west corner Sixteenth ; organized 1892 ; membership, 130 ; pas- 
tor, Rev. L. C. Markham ; residence, 3235 East Twelfth. 

Fellowship Congregational Church (Institutional). Kellogg, 
northeast corner Pattie avenue; organized 1905; membership, 
130 ; pastor. Rev. J. Hammond Tice ; residence. No. 925 Pattie 
avenue. 

Plymouth Congregational Church. Lawrence avenue, south- 
east corner Second ; organized 1883 ; membership, 464 ; pastor. 
Rev. N. 0. Bartholomew ; residence, 1439 North Topeka avenue. 

Dunkard Brethren Church. St. Francis avenue, southeast cor- 
ner Eleventh ; pastor, Rev. Jacob Funk ; residence, 1105 Wabash 
avenue. 

Dunkard Church. Fifteenth, northeast corner Grove; mem- 
bership, 40; pastor. Rev. Samuel M. Brown; residence, 1554 
Riddell. 

All Saints' Episcopal Church. No. 216 South Handley ave- 
nue ; organized 1906 ; membership, 30 ; rector. Rev. Robert Flock- 
hart ; rooms, 1624 University avenue. 

St. John's Episcopal Church. No. 402 North Topeka avenue; 
rector. Rev. P. T. Fenn ; residence, 416 East Third. 

St. Stephen's Episcopal Church. First, northwest corner New 
York ; organized 1907 ; membership, 40 ; rector. Rev. John E. 
Flockhart ; rooms, 1624 University avenue. 
Friends Church. No. 124 Cleveland avenue. 
Friends North End Church. Main, southwest corner Twenty- 
first ; pastor. Rev. O. A. Winslow ; residence, 2147 North Main. 

Friends University Church. Hiram avenue, west end Univer- 
sity avenue; organized 1899; membership, 500; pastor. Rev. 
L. E. Stout ; residence, 510 South Fern avenue. 

German Evangelical Church. Market, northwest corner 
Waterman ; organized 1889 ; membership, 45 ; pastor, Rev. Karl 
Peldman ; residence, 114 East Waterman. 

St. Paul's English Evangelical Lutheran Church. Meets in 
Philharmony Hall, No. 217 North Lawrence avenue; organized 



376 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

1909 ; membership, 50 ; pastor, Rev. G. G. Clark ; residence, 919 
South Emporia avenue. 

College Hill Methodist Episcopal Church. First, northwest 
corner Erie avenue; organized 1908; membership, 110; pastor, 
Rev. W. T. Ward; residence, 119 South Estelle avenue. 

Emporia Avenue Methodist Episcopal Church. Emporia ave- 
nue, southwest corner Dewey avenue; organized 1878; member- 
ship, 400; pastor. Rev. C. D. Hestwood; residence, 603 South 
Emporia avenue. 

First Free Methodist Church. No. 1102 Anderson avenue; 
pastor, Rev. F. S. Atwell ; residence, 1104 Anderson avenue. 

First Methodist Episcopal Church. No. 326 North Lawrence 
avenue; membership, 1,200; pastor. Rev. W. H. Heppe; resi- 
dence, 421 North Topeka avenue. 

German Methodist Episcopal Church. Lulu avenue, southwest 
corner Prince ; organized 1878 ; membership, 100 ; pastor, Rev. 
C. L. Koerner ; residence. No. 437 Ida avenue. 

Harry Street Methodist Episcopal Church. Harry, southwest 
corner Main; organized 1907; membership, 100; pastor. Rev. 
R. A. Spencer ; residence. No. 1431 South Wichita. 

St. Paul's African Metbodist Episcopal Church (Colored). 
No. 523 North Water ; pastor, Rev. James T. Smith (colored) ; 
residence. No. 521 North Water. 

St. Paul's Methodist Episcopal Church. Lawrence avenue, 
southeast corner Thirteenth ; organized 1887 ; membership, 600 ; 
pastor. Rev. G. E. Pickard ; residence. No. 1547 Park place. 

Trinity Methodist Episcopal Church. Martinson avenue, 
southwest corner Maple ; organized 1881 ; membership, 500 ; 
pastor. Rev. A. B. Hestwood ; residence. No. 415 South Martinson 
avenue. 

Calvary Presbjrterian Church. No. 1900 North Market; or- 
ganized 1895; membership, 122; pastor. Rev. G. R. Anderson; 
residence, 1841 North Market. 

College Hill United Presbyterian Church. Green avenue, 
southwest corner First; pastor. Rev. William N. Leeper; resi- 
dence, 229 North Estelle avenue. 

First Presbyterian Church. No. 340 North Market; organ- 
ized 1870; membership, 900; pastor. Rev. Thomas Parry; resi- 
dence, 1039 North Lawrence avenue. 

First United Presbyterian Church. No. 1122 East First ; pas- 
tor, J. A. Greer ; residence. No. 207 Ohio avenue. 



PIONEER CHURCHES OF WICHITA 377 

Grace Presbyterian Church. No. 124 Cleveland avenue; or- 
ganized May 12, 1909 ; membership, 160 ; pastor, Rev. Charles 
W. Blake ; residence, No. 303 Mathewson avenue. 

Lincoln Street Presbyterian Church. Emporia avenue, north- 
east corner Lincoln; organized 1885; membership, 200; pastor, 
Rev. J. T. May; residence, No. 915 Pattie avenue. 

Linwood Presbyterian Chapel. Harry, southeast corner Laura 
avenue ; pastor. Rev. J. T. May ; residence. No. 915 Pattie 
avenue. 

Oak Street Presbyterian Church. South Murdock ave- 
nue, opposite Cherry ; organized 1887 ; membership, 150 ; pastor, 
Rev. E. P. Elcock ; residence. No. 802 Cleveland avenue. 

West Side Presbyterian Church. Dodge avenue, northwest 
corner Texas avenue ; organized 1890 ; membership, 250 ; pastor, 
Rev. W. M. Irwin; residence, No. 121 South Dodge avenue. 

Brown Memorial Reformed Church. South Topeka avenue, 
southeast corner Lewis ; organized 1885 ; membership, 180 ; pas- 
tor, Rev. Samuel B. Tockey; residence. No. 921 South Emporia 



American Salvation Army. No. 528 West Douglas avenue; 
Capt. James Pernett. 

The Salvation Army. Nos. 126-128 North Topeka avenue; 
Adjt. Fred M. Andrus ; Lieut. Wilson Law. 

First Unitarian Church. Central avenue, southeast corner 
Topeka avenue ; organized 1886 ; pastor. Rev. Edward Day ; resi- 
dence. No. 3215 East Douglas avenue. 

First United Brethren Church. No. 200 South Washington 
avenue; organized 1882; membership, 220; pastor. Rev. E. H. 
Wilson ; residence, No. 212 South Washington avenue. 

United Brethren, Kriebel Chapel. No. 1129 Hendryx avenue ; 
organized 1906; membership, 45; pastor, Rev. D. H. Sill; resi- 
dence, 817 Munnell avenue. 

Waco Avenue United Brethren Church. Waco avenue, cor- 
ner Eleventh street; organized 1905; membership, 59; pastor, 
Rev. J. E. Wilson ; residence. No. 1309 Jackson avenue. 

First Universalist Church. Market street, corner Kellogg 
street; organized 1901; membership, 110; pastor, Rev. G. A. 
King; residence, 121 East Kellogg street. 

In favor of the moral uplift of the city it can be said that all 
of the churches and church societies are in a most flourishing 
condition. 



378 HISTORY OF SEHGWICK COUNTY 

YOUNG M£N'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 

By 

CLIFFORD PIERCE, 

General Secretary. 

The first Young Men's Christian Association meeting in Wich- 
ita was held in the office of Dr. W. M. Johnson, October 23, 1885. 

The call for this meeting read as follows: 

"Believing that the Young Men's Christian Association is an 
instrument in the hands of God for doing good, and a means of 
grace of peculiar advantage to young men, and that our city 
needs such an organization, therefore we, a few of the young men 
of the various churches in Wichita, have called a preliminary 
meeting for the purpose of completing, as soon as possible, the 
organization, hoping, by the assistance of God and all good 
Christians, to be able to place the organization on a firm footing." 

Those present: 

A. A. Hyde, A. D. Morgan, E. D. Kimball, 

H. L. Smithson, F. A. North, Dr. W. M. Johnson, 

0. A. Delong, A. D. Phelps, C. P. Mueller. 

Mr. A. A. Hyde, who is now president of the association, was 
chosen chairman of the first meeting, and C. P. Mueller, still a 
prominent member, was elected secretary. 

At this meeting the principal question was: "Do we want a 
Young Men's Christian Association in Wichita?" This was set- 
tled in the affirmative by a unanimous vote. This group of men 
went to work at once and on November 6, 1885, called a meeting 
for permanent organization. Mr. Robert Weidensall, of the 
International Committee, and now the oldest employed officer 
in America of the Young Men's Christian Association, was pres- 
ent and assisted in perfecting the organization. 

The "committee on nomination" retired from the meeting 
and later reported the following "ticket," which was unan- 
imously elected, and these men became the first officers of the 
Young Men 's Christian Association of Wichita : 



PIONEER CHURCHES OF WICHITA 

President J. C. Rutan. 
Vice-President — A. A. Hyde. 
Corresponding Secretary — J. Y. Montague. 
Recording Secretary — Harry Evans. 
Treasurer — A. F. Rowe. 



W. M. Johnson, 
William Kessel, 
A. D. Phelps, 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 

George C. Strong, 
Prof. Pence, 
H. L. Smithson. 



Constitution and by-laws were prepared, and on November 27, 
1885, the following thirty-nine men put their names to the consti- 
tution, thereby becoming charter members : 



W. M. Johnson, 
A. A. Hyde, 
C. P. Mueller, 
J. C. Rutan, 
David V. Walker, 
Fred L. Guthrie, 
George C. Meeker, 
J. T. Montague, 
Travis Morse, 
H. McKin Du Bois, 
George C. Strong, 
C. W. Barthalomew, 
A. D. Phelps, 



William Kassel, 
V. Y. Stanley, 
Oscar DeLong, 
H. L. Smithson, 
J. K. Hollowell, 
Sam F. Wollard, 
R. P. McPherson, 
E. B. Philleo, 
T. F. Stanshely, 
Charles Lawrence, 
H. W. Babcock, 
Walter G. Kraft, 
Harry Campbell, 



C. H. Morehouse, 
J. E. Coulter, 

D. S. Pence, 
Edward Phillips, 
R. Byrony Hossor, 
L. W. L. Abbott, 
T. F. Kirshaw, 
Charles L. Davidson, 
J. H. Parks, 

A. F. Rowe, 
Edgar J. Foster, 

E. D. Kimball, 
Ed. W. Smith. 



Section 2 of Article I of this constitution, as prepared at that 
time, is interesting, inasmuch as it has not changed in the twenty- 
five years of growth. It is the "object" of the association, and 
reads : 

"The object of this association shall be the development of 
Christian character and activity in its members, the promotion 
of evangelical religion, the cultivation of Christian sympathy, 
and the improvement of the spiritual, intellectual, social and 
physical condition of young men." 

Ways and methods of doing work have changed greatly, but 
the object of the Young Men's Christian Association will never 
change. 



380 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Two rooms were secured in the Roys Block, over the Wichita 
Grocery, in which to carry on the work of the association. In 
December of the same year Mr. J. Y. Montague became the first 
employed secretary of the association, giving only a small part 
of his time to the work, and receiving a salary of $25 a month. 

In March, 1886, Mr. Andrew Baird was called to become gen- 
eral secretary, giving all his time to the work of the association. 
Under Mr. Baird 's leadership, the association grew into a large 
and aggressive organization. Its rapid growth seemed to demand 
larger and better facilities. Mr. C. H. Yatman, of the Interna- 
tional Committee, was invited to come to Wichita and consult 
with business men regarding a new building enterprise. A ban- 
quet was held, to which forty prominent citizens were invited. 
At this banquet about $20,000 was subscribed. At a union meet- 
ing, the following night, held at the First Methodist Episcopal 
Church, the subscription was raised to $50,000. Plans for a new 
building were immediately prepared. Before the completion of 
the building, however, the disastrous collapse of the boom period 
came, and many fortunes were swept away. Many subscribers 
were unable to meet their pledges, and when the beautiful build- 
ing at the corner of First and Topeka was finished and furnished, 
the association was $20,000 in debt. The only recourse was a 
mortgage, which was given for $20,000. Then came the terrible 
years of depression, not only in Wichita but the entire country, 
culminating in the national panic. Business men and former 
financiers gave up their individual properties under mortgage 
claims, and the association did what many of the best and wisest 
citizens did in their own personal affairs. The building was sold 
to the Masons for just enough to cancel the debt. 

While the association was without a building, it was also out 
of debt and continued its organization. Mr. Baird resigned in 
1893 to become state secretary of the Young Men's Christian 
Associations of Kansas. Mr. W. M. Shaver was elected general 
secretary and served in this capacity until July, 1895. In Sep- 
tember, 1895, John Caldwell was called to the secretaryship and 
served until January 1, 1897. In June, 1898, Mr. George F. 
Fuller took up the work as general secretary, and was connected 
with the association continually until October I, 1905, when Mr. 
Arthur G. Pearson became general secretary. To Mr. Pearson 
and the board of directors who were elected at the time his admin- 
istration started is due much of the credit for the present beauti- 



PIONEER CHURCHES OF WICHITA 381 

ful home of the association at the cornei- of First street and 
Emporia avenue. This property is valued at $110,000. The build- 
ing was erected in 1907 and would be a credit to any city. 

The officers and directors of the association at the time of the 
erection of the present building were as follows : 

OFFICERS. 

President — A. A. Hyde. 
Vice-President — C. S. Sargent, D. D. 
Recording Secretary — 0. A. Boyle. 
Treasurer — H. W. Darling. 
General Secretary — A. G. Pearson. 

DIRECTORS. 

C. Q. Chandler, C. E. Potts, 

H. W. Lewis, R. P. Murdock, 

W. C. Edwards, E. Higginson, 

R. E. Lawrence, 0. H. Bentley, 

C. L. Davidson, I. W. Gill. 

H. Comley. 

Chairman Business Men's Committee — Hiram Imboden. 
Chairman Young Men's Committee— Tom Blodgett. 
Secretary Young Men's Committee — Will K. Jones. 

FINANCE COMMITTEE. 

C. S. Sargent, 0. H. Bentley and II. W. Darling. 

The physical work of the association is under the direction of 
an able physical director, who has had special training for this 
work. The purpose of the gymnasium is to develop men phy- 
sically through the regular "gym" classes and recreative games, 
that they may reach the highest degree of health and efficiency. 

The gymnasium is one of the finest to be found in the Middle 
West. It is well lighted and ventilated, and its equipment is the 
very best. The floor space is 42x70, and there are no posts to 
interfere with games. There are two large individual exercise 
rooms, fitted up especially for those who wish to exercise while 
some game is in progress on the main floor. There is an inclined 
x;ork running track around the entire gymnasium, thirty-two laps 



382 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

to the mile. Teams in basket ball, volley ball, indoor base ball, 
tennis, etc., are organized by this department. A physical exam- 
ination is given by the physical director to all who take the 
physical work. 

The bathing equipment is the very finest that can be afforded. 
There are eleven shower baths, the best of the modern baths, 
always supplied with an abundance of hot and cold water. Mar- 
ble tubs are also provided. The swimming pool is lined with 
white enamel tile and is 20x60 feet and 8x3 feet in depth; it is 
filled with clear running water, and kept at a uniform temper- 
ature. A great many boys and men learn to swim in this swim- 
ing pool. 

The educational classes are provided for young men who are 
employed during the day and who wish to increase their earning 
capacity and to live more useful lives. The following subjects are 
taught : Bookkeeping, Business Spelling, Penmanship, Commer- 
cial Arithmetic, Business English, Commercial Law, Stenography 
and Typewriting. Practical talks are given by business and pro- 
fessional men of the city under auspices of this department. The 
reading room contains daily papers and all leading magazines. 

Our aim is to giA^e religious work first place in our activities; 
however, religion is not thrust upon anybody. It is all whole- 
some and manly. A spiritual life demands a clean, strong body 
and a healthy mind, and the association idea is to develop the 
three — spirit, mind and body. Men's meetings are held every 
Sunday afternoon at 4 o'clock, in the auditorium. Good music 
and live addresses by speakers who know how to speak to men. 

A supper is served each Sunday following the men's meeting. 
Strangers in the city are invited to stay for "tea" and meet 
members of the association. A charge of 10 cents is made for 
this lunch. A twenty-minute Bible study follows the luncheon. 

Bible classes for all groups and ages are arranged by the 
Religious Work Department. 

"Meet me at the Y. M, " is a popular expression often heard 
among our members; it's the meeting place for hundreds of 
young men, and the one place where they can meet under the 
best of environment. The Social Department aims to maintain 
a feeling of good fellowship among its members, and give a wel- 
come to the "stranger within its gate." 

The lobby, with its cozy fireplace, is a great social center. The 
parlors are elegantly furnished, and are at the disposal of mem- 



PIONEER CHURCHES OF WICHITA 383 

bers. There is a separate department for the boys of Wichita. 
There are over 400 members of the department. They do th^ 
things boys like to do. They are always in charge of a competent 
Boys' Work Director. 

There are foiir regulation bowling alleys. There are forty- 
five bachelor apartments, accommodating seventy-five young men 
who are away from home. They are furnished to suit the tastes 
of young men. There is a telephone in every room. These rooms 
are in such demand that there is a waiting list the year around. 

The dining room is a delightful privilege of membership, and 
a distinctive feature of its work. Any man of good moral char- 
acter may become a member of the Wichita Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association. Church membership is not required. This 
building has been provided by the public-spirited citizens and 
dedicated to the young men of Wichita, hundreds of whom use 
the building daily and testify to the development which they 
receive, physically, mentally and morally. 

The officers and directors at the present time are : 

President — A. A. Hyde. 

Vice-President— W. S. Hadley. 

Treasurer — H. W. Darling. 

Recording Secretary — T. M. Deal. 

Directors— H. Imboden, C. E. Caswell, M. D., W. R. Dulaney, 
C. E. Potts, C. A. Magill, H. Comley, H. W. Lewis, E. Higginson, 
W. C. Edwards, C. Q. Chandler, J. N. Haymaker. 

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS. 

General Secretary — Clifford Pierce. 
Boys' Work Secretary — Foster M. Heaton. 
Physical Director — Anthony C. Knehr. 
Assistant Secretary — Daniel W. Binford. 
Assistant Secretary — Clarence I. Vessey. 
Assistant Secretary — Max Pierce. 

The presidents of the association and years they have served 
since the organization in Wichita are : 
1885-1887— J. C. Rutan. 
1887-1888— Robert E. Lawrence. 
1888-1889— H. Imboden. 
1889-1890— A. A. Hyde. 
1890-1891— W. J. Coner. 



384 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

1891-1892— R. P. Murdock. 
1892-1893— H. H. Dewey. 
1893-1896— W. E. Stanley. 
1896-1898— H. H. Dewey. 
1898-1900— A. W. Siekner. 

1900-1900 — W. J. Frazier (part term ; Mr. Prazier declined re- 
election). 

1900-1902— J. W. Laidlaw. 
1902-1906— J. M. Knapp. 
1906- —A. A. Hyde. 

THE SALVATION ARMY BARRACKS. 

Some years ago the Salvation Army in Wichita, and through 
the liberality of the Wichita people, established permanent bar- 
racks on North Topeka avenue on a valuable lot. A very pre- 
sentable -building was built, and in the building a debt of $5,000 
was left upon the structure. The enterprising and public-spirited 
men of the Chamber of Commerce, headed by ex-Governor W. E. 
Stanley and others, conceived the idea of lifting the debt. To 
that end a campaign was laid out and a popular subscription of 
$10 per capita was started. A few days sufficed and the debt 
was cleared, and the Army today has the best Salvation Army 
barracks in the state of Kansas, free and clear of any debt. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 
CITY FEDERATION OP CLUBS. 

By 

RUTH PRASIUS. 

The Wichita City Federation of Women's Clubs, although 
new in comparison with like organizations in other cities of the 
same age, has accomplished a great deal of good. Its undertak- 
ings have not been many, but what it has undertaken has been 
carried to successful completion. Its pet project, and probably 
the one that has accomplished the most good, is the visiting nurse. 
Since this work was started. Miss Amy Smith has been in charge 
of it, and has met with wonderul success. The nurse is sup- 
ported by subscription. She works among the poor of the city, 
who otherwise would not have proper treatment while ill. The 
city federation established a North End library for the benefit 
of the working people of the packing-house district, who could 
not get good books to read without coming down town. They 
were instrumental in getting trash cans for the streets, so that 
now the public thoroughfares are kept much cleaner than they 
were formerly. It was at the instigation of the club women that 
a humane officer was appointed. The club women went to the 
mayor of the city and prevented a roping contest that was to 
have been held here. They had a cleanup day in the spring, and 
also secured two men who are scenic artists to give a course of 
lectures in the city. The federation is composed of women, rich 
and poor, but who are alike in the respect that they have the 
best interests of the city at heart. Last year Mrs. J. D. Berto- 
lette was president, and under her leadership the work of the 
federation flourished. The constitution allows a president to 
hold office but one term, so that the honors for the different clubs 
may be more equally divided. Mrs. W. T. Johnson, of Twentieth 
Century Club, will be the president this year. 

The object of the federation, in the words of the pledge, is: 



386 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

"We, the club women of Wichita, iu order to form and perpetu- 
ate a union, whose highest aim shall be to establish a lofty stand- 
ard of citizenship and culture, to promote the general welfare of 
our city and especially in every department that influences the 
sanctity of the home, and to assist in securing the blessings of 
an ideal civilization to ourselves, and to our posterity, do ordain 
and establish this constitution of the Federated Clubs of Wich- 
ita." The oldest club in the city, and perhaps in the state, is 
Hypatia, which was organized in 1886. There were nine charter 
members, six of whom now reside in the city. They are Mrs. 
Louise Henderson, Mrs. Emma Hills, Mrs. George McCoy, Mrs. 
Nerius Baldwin, Mrs. Mary Todd and Mrs. George Strong. The 
object of the club is "literary, artistic and scientific culture, en- 
tirely free from sectarian and political partisanism. " Of the 
twenty-four past presidents only one, Mrs. C. Emerson Clarke, is 
dead. The club meets every alternate Monday, for either study 
or a program. The biggest event in the club year is the "club 
annual," which occurs on the twenty-third of January. This is 
the birthday celebration and something original is always given. 
The club colors are purple and gold, and the pansy is the flower. 
The course of study for this year will include a systematic study 
of Prance and the live issues of the day, such as the child labor 
question, white slave traffic, woman's suffrage, and the conserva- 
tion of natural resources. Under Prance they will study its his- 
tory, leading characters, customs, manners, etc. The year books 
will be out October 3. 

In the past, Hypatia has not been identified with social reform 
work, only through the city federation, but this year the members 
will make civic improvement one of the main features in the 
course of study. 

Twentieth Century Club, Organized January 3, 1899, is a 
club with an unlimited membership, and now has over 100 mem- 
bers. It is divided into four departments: Shakespearean, Art, 
Domestic Science and General. Meetings are held once a week. 
Mrs. Lionel Trotter is in charge of the Shakespeare department, 
which is probably better attended than any other meeting. Mrs. 
O. A. Keach is chairman of the art department, and under her 
leadership the club members have learned a great deal of the 
old masters and their works. Last year the study was chiefly of 
the Venetian school. The domestic science department this year 
will be ably presided over by Miss Estella Barnes, who is the 



CITY FEDERATION OF CLUBS 387 

lunch room secretary of the Y. W. C. A. jMiss Mary Noble will 
again have the general programs, which have become popular 
features. 

Last year Prof. Trueblood, of Friends University, gave a 
course of lectures on sociology. The Rev. Bruce Griffith, A. E. 
Jacques, Rev. Day, Mr. Wood, Mrs. William Larkin, Mrs. B. E. 
Rowlee, Mrs. C. E. Bradt and Miss Amy Smith were on the gen- 
eral programs for talks along sociological and civic improvement 
lines. 

The club has four large social affairs during the year. A re- 
ception, a musical, a buffet luncheon, and a banquet. The club 
colors are green and white, which lend themselves admirably to 
decorative purposes. The tiower is the carnation. There have 
been but three presidents of the club : Mrs. R. P. Murdock, Mrs. 
Arthur T. Butler and the present president, Mrs. E. B. Jewett. 
The object of the club is intellectual, moral and social develop- 
ment of its members. Each meeting is opened -with current 
events, lead by Mrs. A. C. Race, then follows the business to be 
transacted, and then the programs. 

Wichita Musical Club is composed of 125 women, who are 
either musicians or are interested in music. The musical club 
belongs to the eighth District Federation of Women's Clubs, 
and also to the city federation. It was organized in 1894, by Mrs. 
Lillian Hamlin Garst, who now resides in Chicago. Among the 
charter members were Mrs. Hubert Childe, Mrs. George Strong, 
Mrs. Leathe, Miss Leida Mills, and Miss Jessie Clarke. Mrs. 
Leathe was the first president. Last year the club met every 
week at the homes of the different members, but it has been 
decided that it will meet in a hall this year. Prom a social stand- 
point the year was a great success, but the members feel that 
they can do more real studying if the meetings are held in a hall. 
The club has two departments, choral and instrumental. Miss 
Jessie Clarke has charge of the choral department, and Mrs. E. 
Higginson has charge of the piano department. Last year the 
club made a special study of women composers. They gave pro- 
grams every month, and besides this assisted in "The Messiah," 
which was presented at the First Methodist Episcopal church, 
and gave two cantatas. Mrs. David Smyth is now the president 
of the club. 

The South Side Delvers was originally composed of women 
who live on the South Side, but so many of the members have 



388 ■ HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

moved, that the south part of the name is no longer appropriate. 
"Dig" is their motto, and the club emblem is a pick ax and 
shovel. The colors are purple, lavender and white, and the club 
flower is the white carnation. Mrs. Lawrence Staker, at whose 
home the club was organized about eight years ago, has been its 
president twice. She is the oldest member in the club and is one 
of the most enthusiastic. The club is limited to eighteen mem- 
bers. Although they have discussed, at many of the meetings, 
the advisability of becoming allied with the city federation, they 
have never yet taken the step that would bring them into the 
broader club life. Until last year the club studied only Shakes- 
peare, but now its members devote half of the time to Browning. 
They have a critic, whose duty it is to criticise them on the use 
of the English language, and thus they gain much. 

Eunice Sterling Chapter is perhaps the strongest chapter of 
the Daughters of the American Revolution in Kansas. The ob- 
jects of the chapter, as set forth in the constitution, are: "To 
perpetuate the memory and spirit of the men and women of the 
American Revolution, to record the hitherto unwritten history 
of the ancestors of the Eunice Sterling chapter and to encourage 
and maintain true patriotism and love of country. ' ' The Eunice 
Sterling chapter erected a handsome monument to mark the 
Santa Fe trail at Lost Springs, Kan. In the new high school 
building they will put a bronze tablet of Lincoln and his Gettys- 
burg address. They have made quite a sum of money in the past 
year from the sale of flags. In addition to the pecuniary side 
of this arrangement, it promotes a spirit of patriotism in the city. 
They have furnished a room in the Carnegie library, and have 
placed in it a great many curios. They keep a chest filled with 
baby clothes, that the visiting nurse uses in her work, and do a 
great many other charities, besides their regular work. 

Fadrmount Library Club. In October, 1894, some Pairmount 
women and teachers in the school met in one of the class rooms 
to devise ways and means to secure for the college a good work- 
ing library. The institution was not Fairmount College, how- 
ever, till several years after, but was known as ' ' Fairmount Insti- 
tute." Among those present at the first meeting were: Mrs. 
Mary C. Todd, Mrs. J. M. Knapp, Mrs. A. E. Helm, Mrs. George 
C. Strong, Mrs. Isabella Clough, Mrs. W. J. Babb, Mrs. Mary B. 
Graves, Mrs. Albert Ellis, Mrs. R. M. Tunnell, Miss Marie Mathis, 
and Miss H. Rhea Woodman. In the election of officers Mrs. 



CITY FEDEEATION OF CLUBS 389 

Mary Brooks Graves was made president, Mrs. R. M. Tunnell, 
vice-president, Miss H. Rhea Woodman, secretary, and Mrs. J. M. 
Knapp, treasurer. The object of the club, as stated at the meet- 
ing, was, "primarily, to furnish a library room and add to the 
library; and, second, to aid, in general, the entire work of the 
college." The only qualification for membership, as laid down 
in the constitution, was "showing a willingness to work in the 
interest of the college." Later, it was decreed that the meetings 
be held the first and third Tuesdays of each month ; that the name 
be the "Library Club"; that the motto be those fine words of 
Berthold Auerbach, "Help yourself to further growth — that is, 
the best"; and that the club colors be the old Rubric colors — red, 
white and black. 

The first study was American literature, followed by a study 
of French literature and art, a four years' reading course in 
English literature, outlined and ably conducted by Miss Flora C. 
Clough, dean of the English department of the college. Miscel- 
laneous topics have been considered, and last year there was 
given a course in American art, under the efficient leadership of 
Miss Elizabeth Sprague, head of the art department. The study 
for the current year will be on Ireland — the history, art, music, 
and literature, while studies in sociology and science will be given 
by members of the faculty. This club was formerly federated 
with the district and state organizations, but at present with the 
city federation only. Some of the most valuable books of the 
library have been contributed by this club, in addition to cement 
walks laid, walls decorated, and subscriptions made to the endow- 
ment fund, the emergency fund, equipped and maintained for 
two years (1901-2, 1902-3) a domestic science department at Fair- 
mount College. It is now furnishing the museum with cases. 
Through the kindness of the trustees and faculty the use of a 
beautiful room in the Carnegie Library building has been ten- 
dered, and all regular meetings are now being held there. 

The club officers are as follows: President, Mrs. Minerva 
Clough Babb ; vice-president, Mrs. Jennie May Brown ; secretary. 
Miss Mary B. Dimond ; treasurer, Mrs. Harriet Ellis Swartz. 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 
FRATERNAL ORDERS. 
YOEK RITE JMASONRY. 

Wichita is noted as a Masonic city. Probably no city in the 
country has a larger percentage of its citizens who are members 
of this fraternity. Every known organized body related to the 
Masonic institution has a local organization here, and every one 
of these organizations is in an active, flourishing condition. In 
numbers this institution stands head and shoulders above any 
other fraternity ; in personnel it is equally prominent ; in capital 
invested in buildings, paraphernalia, etc., it has no peer, and its 
influence is felt through its teachings in a myriad of ways in 
every movement that has for its object the upbuilding of this city. 
Masonry has ever been, in all ages and all climes, an influence 
for the uplifting of mankind. Its origin is lost in the mists of 
antiquity. Many theories are advanced as to the exact time of 
its foundation, the most popular one being that it was the result 
of an organization of the workmen employed in building the 
temple of Solomon. However, all these theories are founded on 
tradition, as no authentic history of the fraternity goes back 
beyond the middle ages. It was then an organization of operative 
or actual stone masons. Later, its symbolical or speculative fea- 
tures attracted men of wealth and rank to its membership, and 
gradually it became what it is today, "a beautiful system of 
morals, veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols." 

Benjamin Franklin said of it: "Masonry has beauties pecu- 
liar to itself ; but of what do they consist ? They consist of tokens, 
which serve as testimonials of character and qualifications, which 
are only conferred after a due course of insti-uction and examina- 
tion. These are of no small value ; they speak a universal lan- 
guage and act as a passport to the attention and support of the 
initiated in all parts of the world. They cannot be lost as long 



FEATERNAL OEDEES 391 

as Masonry retains its power ; let the possessor of tliein be ex- 
patriated, shipwrecked, or imprisoned; let him be stripped of 
everything he has got in the world ; still these credentials remain, 
and are available for use as circumstances require. The great 
effects which they have produced are established by the most 
incontestable facts of history. They have stayed the uplifted 
hand of the destroyer ; they have softened the asperities of the 
tyrant ; they have mitigated the horrors of captivity ; they have 
subdued the rancor of malevolence, and broken down the barriers 
of political animosity and sectarian alienation. On the field of 
battle, in the solitude of uncultivated forests, or in the busy 
marts of the crowded city, they have made men of the most 
diversified condition rush to the aid of each other and feel social 
joy and satisfaction that they have been able to afford relief to a 
brother Mason." 

"The Masonic Institution" is a term generally used to desig- 
nate all organizations with a Masonic connection. In this "insti- 
tution" is included not only the basis or foundation of the whole 
structure, the lodge, but also those bodies whose ranks can only 
be recruited from those who are already members of the lodge, 
and, in the case of the Order of Eastern Star, their female rela- 
tives. The portion of the Masonic family known as the "York 
Rite," or "American Rite," is composed of The Lodge, or Sym- 
bolic Masonry, the Eastern Star Chapter or Adoptive Masonry, 
the Royal Arch Chapter or Capitular Masonry, the Council of 
Royal and Select Masters or Cryptic Masonry, the Commandery 
of Knights Templar or Chivalrie Masonry. The lodge is the most 
ancient of all ]\Iasonic bodies and is the foundation of the whole 
fabric. After that it is simply a wheel within a wheel. The first 
requisite for membership in the Royal Arch Chapter is that the 
petitioner is a member of the lodge, or Master Mason ; he must be 
a Royal Arch Mason, or member of the Chapter, before he can 
• seek admission to either the Commandery of Knights Templar 
or Council of Royal and Select Masters. Membership in the 
Chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star is limited to Master 
Masons, their wives, widows, mothers, sisters or daughters. 

Symbolic Masonry consists of the first three degrees, Entered 
Apprentice. Pellowcraft and Master Mason. There are three co- 
ordinate lodges located in this city, Wichita Lodge, No. 99 ; Sun- 
flower Lodge, No. 86, and Albert Pike Lodge, No. 303. 



392 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

WICHITA LODGE, NO. 99, A. F. & A. M. 

This history of Wichita is correlative with that of York Rite 
Masonry. With the first settlers in this valley came Masons ferv- 
ent and with the good of the order at heart they went at 
once to found the order here. Wichita Lodge, No. 99, was born 
in a stable. The first meeting called for the organization of 
the lodge was held in the loft of a livery stable, at the corner 
of what is now known as Main and Third streets. A committee 
of three was sent to Mystic Tie Lodge, No. 71, of Augusta, the 
then nearest lodge to Wichita, who was to exemplify the work and 
prove themselves "worthy and well qualified to do the work of 
the order." This committee was composed of Bro. Morgan Cox, 
M. B. Kellogg and J. P. Allen. This committee returned with the 
necessary credentials, and in October of the year 1870 a dispen- 
sation was granted for a lodge in Wichita by Grand Master J. M. 
Price. 

The first officers elected were: Bro. Morgan Cox, worshipful 
master; Bro. Milo B. Kellogg, senior warden; Bro. J. P. Allen, 
junior warden. At the end of the year a permanent charter was 
granted the lodge, and, Bro. Cox being away on his claim, the 
lodge elected Bro. H. C. Sluss the first master under the charter, 
with Bros. M. B. Kellogg, senior warden, and J. P. Allen, junior 
warden. Bro. Morgan Cox, with a man by the name of Green, 
built the first two-story house in the city, at the corner of Pine 
and Main streets, where the lodge made its first home until the 
building was sold to Ida May, and was afterwards known as the 
Ida May House. The lodge then moved to the attic of a frame 
schoolhouse, standing where the present high school is being con- 
structed, where they remained till they moved to what was known 
as Eagle Hall, afterwards removed to better quarters over the 
First National Bank, on the northeast corner of Main and First, 
where the Sunflower Lodge now holds their meetings. In 1886 
the lodge was moved to their own new building, where they now 
are, on the southwest corner of First and Main. The following 
are the men who have acted as master of the lodge, and the times 
for which they served : 

Morgan Cox, 1870-71-73-74-75; H. C. Sluss, 1872-78; Thomas 
M. Trickey, 1876-77; Winfield S. Corbett, 1879-80; George E. 

Harris, 1881 ; George W. , 1896 ; Milton H. Rudolph, 1897 ; 

William , ????-87; Leonard C. Jackson, 1886; Joseph P. 



FEATEENAL OEDEES 393 

Allen, 1888 ; James H. McCall, 1889, afterwards Grand Master of 
state of Kansas ; Carlton A. Gates, 1890 ; George L. Pratt, 1891 
John Wilkin, 1892 ; Lauriston G. Whittier, 1893 ; Charles A. Cart- 
wright, 1894; William A. Reed, 1894; August Anderson, 1895 
John M. Chain, 1890; Milton H. Rudolph, 1897; William E, 
Bailey, 1898; Nicholas Steffen, 1899; Matthew J. Parrett, 1900 
AVilliam J. Frazier, 1901 ; James F. McCoy, 1902 ; Harry E. Wil 
son, 1903 ; George M. Whitney, 1904 ; William L. Kendrick, 1905 : 
Louis Gerties, 1906; Richard B. Wentworth, 1907; William G. 
Price, 1908; Harvey C. Price, 1909. 

The present ofificers are : Dr. John I. Evans, W. M. ; G. A. 
King, S. W. ; Ross D. McCormiek, J. W. ; J. J. Fegtley, secretary ; 
L. S. Naftzger, treasurer ; Homer T. Harden, S. D. ; L. V. Koch, 
J. D. ; Paul J. Wall, S. S. ; Glen C. Chamberlain, J. S. ; Benjamin 
Hunt, tyler. The lodge has grown rapidly, especially during the 
last year, and now numbers 630 members. The fine business block 
now occupied by the lodge is owned, free from debt, by it, and 
they are now considering the advisability of moving to larger 
and better quarters. The stated eommunciations are held on the 
first and third Monday evenings of each month. Prom this lodge 
has originated the other two lodges of the city. Sunflower Lodge, 
No. 86, and Albert Pike Lodge, No. 303. In tliis hall are held 
all the meetings of the other branches of York Rite Masonry, 
Wichita Council, No. 12; Wichita Chapter, No. 33; Ivy Leaf Chap- 
ter, No. 75, 0. E. S., and Mi. Olivet Commandery, No. 12, K. T. 

SUNFLOWER LODGE, NO. 86, A. F. & A. M. 

Sunflower Lodge, No. 86, A. F. & A. M. commenced work 
under dispensation granted by Most Worshipful Grand Master 
Lamb, on March 12, 1888. It held its first meeting in what was 
known as the Sunflower block, on West Douglas avenue, on the 
West Side. It was composed at first almost entirely of residents 
of the West Side. On February 20, 1889, a charter was granted 
to this lodge, with J. B. Lawrence as the first master, H. A. Hill, 
senior warden, and J. H. Taylor, junior warden. A most peculiar 
incident marked the second year of the new lodge. The master, 
James B. Lawrence, while conferring a degree in the lodge room, 
was stricken with apoplexy very suddenly and expired before 
he could be removed to his home. 

In 1897 the lodge moved its quarters from the West Side and 
for a short time used a room in the Wall building on Market 



394 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

in what is now called the Sunflower block. This building was 
formerly the county courthouse. It was bought and remodeled 
by a company composed entirely of members of this lodge. The 
lodge owns a large block of stock in this company, which is pay- 
ing them a handsome dividend. Their quarters are commodious 
and well adapted for their use. The lodge is in a flourishing and 
active condition, entirely out of debt, and with a rapidly increas- 
ing membership. The stated communications are on the second 
and fourth Tuesdays of each month. Following is a list of the* 
worshipful masters since the organization of the lodge: *James 
B. Lawrence, 1888-89; *H. A. Hill, 1890; *S. P. Howard, 1891; 
*H. A. Hill, 1892 ; *Giles Davis, 1893 ; F. C. Kirkpatrick, 1894-96- 
98; 0. L. Drake, 1895; M. W. Cave, 1897; C. A. Latham, 1899; 
J. C. Dunn, 1900; Herman A. Hill, Jr., 1901-02; H. S. Speer, 1903- 
04; Frank L. Payne, 1905; John L. Taylor, 1906; Horace M. 
Rickards, 1907 ; William F. McFarland, 1908 ; Arch Debruce, 1909 ; 
Guy W. Kyle, 1910. *Deeeased. 
street. It now meets on the third floor at 200 North Main street, 

ALBERT PIKE LODGE A DISTINCT FORCE. 

Albert Pike Lodge, No. 303, A. F. & A. M., of Wichita, Kan., 
is a distinct moral force in this community and a forceful factor 
in Masonic circles. This lodge was chartered by the Grand Lodge 
of Kansas, on February 20, 1895, under dispensation of the Grand 
Lodge of the state, with a membership of thirty, and began work 
in July, 1895. George L. Pratt, 33° Honorary, was its first wor- 
shipful master ; John L. Powell, 33° Honorary, was its first secre- 
tary; Col. Elmer E. Bleckley, 33° Honorary, was the first senior 
warden of this lodge, and Col. Thomas G. Fitch, 33° Honorary, 
was its first junior warden. From almost the earliest history of 
this lodge Alva J. Applegate, 32° K. C. C. H., has kept the records 
of this lodge. In an early day Mr. Applegate was the secretary 
of Lodge No. 99 ; he afterwards, on invitation, demitted from that 
lodge and joined Albert Pike Lodge. He has been the secretary of 
Albert Pike Lodge since 1897. In this work he excels, as he has 
the reputation of being a most efficient and natural secretary, his 
work on the records is always neat and accurate, and he has no 
superior in looking after the dues and financial part of the lodge. 
Succeeding George L. Pratt came a line of most efficient masters, 
who put the lodge to the very front in Masonic circles. Among 
the masters of Albert Pike Lodge W. W. Pearce, 32° K. C. C. H., 



FEATEEXAL OEDEES 395 

has the unusual distinction of passing in rotation every station in 
the lodge, from junior steward to the master's chair. 

Ealph Martin is now the active and efficient worshipful master 
of Albert Pike Lodge, and it goes without saying that A. J. Apple- 
gate is still its secretary. It would be invidious to distinguish 
among the distinguished men and Masons who have filled the 
master's chair in Albert Pike Lodge. They have all made this 
lodge a grand success and have the respect and love of the craft 
in this city. Albert Pike Lodge, during its last Masonic year, 
raised 80 men to the Master's degree. It now has a membership 
of 778, and is the largest lodge in the state of Kansas. Its activi- 
ties during the past Masonic year broke the state's record and the 
world's record. It now occupies the finest lodge room in the state, 
in a portion of the Scottish Kite Masonic Temple. 

IVY LEAF CHAPTER, ORDER EASTERN STAR. 

Ivy Leaf Chapter, U. D., was instituted at Wichita, Kan., in 
the afternoon of March 26, 1889, by George W. Clark, Grand 
Patron, with the following officers : Eudora E. Hall, "W. M. ; Dr. 
John M. Minick, W. P. ; Mary V. Cox, A. M. ; May W. Pearse, sec- 
retary ; David A. Mitchell, treasurer ; Sadie Wesselhof t. Con. ; 
Carrie B. Hume, A. Con. ; Margaret Lemon, Adah ; Mary Allen, 
Ruth; Helen SoUiday, Esther; Carrie M. Brook, Martha; Eliza- 
beth Minick, Electa; Lydia Starr, warden; Harvey Goodrow, 
sentinel; Carrie Fegtley, organist. Its charter was issued March 
11, 1890, and contained the names of the following charter mem- 
bers: R. Allen Hall, Eudora E. Hall, Phoebe Peckham, John 
Minick, Elizabeth Minick, Mary Allen, Helen Solliday, William 
Wesselhoft, Sadie Wesselhoft, Carrie M. Brook, May W. Pearse, 
Margaret Lemon, Carrie B. Hume, Mary V. Cox, William Starr, 
Lydia Starr, David A. Mitchell, Henry L. Smithson, Annie Smith- 
son, Alva J. Applegate, Anna M. Applegate, Edw. Phillips, James 
H. McCall, Harvey Goodrow, John J. Fegtley, Carrie Fegtley, 
David Smyth, Annie Smyth. The chapter was constituted Satur- 
day evening, April 12, 1890, by Lillian A. Wiggs, grand matron, 
with the following officers : Eudora E. Hall, W. M. ; Dr. John 
Minick, W. P. ; Mary V. Cox, A. M. ; May Pearse, secretary ; 
David A. Mitchell, treasurer ; Sadie Wesselhoft, Con. ; Tillie Whit- 
lock, A. Con. ; Anna Applegate, Adah ; Ella Dorsey, Ruth ; Annie 
Smyth, Esther ; Lillian Wilber, Martha ; Elizabeth Minick, Electa ; 



396 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Lydia Starr, sentinel; William Wesselhoft, warden; D. A. 
Mitchell, chaplain ; Mary Hall, marshal ; Carrie Fegtly, organist. 
The first person initiated under, the dispensation was Anna M. 
Applegate, now past grand matron. The following well known 
ladies and gentlemen have been at the head of this organization 
since its beginning : 

Mrs. Eudora Hall, 1889-90-91 ; Mrs. Anna M. Applegate, 1892 
Mrs. Anna Smyth, 1893; Mrs. Matilda S. Whitlock, 1894; Mrs 
Mary M. G. Cossitt, 1895 ; Mrs. Eliza Ruth Bristow, 1896 ; Mrs 
Maggie L. Rudolph, 1897; Mrs. Grace M. Anderson, 1898; Mrs 
Carrie C. Cossitt, 1899 ; Mrs. Mary A. Baker, 1900 ; Mrs. Georgia 
C. Kilgore, 1901 ; Mrs. Mary E. Charlton, 1902-03 ; Mrs. Anna 
Phinney, 1904; Miss Vesta Charlton, 1905; Mrs. Anna L. Cott- 
man, 1906 ; Mrs. Anna Schnitzler, 1907 ; Mrs. Kate Rebstein, 1908 : 
Mrs. Kathryn Duckworth, 1909; Mrs. Mary M. Miles, 1910; Dr, 
John M. Minick, 1889-90 ; James T. Dorsey, 1891 ; Dr. E. A. Whit 
lock, 1892; Edgar N. Hall, 1893; August Anderson, 1893-94-1904; 
David Smyth, 1895-99-1903; W. H. Harrison, 1896; Fred J, 
Cossitt, 189T; W. E. Bailey, 1898; F. C. Kirkpatrick, 1900; S. H 
Kilgore, 1901 ; M. J. Barrett, 1902 ; W. S. Mickle, 1905-06 ; G. M 
Booth, 1907-08 ; Dr. H. H. Taggart, 1909-10. Many of its members 
have been appointed to fill distinguished positions in the Grand 
Chapter. 

The following members have filled the offices of Grand Matron 
and Grand Patron of the Grand Chapter of Kansas: Eudora E. 
Hall, grand matron, 1891-92 ; Anna M. Applegate, grand matron,. 
1906-07; August M. Anderson, grand patron, 1896-97; David 
Smyth, grand patron, 1900-01. These are the highest offices within 
the gift of the Grand Chapter, and their occupants filled them 
with credit to themselves and honor to their home chapter. 

Of the twenty-eight members in 1890 but six are members of 
the chapter at this time. Mr. and Mrs. David Smyth, and Mr. and 
Mrs. A. J. Applegate have held continuous and active member- 
ship, and Mr. and Mrs. J. J. Fegtly, who were out of the city a 
number of years, affiliated again as soon as they returned. The 
membership at the present time is 451, Ivy Leaf being second 
only to Kansas City in point of membership in the state. Its 
members are known throughout the country for their active efforts 
in behalf of the Kansas Masonic Home, and their "gathering here 
a little and there a little," with which to provide a home for 
themselves some time in the future. This chapter was among 



FRATERXAL OEDEBS 397 

the first to furnish a room in the Masonic Home, the money there- 
for being earned by giving a lawn social on what is now Masonic 
Home ground. The remembrance of that social still remains with 
those that lived here at that time, as the largest and finest gather- 
ing that had ever taken place in the city of Wichita, and in the 
minds of the members as the largest amount of money ever cleared 
from a like source. Ivy Leaf also has the disjtinction of being 
the first to offer, and of giving, the largest donation towards the 
building of the Eastern Star Chapel on the Masonic Home 
grounds. It is known as a liberal contributor towards this grand 
institution, so dear to the heart of every good Mason, and espe- 
cially dear to the ladies of the Eastern Star. Its lady members 
are especially known for the splendid banquet they have served 
in the Scottish Rite cathedral the past few years, which has given 
Wichita the name of being a good entertainer and given the order 
the opportunity of living up to its teachings, that the cry of the 
widow and orphans of those less fortunate than themselves shall 
never be heard in vain. The kindness of the Masonic fraternity 
to this adoptive rite in Wichita is not exceeded by any fraternity 
in the country, and Ivy Leaf is deeply sensible of this fact. The 
Grand Chapter of Kansas will hold its next annual session in this 
city, May 11, 12 and 13, 1911, and it is needless to say that the 
thousand members who will be in attendance will go home with 
glowing accounts of the hospitality of Ivy Leaf and the citizens of 
Wichita in general. 

CAPITULAR MASONRY, WICHITA CHAPTER. 

The next step in Masonry after the tliree degrees of Entered 
Apprentice, Fellow Craft and Master Mason is known as that 
of Capitular Masonry and belong to the Chapter, and are known 
as Mark Master, Past Master, Most Excellent, and Royal Arch. 
. Many persons get the erroneous idea that the more degrees they 
get in Masonry the higher they are considered. This is not the 
fact, however. On taking the Master Mason's degree the candi- 
date steps upon the highest level or plateau of Masonry ; all other 
degrees are but side rooms or views from which to see the beauties 
of the order and where the great principles of the order are 
exemplified. Wichita Chapter, No. 33, Royal Arah Masons, was 
organized under dispensation, December 5, 1875. The first offi- 
cers were: Most excellent high priest, George P. Hargis; excel- 



398 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

lent king, David A. Mitchell ; excellent scribe, M. S. Adams ; cap- 
tain of hosts, J. C. Redfield; principal sojourner, Morgan Coxj 
royal arch captain, M. C. Crawford; master of first vail, R. P. 
Murdock ; master of second vail, A. A. Jackson ; master of third 
vail, Dave Hays; treasurer, Mike Zimmerley; secretary, M. B. 
Kellogg ; tyler, L. Hays. 

The same officers were elected after the charter had been 
granted. The persons holding the highest office in the chapter 
since the organization, viz., that of high priest, are as follows: 
George F. Hargis, 1876-77 ; D. A. Mitchell, 1878-79-80-86-87 ; Jo- 
seph P. Allen, 1881-83-85; William F. Walker, 1882; James L. 
Dyer, 1884 ; Charles E. Martin, 1888 ; Carlton A. Gates, 1889 ; Ed- 
ward Phillips, 1890; George L. Pratt, 1891-99-1901; Charles M. 
Jones, 1892 ; Jacob H. Aley, 1893 ; William A. Reed, 1894 ; Thomas 
C. Fitch, 1895 (grand high priest of Grand Chapter of Kansas) ; 
James H. McCall, 1896 ; Merritt A. Carvin, 1897 ; William H. Har- 
rison, 1898 ; Abraham B. Wright, 1900 ; Matthew J. Parrett, 1902 ; 
Charles W. Biting, 1903 ; Frank C. Kirkpatriek, 1904. 



THE SCOTTISH RITE IN WICHITA. 

By 

J. GILES SMITH, 33°. 

Review of Wichita Bodies. The pyrotechnic career of the 
local organization of Scottish Rite Masonry is so really marvelous 
and brilliant that a brief recapitulation must be of interest to all 
readers. Its embryonic state was commonplace and primeval 
enough. Eleven years ago the coordinate bodies in this valley 
were organized with twelve charter members. They then met in 
the Hacker & Jackson block, corner Douglas avenue and Fourth, 
in lowly quarters. In January, 1891, having ninety-two members, 
the cathedral property, corner of Market and First streets, was 
purchased of the First Baptist Church society, and fitted up for 
exclusive Scottish Rite purposes. From that date the advance- 
ment was so rapid that very soon it became evident that those 
accommodations were entirely inadequate, and it was talked 
among the members to erect a new edifice on that site. In the 
meantime, the massive and architectural Y. M. C. A. structure, 
corner of First street and Topeka avenue, was about to revert 



FRATEKXAL ORDEES 399 

to the church society who held the indebtedness, and the exec- 
utive committee from the Consistory at once entered negotiations 
to secure it, which was finally effected January 1, 1898. The 
building was erected at a cost of $75,000, and to this was added 
a sum of $12,000 for remodeling, decorating and furnishing the 
building for the use of the bodies of the rite. The result is that right 
here in Wichita is located one of the most completely equipped 
and magnificent temples, entirely devoted to Masonry, anywhere in 
the Southern jurisdiction. There were sacrifices of time, money 
and attention during the struggling early period of the Con- 
sistory, and at least three men deserve special mention, but all 
are entitled to due credit for their steadfast perseverance and 
inspiring faith in the ultimate outcome, the fruits of their fidelity 
remaining today a credit to the city, of all citizens, Masons or 
not. Jeremiah S. Cole and J. Giles Smith were the earliest 
leaders who infused hope and courage into the little band, who 
bravely overrode all difficulties and often paid out of their own 
pockets large sums of money to keep alive the spark of being for 
the rite in Wichita. Once, when extensive improvements were 
needed, they went to W. H. Sternberg, one of the early members 
of the rite, and laid the case before him. Without a word of 
promise or any contract Mr. Sternberg went right ahead with 
the work and finished it up, just as desired, with no prospects of 
remuneration, and, in fact, it was not for a year or two, after 
the rough sailing was passed, that he was paid. Twice each year 
the four bodies met and created more Masters of the Royal 
Secret, until at last the attention of the Supreme Council was 
drawn to their efforts, and J. S. Cole and J. Giles Smith were 
summoned to appear before the Supreme Council at Washington, 
there to receive the reward for their patieni, toiling labors, and 
this was the coveted 33d degree, that of inspector general, which 
is never extended except for meritorious service in behalf of the 
, rite. From then on a new spirit of ardent zeal was inculcated, 
and the growth has been so phenomenally rapid that today the 
youngest consistory in the southern jurisdiction of the world 
leads all the particular consistories in membership and high 
order of the working of the established ritual. Since its organ- 
ization, there have been created in this valley twelve 33d degree 
Masons, and there are now on the rolls ten Knights Commander 
of the Court of Honor, which is the initial step toward the 33d. 
The inspectors general honorary, or 33d degree Masons, are : J. S. 



400 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Cole, Lanark, 111.; J. Giles Smith, deceased; Jacob H. Aley, de- 
ceased; Major Edward Goldberg, Quapaw Indian Agency, I. T.; 
Col. Henry C. Loomis, mayor of Winfield ; Charles M. Jones ; S. H. 
Horner, Caldwell; James H. McCall; Henry Wallenstein, James 
A. Corey, Dodge City; George L. Pratt; Col. Thomas G. Fitch. 
The Knights Commander of the Court of Honor now enrolled 
and awaiting further advancement are: Judge Henry C. Sluss, 
Judge David A. Mitchell, Elmer E. Bleckley, Charles G. Cohn, 
Fred H. Stuckey, Frank W. Oliver, Charles W. Bitting, Stephen 
F. Hayden and John L. Powell, the latter general secretary of 
all of the four bodies. Be it said that the secret of the wonderful 
growth of the Wichita bodies, and their pinnacle standing in the 
esteem of the Supreme Council, is the solidarity and ardent zeal 
of the membership. Once a Master Mason is created a 32nd 
degree he at once feels he is a propagandist and missionary to 
induce others among his Masonic acquaintances to progress up 
the "mysterious ladder." All work together, and the fruitage 
of their labors is today amply in evidence. But to a few spe- 
cially gifted members along the dramatic and histrionic art is 
due the extension of unlimited praise. Charles M. Jones has 
proven an invaluable aid to the upbuilding of the rite in this 
city, and no more popular and respected member is listed. Gifted 
with a remarkable memory, quick to learn the difficult parts of 
the dramatization, retentive, and with natural histrionic gifts, 
and patient, willing readiness to serve, his rare and gifted talents 
have more than once been brought into play at a time when 
enthusiasm was at its ebb and just such powers most in demand. 
Henry Wallenstein, Fred Stuckey, Colonel Bleckley, Tom Pitch, 
Edward Goldberg, George Pratt, and many others along this 
line have never faltered when their invaluable services were most 
desired. The efficiency of the equally necessary talent of scribe 
has been of great practical benefit to the four bodies, that pos- 
sessed in an unusual degree by John L. Powell, who for several 
years has acted in the position of secretary. Thus, from a very 
little, has the Wichita consistory grown, until today her members 
stand first in numbers throughout the expanse of the Southern 
jurisdiction. 

Wichita Consistory, No. 2, now has a membership of 2,500, 
and they are a power in any line, as there is a wonderful unan- 
imity in their efforts. Many of those enumerated in this article 
have passed away, but "their works live after them." 



FRATEENAL OEDEES 401 

The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite bodies are, in the 
aggregate, the most important body in the county of Sedgwick. 

Regarding the historical feature of the Scottish Rite, it may 
be said that French writers call this the Ancient and Accepted 
Rite, but as the Latin constitutions of the order designate it as 
the Antiquas Scotius Ritus Acceptus, or the Ancient and Ac- 
cepted Scottish Rite, that title has now been very generally 
adopted as the correct name of the rite. Although one of the 
youngest of the Masonic rites, having been established not earlier 
than 1801, it is today the most popular and most extensively 
diffused. Supreme councils, or governing bodies, of the rite, 
are to be found in almost every civilized country of the world, 
and in many of them it is the only i\Iasonie obedience. In 1758 
a body of Masons was organized in Paris, called "The Council 
of Emperors of the East and West." This council organized a 
rite, called the Rite of Perfection, which consisted of twenty-five 
degrees, the highest being the Sublime Prince of the Royal 
Secret. In 1761 this council granted a patent or deputation to 
Stephen Morin to propagate the rite in the Western Continent. 
He in turn appointed Isaac Da Costa deputy inspector general 
for South Carolina, who, in 1783, introduced the rite into that 
state by the establishing of a grand lodge of Perfection, in 
Charleston. In 1801 a supreme council was opened in Charleston. 
There is abundant evidence in the archives of the supreme coun- 
cil that up to that time the twenty-five degrees of the Rite of 
Perfection were alone recognized. But suddenly, with the or- 
ganization of the supreme council, there arose a new rite, fabri- 
cated by the adoption of eight more of the continental high de- 
grees, so as to make the thirty-third, and not the twenty-fifth 
degree, the summit of the rite. This council, being the first one 
in the world in this rite, is now known the world over as the 
Mother Supreme Council of the world. In the Southern juris- 
diction there are thirty-two states and territories yielding alle- 
giance to this parent council, besides the District of Columbia, 
the Hawaiian kingdom, the Empire of Japan, and southern 
China. These yield direct obedience to the supreme council at 
Washington, and further, there are several foreign powers with 
which the supreme council has relation of amity and corre- 
spondence. Among these are the Northern jurisdiction of the 
United States, France and its independencies, Belgium, Italy, 



402 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Ireland, England and Wales, and the dependencies of the British 
crown. Of the latter, his royal highness, Albert Edward, Prince 
of Wales, K. G., being grand patron. Scotland, Portugal, Peru, 
Brazil, Venezuela, United States of Colombia, Argentine Repub- 
lic, Uruguay, Colon, Estados Unidos de Mexico, Greece, Hun- 
gary, Switzerland, Dominion of Canada, Central America, Egypt, 
Tunis, Republica Dominicana, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Chile 
and Spain. 

MOUNT OLIVET COMMANDERY. 

The Commandery is a semi-military organization of Christian 
Knighthood, the last of the so-called York Rite series. It is 
an order "founded on the Christian religion and the practice of 
the Christian virtues." Here, as in no other Masonic body, are 
the teachings and example of the Saviour brought vividly to the 
mind of the initiate. Ritually it is supreme, and the lessons 
taught are ones never to be forgotten. It is modeled in some 
respects after the ancient Crusaders, although the direct con- 
nection is disputed by some authorities. 

Mount Olivet Commandery, No. 12, was instituted May 27, 
1878, with twenty-one charter members, as follows : M. S. Adams, 
John D. Pryor, L. K. Myers, George F. Hargis, W. C. Crawford, 
M. Zimmerly, H. S. Carter, D. W. Cooley, Benj. F. Smith, C. E. 
Martin, Lewis Lashway, WUliara P. Olmstead, D. S. Black, James 
S. MeWhorter, E. B.^Kager, K. F. Smith, G. G. Hewitt, S. P. 
Channell, A. A. Newman, I. Wildey and W. H. Sternberg, with 
Moses S. Adams as the first eminent commander. This com- 
mandery has for many years ranked high among the comman- 
deries of the state in excellence of work, equipment, and skill 
in drill. The military feature has always been prominent. 
This feature has been taken in charge by a drill corps composed 
of members of the Commandery. This drill corps was first 
organized on May 24, 1888, with a membership of forty-two, with 
Winfield S. Corbett as drill master, I. H. Hettinger, president, 
and H. L. Arnold, secretary-treasurer. Ever since that time the 
drill corps of Mt. Olivet has been a factor in the competitive 
drill of this state, and for a number of years has enjoyed a 
national reputation for excellence of drill. It is now under the 
leadership of Horace M. Rickards as drill master. For the past 
four years it has won first prize in the state competition, and in 



PEATERNAL OEDEES 403 

August, this year, was entered in the national competition at 
the tri-ennial conclave at Chicago, where a creditable showing 
was made in competition with the crack drill corps from all over 
the United States. 

The Commaudery is in a flourishing condition, with fine equip- 
ment, excellent personnel, and a rapidly increasing membership. 
The stated conclaves are held on the first and third Fridays of 
each month, in the York Rite Temple, corner First and North 
]\Iain. 

Following is a list of the past eminent commanders: Moses 
S. Adams, 1879; W. S. Corbett, past grand commander, 1880; 
J. P. Allen, 1881 ; Charles A. Walker, 1882 ; Charles E. Martin, 
1883 ; Oscar D. Barnes, 1881 ; Jacob H. Aley, 1885 ; Finlay Ross, 
1886; Charles H. Hunter, 1887; Charles M. Jones, 1888; Jacob 
H. Hollinger, 1889; Robert C. Beam, 1890; Owen B. Stocker, 
1891; I. H. Hettinger, 1892; H. L. Gordon, 1893; George L. Pratt, 
1894 ; E. E. Bleckley, 1895 ; Thomas H. Griffith, 1896 ; Charles W. 
Bitting, 1897 ; W. M. Anawalt, 1898 ; Thomas G. Pitch, past grand 
commander, 1899; William 11. Herbig, 1900; John L. Powell, 
1901; A. B. Wright, 1902; David M. Galusha, 1903; W. H. Har- 
rison, 1904 ; Fred Stearns, grand senior warden, 1905 ; F. C. 
Kirkpatriek, 1906; Fred J. Cossitt, 1907; William J. Frazier, 
1908 ; George H. Willis, 1909. 

The present officers are : W. P. McParland, E. C. ; Horace M. 
Rickards, Gen. ; James P. jMcCoy, C. G. ; William J. Frazier, pre- 
late ; Harry Wilson, S. W. ; W. H. Boston, J. W. ; Blsberry Martin, 
treasurer; F. J. Cossitt, recorder; H. S. Speer, Std. B. ; Thomas 
W. Blunn, Swd. B. ; Robert H. Phinney, warden; Benj. Hunt, 
sentinel. George M. Whitney, 1905; William J. Frazier, 1906; 
James P. McCoy, 1907; John J. Fegtly, 1908; Reuben S. Law- 
rence, 1909. Those holding offices now are: William P. McPar- 
land, excellent high priest; Galusha A. King, king; Harvey C. 
Price, scribe ; Elasberry Martin, treasurer ; J. J. Fegtly, secre- 
tary; Thomas W. Blunn, captain of hosts; William H. Harrison, 
principal sojourner; W. H. Boston, royal arch captain; R. D. 
Bordeauk, master third vail ; W. C. Davis, master second vail ; 
Thomas E. Hansom, master first vail ; Ben Hunt, sentinel. The 
Chapter meets on the second and fourth Friday evenings of each 
month, in the hall of Wichita Lodge, No. 99, A. F. & A. M. 



404 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

SCOTTISH RITE MASONRY. 

By 
HENRY WALLENSTEIN. 

No history of our prosperous state would be complete without 
a thoroughly comprehensive and detailed account of York Rite 
Masoui'y, which, among its 33,657 members, boasts of men in 
every walk of life and representing our best citizenship. While 
this is true of Ancient Craft Masonry in the state of Kansas, he 
would, indeed, be an uninformed historian who failed to give 
a complete and accurate account of the growth and iniiuence of 
Scottish Rite Masonry in the valley of Wichita. It is only 
twenty-four years ago when Bro. T. Giles Smith, 33d°, who, 
then a newcomer to the Peerless Princess, and who being a mem- 
ber of the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, and feeling the lack 
of that friendly and fraternal intercourse he had enjoyed among 
his brethren of the rite while living in Indianapolis, made the 
first effort to establish the Scottish Rite bodies in Wichita. Only 
four brethren responded to his call, and it was not until Decem- 
ber, 1886, that twelve charter members, influenced by the zeal 
and enthusiasm of Bro. T. Giles Smith, decided to ask for a 
charter from the Supreme Council at Washington, D. C, for 
the purpose of organizing Elmo Lodge of Perfection, No. 9. 
From December, 1886, to May 21, 1887, twenty additional mem- 
bers were secured, when the lodge was organized, but it was not 
until June 9, 1887, that it was properly instituted by Bro. E. T. 
Carr, 33d°, the sovereign grand inspector general of the state at 
that time. Struggling under the most unfavorable conditions, 
the first degree work was done on June 28, 1887, in the Hacker 
& Jackson business block on East Douglas avenue. The degrees 
were communicated to the novices in a room furnished with a 
few cheap chairs; a dry goods box covered with calico was 
placed in position for altar, while a few tallow candles and sev- 
eral yards of plain bunting, used as hangings, constituted the 
balance of their paraphernalia. Encouraged, rather than dis- 
mayed, by these conditions, and further encouraged by the 
zealous determination of their leader for final and triumphant 
success, it was but a few months when additional charters had 
been secured, which, in November of the same year, enabled the 



FKATEEA'AL OKDERS 405 

brethren to institute Wichita Chapter, Rose Croix, No. 5, and 
Wichita Chapter, Knights Kadosh, No. 5. With three bodies 
already secured the enthusiasm of this young fraternity knew 
no bounds, so that on January 25, 1888, Wichita Consistory, the 
last and highest body of our rite, had been established in this 
valley. 

Only three years elapsed when it became very apparent that 
their quarters were inadequate to comfortably accommodate the 
rapidly increasing membership, and not fearing tlie assumption 
of a very large indebtedness this comparatively small organiza- 
tion, in January, 1891, bought the little Baptist church on the 
corner of First and Market streets for $10,000, and spent an addi- 
tional $2,000 remodeling it for their needs. This exceedingly 
rapid growth was wholly due to the inspiration of the few inde- 
fatigable workers (all business men of our then growing city), 
who had charge of the conferring of degrees and whose aim it 
ever was to establish here the best Scottish Rite bodies in the 
Southern jurisdiction. Chief among this band of workers was 
Bro. C. M. Jones, a recognized authority in Masonic lore and 
ritualist, besides being a prince among men. He was ably assisted 
by J. H. Aley 33d°, J. H. McCall 33d°, Ed. Goldberg 33d°, 
Frank W. .Oliver 33d°, Thomas G. Fitch 33d°, E. E. Bleckley 
33d°, J. S. Cole 33d°, Charles Bitting 33d°, George L. Pratt 
33d°, all of whom had been inspired by the lofty teachings of 
our glorious rite and felt that its exalted lessons of ethics and 
morality should be communicated to all worthy brother Master 
Masons in the jurisdiction. In October, 1891, the membership 
had increased to 119, and in another twelve mouths 179 brethren 
had received the 32°. In November, 1893, 226 was the number 
who had been made Masters of the Royal Secret, and in the same 
month of 1896 the total membership had been increased to 341. 
Again it was manifestly necessary to enlarge our quarters if 
the rite continued to grow as it had in the previous year. Nothing 
so thoroughly encouraged us as the success of our undertaking, 
and guided by the spirit the brethren, in January, 1898, assumed 
an indebtedness of $18,000 on the Y. M. C. A. building, to be 
paid in yearly payments of $1,000, and expended another $15,000 
for remodeling, scenery and paraphernalia. This new and spa- 
cious home was dedicated in May of the same year, when mem- 
bers were initiated amidst scenes of the most commendable 
enthusiasm. 



406 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

The hope and dream of him who had been instrumental in 
establishing the Scottish Rite bodies in ^Yichita had been fully- 
realized, for in the city then stood what was conceded to be the 
handsomest Scottish Rite temple in the United States. After 
a few months of occupancy our bodies suiiered their first great 
loss in the death of their dearly beloved brother, C. M. Jones, 
who, above all others, had been responsible, with his histrionic 
ability and tireless efforts, for the proper rendition of our moral 
and philosophical degrees and for the success thus far attained. 
"While it is true that Bro. J. Giles Smith was and shall henceforth 
be considered the "father" of Scottish Rite Masonry in "Wichita, 
to Bro. C. M. Jones is due the credit for its marvelous growth 
up to the time of his death. His was the first funeral conducted 
in the new temple, it being held at the hour of midnight, a serv- 
ice for the dead who have attained the 33d°. Only a few days 
after this Master Masonic genius had been carried to his ever- 
lasting resting place, Bro. Henry Wallenstein, 33d°, was made 
director of the work, which position of duty and responsibility 
he has filled ever since. 

The unexpected taking off of Bro. C. M. Jones threatened 
to prove an irreparable loss to our discouraged brotherhood, for 
his enthusiasm and zeal had been the inspiration of all his co- 
workers in the conferring of our degrees. Fully realizing the 
enormous responsibility of this newly acquired position, Bro. 
Henry "Wallenstein gathered about him all of the former earnest 
workers, and adding thereto quite a goodly number of newly 
made and zealous brethren, he endeavored not only to maintain 
the high standard of perfection already reached by his predeces- 
sor, but strove, if possible, to give a broader interpretation to 
our philosophical, historical and dramatic degrees. His labors 
were more than arduous on account of the preconceived ideas 
of the older brethren, who thought that the conception and ren- 
dition of our degrees under the direction of Bro. C. M. Jones had 
reached the acme of perfection. Nothing daunted, however, and 
with an unfaltering determination to retain the exalted position 
of our bodies already established in the Southern jurisdiction, 
and if possible to place them on a still higher plane, he labored 
incessantly for years to accomplish his laudable ambition. The 
result of his effort soon manifested itself in the astonishing in- 
crease of our already large membership. The beautiful temple, 
which everyone had supposed would be amply large for all time. 



FBATEENAL OBDEES 407 

was insufficiently commodious for our needs, and for a third time 
in our liistory larger quarters were demanded to comfortably 
care for the increasing brotherhood. On June 2, 1906, he dtew 
the first lines of the plans of our present temple, which was 
dedicated on the evening of June 7, 1908, by Bro. James D. 
Richardson, 33d°, sovereign grand commander of the Southern 
Jurisdiction of the United States, and Bros. Franklin Pierce, 
33d°, of California; Bro. Charles E. Rosenbaum, 33d°, of Little 
Rock, Ark. ; Bro. Thomas W. Harrison, Topeka, Kan. ; sovereign 
inspector general of our state, Bro. William Busby, of Oklahoma; 
Bro. H. C. Alversou, of Iowa; all members of Bro. Richardson's 
official household. 

During the dedicatory services the brethren were delighted 
with a statement made by Bro. James D. Richardson, 33d°, who 
had just returned from the international Scottish Rite convention 
in Belgium, and who had visited many other prominent places 
while on the continent, who said: "It is my pleasure to say to 
this vast audience that we are assembled in what in my judgment 
is the handsomest and most perfectly equipped Scottish Rite tem- 
ple in the world."- The following morning, June 8, 1908, at 9 
o'clock, began the initiation on a class of 469, the largest in 
the history of the Southern jurisdiction. After three days of 
the most painstaking degree work, over 1,300 brethren . were 
conducted into our spacious banquet room, decorated under the 
supervision of the Southern jurisdiction. After thy enjoyed a 
sumptuous meal, prepared by the ladies of the Eastern Star, and 
listened to many able addresses by prominent visitors, all of 
whom pronounced the meeting one of the most successful they 
had ever attended. No general can win a battle without the 
assistance of a well disciplined army, neither could Bro. Wallen- 
stein without his many willing helpers, all of whom are ardent 
and enthusiastic Scottish Rite Masons, have accomplished his 
wonderful success. It requires about 130 men to perfectly 
■portray the several degrees, while many changes have been 
made in the years which have elapsed. Bros. Frank Oliver, 
Thomas G. Pitch, J. H. McCall, Charles W. Bitting, George L. 
Pratt, E. E. Bleckley, all of them original workers in Scottish 
Rite Masonry, excepting those who have been called to their last 
home, are still among the zealous co-laborers of Bro. Wallenstein, 
thus demonstrating their loyalty to our cause of fraternal 
brotherhood. 



408 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Phenomenal is the only word which will fittingly describe our 
growth under the leadership of Bro. Wallenstein, but much 
credit is also due the many brethren who so ably assisted him in 
his labors for the propagation of our glorious rite. Since his 
tenure of office as dictator of the work there are many brethren 
who have never failed to do their full quota of work at each 
reunion, and it is but just to mention at least a few, while all, 
no matter what simple assistance they may have rendered, are in 
a measure responsible for the unstinted commendation which has 
been bestowed upon the bodies in this valley by all who have 
had the pleasure of witnessing our rendition of degrees, in which 
the brethren named are seen in more or less important stations: 
Fred H. Stuckey, I. W. Gill, W. S. Grant, 0. H. Bentley, Edward 
Vail, August Anderson, F. B. Harris, Richard Bird, C. G. Cohn, 
Harry R. Jones, J. F. Bennett, I. Goldsmith, Ransom Brown, 
L. Hays, Bruce Griffith, Floyd Amsden, G. M. Booth, W. G. Price, 
A. C. Means, M. Kraelsheimer, Harry Cottman, "W. H. Harrison, 
Fred Stanley, W. W. Ledgerwood, Claude Stanley, B. F. 
Dunkin, A. K. Wilson, Rev. J. D. Ritchey, E. B. Sawyer, 
John B. House, William M. Shaver, J. F.' McCoy, J. Wal- 
lenstein, A. D. Taylor, Paul Brown, J. H. Reynolds, Willis 
Davis, Amos McLain, Ralph Martin, A. S. Buzzi, Rev. George 
W. Cassidy, F. Stearns, Frank Rebstein, M. L. Truby, William 
J. Frazier, W. W. Pearce, R. B. Petrie, 0. E. Billinger, Henry 
Lampl, Innes House, J. H. Turner, Franklin L. Payne, John L. 
Taylor, Floyd W. Hunt, W. T. Rouse, J. E. Luling, Clem 
Spruance, Homer J. Harden, H. S. Kilgore, A. G. Mueller, M. E. 
Gates, J. H. Turner, W. Parrott, Herman Hoffman, George 
Schollenberger, Hal McCoy, Fred Wright, A. C. Means, J. A. 
Parkinson, B. W. Jaquith, Robert McVicar, H. E. Wilson, W. A. 
Ayers, 0. E. Juengling, M. E. Gates, C. A. Magill, Charles 
Bergenthal, C. A. Baker, W. H. Sehwerhoff, Ray McHugh, W. C. 
Means, Jay Gill, Lloyd Ray, E. H. Stevens, S. J. Houston, and 
numerous others, all of whom have been instrumental in gaining 
the reputation of merit bestowed upon Wichita Consistory. No 
article written on this subject would be in any sense complete 
without the special mention of Bro. Bestor G. Brown, past grand 
master of the Most Worshipped Grand Lodge of the state of 
Kansas, mose able and learned Mason in our state, if not in 
the United States, a gifted gentleman of the highest type and in 
its truest sense. For years, sacrificing his business interests. 



FKATEE^AL OEDEKS 409 

he has rendered Bro. Wallenstein invaluable assistance in the 
portrayal of our historical and dramatic degrees. Nor should 
we forget to give due credit to Bros. S. A. Hanlan, of Newton; 
B. Nussbaum, of Hutchinson; Wilbur H. Rice, of Hoisington, 
J. W. Wright, 33d°, of Independence ; Wallace T. Rouse, Wichita, 
who by their love and zeal, together with their untiring efforts 
in behalf of our bodies, have succeeded in securing an unusually 
large quota of our present membership of 2,400 Scottish Rite 
Masons. 

Whatever the success reached by our great brotherhood, if 
measured only by its material growth and progress, it would 
be worse than worthless. Philosophy teaches us that the entire 
world changes with every breath we exhale — when we drop a 
tiny pebble in the seething expanse of the ocean, the circle which 
is formed grows wider and larger until it reaches the farthest 
shore, then rebounding, continues its inconceivable travel with 
infinitesimal effect until the end of time. 

Realizing the logical force of this well established and scien- 
tific truth, we must unhesitatingly accept the indisputable con- 
clusion that the enabling and exalted teachings of Scottish Rite 
Masonry, founded on the religious code of Moses, Zoroaster, Con- 
fucius, Mohammed and Jesus of Nazareth, which are the adaman- 
tine foundation of our present-day civilization, and these being 
instilled into the receptive and matured minds of our 2,400 breth- 
ren must of necessity influence their lives for good, making of 
them better and nobler husbands, fathers and brothers, giving 
them a higher and better conception of God, and beautifying 
their religious beliefs, dispelling from their minds intolerance, 
bigotry, superstition and fanaticism, filling their souls with a 
spirit of charity, love and duty toward their fellow man, broad- 
ening their ideals of liberty and making of them more loyal 
and patriotic citizens, devoted to our glorious stars and stripes, 
that banner of freedom, the prid# and glory of our own dear 
land. May the day not be far distant when our altruistic teach- 
ings may be the portion of humanity. Then and not until then 
will Scottish Rite Masonry have fulfilled its mission; then and 
not until then will its influence for good have been ultimately 
established in the minds of the entire human family, when all 
will accept the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man. — 
A Scottish Rite Mason. 



410 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

THE MYSTIC SHRINE. 

By 

THE EDITOR. 

If Wichita is noted for any one thing more than another, it 
is the fact that it is distinctively a Masonic town. All of the 
Masonic rites are represented here; three blue lodges make up 
the early degrees, and, in addition to this, these lodges are all 
very prosperous ; they own their own property and have money 
at interest. Albert Pike Lodge is the youngest lodge in Wichita, 
but has the largest membership of any lodge in Kansas. Only 
a few months since a charter was granted to organize a Shrine 
temple. With its usual vim, the Masonic brethren took hold 
of the Shrine, and Alidian Temple today numbers a membership 
of more than 500. George H. Bradford is the efficient Imperial 
Potentate, and James P. McCoy the energetic Recorder of the 
Shrine. The Ancient Arabic Order of the Mystic Shrine is a 
flourishing one, and this rite has made arrangements with the 
trustees of the Masonic Temple whereby they occupy that build- 
ing, the finest building in the West devoted entirely to Masonry. 
The Shrine is noted for its fine banquets, its general good fellow- 
ship and its unsurpassed patrol. 

WICHITA: A MASONIC TOWN. 

By 

A CRAFTSMAN. 

All branches of Masonry are represented in Wichita and 
Sedgwick county, and the rites of this order are in full form and 
strength. The Scottish and York Rites are strong, and the Order 
of the Mystic Shrine is especially flourishing. The membership 
of the orders existing in Wichita take in today a membership in 
every state in the Union, and even in the isles of the sea. Some 
of the most distinguished Masons in the state and nation hold 
their membership in Wichita. It is likely that Wichita holds 
today more distinguished and eminent Masons than any city 
of its size on the American continent. The following is a 
list of those-brethren in Wichita who have attained the distinc- 



FEATEEXAL OEDEES 411 

tion of the thirty-third degree, Inspectors General Honorary: 
John L. Powell, Thomas G. Fiteh, James H. McCall, Paul Brown, 
Charles G. Cohn, Henry Wallenstein, Frederic H. Stuckey, Frank 
W. Oliver, Orsenius II. Bentley, William S. Grant, Elmer E. 
Bleckley, Leland L. Newcomb, Edward Vail, Salmon T. Tuttle, 
Isaac Goldsmith, Floyd A. Amsden, George L. Pratt and Isaac 
W. Gill, 

KANSAS MASONIC HOME AND CHAPEL. 

There is an institution in West Wichita that is always spoken 
of and pointed out by citizens with pride. Not only is it the 
pride of Wichita, but the whole state is proud of the Kansas 
Masonic Home. In the early da:js of Wichita this building was 
considered the handsomest home in the city. It was built by 
R. E. Lawrence, It was a handsome gray stone residence set in 
the midst of fifteen acres of lawn, garden, orchard and grove. 
In 1896 the Grand Lodge of Kansas bought the property, valued 
at $75,000, for $21,000, and on September 10, 1896, the Kansas 
Masonic Home was dedicated. Since that time nearly one hun- 
dred thousand dollars have been spent on buildings alone. The 
paving of Seneca street on the east side and Maple street on 
the north and the sewer tax have cost nearly nine thousand dol- 
lars. A building has just been completed to be known as the 
Isolation Cottage, Many times the entire family has been quar- 
antined on account of some contagious disease among the chil- 
dren. Now those who are sick or have been exposed can be iso- 
lated and cared for in a modern cottage, thoroughly furnished 
and equipped with everything necessary for their care. This 
improvement, with its furnishings, will cost nearly nine thousand 
dollars. 

There is a stone chapel built and furnished by the Order of 
Eastern Star at a cost of over ten thousand dollars, and this 
order has supplied the home with nearly all its furniture and is 
now thoroughly equipping the Isolation Cottage with electric 
lights, gas stoves and all furniture and bedding. The beneficia- 
ries of the Home are aged Master Masons, their wives or widows 
and children of the members of the Order Eastern Star. Since 
its opening it has given shelter to almost two hundred of these 
needy old people and helpless little children. The old people 
come here expecting to spend their declining days and finally to 



412 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

be laid away to sleep in the home lot in Maple Grove Cemetery. 
The children come to remain until educated and fitted for some 
station in life. It is a gratifying fact that, so far, every child 
who has gone out from the home has made good in the positions 
they have been called upon to fill, thus proving that the discipline 
and moral training received in the home has been a blessing to 
them. The home is maintained by a per capita tax of 50 cents 
per annum from the membership of the Grand Lodge of Kansas 
and 10 cents per annum from the Order Eastern Star of Kansas. 
The superintendent of this splendid Wichita institution is James 
Snedden, and the matron is his wife, Mrs. Mary C. Snedden. They 

have had charge of the home more than years, and 

have done much to make it what it is. 



JEREMIAH GILES SMITH. 

By 

THE EDITOR. 

I have been requested by a large representation of the mem- 
bership of Wichita Consistory, No. 2, the largest consistory in 
the Southern Jurisdiction, to give a space to Jeremiah Giles 
Smith (33), the real founder of Wichita Consistory. This is not 
only the duty that I owe the dead, but it is a great pleasure. To 
no single individual, dead or alive, is the membership of Wichita 
Consistory so much indebted as to Brother Giles Smith. Early 
and late, in season and out of season, his heart was in the work. 
Through evil and good repute he stood by his guns, and let no 
man, now that he is dead, seek to snatch his well earned laurels 
from his brow. He was easily the foremost Mason in Sedgwick 
county, and passed away without an enemy in the world. In his 
death the fraternity lost a tower of strength and a tireless worker 
for a great cause. "The noblest Roman of them all, his sword 
hangs rusting on the wall." 

Born August 30, 1851, at Winchester, Ind., Brother Smith was 
made a Master Mason in Mystic Tie Lodge, No. 398, at Indianap- 
olis, Ind., August 21, 1876. In the Scottish Rite he received the 
degrees from the fourth to the thirty-second, inclusive, in the 
bodies of the Rite in Indianapolis, Ind. In 1882 Brother Smith 
removed to Kansas and located in the young and thrifty city of 



FRATERNAL ORDERS 413 

"Wichita. Diiuitting from tlie Scottish Rite bodies in Indianap- 
olis, he took an active part in the establishment of the Rite in 
that young city, and as the different bodies were instituted, he 
became a charter member of each, and was the first Master of 
Kadosh, and for several years he was the Deputy of the Inspector 
General of Kansas, always active and zealous in the advancement 
of the Rite. He was elected a Knight Commander of the Court of 
Honor, October 18, 1888, and for his valuable labors in behalf of 
the Rite he was elected to receive the thirty-third degree at the 
same session of the Supreme Council, which honor was conferred 
upon him by the Inspector General of Kansas, with the assistance 
of others, November 17, 1888. 

While not alone in his labors and efforts in behalf of the Scot- 
tish Rite bodies at Wichita, no one is entitled to greater credit 
than he, and he lived to see the bodies there become foremost in 
the Grand Jurisdiction, and in possession of the finest cathedral 
in the land devoted exclusively to the Scottish Rite. Brother 
Smith died very suddenly at his home, January 13, 1909. 

TRADES AND LABOR ORGANIZATIONS IN WICHITA. 

Brotherhood of Railway Trainmen, Wichita Lodge, No. 356. 

Meets every Sunday morning at 211 East Douglas avenue : S. F. 
Ayler, president ; J. W. Taylor, secretary ; 0. A. Mcllvain, finan- 
cial secretary. 

Ladies' Auxiliary, Peerless Princess Lodge, No. 349, B. of 
R. T. Meets second and fourth Thursdays of each month at 211 
East Douglas avenue ; Mrs. Alice Hibberd, president ; Mrs. Stella 
Bumstead, V. M. ; Mrs. Minnie Stewart, secretary ; Mrs. Lucretia 
Davis, treasurer. 

Order of Railway Conductors, Wichita Division, No. 338. Meets 
second and fourth Sundays of each month at 211 East Douglas 
avenue ; L. W. Cregger, C. C. ; August Anderson, secretary. 

Peerless Princess Division, No, 221, Ladies Auxiliary to 0. R. C. 
Meets first and third Wednesdays of each month at Maccabees' 
Hall; Mrs. Mattie Gray, president; Mrs. Hylda Hollingsworth, 
vice president; Mrs. Elizabeth Nichols, secretary and treasurer. 



414 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

OTHER SECRET SOCIETIES. 

By 
RODOLPH HATFIELD. 

Wichita is noted for its many secret societies, and is a state- 
wide preferred general lodge meeting place. Its location and 
superior railroad connection with all portions of the state make 
it a very general anniial rallying point for all manner and name 
of fraternal orders. 

ODD FELLOWS. 

Wichita Lodge, No. 93, I. 0. O. F., was instituted June 24, 
1872, the charter members being George W. Reeves, B. C. Purcell, 
Frank Hamilton, H. W. Kendle, Charles Eckardt, J. N. Warren 
and W. J. Hobson. 

The Wichita Encampment, No. 29, I. 0. 0. F., was granted a 
charter October 11, 1876, with C. C. Furley, W. A. Richey, W. J. 
Hobson, H. H. Peckham, T. H. Minnick, W. P. Stem and M. W. 
Levy as charter members. 

From this early beginning have grown Queen City Lodge, 
No. 296; West Side Lodge, No. 345; North Wichita Lodge, 
No. .348, with their complementary Rebekah lodges, constituting 
the most numerous secret order membership in the city. 

ANCIENT ORDER OF UNITED WORKMEN. 

Wichita Lodge, No. 22, A. 0. U. W., was chartered November 
1, 1879, with thirteen members. There is now Peerless Lodge, 
No. 271, A. 0. IT. W., besides two complementary Degree of Honor 
lodges, all with a large and enthusiastic membership. 

There are likewise several fraternities known as Modern 
Woodmen of America, Woodmen of the World, Fraternal Aid, 
Eagles, Red Men, Knights of Pythias, Knights and Ladies of 
Security, Fraternal Brotherhood, Fraternal Mystic Circle, Fra- 
ternal Union of America, Hermann's Soehne, Highland Nobles, 
as well as some other and newer organizations. Many of the fore- 
going are open to both men and women. 

The colored people, too, have their branches of many of the 
old line and newer fraternal societies. 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 
THE MEDICAL PROFESSION IN WICHITA. 

By 
DR. A. H. FABRIQUE. 

Noble Prentiss, who was one of the most distinguished writers 
and newspaper men of Kansas, once said that in this state there 
were two kinds of doctors — "one kind was called Doctor, and 
the other kind was called Doc." Wichita has had both kinds. 
It would take a lexicon to cover all of the various doctors which 
Wichita has had, and it would take several lexicons to cover all 
of the kinds of doctors who have in the past come and gone 
in this city. Through all of the changing years of good times 
and bad, of good crops and bad, through drouths, and grass- 
hoppers, and all of the ills and vicissitudes of a new country like 
Sedgwick county, and a frontier town like Wichita, I might say 
it has been "a survival of the fittest." It took a great deal of 
nerve to practice medicine in Sedgwick county prior to the 
eighties. Since then it has been easier. I came to the county in 
1870, and began actual and active practice in 1870. Prior to 
1880 I can readily recall those of my profession in Wichita. 
Wichita was about the only town of any population prior to that 
time. I can recall the names of most of the early doctors in 
Wichita prior to that time. Dr. E. B. Allen, Dr. Oatley, Dr. H. 
Owens and the writer came to Wichita in 1870. Dr. W. T. Hen- 
drickson and Dr. Furley came to Wichita in 1871. Dr. C. E. 
McAdams and Dr. A. J. Longsdorf came to Wichita in 1872. The 
writer is the only survivor of the early M. D.'s. At that time 
there were no hospitals in Wichita ; it was all the old-time prac- 
tice and a following of the old-time methods. In those days the 
physician went to the patient; now the patient very largely 
comes to him. New methods have supplanted the old rules, and 
these are to the credit of the profession and greatly to the benefit 
of the patient. 

415 



416 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Dr. Furley was twice president of the Kansas State Medical 
Society. In those days the practice of the "Wichita doctor ex- 
tended to the Walnut river on the east, to Newton on the north, 
to the Indian Territory on the south, and to the west as far as 
one could ride in two days. Dr. Allen was the first mayor of 
Wichita, was state representative, and afterward was secretary 
of state of the State of Kansas. Many times the doctor was 
called to distant points, making the trip on horseback. Some- 
times the trip was made on the old familiar buckboard, and 
oftentimes the doctor was compelled to go into camp to rest him- 
self and team before beginning his return journey. In gunshot 
wounds, which were many, we used the old-time army instru- 
ments. Antiseptics were unknown in those days, and all surgical 
instruments were of a crude pattern. 

The District Medical Association was organized here in 1878. 
It took in the counties of Sedgwick, Butler, Harvey, Sumner, 
Reno and Cowley. In 187'i the doctors began to settle in other 
portions of Sedgwick county. Dr. Tucker settling in Derby and 
Dr. Goddard settling in Sedgwick in 1875; in the year 1880 a 
number settled in the smaller towns, notably Dr. Shannon in 
Cheney and Dr. Dwight in Mt. Hope. The old guard of the pro- 
fession has largely passed away. 



WICHITA HOSPITAL NEEDED EVERY DAY. 

By 

MRS. GEORGE L. PRATT, 

President Board of Directors of Wichita Hospital. 

September 9, 1885, a small band of earnest women met in 
Wichita and organized the Ladies ' Benevolent Home, and a house 
on South Market street was selected for its quarters. Its object 
was to give temporary relief to the homeless and sick. That this 
was needed was proven by the broadening fields of their labor 
and the increasing demands for the care of the sick which were 
made upon the association. The better, therefore, the association, 
the better, therefore, to fulfil the object of the founders and meet 
the demands of the people. In January, 1887, the institution 
was incorporated under the title. Ladies' Benevolent Home and 



MEDICAL P1!0FESSI0N IN WICHITA 417 

Hospital. A trained nurse was employed, a staff of physicians 
selected, and, with more commodious quarters, in the building 
now known as the Rescue Home, the institution began its career. 
In May, 1889, full hospital work was being done, and the asso- 
ciation became the Wichita Hospital. 

With the increase of patronage of the hospital came the real- 
ization that competent nurses, trained for the work, were abso- 
lutely essential to its success, so in 1896 the management inaugu- 
rated a training school and the institution was' reincorporated as 
the Wichita Hospital and Training School for Nurses. 

Early in the year 1898 the great work that this institution was 
accomplishing, and its crowded condition in its old quarters, 
was brought to the notice of a benevolent gentleman in Boston, 
and to his kindness and generosity the association is indebted for 
the present home of the hospital. Through the liberality of the 
Wichita people and the untiring efforts of the board of twenty 
women, it has been reconstructed and transformed into the pres- 
ent modern and well equipped hospital building. But with the 
growth of the city the demand for hospital accommodations has 
increased, and again the Wichita Hospital needs larger quar- 
ters. For a long time the board of directors has felt the need of 
a new building, and has planned an annex with bright, cheerful 
rooms, large verandas, operating rooms modern in all equipment, 
an obstetrical ward, and new dormitories for the nurses. And 
what is needed most of all is the co-operation of the people of 
Wichita in helping the women of the board to raise the funds 
necessary to carry out their plans and build a hospital that 
Greater Wichita will be proud to have bear the name of the 
Wichita Hospital. 



CHAPTER XXXV. 
SCRAPS OP LOCAL HISTORY. 

There were law suits there, cases of replevin, in which the 
judgment was given to one side, and to the other the payment of 
costs in order to keep any feeling of triumph on either side down. 
The dram-shop was a center of interest. At that time Kansas 
had some sort of a dram-shop law, and before a dram-shop could 
be started a petition had to be presented to the board of county 
commissioners granting permission. This petition had to be 
signed by a majority of the residents, male and female, in the 
township. It is charged that the women were generally against 
the establishment of dram-shops, and that in order to secure their 
names a petition for a new road was circulated, the heading being 
cut off after all the women had signed it, and a dram-shop peti- 
tion heading substituted. One day there was a suit in replevin 
before Justice Zimmermann, of Park City. A man had taken up 
another man's horse and had failed to advertise it. The owner 
of the horse tried to take him without paying the feed bill, alleg- 
ing that as the holder hadn't advertised he did not have to pay 
the feed bill. The owner, becoming the plaintiff, replevined the 
horse. The case was tried with great bitterness ; the plaintiff got 
his horse and was made to pay the feed bill, while the defendant 
had to pay the costs. This was the first case Ed. Jewett ever 
tried in Sedgwick county, for which he received $3 fees, repre- 
senting the plaintiff. The ease was finished at sunset. At 4 
o'clock the next morning Jewett was summoned from his bed 
and met both plaintiff and defendant. They were not quarreling. 
They had started home, got lost, and had been circling until they 
struck the Jewett farm. But the narration. Wichita wanted the 
Santa Pe south from Newton. It was necessary to vote bonds. 
Park City set out to defeat those bonds. The election which fol- 
lowed was the most wonderful in the annals of Kansas. 

A cowboy coming into Wichita from the South, smelling 
emphatically of Mexican associations, early election morning, 
was pulled down off his horse and told to vote. "I ain't a citi- 
418 



SCRAPS OF LOCAL HISTORY 419 

zen,"' he said. " That makes no difference. Are you in favor of a 
railroad?" "Bet your life." "Crawl down and vote." "But 
I 'm from San Antonio. " " That 's all right. Go ahead and vote. ' ' 
Half-breeds from the woods about Ft. Gibson, bull-whackers from 
the rocks about Ft. Sill, Indian traders from Medicine Lodge, 
evei-ybody who happened to be in town, was voted for a raih-oad 
to Wichita. There is no evidence on the charge, but with these 
conditions prevailing, some men voted twice. A memory is liable 
to be treacherous at such a time. But Park City was outdoing 
Wichita. Freighters from Pike's Peak were compelled to cast 
their ballots against railroads. Men from the Smoky Hill and all 
along the trail were grabbed up and made to voice their senti- 
ments, whether they had any sentiments on the matter or not. 
The leaders at Park City were not "literary" in any sense of the 
word. They had arranged a long list of fictitious names. For 
each name they put in a ballot against the railroad bonds. The 
voting place did not close at 6 o'clock, but at 2 o'clock the next 
morning the vote was still in progress. And the names gave out ! 
Their former acquaintances back in Illinois, Indiana and Ohio, 
some dead and gone, were vot^d. 

At 3 o'clock a committee woke up the late Judge W. T. Jewett 
and asked him to ' ' think up some new names ! ' ' 

The end of it all was that Wichita won out. Park City, Avith 
its 300 inhabitants, cast 1,000 votes. Park City waned. A fire 
carried off one of its largest buildings. Others were moved away. 
By 1879 all that marked its site, except the little grave, was a 
bunch of yellow Scotch thistles and a depression in the ground, 
once the beer cellar of the dramshop. All is now gone but this 
small depression. The townsite was sold for taxes and was 
bought by W. and N. McClees, and thereafter passed through 
various hands. That is the story of Park City. 

The land on which it stood is now owned by J. W. Laming 
and Zaring Laning and John Page, an engineer on the Missouri 
Pacific. Two of the families who were there then and still live 
in the vicinity are the Jewetts and the Pauls. One of the last 
scenes in the history of the town was the action of Hockins, one 
of the founders. He gathered up a lot of coyotes, wolves, pole- 
cats, deer and buffalo and set out for Indiana to exhibit them. 
Whatever became of him and his menagerie is as big a mystery as 
the present whereabouts of the Countess, with her long, flowing 
hair and her titled estates in England. 



420 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

Note: Park City was at one time the rival county seat of 
Wichita. — Editor. 



PARK CITY AND WICHITA AND THEIR ASTONISHING 
CONTEST. 

By 
E. B. JEWETT. 

The recent death of Judge W. T. Jewett removes from the 
theater of the West one of the last characters in the memorable 
contest between Wichita and Park City, the only rival this city 
has ever known. The story has passed out of the minds of many 
who once knew it. To many others it is strangely fiction-new. 
Here is a city of broad pavements, of long, shaded streets, of 
beautiful homes, of multiplied political complications, of entan- 
gled commercial competition, of accumulating and clashing pro- 
fessional ambitions. There, the spot once religiously despised 
and bitterly hated as a rival, the yellow-sheathed cornstalks 
crackle and wave their wizened arms in solitude, over a hollow 
in the ground, slowly filling as the years go by, and coming at 
last to the extinction of a common level. The contest between 
the two towns has long ago lost its significance, in the wall of 
accumulating years which bar the present from the issues of the 
past. To most people of Wichita, Park City is mythical. But it 
was once a "city," worthy of many a violent oath, worthy of 
being condemned, and worthy of an aggressive enmity. 

There were wintry nights when, in the Wichita dramshop, at 
the slivered pine bar, the cow-spurs clinked an accompaniment to 
a long Homeric narration in derogation of the location of Park 
City. And on the same night a crowd, equally worthy to all eyes 
save those of Fate, gathered in the dramshop of Park City and 
mixed anathemas against Wichita with a very ragged and barbed 
variety of sheep-dip. The verity was that the contention grew 
from the very lack of argument on either side, for anger flour- 
ishes most without any vestige of reason about it. Both Wichita 
and Park City were located on a table-flat bottom. Both rested 
next to the Big river (the Arkansas). The banks of the Arkansas 
were higher at Park City, a most momentous claun, oiJset by 
Wichita's insistence that this was the junction of the Big and 



SCRAPS OF LOCAL HISTOEY 431 

Little Arkansas. The latter claim was pooh-hoohed by Park City, 
while the high-bank advantage of Park City was outraged by 
high-colored ridicule in AVichita. The real contest ended in the 
most remarkable election ever held on earth. No western Kansas 
contest of after years could equal it, for in western Kansas there 
was the .skeleton of law. In the contest between Wichita and 
Park City there was not an outline of righteousness. 

Park City was located in 1870, fourteen miles northwest of 
"Wichita. Its site lies now five miles directly west of Valley Cen- 
ter, between the Big and Little Arkansas. The location is admit- 
tedly today very beautiful for a town. Here the serpentine Ar- 
kansas swings into a great bend, and at this bow, to the east and 
north of it, the pretentious City of Park was platted. The bottom 
is higher than at Wichita, and in the large city mapped out a 
gorgeous park was reserved. Nereus Baldwin, now of this city, 
had pre-empted eighty acres at this point, which the Park City 
boomers secured. The prime movers in the location of the town 
were a lawyer named Nichols, a man named Mcllvane, and Frank 
Hoekins. The site was chosen with due design. The Santa Fe 
Railroad, on its ambitious way to the old city of Santa Fe, in 
New Mexico, had reached Newton. The first survey out of New- 
ton carried the road southwesterly through the northwest corner 
of Sedgwick, through the Indian Territory partly, and into New 
Mexico, missing Colorado entirely. This was following an old 
trail, for the Santa Fe trail curved down nearly to Park City 
from the north, in order to strike the Arkansas valley quickly. 
Large, imposing maps of the city were made and sent East, show- 
ing a perfect network of avenues, and in the center the large 
park with the mythical trees marked plainly and with brilliant 
prodigality. Near the townsite were W. T. Jewett, on a farm ; 
Dan Bright, now deceased, but a prominent man of late years in 
Larned; Col. James Hammon, of Virginia, and Mr. Paul, now 
deceased. At that time Park City had about 300 people, and was 
very prosperous, as much on its prospects as anything else, al- 
though most of the people in the country west of it and many 
on the land north of it traded there. There were three large 
stores, among other things, and the inevitable dramshop. 

The founders of the town were confident — alas ! too confident 
— as events proved. The Santa Fe determined on its plug branch 
south from Newton to a point to meet the Texas cattle trail. 
Park City and its founders were high-headed and possessed a 



422 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

goodly share of the earth, in their imagination. It is said, but 
this is not authentic, that the Santa Fe offered to come directly 
south from Newton to Park City, in return for a portion of the 
townsite. But the owners of that townsite valued it. It was not 
to be parted with frivolously, and this offer they refused. Park 
City's magnetic powers were greater than a corporation's greed, 
and Park City took her stand of defiance. The railroad would 
have to come to the town. It could not, indeed, survive without 
the tOAvn. But that is getting ahead of the story. In Park City 
were many characters. One of these was Mr. Nichols, a very bril- 
liant lawyer, who had a very fine library. Another character 
was an English woman — at least she said she was. She claimed 
her first husband was an English count, and gave the name of his 
estate, since forgotten. Her second husband was a common citi- 
zen of Park City, without any noble appendage in the way of 
title. By her first husband she had one daughter, and in that 
daughter she centered all her ambition, believing — holding, at 
any rate — that some day the daughter would succeed to the earl- 
dom. In obedience to this belief, the daughter, a young woman, 
was called by her mother, with a defiant persistency, "The Count- 
ess." And after a time the city began to call her "The Count- 
ess." She was, in time, known by no other name. The Countess 
was a very fine specimen of humanity, fair of face and buxom of 
figure, with a wealth of cascading brown hair, which she always 
wore streaming down over her shoulders. She had many suitors, 
accoutred in broad sombreros and spurs and heavy top boots. 
None, in the known history of Park City, won her heart. 

One day the husband of the Countess' mother dropped dead 
on the street. Nichols, the lawyer, believed there had been foul 
play. He sent for the coroner. Dr. Owens, of Wichita, who did 
not arrive until the next day, by which time the dead man had 
been removed to his wife's home. The widow had heard the evil 
suspicions against her and the talk of a post-mortem examination, 
and when Dr. Owens and the jury of twelve good men and true 
hove up to the front door, the widow, planting herself squarely in 
the door, began : 

' ' Enter, gentlemen, at your peril. Coke on Common Law : ' A 
domicile is sacred to its inmates.' Page 306. Blaekstone: 'A 
man's home is his castle.' Page 207. Chitty on Tenantry: 'The 
law extends to the family door-step.' Page 20." 

The jury wavered and fell back. The dead man was not cut 



SCEAPS OF LOCAL HISTOEY 423 

open. The law the widow quoted was afterwards found to be 
false and extemporaneous. In justice to the widow, it must be 
said that she did not poison her husband. But at that moment 
the panicstricken jury timidly returned a verdict of heart dis- 
ease. One day a certain long and lanky cow-puncher struck town 
and was at once smitten with the beautiful Countess. With a 
suppressed headyness he waited three days before making an 
out-and-out proposal of marriage, which the Countess rejected. 
The unhappy suitor thereupon began to "shoot up" the town. 
He was seized by the citizens and locked in a lawyer's office, 
where, two days later, after some protocoling, he promised to be 
good in return for his liberty, which was given him. The town 
occasionally had its funerals. One of the citizens was a sterling 
young man. He had proposed to one of the young women of the 
town and they were soon to be married. They had talked together 
for hours or strolled hand in hand along the bank of the river, 
building on the future when Park would be a great city, and 
their ships had come in. But he died. The young woman for 
years kept his grave green and was true to his memory. Year 
by year, as adverse fortune came creeping in on the little place, 
she was true to her trust. One by one the buildings were hauled 
away or toppled down from desertion and decay; one by one 
the rude head-boards to the graves in the little cemetery tumbled 
over and were appropriated for incomplete hog-pens or other pur- 
poses of utility. Year by year the rural quiet ate into the heart 
of the little place, until cornfield stillness came at last, and all 
was obliterated but that one grave, still ever green and neat. 
The faithful one had other suitors, but her heart was steadfast. 
As the years went by she heard of the rival city of Wichita's 
growth, and came once or twice to see it, and then returned to 
Park City and its lone vestige — the grave she loved so well. But 
years ago she died of a broken heart, they say, at last, and the 
little grave surrendered to thistles and sunflowers and disap- 
peared at last, as all its fellows in the past. 

WICHITA: CITY OF THE NEW WEST. 

Out there on the gently undulating and fertile plains of Kan- 
sas, away from the Father of Waters, and still removed from the 
Rockies, is arising a great kingdom — the kingdom of the New 
West. The Old West was a place of short grass and long horns ; 



424 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

of sweeping, dreaming distances; pregnant, potential, unawak- 
ened earth. The New West is a place of long grass and short 
horns; awakened vitality, springiag up through green stalk and 
mighty tree trunk; richness pouring up through alfalfa, corn, 
wheat. In material wealth this kingdom is becoming fabulously 
rich, for its wildness has been subdued, and Ingalls' benignant 
blue grass has worked its wonder in superseding the prairie grass. 
And the capital of the New West is Wichita, a city of 60,000 peo- 
ple. The New West is the home of a people noted for hospitality, 
open-heartedness and good will toward men. So the traveler in 
visiting Wichita is pleased to find that its metropolis in every 
way exemplifies these graces. When the editors of Kansas re- 
cently visited Wichita, they were allowed to march behind the 
town band — just like they longed to do when they were boys — 
to the corner-stone laying of the first Wichita skyscraper, which, 
by the way, was the dedication of a Greater Wichita, the mark- 
ing of a new epoch. This shows just what Wichita is. It is a 
great, big, husky, red-blooded boy of a city — strong, and growing, 
jolly, good-hearted. It has not developed the foolish bored air 
of the large old city ; it is too fragrant of fresh earth to despise 
what gives it life — agriculture. It has none of the cheap cynicism 
which laughs at country-bred people and at the same time depends 
upon the country people for an existence. It takes a boyish 
delight in its recreations and achievements and is boyishly 
optimistic. 

Wichita is too large to have the curses of the small town — 
people who spend most of their time at the business of others, 
gossips, town rows. It is too small to have the curses of the great 
city — slums, under-world, the frenzied fight for existence. And 
it can and will be a city of half a million without having any of 
these evUs, for it is started right, in the right place. No one can 
travel up and down the Arkansas valley, with its developing cen- 
tral part and its upper part just stirring from its age-long dream, 
without feeling that to be true. Wichita's growth is not purely 
material, for, with its average of five new houses each day, and 
daily thousands invested in new industrial enterprises, there is 
keeping step the moral, civic and artistic interest. The enforce- 
ment of law and the adoption of a new and improved system of 
government, the existence of several colleges, music and art 
schools and churches, these things are the proofs. The structures 



SCRAPS OF LOCAL HISTOKY 425 

are built of stone, steel, concrete, brick. There are no false fronts 
and no cardboard scenery in Wichita. — Cimarron " Jacksonian." 



WICHITA. 

By 
MACK P. CRETCHER. 

(Of the Sedgwick (Kan.) "Pantagraph.") 

Wichita ! What memories cluster around the name ! Memo- 
ries of achievement in the strenuous past, promises of greatness 
in the mightier future. Scarce forty years since the coyote 
skulked through the undulating sea of blue-stem where Wichita 
now stands. A brief span since buffalo grazed and the shy prairie 
hen nested where now stand substantial edifices of brick and 
stone. Founded by men with the restless red blood of the pio- 
neer in their veins — men with Western brain and courage and 
confidence — Wichita's growth has been as wonderful as a chapter 
from the Arabian Nights. Her greatness is not alone in her miles 
of paved streets, her skyscrapers, factories, churches, schools or 
homes, but in her magnificent citizenship that has made her 
dreams reality. Here men have stood shoulder to shoulder since 
the first bleak sod shack arose beside the tepee. Here the investor 
has been welcomed and encouraged as a brother. Always and 
ever the indomitable faith in Wichita and her future. Always a 
willingness to dig deep into the pocket to furnish the sinews of 
war, firm in the conviction that the dollar spent for Wichita 
would return as bread east upon the waters. 

Today Wichita stands a city of 50,000 people. A new genera- 
tion from the old pioneer stock is taking over the reins. Forty 
years of struggle and achievement have whitened the heads of 
the sturdy empire builders. Their sons and daughters are step- 
ping into line and accepting the load with the loyalty and courage 
of youth. With the magnificent vantage gained in the brief span 
of forty years, where is the limit for the bounding blood and keen 
brain of the new generation? Today Wichita is only in the swad- 
dling clothes of her greatness. Her territory, the Great South- 
west, is as yet in the inception of its development, a mere scratch- 
ing of the surface, exposing the outeroppings that lead to the 



426 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

mother lode. To the sons and daughters of the men who have 
biiilded a city of 50,000 population in forty years, there is no 
limit of possibility. That a city of 250,000 will spring from the 
Wichita of today is by no means as wild a prophecy as that the 
present metropolis of the Southwest should arise from the Indian 
camp and trader's store in less than half a century. The golden 
stream of Kansas grain is just beginning to trickle through 
Wichita to the gulf. The packing industry is yet in its infancy. 
The proud boast of the jobbers of today will cause a smile when 
millions of people of the Southwest look to Wichita as a distrib- 
uting center — and millions will some day look, mark that! The 
1,800 homes built in Wichita the past year will be but the domi- 
ciles of pioneers who got in on the ground floor. In the dawn of 
her greatness, Wichita stands beckoning, the smile of confidence 
upon her lips. She still holds wide the door of Hope. 



THE PIONEER REAL ESTATE DEALERS. 

The pioneer real estate dealers in Wichita and Sedgwick 
county largely gave to the county and city its first impetus toward 
a large population and consequent prosperity. John M. Steele, 
or Jim Steele, as he was known far and near, was a pioneer in 
this line. The old firm of Steele & Levy, composed of J. M. Steele 
and Morris W. Levy, were among the early real estate men of 
this valley. John Stewart, afterward one of the richest men in 
Kansas, was associated with them ; so was Doc Mann, Charley 
Stanley and others. Steele is now dead ; died in Tacoma, Wash. ; 
Levy is retired from business and lives in New York ; Healy and 
Neiderlander came next in point of time; Pat Healy and Nick 
Neiderlander composed this firm, and they were hustlers ; Neider- 
lander lives in St. Louis and Pat Healy is still here, and Wichita 
would feel lonesome without him. Jocelyn and Thomas were act- 
ive ia the early eighties; both are dead; Al Thomas died in St. 
Louis, and Colonel Jocelyn died a short time ago in this city. 
This firm were active sellers and price-makers on the realty mar- 
ket. Later on came a vast number of realty men who have in 
many ways helped to develop Wichita and Sedgwick county. 
One thing we can always admire in the real estate men of Wich- 
ita, and that is their unswerving loyalty to their town and locality. 
To them there is no town so promising as Wichita, and no county 
in all the bounding West so fertile as Sedgwick. — Editor. 



SCEAPS OF LOCAL HISTOKY 427 

THE STORY OF THE PEERLESS PRINCESS. 

When the men who first stood at the confluence of the two 
Arkansas rivers and with prophetic vision saw into the future 
and declared that here was the place to found a city, men laughed 
at them. When that city was founded and the trade of the great 
Southern empire was turned this way, filling the coffers of the 
early merchants and bringing prosperity to all who had the enter- 
prise to engage in business, men thought again that they saw 
something of the greatness which was to come to this city of the 
plains, but there were doubters still. When, at a later period, 
dreamers came from the East and adding their faith to that of 
those already here, and commenced to build a city far in advance 
of the needs of the country, some men again said that Wichita 
was to be great, and others scoft'ed. Of this period in its history 
the least said the better. Suffice to say that the dreams of the 
pioneer, the later business enthusiast and then of the boomer 
have all at last been realized, and Wichita stands today a monu- 
ment to the business sagacity and the unwavering faith of all 
the men who have given their best efforts for its building, and 
the scoffers have been silenced. All know the Wichita of today, 
with her splendid railroad facilities, her magnificent commercial 
enterprises, her manufactories, her thousands of workingmen, 
her fine parks, her good schools, her fine churches, her handsome 
business houses, her "up-to-now" citizenship, and her determined 
advancement to the metropolitan leadership of the Southwest, 
indispensable alike to the great West and to Mexico, the pivot on 
which the business future of the great Southwest, the commercial 
prospects of half two nations must revolve in the growth of the 
next century. There are a few throughout the Southwest who 
have kept in touch with the city 's progress, and these few remem- 
ber from what a small beginning has grown the Wichita of today. 
For the information of those who have more recently come to try 
their fortunes in this great empire, a terse but truthful descrip- 
tion of the town as it used to be is here given : 

"Wichita, 485 miles from St. Louis, 723 miles from El Paso, 
and 1983 miles from San Francisco, was one of the great way 
points on the great Santa Fe trail. This was the first rapid line 
across the continent. John Butterfield and his associates were 
paid $600,000 a year for carrying tri-weekly mails between St. 
Louis and San Francisco. Ruling influences in congress and the 



428 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

White House compelled them to adopt a far Southern route 
through Kansas, touching Wichita, the Indian Territory, Texas 
and Arizona, while a branch line from Memphis joined the main 
stem at Port Smith, Ark. The coaches ran day and night, ordi- 
narily going from St. Louis to San Francisco in twenty-one days, 
though the law allowed them twenty-five. It was the longest 
stage route in the world. Wichita in those days was nothing more 
or less than a trading post and a way station, where travelers 
refreshed themselves and the stage drivers changed horses. The 
next way station was many miles farther Southwest, and the 
drive was through a very unsettled country, principally inhabited 
by ranchmen and a few Indians. Habitual gambling was uni- 
versal, from the boys' game of pitching quartillas (3-cent pieces 
Mexican money) to the great saloons where silver dollars were 
staked at monte." 

In view of the picture here .drawn when contrasted with the 
present day Wichita, it is little wonder that some are amazed and 
others have been led to become satisfied with the transformation. 
It is not, however, in its past that Wichita is great. Its greatness 
lies in what it is yet to be. 

Never in the history of the country did a city have such a 
future, a future contingent upon that eternal vigilance which is 
the price of success, a future contingent upon unremitting labor 
and determination, a future contingent upon lack of fatuous 
folly of being content with winning the first lap in the race. 
Wichita is to become a metropolis, which will be greater commer- 
cially than St. Louis, greater in population than Denver and ex- 
celled in resource and importance by no city on the continent. 
The greatness of Wichita is not contingent upon the efforts of 
its citizens alone nor upon its location geographically. It is situ- 
ated in the midst of the richest agricultural and stock country in 
the world, and from these industries, which in the last analysis 
form the foundation of all prosperity, the town will continue as 
in the past to derive the nourishment on which it is to develop. 
It was agriculture that made Cairo the wonder of Egypt and the 
envy of the world. It was agriculture that made all the great 
cities of middle Europe. It was agriculture that made Chicago, 
St. Louis, Minneapolis, Omaha, Kansas City and others of the 
most prosperous cities of this country, and it is to agriculture 
that Wichita owes the greatest measure of its present success 
and to which it must look for much of its success in time to come. 



SCRAPS OF LOCAL HISTOEY 429 

The fertile lands of the territory surrounding Wichita for a dis- 
tance of two or three hundred miles are sufficient to produce 
grain and stock and fruit and hay sufficient to supply the needs 
of a territory that is great in extent. A large proportion of these 
products find their way by natural channels to this logical center 
of trade, where they are manufactured into usable form or ex- 
changed for other necessities. In this way the surrounding coun- 
try is not only benefited, but Wichita is made to grow. It is to 
impress upon the people of the Southwest something of the im- 
portance of this interdependent relation which ought to exist be- 
tween the citizens of the more remote sections and this natural 
distributing center, that these excursions by the business men of 
Wichita have been organized and sent out year after year. 
Wichita is dependent upon the country with which it is sur- 
rounded, but at the same time as it becomes more and more pros- 
perous it is in position to aid in making other portions of the 
country prosperous. A proper recognition of this fact will do 
much to make Wichita all that present-day prophets predict for it 
and make -it a city of 100,000 within the next five years. 

CIRCUS DAY IN SEDGWICK COUNTY. 

The old time circus in Sedgwick county, always held at 
Wichita, used to draw a great crowd. Wichita has always been 
a great circus town. It used to be said that in the hard times 
and during the dull times, when the crops were short, that the 
farmer sold his cook stove and came in to the circus just the same. 
Sells and Floto with their circus always draw a big crowd in 
Wichita; Ringling Brothers with their acres of canvas always 
draw for miles around ; Buffalo Bill always held that Wichita was 
one of his big show towns. One of the greatest accidents con- 
nected with the Rock Island railway was the night of the last 
show of Buffalo Bill in Wichita. A heavily loaded bus of people 
headed for the Buffalo Bill show east of the railway tracks 
was crossing the Rock Island tracks on East Douglas avenue, 
and this bus was run into by a swiftly moving southbound Rock 
Island train. Several people were killed outright and many 
were severely injured. Texas Jack with his aggregation of cow- 
boys and buffaloes and his girl riders and broncho busters always 
drew a big crowd, and Oklahoma Harry Hill organized here in 
Wichita an aggregation which bid fair to rival the great show 



430 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

of Buffalo Bill. Joe Rich went into this game as the manager and 
regrets it yet. One of the early shows of this town was organized 
by Bob Neff. In the early days of Oklahoma, Bob went to Black- 
well, Okla., and opened a law ofSce. He was afterwards elected 
probate judge, but the call of the boards was too strong for him ; 
he again donned his broad-brimmed hat, let his hair grow out long 
and again took his favorite character of "Lollypop." Wichita has 
always been a good show town; Sedgwick county has always 
patronized the shows, from an all around railroad show or circus, 
with its acres of canvas and trained animals, to the barnstorming 
company from the kerosene circuit. 

THE NORTHWEST CORNER. 

Until the building of the Kansas Midland railway in 1887, the 
northwest corner of the county, north of the Arkansas river, was 
without a railroad. A large portion of this land in Eagle town- 
ship was within the Santa Fe land grant, and it was sold upon 
payments and its development was correspondingly slow. Acres 
and acres of this fine land for many years laid out in pasture and 
without cultivation. The settling of an English colony west of 
Valley Center and the building of the railroad gave the country 
a new impetus, and the land was rapidly put under the plow. 
The Zimmerman neighborhood, the Oscar Winters farms, the 
Biggs neighborhoods and the holdings of Uncle John Williams 
proved most valuable. It was discovered that the northwest of 
Sedgwick county was within the corn belt. At this time there is 
no better land, no better producing land, nor a more prosperous 
portion of Sedgwick county than this same northwest. Among 
the prosperous farmers of this locality may be mentioned A. Cos- 
son, Matt. Biggs, H. H. Hanson, Norman Calhoun, J. M. Ragan, 
Wesley Biggs and Albert Campbell. 

THE HEART OF WICHITA. 

What would ultimately be the business heart of Wichita has 
for a long time puzzled the old-timers and average citizen of 
Wichita. For many years North Main street seemed to have the 
lead on business. The corner of Main and Douglas avenue, 
known in frontier parlance as the New York corner, has always 
appeared to be the hub of the town. This has always been a 
prominent business corner, but as the town grew it gradually 



SLiiAl'S OF LOCAL HISTOKY 431 

dawned upon the residents of Wichita that the city would cease 
to revolve around that corner. The building of the postoffice 
building to the south and upon Market street, the city hall, and 
more than all of the elements combined, the building of the Smyth 
building eastward at the corner of Lawrence and Douglas avenues 
has served to disturb conditions somewhat. The Smyth building, 
being at once occupied by a large retail store carried on by Inness 
& Co., has had a great influence in moving business to the east- 
ward. The town has become too large to revolve around one cor- 
ner. It is spreading out. The Forum, built by the city, is upon 
Water street ; the Eagle building is upon South Market street, 
and most of the depots are eastward on Douglas avenue. A great 
improvement has lately been noticed on the south side of Douglas 
avenue. As the principal business street, Douglas avenue now 
has and will likely keep the lead. So that the real heart of 
Wichita is at this time at no particular corner, but Douglas ave- 
nue is the main artery of business, and upon Douglas avenue is 
now transacted the principal business of the city. From the 
bridge across the great Arkansas river to the Santa Fe depot is 
today the heart of Wichita. 

AN OLD LANDMARK. 

The people who go south from the courthouse along Market 
street will recall the ancient Gothic house facing east two doors 
south of Central avenue. The whole place has fallen into decay 
and is generally unkempt and forlorn. Yet at one time this was 
one of the fine places in Wichita and was formerly the home of 
the mayor of the city. Some years ago and during the boom 
this house was the home of Mr. Brown, the junior member of the 
firm of Aldrich & Brown. Later on Mr. Brown left the city and 
located in Chiekasha, Okla. But when Wichita was young and 
the cowboy was a daily sight upon our streets and Wichita was 
on the great cattle drive from Texas, this old house was the home 
of Jim Hope, the mayor of Wichita. In those days when a 
stranger came to Wichita he was taken in hand by Uncle Billy 
Griffenstein ; by him turned over to Otto Weiss, his nephew, and 
Otto was always instructed to show him the town and especially 
show him this old house, which was then the proud residence of 
Mayor Hope. A few short years and this old house will forever 



432 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

disappear from the face of the landscape and finer and more com- 
modious buildings will take its place. 



THE ARKANSAS RIVER. 

It is a trite saying that large streams always run past big 
cities. If this saying holds true, Wichita is destined to be a large 
city. Col. Marsh Murdock used to claim that Wichita would be 
great because located at the confluence of the two rivers. The 
streams which run past Wichita have little bearing upon its com- 
mercial supremacy. The Big Arkansas, while it is one of the 
large streams of the North American continent and is 2,100 miles 
long, carries no commerce upon its bosom. No argosies from 
Spain ever enter the port of Wichita. The Arkansas river rises 
in the fastnesses of the Rocky Mountains and flows easterly 
through Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma and southward. It waters 
a noble valley, and from its source on the great Continental Di- 
vide, where it bursts from the rock a limpid spring, and for fifty 
miles it is a beautiful trout stream. Its first contamination is at 
Granite, Colo., where a huge tail race from a placer mine pol- 
lutes its pure waters. At Pueblo it gathers other impurities 
which imparts its yellow colors to this stream for many, many 
miles. Tlu-ough eastern Colorado and Kansas it has a distinct 
underflow, and it blesses all of the surroimding country. There 
was a time in the early eighties that congress appropriated the 
sum of $35,000 to explore this river. A boat was constructed at 
Wichita and manned by engineers and the river was entered at 
this point and the boat poled and pushed down this stream. 
Enough time was wasted to use up this appropriation, and that 
was the last of navigating this portion of the Arkansas. About 
this time Bent Murdock, who lived at Eldorado, Butler county, 
jeered at Wichita and its claims to being the head of navigation 
on the Arkansas river. He said "that the Arkansas river at 
Wichita was navigable only for channel catfish and that any boat 
which could run on a heavy dew could run on the Arkansas river 
at Wichita." 

THE LITTLE ARKANSAS RIVER. 

"Here the rank thistle nodded in the wind and the wild fox 
dug his hole unscared." 

The Little Arkansas river forms a confluence with the larger 



SCRAPS OF LOCAL HISTOKY 433 

stream within the corporate borders of the city of Wichita. The 
Great Arkansas is a larger stream and flows from mountain to 
plain for 2,100 miles, but in no sense does it possess in Kansas 
the attractions of the smaller stream. The smaller stream makes 
a beautiful and fruitful valley, stretching from its very source in 
Rice county to its junction with the larger stream in the beautiful 
park system of the city of Wichita. There is no more attractive 
spot in Kansas than the junction of these historic streams. A 
fine expanse of water, a magnificent stretch of woodland, nature 
and art combined, the natural forest combined with the skill of 
the landscape gardener, present a most pleasing picture to the 
eye. The native timber has been preserved with infinite care 
and the rich alluvial soil yields to the florist the most pleasing 
returns. On the elegant drives and along the banks of this stream, 
where once the Indian warrior woed his dusky mate, the speedj 
roadster with the rubber -tired buggy and the luxurious automo- 
bile now take the road. Northward from Wichita along the Little 
Arkansas river are located some of the most fertile farms in the 
entire state of Kansas. 



THE WICHITA BOOM. 

By 
THE EDITOR. 

During the years 1886 and 1887 occurred the Wichita boom. 
In its trail it left a track of devastation, which lasted for a decade 
and more. A period of wild speculation was on the entire west- 
em country. It was not confined to Wichita but took in the in- 
terior West and the Rocky Mountain region. It was a disease like 
the "milk sick" in Indiana. It had to run its course. It was a 
microbe which was inhaled in the air and the most conservative 
men in the East who came to Wichita at that time, either for 
permanent or temporary purposes, "who came to scoff, remained 
to pray," falling under the influence of the deadly parasite, in- 
haling the microbe, in one week they became as M'ild as their fel- 
lows and joined the maddening crowd. It was a "fool's para- 
dise," complete in one chapter, and it was followed in 1888 with 
a reaction which jarred business in Wichita and the West to its 
very foundations. During this boom, which was a wild, unrea- 



434 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

soning craze, men lost their reason, went into the wildest specu- 
lations, projected new lines of rail-way, built new buildings mostly 
on mortgages and borrowed capital, turned stores and business 
houses into real estate offices, and acted the fool generally. As a 
result, when the reaction came, Wichita woke up to find itself a 
wreck. Many fine pieces of property went for the taxes, many 
more went under the hammer of the sheriff, mortgage foreclosures 
clogged the court docket, and distress was broadcast over Sedg- 
wick county and all over this interior West. To recoup their 
fallen fortunes men seized upon other and what they supposed 
were lesser dilemmas. The grafter was abroad in the land and 
his harvest was a bountiful one. Wildcat stock in corporations 
capitalized a hundredfold and in most improbable localities found 
ready sale. All kinds of stocks in mines, manufactures and kin- 
dred schemes were floated upon a long suffering and deluded 
public. Finally a halt was called. It came as the result of a 
sober second thought. The bubble burst, the idol was shattered, 
the stock looked like money but would not draw a dollar at the 
bank. It finally dawned upon our people that the same money 
invested in Wichita property or Sedgwick county lands would 
bring far greater returns. The light of reason broke. 



THE STRUGGLES OF THE EARLY BUSINESS MEN. 

The many citizens of Wichita who now enjoy the later civiliza- 
tion of the present and all that goes to make up the enjoyment, 
schools, churches, theatricals, transportation facilities, and all 
that goes with a metropolitan city, little understand the struggles 
of the early settlers and those business men of an earlier day, 
whose shoulders bore the heat and burden of the fray. Each day 
brought forth its annoying struggle to keep Wichita to the front, 
and it was simply a survival of the fittest. The competition 
among towns was fierce. The Santa Fe built southward and Win- 
field and Wellington were rivals at our very door. These towns 
were in those early days no puny rivals, as they were exploited 
by active, energetic business men and a farming country as good 
as ours. The transportation lines in this interior West were 
determined to build up a large number of towns rather than any 
whose size and ambition would call for additional transportation 
lines. Such was the situation in Wichita in the early eighties. 
But with a wonderful tenacity and an unparalleled energy our 



SCIJAPS OF LOCAL HISTOEY 435 

business men faced this perplexing situation. Location counts for 
something, but cities are made by the men in them, and Wichita 
today stands in her territory without a rival. The time has now 
come to cease thinking of Oklahoma City as a rival of Wichita. 
Oklahoma City is a marvel of energy, but it is a day's swing of a 
train from this city. It is in another state. It has a field very 
much like ours. It is and always will be the metropolis of the 
new state. It does not cut into our field like Hutchinson. The 
latter place is only forty-five miles away. Reno county is one of 
the best in the state. Hutchinson is full of energy. It naturally 
reaches west and southwest of us, and it commands a fine terri- 
tory. In the natural order of things it will wax stronger and 
grow, but it is in Wichita's field; it is within the charmed circle 
which surrounds Wichita; it is simply an integral point within 
the radius of the far-famed golden circle so graphically described 
by Prof. Eugene Pahl, of the Wichita Chamber of Commerce. 



A LITTLE REMINISCENCE OF THE DAYS WHEN WICHITA 

WAS YOUNG— INSPIRED BY LOOKING AT THE 

BEACON BUILDING. 

By 
KOS HARRIS. 

In the days of long ago, on South Main street, just back of the 
old Eagle block, where the Boston store now stands, there stood 
a one-story paint shop, a blacksmith shop and about 75x100 feet 
of tall sunflowers. Across the street was a millinery store owned 
by Mrs. Louise Henderson; south of her store was a paint shop 
and a dwelling house, occupied by a painter, who often viewed 
the "wine when it was red." In fact, very red and when it 
colored the cup. After looking on the wine, he usually whipped 
his wife and then went to the calaboose, owned by the city and 
built up with 2x4 studding to about eight feet in height. Next 
morning he usually pleaded guilty, his wife got the fine remitted 
and for one or two moons things ran smoothly at the paint shop. 
On the site of the paint shop and the blacksmith shop the present 
Beacon building now stands. Back of the old paint shop Karatof- 
sky, then one of the great merchant princes of the city, whipped 
his son daily, tri-weekly and weekly. "Karatof" had a second 



436 HISTORY OP SEDGWICK COUNTY 

wife about four or five years older than the son and the twain did 
not agree. Hence the regular mauling. 

If, in 1874, 1884, 1894, 1904, any "biped" in Wichita had said 
that the old Cooper stable, which had just been torn down to 
make room for the Beacon building, would be torn away and 
on its site there would be a ten-story building such as the Beacon 
building, the said "biped" would have heard a "horse laugh," 
compared to which all other "horse laughs" would be as a whistle 
in a hailstorm. Indulging in reminiscences of the days of old; 
the days of gold ; the days when Wichita was young and new and 
"life was sweet and bright as sparkling dew," I am reminded 
of the business world of Wichita at and near the site of the 
Beacon, building at the date of the paint shop and for some years 
afterwards. In 1878, contiguous to the Beacon building site 
amongst others were the following : George Y. Smith & Co. had a 
dry goods store, Caldwell & Titsworth had a queensware store, 
the Wichita Savings Bank was in the corner and Hollowell & 
Byers had a hardware store. All this was on the ground floor 
of the present Boston store. East to Market street from the old 
Eagle block was Albert Hess, grocer, now of the Wichita Whole- 
sale Grocery Company. Directly west of Hess was Dieter & 
Kaiser's new, up-to-date, modern barber shop and bathrooms. In 
this barber shop there was a workman, one Tony Bruhn. Tony 
was a Prussian drillmaster and also a boxer, and always wanted 
to put on the gloves and box. One day the writer got shaved, and 
after he got out of the chau- Tony squared himself to box. The 
writer got his hat and coat and then hit Tony in the nose and 
ran out of the back door across a vacant lot now occupied by the 
United States postofifice, and did not go to the barber shop to get 
shaved until Tony sent him word that a general armistice had 
been declared and the war was over. On the front part of this 
vacant lot there used to stand a little one-story building, and in 
this building some of the business men and professional men, as 
well as the married women of Wichita, in the early days, attended 
a kindergarten. 

Butler & Fisher had a hardware store between Market street 
and Eagle block. Henry Bolte had a furniture store where Kress 
& Co. now are on Douglas avenue. Henry sold good fiarniture, 
and this article is written while I am sitting in a willow chair 
bought of Henry Bolte in 1877. Tom Jewell had a real saloon 
and Steele & Levy had a real estate office where Frazier's drug 



SCKAPS OP LOCAL HlSTOliY 437 

store and George jMcNeal's barber shop are. The second floor 
of the old Eagle block contained the court room, the general 
political convention room, dance hall and reception room for state 
occasions, and also Little, Sluss & Hatton and B. D. Hammond, at- 
torneys-at-law, had their offices on the second floor; also the old 
Eagle office was in this building. Across the street, running from 
the Henry Schweiter corner east to Jackson & "Walker's, was 
what was called the New York block, which, when built, was a 
thing of beauty. Six rooms of the ground floor on Douglas avenue 
were occupied as follows: Kohn Brothers' store; Charles L. 
Lawrence, druggist ; J. P. Allen, druggist ; Allen & Tucker, 
grocers ; Richards & Rogers, grocers, and T. H. Lynch, di-y goods. 
In the second floor of the New York block there were some at- 
torneys and loan agents, the following being among the attorneys : 
Adams & Hill, L. B. Bunnell, Governor Stanley and H. E. Higgin- 
botham. Also, in the alley corner, was the Wichita "Beacon," 
H. C. Day, loan agent and N. McClees, loan agent. 

AYest of the Boston store was the Eagle clothing house and 
what was called the Commercial block, now the National Bank of 
Commerce, American Express Company and Gibson's harness and 
saddlery store. The old United States land office was on the sec- 
ond floor and was occupied by attorneys: D. B. Emert, 0. D. 
Kirk, J. F. Lauck, W. W. Thomas and Harris & Harris. 

The buildings where the Kansas National Bank now is and 
the buildings immediately north and west to the alleys had liquor, 
liquor, liquor. In fact, this corner at that time was devoted to the 
legitimate business of illegitimate business. The liquor dealers in 
Wichita at that date who paid city license and did business openly 
and publicly were Beach, Brown, Dill, Ditman, Gardiner, Jewell, 
Keehler, Hollister, Schattrer Brothers, Ritter, Hoover, Lemcks, 
Vincent, Werner, and Schnitzler. The places now occupied by 
them are but a reminiscence and their names are almost faded 
from the memory of the residents of Wichita. Even in that early 
day the corner of Main and Douglas was the business heart of 
Wichita. Then it was, as now it is, the "beehive" corner of 
Wichita. The Beacon building is exactly 138 feet south of the 
"beehive" corner, where a man who wears a No. 10 boot steps 
on $1,500 worth of land every time he moves. Since those days 
time in its whirl-a-gig hath had many ups and downs for Wichita. 
Verily we have experienced the motto of Kansas, "To the stars 
from tribulations," or words to that effect or similar import. We 



438 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

have sailed in the clouds, been dragged in the gutter, like a kite ; 
decked ourselves in plumage like a peacock, a rag man and tramp 
and have had nectar and ambrosia, wormAvood and gall. We have 
"bulled" real estate till the bull broke his neck. We have 
"beared" real estate until the bear hibernated for some years 
from shame. This and all this in one decade. 

The "Beacon" had an humble beginning as well as some great 
men. Milt Gable got it. He made a mortgage on it to Billie Mc- 
Clure. He skipped the tovi^n. Harris & Harris foreclosed the 
mortgage. Prank Smith and Frank Fisher bought the plunder 
and continued the business at the corner of Main and Second 
streets. Cap White came in from his claim on the Ninnescah to 
edit the "Beacon," and for many years the "Beacon" had edi- 
torials on the brutality of the policeman's club, said policeman's 
club typifying the brute force in government in all its phases. 

Wichita owes the Beacon building to Henry J. Allen as the 
great factor in this building. "All honor to him who won the 
prize" in this $350,000 rafHe, gamble and bid on the future of 
Wichita. When we things that are now, are dead and gone, when 
the future babe shall carry the "Beacon" to our homes and the 
present babe reads the paper and carries on business and con- 
ducts the municipal affairs of Wichita, when the middle-aged man, 
who is in the "lean and slippered pantaloon" age, takes the 
grandchildren downtown to see the sights and some little tot 
asks, "Grandpa, who built the Beacon building?" grand-dad will 
say, "The men of Wichita built it and paid for it without any 
mortgage on it, moved thereto by the spirit force, enthusiasm and 
pluck of Henry J. Allen, then editor of the ' ' Beacon. ' ' His bones 
are out on the hill, but this building is his monument. ' ' 

October 7, 1910. 



THOUGHTS OF HELPING WICHITA. 

By 

EOS HARRIS. 

The writer was waiting in an ofSce in Kansas City for an ac- 
quaintance, where an East St. Louis "preferred stock broker" of 
a manufacturing concern was distributing a prospectus that was 
dazzling. The thought occurred, if the facts alleged in the pros- 



SCEAPS OF LOCAL HISTORY 439 

pectus were true, all the broker need do was to cross the railway 
bridge at St. Louis and sell all his stock in one day among the 
owners of idle money in St. Louis, who were seeking safe and 
permanent investment. The man who run the office came out 
of his private room, was approached by the broker and the reason 
he gave why he would not invest in the "preferred stock" has 
stuck in my mind like a "sand-burr to a sheep's tail" ever since. 
The statement made was about as follows : 

"I live in Kansas City, am interested in its material welfare, 
taxable values, the growth of population and in all things that will 
tend to make it a greater city. Whatever benefits Kansas City 
has a remote tendency, at least, to help me. Whatever helps the 
state of Missouri in a measure benefits me. Whatever builds up 
Jackson county adds taxable property to Kansas City and helps 
every resident and property owner in Kansas City. All my in- 
vestments are in Missouri and nearly all in Kansas City. 

"An investment in Illinois is merely an investment. An in- 
vestment in Kansas City is more than a simple investment. If I 
throw a stone in the Missouri river at Kansas City it creates a 
wave that is seen at the spot where I throw it, and this wave is 
carried a little distance, and then the water becomes smooth again, 
but I know where I threw my stone and where the biggest wave 
was. No investment I can make outside of Kansas City or the 
state of Missouri can benefit my town, county and state. I prefer 
to throw my rocks into the Missouri river at Kansas City. If you 
move your concern to Kansas City or Jackson county and the 
stock is good I might consider the same." 

Is there not common horse sense in this reasoning? Is it not 
true that a Kansas man who puts his hard-earned dollars in an 
unknown scheme, away from home, risks his fortune, builds up an- 
other city or state and does not benefit his own home? Is it not 
true also that a Kansas man who invests in a Kansas venture has 
a better chance to win and that he also aids his own city, county 
and state? Every man in Wichita knows that he is in the best 
city, county and state in the Union. He believes it. The stranger 
who comes here realizes or he would not come. Why would we 
not as loyal patriotic Kansans and loyal citizens of Wichita prove 
our faith by our own works by sticking to Wichita, to Sedgwick 
county and to Kansas? 

The present mercantile concerns and manufacturing industries 



440 HISTORY OF SEDGWICK COUNTY 

in Wichita need more capital. The stocks and bonds of our own 
Wichita concerns are more worthy of investment and considera- 
tion than any outside stock can be. It is a plain proposition that 
if we invest in Wichita, in Sedgwick county or in Kansas we are 
benefitting the city, the county or the state and also we are help- 
ing our own friends at home. We benefit ourselves and we add 
wealth to Kansas and increase our own tax rolls. Wichita has 
put more than a million dollars into outside schemes outside of 
the state of Kansas, some of which are good and others of which 
have proven worthless. This more than a million dollars in 
Wichita buildings would have built buildings equal to the Boston 
store, the Barnes block, the Innes store, the Beacon building and 
the Schweiter building, and the result would have been a dividend 
at home, adding beauty to the city of Wichita and a million dol- 
lars to the tax rolls of Wichita and Sedgwick county to cut down 
the general annual tax levy. 

The mere individual in this day and age cannot build the 
buildings that Wichita demands for the business homes of all its 
manufacturing and mercantile concerns that are here and those 
we desire to come. Wichita is in its infancy as a manufacturing 
town and as a wholesale town. Kansas City has one thousand 
capitalized concerns for mercantile and manufacturing purposes, 
and if Wichita succeeds some body of men must furnish the capi- 
tal for the man who has the brains sufficient to run the business 
but not money enough to enlarge it or put a new business on foot 
to compete with foreign concerns. Every bond issue by the city 
of Wichita should be owned by a Sedgwick county citizen. 

When Wichita realizes that the building of a city is "a joint 
stock concern, ' ' in which every man should have a share ; when 
we realize that keeping our money at home for home investments 
is a duty we owe to the city, county and state, as well as a profit 
to ourselves ; when we realize that there is no place where an in- 
vested dollar is safer than at home, guarded by home people and 
by home laws ; when we realize that 50,000 more people to Wichita 
means an added percentage to every lot and every acre of land in, 
around and about Wichita ; when we realize that if the city con- 
tinues to grow we will have to add bank capital to the present 
bank capital and manufacturing capital for the manufacturer 
and mercantile capital for the merchants; when all these facts 
melt into the mind of the property owners and residents in 
Wichita we will realize that a rock thrown in the Arkansas river